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Full text of "Brewing and liquor interests and German propaganda : hearings before a subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Sixty-fifth Congress, second and third sessions, pursuant to S. res. 307, a resolution authorizing and directing the Committee on the judiciary to call for certain evidence and documents relating to charges made against the United States brewers' association and allied interests and to submit a report of their investigation to the Senate"

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I 



TllK Gli-r (JF 




v. 2 



BREWING AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND 

GERMAN PROPAGANDA 



HEARINGS 

BEFORB A 

SUBCOMMITTEE OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUglgJARY 

UNITED STATES^ SENATE 

SIXTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 

SBX30ND AND THIRD SESSIQIiS 
PDB8CANT TO •. • : 

S. RES. 307 

A RESOLUTION AUTHORIZING AND DIRECTING THE COMMITTEE 

ON THE JUDICIARY TO CALL FOR CERTAIN EVIDENCE AND 

DOCUMENTS RELATING TO CHARGES MADE AGAINST 

THE UNITED STATES BREWERS' ASSOCIATION AND 

ALLIED INTERESTS AND TO SUBMIT A REPORT 

OF THEIR INVESTIGATION TO THE SENATE 



VOL. 2 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




WASHINGTON 
GOYK&NMBNT PRINTING OFFICB 

1919 



CONTENTS. 



Index of witnesses, volume 2 : f ace. 

Bielaski, A. Bruce 1387 

Hart, Albert Bushnell 1617 

Stowell, Ellery C 1638 

Wombaugh, Col. Eugene 1641 

Dongefl, Col. Ralph W. E 1643 

McGee, Charles A ^ 1644 

Smith, Senator Hoke 1648 

Garthe, Louis 1657 

liCSter, Capt George B 1664 

Do 1777 

Do 1916 

Levy, Aaron J . 1822 

tJntermyer, Samuel ^ 1835 

Klrkland, Weymouth 1814 

Becker. Alfred L , 1941 

Do 1992 

Do 2023 

Means, Gas«ton B 2111 

Lester, Capt. George B., resumed 2154 

Humes, MaJ. Edwin Lowry 2166 

Stowell, Ellery C, resumed 2175 

Bielaski, A. Bruce, resumed 2193 

Keehn, MaJ. Roy D 2257 

Von Mach, Edmund 2262 

Do 2307 

Becker, Alfred L., resumed 2328 

Do , 2S47 

Do. . 2388 

Moore, Joseph A 2418 

Lester, Capt George B., resumed 2433 

Becker, Alfred L., resumed , 2436 

Morse, Perley 1 2462 

Stowell, Ellery C, resumed 2478 

Smith, Austin. J 2485 

Arnold, J. A 2494 

Thomas, Senator Charles S 2499 

Squires, Grant 2512 

Arnold, J. A, resumed 2524 

Do . 2539 

Do 2578 

Do . 2613 

Dickinson, J. J 2615 

Kennedy, Jacob M 2661 

Tunney. Thomas J 2670 

Stevenson, Archibald B 2690 

Do 2705 

Do 2729 

Bowen. William A • 2744 

Stevenson, Archibald E., resumed 2751 

Damon. Lindsay T 2787 

Rinnicutt, Francis H 2807 

Steiner, Lajos 2823 

Steen, Clyde B : 2847 

Benet, Christie 2863 



m 



367198 



• 



BREWING AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA, 



FBIDAT, DECEMBEB 6, 1918. 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary, ' 

Washington^ D. C, 

The subcommittee met at 10.30 o'clock a. m. in room 226, Senate 
Office Building, Senator Lee S. Overman presiding. 

Present: Senators Overman (chairman). King, Wolcott, Nelson, 
and Sterling. 

TESTIHOmr OF ME. A, BEVCE BIELASEI. 

(The witness was sworn hj the chairman.) 

Maj. Humes. Mr. Bielaski, this committee is in receipt of a com- 
munication from the Attorney Greneral, in which he states, among 
other things: 

In accordance with your request, I have designated Mr. A. Bruce Bielaski, 
of this department, to make to your committee a detailed statement as to 

German propaganda.. 

• 

Are vou prepared to make such a detailed statement at this time? 

Mr. bnELASKi. Yes. 

Maj- Humes. Will you proceed, then, in your own way to make the 
presentation ? 

Mr. Bi^LASKi. I should like to have the letter of Senator Overman 
to the Attorney General and his answer filed as exhibits, explaining 
the circumstances imder which I do appear before the committee. 

(The exhibits referred to, marked " Bielaski Exhibit No. 1 " and 

"Bielaski Exhibit No. 2," are here printed in full in the record, as 

follows:) 

BiELARKi Exhibit No. 1. 

[Copy.] 

NOVEM BEB 13, 1918. 
Hon. T. W. Gbegoby, 

Atifyrney General, Washington^ 7). 0. 

Mt DEiLH SiK : At a meeting of the investigating committee In regard to Ger- 
man propaganda and other matters I was directed by the committee to request 
that yon designate some man from your Department to make to the committee 
a detailed statement of such information as you have in your office in regard 
to this Crerman propaganda, and that he malce a full statement to the com- 
mittee, to save us the trouble of having the documents produced, and that he 
malce such a statement as would be subject to proof in your office if the docu- 
ments were required. If you will so designate liim we will expect his at- 
tendance here in about ten days or two weeks. 

It ^ill also be very agreeable to the committee if yon will designate some 
lotelUgence man from the Bureau of Investigation to assist and cooperate with 
Major Humes, who has kindly consented to conduct the investigation for us, 
to g(^ such testimony relating to these matters as he may deem necessary ta 
fnliy carry out the purpose of the resolution. * 
Very truly yours, 

Lee S. Overman. 

1387 



1388 BBEwma akd liquob intebests and gebman pbopaganda. 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 2. 

[Copy.] 
9-5-1419-9 G-M 

NOVEMBEB 16, 1918. 
fion. Lee S. Overman, 

United States Senate^ Waahingtonf D. C. 

Dear Senator : I acknowledge receipt of yours of the 13th. 

In accordance with your request, I have designated Mr. A. Bruce Bielaski, 
of this Department, to make to your Committee a detailed statement as to 
German propaganda. As heretofore indicated, It will give me pleasure to give 
your committee access to the files of this Department in all cases in which 
there is not some special reason why it should not he done. I have instructed 
Mr. Bielaski to begin nt once the preparation of notes and data wh ch he will 
need in making the statement referred to. I think he will be ready to proceed 
within a week or ten days. 

I have designated Mr. William Benham, of Washington, D. C a first class 
man from the Bureau of Investigation of this Department, to assist your Com- 
mittee by co-operating with Major Humes in making any investigations which 
you may deem desirable. I have selected Mr. Benham because Major Humes 
knows him personally and feels that he is the type of man needed. 
Very truly yours, 

(sgd) T. W, Gregory, 

, Attorney General, 

Mr. Bielaski. The Department of Justice, as the law-enforcing 
arm of the Government, has been primarily interested in the collec- 
tion of evidence for the purpose of prosecution, and for many years 
has made it a rule not to make public information so collected in 
any other maimer ; but the Attorney General feels that because of the 
direct request of the committee and the importance of the subject 
matter under investigation he should make an exception to the de- 
partment's general rule and lay before you the data which the depart- 
ment has with respect to German propaganda. 

During the war we have collected an immense amount of informa- 
tion. Some of it has been in our files for a long time and some of 
it has only come to us comparatively recently. 

At the outset of the war the Department had no authority what- 
ever to make investigations of anything of the sort, except in so far 
as it might indicate a violation of law; but at the request of the 
department, effective the 1st of July, 1916, the appropriation which 
provides the money for the Bureau of Investigation was amended so 
as to make it possible to make investigations of matters in which the 
State Department was interested, at the request of the Secretary of 
State, and with the approval of the Attomev General, even though 
those matters did not amount to violations of law. Of course, there 
was no statute making the German propaganda, or the propaganda 
of any foreign Government, unlawful when the European war oroke 
out.. 

The many violations of the criminal statutes which were partici- 
pated in and planned by the representatives of the German Govern- 
ment, I take it, are quite outside of what you gentlemen are inter- 
ested in, and for that reason I have not prepared a statement with 
respect to the criminal violations of the law. Most of those matters 
are public, anyway. 

The scope of German propaganda in this country was very wide. 
It embraced the furnishing of news secretly to newspapers, the dis- 
tribution of film, the sending of lecturers through the country, the 
sending of newspaper correspondents from Germany to this coun- 



BBEwnra and uquob intebests and oebhan pbopaoanda. 1389 

try to write favorable matter for the pai>ers, the sending of American 
correspondents abroad to send back to this country propaganda favor- 
able to Germany. It embraced propaganda 

Senator Ovekman. Did they do that through the Associated Press t 

Mr. BnZiABKi. I will give you the details of each of these things 
shortly. It embraced propaganda amon^ the Irish, among the Jews, 
among the Catholics. Everywhere where the representatives oi 
Germany saw a chance to advance, as they thought, their own in- 
terests they officially sent money and directed effort to bring it 
about. 

The organization of German propaganda came about in this way : 
Dr. Dernourg, who was the secretary of state for the colonies — ^I 
think that is the translation of his title — came to the United States 
in September, 1914, as the head of a mission of which Heinrich 
Albert, officially attached to the embassy as commercial attach^, 
and Isaac Strauss, Meyer Gerhard, and Capt. Hecker were members. 
They brought with them $150,000,000 in German treasury notes, with 
the expectation that they would find a ready sale in this country, 
and that from the proceecLs propaganda expenses would be met, com- 
mercial enterprises paid for, such as the shipment of goods into Ger- 
many which were desired, and munitions of war purchased. 

Senator Nelson. Were these notes, as you call them, bonds? 

Mr. BiELASKi. These were so-called two-year treasury notes. 

Senator Nelson. Of the German Government? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Of the German Government, They, however, did 
not find any market, and only $5,000,000 worth of these notes were 
used for the purpose of collateral in raising money. I will a little 
later give you some more details as to the miancial arrangements of 
the organization. 

Soon after they came here they employed a man named M. B. 
Claussen, who had been the puolicity agent for the Hamburg- 
American Line, to organize what was called the German informa- 
tion bureau. That bureau was not, however, publicly known as 
supported by the German Government in any way. It opened offices 
at 1123 Broadway and at another address in New York, 30 East 
Forty-second Street Its purpose was to furnish to all of the daily 
newspapers, free of charge, each day a sheet of so-called informa- 
tion from a pro-German standpoint. It did send out daily to from 
500 to 800 newspapers this sheet, under the head of ^' German in- 
formation bureau." 

Senator Sterung. When did this begin ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. This be^n in September and November, 1914. 

Senator Nelson. In this connection, let me ask, if it does not inter- 
fere with you, did the papers generally take the stuff? 

Mr. BiELASKX. The papers generally did, because it was sent to 
them without cost to them. They took it much more generally than 
thgr used it 

Senator Overman. Did they send out a mat? 

Mr. BiELASKi. They sent out a circular sheet. 

Senator Overman. Did they send out a sheet or a mat ready to 
be set up? 

Mr. BiELA8Ki« No; they sent out a sheet, not a mat. 

Senator Wolcott. You said that the papers took it more generally 
than they used it ? 



1390 BBEWINQ AND LIQUOB IKTBKESTS AND GEBMAK PBOPAOAKDA. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. 

Senator Wolcott. I take it Senator Nelson was interested to 
know whether the papers generally published it? 

Senator Nelson. Yes; that is what I meant. 

Mr. BiELASKi. The papers published some of it — ^published selected 
items. I could not tell how generally the press used it without an 
examination of all the papers, which we have not made; but, speak- 
ing generally, it was not successful from the standpoint of the Ger- 
mans, because the papers did not make the use of it that they ex- 
pected. On this letterhead of the German information service ap- 
pears this statement : 

Conducted by M. B. Claussen at the request of a number of American citizens 
who believe that the public desires to be informed as to both sides of the war, 
that it may form its own opinions from the facts. 

That, like everjrthing else they did, was intended to deceive the 
people, because the bureau was organized, financed, and directed by 
the official representatives of Germany. Claussen, while the nominal 
head, was actually controlled by a Dr. K. A. Fuehr, who had been 
in the consular and diplomatic service of Japan. 

Senator Nemon. How do you spell his name? 

Mr. BiELASKi. F-u-e-h-r. He managed the finances of the organ- 
ization. He had under his and Claussen's direction a large force 
of translators. They gathered all the data of every kind they could 
about happenings favorable to the German Government — ^as victories 
and incidents wnich were critical of the allied Governments in any 
way — and hashed them up into this sheet which was sent out. 

The management of this sheet by Mr. Claussen was not successful 
from the standpoint of Dr. Fuehr and Dr. Albert and Dr. Demburg, 
who was still in this country. 

Dr. Dernburgj by the way, remained here delivering lectures and 
having himself interviewed by newspaper correspondents until just 
after the sinking of the Lusitarda^ when he delivered at Cleveland 
a speech justifymg the sinking of the Lusitama and made his pres- 
ence so ODJectionable that it was suggested to the representatives of 
the German Government that he go home, and he did sail, I think, 
on the 22d of June, 1915. Thereafter Dr. Heinrich Albert was in 
full charge of German propaganda in this country. 

The first record that we have about the German information 
bureau and Dr. Demburg's efforts is under date of November 5, 1914. 
I should. state, however, that in control of this bureau was an in- 
formal committee which was presided over by Dr. Dernburg while 
he was here* and after he left by Albert, when he was present at the 
meeting ; otherwise by Fuehr. jPresent at the meetings of this com- 
mittee almost always was Greorge Svlvester Viereck, 

Senator Nelson. Editor of tne Fatherland? 

Mr. BiEiiASKi. Editor of the Fatherland, of whom we shall have 
a great deal to say by and by; also William Bayard Hale; Crone- 
meyer, an American citizen employed by the Hamburg- American 
Line ; usually Mr. Meyer, also of the Hamburg- American Line ; Ed- 
ward Rumeiy, especially while Dr. Demburg was here, and occa- 
sionally other men interested in this organization, like Capt. Hecker, 
for instance, and Strauss who was brought over here especially for 
the purpose of conducting the Jewish propaganda. 



BBEWHrO AXD LIQUOB INTEBEBTS AND GERMAN PBOPAQANDA. 1391 

Senator Sterling. What was the place of the meetings of this 
organization? 

Mr. BiELASKi. The meetings were usually held at 1123 Broadway, 
but they frequently met at other places. They had no stated time 
of meetmg. They would meet twice a week, as a usual thing. While 
Dr. Demburg was here the meeting was usually devoted to a speech 
by the doctor, and then the discussion of what they should do; 
whether they should give some money to this paper or to that 
paper, print this document or that, and so on. 

This first conference, the minutes of which we have, appears to 
have been at the Ritz-Carlton on November 5, 1914, and I will read 
some parts of this memorandum but not all of it. [Reading:] 

BiELASKi ExHiBrr No. 8. 

At the conference which took place to-day with his excellency, Mr. Secretary 
of State, Dr. Demburg, at the Hotel Rltz-Carlton, the following gentlemen 
W€re present : 

High Privy CounseUor Dr. Meyer-Gerhard, Consul Hecker. 

Director Meyer (Hamburg- American Line). ' 

Cronemeyer (Ditto). 

Dr. Puehr. 

His E3xcellency. the Imperial Ambassador, CJount V. Bernstorff remained for 
t part of the conference. 

Mr. State Secretary Dr. Demburg, brought out the following : 

"As the state of war in Europe has developed itself within the past weeks, 
the public opinion of America In a pro-German sense Is now as well as formerly 
of the greatest Importance to Germany. Our efforts which we have under- 
taken in this direction must not only be continued, but must be substantially 
enlarged upon. Our campaign Is to the English unquestionably uncomfortable. 
Mr. Elliott was therefore sent here to oppose us; now the former Ambassador 
Bryce has been set against us, who Is directly meddling to agitate America 
against Grermany." 

The majority of Americans evidently will not through choice be restricted 
In this way, but through the consciousness that America Is entirely unpre- 
pared and therefore not In a position to carry out a strong Independent policy. 
With dazzling German successes at arms, the balancing part of public opinion 
here would presumably be shifted. Already partial successes, such as the tak- 
ing of Antwerp, the deeds of the U-9j and the sea battles on the Chilian coast, 
made this penetratingly recognizable. 

Whatever action has originated in Germany in order to win for us public 
opinion here, has either made none or an unfavorable impression. The belief 
which apparently spread very recently, that American received only one-sided 
and colored news about the conditions in Europe, has not for eight weeks 
been tme. The fact that from German sides it is still being emphasized, that 
this is the case, has called forth numerous unwilling protests in the local 
papers. 

In German press utterances and other means of news transmission, which 
shoald make an impression here, two subjects which must be strictly avoided 
are, namely, the " kultur," and secondly every criticism of the American sym- 
pathy. Those on the last subject with reference to the publications of the 
"Kolnischen Zeitung" have unquestionably done us harm here. 

The greatest damage for us has been done Iby the English translations of 
the writings of Gen. V. Bemhardl which have been circulated here. In conse- 
quence of that Mr. Secretary of State Dr. Dernburg proposes to weaken the 
attacks based upon that, based upon the inconsiderate militarism of the Ger- 
man people, in Oiat he win call attention to the fact that in the home papers 
the writings In question were severely criticised at their appearance. 

To whatever degree the foreign office succeeds In influencing American pub- 
lic opinion, the daily " news letter " by wireless will be very effective. It is, 
however, necessary that for the news therein contained proofs (papers, etc.) 
thonld be sent here. It is not sufficient for the object of the propaganda orer 
here to have in paraphrased form the announcement of important official docu- 
nwntB In the ** Nord Deutschen Allgemelnen Zeltung," such as In the question of 



1892 BBEWINO AKD UQUOB INTEEESTS AlTD GEBMAN PBOPAGAKDA. 

the breach of Belgian neutrality by England and Belgium as well as in the 
matter of the English-Russian fleet agreement. 

Especially important documents, for instance, the material found in Brus- 
sels, should be sent in photographic reproduction, as already is the case, from 
the Intelligence Bureau of the General Staff, and even then, If it has already 
not been made public in Germany. 

It then describes the necessity for sending over the proper sort of 
pictures. 

With reference to the handling of the American war correspondents in 
Germany, it is to be emphasized that as much as is possible should be shown 
them. Extended courtesies by the home authorities on this score is of the 
greatest importance to our cause. 

As to the extent of the propaganda spread in America, our guidance 
should be: 

No policy, which has as its object, to engage America in any way! We 
must avoid every appearance of mixing up In America's matters, but at the 
same time continue to demand " fair play." 

' This is interesting, particularly because of what they did after- 
ward. 

In detail the following Is to be remarked : 

The wishes of the American-Irish. The "McGulre group," have already 
been sent to Berlin through the general consul Klliani. 

There is quite a bit of information to be laid before you with 
Inspect to the activities of the so-called McGuire group, of which 
Mr. James K. McGuire, former mayor of Syracuse, was the man in 
charge. 

Senator Nelson. Do they belong to the Sinn Feiners ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I think so, of course. Of course, I do not know 
definitely whether they do or not. They are leading agitators for 
independent Ireland, and for revolution in Ireland, and so on. [Con- 
tinumg reading :] 

Recently another group, the United States Irish Societies, approached Dr. 
Dernburg. His Excellency has not up to this time seen their representative. 
Of importance, in connection with the Irish question, is that the German press 
will suppress anti-Catholic utterances as much as possible, and on the contrary 
all pro-Catholic utterances should be minutely reported here. 

So far as the German-Americans are concerned, thej' desire to assume a 
firmer tone, and His Exeellencj* Is of the opinion that in this they should not be 
hindered. It is to be regarded as justifiable when they say: We are good 
Americans, let It, however, In memory of our forefathers, not happen that Ger- 
many is debased here. 

Mr. Secretary of State thinks it necessary that still another famous German 
professor should be sent to America, and if possible Hermann Oucken In 
Heidelberg, or Dietrich Schafer in Hamburg, or Ernst Marx in Stuttgart. 

So far as our relations to the very Infiuentlal Jewish press are concerned, 
they are in good shape, and will be carefully nourished. It Is Important in this 
connection that all news pertaining to them shall elevate the Jewish self- 
respect — for instance the appointment of Jewish officers, the installation and 
honors conferred upon Jewish professors, should all be sent here. 

With reference to the American press, it Is to be remarked, that public 
opinion here on vital questions cannot be Influenced In any substantial way 
through the press, which was to be observed recently in conned ton with the 
local governor's election, at wlilch Mr. Glynn suffered an overwhelming defeat, 
even though tlie New York press put forth an unusually strong propaganda for 
his candidacy. In spite of all this the American press demands evidently our 
greatest attention and activity. What up to this time has been done by us Ln 
this relation embraces scarcely $15,000 — a small Item compared to what our 
opponents spent in this way. State Secretary Dernburg has now decided to do 
substantially much more In this direction. Through direct bribery there is 
nothing to be done. But It is said that one can work on reporters (the so- 
called "ship reporters" who interview the new arrivals) and with the smaller 
editors who edit the cable news and the " head lines." Furthermore there must 



BRBWIKO AND LIQUOB INTESEST8 AND QEBBCAN PROPAGANDA. 1398 

be wTitten, under our supervision, articles by American journalists whose names 
here carrj' a far-reaching Influence — there have been suRpested for this Alex- 
ander Har\-ey, Frank Harris and others — and printed in the press. 

The Secretary of State thinks It advisable thnt he himself at least for the 
present time should limit his direct activity with the pen, for less occasional 
articles fr(»m him receive more attention than if he should publish constantly 
articles over his own name. 

His Excellency has considered taking into the service the famous, clever 
Journalist, McGlure, as manager for an exhaustive press campaign which will 
cost about 1150,000 at the very least. It will probably result from this that 
shortly through agents, the atUtude of the influential people in the individual 
large cities towards the German cause will be established, and then the pro- 
German element will be called upon to so work upon the individual anti-Ger- 
man organs of Importance, that the papers will change their tone. Substantial 
voice of the masses can be trained against England through interviews with 
such American bushiess men as are interested in neutral shipping. 

To close, the Secretary of State, Dr. Demburg, suggested to make known in 
a fitting and confidential manner, to the leading home papers, the following : 

One must not Imagine that we Germans here are courting the favor of 
America in an unworthy manner. We do so far less than our opponents. It 
is therefore of the greatest importance to us to try to win for the German 
cause the public opinion here. These efforts are, however, made difficult by 
the reason that the home press occasionally loses patience, and bringing down 
upon it the disfavor of America, and which will be used against us by the 
anti-German side. That the self reliance of America has through the general 
(lemund of Europe for their favor, been materially raised, is a natural thing, 
and if from out of this condition of affairs the American press can extract occa- 
sional tactlessness on the part of one or the other of the warfaring nations, 
it would seem wise under the circumstances to ignore such articles. 

Mr. Secretary of State Dr. Dernburg called repeatedly on those present to 
express an opinion upon his statements The remarks made by them, in so 
far as they were met with approval, are included in this memorandum. 

As I said before, things under the management of Claussen did 
not go to the satisfaction of Dr. Dernburg ; so that sometime before 
Thanksgiving in 1914: he approached Mr. William Bayard H$tle and 
a>ked him to take charge of the work. Mr. William Bayard Hale 
had had considerable experience in newspaper and journalistic work, 
ha<l inter\'iewed the Kaiser in 1908, his wife was Grerman-born, he 
had written a life of President Wilson, which had been used in the 
campaign, and he was sent as special agent for the President in 
Mexico. The Germans employed him not only to secure his services 
as a propagandist* but in the hope that through him they might get 
some approach to the President, and Dernburg took up with Hale his 
<lesire p>ersonally to see the President, and Hlle wrote the President 
and endeavored to arrange an interview with him for Demburg, but 
the President declined to see him. 

Hale, as head and adviser of the German information bureau from 
December, 1914, to December, 1915, received a salary of $16,000 per 
year. 

Senator Neusok. Hale? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Hale, and in connection with this J want to read 
an interesting telegram which has been furnished us by the State 
Department and is presented with their permission, a telegram from 
Bernstorff through Buenos Aires and Stockholm to the German 
foreign office, June 2, 1916. [Reading :] 

Bncr^ASKi ExHiBrr No. 4. 

In conformity with Your Excellency's wish I suggest that the present is a 
fftvomble time to pet Hearst to send a first rate journalist to BerUn. The man 
*<'UH'toiI, W. B. Hnle, has been, as Your Excellency knows since the beginning 



1394 BKBWINO AND UQUOB INTEB£STS AND GEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 

of the war a confident al agent of the Embassy, and as such he has been bound 
by contract until June 23, 1918. In making this arrangement the main idea 
was that Hale would be the most suitable man to start the reorganization of 
the news service after peace on the right lines. I request that full confidence 
may be accorded to Hale, who will bring with him a letter of recommendation 
from me to Dr. Hamman. Hearst is not aware that Hale is our agent, but 
knows him only as a germanophile journalist who has contributed leading 
articles to his papers. 

Senator Sterling. This is a telegram? 

Mr. BiELASKi. From Bernstorff to the German foreign office, which 
shows that Mr. Hale was the secret agent of the German Government 
from the outset of the war until June 23, 1918, in so far as his con- 
tract was concerned. 

Senator Nelson. At $15^000 a year? 

Mr. BiELASKi. He received $15,000 a year as salary from Dr. Fuehr 
as adviser of the German information bureau. I think he got con- 
siderable other money besides. He admits the receipt of the $15,000 
per year in that particular capacity. He also received, I think, 
about $300 a week from Hearst, and very liberal expense allowances 
when he went to Germany, as he did under circumstances we can 
tell you about a little later. 

Senator King. Where is Mr. Hale now ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Mr. Hale is now in New York City. We have his 
address, on Riverside Drive. 

Here is another telegram which bears on Hale, sent in the same 
way by Bernstorff on June 5, 1916 [reading] : 

BiEULSKi Exhibit No. 5. 

As Hale tells me and Hearst confirms, the latter is' ratlier hurt that on 
Wlegands' account the World gets aU the important Berlin Interviews. I 
recommend that under suitable circumstances Hale should for obvious reasons 
be given preference, as Hearst organs have during the course of war always 
placed themselves outspokenly on our side. 

Another interesting minute of one of the meetings of this com- 
mittee had just after the sinking of the Lusiiania^ was this from 
which I will read the following extracts : 

BiEULSKi ExHiBrr No. 6. 

Present : Messrs. Meyer-Gerhard, Albert, Hale, Meyer, Cronemeyer, Clausseny 
Hecker, Viereck and Fuehr. 

Conference on May 24, 1915, 8.30 p. m. 

Mr. Meyer-€rerhard discusses the general situation and shows that public 
sentiment has grown essentially more calm, and that a change for the worse 
Is not to be expected before the arrival of the German note of answer. 

Mr. Hale calls attention to the interview printed in the evening papers with 
the surviving passenger of the LusitarUa Dr. Foss who has arrived here. It 
is resolved that Mr. Claussen have the sa'd Foss interviewed as to whether the 
Lu8itania had any guns mounted on the deck at the time she was torpedoed.. 
Mr. Meyer undertakes to prepare a collection of newspaper clippings in his 
office containing statements of passengers, etc., which show the blame attached 
to the Cunard Line. Mr. Fuehr will also prepare a s milar collection. 

Mr. Hale learns through reliable source that under certain hypoitheses set 
forth in detail, a peaceful solution of the German-American strained relations 
is regarded In Washington as probable. 

Mr. Hale then reports concerning the progress of his negotiations with the 
Baltimore ladies concerning the propaganda against export of arms. 

Members of the Senate will doubtless remember receiving commu- 
nications, to which we will make reference hereafter, from an organi- 



BftEWING AND UQXJOE INTEBESTS AND GEEMAN PROPAGANDA. 1395 

zation in Baltimore purporting to be known as the League of Ameri- 
can Women for Strict Neutrality. 

Senator Nei^on. Yes. 

Mr. BiELASKi. It was a German-fathered organization managed by 
Hale. 

Senator Nelson. There was a lot of it from Chicago, too. 

Mr. BiELASKi. That is the American embargo conference. I con- 
tinue reading from this: 

AU preparations are made for carrying through the project of poster adver- 
tising. The pamphlet entitled " Thou Shalt not Kill '\ written by Mr. Hale, hag 
been printed and will be sent out. Signatures to a petition to CJongress col- 
lected by the ladles now number 200,000 and wUl in time perhaps reach 600,000. 
The ladies have applied for assistance in their campaign to a number of per- 
sons named by Mr. Hale. It is suggested that it be put up to the ladies to 
address the petition to the President and Congress, and not wait until the collec- 
tion of signatures is complete before sending it to Washington, but send them, 
ot once, in batches of about 10,000. 

Mr. Fuehr submits a copy of the Delal book prepared In the Press Bureau, 
which Mr. Claussen >\ill endeavor to have reproduced in the press. 

Concerning the book "War and Kultur" by the Swede, Prof. StefCen, Dr. 
Strauss has submitted a proposition according to which the costs are consid- 
erably les.s. It is resolved to forego entirely the publication of the work, which 
because of the events of the day and the new Burgess book has been placed very 
much in the background. 

Senator Steruno. That is Prof. Burgess? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. I continue reading from this : 

Mr. Claussen proposes to have a film prepared for propaganda against the 
expr»rtation of arms, which shaU exhibit the manufacture of American shrap- 
nel munition and afterward show in drastic style the results of the use of this 
munition. It is suggested to him to report at the next conference the approxi- 
mate cost of such a film. 

^Ir. Hale reports that Mrs. Hale is busy upon propaganda against the expor- 
tation of horses. Mr. Claussen undertakes to have a correspondingly touching 
scenario (story of former fire-brigade mare slaughtered in Flanders) written. 

Mr. Cronemeyer reports that Mr. F. Harris had suffered a loss of about $900. 
in his lecture tour, and recommends that he be reimbused for at least part of It. 
In (*<jn.sideratlon of the excellent book written by him, it Is resolved that he 
;$hall receive $300. 

Mr. Claussen states that a newspaper in Providence has made proposals for 
an eventual sale. He Is commissioned to make a report upon this matter. 

The Mr. Harris who is referred to there was the editor of Pearson's 
Mafirazine. 

The minutes were prepared by Dr. Fuehr. 

Senator Overman. Do you feay that Harris is now editor of Pear- 
son s Magazine? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I do not know whether he is now or not. I suppose 
he probably still is. He was until recently, in any event. 

Senator Kino. If the magazine is still in existence. 

Mr. BiELASKi. It had considerable difficulty with the Post Office 
Department^ under the espionage act, in getting through the mails. 

Senator King. Where was that conference held ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I do not know whether it shows that or not. 

Senator Kino. At Mr. Albert's, or the German Embassy ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. The fact that it was held at 8.30 at night makes it 
very likely, I think, that it was held at Albert's rooms, but it does 
not say definitely. The conferences were held in the press bureau 
and at other places. Dr. Fuehr's notebook for 1916 recites a number 
of times when the conferences were held in the press bureau. 



1396 BREWING AND UQUOB IKTEKESTS AND OEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 

This bureau, which Hale presided over as adviser, got out, in 
addition to this daily sheet for the newspapers, a great many books 
and pamphlets, and also maintained a special service for the Irish, 
known as the Irish Press and News Service. Dr. Fuehr, who was 
the managing financier of the organization, also maintained an 
extensive press-clipping outfit. He was a very highly educated 
man, and apparently one of the most intelligent of the outfit. He 
made to Germany periodically a report of the press .situation in the 
United States, of which we have a number of copies, and with which, 
I think, the committee has been furnished. I will read you a few 
extracts from the more interesting part, his comment on the Ameri- 
can press, in which he takes up the individual papers and the sec- 
tions. His files of subject matters which he had made use of in 
sending out things contain 3,906 different topics, and of these which 
he had prepared he had made use of, by giving to the press through 
Claussen's sheet or otherwise, 1,430 items. He kept there copies of 
the various books that they had for distribution. He also Kept a 
complete file of the material sent out by the Irish Press and News 
Service. The Irish Press and News Service offices were at 42 West 
Forty-second Street. All of the German offices which were opened 
in New York cooperated in this propaganda work. Von I'apen, 
who was the military attach^, and who was in Mexico at the time 
the war broke out, returned to New York and opened offices, moving 
two or three times. 

Senator Overman. Of course, we know who Von Papen is, but I 
would like to have a statement made for the record as to who he is. 
Mr. Bielaski. Von Papen was the military attach^ of the German 
Embassy, accredited to this country, to Mexico, and possibly to one 
or two of the smaller coimtries in Central, America. I am not sure. 
He helped, as did Boy -Ed, who was the naval attache, in propaganda 
work, and Mr. Bernstorn, of course, was intimately concerned in 
all of it. V 

I have some files here from which I will read extracts showing 
Boy-Ed's activities, as distinguished from the other men, in a short 
time. 

James K. McGuire, who organized this Irish Press and News 
Service for the Germans, was also the author of two books, "The 
King, the Kaiser, and Irish Freedom," in whose publication he was 
financially assisted by Dr. Albert's office, and he also was the author 
of " What Could Germany do for Ireland?" Both these books were 
circulated by the press bureau as propaganda books. He also made 
arrangements for the printing of these books in Austria and Ger- 
many. 

McGuire is the owner of the foUowingnewspapers and publishing 
companies: The Syracuse Printing & ±*ublisning Co.; the Woln- 
Thomes Publishing Co., New York; the National Catholic, New 
York ; the Light, Albany ; the Truth, Scranton ; the Sun, Syracuse. 
He also furnished Irish news to a number of other Catholic papers. 
He sent out through this news service bulletins two or three times 
a week to 18 or 20 papers in which he had been interested, and to 
the daily newspapers. The number of copies he sent out varied 
according to the importance of the subject matter. He would send 
out 60 or 60, sometimes, and sometimes two or three hundred. Copies 
of everything sent out were also sent to Dr. Fuehr. 



BBEWIHG AND UQUOB INTEKESOB AKD GEBMA17 PBOPAQANDA. 1397 ' 

Dr. Albert paid to Mr. McGuire in June, 1915, $14,800, and other 
amounts were paid to him of which we have knowledge, and there 
may have been money that we have no knowledge of, which brings 
the total up to the neighborhood of $22,000, These payments cover 
money for books which have been mentioned, for the operation of 
the press service, and as a part of this work he sent to Ireland one 
or two persons to gather information, and their expenses were also 
paid by the Germans. 

Mr. McGuire was chairman of the executive committee of the 
Friends of Irish Freedom. He seems to have sincerely believed that 
(lermany would win the war and that Ireland's hope lay in Germany, 
and so he cooperated with Germany's representatives here as best 
be could. He maintains that at the break in diplomatic relations 
he withdrew all his books from the market, prevented their further 
circulation, and has rendered patriotic service to this country ever 
since we went into the war. 

Senator Kjoco. What has been his attitude toward Great Britain, 
our allv, since we entered the war? 

Mr. BiELiASKi. I take it he has simply been silent on that. At 
least, he told me he had been. I do not suppose his real feelings have 
undergone any change, but he has so far as we know done nothing 
which might be classed as damaging to the cause of this country 
or its allies since we entered the war. 

Senator Kino. You stated that Mr. McGuire furnished material 
for articles for certain Catholic newspapers. Did the Catholic news- 
papers generally publish those, or just a few? 

3lr. SiELASKi. He has been furnishing material for these papers 
before the war in Europe broke out. That was a part of his regular 
business. He continued to do it, only thereafter the work was paid 
for by the German Government, and much of his information being 
furnished him by Dr. Fuehr, and, of course, it was exceedingly pro- 
German. 

I see here Prince Hatzfield, for the ambassador, wrote to Albert 
ilay, 1915, asking for his opinion as to the desirability of publishing 
the* booklet known as Ireland and We. Dr. Albert returned the 
':^>nimunication, stating that the booklet was discussed in the press 
conference, " and we came to the conclusion that it would not pay, 
>ince the McGuire book takes up the same subject in a substantially 
more effective way and in a form more suitable for American readers, 
and this book, by publication with our assistance, was distributed all 
over the United States." He, however, retains the other booklet for 
possible future use. 

Senator Nelson. Are you now referring to a dispatch of Bem- 

.storff's? 

Mr. BiELASKi. No; this was a letter — ^the first one was from Prince 
Hatzfield, who was attached to the German embassy, one of the rank- 
ing members, and Dr. Albert^s reply was addressed to the ambassador. 

It also seems that they had up the desirability of circulating on 
'luite a lar^e scale McGuire's other book What Could Germany do 
for Ireland? Mr. McGuire was also active in helping Germans 
h«>re in other ways somewhat. 

Senator Nemon. In what way? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Well, the boat Gladstone^ which was believed to be 
bearing supplies for the German boats in the south Atlantic, was 



1398 BREWING AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 

held up a bit at Norfolk, and under date of December 18, 1914, Mr. 
McGuire wrote the following in a letter : 

• I have reason to believe our friends will have no trouble hereafter, of a 
like nature, at this port (Norfolk) etc. 

This was addressed to Dr. Albert, I am satisfied. It does not show, 
however. [Continuing reading:] 

There should be a special consul or agent stationed there. 
Yours truly, 

James K. McGuire, 

P. S. — The British have an alert and powerful man there. 

Inclosed in that letter was a clipping showing that the collector, 
Mr. Hamilton, granted to the former Glad^tone^ whose name was 
changed to the Marina Quezada^ a clearance. And inclosed with 
that was a card of the collector, Mr. Norman R. Hamilton. It isi 
my understanding that Mr. McGuire said that he had some relatives 
or something of the sort at Norfolk who was connected with Mr. 
Hamilton, or something of that sort. 

Mr. Albert, in discussing some other matters, also made a reference 
to McGuire helping him in labor matters. There was a very con- 
siderable propaganda among the labor element in this country, which 
I hope to take up in a short time. This reference to McGuire in 
this other work was very brief. It says : 

One of these Irish gentlemen, McGuire, has written a very readable book on 
the war, whose circulation In the United States was furthered by excellency 
Dernburg. Under the guise of pushing this book still further Mr. McGuire Is 
now giving us assistance in suitable fashion in labor questions, to which I, 
in agreement with the Ambassador and Mr. von Papen, am giving my special 
attention. 

Senator Wolcjott. Whom are you quoting? 

Mr, BiELASKi. Albert. 

Senator Wolcott. And is that quotation from a letter of his? 

Mr. BiELASKi. His memorandum. There are some further parts 
of it which relate to other features of the Irish propaganda situation. 

Senator Sterling. What is meant particularly by tne " labor trou- 
bles," or do you cover that point later? 

Mr. Bi£iASKi. I cover the activities of the Germans among the 
labor element There were several. Their peace propaganda, their 
efforts to bring about strikes, and the efforts to induce Germans 
and Austro-Hungarians to withdraw from service in any factories 
engagjed in the production of war materials. 

Senator Nelson. You are going into that subject, are you ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes ; but I do not know to which particular branch 
he refers in that conmiunication. 

Dr. Fuehr, as I said, submitted periodical reports to the home 
Government concerning the American press. He submitted one 
entitled "The American press and the belligerents" at the begin- 
ning of 1916, under date of January 26, 1916. 

On February 7, 1916, he reported on the views of the American 
press on the arrival at Newport News of the German prize Appam. 

February 26, 1916, he reported on the German-American negotia- 
tions for the settlement of the LuHtama controversy, and the Ameri- 
can press. 



•^, 



BKEWIKO AUTD LIQXJOB IKTEBE8T8 AND QEBKAl} PBOPAGANDA. 1399 

Again, under date of May, 1916, on the attitude of the American 
press toward Germany; also a report on England and the public 
opinion of the United States, June 13, 1916. 

American press views on the naval battle of Skagerak, and the 
question of tne attitude of the American press toward the belliger- 
ents in December, 1916. 

In Dr. Fuehr's papers there appeared, in addition to his notebook, 
which contained a number of items of interest, a list which was 
headed ^ Important list of names," and which contains many names 
which are familiar to us as having been active in favor of Germany. 
I can read the list if you would like to hear them. 

Senator Nblsok. i es ; let us hear them. 

Mr. BiELASKi. No. 1 is Prof. William R. Shepherd, Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York City, about which we will have something more 
to say, I think. 

Next, Prof- Hugo Muensterberg, Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Mass, 

Prof. William M. Sloane, Columbia University, New York City. 

Dr. Edmund von Mach, Cambridge, Mass., who was a very active 
propagandist, about whom we have got some information. 

Dr. Arthur von Briesen, 25 Broad Street, New York City. 

Prof. John W. Burgess, Newport, R. I. 

Prof. Eugen Smith, Columbia University, New York City. 

Prof. Herbert C. Sanborn, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn. 

Prof. James G. McDonald^of the University oi Indiana. 

Prof. Ferdinand Schevill, University of Chicago. 

Mr. E. C. Eichardson, Princeton University. 

Prof. Kuno'Francke, Harvard University. Prof. Francke was Dr. 
Albert's uncle, and helped him quite a bit in the preparation of his 
articles for the press, but after our entrance into the war was like- 
wise the author of some very patriotic articles. 

Prof. George B. McClellan, Princeton University. 

Prof. A. B. Faust, Cornell University. 

Prof. Morris Jastrow, jr.. University of Wisconsin. 

Senator Wolcott. Do you know what Prof. Faust was pro- 
fessor of ? 

Mr. BiBLASEJ. I do not, no, sir ; not offhand. 

Dr. Walter M. S. McNeill, Eichmond, Va. 

Prof. David Starr Jordan, Berkeley, Cal. 

Hon. Peter S. Grosscup, United States judge, Chicago, 111. 

Hon. Richard Bartholdt, St. Louis, Mo. 

Prof. Bushnell Hart, Harvard University. 

Dr. C. J. Hexamer, Philadelphia, Pa., president of the German- 
imerican Alliance. 

Prof. William P. Trent. 

Hon. Charles Na^l, St. Louis, Mo. 

Mr. Oswald Grarrison Villard, New York Evening Post 

Mr. William Randolph Hearst, New York American. 

Mr. Bernard Bidder, New York Staats-Zeitung. 

Mr. Edward A. Rumely, New York Evening Mail, and interested 
-in many other forms of Cherman propaganda. 

Mr. Frederick F. Schrader, 1493 Broadway, New York City, one 
of the editors of Mr. Viereck's paper, and a man who served for a 

8572a— 19— VOL 2 2 



1400 BBEWIKO AND UQUOB IKTBBBSTB AND OSBMJlN PBOPAGANDA. 

time as Washington correspondent for Mr. Viereck, and the author 
of a number of pro-German pamphlets published by the press 
bureau. 

Mr. Frank Harris, New York City, the Pearson man. 

Mr. Rob. I. Ford, the Freeman's Journal, New York City. 

Bev. Father Thierney, American Catholic Weekly, New York City. 

Mr. Max A. Hein, 230 Riverside Drive, New York City. Mr. Hein 
was a very active propagandist, and I think is Mr. Viereck's father- 
in-law, or some way related to him. 

George Sylvester Viereck, 1123 Broadway, New York City. 

There was a supplemental list, but I do not think any of those 
names are especially important. They are not marked on this im- 
portant list. 

Senator Nelson. Are there any from Minnesota there? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Minnesota seems to have escaped. Senator, as far 
as I can see. 

Senator Nelson. I feel relieved. Have you got that supplemental • 
list to which you referred? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. 

Senator Nelson. Suppose you give it to the reporter to be put into 
the record. 

Mr. BiELASKi. I will furnish you with a copy- 
Senator Nelson. We want to know who these shining lights are. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Would you care, at this time, to so mto and see 
certain samples of the books that were published by the press bureau, 
together with some information as to how they were gotten out, and 
who got them out? 

Senator Nelson. I would like to hear it. Would you not, Senator ? 

Senator Overman. Yes; if it will not cumber the record very much. 

Mr. BiELASKi. There is an immense number of books that they got 
out, and some of them are especially interesting in the way they were 
prepared, I think. 

Senator Nelson. If you want to caU our attention to any special 
books, we would be glad to have you do so. Put your list of books 
in the record, here. 

Senator Overman. You have given a list of books, have you not, 
in going along? There were a good many hooka that you have 
named. 

Mr. BiELASKi. I have named just a few. I will give you a very 
complete list, if you want it. 

Senator Overman. Suppose you put that in the record — ^a list of 
the books — and then call our special attention to any particular book 
to which you wish to refer especially. 

(See the list of books printed at page 1410 of this record.) 

Senator Ejlng. You mentioned, a moment ago, Mr. Bielaski, a sup- 
plementary list of names, did you not? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes ; I said I would furnish that list. 

Senator Nelson. He has agreed to put that into the record, 
Senator. 

Senator Overman. Do you want the names read, Senator ? 

Senator King. That is for the record, is it not? 

Senator Nelson. Yes. 

Mr. BiELASKL Yes. 



BBEWIKG AND LJQUOB INTEBJESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1401 

Senator King. Then let it be handed to the reporter. 

Senator Overman. Whv not read it? 

Senator Kling. Yes. 

Mr. BiELASKi. The second list is not so important as the first, be- 
cause, I think, it was simply a list of men to whom they wanted to 
mail their important data: and that is not headed, as the other is, 
•* Important list of names." 

Senator King. Is there any claim, in any of the data which you 
have, that these men on this supplemental list were pro-German, or 
were they merely used for the purpose of disseminating literature, 
an<L perhaps, innocently used? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I thinK that this was a list of men to whom liter- 
ature was sent, particularly. I do not think that it carries with it 
any idea that they were pro-German. Certain of the men on the 
list we know, from other information, were pro-German ; but the 
Ha that they are on this list does not, I think, mean anything at all. 

Senator Nelson. Why put them in the record, then ? It might do 
some man an injustice. 

Senator King. I was going to say that we do not want to do any 
one an injustice. 

Mr. BiELA^Ki. I do not think this list should go in with the idea, 
at all, that it in any way reflects or implies pro-Germanism. 

Senator Overman. Then let us not put it in at all. Let me see 
it, please. 

Senator Wolcott. How is the first list headed ? 

Mr. BiEUiSKi. " Important list of names." This list does con- 
tain the names, as I said, of practically all of the active pro-German 
people. 

Senator Nelson. They were all ax;tive pro-Germans, those fellows? 

Senafor Wolcott. That is, you are referring to men who were 
active pro-Germans prior to our entrance into the war? 

Mr. BnsLASKi. Yes; and a few who were possibly active afterwards. 

Senator Wolcott. Yes; and some — ^I recall particularly your 
reference to one man who, as you said, since our entrance into the 
war has written very strongly American, patriotic articles? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. 

Senator Wolcott. So that that list really refers to a day prior to 
our entrance into the war? 

Mr, BiELASKi. Yes. Dr. Fuehr, of course, returned with Count 
von Bemstorff after the severance of diplomatic relations, and his 
activities ended then. 

I think possibly there is a very important incident connected with 
Dr. William Bayard Hale which I have not made any reference to. 

Under date of April 22, 1915, Mr. William Bayard Hale wrote 
Dr. Albert as follows : 

Bdelaski Exhibit No. 7. 

Deab Dr. Ai.BEirT: Here are the notes which I have prepared as suggestive 
of polnui that might be made in answer to Mr. Bryan's note of yesterday. 

Beraiue It was so much easier to write straight along in the '* character/' so 
to ^icak, of His Sxoellency, I have allowed niy memorandum to take that 
Conn. I trust you will fully explain to him that I do not presume to believe 
that more than an occasioniU point here and there may be of use. 
Tours sincerely, 

WnxiAM Batabd Hale. 



1402 BREWING AND LIQUOB INTEKE8TS AND GEKMAN FBOPAGAKDA. 

Senator Sterling. What is the date of that, Mr. Bielaski ? 

Mr. Bielaski. April 22, 1916. 

And there is a postscript which says : 

Dear Dr. Albert: I have well considered every word. I believe If this 
document were promptly delivered and promptly published, the effect might be 
gre&t 

Hale. 

That was an American citizen advising a diplomatic representa- 
tive of the German Government as to points which should be made 
in reply to a note of the American Secretary of State. 

Senator 0\'erman. That refers to William Jennings Bryan who 
was at that time Secretarv of State ? 

Mr. Bielaski. I think he was Secretary of State at that time, 
yes. But hp is not in any way concerned 

Senator Wolcott. I suppose that was in connection with one of 
the Lusitania notes? 

Mr. Bielaski. The Ltisifania was sunk in May, 1915. This was 
before that time. 

Senator Overman. May 7. 

Mr. Bielaski. May 7, 1915. 

He then prepared a form of note, of many pages, in which he 
puts up the German viewpoint. I can read it for you, if you wish. 

Senator Overman. Let it go into the record. Do not read it un- 
less there is something special to which you wish to call our atten- 
tion. 

Mr. Bielaski. I do not think there is anything special in 'it to 
which I wish to call attention, but Mr. Albert thereafter worked 
over this draft, and sent the draft back to Mr. Hale, and on April 
27, 1915, Mr. Hale wrote Mr. Albert again : 

The form and language of this document seems to me to be unexceptionable. 
I only regret that it is not possible to take a more advanced tone. I fear that 
the exchange of these gentle iiotes will lead to nothing. 

Senator Kino. To what notes, if you recall, of Secretary Bryan's 
does the memorandum relate that was prepared by Dr. Hale? 

Mr. Bielask:i. Possibly a reading of 'the draft will suggest the 
subject matter. He suggests: 

Bielaski Exhibit No. 8. 

I have received, etc., eic. 

Insofar as your Excellency's note requires the formal answer of the German 
Government it will be replied to as soon as It has been transmitted to Berlin 
and receive instructions from Berlin, a process which, by reason of the inter- 
ference by Great Britain with oceanic cable communication, will be a matter 
of several weeks. 

Pending these Instructions, however, I feel it is Incumbent upon me to reply 
at once to those particulars of your note which seem addressed to me person- 
ally, particularly lest the delay Involved in awaiting formal instructions from 
my government on all points might by any possibility inure to the prejudice 
of that friendship lietween the people of Germany and the people of the United 
States which, as you suggest, '* Is so warm and of such long standing " that 
the representative of the German Government, equally with yourself "feels 
under a special compulsion to speak with perfect frankness when any occasion 
arises which seems likely to create any misunderstanding, however slight or 
temporary, between those who represent the governments of the two countries." 

That is quoted from the note. 

Of your E^ccellencj^'s kind reference to my " long experience In International 
affairs," I trust I have a fitting appreciation, coming as It does from one whose 



BJEtEWINO AN1> LIQUOB INTEBE8TS AND GERMAN PBOPAQANDA. 1403 

»*»rvk«3 tc» his country In the sphere of international affairs, liave been so con- 
spkoious as have been yours. I should, however, repudiate all the teachings of 
an experience which you are pleased to describe as long, were I to acceile to 
the sugKestions that the relations of the two governments with one another 
should never be made a subject of discussion with a third government. 

This is, apparently, a note in reply to the effort of the German 
Government to discuss our relations with Great Britain, which you 
will recall about that time. 

He takes that up, and argues that position [reading :] 

Whether or not the United States is minded to maintain its position as a 
ftiverelgn power, possessing for its merchant marine the right to sail the open 
seas freely and without other interference than is allowed by the well under- 
stood and universally accepted principles of international law, is a question 
which indeed lies between the Government and the people of the United States 
and fo which my Government assuredly has not the least intention nor desire 
to interfere. 

It was evidently in answer to that note. 

In the second part of your note, your Excellency declares that the Govern- 
meet of the United States: 

"attempted to secure from the German and British Governments mutual 
CL'ZHXBslona w^Ith regard to the measures those governments respectively 
adopted for the interruption of trade on the high seas.*' 

Mr. Hale was the author of the pamphlet Thou Shalt Not Kill, 
which was ♦ circulated so largely throughout the United States, 
hundreds of thousands of copies, many sent by Mr. Hale directly 
from the Press Bureau, many sent by this league in Baltimore of 
women for strict neutrality, many sent by the American embargo 
conference, which was a German-engineered and financed organi- 
zation. 

Senator Nelson. In Chicago ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. In Chicago; yes, sir. It was the organization that 
sent all those telegrams, and so on. 

Continuing on Mr. Hale's activities, it might be interesting to 
note that immediately following the address of the President before 
Congress in January, 1918, William Bayard Hale wrote a special 
article on the question as to whether this occasion brought peace 
nearer, in which the following paragraph appears : 

In particular the very fact that the head of the nation dominant in the 
Western Hemisphere should assume to lay down in detail political arrange- 
SM^ts for the empires, Kingdoms and principalities of the other hemisphere 
gefmetl to promise little toward the early reconciliation of the warring world. 

And he later says, in the same article, which was presumably 
written from Washington by Mr. Hale : 

It was freely said here tonight that neither the Central Powers nor the 
Entente would take quite seriously the President's assertion that " for such 
arramsements and covenants we are willing to fight and continue to fight 
until they are achieved." 

That was published in the New York American, and shows his 
attitude as late as January, 1918. 

Mr. William Bayard Hale, after the termination of his trip with 
the German information service, was, as indicated by the telegrams 
I read, sent abroad by Mr. Heart. 

Senator Overman. Who is Mr. , Hale? Tell us something about 
him* 



1404 BREWING AND LIQUOB INTERESTS AND GERMAN PBOPAGANDA, 

Mr. BiELASKi. I did give you some information about him. He 
was a journalist, a newspaper man. 

Senator Wolcott. With a German wife? 

Mr. BiELASKi. With a German wife ; he was quite prominent in 
the newspaper world, and worked for the Philadelphia papers, and 
was the special agent to Mexico with Ex-Gov. Lind, of Minnesota, 
in the Mexican matter. 

Senator Overman. Is he of German extraction ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. His wife is German. 

Senator Overman. Yes; I know you said that; but is he of Ger- 
man extraction? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I do not think he is. 

Senator Nelson. Was he with Gov. Lind in an official capacity? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes; he was special agent; and the fact that he was 
supposed to have some prominence here and some acquaintanceship 
with officials, and so forth, made him, from the German standpoint, 
desirable. They were always proceeding on the assumption that if 
they could get hold of somebody who could get inside, they could do 
something. But I think it is a wonderful record that, so far as our 
information goes, no American official was ever seduced or led astray 
in any way by any of their activities, if we except only those gentle- 
men — Congressman Buchanan, who got mixed up with Mr. Franz 
Rintelen, the German agent's activities under the guise of Labor's 
National Peace Council. 

When Mr. Hale went abroad - 

Senator Nelson. He went abroad as the representative of the 
Hearst papers?. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. 

Senator Overman. In what year was that? 

Mr. BiELASKi. It was in 1915. We shall have something more to 
say, I think, about the Hearst papers and the relations of Hearst and 
Hale with the German officials. 

On May 26 Dr. Fuehr records in his diary : 

Noon. Gall from Hale, who stated that Hearst proposes to send him as a 
representative to Germany. 

And, on the next day, May 27 : 

visit to Hale, whose mission to Germany for Hearst is now a settled 
matter. 

May 31. Departure of Hale to Germany as representative of the Hearst 
paper. In the morning I introduced him to Count Bemstorff, and had a short 
conference. 

There are some other thin^ about Hale of possible interest. He 
took with him, when he sailed, a man namea Louis D. Edwards. 
Edwards knew, before he left New York, that Hale was working for 
Hearst, and that he was working for Hearst, too ; but he did not know 
that Hale was under contract with the German Government. 

They sailed together, and were together except for a short trip that 
Halo made down through Eoumania, about the time that country 
entered the war, I think. 

Senator Overman. Was there any evidence that Hearst knew that 
he was under contract with the German Government ? 

Mr. BiEi^SKi. No ; on the contrary, Bemstorff, as I have said, said 
that Hearst did not know that fact. 



BBEWnro AlTD LIQUOR INTEBB8TS AND QEBMAK PBOPAQANDA« 1405 

Mr. Eklwards testified that when they were approaching Kirk- 
wall Mr. Hale tried to get him to learn a code message by heart, 
which was to be delivered to the foreign office in Berlin. 

Mr. Edwards testified to us that he refused to do so, because it 
was meaningless to him, and he had in mind what had happened 
to Mr. Archibald. He stated he did not believe that the particular 
code message was harmful to the United States, but had to do with 
pimaganda work in connection with the press in the United States. 

ffdwards also testified that Hale told him that he was a paid worker 
for German propaganda; that Hale received several code messages 
from the foreign office in Berlin, the nature of which he did not know, 
except that they were in the usual five-figure code, to be translated 
through the use of a dictionary ; that is, part of the fibres referred to 
the page, and the other figures referred to the number down of the 
word. Mr. Edwards stated that passes which they obtained in Ger- 
manv had, I think, the question : " What German firm do you repre- 
sent? " And they were filled in to read: " Foreign office, Berlin." 

Edwards had some disagreements with Hale, and Hale explained to 
me, back in the fall of 1917 — which I give to vou for whatever it is 
worth — that this code he talked over with !l6dwards was really a 
code he wanted Edwards to use in communiating his health and 
safety and so forth to his wife, should he be arrested and imprisoned 
by the British when he was taken to Kirkwall. 

Senator Nelson. Let me ask you this: Edwards accompanied Hale 
to Germany? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. 

Senator Neuson. On this trip ? 

Mr. BnsLABKi. Yes. 

Senator NEiiSON. And on this trip he got information that Hale 
was working in the interest of Germany. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. 

Senator Nelson. And Edwards was a representative, also, of the 
New York American— of the Hearst papers ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes, sir. 

Senator Nelson. Ifi there anything in the papers that indicates that 
Edwards gave any information about that matter to Hearst? 

Mr. BiEUASKi. Not that I know of. I do not faiow what he did 
with respect to Hearst He gave us information, when we ap- 
proached him about it, some time after we entered the war. At that 
time, of coarse, this was a neutral country. 

Maj. HxTBTEs. You referred to the trip mto Boumania. At whose 
exnense did Hale make that trip into Boumania? 

Mr. BiELASKi. We understood that was made at the expense of the 
German foreign office, but we have no conclusive proof of that, of 
course; it was a happening in Gtermany ; but we understood he went 
down there on behalf of the German foreign office, to prevent Bou- 
mania goin^ into the war. A man named Wunnenberg, who was 
convicted with Sanders of sending German spies from this country 
to England, and who was intimately mixed up in some German ac- 
tivities in this country, testified that one of the objects of Hale's going 
to Germany was^ to arrange for the transmission in his press dis- 
patches of code dispatches intended for German officials. 



1406 BBEWIKG AKD LIQX70B INTEBE8TS AND GBBMAN PBOPAGAKDA. 

I think if the committee has no objection I will give you one illus- 
tration of the manner in which propaganda are circulated in the form 
of books. 

Maj. Humes. Before we get away from that Hale matter, will you 
state whether or not Hale afterwards sent for his wife to come to 
Germany? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Oh, yes. He sent — ^I think it is in the file — a cable- 
gram, showing that he did send for his wife and children and ser- 
vants^ all at very large expense. And when in Berlin he occupied the 
bridal suite of one of the leading hotels, at very great expense; and 
my own guess would be that if Hearst paid for mose expenses they 
were paid for twice, because it was generally understood that the 
German Government paid for part of his expenses while ^he was in 
Berlin. 

Maj. Humes. And in wiring his wife to join him in Germany he 
told her to travel in luxury without regard to expense ? 

Mr. BiEiiASKi. Yes. Economic Aspects of the War, by Edwin 
John Clapp, professor of economics of the New York University, 
is a long discussion of the subject from the German standpoint. 1ji 
the preface he says : 

This book was written because it seemed to me that we Americans were pay- 
ing too much attention to the affairs of belligerents, and too little to our own. 
After all, we are by no means untouched by the war. It ImperUs not only our 
present material interests but also neutral rights upon which the material 
interests of all i)eaGeful nations in the end depend. The neutral world is 
watching for us to realize and to assert its rights and our own. Hence this 
statement of what those rights are, and this record of what seems to have 
occurred to threaten them. ' 

In this book he suggests an embargo on the exportation of arms, 
for the purpose of enforcing our right to trade unhindered with Ger- 
many and the neutral nations of Europe. 

This book was printed by the Yale University Press ; of course, to 
keep secret its real source, and without any knowledge on the part of 
the printers that it was paid for and financed by the German Govern- 
ment. 

The circumstances under which the book was printed appear to 
have been these, that Clapp was asked by Sickel, I think it was^ one 
of the directors of the Hamburg- American Line, to meet a friend, 
Dr. Albert, at dinner, after Clapp had delivered an address at the 
university expressing quite the sentiments that he afterwards em- 
bodied in his book. He there met at dinner Sickel, Dr. Albert, and 
a young man named H. A. Boaz, who was an assistant of Albert's 
and an employee of the Hamburg- American Line and was involved 
in other forms of "propaganda. He managed, for instance, a lecture 
tour through the United States of Miss Eay Beveridge on behalf of 
the Germans. 

At this dinner Prof. Clapp claims that Dr. Albert was introduced 
to him as an officer of the Hamburg- American Line ; and they pre- 
vailed upon him to go to work writing this book, asking him to with- 
draw from some of his other labors and to devote his time to this. 
He did so, and was furnished, from time to time, funds. 

I see March, 1915, Mr. Albert's office paid, through W. G. Sickel, 
$500 to Edwin J. Clapp. 



BREWING AND LIQUOB INTEBESTS AKD QEHMAN PROPAGANDA. 1407 

He was paid in that manner from time to time smns of money 
aggregating $3,750. 

Senator Neuson. Did Clapp know that it was German money that 
he sot ? 

Mr. B1EL.ASK1. He knew that it was German money, at least, be- 
fore his book was published ; but I do not know that he did at the 
outset. He claims to have thought that it was a Hamburg- American 
Line affair; though, of course, the Hamburg- American Lme is prac- 
tically the German Government in shipping matters. 

From time to time he was paid this money, and in August, 1915, 
he was paid $11,500 to cover the cost of the book and the printing 
of 7,500 copies at $1 a copy, and $4,000 which he states was to be 
used in advertising. 

He states that about all he got out of it was expenses, but that he 
anticipated very large profits from the sale of the book. But the 
book did not sell. 

Clapp had studied in Germany. He was also interested in a plan 
to test the British blockade. He came down here to Washington 
with the idea of getting up a shipment from this country which 
would be on all-fours with shipments from some of the Scandina- 
vian countries which were permitted to go through. I think he 
selected limiber as a shipment, and he wanted to make a test to get 
this country in trouble with Great Britain; by getting this boat 
over, to see whether Great Britain would enforce the ^oibargo 
against it. 

I do not think that ever went through, although he devoted quite 
some time to it. 

His later history, in so far as we were interested in him as a propa- 
^ndist, was this, that after writing the book he began to write 
editorials for Mr. Rumelv, for the Evening Mail. For a time he was 
paid space ratH, and then he was taken on and paid a regular 
weekly salary for writing the editorials for the Mail, after the 
German Government, through Mr. Rumely, had purchased it. 

He also got out a syndicated series of six articles for German 
propaganda through Rumely, which he was paid for, which was 
Urgel^ made up of extracts from his book. 

Ma J. HtTMES. May I iust interrupt with reference to the Hale 
matter, for a moment, x ou did not nx the time of his return to this 
coantry from Germany. 

Mr. B1ELA8K1. I do not know that I know the exact date, off-hand, 
without looking up the records. 

Maj. Humes. When, with reference to the entry of the United 
States into the war? 

Mr. BiEi«ASKi. It was after it, as I recall it. 

Maj. Humes. He stayed there until after 

Mr. BizLASKi. He stayed there as long as he could. 

Maj. Humes. Until after the declaration of war by the United 
SUtes? 

Mr. BtELASKi. Yes. Dr. Demburg and his propaganda bureau 
fpnt out books called ^' The Catechism of Baalam, Junior,'' and ^A 
Trip TTirough Headline Land " which was ffotten out anonymously. 
They were, however^ written by an Irish- American propagandist, 
and financed by tins bureau of Fuehr and Albert. 



1408 BREWING AND LIQUOB INTEBESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 

The first record we have of him shows this; a letter of October 5, 
1914, addressed to Count von Bemstorff by George Sylvester Viereck, 
in which he says: 

I trust I am not trespassing upon your kindness If I Introduce to you Mr. 
Shaemus O'Sheel, a brilliant young Irish poet, In sympathy with our cause, 
who would like to say a word to you on some things that are near his heart. 

O'Sheel was an employee of the Senate, here, in some capacity, for 
some time. 

Senator Nelson. In the employ of whom ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. In the employ of the United States Senate. 

He also had a letter from Mr. George Barthelme, one of the Ger- 
man propagandists brought to this country by the Germans. I do 
not think it is necessary to read this, but it is a highly commendatory 
letter, written by Barthelme about him. 

Senator Overman. About O'Sheel? 

Mr. BiEXASKi. Yes, sir : about O'Sheel. There is a lot of the same 
sort of thing, later on. Here is the sort of thins; he was distributing. 
He distributed, in addition to his books, circulars of loyalty of the 
pro-Germans. This is a short one [reading] : 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 9. 

Germany is not averse to war with us. In such event, German U-boats would 
be free to sink everything In sight. 

The military advantages would be all with Germany. 

The Allies are not Ignorant of this. They know the debacle Is coming. They 
wish us In the war so that they can shift their Indebtedness onto us, and have 
something left to set up shop with after the crash. 

Advantage to Germany, injury to America, would be the result of our par- 
ticipation In the war. 

Senator Overman. What is the date of that? 

Mr. BiELASKi. That particular one is not dated. ^ 

Senator Overman. Do you know whether he was an employee of 
the Senate at that time? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I think that he was discharged just about that time, 
or before that time. His name, by the way, was James Shields, and 
he changed it to Shaemus O'Sheel to get, as he thought, the Irish 
equivalent. 

This was published under the name of Mr. Hugh H. Masterson, 
who is now an inspector in the employ of the city of New York. 

Here is a letter dated January 9, 1918, to Dr. Albert, signed 
" G. S.," written by George Sylvester Viereck on the letterhead of 
" The Fatherland '^ [reading] : 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 10. 

I have received this letter from our friend Shaemus O'Sheel which speaks 
for Itself. 

Shall I send him a check for $15? I have already sent him $10. Shall I 
send the money I lay out for him from the press fund or do you prefer to 
place a separate little fund at my disposal for Shaemus O'Sheel and matters 
which you wish to take up in connection with this pamphlet? 

Here is a letter written by Shaemus himself, on the letterhead of 
the United States Senate, office of the Secretary. I do not think 
that is at all material. 

Senator Overman. It shows how much we were fooled by him. 
We did not know what he was when we were transacting business 
with him. He was here with Senator O'Gorman's force, I believe. 



BBEWING Am> LIQUOB INTBBESTS AND GERMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1409 

Mr. BiELASKi. This letter reads : 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 11. 

I have just read of your victory. Great! Your courage deserves an Iron 
Cross. And the result was typical of what will always happen when an Amer- 
ican audience has a fair chance to puncture a British bluff. 

I too have had success. After a good deal of perplexity as to the proper 
ni'Hle of attack, I have strufk a speed that means a much better pamphlet 
than Baal am, Jr. It should be completed by Tuesday In your hands by Wed- 
nesday, or If retyping takes long, by Thursday. Preparatory to receiving 
ft. I wish you and Mr. A. (to whom please communicate this) to consider a 
couple of points about It. 

I assume " Mr. A." was Dr. Albert. 

The idea, as I understood it, was to produce a catechlstic satire chiefly of 
certain foibles of the American press and certain absurdities (and enormities) 
of spurious neutrality ; all in a rather gentle vein and in simple language. It 
was not to attempt to deal at large with leading issues of the War- which 
have been dealt with so splendidly In recent pamphlets. The ms. you will 
rfoeive is confined to the stated objects, but you, and Mr. A. especially, may 
think at first that It has departed too much from the second and third condi- 
tions. As a matter of fact, I am proud of the style of it, and if It might be 
ftbore the heads of some It will be within the reach of all fairly well educated 
readers and will impress them the more powerfully because of its style. That, 
1 am sure, will be acceptable to you and Mr. A, There is really no venom 
in it. either, so I trust that if it seems a bit stronger In places than was con- 
templated, you will concede that some judgment must be left to an author. 

Then he says: 

One thing more. By Saturday I can have all those clippings that we design 
for a really neutral pamphlet copied. I think you will not judge me avaricious 
••r Inclined to Impose on you if I suggest that I would be glad of the oppor- 
tunity to have one more talk with you and Mr. A. on three matters. 

X. The pamphlet now being completed. 

2. The newspaper-clipping pamphlet, which I think very Important. 

3. Tlie political a.<?pects of neutrality and certain easy and vastly effective 
thine«« that can be done in that line. 

The pre-requisites for such a visit by me are: A definite appointment for 
s Joint conversation with you and Mr. A. on Sunday January 24th ; or definite 
appointments for separate conversations with you and with him ; and a cheque 
for $15.(X) by Saturday. Do not write me here but at 714 19th St. N. W. 
Yours as ever 

S. O. S. 
[Laughter.] 

I do not know whether he knew the significance of " S. O. S." at 
that time, or not. Here is a letter from Albert to Viereck on Jan- 
nary 23, 1915. This reads as follows: 

BoELABKi Exhibit No. 12. 

Regarding our conversation of today, I send you enclosed a check for $100. 
I may beg you to use this sum for payments to Mr. O'Sheel and to give me a 
statement after payment. The level of the single expenditures I would leave 
to your discretion. For the interview, I will be at liberty during the next 
v«ek. Tou will have the friendliness to arrange with me for an appointment. 

On February 15 Viereck transmits to Albert a letter that he hag 
received from O^Sheel. This is lar^ly about his pamphlet, "A Trip 
Through Headline Land." and he signs it " Very truly, yours, John 
Doe, author of A Trip Tnrough Headline Land." 



1410 BBEWING AND LIQUOB IKTEBESTS AND GEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 

Here is one signed " S. O. S.," to " Dear Sylvester " [reading] : 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 13. 

• * 

Your letter and enclosures received. Thanks for liberal subscription to my 
book of poems. 
As you say, or indicate, the mss. needs 
Shortening, sharpening, supplementing. 
You will have it again much improved in a week- or less. 

There is some further correspondence between Albert and Viereck 
as to the payments to be made to Shaemus O'Sheel. 

Here is a sample of "The Catechism of Baalaam, Junior, by an 
Irish- American " [handing printed pamphlet to the chairman]. 

He also was the author oi a little scenario, which Viereck thought 
was excellent, but I do not know what became of it. 

Mr. Shaemus O'Sheel, in a statement made to a Department of 
Justice agent on June 18, 1918, said : 

I have never had any relations with the agents of any foreign power nor 
received any fee, reward, gift, or other consideration fi-om any agent of any 
foreign government, nor have I ever rendered any service ro any agent of any 
foreign country. I met the Count Von BernstoflP on one occasion only, in a 
purely formal and very public way, at a charitable bazaar, understood to be 
for a German charity fund at a baU on 9th or 7th Street, In Washington. I was 
simply introduced to the German Ambassador as one of a line of people and 
have .never since seen him, communicated with him, nor received any conmiuni- 
catlons from him. I have never, to my knowledge, met any other official or 
employee of the German Embassy nor of the Austrian Embassy. 

Which entitles him, I think, to be called a German citizen. 

Frank Harris, as I have mentioned before, was the author of 
"England or Germany." It was declared nonmailable under the 
espionage act, and was one of the articles circulated by the Fuehr 
bureau. 

Among the pamphlets and books which this bureau got out were the 
following : 

What Germany Wants, by Edmund von Mach. 

Hindenburg's March into London, by L. G. Redmond-Howard, author of 
Life of John Redmond. 

Central Europe, by Frederlcls Nauman, of the German Reichstag. 

Peace and America, by Hugo Muensterberg, professor at Harvard University. 

Secrets of German Progress, by Franls Koester, one of Viereck*s regular sub- 
scribers to Viereclf's Weelily. 

How Diplomats Make War, by Francis Nielsen. 

Zeppeline uber England, with a foreword by Bernhard H. Ridder, of the New 
Yorker Staats-Zeitung. 

The Making of Modern Germany, by Ferdinand Schevill. 

The Lusitania Case, collected and published by C. L. Droste. 

The Vampire of the Continent, by Count E. zu Reventlow, translated from 
the German, issued by the Jackson Press. 

The Adventures of the " U-202," by Baron Spiegel und zu Peckelsheim. 

The Spirit of Modem German Literature, by Ludwig Lewisohn, professor in 
the Ohio State University. 

Aus Ruhmeicher Zeit, by Irving T. Saunders. 

The Heel of War, by George B. McClellan. 

Government and Politics of the German Empire, by Fritz Conraji Krieger. 

The Ayesha, by Capt. Lieut, von Mucke. 

Germany's Point of View, by Edmund von Mach. 

England, Its Political Organization and Development, and the War against 
Germany, by Eduard Meyer, professor of history at the University of Berlin, 
published by Ritter & Co. 

Belgium and Germany, A Dutch View, by Dr. J. H. Labberton, published by 
the Open Court Publishing Co., Chicago. 



BBBWIKG AND LIQTJOB INTBBESTB AND GEBMAN PBOPAGAKDA. 1411 

The Emden^ by von Mucke. 

Germany of To-day, by (Jeorge Stuart FuUerton, of CJolumbla University. 

Whose Sin is the World War, issued by the New Era Publishing CJo., trans- 
lated from the Hungarian by Count Julius Andrassy. 

The Neutral Portion, by Elwln Lorraine, issued by the Jackson Press. 

Der Kreig i, Alpenrdt, by Karl Hans Strobl. 

Behind the Scenes of Warring Grermany, by Edward Lyell Fox, published by 
MacBride, Nast & Co. 

Carlyle and the War, by Marshall Kelly, published by Jean Wick. 

Germany and England, by von Bemhardi, published by DUllngham. 

America's Relations to the Great War, by John William Burgess, formerly 
professor at Columbia University. 

Gertrude and I, by Adele Lewlsohn, published by the International Monthly. 

German Achievements in America, by Rudeolph Cronau, one of Viereck*s 
writers. 

Justice in War Time, by Bertrand Russell, Open Court Publishing Co. 

War Diary of an American Woman, by Jouett Jeffries, published by The 
Fatherland Corporation. 

Der Hossiche Niederbruch, by Ludwig Ganghofer, in two volumes. 

Als U-Boats Kommandant Gegen England, by Forstner. 

The Americans, by Hugo Muensterberg. 

The War for a World, by Israel Zangwlll. 

The Trip of the DeutchJand, by Paul Koenig. 

Ameiiean Patriotism, by Hugo Muensterberg. 

Die Schlagt am Stagerrat, by Admiral von Scheer, published In Berlin by 
nistein & Co., issued by the Ullstein War Book Co., 1482 Broadway, New York. 

To Siberia with a Hundred Thousand Germans, Fourth Month of the Russian 
Campaign, by Kurt Aram, published by Ullstein & Co., Berlin ; reprinted by the 
UUstein War Book Co., 1482 Broadway, New York. 

Der Fremdenleigionar, by Maximilian Kirsch, Aman History of the War, 
1914-1915. 

They also circulated in this country a number of books which were 
official publications of the foreign office of Austro-Hurigary and 
Germany — ^the German White Book and the Austro-Hungarian Red 
Book-^which were not, of course, secret^ and a large number of other 
pampHlets which, I think, must have listed over 50, at least. They 
also got out a pamphlet called " Shanghaied into the European War," 
and others. These were gotten out under the head of the American 
Truth Society, which was assisted financially by the Germans, and 
about 80 per cent of its membership were Germans or with Gemian 
names, and a good many of the others were Irish. Mr. Jeremiah 
O'Leary was the president of it. Its man Wallace was financially 
assisted by the Grerman consul at New Orleans, and afterwards, when 
we got into the war, he continued to circulate this book and was con- 
victed out in Iowa, I think, and sentenced to 20 years in the peniten- 
tiarv, and has since died in jail. 

Mr. Fuehr was himself the author of a book called " The Neutrality 
of Belgiiun," which was circulated as propaganda. It makes three 
daims : That Belgium was not neutral territory when the German 
Army invaded it; that according to the laws of nations the treaty 
declaring Belgium's neutrality has been void for many years, and has 
been considered so bv Great Britain prior to the war ; and third, that 
€ven if the treaty had been in force international law fully per- 
mitted Germany to invade Belgium under the particular circum- 
stances. Tliat was the sort of stuff that Fuehr was writing and cir- 
culating. The Origin of the War, the Vampire of the Continent, the 
Tragedy of Belgium, etc., were all written and circulated by this 
bureau. I could give you a great deal more information about their 
pamphlets if you wanted it, but I do not think you do. " England or 
Germany/' was written by Frank Harris, as I nave said. 



1412 BSEWIIS^G AKD LIQUOB INTEBESTB AND OBBMAN FBOFAGAKDA. 

They circulated also pamphlets intended to disturb the relations of 
England with India. They circulated the pamphlet by Mr. Charles 
Nagel to stop traffic in arms and munitions. That wajs circulated in 
the name of the American Independence Union.. 

Maj. Humes. You referred to the pamphlet, "Traffic in Anns 
and Ammunition," by Hon. Charles Nagel. Is that the article as it 
appeared in the Fatherland, taken from the American Leader, pub- 
lished by Hammerling [handing paper to the witness]. 

Mr. BiEijLSKi. I think it is. 

Maj. Humes. That is the same article? 

Mr. BiELASKi. That is the same article. 

Senator Overman. That is the same article you brought out in 
your examination of Hammerling? 

Maj. Humes. Yes. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Here is a copy of the same article. I think if you 
will compare it, you will fina it the same [handing paper to Maj. 
Humes]. 

. (The copy of the article referred to is here printed in full in the 
record as follows:) 

Bdezaski ExHisrr No. 12. 

[American Independence Union, 287-289 Fourth Avenne, New York. Honorary Presi- 
dent, Herman Bidder. Vice President, Dr. Thomas C. Hall. Treasurer, James Gear.] 

May 8th, 1915. 
To Every American: 

Every national Interest is sacrificed by our wholesale exportation of arms. 
We are creating a huge vested interest In a non-productive and expensive In- 
dustry. We will be plagued by a lobby and corruption without end to get us 
to buy their products. We are endangering hate in the hearts of millions of 
our best customers and our own citizens. We are laying up against ourselves 
the charge of hypocrisy every time we try to utter a word for peace. ^We are 
taking a cowardly part in a war on those who did us no hurt. We are coining 
Europe's agony into our dirty dollars. God will Judge us and that right early. 

Thomas C. Hall 

Vice-President 

We present herewith the strongest statement, both from the point of view 
of abstract law and from the point of view of humanity, on the shipment of 
implements of murder to Europe, that has been published so far in this couii> 
try. This remarkable document is from the pen of Hon. Charles Nagel, Secre- 
tary of Ck>mmerce and Labor in the Cabinet of Pres. William Howard Taft 
We are indebted for this article to the courtesy of the " American Iieader. 

Traffic in Arms and Ammunition. 
[By Hon. Charles Nagel, Bz-Secretary of Commerce and Labor.] 

Those who Indulge the belief that public interest in the sale of arms and 
ammunition has subsided because the Hitchcock bill died with the adjourn- 
ment of Congress are doomed to disappointment Ambitious statesmen who 
were glad to find a politician's escape in the convenient declaration that it 
would be unneutral to refuse to sell arms to belligerents may see this unhappy 
phrase come back to plague both its authors and sponsors. To the minds of 
those who upon grounds of morality and decency are opposed to this traffic, 
the excuse offered for not placing an embargo upon these sales was adding 
insult to injury. It was not regarded as an honest excuse; but as the inven- 
tion of men who wanted either to evade the issue or to find a way to aid 
favored belligerents, or both. 

It is, of course, accepted that the rules of international law do not forbid 
such sales. The rights of the German and Austrian Qovernments are not 
Involved at all. 



BRBWnro AND LIQTJOB INTEEESTB AND QEBMAK PB0PA6ANDA. 1413 

GermaDy does not eren protest our right to sell arms and ammunition; 
although she has expressed her surprise at our enormous sales of ammunition 
to the Allies and our failure at the same time to insist upon our undoubted 
right to dellYer foodstuffs to the civilians of Germany and Austria-Hungary. 
The question, however, is essentially one of our own self-respect What prece- 
dents have we In our own history to guide us? 

During our late difficulties with Mexico our Government prevented a Ger- 
laan merchantman from delivering arms and ammunition to one of the Mexi- 
can factions. The German ship was clearly within her rights ; but she yielded 
to our desdre. What was the foundation for our action? Plainly that our 
GoTemment did not eormpathize with the particular consignee. We objected 
to the giving of aid to Huerta from any source. We exercised a preference 
between two belligerent factions even to the extent of interfering with the 
rights of another power. By the same rule we cannot now Insist upon the 
Tif^t to Bell arms to the Allies, and at the same time escape the suEq;>icion be- 
fore the world and before our own people that we are exercising a preference 
in favor of one and against another friendly power. 

We have gone farther. Congress adopted a resolution which gave the Presi- 
dent the authority to place an embargo upon the shipment of arms and ammu- 
nition from this country to any other country upon this continent engaged in 
internal strife. That authority was used. The shipment of arms was pro- 
hibited, until the Government in its desire to aid a favored factioA in Mexico 
lifted the embargo in its behalf. Again we used the privilege to sell or not 
to sell by preference. We not only establshed the rule that we may forbid 
tlie traffic in arms and ammunition, but we went farther and established the 
principle that we may and will use our power to encourage or to discourage 
particular bellig^ents. The circumstance that the resolution of Congress was 
restricted to this continent is not controlling. This continent embraces many 
nations; but with not one of them is our relation, politically, commercially 
or humanly speaJUng, as close as it is with at least four of the great nations 
now engaged in war. Neither are our obligations nor Interests under the 
Monroe Doctrine controlling. If interest shall determine, Heaven knows that 
is intoise enough in the case before us, measured by whatever human con- 
Blderatlon we may select Furthermore, the international haziness of the 
Monroe Doctrine has been so completely demonstrated by our Government 
that no sincere observer would now be willing to loolc to that doctrine for 
foQDdation of right or for explanation of conduct. In establishing and in lifting 
our embargo on the shipment of arms we have played favorites ; in compelling 
Germany to yield to our decision we have done the same. Morally spealdng, 
we cannot escape the conviction before our own people that behind high- 
sounding phrases of neutrality we are now engaged in the same partisan busi- 
ness. We have stopped the traffic when we wanted to. We could stop it now ; 
bul we do not want to. We sell when we want to help; and we refuse when 
we do not. For this conduct we are not responsible to other countries; but 
we cannot escape a responsibility to ourselves. 

Th«*e, are, however, other considerations to be weighed. We have com- 
placently Justified the traffic In ammunition upon the ground that it is not 
Inhibited by International Law. So much is true. But it is not true, as Is 
assumed with equal complacency, that therefore this traffic is honorable or 
even^ broadly speaking, Justified. Lame and impotent as International Law in 
the abs^ace of a strong neutral power undoubtedly is, that law has advanced 
far enough In the realm of ethics to denounce this particular traffic. The rule 
does not permit a government to sell arms to a belligerent. It simply permits 
a private citizen to take the risk. But so complete Is the denial of perfection 
to this traffic that ammunition and arms so sold are subject to confiscation 
and destruction at the hands of a belligerent. And to leave no room for doubt 
as to the status of the traffic ship, the ship carrying such ammunition and 
arms, although that ship be owned by citizens of a neutral power, is subject to 
confiscation, and in case of necessity may be sunk. 

To say that it is unneutral to prohibit the pursuit of a business which 
has been so characterized by the Law of Nations Is astounding. It suggests 
a befogged state of mind or morals. The wish is father to the thought. Does 
anybody believe that such an argument would have been advanced or would 
have prevailed if Japan had sought to buy arms from us in case she had been 
eogaged in war with England? Would we not then have found a way to 
declare that a highly civilized nation — ^the bearer of the world's peace man- 
date—could not permit her citizens to profit by furnishing instruments of 
dertruction against her own Idnsmen? 



-•rj 



1414 BREWING AND LIQTTOB INTEB£STB AND GEBMAN PBOPAGAin>A« 

Was It nnneutral when Germany during our war with Spain at our request 
overhauled and searched a Spanish ship for a cargo of arms destined for Cuba 
and to be used against us; or did we accept her conduct as one of those acts 
of fair consideration which one friendly power may In perfect good faith 
extend to another? 

These citizens who are engaged In this business now are protected, it is 
true — ^particularly If they get the cash on this side; as they will so long as 
they can Induce our banks to advance It for this purpose. But let them not 
indulge the notion that their business Is promoting our country's International 
standing. They are not precisely like other distinguished business men who 
In the past have ascertained how close they might brush the prison walls 
without actually getting Inside of them. But neither are they to be accepted 
as the proprietors of a wholesale foreign commerce upon which we may build 
with confidence or with satisfaction for the future. 

There are other considerations still to be dealt with — considerations whose 
echoes are apt to be heard In this country for generations to come. The citi- 
zenship of this nation is closely related to the belligerents on the other side. 
With many, that relationship is recent and correspondingly intimate. CJondi- 
tions of that kind no government can or should disregard. During our Civil 
War, Great Britain was several times on the point of turning against us. There 
is little doubt but that for John Bright she would have done it. Her Govern- 
ment was against us. Her people were for us because they held slavery in con- 
tempt. One of the powerful arguments used by Bright to the people — particu- 
larly to the laboring classes — was that within a brief period hundreds and thou- 
sands of persons had migrated from England to our country and that such a 
war as Great Britain's Government contemplated would be like making war 
upon her own people. We may argue about the theory of citizenship as we will, 
but Bright sounded a true note which was heeded and which cannot be safely 
disregarded by us to-day. 

Say of the people who protest what you will, they may at least say of them- 
selves that for half a century not one momentous public question has been sub- 
mitted in this .country which could have been decided rightly without their sup- 
port And we may say of them that if they had the decision to-day, interna- 
tional precedents would not be lost for want of better support than paper pro- 
tests ; rights would not be forfeited ; the Stars and Stripes would be respected 
the world over; all neutral nations would be joined under our leadership to 
sustain the standards of International Law, and to impress upon savage war 
the dictates of advanced humanity ; and our part In the greatest war of the 
world would not be confined to the effort to bolster up our waning trade by 
the export of instruments of destruction, and to satisfy our demand for informa- 
tion by the Import of manufactured news. 

Let us be neutral ; Let us be citizens of the United States by all means. But 
Is it fair, or, in any event, is it wise to expect well-nigh half of the people of this 
nation to stand by while related peoples are mowed down \vith weapons of our 
manufacture paid for with bank balances largely of their making and saving — 
all heralded in the name of neutrality and in the guise of humanity? It 'is time 
to take account of things and conditions. Technically our attitude is neutral. 
In effect it is felt to be partisan. Sentiment is profoundly stirred; and senti- 
ment once aroused is not readily controlled by argument or guided by reason. 
There may be a day of reckoning ; and the time to prepare for it is now. 

Dr. Demberg was himself the author of " Germany and the War," 
which was published by The 'Fatherland, which describes Germany 
as a nation of peace and all that sort of thing; very anti-British. 
" The Ludtania Case ; Was Bryan's Eesignation Justified," published 
in 1915 by Hugh H. Masterson, which was also the name under which 
the Shaemus O'Sheel publications were published, financed by the 
Germans. There are just scores of these different documents. 

Senator Nelson. Could you give a list to the stenographer of all 
these German publications? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes, sir. 

Senator Nelson. Furnish that afterwards? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. 



BBBWIKO AJSn> UQUOB INTEBESIB AND QEBMAN PBOPAGAKDA. 1415 

(The list of publications referred to was furnished by Mr. Bielaski, 
and is here printed in the record, as follows:) 

Bielaski Exhibit No. Id. 

•* Warlike England as seen hy herself y*' by Ferdinand Tonnies, published in 
1915. The advertisement regarding this book gives an idea of its purpose and 
scope. *'A scholarly and comprehensive indictment of England's over-weening 
lust for world-conquest Out of the mouths of her own statesmen and his- 
torians she is convicted of the appalling crimes of piracy, murder and arson m 
the establishment of her vast colonial empire for the benefit of her so-called 
amwr classes. The horrors of her once vaunted slave trade, the conquest of 
India, the outbreaks in Afghanistan, the conquest of Egypt and the outrages 
of the Boer war have become a lasting shame. Her struggle to preserve the 
bftlance of power among nations for her own selfish advantages is set forth in 
this volume as the active determining factor in the world's greatest war." 

" The Neutrality of Belgium,'* by Alexander. Fuehr, which was published in 
October, 1915. A good idea of the character of this book can be had from the 
fioilowiiig taken from the advertisement circulated concerning it: Makes three 
daiins* which have not heretofore been made thus carefully for Americans to 
consider: 

1. That Belgium was not neutral territory when the German army invaded it 

2. That, according to the Law of Nations, the treaty guaranteeing Belgium's 
neutrality has been void for many years and has been considered so by Great 
Britain, prior to the war; 

3u TiiHi. even if the guarantee treaty had still been in force, International 
Law fully permitted Germany to invade' Belgium under the particular circum- 



Glties Treaties, Documents, Legal Authorities, Press Articles and Affidavits, 
to sustain these claims. Gives full account of the origin and the break-down 
of Belgium's neutrality. 

" The Origin of the War," by Carl Federn, published in 1915. The following 
taken from the advertisement concerning it shows its purpose : "A lucid presen- 
tation of the underlying causes of the European conflict and its meaning to the 
nations involved. By documents and other recently discovered evidence, Mr. 
Fedem makes out his brief — that England, scenting danger to her own prosr 
poity in the development of German science and inventive genius, sought by 
flie aid of alliances with France and Russia to crowd Germany out of the 
markets of the world. The result of this policy, furthered by ambitious poli- 
Uciaiis, resulted in this war, disastrous to this isolation program. Written dis- 
passionately, this book aims to disseminate a correct idea of the origin of this 
titanic struggle.** 

" The Tragedy of Belgium," by Richard Grasshoff, published In 1915. This 
book was devoted to an effort to refute statements defamatory of the German 
people and the German Army. 

" Neutrality," by S. Ivor Stephen, published in 1916, by the Neutrality Press, 
206 West 46th Street. In the preface the author acknowledges his indebtedness 
to Jeremiah O'Leary for assistance iri the preparation of his material, states 
that the talented and brilliant editors of the Fatherland and of Issues and 
Events have been of great stimulus and help to him. He also gives thanks 
to Prank Harris. The writer quotes from Dr. William Bayard Hale. He at- 
tacks the Cabinet Quotes from the Hearst papers. Contains pictures of Viereck 
and much in his praise. Also the picture of Miss Ray Beverldge " a victim of 
British Intrigue" and an "indefatigable worker in the German cause." It 
also contains a picture of Jeremiah O'Leary, and much praise for him and for 
the Irish World. 

** England or Germany" by Frank Harris, published in 1915. He endeavors 
to comnare England and Germany, to the great advantage of Germany. 

-Indians ' fyoyalty' to England," published by the Indian National Party In 
September, 1915, was also circulated. 

"A Slanderer " by Professor Dr. Theodor Schlemann, published by Issues and 
Eventff. written In answer to the book called the "Accuser " and is devoted to 
an i^ort to place responsibility for the war on France, Russia and England. 

•• German j^M Economic Power of Resistance ** by Gustav Cassel, published in 
1916. The writer concludes that Germany can hold out during a long period 
of Isolation extending over many years. Gustav Cassel apparently is a Swede 

85723 — ^19— VOL 2 8 



1416 BBEWIKO AND IJQXTOit IKTEHESTB AND OEBHAN FBOPAGANDA. 

from Stockholm University who spent three weeks In Germany in March, 1916, 
at the request of the German minister at Stockholm. Issued by Jackson Press^ 
1123 Broadway, New York City, which is said to be controlled by Viereck. 

" Worth Knotoing" A pamphlet issued as a booklet by the Vital Issues. 
This pamphlet is devoted to the discussion of an advertisement by the Cleve- 
land Automatic Machine Company concerning machinery to make poison 
shells. 

A circular entitled " Trajgflc m Arms and Ammunition " by Hon. Charles 
Nagel, circulated in the name of the American Independence Union, of which 
Herman RItter was Honorary President, Hon. Richard Bartholdt, President, 
Dr. Thomas C. Hall, Vice President, A. P. Moore, Secretary, and James Gear 
Treasurer. It is intended to aid in a campaign to put an embargo on the ship- 
ment of arms and ammunition. It was circulated under date of May 8, 1915. 

" Can Germany be Starved Into SuhmisHonf " by Dr. Hugo Schweitzer in an 
address made by him on February 3, 1915. Dr. Schweitzer was a very active 
German propagandist as well as a chemist in the service of Germany. He i» 
now dead. 

*' Damaging Evidence Against English Hypocrisy" bears Berlin date May 15, 
1915. Compares the occupation of Egypt in 18S2 with the Invasion of Belgium 
in 1914. 

"The Unholy War on Germany" (no. 2) by Hanford L. Gordon, published 
Los Angeles, March 2, 1915. . 

A pamphlet of similar title (No. 3) by the same man dated March 10, 1915. 

" TJte Lusitania Ca^e, Was Bryan's Resignation Justified f " published in 
June, 1915 by Hugh H. Masterson, 170 Chambers St., compares the activity 
at sea on the part of Crermany and England. 

" The Great Conspiracy" by Alexander Szarski and Faust C. DeWalsh, pub- 
lished by the German-American Literary Defense Committee. This book 
charges Russia and Great Britain with a conspiracy to wage a war of conquest. 

•• Germany and The Peace of Europe " by Ferdinand ScheviU. 

*• The Evolution of The German Empire," by George L. Scherger. 

"Germany and England — the Real Issue," by Dr. Bernhard Dernberg three 
of a series of pamphlets published by the Germanlstlc Society of Chicago. 

"Americans, Awaken*." by Francis Savona, published in 1916. 

" TJie Economical Consequences of the World War," by the President of the 
Chamber of Commerce at Bremen Issued September 29, 1914, published anony- 
mously. 

" r/te War Business in the United States," published by the American Em- 
bargo Conference, written anonymously, but probably by William Bayard Hale. 

" Thou Shalt Not Kill," published In the name of the Organization of Ameri- 
can Women for Strict Neutrality, but written by Mr. William Bayard Hale, 
published at the instance of the (German Government in an effort to prevent the 
exportation of arms and munitions of war. It contained a letter supposed to 
have been written by one William Harlan, of Kennett Square, Pa., but which it 
is testified to was written in its entirety by Hale. 

"Aspects of European Diplomacy since 1878" by Henry D. Funk. The 
pamphlet is devoted to an effort to disprove that the German government built 
up a war machine and entered upon a war of conquest. 

" TJie Catechism of Balaam, Jr" by an Irish-American, published in 1914 
by Hugh Masterson. It was distributed for one cfeiit a copy, the publisher stat- 
ing that similar copies would be sent gratis and that he had distributed 80,(XX> 
<K)plea Written by Shamus O'Sheel. 

** The Imperial Russian Finances ", published by the International Monthly , 
Inc., which was one of the organizations carried on in Viereck's name. 

" The German White Book " published by the Fatherland Corporation sup- 
posed to contain translation of original documents intended to show that Russia 
caused the war and that France might have avoided it 

" The War Plotters of Wall Street ", by Charles A- CoUman, published by the 
Fatherland Corporation in 1915, and is what might be expected from its title 
and tiie house which published it. 

*' War and Catholicism ", published in 1915, anonymously and for the alleged 
purpose of answering for the Germans charges by the French Catholics against 
Germany. 

" Truth About Germany ", printed in New York anonymously. Prepared ap- 
parently under the auspices of a C:k)mmittee of prominent Germans in Germany. 
It is an appeal to Americans. Disclaims the responsibility on the part of Ger- 
many for starting the war and contains one rather startling complaint from 



BBEWIHG A3Sn> UQUOB IKIEBSSIB AJSID QEBMAN FBOPAGAJrDA. 1417 

tlie Gemum standpoint and that is to the effect that Germany has been ovemin 
by Epies for years past, charging these spies to France, Russia and England. 

**A Trip Through Headline Land", by the author of "The Catechism of 
Balaam, Jr.", published by the Fatherland Ck>rporation in 1915, complains of 
the attitude of the American Press. Author — Shamus O'Sheel. 

*• Gennany*s Hour of Destiny ", by C5ol. H. Frobenius, published by the Inter- 
national Monthly in 1914. Introduction by W. R. Shepherd, Professor of His- 
tory in the Columbia University, states that it describes the motives and aims 
of the chi^ powers in the war, proves that Germany is not militaristic, and that 
Russia, Bkigland and France intended to make war upon Germany for selfish 



** German White Book on Anned Merchantmen *\ printed anonymously. " The 
case against Armed Merchantmen." Timely reprints from the New York Press. 
The quotations are from the Evening Mail. An article by Hale from the New 
York American, other quotations from the New York American, and an article 
Cram the New York Times, which, however, contains nothing except the text of 
a note which the Chicago Herald printed as having been addressed to the Euro- 
pean Belligerents by American Ambassador at the direction of the Secretary of 
State. 

**G€rfnani^9 Case in the Supreme Court of Civilization" published by the 
Fatherland in 1916, written by Dr. Carl Helferich. 

" Current Misconceptions about the War ", published by the Fatherland Cor- 
poration in 1915, contains a report of an interview by Karl H. von Wiegand 
with the Crown Prince, and various reprints from different papers. 

" England on the Witness Stand ", published by the Fatherland in 1915, con- 
taining 'an introduction by Frederick F. Schrader, one of the editors of the 
Fatherland, containing a number of articles attributed to various Englishmen. 

'*The Belgian Peopl&s War", purporting to contain translations from the 
olBcial €rerman White Book, dealing with the supposed offenses of the Belgian 
civilian peculation. 

" Germany and the Monroe Doctrine ". Copy of an addreass delivered by Dr. 
M. J. Bonn, University of Munich, supposed to show -Germany's acqulesence in 
tihe Monroe doctrine. 

" Why the German Nation has Gone to War ", by George Stuart Fullerton, 
orlgfnally writt^i November 1, 1914, reprinted in February, 1915: 

Copy of a Utter addressed under date of September 14, 1915, to the British 
Prime Minister by Mohamed Fahmy. Takes En^^and to task for her actions 
in E^pt. 

•• Germany and the War " by Dr. Bernhard Demburg, published by the Father- 
land, describes Germany as a nation of peace. States the purpose of his mis- 
MoB in America is that of a confidant suppliant pleading the cause of humanity. 
Has chapters devoted as to at what England aims, the causes of the war, a 
reply to Lord Bryce, denounces England's treaty record. 

** Germany's Just Cause." A series of articles by pro-German professors 
published by the Fatherland. It includes articles by William Bayard Hale 
and Professor Thomas C. Hall and others. As Frederick E. Schrader, one of 
the editors of the Fatherland describes the pamphlet " That Germany is fighting 
for a just cause is herein set forth by some of the leading native American 
fldiolarsw'* 

" The lAes of tTie Allies " by Frank Koester, Issues and Events, with an 
introdoction by Jeremiah 0*Leary. 'Mr. Koester was bom in Germany and he 
discusses articles printed in the American papers favorable to the Allies and 
nriti<-al to Germany which he thinks are untrue. 

** European Politics," During the decade before the war as described by 
Belgian Diplomatists, documents issued by the Imperial German Foreign 
Office, published anonymously. 

** The Real ' Belgian Atrocities,* " a document containing the pictures of the 
natlTe Belgian Congo Free State alleged to have been mutilated by the Belgian& 
in 1912 because of insufficient deliveries of rubber. 

** Documents Relating to the Outbreak of the War," published by the 
Imx»erlal German Foreign Office. 

Speech of the German Chancellor, Dr. Von Bethmann-HoUweg, before the 
Reichstag November 9, 1916, issued by the New York Agency of the Trans- 
ocean Service. 

'*6€>me Economic and Political Aspects of General Training under the 
Gennan Military System," by Moritz J. Bonn. Address delivered at a meeting 
of the Academy of Political Science held at Columbia University in May 18, 
1918. A reprint from the Germanistlc Society Quarterly. 



1418 BBEWINO AJSny liquor INTEBESTB and GEBMA.K FBOFAGAHBA. 

" Oerman War Finance,'* by M. J. Bonn, printed by the German University 
League. 
Austro-Hungary and the War. 
Searchlights on the War. 
The Vlereck-Chesterton Debate. 
Why Germany will Win the War. 
Peace or War. 
The Case of Belgium. 

Senator Overman. You spoke of this man O'Leary. Did he figure 
in that at all ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Jeremiah O'Leary? 

Senator Overman. Yes. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes; he was very active in the German cause. He 
is now under indictment in New York City for his activities since 
we went into the war, with certain paid German spies in this coun- 
try, Mme. Victorica, and a man that used the name of Roediger. He 
is also under indictment for certain publications of his. 

I do not know just what topjic to select now, but perhaps Mr. 
George Sylvester Viereck and his publications, the Fatherland and 
the Citernational. Viereck and Hale and Rumely were all of a 
class. They were hanging around where there was a lot of money, 
each one trying to get all he could from the representatives of 
Germany. 

Senator Nelson. Was he on the German pay roll, too? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Who ? 

Senator Nelson. Viereck? 

Mr. BiEi^SKL Oh, yes. 

Senator Overman. What was his nationality ? Was he a German ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Viereck was bom in Germany. His father came to 
this country when he was a minor. He was naturalized, and thereby 
George Sylvester Viereck became an American citizen. His father 
returned to Germany, was in Germany while we were at war, and I 
suppose is still there; but George Sylvester Viereck has a proper 
claim to American citizenship through his father's naturalization. 

Senator Nelson. Since he quit the publication of the Fatherland 
he has published another paper, has he not? 

Mr. feiELASKi. Yes; he nas published the American Weekly, as he 
calls it, I think. 

Senator Nelson. Is that still published ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I think it is; yes, sir. 

Maj. Humes. Since his naturalization the father has returned to 
Germany, has he not? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes; but I do not understand that any action of 
the father could well affect the status of the son. 

Maj. Humes. But the father has ceased to be a resident of this 
country ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Oh, yes. There might be some claim that the father 
has forfeited his citizenship. 

Senator Overman. Did you investigate the naturalization of this 
man Hammer lin g? 

Mr. BiELASKi. We have all the facts; yes, sir. I think the facts, 
though, were first secured by the Military Intelligence Service. 
They were made known to us by them in March or April, 1918. 
Hammerling made a false statement in his naturalization papers as 
to his place of birth. He gave it as Hawaii. 



BBBWUSre AKD LIQtrOB INIEBESTB AlfTD GEB31AN PBOPAGAKDA. 1419 

Senator Nelson. And also as to the time he had resided in the 
United States. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes ; he actually was born in Galicia, Austria. 

Senator Nelson. Why could not the Department of Justice bring 
suit to cancel it? 

Mr. BiELASKi. As I understand it a suit must be brought for fraud, 
and I do not know whether a suit could be maintained under those 
facts or not. 

Senator Nelson. I think so. There are seven suits. I recall one 
that went up from the State of Washington. 

Maj. Humes. Mr. Bielaski, I will sg^y for you, for your informa- 
tion, that we have developed in the examination of Mr. Hammerling 
here that he not only misrepresented his nationality, but he also 
admitted that he had only been in this country three years when he 
was naturalized, and he swore at that time that he had been a resi- 
dent continuously for five years, so that those facts are supplemental 
to the records you now have in the Department of Justice. 

Mr. BiEiASKi. That is something I aid not know anything about. 

Maj. Humes. That is in the record here. 

Senator Nelson. And he had never taken out his first papers? 

Mr. Bielaski. I knew that he had secured his naturalization by 
initial proceedings. Of course the naturalization laws were different 
then from what they are now. 

The first letter I notice that Mr. George Sylvester Viereck wrote 
to Albert is under date of October 15, 1914, which was very early 
in the war. This letter reads as follows : 

BnxASKi Exhibit No. 14. 

(The PatherUnd. Fair play for Germnnv and Atifitrla. Published by the International 

Monthly (Inc.)]. 

1123 Bboadway, New Yobk, Octoher 15th, 1914. 
Mr. H. F. Albert, 

4S Broadway, Neto York City. 

Deak Mr. Albert: In view of our conversation at the office the other day I 
vmild like to say this : 

I think that It la of the utmost Importance to keep THE FATHERLAND 
itlve even after the war. After all the German-American influence was a 
deciflTe check to the anti-German sentiment in this country. It will be nece9- 
miy to influence the German- Americans and to inform them as to what really 
Is going on in the world, so that Germany will always have 16,000,000 sup- 
porters, defenders and Interpreters. 

But I realize that this is not enough. It is even more important to obtain 
a par^y American newspaper, such as the New York Sun or New York Press, 
and to edit it as any other American newspaper is edited, but to infuse into 
it a strong pro-German spirit For instance, at present the New York Times 
lias a news service in connection with tlie London Times. 

• «*«*«« 

It will be Important to establish n similar news service in connection with 
the tnistein group, or the Lokal Anzeiger or some similar German publication. 
This connection should include the exchange of cable news as well as all im- 
portant articles. 

It In also of the utmost importance that the Associated News should he 
vatrhed closely from the German point of view and that the editorial page 
tfaonld be written like that of any other American paper, but with a clear 
onderstanding that closest relations with Germany are to the advantage of thtt 
United States. 

In order to avoid mistakes and blunders of all kinds there should be an 
Intimate ronn€»ction between the Press Bureau of the Foreign Office in Berlin, 



1420 BBEWIKO AND UQXJOB TSTEBEBTB AND OEBMAK PBOPAOAHIU. 

the Embassy here and some one connected with the newspaper in question. I 
would be very glad to connect myself with such an enterprise. It makes no 
difference in what capacity, whether as nominal publisher or assistant pub- 
lisher, as Editor, Managing-Editor or in any other capacity. 

In order to make this policy effective it will be necessary to own the stock 
control of the newspaper. I would suggest that the paper be published by 
some one on whom you can rely and in whose name the stock can be held ; for 
instance Mr. Rau or any one else who may hold similar confidential relations 
with you. 

Mr. Bau was one of those who was active in the organization of tho 
Press Bureau, and spent a good deal of money on behalf of the 
Germans. I will read part of that by and by, I think, because he 
says it is of interest in regard to propaganda among the Jews in the 
United States. (Continuing reading:) 

He should be one of the directors of the newspaper. I should also be on the 
Board of Directors. Where the other director would represent the business In- 
terest and watch the financial side, my interest woirtd be confined primarily to 
the editorial side. I would naturally co-operate with the other director in every 
possible way. 

I would be perfectly willing, if necessary, to relinquish my official connec- 
tions with THE FATHERLAND and with CURRENT OPINION, if such'a 
scheme can be worked out to mutual satisfaction. The idea itself has been 
formulated many times. Even now I receive letters in every mail from people 
who ask why there is no pro-German American daUy in New York City. This 
daily, if established, would necessarily extend a news service throughout the 
country, just as the Times and the Sun are doing at present I know of one or 
two people who I tliink would go into such an enterprise, provided they saw 
some other people's money backing it as well as their own. It would be a rather 
expensive thing, but I think that it will ultimately pay for itself, not only 
politically but also financially. If it Is impossible to secure a paper in New 
York, Washington will be the next best thing, but naturaUy New York is far 
more preferable. Washington for obvious reasons would be my second choice. 

It is interesting to note that there were some conversations in con- 
nection with a New York paper and a Washington paper, although 
this suggestion was made later on, November 14, 1915. He says : 

I shall be very glad to cooperate with you in this matter and nothing will 
please me better than to represent on such a paper the cause to which we all are 
devoted at present 

Senator Nelson. Have you any data there showing to whom The 
Fatherland was sent? 

Mr. BiELASKi. To whom it was sent? 

Senator Nei^son. Yes ; the circulation of it. 

Mr. BiELASKi. I do not know whether we have it here or not. 

Senator Nelson. I have reason to believe that The Fatherland was 
sent to a great many Lutheran ministers in the Northwest. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes ; I think it was, undoubtedly. 

Senator Nelson. It was sent free to both German Lutherans and 
Scandinavian Lutherans. If you have anything of that, I would like 
to have it put into the record. 

Capt. Lester. We have a complete mailing list here in our files of 
The Fatherland, Senator. 

Senator Nelson. You can put it in afterwards. 

Capt. Lester. Yes, sir. 

Senator Nelson. Never mind, then, Mr. Bielaski. 

Mr. BiELASKi. On October 7, 1914, Viereck sent to Albert an arti- 
cle entitled "What Germany Owes to Ireland," and Albert asked 
him to have it printed in the New York Times. That was one of his 
earlier efforts. 



BBBWINQ AKD UQUOB INTEBESIS AND GEBMAN FBOPAaANDA. 1421 

■ - 

In December, 1914, he wrote to Demburg and asked him how many 
<t>pies he would like to have of Demburg's own pamphlet, and named 
certain other pamphlets, which shows that Viereck was getting out 
these pamphlets for Dernburg. 

To show the close cooperation between Albert and Viereck, on De- 
cember 3, 1914, he writes Albert as follows: 

BncLASKi Exhibit No. 15. 

Dear Mb. Albert: 
By way of reminder: 

1. WiU you prepare an article of the flag protecting the cargo to be published 
by Mr. Bmnder and by The Fatherland and to serve as a guide line in the 
present campaign. 

2. Will you send Brunder John Bassett Moore's opinion marking such pas- 
mses as are to be kept strictly confidential. 

8. We were to send aU material sent ont by this office to Mr. Brunder 
personally. 

4. We were to propose an agricultural contributor. I suggest Mr. Koester. 

5. We were to arrange for a conference or a dinner with the German pub- 
lishers of New York City. 

e. I am making arrangements with the Athletic Club and I hope that I will 
have the pleasure of taking dinner with you some time next week. Perhaps 
you would care to go with me to some theatre either Tuesday of Thursday? 

With kindest regards, in haste, 
Faithfully, 

G. S. ViEBECK. 

And there are a lot of other things which he doubtless is wanting 
ior his publication. 

Here is a letter to Bemstorff by Viereck, which shows how they 
kept in touch [reading] : 

Many thanks for your note of February 5th. The forty or fifty cople9 wiU 
make no difference in our account, whatsoever. 

Senator Sterling. What jear is that ? 

Mr. BiEUiSKi. The date is February 6, 1915. He writes quite a 
lon^ letter here just about general matters to Bemstorff. The post- 
script is a little interesting. He says : 

P. S. I had an interest'ng conyersatlon with (Governor Ck)lquit and Hermann . 
Rldder last night with regard to the purchasing of the New York Sun. I shall 
take this matter up with Albert and also talk it over with you when you are 
next in New York. Will yon not please let me know? G. S. V. 

• 

Later on I expect to give you some information about the pur- 
chase of the Sun by Samuel Untermyer, in connection with Dr. 
Alb^t. This letter to Bemstorff also suggests some support to the 
German theater, and so on. 

Then, March 4, 1915, Mr. Viereck wrote an interesting letter to Dr. 
Albert, which is marked ^ Confidential,'^ and reads as follows : 

BiEULSKi Exhibit No. IG. 
ITlie Intematioiial, a MasasinA of Life and Letters, 715 Broadway, I7ew York City.] 

li23 Bboadwat, March 4ih, 1915. 
Confidential, 

Dkab Db. Albebt: I bad another talk witb Dr. Hale on tbe subject of THB 
INTKRNATlONAtu It seems to be your impression that I want to sell THB 
INTERNATIONAL. Sucb Is not the case. I have no intention of selling it 
I am wlll.ng to transfer a part of the stock nominally to some one else, but I 



1422 BBEWINQ AND UQUOB INTEBE8TB Am> GEBICAN FBOPAGANDA. 

want to get it back. It is not for sale. I shall, however, give to Dr. Hale a 
certain amount of stock outright. If that is desired, so as to give him a substan- 
tial interest in the magaz ne. 

THE INTERNATIONAL is published by The International Monthly, Inc. 
The magazine was founded several years ago. The company which at present 
owns it is only ten months old. One of the officers of the company is Curt H. 
Reisinger, the son of Mrs. Hugo Reisinger. 

Mr. Reisinger was also interested in the Evening Mail, as a stock- 
holder, with Rumely. He is a grandson of Adolph Busch. 

Senator Overman. And who is Mrs. Reisinger? 

Mr. BiELASKi. She is the daughter of Busch. [Continuing read- 
ing:] 

Its records have heen kept straight by Mr. Grill, its legal adviser who is also 
legal adviser for THE FATHERLAND. The International Monthly, Inc., has 
no liabilities of any kind. THE INTERNATIONAL never has a bank account 
of more than a few hundred dollars at a time, but since I have taken it over 
directly personally it has always at least met its expenses. Although I have 
not been able for the last year and a half to give much attention to it, it stiU 
has a circulation of about 4,000, and our income, small as it is, has been suffi- 
cient to pay its expenses. In addition to that THE INTERNATIONAL has 
an agreement with THE T'ATHERLAND according to which it can use the 
business machinery of THE FATHERLAND at' cost. This in itself is worth 
several thousand dollars. The International Monthly, Inc. was the original pub- 
lisher of THE FATHERLAND. THE FATHERLAND is now a separate cor- 
poration. 

I have no interest in selling THE INTERNATIONAL but I have a great in- 
terest in establishing a weekly along the lines of our discussion. TUfiX 
FATHERLAND will appeal entirely to German-Americans and will absolutely 
be pro-German. THE INTERNATIONAL is to be pro-American, but friendly 
to Germany, somewhat along the lines of the Washington Post 

If Dr. Hale accepts the editorship of THE INTERNATIONAL he v«rlU be 
absolutely unhampered by me politically. My name will not appear on the 
cover erf the magazine nor in the stock book. It seems to me absurd for us 
to have a man of Dr. Hale's capacity without capitalizing him to the full ex* 
tent. If he has an organ he can exert a tremendous influence. I am of the 
opinion that THE INTERNATIONAL published as a weekly will not only be- 
come a power within two or three weeks but that within six months it will 
pay for Itself. 

The advantages of taking THE INTERNATIONAL over rather than a new 
publication are obvious, for it would take more than $5,000 to get a new pub- 
lication to the point where THE INTERNATIONAL is at present, and no new 
publication would have any standing whatsoever with the Post Office or the 

public. ...^^^ 

Let me repeat here that I do not want any money for THE INTERNA- 
TIONAL, but that any money we will receive will go into the business itself. 

Then it speaks of Mr. Borgemeister. Mr. Borgemeister was Al- 
bert's right-nand man in his oflSce, and kept all his records and ac- 
counts and handled his letters. [Reading:] 

I suggest that we mutually agree upon Mr. Borgemeister or some one else 
whom you can trust to act as confidential accountant if we come to some 
financial arrangement. 

THE INTERNATIONAL has a certain literary standing and Is taken seri- 
ously in literary circles not only In this country but also in England, in spite 
of its checkered career. The advantages of taking THE INTERNATIONAL* 
rather than some other publication which might possibly be purchased are 
these: 

1. THE INTERNATIONAL would cost us nothing. We do not have to pur- 
chase it. 

2. It will be cheaper to run THE INTERNATIONAL than any other publt- 
cation because of its peculiar arrangement with the FATHERLAND CORP. 

3. THE INTERNATIONAL IS ENTIRELY controlled by me. It will not be 
necestary to draw any new people into our confidence. Dr. Hale and I between 
ourselves can manage the whole Job. 



BBEWINO Ain> UQUOE INTEBE8TB AKB OEBHAN PEOPAGANDA. 1428 

4. If In the future It should eeem desirable to combine THE FATHERLAND 
with THE INTERNATIONA!, this can be easily effected. 

Personally I think that it is of great importance to us that we should have 
two organs; one German- American and the other entirely American, without 
distinct German-American affiliations. I also believe In action ! It is possible 
that there may be a thou.sand better plans, but none of these plans has been 
advanced. This plan is ready. It will not cost you more a week than Dr. Hale 
has saved in other departments and it can be gotten out, if necessary, within a 
week from the moment we agree upon action. As every day is critical we 
should act at once ! 

I can give you, if you so desire, a financial statement of THE INTERNA- 
TIONALs but that would be of little value since the Income was small and the 
expenses were equally small in the last few months. 

On March 8, 1915, Viereck writes Albert again about the Interna- 
tionaU and gives what Dr. Hale's views are, and an outline of ex- 
penses. Among the expenses he mentions are, "between three and 
four thousand of these copies would be needed for the newspapers, 
for Members of Congress and the Cabinet, weekly publications and 
other special Usts/' They evidently intended to furnish, free of 
charge* every public man a copy. This is a long letter, a friendly 
letter, between Albert and Viereck. 

Under date of April 16, 1915, Viereck writes to Albert : 

We had a meeting today, hut alas, only twenty minutes, and it was impossible 
to transact *any business. 

That was the press bureau meeting. [Continuing reading:] 

Dr. Riimely was present I now understand from other sources that he did 
not meet Mr. Koelbe, but that he related his whole tale in the Staats-Zeitung, 
and it reached the ears of Koelbe from the Staats-Zeitung. Meanwhile he has 
told in Chicago and in other places the following story : 

That official Germany is interested in backing a newspaper to be edited by 
McClure. Tlie money is to be obtained by getting fifteen groups of people each 
of which Is to put up $150,000. 

Mr. Rosenburg of S^rs, Roebuck & Company has already put up $50,000. 

One of the effects of his propaganda is that the Evening Mail, which Dr. 
Schweitzer could have obtained for $1,250,000 has not raised its figures to 
11,500.000. 

Mr. Hugo Schweitzer was the chemical agent of Germany here, in- 
terested in the Bayer Chemical C!o. He has since died. He was also 
mvolTed in one or two other propaganda matters, like the German 
classics, in which he was the source through which the German Gov- 
enunent paid for the work. [Continuing reading:] 

Let Dae add that these statements are based entirely on what Dr. Schweitzer 
fcas told me. 

I Imd various matters of importance to bring up at the meeting but there 
was DO time to do so. As far as the German-American newspapers are con- 
cerned, I have come to the conclusion that it would be better not to bring in 
the Staats-Zeitung, because the Staats-Zeitung is a competitor of most of them. 
They are iealoos of the Staats-Zeitung but not of The Fatherland, which is not 
a competitor. However, I am perfectly wllUng to bow to your judgment in 
this matter if you think otherwise. 

Then he goes on to say that Mr. Bernard Bidder is out of town 
end will not be back for two weeks. 
Here is a letter of Viereck to Dr. Albert in which he says : 

I expect to stir up the German-American newspapers on the question of 
•mmnBltion. I intend to send out the encioeed letter to every German publica- 
tloo, daily, weekly or monthly, in the Unite<l States. I shall publish the re- 
Boits in the same manner in which the " Digest " print such symposiums, I 
MiaU aiflo give it out to the other American newspapers. I nm sure ttiat we 



1424 BBEWINO AND LIQUOR INTEEESTB AJSTD QEBMAN PBOPAQAITDA. 

can obtain In this way something of the same effect as was achieved through 
the one-page advertisement of the foreign newspaper. In fact, we might even 
decide to advertise the result In some way. 

Viereck got various forms of money from Albert, so that while he 
did jiot hav6 much when the war started, I suppose now he is worth 
from $80,000 to $100,000. 

Senator Overman. What was the date of that last letter? 

Mr. BiELASKi. April 12, 1915. He refers to the Hammerling ad- 
vertisements, I have not any doubt. 

Here is a letter of Viereck, too long to read, in which he reports 
his efforts. It is dated April 27, 1915. He tells about the pamphlets 
he has sent out, and says : 

I have sent out NageVs article to 50,000 lawyers through the American 
Truth Society. 

This is interesting as showing the direct connection of the Ameri- 
can Truth Society with their propaganda work. He says : 

I have made arrangements to send 180,000 with a special letter from Dr. 
Hall through the American Independence Union. 

Finally, I have made an arrangement with Dr. Hall to Include the article 
In his pamphlet for clergymen. 

It will thus reach at least 330,000 people. In addition to that I shall reprint it 
In The Fatherland, thus bringing it up to 410,000. In the hands of 410,000 in- 
telligent people It win certainly reach every person In the United States of 
Importance, directly or indirectly. 

I have just talked to Bernard Rldder who will use the Nagel article In the 
Staats-Zeltung. This gives it an additional circulation of, I believe, 150,000. 
Before we get through with it it will have a circulation of 1,000,000. 

Moreover, I have another suggestion to make In connection with the scheme 
proposed by Mr. Rumely. I think it would be possible to print it as an adver- 
tisement provided it had some sponsor. 

You see, the Hammerling scheme was one proposed by Bumely, so 
that I think Rumely was surprised at the fact that Hammerling 
made money out of it. 

Maj. Humes. Who is the Dr. Hall last spoken of? 

Mr. BiELASKi. He was an exchange professor, an American who 
went over to Germany as a professor and was the man who arranged 
for the meeting of Rmtelen with our friend David Lamar. 

Maj. Humes. What is his full name; Dr. Thomas Hall? 

Mr. John Lord O'Brian. Thomas Hall. He was formerly at the 
Union Theologdcal Seminary. He was designated by the German 
Government. He was dropped from the seminary because of his 
activities. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Viereck was also in correspondence with Von Papen. 
All these fellows were mixed up in this transaction. 

Here is a letter from Viereck to Col. Von Papen calling his at- 
tention to certain articles in February. 

Here is a letter in which he tells Albert that he is having 10,000 
of Shaemus O'Sheel's " Trip Through Headline Land" printed and 
that he is sending out 3,000 to the newspapers and tiie rest dis- 
tributed through The Fatherland. 

Maj. Humes. What is the date of that? 

Mr. BiELASKi. May 16, 1915. 

Maj. HiTMEs. I suggest that in referring to letters you give the 
date each time, so as to fix the time. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes, Here is an interesting letter which shows 
that Mr. Viereck began to have some question as to whether he might 



BBVWING AKD LIQUOR IKXSBBST8 AND OEBMAK FBOPAGAKDA* 1426 

not ffet in trouble with the law. This is dated May 19, 1915. It is 
as follows: 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 17. 
[Office of George Sylyester Viereck, 1128 Broadway.] 

New Yobk, May 19, 1915. 

I>KAB Db. Ajlbert : I would be very much obliged if you will send me a copy 
of tlie statute which you showed to me the other day at the conference, as it is 
naturally of some interest to me. 

And here is the reply of Dr. Albert. He says : 

BfELASKi Exhibit No. 18. 

Deab Mr. Viereck : As requested I hand you enclosed a copy of the statute, 
tjid remain. 

Yours very truly. 

That was section 5334 of the statutes, and now section 5 of the 
Penal Code, which had to do with correspondence of American citi- 
zens and diplomatic officers in cases in which they are interested, an 
act which Dr. Hall would seem to have violated, but the statute has 
run. 

Here is a letter which I think was made public at one time at the 
time that The World printed certain revelations as to Dr. Albert's 
activities, and he says to Viereck : 

Now that I have just taken over the formal accounting of the payments I 
would beg you to present in the future, accounts one day before they are due. 
lir. Cionemeyer wiU not appropriate any more payment without my o. k., and 
I will not give any o. k's if I have not been given at least 24 hours to examine 
the thing. 

At the same time I beg you to inform me as to what the duplicate of the 
enclosed vouchers deals with. 

The following is an important letter addressed to Demburg by 
Vieredc under date of May 14, 1915 : 

BisLASKi Exhibit No. 10. 

May 14, 1915. 

Deab Dr. Dernbebg: I am plea&ed to be able to tell you that my defense 
of you appeared not only in the New York Times, Evening Mail, Herald and 
In the Tribune, but seems to have been publishe<l throughout the country. I 
think it is partly responsible for the excellent editorial which appeared in the 
Globe last night My statement on the Lusitania was also reprinted in many 
papers throughout the country, including the New York Times and the Wash-' 
inctoa Post. I state these things not to call your attention to my own efforts, 
but to emphasize the fact that I have a certain knowledge of the psychology 
of the American public and certain connections which may make my advice 
of some value. In fact, I am of the opinion that " The Fatherland " and I have 
been able to place more facts before the Americon public from the German 
point of view than the entire German Information Service. We have been 
able to do more than any one, excepting yourself. 

I am of the opinion that now that you are compelled to observe silence for a 
certain time our own efforts should be redoubled. I have various suggestions 
to make and I should be very grateful to you if you should find the time to 
pi over them carefully. I should be very glad to explain them to Dr. Meyer- 
Gerhardt in detail, if you so desire. 

1. For some time we have felt that The Fatherland has been very much 
cramped for space. Many important events have taken place that we were 
able to only inadequately. In the next number for instance, I would like to 
devote at least five pages to the Russian atrocities. I would like to print a 
fEond deal of the cfllcient material carefully edited by Mr. Schrader and add 
fcwb other facta as are in our possession. I would like to make this a very 



1426 BBBWIKG AND LIQUOR IKTEBBSTS AND OEBMAK PB0PA6AKDA. 

Impressive document but unfortuuately we cannot give more than two pages 
to it under the present conditions. 

The hostility of Germany makes the big business Interests extremely aloof 
to advertising in The Fatherland during the war. I would like to add eight 
pages If possible to the magazine, but we can do so only If the advertisers 
were to pay for the same. We can not get for the time being the advertisers 
we need, and we are not in the position to pay ourselves the actual expense of 
adding at least four pages of text every week. This expense, in view of our 
large edition, would amount to about $250 per week. I would like to add four 
additional pages the following week for the purpose in question. I would like 
to add four more pages the next week in order to reply to the Bryce report 
and to print in detail the German reply to the French accusations. Nor is this 
quite sufficient, for I have other plans which I think will increase the effective- 
ness of our work and which can not be carrier! out unless we have more spac^ 
at our disposal. 

A few weeks ago at one of our conferences it was suggested that I should 
find a writer who would write fiction offsetting, to a certain extent, the anti- 
German work of such men as Oppenheim in the Saturday Evening Post and 
Cleveland MoflFet In McClure's. You may remember that Cleveland Moffett In 
McClures depicts the United States and Germany at war. The first instalment 
takes up the invasion of Brooklyn by Hlndenburg. Fiction of this nature !s 
devoured by the people and is widely discussed in magazines. 

I have now made arrangements with Mr. Shaemus O'Sheel, the author of the 
** Catheclsm of Sir Balaam, Jr/" and a " Trip through Headline Land," to write 
a serial story in ten or twelve instalments for THE FATHERLAND, showing 
the war of 1920 between the United States on the one side and the Allies on the 
other. Mr. Albert has read O'Sheel's scenario and has even declared his will- 
ingness to make it possible to pay O'Sheel for his work. But, of course, the 
author Is not the chief expense. The main outlay would be the additional pages 
to THE FATHERLAND. 

It is my intention to have the serial illustrated In the sort of style that 
appeals to the American taste. I know that it will be widely discussed. I am 
sure that it will be effective. I may add that O'SheeFs Catechism of Sir 
Balaam, JR." had a distribution of 800,000 and was translated In many other 
languages, Including Spanish. It Is also my Intention to bring out O'Sheel's 
story as a little book after It has appeared in the Magazine. 

O'Sheel in his story will show you the war first begins with tlie United States 
and Japan. England at first holds aloof, although she refuses to state on what 
terms she will remain neutral. When, however, the United States In order to 
save the Panama Canal is compelled to violate the Territory of the Republic 
of Panama, England, as the champion of little nations, at once declares war on 
the United States upon the same highly moral grounds upon which she under- 
took to defend Belgium. Portions of the English White Books, etc., will be 
introduced with telling effect. The United States finds Itself attacked by 
England, Japan, Mexico, Russia, and France. 

Meanwhile, Germany Is selling munitions of war to the Allies, The President 
of the United States protests against this practice, but he Is politely told that 
Germany's attitude now was the attitude taken by the United States in 1915. 
" We shall be very glad to sell munitions of war to you, but it Is up to you to 
see that you get them." 

However, a movement to lay an embargo on arms on purely ethical grounds 
is initiated In Germany, under the leadership of Dr. Berhard Dernburg. (It 
is our intention to fntroduce names of well-known people In the same way In 
which Cleveland Moffet introduces them Into his story). The murderous traffic 
is stopped. The United States has a breathing spell. Meanwhile, the Cana- 
dians are invading the country. California Is In the hands of the Japs. 
Things are going strongly against the United States. She is almost ready to 
give up when at last Germany, who has recuperated from the war, comes to 
her assistance, by destroying the English fleet wins for the United States peace 
with honor. 

There will be many thrilling incidents, possibly a little love Interest and 
human interest The attitude of the German- Americans and the Irish ^111 be 
carefully mapped out. There Is no question In my mind that the story will 
help our movement. 

I therefore suggest that you grant us the $250 a week for adding four pages 
to the next two numbers in which the atrocities will be discussed, and for the 
succeeding 12 or 15 numbers In which O'Sheel's story is to appear. 



BBBWIHQ AKI> UQUOS IKTEBBSTB Al!n> GEBMAK PBOPAQANDA. 1427 

In addition to O'Sheerp stor>' I shall have to reprint my father*s reports 
from Belgium which will also take considerable space. 

I really don*t see how without four additional pages I can wage an effective 
campaign. 

Let me remind you of the fact that THE FATHERLAND has not asked you 
for aid or assistance heretofore, and that even now we merely ask you to 
reimburse us for our actual expense. THE FATHERLAND, as you know, is 
self-sustaining, but it has no capital and it cannot therefore spend these sums 
needed for this purpose in the hope of recovering this by the increase in cir- 
coiatlon. 

I have Just received from Germany a history of the German people written 
by my father. This book was originally intended for use in German text 
boolDS In American colleges. It was written with an eye to the American 
poblie. My father has brought his history straight up to the present war. 
Tiie motto of his last chapter is that sentence of Kitchener's which is quoted 
in the little French book on the war which we discussed at the meeting a 
few weelcs ago. It is certainly up-to-date. My father, as you know, is an 
American citizen. He is the author of the book, "German Instruction in 
American Schools" written for the American Government and published by 
the Government. 

I would lilce to publish this book at once and THE FATHERLAND is will- 
ing to bear the entire expense of its publication, but however, it is at present 
written in €rerman and I would like to have Professor Shepherd write an 
introduction and to have von Mach translate it into English. If von Mach 
cannot do so one of Professor Shepherd's assistance's will be glad to undertake 
tlie task. I should, of course, have to remunerate both von Mach and Sheij- 
berd for their work. You have heard some time ago that Prof. Shepherd is a 
little disappointed because of the lack of recognition he has received for his 
services. I would like very much to be able to help him along a little financially 
through this work. I would also like to help von Mach, though he Is probably 
less In need of it then Shepherd. 

I think such a book, carefully edited by Shepherd and von Mach for the 
American public, will unquestionably be very effective. One of the reasons 
tbat the American people do not understand Germany and her present position 
is because they are absolutely ignorant of the history of the German people. 
I could probably secure for this book — which would not be a part of the Ger- 
man propaganda — but as a straightforward history — ^much publicity and a 
larce distribution. 

I would like, however, to receive an appropriation of $750. in order to be able 
to pay both the translator and the editor of the Ens^Ush version. The manu- 
script Is in my possession and I will be very glad to let you look over it if you 
liave the time while you are in *' exile,*' in your hotel. 

III. Some time ago the Philaelphia Ledger printed a review of the periodicals 
in the United States and pointed out with glee that there was not one monthly 
tin t repr ese n ted the German side of the ease. This charge induced me to reviv- 
\tj THE INTERNATIONAL, which I had neglected, and you have yourself ex- 
pr cs s cd approval of the way in which the last two or three issues of THE IN- 
TERNATIONAL have been edited. I succeeded in obtaining articles from Shep- 
kerd. Hale, Crowley, Bond and many others, and there has been a remarkable 
rrvlTal of interest in the magazine. Our circulation is increasing nnd the roaga- 
zine is being quoted again. Let me call your attention to the following articles 
pahllshed in the last few numbers: 

L Tlie Real American attitude between Germany and England. The Lesson 
of a Hundred Years Ago. 
2. German Liberty. 
Z. An Impression of Bismarck. 
4. American Neutrality and Real Neutrality. 
Su The Menace of Canada. 

6. Torture (A strong story of Russia). 

7. I>ord Northcliffe and the Great Conspiracy. 

8. The Mistress of the Seas. 

as well as many strong editorials by Mr. Harvey and Dr. Hale. 
In the next number we shall publish the following : 

1. The End of England by Aleister Crowley. 

2. Anthropology and the War Prof, von Luschan 

3. The Historical and Political Causes of the Present World War, by Dr. S. 
Melamed 



1428 b:bewikq and uquob intebbsib akd oebhak fbopaoakda. 

as well as many more strong editorials and good fiction, from an American 
standpoint 

The cue of the INTERNATIONAL Is that it Is not pro-Qerman but that it 
gives a square deal to Germany. 

I think that THE INTERNATIONAL will be useful for the publication of 
many articles that could not be placed to advantage in THE FATHERLAND, 
and which we cannot get published anywhere else. THE INTERNATIONAL 
is now being sent to two or three hundred newspapers, but I would like to send 
It to all the editors of the dally papers, to the most important weeklies and to 
members of Congress. This would mean about 3,000 in all. We cannot send 
it free, because that would be against the Postal Law, and would also be 
beyond our means. Do you think that you can get an appropriation t o pa y for 
these subscriptions? With money thus received I could push THE INTERNA- 
TIONAL and purchase articles without new appropriations. 

IV, In view of the present agitation against you, and because of the news- 
papers which represent the German point of view, it seems to me highly desir- 
able to push the proposed Association of German-American newspapers. It 
was my original suggestion that Mr. Ridder should call a meeting of all 
German-American publishers in Chicago. Ridder seems to think that there 
would be much Jealousy if he did so and Instead asked me to issue a call, 
promising his sypport. For various reasons I do not wish to appear too 
prominently in the movement, I think the call should be signed by several 
important publishers, not by one. 

Mr. Ridder calls my attention to Mr. George Seibel of the "Volksblatt" 
Pittsburgh. Mr. Seibel judging by his letter is a very energetic man and I 
think he can be persuaded to undertake the organizing work, if his expenses 
were met. I also think it will be necessary to issue invitations to the con- 
vention by telegram, if the situation should assume more threatening propor- 
tions. For a war between Germany and the United States would mean at 
least the attempt to suppress all German- American publications, demonstra- 
tions, etc. I would like to appeal either directly or through Mr. Seibel to all 
German-American publishers to raise their voices as Mr. Ridder in protest 
against any attempt to drag our country Into war. I think that they should 
not only voice those protests in their own publications but that they should 
send telegrams to Washington at once. 

I am personally of the opinion that this country is drifting into war with 
Germany. The President may not think so himself because his "watchful 
waiting" in Mexico while it led to bloodshed did not Involve us into a real 
war. I am afraid that the President does not realize that Germany cannot 
be treated like Mexico ; that the Kaiser is not Huerta. As a patriotic American 
I would like to fight against any policy that could possibly Involve this country 
into war with Germany. For that reason I would like to influence anybody 
whom I could possibly reach by wire or otherwise. We must act now before 
It is too late. 

For obvious reasons I did not wish to bring up the details of this propa- 
ganda at our conference, but would like to talk them over with you and Dr. 
Mcyer-Gerhardt whose knowledge of conditions will make his suggestions of 
inestimable value. 

It may seem to you that I have asked for a good many things In one letter 
but they are merely matters which I have wished to bring up for several 
months at conferences. But every time. I was prevented for some reason or 
other. 

All my suggestions have been made after very careful reflection and I think 
that they deserve your careful consideration. 
Believe me, most sincerely yours, 

(Signed) Qboboe Stlvesteb Viebeck. 

In June, 1915, there was some correspondence between Viereck 
and Albert as to their efforts to get into the Saturday Evening Post, 
through Miss Agnes Laut, an article on the subject of munitions of 
war and the effect which the present inflated trade in war materials 
will have on the future of this country. 

Senator Nelson. She is a Canadian woman, is she not, Agnes Laut? 

Mr. BnsLASKi. I do not know much about her, but on June 26, 1915, 
Viereck again writes to Albert : 



B8EWIKO AJTD LIQXJOB INTEBESTB AND QEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1429 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 20. 

June 26, 1915. 

Dkab Db. Albert: I have arranged for MisB Laut to have dinner with us 
Wednesday, 7.30 at the Plaza, in a private roofti. I hope you will surely be 
able to be present I think our meeting will be fruitful of result. 

Please don't forget to Invite Professor Clapp, as I have not the pleasure of 
knowing him. 

Faithfully yours, 

Q. S. ViEBECK. 

Clapp had devoted a good deal of time in his book to that subject. 

Maj. HcTMEs. Do you know whether or not they succeeded in 
gettingit in the Saturday Evening Post? 

Mr.^iKLASKi. I do not know whether Miss Laut wrote the articles 
or not, I assume she did. 

Here is a suggestion of Hatzfeld about Viereck's proposition to 
ran a propaganda of advertising in the street cars. They covered 
almost every possible way of readiing the public. But Prince Hatz- 
feld had a very decided feeling on the matter. He said : 

In the report of the 22nd instant It is stated that Mr. Viereck wishes to un- 
dertake In the street cars on the part of the " Fatherland/' a cartoon propaganda 
against the export of weapons. In my opinion that must absolutely not be done 
in case It Is evident from the plaoird that it is issued by the Fatherland. For 
everybody Is now convinced that the " Fatherland *' is the organ of the Embassy. 
All boastfalness of Viereck makes no difference. . I am convinced that the atti- 
tude of the Government against Ck>unt Bernstorff as expressed in the first 
Lositania note* originates for the most part from the articles of the Father- 
land* which are regarded as inspired by the Embassy. 

And so on* 

Here is a statement showing the interest of Albert, June 29, 1915, 
in the Fatherland. (Beading:) 

BlETJVSKI EIXHIBIT No. 21. 

[Olllce of Oeorge Sylvester Viereck* 1123 Broadway » N. Y.] 

June 29, 1915. ' 

Dkam Db. Aiaebt: In thinking the matter over, I do not think that Mrs. R. 
would be the proper intermediary inasmuch as she does not attend to her 
flnancial affairs herself. If it must be a woman, Mrs. 6., the mother of our 
friend Mrs. I^., would be far better. 

However, personally I see no reason why this payment could not be made 
erery month tkrough Mr. Meyer Just like the other payments. If there is any 
objection to that, I would suggest thtit the payments be made to my personal 
friend and lawyer, Mr. Ely Simpson, whose standing as my legal adviser 
exempts him from any possible inquiry. 

As I have already received $250 this month, I inclose a statement for $1,500 
for Jmte. WIU you please O. K. this and I shall then send my secretary for 
the cash. I am sending this letter by boy as for obvious reasons I do not wish 
it to go through the malls. 

With kind regards. 
Sincerely yours, 

Q. S. VnauBCK. 

Senator Sixslikg. Do you know the women to whom reference is 
made there by Viereck t 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes, sir ; they are women who were pro-German, in 
New York, and I do not suppose there is any particular object in 
bring^lg their names out We do know who they were, though, of 
eoone. 

Senator Stebxjho. Yes. 



1430 BBSWING AND U^UOB INTERESTS AND GSBMAN PBOPAGAKDA. 

Mr. BiELASKi. These are other letters with respect to this. Here 
is a letter written by Albert to Viereck, apparently in reply to that 
one, dated July 1, 1915. [Reading:] 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 22. 

July 1, 1915. 

Deab Mb. Viebeck : Your statement for the $1,500 allowance, which has been 
rendered after the deduction of $250 for the month of May, I have receivea. 

I hope in the course of the next w^eek to be able to rendt payments to you. 
In the meantime I beg to propose a fitting person who could examine thoroughly 
the financial relations of your paper. From the moment when we grant you 
a regular allowance, I must 

1. Have a new statement of the condition of your paper. 

2. To exercise a control' as to financial management 

Besides we must acquaint ourselves as to your pursued politics, which up to 
the present has not been necessary. You will perhaps have the kindness to 
discuss the matter because of this letter with Mr. Fuehr. 

Here is a letter dated July 7, 1915, to Fuehr. 

Maj. Humes. Written by whom? 

Mr. BiELASKi. By Viereck. All of these are Viereck's letters with 
respect to the Fatherland. He reviews the expenditures and outlay 
that they have made, and gives his balance sheet and the inventory 
and refers to the publication of various pamphlets that they have 
made. He says on page 3 of this letter: 

Mr. Albert in his letter to me states that he would like to have financial 
control over the magazine. I am not sure whether I understand him correctly, 
but if he really desires control this can, of course, be arranged by the purchase 
of the control of the stock, which is now in my hands. 

He agrees to let it stand in his name so as to conceal the owner- 
ship, and turn the certificates over to somebody else. He makes vari- 
ous suggestions as to how the financial end of it can be handled. He 
gets very poetic. He says: 

It seems to me that it is of importance to the German cause that my social 
position should not be vulnerable. And yet it would be if in the eyes of men 
like Dr. Hale and Mr. Myer I should appear as Germany's subsidized agent. 

Eeally bad ! 

I should not even wish Mr. Borgemeister to be acquainted with the details 
of our arrangement, because he is a friend of various of our directors and em- 
ployees. 

He says further : 

In view of my connection with the brewing interests this statement has been 
accepted. 

He says in another place : 

I have so arranged the matter that such payments as I shall make to the 
Fatherland directly wUl be booked as subscription receipts, and I have told 
the other directors of the company that I have obtained these funds from 9 
group of wealthy brewers. 

Senator Overman. Are you pretty nearly through with those let- 
ters? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. 
• Senator Nelson. He has a few left. 

Mr. BiELASKi. I have a great many letters left, but on this par- 
ticular subject not much. This is simply a financial statement. Here 
is a proposed arrangement whereby Mr. Viereck was to transfer 51 



BSBWCSTG ABD UquOE IKTEBS8IS AND QEBUAN PXOPAQAHIMu 1481 

E\T cent of the shares of the International to Dr. Hale, and Dr. 
ale was to hold. them for the German Government 
Senator Nelson. What is the date of that ? 
Mr. BiELASKi. It is not dated, but as I understand from our in- 

aairies was never actually consummated. The German Government 
id not finally take over the International at all. 
Here is another of July 20, 1915, concerning Miss Laut, which 
would seem to indicate that she was going to write the article men- 
tioned. He says: 

I have a letter from Miss Laut She says " Things are Incubating. You wlU 
presently." I do not think our dinner will have be^i without effect 



Feeding the ladies is a great game. The rest of the letter relates 
to the circulation of some new propaganda matter. Then he tells 
about getting out a calendar with all the German heroes on it, and 
wants to know what about it from Albert. I think that is enough 
of the letters to show the absolute control of George Sylvester 
Tiereck and his papers by the Genpan Government. There is a 
great deal more of detail. 

Senator Overman. We will take a recess until 2.80 o'clock p. m. 

(Whereupon, at 1 o'clock and 5 minutes p. m., the subcommittee 
toc^ a recess until 2.30 o'clock p. m.) 

AFTEB BECESS. 

TESTIHOHT OF HB. A. BBTJCE BIEIABEI— Beramed. 

The subcommittee reconvened, pursuant to the taking of the recess, 
at 2.30 o'clock p. m. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Mr. Chairman, during the intermission some of the 
representatives of the committee have called my attention to some 
testimony which Mr. Hammerling has given here. While we have 
already furnished to the committee practically all the information 
we haa, there is, I think^ one other matter which may be interesting. 

About July 15, 1916, in a- letter to Mr. Walter S. Kaufmann, 61 
Wall Street, New York City, the following is found : 

I herewith hand you a letter for Mr. HammerUnfc, to be given to him by 
ICr. Rmnely. Would yon be kind enoufch to tell Mr. Rumely not to deUver the 
letter before receiving a receli>t from Mr. Hammerling. 

That is all of the letter that is of interest 

Senator Nelson. What is the date of that? 

Mr. BiELASKi. July 15, 1916. 

Maj. Humes. From whom was that letter? 

Mr. BnxASKi. I think that letter was from Mr. Albert. 

Scoiator Ovebman. From Mr. Albert, addressed to whom? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Addressed to Walter S. Kaufmann, of the firm of 
Kanfmann & Lindheim, who are Mr. Albert's attorneys. 

The caiix>n of what we assume was the letter to be delivered to 
Mr. Hammerling reads as follows: 

Jxut a word of appreciation for your friendly interest In the philanthropic 
work undertaken in America in behalf of the cause of Germany and AuRtrla 
and of those who saffer from the consequenf'es of this terrible war. I write 
to Bsaore you that after the war Is over I shall report the part that you have 
taken, and I hope there will be some suitable recognition of your g^ierous 
actlvitiea. 



1482 BBEWIKO A2n> LIQTTOB IKTEBE8I8 AKD QEBKAK FBOPAQAKDA. 

Senator Neuson. That was to Hammerlingf 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes; from Albert. I thii£ this. sheds some light 
possibly on the motive which prompted Hammerling's activities. It 
also sheds some light on the fact that, as claimed by Dr. Kumely and 
others, they believed that Hammerling was getting no profit out of 
these advertisements, but was doing this as a philanthropic matter. 

Before leaving the question altogether of George Sylvester Vie- 
reck, I think it is interesting to note that he has admitted the receipt 
of ^50 once or twice a month at irregular intervals through the 
Austrian consul general, Neuber, from the Austrian Embassy — Dr. 
Dumba was the ambassador — ^in addition to his German sources of 
income. 

I mentioned the Washington Post this morning. It has been sug- 
gested that inasmuch as that is a short subject it be disposed of. 

Under date of October 17, 1914, in a communication from Ambas- 
sador Bemstorff marked ^^ Strictly confidential ^ for Demburg and 
Privy Counselor Albert, after discussing a number of other matters, 
the xoUowing appears : 

Senator Overman. What is the date of that? 

Mr. BiEi«A8Ki. October 17, 1914. [Beading:] 

The Washington Post was offered me to-day to buy for $2,000,000 with in- 
tention to buy it back again after the war for one and a half million dollars. 
▲ second offer was made to pat the paper entirely at our disposal for two 
months for $100,000. The paper is of Importance as the only large newspaper 
of the capltid. How do yon stand on the question of the money? I have not 
yet inquired in Berlin. 

In Dr. Fuehr's report, of which I made some mention^ the follow- 
ing statement appears also with reference to the Washmgton Post. 
Tbos was under date of August 2, 1916 : 

The Washington Post, whose nentral attitude toward the belligerents during 
the present war has won for it warm recognition from the German side, has 
of late materially changed its tone in questions of European politics, and seems 
fairly on the way to join our enemies. From a reliable source I learn that 
this change of front Is due to the Russian Ambassador in Washington. After 
the death of its former owner, John R McLean, the Washington Post, together 
with the Cincinnati Inquirer, came into the hands of the son of the first men- 
tioned, Ed McLean, on whom his aunt. Madam Bakhmeteff, is said to have 
great influence. Mr. McLean, jr., inaugurated his ownership by naming as 
editorial director one Bill Spurgeon, who is said to be a British subject, and a 
nq)hew of Robert P. Porter, one of the chief leaders of the Northcliffe ring. 

Senator Overman. This is signed by whom — ^Fuehr? 

Mr. BcELASKi. That is one of Fuehr's reports. 

Senator Nelson. To Bemstorff or to Bumely! 

Mr. BiELASKi. To the foreign office. 

Senator Nelson. The foreign office of Germany! 

Mr. BiELASKL Yes. 

In a ccHumunication which has been placed at our disposal by the 
State Department, dated October 27, 1916, and in the form of a 
cypher letter from Bemstorff to the foreign office at Berlin, the fol- 
lowing appears : 

In the official accounts for the first and second quarter of 1916 wiU be found 
entries of payments to lir. Theodore E. Lowe. As to this I have to report that 
this gentleman is of German origin* and married to a German lady. He offered 
us his services, as he founded a weekly paper in Washington, the National 
Ck>urler. This offer come at the time when we were deploring the death of 
Mr. John B. McLean. This latter had givai his newspaper an entirely ont^ 



BBSWHro AHB LIQUOB IKlEBBSIB AKD OEBMAN PBOPAQANDA. 1433 

English character, so that bis death left a great gap which the National Courier 
can unfortunately never hope to filL The Washington Post has since been 
fblrly neutral, bat may be entirely lost to us if it cannot, as is very desirable, 
be put into the hands of Mr. Hearst 

I think it should be. said that that part of the evidence which re- 
lates to the Washington Post and a pro-German attitude goes back 
to the time of the management prior to its present management, and 
that since the present management, even according to the testimony 
of Bemstorff and Fuehr, its attitude has changed. 

Senator Sterung. When did the present management of that 
paper begin? 

Mr. BiEXASKi. It must have been in 1916, 1 think ; the summer of 
1916. 

The activities of the Germans also extended to the film field. 

Under date of March 1, 1915, a communication was addressed to 
the Grerman ambassador by Zimmerman of the foreign office, which 
reads as follows: 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 23. 

I beg to advise Toar Excellency that five copies of a film 1,200 meters long 
win ahortly go to the German Bureau of Information in New Tork. Further* 
OMire. In a recent Journey Belgium undertake by official orders, and to the west 
front, 800 meters of film were taken, wherein the American correspondent Daw«> 
■OD appeared. The original negative of this film will be sent to New York as 
soon am poaalble so that as many copies as desirable may be prepared there. 

As propaganda through pictures has shown itself to be remarkably effective 
In neutral foreign countries, it seems expedient to place this work of publica- 
tion on a greater basis than heretofore. In order to be able to judge better 
the extent of the results heretofore obtained in the United States, I beg to 
Mk your Excellency to be good enough to answer the following questions : 

<1) Are there headquarters for the entire picture propaganda in the United 
BlatCiT 

(2) If yes, how is this place organized and with what material does it work? 

(S) To what extent does it seem suited for an extension of the propaganda 



(4) Have the consignments of photographs and other picture material leav- 
ing liere twice a week reached there regularly? 

In consideration of the fact that the sending of larger packages to the United 
States at this time encounters insuperable difficulties, the establishment and 
extensloo of a central place in New York, organized on a large scale seems im- 
peratively necessary. In this case particularly sharp proofs of all photographs 
and films received here should be sent in two exemplifications in letter form, 
1^ different routes, to the central point in New York. The latter could then, 
bj calling on experts and persons well Informed of conditions there — 

il) nave produced from the original photographs there on the spot duplica- 
tion, enlargement, stereotype plates, illustrated writings and compositions, 
rtere*>pticon pictures, and so forth; and 

(2) TTndertake the exhibition of the entire picture and films in the whole 
rvmntrx. through agencies to be established In all the larger cities. 

I await your kind expression as to this matter with interest. 

(Signed) Zimmebman. 

Senator Ovekman. ^Who was he? 

Mr. BnxASKi. He was the secretary of foreign affairs in the Ger- 
man Government, I think. 

The American Corr^ondent Fihn Corporation was incorporated 
April 12, 1915, the capital stock being named as $10,000. Adaitional 
articles of incorporation were filed September 80, 1915, increasing 
the capital stocK to $140,000. The original incorporators were 
Claoseea, Cutbberi W. Jewell, and Marcus Kaufman. The incorpo- 



1484 BBswisro akd uqtjob izttebesib aitd oebman fbo^aoahba. 

rators, when the capitalization was increased, were Claufisen, K. A. 
Fuehr, Felix Malitz, and K. E. Brown. 

Senator Nelson. The capitalization was increased, then, after 
Fuehr became connected with it? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. We have a copj of the amended by-laws, but 
they are very long and are of no particular consequence, except that 
they have a very liberal arrangement for the voting of proxies, which 
was to be expected in view of the way the stock was held. 

At the time of the original organization of the American Corre- 
spondent Corporation it had as assets certain Austrian pictures, 
which Claussen had obtained from Dr. Brandes, Austrian consulate, 
and $5,000 paid in by Albert. 

When the capitalization was increased, Albert paid in additional 
amounts, until we have a record of the payments into this concern 
of approximately $88,000, I think. It is at least something more 
than $80,000. Malitz, who was the head of this organization— 
about whom we can give some more information as to his 
activities — ^was convicted on May 4, 1918, with a man named Engler. 
and was sentenced to two years' imprisonment and to pay a fine oi 
$5,000 for smuggling rubber out to go to Germany ; and it is inter- 
esting to note that Saunders, who was a German agent in this 
country, and who has been convicted of sending spies to Gtermany, 
had his office at the American Correspondent Film Corporation. 

Maj. Humes. What other business was Saunders in, and how else 
was he employed? 

Mr. BnxASKi. Saunders's principal business in this country was 
the securing of spies to go to England for the German Government. 

Senator Nelson. Who? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Albert Saunders and Wunnenberg sent over a 
number of correspondents to England and to Holland, one of whom 
has been convicted, and the others have not come back. 

Senator Nelson. They were really German spies? 

Mr. Bi^LASKi. They were really 6erman spies; yes, sir. 

This report of Dr. Fuehr to Albert, under date of April 20, 1915, 
gives a statement of the organization of this corporation from their 
standpoint. [Reading:] 

Bn&LASKT Exhibit No. 2S}. 

As I had the honor to explain briefly at the session of the Press Bureau on 
the 12th of this month, it seems settled that an especial registered company will 
be formed to obtain good war films In Germany adapted to propaganda in this 
country and to circulate the same in the United States. 

An undertaking of this kind, the plan for which emanated from Mr. M. B. 
Olaussen, and which I have sent to Berlin on the 8th of the month under the 
authorization of the retired Secretary of State, Dr. Dernberg, might correspond 
to the wishes which find expression in the writ (official announcement) of 
the Foreign Office No. 42 of March 1st, this year, in regard to the development 
of film propaganda in the Union which was addressed to the Imperial Embassy 
In Washington. According to a wireless received here yesterday the plan men- 
tioned has been officially approved in Berlin. 

The company, whose incorporation under the firm name "American Ck>rre- 
spondence Film Company " has been accomplished today under the proper 
authorities, is in need of a capital of nominally $10,000, divided into 1,000 
shares at f 10 per sliare. 



BBBWnro AKD LXQUOB IKTBBB8TB AJStD QEBMAN PBOPAGAITBA. 14S5 

« 

Tlie Interest of the Imperial Government In this undertaking consists in the 
fact that the company should not work for the greatest possible financial profit 
from the disposal of the war films, but lay in the chief emphasis on the 
greatest possible circulation of them in the most respectable film theatres of 
the land. 

For the realization of the interest mentioned, I assume, after State Secre- 
tary (retired) Dr. Dernberg has expressly empowered me, 510 shares and the 
ufflce of treasurer. Of the remaining 490 shares 200 will be reserved for Mr. 
M. B. Claussen (president) on the one side, and 200 for the photograph firm. 
Brown & Dawson, the last mentioned member of which firm is at present in 
Germany and from now on w^ill set on foot the production of films at the ex- 
pense of the company) on the other, while the remaining 90 shares will go to 
film experts here, in order to secure their support for the undertaking. 

Since greater expenditures, court costs and the payment of an advance to 
Dawson in Berlin, are connected with the opening of the company's activities, 
it is necessary that my contribution to the amount of $5,100 be paid at once in 
cash, while in regard to the payment for the shares of the other shareholders, 
especial arrangements have been made. 

Hay I request your highest therefore, by means of a check drawn in my name, 
to pat at my disposal the designated amount out of ofilcial funds. 

Although I am, of course. In regard to the designated sum, unable to assume 
KOf personal risk, I expressly assure you that the same will be repaid to the 
Imperial treasury either entirely or in part, in case and as soon as a net profit, 
on my share in the company, is made according to the semi-annual balance 
Aeet of business done by the American Correspondent Film Company. 

Fb. Fuehr, Imperial Interpreter, 

To His HiiirhnesB Privy Ck)uncillor Albert, 

Neic York City. 

The next document is a lon/^ argument, apparently prepared by 
Fuehr, as to why moving-picture propaganda snould be successful. 

Senator Neusok. What is the date of that? 

Mr. BiELASKi. It does not appear to have a date, but I should judge 
from certain facts that it was probably about May or June, 1915. 
It simply argues that of the 100,000,000 inhabitants of the United 
S^MJbta half of them go to the movies, and that he has presented a 
great opportunity for propaganda in this way to Dr. Albert, and rec- 
omiDends the establishment of a small company, outlines how the 
films can be made, and so on« 

Under date of June 80, 1915, Mr. Fuehr wrote a communication to 
Albert in which he says that in his capacity as secretary of the 
Ammcan Correspondent Film Co. he has the honor to lay before 
him a loan contract. [Beading:] 

BncLA.sKi ExHiarr No. 24. 

In r^ard to the loan of 920,000 kindly promised by yon. Since I, according 
to the iHSft agreement, retain only 31 shares for which I set down to my account 
S3,100 oot of the earlier $5,100 kindly placed by you at my disposal for this 
imrpoee, this loan amounts, with a further $2,000 to $22,000. 

In addltioo to the half of the net profits which are to be assigned to you 
hgr the company according to agreement, I have of course to transfer to you 
that share In the profits which accrue to the 31 shares standing in my name, 
until the total of $25,100 advanced by you is entirely paid back. I have not 
(VBsldered It advisable to make mention of this obligation in the contract, but 
I shonld be loath to omit expressly making this explanation here. 

With loyal greetings, your obedient servant, 

A:. FUEHK. 

Under date of Augast 80, 1915. Felix Malitz writes to Fuehr about 
the enlaig^nent of this undertaking, and he at some length points 



1436 BBBWING AKD UQUOB INTSBESTO AND QEBMA.K PBOPAOAKDA* 

out what is necessary to be done to give the fihn business wider cir- 
culation, and so on. He says among other things that it — 

will prove to be an immenae propaganda, and will do more for the future build- 
ing up of German interests in North and South America, and for the further 
development of Qerman political and commerdal influence in tJiis hemisphere 
than newspaper propaganda or any other means. 

And he tells Dr. Fuehr what a good man he is and how well he 
can handle the matter. 
He says, among other things : 

I have now been running this matter through my head day and night, have 
considered every point, and under the circumstances I believe as the matter 
now stands today the sum of $50,000 which was named to you the other day 
is actually too low. Of course as you undoubtedly understand correctly, 
this would mean, not an expenditure but an investment of capital. 

I have here a copy of the amended by-laws under date of Septem- 
ber, 1915. 

Under date of September 29, 1916, Dr. Fuehr, communicating with 
Albert, mentioned tne terms on which the enlarged arrangements are 
to be made. He says : 

Mr. Kaufmann sent to me yesterday evening the enclosed sketch of an 
agreement with Malitz on the basis of the arrangement agreed upon by us in 
Mr. Kaufmann's office day before yesterday. I humbly request you to examine 
the agreement and in case no objection arises, to send It to Mr. Kaufmann, If 
[K>8sible today. 

The chief points in regard to which I should like to b^ for your agreement, 
I have marked with lead pencil on the sketch of the contract. The following 
points are involved: 

(1) A finance committee will be appointed to whom Is reserved (the right) 
of later transferring to Malitz the exclusive right of signing checks; 

(2) Malitz shall have the right of going off on a furlough for 80 days every 
year. 

(3) Malitz puts up $10,000 security. 

(4) In case the preferred dividends of 5 per cent are not paid, the contract 
win Malitz can be cancelled at any time, but — at his urgent wish — only after 
a six weeks* announcement 

(5) In case the company is dissolved, although the preferred dividend has 
been paid, Malitz stipulates for himself, in accordance with Article 12, an 
indemnity which shall consist of a year's salary and of the last royalties 
granted to him. Mr. Kaufman characterized this demand as fair; to me it 
seems somewhat heavy. 

I remark in conclusion that this contract with Malitz is the* crux of our 
negotiations. As soon as we have a clear understanding with Malitz, the other 
points of reorganization will cause no further difficulties, although an enormous 
amount of writing is bound up with it 

And he asks for Albert's approval to the plan. 

Under date of April 4, 1916, is a communication to Dr. Hugo 
Schweitzer in respect to becoming an officer of the concern. 

There is a great deal of correspcHidence here which only tends to 
reiterate the interest of the German Government in the organization. 

Mr. Malitz, under date of September 29, 1915, asks them to send 
the $50,000 over to him right away. 

Here is a memorandum having to do with the business, which 
shows some of the difficulties of the undertaking and what they 
intended to do. [Reading:] 

BiELASKi Exhibit Xo. 24|. 

The pictures, which are at our disposal, are of two kindd : 

War pictures. 

Industrial and " kultnr " pictures. 



BBEwrsra axtd uquob intebestb Ajsn> gebmak pbopaqanda. 1437 

Wtdle the war pictures are easily accepted by the patrons the latter in 
general refusie industrial and kultur pictures. With the greatest caution and 
greiit skill tery small numbers of the latter pictures together with the former 
can be sold to the public. 

In spite of the fact that the war pictures can be easily disposed of, it 
appears, that even with these \)ictures no profitable business can be carried on. 
This Is not merely the experience of our business, but also the experience of 
the Chicago Tribune when the latter went into the market with its pictures, 
and also the. experience of the Hearst newspapers and of the New York World. 
Our own experience in Chicago shows best that the business, even with the 
best war pictures, does not pay. We rented a theater there for four weeks, 
and although the attendance on the first day was phenomenal it soon sagged 
so that on f*riOay of the first week it no longer paid to continue the per- 
formances and the theater was given up for the remaining three weeks. 

This fact, of course, renders every educational result, which was to be 
attained with the industrial and "kultur" pictures nil. The infinitesimal 
Diunber of industrial and " kultur ** pictures which can be worked in with 
the Interesting war pictures, admit per se of very little educational results. 
If the public takes a negative attitude toward these interesting war pictures 
with the tiny addition of industrial and "kultur*' pictures the presentation 
of these interesting war pictures have of course, no or very little educational 
Taluo, 

On the other hand the Industrial and "kultur" pictures alone can not 
be brought before the public at all and under the circumstances possess for 
us no educational value. From whatever viewpoint the matter is considered 
we can not avoid the conclusion that neither the one nor the other picture has 
attained an educational result and that we will only load ourselves with great 
erpeoses in carrying on the picture business longer. With all it seems to 
be a matter of indifference, whether the most interesting war pictures are 
obtained or not; for it can not be denied, that our war pictures which were 
produced in Chicago, the war pictures of the Chicago Tribune, of the Hearst 
aew^iMipers and of the New York World were exceedingly interesting. 

As a solution it is proposed that our own theatres to which the pictures 
can be sent, be erected in fifteen large cities of the United States and that 
the same be carried on In competition with the so-called " exchanges " already 
existing. In any case it would be much easier for these theatres of our own 
U> bring Industrial " kultur *' pictures l)efore the public, since these theaters 
would often succeed in mixing the pictures to be lent with the one or the other 
industrial or "kultur" pictures. We would then be in the position to make 
mooey with the general picture business which is being carried on and by 
floiu^oding in Industrial and "kuitur" pictures to attain educational results. 
BesSdtss this would have the great result that after the war this chain of loan 
pictore theatres would exist and could at once be utilized for the German 
mannfiacturers of pictures. This would have great educational value in the 
famre. 

The only disadvantage in it, is that this plan costs much money. According 
to figures spread before u6 such an undertaking would demand at once $200,000 
capital. If it were possible to obtain this money from the general investing 
public and to assure ourselves In some way or other of the control of the fifteen 
loan picture theatres for the future, then this would be in any case, a brilliant 
stroke. 

If, however, even the $200,000 should be raised, it is still a question whether 
It is worth while to build up such a big business undertaking, in order to assure 
ourselvps of the educational effect of the pictures during and after the war. 

B<«ldes it must be further considered, that the sale for pictures during the 
war Is difficult and uncertain, and that the educational result to be obtained 
daring the war is only a very insignificant one. On the other hand it cannot 
be denial that the educational result after the war would be a very great one. 

Under date of November 14, 1915, a report was made to Dr. Schu- 
macher, division picture exchange, central exchange for foreign serv- 
ice, Wilhelmstrasse 62, Berlin, in which he gives a report to the 
foreign office concerning the performances of their films in the thea- 
ters. It is very long, and describes the theaters where they were 
held and the names of the films. It makes reference to Edward 
LyeU Fox, who was a newspaper correspondent abroad, in Germany, 



1438 BBEWIKO AND LIQT70B nTTEBESTB AND GEBKAK FBOPAQANDA. 

in the pay of the German Government, and also in the pay of the 
American Correspondent Fihn Corporation, which was, of course, 
financed by Germany. 
Some of the fihns which they produced were : 

BnoLASKi EhcHiBTr No. 25. 

With the Camera at the Front 
With the Army of the Grown Prince before Verdun. 

The Armies of Germany, Austria-Hungary, England, France, Russia, and 
Italy. 
On the Beautiful Blue Danube. 
Bosnia and Dalmatia. 
Maneuvres of Montenegrin Troops. 
Explosion of Mines. 
A Trip in a Zeppelin. 
Explosion of a Battleship. 
And a number of others which he mentions. 

Here is an interesting paragraph: 

In regard to the reasons for the shipwreck of our combination with Hearst 
we have already taken the liberty to write in detail and you can Imagine, how 
much we must regret this not only with regard to the general interest of the 
cause, but also from the viewpoint of the moral and material success of our 
company. 

They had negotiations with Mr. Hearst for the taking of fihns, 
and they wanted Hearst to take all of his films through this Ameri- 
can Correspondent Film Co. and pay them a royalty, which Mr. 
Hearst did not care to do. He wanted to have his own men take 
the films, and handle it himself. This report continues : 

After the shipwreck of our plans with Hearst, we have, as mentioned above, 
looked around for other combinations and have made two such upon which 
we set at least as much hope in regard to the further circulation of our films 
as we would have set upon the Hearst people. 

One of these two combinations rests on the use of one of the largest and 
finest theaters there, the Park Theatre, at the corner of Broadway and Cen- 
tral Park, at one of the most prominent and elegant points in the dty. The 
other combination is of much greater compass and extends over the whole 
United States and with one of the important competitors of Hearst, Norman 
E. Mack, who likewise controls many newspapers directly and indirectly. By 
this a far-reaching system of advertisment is assured, iu combination with sev- 
eral of the sreatest theatres of the United States. In these combinations w^ 
have the advantage that we control the pictures, the titles, and the advertise- 
ment completely. 

But we were only able to force through this combination, by giving the people 
to understand that we have a monopoly of the official German films, for other- 
wise no one of these big people would have any heart for the matter. At the 
moment we still have a pretty interesting film (to be sure, alas to God, not 
a particle of a real German war film) but if we do not soon get some real 
living pictures then these combinations will not be of great value to us; the 
cause will again droop and fade for no great noise can be made over the 
pretty landscape pictures which Mr. Fox up till now has received permission 
to take in Germany. • • ♦ 

You can easily imagine, dear I>octor, that we would only make ourselves 
ridiculous with such " war pictures " for our whole strength here rests upon 
the point that we assert, and are able to assert, that we get the official his- 
toric^ films. 

In one of our former letters we mention the fact that we could use set 
pictures with the others, but of course only then, when they were correspond- 
ingly serious and also only when the newspaper representatives over there do 
not get to know this, for otherwise they would naturally at once rush to 
trumpet this fact to all the world or have it trumpeted through the newspapers, 
and the throng would be without value. 



BBEWIKG AKD LIQT70B INTERESTS AND QEBMAN PROPAGANDA. 1439 

We thank you for the " cover address." If we may be permitted, we would 
tm^seet that yon give us a more exotic-sounding name, since an address like 
Hans Knrth will very very probably at once draw down upon us the attention of 
Investigating officials. 

With the highest regard, yours truly, 

The Amebigan Gobbespondent Film Ck)MPANY Inc., 
F. Mautz, General Manager. 

Under date of November, 1915, is a draft of a message prepared to 
be sent by Bemstorff to Bethmann-Holweg. Whether or not it was 
sent I do not know. The draft was sent mto the embassy with the 
indorsement of Albert. [Reading :] 

In my opinion this memorandum can be sent without being coded if a good 
oorer addriess is chosen. If necessary I will be ready to have the shipment 
made apon my part to my confidential people, for whom thus far every letter 
has been delivered. 

Senator Nelson. Have you any information to show who this 
fellow was to whom every letter was delivered? 

Mr. BiEi^ASKi. I think so. As will appear from this very file they 
had an arrangement witii the head steward of the Bergensfjord 
and of the sister ship the Christianiafjord for the carrying of film, 
messages, and so on. One of these men, I think, was convicted and 
the other committed suicide. 

Senator Nelson. That is my recollection. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Here is a review of the moving-picture situation. 
It is a long report which is interesting, if it did not take too much 
time to read it. It tells about* the organization, tells how it was 
done, reviews the films, and the great competency of Malitz, and the 
great necessity for getting the proper kind of film to get, over in 
Germany, allowing representatives of this concern to have the oppor- 
tunity to take the pictures. 

Tliere is a trial oalance of the condition of the company October 
SI, 1915, which shows this fact : Private ledger account, money paid 
in, $78,600. That was the money paid in by the German Govern- 
ment. It had advanced to Malitz and Claussen considerable money. 
It had advanced to Edward Lyell Fox $4,105.90, and money to Daw- 
son, who was, I think, of the firm of Dawson & Brown, of Stamford, 
Conn., who developed the films sent over here, Dawson teking it over 
on the other side. 

Here is a long list of expenses which they were put to for ad- 
vertisini^ and attorneys' fees and office supplies and all that sort of 
thing, giving a detailed report for the benefit of the German repre- 
sentatives. 

Here is a telegram from Berlin, dated November 23, 1915, to the 
imperial ambassador at Washington, which says : 

The report of your ExceUency, A 501, concerning film propaganda, was re- 
ceived here following shortly after the telegram relating thereto. 

We assume that was a report that was drafted here. 

It was indeed admitted that the granting of a monopoly to the American 
Gorrespcmdent Film Company offers certain advantages. It is not advisable 
however, entirely to eliminate for the Central Powers the enterprising sort of 
newipftpers there, as shown in the sending of their own agents to tal^e films. 
As a matter of fact a systematic attempt will be made to furnish the A. C. F. C. 
with as interesting and rich material as possible, and to give its representa- 
tive* a favored position, bnt exceptions must be made in favor of those who 



1440 BKEWIKQ AND LIQUOR IKTEBSSTB AKO GEBMAN FBOPAQAKBA. 



mfty be eicpected to make a stronger impression on the public than is possible 
with the A. C. F. C, whose connection with the German propaganda can hardly 
remain concealed. 

Under date of December 8, 1915, Dr. Fuehr makes a further report 
on the present status of the film business, and makes some comments 
in which he says : 

Our opponents now seem to have recognized the effectiveness of this pro- 
paganda and are exhibiting films from their fronts here which do not fail to 
make an impression, with extraordinary outlays for expensive advertising and 
under the patronage of the highest personalities. Some of the films exhibited 
are quite excellent ; others are obviously ** maneuver pictures/* which, however, 
have a thrilling effect upon the public. As mentioned in tbe newspaper sheet 
herewith enclosed, among other features the King of the Belgians. Gen. Joffre, 
the King of England, the Prince of Wales, Field Marshal French and other ^n- 
, erals appear upon the films ; cavalry attaclES are ridden ; field and other artillery 
* are shown in action ; great divisions of infantry make an attack in a snowy 
landscape and in the meantime one sees an abundnce of details behind the front. 

Would it not be possible to secure similar pictures of our fronts for distribu- 
tion to the American Correspondent Film Company? We have far more cele- 
brated men to introduce than any of our opponents; we have the most varied 
fronts; we have a much grander organization. Our "correspondents'* Fox 
and Dawson, have been able heretofore, however, to send us but few films of 
this kind. With the films which we have heretofore received, mostly from 
Austria and much fewer from (Germany, our business manager, with a skill 
highly worthy of recognition, has made up four good film dramas; but there 
is no doubt that he would do much better if our people were given more op- 
portunity to take interesting views. 

I therefore take the liberty to apply qiost respectfully to Your Excellency 
with the request that you will most graciously secure for our efforts the great- 
est possible recognition of the home military authorities. If your Excellency 
would have the kindness to call the attention of the leading officials to the 
fact that the distribution of Interesting war films in America is not a conces- 
sion to the well known American necessity for sensation, but is of an eminently 
practical significance for Germany, we may perhaps hope that we will get 
some more " actual '* films than we have been able to secure heretofore. 

I assume that our people. Fox and Dawson, have succeeded in winning the 
confidence of the military circles in question. If this assumption should not 
be Justified and a change of agents should appear desirable, the American Gor- 
i*e8pondent Film Company will, of course, be ready at any time to send other 
correspondents to Germany, and I may respectfully suggest that in such case 
a radiogram to that effect be sent me through Consul General Thiel. 

With the greatest deference and sincere veneration, I am highly honored 
Herr Ambassador, Your Excellency*s very obedient, 

(Signed) F. 

The above letter is shown by the initial signed to it to have been 
written by Dr. K. A. Fuehr. 

Here is a letter which gives an idea as to the way they set the films 
over and get the letters over. It is a letter dated DecemBer 19, 1915, 
addressed to Mr. J. Everitt, Witts Hotel, Berlin, Germany. It reads 
as follows: 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 25}. 

My Deab Mb. Evebitt: We herewith wish to give you a good tip for the 
reception of letters and raw negative, and for the shipping of films to us. 

We are afraid that it will be more and more difficult to get the stuflf over 
here. So much more as the Danish line by which you have shipped via Copen- 
hagen does not seem to be very safe any more. 

We think we have now the best means in hand to assure a safe arrival of 
our stuff. Mr. Malitz namely is well acquainted with the head stewards of 
the Norwegian steamers Bergensfjord and Chrittianafjord, who are botli very 
nice gentlemen and whose position on the only two steamers actually running 



BBEWIKG AKD LIQUOB INTEBKSIS AND QEBMAN PBOPAQANDA. 1441 

• . - . 

between Ehirope and America which are, so to say, free from molestation, gives 
as aBBurances that they are the best men to properly take care of our stuff. 

We will send you in future by means of these gentlemen copies of our letters 
and' also a bunch of newspapers, magazines, etc. 

We will also try If it Is possible by these means to properly provide you with 
raw negative films. In fact, these gentlemen can leave these packages in care 
of somebody in Christiania where you, being a Swede, can easily go from time 
to time and take the stuff over. • 

There might be also some stuff for Mr. Dawson and in order to avoid two 
men going over there we would ask you to kindly also take Mr. Dawson's 
stuff along and send it to him. 

The same thing can be done for the films and photographs you and Mr. 
Dawson want to ship to us. 

We give you in th^ enclosure a list of chemicals which we also request you 
to buy in Germany — a suitable quantity — and which please hand^ to these 
gentlemen to take along for us. 

It is very easy for you to find out the dates of arrivals from America and 
sailings to America of the steamers Bergensfjard and Chriaiianafjord and 
then yon can arrange that you go over to receive any packages that we might 
have sent for you, and Mr. Dawson, and to give to those gentlemen any pack- 
ages tbat you want to send to us, also copies of correspondence, consular 
Invoices, etc. 

Of conrse, it will be a good thing to ship everything under neutral cover and 
cnv^ope without any names of senders. 

As you will have noticed from our letters, we always do number them, 
which we think enables you to check up whether you receive all our letters 
and if yon please number yours we then in a position to check up all the 
letters wbich we receive from yoxL 

With nothing more for today, we are, my dear Mr. Elliott, with best regards. 
Tours very truly. 

The AiOERicAN Ck>BRESPom>ENT Film Ck)MPANT Inc. 
P. M., General manager. 

Here is a financial statement of the film corporation. 

Senator Sterling. What were those films, for the most part? 

Mr. BiELASKi. For the most part the ones that they wanted, most 
desirable, were war pictures taken at the front. Of course, as you 
see from the correspondence, they tried to work into them what 
they called industrial and culture pictures; that is, pro-Oerman 
pictures that would advance German ideas. 

Seaator Overman. Were they extensively shown in this country? 

Mr. BiKLASKi. They were shown quite a bit. Some of these re- 
ports that I did not read in detail show where they were shown 
and what the films were and how much they paid out to have them 
made, and so on. 

Senator Nelson. Were any of them shown in this city? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I do not know that. I did not notice. 

Senator Steruno. Were the war pictures to show the strength of 
the German Army ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes; to show the strength, the victories, the in- 
vincible character of the German troops, and so on. 

January 28, 1916, in a letter to Dr. Schumacher, Wilhelmstrasse 62, 
Berlin. Dr. Schumacher seems to have been the head of the film 
division over there. This is a letter from Malitz, and says : 

BncLASKi Exhibit Na 26. 

We take the liberty to introduce to you herewith Herr Ernst A. Schlrmer, 
wbo Is an absolutely confidential man of ours, and who has been good enough 
to declare himself ready « under the present transportation difficulties, to see 
to It that oar films get here, and he will either look after it himself so far as 
hta time will permit or Introduce to you for this purpose some properly qualified 
and oonlldentlal person located in Norway. 



N 



1442 BBS WING AND LIQUOR INTEBE8TB AND GEBMAN PBOPAGAISDA. 

' Therefore you will please have the kindness to arrange matters to that films, 
letters, etc., are made ready for ns In time before the alternate sailings of the 
Norwegian steamers Bergensfjord and Christianiafjord, so that either Herr 
Schirmer or the other said confidential person may get them In Berlin and 
bring them on board the ships. We have friends on board these ships who will 
attend to transportation and delivery in New York. 

We hope that In this manner we can establish a regular service between 
Berlin and New York, and that we can promptly be provided with films. 

You will perhaps be kind enough to instruct Everit and Dawson accordingly, 
so that everything may work smoothly. 

Relative to the compensation for the services which Herr Schirmer or his 
confidential friend may render us, and the expenses these gentlemen may incur 
in connection therewith, we ask you to arrange these matters with them as 
you think best, pay the money for us and charge it to our account. 

With thanks, etc. 

(Signed) P. MALrrz. 

In another letter dated January 28, also addressed to this Dr. 
Schumacher, Malitz said further: 

BuEL^SKi ExHisrr No. 27. 

We have given to Mr. Ernst A. Schirmer a letter of introduction to you as 
we hope that through him and eventually through a Mr. Anderson who is con- 
nected with him, and who also sails on the ChHstianafjord, a regular delivery 
service may be established for us between Berlin and Bergen. 

In the strictest confidence we take the liberty to Inform you that the respect- 
fully undersigned, Herr Malitz, is a personal friend of the two chief stewards 
of the Norwegian steamers, Baadtoft of the Bergensfjord and Toft of the 
Christianafjordy and that these gentlemen, since the matter of transportation 
has grown to be more or less of a problem, have been Idnd enough to take our 
unfinished negative films over there for our operatives and bring the finished 
films back here. This, of course, will be no smuggling or anything of the sort, 
for we would be glad to say any sort of freight. We only desire, with the 
help of these gentlemen, to prevent those negatives from being seised by any 
belligerent power on the high seas, as these gentlemen doubtless have ways 
and means for bringing things through that an ordinary passenger does not 
have. By this route you may also send us letters in neutral envelopes, etc. 
It is only necessary to arrange to take the things on the arrival of the steamers 
in Bergen and send them to Berlin, and at the same time to have letters, etc, 
in Berlin ready so that upon the arrival of the'courier they may be taken by him 
to Norway before the sailing of the steamers. Of course this must all be done 
very quietly, and Herr Sch rmer and Herr Anderson have offered to arrange 
such service for us. We would appreciate it very much if you would facUitate 
the work of these gentlemen and thereby^ enable us to get good films regularly, 
as has not been the case for many months past as elsewhere mentioned. 

We have advanced $200 to Herr Schirmer for compensation and expenses, 
and if anything more is necessary, you will perhaps be kind enough to expend 

it tor us. 

On former occasions, and now with the last sailing of the Bergensfjord^ we 
have sent letters and packages to Herr Baadtoft 
With best regards, we remain, 
Very resfpectfully. 

The American Ck>RRESPONDENCE Film Co., Iifa 
(Signed) F. Mautz, General Manager. 

Senator Nelson. What did they pay these stewards? 

Mr. BiEiiASKi. They say there they paid him $200, and told them 
to mve him more. I do not know the exact amount. 

Here is another letter from Fuehr to Baron Mumm von Schwarzen- 
stein, of the foreign office in Berlin, dated January 28, 1916, in which 
Fuehr says: 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 28. 

For sometime past our film company has not received any new materials from 
Germany which we need very much. It may well be assumed that shipments 
of films have been captured by the British who are now systematically robbing 
the mail% 



BBBWnro AND UQXJOB INTEBESTB AK0 GEBMAN PKOPAGANDA. 1443 

A perfectly safe opportunity for the sending of new materials over here is 
ofrercd through the bearer of this letter whose address there is In care of the 
member Chamber of Acconnts, J. AUenbeclE, as is known in the Treasury De- 
partment of Interior, and who will shortly return here. He has intimate friends 
among the officers of all Scandinavian steamers to whom he delivers things to be 
aeot, which have been confided to him so that their capture even in a search of 
the passengers Is not to be feared. 

I would be extraordinarily thankful if Your Excellency would be kind enough 
to cause the officials in question upon this occasion to send here as abundant 
rntpply as possble of " actual " war films. 

With sincere esteem, 

AlXXANDEB FtTSHB. 

Senator Nelsok. Was he here in Washington? 

Mr. BiEi^sKi. J. Allenbeck? No, sir; I take it he was abroad. 

Here is another detailed statement under date of February 16, 
1916, as to the then arrangement for handling films ^and payments 
and so on. 

There is some more about the financing of the operation. 

Under date of March 14, 1916, Malitz submitted to Albert a pro- 
pooil for the establishment of a moving picture exchange in the 
United States. Apparently it never came to anything. March 17 
Malitz asks Albert for another $20,000 or $25,000. 

Here is a letter from the other side, showing the sending of films. 
It is dated Bergen, April 5, 1916, addressed to the American Corre- 
sptmdent Film Co., 220 West Forty-second Street, New York, and 
reads as follows: 

BlELASKI BXHSIIT No. 29. 

GERTUEioeK : Sending today by a friend on the Christianafjord who happens 
to be sotns to New York the following three packages : 

One package containing 1*000 meters developed movie negative film. 

One package containing developed *6'2 by 8'2 plates. 

One package of letters. Please mail them to the proper addresses. 

I am giving the bearer of those three packages 20 Danish kronen, which is 
abont the equivalent of $6. If you wish to give him more you may do so, 
dcpeadlDi; upon whatever arrangement you have made: 
Bespectfully, 

AxBEBT K. Dawson. 

Here is a letter the date of which I do not see, but it must have 
been some time early in 1916, apparently a letter to the imperial am- 
baaaador, Count Bemstorff, at Washington, D. C, from High Privy 
Counaellor Albert. It says : 

BuELASKi Exhibit No. 30. 

With the respectful suggestion most graciously to advise the Herr Imperial 
Ifinister in Mexico City that his plan for the introduction of German moving 
pictures into Mexico for exhibition in the film theatres there will be pushed 
from here as much as possible. 

The American Ck>rrespondent Film Ck)mpany, 220 W. 42nd Street, New York 
City, with regard to the object outlined by Herr von Eckhardt, is willing to 
di^Mwe of the excellent films on the local market as cheaply that — aside from 
the costs of transqportation, — the stated maximum price of 8 pfennigs per run- 
ning meter. The business manager, Herr Malitz, informs me that not long ago 
a complete film advance, " The Battle of Przemysl," of 5,000 feet, was sold in 
Mexico, and in fkct to the firm of Alveres y Arondo in Vera Cruz. There are 
■till three other large original film dramas, feature films as well as numerous 
•mall pictures, to be disposed of by the company. 

In May, 1916, is a proposal for the dissolution of the American 
Film Corporation. It does not pay, and they do not think it is 



1444 BBEWIKQ AND UQUOB IKTEBESTB AND GEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 

worthy to continue it, and they practically transfer it to Malitz. 
They get rid of their liabilities, and get back none of the money they 
have paid in. There is a great deal more of general memoranda 
about the films, and Dr. Fuehr. 

Senator Sterling. Were not those films subject to seizure, or liable 
to be seized? 

Mr. BiELASKi. As having been smuggled in? 

Senator Sterling. As having been smuggled in. 

Mr. BiELASKi. One of the letters shows that with every bunch of 
film they sent they sent along a consular invoice. They did not in- 
tend to smuggle them in. They meant to smuggle them past the 
British and then apparently to declare them here. It was before 
we went to war. One of the letters of instruction was to send consu- 
lar invoices with them. 

It appears that throughout the period of his stay in this country 
Privy Counsellor Albert and also his associates frequently consulted 
with Mr. Samuel Untermyer, of New York, on propaganda matters. 

January 12, 1915, Mr. Viereck wrote Dr. Albert as follows: 

BuELASKi ExHisrr No. 81. 

Deab Dk. Albert : I had a long talk with Samuel Untermyer who is strongly 
on our side and will 'write an article in support of our contention, for the New 
Tork Times. He will also take up the matter with President Wilson. 

In order to enable him to do this work well, from a lawyer*8 point of view, he 
must have all the material possible on the subject. I enclose a list which I have 
sent to Dr. Hale from which you may see Just what he must have. Anything 
that you can add to making the list more complete will be of help to him as well 
as to us. 

Then there is a letter to Dr. Hal^ of the same date, January 12, 
1916. [Reading:] 

Bdelaski Exhibit No. 82. 

Dear Db. Hale: Mr. Samuel Untermyer would like to obtain as soon as pos- 
sible for his lawyer*s brief in favor of our contention the following : 

1. Rules laid down by Hague Convention. 

2. Rules laid down by convention of London. 

3. Quotations from International law on the question. 

4. Proofs of interference with American shipping. 

5. The text of our protest to Great Britain and the text of Great Britain's 
answer. 

6. Whatever literature you may have on the subject 

7. Up to date list of all shipments seized (food, cotton etc). 

8. Difficulties placed in the way of American shipping Indirectly. 

9. Precedent established by ourselves both in favor and against our present 
contention. 

I would like to get these things tomorrow if possible. You can get in touch 
with Dr. Albert and see that he supplies whatever lists he has. Dr. Demburg 
suggests that we should also send Untermyer his speech on neutralizing the 
ocean. 

If anything in this note is not clear will you please call me up at my home, 
6510 Riverside. 

Sincerely yours, 

G. S. ViEBBCK. 

Dr. Hale and Viereck also conferred with Mr. Untermyer on this 
general subject, one of the conferences being held in Mr. IJntermyer's 
residence in April, 1915. 

Early in August, 1915, the New York World published an expos6 
of certain correspondence which had come into its possession and 



BKRWIH Q AHD LIQT70B INTEBESTB AKD QEBMAK PEOPAOAKDA. 1445 

which had been obtained from the private papers of Counselor 
Albert. 

On Augast 20^ 1915, Albert issued a long public statement at- 
tempting to minimize the importance of these revelations, and in 
which he said, among other things, that it was not true that an effort 
had been made at any time secretly to influence American public 
opinion* 

One of the things which he said in this newspaper statement was : 

As to the ao-called German Information Berrice and the aUeged newspaper 
propaganda : 

It is not true that an effort has at any time been secretly made to influence 
American public opinion. The existence of the German information service 
waa publicly announced to all the leading newspapers of the country upon its 
inauguration in October last and has been well known to the public ever since. 
It was founded for the purpose, as then stated, of counteracting the partisan 
news service that up to that time had been coming via England in which the 
happenings of the war and the conditions In European countries were being 
groraly misrepresented, to the injury of Germany. 

The Embassy, which has a natural and legitimate interest that desirable In- 
formation regarding Germany should be made available to the press of this 
ooontry, has always openly ara^sted that service by giving it access to authentic 
news items and official reporta Germany Is and has been avowedly and 
anxloasly seeking, and will continue to seek, for its cause, the moral support 
of America and of the other neutral countries of the world. 

Senator Nelson. What are you reading from ? 

Mr. BiEUiSKi. From Alberrs statement in the New York World 
of August 20, 1915. You see he deliberately conceals absolutely the 
&ct that the German Government was financing, directing, and con- 
trolling in every way the German information service. That is a 
fair sample of the truthfulness of many of the other statements con- 
tained in his article. , 

Maj. Humes. Just in that connection, you are reading from the 
New York World of Friday, August 20, 1916. What event in the 
war occurred just at that time, that happens to be reported in that 
sune paper? 

Mr. BiELASKi. The sinking of the Arabic^ on the very same day. 

With respect to that statement, you will recall that among the let- 
ten taken from Mr. Archibald by the English and made public, was 
ooe from Ambassador Dumba,' dated August 20, 1915, in which Mr. 
Dnmba, after stating that Bemstorff had made no comment on the 
poblication, said : 

On the other hand. Privy Goiinclllor Albert published In the newspapers a 
very cleverly worded explanation, the tenor of which I venture to submit to your 
EzceUency in an enclosure. 

Capt. von Papen on the same day, writing to his wife concerning 
the publication of this document, states : 

Too can picture yourself the sensation of the Americana. Well, one must after 
an have things go like this. The answer of Albert I am sending you herewith, 
•0 that you may see how we defend ourselves. The document we drew up 
togeClier yest^'day. 

On Ute same day that this statement appeared in the newspapers, 
namely, August 20, 1916, Dr. Albert wrote to Mr. Untermyer in- 
dosing a draft of a note which he said he wanted to write to the State 
Department, asking Mr. Untermyer's opinion of it, asking for hi? 
ideas, and pointing out to him that the matter must be treated abso- 
lutely confiaentially. That was a draft of a note about some matter 



1446 BBBwnro ahd liquob xettebbsib avd obbmak fbopagahiu. 

of which we do not know the sabject, which he was submitting to 
Unteimyer, to advise him as to the form it should take, to present it 
to the American Department of State. In that letter he says in a 
separate paragraph: 

I have heard very flattering commeDts on the statement I know to whom 
they are addressed. I do think it was the right thing to ocHne out 

Whether or not that relates to the statement which Dr. Albert had 
made public on that date, and whether or not it shows that Unter- 
myer prepared that statement, is a question of deduction. There is 
no absolute proof one way or the other. 

Senator Sterling. What is the date of that. 

Mr. BiELASKi. That is August 20, th? date that the statement 
appeared. 

It also appeared that Mr. Untermyer later undertook to acquire 
for the Germans control of an important metropolitan newspaper. 
The following letter deals with the subject. It is on the letter paper 
of Guggenheimer, Untermyer & Marshal, No. 37 Wall Street, ifew 
York, out appears to have been written from the houseboat OsiriSj 
and is dated Miami, Fla., February 19, 1M6. 

It reads as follows: 

Bdclaski Exhibit No. 33. 

Dr. H. A. Albebt, 

Care of Hamburo-American Line, 

45 Broadway, New York City. 

Deab Db. Albebt: I have received word that our (^[>portiuiity has now ar- 
rived to acquire that morning and evening paper about which we have l>een 
tallcing and that it can be had at a price slightly under $2,000,000 for four- 
sixths of the capital stock, which includes valuable real estate on Park Row, 
but that actioi^ must be taken immediately. 

Under proper conditions my friends would be wiUing to take a one-fourth 
interest, provided some arrangement could be made giving them the option to 
acquire the majority' interest at a future date, say after the lapse of one or 
two years from the close of the war, which would afford every opportunity 
that could be possibly wanted. 1 understand that the project is now breaking 
about even — that is, that it is neither losing nor making money; but my 
friends are satisfied that it can be made a substantial earner and I am dis- 
posed to agree with them. 

1 shall be glad to hear from you as to whether you are now in. position to 
take up this subject seriously and promptly with me and bring it to a con- 
clusion, if, as I believe, the terms are advantageous. 

I expect to leave here on the 2Sth, spending the forenoon of March 1st in 
Washington and reaching New York that night I shall probably have to 
leave about March 8th or lOtb for South America as a member of the Inter- 
national High Commission, of which Secretary McAdoo is chairman. 
Sincerely yours, 

Saituel Untesmtkb. 

The name of that paper is not mentioned here, but we understand 
it to be the New York Sun, which answers the description, and we 
also understand from other testimony that an approach was made to 
the Sun by a man acting on behalf of Mr. Untermyer to ascertain 
the terms on which it could be obtained. 

To that letter a reply was made dated February 23, 1916, reading 
as follows : 

BiELASKi ExHiBrr No. 34. 

My Deab Mb. Untebmyeb: With reference to your letter of February 19, 
which I received yesterday afternoon. I have sent at once a cipher cable to 
Berlin asking for authorization to take up the subject I expect to have an 



BBBWIHO AKD LIQUOR INTEBESTS AND GEBMAK PBOPAQANDA. 1447 

answer by March first, so we can discuss the question as soon as you return 
to New York. I thank you very much for the Interest you have taken in the 
matter. 

At the siinie time I must con^atulate you on the most interesting trip you 
intend to make to South America, and on your nomination as a member of the 
International High Commission. * 

With respect to other activities of the same sort it appears from 
entries in the diary kept by Dr. Fuehr, which we have, that he con- 
ferred with Mr. Untermyer on what he described as press matters, 
Dr. Fuehr having, as I said, the actual control for the German Gov- 
ernment of the press and propaganda bureau. 

There is another matter about which we have no definite informa- 
tion, but it possibly suggests an inquiry in that connection, that in 
connection with the Jewish propaganda in the United States on be- 
half of the German Government the Yiddish paper Die Warheit 
appears to have undergone some sort of a financial reorganization, 
and the sum of about $50,000 was involved. 

The Die Warheit Publishing Co. was incorporated November 
o, 1D05. under the laws of the State of New Yovk to publish the 
Yiddish Daily Warheit; authorized capital $30,000, of which $28,700 
was originally issued. Of the latter $1,200 was returned to the 
treasury, leaving $27,500 outstanding. 

The incorporators were Louis E. Miller, president until 1915 ; Her- 
man Palev, treasurer until 1915, and Peter Sohmukler, treasurer 
until 19151 

In November, 1914, Miller being unable to get Schmukler out re- 
.^igned as acting editor on being refused increased compensation of 
!?o,000 per annum and Mr. Gonikman took his place as editor. 

In January, 1915, Miller resigned as president and director, while 
>till holding 130 out of 280 shares then outstanding and was suc- 
ceeded as president bv Herman Paley, former treasurer, who was 
succeeded in his office \yy Peter Schmukler. 

In January, 1915, Miller appears to have indorsed his stock in 
blank and is said to have started an opposition paper. The Leadei*, 
Ijorrowing, it is said, $50,000. 

Herman Paley, who was one of the original incorporators of 1915, 
state<I that he went to Judge Aaron J. Levy to interest him in an 
r.ttenipt to buy Miller's stock and Judge Levy was to try and get the 
hacking of Sanniel Untermyer on account of their strong friendship. 
Tlmt this was done and arrangements made that as soon as Miller 
^^ould <on!-ent to sell his 130 shares, Untermyer was to put up 
Si5;000, I^vy $5,000, and Paley $10,000 ; that before Untermyer left 
on a trip to South America he left word with his secretary, Harry 
Hoffman, to let Levy and Paley have $35,000 when negotiations were 
roncluded; that on May 5, 191G, the whole affair was concluded, each 




for or on arcount of someone else the whole transaction appears en- 
tirely legitimate. 

W nether Mr. Untermyer advanced that amount from his- own 
fuud> or from funds secured otherwhere I have no idea. The only 
suggestion to the contrary is a report which reached us through Brit- 
i«<h secret -service sources that it was for the purpose of German 

85723— 19—voL 2 ^6 



1448 BEEWING AND LIQUOR INTEBESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 

propaganda. That report, however, did not contain anything in the 
wav of evidence to substantiate such an inference. 

On the general question of Jewish propaganda in the United 
States, Dr. Strauss, who, as I stated this morning, was a member of 
the original mission of which Dernburg was the head and Albert a 
member, came here for the special purpose of handling Jewish 
propaganda. It appears to have been the idea of the Germans at 
that time that inasmuch as Eussia was fighting against Germany, 
the Jews would naturally affiliate with Germany, Bussia having 
oppressed them for inany years. Dr. Strauss devoted himself to 
that work. 

One of the first communications that throws any light on their 
activities is a letter dated October 20, 1914, addressed to Dr. Albert. 
[Reading :] 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 35. 

Confidential. 

Deab De. Albert: I take the liberty to inform you that my office Is located, 
dating from yesterday, at 74 W. 85th Street, telephone Schuyler 6536, where 
Dr. Melemede is also located. 

The raanipuation of the Jewish press in America, formerly causual, has 
now been changed by me into a regular, systematic information service and 
organized on a firm basis. This was extremely necessary, considering tlie 
peculiar nature of the Jewish press and tlie difficult conditions in other 
countries, where Jews have not full citizenship. A confirmation of this opinion 
le furnished by the following article from the Warheit, of which I spoke to 
you recently. You see how the pro-German attitude of the Jews here has put 
the Times into a tremendous rage. 

The Bureau began business yesterday, and I spend several hours there 
daily. Dr. Melamede works according to my instructions and under my 
supervision. 

So far as the material is at our disposal, we are to furnish it also to the 
bureaus of the English- (language) press. In addition we shall furnish you 
two editorials weekly. The first is being dispatched today to Mr. Fuehr. 

The expenses which this bureau will occasion — outside of Dr. M's salary — 
are likely to be very slight. I shall not be able to tell you under two or three 
weeks just how much more will be required for this service. I have advanced 
personally the expenses so far occasioned. In case you should have received 
in the meantime any more German papers, I should be very grateful if you 
would send them to the above address. 

This apparently was a Jewish offshoot of the press bureau, just 
like the Irish also. 

That letter is signed by one of two men, but the signature is so 
illegible that we are not certain just who signed it. We have the 
original letter, however. 

Here is another letter dated New York, April 27, 1915, the subject 
of which is stated to be " S. M. Melamed, journalistic activities." It 
is addressed to the imperial embassy, Washington, D. C, and is 
from the imperial general consul of the German empire at New 
York. It contains some information about Jewish propaganda. It 
is as follows: 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 30. 

I have the honor to submit an article from the pen of the Jewish journalist 
S. M. Melamed, which w'as published In the Olobe on the 23rd day of April* and 
which article refers to the treatis on the Polish legions, which appe«re<l on the 
16th of April in the same paper. 

This article was published throui^h official exertion here, and originates with 
Count Dzledurzyckl. Imperial Military Attache in Madrid. 

The Journalist S. M. Melamed came a few months aKO to America, is asso- 
ciated with the German Literary Burenu conducted by Dr. Fuehr and according 
to statements of the letter is financially aided by the German Embassy. 



BBSWIlirG A17D LIQTJOB INTEBESTB AND GERMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1449 

Mr. Melamed has pxtbllshed several articles about the political situation at 
that time. In which he portrays the Polenism in Austria as thoroughly Russo- 
phileand tratorous. Such descriptions, which on the assertion that for certain 
Mr. Bilinsfei because of Russophlle activities was arrested rise to absurdity, are 
inclined to appear to the reader of the inner political relations of the monarchy 
gloomy, and cannot fall to produce an injurious effect upon the Poles here. 

Mr. Melamed appeared here personally, and received the assurance that we 
would at all times be prepared to give him particulars. He. however, made 
no use of this, except in a few cases, in which in spite of received information 
he made erroneous statements. 

Mr. Melamed, who is saturated with Zionistic aspirations, pushes his objec- 
tive through his journalistic activity, without consideration for cooperation 
with reference to the interest of Austria Hungary. 

I therefore have the honor to respectfully beg to suggest to the Embassy to 
take the proper steps to hinder such activities of Mr. Melamed as work 
directly against our endeavors. 

(Signed) The Imfebial General Consul. 

Here is a letter which does not seem to be dated, but is on the 
letterhead of Dr. M. S. Melamed, journalist, 74 West 85th Street. 
It is headed " Report of Activities." It is as follows : 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 37. 

During the past four weeks the following articles have been sent to the 
papers named : 
L Germanic peoples and Jews (Juedisches Volk.) 
2. Soldier-psychology (Zukunft). 
3^ Field and war theater (Juedisches Tageblatt) 

4. "For aillitarism." (Juedisches Tageblatt.) 

•• (Chicago CJourler) 

5. A tiectlement with Israel Zangwill. (Tageblatt) 
& Nfctache and the War. (Tageblatt) 

7. The beggar Student (Tageblatt) 

8. Imperialism and War. (Neue Zeit) 

9. Turkey, Germany and England (Juedisches Volk) 

10. Itsche "The Frenchman " (Der grosse Kundes) 

11. Pauslavism and Pangermanism (Tageblatt) 
VL Culture versus Kulture (New York Times) 

13. Some indiscretions I 

II 
III 

14. Why Turkey joined the War. 

1^ Development of the warlike spirit in England 

16u The German government and the Jewish question in Eastern Europe 
(Staats Zeltang) 

17. A number of notices have been sent in the past four weeks to all Jewish 
l«pers in the United States. This portion of the service could not be devel- 
o|ieil sufficiently, for I still do not have a sufficient number of papers at my 
disposal. 

Then* is reason to believe that an opportunity to supply this branch of the 
•errice better will present itself. I can give a most positive assurance that 
these activities have borne good fruit, and that a pro*German sentiment has 
arisen in the circles among whom I am working, which I may continue to suc- 
r9^ in maintaining and strengthening. The personal difficulties with which 
thi* activities heretofore had to contend jierhaps will be removed once for all 
by the entry of Mr. Strauss. I hope to make verbally a report in relation 
tlwreto. New York, November 11, 1914. 

(Sgd) S. M. Melamed. 

P. & I intend during the coming weeks to have my eye also on the English 
iwem more than ever in this connection. 

( Note in lead pencil on margin : ^^ What has it accomplished t D.'^) 

One of the most intelligent notations which appears in these papers 
is this written on the margin of this commimication. It is initialed 



1450 BREWING AND LIQUOB INTEBESTB AND OEBICAN PBOPAOAKDA. 

"D," and I assume it is for Demburg, and it says, "What has it 
accomplished? " 

The records show that on June 14, 1915, $1,500 was paid to Dr. 
Strauss; June 15, 1915, $3,000; June 21, $2,000; July 7, $3,000; July 
23, $3,000 ; August 6, $5,000 ; August 23, $3,500 ; November 6, $3,000 ; 
Januan^ 4, 1916, $2,220. 

Dr. Strauss, who is now interned, has very persistently refused to 
say anything about how he spent most of this money, and we do not 
know definitely how some of it was spent. We know how some of 
it went, of course. I think, however, that that is sufficient to show 
that a very persistent and elaborate 

Senator Nelson. Where is he interned ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. At Oglethorpe, where he belongs. 

Senator Nelson. Oh, he stays there? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes, sir. I think that is suflBcient, however, to 
show the extent and the persistency and the organization with which 
they attempted to develop the Jewish propaganda in this country. 

I have here two letters with respect to propaganda in the United 
States, signed by Edward Bumely, which oy direction of the Attor- 
ney General I am to submit to the chairman of the committee to 
determine whether or not they shall be made of record [handing 
papers to the chairman]. 

Senator Overman (after examination of papers by the com- 
mittee). Mr. Bielaski, this is not germane. We will exclude these 
letters as not germane. Unless some Senator wants to ask a ques- 
tion, Mr. Bielaski may go on. 

Mr. Bielaski. In regard to the activities of Mr. Eumely, it ap- 
pears that Rumely, as soon as Demburg got here, rather attached 
himself to Dernburg; he was with him all the time, went to the 
theater with him, and was generally regarded by his associates as 
more or less of a shadow of JDernberg. He, we find, drew the money 
from Albert by which Hammerling was paid for the advertisements, 
which you have thoroughly gone into, with respect to the embargo on 
munitions. 

It also appears that through him $3,000 was paid to Gaston B. 
Means, commonly known as " Bud" Means, at that time a detective 
in the employ of the Burns Detective Agency, in connection with an 
investigation they made for the purpose of getting evidence to show 
that the British Government was shipping supplies from New 
York City to its warships at sea. It was a fake scheme, because the 
Germans had been shipping supplies from New York to their vessels, 
had been caught, and^ as you will recall, the so-caUed Hamburg- 
American Line cases m which some of the prinipal offiers of the 
Hamburg-American Line were convicted. This was an attempt to 
show that the British were doing the same thing. They were not, 
but Mr. Means, in cooperation with some other gentlemen, tried to 
show that they were. I could give you more details of the schemi- 
they worked ir you desire. 

Senator Ovbbman. I w^ould like to hear it. I know something 
about Means. 

Mr. Bielaski. It has nothing to do particularlv with the Gterman 
propaganda, but it is this : Means posed as a wealthy Canadian here 
m the United States to see what he could do for the cause of Great 
Britain in the war, and he had brought to him a number of tugboat 



BHBWIKG AKI> UQUOB INTEBESTO AND GEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1451 

captains to whom he said that he was willing to pay well for services 
that they might render in taking out supplies to British ships. After 
preliminary conferences with them, he made it known to them that he 
was not really this wealthy Canadian in person, but he was his agent, 
and that he must needs convice his principal that these tugboat cap- 
tains could really do what they undertook to do^ to wit, get out sup- 
plies to the British ships. The best possible evidence of that would 
be statements that they had succeeded in doing it before, and there- 
fore could do it a^ain. I think he succeeded in finding in New York 
one tugboat captam who was willing to make such a statement falsely. 
The others shied off, and from their attitude the facts became known 
that such an effort was on foot. The idea was that these statements 
in affidavit form would be taken, presented to our State Department, 
and this Government led to act against Great Britain on a series oi 
false informations. We tried our best to prosecute the people who 
were connected with that, but in the state of the law at that time, and 
on account of our inability to prove that the men who were active in 
doing this work knew that it was to be presented to our State De- 
partment a prosecution was prevented. We could not prove that 
Means and these other fellows in doing this work knew the purpose 
for which it was being done, that is to be presented to our Govern- 
ment*. at all, and we could not work out a theory of prosecution with- 
out that fact. 

Rumely was interested in that, at least to the extent of the pay- 
ment of $3,000 to him for Means. 

Senator Nelson. To this assumed Canadian ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes ; to this detective. 

An interesting thing about it is this, that Rumely got $3,000, ap- 
parently, in the records, of checks we have to the Burns Detective 
Agency, we can only make them total about $2,200. I do not know 
what became of the rest that got to Means. 

Senator Nelson. It possibly stuck in Rumely's hands. [Laugh- 
ter.] 

ilr. BiELASKi. A great deal of German money did stick in different 
quarters, and did not get to its ultimate object. 

Senator 0\'erb£an. Was Means ever the agent of the German 
Government? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Mr. Means was not only the agent of the German. 
Government in this proposition, but with Boy-Ed. Boy-Ed had a 
code between them in which Means was Z-13, or something or other, 
and Boy-Ed was Z- something else. They had meetings, around, and 
always talked that way ; and we have the details. But he was in the 
employ of Boy-Ed in addition to this employment. This employ- 
ment, too, by Ihe way, was more or less a JBoy-Ed affair, inasmuch 
as it related to naval affairs. 

Senator Overman. Is there any evidence that he was connected 
with them after the war? 

Mr. BiELASKi. No; I do not think he was connected with them 
after Boy-Ed sailed, which was in December, 1916. 

Senator Nelson. Boy-Ed and Von Papen were sent away before 
we went to war. 

Mr. BiELASKL Mr. Rumely admits the receipt of some $10,000 
which he states was paid to him for an option on certain tractors 



1452 BBEWIKO AKD UQUOR INTERESTS AND QEBMAN PROPAGANDA. 

which he was going to ship to Germany. He claims, and I guess 
accurately, that he could not make the shipment of these tractors 
because the British would not let them through, and that therefore 
he felt that he was in possession of, at that time, $10,000 from the 
German Government lor this option, without having given them 
much of substance in return, and he claims that he spent about that 
amount of $10,000 for the benefit of the Germans in an investiga- 
tion to determine whether or not submarines were being shipped 
from Massachusetts to England, for the Germans. He also appears 
to have been interested in Irish propaganda as distinguished from 
the matters which you have ruled are not germane. He told me 
that he had loaned to a man named Anthony Brogan, five or six 
vears ago, about $7,000 and taken as collateral for it stock in the 
Irish-American, and he did not think that the collateral was worth 
anything. 

About six months after the war broke out, Brogan came to him 
and asked for another thousand dollars for the purpose of reviving 
the paper and putting it on its feet. 

Senator Overman. What were Mr. Rumely's antecedents? What 
did he do here before the war? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Mr. Rumely was educated in Germany; had a 
great many friends in Germany. He spent I forget how many years 
there. He came back and became the head of the Rumely Tractor 
Co., an Indiana concern. He seems to have been a man of con- 
siderable ability. I think he took that corporation from a $3,000,000 
corporation up to a $36,000,000 corporation in a very short period 
of time, until it failed and went up. He claims to have lost his 
money in that deal, and it was just about that time that he had 
gotten out of that corporation, having been forced out and the man- 
agement taken over by other people, when the war started, and he 
landed in New York with a good appetite and not much to do. 

About this Irish business, the following is a transcript of a short 
part of his statement which relates to that. [Reading:] 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 88. 

Runioly, In a statement made June 20, 1918, In New York City, stated that 
he had loaned to Anthony Hrogan five or six years previously $7,000 and had 
taken jia ool lateral for it snme shares of stock In the Irish American, He 
stat(Hl that about six months after the war broke out (meaning the start of the 
European War), Broj?an came to him and asked for another thousand dollars 
for the purpose of revivlnp the paper and putting it on its feet. He denied 
that he ever discussed with Brogan the matter of sending a correspondent 
abroad. He finally a(lmltte<l meeting a girl in Brogan's ofiice who wanted to 
go to Ireland. He denied that he had any knowledge that she was under en- 
gagement to go to Ireland at any time for Brogan, stated that he had refused 
to send her as a corresiwndent of the Mail. He admitted, however, that he 
had given Brogan the additional thousand dollars. 

The following is a transcript of his statement as to where he got the thou- 
sand dollars: 

Q. Did you give him $1,000 more? 

A. I gave him $1.000 ; yes. 

Q. Where did you get that $1,000? 

A. I don't recall where I got the $1,000. 

Q. It wasn't your own money, was it? 

A. What is it? 

Q. It wasn't your own money? 

A. Why shouldn't It be? 



BBEWIKG AND LIQUOB INTEBESTB AND OEBICAK PBOPAGAKDA. 1468 

Q. Do yoQ recall what your financial condition was at that time, as you have 
stated it to me? 



Q. That is one reason why It should not be your own money. 

Do you remember now from whom you got that money? 

A. I do not. I will look through my 

Q. To be more specific, did you get it from Albert or Demburg or anyone 
representing the German crowd? 

A. What is it? 

Q. Or any representative of the German crowd? 

A. (Hesitates.) 

Q. Did you? 

A. I may have got it from Fuehr, although I do not recall the source, but 
if I can check through my checlos at the time I may be able to tell you. 

Q. From whom? 

A. Dr. Fnelur. 

Q, Who was practically the disbursing ofiicer of the German publication? 

A. Publication, yes. I think he bought a batch of copies of that number. 

Q. So that you are confident that it was not your own money at least that 
you put into this, the $1,000 that you put Into Brogan's paper at that time? 

A. Maybe. I don't recall the exact — ^A block of those numbers were pur- 
chased. I think it was five or ten thousand copies, and I paid for those copies. 
I do not know whether the amount of payment was $1,000 or whether I added 
part of it 

He concludes by admitting that at least a substantial part of the 
money paid for the Irish- American came from German sources. 

Senator Nsuson. Yes. 

Mr. BiEUkSKi. He was also interested in some form of adTertising 
in the newspapers of the South for Germans. We do not know ex- 
actly what that was, except that it probably had something to do 
with cotton. 

Senator Overman. Do you know what newspapers in the South? 

Mr. BiEi«ASKi. No; it never got to the point of approaching the 
newspapers, so far as we know. You see, he was tangled up with 
this advertising idea of Hammerling's. and some similar scheme 
which was, as best we can jud^e, for making use of the cotton situa- 
tion for the purpose of arousing sentiment in the South, showing 
how England was interfering with the shipment of cotton, but, be- 
yond a letter written to some advertising agency, the McMahon 
Agency, I think, we have very little evidence to show. 

Senator Nelson. We had indications in the testimony of Konta 
that they were looking up this cotton question and made a publica- 
tion in respect to it. 

Mr. BxEz^BKi. Yes. I think this was in the press bureau that they 
sent out. 

Senator Neijson. We got that testimony here yesterday. 

Mr. BiELAsia. This, dated March 10, 1915, is apparently a draft 
of a cable which appears to have been sent to Berlm. [Breading :] 

BiELASKL Exhibit No. 80. 

AnfTwerifiK Cable No. — . 

Main point Is no longer organization of news service, but In placing news 
here. Entire press here, as well as all telejqraph agencies, In hands of money 
tnierettts allied with England. Therefore, although best possible news bureau 
organized here under Dernburg's direction, news gets only scant circulation, 
an long as wc do not control an Important newspaper here which will force 
other papers to accept Gorman news for sake of their journalistic reputation. 
Offer for purchase of suitable newspaper -under consideration. Urgently re- 
imnoedlate anthoriamtion tq make initial payment of $325,000. Total sum, 



1454 BBEWIKG AND UQUOB INTERESTS AND QEBMAK PBOPAQAHDA. 

$1,800,000. American news bureau intended over there valuable only to sup- 
plement press bureau here as well as the paper to be bought, otherwise super- 
fluous and rather injurious because of lack of appreciation often observed here 
and daily change of aspect. 

As you know, Dr. Rumely with Mr. Kaufman of the firm of Hays, 
Kaufman & Lindheim^ who were Albert's attorneys and involved 
with him in many of his operations 

Senator Nelson. Were they indicted under the spy act? 

Mr. BiELASKi. They are indicted for having failed to report to the 
Alien Property Custodian the fact of the German Government's own- 
ership of stocK in the Mail. As that is a pending case, not yet tried, 
we do not want to say very much about it, except something of the 
wav the money was received. I think it is opportune at this time to 
tell the committee something of what we owe to Mr. Alfred Becker, 
the deputy attorney general of the State of New York. Mr. Becker, 
acting for the French Government, developed the facts with respect to 
about $1,700,000 or $1,800,000 being paid here to Bolo Pasha to get 
control of a paper for the purposes of the German Government. 

Senator Nelson. That is the man who was executed? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes, sir ; that is the man who was executed. In con- 
nection with that investigation it was necessary for Mr. Becker to 
examine a large amount of the papers of Hugo Schmidt, which our 
department placed at his disposal in part, and which he secured 
from Schmidt in part. Mr. Becker secured a very intimate knowl- 
edge of those papers, and at the request of the Department of Justice 
continued his examination of them and made certain other inquiries 
for the department. He had the advantage of proceeding under a 
statute of New York which permitted him to call in and examine 
people under oath. 

He had the second advantage of not showing the Government's 
hand in his inquiries at all, and the third advantage of giving to 
our department the services of a very capable attorney who haa the 
time to concentrate on matters of importance ; and he developed con- 
siderable information of value. Among other things was that in 
continuing this work at the request of our department he located 
the exact method in which the money which was paid by Kumely for 
the Mail came from Albert, the (Jerman representative here — their 
financial representative. It showed that on May 27, 1915, the $740,- 
000 used to purchase stock of Mail and Express Co. (owners of the 
Evening Mail) came from the funds realized from the sale of Im- 
perial German treasury notes in April, 1915. 

The above amount was paid to one Walter Lyon from accounts H. 
F. Albert maintained with the Equitable Trust Co. and the Colum- 
bia Trust Co. in New York. Walter Lyon's firm (Senskorf, Lyon & 
Co.) turned the money over to E. A. Kmnely on June 1, 1915, he 
completing the purchase. 

From September 18, 1916, to April 8, 1917, $701,700 additional 
was paid by H. F. Albert from funds on deposit in the Chase Na- 
tional Bank and the Mechanics and Metals National Bank realized 
from sale of notes already mentioned or from funds supplied by 
Imperial German Embassy. 

Senator Nelson. That was near the time we entered the war! 

Mr. BiBSLASKi. No, sir ; that was in the spring of 1915. 

Senator Nelson. I thought you said 1917. 



BBSWIirO AKD LIQUOA IKTBBESTB AKD OEBMAN PBOPAQANDA. 1465 

Mr. BiELASKi. Oh, yes; he continued right up until three days 
before the break in diplomatic relations, and they continued to fur- 
nish money for the purchase of this paper; and" after the break in 
negotiations, three days before we declared war, I think there were 
disbursed by Hays, Kaufman & Lindheim about $200,000 which had 
been placed at their disposal by the Germans just before they sailed. 
So that the last expenditure was April 3, 1917. 
Senator Neuson. And that was after BemstorflF had sailed? 
l^fr. BiELASKi. Yes; after he had gone; and it was some money 
that they left in the control of Hays, Kaufman & Lindheim. 

This amount was used for running expenses and improvements. 
The money in almost every instance passed from H. F. Albert to 
Hays, Kaufman & Lindheim, thence to Renskorf , Lyon & Co. and 
from them to the S. S. McClure Newspaper Corporation, which had 
been incorporated under the laws of the State of New York, to act 
as a holding company at the time of the purchase. 
Senator jWElson. Did Rumely get control of the Mail? 
Mr. BiCLASKi. Yes; absolute control of the Mail. One hundred 
and fif^ thousand dollars of the latter amount was disbursed by 
Hays, l^aiifman & Lindheim between February 13 and April 3, 
after Albert^s departure. 

There are a great many other things with respect to that purchase 
which ou^ht not to be made public in advance of the trial of the 
case, but it is short ; it was the purchase by the German Government 
of a daily newspaper for the purpose of mfluencing American pub- 
lie opinion* 
S^ator Neubon. Who owns that paper now, Dr. Rumely ? 
Mr. BiEuisKi. No, sir. 

Senator Overman. It is in the hands of the Custodian of Alien 
Proper^, is it not? 

Mr. l&iKLJLSKL I do not know whether it is still in the hands of 
Mr. Palmer or not. I suppose it is. He took it over. 
Senator Nelson. Oh, he did ? 
Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. 

Senator Nelson. Is the publication continued? 
Mr. BnBLASKi. Yes, sir. 

S^iator Nelson. Did Rumely have anything to do with the paper 
before it was purchased? 

Mr. BnxASKi. Not before it was purchased ; no, sir. He became 
the editor afterwards. 

Maj. Humes. Senator, for your information, it is in the hands of 
the Alien Property Custodian, and has been placed in charge of Mr. 
Stoddard, the former owner of the paper, who is now conducting its 
publication. 
Senator Nelson. And is he a loyal man ? 
Maj. Humes. There is no question about that, I think. 
Capt. Lobsteb. No question about it. 
Maj. Humes. It is my understanding. 

Senator Overman. i)id they ever attempt to purchase any other 
papers? 

Mr. BiELASKi. There was the consideration given for the purchase 
of the New York Sun, through Untermyer. which I have described, 
and a request for the purchase of the Washington Post, and, of 
conrae. Dr. Hale made investigations and reports on a great many 



1456 XBEWHTG AXD UQUOS JXTEOSTB ASTD ^sxaarAiB nK^AOAJTDA. 

papers aiMl periodicals, ^wrth a Tiew to vheflier or not it was wis© 
to purchase them: but I do not think anr negotiation or axrtual effort 
iras made to purchase others of which we hare knowledge. Of course, 
there are a great manx parments to small newspapers, particularly 
foreign-lajigaage newspapers, by the Anstro-Hnngaria-n Govern- 
ment, which I can gire you a list of diortly, and payments were made 
to individuals for articies printed- and all that sort of thing. 

I have here a translation of a memorandum which the Attorney 
General directs to be submitted to the chairman of the committee 
for his decision [lianding paper to the chairman]. 

Tliere is a great deal of other material of a similar nature, so that 
I thought we had better cover it all if it is put in- 

Mr. CBkiax- As I understand Senator Overman, unless it is ger- 
mane to the German propa^randa^ it may as well be omitted. 

Senator Ovcbmax. If it is not confined to Geiman propaganda, it 
had better be omitted- We want to confine ourselves to matters per- 
tainingto the German pr(q>aganda. 

Mr. BuEz^iSKi. I think I will omit this entirely, then. 

Senator OviaiMAX- Yes. 

Mr. BnzASKL I said this morning 9c»nething about the corre- 
spondents who had been sent abroad for the purpose of influencing in 
this country public opinion through the di^Mtches which they would 
send back frrai Germany. 

Among the men sent over in that way were Edward Lyell Fox, 
John D. Archibald, and Edwin EmersonI 

Edward LyeU Fox, as already appears, was in the employ of the 
American Correspondent Film Corporation, which was an indirect 
method of being in the employ of the German Government. 

He went over, first, as a correspondent of the Wildman Magazine 
and News Ser^-ioe, 118 East Twenty-eigjith Street, Xew York City. 

Senator Ovebkan. Was he a correspondent of some newspaper in 
this countay? 

Mr. BiELASKi. He was representing this Wildman Magazine and 
News Service. - 

This letter, which was published in the New YoA World in Au- 
gust, 1915, from the foreign offioe,inakBS mention of Fox. pEteading:] 

BiEUkBKi Exhibit No. 4SL 

Uay 1, 1915. 

Mt Deab Ma. VON Pafezt : Attached hereto I am sending jon a copy of a 
Berlin communicatioii. Inasmuch as you have connections with Fox, It mig^t be 
advisable for you to take advantage of the opportunity. 
With best thanlES in advance. 
Respectfully, 

J. VON Beknstobff. 

From a third party I understand that the American journalist Edward LyeU 
Fox, representative of the Wheeler Newspaper Syndicate, The American 
Magazine, and the Illustrated Sunday Syndicate, and the Illustrated Sun- 
day Magazines, would like to again come to Germany as press representa- 
tive. From the information I have received, these papers of his are in 
agreement as to the desire, but are not willing to pay the expenses of Mr. Fox. 
Inasmuch as this gentleman, at the time of his last sojourn in Germany, was 
of great l)enefit to me by reason of his good dispatches, it might be possible 
that the "German Information Service" would this time, as last time, be 
willing to pay the expenses of a five to six months* stay, which would amount 
to b€*tween 5.000 and 6.000 marks. 



BBEWIK6 iLNT> LIQUOB INTEBESTB AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1457 

I woald respectfully request your Excellency to sound Mr. Fox on his in- 
tentloDs, and to make inquiries as to whether the costs of his stay can be 
raised there In any way. 

I shall be grlad to have a reply as soon as possible, if l)Ossible, by telegram. 
By order of the chancellor. 

Stumm. 

The first time he went over, as I say, he went over for this Wild- 
man Bureau. 

He was furnished, when he went over, by Mr. Claussen, with let- 
ters of introduction from Dr. Demburff. 

When he returned, Mr. Wildman said he seemed rather secretive, 
and tried to have Mr. Claus6en find out what it was that was on 
Fox's mind. 

Fox told Claussen, according to Claussen's statements, that he had 
proposed some plans to the Germans on the other side; but would 
not state what tney were. 

The next day Claussen took Fox to Dernburg at the Ritz — this is 
according to Claussen's testimony — where Fox stated that he had set 
certain plans before the people in Germany, and they thought well 
of them, and that he was going to work them out and report in detail 
on his return. 

He told Dernburg that he proposed hiring prominent playwriters 
to write plays portraying the Germans as they were, and to get 
prominent writers to write stories favorable to Germany, the whole 
plan to cost $1,000,000. 

I do not know whether this was the same plan or not which he 
submitted to Capt. von Papen later, or just an outgrowth of that 
plan, and so I do not know whether this plan which he submitted 
was ever considered in Berlin or not; but it is an interesting pro- 
posal, whether acted upon or not, because I think it shows the limits 
to which these people would go, or were going, in even considering 
anv such matter. 

Ihis memorandum is as follows. It was inclosed to Capt. Franz 
TOD Papen, The German Club, 112 Central Park South, New York, 
X. Y., marked "Personal. To be opened only by Capt. von P." 
The handwriting is Fox's on the envelope. • 

Senator Nelson. What is the date of it ? 

Mr. BnsLASKi. There is no exact date, but I think the date is fairly 
well apparent as being in the spring of 1915 from some of the con- 
text [Keading :] 

BnsLASKi EhcHiBiT No. 41. 

The object of thla plan is the termination of United States manufacturers 
supplying the Allies with anununition and other munitions of war. If carried 
tliroa^ to the end there is a second and incidental goal — ^the loss to Japan of 
the German colonies that she now holds. But the object to be held clearly in 
Tiew is the end of the anununition traffic. This can be accomplished by foment- 
isi; a war scare between the United States and Japan; at the present time 
thiA Iji Dot dangerous, for the United States Army and Navy men believe that 
var between America and Japan is inevitable. What better time to strike 
than now, when Japan can get no help secret or otherwise from England or 
other European Power? United States Navy officers liave said that if we 
fi^t Japan today, "We win, but if we wait until Japan's fleet builds to too 
great proportions, it will be difficult — ^perhaps very dangerous.'* 

It la known that on May 21, 1913 United States and Japan Just missed going 
to war by the narrowest margin. All the facts of this situation of which Gapt. 
Ho|j«oa hinted before the House Naval Affairs Comm last December are in the 



1458 BBEWIKG AND LIQUOR INTEBESTB AND GEBMAK FBOPAJG^AKDA. 

hands of Edward Lyell Fox, the American cprrespondent who rec^itly returned 
from Germany. At Washington this last week Mr. Fox learned from a com- 
manding officer of Corregidor Island daring May of 1913, how close the 
countries were to war. The source of that situation was California. Cleverly 
handled, California can be used to create the same situation today. It is a 
sore spot with the Japanese: they have never forgiven America. 

The public mind must be diverted from Europe to the Orient. Pro-German 
publicity is futile. The thing to do is to make the United States an ally of 
Germany by a twist of world politics. England allied with Japan cannot be 
her friend — who else but Germany? Begin this situation by bringing the people 
here to thinking seriously Bbout Japan. Accomplish this through the mediums 
of creating public opinion — that the English have used so well — ^the news- 
papers, the theatre, the thousands of moving picture shows and the church. 
In detail here is a plan : 

An examination of the files of the Hearst newspapers will show their bitter- 
ness toward Japan. No chance has been passed by them to warn the people 
against the Japs and to foment trouble in California. Let there develop 
trouble in California — and presently we shall show it can easily be made — and 
the Hearst papers will lead in the attack on the Japs. Defenslvey, purely as 
a news proposition under the direct orders of the Morgan financial group, will 
have to take up the matter in their columns. Any anti- Japanese move would 
have the complete support of Mr. Hearst He is a native of California and in 
the past has done his utmo.<;t against them. Mr. Hearst must not know that 
this is fomenting. When the trouble breaks out he will rush into it quickly 
enough. 

Secondly, The Illustrated Sunday Magazine, a publication resembling the 
Saturday Evening Post in appearance, is a part of each Sunday edition of 
these newspapers: 

Pittsburgh Gazette Times; Minneapolis Tribune; Memphis Commercial Ap- 
peal; Detroit Free Press; Boston Herald; Louisville Courier Journal; Roch- 
ester Democrat Chronicle; Dayton News; Philadelphia Herald; Columbus Dis- 
patch; Milwaukee Sentinel; Omaha World Herald; Des Moines Register 
Leader; Worcester Telegram; Providence Tribune; Buffalo Times. More- 
over, it operates another supplement. The Literary Magazine which goes each 
Sunday with papers in smaller cities. The sworn circulation of the Illustrated 
is one million three hundred thousand copies a week. The Literary has about 
two million more. They cover the country and are widely read. They can be 
used to foment feeling against the Japanese. 

They must not be approached through their owners Normal Iklack and Paul 
Block. They must he approached through their Editor-in-Chief, Hiram M. 
Greene. The properties, insofar as deciding what is printed in them, are en- 
tirely in Mr. Greene's hands. He is absolute czar over them. Mr. Greene will 
attack the Japanese in special articles and fiction every week to three millloa 
people, if it is made worth his while. This entire matter can be handled by 
Mr. Fox who is one of Mr. Greene's closest personal friends. Mr, Greene's 
sympathies have been entirely with Germany since the outbreak of war. He 
w-as one of the editors who backed Mr. Fox on his trip to Germany. Not 
only through his papers can he turn public opinion but he fits into another 
part of the plan, i. e., the stage and the moving pictures. 

There should be a play produced in New York, Chicago, San Francisco and 
Los Angeles that will send Its audiences out of the theatres heated to the 
fever point against the Japanese. There should be one-act plays sent over 
the big vaudeville circuits creating the same effect. There should be a 
moving picture production anti-Japanese, and put on all the circuits. It should 
be shown in weekly installments that synchronize with a continued story to 
be syndicated in the same cities the pictures appear. Fox can arrange this 
entire matter. 

Also, in all the musical shows of the summer there should be introduced 
stage effects, songs and lines fomenting the feeling. This can be done with 
money given to noted performers and stage directors. Mr. Fox knows the 
people to reach. 

So much for the theatre and newspapers: 

The public mind thus prepared, play the trump card with trouble on the 
Pacific Coast The thugs who engineered the escape of Harry Thaw from 
Mattewan will do anything for $1,000 apiece. Rioting in San Francisco, etc. 
against a few Japanese would be childs play for them. The riots against the 
Japanese begun. The asiatic Exclusion League, the anti- Japanese organization 



BRBWIKQ AKD UQXTOB INTEBE8TS AND QEEMAN PROPAGANDA. 1459 

of tho Pacific coast, enters the plan. Its president has served a term in 
j::U; he will do any tiling made worth his while. Then the William J. Burns 
A-.:ency mnst be comddered. Bums made his reputation by rounding up the 
o^fters In California. He sent the iwlitical boss of the stnte to the peniten- 
tiary and he secured evidence on municipal and police? officials that he did 
not use What about Burns forcing the police to nial?e a demonstration on 
the riots; what about Burns further fomenting the trouble in a state whose 
crooked denizens he knows so well? Get every California clergyman behind it. 
Ministers in tMs country love to see their names in tiie newspapers. They 
would rush to denounce the Japanese — especially if some outrages n gainst 
w«>nien were planted. It would be an easy matter for Burns to use some young 
tnd *• innocent ** prostitutes to the detriment of the Japs. 

Mr. Fox is to be Captain Von Pai)en's assistant in this matter and as such 
is to come to an agreement with him. Mr. Fox's part will be explained by 
Captain von Papen with the co-operation of Mr. Fox. Mr. Greene can attend 
to all these things. He is an experienced playwright. He wrote the following 
plays: ''The House that Kraut Built," "The Selling Price;* "Miss Strange." 
He has letters, etc. from managers that establish his ability in this 1 ne. On 
a special proposition he went to California last year nnd directed as well as 
devised the story for the most successful weekly installment moving picture 
play done up to then in this country — " Lucille Love." He also planned a Sec- 
onal big movie serial "The Trey of Hearts." A rapid worker, Mr. Greene 
<*f>uld turn out an anti-Japanese play in one month ; at the same time he could 
Hrrange for the vaudeville sketch and moving picture play. Like the drama, 
these latter should be produced in triplicate, etc. in different parts of the 
<i.untry. 

It 8 sug:gested that Mr. Green's price for the plan be made great enough to 
n»ver the Illustrated Sunday Magazine proposition so that no money changes 
hands directly on that. The production of the play would cost $20000. Mr. 
(rropne woul<} write a scenario as to plot, etc. and upon approving this Gapt. 
v<« Papen should pay him $5000. Upon completion of the manuscript and 
delivery for production $5000-additional should be paid. The other $10000 is 
to cover the cost of production^ 

For writing and producing the vaudeville sketch only $2500 would be needed 
in all. As to the cost of the m6ving picture play production Mr. Greene could 
bestt give the figure but it Is not high. 

Tlius the dramatic vaudeville and moving picture stages can be handled 
through Mr. Green, as well as reaching three million people every week through 
hin magazine syndicate. 

That ends the proposed plan. 

Attached to it is another memorandum for Capt. von Papen. 
[Beading:] 

By the IStli of Aprtl 

Senator Nelson. Whose plan is this? Who made this plan? 
Mr. BiELASKi. Edward Lyell Fox has admitted making this plan, 
and sabmitting it. 

By the 15th of April, the French had 800 10.5 C". M. guns ready for service. 
<hie of the I7n'ted States Army ol^ervers returning home from Glermany hy way 
of FarlH, learned this. 

Here is another little postscript, in Mr. Fox's own handwriting. 
[Beading:] 

DcAB Captain : I endoste the report in full. I would deem it a great favor 
if tomorrow yon could tell me some quietly — 

It reads ^^some quietly'' here; I suppose it means ^^ something 
OTiedy ''— 

and definitely about the German note. I wish to make some investments in 
fhe mnrk market and shall, of course, maintain the utmost confidence. May I 
rHnphcme yoo late tomorrow morning, and if it is agreeable to you then, I 
M*ii)d hasten down to your otfice and from there go to Wall Street. 
Bent wishes, 

B. L. F. 



1460 BBEWIKG AKD LIQUOB IKTEBEST8 AND QEBMAK FBOPA0AKDA. 

Some drafts of proposed telegrams to the foreign office have some 
bearing on Mr. Fox's relation with the German Government. 
This is December 19, 1914. [Beading:] 

BiELABKi Exhibit No. 42. 

Repeat urgently earlier sugi;estion about photographer Dawson and war cor- 
respondent Fox. It would be most undesirable if both should leave without 
accomplishing anything. Interview with King of Bavaria or Saxony in par- 
ticular desirable. In case interview is granted, have Fox send this to local 
press bureau, care of il. B. Claussen, 264 Riverside Drive, New York. Mov- 
ing pictures by Dawson, with Fox's cooperation, in which, if possible, corre- 
sfKinilents themselves appetir, urgently desire<1. Costs would be covered by 
big newspapers here. 

Senator Overmax. Who is Fox? 

Mr. BiELASKi. He is a correspondent, and he wrote some books^ 
also, for the propaganda bureau, which I omitted to mention this 
morning, because it is a very Icmg list: and he was dismissed from 
our Army because of these activities of his some time ago. 

Senator Neusox. Was he in our Army? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes: he went to Plattsburg, I think, and, so far 
as I know, he did notning after we got in the war that any patriotic 
citizen might not do. In fact, he onered himself as a soldier, and he 
went abroad; but, in view of his history, it was not thought safe 
that he should stay in France. 

Here is another mention of Fox. This is not dated. [Reading :} 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 43. 

Through arrangements with Wild man, the press bureau has an excellent 
opportunity to place important interviews. Urgently recommends American 
Journalist, Edward Lyell Fox, he secured for an audience with King of 
Bavnria or Saxony for interview on unity of the German Empire; with the 
president of the Reichstag on financial and industrial situation; with Albert 
Ball in on tlie Kaiser and the people; with the governor general of Belgium 
and East Prussia on suitable topics. Also desire an interview with a lady^ 
perhaps, with Mrs. Dernburg, on the women of Germanj*. Fox is not to cable 
the interviews, but to send them to Claussen by official channels, and Claussen 
will forward them to the press bureau. Please hurry censorship, or in given 
case leave to the press bureau. 

When Capt. von Papen returned, he took with him a number of 
papers, which the British took from him at Falmouth^ and among- 
them was a letter by Fox, which has been published in an officisd 
British document. Writing from Berlin he says : 

BnsLASKi Exhibit No. 44. 

My Dear Pafen: Just a few words to let you know how things are going. 
I explained to von Herwarth (lieutenant colonel now) the difficulties of your 
work in New York. I presented your letter to MaJ. Deutelmoser and delivered 
and posted everything else. Prince Hatzfeld had me out to luncheon and gave- 
me an interview on America's work in the German Red Cross which I hope 
to send out from Berlin by Saturday. 

Princes Friedrlch Leopold, of Prussia, had me out to Potsdam, and we got. 
up an interview on " The Spartan German Woman in Time of War.** But best 
of all there is something big coming Mi rough the Foreign Office — Prince Henry 
on the Freedom of the Seas. So you see I liave been fairly busy the short time- 
I have been here. 

On Sunday I start on a trip to see the cities of southern Germany in war 
time, and then I hope to get to the east front. 



BSEWIKO AND UQUOA INXEBJ3SIS AND QEBMAN PBOPAGANDA, 1461 

Tour Berlin looks wonderful this summer; the climate, they tell me, is un- 
usually Kood. Of course, on the part of the masses there Is an undercurrent 
a$minst Americans, but the people worth while are all splendidly broad-minded. 
It is my sincere conviction, and the belief of many other American correspond- 
ents here, that the misunderstandings between our countries is due to the poor 
advice and the warped viewpoint of the American Embassy in Berlin. President 
Wilson can not know the German viewxwlnt under existing: circumstances. 

Write me how things are going. Best wishes for successful work. 

Yonrs, E. L. Fox. 

Col. Edwin Emerson also went abroad as a correspondent. In 
his passport application early in 1915, he stated that he was born in 
New York January 23, 1869, whereas it appears from his statement 
of facts, which he furnished to Who's Who, that he was bom in 
Germany. 

On March 23, 1915, Bemstorff sent Emerson, care Harvard Club, 
by Postal Telegraph Co., the following message; 

I am exceedingly sorry to miss you here, as I have business in New York on 
Thursday. Papen will inform me. Best regards. 

BiKLASKi Exhibit No. 45. 

New York, ApHl 11, 1015, 
Harvard Club, 27 West Forty-fifth Street, 

My I>eab Count Bernstobff ; Since writing you last I have received by regls- 
lerefl mail your check of |1,000 for traveling expenses, for which I thank you 
\erT warmly. 

That was a letter signed " Edwin Emerson.'' 

Maj. Humes. What paper did he represent? 

Mr. B1E1.ASKI. I do not know that he represented any paper here. 
When he got abroad he represented the notorious Continental Times, 
I think it was, which was the German propaganda paper printed in 
English on the Continent and circulated over there, and also smug- 
gled into this country and circulated to some extent in this country. 

While he was in this country, in 1915, he traveled around giving a 
pro-German lecture. 

Another bit of information about his activities is contained in 
reports received from our consular oflScers abroad. 

He stated to the consular agency at Damascus that he was a colonel 
in the American Army, and was acting as war correspondent with 
headquarters at Berlin, and that he was writing for the Washington 
Post, and had come to Turkey to study conditions at first hand. He 
waa presented to Djemal Paaha, the minister of marine, commander 
of the Fourth Army, to whom he immediately began to state how 
badly our Army and Government was organized; how little sym- 
pathy the people of the countrv had with the President's action in 
breaking with Germany, etc. He presented a letter from the German 
chief of staff of the Turkish Army, which lauded him very much. 
He also had a recommendation from Capt. von Papen, which praised 
him for eminent services rendered to Germanv. He was one of the 
principal writers for the Continental Times. 

C>nr various consular and diplomatic officers have been trying to 
gi't hLs passport from him for a long time, but he knows it, and they 
have not yet gotten it. 



1462 BBEWIKO AKD LIQUOR INTEBESTS AKD OEBMAN PBOPAQANDA. 

As showing his close connection with the Germans, here is a pen 
written note from the Harvard Club, addressed to Albert. [Read- 
ing:] 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 46. 

Our mutual friend, General Consul Kilianl now with the Foreign Oflace In 
Berlin, was kind enough to give me, before I left Germany, several lines ad- 
dressed to you. 

As soon as convenient to you I would like to bring these lines to you. 

In the meantime I take the liberty of inviting you cordially to a little war 
address I am to give next Saturday evening, January 30, at the German 
Vereln on West 59th Street 

I sign. Sincerely and Respectfully, 

Edwin Emerson. 

March 18, 1915, writing from 30 Church Street, New York, to 
Albert, he says : 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 47. 

I regret that I did not find you in your office when I called this afternoon. 

Since I last had the pleasure of seeing you I have been busily engaged in 
my war lectures. Every evening except Sunday I gave a lecture, many times 
twice a day. 

Now I have Just returned from New England. I gave lectures there in 
Hartford, Stamford, Boston and Cambridge, at Harvard University. 

Everywhere in New England I found the attitude extremely anti-German, 
but my lectures were well attended, and the public was generous enough to 
give me much applause. 

The best was the visit to the Harvard Club of Boston and to the University 
in Cambridge. Naturally I saw Muensterberg and the other German pro- 
fessors. Ex-Rector Eliot and the present Rector Lowell were also friendly 
enougfi to attend my lectures. 

At the Harvard Club in Boston the expectation was that I would speak for 
the Allies. For this reason possibly the large club was Jammed full, more so 
than ever since the opening of the club a year and a half ago. Even Mr. 
Roosevelt, I was told, did not have such a crowd. Naturally the people had to 
be disappointed when It appeared that I had also a good word for the Germans. 

At the university where a great part of the students is not at all in acconl 
with the faculty In Its war sympathies, I had such a crowd that in spite of the 
large room I had to deliver my address an hour before the appointed time. 
Respectfully, 

Edwin Emerson. 

He has the German habit of thinking rather well of himself. 

Another letter from Emerson to Albert, dated May 14, 1915, 
merely asked him to return a letter which he had left, and shows his 
connection with Dr. Fuehr. 

He says, on May 23, 1915, in a letter to Albert: 

What I really had in mind wviS to again heartily thank you, in conclusion, 
for your welcome and friendly assistance. 

I only wish I had taken more to heart your well-meant tip as to Marcus 
Braun. I had only diwigreeable experlem^es with the man. 

As showing his activities somewhat, I think on May 10 there ap- 
peared an article in the papers, the Washington Post, 1 think had it, 
fay Carl H. von Wiegand, in which he described Emerson's activities 
against Ambassador Gerard, and refers to his activities in printing a 
statement entitled, " Who Betrayed Casement " ; all of which goes to 
show that he was wholly in the service of Germany. 

Senator Overman. Before you go to anything else we will take 
an adjournment until half past 10 to-morrow. 

The subcommittee thereupon, at 5 o'clock p. m., adjourned until 
to-morrow, Saturday, December 7, 1918, at 10.30 o'clock a. m. 



BREWISG AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 



SATURDAY, DECEKBBB 7, 1918. 

Unitbd States Senate, 
sxtbgohmiitee op the committee on the judiciabt, 

Washingtony D. C. 

The subcommittee met at 10.80 o'clock a. m.. in room 226, Senate 
OiEoe Building, Senator Lee S. Overman presioing. 

Present: Senators Overman (chairman), Wolcott, King, Sterling, 
and Xelson. 

TESTDIOFr OF MK. A. BSTTCE BTETiASKT— BesTuned. 

Senator Overman. Mr. Bielaski, you may proceed in your own 
way. 

Mr. BiCLASKi. I think when we adjourned last night I had told 
yon sooiething of two correspondents who were sent over to Grer« 
many, and was about to say something about Mr. Archibald, as I 
recall it* 

Senator Nelson. Is not he the man ^at the British got hold of 
and tried? 

Mr. Bfee^ski. Mr. Archibald is the man that the British got hold 
of, bearing dispatches to Ambassador Dumba and Capt. von Papen, 
aiiud Consul General von Nuber, and so on. 

Senator Nelson. Did they not try him and execute himt 

Mr. Bielaski. No; they did not. They sent him back' to this 
country, and he has been here ever since. 

Senator Overman. I got a telegram this morning, and I want to 
ask you if you know anything etee in regard to Prof. Hart, except 
what appears in the Fuehr list? 

Mr. Bielaski. Mr. Chairman, if it is agreeable to you, I should 
like to let that go until after lunch, when I will have an opportunity 
to look up one or two matters. 

Senator Overman. I have asked Maj. Humes to telegraph him to 
be here Tuesday morning. 

I understand, Mr. Bielaski, that you have documents to prove 
cverjrthin^ you have stated, except when you say that you believe 
eertain things from circumstantial evidence? I notice one of the 
papers said Uiis morning that you had made certain statements with« 
oat showing any documents to prove them. As I understand it, you 
have documents to prove evei^hing you have stated before this 
committee, except where you state that you believe it from certain 
eircumstances ? 

Mr. BiELASKL Yes. 



<6 1468 



1464 BSBWIKG AND LIQUOA IK1!BBB8IB AND GE&ICAN FB0PAGAJn)(4. 

Senator Nelson. That is the way I understood it. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Mr. Archibald left this country on the 20th of 
August, 1915, bearing two letteris of recommendation from Ambas- 
sador Bernstorff, and a letter from von Papen, dated August 20, 1915, 
of which the following is an extract from a translation : 

Mr. James F. J. Archibald is again traveling to Germany and Austria-Hun- 
gary, as on previous occasions, in the capacity of a scrupulously impartial 
Journalist desirous of collecting fresh impressions. 

Mr. Bernstorff 's letters of introduction are just the usual letters 
asking that his travel be facilitated. 

Here is a photographic copy of a receipt dated April 21, 1915, 
signed by Mr. Archibald, acknowledging the receipt of $5,000 from 
the Grwrnan Embassy in Washington. The receipt is in German. 

Senator Overman. I know a good deal about this man Archibald, 
but will you state for the record who he is, what he has done in this 
country, and whether he is a native-born American citizen ? 

• Mr. Bi£i4ASKi. Mr. Archibald has been a writer, a lecturer, a news- 
paper correspondent, and was, I think, rather prominent as a cor- 
respondent in the Eusso- Japanese war. He is an American citizen. 

Senator Nelson. Native born? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Native born, I think ; yes. He is a resident of New 
York City at the present time, I think. 

Senator Overman. He is now living in this country? 

Mr. Bielaski. Yes; I think be has been in this country continu- 
ously since he was turned back by the British. 

As an evidence of what he really did, he went over ostensibly as 
the representative of the Wheeler Syndicate. They had contracts 
with him and with papers to use the material which he was to send. 
On October 27, 1914, which was prior to this last experience, Mr. 
John Wheeler telegraphed Mr. Archibald at the Hotel Bristol, Ber- 
lin, as follows: 

BiELASKi ExHiBrr No. 48. 

New Yobk, October 27, 1914. 
James Abchibaid, Hotel Bristol^ Berlin, 
Papers quit, charging unfairness. We stop. John Wheeler. 

• Charge to Wheeler Syndicate, Inc. 

Senator Sterling. Were any proceedings ever instituted against 
Mr. Archibald? 

Mr. BiELASKi. No, sir; I think it was the view of the department 
that there was no law which adequately reached his case. The only 

Possible statute, I think, that was considered was section 5 of the 
^enal Code, which has to do with the carrying: or the writing of com- 
munications to diplomatic representatives of foreign Governments 
about matters in controversy between our Government and fore[ign 
Governments. 

Senator Nelson. The espionage act had not been passed at that 
time? 

Mr. BiELASBJ. Oh, no, sir; this was in 1915, and the espionage act 
was not passed until June 15, 1917, and it was not possible, of course, 
to show absolutely affirmatively that Mr. Archibald knew the con- 
tents of the letters he was carrying. If you are interested in what 
he did carry, and what that plan was, 1 can give it to you very 
briefly. I think I should like first, however, to put in one letter show- 



BBBWIKQ Alil> UQUOB INTBBS8I8 AKD QBBMAN PBOPAQAKDA. 1465 

ing his attitude in his dispatches. This is a letter dated November 4, 
1914. to Archibald, which I believe was written by Mr. Wheeler, of 
the syndicate. [Reading:] 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 49. 

NOVEMBEB 4, 1914. 

Mr. James F. J. Aschibald^ 

% Archduke Frederick's Headquarters, Austria. 
Dkab Mr. Abchibald: 

I am sorrj" to have to write you that we have had to terminate your war 
service with the newspapers. On October 27th we sent you a wireless to this 
effect, care the Hotel Bristol, Berlin, via the Tuckerton station, the Sayville 
station refusing to accept commercial messages. 

The New York papers refused to continue the service. The New York World 
daims you promised It to go to Austria, and not to Germany; and all three 
papers, because your stuff was so pro-€ierman, refused to print the most of 
it and refused to go on with the service, charging undue bias on your part. By 
the v«Tr 'nature of the stuff you have sent over, we have been forced to agree 
with these papers that your matter has not been news, which you agreed to 
send tmck, but in the nature of pro-German personal opinions and editorials. 
Our understanding with the papers was that we were to furnish them with 
news throagh you, from the Austrian-German side; instead what we received 
from you has been in the nature of editorial matter strongly pro-German. The 
papers wanted battle front news from you, we contracted to give them such 
news from you, and, naturally, when we could give them nothing largely but 
your strongly biased personal opinions, they terminated the service, making it 
necessary for us to terminate the service with you. 

Here is a telegram showing the close relationship between Mr. 
Archibald and the Germans. It is to Mr. Albert from von Bern- 
storff. 

Senator Nelson. What is the date of that? 

Mr. BiELASKi. March 15. The telegram is as follows : 

BnciAaia Exhibit No. 50. 

Washington, D. C, March 15, 1915. 
ifr. H. F. AiBCST, 105 B, SSrd St., 

I have received films. Do you want them or 9hall I give them to Archibald? 

J. Bernstohff. 

It also developes that Archibald had made an arrangement, I 
think unknown to his employers, whereby the Germans were getting 
a copj' of his dispatches, as well as the syndicate that employed him. 

He gave lectures, and I have here a report from a representative 
of the Secret Service Division of the Treasury Department in 1917, 
reporting to the chief of that service that Archibald delivered a 
lecture at the Potter Opera House in Santa Barbara, last April or 
May; that it was so pro-German that he was hissed, and a number 
of people left the audience. That is simply to give you an idea of 
thepart the $5,000 played in his services. 

The plan that he took over was a plan for propaganda among the 
Austro-Hui^rians, the laboring population. 

Senator Nelson. Employed in this country ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Employed in this country. It inclosed a memo- 
randum prepared by Mr. William Warm, who at that time was a 
writer for foreign-language newspapers. Almost immediately after 
Mr. Archibald's apprdiension Mr. Warm made a confession to an 
agent of the Department of Justice, in which he admitted the au- 
thordiip of the memorandum', and told the circumstances under 



1 466 BMJWING AND LIQUOR INTEBE8T8 AND GEBMAN PBOPAQAITOA. 

which he had presented it to Ambassador Dumba himself at the 
Ambassador's hotel in the presence of Consul General von Nuber, 
the New York consul for the Austro-Hungarian Government. 

I should like to read a part of that memorandum, if I could lay 
my hand on it. I have it in the foreign langauge, but I can not find 
the translation. 

It is interesting also to note that in connection with this matter 
it developed that Warm was the author of a moving picture play 
entitled "Blood is Thicker Than Water," which was financed to the 
extent of $250 by the Austro-Hungarian Government. I do not re- 
member all the details of it, but the striking point in the play was 
showing Austro-Hungarian workmen working in munition factories, 
making munitions which were afterward used to kill some of their 
relatives on the other side, and in one scene the munitions factory 
which was making the shells was burned down. The play did not 
attribute the burning to any Austro-Hungarian in the plot at all, but 
to a rival manufacturer; but the suggestion was rather obvious. 
We have a copy of the check by which this man was paid the $250. 

Senator Overman. The suggestion was of burning the munitions 
plant? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes; it was an indirect suggestion, so we thought. 

Senator Overman. Like the I. W. W.? 

Senator Sterling. It probably was for the purpose of the sug- 
gestion, was it not} 

Mr. BiELASKi. We also have a photographic copy of the letter 
transmitting the check, and we have Mr. Warm's admission of the 
receipt of the check. 

Senator Overman, How mudi was it? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Two hundred and fifty dollars. 

The letters which were taken from Mr. Archibald at that time wero 
very well known. They were the letter, for instance, of von Papen 
to his wife in which he referred to the " idiotic Yankees," and got 
himself quite some notoriety thereby. The whole thing resulted in 
the recall of Ambassador Dumba. 

Here is the inclosure which was sent, and which was prepared by 
William Warm. This is a translation of it. We have in our files a 
photographic copy of the original, which has been identified by Mr. 
Warm as a copy of the memorandum he gave to Ambassador Dumba. 
It is as follows : 

Br£XA8Ki Exhibit No. 51. 

(Translation. Inclosure In Dr. Dumba's letters to Baron yon Burlan, Ang. :e\y, 1915.] 

I must divide the matter into two parts — the Bethlehem and the Middle West 
Business, hut the point of departure Is common to hoth, viz: Press notation, 
which is of the greatest importance as regards our Hungarian-American work- 
men, and by means of the Press we can reach both Bethlehem and the West. 
In my opinion we must start a very strong agitation on tMs question In the 
** Freedom ", (Szabodsog), a leading organ, with respect to the Bethlehem works 
and the conditions there. This can be done In two ways, and both must be 
utilized. In the first place a regular daily ^section must be devoted to the con- 
ditions obtaining there and a campaign must be regularly conducted against 
these Indescribably degrading conditions. The " Freedom " has already done 
something similar In the recent past, when the strike movement began at Bridge- 
port. It must naturally take the form of strong, deliberate, decided and coura- 
geous action. Secondly, the writer of these lines would begin a Labour-novel in 
that newspaper much on the lines of Upton Sinclair*s celebrated story, and this 



SBBWIKO ARD UQUOB INTEBBAT8 AND QERMAN PSOPAOANPA. 1467 

might be publi^ed In other local Hungarian, Slovak and German newspapers 
also. Here we arrive at the point that naturally we shall also require other 
newspapers. The American Magyar Nepszava (Word of the People) will un- 
doubtedly be compelled willingly or unwillingly to follow the movement ini- 
tiated by the "Freedom" (Szabodsog), for it will be pleasing to the entire 
Hunj^rian element in America, and an absolute patriotic act to which that 
open journal (the Nepeszava) could not adopt a hostile attitude. 

Of course it is another question to what extent and with what energy and 
devotion that newspaper would adhere to this course of action without regard 
to other Influences, just as it is questionable to what extent the other local 
patriotic papers would go. There is great reason why, in spite of their putri- 
otLsmu the American-Hungarian papers have hitherto shrunk from initiating 
such action. The position is as follows. To start with, the Szabodsog which 
todajr is one of the greatest, in every respect, of the papers printed in a foreign 
language in America, has already made gigantic sacrifices from a patriotic 
point of view. Others have only a faint Idea of the magnitude of the homeward 
migration that will take place directly after the termination of the war, whereas 
the Hungarian papers have direcrt and better opportunities of observing the 
shadow wliich that gigantic migration homewards always casts before It It is 
the ttLCt that the paper alone used by the Szabodsog, for example, in printing 
only those copies which go to subscribers who are in arrears with their sub- 
scriptions; costs at least $1000 a month, while the actual total cost of the paper 
does not amount to more than $3500. In view of this fact that one-third of the 
total subscribers get the paper for nothing, or at an events on credit, you can 
see wliat a patriotic action this newsptiper is performing. Xatunilly under 
such circumstances you can hardly expect that such a paper should go much 
further In the way of violent agitation which would have the result of making 
their subscribers now in regular work unable to meet their subscriptions, as, 
for example, the Bethlehem workers. I have long been wishing to start a 
direct movement in that paper, but the above point view made us hold our hand. 

The position of affairs is much the same with the American-Hungarian 
Hepszara as you might conclude from the special appeal addressed by the 
editor at the beginning of the war to his readers. The local Hungarian 
papers also suffer from the fact that a part of their subscribers are in arrears 
with their subscriptions as they are out of work, while others are slow In 
paylni; because they want to go back to Hungary. To what extent this Inten- 
tion of naigrating homewards influences the whole matter is shown by the fact 
that at present very many only pay their subscriptions for a quarter of a year 
in advance, contrary of their previous custom, for they think that the war will 
be over before the end of the quarter. In a word, the shadow of the great 
hnmeward migration and, in many places, the bad condition of affairs, have 
brought the American Hungarian papers to such a position that they must be 
careful In all matters which might cause them further loss by affecting the 
ability of their subscribers to pay their subscriptions In advance. Under 
these circumstances, it is not only fair but necessary that If we wish to reckon 
<in tlie enthusiastic and self-sacrificing support of these pfipers in the cause 
of sny strike-movement, and we must be in a position to reckon therewith. It 
will be neoesfsary to give these papers a certain degree of support so that 
they may not suffer for their action. In the Interest of successful action at 
Betldebem and the middle west. 

• • * besides the Szobodsog, the Nepszava. the new daily paper of Pitts- 
burg must be set in motion, and those of Bridgeport Youngtown District, etc. 
al^> two Slovak papers. Under these circumstances, the first necessity is 
money. T«» Bethlehem must be sent as many reliable Hungarian and (Jermiin 
workmen as I can lay my hands on who will Join the factories and begin 
tiiWr work in secret among their fellow workmen. For this purpose, I hove 
luy men Turners In Steelwork. We must send an organizer, who In the inter- 
•^.H of the Union will begin the business in his own way. We must also send 
«»-cal1e<l " soap-box " orators who will know, and so to start a useful agitation. 
We shall want money for popular meetings and possibly for organizing picnics. 
In general, the same applies to the Middle West. I am thinking of IMttsburg^ 
fkutl Cleveland In the first instance, as to which I could give details only if 
I were to return and spend at least a few days there. 

I have already shown that much can be done with the Newspai>ers. We 
mnstt stir up men*s feelings. In Bethlehem a sensation was caused by the 
articles which appeared at the time of the strike at Bridgeport, and they 
broQi^t Bethlehem Into the affair. It is evident that to start a movement 



1468 BREWING AND UQTTOR INTBEEBTB AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 

from which serious results can be expected requires a sufficiency of money at 
the very start. The extent of subsequent expenditure for the most part 
depends on the work effected. For example, the newspapers must not receive 
the whole of the sum intended for them all at once, but only half of it. 

To the Union agitators only a certain amount should be given at first, and 
a larger sum in the case of success, or of a serious strike on the formation of 
a Union. It Is my opinion that for the special object of starting the Bethlehem 
business and for the Bethlehem and Western newspaper campaign, $15,000 to 
$20,000 must be able to be disposed of, but it is not possible to reckon how 
much will ultimately be required ; when a beginning has been made it will be 
possible to see how things develop, and where and how much it is worth while 
to spend. The above mentioned preliminary sum would sufilce to partially 
satisfy the demands of the necessary newspapers and to a considerable extent 
those of the Bethlehem campaign. It is in any case worth while risking this 
amount for it will undoubtedly show some result, and if circumstances are 
lucky, and the leadership good we can arrive at positive results in the West 
comparatively cheaply, whereas Bethlehem is one of the most difficult Jobs. 
I will telephone at 8 a. m. and I request you then to let me know where and 
when I can learn your opinion of my proposal which will require a considerable 
amount of verbal exposition. Finally I make bold to point out the fact that 
hitherto I have said nothing on the subject to anyone connected with the 
newspapers, and am in the fortunate position that In the case of giving effect to 
this plan I can make use of other names in the case of necessity for I have 
already in other matters made payments through other individuals. In any 
event in the case of newspapers, the greatest circumspection is necessary, ami 
no one but the proprietors must know that money Is coming to the under- 
taking from any source. 

Senator Overman. Where was that paper, Freedom, printed? 

Mr. BiELASKi. In Cleveland, Ohio, i tnink. It was a paper with 
which Mr. Warm was connected as an associate editor. 

Senator Nelson. In the Hungarian language? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. 

Maj. Humes. Is that the same paper that Horvath was connected 
with ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I am not absolutely certain. Our files show the 
complete facts with respect to the paper though, and we can get 
them if you wish. 

The last part of this translation relates to the causing of strikes 
at Bethlehem, and so on. The fourth page of the translation is 
missing and I will have to complete it for the record later. 

Senator Nelson. He advises the inauguration of strikes? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. 

Senator Nelson. Can you refer to that part of it? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I will put it in the recora. The fourth page of the 
translation is missing. 

Senator Overman. He did advise strikes though? 

Mr. BiEi^vsKi. Yes; and the ambassador transmitted this to his 
home Government, anid in his communication, stated that Von Papen 
thought it was important, and it was for that reason that he was 
recalled. 

Senator Sterling. Reference is made there to the American. Was 
that another Hungarian paper? 

Mr. BiELASKi. No; I tnink that was a description of the paper — 
Hungarian- American. That is the way he described it. I am sorry 
that a part of the translation is missing. 

Senator Nelson. You can supply that? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. 

Senator Nelson. It is very important that that should go in? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. 



BBBWIVa AHD UQirOB IKTERBSTB AND QBBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1469 

Senator Overman. What did Archibald have to do with that? 

Mr. Bi£LA8Ki. Archibald carried those papers in his possession, 
and in the records of Von Igel's office there was maintained a record 
book which showed on the vessels that sailed for Euro{>e the names 
of messengers, and opposite the boat on which Archibald sailed, 
under the heading ^^ messsenger,'' ap{)ears Archibald's name, so that 
in carrying these things he was acting as a messenger. But as I 
stated at the outset we could not prove that he knew the contents of 
the communications he was carrymg. 

Senator Nelson. Did they have messengers on many boats? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes; they had messengers on almost every boat that 
sailed to a neutral country; that is, during the period of our neu- 
trality. 

I made mention yesterday of the National Courier, a magazine 
established here bv Mr. Theodore. E. Lowe. He was the editor of 
a magazine known as New York Topics, which went on the rocks, 
and also published the International Courier, 150 Nassau Street. 

He was of German origin, and his wife was a German. I think 
I read yesterday an extract from Mr. Bernstorffs telegram, which 
you will doubtless recall, reporting to the foreign office that he was 
making payments to Lowe. 

Senator Overman. Was Lowe established here in Washington? 

5fr. BiEiASKi. Yes. 

Senator Overman. Was his magazine circulated to any extent? 

Mr. Bielaski. It had some circulation. It was advertised quite 
extensively in the street cars. 

Senator Nelson. What was the name of the paper? 

Mr. Bielaski. The National Courier. 

Senator Nelson. Here in the city ? 

Mr, Bielaski. Yes. They purported to have a woman correspond- 
ent They advertised " Miss So-and-So will say,'' with respect to the 
National Courier, trying to get up an interest in the paper. 

Here is a letter written from Asheville, N. C, Christmas Day, not 
dated, but the envelope show3 that it was 1916 (reading) : 



Bielaski Exhibit No. 52. 

AbBolutely fireproof, 
betel in the world.] 



(Orove P&rk Inn, Aabeyllle, N. C. AbBolutely fireproof. Open all the year. Finest resort 

in th* 



Crbistmas Day. 

Ueas Mr. Mobbibon : Received fieveral pnperH also package for Mrs. Ix)we 
from CTilraffo. No letter. Did you write Saturday? Were any deposits made? 
Kiinny maU the enclosed letter at once to Dr. EMler. As soon as he phones yon 
til rail at the Embassy, please do so. He win pay you $500. — ^which, please, 
dt^MMlt at the Second National. Wire me *' collect " as soon as the deposit has 
been made. 

Wrote to Mr. Garthe regarding Editorials. Writing Miss Stlnson and Miss 
Walflni; to-morrow. 

Best regards to all of yuu. 
Cordially. 

Tbdbo. Lowb. 

P. — If Dr. Edler asks you what position you fill at the Office, tell him you 
are my secretary. 

Dr. Edler wa.s connected with the German embajssy in Washington. 
Senator Ovbbmaiv. What hotel was that written from ? 
Mr. Bielaski. The Grove Park Inn, a very expensive hotel. 



1470 BSBWINQ AKD LIQUOB IIITBBB8TB AKD QEBMAN PBOPAGAJn>A. 

Senator Overman. Most expensive, and one of the best in the 
country. 

Mr. jBiei.4ski. Yes. 

Here is a letter showing. that Mr. Garthe was connected with this 
paper. Mr. Glarthe is the Washington correspondent for the Balti- 
more American and was connected with the National Courier. He 
wired Mr. Lowe April 13, 1917 : " Have deposited money at Ameri- 
can Security, as requested." I will come to his connection with Dr. 
Albert 

Senator Sterllno. You say he was connected with this paper. 
You mean with the National Courier ? 

Mr. Bjelaski. With the National Courier j yes. This simply shows 
his relations with Lowe, and I do not think it worth reading. 

Here is a letter written to the ambassador. 

Senator Nelson. By whom? 

Mr. BiELASKi. It is not signed, but it comes from the files of Mr. 
Lowe [reading] : 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 53. 

National Press Club, 
Washington, October 27, 1916, 
His ISxcellency Count J. von Bebnstobff, 

M'ashingtonj D, C. 

YovB Excellency: Notwithstanding Dr. Edler*s instructions not to annoy 
Your Excellency with further communications and the gentleman's apparent 
desire to have me discontinue the Courier, I deem it necessary to thank Your 
Excellency once more for all kindness shown to me. Our next issue will demon- 
strate that our commercial prospects are brighter to-day than ever l>efoi'e. 

I discussed with your legal representative, Mr. Clifton, who is aiding me 
in the most unselfish manner, Your Excellency's Secretary's criticism concern- 
ing the publication of the French notes as sent to us from Paris from week 
to week. Mr. Clifton agrees >vith me that tlie notes will help the neutral 
tendency of the National Weekly which, at the same time, endeavors to serve 
the Just cause of Germany, next to *' Patriotism First." My labors have 
only just begun and my aim is to serve Your Excellency to my utmost ability. 
Your Excellency's 

Most grateful servant. 

Senator Overman. Who was his legal representative? 

Mr. B1EL.A8K1. Mr. John Clifton was a lawyer here, I think in the 
Woodward Building in Washington. He represented the German 
Embassy in some prize matters growing out of the Appam^ I think. 
I believe he figured in some affairs in New York City, growing out 
of Mr. Morgan's office and the disappearance of some papers, and 
so on. What his connection with that was I do not know. In this 
matter he handled, I think, the final adjustment between Lowe and 
the German Embassy. He told me, I think, that he got for Mr. 
Lowe about $8,000. I do not recall the exact figures, but Mr. Clif- 
ton told me about them, and I have no doubt he would furnish the 
exact details if you wanted them. 

Senator Overman. Where is this man Lowe now? 

Mr. BiELASKi. The last I heard of him, very recently, I think he 
was in Philadelphia. 

Senator Overman. Is he connected with any press association 
there? 

Mr. BiELASKi. No; I do not think so. He was working in some 
subordinate capacity there. Our Philadelphia office was keeping in 
touch with him. 



BBBWIKG AND IJQUO& INTEBE81B AND GEBICAN PBOPAaANDA. 1471 

Here is a letter dated January 8, 1917, to Dr. Heinrich Albert, 
written on the letterhead of the Tf ational Courier, signed by Theo- 
dore Lowe (reading) : 

BiELABKi Exhibit No. 54. 
{Natkmftl Courier, Second National Bank BnUding. P. O. box 1242.] 

Washington, D. C, January 8, 1917. 
Hon. Dr. Heinbich Albebt, 

Imperial Privy Counsellor, 

45 Broadway, New York. 

My Deab Db. : I j^m In receipt of a letter from His Excellency, the German 
AmbasKador, and am Informed that the contents of my recent letter to His 
Excellency have been sent to you. His Excellency directs me to communicate 
with yon directly. 

Mr. Louis Garthe will accompany me to New Yorlc and he tells me that he 
win find it most convenient to call on you Thursday morning. Will it be pos- 
sible to i^rant us an audience between nine thirty and ten thirty? 

Mr. Garthe is known to His Excellencj*. Since my associate has not the 
honor of your personal acquaintance, he has nsked me to Inform you that he 
refers to Mr. Rudolf Hecht or Mr. Fred Chandler of Chandler and Company. 
Trusting to receive the favor of an early response. 
Most sincerely, 

Theo. Tx)we, 
PublisJier National Courier. 

Senator Nelson. This man Garthe was correspondent of a Balti- 
more paper? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. Under date of January 9, evidently having 
to do with this letter, Theodore Lowe wired Dr. Albert as follows : 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 55. 

Washington, D. C, January 9, 1917. 
In. H, AiJBFxr, 

4$ Broadicay, N. Y. 

Omcerning letter yesterday Thursday impossible. Will Friday morning be 
<voTenient? Please advise wire. 

Theo. Ix>we. 

To which Albert replied : 

Bielasbi Exhibit No. 56. 

New York, January 9, 1917. 
TuKo Lowi; 

P, O. Box 1242, Woihinffton, D. C 

Unfortumitely prevented from seeing your friend on Friday. Arrange with 
Dr. Bonn to see liim at my office. 

Albebt. 

January 4 Mr. Lowe also wrote a letter to Ambassador Bernstorff 
about the work of the National Courier and sending him a copy of 
an editorial entitled " Future trade relations of the world." 

In this he makes reference to the coming call of himself and Mr. 
Garthe on Dr. Albert. 

Senator Steruno. With what Baltimore paper is Mr- Garthe con- 
nected ? 

Mr. B1ELA8XI. I am not quite sure. It is the paper of Gen. Felix 
.Vgnus. 

Senator Nelbon. That is the Baltimore American, 

Mr* BiEUiSKi. It is Gen. Agnus's paper in any event. 



1472 BBEWIKQ AND LIQUOB IKTEBESTB AKD GEBKAN PBOPAOAKDA. 

Dr. Albert received a letter dated January 26, 1917, from Theodore 
Lowe, in which he tells of having had an audience with the ambas- 
sador and hoping to hear from Albert. 

A letter dated January 31, 1917, simply shows* that they had had 
a conference and asks for the return of certain papers he left there- 

Here are a number of letters written by Mr. Edler, of the embassy, 
to Theodore Lowe, but they do not show anything in particular, ask- 
ing him to call, just simply showing their connection. 

Here is a copy of a letter dated February 4, 1917, on the letterhead 
of the National Courier, not signed, of course, a carbon, which shows 
the dependency of the paper on the Grerman Embassy. 

It is as follows : 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 57. 

His ExceUency von Bernstobff, 

Washington. 

Esteemed Excellency : We are deeply moved over the events of the last days 
and our heart Is open to you with the gfreatest gratitude for the many proofs of 
your unlimited friendship. 

At any rate It should cause your Excellency great satisfaction to read the 
expressions of recognition and the great respect on the part of the American 
press in the newspaper reports of to-day. 

The thing that your Excellency endeavored to accomplish on a large scale by 
the use of your diplomatic capabilities — the strengthening of the American 
friendship for the establishment of a world peace — served me as an inspiration 
for my plans and efforts In the journalistic field. 

I fear indeed that with the departure from this country of my highly valued 
and helpful friend, the possibility of continuing my work will be greatly lim- 
ited. And I believed my.self so close to the goal, striving with the consciousness 
that the just cause of our German friends, w^ho play such an important part in 
their adopted country, could be promoted in the best way through a national 
newspaper such as I was endeavoring to create. 

It may perhaps be within your power, Esteemed Excellency, to cause one 
of your friends, who are so numerous, to make It possible to continue the 
undertaking for w^hich, to the greatest extent, you laid the valuable foundation. 
ThiSi not from the point of view of a philanthropist, on behalf of the repre- 
sentation of German commercial interests, but also as a financial .success, 
which I am approaching more and more. 

I, too, feel during these serious days that all my ideals for the eventual 
creation of a newspaper which endeavored to serve the adopted land, America, 
and my friends in Germany at the same time — endeavors In which I was 
inspired and supported by your Excellency In an unselfish manner — ^are lost 
forever. 

Yours respectfully. 

That was written the day after the severance of diplomatic rela- 
tions. 

Senator Overman. He speaks of this country as his "adopted'' 
land. 

Mr. BiEiiASRi. Yes; he was bom in Grermany. 

Senator Steblinq. And the "esteemed and valued friend" then* 
referred to is Count Bernstorff. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. Here is the translation of a carbon copy of 
a letter, dated February 12, 1917, which we believe was addressed 
to Mr. Bernstorff. It is as follows : 

BiELASRi Exhibit No. 58. 

Febbuary 12, 1917. 

KsTEKMED Excellency: I hate just spoken with Mr. Oarthe, who told me 
about his conference with you. I have also discussed the matter with my wife 
once more and she feels as I do that my last letter^ to your excellency have 
been obviously misunderstood. 



BREWTKO AKD LIQTJOK IKTEBESTS AND GEBMAN PBOPAGAKDA. 1478 

On the occasion of the interview which was panted to us a few weeks ago, 
it was made dear to us that It Is not your wish to abandon me now as a 
failure, since your excellency has become convinced that all my work was 
cnrried on in your Interest. To repeat your own words — the newspaper should 
not vanish like a soap bubble after your departure. On your part there appear 
to he no reasons not to continue to help me. at any rate not to supply me with 
the sum aKreed upon until the first of April, and further to consider the pos- 
sibility to assist me on a greater scale if circumstances permit, and, if pos- 
sible, to interest friends on behalf of the enterprise. 

Is it necessary today once more to describe to you my situation? The funds 
wWch were granted to me were sufficient to pay my co-workers, after defray- 
ing the publication expenses of the newspaper, thus leaving me personally 
totally without means. I explained to your excellency that there are pros- 
jKH*ts to secure shortly the participations of other interests, which, of course, 
would be impossible if publication of the paper should suddenly cease. 

Of the funds grantel to me on April 1st, one half has been paid to me to 
date, and I shall, therefore, be unable to meet my obligations If your excel- 
len<-y should suddenly withdraw now. My wife, who, next to you, has inspired 
me in my work. Joins me in my urgent request that you grant my most 
ardent wish. As is known to your excellency, my wife has not been two 
years in this country and is totally dependent upon me, inasmuch as all her 
relatives live In Germany. 
Respectfully. 

Senator Ovbbman. Have vou found any connection between 
(larthe and this fellow Lowe? 

Mr. B1EX1A8K1. He contributed, I think, to the paper, and, as shown, 
was participating in the conferences with Albert. I do not know 
whether his name appears on the paper or not. 

Senator Nelson. I hardly think the Baltimore American could 
have any connection with it. Felix Agnus is an Alsatian by birth. 

Bfr. B1EIA8K1. The Baltimore paper was in no way whatever in- 
volved in this. 

Senator Nelson. The Baltimore American is as loyal as any paper 
in the country. 

Mr. B1ELA8KI. I think so. This was purely the connection of a 
EDan who happened to be employed by that paper, and I think en- 
tirely without the knowledge or consent of anyone connected with the 
paper. I do not see in this announcement anything that shows that 
Mr. Garthe was openly connected with it. 

There is one little interesting thing that we found in looking up 
Mr. Garthe which might be considered interesting to the committee 
because of the way this war started. It shows that back as far as 
December, 1912, Hugo Schweitzer, who was a German chemist, had 
arranged an interview between Lowe and George Sylvester Viereck, 
and that while then connected with the New York Town Topics was 
being assisted by the brewers. This letter comes from Mr. Lowe's 
files [reading] : 

B1ELA8KI Exhibit No. 59. 

IXew Torfe Topics, New York's popular weekly. l»ubH«hed every Saturday by Theo. Lowe. 
160 Nuaan Street. New York City. P. O. box 1080. Office of the publlahers. Ten 
It* ft copy, llTe dollars a year.] 



Deab Sib; The enclosure was publtRhed in onr publication several weeks ago. 
We nre pramotlDg your intereets and ask for your support. The leading 
br e w e m In the Cnlt^ States aid us by subscribing for ten copies of our maga- 
zine to be sent each week to parties designated by the subscriber. The annual 
foet of ten sabscrlptlons Is fifty dollars. 

We have a special department devoted to the Interests of the United States 
P rew e r a and the articles mre prepared by authorities on the subject. We fight 



1474 BRBWINQ AND LIQUOB INTBBB8T& AND OEBMAN PBOPAGAKDA. 

prohibition in an effective and dignified manner. Owing to our select circula- 
tion, we reach desirable readers. You are probably aware of the fact that 
Margaret Howe, a niece of President Wilson, is our Social Editor. 

The enclosed list gives the names of a few prominent brewers who have aided 
us in our efforts. Will you kindly return the list with your signature and 
check? 
Please call on us whenever we have an opportimity to serve you. 
Most sincerely, 

Editor and Publisher, 

The inclosed list, which contains the signatures of quite a number 
of breweries, shows the number of copies which they took to support 
the publication. 

Senator Overman. You had better let it go in the record. 

Mr. Bjelaski. It is back in 1912, but it shows the connection be- 
tween the brewing interests and a man who afterwards was active 
in the German propaganda. 

Maj. Humes. What is the name of the periodical he was publish- 
ing at that time ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. New York Topics, 150 Nassau Street, New York. 

The list referred to is as follows : 

BiELASKi Exhibit Xo. 60. 

TO WHOM IT MAY CQNCERN : 

To aid THE INTERNATIONAL AND REVIEW OF TWO WORLDS in pur- 
suing its liberal policy' and furthering our interests by means of desirable 
publicity, we, the undersigned, are desirous of increasing the circulation of 
said magazine and herewith subscribe to said magazine for such number of 
copies as specified below: 

Theodor Finkenauer Brewing Co. 

Theo. J. Finkenauer, Secy Pd. 10 copies 

The Roesssle Brewery 

Walter Alcarl, Manager Pd. 10 copies 

Haffenreffer & Co. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Marcus Braun, New York City, was the editor of 
Fair Play, 501 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Senator Nelson. Before you go into that please give us the pedi- 
gree of Marcus Braun. 

Mr. BiELASKi. I have it in the files. He was of Hungarian descent 
and came to our attention because of his close association with the 
Austro-Hungarian interests in New York City. 

Senator 0\'erman. Was he employed at one time by the Govern- 
ment? 

Mr. BiELASKi. He was employed by the Government as an immi- 
gration inspector, I think, under the Roosevelt administration, and 
made' quite a study and a long report on immigration conditions. 

Senator Overman. He wrote a book on the subject, did he not? 

Mr. Bielasb:!. He may have done so. He got quite some recogni- 
tion for his work as an immigration inspector. 

The first connection between Fair Play, Marcus Braun, and the 
Germans that we know anything about is shown in a letter of Feb- 
ruary 16, 1915, in which he sent to Dr. Albert tickets for a lecture of 
Col. Edward Emerson, about whom I told you something yesterday. 

On February 28, 1915, following up this lecture business, Marcus 
Braun wrote to Dr. Albert a letter marked ^ personal," which reads 
as follows: 



BBEWIKG AHD UQtJOB IISTTEBESTB AJSTD 6BBMAK PBOPAOAKDA. 1475 

BiKLASKi Exhibit No. 61. 

[F&lr Plftjr. a monthly reTlew. Edited by Marcus Brann, 501 Fifth ATenue.] 

PersonaL 

New York, February 2S, 1915, 
Dr. H. F. AI.BKBT, 

45 BroadvHiy, New York City. 

Mt Deab Sir: I take it for granted that you were present at last night's lec- 
ture of CoL Emerson, at Carnegie Hall, and judging from expressions heard 
from other sources, I also take it for granted that you were satisfied with the 
tone of Col. Emerson's talk. While we cannot claim that the newspapers 
treated us fairly, yet there appeared enough ahout it to show that the stuff 
which was heretofore printed about the German side was nothing hut a pack 
of lies and slowly but surely the truth begins to dribble through the thick sheet 
of fog. 

While the affair was not a success financially, I concluded to continue these 
lectures, and I am not arranging a tour for Colonel Emerson which will carry us 
through all Important places of the United States, with the hope that it will 
do a world of good. 

I received a letter from His Excellency, Count von Bemstorff, wherein he 
liiforms me that you have received a number of new films which we might use 
to good advantage, particularly those brought by Miss Beverldge and I write 
to ask whether you could place some of these films at our disposal. 

Where I propose to make a particular hit with the " War Talk ** of Colonel 
Emerson Is among the American population and not among the Germans and 
Austro-Hungarians because they know the truth without the lectures. 

I need some moral and financial support, hence I appeal to you, not so much 
for the lecture tour, as for ray publication *' FAIR PLAY *' which has suffered 
considerably since it started to take the only honest course a decent publica- 
tion ean take, that of telling the truth. I wish to emphasize that ** FAIR 
PLAY ^ Is not pro-German, nor pro-anything else but pro- American and above 
all, pttvtmth, and because of that it suffered considerably since the outbreak 
of the war. It ought to be a weekly publication thereby its usefulness would 
he mofe than hundred-fold, because even as it is now. It is liberally quoted all 
9V9T the country by American newspapers. 

1 would like to have the honor of a personal interview with you and would 
think you for an early reply when and where it would be convenient for you 
to see me. 

Yours respectfully, 

Marcus Braun. 

CLL-HB 

Here is the carbon of a letter dated February 25, 1915, addressed 
to Marcus Braun [reading] : 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 62. 

Fkbruary 25, 1015. 
Mr. ICarcub Braun, 
Bidtor Fair Play, 

501 Fifth Avenue, New York City, 

If T Dear Sir : Replying to your letter of February 28rd I regret to say that, 
in Rplte of the great Interest I take in your monthly review " Fair Play,** it is 
Impossible to assist you financially, as the funds here are already taxed to the 
■tDMMit For this reason, I am afraid that a personal interview would not 
■Iter the situation. 

"As regards the films for the lecture of Ool. Emerson, I shall advise you 
Ister. I will have to confer with the proper party and shall reply shortly con- 
feralng this matter. 

Youni very truly. 

Senator SrsRiiiNo. Is that from Bemstorff ? 
Mr. BuxASKi. That is from Albert, and at a later date he writes 
him and advises him that he has no films at his disposal. 



1476 BBBWINQ AND UQUOIt INOXEESTS AND GBBMAK FBOPAaANI>A. 

The New York World printed, and we also have copies of, a letter 
dated March 15, 1915, which reads as follows: 

BlELASKI £}XHIB1T No. 63. 
[German fimbaMj, WashingtoQ, D. C. J. No. 4344.] 

Washington, D. C, March 15, 1015. 

My Deab Mk. Braun : In answer to your favor of 12th instant I beg to say 
that I have read the monthly " Fair Play " for the last three years, and I can 
state that this publication has been living up to its name and that it has always 
taken the American point of view. During the last 7 months " Fair Play " has, 
in Its editorial policy, treated all belligerents justly and thereby rendered great 
services to the millions of foreign born citizens of this country, esi)eclally to 
tliose of German and Austro-Hungarlan origin ? " Fair I'lay " has fought for 
the rights of the latter and for truth, always maintaining an American attitude 
and showing true American spirit. 

You are at liberty to show this letter to anyboily who is interested In the 
matter, but I beg you not to publish it, as to this would be contrary to the 
instructions of my Government, who does not wish me to publicly advertize 
any reviews or newspaper. 
Very sincerely yours, 

J. BERN8TORFF. 

Marcus Braun, Esq., 

Editor of Fair Play, New York City. 

In connection with that is a check, dated May 28, 1915, which is as 

follows : 

Bielabri Exhibit No. 04. 

No. 

New York, May 28, 1915. 
KUUN IX)EB & Co., 

William and Pine Streets: 

PAY TO THE ORDER OF FAIR PLAY PRINTING & PUBLISHING 
COMPANY FIVE THOUSAND DoUnrs 

$5000.00. 

J. Bernstorff. 

Under date of April 16, 1916, we have a check, " Pay to the order 
of Fair Play Publishing Company $2,000," drawn on Riggs Na- 
tional Bank, and a copy of a receipt, dated New York, April 19, 1W6 

[reading] : 

Btelabki Exhibit No. 65. 

New York, April 19, 1915. 

His Excellency Count Johan B. Bebnstorff, 

Imperial Oerman Embassy, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Sir: We are very pleased to acknowledge receipt of your cheque this 
morning for $2,(X)0 and to thank you for the same together with the other sub- 
scription of $1,000 given some time ago. 
Thanking you again, we are. 
Yours truly, 

Fair Plav, 
Per J. P. Bryaw. 

Again : 

Kiel ask I Exhibit No. 66. 

New York, ApHl 20, 1915. 
His Excellency Count von Bernstoff, 

German Embassy, Washington, D. C. 

Your Excellency: I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your kind letter of 
the 16th instant, together with the enclosure of a check for $1,000. 

Marcus Braun.' 



BREWING Ain> UQTJOB INTEHBSTB AND GEBKAN PBOPAGANDA. 1477 

And a receipt dated May 3, 1915 : 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 67. 

Ilef-eived $1,500 (One thousand f\ve hundred dollars) from German Embassy, 
Washington. 
Washington, D. C, May 3, 1915. 

Mabcus Bbaun. 

There is other correspondence here 

Capt. Lester. Mr. Bielaski, that last payment of $1,500 was a 
personal payment to Marcus Braim from the German. Embassy, was 
it not, and not in connection with Fair Play ? 

Mr. Bielaski. There is nothing to show that it was. The receipt 
I think shows that it is a part of the official receipts of the German 
Embassy. It has a number on the comer, 228. 

Capt. Lester. Mr. Marcus Braun in his statement before Mr. 
Becker admitted receiving from the German Embassy $10,000 for 
the Fair Play magazine, but denied that he evei* received any money 
personally. 

Mr. Bielaski. I do not know of any way of determining just 
what that was. 

Capt. Lester. In his statement he said all the checks were paid 
to the Fair Play Publishing & Printing Co. 

Mr. Biklaske. I would take it from that receipt — ^that does not 
say a check. It says "$1,500,'* and is signed personally by him 
instead of by Fair Play. 

Capt. Lester suggests the introduction into the record of a pho- 
tographic copy of a code message which was taken from the von 
Igel papers, von Igel was the successor of Capt. von Papen after 
he returned. It shows the German code numbers with the code 
words from them« and the translation is as follows : 

Bielaski Exhibit No. 68. 

In re No. 303. Eui>hrat was sent by me to India in October of last year, 
and is so far as known here reliable. He was indeed recommended at the 
time by Marcus Braun. Please intimate to him cautiously that he should 
Dot tetl this person too much about his orders received in Berlin. 

Kan Frandsoo Is being informed. 

For: Hatzfeld. 

Mr. Euphrat was sent to India by the German Government, and 
was a Government witness in the Hindu trial at San Francisco. 

Senator Steruno. For what purpose was he sent to India? 

Mr. Bielaski. I do not know just what his testimonv was out 
there in San Francisco, but the obvious purpose was to observe and 
report on conditions in India with respect to anti-British agitation. 

Senator Neljbon. The work of the German propaganda was to 
get up insurrection? 

Mr. Bielaski. That was their propaganda, and in addition it was 
their active efforts. As you know, they have been convicted in large 
numbers in San Francisco for actually inciting that sort of thing; 

Senator Nelsok. The consul general and the whole staff were 
convicted? 

Mr. BiELASKL For actually setting on foot in this country mill- 
tary expeditions intended to bring about a revolution in India. They 
diippea arms and ammunition, a number of Hindu leaders going 
aloni;, but their plans miscarried. 



1478 BBBWING AND LIQUOB INOnSREBTB AKD OEBHAN PBOPAGANDA. 

Under date of December 24, 1915, is a letter from Marcus Braun 
to Dr. Albert. He acknowledges with thanks the receipt of infor- 
mation sent by Albert, and he asks that Albert in communicating 
with him do not use the mails. He does not think it is safe. The 
letter is as follows: 

BlELASKI EiXHIBIT No. 69. 

[Marcns Braun, editor Fair Flay, 501 Fifth ATenue, New York.] 

Decembeb 24, 1015. 
Dr. H. Albert, ' 

Privy Councillor, 45 Broadircy, City, 

My Deab Sib: I beg to acknowledge with thanks the receipt of the latest 
copies of the weekly report published by the American Association of Commerce 
and Trade in Berlin and thank you very much for your readiness to place fhem 
at my disposal. While they arrived too late to be of much use for the January 
Issue, I may be able to use the information contained therein, later. 

I would like to invite your attention to the fact that when addressing me to 
kindly not use the Unfted States Mail. As strange as It may seem, I notice 
that my mail is being tampered with both at my office as well as my house. 
I have already two complaints to the Post Office Inspectors, but so far I have 
not received a satisfactory reply to my complaints. In answer to my first 
complaint I was told that I am mistaken. The second, which I made about a 
week or ten days ago, I am still awaiting the reply to. If I do not get relief 
from that source I shall endeavor to have a Congressional investigation made. 

While I do not think for one moment that the Post Office authorities of this 
country are in any way to blame for the tampering with my American mail, 
yet I must assume that some foreign agents or representatives of our sensa- 
tional press have corrupted some man in the employ of the Post Office Depart- 
ment who probably have the opportunity of opening my mail before delivery, 
and while I have no correspondence with any one which could not be scruti- 
nized by anybody, yet^as a citizen of this country I resent nn unlawful act of 
this sort and If I should be able to lay my hands on the malefactor I shall cer- 
tainly go a long way to see that proper punishment is meted out. In the 
meanwhile, the less occasion given to tempt such culprits In their unlawfnl 
acts, 'the better ; and hence my request not to use, If possible, the U. S. mall 
for the time being. 

With renewed thanks for your readiness to secure for me the information I 
needed, I beg to remain, 
Yours very truly, 

Mabctts Bbaitn. 

Under date of January 21, 1916, Albert addressed Mr. Lindheim a 
letter which reads as follows : 

BlELASKI Exhibit No. 70. 

Strictly confidential. 

New Yobk, January 21, 1916. 

Mr. NOBVIN R. LlNDHEIM» 

60 Wall Street, New York City 

Mt Dkab Mb. Lindheim : Mr. Marcus Braun, who claims to have done very 
much for the German cause by making the " Fair Play " a pro-German publi- 
cation, has informed the Ambassador and myself that unless he hi furnished 
with funds to the amount of $4,600 — ^the "Fair Play** as well as his news 
service, " The Universal Press Association." most become bankrupt 

I hate to pay this sum and would very much prefer to let the undertaking go 
bankrupt. Braun is quite willing to agree to this if we had no objection to, 
what he calls, the unavoidable publicity. Will you please inform me what 
kind of publicity might arise of such a bankruptcy case. 

I need not mention that there are some particular delicate points in connec- 
tion with this matter which I would like to discuss with you, as soon as yon 
have looked over the papers which I send you herewith. As the matter is 
rather urgent I would be obliged to you if you could discuss the matter with 
me to-morrow morning between 10 and 12 o'clock. 
Yours, Ytfy tniij. 



BBBVriNO AND LIQUOB IWTEKEST8 AJTD aBKBCAK PBOPAGANT>A, 1479 

Senator Overman. By whom is that letter signed ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. That is a copy of a letter which I believe to have 
been written by Mr. Albert. 

Under date of January 26, 1916, is the translation of a letter ad- 
dressed to Ambassador Bemstorff, written from New York, I think 
by Dr. Albert, 

It is as follows: 

BiELASKi Exhibit Na 71. 
[Translation. ] 

Nbw Yokk, January 26, 1916, 

Yoxm £xcxlucncy: Yon gave me the authorization to come to a final under- 
standing with Marcus Braun in the matter of the suspension of his publication 
"Fair Play." 

Mr. Braun has been receiylng lat^y, as you remember, on the basis of an 
authorlzatloii from Berlin, a monthly subsidy of |1,200 to which sum I succeed 
in reducing his original demand of $4,000 per month. Braun declared as lately 
as last December, that he could not make both ends meet with that figure and 
would have to suspend publication unless he received a larger subsidy. With 
reference to this, I discussed with him, with Your Excellency's authorization^ 
the nsefalnesB of his publication in the German cause and made clear to him, 
accrading to my construction, we should not have sufficient interest in it to 
continue the publication or to subsidize It with n gre-itpr sum. Mr. Braun 
thereupon declared that we would be obliged In such circumstances, to let the 
undertaking go into bankruptcy. He referred to the publicity Involved which 
would be undesirable for us a reference which embodied the hint which was 
not to be misunderstood that he, in case he were left in the lurch, would have 
no hiterest In avoiding the scandal for the German cause which would arise 
in case of the bankruptcy of " Pair Play." What this hint means, needs no 
farther explanatioiL 

Althous^ I believe with your Excellency, that the scandal should be avoided 
in any case, and, therefore, with your authorization, take pains to come to a 
peaorable compromise with Braun, I still considered it from the beginning out 
of the question to satisfy his demands to the full extent. Such a yielding 
wc»uld have incite<l him to continual new demands and also ext<5rtion without 
mt I, therefore, declared to him at first that we would not be afraid of a 
bankruptcy, — that it might rather be desirable for us insofar as the lack of any 
rapport on the part of Germany, would thereby come to life, and similar 
arniraents. At the same time asked him for substantiation of his statements. 
It rppears from the enclosed summary that about $3,000 of debts have been 
innure^l while the payments on shares in the undertaking amount to approxi- 
luateiT another $3,000. 

Mr. Braun claimed on this basis about $6,000. and took occasion on account 
'}( my refusal to annoy Your Excellency by personal calls or calls from his wife, 
to increase the pressure. As the matter stands these calls will be, in fact, 
I<k»1uh] upon as undesirable. 

Under the cirouro.<;tanccs, I finally came to an agreement with him that bank- 
nijitcy was to be avoided. To this end I would put at his disposal sufficient 
wetLusi to meet his debts. The stockholders, on the other hand, would have no 
clalnia in the bankruptcy proceedings. Therefore, there was no occasion for me 
to take over these amounts. It should rather be left to the stockholders to see 
what they could do with their shares which, in the absence of assets, are value- 
1**H. Braun finally agreed to these terms. The sum of $3,074.20 was paid to 
iilm on that understanding. He has given a receipt, which is enclosed, for this 
tiun. 

I think I may assume that the above solution is the best way to dispose of 
the ftfTalr so far as an understanding can be arrived at now with a " black- 
mailer." There Is no complete security in this direction. I have, however, a 
well based hope that further payments for the avoidance of a scandal which, 
fftr political reasons. Is undesirable, are not necessary. The amount expended 
l>y me was returned to me from the propaganda fund of Mr. Fuehr. 

8672a— 10— vor 2 7 



1480 BBEWIKO AKD UQUOB INTERESTS AND QEBMAN PB0PA6ANDA. 

Senator King. Have you any record of payments made to Braun 
by the Austrian Embassy or representatives of the Austrian Em- 
bassy for Dumba ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I do not think we have. We have records showing 
that Braun, when he went abroad, carried with him certain records 
of the consulate to be delivered in Vienna. They disappeared on 
the boat, according to his testimony. We also have testimony from 
people who were associated with Braun that the purpose of his trip 
to Vienna was to get a subsidy from the Austro-Hungarian Gov- 
ernment, and that he stated while over there that he had succeeded 
in doing it. We have not any documentary evidence, and I do not 
know what the actual facts are. 

Senator King. My recollection was that there was some e\ndence. 
either in your department or the Post Office Department, showing 
contributions to him by Mr. Dumba, 

Mr. BiELASKi. I am not certain as to that. I have already intro- 
duced records of payments from Bernstorff. I have no knowledge 
that he actually got payments from the other people. 

Maj. Humes. What was the date of that last letter you read? 

Mr. BiELASKi. January 26, 1916. Inclosed in the letter is a state- 
ment of the assets and liabilities of the Universal Press Association, 
which was the Fair Play Co. 

Maj. Humes. Wlio was associated with Mr. Braun in Fair Play ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. A man named Joseph P. Bryan. Joseph P. Bryan 
is one of the men who obtained monev from the German Embassv. 

Senator Nelson. Is the paper Fair Play still published? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I do not know. 

The only other interesting thing here is a proposed draft of a 
circular letter which was inclosed, which Mr. Braun was going to 
send out, which is as follows : 

BmLASKi Exhibit No. 72. 

PROPOBKD DRAFT OF CIRCULAR LETTER. 

Dear Sir: The subscribers, friends and supporters of this publication wUl 
learn, perhaps with regret, the announcement that the publication of this 
periodical has been temporarily suspended. All claims for any Indebteilness 
have been, or will be paid in full and so will all unearned subscriptions be 
refunded in every Instance. 

The main reason for the suspension of the publication lies in the fact that , 
owing to the peculiar conditions existing at present in this Ck>untry, and 
more particularly owing to the hue and cry that is being raised against ever>- 
person who Is not out and out pro-Ally, I have decided to take this step. 
Personally I could well afford to have me called names, to have suspicion 
cast upon me and to have my Americanism questioned, but I cannot afford 
that the same fate and the same annoyance and the same suspicion should 
be cast upon my friends and supporters, many of whom have been harassed by 
visits, inquiries and threats from real or alleged secret service men, agent 
provocateurs and representatives of yellow newspapers. While it Is a very 
sad commentary on the seemingly Insane attitude of the country, I feel quite 
certain that the American public as a whole cannot and should not be blamed 
for it. It is however a pretty sad testimony for the spirit presently dominat- 
ing this country, when a public man after twenty-five years of residence and 
nineteen years of citizenship, out of which nineteen years he spent seven in 
the service of the Federal G<)vornnient and for four years was an officer of 
the State of New York, should have his good citizenship and his Americanism 
questioned by a man like Rathom of Providence, R. I. or by men of the type 
of Prof. Pupln, Dr. Gorlzer, and for that matter, also by greater and lesser 
"lights" who are temporarily running the destinies of this country. If my 



BBEWING AND UQUOB IKTEBESTS AND 6EBMAN PROPAGANDA. 1481 

AmerieaDism f^hoiild depend on a certificate of good character from sucU indi- 
Tidnalft, tben I say, it is not worth while having such citizenship. 

However, that is neither here nor there. The publication will be temporarily 
suspraded, until such time when the sane people of this country will again 
come Into their own : then, I hope to revive the publication again. 

Thanking one and all for the support which has been given this publication 
for over four years, I beg to remain 
Yours respectfully. 

Senator Overman. Do you know what position Braun held in New 
York as an officer ? 

Mr. BiEi«ASKi. I do not. I suppose it was something in connection 
with immigration. That was his connection with the Federal Gov- 
ernment. 

Capt, Lester. He was special inunigration officer. 

Maj. Humes. Do j-ou know whether or not Joseph P. Bryan was 
formerly connected with Viereck's Magazine? -' 

Mr. Beelaski. I do not know. Mr. Bryan, of course, became an 
assistant to the Government, and gave us a great deal of information, 
and we have a complete story of his history in our files. I have not 
got it with ine. 

Maj. HuM^. Do you remember how the stock that was issued to 
Bemstorff was held? Was it delivered to him, or was it held in 
e>crow or otherwise by a third party ? 

Mr. BiEUiSKi. I think it was held by a third party. That appeared 
in some of the correspondence. 

There is one more mention of Mr. Braun, which is of interest, 
Tvhich appears in the English translation of a cipher from Bernstorff 
to the foreign office, dated October 27, 1916. This letter discusses a 
number of things and particularly Marcus Braun. I read part of it 
yesterday, but I think I might as well read it all. [Reading :] 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 78. 

In the ofiiHiil act'ouiits for the firat and second quarter of 1916 will be fcnmd 
ditrtn of payments to Mr. Theodore K. I^we. Ak to thin I have to report that 
thL< gentleman is a German origin and married to a German lady. He offere<l 
w his fien.ice4<, as he founded a weekly paper In Washington, the '* National 
Coarler." This offer came at the time when we were deploring the death of Mr. 
John R. Maclean. This latter had given his newspaper an entirely anti-English 
daracter, so that his death left a great gajf which the ** National Courier *' 
cto unfortimately never hope to fill. The '* Washington Post '' has since been 
Wriy neutral, but may be entirely lost to us if it can not, as is very desirable, 
be put Into the hands of Mr. Hearst. 

As to tbe value of weekly papers in general, there ai-e here very different 
TievB. Mr. Bayard Hale wishes me to propose to you the founding of a first 
flus weekly, whereas I In my report No. 412 recommended the starting of a 
iwmthly. Personally I think It entirely depends upon whether we make a linppy 
choice in respect to the editor. In tills respect we have had a very unfortunate 
nperienoe with the " Times Mail.'* Only the future can show whetlier we shall 
hife better Uick with Mr. Huntington Wright and Mr. T. E. Lowe? In either 
case the expenses already incurred, or to he Incurred, are Insignificant. More- 
over we ruuld only grant them In order to help the publications in question over 
Clie difllcolt initial period. A permanent support has neither been promised 
nor asked for. The fact of an American newspaper being subsidlzeil can never 
be kept secret l>ecau8e there Is no reticence In this country. It always ends in 
my being held responsible for all the articles of any such newspaper. This 
is'particolarly undesirable when, as now, we are in an electoral campaign of 
die Utterest character, which Is turning largely upon foreign policy. 

I have tlierefore with much satisfaction to myself at last succeeded in getting 
out of all relations with " Pair Play *' of Marcus Brun. I should also l>e glad 
to be free from the " Fatherland " which has shown Itself to be of little value. 



1482 BBEWING AND LIQUOR INTEEfiSTS AND GEBMAK PBOPAGAlfmA. 

It is particularly difficult In a hostile country to find suitable persons for 
help of this sort, and to this, as well as the Lusitania case, we luny attribute 
the shipwreck of the German propafciinda inltiate<l hy Herr Dernbur;;. Now 
that opinion is somewhat improved in our fav4)r, and th;»t wo are no longer 
ostracised, we can take the work up again. As I have said before, our 
success depends entirely upon finding the suitsible people. We can then 
leave to them whether they will start a daily, weekly or monthly, and the 
sort of support to be given. In my opinion we should always observe the 
principle that either a representative of ours should buy the paper, or that 
the proprietor should be secured by us by continuous supiK>rt. The latter course 

has been followed by the English in n^spect of the ** New York " and our 

enemies have spent here large sums in this manner. All the same I do not think 
that they pay regular subsidies. At least I never heard of such. This form 
of payment is moreover inadvisable, because one can never get free of the 
recipients. They all wish to become permanent pensioners of the Empire, 
and if they fail in that, they try to blackmail us. 

I therefore request Your Excellency to sanction the payment In question. 

This is a very true statement of Mr. Bernstorff, I think. 

In the sentence, " The latter course has been followed by the Eng- 
lish in respect to the New York , the translation of that name 

does not appear, and I understand it could not be translated. 

Senator ISelson. By whom was that sent? 

Mr. BiELASKi. By Bernstorff to the German foreign office! 

Maj. Humes. What was the date? 

Mr. BiELASKi. October 27, 1916. 

Senator Sterling. Who is the Huntington Wright referred to in 
that letter? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I did not bring our files along. Suppose you let 
that go until after lunch, and I will get the file about him. 

Under date of November 2, 1916, we have the English translation 
of a telegram from Bernstorff to the Foreign Office, through Bue- 
nos Aires and Stockholm, which was furnished us by the State' De- 
partment, as was the one I just read, with permission to use it. 
[Beading :] 

I request by return, telegraphic authority for payment of $50,000 to estab> 
lish a first class monthly magazine. 

Senator Nelson. By whom was that sent? 

Mr. BiELASKi. To the German foreign office via Buenos Aires 
and Stockholm. • 

Here are a series of tele^ams furnished bv the State Department. 
The first one is an English translation of a telegram from Von 
Jagow, sent through Stockholm and Buenos Aires to Bernstorff on 
January 31, 1916. [Reading:] 

Klaessig's wireless telegrams are much too long and give the Impression of 
being much too one-sided, a thing which absolutely mi^st be avoidetl. 

Here is the English translation of a cipher dispatch from Bern- 
storff to the Foreign Office, dated February 2, 1916, which reads as 
follows : 

A 61. The Director of the Press Bureau, Dr. Fuehr, has been paid $20,000 
from the Embassy Fund as advance for his press expenses. The Press Bureau 
wUl send In a statement as the expenditure and the sum will be entered 
in the fourth quarter of the Embassy Accounts. 

Here is the English translation of a telegram from Berlin to 
Washington via Stockholm and Buenos Aires dated September 16, 
1916. pReading:] 



BBBWINQ Ain> LIQUOB IKTEEESTB AND GEBMAK PBOFAQANDA. 1483 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 74. 

The reports of the Wolff Bureau agent are rightly criticised by a part of the 
German Press as one sided, as he has reported for some time nothing but in- 
dignation against English encroachment which nobody here takes seriously. 

As the matter will probably be taken up in the Reichstag more unbiased re- 
ports seem to be urgently desirable. 

Please advise Klaessig in this sense. 

Some of the other activities of Mr. Klaessig can be briefly sketched. 

August, 1915, he was in conference with Boy-Ed about the sending 
of a cable on the preceding Friday about the Arabic, 

Senator Overman. How do you spell that name ? 

Mr. B1EL.ASKI. K-1-a-e-s-s-i-g. 

Senator Overman. What is his business? 

ilr. BiELASKi. He is the New York representative of the Wolflf 
Agencj'. He is an American citizep, lives over in Jersey, I think, 
but his work is in New York Citv. 

October^ 1915, Boy-Ed made a special request to Klaessig to get 
wide publicitv for the story Of the killing of certain German sailors 
by the steamship Nicotian^ and also to send wires to the other side. 

Klaessig was particularly anxious to know whether the ambassa- 
dor was asking this favor of him and wanted to get credit for every- 
thing he did. 

(.>ctober 7, 1915, Klaessig and Bov-Ed had another conference 
'about the same matter. On the same day they had a second confer- 
ence. 

October 13 Boy-Ed sent to Klaessig a lot of data in connection 
with this same story. 

All during October, 1915, and November, 1915, Klaessig and Boy- 
Ed were in constant touch about the sending of pro-German stories 
from this country to Gennany. Boy-Ed was particularly concerned 
at that time because of the Hamburg- American Line case which was 
on trial, and in which, of course, he was involved. He was very de- 
sirous that Klaessig should show Boy-Ed up in the proper ligiit to 
the Berlin folks at home in his messages, and he had a great many 
' conferences with him for that purpose. 

Senator Steruno. Klaessig has not been proceeded against in any 
way? 

Mr. BusLASKi. No; and I do not know of any way in which he 
could be, 

I said something awhile ago about the play "Bloo<l is Thicker 
than Water," and this is a photographic copy of the communication 
from the man who succeeded Dumba in charge of affairs at the Aus- 
trian Embassy, sending a check for $250. Here is an extract from 
that memorandum, of which I did not have the complete translation. 
[Rnding:] 

I am uiMler the linpre«slon that we could, if not entirely prevent the produc- 
tion of war material in Bethlehem and the middle west, at any rate strongly 
4i0orxani3ce It and hold it up /or months, which according to the statement of 
the Oemian military attach^ is of great importance, and which amply out- 
wHglui the relatively small sacrifice of money. 

Senator Nelsox. In whose letter is that? 

Mr. BicukSKi* That is in the letter of Ambassador Dumba to the 
foreign oi&ce transmitting this plan. 
Senator Nelson. Of Archibald's? 



1484 BREWING AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 

Mr. Btelaski. Of Warm's, which was taken from Archibald's. 

Senator Nelson. Yes. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Warm was a very interesting character, formerly 
a member of the parliament of Aiistria-Hu^ary. He is dead now. 

Senator Overman. Was there any prosecution of Warm? 

Mr. BiELASKi. No; there was never any prosecution of Warm, 
Wai*m, as I said, confessed shortly after this, to an agent of the 
department here in Washington, and made a very complete state- 
ment, and we had hoped to use Warm as a witness in the prosecution 
of Consul General Von Nuber. That was the plan of the depart- 
ment; but it did not develop. 

The American embargo conference is a matter with which I sup- 
pose every Member of Congress has a great deal of familiarity. It 
was organized in the summer of 1915, and a ^ood statement of its 
early historj' and intentions is contained in a report addressed to 
William Bayard Hale. This is addressed, for some reason, to the 
Hon. William Bayard Hale, 342 Riverside Drive, New York City. 
[Reading:] 

BiELABKi Exhibit No. 75. 

Dear Sir: The following Is the report of the Ainerlcnn Einbarjjo Conference 
to the members of its natioual board, on the work of the conference during 
tbe month of August. 

Hale's name was put on the letterhead of the American embargo 
conference, relying on his well-known attitude, but he did not desire 
to remain on, and asked that it be taken off, and it was taken off. 

Senator Nelson. What date is that, what year is it? 

Mr. BiELASKi. This was in 1915. [Continuing reading:] 

The orfranization of the American Embargo Tonfereuce was first formaHy 
(]iscuss(Hl at a meeting heUl in Detroit on July 10. This meeting was attended 
by representative men from Illinois, Obio, Indiana, Michigan, ^linnesota and 
several other States. 

At this meeting mum^rons plana were canva8se<l in an effort to adopt the 
one that v.onld be most likely to bring about the success of an embargo move- 
ment, and when tlie jilans had been outlined the committee adjourned to allow 
the representatives to consider them all thoroughly with the understanding 
that they would be again canvassed at a' meeting to be held in Chicago on 
July 24. 

On this date. July 24, the committee again met in Chicago and spent the 
entire day in going over the different suggested planet. After a long and satis- 
factory debate it was finally decided by all present that the American Embargo 
conference shr»uld become a permanent organization, and that it would proceetl 
along the plan that will now be outlined. 

THE PLAN. 

It was dec'hled by the representatives of the Conference that the only hoiie 
to accomplish results was to set at work to bring about a thorough and com- 
plete organization of the voters of the United States who were in favor of 
liavlng an enibargo declared upon the shipment of arms and munitions of 
war to the belligerent nations. 

It was decided that the only successful way to bring about such an orgalza- 
tlon was to Inaugurate a postal card canvass of the entire country. 

It was decidefl that mass meetings where speakers alretl their opinions and 
the delegates passed resolutions calling upon congress and the administration 
to act were a waste of time as congress and the a<lmlnlstratlon — ^far away In 
Washington — were not affected by tlie airing of sentiment In any one local 
community. 

It was decided that the circulation of petitions calling upon Congre.s8 and 
the Admhilstratlon to act were a waste of time and of money for Congress 



BBEWING AND LIQUOB I2<fTEB£STS AND GEBMAN PROPAGANDA. 1485 

and the Administration Imve lieen continually flooded with petitions and 
memorials until tlie direct route of a petition or memorial is from the post 
office to the waste paper basket 

It was <iecided that the only way lu which practical results could be hoped 
for was to proceetl in a prnctlcal way, and it was decided that this way was the 
circalatlan of postal cards bearing pledges that all signers should sincerely 
promise to stand in line at all times in support of the movement. It was made 
plain that this work should include the task of impressing upon each signer 
that he was not signing a mere petition — always so useless — but that he was 
Joining a movement where he was not only expected to give the support of 
his own vote but was expected to win over other voters. 

And tills lias been made plain at all times during the canvassing work of 
the Conference with the result that we can say that so far as it is humanly 
|M>6sible to know the enrolled pledges on the Conference lists are the names of 
voters who will back, the organization in all of its demands for an embargo. 

This, in brief, was the original plan of the Conference. Since that time we 
have held true to the original plan but since headquarters have been opened 
and the work has been pushed experience has taught us where to improve 
upon the original outline. 

The Unit weeks of the campaign taught us that it would be necessary for the 
Conference to depend in many ways upon the workers in the different localities 
und this brought about the plan to establish local branches of the Conference 
in all of the cities, towns and villages of the United States. 

This work has been pushed rapidly during the past two weeks and already 
the Conferejice has found that the local orgajoization plan will' make it possible 
to have the vote lined up and under orders in time to make k possible for the 
voters to show the congressmen a strength that they will be afraid to Ignore. 

The method of doing th's has been to secure the name or names of persons 
in different localities who are known to be strongly in favor of an embargo. 
We iiaye secured these names in different manners. In one way we sent out 
letters to the editors of the different German papers of the country asking 
them to frailly us with names. Again we took the names of writers who had 
sheared some of our postal cards and had not contented themselves with sending 
in their pledges but had written for more cards, or had sent in contributions 
to help the movement, or had written to ask in what manner they could give 
th^ servieeH. 

To all of tliese men letters were sent explaining the plans of the Conference. 
With the letters went copies of our campaign book (a' copy has been sent to 
yvQ) and then the men have been called upon to call together as many sincere 
friends of the movement as they could find, to form a committee, elect officers 
to represent the local branch of the American Embargo conference, to appoint 
ward or district leaders and to instruct these leaders to enlist workers who 
would not only sign the pledges but who would Join in the canvass and secure 
additional voters. 

And ajpaln we must point out that in each case it has been emphatically 
pointed ont that the enlistment of voters must be the enrollment of only those 
who are for an embargo, that the voter who is willing to sign any petition' 
presented to him and then forget it Is not wanted, and that It is imperative 
timt we have only voters completely for us on our lists. 

In addition to all this a staff of German- American speakers under the direc- 
ri^m of Dr. Herman Gerhard, has been at work among the Grerman- American 
on»nizatlons of Chicago,'' the state of Illinois, of Indiana, of Michigan, Wiscon- 
tiin and Nebraska, and these speakers have been teaching the doctrine of 
organization until we can say that it has been well drilled into the German- 
Americans of these sections and already they are at work lining up the voters 
cif other natlonalitieB. 

The active work of the Confer^ice has been in progress but a month. Head- 
qoarters were opened in Chicago on the first of August in office suite 905 of the 
aty Hall Square Building. At the July 24th meeting the Rev. George B. 
Hancber* of Mt. Carroll, ill., was elected chairman, Will R. MacDonald, of 
<.*hicago, was elected secretary. 

In the absence of the chairman, Mr. Hancher, Mr. G. H. Jacobsen has been 
acting as chairman. 

With the headquarters opened the work of organizing the voters was at once 
taken np. Attention was first paid to the city of Chicago, then the surround- 
ing towns and villages were taken up and then the work extended to the 
cities and towns of the state. The work spread to Indiana, Iowa, Wisconsin, 



}486 BBEWING A2n> LIQUOR tSTTEBESTB AND aSBMAK PBOPAGAKDA. 

Minnesota and Nebraska, and now we can report that organization woric is 
being rapidly pushed in the following states : 

Illinois, Arkansas, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, Alabama, 
Texas, Missouri, Wisconsin, New York, Michigan, Wyoming, Ohio, Nebraska, 
Montana, and California. 

To aid in the initial work in Illinois Dr. Qerhard, an excellent speaker and 
a most successful organizer, was brought to Chicago from Texas, and as has 
been said before was placed in charge of the speakers of our German-American 
bureau. Dr. (Jerhard first devoted his time to the German-American societies 
of Chicago and his success in securing their hearty support and offers of 
assistance was such as to lead the Conference to determine to add other 
speakers and these men are now being sent out as rapidly as our funds will 
permit. The Conference is in need of more speakers for these men hurry the 
work of organization in the different towns and make it possible for the com- 
mittee to begin work properly and with the correct knowledge of what they are 
to do, but lack of funds prohibits the employment of others just now. 

IN CHICAGO. 

It can be reported to you that the work in Chicago, and in the state of Illi- 
nois as well, is now well organized and each day adds hundreds of pledges 
to those already sent in to us by the citizens of Chicago. The same may be 
reported from the state. Our cards have now reached all sections of Illinois 
and with each mail we are getting orders for additional cards. 

We would call your attention to the fact firstly that these cards are not all 
filled with the names of German- American voters, but include in their lists 
many names distinctly English, French, Irish, Swedish, Danish and of other 
nationalities. 

That many of the voters who call at our headquarters are of nationalities 
other than German; that some of the most enthusiastic letters received are 
from men whose names indicate that they are NOT German-Americans, and 
that all in all our canvass and the enrollment of voters is proving more and 
more each day that there is a great and growing sentiment in favor of an 
embargo simply waiting to be called out and organized and that neither the 
administration or the politicians appreciate what the real feeling of the 
country is. 

In this regard we would refer you to the letter from United States Senator 
John D. Works of California. He reports that he finds this condition of senti- 
ment existing in the west and what he has found in California and that .sec- 
tion of the country we are finding in the middle west. 

We cannot state too emphatically that the sentiment exists throughout the 
country. Lack of moral courage, as Senator Works states, is the only one 
thing that is curbing Its expression, and if we can push our work in a large 
enough way we are sure that the necessary moral courage can be distributed. 

Aside from Chicago and the state of Illinois which are being well cared for 
at the present time we must point out that with the short time we have been 
at work we are already well established in Indiana, Iowa, Wisconsin and 
Nebraska. 

Our organization work in the Indiana towns has been directed by skilled 
men of political experience — many of them former workers of the Progressive 
party — and we can say that Gary and Hammond are wrfl organized ; that Port 
Wayne is being attended to at the present moment with two organizers from 
here at work there — ^a state convention of the German alliance being in ses- 
sion — ^tibat our work in EvansviUe will be started by Evansville men as soon 
as they return from the Fort Wasme convention, and that In Indianapolis the 
work of organizing the local committee has been started. 

Nebraska is making a wonderful showing. Dr. Gerhard made a trip through 
a number of the cities and towns of that state and since then work of organiza- 
tion has been started in practically every northern and western town of the 
state. We are finding in Nebraska some of the most enthusiastic workers of 
our organization. Bankers churchmen and professional men are calling on 
us for orders and for cards and we feel sure that Nebraska will be one of the 
first of the states to be thoroughly organized and that it will be able to show 
a vote total that will make the representatives of that state take notice when 
the demand is made. 

In Milwaukee the work is being taken up by a number of prominent men 
there. Mr. Jacobsen visited them last week and outlined what we were plan- 



BBBWIHQ AKD LIQXJOB INTEBE8XB AND OBBHAN FBOPAGANDA. 1487 

Blag to accompUsh and we expect to soon l>e able to make a full report on the 
work In Wisconsin. 

Following his visit to Milwaukee Mr. Jacobsen accompanied a number of 
the Milwaukee meu to St. Paul and Minneapolis and after a series of con- 
ferences held there with certain leading men it was decided that this group 
of men there would take care of the organization work in Minnesota and 
the two Dakotas. We have already done some work in Minnesota and have 
started several local organizations and when the St. Paul group take up the 
work we ^^ill turn over this work to them. 

In the other states listed in this report some of the towns are organizing 
but this work has not had time to progress very far as yet, but there has been 
a very good return of signed cards from all of these states. We are depend- 
ing a lot on the names on these cards and the letters that coniQ with them to 
furnish us the names of the men that we must call upon to take charge of the 
or$»nizatlon work. 

For Chicago we are receiving from 1,500 to 2,000 pledges daily, and from 
the country at large the number of daily pledges received can be placed at 
from 1,000 to 1,500. When it is pointed out that these pledges from the country 
at large are coming in with almost no organized and systematic work, other 
than from the headquarters here It can be seen what local organization and 
complete .systemtic campaigning will be able to do. 

In regard to the returns of pledges it must be pointed out that during the 
short time that we have been at work we have been seriously handicapped 
through no fault of the Conference. To begin with the so-called " exposes " 
of the New Yoi:k World, printed in the Chicago Tribune and other papers 
of the middle west, hurt us as it made those who were weak in moral courage 
hesitate about declaring their real sentiments. Fortunately these " exposes *' 
were so laughable that they failed in their purpose and really did good, 
though we have to wait for results, as they brought home to the people Just 
how desperate were the attempts to brand everything as a "pro-German 
pmpaganda.'* 

But before the sensation of the "exposes" had died down there came the 
mypterious murder of a minister in Gary, Ind., and again the press Instead of 
ilevoting Its columns to stories of the murder shouted German plot and tried to 
Involve the Conference in the scandal. Bepresentatlves of the press, particu- 
larly of The Tribune and The Journal — the last named a rabid anti-German 
P0per — called at our headquarters and endeavored to secure some fact that 
w<mld ideiitlf3' us with the general sensation. 

They failed in this as we were able to show that the slain minister was not 
a member of our Conference, and the visit of the press men gave us the oppor- 
tanity to drive home the fact that ours was an American organization, that all 
.if its members had to be Americans as our members had to be voters, and when 
li was shown that the organization was receiving the moral support of such 
men as Senators Hitchcock, Works and Hoke Smith they departed satisfied that 
this was one organization that was not a ** pro-German movement." 

In this way the murder mystery too probably aided us for our future work 
n» the Chicago new^apers are now satisfied that this movement Is an Amerl- 
I an one. 

THE CANVASSmO WOKK. 

A word as to the method of working in this canvass. German literature pre- 
pared by Dr. Gerhard (Copy sent to you) was, and Is being, distributed 
throu^^ut Chicago and the country at large. This, of course, goes to the Ger- 
rnai>-.\jnerican societies and to the Crerman Americans who have demonstrated 
their interest in the UMvement. 

In addition to this we have been extensively circulating the Dr. Hale pam- 
l4il#-t - Thou Shalt Not Kill " ; the Rev. Dr. Charles F. Aked's pamphlet " Pri- 
vate Profit and the Nation's Honor " ; another pamphlet including an editorial 
1^ William Randolph Hearst on " If We Cannot Support Ourselves with Arms 
in Time of War; Why Not Supply Ourselves Now"? the editorial by George W. 
O'Reilly "Kn^nd Has Stopped Our Shipment of Cotton, Should We Stop 
Our Shipment of Arms?" and the speech "Our Patriotic Duties" delivered be- 
fore the Chautauqua meeting at Jacksonville. 111., this month by Col. Jasper 
Tucker Darling. (All of these sent to you) Also to the workers who have 
volaoteered to aid us in organizing we are sending copies of ont campagln 
biiok wliich outlines our plan and what we hope to accomplish. 

Adiled to this we arranged with the Chicago American to send throughout 
the c»>untrv copies of the paper that carried the editorials of Mr. Hearst and 



1488 BREWING AND LIQUOB INTilBESTS AND QEBMAN PBOPAOAKDA. 

Mr. O'Reilly. More than twelve thousand copies of these papers were sent out. 
They went out In bundles of from 25 to 300 and letters went at the same time 
calling upon the men that they were sent to to see that they were properly 
distributed. 

We would call attention to the fact that every one of these papers reached 
n reader and that all of the men who had been called upon to help the distribu- 
tion w-rote back and reported that he had gladly (^one so and asked what he 
could do next. When It might be said that many of these men called upon were 
men whose names had been given to us as men who might be interested in the 
work and that without an exception they proved to be men willing and anxious 
to help the cause it might be taken as a good indication of how the sentiment 
is to be found around the country. These papers went to Minnesota, Wisconsin, 
Nebraska, Montana, Texas, Florida, Alabama, Iowa, Indiana, Michigan and the 
Dakotas. 

Their distribution also found us a number of men to act as organizers for the 
local committees for we answered all letters showing interest in our work and 
called upon the volunteers to taJce up organization for us. 

Not only are the voters of the different towns and cities showing by their 
prompt response to our letters that they believe that our plan is the practical 
plan and the one that will be able to accomplish results but they are writing to 
tell us that they feel that we are going about it the right way and the ONLY 
practical way. 

Moreover it is being proved that many think our plan the practical way be- 
cause we are receiving letters from men of worldly experience who have heard 
nothing of us except some mention In the paper and who hasten to warn us 
to avoid i)etitions and mass meetings and to spend our funds in some practical 
way. 

We are attaching a letter of this kind which was sent to us while a letter 
from us was on our way to the writer in which we were asking him to under- 
tiike some of the organization work for us. A study of this letter will show 
that Mr. Lohss was unconsciously calling for what we have undertaken. 

We are also attaching copies of letters from Senators Works and Hitch- 
cock. We call your attention particularly to the letter of Senator Works and 
to the part where he outlines how Los Angeles stands and what he believes to 
be the sentiment throughout the country. 

The one point that we want to make plain to you in making this report is 
that as we proceed with the work we are becoming dally more convinced that 
it Is the only practical method that can assure success. 

Our canvass of the country, and the reports brought to us by men who are 
continually traveling about the country, demonstrate that — outside of Wash- 
ington and New York — the sentiment of the country is rapidly turning in favor 
of having an embargo declared. 

This feeling is growing dally and now Is the time to push the work to the 
utmost. 

The people are ready for it. 

The American Embargo Conference has weathered all charges of being a 
"pro-German propaganda" and has forced the papers to believe. that it Is, as 
it claims, an American movement. 

The people are beginning to be brave enough to come out and declare for 
what they have long felt — an embargo. 

And we repeat that with the time ripe for striking hard and rapidly every- 
thing possible should be done for this one movement. 

We are doing all that is possible with the funds at our command. With 
more funds the work could be pushed more rapidly. As the local organizations 
come into existence they must be supplied with campaign literature and the 
all Important postal cards for the pledges. 

There Is not the slightest doubt in our minds that the voters who are joining 
our organization will stand with us. Also there Is no doubt but w*hat already 
the congressmen and other politicians are beglnnlnisr to realize that this vote Is 
being organized. 

We have now reached the point where we are willing to let them know that it 
is being organized, and In fact we want them to know that it is being organized. 

The time is past when they can stop our work with cries of "pro-German 
propaganda " or " German plot." 

Today J. J. Tobias, of the Friends of Peace, in an Interview In the Chicago 
Herald declared that the Teutonic voters of the country to the number of 
5,000,000 were " going to raise hell with any party not In our favor." One 



BBEWIKG AND UQUOB INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1489 

Tnonth ago this statement would have called down .the wrath of a score of edi- 
torial writers. Today the editorial writers and the politicians are wondering 
just how close to the right number of voters Mr. Tobias was when he put the 
fkgnre at 5,000,000. 

And if the American Embargo Conference's success continues to grow as it 
has been growing during these early and trying weeks of its short career the 
l»oliticians of the country will find that the " Teutonic voters '* of the country 
are not standing alone but are lined up with other Americans in a body of 
American.^* who are all real Americans and of so many nationalities that no one 
will dare to drag out one nationality and attempt to hold it up to scorn as the 
friends of the Munitions forces have been attempting to do with the German- 
American vote. 

We will now report briefly on the business end of the work of the Ck)nference. 

Since our organizing the contributions have totaled $4,273.20 

^Hir expenditures have b^u 4,002.40 

Debts unpaid 765 

Tontrlbutioas uncollected ^ 750. 00 

Of the expenditures $7i)0 went for the initial expense of fitting up our head- 
quarters, for furniture, typewriters, installing telephones, office supplies, etc. 
Of the amount still unpaid $059.25 is for printing of cards and pamphlets. 
Oards have l)een printed especially for ; the City of Chicago ; Illinois, Indiana, 
Xew York. Arkansas, Alabama, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, Texas, Ne- 
braska, Iowa. Wisconsin, and Michigan. 

Attached to this you will find the copies of the letters referred to in this 
report. 

Very truly yours. 

The Amkrican Emdaroo Conference. 

Per -_ 

Actinff Chairman. 

Senator Nelson. In that document which you have just read you 
refer to Jacobsen. I suppose he was the Grerman consul '( 

Mr. BiELABKi. No ; Reiswitz was the German consul, but Jacobsen 
has been convicted and is under penitentiary sentence for his activi- 
ties. 

Senator Nelson. That is Jacobsen? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes; he ranks, therefore, very easily with the Ger- 
man consul. 

Senator Ovebman. We hear a good deal about this man Gerhard' 
and his activities. Is he from Texas? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. There are two Gerhards, Senator; Meyer Ger- 
hard, who returned to Germany, who came over here as a member of 
the original Demburg-Albert commission, and this man. 

Senator 0\tbrman. By whom was that long document signed from 
the American Embargo Conference that you read a moment ago? 

Mr. BiELiASKi. That was not signed. Senator. It has at the bottom 
** per Actin/a: Chairman," and the acting chairman was Jacobsen. 

Senator O^TaMAN. It was written to Hale, was it not? 

Mr. BiELASKi. It was written to Hale, yes; and found its way to 
Dr. Albert. 

Senator Nelson. Have you a list or could you furnish a list of the 
principal men who attended this meeting? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes; we will come to that, Senator. 

Senator Nelson. All right; proceed. 

Mr. Bi£L.%sKi. We will also come to the part tlie German Govern- 
ment had in it, and so on. 

I think these letters from Mr. Herman Lohss are not particularly 
interesting. 



1490 BREWING AIXD LIQUOB OTTEBESTB AKB GEBMAS FBOPAGAKDA. 

I think this letter from Senator Hitchcock has been published. I 
will read it*, if you say so. 1 believe it was published. 

Senator Xeusox. I do not recall it. Bead it. 

Mr. BiELASKi. It is addressed to G. X. Jacobsen, room 905, 139 
Xorth Clark Street, Chicago, 111., and is dated August 4. This is a 
cojn* or purports to be a copy which is attached to this report going 
to Hale. It is not an original letter. 

Senator Sterlikg. That is August 4, 1915 ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. It reads as follows: 

BiET-ASKi ExnrBiT No. 75*. 

Dear Sib: I have your l<»ttor of July 28th announcing the completion of the 
preliminary or^nization worlv of the Emhargo Conference ami I am glad you 
are progressing with your enterprise. 

I am not, however, able to give my consent to become a member of the 
national board. I have uniformly decline<l to join any organization for any 
purx>ose however much as I may approve it. I have no time that I can give to 
the work of management and I do not like to be responsible in whole or in part 
for what others may do. 

As you know, I am willing to do all I can in my position as United States 
Senator and all that is possible as the publisher of the World-Herald to bring 
about an embargo on the exportation of arms and ammunition. 

I believe the sentiment in favor of an embargo is growing. I notice it anion?; 
the religious element as a moral issue, and I believe it is gi*owing in the 
South partly out of resentment because of the interference with the trade in 
cotton. At the time my amendment to the shipping bill providing for an em- 
bargo on arms and ammunition came to a vote in the Senate I got very little 
support from Southern Senators, and I believe the case would be far different 
today if the matter came to a vote. 
Yours truly, 

G. M. HrrcHOOCK, 

United States Setiator. 

Here is another letter dated August 16, to W. R. McDonald, Sec- 
retary American Embargo Conference, Chicago, 111., from Senator 
John D. Works. [Reading:] 

B1ET.A8KI Exhibit No. 76. 

My Dkak Mr. McDonald: I am just in receipt of your favor of the 11th in- 
stant, informing me of the objects and purposes of the American Embargo 
Conference and asking me to become a. member of the national lioard of 
advisors. 

I am very earnestly in sympathy with the views and objects and purposes 
of your conference. I have expressed my views on the subject of the ex|iorta- 
tlon of arms and munitions of war to the belligerent nations pretty frankly in a 
speech made by roe In Pasadena, California, before the Commercial Law League. 
I have taken the liberty of sending you a copy of a newspaper containing the 
speech in full. From it you will see that I am in sympathy with j-our move- 
ment but I have made it a rule not to connect myself in any way with any 
organization that Is seeking legislation through Congress or the object of which 
is to influence Members of Congress in any direction. 

That rule must prevent my connecting myself with your organization as you 
request 

Sincerely yours, 

John D. Works, 
United States Senator, 

Here is another letter, of August 28, 1916, to McDonald, from 
Senator Works. [Heading :] 

BiEiJ^SKi ExHiBrr No. 77. 

Mt Deab Mb. McDonald : I think the sentiment in this country against the 
exportation of munitions of war to the belligerent nations is much stronger 



BBBWINQ AND UQUOB INTEBESTS AND GEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1491 

and more widespread than la generally supposed. I had expected that there 
wcmld be much opposition on the part of its members to the speech that I de- 
livered before the Commercial Law League at Pasadena. On the contrary, 
the speech was well received, no opposing sentiment was expressed, by unani- 
inoas vote I was made an honorary member of the league and the speech was 
ordered printed In pamphlet form at the expense of the league — something that 
had never been done before, I was informed by the president. 

I have met with many people and have received letters from others who 
agree with me fnlly on that subject. I have not come in contact with very 
many of the leading citizens of Los Angeles in dealing with this question but 
I am givln;? you the names of a few persons whom you might communicate with 
:<D<I who, no doubt, could give you the names of others who feel as we do. 
They are 

Senator Kikg. Mr. Chairman, I feel that this committee should 
lie exceedingly careful not to do anv injustice to any innocent per- 
son or anv person not directly involved in this examination. This 
letter evidently refers to the names of a number of individuals livinjjj 
in Los Angeles to whom the writer states communication mi^t be 
made. There is nothing to indicate that those parties actually were 
in sympathy with this movement or that they did anjiihing to ad- 
vance the cause of these propagandists. 

Unless there is something subsequently to be offered that would 
connect those individuals with this propaganda, I would feel that 
it was rather unfair to put their names into the record. 

Senator Overman. I wish to make this investigation impersonal 
if possible. I do not want it to be a personal investigation. I want 
to make it impersonal as far as possible. Unless it can be shown 
that these persons have some connection with the propaganda, I 
think Senator King is right. What do you think, Senator I^lson ? 

Senator Nelson. I think that is right as to the names, but I think 
the letter should go in. 
Senator CH^erman. Yes; there is no objection to that. 
Mr. BtEi^vsKi. The remainder of the letter is as follows : 

Tbe J JOS Angeles Times, one of the leading papers of Los Angelea, has de- 
clared editorially very strongly in favor of an embargo on munitions of war. 
The Los Angeles Examiner, another of the leading papers, has taken strong 
cronnds in the same way, and so have the Los Angeles and the Los Angeles 
Express. So that, as far as the newsjiapers are concerned, all of the leading 
Joomals are in favor of an embargo. 

The difficulty is that the politicians, including Members of Congress, have 
not the morfil courage to stand up against the powerful influences that are 
profiting by tbe exportation of war materials. If they could be made to see 
that the great majority of the American people are opposed to the exportation 
•»f mrmitlons of war, as I believe they are, there would be a revolution of 
finitiinent and a change of action on the part of public offldala 

I wish you every success in your efforts to bring out this .sentiment and to 
HatabUflh the fact that the people are opposed to our efforts to continue the war 
by fomisfaing the needed materials to carry on the war. 
Sincerely yours, 

John D. Works, 
United States Senator. 

Senator Overman. I want to ask you where you got that paper? 

Mr. BiCLASKi. That is a question. Senator, which I think, for rea- 
sons which will be apparent to you, I would not want to answer or 
say anything which would in any way reveal the activities of the 
Bureau of Investigation. 

Senator Overman. That is a good excuse, but I would like to 
know whether that was ever in the hands of Mr. Albert or Von Bem- 
atorfft 



1492 BBEWINa AND LIQUOB INTEBfiSiS AKD OEBMAN PBOPAGANJ>A. 

Mr. BiELASKi. It was in the hands of Albert. If you would like 
to look at the original, yx)u can see Mr. Albert's initials on it. 

Senator King. I make this suggestion : That when any witness is 
testifying, and the names of individuals appear, those names be sub- 
mitted to the committee before they are put in the record. 

Senator Overman. Yes. They will be submitted to the chairman, 
and I will submit them to the committee to determine whether or 
not they shall appear in the record. 

Senator King, les; I think they should be submitted to the chair- 
man before they go into the record. 

Senator Overman. Govern yourself accordingly, Mr. Bielaski^ 
unless you can connect them up by some other evidence which you 
have. 

Mr. BiELASKi. I do not know. That is such a minor point in the 
matter that we never made any effort to follow that up. 

We liave had the entire files of the American Embargo Conference, 
with the correspondence, and just what was written to those people, 
undoubtedly; but it is such a small matter that I could i.ot say a 
word about it. 

Hei'e is a sample card which was sent to various points [reading] : 

BiBLASKi Exhibit No. 78. 
[American Embargo Conference, Chicago, 111.] 

We, the nndersipTued voters, hereby declare oui^selves stroiijrly, in favor of an 
embargo on munitions of wnr and pledge our support to this cause when the 

demand is made at the next session of ('ongress. Congrea^ional IMstrict, 

State of Pennsylvania. 

This one happens to be for the State of Pennsylvania. 

I might say, in regard to reading that letter which was referred 
to a moment ago, that I read it with the understanding that it had 
already been published. 

Senator Overman. It has already been in the papers? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes ; that is tny understanding of it, Senator. 

I do not know whether you are interested m having samples of 
what this embargo conference sent out or not. 

Senator Oi'Erman. You can put them in the record, and we will 
read them. 

Senator Nelson. The literature they sent out. 

Mr. BiELASKi. The names? 

Senator Nelson. The names of those wlio signed the letters. 

Senator King. But the pamphlets and arguments in favor of the 
embargo — I should not feel that we ought to encumber the record 
with them. 

Senator Overman. No ; I think they may be left out. 

Senator Nelson. But these letters and telegrams, it seems to me, 
ought to go in. 

Mr. Bielasri. Yes ; I will give those to the reporter to be put in 
the record. 

The embargo conference also sent out large numbers of circulars 
in German, of which there are translations. 

Senator King. With reference to Uiese pamphlets and leaflets^ 
which are arguments, I take it, in favor of the view for which the 



BBEWING AND LIQUOE INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1493 

writer was contending, there may be some of them here that should' 
j:o into the record. I suggest that Maj. Humes look them over very 
carefully, and if there is any point in these pamphlets and leaflets 
that is illuminating, or that he thinks is essential, he shall give it to 
the reporter and have it inserted. 

Senator Overman. Yes, Maj. Humes, will you look those over 
and see what you think of them f 

Maj. Httmes. Yes. 

Mr. Bielaski. Here are some other pamphlets, Senator, sent out 
in German, attached. These are only some of them. There are quite 
a lot of theuL 

Senator King. Mr. Chairman, the one by Dr. Hugo Gerhard, in 
German, and the translation, I would like to see go into the record. 

Sonator OvERifAX. Very well; that may be put in. 

(The document referred to is here printed in the record, as fol- 
lows:) 

BiEXASKi Exhibit No. 79. 

For Real Humanity. For Honest Neutrality, For Speedy Peace, 

[Aaerlcmik Kmbargo Conference. Dr. Hermann Gerhard, room 905, 189 N. Clark St. 

Tel. Randolph 8189.] 

Chicago, [Date of the Post Mark.]. 

IflEAB Sib: The Embargo movement is growing day by day and is spreading 
t*) all points of the compasR to the most remote part of the United States 
ihiring the short time the American Embargo Conference had existe<l. The 
signed bo Hots are pouring in to our office from all sides. 

All this Is a clear proof : 

1. That we have entered upon the right path. 

2. That this movement is a distinctly popular one. 

But one thing is necessary ! The threads which have been spun in this way 
ttutmgh the whole territory of the United States must l>e woven together into 
a dose organization. 

In eveiy city, in every village, in every township, n local embargo committee 
nf three or five members should be formed with which we at the nation a1 
olBee at Chicago can be in constant communication, to which we can send the 
neceaHiry campaign literature, and which comes forward first of all, as soon 
as CoDsreas is opened, at a definite time, either by telegrams or letters to the 
rppreswntatlTes in all Congressional districts, to exert the necessary pressure 
npoo tlie gentlemen at Washington. Furthermore, this committee should see 
to it inside Its own district that the papers (both English and German) accept 
for pabllcation the Embargo articles sent to them by us. 

If Hie papers should object we will show* the committee the ways and means 
(thromcb advertising patronage, etc.) to attain the object in spite of them. 

// we actively organize in tlUs manner so that when the signal is given we 
tnn hammer at all points, then, considering our connection with the baUot 
rampoifim^ we are sure of success. 

So be np and at work German-American : We need in every village, In every 
fity, only three determined men to stand guard and the cause of true human- 
ity niuA boQest neutrality will be triumphant, Columbias shield of honor will 
asata beam clear and bright 

Will you please inform me immediately as soon as you have found these 
ro«ii who are rea<]y to form such an Embargo committee, and send me their 
exact addresses, that I may always be in position to keep this committee in- 
formed concerning the Embargo movement. 
With German greetings, 

Db. Hebm. Gebhabd, 
Leader of the German Division of 
• the American Embargo Conference. 



1494 BBEWINa AND LIQUOR INTEBEST8 AND GEBMAN PROPAGANDA. 

Mr. BiELASKi. The State Department made public some time ago 
the following telegram from Count Bemstorff to the foreign office 
in Berlin, which was sent in September, 1916 : 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 80. 

September 15th. With reference to report A. X. two hundred and sixty -six 
of ]May tenth, nineteen sixteen. The Kmbarpo Conference in regard to whose 
earlier fruitful cooperation Dr. Hale can give information, Is just about to 
enter upon a ^'igorous campaign to secure a majority in both houses of Con- 
gress favorable to Germany and requests further support. There is no possi- 
bility of our being compromised. Request telegraphic reply. 

Under date of January 22, 1917, Mr. Bemstorff sent to the foreign 
office the following communication, which has been made public oy 
the State Department: 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 81. 

I request authority to pay out up to $50,000 in order as on former occasions, 
to Influence CJongress through the organlzatin you know of, which can perhaps 
prevent war. I am beginning in the meantime to act accordingly. In the 
above circumstances a public ofllcial German declaration in favor of Ireland 
is highly desirable, in order to gain the support of Irish Influence here. 

Senator King. Have you any reply in your ifiles to the telegram 
from Bemstorff to the foreign office in September, 1916? 

Mr. BiELASKi. No, sir. 

Senator King. All right. Proceed. 

Mr. BiELASKi. I have one other message here furnished to us by 
the State Department, which has not been made public, and which I 
will read. It is connected with a number of other things, but men- 
tions the embargo conference also. It is from Washington to Ber- 
lin, November 1, 1916 [reading] : 

BiEXASKi Exhibit No. 82. 

Despatch from Washington to Berlin November 1, 1016. 

As you will have learnt from my previous rei>orts, we have since the LUSI- 
TANIA case endeavored to wind up all the so-called (»ennan propaganda, and 
especially to get rid of all dubious indiviiluals. I can now say with a good con- 
science tlmt we are no longer compromised. Some of the ohl affairs still hang 
on, but are more or less settled, although they will cause some further expendi- 
ture. 

At l;he beginning of the war many things Were undertaken by the Dernburg 
Propaganda which would never have been undertaken if we could have seen that 
the w^ar w^ould be so long; becaii.se nothing can for long be kept secret in 
America. Since the LUSITANIA caw we have strictly confined ourselves to 
such propaganda as cannot hurt us if it becomes known. The sole exception Is 
perhaps the Peace propaganda, which has cost the largest amount, but which 
also has been the most successful. 

Latterly I have been using the Embargo Association and some entirely reli- 
able private intermediaries. I have also made use of the German University 
League, founded since the war. This has done its best to take the place of the 
German (?) 

There is a word which can not be translated. 

Association, which has been of no use during the war on account of Its manage- 
ment. The I/eague has published under my collaboration an excellent collection 
of reports on the war, which will be of great ser^ice to our cause. The support 
which I have alrea<ly given the League is entered in the First Quarter's account 
for 1916, item No. 208. On the occasion of later Installments to them, I will 
refer to this report. 
I ask thbt this be sanctioned. 

(Signed) Bernstorff. 



BBEWnrC AKD UQUOB INTEBEST8 AND aSBMA^ PBOPAaAllDA. 1495 

The reference there to the American Embargo Conference is 
brief — ^*' latterly I have been using the Embargo Association." 

Senator Stebli^'o. What is the league referred to? 

Mr. BiELASKi. We will have considerable to say about that later, 
if you are interested, Senator. 

Senator Sterung. Yes. 

Mr, BiELASKi. Another communication is one addressed on Decem- 
ber 21, 1915, an English translation of a decoded cipher addressed to 
the ambassador, German Embassy, Washington [reading] : 

BisLASKi Exhibit No. 83. * 

Chicago, III., Dec. 21, 1915. 
Impbkial Gebman Consulate, 

J. Nr. 17923/15 

Tbe embargo Oonference, regarding whose activities Councillor Albert 
IKiSHess a detailed written account, has, considering the conditions, rendered 
service worthy of acknowledgment The question now arises wHether it Is to 
be dlsBoIred in January, or whetiier it is to be continued until presidential 
candidates are named, that is not until summer. This would require an assist- 
ance to tbe amount of 6 to 7 thousand dolla)*s. The contemplated continuation 
of tbe enterprise would, according to my opinion be favorable to the entire 
German vote, and would facilitate that of Deputy Vollmer. 

Kindly indicate if there will be any chance that such a sum might be used- 
in the manner as above mentioned. The same of course could be done In such a 
manner that official cooperation would not be apparent. 

(Signed) RsiBwrrz. 

That is signed ^' Beiswitz^'' who was the consul at Chicago. 

Maj. Humes. In. that connection, Mr. Bielaski, you will remember 
that there were some ezhibits with reference to Con^essman Vollmer 
collected from the United States Brewers' Association files that were 
submitted ? 

Mr. BnxASKi. I think he was indicted. 

Mr. O^RiAN. He was tried and the jury disagreed. 

Mr. BiBiASKi. He was tried for violation of the espionage act after 
we got into the war. 

Senator Nelson. Yes ; that is my recollection. He was indicted. 

]itfar. BixukSKi. This letter was sent to Albert for his information. 

There was also a draft of a communication, which is in our pos- 
session, which we h4ve good reason to believe was prepared by Albert, 
dated March, 1915 [reading] : 

B1ELA.8KI ExHisrr No. 84. 

After reconsideration and consultation with Dr. Hale, of the Press Bureau, 
I wUbdmw my soggMtion respecting a German note on supply of arms. Only 
ebaaoe for embargo on export of arms if it is done plirely for American Interests. 
KnplMuls of tbe German interest, by Germany, might even be harmful at the 
present time. 

December 28, 1915, there is what purports to be a letter addressed 
to the ambassador at Washington by Albert, which reads : 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 85. 

New Yobk, December 28, 1915. 
In reply to your favor of December 26,. Idl5. 

Althougli I agree with your ExceUency that It is expedient to restrict propa«- 
guftda to the extreme limit, if not to suspend it entirely, nevertheless I raise 

9S12i — ^19— VOL 2 8 



1496 BKEWINO Am> UQUOR INTEBESTB AND GEBICAN PBOPAaAHDA. 

tbe question whether it is advisable to allow an existing organization to drop, 
which possibly can be of use to us in a critical moment Everything considered 
6-7000 dollars plays no decisive role. For this reason I should like to recom- 
mend, as I have already informed Prince Hatzfeldt over the telephone without 
mentioning the subject, that we follow the proposal of Reisswitz. I am fully 
conscious of the fact that an organization which ostensibly numbers such rich 
people among its members, should really be in a position to raise the expenses 
itself. Experience, however, has taught us, that this principle does not liold 
at the present time. 

I enclose the material mentioned by Reisswitz and request a reply in reparil 
to the decision reached. 

To his Excellence, The Imperial Ambassador, Sir Count von Beenstobff, 

Washington, D. C 

George Sylvester Viereck, it might be mentioned in passing, fur- 
nished propaganda material to the embargo conference to be dis- 
tributed. 

The next activities of the embargo conference that excited great 
attention were the sending in of a tremendous number of telegrams 
to Congressmen and Senators from all over the country. 

The embargo conference submitted to people forms of telegrams 
to be sent, and of course the identity of language immediately 
aroused the suspicion of every one here who received them. Here is 
a sheet containing samples [reading] : 

BiELASKi ExHiarr No. 86. 

Please sign one of these telegrams and have voters each sign one telegram. 
Cross off the telegrams that are not signed and then hold this sheet until we 
wire you to telegraph it. Then please send it without delay. 

. These are a series of draft telegrams, 1916 ; night letters : 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 87. 

Your constituents urge and expect you to stand like a rock against the 
passing frenzy of insane and criminal folly on the part of the small portion 
of Interested persons who are clamoring for war. We want peace. Nothing 
warrants any other action. 

The second proposed telegram reads : 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 88. 

If warlike rumors coming from Washington are true wUl you let me reassure 
you that the great majority of your constituents stand for peace, believe war 
now unnecessary and uncalled for, and wlU resent being participated [aicl 
into the European conflict. 

Senator Nelson. What is the date of this ? 

Mr. BiEiASKi. This is just a draft of the telegrams, Senator. We 
can give you the dates they were actually sent. 

Senator Nelson. They were sent immediately before we declared 
war? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. 

Here is another one. 

BijELASKi Exhibit No. 89. 

As today's reports indicate that this country is likely to be rushed into the 
European war, let zne assure you that I and your constituents who will be the 
real sufferers will bitterly resent anything but calm action and calm action 
means peace continuing. 



BREWIKG AND LIQUO& INTEBESTB AND 6EBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1497 

Senator 9rERLi:sG. Those are forms of telegrams sent out by the 
Embargo Conference? 

Mr. BiEUkSKi. Yes; with instructions to sign them and hold them 
until they ^t the word to send them. 

Senator Nelsok. We were flooded with them just before we de- 
clared war, I have a bundle of postal cards and letters signed. 

Mr. BxEi^ssLT. Yes; you have, and a great many Senators and Con- . 
^-essmen sent to our department the original telegram, so that there 
IS no question about their having been sent. 

Senator Overman. This was a telegram framed up to be sent out. 
Who framed them? 
Mr. BiEui^sKi. The American Embargo Conference. 
Mr. O'Brian. Of Chicago? 

Mr. BiEXASKj. Yes; they had a New York oflSce finally. 
Those particular telegrams, or forms of telegrams, that I read 
are supposed to be addressed to Mr. Stephens — ^this particular set. 
These are typical sets. They were addressed and sent to all Con- 
gressmen and Senators — ^to Senator Reed, to Congressman Hamil- 
ton — ^I think they are all alike, and one set is sufficient, I suppose. 
Senator Nelson. They had two or three kinds? 
Mr. BrEiJ^SKi. Yes ; there is a set of seven kinds here. 
Senator Nelson. Yes. 

Mr. BrELASRi. You sent quite a strong letter. Senator, at the time 
you received yours. 

Senator Nelson. Yes; I think I called the department's attention 
to it. 
Mr. BiELASKi. You did, repeatedly. 

Here are various other circulars they sent out. Here ife a copy of 
the campaign book of the American Embargo Conference, giving its 
piuposes, its work, its reasons, plan, and so forth. 

Inese are copies of telegrams, showing the people who were inter- 
e^ed in it — Mr. Monett, who was at one time, I think, attorn^ 
general for Ohio, and who was indicted in connection with the 
activities of Rintelin in Labor's National Peace Council. He, was 
interested, as shown by his correspondence and telegrams here. 

Senator Sterling. Did they send out a form of telegram from 
(liic&go in regard to the embargo? These forms you have been 
readinff^ relate to the declaration of war. 
Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. I put in the form of telegram they sent. 
They also sent out a form to Congressmen, which I think I have 
here, asking them to declare immediately how they stood on the 
embargo proposition. I think I will come to that in a moment. 

Senator Overman, That must have taken a great deal of money — 
that great organization — and it only shows so tar about $7,000. 

Mr. BnsLASKi. Here is a photographic copy of a form, which was 
sent out to be sent in. This copy says : 

The Congrowman In my district is Frank Buchanan, Seventh Congressional 
District. I understand his attitude on the question of an embargo to be 

And then there is a line to be filled in, and this fellow says : 

Eoi^Hitlcally in favor of an embargo. 

It 18 .signed G. Theiss ; address, Route 1 ; Roselle, III. 



1498 BREWING AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGAKDA. 

Then here is a photographic copy of a form on the letterhead of 
the American Embargo Conference, reading as follows : 

BiKLASKi IthcHiBrr No. 90. 

Deab Sib: As the GoDference Is very anxious to keep an accurate and up te 
the minute check on the attitude of the Ck)ngressmen on the question of an 
embargo we are asking you to fill out the report attached to this letter and 
return the same to us at the earliest possible moment. 

Many of the Ck)ngressmen have given us their attitude others refuse to commit 
themselves, but we wish to have the reports of the voters themselves on what 
they believe is the position of their Representatives in Ck)ngress. 

Though you may have reportiHi on this before, we earnestly urge you to make 
this new rei)ort so that vre n^ay have the latest advice possible. In so doing 
you will be greatly aiding the success of the campaign. 
Very sincerely yours. 

The Amebic an Ehbaboo Confebbnce. 

Then follows the form of the report. This is another place where 
the writer fills in : 

BisLASKi Exhibit No. 9L 

lieport : The Congressman of my district is James Buchanan. I understand 
his attitude on the question of an embargo to be favorable. His position oa tbe 
war question is well known, and needs no explanation to you. 

Signed, Albert S. Olins ; address, some town in Illinois. 

There are a number of other copies of reports from different voters 
that have been sent in here. 

Here is a photographic copy of a letter dated January 5, 1915, 
written on the letterhead of the House of Representatives, reading 
as follows: 

BisLASKi Exhibit No. 92. 

My Deab 8ib : In acknowledj?ement of yours of recent date, I wish to assure 

>i>u that I am heartily in accord with House Resolution 377, and wiU do what I 

can to secure the passage of this resolution or other legislation that will pro- 

liibit the shipment of munitions of war from our ports to belligerent nations. 

With good wishes, I am 

Very truly yours, 

Fbank Buchanan. 

Here is a letter to Jacobsen, acting head of the American embargo 
conference, fi-om Congressman Buchanan, dated August '21, 1915, 
reading as follows : 

Bielaski Exhibit No. 93. 

In response to your favor of July 29th addressed to nie at the New Wlllard 
Hotel, Washington, D. C, which, due to the delay In forwarding, has just come 
to my attention, will say that I am very much interested in the aim of the 
American Embargo Ck>nference and the results it seeks to accomplish. I shall 
be glad to lend my support to the conference in every way possible but prefer 
that my name should not be Includeil in those composing the National Board. 
Regretting the unavoidable delay in responding to your communication, I am 
Yours very truly, 

Frank Buchaj^an. 

There are other letters here written by Congressman Buchanan, 
Here are a few original telegrams which were sent in. For in- 
stance, this is to Hon. John A. Key, House of Repi^sentatives, Wash- 
ington, D. C, dated Dayton, Ohio, April 25, 1917 [reading] : 



BREWIKG A1!7D LIQUOB INTEBESTS AND GEBMAN PROPAGANDA. 1499 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 04. 

Your constituents joininpr with me in sending this messape are deeply alnruierl 
by ruiDors that this country Is near to being plunged into the European war. 
You know your constituents want peace and we empliatically urge that you so 
express our sentiments : We know wc can depend upon you. 

Adolph Bleck. 

Then there are two or three other leh^^rams shovrin^ that they 
were aituallv sent upon the snme form. Larjre ninnhers of them 
were sent. T suppose there i-; no uhe in putting the rest of the e in. 

Here is a <opy of the canipaipi hook they irot out. Perliaps Maj. 
Humes would like to look tlie.se over. 

Senator King. Yes. That would he a cfood idea. 

Mr. BiEi^ASKi. Hefe is a pamph^e^ they ' ir ulated, entitled " The 
embargo and Conpre-ss: " and another one, '" Liberty or Lii ense/' and 
Hale's famous pamphlet, sent out by the Inmdreds of thousands, 
*'Thou Shalt Not Kill," and another one: " The views of three Ameri- 
cans,'" and another one; "The enibargo." 

Senator Nelson. Put in those that are most nuiterial. 

Mr. B1EL.VSKI. Here is a speech made bv the late Senator Paul 
Hu>ting, of Wisconsin, which, of course, is in the record. 

Senator Xelsox. Yes; he took that matter up. 

Mr. BiELASKi. In the forms of the telen^rams. and what he re- 
c-eived, and so on. 

Senator Sterling. He showed them up. 

Senator Xelson. He showed up the whole thing. 

Mr. BiEi^ASKT. The American Embargo (^onfer;n'e then sent out 
a telegram saying : 

Slofi spending telegram.**, (Nmtinuo tretting signatures. Hold for gigantic 
pptitifMi or !4end ns when hlnnlcs are fllled. 

That date is April 27, 1916. 

Senator Nelson. Senator Husting's speech stopped the telegrams? 

Mr. Bifx.\sKi. Yes. 

Here are three original telegrams sent telling them to stop sending 
the telegrams. 

Senator Kino. The Senate, some of these davs, should pause long 
enough to pay a deserved tribute to Senator Husting, a strong and 
courageous American. 

Senator 0>'erman. Yes. 

Maj. HrMES. In that connection, Mr. Bielaski, have you a rec'ord 
showing who paid for th^se telegrams in the various localities? 

Mr. B1ELA8KL Yes. They were paid for by the Anierican Em- 
barjpo Conference. They admit the payment of them. 

Maj. HrMEs. Were all of them paid that way? 

Mr. B1ELA8KI. Not all of them. Some of the individuals paid for 
them. The great bulk of them, however, were paid for by the con- 
ference. Individuals in a great many instances paid for them them- 
selves. 

Maj. Hi'MEs. It is my understanding that some other elements 
paid for n certain number of them that came from Chicago. Have 
you anv record of that? 

Mr. BiCT^HKi. I do not know what you mean; no. I think, of 
cotiree. that the German Government. paid for them, in the long run. 

Senator Otermax. Yon have no evidence showing how nnich 



1500 BREWING AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 

money the German Government contributed, if any, to this embargo 
conference? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Nothing except such as I have introduced in evi- 
dence, which is not specific as to the amount. 

Senator Overman. It is now 1 o'clock, and we will adjourn until 
half past 2. 

(Whereupon, at 1 o'clock p. m., a recess was taken until 2.30 p. m.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The subcommittee, pursuant to the takinp^ of the recess, met at 
2.30 o'clock p. m. ^ 

TESTIMONY OF ME. A. BBTJCE BIELASKI— Eesumed. 

Senator Overman. The committee will come to order. Proceed, 
Mr. Bielaski. 

Mr. Bielaski. Mr. Chairman, in discussing the American Embargo 
Conference this morning I omitted to read the translation of a rather 
important letter from the German consul at Chicago, Mr. Reiswitz, 
dated July 22, 1915. It is particularly interesting as showing how 
early the German Government was involved in the American Em- 
bargo Conference, right at its organization — its inception. 

BlETASKI BXHIBTT No. 95. 

Chicago, July 22, 1915, 

YouB Excellency: I have received your very welcome letter, together with 
the newspaper clipping. I will see to it that the question of the part which 
American army officers are playing In the production of munitions and arms for 
our enemies Is laid before the coming mass meeting of the embargo confetencet 
and in order to further this purpose I have turned your newspaper article over 
to the persons by whom it wiU be conridered. 

Everything else concerning the proposed embargo conference you will please 
find in the enclosed copy of the report to the Ambassador. A change has, how- 
ever, come up, as the mass meeting will have to be postponed on account of 
there being insufficient time for the necessary preparations. It will probably 
be held here in about two weeks. 

Among others the following have agreed to cooperate: Senator Hitchcoclc, 
Congressman Buchanan, William Bayard Hale, of New York, and the well 
known pulpit orator, Dr. Aker (born an Englishman), from San Francisco. 

Hitchcock seemed to be very strong for the plan. He told our representative 
at a conference in Omaha : " If this matter is organize<l In the right way you 
will sweep the United States." 

You note he says " our representative.'' 

For your confidential information I would further Inform you that the leader- 
ship of the movement thus far lies In the hands of two gentlemen (one in 
Detroit and one In Chicago). 

There is nothing to show who those men were, except from general 
information as to the management and activities of the orgamzation. 
We believe Jacobsen, of Chicago, who was convicted of sending 
abroad in behalf of the Germans agents intended to go to India, and 
was sentenced, I think, to the penitentiary for a considerable term, was 
one, and Mr. Karl E. Schmidt, a very wealthy German- American of 
Detroit, a tanner, was the other. The list of voluntary contribu- 
tions made to the American Embargo Conference will show that Karl 
Schmidt was by far the largest individual contributor of money. 



BBBWINO AlfTD UQXTOB INTBBESTB AND GEBMAK PBOPAGAKDA. 1501 

It is also true that he, in the month of January, 1917, 1 think, was 
in New York City, at the Claridge Hotel, according to the testimony 
of men whom we have examined, where he met Dr. Fuehr, the treas- 
urer and German head of the press bureau; and while there is no 
evidence to show that he did in that way receive any German funds, 
there was the opportunity for him to have them from tiie man who 
was disbursing them. 

Speaking of these two gentlemen, he says: 

who are firmly resolved to work toward the end that the German community, 
which, of course, will be with us without further urging, shall above aU things 
remain in the baclsgro'und, and that the movement, to all outward api>earances, 
shall have a purely American character. I have known both the gentlemen 
very well for* a long time and know that personal interest does not count with 
them ; the results will bring their own reward. 

For the purposes of the Inner organization, to which we attribute imrticular 
importance, we have assured ourselves of the co-operation of the local Demo- 
cratic boss, Roger G. Sullivan, and McDonald, the latter of the Chicago Ameri- 
can. SuUivan was formerly leader of the Wilson campaign and is a deadly 
enemy of VirMlson, as the latter did not keep his*word to make him a Senator; 
therefore, principally, the sympathy for our cause. 

We well know that the task is great and the time is very eihort ; notwithstand- 
ing, however, we have to consider that the present moment is very auspicious, 
as in the Middle West, the West and even the South the opinion is gaining more 
and more momentum that the German requests are not without merit, and that 
at last something must be done to put a stop to the English encroachments, 
which are seriously Jeopardizing the business and industries of this country. 

A pertln^it article from the local Hearst paper Examiner is respectfully 
inclosed herewith. I do not believe it is going too far to presume that, inasmuch 
iw a crisis is developing for the near future in the German- American negotia- 
tions, public opinion in the United States, with the exception of that in the 
East, which will» of course, remain irretrievably pro-English, wiU turn more 
and more against the encroachments of England. 

I most refrain from communicating the above facts in my, report to the 
Ambassador, as the matter could be too easily compromised thereby. Perhaps 
you will find an opportunity to inform Count von Bemstorff verbally. As soon 
as the matter has first gained more headway, I believe Mr. von Alvensleben, 
who has taken part in the whole development here, will come to New York in 
order to inform the Ambassador fully regarding prevailing frame of mind here 
as well as regarding the movement, provided, however, that is desired. 

Mr. von Alvensleben will also at that time present another plan with reference 
to the pnrehase of the Wright aeroplane factories in Dayton, Ohio, which, in my 
opinion bold great possibilities for us. With some $50,000 we would acquire a 
Cfmtrol over the whole Wright patents, and thereby over the aeroplane factories 
In the whole United States, for about one year. We would thereby probably be 
placed in the position of being able to prevent the greatest part of the export of 
tying nuiehines from the United States. 

But, aside from this, the plan, so far as can be foreseen, appears to be a lucra- 
tive financial undertaking. We could then, in case we so desired, take over the 
Wrij^ht works on the ground of the contracts to be carried out 

At the present time there Is pending, so I have heard, an action, Wright va 
Ourtia, in which Wright complains of default in the use of his piatenta. The 
Action will come before the Supreme Court in Washington in September. In 
the first two trials Wright won, and it is to be expected with quite a good deal 
of certainty, that the last trial will be decided in his favor also. Whether other 
possibilities may not present themselves by which Curtiss can carry on his 
husineHS is. In view of the flexibility of the local patent laws, at least question- 
able. Re^rding this question the opinion of an experienced patent attorney 
of Washington or New York should be first secured. 

We previously only contemplated the acquiring of an option for the purchase 
of the Wrl^t Company inclusive patents for some three or four weeks which, 
with the assistance of one of Wright*s Intimate confidential men and a local 
bostnesB manf we will be able to do without cost. On the basis of the option 
we would then be in a poaHtLon to examine carefully into the matter and then 



1502 BBBWINa JOSTD LIQTTOB INTBBE8TB AND GEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 

to make our decision. All other details, some of which are a little compli- 
cated, can be worked out at an oral conference. 

So also the copies of the both Judgments in the lower and higher courts 
have gone in. These, as also all other documents necessary for the determina- 
tion of the matter, Mr. von Alvensleben will bring with him personally. 

Please be kind enough to let me know as soon as possible whether the Am- 
bassador is interested In the matter, and, If so, whether he will see Mr. von 
Alvensleben. With best wishes, your devoted 

P. Reiswitz. 

That shows that the German Government was concerned not only 
in financing this organization after it was established, but in the 
organization and direction of it, particularly through Messrs. Jacob- 
sen and Schmidt, from the outset. 

At the time that Mr. Karl Schmidt was in New York at the 
Hotel Claridge, he was consulted, according to testimony largely 
of Mr. Claussen, as to the buying of a press association named the 
American Press Association, of which Mr. Courtland Smith was 
president. 

Senator Sterling. Before proceeding with that, may I not call 
your attention to a statement in the letter just read, and that is a 
statement in regard to the inclosure from one of the Hearst papers. 
Do you have the inclosure yourself ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I do not know whether I have or not. Senator. 
You see I selected these papers, and I would have to look through 
the rest of the files to see whether I have it or not. I do not think 
I have it with me. 

Senator Stermng. You need not take the time to look for it now. 

Mr. BiELASKi. The New York World, August 15, 1915. printed a 
memorandum [reading] : 

BlELASKI EXHnJIT No. 96. 

I have obtained a thirty-day option, without cost to me, of a controllinjr 
interest of the American Press Association, a $1,600,000 corporation, with main 
office in New York, and seventeen branch offices and plants in the principal 
cities of the United States. The price is $900,000. One hundred thousand 
dollars more would have to be avaUable for the installation of a news service 
by means of tickers, the patents for which are controlled by tlie American 
Press Association. There are only two news tickers suitable for this work, 
the other being controlled by the Central News Company, which is an English 
corporation. 

This memorandum showed that it had been submitted to Dr. 
Albert's office. 

Mr. Claussen first denied that he was involved in this matter, but 
subsequently stated to agents of the department that he did secure 
this option from Mr. Courtland Smith. So far as I know Mr. 
Smith has not denied it. 

Senator Overman. Has anything been done with Clausften? 

Mr. BlELASKI. No, sir. The fact, however, that in 1917 there was 
a discussion as to the advisability of obtaining control of this same 
press association is interesting; and, as of possible interests and 
showing further the way this was considered, is the following 
memorandum : 

BsxLAaxx Exhibit No. 97. 

1. The American Press Asiiiociation places its whole organization at tlie dis- 
posal of Mr. H. F. Albert, in order to spread pro^German news or to suppress 



BBBWHra AKD LIQUOB IKTBBB8TS AND GBBACAN PBOPAGANDA. 1508 

nnti-German news or to make pro-German propaganda in any other way com- 
patible with its organization. It Is understood timt this arrangement will keei) 
within the limit of sound business principles, i. e. that the pro-German propa- 
pinda shall not be more accentuated than compatible with not diminishing tlit^ 
jirotits of the organization. It mu3t absolutely be avoided that the American 
rres8 Association becomes a recognized pro-German organization. 

2. This arrangement to be valid from July 15th until October 31st, 1915. 
Within this time Mr. Albert has to declare whether he will make use of the 
oi»tlon to buy the control of the aforesaid association by paying the amount 
of $900,000. 

3. As recompensation for extending the option to the 31st of October 1915 
and placing the good will of the Association at the disposal of Mr. Albert, the 
J! foresaid Association will receive the sum of payable the first of each 
month. Mr. Albert will designate his delegates who will confirm, if necessary, 
in daily conferences with Mr. Smith the general policy to be pursued and the 
pniotical steps to be taken. 

4. If the opticm is executed the sum stipulated under No. 3 will be deducted 
from the final payment to be made under this contract 

Attached thereto is a statement: "Assets and Liabilities, June 1, 
1915, American Press Association." 

Senator NEii30N. Who were the controlling men of that associa- 
tion! 

Mr. BiELASKi. I think Courtland Smith was the head, and I assume 
he controlled it. I do not know that, however. 

Maj. HuM£8. Senator, you remember that is the association that 
there wa3 a discussion of in the brewers' records that have been 
iiled in the case ? 

Senator Nelson. Yes. 

Maj. Humes. And they were considering the advisability of ac- 
quiring it about the same time. 

Senator Nelson. Yes. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Nothing camo, in 1915, of course, of this matter, as 
is apparent from this letter, written in New York, July 15, 1915, to 
Mr. M. B. Claussen, 80 East 42nd Street, New York City : 

BuELASKi Exhibit No. 88. 

Mt I^car Mr. Claus8£n : 

1 am very much obliged to you tor haviug taken the trouble of securing an 
ofniim for the controlling Interest of the American Press Association. To my 
rejret, however, the party, authoritative in this matter, has declined to buy 
that inter€?st or to place at my disposal funds for extending the option and for 
procuring the good will of the American Press Association for six weeks or 
U*rtger. 

I have recelve<l the best impression of the leading personality of the Associa- 
tSon, Mr. Smith, ami feel sure that our interests would be well cared for In hl^ 
baiKljA. However, I nra convinced of the impossibility, especially when the press 
hi coooemed. to keep a matter secret in this country, and If it becomes known 
that the Association is controUed by Carman interests it would never be a 
success. At the present animosity against Germany, It would even mean risking 
tlie whole enterprise. If. on the other hand, we operate the news service in 
such a cautious manner that the German Interest cannot very well be dis- 
covered it will not be of much use at all. At any rate, it will never be worth 
900,000 dollars or more than 4 million marks. 

Although I fully recognize your far-seeing efforts in this matter, I think that, 
under the circumstances. It will be better to acquire or perhaps establish a news 
service after the war. 

Believe me, dear Mr. Claussen^ 
Yours very truly. 

S^iator Nelson. This Courtland Smith is a brother-in-law of 
Arthur Brisbane, is he not? 



1504 BBEWIKG AKB LIQUOB INTEKBBTB AND QBBMAN FBOPAaAHDA. 

Mr. BiELASKi. I do not know, sir. 

Capt. Lester. Mr. Brisbane testified that he was, the other day. 

Senator Nelson. Yes. 

Senator Overman. He is not the Smith that you spoke of, in De- 
troit? 

Mr. BiEiiASKi. No ; that is a name with an entirely different spell- 
ing. The Mr. Schmidt in Detroit is S-c-h-m-i-d-t. 

Senator Nelson. A German Smith — his name is Karl, is it not? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Karl E. Schmidt ; yes. 

Certain notes appearing in Dr. Fuehr's diary that I have, have 
been suj^gested as of interest to the committee. 

The first one is Friday, January 14. 

Senator Nelson. What year? 

Mr. BiELASKi. 1916. [Keading:] 

Itzein and McGuire called ; the latter brought his new book, What Germany 
could do for America. It is becoming more and more evident to me that we 
should not worry about an official (?) embargo, which will be after all unat- 
tainable, but a prohibition of traveling by Americans on British vessels, since 
submarine warfare will probably be taken up again in the war zone. 

That was January 14, 1916, and shows Dr. Fuehr's belief in a 
resumption of the submarine warfare. 

Senator Nelson. There was a propaganda taken up on that ques- 
tion, about not having Americans traveling on foreign ships? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. 

On Sunday, January 16, 1916, he says : 

pined with Mr. and Mrs. Hale. 

H. thinks the opinion of a large number of Senators favorable to a general 
embargo. 

Saturday, January 22, he says : 

"Special opera (German Press Club patrons). Had box, invited 
Mr. and Mrs. Hale," and others. 

Again, on Tuesday, March 14, 1916: 

"Evening; dinner at Viereck's; others present. Consul General 
von Huber, Dr. and Mrs. Hale," and some other people. 

Senator Sterlino. The McGuire referred to there is the same Mc- 
Guire that you referred to yesterday in the testimony ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes; clearly, from the reference to that book, of 
which he was the author; James K. McGuire, connected with the 
Irish propaganda. 

Just brieflfy, in order to make the record somewhat complete, not 
because it is of special interest, the German Government was inter- 
ested in the International Press Exchan^, which is interesting. 
This letter is dated October 4, 1916. [Reading :] 

BlELASKT ExHiBPr No. 99. 

Mr. W^ ALTER S. Katjfmann, 

60 Wall street, New York City, 

Dear Mr. Kaufmann : We have organized a special cable service to and from 
Rotterdam. This service is carried on under the name of the " International 
Press Exchange." 

W^Ill you please ask Mr. R. why the Evening Mail does not use this cable 
service, although it is remarkably neutral In its substance and form and is used 
by other newspapers. The expense for the service is so small that this question 
can not be of any Importance. 



BREWING AXD LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1505 

Senator Sterling. The " Mr. R." referred to there is Rumely ? 

Mr. BuEXASKi. I think so; unquestionably. 

Senator Xelson. Yes; that is Rumely. 

Mr. BiELASKi. In a memorandum submitted to Dr. Albert there 
are 102 of the leading newspapers and magazines mentioned who 
have accepted the photographic service of the International Press 
Exchange and agree to pay $1 for each picture used. That is not 
significant in so far as any of the papers are concerned, but simply 
showed that this bureau was trying to spread its pictures. It simply 
offered to the newspapers pictures which, if they used, were paid for 
at the rate of $1 each. 

A separate list of papers was submitted, 74 in number, as having 
printed cables, 6 of them paying for them at a regular space rate, 
and the others receiving them through a syndicate which paid $25 a 
week for the service. 

I now will refer to a letter dated May 20, 1915, addressed to Dr. 
Georg Barthelme, who was pretty well known in Washington. He 
was connected with, I think it was, the Cologne Gazette, and ffot 
into difficulties down at the Press .Club here because of his offensive 
attitude toward this country, and was a very active collector of press 
material of a kind useful to Germany. He went back, I think, either 
with Bemstorff or with a party that went back shortly after, be- 
cause of some general arrangement whereby newspaper correspond- 
ents in Grermany and this country were to be allowed to go home, by 
mutual agreement between the countries. 

Senator Sterung. Was he an American citizen? 

)Ir. BiEULSKi. Oh, no ; he was a German, and came over here pur- 
poselv, at the outset of the war, to help German propaganda. 

He received a letter, from Amsterdam, dated May 20, 1915, from 
t man named Guenther Thomas, in which he tells of being acquainted 
with him some time ago, and that he has been made business manager 
and chief editor in the German Overseas Service Trans-Ocean Lim- 
ited. He says: 

BuEULSKi Exhibit No. 991. 

I'p to the present we have been exclusively dependent upon the use of the 
wirelesfl stations for our service to the United States and South America, which 
work very irregularly, and are subject to many atmospheric disturbances, and 
besides are dependent upon the mercy of Americans who are influenced by 
vaciHating sentiment. • 

I fsaid to myself, that we must finally, somehow, find a way by which we can 
iipen up the cable connection over Holland to us, as all the rest are doing. That 
we htive to reckon with the arbitrary power of English, Js an after thought 
which we will have to accept as the others have with the bargain. The main 
thing is that the English do not discover by whom the service In reality is 
glv«i» and what Its meaning is, that is. it must be so arranged, that it will 
appear as n bona Me news-service between two newspapers, or syndicates of 
saeh. I have just taken care of Holland and. the question now is, if you will 
be in a position to take care of the American end. That your task Is the much 
more difficult one is obvious, because of the prevailing conditions of this time. 
We hope and trust that because of your intimate knowledge of the conditions, 
nnd your genuine skill, you will be successful in overcoming the difficulties. 

I have entered into an agreement with the owner and publisher of the New 
Amsterdam Courier, published in Rotterdam, that his paper will forward the 
despatches to the addresses, which will be received from you, and will thus act 
as go-between for us. It would therefore be necessary, that you offer to an 
sm^O' American paper say, for instance. " Washington Post ** or any other, a 
regular Berlbn service as a special service, either for a consideration or with- 



1506 BBEWING AND LIQUOB INTEBESIB AND GEBMAN PROPAGANDA. 

out, Just as you think expedient, and stipulate as reciprocal terms, the imme- 
diate forwarding of the dispatches to you, on account of sending same to 
Central and South America. I believe it would be best. If one would quietly 
say, that definite arrangements exist for that, for that could not injure the 
exclusive use of the dispatches in America — of course the publishing of same in 
the U. S. must be exclusively reserved for the paper or syndicate in question. 
These would of course come into question which do not now have a special 
correspondent in Berlin. 

In case it is necessary we will get in touch by telegraph with the Embassy in 
Washington, through the Foreign Office, and perhaps by that time you will 
have learned something in this way about the matter. Still I have great doubts 
if that will be possible. I beg you, in any case, to make some agreement with 
the Embassy, and especially with the gentleman who forwards our wireless mes- 
sages to Central and South America. Great obstacles must for a long time 
have been in the way, in this respe<'t. for the service does not work as clearly 
as is to be wisheil, for the interest of the cause. Lately, it has however been 
much improved. For all that, it is still urgently necessary that the thing 
should rest in one hand, and handled with care. It is further neces.<;ary, that 
our service, even if it consists solely of wireless telegi*ams, that It be enlarged 
through news from America, for instance, through press sentiment favorable to 
us, for which above all, .iournalisiic vision and experience, as well as knowledge, 
are the surrounding circumstances. 

We would ask you, that in the interest of the cause that you further inform 
yourself from the competent gentlemen ^>t the Embassy, about the financial side, 
the different places, whicli the service reaches, etc., mainly, the most imi)ortant 
princii)Ic, is to work liarmoniously hand in Jiand with the A. A., especially with 
tlie press department under the ministerial Director Hamman and his assistant 
Lejratitai Secretary Vv'eher. .-jnd the same hohls jj:ood as to Washiuirton. 

In case now. you should be successful in establishing the so nuich desired 
connection on the American end, then please give me, immeiliately the signal to 
begin by the following dispatch : *' Nygt Rotterdam. Will you have <mr tele- 
grams address .... Here would follow the cable address of the jiarticular 
paper. Mr. Nygt is the publisher of the " Nieuve Uotterdamsche Counint." who 
will forward the dispatch to us. We have chosen the form of questi<ms, in 
order to attract the lea.st possible attention from the English censor, to the 
matter. It is especially important that the receipt of every dispatch from us is 
Immediately acknowledged to Rotterdam. A form must be agreed upon, with 
the paper In question, from which perhaps :m example of the maimer (»f tlie 
acknowledging of the wireless telegram will be given. To cable the numl)er of 
words is forbidden in itself, because the English censor suspects therein a code 
or market quotation and will in no case let it go through. 

I think I have said in the above, what is to be said for the present. If you 
will have the kindness to write me always under the cover of Director Nygt, 
Nieuve C'ourant, Rotterdam, W^itte de Wit Straat 73. what you think of my 
proposition, I would be very grateful to you. We all work in common, for the 
good and best of our fatherland. 

Then he devotes some time to a discussion of the war situation, 
about Italy's entrance into the war, and 50 on, and tells about how 
their new class is coming on. 

He saA's. among other things : 

I hope the dear Yankees are l>ecoming reconciled with regard to the Lusitania. 

And he sends his regards to Bernstorff. 

On June 10. 1915, appeai*s a memorandum apparently by Prince 
Hatzfeldt of the (Jerman Embassv. He savs: 

B1ELA8KI Exhibit No. 100. 

In Mr. Thomas a new person turns up who asserts that he Is authorised by 
the Trans-Ocean Service of the Foreign Offlc»e to superintend the further spread 
of German news. The Imperial Embassy has heard nothing about Mr. Thomas 
direc*t from the Foreign Office. It therefore really does not know how far he is 
really authorize<l to dispose of imperial moneys. As far as his proposal is con- 
cerne<l, I assume that It is merely a question of a momentary makeshift. As 
such I have' strong objection to the same. 



BREWIKG AXD LIQTJOB INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1507 

He wimls up by saying: 

It wonlil t>e I)e8t to say to Dr. linrthelme that the plan does not seem feasible 
here, the rejisons for this will l)e communicated to the Foreign OfRce In a safe 
way. 

Mr. Claussen* however, in a letter addressed to Albert July 7, 1915, 
savs : 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 100^. 

In ressanl to letter from the German Ovei*sea Service to Dr. George Bar- 
thelme. I bejr to say that the New York American, Sun and World have agreed 
to take a service. 

Tl>e other papers no doubt will follow their example. 

I have }«ent today a cable the copy of which I attach^ This will start the 
wrrice, l>ut I desire to Impress upon you that If they fall to send good and 
reliable news of value to the Press here, this service will be of very little value. 

I won Id like to Ru;??est tliat if I can get 40 or 50 papers throughout the 
Tntted Stiites to use this service it would be a good idea for me to send one 
or two men abroad, one to Holland and the other to Berlin. 

I wni send you a memoranda as soon as other papers indicate a desire to 
receive tlie service. 

Youns very truly, M. B. Claussen. 

The incloeure is dated New York, July 7, 1915. It is as foUbws : 

BiELASKi ExHisrr No. 101. 

Nygt Rotterdam. 

Will yon have your telegrams addressed International Press Exchange, 30 
Eaat 42Dd St. 

Which is in accordance with the form suggested in Thomas's letter. 
Under date of July 9. 1915, what purports to be a copy of a letter 
is addressed to Prince Hatzf eldt from Albert. It is as follows : 

BlELASKr BXHIBIT No. 102. 

Edcl o a e d herewith I return you the Ambassador's letter of June 6, with the 
fotlowln? report: 

After mature consideration, I had intended to do everything to find a way 
to make uste of the suggestion made by Mr. Gnenther Thomas. I therefore 
eonailaBloiied Mr. Glanssen to get in touch with the local papers and ascertain 
tD what degree they would be Inclined to use a dally cable service such as was 
micgested. The "New York American," the "Sun" and the "World ' de- 
clared Ihemj^lves as in favor of it. In consequence the cable agreed upon 
was sent to Thomas. We mu.«it now wait and see if the service works well. 
If It doeii. we hope to be able to extend it to about 40 or 50 papers in the 
Tnlted States. I will communicate further with you regarding this. 

I hope in the course of the next week to have the pleasure of seeing you 
again. Pertiapa you will dine with me some evening at one of the pleasanter 
" roofgardens.** 

With friendly greetings, 
Always your respectful 

The list of papers which was submitted as using that was just five 
or 8ix« and the ones that were in this syndicate were mostly all very 
small papers. 

Senator Nelson. Have you a list of the men that contributed to 
the embargo program ? 

Mr. BiEi:^SKi. The contributors? 

Senator Xelson, Yes. 

Mr. BnouASKi. Yes ; I have one, and will put it ill the record. 

Senator Nelson. All rig^t. 



1508 BREWING AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 

(The following is a list of the principal subscribers to the Ameri- 
can embargo conference:) 

B1ELA6KI Exhibit No. 103. 



July SO, 1916 — Contributions up to date. 

Carl E. Schmidt Detroit, Mich $10 

Donations from New York 5 

Geo. Ehret New York 3 

Bernard H. Ridder *' 2 

William Boldenweck Chicago 1 

Collections by Dr. S New York 1 

Dr . O . L . Schmidt Chicago 1 

Fred Klein 

A. W. Huber. .. 
G. H. Jacobsen. 
Mrs. Carl Bnehl 

The Bayer Company New York 1 

R. Pagenstecher 

Dr. Franz Koemple 

Collections bv Albrecht 

Donations solicited by G. H. J Chicago 1 

Paul Tietgen 



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Dr. Christian Dencker 

Dr. Henry F. Helmholz Evanston, 111 1 

F. W. Matthiessen La Salle, 111 1 

Hugo Lieber New York 1 

Fritz Worm La Salle, 111 

Dr. Paul Cams , 

A. B. Steffens Chicago 

Henry P. Runkle 

Dr. Samuel Amberg 

Dr. Alex. C. Wiener 

A. R. Hoffmann St. Louis, Mo 

E. R. Behrend Erie, Pa 

Chas. Hulsman New York 

A. L. Peterson Davenport, Iowa 

W. P. Almelk New York 

Benj. Anderson 

T. H. Hinkland 

E. Janensch Chicago 

F. W. Labahn : 

Joe. Brennemann La Salle, 111 

E. Roth Peru, II 

Collections at Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 

Simond Lewald New York 

F. M. Seiler 

Theo. Guienheimer 

Henry Bartholmay 

Theo. H. Lamprecht 

Paul Wenzel 

Hugo Fiegel 

Collectiona at Dubuque Dubuque, Iowa 

Collections at Waterloo Waterloo, Iowa. 

Alex . O . GetUer New York 

Edward G. Uihlein Chicago 

Schoenhofen Brewing Co 

Keeley BreWinff Co 

Grommes & Ullrich 

Fritz Von Frantzius i 

H. A. Langhorst 

K. W. Kempf 

P. S. Theurer 

Geo. S. McConnell 

Geo. EngeUdng 



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600.00 
000.00 
000.00 
550.00 
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250.00 
200.00 
000.00 
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000.00 
100.00 
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22L00 
208.00 
200.00 
200.00 
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200.00 
200.00 
200.00 
200.00 
200.00 
200.00 
200.00 
200.00 



BHBWIKQ ▲ND UQUOB INTEBBSTO AND GEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1509 

Collections at Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 150. 00 

Louis HoUw^^ Indianapolis, Ind 200. 00 

CoUections at Blue Island, 111 126. 75 

Dr. F. C. Harniflch Chicago 125.00 

G. A. Schnnll Indianapolis. Ind 100. 00 

Chae. H. I»el Cleveland, Ohio 100.00 

Fitger Brewing Co Duluth, Minn 100. 00 

Huso Jaeckel New York 100.00 

Udile Schweitzer ** 100.00 

J. M. Huber " 100.00 

Andrew Hebel Peru, 111 100.00 

H. Hoemer " 100.00 

F. Widman St. Louis. Mo 100. 00 

A. M^xer Evansville, Ind 100. 00 

C. A. Wellendorf '. Louisville, Ky 100.00 

Henry Weis Waterloo. Iowa 100.00 

Frank J. Reitz Evansville, Ind 100.00 

J. P. Frenzel Indianapolis, Ind 100.00 

Standard Brewing Co Chicago 100. 00 

B. H. Boericke " 100.00 

E.G. Pauling " 100.00 

TliePuefBt Kerber Cut Stone Co " 100.00 

W. A. Wieboldt " 100.00 

Bernard F. Weber* Co " 100.00 

Chas. Weeghman " 100.00 

Jacob Birk " 100.00 

L. Wolff Mfg. Co " 100.00 

O. C. Doering * 100.00 

Fftnl SchuLce. .- " 100.00 

Arthur NoUau " 100.00 

Wm. Hartig Watertown, Wis 75.00 

CoUectioiiB at " 67.25 

Cdaections at Social Turner Verein Chicago, 111 70. 72 

Fint Eiflenbeiger Kranken Unt. Verein... " 67.00 

CoUectioiia at Toledo Toledo, Ohio 67.00 

Coilectaoiw at Niles Center, 111 Nilee Center, 111 62.47 

CoUectioDe at Manhalltown Marehalltown, Iowa 59.50 

Dr. A, F. Jonaa Omaha, Nebr 50. 00 

Geo. Weinhagen Milwaukee, Wis 50.00 

Henry Paulsen Stockton, Iowa 50.00 

Hennan F. lAeher Indianapolis, Ind 50.00 

FiedFaegnley " 50.00 

Albert I^ber " 50.00 

G.T.O. Becker LaSalle, 111 50.00 

HenrrGund (John Gnnd Biew. Co.) La Croase, Wis 50. 00 

J«luiH. Fendrich Evansville, Ind 50.00 

A. A.M St. Louis, Mo 50.00 

ChM.H. Wacker Chicago 50.00 

Albert Breitnng '* ,50.00 

MaxSchucktfdt " 50.00 

aiaLGindele " 50.00 

Count Bqpp von Obentadt " 50.00 

WlDuin L^tsper " 50.00 

August C. Magnus " 50.00 

E.G. HaUe " 60.00 

Hatt DeatBche Gilde " 60.00 

A.F.Madlener " 50.00 

Mn. PhoebeSeipp " 50.00 

BIrk Bros. Brewing Co " 50.00 

0. F. Mayer d Bro " SaOO 

CMSolzer " 60.00 

JohnHetcel " 60.00 

J. L. Hoerber Brewing Co " 50.00 

Edward Landsberg 50.00 

George K. Schmidt * 50.00 

Peter Hand Brewing Co *•.... 60.00 

A. C. Schmidt ".... 60.00 



1610 BREWING AKD UQUOB INTKafi8TB AND GEBICAN PBOPAGANDA. 

FenskeBroe " 50.00 

R. J. Weller •* 50.00 

LeoEnwt *' 50.00 

CarlEitel " 50.00 

Adolph Schoeninger " 50. 00 

CarlRoewler " 50.00 

MaxTeich " 50.00 

Weetlicher Krieger Bund ** 50.00 

Central Verbund Gennan Vet. Soldiers 

Society " 50.00 

Rudolph Brand " 50.00 

William Laas " 50.00 

Badiflcher Unt. Verein " 50.00 

Arthur C. Straflsheim ** : 50.00 

Henry Kleine A Co " 50.00 

Int. Union United Brg. Workman's Local 

Union No. 18 50. 00 

National Brewing Co Chicago 50. 00 

Koester & Zander " 50. 00 

Badiflcher Unt Verein " 50. 00 

In. Union United Brewery " 50. 00 

Order der Herman's Soehne Columbus, Nebr 48. 20 

A. A. Burger Chicago 40.00 

Rudolph Wagner, Buerger V«ein ** 38. 50 

Gustav A. Imm Denver, Colo 35. 00 

John Hettennan Louisville, Ky 30. 00 

Rev. C. Ziehe Mason, Texas 30.00 

Dr. Christopher ducago. 30.00 

Anton Mey^ TeneHaute, Ind 30. 00 

Rev. KarlReot Manhalltown, Iowa 3a 00 

United 8ing«» of PhiladeliAia 30.00 

Collections of Marshalltown Manhalltown, Iowa 29. 50 

J. H. Braae Battle Creek, Mich 2&76 

Ferdinand Wal ther Chicago " 25. OO 

Deutsche Krueger Kameradsdiaft '' 25.00 

A . C. Wackenreuter '' 25. 00 

American Oven db Machinery Co *' 25. 00 

H. Piper Co " 25.00 

G. W. Cramer *' 25.00 

Spielman Bros Co " 25. 00 

Franks. Seng " 25.00 

N.N " 26.00 

PaulBrauer " 25.00 

Casper Brauer *' 26.00 

Piatt Gilde Germania No. 37 " 25.00 

E. R. Haflse&Co *' 25.00 

Oesterreicher Kran ken & Unt Verein " 26.00 

PUttGilde**Habea"No.38 ** 26.00 

Edwin O. Raster *' 26.00 

OttoC. Schneider ** 25.00 

Ratt Gilde *'Fritz Renter No, 4" '' 25.00 

J. M. Kranz • 25.00 

A . Bauer Dist . Co " 25. 00 

William Heineman '' 26.00 

Rev. L. KohlmaA *' 25.00 

Adam Ortseifen " 25. 00 

PlattGilde, No. Chicago No. 9 " 26.00 

putt Gilde "Lake View No. 3*' " 26.00 

Hamburger Club * * 26. 00 

PUttGilde^'TreueBruederNaeO" " 26.00 

Henry C . Dovenmuehle " 25. 00 

Gustav A. Bunte " 26. 00 

PUtt Gilde *'Eckentweig" " 25.00 

Schwaben Verein " 26.00 

Ghas. E. Schlytem •' j.... 25.00 

Collections at Joliet, 111 " 25.00 

Stein Ebertshaeuser Sl Co *' 25. 00 



BREWING AND UQUOB INTBRE8TB AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1511 



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B. A. Eokhart 

Frank Trankhorat 

Heiman Pe tureen 

Brand Brewing Co 

Sieben*8 Brewing Co 

Manhattan Brewing Co 

N.N Terre Haute, Ind 

C.Stahl '♦ 

N . Bendtorff " 

Cohen, Friedlaiider & Martin Toledo, Ohio .... 

German Historical Society *' 

r. A. Feist ' Watf rtown, Wis . 

FUtt Gilde " Nord West No. 12" Chicago 

Hnnry C. Wemmer ** 

Kingston Branch A. E. C Kingston, N. Y. . . 

IVutscher Pion*»er Verein Toledo, Ohio .... 

PUU Gilde "Miles Center No. 32" Nilcs Center, 111.. 

Francis Lackner Chicago 

.\rthur C. Luedcr .' 

Chas. J. Swain 

John Traeger Chicago, 111. 

(Tias. E. Schick 

Carl Bo<*hler 

NX 

Rpinisrhf r Verein 

.Arion Sin^ng Society 

I»uia r. Hartling 

A. A. Burger 

Piatt Gilde ** Junkennan No. 20" 

Verpin Thuo Rf^cht & Soheue Niemand. . . 

Chas. Krorsrhel 

H. Zitzwitz 

Opo. LAutcrer 

Jos. Hook 

Saml. Gassier 

<i«geii8ritiff(?r Unt. Verein No. 14 

Fred LaBaJm 

waiiam Greiner 

( Gallauer 

E. H. Knoop 

Henry Wedemeyer 

P<*ter Reinbere. 

Brrt Brewing Co 

Hsp9»leIceCo 

PbilRinnCo 

Xorthw<9t< m Terra Cotta Co 

Francis Kaiser Milwaukee, Wis « 

T*-xi8 Staats Verein Ger. American Alli- 
ance San Antonio, Tex . . . . 

Julius Niels Cass Lake, Minn 

Theo. Lanffe St. Louis, Mo 

E C. Fmnke Louisville, Ky 

Win.F.Taft4 

(itto Se«'l \mch 

The Phillip HoUenbach Co 

Louis SiH'lDarh 

^rt*o. L. Ev» rbach 

Wm. Rucdeman 

Ammcan Embargo Conference Kingston, N. Y. . . 

<' Sieinmover LaSalle, 111 

Olti) Frtvhfes " 

UriVogt lAkeForrst,^Ill.. 

Tf'xas Staats Verband San Antonio, Tex. 

*'ake Bakf-re St Conf. Verein Philadelphia, Pa. 

F. M, Bachman Indianapolis, Ind. 

I>r. C, Thirnhaus Milwaukee, Wis.. 

Wm. J. Uihlein 



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8S723^19 — VOL 2- 



1512 BBBWING AND LIQUOB INTERESTS AND GBBMAN PBOPAOAKDA. 

Freeker Bros. & Co , Duluth, Minn 26.00 

Geo. G. Eitel Minneapolis, Minn 25. 00 

J. H. HasB Davenport, Iowa 25. 00 

German Alliance Alleghany, Pa 25. 00 

W. G. Kutsch LaSalle, 111 26.00 

A. L. Meyer Omaha, Nebr 25. 00 

Hugo HaubenB * * 25. 00 

Storz Brewing Co " 25.00 

R. C. Strehlow " 25.00 

Metz Bros. Brewing Co " 25. 00 

Mr. BiELASKi. It does not begin to total any such amount as was 
necessarily spent. It just simply lists the voluntary contributions 
from people who were genuinely interested in it. 

Senator Nelson. Yes ; I understand. Have you the men that at- 
tended the first embargo conference at, Chicago ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I think that is in some of the reports that we have ; 
yes. 

Senator Nelson. Could you prepare that and put it into the 
record ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. 

Senator Nelson. I think it is a good plan to get that in the record. 

Mr. BiELASKi. We have so much material about 'the American 
embargo conference that I was afraid I would tire you by reading 
too much of it. 

Senator Nelson. We can put it into the record. I would like to 
know who attended the first meeting at Chicago. 

Mr. BiELASKi. All right, Senator. 

(A report in regard to the Embargo Conference, pro duced from the 
files of the Military Intelligence Division of the War Department, 
is here printed in full as follows:) 

BiELASKi KXHUIIT No. 104*. 
MEMORANDA ON AMERICAN EMBARGO CONFERENCE. 

G. H. .iHcobson. foumler, incUcted Cliicajro about .Iiiiip 1, 1917, on char^re 
of conspiring to violate the ileiitraUty of the U. S. In that he spent German 
money In furtherance of a conspiracy in violation of the laws and dangerous 
to the peace of the U. S. Sentence<l, now serving term. 

Origin: G. H. Jacobson. a Chicago real estate dealer, started work in sum- 
mer 1915. Got assistance of Wm. Boldenweck, former assistant U. S. Treasurer 
at Chicago, and Mrs. Carl Buehl, stockholder in Eidehveiss Brewery Co. of 
Chicago. He put up $1,000, engaging Will II. Macdonald. former managing 
editor of the Washington Times and at time on the editorial staff of the Chi- 
cago American, as press agent. William Bayard Hale. Rev. Charles F. Aked, 
and Cd. Jasper Tucker Darling got In. Organized Sept. 14, 1915, with Geo. 
F. Hancher, president. Incoriwrated Illinois. By laws provided that there 
should be no dues nor assessments, and gave five members: Hancher Jacob- 
son, Macdonald, Darling and Hale. A self-perpetuating, close corporation. 
On Dec. 10, Wm. D. Falk was electetl a member to succeed Hancher, de- 
tunct, and Hale withdrew, Feb. 12. 1916, Macdonald made general managpr, 
and J. H. Forrest of the Chicago American, secretary. Macdonald formed 
plan to put pressure on Congress througli floods of letters and telegrams. 

Activities : Repoit made Nov. 1. 1915. to Carl K. Schmidt of Detroit, stated 
500,000 pledges of assistance had been received, and there had been maile<l : 

60,000 copies of a letter By Aked and Dr. Walter Rauscheubusch. 

50,000 copies of a pamphlet by Hale. 

50,000 copies of a speech by Senator Works against th'e traffic in arms ami 
ammunition. 

30,000 copies of a pamphlet with speech by Col. Darling and e<litorinls by 
Greo. Riley* and Hearst. 

^Further extracts from the fllefl with respect to the German Embargo Conference will 
be found at page 1881 of these bearings. 



BBEWING AND LIQUOR INXEBESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1513 

In April, 1916, orgaoized movement to send to Congress a flood of letters 
and telegrams protesting against supposed danger of war with Germany. 
Abciut 250,000 messages sent, seven forms being used, and A. K. C. paying all 
tolls, estimated at near quarter of a million. Denouncetl by Hustlng. As 
re«ult, Macflonald stopped the flood as suddenly as it began. 

PurpcMses: Incorporation iiapers give sole aim of A. K. C. to be the preven- 
tion of shipment of arms and munitions to the Allies. A letter to a contributor 
of articles said : — 

" We want the ai-ticles t<i be as fair as iM»8slble, esiwcially at the beginning 
of the campaign, so that we can be the more sure tbat they will get into the 
papers. By *falr' I do not mean. that yours have be<»n unfair, but that that the 
editors who will have to be * induced * to print our stuff will be looking for 
excuses and will reject anything that in any way <*ompares Germany and 
Enslan4l in a way that would give Germany the better of the comparison. I 
runUl explain what I mean much better in talking to you, but I think you get 
the Idea. I ilo not mean that we should hold back any publicity In favor of 
Germany or against Kngland, but we have to build the comparison articles on 
a thoroughly Ajnerican background.'* 

That the A. E. C alst> worked by '* direct action "' was shown by the following 
letter sent out from headquarters to an organizer on Feb. 29, 1916 : — 

^ Under the informal opinion of some of the Department of Justice olflcials 
in Washington, any letter, telegram or appeal to a munlti<m worker asking 
hlui to quit work, or giving him reasons why he shouhl not work in a munition 
factory, can be construed as a violation of neutrality. 

" Now, can you re-write an article In such a way as to make It an abstract 
argument rather than a personal one? 

rolon S<'hott, (Mncini.ati. $300. 

Henry K. Helmholz, Evanston. $1,000. 

A. W. Hunber. $1,000. 

A. R. Hoffman, St. Ix>u:8, $500. 

Agents: — Clevelaml, Carl Kald, Edward Fisher, Charhs Wehnert, Hans Rch 
binder. 

rincinnati : — Howard C Wurlltzer. 

Detroit : — I>r. Otto Scherer. 

St. I^ouls:— Hans WulfC. 

Sau Fraiiclscf>: — I>anlel 0'(*onnell, A. D. Bauer. 

••hlcapo: — Herman Gerhard. 

Brefi-er, etc., agents In Wisconsin only — active workers and heli>ers. Henry 
iiuoA. pr. John Gund Brewing Co., La Crosse. Wise. 

William G. I'lhlein, Milwaukee— Ulhleln Family. 

August Storck, treas. Stort^k Brewing Co., Ripon, Wise. 

W. R. Wolfe, buffet keejier. Arcadin, Wise. 

i'arl Michel, pres. C. & J. Brewing Co., La Crosse, Wise. 

J. W. Kleckhefer, pres & treas, Kieckhefer Box Co. Adv. reads "Wooden 
iM>xe»e for iKJttlers." 

Mr. BiBL-iSKi. You asked me this morning about Prof. Albert 
Bushnell Hart? 

Senator Overman. Yea 

Mr. BiELASKi. I have here a copy of his book: The War in 
Earope, which I have not had time to examine critically. 

S^oaior Overman. Give it to Maj. Humes to look into. 

Senator Sterling. What is the date of the publication of that 
book? 

Maj. Humes. 1914. 

Senator Nee^son. If there is anything bad in it, have it put in the 
rocord. 

Maj. Humes. Mr. Hart has asked to appear here, and he will be 
here on Tuesday. I will go over this in the meantime. 

Mr. BiELASKi. This morning I could not find the final page of a 
translation of this inclosure of Dr. Dumba's letter to Baron Von 
Bnrian, thou|?b I afterwards read to you the substance of it. I can 
put that in the record, or read it to you. 



1514 BREWING AND LIQTJOE INTEEESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 

Senator Nelson. Is it long? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I will read you an extract from it : 

It is my opinion tliat for the special ol)ject of starting the Betlilehem business 
(ind for the Bethlehem and western newspaper canipaijcn, $15,000 to $20,000 
must be able to be disposed of, but it is not possible to reckon how much will 
ultimately be required ; when a beginning: has been made it will l>e possible to 
see how things develop, and where and how much it is worth while to spend; 
The above mentioned preliminary sum would suffice to partially satisfy the 
demands of the necessary newspapers and to a considerable extent those of 
the Bethlehem campaign. 

Senator Nelson. That Bethlehem campaign was 

Mr. BiELASKi. To bring about a strike. 

Senator Nelson. To .bring about a strike among the Hungarians 
and other foreigners? 
Mr. BiELASKi. Yes, sir. 
He also says: 

It is in any case worth while risking this amount for it will undoubtedly 
show some rt»sult, and if circumstances are lucky, and the leadership good, we 
can arrive at positive results in the West comparatively cheaply, whereas 
Bethlehem is one of the most difficult Jobs. 

I read a cablegram this morning from Ambassador Bernstorff to 
the Foreign Office in which he made mention of the fact of the Ger- 
man University League, and the use he was making of it. 

Senator Overman. Was that a league of university men in this 
country? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes, sir. 

I have here the constitution, trustees, and officers of the German 
Univei^sity League, 1914 and 1915, apparently printed in New York, 
November, 1915. 

Its constitution states its purpose to be : 

1. To establish in the United States a well-organ ize<l center for former 
students at German universities and other German Institutions of similar 
standards in Germany. Austria-Hungary^ and other countries. 

2. To cooperate with every effort to strengthen the regard for the Germans 
and for their alms and ideals and to seciire for them fair play and proper 
appreciation. 

3. To correct misinformation about German conditions and problems by 
placing before educated Americans and before the press of this country 
reliable material bearing on German affairs. 

Senator Nelson. Who are the officers? 

Mr. Biel.\ski. The officers for 1915 and 1916 are : 

President, Professor Camillo von Klenze. Vice Presidents: M. R. Hein, 
William R. Shepherd. 

It seems to me Hein was Vierick's father-in-law, or something of 
that sort. 

Mr. Shepherd was, I think, a professor at Columbia. 

Maj. Humes. And one of those whose names appear on the list 
submitted yesterday? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. [Continuing reading:] 

Treasurer: H. C. A. Seebohm. Assistant treasurer: R. Pagenstecher. Re- 
cording secreta;ry : Hugo Kirbach. Executive secretary : O. J. Merkel. 

Pagenstecher was a man who, I think, contributed to every pro- 
German organization ever organized in the United States. 

Merkel is an alien enemy, the active operator of the concern for the 
Germans, and now interned. 



BBEWING AND LIQUOB INTEfiJBSTB AND OBBHAN PBOPAQANDA. 1515 

The trustees, elected to serve from one to four years were : 

Entst Bilhuber, Dr. J. F. Boldt, Prof. A. Busse, Louis Doelllng, F. Haas, M 
R- Hein, Dr. Hugo Kirbach, Dr. Henry G. Krause, Dr. U. D. Marquardt, Hon 
Chas. Nagel, R. Pageustecher, Prof. W. W. Rockwell, H. C. A. Seebohm. Cari 
L. Schurz, Dr. Hugo Scbweitzer, Prof. Wm. R. Shepherd, H. E. Stoehr, ot the 
woolen mULs. 

Prof. Caniillo von Klenze, Dr. Edmund von Mnch, Dr. F. Zlnniiennan. 

Elected to serve for the current year: Prof. Starr Willard Cut- 
ting; Ad. K. Fischer, of Philadelphia, who was involved to some 
extent at least, in fact to a consiUerable extent, in the smuggling 
charges brought against the kommandant of the German war vessel 
Eitel frederich when she was in the harbor at Philadelphia ; Louis 
Guenzel; W. S. McNeill; O. J. Merkel; Dr. Anton Schoen; F. Stall- 
foilh — that is Frederick Stallforth, the alien enemy, now interned, 
who was intimately associated with Kintelen, and active in a number 
pro-Gei'man propaganda activities — G. Steinhagen, and Dr. W. L. 
Wirbelauer. Dr. Wirbelauer was connected with the Sanders and 
Wunnenberg matter to some extent. 

Senator Overman. Have you a list of the members of the asso- 
ciation ? 

Mr. Bi£L.vsKi. I think I have that also; yes. This pamphlet in- 
cludes a lot of reports by various people, a list of pamphlets and 
books, and I will give it to Maj. Humes, and he can examine it and 
see if there is anything in it of interest other than what I have read. 

Senator Nelson. Maj. Humes can pick out whatever he thinks is 
important. 

Mai. Humes. Did you want a list of the members of this league 
included in the record} 

Senator Nelson. Yes; a list of the members of the league. You 
have given a list of the officers. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. Here is the next report, for 1915 and 1916, 
in which the officers have changed. This was printed in New York, 
November, 1916. It is the annual report and anniversary speeches. 
The speeches were by Prof. Camillo von Klenze, Pi'of. Edwin Jones 
Clapp, about whom I have already told you something, yesterday, 
who was the author of that book, called, I think. The Economic 
Aspects of the War. 

Senator Nelson. With what college was he ccmnected ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. The New York University ; Hon. Greorge Fred Wil- 
Hams, Dr. Edmund von Mach and Prof. Ernst Voss. 

Senator Ovekman. Is that George Fred Williams of Massachu- 
setts? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I do not know who he is. 

Senator Overman. He is a politician, is he? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Let me see who he is. His address was entitled: 
"^ American Interpretation of Grerman Civilization." 

The speeches are all here. 

Senator Nelson.^ I think he was a Member of Congress from Mas- 
sachusetts at one time. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Here is an original list which I think is a list of the 
membership, in the original book. It is divided more or less by 
territory. 

Senator Nelbok. By States? , 

Mr. Bielaski. Yes. 



1516 BBEWINO AND UQUOE INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 

Senator Nelson. Have you got Minnesota there? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I happened to open the book right at Minnesota, 
Senator; there are several pages. 

Senator Nelson. The University League of Minnesota? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I do not think this man seems to understand the 
location of Minneapolis, Minn., because most of the people he has in 
there under Minneapolis, Minn., live in Milwaukee. Possibly you 
would like to look that over, Senator? 

Senator Nelson. Yes; I would like to see it. 

(The list referred to is here printed in full in the record as fol- 
lows:) 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 105. 

BOSTON. MASS. 

Alill>orD, Emll, 27)8 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass. 

Bnrus, Carl, Brown University, Providence, R. I. 

Benecke. A. C, 36 W. Cottage St., Boston, Mass. 

— Clemens, Konrad, 887 E. Main St, Bridgeport, Conn. 

Curtis, Mary F., 90 Hancock St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Dohmen, Pranz J.. 21 Walker St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Fox, Rudolph H., 54 Oak St., Hartford, Conn. 

Francke, Kuno, Germanic Museum of Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Muss. 

Oreen, Robert M., 78 Marlborough St., Boston^ Mass. 

(foettling, Gerhard M. W., 39 Boyleston St.. Boston, Muss. 

Haass, Clemens A.. " Cedar Top," Milton, Mass. 

—Hall, Arthur P., 33 Hillside Ave., Arlington Hgts. 

Henderson, Ernest F., Monadnock, N. H. 

Henderson. Yandell, 440 Prospect St., New Haven. Conn. 

Huetz, Rudolf, 32 India St., Boston. Mass. 

Kerstein, Max.. 272 Tremont St., Boston, Mass. 

Kilburn, Henry W., 192 Marlborough St., Boston, Mas.s. 

— Llebau. Richard, 25 Hubinger St., New Haven, Conn. 

Afeyer, Fritz N., 30 Woodlawn Terrace, Waterbury, Conn. 

Moshack, Gustav, c/o Mrs. Smith, 6 Green St., Mllford, Conn. 

Olmstend, .Tames M., Post Office Bldg., Boston, Mass. 

(>siro<Kl, W. F., 74 Avon Hill St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Palmer, Arthur H.. 221 Everitt St., New Haven, Conn. 

Paterson, Eleanor Robb, 51 Brattle St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Perrin, Marshall L., Boston University, Boston, Mass. 

Rehder, Alfred, 62 Orchard St., Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

Schmidt. Karl, 128 Professor Row, Tufts College, Mass. 

♦Schmitz, Eugene A. R., c/o Conyers Farm, Greenwich, Conn. 

Schoenemann, Friedrich, 7 Avon St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Seeler. Felix, 3 Boyd Road. Derry, N. H. 

Staun, C, I^nlversity Club, Providence, R. I. 

Sternberg, Kurt, Springfield, Mass. 

Tollen, L. K., 217 Springfield Ave.. Pittsfield, Mass. 

*Volkmanii, Arthur L. K., 40 Norfolk Road, Chestnut Hill, Mass. 

Von Jagemann, H. C G., 113 Walker St, Cambridge, Mass. 

Von Klock, Max Otto, 143 Federal St., Boston, Mass. 

^'ou Ladeulierg, Max, P. O. box 92, Monterey, Mass. 

Von Maeh, Edmund, 48 Shepherd St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Walz, John A.. 42 Garden St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Wei)dte, Charles W., 163 Hunnwell Ave., Newton, Mass. 

Wheeler, J. H., 11 Grant Ave., Newton Center, Mass. 

(;ros.smann, E. H. Paul, Simmons College, Boston, Mass. 

NICW VORK CITY, N. Y. 

—Abbe, Franz, m West St., New York City. • 
Adler, I^>n N., 100 William St, New York City. 
Albrecht, Louis, 50 Church St., New York City. 
♦Alkier, Arthur, 243 B. 5th St.. Brooklyn, N. Y. 



BBSWIKG AKD LIQUOR INTEBESTS AND GERMAN PBOPAGAKDA. 1517 

•Ambos, Carl Ludwig, 1583 Washington Ave., Bronx, N. Y. 

•Arnold, Felix, 317 W. 89th St., New York City. 

Arnold, J. Loring, 468 Warbnrton Ave., Yonkers, N. Y. 

Arnold, Mrs, J. Loring, 468 Warburton Ave., Yonkers, N. Y. 

Aronson. George G., 507 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Artmann, Florence. 415 W. 148th St., New York City. 

•Baettenbaussen, Theo., 542 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Baruch, Emanuel, 57 E. 77th St., New York City. 

—•Bauer, Siegfried, 15 W. 107th St., New York City. 

Baum, William, Gen. Elec. Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 

Becher. Eugene, 25 Madison Ave., New York City. 

Beck, E. A., 90 West St., New York City. 

•Benedict, Clare. Pomery Place, New York City. 

Berkemeier, Gottlieb C. Wartburg Orphans' Farm School, Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 

Bemhardi, R., 56 Nostrand Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

•Bemheim, Alice (Mrs), 170 W. 73rd St., New York City. 

•Bertiing, Karl O., 137 E. 21st St., New York City. 

Bets, Hermann, 136 College Ave., Ithaca, N. Y. 

Bewer, Julius A., 70 Brewster St., New York City. 

Beyer, Wm., 70 Brewster St., TompkinsviUe, S. I. 

Bickell, Otto, 701 Madison Ave., New York City. 

Bleohy-Peltzer, Lina, 43 Columbia Ave., Arrochar, S. I. 

BIschoff, Ernst, 84-86 W. Broadway, New York City. 

Bloom, Selina, 616 Madison Ave., New York City. 

Boehme, Trangott, Columbia University, New York City. 

Boeker, H.. 20 E. 90th St, New York City. 

^Boerker, John, 251 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

♦Boldt, J. H.. 39 E. 61st St., New York City. 

Bom. R. O., 284 Lexington Ave., New York City. 

Breltenfeld, S., 221 R 68th St., New York Cit}\ 

Buschler, August F., 616 Madison Ave., New York City. 

•Buehler, Conrad, 280 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

•Buchholz. Otto, 1170 Broadway, New York City.* 

Burkard. PlUlip, 109 E. 14th St.. Stelnway Hall, New York City. 

Burchard, A., 602 W. 135th St, New York City. 

Bnase, A., Hunter College, New York City. 

•Brazier, Emma Jeannette, 203 W. 78th St, New York City. 

BiUiuber, Ernst. 45 John St., New York City. 

Rreoer, Max C, 33 Allen St, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Chittenden, J. Brace, 162 Montaague St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Clllis, Hubert 50 Union Square, New York City. 

Coblentz, Virgil. 595 Third St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Oolrn. Felix, 31 E, 60th St., New York City. 

•Oortis, Mrs. Harold G., 14 B. 60th St., New York City. 

Oronson, R., 132 W. 122d St., New York City. 

<Julmann, Julius, Rosebank, S. I., 116 Vanderbilt Ave., New York. 

Danckworth, Bruno, 456 E. Is8th St, New York City. 

Dattan, Hermann, 804 McBridge St., Syracuse, N. Y. 

E>aw8on, Eklgar, Hunter College, New York City. 

Davidaen, H. C, Highland Ave., Ithaca, N. Y. 

De Liagre, Alfred, 200 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

•Delln, B., 29 Broadway, New York City. 

Pletlmann, Fredrich, College of the City of N. Y., New York City. 

l>ick, Erwin R., 261 Broadway, New York City. 

Dieterich, Eugene, 476 Marlon St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Ooelling, Louis K., 26 Colonial Place, New Rochelle. 

D'OcDch, A- F., 105 W. 40th St., New Rochelle. 

Dreier. Katherine S., 135 Central Park W., New Rochelle. 

•r>u Ca»86, William L., 421 W. 144th St, New York City. 

Duncan, Elizabeth, 360 N. Brdadway, Yonkers, N. Y. 

•de Lange, Siegfried, 152 E. 83d St., New York City. 

Egicers. Oarl, 850 Park Avenue, New York City. 

— •Ehrmann, H. A., 471 Park Avenue, New York City. 

EUera, A., 751 St Marks Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

mmer. August 1^0 Riverside Drive, New York City. 

EiMfng, Wilbelm F., 225 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Erdtmann, Ida, Dobbs Ferry, N, Y. 



1518 BREWIKO AND LI<2U0& INTEEESTS AND GEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 

— Ernst, Frederic H., 2414 Creston Ave., New York City. 
♦Eulenstein, H., 433 Ocean Parkway, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
♦Emgel, L., El Paradlso, Howard Ave.. Stapleton, S. I. 
Fallert, Berthold, 1310 President St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Faust, Albert B., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Fetts, Elizabeth W., 535 W. 135th St., New York City. 
Fischer, Carl, 213 Water St., New York City. 
Fischer, Hermann, 111 E. 81st St., New York City. 
Fischer, Rlchafd F., 1256 Ocean Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Fohr, Franz, 132 Nassau St., New York City. 

Fonthelni, Alphonse E., Hamburg Araer. Line, 45 B'way, New York Clly. 
Prank, Karl Georg, 90 West St., R. 1017-1019, New York City. i 

♦Franke, Clara E., 180 Claremont Ave., New York City. | 

♦Franke, Julius, 25 Madison Ave., New York City. 
Franze, Waldemar A., 201 E. 83d St., New York City. 

—♦Freidus, A. S., N. Y. Public Library, New York City. i 

Freund, Frank E. W., 424 W. 120th St., New York City. \ 

•Frey, Joseph, 71 S. Washington Sq., New York City. I 

Friedman, C. A., 123 E. 95th St., New York City. ! 

Freudenthal, W., 1003 Madison Ave., New York City. 

Funke, August lil., 515 Park Ave., New York City. I 

Fussner, George, 252 W. 84th St., New York City. i 

♦Feldmann, M., 387 Fourth Ave., New York City. 
♦Finke, W. F., 420 Riverside Drive, New York City. 
♦Callasch, B. George, 759 East Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 
GanglofP, Theodore, 117 Hudson St., New York City. 
Ganss. Hermann, 22 W. 26th St., New York City. 
Garbat, A. L., 71 E. 91st St., New York City. 
•Gelsenheimer, Theo., 134 Cedar St., New York City. 
Gelbach, Marie, 1 Prospect Terrace, Park Hill, Yonkers, N. Y. 
Genssler, O. H., 530 Canal St., New York City. 
Genthe, Arnold, 1 West 46tli St., New York City. 
Gerster, A. G., 34 E. 75th St., New York City. 
Gessl^, Albert, Rosebank, S. I., New York City. 
Glaeser, W., 1019 Prospect Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Goetting, E. C, Suffern, N. Y. 
Goodman. A. L., 136 W. 87th St., New York City. 
♦Gossler, Gustav H., 112 W. 59th St., New York City. 
Griepe, A. W. H., 707 Prospect Ave., Bronx, N. Y. 
Grill. J. G., 400 W. 140th St., New York City, 
Grosse, Friedrich, 200 W. 88th St., New York City. 
Gruetzner, Fritz P., 48 Thurston PI., New Rochelle, N. Y. 
Gutman, Hugo, 34 Jay St., Schenectady, N. Y. 
GroBsmann, Carl Georg, 45 Broadway, New York City. 
Goedel, Adolf, 58 Water St., New York City. 
Haas, H. F., 405 Lexington Ave., New York City. 
— Haeberleln, Max, 90 West St., New York City. 
*Haessler, Louise, 100 Mornlngside Driven New York City. 
Hager, H., 117 Hudson St., New York City. 

♦ — Hall, Thomas C, Union Theo. Seminary, Broadway & 120 St., New York 
City. 
Halle, Konrad, 15 Jackson St., TompklnsviUe, S. I. 
Handler, Slgmund, 58 Vassar St., Rochester, N. Y. 
*Hanfstaengl, Ernst, 545 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Hartmann, Jacob W., College of the City of N. Y., New York City. 
♦Hasslacher, Jacob, 100 WUUam St., New York City. 
Heberleln, Kuno B., 61 Broadway, New York City. 
Hecht, George, 1160 Jaekson Ave., New York City. 
Hecker, Anton Jos., 200 W. 88th St., New York City. 
Hecker, B., 248 W. 52nd St., New York City. 
Heckmann, Jacob, 156 B. dOth St., New York City. 
Heimann, Walter James, 108 W. 87th St., New York Oity. 
Hein. Max R., 41 B. 2l8t St., New York City. 
Hellmann, Alfred, 2 W. 86th St, New York City. 
— Henschel, Albert B., 475 Central Park W., New York Olty. 
Herzog, Karl, 550 W. 157tli 9t, New York City. 
^Hess, Dorothea C, Hunter College, New York Olty. I 



BBEWIN6 AND UQUOB INTEBESTS AND GEEMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1519 

Heydner, R., 27 E. 2l8t St, New York City. 

Hinck, jr^ Claus Fr., 338 E. 26th St., New York City. 

—Hirsoh, William, .52 E. 64th St.. New York City. 

HirsohlaDd, F. H.. 120 Broadway, New York aty. 

•HitzJjfrath, W, 673 Decatur St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Hoch, August Wards Island, New York City. 

♦Hodgskln, T. Ellett 869 President St.. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Hoevel. H. F.. 50 Church St, New York City. 

Hoflfmann, Felix. 212 West 104th St. New York City. 

Holz. Julius, 24 N. William St, New York City. 

Homburper, Viktor. 132 Pearl Street. New York City. 

•Horn, John, 72 K. 92nd St., New York City. 

Hothorn, E. G.. 42 Broadway, New York City. 

Hovln^, Johannes, 125 W. 112th St, New York aty. 

Habbe, Paul W.. 743 President Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

— Hummel, A., 250 Argyle Road, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Huth, Wener, 17 Battery Place, New York City. 

•HuttUnger, Oscar, 116 Broad St, New York City. 

Heuser. F. W. J., Hamilton Hall, Columbia Univ., New York City. 

*Hahn, Mrs. Ernestine, 1293 Bergen St, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Hervey, William A.. 607 W. 138th St, New York City. 

Haberman, J. Victor. 60 W. 85th St., New York City. 

Il^^en, Ernst 689 St John's Place. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

• Jaches. Leopold, 27 E. 95th St, New York City. 

• Jaedicke, Fritz, 308 West 82nd St., New York City. 
Janke, H. Alfred, 2 Rector St., New York City. 
Jellinghauss, C. F., 1161 Park Ave., New York City. 
Jonas, Stephen, 71 Broadway, New York City. 
•Jone, Hugo, p. o. box 37, Sta. A., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Jordan. Richard, 165 W. 58th St, New York City. 
Kallenbacb. Oscar. 119 Saranac St. Rochester, N. X. 
*Ka[^>elmann, Otto F., 45 William St, New York City. 
Kandt Hartwlg, 2209 Clarendon Rd., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Kanftnann. Jacob, 52 E. 58th St., New York City. 
Kaupe. Gottfried, 115 E. 179th St, New York City. 
Kayser. C. F.. 71 E. 87th St., New York City. 

Keith, Harriet H.. 527 W. 121st St., New York City. 

•— Kellmann, F., 606 W. 113th St., New Ybrk City. 

Keminericb, W., 117 Hudson St, New York City. 

Kciipler, F. L., 101 Park Ave., New York City. 

Kern, Albert J. W., Jamaica, L. I. 

Kessler, Bacpene G., 315 E. 87th St, New York City. 

Kilboume, Joseph B., 1125 Madison Ave., New York City. 

Kirbach, Hugo, 118 Clasaon Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

KlaMEj. Lena H., 527 W. 121st St. New York City. 

Klemperer, G., 54 Franklin St. New York City. 

Klin«^hoeffer, Karl, 40 Arietta St^ Tompkinsville, S. I., N. Y. 

• Klingmann, A., 2361 8th Ave., New York City. 
Kneer, Ferdinand G., 236 W. 51st St., New York City. 
Knoefel, Rudolf. 45 John St, New York City. 

— Koehler, Hans C 600 E. 164th St., New York City. 

Koelle, Carl, 82* Beaver St, New York City. 

— • Koempel, J. A., 440 E. 156th St., New York City. 

• Koempel. Ludwlg, 968 Bedford Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

• Koller. Carl, 681 Madison Ave., New York City. 
Konermann, Helene V., 2676 Morris Ave., Bronx, N. Y. 
KrabU Otto, Hotel Astor, R. 647, New York City. 
Kraoae, C. A., 1067a Prospect PI., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Kmakal. N.. 329 Grand St, New York City. 

• Kodllch, H. C, 283 Broadway, New York City. 
Kadlich* Hans E^ 104 W. 87th St., New York City. 

• Kodlicfa, Hermann F., 104 W. 87th St.. New York City. 
Kuhl. A., 117 Hudson St., New York City. 

Kiitin« Ernst Frits. 12 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

• Lflgemann, Eric, 112 Wall St, New York City. 
Langer, Edward, 470 W. Broadway, New York City. 
Leibhobc, Henry, 520 W. 139th St. New York City. 



1520 BREWING AND UQUOB INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 

r 

— Lendle, Henry, Forest Hills, L. I., N. Y. 

I^nRsen, Nicholas F.. 34 Nassau St. (Davles Auerbach & Cornell), New York 
City. 
Lenz, George J., 12 W. 103rd St.. New York City. 

♦ Leuchs, Fritz A. H., eOO E. 164th St., New York City. 
Leuchs, John, 600 E. 164th St., New York City, 
licvandowskl, Otto. 19 S. 11th Ave., Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 
liieber, Hugo, 25 Madison Ave., New York City. 

♦ Lieschlng, Bernard, 692 Mt. Hope Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 

♦ Llesmann, Curt H., Pier 36, North River, New York City. 
Llndenhayn, Rolf, 1434 58th St., Brooklyn, N. Y: 

♦ Link, Charles C, 445 Balnbrldge St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Lissau, O. F., 13 Bedford Road, Schenectady. I 

Loeb, Eugene, 27 W. 23rd St., New York City. 

♦ Loes, Franz, 35 W. 32nd St., New York City. 

Loewenstein, Alice LiU, Univ. of St Lawrence, Canton, N. Y. i 

—• Ludewig, H. E., Wappler Elect. Co., 173 E. 87th St., New York City. i 

Lufft, Hermann, 611 W. 136th St., New York City. I 

Lyons, Joseph, 25 Wendell Ave., Schenectady. | 

♦ Lawrence, Mrs. Amelia P., 101 E. 92nd St., New York City. i 

♦ Maass, H. C, 52 Broadway, New York City. i 
Maneke, Phlllipp, 1068 Bushwick Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Maneke, Phlllipp, 1058 Bushwick Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Mannheimer, George, 41 W. 5l8t St., New York City. 

♦ Marburg, William, 90 West St., New York City. 
Marquardt, U. D., 142 W. 83rd St, Apr. 8, New York City. 
Mausolff, Paul, 100 WUliam St, New York City. 

— ^McLowth, Lawrence, Schwab House, tJnlv. Hgts., New York City. 

♦ Merkel, O. J., New York City. 

♦ Merz, Max, 414 Madison Ave., New York City. 
Merzbach, Joseph, 204 8th Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Metz, Rudolf, 52 B. 58th St, New York City. 
Meyer, Julius, 1236 Madison Ave., New York City. 
Meyer, Willy, 700 Madison Ave., New York City. 

Meyn, Hans H. A., 25 Broad St, New York City. j 

Mlchaelis, G., 541 Western Ave., Albany, N. Y. ' 

— Miloche, Alex, 441 E, 87th St, New York City. 
Mlttendorf, W. F., 399 Park Ave., New York City. 
Mock, Johann W., 328 Central Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

♦ Moeffett, Rudolph D., 830 Park Ave., New York City. 

— Monteser, Fr. Fredk., 605 Van Cortland Park Ave., Yonkers. 
Morgenstern, Max, ^ Nassau St., Hallgarten & Co., New York City. 

♦ Mormann, William, 302 N. Goodman St, Rochester, N. Y. 

♦ Moschcowitz, A., 925 Madison Ave., New York City. 
Moshcowltz, Ell, 41 W. 83rd St., New York City. 
Mothwurf, Arthur, 117 Hudson St, New York City. 
Muller, Hans, 8 State St, New York City. 

Muller, Richard, 201 W. 85th St., New York City. 
Muller, Dr. Richard W., 10 E. 58th St, New York City. 
— ^Mussaeus, H. W., 204 Macon St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Neubecker, Jean^ 436 E. 136th St, New York City. . 

♦ Neuburger, Anton, 2 W. 69th St., Apr. 4, New York City. 
Neuburger, Hugo, 24 W. 45th St., New York City. 

♦ NeuhoflP , Karl W.. 30 Bast 21st St., New York City. 

♦ Nlebel, G., 7 W. 103rd St, New York City. 

♦ Nida, EmiUe, 453 W. 155th St, New York City. 
Nielsen, Carl, 138 Rutland Road. Brooklyn. N. Y. 
Nimphlu.s, Herman, 117 W. 84th St, New York City. 
Oberbeck, A,, 272 Manhattan Ave., New York City. 
Ornstein, Georg, 18 E. 41st St, New York City. 
Oulman, L., 1239 Madison Ave., New York City. 
Pabst, R. J., 117 Hudson St. New York City. 
Pagenstecher, Rudolf, 30 E. 42d St., New York City. 

—Pass, Walter, 112 W. 59th St.. New York City. i 

Patz, B. O., 215 Water St.. New York City. i 

♦Peck, Mrs. H. Tangermann, 498 West End Ave., New York City. 
*Pennrich, H. C, 244 Riverside Drive, New York City. 



BKEWINQ AKD LIQUOB INXEBESTS AKD GEBMAN PBOPAGANBA. 1521 

Petsche. B. W., 60 Elmwood Ave., Yonkers, N. Y. 

•Pfitzner. Felix, 500 W. 176th St., New York City. 

Plafw, Lndwljr, % Bradley Ax. Co., Newburgh, N. Y. 

Popcke, William. 338 E. 84th St., New York City. 

Porges, Alexander. 44 Whitehall St.. New York City. 

Pulverniacher. Albert. N. Y. Staats-Zeltnng, New York City. 

Portack, Hans. X. Y. Staats-Zeltung, New York City. 

Pariser, R., 545 West End Ave., New York City". 

Rapp, Rudolf P., 318 E. 4th St.. New York City. 

Raubenhelmer, Otto, 1341 Fulton St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

— Rauschenbush. Walter. 4 Portsmouth Terrace, Rochester, N. Y, 

Rehling, Max, 132 E. 60th St.. New York City. 

Relffert, Edith A.. 451 Convent Ave., New York City. 

Relnthaler. Jonas E., 22 W. 89th St., New York City. 

*Relsinger. Curt H., 11 Broadway, New York City. 

Renn. Pins, 129 E. 92nd St., New York City. 

-— Bidder, B. Hermann, N. Y. Staats-Zeltung, New York City. 

Riess. Ernst 221 W. 113th St., New York Cit>\ 

RIpperger. A.. 616 Madison Ave.. New York^^Jity. 

Rlschbleter, Theo. W., 308 W. 115th St., New York City. 

Robb, W. I... P. O. box 592, Troy, N. Y. 

Rockwell. William W., Union Theo. Seminary, New York City. 

Rodemann. Oeorg. 63 New York Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Roeber, E. F., 239 W. 39th St., New York City. 

lioUer, Elmil. 574 Amsterdam Ave., New York City. 

^Rofichen, William, 23d St. & 3d Ave., New York City. 

Rosi^Mioh. M. J. H.. 55/57 Frankfort St., New York City. 

R()9enow. AH)ert. 301 W. 108th St., New York City. 

Rotbmaler, Emit, 1293 Bergen St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Rumely, Edward A., 21-27 City Hall Place, New York City. 

*Rubino. Henry A.. 50 Broad St., New York City. 

Runge, William, 783 Bushwick Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Richter. Kurt E., 2730 Creston Ave., New York City. 

Rels, Herman. 805 St. Nicholas Ave., New York City. 

Saarbaeh. Ludwig, 114 Pearl St., New York City. 

Sachs. Bernard, 116 W. 59th St., New York (Mty. 

♦Sachs, Daniel. 848 Greene St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

SAegmiieller. (Jeorge M.. 1100 St. Paul, Rochester, N. Y. 

Saegmueller, George N., Rochester, N. Y. 

S4>ebobiu, H. C. A., 117 Hudson St., New York City. 
' S4>ellginan. Gustav, 53 E. 72d St., New York City. 

♦Segin, Adalbert, 117 Hudson St., New York City. 

Seltx, Oskar. 52 Wall St.. New York City. 

Selte, Erwln, 276 E. lOlst St.. New York City. 

Selignuinn. Eustace, 9 Wall St.. New York City. 

•S««.s«3. Pauline M.. 303 E. 161st St., New York City. 

Sohaefer, (ie«»rge L., 801a Willou^hby Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Srf^tiahanini. Franz, 637 E. 7th St., New York City. 

.*5cliarnl>erg, Alfred, 80 Maiden I.ane. New York City. 

S<*hehr, I^zi»r. 74 Broadway, New^ York City. 

Srhell. John H.. 212 Pro8i)ect Pk. W., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Sherwin, Carl. 2627 Webster Ave., New York City. 

SfhilU Emil. 25 Broad St., New York City. 

S/hlnuer, Ruilolph E., 3 E. 4Hi\ St., New York City. 

•Schlrrmacher, M., 603 W. 140th St., New York City. 

•Schlegel. Ludwig. 1840 Belnvmt Ave., Bronx, N. Y. 

•Srhlicke, i\ P., 440 Washington St., New York City. 

Scbmatolla. Ernst, 150 Nassau St, New York City. 

S<*hmld. H. Ernst, 169 Railroad Ave.. White Plains, N. Y. 

•Schmidt. Walter, 95 Madison Ave.. New York City. 

.s«-hmldr. W. A., 162 E. 83<l St.. New York City. 

•Schneider. Csirl. 423 Broadway Ave.. Watertown, N. Y. 

Schnlewind. Willy, jr., 18 W. 18th St.. New York City. 

Schnitzler. Paul ('.. 165 Broadway, New York City. 

•Schoeilde, Emma J., 1362 Fulton Ave., Bronx, N. Y. 

S^lHiedler. rirlch, 249 W. 107th St, New York City. 

S<boeffier, Hermann, 154 W. 18th St., New York City. 

Schoen. Anton. 238 E. 12th St., New York City. 



1522 BBEWLNG AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 

♦Schoenrook, Hedwlg, 309 E. 162d St., New York City. 

Schoenstadt, A., 2 Duane St., New York City. 

Schoeps, Geort?e, 206 W. 122d St., New York City. 

•Schrader, F. F., 63 E. 59th St., New York City. 

Schreiter, Heinrlch, 50 Broad St., New York City. 

Schultz, W. M.. 65 Atlantic Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 

♦Schiilze, Henry H. L., 43 Ridge Drive, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Schulze, Hermann, 43 Ridge Drive, Yonker.s, N. Y. 

Schurz, Carl L., 45 Broadway, New York City. 

Schwarzenbach, Robert J. F., 470 Fourth Ave., New York Citv, 

Schweitzer, Heinrich, 218 W. 69th St., New York City. 

Schweitzer, Hugo, 117 Hudson St., New York City. 

Schfipphaus, Robert C 175 Pearl St., New York City. 

Sideni)erg, Charles, 43 W. 76th St., New York City. 

Stallforth, Albert, 120 Broadway, New York City. 

Stallforth, F., 120 Broadway, New York City. 

Stanffen, Ernst, Shari> & Dohme, 41 John St., New York Citv. 

♦Stechert, F. C, 29-35 W. 32nd St, New York City. 

Steffen, I., 30 Beckman PI., Ne<f York City. 

Steffens, Wllhelm C. M., 471 W. 141st St., New York City. 

Stenzel, Werner, 597 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Stoehr, Hans E., 200 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Stoehr, Georg, 200 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

♦Stoehr, Max W., 200 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

♦Stoss, Alvin, 53 Woodbine St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

♦Strahmann, Henry C, 1411 Broadway, New Y'^ork City. 

Strum, Otto, 1690 Clay Ave., New York City. 

Stutz, Richard, Gen. Supt. N. Y. & Pa. Co., 200 Fifth Ave., New York City, 

♦Sutro, Theodor, 320 W. 102nd St., New York City. 

•Saleski, Mary Agnes, 230 E. 196th St., New York City. 

Schulze, Paul, 351 W. 20th St., New York City. 

•Schmahl, Philipp J. R.. 904 Bronx Park So., New York City. 

Spaeth, Chas., 706 Chamber of Commerce, Rochester. 

Stroebe, Lilian L., Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Snider, Melville, 780 Riverside Drive, New York City. 

Schftfer, Otto, 120 Broadway, R. 3328, New York City. 

Staiger, Wm.. 556 W\ 149th St., New York City. 

Talmey, B. S., 12 W. 123rd St.. New York City. 

♦Tauscher, H., 320 Broadway, New York City. 

Thiersch, Curt, P. O. Box 65, Mad. Sq. Sta., New York Citj'. 

— Tilley, Lydla L., '611 W. 156th St, New York City. 

•Tlmme, E. F., 251 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

♦Tlmme, Otto, 251 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

♦Timmermann, F. J., 210 W. 137th St., New York City. 

Tombo, Rudolf, sr., 321 St. Nicholas Ave., New York City. 

♦Torek, Franz, 1021 Madison Ave., New York City. 

Traeger, Max, 155 E. 89th St., New York City. 

♦Trau, Fred, 2128 3rd Ave., New York City. 

Taylor, Marion Lee, 66 Orange St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Linger, Gustav E., 825 Forest Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Untermyer, Mrs. S., 675 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

♦Veit, Theodore, 141 Noble St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Vezin, Charles, 349 Broadway, New York City. 

• Viereck, George S.. 1123 Broadway, New York City. 
Vockroth, George, 512 W. 207th St., New York City. 
Vogel, Felix A., 25 Broad St., New York City. 
Vogelstein, Ludwig, 42 Broadway, New York City. 
Vom Bruck, Jos., 30 Church St., New York City. 

Vom Saal, F. M., 49 Momlngslde Ave. E., New York City. 

Vom Saal, Rudolf, 536 W. 114th St, New York City. 

Von Gontard, Alex., 82 Beaver St, New York City. 

Von Klenze, Camillo, 736 Riverside Drive, New York City. 

Von Schmldt-Paull, E. 17 Battery PI., E. P. R. F., New York City. 

♦ von Unworth, Frida, 527 W. ISlst St, New York City. 
— ^Wagner, William, Montlcello, N. Y. 

• Wagner, A. P., 867 W. 18lBt St, New Yorik City. 

* Wallach, Sidney, 189 Broadway, New York Gl^. 



BBEWING AND UQUOB INTEEESTS AND GERMAN PHOPAGANDA. 1523 

Wallerstein. Leo, 171 Madison Ave., New York City. 
Wallerstein, Max., 171 Madison Ave., New York City. 
\\"andke, Walter, 331 W. 14tli St., New York City. 
— • Wappler, P. H.. 173 E. 87tli St., New York City. 

• Wappler, R. H., 1350 Madison Ave., New York City. 
Ward, Willard P., 15 Broad St., New York City. 
Weber, H. A.. 1 Rivervlew Terrace, New York City. 
Weber, Louis, 171 Madison Ave., New York City. 
Weber, M. G., 71 Central Ave., Tompkinsville, S. I. 

— Webster, V. K., 1397 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Weinberg. Ernst A., Broadway & 79th St., New York City. 
Weingartner. E., 100 William St., New York City. 
— Weilmann, Bernhard, 132 Pearl St., New York City. 
W>ncker, Rudolf J., 315 E. 19th St., Flatbush, N. Y. 

• W^eaendonek, Max, 50 Union Square, New York City. 
— • Westerhaus, Franz, 800 E. 173rd St., New York City. 
WiUhofft, F. O.. 535 W. 112th St., New York City. 

• Wiiidolpf, August P., 35 W. 33rd St., New York City. 
Wlttel, August, 361 E. 178th St, New York City. 
Woelfert, Ludwig, 63 Morgan Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Wolf, Helnrich F., 4 W. 83rd St, New York City. 
Wolf, Henry J., 119 W. 86th St, New York City. 
WTiltney, Marian P., Vassar -College, Poughkeepsle, N. Y. 

PHrLADEIJ»HIA, PA. 

— •Athaway, H. H., jr., Chester, Pa. 

Bacbmeyer, W., 6212 Penn Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Bachofner. K., 122 Cottage St, Ir\ ington, N. J. 

Banning, C. F.. 1407 H. W. Oliver Bldg.. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Behrend, Ernst R., % Hanmiermill Paper Co., Erie, Pa. 

— •BengeU William P\, P. O. Box 304, Me<lla, Pa. 

Bemheim. Albert, 1225 Spruce St, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Blan, Max F., 27 Bank St., Princeton, N. J. 

•BURS. Mrs. A. A.. 117 So. 20th St.. Phlla., Pa. 

Blix. Martin, 13a5 IxK'ust St., Phlla., Pa. 

•Bnseok, Otto. 31 Highland Ave.. Landsdowne. Pa. 

Bilhober, Ern.«t A., Maywood, N. J. 

Oonemeyer. William C. 3001 Cllflf St., McKeesport, Pa. 

rurtz, Hermann J., 138 N. 7th St., Erie. Pa. 

Collbohm. Max H., 117 Miltch Ave., Swissvale, Pa. 

Dannenbaum, H., a^H9 N. 16th St., Phlla.. Pa. 

Bavfs, Gwllym G.. 1814 Spruce St., Phlla., Pa. 

Debrcczenl, Alexamler. 1832 Green St., Phlla., Pa. 

♦Degenrlng, Elsie, 1148 E. Grand St., Elizabeth, N. J. 

He Long. Irwin Hoch. 523 W. James St., Lancaster, Pa. 

Donner, C. !>., 4505 Spruce St., Phlla., Pa. 

rnicca, W. A., 910 Church Lane, No. Bergen, N. J. 

Engels. W. H., 1 Darmstadt Ave., Rahway, N. .L 

Fasolt, Hugo, 73 Grove St., Passaic, N. J. 

Fi«<-ber, Ad. H., 6904 Wissahlckon Ave., Phlla., Pa. 

•Fitzpatrlck. P. T., 349 W. Lemon St., Lancaster. Pa. 

Foersterllng. H.. 380 High St^ Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Francksen, Aug., 4803 Garden St., Phila.. Pa. 

— Frazler, Charles H., 1724 Spruce St., Phlla., Pa. 

Gebauer, Rudolf. 92 Prospect St., Passaic. N. J. 

GellMich. R. W.. 809 Hudson St.. Hoboken, N. J. 

Genshelraer. Phil., 202 Stiles St., Elizabeth. N. J. 

•Granger, Alfred H.. 671 Bullitt Bldg.. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Groflstgebauer, John, 105 Coral St., Paterson, N. J. 

Grau-Wandm«yer, Alex, % Austria-Hungarian Consulate, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Hanemun, F. T., 219 Burnett St, E. Orange, N. J. 

Hnnzlik, Henry. 102 N. Government Ave., Trenton, N. J. 

Hanck, Adolf W., 50 Norwood Ave., Plainfleld, N. J. 

Hellnier, R. E., 5032 Schuyler St, Phlla., Pa. 

HelUnnnd, Rudolph E., 349 Rosedale St., Pittsburgh, Pa* 

Heinemann, Gustav, 7428 Sprague St.. Phlla., Pa. 



1524 BfiEWINQ AKD UQUOB IKTEBE8I8 AKD 6BBMAK PBOPAGAKDA. 

*Heinrich8, E. H., Westinghouse Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Henkenslefkin, I. A., 2425 N. 29th St, Phlla., Pa. 

♦Heppe, Florence J., 117 Chestnut St., Phlla., Pa, 

Herring, Carl, 210 South 13th St., Phlla., Pa. 

Hesse, Hans A., 321 Central Ave., Hackensack, N. J. 

Himes, Charles F., Carlisle, Pa. 

Hlrsch, M. A. L., 213 Falrniount Ave., Newark, N. J. 

•Holz, August, 13 Sherman PI., Irvlngton, N. J. 

Holzrichter, Fritz, 54 Glen Ridge Ave., Glen Ridge, N. J. 

Honibostel, Edward, May wood, N. J. 

— Hoschander. Jacob. 2307 N. 13th St., Phlla.. Pa. 

HoskinK, John Preston, 22 Bank St., Princeton, N. J. 

Hering, Rudolph, 40 Lloyd Road, Montdalr, N. J. 

♦Ill, Edward J., 1002 Broad St., Newark, N. J. 

—•Ill, Charles L., 188 Clinton Ave., Newark, N. J. 

♦Kattennaun, August, 815 Broadway, Paterson, N. J. 

Kayser, P. <)., 158 Hamilton Ave., Paterson, N. J. 

Keil, Kourad, 812 Fulton Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Keller. Harry F.. 2313 Green St., Phlla., Pa. 

Keller, F*dwin R., 1213 Race St., Phlla., Pa. 

Keppelmann, E. P., 5871 Beacon St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

♦Kern, Emll A., 328 So. 7th St., Newark. N. J. 

Kessier, J. Ai., 100 Chestnut St., W. Ch-auge, N, J. 

Kippenberg, H., 15 Darmstadt Ave., Railway, N. J. 

Kleber, C, Grove, Clifton, Passaic, N. J. 

Km use, Henry G., 317 So. Oransfe Ave., Newark, N. J. 

♦Km use, O. H., Prospect Ave., Hackensack, N. J. 

Krenier, Gustav, 624 E. 27th St, I'aterson, N. J. 

♦Kribs, H. A., University of Pa., Phlla., Pa. 

Krueger, G. C, 97 C^anal St., Newark, N. J. 

l-iehniacher, Franz, 166 Springfield Ave., Newark, N. J. 

l^isel, Albert, 91 Mechanic St., Newark, N. J. 

LIppe, Carl, 217 Falrniount Ave., Newjirk, N." J. 

I^liHtoeter, Frledrlch, 3 Clarendon PI., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

I>ow5', Hugo M., Holtwood, Pa. 

Maai's, Frank; 400 Ellison St, Paterson, N. J. 

Machlet, Jr., (Jeorg, 1008 Lafayette St, Elizabeth, N. J. 

— Malter. Heinrlcli. 1937 N. 33rd St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mahler, W., 2106 7th Ave., Beaver Falls, Pa. 

Martens, P., % Goldschmldt Detiunlng Co., Chrome, N. J. 

Marvin, Walter, Rutgers College. New Brunswick. N. J. 

Meyer. Albert Smelting & Rfg. Works, Irvlngton, N. J. 

Mezger, Roliert, 175 Delavan Ave., Newark, N. J. , 

Muriihy, Wni. Hembert, 437 Locust Ave., Roselle. N. J. 

Neu Alfre<l, 423 Summitt Ave., W. Hoboken, N. J. 

Neumann, Norbert, P. O. Box 62, York, Pa. 

Nicholaus, A., 243 Pennington Ave., Passaic. N. J. 

— ♦Nlebllng. (Muirles. 210 Falrniount Ave., Newark, N. J, 

Obermaler, Carl E., P. O. Box 595, York, Pa. 

— O'Malley, Austin, 2228 So. Broad St., Phlla., Pa. 

Ortmann, A. L., Carnegie Museum, IHttsburgh, Pa. 

Palmer, P. M.. So. Bethlehem, Pa. 

— Post Otto T., Trevanian Ave., Swlssvale, Pa. 

♦Prleth, Benedict, 225 Washington St, Newark, N. J. 

♦Puller, Gustav, 208 Fifth Ave., Paterson, N. J. 

Reis, A., 910 N. Franklin St., Phlla., Pa. 

Rennert, Hugo Albert, University of Pa., Phlla,, Pa. 

Riehl, Wllhelm, 29 Clinton PL, Newark, N. J. 

RIethmuller, Richard, 7133 Creshelm Rd., Phlla., Pa. 

— ♦Rlgby, J. M., Media, Pa. 

♦Rigby, M. H., Media, Pa. 

♦Rltter, R. M., 908 Chestnut St. % The Bayer Co., Phlla., Pa 
— Boeder, Edward M., 862 Ave. C, Bayonne, N. J. 
Roehlig, Georg Gustav, 145 Dayton Ave., Passaic, N. J. 
Roessler, Franz, Perth Amboy, N. J. 
Rosenberg, S. L. M., Glrard College, Phlla., Pa. 
Runge, Werner, 130 Union St., Newark, N. J. 



BREWING AND LIQUOB INTEBESTB AND GERMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1625 

Rys, C. F., 517 Carneffle Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Sattler, L.. R., 22 17th Ave., Newark, N. J. 
Seeley, Levi. 482 W. State St., Trenton, N. J. 
Seher, Otto P., 105 Montdalr Ave., Newark, N. J. 
Schaefer, Ludwlg, Maywood, N. X 
^Sefdenstlcker, Clara. 65 Montrose Ave., S. Orange, N. J. 
•Schaefer. Eugene, Maywood, N. J. 

Schledt^ Richard C, Franklin Marshall Col., Lancaster, Pa. 
— Schinider, August, Y. M. C. A., Paterson, N. J. 
S<^achta>, Carl H., 286 Harrison St, Passaic, N. J. 
Schmidt, Folkert M., 289 Lake St., Newark, N. J. 
Schneider, Emll, 1026 Garden St., Hoboken, N. J. 
Schochard G. C, 338 Boulevard, Passaic, N. J. 
— Schwarz, Bemhard, 1411 Kenwood Ave., Camden, N. J. 
—Starker, C. W.. Hotel Lorraine, North Hlllandalr, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Stein, Walter M., 3400 Race St., Phlla., Pa. 
Stengel, George H., 4136 Grant Boulevard, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
— Stem, Arthur, 24 B. Jersey St., Elizabeth, N. J. 
Stockmayer, Hugo, 124 Prospect PL. Rutherford, N. J. 
Strecker, Alex H., 235 Mt. Pleasant Ave., Newark, N. J. 
Strubin, Paul % Chas. Lennlng & Co.. Brldesburg, Phlla., Pa. 
Slckenberger, Ernest F., Carlstadt, Pa. 
Stattmann, C. Adolf, 206 Ashland Ave., Bloonifield. N. J. 
miews, Edmund R., Jr., 5008 Walnut St., Phlla., Pa. 
•Thies. C. E.. Hoboken, N. J. 
Trnbek. M., Carlstadt, N. J. 
— Vebe, George A., Smull Ave., Caldwell, N. J. 
Vaterrodt. Peter. 400 Hudson St., Hoboken, N. J. 

von Bermgueller, Adolph, P. O. box 337, Clifton Hgts., Delaware County. 
Pcnna. 
von Maltltx. Eklmund; Bridgeton, N. J. 
von Rechenberg, W., 54 Holdsworth Court, Passaic, N. J. 
•Wallhauser, H. J. F., 47 New St., Newark, N. J. 
— Wechsberg, Otto, 2514 Napas St, Phlla., Pa. 
Weiland, Carl. 617 Vine St., Phila., Pa. 
Wenz, Eugene, 21 Paul St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Wiroeiauer, W. L., 96 E. 39th St. Paterson, N. J. 
Wocfel, Paul L.. Oliver Bldg., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Zeh. Edward, Ave A & Vanderpool Ave., Newark, N. J. 
Zeller. Albert T., 603 Locust Ave., McKeesport, Pa. 
•Ziegler. Louis A., 836 S. 12th St., Newark, N. J. 
ammerman. S. R., 38 Scherer St., Newark, N. .T. 
Zlmmermann, Han.s, 7435 Sprague St, Mt Airy. Phlla., Pa. 
Hanannann, Carl F., 6129 Musgrave St., Germantown. Phlla., Pn. 
Zlmlick, Arthur John, N. E. c*or.- Green & Harvey St, Phlla., Pa. 

CLEVEIJkND, OHIO. 

— Baehr. Rudolf, Cincinnati. O. 

Bleita, A. M., 218 King Ave., Columbus, O. 

•Billing, Mrs. Henrlette, 6 Beechwood Place, Cincinnati, O. 

Engel, Henry J., 955 Oakland Ave., Conclnnatl, O. 

— ^Holmes, Carl F.. Cincinnati, O. 

—Holmes, Carl R., 8 E. 8th St. Cincinnati, O. 

—Holmes, Christian R.. Jr., 10 B. 8th St., Cincinnati, O. 

— ^Holmes, Julius F., Cincinnati, O. 

Katzenberg, George A., Greenville, Ohio. 

Kefdel, Hefmich C, 2281 Indiana Ave., Columbus, O. 

Loew, John. 2738 Market St, Youngstown, O. 

PoU, Mar. Tniv. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, O. 

Beese, Hefnrlch W., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, O. 

Trewler. Victor, 615 Fountain Ave., Springfield, Ohio. 

TOO Egloffstein, C, 2907 tJrwller Ave., Cincinnati, O. 

^Wlrthwein, Lonfs. 175 Deshler Ave., Columbus, O. 

Doemenbnrg, Endl, 29 So. College St, Athens, O. 



1526 BBEWINO AND UQUOB INTEBESTS AND QEBMAN PBOPAQANDA. 

BICHMOND, VA. 

Abel, John J., Johns Hopkins Med. Sch., Baltimore, Md. 

Allner, F. A., 1611 Lexington St. Bldg., Baltimore, Md. 

CoUltz, Hermann, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. 

Dachnowski, Alfred G., Bureau of Plant Industry, Wash., D. C. 

Derendinger, Ernest, Frederick, Md. 

♦De Wolf, Richard C, 1930 Kllbourne PI., Washington, D. C. 

Dohme, A. U. L., 310-317 Pratt St., Baltimore, Md. 

Droste, C. L., P. O. Box 135C, Riclimond, Va. 

I>uBrau, Hermann, Cumberhmd, Md. 

Engelhardt, H., 303 W. Pratt St., Baltimore, Md. 

♦Palter, Philip H., I^xlnfrton St. Bldg., R. 1606, Baltimore, Md. 

Fitzhugh, Thomas, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. 

Flemer, J. A., Westmoreland Co., Norma P. ()., Va. 

•Frommel. Frieda, 2200 20th St., NW„ Wash., D. C. 

Glaser, Charles, 2135 Bolton St., Baltimore, Md. 

Haase, Robert, 1304 Madison Ave., Baltimore, Md. 

Holler, H. P.. 1702 Oregon Ave. NW., Wash., D. C. 

♦Hilken. H. G., 4 Bishops* Road, Baltimore, Md. 

Kent, Charles W., University of Va., Charlottesville, Va. 

Langenbeek, Karl, 1625 Hobart St., Wash., D. C. 

Lahser, Conrad, Greensboro College for Women, Greensboro, N. C. 

Mattern, Johannes, John Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. 

McNeill, W. S., 805-9 Travelers' Bldg., Richmond, Va. 

Wood, Henry, 109 North Avenue W, Baltimore, Md. 

ATLANTA, OA. 

Schulze, Karl George, Orange Park, Florida. 

Conant C. Everett, Univer. of Chattanooga, Tenn. 

♦Gessner, Hermann B., 1105 Maison Blanche Bldg., New Orleans, La. 

Kohlmann, Dr. W., 1544 State St., New Orleans, La. 

Sanborn, Herbert C, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, Tenn. 

CHICAGO, ILL. 

Abele, L. H., 209 So. State St., Chicago, III. 

Abt, Isaac, 104 So. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Amberg, Emll, David Whitney Bldg., Detroit, Mich. 

Amberg, Samuel, 735 FuUerton Ave., Chicago, III. 

Ballin, Mas., 355 Woodward Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

♦Barlow, Burt E., 160 W. Chicago St., Coldwater, Mich. 

Bartlett, Frederick C, 2901 Prairie Ave., Chicago. III. 

Bernhardi, Carl, Rock Island, 111. 

Bidtel, Ernst, Golconda, 111. 

Brand, Horance L., 24-28 S. 5th St., Chicago, 111. 

Brassert, H. A., 111. Steel Co., So. Chicago, III. 

Cams, Paul, LaSalle, 111. 

Cutting. Starr Willard, irnlversity of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

DeLee, Joseph, 5028 Ellis Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Frank, Edwin, Urbana, 111. 

Franz, Hugo, 22 E. Washington St., Chicago, 111. 

Freyn, Heinrlch J., 1122 E. 52nd St., Chicago, III. 

Goldbeck, Edward, 921 Ridge Ave., Evanston, 111. 

Guenzel, Ix)uis C, 332 So, Alichlgan Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Helmholz, Henry F., 1015 Michigan Ave., Evanston, 111. 

♦Huber, A. W., 931 Winona St., Chicago, 111. 

Koessler, Karl K., Monroe Bldg., Chicago, III. 

Kiih, Sydney, 30 N. Michigan Blvd., Chicago, 111. 

Luckhardt, Albert E., 815 Oakdale Ave., Chicago, 111. 

I^istner, Oscar, 321 N. Randolph St, Chicago, 111. 

Meurer, E., Muskegon, Mich. 

♦Meyer, J. W., 704 Jefferson Ave., Laporte, Ind. 

Mohr, F. J., 4514 N. Racine Ave., Chicago, HI. 

♦Mohrenstecher, Otto, Qulncy, 111. 

Neef, Fritz, 802 Woodward Ave., Detroit, Mich. 



BBBWIHG AND UQTJOB INTEBB8TB AlH) €UEBMAK FBOPAGAKDA. 1527 

Obermaler. C. A., 195 ISlst St., Woods Mobilette Mffg. Co., Harvey, III. 

—Peters, A, T., P. O. box 43. PeoHa, 111. 

•ProelsB, C, La Salle, 111. 

PuenlDji^ F., 2657 Stewart Ave., Evanston, ni. 

Riel>eU E. C, 6500 Harvard Ave., La Salle, III. 

*Robin8on, C. L., 2312 N. Halsted St., Chicago ,111. 

Roth, E., La Salle, 111. 

•Rnbens, Harry, 1418 Westminster Bldg., Evanston, 111. 

^Schapper, Ferdinand C, 617 Arlington PI., Chicago, lU. 

Scberger, George L., Armour Institute, Chicago, 111. 

Schevill, Ferdinand, 5745 Blackstone Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Schllchter, Anton, 214 Beethoven Place, Chicago, 111. 

^SHamidt, Carl E., Oscoda, Iosco County, Michigan. 

•Schreiber, F. R., 352 Mt Vernon Ave., Gd. Rapids, Mich. 

Simons^ F. H., 1108 Clay St., Chicago, lU. 

Stempfel, Theodore, Fletcher American Nat'l Bank, Indianapolis, Ind. 

StroebeU Charles, 1744 Monadnock Block, Chicago, 111. 

von Schuckmann, Max, 2144 Hudson Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Vos, Bert John, Bloomington, Ind. 

— ^Wahl, Robert, 1135 Fullerton Ave., Chicago, HI. 

Wood, Frands A., 5407 Greenwood Ave,, Chicago, HI. 

•Wnelfing, Hugo, 1000 Lemcke Bldg.. Indianapolis, Ind. 

ST. LOXnS. ICO. 

Almstedt Hermann, University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

Alt Adolf. 316 Metropolitan Bldg., St Louis, Mo. 

Breyer, E. F., Rlvermines, Mo. 

*Bo8ch, August A., Annheuser-Busch Brewing Co., St Louis, Mo. 

Johnston, Eva, Columbia, Mo. 

Kcmipfe, Anna E. L., GirPs High School, Louisville, Ky. 

McDermott, Edward J., Inter-Southern Bldg., Louisville, Ky. 

Meyer, Clara, 1821 Virginia Ava, St Louis, Mo. 

Mndd, H. G.. St Louis, Mo. 

Naget Charles, Security Bldg., St Louis, Mo. 

* Pelfer, Johann Baptist, Shively, Ky. 

* Schachner. August, 844 Seventh Ave., Louisville, Ky. 
Tuholske. Herman, 543 N. Taylor Ave., St Louis, Mo. 

von Walther, Eckart, University of Louisville, Louisville, Ky. 

* Bmn, Theo. F., 3546 Page Blvd., St Louis, Mo. 
H^er, Otto, Washington University, St Louis, Mo. 
Kraus, Cha&, 3237 Longfellow Bd., St Louis, Mo. 
Jonas, Ernst Lister Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. 

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

Aicb^in, Karl, 232 17th St, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Augspurger, L. F., Chemfsts Bldg., Madison, Wis. 

Baars, Smst S. H., 585 Conway St, Milwaukee, Wis, 

Banm, C, 486 Cass St, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Bemhard, A., 1300 Grand Ave., Milwaukee,' Wis. 

Benecke, E., 623 Milwaukee St, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Bossert G. F., 719 Franklin Place, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Brown. Horace M., 311 Prospect Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Bueas. 5Iax, 540 Logan Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Conz^mann, Fred J., Winnebago, Wis. 

Demehl, P. H., 717 Majestic Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Dressmann, Rud., 508 Jackson Ave., ed. of German Herold, Milwaukee, Wis. 

* Dohne, Francis, 412 Ch. of Com., Milwaukee, Wis. 
— ^Eiselmeler, John, 558 Broadway, Milwaukee, Wis. 
— ^Engel, Otto, Norwalk, Wis. 

Kngelmann, Karl, 400 24th St, Milwaukee, Wis. 
Ernst George R., 2825 State St., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Feldmann, Adolf, Ist NatL Bank, Milwaukee. Wis. 
Plscber, Richard. Madison, Wis. 
Prank, Louis, 2300 Grand Ave., Milwaukee. Wis. 
Frantzke. Emil J., 1310 Majestic Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 



1528 BBEWIKG AND LIQUOB INTEBESIS AND OSBKAK FKOPAQAKDA. 

Gaenslen, F. G., 141 Wisconsin St, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Griebsch, Max, 558 Broadway, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Goes, Ed. F., % The Vitter Mfg. Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Gansewitz, Arthur P., 303 Railway Exchange. Milwaukee, Wis. 

Herschman, A. J. 379 27th St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Hohlfeld, A. R., 104 Breese Terrace, Madison, Wis. 

Hottelet, Max., 693 Farwell Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Jenner, Albert J., 501 Marshall St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Jermaln, Louis F., 1901 Grand Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Kahlenberg, Louis, 234 Lthrop St., Madison, Wis. 

Kerber, Julius, 492 13th St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Kissllng, C. L., 626 Galena St, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Kopf, H., 78 Juneau Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Kremer, Waldemar R., % the Vitter Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Kreutzer, Alfred G., Ist National Bank Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Leonard, William Bllery, 415 N. Park St, Madison, Wis. 

Levi, Louis E., Pfister & Vogel Lea. Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Liepe, Arthur C, 1412 Greenburg Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

♦Lutz, Werner, 150 Ogden Ave., National Knitting Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Muenzuer, R. J., 128 Wisconsin St, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Nolte, Ludwig, 727 Cass St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Oberetopt, Bernard W., 800 Majestic Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Oesterleln, Wm., 491 Jefferson St., Univ. Club, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Owen, Ralph A. D., 558 Broadway, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Pfister, Franz, Majestic Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Puis, Arthur J., 400 1st Nat'l Bank Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Quaden, S. R., 640 34th St, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Reiche, D. M. O., 4504 Pabst Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Rohde, H. W., 1275 Stowell Place, Milwaukee, Wfs. 

Ruhland, George C, City Hall, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Ruschhaupt L. F., 267 26th St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Schedler, A. J., 484 34th St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Schmlt, Louis, 407 Garfield Ave.. Milwaukee, Wis. 

Schroeder, W. R., 774 6th St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Schneider, J., Pabst Theater Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Sllbor, Helnrich, 658 Mineral. St, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Strauss, Simon, Albert Lee, Minn. 

Stern, Leo, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Steinhagen, G., 20 Mack Blck, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Steigleder, Emll, University of Wis., Madison, Wis. 

— *Thlenhau8, C. O., Madison, Wis. 

Tletsche, Ernest, 1227 12th St, Milwaukee, Wia 

♦Uihlein, William J., 717 Shepard Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

♦Von Koenig, Arthur, 305 Watkins Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Voss, Ernst K. J., 175 Nelson St, Madison, Wis. 

Wigge, Wm. F., 835 Caswell Block, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Wild, Robert, First Natl. Bank Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

KANSAS CITT, KANSAS. 

Becker, Henry, 528 Park Ave., Omaha, Nebr. 

Bilharz, O. M., Baxter Springs, Kans. 

—Cooper, Carl H., Muskogee, OWa. 

Flothow, Max, Storz Brewing Co., Omaha, Nebr. 

Frizell, Arthur B., 1010 E. Euclid Ave., McPherson, Kami 

Gengenbach, Frank Paul, 1434 Glenarm, Denver, Colo. 

♦Grummann, Paul Helnrich, U. Ill Station S, Lincoln, Nebr. 

Jonas, A. F., 454 Brandeis Bldg., Omaha, Nebr. 

Thiele. Felix Carl, 209 W. 4th St, Coffeyville, Kana 

•Von Rahden, M. C, Crelghton, Nebr. 

DALLAS, TEXAS. 

—Butte. Charles George, Univ. of Texas, Austin, Tex. 
Grausteln, W. C, Rioe Institate, Hooston, Tex. 
--Halker, J. OUiy, Button, Tex. 



BBEWIKG AND LIQUOB IKTEKESTS AND* GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1529 

Keasbey. Llndley M., Univ. of Texas, Austin, Tex. 
— Provosch, Eduarrl. Univ. oiF Texas, Austin, Tex. 
Weber, Rolf Felix, Rice Institute, Houston, Tex. . 

SAN FBANCISCO, CAU 

Bauwens, Geor^, San Joaquin L. & P. Corp., Fresno, Cal. 
Beckh, O. C, Hotel Richelieu, San Francisco, Cal. 
Benzin^er. R.. 1437 Chestnut St., Oakland, Cal. 
•BinWe, H. F.. 440 Samsome St., San Francisco, Cal. 
♦Dehn Karl, 1112 L. C. Smith Bldg., Seattle. Wash. 
Elschner. Carl, 1933 Home St., Berkeley. Cal. 
Fimnien. M. E.. Room 1, Crosley Bldp., San Francisco. 
♦Geosrpel, Wra., 1328 Hyde St.. San Franci'^co. 
(Jottlleb. A., 1G61 Sacramento St.. San Francisco. 
KlauK^-inann. H., 304 Physicians Bldp:.. San Francisco. 
Krenisor, Alois, 2315 Dwlprht Way, Berkeley, Cal. 
Kreutzmann. H. F., 1054 Sutter St., S. Franr»is<o. 
Kroto«2yner, Martin. 0JI9 Sutter St.. S. Francisco. 
Kuehne. Paul, 105 E. aSrd St., Portland, Oroff. 
liehiiin^, Albert. 14r>3 Bellevue Ave.. Los Angeles, Cal. 
Lyman, George. 240 Stockton St., S. Fraucisco, Cal. 
Nicklafl, Ph., 243 Sansonie St.. S. Francisco, Cal. 
PeterR, H, H., P. O. Box 552, Oxnard, Cal. 
PMchel, K, Butler Bldp., S. Francisco, Cal. 
Raitb, T.. 2166 Sutter St., S. Franci^-^'o, CaL 
Rendtorflr. Karl, 318 Lincoln Ave., Palo Alto, Cal. 
RIesmer, Wm.. 12215 TiOmbard St, Sa. Francisco. 
Schorr. Robert, Postal Telegraph BIdj?., Sa. Francisco. 
Seller, Paul. 1480 10th Ave., Sa. Francisco. 
Treskow, F.. Kentitield, Marin Co., California. 
Uhllp, Carl, Perry Building, S, Francisco. 
Von «Ut I>eith, H.. 1035 Ashbury St., S. Francisco. 
Vowinckel. F. W., 1200 Octavia St.. S. Francisco. 
Well, C, 1912 Clay St.. S. Francisco. 
Wls5«er. John P.. 1935 Yolo Ave., Berkeley. Cal. 
— Abele. Paul, Sunniebend, Alberta, Canada. 

•Mayerhofer, A. F., Dannheim, Waldhof, Germany. 

riebelelsen, O., Central Dellclas, Orlente, Cuba. 

4Sabel, Chas.. 805 Georgia St., Manila. P. I. 

Zaller, Mauricio. % Electric Works, Merlda, Yucatan, Mex. 

Mr. BoBUkSKi. I think it should be said that Prof. A. Busse, of 
Hunter College, resigned his position as secretary because he learned 
from various college men that the activities of the league were re- 
garded as a species of German propaganda ; and he gave some infor- 
mation about tlie operation of it. 

Senator Overman. I see here, in " Who's Who," George Fred -Wil- 
liams studied at Heidelberg and some other college in (^rmany, and 
was a Member of Congress and Minister to Greece. 

Senator Neuson. That is the. man; he was a Member of Congress 
and Minister to Greece. 

Mr. BiELASKi. This document contains a list of the members as of 
1917. I will put this list in the record, if you wish. 

Senator Ohbrman. Let it go in, please. 

(The list is here printed in the record, as follows:) 

BiGiJisKi ExHiarr No. 106.* 

Frenldenc Edmund r»ii Mnch 

VIce-Fresidentfl M. U. Hein Charles Nagel Caraiilo von Klenz6 

Treasurer H. C. A. Seebohra 



* Fortli^r ^tm In relation to th« German Uniyertitj League will be found printed at 
p. 1372 of theae bearings. 



1530 BBEWING AND LJQUOB INTERESTS AND GERMAN PBOPAOAKDA. 

Assistant treasurer R. Pagenstecher 

Keconllnp secretary Hiiro Kirbaoh 

Executive secretary O. J. Merkel 

Tnistw^s: Klected to serve from o :e to four year-: Ernst Bilhuber, 1919: 
I>r. H. J. Boldt, 1918: Prof. A. Busre, 1917; Louis Doelling. 1920; F. Haas, 
1917; M. U. Hein. 1917; Dr. Huro Kirbach. 1918; Dr. Henrv G. Krause, 1917; 
Dr. U. D. Marquardt. 1918; Hon. Tlitirles Napel, 1918; R. Pagenstecher. 1919: 
Prof. W. W. Rockwell, 1917; H. C^ A. Seebohm, 1918; Dr. W L. Wirlwlaner. 
1920; Ad K. FI clier, 1920; Prof. W. R. Shepherd, 1920; H. E. Stoehr. 1920; 
Prof. Canilllo von Klenze, 1919; Dr. Edmund von Mach, 1919: Dr. F. Ziuimer- 
nuinn, 1919. Elected to serve for the current yej\r: Prof. Starr Willard Cut- 
Hnp, Prof. Albert B. Faust. Louis Gueuzel, Prof. Hans Carl (J. von Jajceiuann. 
Pro:. Thos. ('. Hall. \V. S. McNeill, O. J. Merkel, F. Stallforth, Dr Anton 
Schoen, Carl h Schurz, Dr. Hugo Schweitzer, (i. Steinhagen. 

Mr. BiELAHKi. I find also in this file what appears to be, and what 
is headed, really, " Draft,'' '* Professor Shepherd : Members of the 
T'niversitv League and Friends" — and I assume it is a draft of his 
speech. He says one thing which has just struck my eye. [Reading:] 

To my mind, Deutsche KuJtur is that sta^^e of human achievement which is 
reache<l by an efficient application of the l>est re ults of activity in aU branches 
of knowledge gained at home and chosen from abroad to the welfare of the 
Individual in the State. 

That is not " culture," he says, but it is " kultur " — or at least so 
I venture to think. This seems to be quite a pro-German article- 
Senator Overman. There are a lot of them in Boston on this list 
you handed me. 

Senator Nelson. I only find one in the list from Minnesota. All 
the Minneapolis people seem to be Milwaukee people. 

Mr. BiELASKi. 1 notice that, Senator. 

Senator Nelson. I find only one man there, Simon Strauss, and 
Albert Lee, from Minneapolis. 

Mr. BiELASKi. In 1917, Edmund von Mach had become the presi- 
dent of this German University League. I think he appears on the 
original list as director, or trustee, or something like that. He was 
the author, I think, of " Wliat Germany wants," " Germany's point 
of view," a chapter on Germany in " Why Germany is at war," and I 
think he first came to Harvard in 1898. 

wSenator Nelson, These books were published in English? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes, sir. 

Senator Overman. I see on this list, " Tauscher, H., 320 Broadway 
(this is the notorious Krupp agent in the United States, tried and 
acquitted of conspiracy in the plot to blow up the Welland Canal ; 
now in Germany)." Opposite his name on this list are the words, 
" Don't send mail." What does that mean ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I think that was a suggestion not to write, as his 
mail might be seen by somebody, he having come publicly to the 
attention of the authorities. 

In addition, Von Mach made many speeches and wrote many 
articles criticizing the Government oi&cials, the Cabinet officers, and 
the course of the administration in general. He was the head (ff this 
organization intended to ship milk to Germany, which received a 
great deal of publicity. He, according to the testimony of one of the 
members who was associated with Von Mach, received a salary of $75 
per week as executive chairman and an allowance of $5 a day for his 
expenses. He was bom August 1, 1870, in Germany, and arrived in 



BREWING AND UQXJOB IKTEKBSTB AND GEBMAN PROPAGANDA. 1531 

Xew York in 1891. He took the oath of allegiance November 16, 
1914, at Boston, after we had entered the war. - 

Maj. HvMES. Just to correct a statement — not after we had entered 
the war, but after the war started. 

Mr. BiEi^SKi. After the start of the European war. That is what 
I meant^ of course. 
Senator Overman. Yes. 

Mr. BiELASKi. He received an amount of $5,500 — possibly just even 
$."),000 — ^which we were suspicious of ; but it developed that Mr. Al- 
fred de Liagre, of A. de Liagre & Co. and Botany Worsted Mills, 
\terman concerns, stated that he advanced $5,000 to Von Mach be- 
cause he had known his relations in Germany and their families were 
friendlvv and that Von Mach needed funds for living expenses and 
to develop a farm which he owned ; and he alleges it was made up of 
i^iims from Fritz Achelis, Albrech Pagenstecher, Stoehr & Sons, Mr. 
Rudolphs* and Alfred de Liagre, the largest amount being $1,000 and 
the smallest $200 ; which, however, we are very skeptical about as to 
the source, but we have no proof at all. 

Maj. Humes. Is not the correct name of that organization the Citi- 
zens' Committee on Food Shipments? 

ilr. BiELASKi. It is variously described as the committee who 
shipped milk to Germany, and it was a committee with respect to 
food shipments. I do not know the exact title there. 

Capt. Lester. Committee for Food Shipments, in the Woolworth 
Building. 
Mr. BiELASKi. Yes ; that was it. 

Maj. Humes. That was the name they used, and the other is an 
abbreviation of it. 

Mr. BnxASKi. We know that he was in very close touch with Capt. 
^on Pa pen. He had arranged a conference with Von Papen lor 
Dwreinbipr 6, 1915, at which he was going to report the activities con- 
cpming the shipment of milk. 

February 24, 1916, he was to have a conference with Dr. Albert, on 
Fridav afternoon at 4 o'clock. 

I take it that was not February 24, but the date the arrangements 
^ere made. He also made arrangements in February, 1916, for a 
conference with Albert at the Astor Hotel. 

On March 1, 1916, he Jiad an arrangement to meet Hoffmann, who 
▼as Albert's private secretary, Hugo Schweitzer, and Von Mach, 
and Karl Heynen, and other active German agents in this country 
at a conference, and Von Mach had various other conferences with 
the leading Germans. 
Senator Nelson. What is his name? 
Mr. BnsLASKT. Edmund von Mach. 

What, however, brings him most to our attention is his activities 
immediately before the declaration of war against Germany. 

He came to Washington: and you will undoubtedly remember his 
propaganda activities, the literature he distributed, the advertise- 
ments he tried to have inserted, and the communications intended 
for the consideration of Members of the Confi:ress. 

Here is a pamphlet entitled, " Facts! War or no War You will 
have to face the Facts either now or later. Read Them." And at 
the bottom of the cover of this pamphlet, "Washington, D. C, 
Post Office Box 701." 



1532 BEE WING AND UQTJOE INTERESIS AND GERMAN PEOFAGANDA. 

The foreword begins, " The President has asked Congress to 
declare war on Germany." 

Senator Nelson. I think that should go into the record. 

Mr. BiELASKi. It is signed in the printed pamphlet, " Edmund von 
Mach, Washington, D. C, April 2, 1917." The declaration of war 
was April 6 — ^]ust four days after. It is the sort of thing which 
would be very clearly in violation of the espionage act. 

(The pamphlet referred to is printed in full, as follows:) 

(Cover:) 

BncLASKi Exhibit No. 107. 

FACTS. 

WAR OR NO WAR 

You will have to face the 
Facts either notv or' later 

Read Them 

Washin^on, D. 0. 

Post Office Box 701 



(Inside of cover:) 



FOBEWOBD. 



The President has asked Congress to declare war on Germany. 

The cause is Germany's putting i^to effect measures of force incident to her 
proclamaticm of a war zone of certain waters of the high seas. 

The American people are quick to respond to appeals in the interest of Jus- 
tice and Freedom and Humanity. They are wiUing to suffer, if these principles 
can be advanced. 

The presentation of the facts, officially and in the press, has given color to 
the belief that these principles may be advanced, if Congress declares war 
against Germany. 

Not all the facts have become generally known. Some little known facts 
are collected in this pamphlet. Most of them were first published as adver- 
tisements in the Washington Times of April 1 and 2, 1917. READ THEM. 

They will come home to plague you if you disregard them today. 

(First page of pamphlet) 

FACTS 

1. In, dealing with Great Britain we have laid down this rule : 

American rights on the high seas are subject to interference under two con- 
ditions: (1) When such interference is permitted by international law; (2) 
When it is required by the principle of national self-preservation. 

This appears from the following quotations from the Official White Book, 
published by the Department of State: 

Note of December 26, 1914: *The commerce between nations which are not 
belligerents should not be Interfered with by those at war, unless such inter- 
ference is manifestly an imperative necessity to protect their national safety.* 

Same note: (These restrictions) *are not justified by the rules of inter- 
national law or required under the principle of self-preservation.* 

Note of January 7, 1915 : "A belligerent . . . should not Interfere, unless 
such interference Is necessary to protect the belligerent's national safety, and 
then only to the extent to which this is necessary.*' 

In dealing with Germany we have denied her the appeal to the principle of 
self-preservation and demanded that her actions conform to the rules of Inter- 
national law. 



BREWING AND UQUOB INTERESTS AND GEBAIAN PROPAGANDA. 1533 

2. Ruthless naval warfare, 1. e., the establishment of military areas on the 
high seas, with the threat to sinic all ships entering them unwarned, was first 
proclaimed by Great Britain, who on November 2, 1914, by an admiralty order, 
established a military area on the high seas where all ships were to be sunlc, 
unwarned, * by mines . . . and warships.' 

The first American ship sunk in a * military area,* unwarned, during this war, 
was sunk as the result of this British order. 

The first American lives lost on ships so sunk were lost through the instru- 
mentality of the British, when the American steamships Carib and Evelyn 
were sunk. 

The first passenger steamers sunk, unwarned, during this war were Austrian 
passenger steamers sunk by torpedoes from entente submarines in the Mediter- 
ranean, f 

Germany established he first war zone on the high seas three months later 
than Great Britain, claiming that Great Britain's ruthlessness forced her to 
take this action, and offering to rescind her order as soon as her enemies 
would do likewise. 

3. The British admiralty order of November 2, 1914, which began ruthless 
naval warfare, has been omitted from the Oflicial White Book pub1ishe<l by our 
Department of State. The German order has been printed, which gives the 
appearance that Germany and not Great Britain started the mode of warfare 
wliich has aroused American resentment. 

The loss of American ships and American lives as the result of the British 
order has been suppressed as much a possible. The loss of American Ediips and 
American lives as the result of the German order has been fully published. 

Our Department of State has not protested against the British order. It has 
protested against the German order. 

4. At the outbreak of the war our Department of State asked the belligerents 
wliether they were willing to abide by the Declaration of London. This declara- 
tion embodies the rules of naval warfare which the delegates of all the mari- 
time nations of the world had accepted in 1909 as In keeping with the standards 
of modern civilization. Germany accepted our proposal. Great Britain re- 
jected it 

Since then Germany has twice offered to conform her mode of warfare to the 
mlea of this declaration, and even today it is not unreasonable to assume that 
Khe would be willing to forego the use of her submarines and abide by the 
standard of naval warfare set up by this declaration, if we can force the recogni- 
tion of the same high standard by all the belligerents. 

§. The Constitution has committed to Congress the definition and the punish- 
ment of "offenses against the law of nations." (Article I, Section 8, No. 10) 
** Great changes have occurred in the conditions and means of naval warfare 
sfnee the rules hitherto governing" it were formulated (American note to Great 
Britain, March 10, 1915). Let Ongress now define, as already suggested by 
Senator McCumber, what, in view of these changes, the United States feels 
obliged to regard as offienses against the laws of nations. Let Ongress estab- 
lish definite rules, and let us then enforce them Impartially ! 

6. The submarine is a new,, and as many believe, the coming weapon of naval 
* Warfare. When this war is over, the nations of the world will have to rewrite 

their •* law of nations " with reference to It 

Onr contention is that the submarine should obey the laws accepted for over- 
water craft Germany's contention is tliat new weapons need new rules. 

The attitude of the neutral nations in this war, exce]>t ourselves and China, 
is more favorable to Germany's contention than to our own. At least, this 
wfmld Beem »» from their refusal t:o accede to the President's request to Join 
U8 in breaking ^Ith Germany. 

If we go to war to vindicate our Interpretation, and suffer the untold horrors 
or war, and sow the seeds of hatred which In wartime are scattered like weeds, 
it may happen that the council of nations, after the war, may decide that the 
invention of the submarine has forced a change In the rules. This Is, for In- 
itance, the contention of the American inventor of the submarine, Mr. Simon 
Lake. 

In that case our hoys will have died in vain ! 

7. Before the invention of powder, men did not fight each other in battle 
witlkout giving an individual challenge, by a special warning, to the men they 
intended to attack. 

After the invention of powder, when men could shoot at each other from a 
ttlRtance. the individual warning became obsolete. 



1534 BBEWIKG AND UQUQB INTERESTS AND OEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 

Possibly the introduction of the submarine may make the individual warning 
obsolete, and a general warning take its place, as was suggested in the last 
Austrian note. ^ 

8. The present unrestricted use of the German submarines has been forced 
upon the German Government by the unanimous will of the German people. 
The German Government had been willing, until recently, to restrict the use of 
the submarines out of deference to our wishes. 

It is the German people who have forced the Government to carry out what 
was said in the first German note on the submarine question. (American White 
Book, No. 1, p. 57.) 

" If England invokes the powers of famine as an ally in its struggle against 
Germany with the intention of leaving a civilized people, the alternative of per- 
ishing in misery or submitting to the yoke of England*s political and commercial 
will, the German Government is today determined to take up the gauntlet and 
to appeal to the same grim ally." 

9. The German use of the submarine carries with It no liostility towards th«* 
neutrals, least of all towards the United States, where millions of citizens of 
German blood have found a cherished home. 

The German people regret as deeply as any of us that their Government and 
our Administration have been unable to find a solution to the grave problems 
which have arisen between them and us as the result of what our Department 
of State has called * the great changes which have occurred in the conditions 
and means of naval warfare since the rules hitherto governing * it were formu- 
lated. (Official White Book, No. 1, p. 70.) 

10. "These great changes" have made it impossible for Gi-eat Britain to 
declare a legal blockade of the coasts of Germany. She has, instead, resorted 
to the illegal proclamation of ' military areas ' on the high seas, by means of 
which she has stopped our legal commerce with Gtermany. 

The German people cannot understand why they should submit to these 
British " military areas," where all neutral ships are threatened with immediate 
destruction by " mines and warships," as officially announced by Great Britain, 
and should refuse to submit to the German "war zones," where neutral ships 
are threatened with destruction by submarines. 

If the loss of American lives in the British "military areas" has been com- 
paratively small, this is due to the fact that our Administration has withheld 
its support from all who dared to enter them. 

If we were to follow the same course with respect to the German "war 
zones," established by Germany as a retaliatory and defensive measure against 
Great Britain, we should avoid additional loss of American lives, and should 
remove all danger of friction with Germany. 

11. If we feel that we can no longer submit to having first one and then the 
other belligerent close certain areas of the high seas to our commerce, we can 
say to both that we shall no longer tolerate any Interference with. our com- 
merce, and that we request both of them Instantly to rescind their respective 
orders, and clear the high se^s of mines sown by them and withdraw their 
siihma rd ues 

12. At the outbreak of the European war three states, out of a total number 
of fifty-seven Independent and sovereign states under which the people of the • 
world are organized, owned more than one-half of the land area of the worhl. 
There are only about fifty millions of square miles. 

In addition, these three held sway over practically all the strategic positlon.s 
of the water area of the world. 
These three are Great Britain, Russia, and France. 
All three are Colonial Empires, and therefore plutocracies. 

13. Germany, their chief opponent in the war. Is smaller than Texas, and her 
colonial possessions, with few exceptions, are of no great importance. 

She Is an economic democracy with a monarchial form of government, ol 
which Senator Hitchcock said In the Senate on March 4, last : 

" That great people has grown up in the last forty-five years un<ler the great 
powers of an Empire. They occupy what for centuries has been the buttle field 
of Europe. Only within the last forty-five years have the Teuton people lK?en 
inrivileged to live in security and prosperity. We are wont to condemn their 
Government, and because our sympathies go strongly toward the other side. 
We forget that the Government of Imperial Germany has done more for the 
common people, the masses of the German people, during the last forty-five 
years than any country in Europe, at least, has d<Mie for its people." 

14. During the period between 1890 and 1910, the period of Germany's great 
commercial expansion, Grermany added to her territory only about two thousand 



BBBWIN6 AN1> LIQUOB IKTEBESTS AKD OEBMAK FBOPAGAKDA. 1535 

square miles of extraneous land, chiefly for coaling stations, and always by 
way of parchase or lease. (*' America's Relations to the War," by Professor 
John William Burgess.) 

Dnrlng the same period "the three great Colonial Empires (Great Britain, 
Russia, and France) added millions of square miles to their colonial areas, and 
almost always by means of war and bloodshed." 

15. During the entire long reign of Queen Victoria there was not one single 
year when the British Empire was not at war somewhere in the world. 

The German Empire had been at peace with the world fr/(m the year of its 
creation in 1871 to the outbreak of the war in 1914. 

16. Germany is today fighting a war at odds such as the world has never -seen. 
Xamerically, these odds against Germany are almost seven to one! And ter- 
ritorially, so far as the square miles of the world's surface are concerned, on the 
resources of which the respective belligerents can draw, the odds against Ger- 
many were at the beginning of the war, almost forty to one ! 

These figures do not take into account the United States, who during almost 
the whole of the war have l>een permitted to serve as the granary, and the 
treasury, and the arsenal of the Entente Allies. 

A people which can fight against such odds is sustained by the conviction 
of the righteousness of its cause. 

This . wonderful spirit of the German people is described by an American 
woman who recently returned from abroad In these words : " I was in Germany 
two weeks, and felt all the time as if I were in church." 

17. In spite of the enormous odds against her, Germany has at all times been 
wlQing to fight the war according to the rules of naval warfare agreed upon in 
1909 by the representatives of all the large maritime nations, including the 
United States, and laid down in the Declaration of London. 

All the measures taken by her which have aroused the indijruHtion of the* 
American people have been measures of retaliation against the unlawful meas- 
uros of her opponents. 

Germany claims that all the disputes between her and us are incidental to 
her proclamation of a war zone on the high seas. This proclamation, she 
armies, has been forced upon her by the illegal declaration of war zones or 
* military areas' previously issued by her opponents, and \fy the submission 
to these British decrees by the neutral nation a 

18. GREAT NATIONS FIGHT WHEN THEY ARE FORCED TO FIGHT. 
FOR PRINCIPLES. IT IS THE PRINCIPLE WHICH COUNTS, AND NOT 
THE IX)SS SUSTAINED. 

The principle at stake at the present time Is the illegal establishment of war 
lones on the high seas. If it is true that Great Britain established those war 
woes first, and that we have not protested against them, we have forfeited 
«»Qr moral and legal rights in this matter. 

LET CONGRESS. THEREFORE, AT ONCE CALL UPON THE DEPART- 
MENT OP STATE FOR A COMPLETE LIST OF ALL THE ORDERS AND 
PROCLAMATIONS OF SUCH WAR ZONES. AND OUR ANSWERS TO 
THEBI. WITHOUT THESE PAPERS CONGRESS CANNOT DO ITS DUTl!. 

Eduttnd von Mach. 
Washington. D. C, April 2, 1917. 

(Ingide of back cover:) 

CONGRESS AND WALL STBEET. 

Anglo-French War Bonds to the value of several hundred millions of dollars, 
which the general will not buy, are tj^ing up the funds of financiers who prefer 
to have their funds fluid. 

The Bethlehem Steel Company has statec) in its official report that it has 

' ^*>.000.000 tie<l up in these bonds. The United Steel is said to have $40,000,000 

tM up, and J. P. Morgan & Co. and other bankers of the syndicate have on 

band several hundred millions of these bonds which they have been unable 

CO sell. 

If we loan large sums of money to the Entente Powers, taking for this pur 
pose the money of the American people. Great Britain and France are expecte<1 
to take care first of those American financiers whose funds are at present so 
unpteasantly tied up. 

Making Urge loans to the Entente Powers, whatever patriotic motives may 
Animate Gon^^ss, will amount to taking the mon^ out of the pockets of the 
people and putting It into the podcets of-Mr. Morgan and his friends. 



1536 BBEWINQ AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND OERMAN PROPAGANDA. 

(Outside of back cover:) 



ABE YOU A LOYAL AMERICAN? 



liOyal American Citizenship Consists In Keeping Unsullied One's Allegiance 
to The Constitution and to the Principles on which this Nation was founded: 
Humanity, Justice, and Good-will Toward All. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Here is a communication which is issued, intended 
to prevent a declaration of war — about a four-page circular. I do 
not suppose it is necessary to put that in. 

In a letter written by George S. Viereck, December 7, 1914, which 
was early, of course, he says he has received a letter from von Mach, 
"which I consider to be a matter of grave importance. Mr. von 
Mach desires an answer at once." 

I do not know what the subject matter was, but that was a letter 
addressed to Albert, and shows their intimacy. 

Here are copies of the various circulars issued by the Citizens' 
Committee for Food Shipments, with offices in the Woolworth Build- 
ing, and with the treasurer in the Mills Building. 

After we got in the war he was very active on behalf of the 
Germans who were interned, in trying to determine that they were 
held illegally. 

He came down here to Washington and had as a press agent Mr. 
J. Ernst Hurst, who, I think, resides in Washington, or did at that 
time, at 720 Twelfth Street NW. 

He told us that Dr. von Mach had been very active here for 
several days, but had succeeded in getting but one" paper to take his 
copy, the Washington Times, which published an advertisement for 
him — ^^ Facts " — on Sunday and Monday before war was declared. 

He was unable to get any information as to the source of the 
money that Dr. von Mach was spending. He paid his bills with 
cash, and had a large supply with him, and made strenuous efforts 
to get in touch with Congressmen — unsuccessful for the most part, 
or altogether 5 and clear up until the morning of April 5, Von Mach 
seemed to believe that he would be successful in preventing a decla- 
ration of war. 

He became convinced on the 5th of .April that his efforts were 
hopeless, and returned to New York City. 

Senator Overman. What became of him? 

Mr. BiELASKi. He is up there still — in Boston. 

Here is a copy of a circular, addressed, " Dear Mr. Congress- 
man," by Edmund von Mach, which was sent to us by Congressman 
Shaw. It was dated April 4, 1917, two days before we went to war, 
and was an effort to prevent action. It is short, and you might want 
to have it in the record, inasmuch as it is addressed to the Congress- 
men. 

(The letter referred to is here printed in the record in full, as^ 
follows:) 

B1ET.ASKI Exhibit No. 108. 

Dear Mr. Congressman : If we ffo to war, we shall do so in defense of the 
principle that the seas are free, and that the establishment of war zones or 
the like on tlie high seas is forbidden. 

The facts, as they have become known officially and by the press, are dif- 
ferent from the facts as many of us believe them to be. 



BREWING AND UQUOB INTEBESTB AND GERMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1537 

Important documents have been suppressed, even in official publications. 

Mr. C. E. Richardson, Librarian of Princeton University, referring to one 
such suppression writes: 

'• I know of no single act of intentional, or accidental misleading of public 
opinion more flagrant or more directly bearing on vital issues of peace or war 
than this suppres-sion." 

Congress should liave the facts. Will you not, therefore, please call on the 
Department of State at once to suhrnit to Congress all the orders and procla- 
maiionx issued by both sets of belligerents establishing ** toaf zones," '^military 
arean** ** danger-zones" and the like o»i the high seas, and copies of our replies 
and protests sent in each case? 

There can be nothing unpatriotic in calling for the facts. The facts will 
l>ecf>ine known either now or later. We shall have to face them some time. 
Why not niake sure that we are right l)efore we go to war? 
Very sincerely yours, 

Edmund von Mach. 

Mr. BiELASKi. He was in correspondence with Albert at various 
times, seeking his advice as to what points to be used in pro-German 
articles, and I think the telegram which I read this morning from 
Bernstorff to th? foreign office shows clearly the source of his money. 
It came from the German Embassy. 

The German Publication Society: This was an organization whose principal 
business 

Maj. Humes. Before you get away from the citizens' committee 
for food shipments, do you know where that was organized? 

Mr. BiEi^\8Ki. I did not know where it was organized until after 
1 talked with vou. You told me of some records from the military 
intelligence office of an authentic charact r showing that it was 
'organized at the residence of Samuel Untermyer. 

Maj. Humes. Yes. The statements taken by the clerk at the time 
of the organization show that it was organized at the residence of 
Samuel TJntermver. 

Mr. BiEL-vsKi. This German Publication Society was first or- 
ganized on July 15, 1912, but seems to have slept peacefully until 
about June, 1915, when it was revived for the purpose of distributing 
this work known as the German classics. 

Theodore Sutro was president at one time, and C. S. Huntley, 
treasurer, and I think Mr. Huntley afterwards became the presi- 
dent- Its letterhead shows most all of the names, of course, German. 

Maj. Humes. Before we get away from that citizens' committee 
on food shipments there are two or three questions I would like to 
develop, that I am sure you are familiar with, at least with your 
rec'ollection refreshed a little bit. 

Did they ever actually do any shipping of foodstuffs, or were the 
funds used for other purposes? 

Mr. BifXASKi. I think that thev did attempt to make some very 
small shipments of parcels throng*!! the mail ; but the $30,000 which, 
as I rec*all, our records show was collected, a very small part of 
them could have been used in any possible food shipments. 

Maj. Humes. Is it not a fact that the only foodstuff that they un- 
dertook to ship was some condensed milk, or canned milk of some 
kind, and they shipped that by first-class mail? 

Mr. BnxASKi. Yes. 

Maj. Humes. And that the postage rate on what they did ship 
was far in excess of the value of the product itself? 



1538 BBEWIiro AND LIQUOK INTEHESIB AND QEBMAN PBOPAGAKDA. 

Mr. BiELASKi. That may be. I do not know the comparative value ; 
but it did not amount to nmch, as compar^^d with the $30,000. 

Maj. Humes. Was not Dr. Rumely active in the organization of 
this committee? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I do not know that he was active in its organiza- 
tion. I know he was active in connection with it. 

Now,. to get back to this German Publication Society, we find 
that June 15, 1915, Huntley, the treasurer, addressed a letter to Mr. 
Boaz, who is one of Albert's assistants, according to which Mr. 
Boaz was to furnish $600 for two consecutive months for two full 
page ads, or a less amount than this if it is decided to take less than 
a lull page, for advertising in the Literary Digest of the German 
Classics ; Mr. Boaz acting for Mr. Albert. 

Under date of April 17, 1915, Mr. Huntley sent the copy for the 
ad to Boaz. 

September 30, 191,), Huntley wrote to Boaz concerning further 
advertisements, one in the Outlook, one in the New York Times, one 
in the Nation and Outlook, advertising the sale of '* German 
Classics." • 

Under date of November 30, 1915, he rej)orted a list of sales. 

On November 22, 1916, Mr. Huntley addressed a letter to Am- 
bassador von Bernstorff concerning the need of funds for this or- 
ganization, in which he goes very thoroughly into its liabilities, and 
winds up by saying: 

FlnnUy. I take the Hljerty of ajmin appeal I nt? to your ExceUency that the relief 
sought is urgently needed to avoid the handicapping of the continuation and 
the promotion and sale of this splendid work of ours, which without question 
every* set placed in puhlic llhraries, college libraries, or with private individuals 
Is lending additional interest and l)elief in the greatness of Germany. 

4 

To eliminate a lot of corregi)ondence about the subjeit matter. Dr. 
Albert advanced to this organization at one time $5,000, and again, 
I think, $20,000, the last advance being made througli Dr. Hugo 
Schweitzer, for use in circulating these German classics as a ])ropa- 
ganda, and he took a mortgage on the plates of the publication to 
secure his $25,000. 

As usual, Mr. Sylvester Viereck had something to do with this, in 
that he was very active in the attempted distribution of these Ger- 
man classics, even after we went to war, but stopped it as the espion- 
age laws were passed, and the amendments to them. 

Senator Sterling. What did the German classics include? 

Mr. BiELASKi. There is quite a description of them here, but thev 
are just about what their name would indicate, with great em]>hasis 
upon the greatness and invincibility of Germany. 

I see here a memorandum on February 6, 1917, three days after 
the break in diplomatic relations, this memorandum being signed 
by Wolff von Igel and Heynen, which says : 

20,000. The above amount was paid to Dr. Hiij?o Schweitzer for uioi-tsjijre 
of German Publication Society as per authorization of the Ambassador. 

Maj. Ht'MES. Will you explain who Carl Heynen is, in connection 
with your testimony? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Carl Heynen was the Tampico, Mexico, agent of 
the Hamburg- American Line. He was. very active in the export 



BB£WIKG AND LIQUOB INTEBESTS AND QEBMAl^ PBOPAGANDA. 1539 

business down there, caftie to Ne^v York, and soon became one of the 
right-hand men, if not the right-hand man, of Albert in his com- 
mercial enterprises. He was one .of the most intelligent and most 
<-1ever of the German agents. . He was a man selected by the am- 
bassador to remain here and to close up the financial transactions 
havilig to do with the sale of German bonds in this comitry, and, I 
think, the funds with respect to those matters, which were with the 
Chandler firm 5f Philadelphia, were subject to Heynen's checks. He 
was interned, and is still interned, but he was particularly active in 
all sorts of commercial ventures, notably the Bridgeport Projectile 
Co., in which he practically was the directing hand behind the 
scenes. I think he officially occupied with that company the position 
of treasurer. 

For the information of the committee — ^I suppose you are all 
familiar with it — ^that company, the Bridgeport Projectile Co., 
was a large munition factory located in Bridgeport, which was en- 
tirely financed by the German Government, the object being to tie 
up the jjowder supply in part, to get a monopoly for a time of certain 
kinds of presses tnat were used in the manufacture of munitions. 
The German Government put into it through Albert's office as I 
recall $3,400,000. 

Senator Xei^son. That was after the war in Europe commenced? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. That really started about the summer of 1915, 
and they built a plant at Bridgeport. They bought a lot of powder 
and helcl it for awhile, but were able to get their money back on it 
by selling it to the Spanish Government, which was neutral. In 
that waj they got back out of the money advanced to the Bridgeport 
Projectile Co. something over $1,000,000 at that time. 

Senator King. What finally became of the plant? 

Mr. BiKLASKi. It was transferred, I think, to American ownership, 
but before we got into the war, I think. 

Senator Ki^o. Is there any question as to the bona fides of the 
tnLnsaction i 

ilr. BiELASKi. The Alien Property Custodian of course has been 
into that very thoroughly and can speak much better than I can. 
We have simply made it available 

Capt. Lester. That company is in the hands of a receiver. 

Maj. HrMEs. Mr. Bielaski, what do you know of the German con- 
irol of the Bridgeport Projectile Co. for the purpose of causing 
industrial disturbances in other munition plants ? 

Mr. Bielaski. I do not know a great deal about it, except that 
tliat was suggested, and that we find constant reference^ to the 
Bridgeport situation, and some suggestion that by manipulation of 
wages or something of that kind, to cause disturbance and unrest in 
other munition factories. 

We have here the original memorandum with reispect.to the agree- 
ment made betiveen the Bridgeport Projectile Co. on the I7th 
«!ay of April, 1916, and Wolff von Igel, who was the successor of von 
Papen as the military attache here. 

To get back to this subject of the German Classics, to finish that 
up, the §20,000, as I just read from that original memorandupi, was 
put at their disposal through Dr. Hugo Schweitzer on February 6, 



1540 BKEWING AND .LIQUOR IKTEBESTS AND GEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 

1917, three days after we severed diplomatic'relations. The follow- 
ing is a letter addressed to Dr. Hugo Schweitzer on that same day : 

BiELABKi Exhibit No. 109. 

N*:w YoKK, February 6, 1^1, 
Dr. Hugo Schweitzer, 

in Hudson iitrcet, New York City, 

Dear Doctor : I send you enclosed $20,000 in cash with tli^ request to phict* 
this sum in the form of a two-year loan at the disposal of the German Publi- 
cation Society, 597 Fifth Avenue, New York City. As security frtr this loan, 
the company gives us a mortgage on the plates of the book, ** German Classics." 
The papers as well as the si>ecifi cat ions of the plates are in the possession of 
Mr. Lindheim under whose guidance I beg you to conduct the further nego- 
tiations. The responsible manager of the company is Mr. Huutley. I bee 
you to communicate with this gentleman and advise him that your name as 
owner of the mortgage would appear on the papers and -that you were ready 
to give the money. The money will be repaid in weekly installments startinj? 
eight weeks after the beginning of the loan, and will bear 4 i>er cent interest, 
to be calculated semi-annually. M^y I ask you to receive this interest money 
for us? 

With marked esteem. 
Sincerely yours; 

H. T. 

That is initialed " H " in Mr. Heynen's handwriting and " I " in 
Mr. von Igel's. 

Just in passing, for whatever interest it may be, there is a record 
here of correspondence with Mr. Wolff von Igel with the Society of 
Modern Art, New York City, in which the treasurer acknowledges 
receipt of a letter concerning the proposed loan of $4,000 to that 
society. 

This was January 26, 1917, in which they wanted a loan for two 
years. However, they decided that the conditions on January 25, 
1917, were not satisfactory for such a loan, but they left the matter 
open, and on February 5 sent Dr. Hugo Schweitzer, that is, returned 
to Dr. Hugo Schweitzer, a check for $4,000, so that they did not actu- 
ally go into the matter. 

Just to put in the record the facts with respect to the Grerman- 

• American Literary Defense Committee, it had its headquarters at 

150 Nassau Street. The executive secretary was Alfred A. Sander. 

This man Sander was one of the men convicted of sending spies to 

England for Gennany, and that was his organization. 

I find May 29, 1915, that Sander writing as executive secretary of 
this defense committee sent Dr. Albert to Mr. Reginald Rutherford , 
with a note of introduction, stating that he wanted to go over on the 
other side. 

Mr. Hale apparently — ^at least the note is written from room 614, 
1123 Broadway, June 1, 1915— wrote the following: 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 110. 

[Room 614, 1128 Broadway, New York.] 

.Tune 1, 1015. 

Deab Doctob Albert : I see no reason to alter the report I made concerning 
Mr. Rutherford's case. I think we should hesitate to employ in any speciaUy 
confidential work any one wh6m some of us do not thoroughly know. 

H. 



BBBWIKO AND UQUOB INTERESTS AND GEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1541 

While this correspondence would indicate that at this time Mr. 
Hale and Dr. Albert were not favorable to Rutherford's going abroad, 
he actually did go abroad as a German spy and served as a German 
spy in Holland for a considerable period. We made some effort to 
get him back in this country for the purpose of trymg him, but were 
unsuccessful. He could not be extradited, and he preferred to stay 
in Holland. 

Senator King. Does he still desire the climate of Holland i 

Mr. BiEiaASKi. I think he does., He was, of course, active also in 
one of the Irish societies. I do not just recall the name, but it will 
probably come to me in a minute. His name appears on the letter- 
head as one of the officers. 

The American Truth Society, the agency which was most active on 
behalf of German propaganda. Mr. Jeremiah O'Leary was the 
president. Mr. O'Leary is under indictment in New York City for 
his activities, as I said before, in cqnnection with the confessed Ger- 
man agent Madame Victorica and a man who was named Karl Roedi- 
ger, for their activities after we went to war. 

S(xne idea o£ the get-up of this society is found possibly in this 
copy of a postal telegram sent: 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 111. 
[Postal telegram. E. 42d St 601 Fifth Ave.] 

New Yoek City, N. Y., April 10, 1916, 
Ruxx>LF Paoenstechkb. 

SO East ^2nd St, New York, N, 7.: 

WaAington situation very serious. An important conference concerning 
will be held at offices of American Truth Society, 210 Fifth Avenue, Wednesday 
evening, April twelfth, at eight o'clock. Your presence is urgently requested. 
Matters wlU be discussed there that will have great bearing on the situation. 

Oeobqk Sylvester Viereck. Michael H. O'Roubke. 

Joseph Fbey. Ohables A. Oollman. 

Bebnabd H. Riddeb. Chbib. Rebhan. 

Fbedsbick H. Schbadeb. Hugh MoNTAauE. 

Rev. G. C. Berkemeieb. Jeremiah A. O'Leaby. 

Pa^enstecher was a participator in most of the German societies. 

Ma]. Httmes. What year was that? 

Mr. BnsLASKi. This was April 10, 1916. Many of those names 
here of course have been referred to alreadj^ in the testimony. The 
only name that I thinls; I have not mentioned before is that of 
Charles Jl Tollman, who was the author of one of the German 
pamphlets I think circulated by the German information bureau. 

Some of the pamphlets which came from the files of the American 
Truth Society I have listed here. Several of them are widely 
known among the pamphlets used as German propaganda. Their 
titles are ; A voice in the Wilderness^ September, 1917. Are Ameri- 
can Industries in Peril? J. A, OTUeary. British v. German Im- 
perialism, by Neutral Publishing Co. Campaign Book of Ameri- 
can Embargo Conference. Militarism by Rutherford. American 
Truth Society's Letter to Woodrow Wilson, 1912. Fair Play for 
Germany, an address by J. A. O'Loary. Chicago, 1915. Truth So- 
ciety Relies, March 23, 1912. Free Speech and Press by Wein- 
bei^r OT New York Bar. Would n German Victory be a Calamity 
for the World, by Harry Carr of Los Angeles Times, reprinted De- 



1542 BBEWIKQ AND UQUQB IKT£B£ST& AND QEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 

cember 16, 1916. American-Irish Historical Society, 1917. Emmet 
Oration, 1915, Boston. The Faith of a Hyphen, by Dr. Herbert 
Sanborn. Answer of Hon. T. St. John Gaffney. International 
Conciliation, 1915. Report of Bank Depositors' Committee of 100 
organized by American Truth Society. Sir Edward's Evidence. 
Peace Movement and Democratic Government, by J. A. O'Leary. 
Private Profit and the Nation's Honor, by Charles Aked. Irii^ 
View of the Cause of the War, Dublin reprint, 1914. The Prepared- 
ness of America, by W. M. Butler. The Proposed Compensation 
Act, by J. A. O'Leary. Who Wants War, by J. A. O'Leary, 1916. 
Viereck-Chesterton Debate. Germany and the War, by C. G. W- 
Gruner, 1915. The Lies of the Allies by Frank Koester, 1914r-15. 
Violation of Geneva Convention, by French Troops. The Great 
Conspiracy by Alex Grau-Wandmayer, etc., published by German- 
American Defense Committee, 150 Nassau St. Germany's Dictum 
About the Freedom of the Seas. .Damaging Evidence Against Eng- 
lish Hypocrisy, by Dr. M. M. Rifat, Berlin, May 16, 1915. 

Senator King. Who was Charles Aked? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Charles Aked was a clergyman of. note from the 
Pacific coast. * , - . 

Senator King. A famous English clergyman, a man who was in 
this city recently delivering lectures? 

Mr. BiELASKi. He became an American citizen, I think. 

Senator King. I know Dr. Aked. That is, I have met him. I was 
wondering if I knew him. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Just how much the German Government assisted in 
financing the American Truth Society has never been fully developed. 
We found the record of the transfer of some $10,000, 1 think it was. 
on the books of Kuhn, Loeb & Co., if I recall correctly — ^I am speak- 
ing from recollection about this — which money, we think, came from 
the German Government. In any event, on April 20, 1915, we find 
a check drawn on the National City Bank, " Pay to the order of Gus- 
tav Dopsleff $500," signed by an officer of Speyer & Co., which was 
sent pursuant to the following letter of Dr. Albert, on his letter- 
head: 

BiELASKi EXHIBFT No. 112. 

[H. F. Albert, 45 Broadway, New York.] 

New Yobk, AprU 19tK 1915. 
Messrs. Speykb & Co., 24 Pine Street, A>«r York City, 

Deab Sm: I herewith inclose checlc to your order for $3,000. — (three thousand 
dollars) which amount please place to my credit. 

Please Issue your cashier's check for $500. — (five hundred dollars) In favor 
of Gustav Dopsleff. and debit my acco\uit accordingly. 
Yours, very truly, 

H. F. AUIEBT. 

Of course, a cashier's check would not show from whose account 
the money came. 

That ciieck for $500 bears the indorsement of Gustav Dopsleff, 
credit account of American Truth Society, Gustav Dopsleff, treasurer. 

Dr. Albert was also furnished with some of the material sent out 
by the American Truth Society. The list of directors of the societjr 
contains the names of Jeremiah A. O'Leary, G. W. Mead, T. Lea- 
yard Smith, G. Sylvester Viereck, BemaVd H. Bidder, William 



BBEWINQ AND UQUOB INTBBESIS AND GB9MAN PBOPAGANDA. 1543 

Scboenfeld, Joseph Frey, James K. McGuire, Julius Holz, Rev. G. C. 
Berkemeier, James F. Quinn, Mr. Seitz, P. J, Eeilly, L. C. Kelly, 
Hugh Montague, Henry Cordts, Mr. HoffmOTer, Herman Kind, 
Watson A. Guthrie, William Keavy, Frederick Schroeder, Dr. Franz 
Koempel, Wm. Strittmatter, Frederick Schang, and John J. Ruth. 

I think from 80 to 90 per cent of the names of the contributors to 
this society were Germans, evidently. They, however, collected a 
good deal of mone^' in small amounts, and we have a list of the con- 
tributors, which, I take it, is not of any particular interest to the 
committee. 

Senator Sterling. There were a good many Irish names, were 
there not? 

Mr. BiEiJiSKi. A good many, but the German names are far more 
numerous. Otto Hein, $200. Whether that was his own money or 
not I do not know. We have a report here containing the comments 
of Mr. Bernard H. Bidder, made to one of our agents, and some of 
the chief contributors. If you would like to have me do so I will 
read it 
Senator Nelson. All right. 
Mr. BTEL.ASKI. It reads as follows : 

BiELASKi ExHiBrr No. 118. 

C. F. W. Graef : A Cterman business man located at 90 Nassau street who 
Is tborouAchly disgusted with O'Leary and his methods, and might give some 
interesting information about him. 

Jnliofi Holz : PubUsher of the German '* Herold " and a strong pro-German 
partisan. 

Otto Hetns : A German subject, I believe^ and connectcMl with the Bosch-Mag- 
twto Co„ or was until recently. Suspected by the rabid German element of be- 
in; untrue to their cause. 

H. Janssen : Proprietor of the Hofbrftu House, 30th street and Broadway ; 
rtwn^y pro-German. 

W. Knauth. of Knauth, Nachod & Kuhne, 120 Broadway : Pro-German, but 
timid and not active. 

Jeremiah A. 0*Leary: A scheming politician and agitator, crafty and dls- 
n^potable; a blatherskite in print, but a physical coward without the courage 
to tppear in public as a speaker to advocate his disloyal views, preferring to 
^y behind and offer his legal assistance ; has little or no following, except such 
t low heeler as John Gill, who, I suspect, may some day try to do me bodily 
injury because I have repudiated his master O'Leary. 

John J. 01>flry: A brother of Jeremiah, having no money of his own; a 
nten shadow of the other. 

R. Pagenstecher : An American-bom son of a very fine old German gentle- 
mtn. R, undoubtedly has in his possession papers pertaining to the workings 
of the " Sodety." Prominently connected with the German Club. 

A Pavenstedt : The greatest German today in American territory. A subject 
of Germany, but a thorough Democrat at heart, whose dream is to go to Ger- 
many after the -war and preach world-wide Democracy. 

R. ErbslOh : One of the finest and most loyal Americans in this city, though 
of German birth. 

I had neither time nor Inclination to attend meetings of the American Truth 
Society, and when I realized how disloyal its tendencies were, I got out of it 

If you are interested in the story of Otto Heins, he was manager 
of die Bosch Magneto Co. George von Skal, who was attached the 
office of von Papen, accused him of accepting contracts for furnishing 
magnetos to the English for aeroplane use. He defended himself on 
the pound that he was not violating the German law with respect 
to aiding the enemy, because his purpose in accepting the contracts 
was to retard tiieir production. He would not deliver anything. He 

8S728— lO-HrOL 



1544 BBS WING AND LIQUOB INTEBESTS AND QEBMAN PBOPAGAin>A« 

would put them off from month to month, and so materially crippled 
their industry. The thing developed into quite a scrap between von 
Skal, of von Papen's office, and Cajjt. Boy-fed, or von Papen's office: 
Boy-Ed standing by Heins and delivering, according to the original 
•document, an elaborate defense of Heins. It seems that the matter 
was brought to the attention of Dr. Albert, and he sided with Boy-Ed" 
and decided that Heins in his effort was entirely justified, because he 
did not have any intent except that of aiding tne German cause. It 
is a very long story from the official papers, but I think that is 
enough to show what it was. 

There is a summary here of the entire matter, a copjr of the report 
which Heins made, September 15, 1915, to Boy-Ed, giving him infor- 
mation about what was going on for the allies in the construction 
of boats, shipment of munitions, and so on. 

Senator Kino. Before this record is completed, with respect to 
these numerous documents, I suggest that Maj. Humes go over them 
and then submit to the chairman of the committee a list of such of 
them as he tiiinks should go into the record, and if the chairman 
approves, then let them go into the record. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Jeremiah O'Leary was the man to whom the Presi- 
dent sent his tele^am telling him that he would be deeply mortified 
to have anybody nke him vote for him. O'Leary got out a pamphlet, 
which takes I do not know how many pages, in answer. 

Senator Overman. We do not want that. 

Mr. BniXiASKi. It was circulated by the American Truth Society, 
and all of these oth^r cartoons. 

Senator Overman. Maj. Humes, will ^ou go over that and see if 
there is anything in it that we want to print? 

Senator King. Have you anything m your files, or is there any- 
thing to which you can testify, showing the activities of any of the 
Sinn Feiners in connection with German propaganda or an;^ unitj 
between their organizations and the German propagandists in this 
country f 

Mr. BiEiiAS^. I do not know as an organization. Of course, the 
men who were members of the organization were active for the Ger- 
man cause, but I do not know that they were as an organization, or 
that their official action was. 

Senator King. But the Sinn Feiners were active in the German 
cause ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Oh, yes. 

One other form of German propaganda was the sending of lec- 
turers around, of whom Miss Biay Beveridge was an example. She 
was an American who had spent much time in Germany. She came 
over here from Germany and undertook to work on behalf of the 
German Government. 

Mr. Albert, in writing to the embassy under date of April 14, 1915, 
says: 

Out of the funds placed at my disposal I have paid $3,000 to Miss Ray Beveiv 
idge. As is well known, Miss Beveridge is to give lectures in the United States 
In favor of the German cause and show stereoptlcon pictures. 

May I humbly ask repayment of the above amount, and in the form of a 
check on New York to the order of G. Amsinck & Ck>. This sort of payment Is 
advisable in order that I may not appear in the matter. 

Receipt for the disbursed amount of $3,000, is adjoined hereto. 



BBEWIHO AKD UQUOB IKTEBBSGCB AND QEBMAIf PBOPAGANDA. 1645 

That receipt, as I recall, was really in the name of H. A. Boaz^ who 
was Albert's assistant and who managed Miss Beveridge's affairs. 

Senator KEx^aoN. Was the naval attach^ ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. No; Boaz was an employee of the Hamburg- Ameri- 
can Lone, who assii^bed Albert. 

Miss Say Beveridge received a couple of telegrams from Bern- 
storff, one dated February 19, 1915 [reading] : 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 114. 

Washington, D. C. February 19, 1915, 
Miss Ray Betebibgi:, 

Care-Mrn, Que, Hempstead, N. Y. 

Many thanks for letter as I cannot be in New York for some days when I 
hope to see you there. Please communicate with or see Doctor Dernbergh 
Hotel Ritz-Oarlton. I did not receive any parcel yet. 

J. Bebnstobff. 

The next one was dated Washington, February 20, 1915, arid reads 
as folIoT^s: 

BIELASKI BzHiBrr No. 115. 

Miss Rat Beveridge, 

Care Mrs, Que, 460 Fulton Ave, Hempstead, 

Many thanks have just received parcel hope to see you end of next week 
Rltz Carlton. 

J. Bbbnstobff. 

We have no definite way of knowing what that parcel contained, 
but believe it was certain propaganda nhns which she brought over, 
and poBsibly some private messages. A contract was entered into 
between Miss Kay Beveridge and Mr. Boaz, and Werba and 
Luescher, a New York corporation, covering her ^lecture tour, which 
gives in detail the arrangement, except that it does not show that 
the financing was from the German Government. She traveled 
around the country and collected considerable money at her lectures, 
under the guise of collecting for the German Red Cross. She re- 
tained some parts of the collection for her own expenses, and sent 
some of them to the German representatives of the Ked Cross. 

I find here a record which may be of interest to you, of the pur- 
chase of the control of La Reforma, a paper in Mexico which was 
controlled by the Germans and used by them in furtherance of their 
propaganda work« I do not think vou will be interested in all the 
papers. It simply shows that they nnanced the paper absolutely. 

Senator Overman. I think that list of the members of the Uni- 
versity League had better be printed. We ought to know their 
names. I do not want any of them to teach in my State. i 

Senator Nelsok. I think that is important. 

Mr. BiELASKi. As of some interest I want to call your attention 
to the plan for a big press bureau which was drawn up and sub- 
mitted to Dr. Albert, the facts concerning which were printed in the 
Xew York World for August 15, 1915. It involves the organization 
of a press service l^re and in Germany which was to be used for the 
German cause. I do not think anything came of it, because while it 
was a very elaborate scheme, gone into very fully, the fact that it 
was made public was enough to make it difficult to work, but the 
copy of the memorandum is here, if you wish to see it. 



1546 BBEWIKG AND LIQUOR INTEBESTB AND GEfiBlAJfT PEOPAGAKDiu 

Senator Nelson. Mr. Bielaski, have you any data about Grerman 
propaganda in Mexico? 

Mr. Bielaski. Oh. yes. They had a regular service down there. 

Senator Nelson, i ou can give us some facts on that? 

Mr. Bielaski. I can give you some facts on that, but I did not bring 
anything, because I thought you were primarily interested in the 
propaganda here. They had a regular bureau in Mexico City, from 
which they distributed German propaganda. 

Senator Nelson. A good deal of what you have presented here I 
call academic. However, you know all about their attempting to 
get up strikes, and getting up strikes, and blowing up our factories? 

Mr. Bielaski. les. 

Senator Nelson. And blowing up bridges and that? 

Mr. Bielaski. Yes ; but I did not consider that violations of law 
came under the head of Grerman propaganda. Most all of the facts 
about their violations of law have been made public. I could give 
you a resum^ of that, with respect to their causing strikes, and so 
forth. 

Senator Nelson. I wish you would give us a brief resumfi of that, 
what has been done in that direction. You need not state all of the 
evidence, but state the cases. 

Mr. Bielaski. Yes. 

Senator Nelson. We ought to have that go into the record. I 
would be glad to have you show up their attempts to get up an in- 
surrection in India, their attempts to blow up bridges in Canada, 
over on the west coast of British Columbia, their attempts to blow 
up the Welland Canal, their attempts to get up strikes m our fac- 
tories, and their manufacturing of bombs to put on our vessels, com- 
mencing with the activity of that man who attempted to blow up 
the bridge at Vanceboro, Me. 

Mr. Bielaski. Wurner Home. 

Senator Nelson. Yes ; give us an outline of it, so we can put it into 
the record. 

Senator Overman. A brief history of it. 

Senator King. I should like to ask Senator Nelson whether he 
thinks that all he has outlined is embraced within this resolution ? 

Senator Nelson. I think so. It is a part of the German propa- 
ganda. 

Mr. Bielaski. There are some important matters with respect to 
German propaganda we have not reached yet, but I suppose we will 
put them off until the committee meets again. 

Senator Overman. We will meet at 12 o'clock Monday, and as the 
Senate does not meet, we can run all day. 

(Thereupon, at 4 o'clock and 25 minutes p. m., the committee 
adjourned until Monday, December 9, 1918, at 12 o'clock noon.) 



BREWING AxND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 



MONDAY, DECEMBEB 9, 1918. 

United States Senate, 
sttbcomjottee of the committee on the judiciaby, 

Washington^ D. C. 

The sabcommittee met at 12 o'clock noon, in room 226, Senate Office 
Building, Senator Lee S. Overman presiding. 

Present: Senators Overman, Sterling, King, and Nelson. 

Senator Overman. I have received a telegram this morning read- 
ing as follows: 

New York, X. Y. 8 
Honorable Lee S. Overman, 

Chairman Judiciary Suhcommittce, 

Settate Office Building, Washington, D, C. 

I shall be In Washington at the. Treasury Tuesday and ask the opportunity 
to ajtpear iKsfore your commfttet* then or at your later convenience to explain 
my coDnectlon with matters about which you are inquiring. Will submit a 
liTltten statement for the record if you prefer. I request that meantime there 
be noted my respectful protest against the use of your records as a medium of 
pabilc pillorying and iifisrepresenting loyal and public spirited citizens for hav: 
Inc in nineteen fifteen joined a movement which was supi)orte<l by the author- 
itie* and given wide publicity by the press at the time to secure aid of the State 
uwl Pout Office Departments in furnishing milk to starving German babies. 
The same thing was being done for French babies and by some of the same 
I'ei^le including myself. 

I did Dot know^ of the circumstances but It now appears that in nineteen fif- 
i*^^ Mrs. I'ntermyer committed the heinous crime of not only permitting but of 
aitually abetting a meeting at her home to devise ways and means of urging 
ojiua onr State and Post Office Departments that they secure the consent of 
Givat Britain to the lifting of Its blockade insofar as to permit dried milk to 
lie i«ent to the starving babies of Germany. Our Government wms then insisting 
tbfit the blockade was contrary to international law and a personal appeal was 
made to FreMident Wilson. It further appears that this widely advertised 
** riimlBal ** organization was to furnish the milk and that Mrs. Untermyer 
Dot only encouraged but actually contributed to this malign " Propaganda." 
Ami that too at a time when we were at peace with Germany as well as with 
the nwt of the world. As soon as Mrs. Untermyer found that our Government 
wan unable to do anything to get the milk to Gernmny over the blockades she 
tvlnctiintly resigned. She of course knew nothing about Dr. Von Macli's other 
activities If he had any. It so happens that a like organization which has been 
ni'^'eiRsfal In raising money and In furnishing large shipments of milk to babies 
*>t France was and is still receiving my support and Is in possession of my 
h'fme at stx seventy fire Fifth Avenue in this city free of rent at a cost to me 
of liver twenty five thousand dollars a year for rent and advertising. It Is hav- 
ing no diffi'julty In feeding French babies. I ask whether In all fairness It Is 
richt to permit such activities to be characterized and widely advertised by the 
hated n^me of propaganda and thus to mislead the public into suspecting the 
miHlTea of citizens whose public spirit they would applaud If they knew the 
facts. I request that this message be read into your record so that it may 
receive aa wide publicity as was given the sensational and unjust Implications 

it U Intended to correct 

Saml^l Untermyer. 

1547 



1548 BBEWINQ AND LIQUOB INTERESTS AND GEBBiAN FBOPAOANDA. 

I wrote him we would be glad to hear him at some future time, 
but not to-morrow. 

Senator Nelson. I have a telegram here, Mr. Chairman, from 
Mr. Simon Strauss, of Albert Lea, Minn., who was the only man who 
appeared to be connected with that educational propaganda that we 
had testimony about the other day, from Minnesota. I would like to 
have that telegram put in the record. 

Senator Overman. All right; that may be done. 

Senator Nelson. I will read it, as it is brief [reading] : 

AiAEBT Lea, Minn 8 
Hon Knute Nelson, 
U. S. WasfVn, D. C, 

lu today's ?i[inneopolis and St. Paul papers I see my name mentioned as the 
only Minnesotan who was a member of the German University League formed 
in 1914. As represented to me by circular letter this was a league formed for 
the study of scientific subjects only. Flattered by the offer of membersMp 
and on this representation I accepted the membership. This was before war 
was declared and so far as I know my membership was never renewed and I am 
not now a member. Since the United States entered the war I have taken an 
active and loyal part in promoting all our war plans and activities have pur- 
chased bonds made contributions to the various drives and assisted in the sale 
of bonds by public speaking and otherwise. I protest against being classed as 
a pro German and trust you can get this protest read into the Senate records 
for I count myself a loyal and active United States citizen. 

Simon Strauss. 

Senator Overman. I also had a conference with Mr. Grarthe, whose 
name was mentioned here, a newspaper man connected, I think, with 
the Courier, and he wishes to be heard. I told him he could be 
heard any time. He claims that he has been at all times proally, in- 
stead of pro-German. 

Xow you may proceed, Mr. Bielaski. 

TESTIMONT OF ME. A. BKUCE BIELASEI— Besumed. 

Mr. Bielaski. Mr. Untermyer's telegrain reminds me that, in con- 
nection w^ith the memorandum which Dr. Albert made, public in ex- 
planation of the so-called World expose article in' August, 1915, that 
in Dr. Fuehr's notebook or diary for 1915 appears the following: 

Sunday, August 15. 

The World pubUshes expose regarding the German propaganda, especially 
against Dr. Albert, Viereck, Van Papen, Schweitzer. Drive to Cedarhurst for 
conference with Albert, Hatzfeldt. Called on Untermyer. 

That was the first day that the World made public its documents. 

There was a species of propaganda among the laboring classes of 
Germans and Austro-Hungarians with a view to having them leave 
the employment of all organizations engaged in the production of 
material which was useful to the allied Governments in the war. 

On June 19, 1915, the following circular letter was sent by Von 
Bernstorff to the German consulates at New York, Philadelphia, 
Cincinnati, St. Louis, San Francisco, and Chicago. This is a trans- 
lation of it : ' 

BncLASKi Exhibit No. 116. 

Cbdarhtjbst, N. Y., June 19, 1915. 
Strictly Confidential. 

It is asserted from any sources that in the industries in the United States 
which have turned to the delivery of war material, many Gorman subjects 



BRBWHTG AJXD UQUOB INTEBESIB AND GEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1549 

occupy leading positions. According to directions received by me from the 
Imperial Chancellor, these subjects are to be notified that their employment in 
such industries is contrary to the duty which they owe to their Fatherland, as 
the said local industries work exclusively for the enemies of Germany. In this 
connection, special attention is called to paragraph 89 of the " Imperial Penal 
Code." 

Which he quotes. 

I therefore request your Honor to determine what persons in your consular 
district come within this category, and then to get into communication per* 
sonally and orally — 

The words " personally " and " orally " are underscored — 

■ 

With such persons in your district as 

1. Are beyond any doubt German subjects 

2. Are employed in positions above that of common laborer, etc. 

Such persons must vigorously be taught their duty toward their country. 
The fact must also be brought to their attention that this self upderstood duty 
does not give th«n the right, after giving up said employment, to demand of the 
EmpU^ that they be given other equally profitable employment, or the con- 
tinuance of their previous pay. I will remark confidentially, however, that in 
individual cases, after careful investigation, the question of giving assistance 
will be considered, where it is absolutely necessary. 

And then he outlines what assistance will be given. 
Senator Nelson. That is von Bemstorff ? 
Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. 

In cases wherein doubt may arise as to whether the products of a certain 
plant shall be r^arded as war material, or whether the plant is delivering to 
our enemies, I request that Herr Military Attach^ be communicated with, at 
the following address: Care of German Consulate General, 11 Broadway, New 
Torlc City. 

I also request that you send your report to the same address as to the steps 
taken by you in this matter. 

Following that, Capt. von Papen received reports from various 
persons as to the employment of Germans and Austro-Hungarians, 
and later the Hungarian Government issued similar instructions, and 
had inserted in the papers a notice calling attention to the provisions 
of their law. 

In connection with that movement to take Austro-Hungarians and 
Germans out of the munition and other factories, thev organized 
what was called the Hans Liebau Relief Bureau. Hans Liiebau was, 
I think, an architect in New York City, and always maintained to 
the public, representatives of the press, and others, that this bureau 
was a philanthropic organization supported entirely by contributions 
from individual persons. As a matter of fact it was organized and 
under the direction of the representatives of the German an4 Austro- 
Hungarian Governments, and financed by them. 

Mr. Liebau also maintained, I believe, that he was serving without 
compensation ; whereas the records of Capt. von Papen's office, some 
of which came into the possession of the department at the time of 
the arrest of Von Igel, showed that he was receiving a salary, I 
think, of $75 a week, and that other of their employees were also paid. 

Senator Xklson. What was his nationality ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. He was of German descent. I think he had been 
naturalized. He maintained a principal office in New York City 
and branches in five or six cities around the countrv including,^ 1 
think, Bridgeport, Cleveland, Chicago, Cincinnati, and Philadelphia. 



1550 BBEWING AND UQUOE INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA* 

Under date of March 24, 1916, there is a communication which 
makes mention of the manner in which this bureau was organized. 
(The document referred to is here printed in the record as follows :) 

Bqxaski Exhibit No. 117. 

New Yobk, March 2^, 19J6. 

I take the liberty to refer to the communication of the Imperial and Royal 
AuBtro-Hungarian Charge d'Affalres, dated March 4, concerning the Biebau 
Bureau (" Liebausche Buro "), copy of which was sent here. 

I see from that communication that nothing Is known to the Imperial and 
Royal Charge d*Affnlres, relative to the arrangements of the Imperial and 
Royal Ambassador Dumba, which Included a subsidy of the aforesaid Bureau 
for a lengthy period. 

My inquiries have disclosed that In the course of a conference with Captain 
Von Papen, Messrs. Rlttmeister Hecker, Dr. Von Klelnwaechter and Ck)nsul Otto, 
The Attach^ Prince Hohenlohe, as representative of the Imperial and Royal 
Ambassador, advised that the Imperial and Royal Government, as well as the 
German Government, (Note: The word "Relchsregierung", is interpr^ed by 
translator as German Government) would jsupport the undertaking. On the 
strength of that announcement the activities of the Bureau were also extended 
to subjects of the Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian monarchy. 

Entering Into the particulars concerning the success of the Bureau, I wish 
to state that at the end of February, 1916, after an activity of 6i months, over 
8,000 applications had been received, of which 4,744 were new applications. 
(Inasmuch as the Bureau assigns to each applicant a position Immediately, in 
order to avoid, as far as possible, the payment of relief moneys, it frequently 
occurs that the applicant Is not suited for the particular position and after a 
short time reports back again. On the other hand, as a result of the above 
method, those who are unwilling to work and who merely applied in order to 
secure relief funds, are quickly found out and eliminated). On the whole, 
4,466 positions were permanently filled. One third were subjects of the Austro- 
Hungarian monarchy. Sixty per cent of all applications came from people who 
were working in war-material-industries. There can hardly be any doubt but 
that the remaining forty per cent would in all probability, have turned to such 
industries where shortage of labor existed, that is to say, the war-material- 
industries, had It not been for the activities of the Bureau. 

Engineers and people In the better positions who had means of their own were 
induced by the propaganda of the Bureau to withdraw from war-material-con- 
tems, and without claiming any workman*s relief, they sought occupation else- 
where. Cases of this nature frequently came to the knowledge of the Bureau. 

The calls from war-materlal-concerns for technically equipped forces, of which 
there is shortage everywhere — calls which particularly lately have been received 
with frequency — furnish a proof of the Bureau's success. Inquiries on the part 
of the Bureau have ascertained that the commercial employment bureaus of 
the country have absolutely no offers of unemployed technical men to make. 

Patriotic sentiment and allegiance for the Fatherland among the workmen 
has undoubtedly been awakened through the activity of this employment agency. 
Repeatedly people have visited the central and branch offices, in order to express 
their thanks for the assistance furnished them. However, I will not go Into the 
question now as to whether or not the continuation of the Bureau after the war 

appears desirable. 

At any rate, for the period of the war the continuation of this Institution is 
desirable and will be maintained for military reasons by the German Govern- 
ment even if the Imperial and Royal Government should withdraw its support 
from the Bureau. Many disturbances and vacancies suffered by the war- 
material-conoems, which could not always be removed quickly, but on the cwi- 
trary often resulted in long drawn strikes, can be traced back to the energetic 
propaganda of the Workmen's Relief. 

It is to be emphasized that the Bureau keeps absolutely within the scope of 
the law of the country and It takes care only of such people as wUl not work in 
the war-industries. As already stated in my previous report, even the Depart- 
ment of Justice has recognlssed the legality of the Bureau after a thorough 
Investigation. Furthermore, voluntarily the Bureau asked for cooperation with 
the state employment agencies and submitted to state supervision. Under these 
circumstances and especially inasmuch as all the gentlemen who are permitted 



BBBWnrO ABB UQVOB IMTJUUfittEB AlfTD QSBMAK PROPAGANDA. 1551 

to inspect the organization and the financial supi)ort of the Bureau are officers 
of the German Government, I can not share the apprehensions of the Imperial 
and Royal Charge d' Affaires to the effect that the Imperial and Royal repre- 
sentative might be Injured as a result of unavoidable indiscretions. 

Here is another communication, which I think would be of interest 
to put in the record, and yet I doubt the advisability of reading it; 
but it gives more details of the financing of the organization by the 
German and Austro-Hungarian orgamzations; the amounts they 
have spent, and so on. > 

Senator Nelson. What is the total amount they have spent? 

Mr. BiELASKi. It was $8,000. That was the organization of which 
Mr. Ldeban was the head. 

Senator Neubon. Let that go into the record. 

(The letter referred to is here printed in the record in full as 
follows:) 

Bili.A8Ki Exhibit No. 118. 

No. 18i/16. 
Secret 

New Yobk, March 1, 1916. 

This office has received a communication from the Austro-Hungarlan Ck)n- 
sulate General at this place to the effect that Baron von Zwledenlk, Austro- 
Hungarian Charge d' Affaires, is of opinion that the proposition made by 
Captain von Papen for an employment bureau for German and Austrian sub- 
jects wbo leave war-material factories does not fulfill its purpose and that for 
this reason he could not assume the responsibility of granting further pecuniary 
assistance to this bureau. 

I would respectfully request your excellency upon occasion to call the Austro- 
Hungarian Charge d*Affalres*s attention that it Is now impossible to with- 
draw from the arrangements made by his excellency, Mr. Dumba, the Austro- 
Hangarian Ambassador. The obligation on the part of Austro-Hungarian sub- 
jects to leave war-material factories exists now as much as five months ago. 

It is impossible for the employment Bureau now to refuse to help Austrlans 
and Hunfi^uians whether for no reason or even for the reason that there is 
DO money available for theoL On the other hand, the Austro-Hungarlan 
Charge D* Affaires can hardly demand that the German government should 
ftunish the funds In order to help Austro-Hungarlan subjects. 

No doubts are entertained here but that the Bureau has worked with great 
mccesB under the most difficult conditions. 

Up to March 1, of this year, 4,901 persons were furnished employment in 
peaceful industries as follows : 

German subjects 2, 832 

Austrlans and Hungarians —I 1, 479 

In assistance a total of $8,000 was given from the German fund of which, 
tccording to the above statement, $2,750 would be due from the Austro- 
Hongarian government. 

Thus ttLT, the Austro-Hungarian embassy has furnjshed $2,000 so that we 
ought to request the refund of $7$0» which is the amount expended by us 
over and above the said sum. 

The results attained by the expenditure of the money can by no means be 
restricted to the foregoing statement relating to persons procured employment 
in peaceful industries. Much larger is the number of those whose conscience 
was awakened by the publications emanating from the Bureau and who 
voluntarily severed their connections from war material factories and sought 
other employment without applying to the Bureau for help. 

The best proof of the effectual work of the Bureau consists In the constant 
attacks which were made from all quarters against the enterprise. AU such 
attacks were fruitless; on the contrary, the investigations by the Department 
of Justice, resulted in showing the absolute legality of the undertaking. (See 
eDclosure.) 

I beg of your excellency to kindly caU the attention of Baron Zwledenlk to 
this latter point as there Is an impression here that the apprehension that his 



1552 BBEWING AND LIQUOR IKTEBESTB AKD GEBMAN FBOFAaAlSn>A. 

money checks might become known and utilized against him contilbntea greatly 
toward his unfavorable attitude toward the Bureau. 

If the money is sent in cash through the Military Information Bureau liere, 
the secrecy of the transaction will be guaranteed. 

Persons furnished employment up to the last of February 1016. 

Overmans 2, 822, or about 2/3 

Austro-Hungarlans 1, 479, or about 1/3 

4,801 

These figures may be somewhat changed when the final reports of the Branch 
Offices are received. 
Received : 

German $6, 000 

Austro-Hungarian 2, 000 

8,000 
The proper proportion would be : 

For Germany $5,250 

For Austro-Hungary 2, 750 

8,000 
Furnished employment up to the end of January 1916 : 

Germans 8, 889, 2/3 

Austro-Hungarians 1, 127, 1/3 

Received from Germany $4, 000, or 2/3 

Received from Austro-Hungary 2,000, or 1/3 

6,000 

Mr. BiELASKi. We have, in addition, detailed statements and 
monthly reports which were made to the office of Capt. Von Papen 
by this bureau. For instance, I just happened to find here a monthly 
report for February, 1916, which gives the number of applications, 
a statement of the activity of the organization, the expenses, and a 
detailed statement of the amounts received and of how this money 
was spent, including numerous entries of salaries to Hans Liebau 
of $75. 

Senator Overman. Let that go into the record. 

Senator Nelson. Yes ; that is a good thing to go in. 

Mr. BiELASKi. That is a complete statement. Then it takes up the 
expenses of the branch offices. 

Maj. Humes. Is that the organization that was in charge of Zacha- 
rias in Pitts/burgh ? 

Mr. BnsLASKi. Yes, sir; he was the head of the Pittsburgh office. 

Maj. Humes. Have you with you any of the form of cards that 
they used, showing {hat they maintained not only an industrial but 
a military enrollment of the men? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I have not that with me ; but the record we have 
shows all sorts of data about it. 

Maj. Humes. I thought perhaps you had one of those cards with 
you. 

Mr. BiELASKi. No: I have not. The Pittsburgh offi<ie was in charge 
of W. Zacharias. His salary was $20 a week. This report bears on 
the New York office. 

Senator Overman. Let that go in. 

(The report referred to is here inserted in the record in full, as 
follows:) 



BBS WING AmO LIQUOB IKTEBE8TS AND GEBMAK PBOPAQANDA. 1553 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 119. 
R. D. V. M. T. 

MONTHLY REPOBT FOB FEBBUASY 1916. 

Dnrfng last month, the number of fresh applications was 835, the number 
of re-appllcations 862, and a total of 983 positions were filled. 

Sinee the beginning of activity of the " Central Bureau/* from August 1914 
to the end of February, 282S German subjects and 1638 Austro-Hungarian sub- 
jects 'Were given employment. The total number of new applications and 
reappUcations thus far, has amounted to over 8,000. 60% of the whole num- 
ber came from ammunition and the war material factories and 40% would 
have gone to these factories if the Central Bureau had not taken care of 
them. 

The labor statistics have also been prepared more in detail than previously 
and now afford a better view and better information regarding the activity of 
the laborers' relief (institution). 

The frequency of applications to the Bureaus unquestionably would still 
have farther Increased if the general situation of the labor market had not 
Improved. In many cases persons who had originally applied here, found 
better positions without our assistance even in neutral factories or work, 
after tliey had been placed on the right path by us. 

The activity of the organization is making itself felt, for the reason that, 
as onr success becomes better known, more and more persons give up their 
positions in war material factories even without availing themselves of the 
direct assistance of our Bureau. To mention a particular case: Mr. Lude- 
wigs, member of the Newark Technical Association, resigned his post as opera- 
tive engineer with Zeh and Hanemann, because this factory had begun to 
give indirect aid to ammunition production. In his new position he receives 
a considerably less salary. Mr. Lleubau found .in the Newark Technical 
Association a keen interest for the laborers* relief, Just as told in the above 
mentioned case of a change of conditions. 

The internal organization was rendered more compact by transferring Mr. 
Uhde from Bridg^ort to Pittsburgh. Mr. Liebau Inspected the Grant offices 
at Bridgeport and Philadelphia, during the month and in Pittsburgh and 
Chicago, an official of the Central office was remarkably successful in ac- 
quainting the directors of the branch offices with the system of the New York 
Central Bureau. 

The constant inquiries of the salaries asked and actually paid is gradually 
becoming very noticeable. The Indirect influence of the war material manu- 
ficturcr is recognizable. Hand in hand with this goes the comparatively 
quicker ability to find employment not only for skilled artisans but also for 
unskilled and ordinary factory laborers. Many large works are now being 
compelled to make all kinds of concessions of which they would not have 
fltnfiped before, such as allowances for traveling expenses, payment of advances, 
and some attention (although not much) to providing quarters for workmen, 
etc. We have frequently called attention in the press to present conditions 
In the labor market, and we have made an urgent request of employers not to 
take advantage of the needy situation of our proteges by offering abnormal 
low wagesw Even direct discussions with certain factories have had good 
results as the accompanying correspondence shows. We may mention our 
efforts in this respect with reference to the charge made against us in 
socialistic newspapers, that we were lowering wages by furnishing too cheap 
labor. We hear from Philadelphia that the Ruthian Bishop Ortynsky at 
that place is taking a specially keen interest in our cause by calling the atten- 
tion of his people every Sunday to our organization from his pulpit and 
impressing it upon their conscience. 

The zealous activity of Mr. Lauter of Bridgeport Is to be thanked for the 
fact that the German American Central Union of the state of Connecticut has 
interested itself in our organization, to such an extent that we have twice 
received a check for $23.00 from this union. 

At Detroit a sulMiivision of the Cleveland Branch office has been estab- 
lished under the management of Mr. H. Hanson. The suggested opening of 
a branch office at Boston and the contemplated subdivision of the New York 
Central office at Newark have had to be given up for the time owing to the 



1554 BBEWINO AND UQUOB INTEEESTB AND GEBMAN PBOPAaANT>A. 



difficulty of financing them. Furthermore a branch office at Cincinnati and at 
least one in the far west would be very desirable according to frequent In- 
quiries from these regions. 

FINANCES. 

The expenses for February amounted to $2392.38 or about $2.43 per head 
of persons furnished employment as against $2.98 in January, and $2.95 in 
December. 

The total expenditures including Branch offices had amounted to $15»179.2S 
up to the end of February, 1916. There remains a balance of $802.12 at dis- 
posal so that we must count upon larger contributions in March for main- 
tenance of the enterprise. The voluntary contributions in February were not 
very satisfactory, but we have reason to hope, that the month of March will 
show an improvement in this respect Mr. Albrecht is going to visit Phila- 
delphia and Reading. 

Enclosed : 

1. Labor statistics for February 1916. 

2. Extracts of accounts of the Central and Branch Offices. 

3. Ck>rrespondence with the Atlantic Terra Cotta Go. 

(Si«med) K. Rams (?) 

MONTHLY EXTRACT OF THE CENTRAL OFFICE AT NEW YORK CITY 

FEB. 1916. 

1. Balance brought forward $883. 75 

2. International Silver Co. Ro- 

imbursement 3. 00 

3. Mrs. Adele Krueger (Kueh- 

nem Pamphlet) 10.00 

9. Albrecht collection 700. 00 

" Conn. Central Union 25. 00 

JO. Mi88 B. WeUbarth 50.00 



1. 


Petty fund (Bargmann) 


2. OO 


«« 


Labor fund P. Lauter, Bridge- 






port 


50.00 


14 


Traveling expensea, Merlden, 
Max TuercK 






8. OO 


It 


Petty fund (Boyes) 


5. OO 


2. 


Office rent 


75.00 


« 


Salvation Army Meal and 






Lodging allowances 


12. 80 


2. 


Poster Scott Ice Co 


2.60 


it 


Towel Supply 

Travel Allowance, Plalnfleld 


1. 40 


4. 






Paul Tanselow 


60 


it 


Postage (Stein) 


2. OO 


it 


Petty fund (Boyes) 


5. OO 


5. 


Expenditure for information 
(Hoffman) 

it it tt 




tt 


.95 




(Mayer) 


6. OO 


tt 


Salary Hans Liebau 


75. OO 


fi 


" L. Bargmann 


8. OO 


«t 


" W. Boyes 

K. Stein 


25. OO 


t« 


14.00 


« 


" G. Kobecke 


20.00 


<t 


" J. Dobriansky 


14.00 


tt 


8. P. Meyer 


18. OO 


tt 


J. Hoffman 


10. OO 


tt 


P. Harbig 


14. OO 


t» 


J. Vincent 


20.00 


i« 


A. Albrecht 


25.00 


(t 


Journey to Bridgeport Cen- 






tral tJnion, Liebau 


7. 60 


i< 


Labor fund, J. Nashohold, 






Phila 


50.00 


<t 


*• *• W. Zacharlas. 






Pittsburgh- 


60.00 


tt 


P. Lauter, 






Bridgeport- 
Pi re Insurance* 136 Liberty 


40. OO 


8. 






St 1 


15. 47 


It 


Drlnklnir water 


1. 60 


it 


Stationery 


6.60 


it 


Petty fund (Boyes) 

Labor fund. Doctor Niven 


3.00 


tt 






Chicago 


60.00 




- C. H. Weh- 






nert, Cleve- 






land 


60.00 


10 


. " " P. Lauter, 






Bridgeport- 


60.00 


it 


Poster & Morgan, Lawyers 

. Support Lothac Pritsch 

' Bridgeport 




8 


1.00 




25.00 


•t 


New York Telephone Co 

. Labor fund w. Zacbarias, 


16.68 


11 






Pitts — 


75.00 


4( 


Traveling expenses, 9 men 






Keasby. N. J 


4.50 



BBEWINO AKD UQUOB IKTEBESOS AND OEBMAK PBOPAQANDA. 1555 



Curled forward $1071. 75 

Carried forward 1671. 76 

14. Brld^port. 

Saugfn Sick Soc 10. 00 

15. J. D. Aug. Harts 10.00 

- Bern. Veaa I«e Co 10. 00 

- BUt Schmeike 5.00 

" G. A. Stoneware Works re- 

tmbnrsement 13. 76 

16. Mrs. E. Maiirer 2.00 

19. Mrs. L. Schmidt (Brook- 
lyn) 10. 00 



CarrM For^d f 1, 788. 50 

Carried forward $1, 788. 60 

21. Mrs. L. A. Dieatelkamp 6. 00 

* For Knhnemann Pamphlet. 4.00 

22. Mr. Henniieson 10. 00 

" ThroQKD Dr. Bertling- 

_ <8taat»«eltiuiff) 26.00 

23. Alfip^ o. Lange 1. 00 

" TbereM Sommer 5.00 

p .VBoojmoas 600.00 

21 ** MUwaakee 100.00 

2^ MIjks Heleii Schraeder 10. 00 

23. Alhrecht Collection 800. 00 



Carried forward $804.60 

Carried forward $894. 60 

11. Postage fnnd (stein) 2.00 

*' Expenditures for informa- 

tlon(Hoffman) .80 

12. ESxpenditures for informa- 

tion (Meyer) and collect- 
ing premium 18. 25 

" Salary, Hans Liebau 75. 00 

" " L. Bargmann 8. 00 

W. Boyes 25. 00 

" " K. Stein w- 14. 00 

" f G. Kobecke 20.00 

" " J. Dobhiansky 14.00 

" " S. P. Meyer 18.00 

" " J. Hoffman 10. 00 

" " F. Harbig 14.00 

J. Vincent 2a 00 

" " A. Albrecht 25. 00 

14. Petty fund (Boyes) 5. 00 

" Account H. w. Riker 

painter 1. 75 

15. Labor fund. Dr. Niven 

Chicago 65.00 

" Petty fund (Bargmann) 2.00 

16. Expenditures for informa- 

tion (Hoffman) 1. 05 

17. Labor fund, F. Lauter 

Bridgeport 60. 00 

" Labor fund, J. Naschold 

(Philadelphia) 50. 00 

18. Trayellng expenses, eight 

men iTesby, N. J 1. 40 

19. Journey Liebau (Philadel- 

phia) 12. 00 

" Salary, Hans Liebau 75. 00 

" " L. Bargmann 8. 00 

" " W. Boyes 25. 00 

19. Salary, K. Stein 14.00 

G. Kobecke^ 20.00 

" " J. Dobrlansky 14.00 

S. F. Meyer 18.00 

J. Hoffmann 10.00 

" F. Harbig 14.00 

J. Vincent 20.00 

" " A. Albrecht 25.00 

" Expenditures for informa- 
tion (Meyer) 6. 00 

" Expenditures for informa- 
tion (Hoffmann) 2. 00 

" Traveling expenses, Bridge- 
port, Pittsburgh (Uhde)- 20.00 
** Collecting premium paid 

(Stein) 1. 76 

" Hungarian translations 

(Bela Dettre) 2.00 

*' Loan, Sam Klein . 60 

Carried forward |1, 626. 10 

CJarrled forward $1,626.10 

19. Traveling expenses, Pitts, to 

Chicago (Vincent) 20.00 

" Postage fund (Stein) 2.00 

21. Petty fund (Boyes) 6.00 

" Hungarian trans. (Bela 

Dettre) 2. 00 

" Ofraveling allow. (Passaic, 

ZilBke) .76 

*21. Assistance in drawing ta- 
bles Carl Tburnblaeser 1. 00 

" Translation/B, Josef Yarain- 6. 00 

28. Labor fund. Dr. Niven, Chi- 
cago 60. 00 

23. Labor fnnd, C. Wehnert, 

Cleveland 60. 00 

" " " W. Zacharis, 

Pittsburgh ._ 60. 00 

24. " J. Naschold, Phila- 

delphU . 60.00 

" " Assistance in draw- 
ing, Curt Kind 1. 60 

26. Traveling tzp. 6 men, Tot- 

tenville — 2. 10 

" Relief. Ernst Tunkel 1.60 

" Assistance in drawing. Curt 

Kind . 1. 60 

26. Petty fund (Boyes) 6.00 

" Assistance in drawing. Curt 

Kind 1. 50 



^BEWIKO AKD LIQUOB INTBHBSIB AKI> QEBJCAN FBOPAGAKDA. 



$3, 194. 60 



« 

25 

24 

23 

25 
«< 

26 

«« 
<i 
t« 
i* 
t* 
«f 
(t 
(* 
(« 
i( 

if 
«t 

«( 
<« 
4i 

(t 

«i 

29 



Reltet Adolph Schleicher— 1.00 

Postage fund (Stein) 2.00 

, Tray. Allowance, Allentown 

Gangeloft 2. 50 

, Tray. Allowance, Easton, P. 

Blamentbal 1. 60 

, Cost of Transporting safe 

and desk 6. 00 

Labor fund, F. Lauter, Bridge- 
port 60. 00 

Expenditures for information 

(Hoffmann) 2.15 

" for Information 

(Meyer) 6.00 

Salary, Hans Ldebau 75. 00 

** L. Bargmann 8. 00 

W. Boyes 25. 00 

K. Stein 14. 00 

G. Kobecke 20.00 

J. Dorbriansky 14. 00 

S. F. Meyer 18. 00 

J. Hoffman 10.00 

F. Harblg 14.00 

J. Vincent 1- 20. 00 

A. Albrecht 25. 00 

Labor fund, C. Wehnert 

Cleyeland 40. 00 

Labor fund W. Zacharias, 

" Pittsburg 30.00 

Dr. Nlven, Chi- 
cago 40. 00 

Expenditures for elevator serv- 
ice 2. 00 

Traveling exp. 9 men, Newark 2. 85 
Administrative Expenses Jan- 
nary 1916 80. 33 

Balance 802. 12 



M 



tt 



H, 104. 50 



Mar. 1 Bal. Carried forward $802.12. 

K. Ro. (initialed) 



Extract of account ot the Philadelphia branch office, February, 1916. 



Pebr. 

1916 

1 Balance S49.18 

1/39 Kuhnemann'8 3.50 

5 Liebau 80.00 

15 F. Schuler (paid back) 15 

16 PaulKrag 16 

17 Kuske— paid back 30 

18 Liebau 50.00 

36 " 50.00 



$203.28 



1/29 



a 



2 
It 



Office expenses, Trav. 

money, etc 

Printed matter 

Tdephone, Keystone.. 
" BeU, Jan. 

and Feb 

1/29 Salary Louis Schwab.. 

" Naschold 

" Assistant 

MichZahn 

Hue WoUisang 

O. Steinbacb. 

Max Fischer 

Franz Allnvdit 

A.MuUer 

O. Stetnbach 

Fisher. Max 

Steinbach, G 



$7.35 
7.00 
L50 



1/31 
3 



80.00 
19.00 



i( 
(f 
tt 

3 
4 
4 



6.71 
60.00 6 wks. 

4 " 

4 " 
.10 relief 
.75 Trav. ICo 
.50 
.50 
.35 
.36 
.60 

.30 relief 
.20 " 



M 
U 



$174.71 



FdiTuarir J918, 
1916. Brought forward $174. 71 



Feb. 39,1910 

Balance oarrled for . 



303.38 
$34.87 



2/14 
tt 

tt 

tt 

18 
18 

23 

11 



CarlSteckerl 

Alois Steekerl.... 

Jose Herzog 

Blritt Henog 

Jos. Hoffmann... 
Franz Schuts.... 
Franz Schafer.... 
Franz Honicke... 
36 Adolph Sohimng. 



.26 Trav. 
.35 " 
.25 
.26 
.30 
.76 
LOO 
.50 
.25 relief 



« 






ti 



178.41 
Feb. 39. Balance 34.87 



(Signed) 



$308.38 

Jaoob Nasohold. 



BBEWIKG AJSTD UQTJOB INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1557 



Branch offlce at Bridgeport Conn, February 1916. 



1. Balance 

1. Caah 

7. Clieek, centrml office 

& Paid back by NltxfiM*he' 

18. Donation, unknown 

18. Check. Oentral Office 

24. Donation, Seller 

24. '* Schuetaer 

25. Cmah .. 



$15. 80 

60.00 

40.00 

60.00 

8.00 

2.00 

50.00 

.50 

.50 

60.00 

1271.80 



$271.80 



Kirch 1, 1916 BaL Carried for.. $54. 88 



1. 
2. 

2. 



6. 

8. 

8. 
10. 
10. 



11. 
11. 

11. 
11. 
12. 

12. 

12. 
12. 
14. 
14. 

16. 
10. 
10. 

10. 

28. 
28. 
28. 

26. 
26. 
26. 
26. 

28. 
28. 
28. 

29. 
29. 
29. 



fi 



Portfolio of documenta 

Traveling expenses to New 

Haven 

Supplementary payments for 
stationary ( ?) typewriters 

for January 

Salary for Carl Uhde, week 

ending Feb. 6 

Relief K, Elmann 

Heln, Drescher 

Herm. Krampfel 

Traveling expenses to Hartford, 
BO, Manchester, Merlden, and 
New Haven, from Feb. 7- 

10 

Office rent, Cole Co 

Domestic servant for clean- 
ing 

Elevator boy 

Letter register 

Payment on typewriter (re- 
ceipt Jan.) 

Salary of Carl Uhde, week 

ending Feb. 12 

Relief M. Lenowelt 

Otto Kopp 

M. Lenowelt 

Traveling expenses to New 

York 

Relief M. Lenowelt 

" M. Lenowelt 

Salary, Carl Uhde, week end- 
ing Feb. 19 

Traveling expenses to New 

Haven on Feb. 19 

Stamps {15t to 2t each) 

Street car f^res 

Partial payment on type- 
writer 

Relief, H. Mahlmann- 

" H. Mahlmann 

Fare to New York 

Salary of Andrew Scabo for 

week end. Feb. 26 

Fare to Beacon Falls, Conn 

Paper 

Fare for three persons to Bea- 
con Falls . 

Paper and ink 

Postal cards 

Salary of F. Lauder from Jan. 
81 to Feb. 26 






1.25 
8.66 

1.60 

16.00 

1.00 

1.00 

.60 



16.46 
16.00 

2.00 
.26 
.26 

10.00 

16.00 
.60 
.60 
.76 

8.10 

.80 

1.16 

16.00 

2.56 

.80 

1.16 

6.00 
.60 
.60 

8.10 

15.00 
.60 
.10 

1.47 

1.25 

.10 

80.00 



Balance. 



216. 97 
54.88 



ETiract of account of the Chicago Branch Office for February, 1916. 



10. Clkeck, Central. Feb. 8 

17. Check, •' •• 16 

28. Check •• " 26 

FroB Dr. Ntren .. 



$60 
66 
50. 
24.28 



199. 36 



Assets $26. 06 

Rent ; 10.00 

Postage, fares, telephone^ 8. 80. 

(6) salaries 38.00 

Advertisements 1. 40 

Stationary . 83 

Printing 8. 00 

Franked envelops 1. 04 

Postage, fares, telephone . 4. 60 

(12) salarif^s 38. 00 

Advertisements . 72 

(19) Salaries 33. 00 

Postage, fares, telephone 6. 60 

Advance to W. C. Brown 4. 00 

Gas 2. 10 

Printing 2. 00 

(26) Salaries 33.00 

washing . 70 

Special delivery . 10 

Help 2. 60 

199. 86 

Deb. to Dr. Niven 24.85 



1558 BKEWINQ AND LIQUOR INTESESIB AND OEBMAN PBOPAQAHDA* 



FINANCIAL REPORT OF THE BRANCH OFFICE AT PITTSBURGH, PA. 

for February, 1916, 



Date. 

1. Balance from Jan.. . 

6. Check. H. Leobau 

11. Beimburseioent Boesslerl 

14. Reimbursement Franke. . — 

14. Gift, Pranke 

14. Check, H. Liebau 75. 00 

19. Reimbursement Bechtold - . 00 

19. Gift Bechtold . 40 

24. Check, H. Liebau 60.00 

29. " •* " 80.00 



1.68 

80.00 

.61 

.60 

.26 



■XPINDXTURaB. 

Date. 

2. Table for office 12.00 

4. Salary, W. Zazharis 20.00 

4. " M. Marian 20.00 

4. " M. Marian to Feb. 

12 20. 00 

7. Office rent 20, 00 

4. Travelinff allowance; Marian 11. 00 

8. Myer LL for services 1. 00 

12. Salary W. Zacharias 20. 00 

15. Office material . 85 

15. Postage stamps 1. 00 

16. Cards and letter paper 8. 50 

18. Office material . 90 

10. Salary, W. Zacharias 20. 00 

24. Office material . 85 

26. Salary W. Zacharias 20. 00 

26. Salary K. Uhde 18. 00 

28. Advance to K. Uhde 15. 00 

29. ** ** ** 12. 00 

29.' Newspapers in Feb 1.' 85 

29. Bxtra expenditures in Feb . 96 

29. Office material . 80 

29. Relief granted in Feb 18. 86 

Total — 1242.56 

90 furnished employment 
Pittsburgh, February 29, 1915. 

W. Zachabias. 

Bvtract of Aooount of the Oloveland Sraneh Offioo for Februartf, 1918. 



ToUl 229. 84 

29. Furnished by W. Z 12. 72 

Total receipts 1242.66 



1. Balance $48. 86 

2. Steve. Domansky reimburae- 

ment - . 26 

8. N. Manalak .06 

4. Check, Weisbalch 8. 00 

7. N. Manalak, reimburse . 20 

8. Herman Haverlein . 80 

9. Check #162, Central office 60.00 

9. J. B. Jordan, reimburse 1. 00 

9. Johann Yogt, reimburse .80 

10. Johann Vogt ** . 80 

12. J. E. Joradan " .50 

12. Johann Vogt. .80 

12. Herman Moehrlng . 20 

12. Johan MotU . 60 

14. Hermann Baeberlin, reimburse. . 80 

14. Christian Schalling_.L .10 

14. J. B. Jordan . 60 

14. Carl Braun, reimbursement . 10 

15. Carl Braun •* * .10 

19. George Heimster, reimburse- 
ment 2. 00 

19. Robert Lange, reimbursement. . 26 

28. Paul Pletsch " . 25 

28. S. Domansky " . 50 

24.. George Heimster " 1. 50 

24. Check #174 " 50.00 

26. Peter Baumann *' 1. 85 

26. Peter Baumann " . 25 

26. Christian Schallman .... .20 

28. Check #178, Cen. Office 40.00 



1. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
8. 
8. 
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Belief, Anton Schmidt SO. 25 

Bent, February 16. OO 

Relief, Hans Wagner . 25 

*' Herman uaberlein .85 

*' Steve Domaski .25 

" Carl Meisner .25 

" Hermann Haverlein . 25 

" Peter Hoffman .25 

" Nicholas Manalak .60 

** Adolpb Krueger . ID 

" Johan Motyl . 50 

" Joe Mllbauer . 60 

" — .50 

Printing 5.25 

Salvation Army 11. 70 

Relief. Bmll Rltter . 85 

" .15 

Salary. C. Wehnert 9. OO 

" D. Helner 7. 50 

Relief, George Heimster 1. OO 

" Adolph Krueger . lO 

" Albert Lettek . lO 

" Carl Braun . 60 

" George Heimster . 50 

" Albert Dlnkel .50 

" Anton Schmid 1. OO 

" Albert Drtckel . 50 

" George Heimster . 60 

" Hwman Moehring . 26 

Relief Hans Dietse . 2fi 

" Frank Schultz .60 

" George Heimster 1. 00 

*• Robert Lange . 25 

" Adolph Krueger . 10 

" George Heimster 2,00 

Relief Chrlstain Shellman . 25 

« *t tt ^ 25 

Salary C. Wehnert IIII ol 00 

" R. Zucker 6. 60 

Relief Albert Dinkel 1. 60 

" George Heimster 8. 50 

1.60 

•• Frank Wydawka . 50 

" George Konradus . 50 

" Bmmeri Ugrowltsh . 50 

" Harry Maler 4. 00 

" Fred Schwartt 1.85 

Typewriter rent 2. 50 

Relief, Carl Kraemer 8. 50 

Relief. Frits Vollmer .80 

Salary, C. Wehnert 9. 00 



BRKWI5Q A£(D LIQUOB INTBBESIS AND GBBMAK FBOPAGANDA. 1559 



19. 
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28. 
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28. 



B. Zucker . 8. 60 

Belief Alex. Scbolz . 60 

Telephone, balf 6. 08 

Belief, Frank Soga .60 

" J. B. Jordan 1. 00 

•* Carl Braun . 60 

" Carl MolBsner . 60 

•* N. Nanalak 8.00 

" Fritz VoUmer- 1.00 

" J. E. Jordan . 60 

** Carl Melszner . 60 

" George Heimster . 36 

" Frank Soga . 60 

" H. Domansky . 60 

Trip to Detroit 12.80 

Belief, Harry Maler 8.00 

George Heimster . 76 

Belief Frank Soga . 60 

" Paul Belber . 26 

" Von Goeritz 1.00 

Check, #48 H. Hanson... 20. 00 

Belief George Heimster . 60 

" Frank Soga 1. 00 

Salary C. Wehnert 9. 00 

B. Zucker 7.00 

Belief Nicholas Manalak 1. 00 

** George Heimster 1 .60 

" Fritz VoUmar 1. 00 

" J. K. Jordan 1. 00 

" H. Haberleln .25 

" Fred Schwarts 1.00 

" George Heimster 1. 00 

" Henry Maler 6. 00 

" FHtz Vollmar 1. 00 

" Fred Schwartz 1.90 



201. 26 



$213. 16 
March 1, Balance carried forward |11.90. 

Mr. BiE3LASKi. Here is a translation of a copy of a letter addressed 
to the Iniperial German Embassy by Zwiedenik, who acted. after 
Dumbtt left for the Austrian Government This simply shows that 
while he did not know anything about the original organization, 
after taking cognizance of the report sent him from the Imperial 
German Embassy, which originated with the military bureau in 
Xew York, of which Capt. von Papen was the head, he asked for 
authorization to pay the required $2,000, and received instructions 
to abstain. But he says that he assumes that his Government does 
not intend to become unfaithful to assurances given, and he there- 
fore transmits a check for $750, with the request that this amount 
be transmitted to the Liebau Bureau. He 3ays : 

At the same time, I am writing again to Vienna setting forth the grounds 
mentioned by Private Counselor Albert for authorization to add the sum of 
$l2SO to the aforementioned sum of $2000 for the said Bureau. 

S^iAtor OvEBMAN. Let that go in the record. 
(The paper referred to is here printed in full in the record, as 
follows:) 

BnELABKZ EZHSIT No. 120» 

Imperial Rotal Austbo-Hungarian Embassy, 

Washington, D. C, March 4^ 1916. 

IXFKKIAL GntlCAN EMBASSY, 

Washington. 

Id regard to the copy, kindly furnish to this embassy of a letter from Private 
O^unjielor Albert, of the first instant, relating to the Llbau Bureau, I will 
renuirk that nothing was known to me of any arrangement by the Austro> 
Hungarian Ambassador Dumba, embodying a subsidizing of this Bureau for 
any length of time. (At the end of November, this embassy received instruc- 
tlooJi frum the Austro-fiungarian ministry to the effect that any private action 
for the porpose of hindering American deliveries of war materials should be 
refrained from. At the same time, reference was made to an understanding 
tn thU regard with the Imjperial German Government. This decision, accord- 

2 — n 



1560 BBEWING AND LIQUOE INTERESTS AND GBBMAK PBOPAGAJTDA* 

Ing to the number of the report cited, related first of all to the action in induc- 
ing our subjects to leave the factories in question. The idea was evidently 
that such action, carried on on a small scale, could have no practically im- 
portant result, whereas the unavo'dable indiscretions would afford the desired 
pretext for against the Austro-Hungarian representatives, adgitation) 

Nevertheless, after taking cognissance of a report sent me on January 13, 
last, by the Imperial German Embassy, coming from its Military Information 
Bureau, I asked for authorization to pay out the required $2000, whereupon 
I received on February 28th the instructions : "Abstain ". < 

Now, ns I assume that my government does not intend to become unfaithful 
to assurances given, I nevertheless hav^ the honor to transmit herewith a 
check for $750, with tlie request that this amount be transmitted to the Libau 
Bureau, s nee, according to a calculation of Private Counselor Albert, this 
amount is due from us for employment already secured in the past. At the 
same time, I am writing again to Vienna and setting forth the grounds men- 
tioned by Private Counselor Albert for authorization to add the sum of $1250 
to the aforementioned sum of $2000 for the said Bureau. 

I wish, however, to request thsit the Military Information Bureau be in- 
formed that I consider any payments beyond this amount to be unwarrantetl. 
According to information received by the Embassy, only a part of the Austrian 
and Hungarian applicants for work who were procured employment really left 
ammunition and arms factories and there is no sufficient reason for the present 
why a general employment agency should be maintained for our subjects. 
Moreover, the great majority of our subjects are unskilled laborers who c«n 
be replaced at any time without difficulty. I hope that the Imperial German 
Embassy will not see in this attitude any failure to appreciate the idea under- 
lying the establishment of the employment Bureau or an inadequate apprecia- 
tion of the patriotic motives of the gentlemen connected therewith. 

(Sgd) ZWIEDENIK, 

Austro-Hungarian ChargS D' Affaires. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Did I understand you to say that you thought that 
these reports of the consul ought to go in the record ? 

Capt. Lester. Yes; some extracts ought to go in the record. I 
think there is one of April 10 to go in. 

Senator Overman. Is that a report in connection with the same 
bureau ? 

Capt. Lester. In connection with the Libau Bureau, showing the 
working of it, and their objects. 

Mr. BiELASKi. This one of April 10 that I have here does not 
relate to the bureau but relates to their efforts to get a witness, who 
was in a criminal case, kept from telling the truth. 

Maj. HxTMES. Then I think that ought to go in the record, for other 
reasons. 

Mr, BiELASKi. It is interesting. This was a communication sent 
by the office of Capt. von Papen to the embassy. It has no bearing 
on the Libau case, but it was a case that had a great deal to do with 
the destruction or the Welland Canal, a second conspiracy. This is 
dated New York, April 10, 1916. It reads as follows : 

BnCLASKI BXHIBIT No. 121. 

[Copy.] 

Secret] New Yobk, April 10, 1916. 

I liereby send you the accompanying clipping from the New York American 
of today for your Excellency's information. 

Tuclter is being held by the authorities In order to confirm as a witness the 
charges against von der Goltz. 

Tucker has so far denied everything, but there is danger that under the 
pressure being exerted over him he will gradually yield. It would therefore 
be desirable to have the man feel that we are concerned about him. It has been 
impossible for about eight days for us in this office to come in contact with 



BBEWIK6 A2<n> UQtTOB £EITEB£8TB AJS[J> GEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1561 

bim. It Is also Impoeaible ftir tlie InperUl CkmBolar General to do anything 
on a I^r^ basis, as Tucker did not invoke the help of the Consulate General 
and the latter has no proof that Tucker is a German subject. 

1 leave it to your Exceilency*s discretion In case there are no political ob- 
je<*tion8, to have the matter unofficially discussed in the State Department. 
Such a step would certainly afford Tucker the desired relief. 

K. N. St 
(Military Information Bureau.) 
His Excellency 

Count von Bebnstobff 

Imperial Ambassador 

Washington, D. C. 

Tucker was one of the men who went along on the expedition, and 
they were afraid that he Vould tell the truth about his connection 
with it 

CapL Lester. This is the particular one, dated March 14, that I 
had in mind. 

Mr. B1EI4A8K1 (after examining paper). This was not a report of 
the consul. 

Capt. LdssTER. No; it was a report of Otto. 

Mr. BncLASKi. Yes ; of Otto. 

Capt. Lester suggests that this letter of March 14, 1916, from Theo. 
Otto von Hatzfelt, be put in the record. 

Senator 0\^erman. Tell us again who Otto is. 

Mr. Bdelaski. Otto, I think, is a doctor of AUentown, Pa., who 
undertook to keep the Germans informed of the progress of muni- 
tion shipments, and so on. He made a number 01 reports, of which 
we have copies, and this is one of them. 

Senator Overman. Put it in the record. 

Mr. BiELASKi. It reads as follows : 

B1ELA8KI Exhibit No. 122. 

Allentown, Pa., Mar. H, 1916. 

Imperial Embassy Counselor Von Hatzfelt, 

WashAngtonf D. C. 

Deai Mk. CorNSEijOB: Bince Von Papen went to Germany, I have neglected 
no effort to keep well informed about the munition factories situated here and 
to thift vicinity, but hitherto there has been nothing of special importance to 
nifort that Is, nothing that had not been made known to Mr. Von Papen by 
ne. If I take the liberty today of writing to you, it is because it seems to me 
that the foUowlng facts may be of interest to the Imperial German Government 

As is known. The Traylor Engineering Company of AUentown, Pa., has con- 
tncts with England for the delivery of high explosive shrapnels, and up to a 
fhwt time ago 3" shrapnds were delivered regularly in large quantities. For 
•buDt two months shrapnels of this calibre have no longer been produced there, 
tmt, on the other hand, there are at present about 6,000 to 8,000 four inch 
ihrapDels tbore in stock, while the company mentioned is making every effort 
to produce as perfect a six inch projectile as possible. I was informed confi- 
dentially that England wants 60,000 of these as soon as possible, but that it 
(tnnot reach an appreciable output for the time being because the machlinery 
necMMry for the purpose is not yet perfected. I succeeded in obtaining a 
drawing according to which the work is done ; if it Is of Interest please inform 
oae and I will promptly send it to you. I also have a specimen of a three inch 
ihrapoel which I will gladly furnish to the Imperial Embassy if wanted. 

I was able, in my capacity as a physician, to establish relations with officials 
of almost all of the munitions factories situated in this vicinity, and if fur- 
ther information of this kind should be of interest to the Embassy, please 
Inform me. as yon gentlemen may depend me as well as upon yourselves. 

I recently had an interview with a gentleman friend in regard to the dye 
ctlamlty, and this gentleman, who has been engaged in this industry for 



1562 BBEWIKQ AND LIQUOR INTBBESTB AND GEBMAN PBOPAQASn>A. 

years, told ine that the United Stetes- was aafferiOig very much from this 
calamity. Our conversation .drifted to the military preparedness of the United 
States and I heard that a relative of this gentleman held a position in which 
he was able to Rive information in this regard. Perhaps it might be opportune 
to follow out this clew further. 
With assurances of my loyalty and devotion, I remain, etc., 

(Signed) Theo Otto. 

Maj. Humes. Have any proceedings been taken against Mr. Otto! 

Mr. BiELASKi. No proceedings were taken, because that was during 
the period of our neutrality. We did not know of any particular 
way that it could be done. He was kept very closely under observa- 
tion, however, from that time on and during the war. 

Maj. Humes. Is he a citizen? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I think he is a citizen. I am quite sure he is. 
Otherwise, he would have been interned. He was not. 

Here is another report from Consul Otto about the Hans Liebau 
Bureau, which I think ought to go in the record. 

Senator Overman. Put it in. 

(The paper referred to is here printed in full in the record, as 

follows:) 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 123. 

New Yobk, March 20, 1916. 

I take the liberty of answering as foUows the letter of Baron von Zwiedenik, 
Austro-Hungarlan Charge D' Affaires, under date of March 4th, 1916: 

In a conversation participated In by the Austro-Hungarlan Attach^, the 
Prince zu Hohenlohe, Mr. von Papen, Captain Hecker, Doctor von Klen- 
waechter, and the undersigned, the Prince as representative of the Austro- 
Hungarlan Embassy, stated that the Austro-Hungarlan government would 
support the undertaking in the same way as the German Government. 

His Excellency the Austro-Hungarlan Ambassador, Doctor Dumba, also In- 
formed us through the Austro-Hungarian Consulate in New York that he, the 
Austro-Hungarlan Ambassador, was willing If necessary, to pledge himselt 
personally up to $100,000 for the maintenance of the Employment Bureau. His 
Excellency personally assured me of his assistance shortly before his departure. 

The employment Bureau, during an activity of 6i months up to the end of 
February 1916, received over 8000 applications, of which 4774 were new ap- 
plications, a total of 4466 positions having been supplied ; of these about one 
third were subjects of the Austro-Hungarlan monarchy. Sixty per cent, of all 
applications were from persons coming from munition and war material indusr 
tries, and the remaining forty per cent, would also have been driven into the 
war industry had it not been for the propaganda for workmenie assistance. 
Engineers and the better class of persons had as a result of the propaganda, 
left the factories of their own accord and, without asking for assistance, they 
sought and found employment elsewhere; we know of such cases. If we had, 
by agitation and speeches, gotten the unskilled laborers in masses out of the 
factories the government would without doubt have proceeded penally against 
the Bureau and its activities would have ceased. Moreover, the result would 
have been that laborers would have been convinced that the activity of the 
employment agency was illegal and they would have calmly remained In their 
positions, whereas they are now gradually leaving them. Overhaste would 
only have hindered us and any indiscretion had to be avoided. 

In spite of many endeavors the Department of Justice has not succeeded in 
finding any pretext against the Libau Bureau. The Bureau keeps absolutely 
within its scope of the laws of this country. It looks after persons who do wish 
to work in the war material factories. The statistics of the Bureau prove 
that more and more applicants are appearing as the organization gains greater 
publicity. 

The underlying idea of tlie Bureau has materialized to the extent that at 
the present time inquiries for laborers are frequently received from manufac- 
turers of war materials because technical laborers are scarcely to be had in 
commercial employment agencies. Thus, for Instance, the Simplex Automobile 



BREWING AND UQUOB IKTEBESTS AND QEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1563 

Company, which has a contract for aeroplane motors from the French govern- 
ment, tried to obtain workmen under the best of conditions, but it was of 
niurse rejected. It is generally recognized among employers that Hungarians 
are reliable workmen who only too gladly accept employment even as unskilled 
laborers to operate dies, as machine assistances for packing, etc. 

Another effect of the employment agency has been to arouse the patriotic 
zeal and loyalty of the workmen for their native countrj'. for they notice that 
they have not been forgotten. A proof of this is found in the fact that persons 
are continually visiting the central and branch offices in order to offer thanks 
for havinf? been assisted. 

I wish further to remark that the result from a political standpoint has 
been very favorable, but I wish to express myself on this point only per- 
sonally and orally ; these results are known to Mr. von Papen. 

If it is taken Into consideration that the allied government have thus far 
oontribnted only $8600 to help the laborers it must be admitted that it has 
l«*»en one of the best establishments In this country if we compare the result 
ar«?omplished by the propaganda to this sum. 

It would also be of the greatest Importance for the allied governments to 
pledge their financial help also In the future; an abandonment of the Bureau 
would make a very bad impression on all parties concerned and have a very 
disadvantageous effect. 

Furthermore, in case the Bureau continues after the war the records 
carhered will form very valuable statistics. Let us suppose that the country 
*iere to need additional hands in one or another Home industry, it would be 
an eaay matter to And available material with the aid of the records. This 
(nrganization would represent a bond of union between the old and new home 
uf the subjects employed in technical enterprises in America. 

( Sgd. ) K.— Otto. 

Mr. BiELASKi. There are a great many other documents here, also 
reports of the German Government and the reports of consuls, and 
so on, but they contain nothing of much particular interest. 

Senator Sterlino. In the first letter that you read, I think it was 
from Bemstorff in regard to the Libau Bureau, reference was made 
to seeing^ German workmen personally. 

Mr. BiEiiASKi. Yes; orally. 

Senator Sterling. Yes. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes, sir. 

Senator Stebuno. Have you any evidence of activity along that 
line? 

Mr. BnxASKi. The consuls reported back from various districts 
to von Bemstorff, as reported in the circular. Many of them said — 
in m number of cases, at least — ^that the Germans had already been 
firni from those places, because they did not trust them, and there 
were not a great many of them left in positions of importance who 
roold be approached. Von Papen was, of course, especially inter- 
ested in that latter matter, ana he corresponded directly with the 
'-onsuls. He sent a circular out under date of July 21, about the 

subject. 
Senator Steruno. What was the purport of that? 
Mr. BiKLABKi. He said: 

BnELASKi Exhibit No. 124. 

I most respectfully request in relation to the proclamation of the Imperial 
German ESmbassy of June 19, J. No. A-3805, that Information be sent to me as 
m4m aa possible as to the extent to which German subjects are employed in 
ano-s and munition factories in respective consular districts, in order that for 
the present a t^enenki view may be had of the existing situation. 

In view of the extraordinary rapid growth of this branch of industry, and 
tf the momentous signiflcance which this constantly increasing production and 
tlie new plants ever springing up, has for the outcome of the present war, I 
woqM be extraordinarily Interested in receiving further reports as to the 



1564 BREWING AND UQUOE INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANT>A. 

success attained in the steps tali^en in the sense of proclamation. In conneo 
tlon herewith I respectfully remark that according to reports received from 
the consular district in which the Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Co. of Mil- 
waukee, Wis., is located, a large number of Germans are to be found on the 
board of directors as well as among the leading engineers, and I would be 
especially thankful for a report as to whether this Information is founded 
upon facts, and whether there is any indication, as rumored, that the AlUs- 
Chalmers is to be bought by the Bethlehem Steel Co. 

Bt^rnstorff put the whole situation up to Bethmann-Uollweg on August 7, 
1915, and asked him what he should do, In a long letter, and In an ans^rer 
dated November 12, 1915, the Chancellor outlined the attitude which he <le- 
sired taken. It was a sort of a straddle as to whether they should all leave 
or not. The question to be determined was the same one which was raised, 
he says, In the Bosch Magneto ease, w^here Helns, the manager of the concern, 
admitted taking orders from Great Britain for the purpose of delaying and 
retarding the aircraft program, and which developed the scrap between von 
Papen*s office and Boy-Ed*s office as to whether Helns should not be really 
punished under the German law. Bethmann-HoUweg approved of the st ind 
takon by Albert In that case, saying that where the intention of the man was 
to Injure the cause of the Allies, the fact that he furnished them some material 
was not a violation of their code. 

Senator Sterli??o. That the retarding of the work would more 
than offset it ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes; he thought that by his withholding work he 
had put back the British program some months. 

Copies of these communications, translations of them, between 
Bernstorff and Bethmann-HoUweg can be put in the record if you 
wish. They are several pages long. 

Senator Overman. Put them in. 

Mr. BiELASKi. There is one which appears in this file which is 
possibly of interest which I did not read. That is a cipher dispatch 
which was sent to Von Paper by the German consul at St. Liouis. 
Mo., under date of June 19, 1915. Its translation is that — 

BiEXASKi ExHiBir No. 125. 

Two agents of the Organized Brotherhood of Metal Workers, 34 Park Street, 
New York City,. named Sam Scarlett and J. U. Kelly, expelled from the organi- 
zation by the president, Charles Heyde, have informed me that said organlza- 
tioii has begun a movement, the object of which Is to effect the stoppage of 
shipments of munitions of war. Meetings fire soon to be held, especially at 
Alton, 111., an^l afterward other steps taken. 

Regarding the Information from Privy Councillor Meyer Gerhard, I must not 
fail to acquaint you with the foregoing, and ask your advice as to whether I 
should, j^s requested by the above-named persons, advance $40 expenses as 
requested by them, through a confidential person. 

It is my recollection that one of those men was convicted as an 
I.W. W. 

Senator King. Scarlett was secretary of a local organization in my 
own State at one time of the I. W. W. 

Mr. BiELASKi. It shows a direct connection between the I. W. W. 
and the military attache's office. 

Maj. HuMEs/scarlett was an organizer for the L W. W., was he 
not? 

Mr. BiELAsKi. Yes. 

Senator Overman. Was he connected with Boy-Ed ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. He was mentioned in this communication from the 
consul at St. Louis to Von Papen, the military attach^. 

Senator Overman. All right. 

Mr. BiELAsKi. And I think $40 was afterwards sent out there, or 
he was authorized to advance it, although I do not see that before nae. 



BBBWINO AKD IJQXJOB IKTBBJSBTS AND GERMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1665 

(The letters last referred to are here printed in the record as fol- 
lows:) 

BiKLASKi Exhibit No. 126. 

Imp»:1al Germany Bmbasoy, J. No. A. 8805. 
Strictly confidential ! 

GEDABHT7B8T, N. Y., Jwie 1, 1915. 

It Is asserted from many sources that in the industries in the United States 
wliich have turned to the deliyery of war material, many German subjects 
occupy leading posltiona According to the directions received by me from the 
Imperial Chancellor, these subjects are to be notified that their employment in 
soch industriee Is contrary to the duty which they owe their Fatherland, as 
the said local IndustrieB work exclusively for the enemies of Germany. In 
this connection, special attention is called to Paragraph 89 of the Imperial 
Penal Code. Attention must be called to an annotation upon this paragraph, 
which says: *'The (criminal) intent lies in the knowledge that aid is given to 
tbe enemy Power, or hindrance to the German or its allied Powers. The cor- 
responding intention is not necessary to be shown. See Goldt A. 19306, but 
especially Schwartze. Treason to the Nation and Treason to the Military Forces 
W7), 39 ff. AA John Holtzand, Handb. 352." 

I therefore request your Honor to determine what persons in your Ck>n8ular 
District come within this category, and then to get into communication per- 
sonaily and orally with such persons in your district as 

1. are beyond any doubt German subjects. 

Z are employed in i)ositions above that of common laborer, such as foremen, 
superintendents, engineers, etc., in industries engaged in the production of war 
material. (Factories for making arms and munitions, or those which produce 
parts of the same, powder and other explosives, as well as bensol refining 
plants, automobile and aviation machine works engaged in the export business, 
farms which sell horses and mules for export, as well as submarine wharfs, 
are especially included therein.) 

Such persons .must vigorously be taught their duty toward their country. 
Tbe fact must also be brought to their attention that this self-understood duty 
does not give them the right, after giving up said employment, to demand of 
the £tepire that they be given other equally profitable employment, or the con- 
tinuance of their previous pay. I will remark confidentially, however, that in 
icdirfdual cases, after careful Investigation, the question of giving assistance 
vfll be considered, where it is absolutely necessary. This assistance, however. 
moat be limited to the minimum figure, and it must also be expected that the 
person concerned shall leave no means untried to secure employment himself, 
la handling this matter, however, everything should be done to avoid embitter- 
iDf the persons in question in a way to lead them to expose the whole affair 
flod cause hostile publicity. 

In cases wherein doubts may arise as to Whether the products of a certaim 
p'ant ^all be regarded as war material, or whether the plant is delivering t4 
cor enemies, I request that the Herr Millitary Attache be communicated with, 
at the following address: Care of German Consulate-General, 11 Broadway, 
New York City. 

I also request that you send your rej^rta to the same address as to the steps 
taken by you in this matter. 

Thv Imperial Ambassadob 
(Signed) Bebnstobff. 

To the Imperial Consular Authorities in New York, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, 
St. Louis, San Francisco and Chicago. 

Mr. BiEtASKi. On August 7, 1915, Von Bemstorff wrote the fol- 
lowing letter to Von Bethmann-Mollweg, German Imperial Chan- 
cellor: 

BncLASKi Exhibit No. 127. 

Vow Bebnstobff to Von Bethmann-Holltveo. 

Imperial German Emhaasy No. A 287 

1 indosnre 

Cbdabhttbst, N. y., Aug. 7/15, 

Doubt has recentiy arisen concerning the full scope of Paragraph 89 of the 
Imperial Criminal Code Book as well as of the Supplementary Decisions pro- 



1566 BBEWIKQ ANI> UQtrOB IKTEBEBTS AND GEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 

niulgated sluce the beginning of the war. A number of American firms oper- 
ated either entirely or partially with Grerman capital, managed by German sub- 
jects and now in doubt as to the admissibility of deliveries abroad as well in 
in the United States, have applied to the Embassy or to the Consulate-General 
for advice. 

In answering the questions, the Imperial CJonsulate-General as shown by 
the inclosed copy of the communication of July 29, talies the stand that all 
business and deliveries of wires from under Paragraph 89 where the slightest 
ix)ssibility exists that, directly or indirectly, whether in a military political or 
economic sense, they may be of use to the enemy power or persons witii 
whom we are connected. This stand-point has the advantage of offering a 
simple and lucid solution of the question so far as, in view of the present 
material and personal connection of American industry and that of our 
enemies, it makes practically all deliveries of any sort of goods impossible 
even when deliveries are made to American firms. The questions is as to 
whether this application of legal decisions cori*eetly represents them in text 
and meaning. It would be tantamount to a complete shutting down of the 
industries in question. 

I do not believe I should cease making continual lepresentations in this 
matter, as the question very closely concerns the work which is being done by 
the various members of the Embassy as well as by Privy Councillor Albert 
toward hindering or limiting the exportation of war material from the United 
States to our opponents. In the course of this work wo have in various ways 
had our attention drawn directly to such firms. The latter proceed upon the 
assumption that the approval of deliveries in < individual cases by the Imperial 
Representatives precludes liability to prosecution, because thereby the con- 
sciousness of criminality, or of delivery intent is abolished. 

In view of the importance of the question and assuming that the home 
authorities have had occasion to deal with It, may I most respectfully ask your 
Excellency to kindly advise me how the decision upon Paragraph 89 and the 
Supplementary decisions are to be interpreted; whether a permit in isolated 
case precludes liability to prosecution, and, if so, what grounds, should govern 
the Issuance of a permit. If the approval of the Imperial Agents abroad does 
not bar prosecution, or the giving of approval in Efpeclal and exceptional cases 
is not regarded with favor, It would nevertheless appear to me to be desirable 
to receive instructions as to how the legal decisions are to be construed in order 
to know how to answer correctly the numerous inquiries received by myself 
and the Consulate-General and to work out a uniform plan of procedure. 

Paragraph 89 of the Imperial Criminal Code described it as an act of treason 
for a German purposely, during war, to gXve aid to the enemy power or work 
disadvantage to the military forces. Similarly, the decision proiAulgated in the 
Fall of 1914 provides a penalty for those who knowingly violate a German 
embargo by exporting goods directly or indirectly to the Enemy Country. The 
text of this late decision is not at hand in .authentic form. 

When in the first place I regard the deliveries in question in the light of 
Paragraph 89 of the Imperial Criminal Code, I would assume, in view of the 
history and text of said paragraph, that the penalties attach not simply to alU 
including intermediate, deliveries which may be redound to the benefit of the 
enemy country. The conception of the giving of aid as well as the Infiictlon of 
injury, is brought into connection with the enemy power and respectively with 
the military forces of the German empire, etc., and therefore may be limited 
to acts which are helpful or detrimental to the military operations as the ca6e 
may be. The provisions of Paragraph 89 were not intended to apply to an 
economic war, as It is now conducted. If all deliveries of goods came uncon- 
ditionally under the purview of Paragraph 89 it would not have been necessary 
to provide a new penalty for a knowing violation of the embargo rules. 

If this interpretation is correct, It resolves itself, according to my view so far 
as it concerns the delivery to our opponents, Into an investigation of the ques- 
tions as to whether materials involved, the delivery which aids the mUiiary 
operations of our opponents. Under the new decision, this would apply, in a 
German export embargo. On the other hand, the delivery of other goods would 
have excelled the free of penalty. 

Further difficulties attend the interpretation If the decisions as to penally 
are held to apply to deliveries which are not bad to our enemies, which exclu- 
sively to American firms within the territory of the United States. Even if the 
class of goods, about the sense of the foregoing interpretation, it is still an open 
question as to the extent to which a delivery is to be regarded as an interme- 



BBBWIKO AKD LIQUOB IKTBBE6TB AND GBfikAK PBOPAGAia^DA. 1567 

diaie delivery to our enemies. The connection Is established without further 
adieu if the goods are desired to be exported, or when it Is a matter of deliv- 
ery to American manufactories in which war material for the Allies is made. 
J>oubts arise, however, in cases wherein goods are delivered to American fac- 
tories which produce war material, partly for the Allies and partly for domestic 
use. and it c*annot be determined to a certainty for which part of the production 
the goods delivered by a German are to be used. But even when the fact has 
been established that the goods delivered to the Aemricans are applied only to 
Domesttic use, the further question arises as to whether, through the support in 
production of goods for domestic use the American factories are not strength- 
ened in their capacity for the production of war material for the Allies. 

Tnder the existing circumstances attending the distribution of labor here, 
n-hereby factories employed on war materials, repeatedly, in taking orders 
from onr enemies, transfer their former productions of material for domestic 
use to other factories in order thereby to Increase their productive capacity, a 
wide interpretation of the penalties leads to the conclusion that every delivery 
in the T7nited States contributes also indirectly to the advantage of our enemies, 
bef-?fU8e in that manner the drawing of American products into the service of 
the Allies, which is taking place increasingly on all sides, is indirectly fur- 
thered. 

For the above-mentioned reasons it appears to me necessary that there be a 
limitation in the range of the penalties. If such limitation cannot be based 
upon the nature of the wares involved, the only means left is an examination 
Into individual cases. Such examination will yield results variously according 
to the special features of the situation. A delivery of wares which in itself is 
admissible may through the temporal ( ?) volume of the delivery and the size 
of the order lead to an indirect aid. On the other hand, even the delivery of 
imall quantities of war material to our enemies may be expedient and free of 
penalty. I have a special report (words "In cipher" erased) on a case of this 
kind. Consideration may also be given to the question as to whetheV the goods 
can be delivered demonstrably in equal quantity, value and time, from another 
source. 

There may be no doubt, and I quite agree with the argument of the Gonsul- 
General. tJiat individual private Interests have no claim for consideration. 
Like every Cierman subject, the German subject In foreign lands has to bear 
his share of the general sacrifice. A damage to the operation of his plant, 
even if it should lead to complete stoppage, could not, if a sensible interpreta- 
tion of the law were necessary, be given any consideration. 

The only question is as to how far the general interests may lead, to a con- 
nderation of private interests. England systematically wages an economic war 
upon Germany to appropriate her foreign trade already during the war. Is it 
dwirable to encourage this effort through a too rigorous interpretation of the 
legal decisions, or can a way be found to make it possible for Germans domiciled 
in foreign countries to maintain their plants, especially as thereby sources of 
income for Germany arise which, taken altogether, may prove to be of impor- 
tance to the efficiency of Germany and to her economic staying-power? The 
matter of foreign exchange can be left out of the question here, as the natural 
factors which influenced the market values have gone out of course, and the 
deliveries herein considered could have no effect upon the value of the mark. 

In the interests of what I deemed the necessary uniformity in handling the 
decisions, I have requested the consulate-general to keep In touch with me in 
the future, have reports accessible to me and send me copies of past reports as 
well. If, after looking into the matter, I deem It necessary to issue a supple- 
mental statement, I will most respectfully reserve the same for a further report. 

( Signed ) Bebnstorff. 

To his Exc^lency 

The Imperial Chancellor 

Herr von Bethmann-Hollweg. 

A carbon copjr of the following communication of Zimmermann, 
the German Minister of Foreign Affairs, to Von Bernstorff was. 
under date of October 7, 1915, forwarded to Von Papen by Haniel, oi 
the German Embassy at Washington : 



1668 BBEWINQ AND UQXJOB INTEBEBIB AND OEBMAN FBOPAQANDA. 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 128. 

The German Ministeb of Foreign Affaibs to Von Bebnstobff. 

(Copy.) 

Berlin, Sept. 12, 1915. 

In dealing with the question of the permlssability of deliveries through Ger- 
man firms or German subjects in the United States of America to our enemies, 
your Excellency takes the stand that the Imperial representatives are in duty 
bound give to interested parties, upon inquiry, authoritative answers concern- 
ing the range of concomitant legal decisions, especially with regard to Para- 
graph 89 of the criminal code, and that the declaration of agreement made by 
an Imperial official excludes culpability of the person making the delivery. 
Neither assumption holds good. The question as to whether a business is liable 
to penalty under Paragraph 89 is a matter to be decided exclusively by the court 
having jurisdiction in the case. The " approval " of an administrative authority 
is devoid of significance, and, above all, has not the effect of absolving tlie per- 
son advised from his responsibility to the criminal judge. 

In this matter It is also not feasible to accede to the request of your excel- 
lency to be provided with Instructions relative to the interpretation of the legal 
decisions. There has been too little adjudication under Paragraph 89 of the 
Criminal Code to admit of the promulgation of general rules governing its in- 
terpretation ; on the other hand, your information, based upon this or that com- 
mentary would not be regarded as possessing any protective significance for 
any of those seeking advice. 

Relative to inquiries pertaining thereto, the fundamental stand is taken here 
that German firms, including those in foreign countries, must discontinue all 
business which may contribute to the resources of the enemy, and give the 
enemies aid even indirectly. Whether this presumption applies In the Indi- 
vidual case, or whether It Is a case Involving completely neutral business that 
Is undoubtedly of no consequence to the prosecution of the war, Is a matter that 
can be looked into only in the rarest instances by the official who has been 
asked for advice, and he will therefore be obliged to withhold a permit. (Pen- 
ciled note on margin evidently written by Von Papen says : " I think this Is a 
matter for the courts to decide?") The principle enunciated by High Privy 
Councillor Albert, that an unlawful transaction Is not shown when In the event 
of default In delivery by German firm, the enemy state would get It from an- 
other firm, can It be regarded as decisive. 

The business transactions referred to of the Bosch Magneto CJo. and Oren- 
steln & Koppel give cause for considerable concern. There should really be no 
dlflference between the delivery of arms and munition and the delivery of parts 
of aviation apparatus and military automobiles, of railroad rails, steel beam a 
and cars. With regard to both firms, who were orally represented in their 
case here, it is held that ho administrative authority or agents of the same are 
authorized to determine the permlssability of their transactions, and that their 
approval would not protect said firms from the possible consequences of an 
unlawful business deal. 

Secretary of State for the Interior to whom the case of the Bosch Magneto 
Co. was reported from here, has announced that he cannot share the view held 
by Herr Albert and that it is not in conformity with the practice following In 
the Imperial Department of the Interior ; and that the fact concerning the busi- 
ness methods of the firm have been referred to the Imperial Department of 
Justice for further action. 

The utmost caution would be advisable in the giving of advice, upon 
practical as well as ethical grounds. The exportation of arms and munitions 
from the Union has caused such a high degree of bitterness in Germany against 
the United States that every effort is required to prevent a general and fateful 
boycott movement. There is therefore reason to fear that the heightened feel- 
ing of patriotism will lead, through appearances such as that under discussion, 
to undesirable criticism of the attitude of our officials who are located abroad. 

Under these circumstances, may I request your Excellency to adopt the fore- 
going views when In future it may become necessary to impart information? 
As I agree with you that a uniform line of procedure of the Imperial Embassy 
and the Imperial Consulate-General Is necessary in this matter, I have accord- 
ingly sent a copy of this statement through Herr Hossenfelder for consideration. 
Besides. I may presume that in handling economic questions both offices will 
work hand in hand. Useful results may be hoped for therefrom, especially as 
in Herr Waetzoldt we have a powerful aid who, by reason of technical training, 



BBEWING Aia> UQtrOK IKTEBESTS AND GEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1569 

Intimate knowledge of American Industries, numerous connections, long experi- 
ence and tried, sober and practical judgment seems just now to be especially 
qualified to cooperate in dealing with economic questions, and who cannot be 
replaced by Herr Albert, who naturally is lacking in experience and in the 
necessiir^' knowleilge of conditions in America, which are not simple. 

( Signed ) Zimmebmann. 

To Count von Bebnstosff, Excellency, 

Washington, 

Senator Overman. Was Otto engaged in furnishing supplies to the 
German Government? 

Mr. BiELASKi. 'Furnishing information. 

Senator Overman. Information? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Information of supplies being furnished to the 
allied governments. 

Senator O^'erman. Not to the Germans? 

Mr. Bielaski. Not to the Germans; no, sir. The Staats-Zeitung, 
of New York City, was used to present the German viewpoint of war 
matters to German readers who read the German language. 

I find here a letter on this letterhead addressed to Capt. von Papen, 
signed by Bernard H. Ridder, its editor. This letter and reply 
rci&d as follows : 

BnxASKi Exhibit No. 129. 

(Npv Toriccr Staats-Zeltnng The Great German Medium Established In 1834. 182 Wil- 
liam Street, comer Spmee Street, New Tork City.] • 

June 21. 1915. 
Captain von Pafbn, 

c/o O, AtnHnck d Co., 6 Hanover Street, Neto Tork City, 

My Deab Captain : The party that I sent out West has enlisted the services 
of some rich Chicago friends and will continue the propaganda which we have 
started. They are sending out several men In the Far West for the purpose of 
combining strength for the man they are interested In. We have nothing to 
do with that matter, financially or otherwise. I advanced him $200.00 which 
he has used for the purpose as outlined to you. We have furthermore spent 
$295.00 in Greater New York among the labor element and in sending the 
man to Boston on Friday. This campaign is now finished so far as we are 
eoQcemed, and, personally. I believe the money used for it has been particularly 
well spent. The Staats-Zeitung advanced this $495.00 as explained by me 
to you. 

The fond of $9,000.00 which has been subscribed for agitation among the 
labor parties has been increased by $4,000.00 more. Labor meetings will be 
held* throughout the West this week and next w^eek. I feel sure that the cause 
of peace has been very much advanced during the last ten days. 
Very truly yours, 

Bebnabd H. Riddeb. 



BiELASKi Exhibit No. 180. 

New York, July 1, 1915. 

Mt I>kab Mb. Ridikeb: In reply to your favor of June 21st, and in pursuit of 
oar recent conversation 1 beg to state that to my great regret I am for various 
reasons absolut^y unable to refund to you any money that served political 
purpoflea. 

Acknowledging very heartily everything you have done for our common great 
canae, I consider it imperative that the representatives of the Imperial German 
Oovemment keep entirely out of the domestic politics of the United States of 
America. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Imperial Gebican Miutaby Attach^. 
Beui ABO H. RiraiKB, Esq., 

Hfew York City. 



1570 BBEWING AND LIQUOB INTBBESTB AKD GEBMAN FBOPAQAKDA* 

Senator KIing. Is the Staats-Zeitung still being published? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes, sir. It reads like that was written for pub- 
lication ; but in any event, Mr. Albert writes on July 6, five days 
later, to Capt. von tapen, as follows : 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 131. 

New York, July 6, 1915, 
Hon. Herb von Papek: With referenrie to the enclosed correspondence with 
Mr. Bernard H. Bidder I am sending you enclosed a cashler^s check of the 
Equitable Trust Co. for $495.00 with the request for a receipt 
Very truly yours, 

H. F. Albert. 

Under date of New York, July 8, 1915, there is a receipt for $496, 
signed W. Van Leyen. The Albert letter seems to be an original 
document. 

Senator Nelson. That first letter of Bidder's which you read 
would seem to indicate that they were mixing up in a political cam- 
paign somewhere in the West, would it not? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. 

Senator Nelson. Have you any idea what it was? 

Mr. BiELASKi. That was in June, 1915. June, 1915, was the time 
when the a^tation among the labor organizations was ajt its height. 
Franz von Kintelen and Labor's National Peace Council were very 
active at that time. The American Embargo Conference, which was 
a political agitation, was also beginning to be active. I do not know 
just exactly what Mr. Bidder had reference to. 

Senator Nelson. I did not know but that it referred to some par- 
ticular man. 

Mr. BiELASKi. It does not appear from the letter, at all. 

Senator Nelson. Or from anything else you have? 

Mr. BiELASKi. No, sir. 

Senator Kino. It refers to meetings of labor organizations, and I 
gather from a perusal of it and your reading of it that it referred 
to some labor campaign that was being carried on. 

Mr. Bi£L.vsKi. les; it may be. It might, of course, relate to a 
campaign whereby Congressman Buchanan would be elected presi- 
dent of the American Federation of Labor, but I do not know, at 
all, that that was it. . 

Capt. Boy-Ed was rather frequently in correspondence with the 
Staats-Zeitung with respect to the matters it was printing, comment- 
ing on what had been written and making suggestions as to what 
should be written, and so on. There are a number of these letters. 
I do not know whether you care to have them read into the record 
or not. There is one which, I think, is especially interesting. 

Senator Kino. As I understand, Mr. Chairman, the plan with re- 
spect to these documents, letters, and various memoranda submited by 
the witness, or by other witnesses, where they are not read into the 
record, butperhaps a portion of them should go into the record, 
that Maj. Humes is to go over th^m very carefully and determine 
what, in his judpnent, is relevant arid material, and then submit that 
matter to the chairman, and the chairiftan is to pass upon the question 
and put into the record what he deemsVelevant and material, so that 
it shall not be left to an^ witness or to S^aj. Humes to be the determi- 

nators of what shall go into this record?"^ 

\ 



BBBWDTO AND LIQUOR IKTEBESIB AND GEBHAN PBOPAOANDA. 1671 

SmiBtOT Ovssicjln. I think that is understood. 

Senator Steruno. Except, I suppose, as the chairman may direct 
that any particular matter may go into the record at the time it is 
presented. 

Senator EZing. Certainly. 

Senator Sterltno. There have been instances of that kind. 

Senator King. Yes. I had reference to those cases where we de- 
ferred action. 

Senator Steeling. Yes. 

Mr. BiELASKi. There are a great many of these letters. I am trying 
to find one in which he even goes so far as to tell the editor or the 
Staats-Zeitung that his editorials should be made shorter, and should 
be printed in larger type, and so on. 

Senator Sterling. Just going back to the last few letters that 
you read, the one written to the editor of the Staats-Zeitung, and 
then with reference to the payment to him by Dr. Albert : My inter- 
pretation of that was this, that the first letter, in which they refused 
to contribute anything .for political purposes, was written tor a rec- 
ord,^ and for the purpose of making a record, and that Dr. Albert 
received his instructions to make payment of that $495 to the Staats- 
Zeitung. ? 

!Mr. BiELASKi. The amount was paid. 

Senator Sterling. The amount was paid ? 

Mr. Bielaski. Yes. 

Capt. Frantz Rintelen, about whom a great deal has naturally come 
to your attention and the attention of the public because of the 
prosecutions in which he has been involved, came over to this coun- 
try, I think, in April, 1915, for two or three purposes. One was to 
prevent the exportation of munitions to the allied governments, and 
the second was to bring about the shipment into Germany of supplies 
which she needed. He was a member of a very prominent family 
in Germany, a young banker, probably as prominent a young banker 
as anv man in uermany, and a captain on the staff — ^I think a reserve 
captain of the navy — ^under Admiral von Tirpitz. 

Senator Nelson. And he came here as the representative of the 
German Government? 

Mr. BiixASKL He came here as the representative of the German 
Govermnent. He was involved in the placing of fire bombs on vessels 
carrving supplies to the allies, for which he has been convicted. 

tie was involved in an effort to get an American passport fraudu- 
lently for his own use, for which I think he has been indicted, and 
he was involved in what was known as Labor's National Peace Coun- 
cih a movement intended to interfere with the activities of the allies 
in the shipment of munitions of war, to be used in part to handicap 
them in tneir efforts to get a loan in this country, and to be useful 
in peace propaganda as well. 

Kintelen, through Prof. Hall, who was mentioned Saturday, and 
I think was an exchange professor in Germany, and who, as Mr. 
O^Brien stated, was decorated by the Kaiser, ^ave to Bintelen the 
name of David Lamar as a man especially familiar with conditiou3 
over here, and who could be of help to him. 

David Lamar was the notorious man known as the wolf of Wall 
Street, who was convicted and served his sentence for having im- 
personated a Congressman some years ago. 



1572 BREWING AND IJQTJOB INTBBESTS AND GBBMAN PEOPAOAKDA. 

Senator NEtsoN. That was the Present Alien Property Custodian, 
A. Mitchell Palmer? 

Mr. B1ELA8K1. Congressman A. Mitchell Palmer; yes. 
Senator Nelson. Was there not a man by the name of Martin who 
was a 3ort of assistant to him. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Mr. Martin was Mr. Lamar's man Friday. 

Senator Nelson. Yes ; he was his man Friday. 

Mr. Bielaski. He was also convicted. He was associated with Mr, 
Lamar in numerous ventures before the Labor'3 Peace Council. 

Senator Nelson. I am sorry to say that many years ago he was 
a resident of Minneapolis. 

Senator Overman. Martin was connected with the Antitrust 
League ? 

Mr. Bielaski. Yes. 

Senator Nelson. They were the whole league ? 

Mr. Bielaski. Yes; Lamar was the power behind the throne in 
the lea^e, also. 

Lamar, through Martin and Schultheis — ^just to sketch briefly what 
he did, because the facts have already been brought out fully in the 
public trials — ^got in touch with labor organizations and got them 
to adopt resolutions favorable to Labor's National Peace Council, to 
send delegates to conventions, and financed them all, paid the ex- 
penses from money which Martin got from Lamar, and which Lamar 
got from Rintelen. 

It is believed that Lamar got approximately $500,000 from Rin- 
telen. He spent very little of it for Rintelen's purposes. Most of 
it he kept himself. He made a practice of taking credit for anything 
that would happen in the Way of agitation which was favorable to 
Germany. 

I think there was a mass meeting of some kind held up in Jersey^ 
I think it was, in which Secretary of State Brvan spoke, and Lamar 
took credit for that. It happened, however, tkat the facts as to the 
other people who were interested in promoting the meeting came 
to the attention of Rintelen and made him somewhat suspicious, I 
think probably for the first time, of Lajnar's activities. 

Senator Nelson. He got $500,000 from von Rintelen ? 

Mr. Bielaski. Approximately that, we think. 

Senator Overman. They are all in the penitentiary now, are they 
not? 

Mr. Bielaski. No: the case has not been decided on appeal yet. 

Senator Nelson. He graduated in that other case ? 

Mr. Bielaski. Oh, yes; he has served his time in the other case^ 
and he will be at home when the case is decided on appeal. - 

Congressman Buchanan was at that time indicted, in that case^ 
but the jury disagreed as to him. 

Senator Nelson. As to whom? 

Mr. Bielaski. As to Frank Buchanan. Frank Buchanan was the 
first president of Labor's National Peace Coimcil. 

I wanted to give you sometibiing of the organization. Rintelen 
was connected with Scheele, a chemist, and financed him in the mak- 
ing of these fire bombs. 

Senator Neuson. That were put <m the ships f 



BREWING AKD LIQUOB INTEBESTS AND GEBMAN PROPAGANDA. 1573 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. He was a man who had been working for 
Von Papen, and was loaned to Von Eintelen by Von Papen for use 
in this particular plot. 

Senator Nbuson. And those bombs were manufactured on these in- 
terned Grerman vessels, were they not? 

Mr. Beelaski. Yes; ihat is, the containers were manufactured on 
the Vaterland, I think; then they were taken to Scheele's place and 
loaded. 

Senator Overman. What became of Scheele? 

Mr. O'Brian. He is in custody at the present time ; in custody of 
the Federal officials at the present time. 

Mr. BiELASKi. He was indicted. He is under indictment. 

Senator Nelson. Is Scheele interned, or is he out on bail? 

Mr. BxELASKi. He is neither, Senator. He is in custody, in a per- 
fectly safe place; and I think what he is doing and has done will be 
satisfactory to the committee. 

Rintelen, apparently, got in touch with Lamar in April, 1916. 

Senator Nelson. How long did be continue in touch with him? 

Mr. BiELASKi. He continued in touch with him until Rintelen 
sailed, about the 4th or 5th or 6th of August. 

The personnel of this organization, as shown by this very excellent 
i€sume which the Military Intelligence Office prepared, was Rintelen, 
Lamar, Martin, and Schultheis. Schultheis was an assistant of Mar- 
tin's and also connected with this antitrust organization of Lamar's 
here. 

Senator Nelson. Was he convicted? 

Mr. Bielasbx I do not think Schultheis was. 

Mr. O'Brlan. The jury disagreed as to Schultheis. 

Mr. BiELASKL Mr. Buchanan and Mr. Fowler, who was a former 
Member of Congress, and other lesser lights among the labor organi- 
zations were also connected with this. 

Martin sent a few men around the countir prompting the labor 
organizations to adopt resolutions; and they had their first meeting, 
I tnink, in Washington in May, 1915. 

Th^ then had a rarther meeting here in Washington, Jun6 21 and 
22, at the St James Hotel, where they organized, Buchanan being 
dected president. 

The Tollowing resolutions were adopted, which give some idea of 
their purposes : 

BiEL^SKi Exhibit No. ISl). 

Whereas the purpose of this caU is to crystallize the prevailing sentiment for 

peace, and 
Whereas the American Federation of Labor favors peace, but can not take 

actioiit 

Be9oived by the repre$etUatives of labor in peace congress assembled. That 
an organization be established having for its purpose the establishment and 
maintenanoe of peace nniversal; that the officers of Labor's National Peace 
Council consist of a president, etc., such officers to act in conducting the farther 
boalDeaa of Labor's National Peace Council. 

Re90ived, That Labor's National Peace Conncll recommends to the Presi- 
dent of the United States that the policy of President Washington prohibiting 
the dilpment and sale of munitions be followed by a proclamation prohibiting 
the sale and shipment to belligerent nations of munitions as weU as of all mate- 
rials used In the iirodnction of the same. 



1574 BBEWINO AND UQUOB INTERESTS AND QEBHAN PBOPAGANI>A. 

At this time Buchanan, as you will recall, made an effort to see tlie 
President, and was unsuccessful, and it resulted in his letter to the 
President, which was made public, and brought special attention to 
his activities. 

Thi3 organization, like a great many other things, never accom- 
plished anything of consequence for the German Government. 

The failure was in great measure due to the wisdom and action of 
the president, Mr. Samuel Gompers, of the American Federation of 
Labor at that time. He absolutely refused to give the movement any 
support, and his attitude prevented its having any possible success in 
organized labor. 

The organization made particular efforts to get in touch with the 
farmers' organizations, to oring them into the movement also. But. 
of course, when Bintelen was forced to get out of the country, he leav- 
ing in Auffust, the support dropped out; Lamar put up no more 
money, and the thing petered out. 

Senator Overman. Have you any evidence there showing the 
activities of these agents among the colored people of the South f 

Mr. BiELASKi. I have not any here, Senator. We have had a large 
number of investigations of that sort of thing, finding, in a few in- 
stances, the circulation of appeals among the negroes mtended to in- 
fluence them in favor of Grermany, but we have not been able to con- 
nect those things with any official German source. There were all 
sorts of stories started among the negroes, of various kinds, to the 
effect that there was no hanging in Germany, for one thing, and that 
they would be given each a piece of land over here if Germany was 
victorious. 

Senator Overman. Forty acres and a mule? 

Mr. BiELASKi. And other things of that sort. One piece of propa- 
ganda that was interesting was that they were rightfully really the. 
original owners of this land, that they were the descendants of the 
Lidians, and that the country rightfully belonged to them, and that 
the white people were wrongly in possession of it. Also that England 
had sided with the South during the Civil War, because she wanted 
to keep«the negroes in slavery, and that therefore the negroes should 
be opposed to England at this time. 

There were all sorts of stories of that kind, but they were never 
brought home to any official German source. 

Senator Overman. I remember receiving some letters from my 
State that there were organizations and meetings held there by col- 
ored people in certain parts of the State with respect to this matter. 

Ma J. Humes. It is my understanding that there have been a great 
many precautions by the Department of Justice and under the 
espionage act for individual offenses in connection with this propa- 
ganda among the colored people, Mr. Bielaski? 

Mr. Bielaski. I suppose so. I do not know how many there have 
been, but there have oeen a great number of prosecutions ; I do not 
know just how many of them were for statements of that kind. 
Some of them were. 

Senator Overman. I want to say that 'they did not take with the 
negroes. The negroes have been very loyal. 

Mr. Bielaski. That is true. 

Just for the information of the committee the Printers' and 
Publishers' Association, Inc., was an effort made, headed by Dr. 



BRSWIKO AKD UQUOB INZ^BSBTB A17D QESMAN PEOPAQANOA* 1575 

Hu^ Schweitzer, a Gennan, and Max W. Stoehr, Emil Kipper, and 
Henry Weisman, to ^t a newspaper which would be a factor in 
influencing public opinion. It was to be organized openly- ^^Oet 
jodr own rcid American newspaper " was the neading of their pros- 
pectus. It provided for the raising of $2,000,000 for the purpose of 
buying a paper. I do not think it ever jgot anywhere. The Gennan 
consul was very much opposed to it. He gave his reason, after com- 
mending all the men, by stating that there was no possibility of a 
paper having those men connected with it being known as anything 
other than a German paper, and that it could not be a factor in 
inflnencing public opinion. 

Mr. O'firian su^ests that we might emphasize who these men 
were a little bit. Dr. Hugo Schweit^r was a very capable chemist, 
connected with the Bayer Chemical Co. 

According to testimony which we have from other German agents, 
he was for years a German a^nt in this country for the purpose of 
reporting back to Germany diemical discoveries for their use over 
there* 

He was mixed up in a number of transactions which we have told 
you something about; for instance, in connection with the German 
daasics, he was the intermediary in handling the money there and 
occupied a very prominent position in New York. 

Emil Elipper, for instance, is now under indictment for treason 
for having assisted known German agents during the time we were 
at war in this country. 

He received communications for them, it is alleged in the charges 
against him, paid mone^ to them, and so on, those agents being the 
two that are also under indictment in New York State. 

Max W. Stoehr was connected with the Woolen Co., the companies 
which I think the Alien Property Custodian has taken charge of. 
Senator Overman. Who is Weismann f 

Mr. BiELAaKi. I think Henry Weismann is a lawyer in New York 
Ci^, who is an American citizen. 
Capt- Lester. He is president of the German- American Alliance. 
Mr. BiELASKi. Yes; he is an American citizen, however. 
Senator Sterling. You mean to say he is now president? 
Capt. liEffTER. He is the president of the State German- American 
Alliance, and also was active with Jeremiah O'Leary in the Friends 
of Peace Society. 

Mr, BiELASKi, Dr- Albert's office, in addition to his propaganda 
work, was engaged in very large numbers of commercial enter- 
prises — the Shipping of material to Germany and the purchase of 
steamers, tiie organization of companies — all that sort of thing ; not 
exactly propaganda, and as to which there are some reasons for not 
lyi^lrifig public aU of the facts at this time. I assume that the com- 
mittee does not care to know about them, except to know that, in a 
^neral way, he was spending some millions of dollars in getting 
into Germany, throuerh adjoining neutral countries, supplies that 
Germany wanted, all, of course, being done under the guise of 
American or other agencies. 
Senator Neuson. Was he successful to any extent t 
Mr. BiEi/ASKi. A great many of his cargoes, I think, wound up in 
the prize courts of Great Britain. Some of them got through. 

8572S— 19— TOt 2 ^18 



1576 BtKEWmO ▲ND liQFOS INTBBB818 AND QBBMAK PBOPAGAKIMU 



One of the most noted instances of where they attempted to ship 
through was in the steamer WUhelmma,' that was a load of food 
supphed, which was sent out on the Wilhelmina intending to go 
straight to Hamburg and to be used as a test case o^ the Britidk 
embargo. 
Senator Nelson. That was meat supplies, was it not? 
Mr. BiELASKi. Lard and wheat, etc. 

Senator Nelsok. Meat supplies, I say, from Chicago^, was it not! 
Mr. BiELASKi. Yes; partly Chicago, but I think it was largely 
wheat and lard and so on. 

It was intended, also, to either get throu^ or to make diplomatic 
difficulties between this country and Great Britain. It was sent for- 
ward under the guise of an American proposition absolutely ; that it 
was American owned; that the cargo was American shipped; and 
that the boat was an American boat. 
The whole enterprise was financed by Germany from the start. 
Senator Nelson. That vessel did not get through, did itt 
Mr. BiELASKi. The vessel was taken into the ports of Great Britain. 
In connection with that there was a veiy interesting thing. One 
of the members of this firm of Hayes, Kauman & Lindheim wrote a 
letter under date of January 22, 1915, to the Secretary of State in 
which he said : 

" The vessel is American. The officers are American. The con- 
signees are American. The cargo is of American manufacture. ^ It 
is an American venture, pure and simple, and no one else has any in- 
terest in it whatsoever.^' 

Mr. Kaufman at that time was the attorney for Mr. Albert. Mr. 
Albert financed the deal, with John Simon; and in point of fact 
there was no real financial interest on the part of any American 
concern at all. 

The facts as to the real nature of the shipment came fully to the 
attention of the State Department at just atx>ut the time thte r^re- 
sentations concerning the WUhelnhina were being made, and, in that 
way, any possibility of serious friction with Great Britain over the 
Wilhehrvma was avoided. 

Senator King. Do you recall whether Mr. Kaufman or aii3rbody 
pretended to represent American consipiors abroad at the prize 
court? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Mr. Hayes went over there and, I think, ^took part in 
that litigation. 
Mr. O'Brian. They engaged a lawyer over there. 
Mr. BiELASKi. Mr. Hayes went over there also. I remember that. 
This particular letter appears to have been dictated by Mr. Lindheim. 
In addition to the moneys spent in New York the German consuls- 
around the country were furnished sums by Von Bemstorff for vari- 
ous purposes. Some of the money so furnished, we believe, was used 
by, for instance, the German consul at Chicago in the American em- 
bargo c<mference, though we C4in not prove that directly. 

AH we can prove is the payment of sums to him from Bemstorff, 
and we know what his interest in the American emlwirgo conference 
was. He also did furnish funds, of course, in connection with the 
Hindu cases which Jacobsen was connected with. 

Out in San Francisco a press bureau was maintained by the con- 
sulate, as indicated by the translation of a letter sent to us afterwards 



BBBWZtfG ASV IMffJOB IKXEBBBIB AND QfiBMAK FBOPAQAVDA. 1577 

by OQ» of the men attached there, whidi I think he thought would go 
on the DeutchUmd, He said : 



Bureau of th« Coosiilate Is under my charge, and I have made it a 
rate t» pat into the papers every week n map drawn b!y me explaining to tlie 
reader, at a glance, the entire situation. I believe my maps are aiding exten- 
alvely In fiunillarlzlng the public with the war situation. 

Then he goes on and telfe something more about them. Interest- 
ingly he saye: 

A oorrespondent of the International News Service, William Bayard Hale, 
the (Hily one who really does sooiethlDg for us in the American press, should 
lie Instructed according. 

That refers to certain lines of propaganda work which he said 
the British were following and which thej were avoiding. He says: 

You must neVer forget that Americans are not Germans, and their foo<l must 
h4* coolced and sen-ed to them to suit their taste. 

Senator Overman. Have you ever estimated, in your office, from 
these documents and from your own knowledge, the total amount of 
money expended by the Germans in this country, approximately? 

Mr. BiEi«ASK.i. That would be rather difficult, Senator, to get ex- 
actly an accurate account, because we do not know the manner in 
winch everj* dollar was spent, by any means. 

Mr. Albert's office handled, so we understand, a complete turn- 
over of $35,000,000. Much of that was used in the purchase of sup- 
pUsB and these ship ventures and things of that kind. I have some 
n^res here, however, which will give you some idea on the subject. 

In addition to the funds that Albert's office had he had certain 
funds of his own which were placed to his credit. The ambassador 
recetTod some funds, entirely outside of Albert's — several million 
doUars; I do not know that we know just what use he made of all 
the money he had. They spent over here about $1,800,000 in the 
Bob Pasha business; about $1,700,000 in the Evening Mail business; 
they qient, I thijik it was, some $400,000 or $500^000 paid to Strauss, 
vfao was handling the Jewish propaganda. The>] spent many thou- 
fluds of dollars in the Irish business, and in getting out their books 
the? spent many thousands of dollars. 

This is a brief statement of the moneys they raised : 

First, a loan, March 1, 1915, nine months, notes due January 1, 
1916, $7,100,000. 

Two years' treasury bonds, due Septeinber 1, 1918, sold mainly to 
German insurance companies doing ousiness in the United States, 
ibout $1,800,000. 

Third, oaae-year German treasury bills, sold June, 1916, due March 
1. 1917, and partly renewed on that date, $3,600,000. 

Total sales of treasury bonds and bill& $12^,500,000. 

They obtained bank credits and bank loans. 

Xaming the banks, they obtained from the Chase Naticmal Bank 
about $2,500,000. 

From the Bankers' Trust Co., $250,000. 

From the (roarantee Trust Co., $450,000. 

From 6. .Vnssinick & Co., $300,000. 

From the Equitable Trust Co., $1,700,000. 

From the Mechanics & Metals National Bank, $1,400,000. 

From Kuhn, Loeb & Co., $400,000. 



1^78 BitEWlN'G AKD LIQUOR IKTteBESlIB AJSTO OBBMAK PSOPAGAHIMU 

' Total funds produced through bank loans and bank credits, 
$7^50,000. 

Kemittances from Reichsbank, department of interior^ war depart- 
ment, and Central Purchasing Agency^ of Berlin, approximatelj 
$7,000,000. 

Funds secured through loans with the German banks, proceeds 
of which were made available in New York, $1,800,000. 

The total funds received as above outlined aggregate $27,850,000. 
In addition, Dr. Albert's office received, of embassy funds, through 
Mr. Hugo Schweitzer, about $150,000 to $200,000. 

Under date of June 21, 1915, one account, which was given a code 
name in their books and had to do with press propaganda, shows the 
sum of $786,000 had been expnended at that time, June 21, 191$. 

Senator Sterling. What did Von Rintelen spend and where did he 
get his money? 

Mr. BrBiiASKi. He had approximately, I think it was, $700,000, 
which was in addition to any of these moneys. 

The money that came through Hugo Schmidt was all for commer- 
cial purposes, except that Bolo Pasha incident, and $15,000 which was 
paid to a man in New Jersey in connection with certain other 
activities. . ' 

Senator Nelson. Can you give us the ramifications of that Bolo' 
Pasha affair in this countrv? He is dead now, and it would not do 
any harm. . " 

Mr. BiELASKi. He is dead. The most interesting thing that I 
have seen in that connection 

Senator Nelson. We want the connection of our people with it — 
people that are living here, or newspapers in this country. 

Mr. BiELASKi. There were no people living here connected with it 
who knew the real facts, so far as we can prove, except German citi- 
zens, with the possible exception — though we do not^ know whether 
Hearst knew about it or not. He was intimately associated with Bolo 
Pasha in meetings, and it was his representative that brought the 
man over to this country. 

Senator Nelson. You mean the Hearst newspaper representative ? 

Mr. BiELASEi. Yes. 

Senator Overman. Did Dr. Hale know, him ? 

Mr. BiELASKL No; this was a man named Bertelli, from France. 

Senator Nelson. Who brought Bolo Pasha over? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes; they came over together. 

Senator Nelson. Was he Hearst's representative over there in 
France? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I think he was the representative of the Interna- 
tional News Service, which, I think, is Hearst's organization. 

Senator Nelson. Can you tell us anything about the connections of 
Bolo, and what he did after he got over here — after he was brought 
over here by this representative of Hearst ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. He came over here and got in touch with Javen- 
stadt, who put him in touch with the German ambassador. The Grer- 
man .ambassador cabled, as you will recall from the cablegrams made 
public by the State Department, and asked for the money. 

Senator Nemon. Who was Pavenstadt, and what were his affilia- 
tions? 



BBEWING AlfD UQUOB INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1579 

Mr. B1ELA8RI. He was a German, now interned; a man of great 
wealth, worth at least $1,000,000. 

Senator Nemon. A resident of this country ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes, senator; a resident of New York City; bom 
in Germany in 1854, and came to the United States in 1876, and he 
was a close friend of Yon Bemstorff's, and acted as intermediary in 
the transfer of the money. 

Senator Nelson. Can you not tell us something about who Bolo 
Pasha affiliated with and associated with, and was in conference 
with in this countiy after he came over here ? 

Mr. BisLASKi. X es ; I can. 

Senator Nelson. I would like to have that. 

Mr. BiffETiASKT. Adolph Pavenstadt was the principal man he met; 
the man who took him down to Von Bemstorff ; and in February 
Bertelli introduced him to Hearst. 

Senator Stebuno. In 1915 was that . 

Mr. BiELASKi. No; 1916. 

Senator Nelson. 1916; that is right. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Hearst invited Bolo and Bertelli to lunch shortlv 
afterwards, and I think Mr. Becker developed, and Mr. Hearst aa- 
mitted, a number of meetings with him — ^I think at the theater, and 
at some dinner at which, of course, a large number of other people 
were present. 

Senator Nelson. What was Bolo's special mission here? 

Mr. BiELASKi. His mission here was to get the funds from the 
German Government to take over one of the most important news- 
papers of France for the purpose of conducting propaganda there. 

Senator Neuson. His mission was to get the funds here to buy a 
newspaper over in France ? 

Mr. BiELASKL Yes, sir. 

Senator Steruno. Were others at that luncheon than Hearst and 
Bok) Pasha? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I do not know Just who were at that luncheon. 
Senator. I do not know that our nles show. 

The investigation in the Bolo Pasha matter was made by I>eputv 
Attorney General Becker, and while he furnished us copies of all 
his reports and that sort of tiling, he knows about the details more 
than we do ; but we can give them to you from our records. 

I did not pay any particular attention to that, because it had no 
particular reference to activities in this country, except the getting 
of the money. It was for use in France. 

Senator I^elson. Yes; but we want to know who were active in 
helping him in getting that money. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Pavenstadt was the only man, I think, in this 
country that we know could be said to have known what he was 
doinff. 

Of course he got the money through ' banks. The money passed 
through the Morgan concern ; but they did not know anything about 
the purpose of it at all. It was a very carefully concealed affair, 
which only Bernstorff and Bolo Pasha and Pavenstadt, possibly, 
knew about. Whether Mr. Hearst faiew about it or not we do not 
know. I think Mr. Hearst has denied that he had any idea what it 
was for. 



1680 BBEWIKG AKD LIQUOB INTEHESTB ANB GEBMAK PEOPAOANDA. 

Senator Sterling. But Bolo Pasha was brought over here by a 
representative of Hearst? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes ; they landed together — Charles F. Bertelli. 

Maj. Humes. His ostensible purpose in being in this country was 
to secure print paper, was it not? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I es ; something of that sort. 

Senator King. It is probably not quite accurate to say that lie was 
brought here by Hearst's representative? 

Mr. BiELASKi. No ; they came together- 
Senator King. They came on the same boat, as did others? 

Capt. Lester. He was introduced to Hearst by Mr. Bertelli ; but 
Bertelli was in Paris in charge of the International News Service, 
and brought Bolo Pasha over here. We have a complete summary 
of the whole Pasha connection, which I have from the Military In- 
telligence files here, and we can put it in at some future time. 

Mr. BiELASKi. The only interesting new thing I know about Bolo 
Pasha that has not been published is that in the book kept by Dr. 
Albert, under date of September 26, 1914, appeared an entry : " Pre- 
pared telegram to Bolo." 

Which was, you see, some time back of his activities over in this 
country, and would indicate a much earlier connection with the 
German interests in this country and Bolo than we have ever other- 
wise developed. 

Senator King. There is nothing to indicate that the money which 
Bolo Pasha obtained was contributed by Americans ? 

Mr. BnsikASKi. Oh, no. 

Senator King. It was German money ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes; arranged for by wireless messages, which the 
State Department has made puhlic. The concerns over nere handling 
the money had no idea that they were handling German money. 

Senator King. The banks here simply had me transaction as they 
would any other transaction — ^not knowing the purposes for which 
the money was to be obtained, or, indeed, the original source from 
which the money came ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. No. Part of the money even went through one of 
the Canadian banks; and of course they had no idea what it was for. 

Senator Nelson. Is that all the information you can give us about 
Bolo Pasha's operations in this country ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I say we have a complete file, Senator, and we could 
give you a great deal more about it; but there was nothing to his 
operations in this country except his getting the money and getting 
away. 

Senator Overman. It is half past 1 now,* and we will take a recess 
until 2.30 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 1.30 o'clock p. m., a recess was taken until 2.80 
p. m.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The subcommittee reconvened, pursuant to the taking of the recess* 
at 2.30 o'clock p. m. 



BRKWIKO AND LIQUOB INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1681 

TESTIHOHT OF HB. A. BBTTCE BIELA8EI— Besumed. 

Mr. BiEi^ASKi. I made reference a day or two a^o to a Dr. Karl A. 
Bertling who was sent here right at the outbreak of the European 
war, by the German Government, and used particularly in prop- 
aganda work in South America, organized a caole service, and so on. 
I simply wanted to put in the record copies of a couple of his receipts 
to the German Embassy, at $160, a month. 

The receipts referred to are here printed in the record as follows : 

■ 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 132. 

$150.00. Einhundert TnnMg DoUar — Gent babe Icb fur melnen Unterbalt 
in den Vereinigten Staaten wabrend des Monats September 15, von der Kasse 
dor KalserUcben Botscbaft In Cedarburst gazalbt erbalten. 

New York, den 2. September 1915. 

Dr. Kabl O. BsBTCiNa. 

DUPLIKAT. 

Ton der Kalserlicb Deutscben Botscbaft in Wasbington. $1,080.00 (Eintan- 
sand sechabundert-acbtzig Dollar — Cent) fur melnen Unterbalt in den yere- 
InlSten Stnaten von meiner Ankunft dasselbBt (Sept. 1914) bU einscbliessel. 
Aasmt 1915. empfangen zu baben, bescbelnlgt blennit 

New York, Waablngton, D. O., den 1. Angoat, 1915. 

Dr. Kabl O. BEBixmG. 

Senator OysRMAN. Go ahead, Mr. Bielaski. 

Mr. Bielaski. Bertling was actiyely in touch with Demburg and 
the embassy and Von Papen and the rest of these fellows in their 
propaganda work oyer here. He was connected also with the Oer- 
man Uniyersity League, about which we talked some yesterday. He 
WKS not a particularly important character, except that he was a 
paid propagandist, paid by the Germany Embassy. 

Senator OyERMAK. Haye you got anjrthing in connection with the 
actiyities down in Mexico, arousing sentiment against this country 
ind in f ayor of the Germans. 

Mr. Bielaski. Yes; I think I did tell you yesterday about the pur- 
chase of the paper La Bef orma. We haye the proof showing the 
money paid ana the contract They took the paper oyer and the 
paper became, as they said, German, heart and soul, or something of 
the kind, and was a Gterman or^an. 

Senator OyBRMAN. That was m the City of Mexico? 

Mr. Bielaski. The paper La Beforma was at Tampico. They 
maintained in Mexico a seryice with ofiSces. 

Senator Nelson. Haye you anything else with reference to the 
propaganda in Mexico, except the purchase of that paper ? 

Mr. Bielaski. Nothing except the purchase of that newspaper, 
and the circulation from their central office in Mexico City each day 
of this pro-German and anti- American propaganda. It was directed, 
of course, by the German ambassador down there. Von Eckhardt. 

Also we bad some information as to the sending of films to be 
used down in Mexico as a pro-German propaganda. 

Senator Nelson. Nothing about the connection with that Mexican 
that our Goyemment arrested at the border as he was returning to 
Mexico? 

Mr. Bielaski. Huerta? 



I 582 BBSWIKG AKII^ UQT70B INTEEBSOB AKD OEBMAN t^BOPAQAKBA.. 

Senator Neuson. Yes ; Huerta. 

Mr. BcELASKi. I do not consider that propaganda exactly. There 
is in our files a suggestion, but we have no proof that Rintelen, when 
he was here, proposed to finance Huerta. 

Senator Nelson. Yes. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Placing him in control in Mexico ; but there was no 
definite proof about that. One witness, I think, related what Rin- 
telen told him, but so far as proving that Huerta was financed bjr 
Rintelen or other German agents is concerned we can not prove it. 

Senator Nelson. Is there anything to indicate that they were 
financed by interests in this country? 

Mr. BiELASKi. No ; I do not think so. Not in the Huerta case. 

Capt. Lester. That is one of the activities of Frederico Stallforth. 

Mr. B1EI4ASKI. Frederico Stallforth's activities were quite numer- 
ous. He was a banker of German origin, who was in the banking^ 
business in Mexico, who came to this country shortly after the start 
of the European war on account of conditions in Mexico. He was an 
intimate associate of Rintelen, and knew about all of Rintelen^s 
activities. 

Senator Nelson. Anything in connection with Villa? 

Mr. BiELASKi. No; nothing. 

Senator Sterling. Have you any specimens of the literature sent 
out by the German propagandists in ]^ico ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I think we have in our files quite a bit, and I am 
sure that the State Department has an immense amoimt. 

The work down there, of course, in Mexico City, was very largely 
imder the direction of the State Department and the military attach^ 
at Mexico City, and they are more fully informed as to affairs inside 
of Mexico than we are. 

Mai. Humes. Mr. Bielaski, this morning you were discussinjg 
labor's national peace council. What were the activities of Hannis 
Taylor in connection with that? 

Mr. Bielaski. Hannis Taylor was employed by Martin. 

Senator Nelson. By this Martin, who was associated with the 
"Wolf of Wall Street''? 

Mr. Bielaski. Yes, sir. He was employed, I think, to write opin- 
ions to the general effect that moneys in the Federal reserve banks 
could not be lawfully used in the purchase of bonds of the allied 
Governments, and that was circulated very largely by these fellows. 
He did some other work for Martin. 

Here is a copy of a telegram addressed to Martin at the Knicker- 
bocker Hotel, dated October 11, 1916. It reads as follows : 

BnoLABKi Exhibit No. 188. 

Washington, D. C, October 11, 11-22 o- 
H. B. Martin 

Knickerbocker Hotel, 

Have you received my letter when will yon be here 

Hannis Tatxob 

11.58 a 

Here is a photographic copy of a letter addressed to Martin by 
Taylor in which he says as follows : 



BBB1¥IHG AKD LIQUOB INTEBE8TS AND GEBHAN PBOPAOANDA. 158ft 

BiKLABXi Exhibit No. 134. 
[Hannls Taylor, connselor at law, Maryland Building.] 

Washington, D. C, Oct 20, 1915. 

Dkab Mb. Mabtik : I had hoped to receive by this time your ck. for at least 
$250. As yon yourself contracted the obligation and made a very explicit 
pTomiDe, I should think that you would feel In honor bound to pay at least 
1/2 of your obligation. Let me know in answer to this whether you propose 
to pay or not 

Tours very truly, H. TayijOb. 

Mr. H. B. Martin, 

y. Y. City. 

I think that Mr. O^Brian told me that in his cross-examination of 
Taylor he admitted receiying about $750. 

Senator Nelson. From S£irtin ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. 

Mr. O'Brian. I am not quite sure about that amount. It happened 
that I tried that case. It was either $500 or $750 from Martin and 
Fowler. 

Senatar Nelson. In what connection ? 

Mr. O'Brian. Taylor was employed by these men to write a couple 
of legal opinions, so-called; one of the character just described by 
Mr- BielasKi. The other I can not just recall. Then these opinions of 
his weve printed in a broad sheet tnat they ^ot out and distributed at 
labor picnics and at various labor union meetings in the West, tending 
to show that the attitude of the administration on certain questions 
was erroneous, and that the attiude on the British blockade was 
illegal and unjustified. 

Mr. Bielaski. It seems to me that one of those had to do with the 
I^ality of carrying munitions of war on passenger ships. 

Mr. O'Brian. Yes; I think so. We have all those opinions in our 
files. We did not expect that question to be raised, and did not bring 
them with us. 

Maj. Humes. Mr. Taylor also addressed one of the meetings when 
Labor's Peace Council was organized, July 81. did he not? 

Senator Overman. At the St. James Hotel f 

Mr. O'Brian. No; the real convention of Labor's National Peace 
Council was held at the New Willard Hotel, July 31, 1915, at which 
these so-called labor delegates — a considerable numoer of delegates 
from the grange were present. The grange i>eople withdrew early. 
They became suspicious of the tone of the meeting. But at that meet- * 
ing Mr. Hannis Taylor, I think, made quite an address, at one of the 
first meetings. 

Senator Nelson. Was there not a propaganda carried on to this 
effect, that it was a violation of neutrality for our people to loan 
money to the allied governments ?• 

Mr. O'Brian. Yes. 

Scaiator Neubon. A propaganda of that character was carried on ? 

Mr. O'Brian. Yes. 

Senator Nelson. And the Federal Reserve Board once forbade itt 

Mr. O^RiAK. Yes; there was a propaganda of that kind carried 
on. Ex-Congressman Fowler was of tnat number. 

Senator Nklbon. What State is he jbomt 



t 



1684 BBEWINQ AKD XJQUOB INTEBESTB AND GEBMAK PBOPAQANDA. 

Mr. O'Brian. I think he is from southern Illinois. And that 
literature was circulated particularly in the Middle West, in the 
agrarian Slates; very widely circulated. 

Senator Nelson. I recall that the Federal Reserve Board at one 
time issued a sort of a recommendation against investing in these 
various bonds — ^bonds of the allies — don't you? 

Mr. O'Brian. I think I have a recollection of that sort. 

Senator Nelson. Yes ; as a matter of fact, that vras the case. 

Senator Overman. Mr. O'Brien, who presided over that meeting 
when Taylor made that speech ? 

Mr. O'Brl^n. Was it Martin ? 

Mr. Bielaski. No; Martin kept in the background all the time. 
Was it not the vice president? 

Mr. O'Brian. Buchanan had resigned a couple of days before. 

Senator Overman. Was Lamar down there? 

Mr. Bielase:!. Lamar was downstairs. He never appeared in any 
of these meetings. [After referring to memoranda:] Fowler pre- 
sided on Saturday artemoon. Saturday evening Mr. Oliver Wilson 
presided. That was before the people from the grange smelled a rat. 
They withdraw in a body and would have nothing to do with it ; and 
Fowler spoke that night on the embargo on the export of munitions. 
Hannis Taylor addr^sed the meeting on the theme that the export, 
of munitions was a violation of international law. He advocated a 
request to President Wilson to use the influence of the United States 
forpeace. 

There was a memorial introduced, and that is what broke up tl^e 
harmony of the meeting, which was distinctly critical of the atti- 
tude of the President. The farmers refused to stand for any such 
thing. They became suspicious and withdrew from the meeting. 

The meeting continued on Simday morning, but gradually petered 
out. That was on Sunday morning, and on Sunday afternoon the 
famous strike resolution appears to have been adopted^ which was 
greatly in controversy on the trial. It was a resolution, m substance, 
mat recommendations be made to unions to take care of men who 
might strike in behalf of preventing — ^with the purpose of prevent- 
ing — ^the shipment of arms and anmiunition. 

Senator Sterling. How largely was this meeting attended? 

Mr. O'Brian. There were about 200 delegates. Their expenses 
were all paid, as I recall it, or practically all paid, out of German 
money that came through Dr. Aloert or Mr. Martin ; and Martin was 
the paymaster. 

The breakdown of that whole conspiracy, which was a very well 
organized conspiracy, was due to the fact, chiefljr, of the integrity 
of the average wage earner. They became suspicious, after the first 
30 days or so, because of the fact that money for expenses could be 
had; and the movement ultimately failed, partly because of the 
distinct opposition of Gompers, who was outspoken in his opposition 
to it, but chiefly, I think, due to the intrinsic integrity of the average 
fellow m these various unions, who would have nothing to do with it, 
and who became suspicious and thought something was wrong. 

Senator Sterling. Was the attendance of the members of the 
grange financed also by German money ? 



BUBWIKO AKD UQXJOB INTBKBBIB A.ND GEBMAN FBOPAGANDA. 1585 

Mr. O'Briak. I am not sure. I would not like to answer that with- 
out ascertaining the facts. I think the expenses were paid, but I 
would like to look at the record before answering definitely. It is 
two years since that happened. 

Capt. Lester. We know they had their expenses paid from the 
Middle West and Southwest on here and while they were here and 
the expense of returning there. 

Mr. O'Brian. The excuse that was given whenever questions 
were asked about the source from which the money came always 
was that a group of pacifist philanthropists were honestly inter- 
ested in preserving peace and were providing this money* This 
was the stock answer that was always made. But eventually that 
excuse failed to satisfy the average workingman, who backed out of 
it It was a very well organized movement. They sent many lec- 
turers through the Middle West, and they addressed the central labor 
councils in most of the larce cities of the North, always in the 
interest of peace. That was the main theme. It was a very carefully 
disguised movement. It is rather surprising that it did not succeed 
better than it did. 

Senator Sterling. Taking the portion that the shipment of arms 
and munitions was a breach of neutrality ? 

Mr. O'Bbian. Yes ; and making, over and beyond that, what they 
called a Christian appeal to the individual workman not to take part 
ID the production of arms and ammunition which would lead to the 
destruction of human life abroad in a quarrel in which we had no 



Maj. HuMKS. Mr. Bielaski, Hannis Taylor also prepared an opin- 
ion to the effect that the draft act was unconstitutional, did he not? 

Mr. O'Brian. Later on. 

Mr. BiEUkSKi. That was long after we were at war. He con- 
ducted a casein I think, which went up to the Supreme Court, and he 
solmutted bnefs in that case involving the constitutionality of the 
draft act, in an effort to have the draft act declared void. 

Maj. Humes. Was he compensated for Uiat service, and if so, by 
wIxHn, if you know ? 

Mr, Bielaskl I do not know how he was compensated. I know 
that the Supreme Court administered quite a rebuke to him, in its 
opinion. 

Mr. OTBrian. Because of the tone of his brief ? 

Mr. BnsLASKi. Because of the tone of his brief. 

I have here information with respect to a number of small pay- 
ments of two or three' hundred dollars to little foi^eign-language 
newspapers, or intimations of it, that I do not know are worth in- 
quiring into. 

Senator Neijh>n. Have you a list of the newspapers? 

Mr. Bielaski. I can list them. I can get them up for you. 

Senator Neubok. Will you prepare a list and put it in the record ? 

Mr. Bielaski. Just very little amounts, and very little papers, 
which were given little subsidies. 

Senator Im^sox. Yes. I think that should be put in the record. 
It is a good plan to know who bit. 

Mr. BiELAaKi. Yes ; I will put in a memorandum. 






1586 BREWING AND LIQUOR INTEBE8T6 AND GERMAN PROPAGAHfilA^ 

» • 

(The memorandum referred to, furnished by Mr. Bielaski, is here 
printed in the record as follows:) 

(Photographic copies of letters In the possessloa of the department Indicate 
the following as to certain foreign-language newspapers : ) 

BiELABKi ExHiBrr No. 135. 

Desteaptate Rouiaue — Roumanian Paper — New York City. 

On September 16, 1915, E. Zwiedinek, of the Austro-Hungarian Embaasy, 
wrote the Consulate General in New York City inclosing check for $400 to be 
paid this paper, and requested that a receipt be sent for the $200 which had 
been previously paid this paper. 

Illustrovani List— New York City. 

On January 10, 1916, E. Zwiedinek, of the Austro-Hungarian Embassy, wtoCe 
the Consulate. General, New York City, and instructed him to pay $100 p^- 
month in February and March 1916, to this paper. Instructions were also 
given that $100 per month be paid this paper up to July 1916, if the subsidy was 
needed. 

Krajan— Slavish Weekly, 319 Bast 71st Street, New York City. 

The Austro-Hungarlan Embassy on September 3, 1915, sent the Consulate 
General at New York City $250 to be paid this paper. 

Telegram Codzienny — ^Polish Paper, New York City. 

On November 5, 1915, the Vice Consul, New York City, wrote the Austro- 
Hungarian Embassy that the subsidy of $700 granted to the above paper had 
been paid in full. 

Mr. BnsLASKi. The general attitude of Mr. William Randolph 
Hearst's papers on the European war is a matter, I think, of public 
knowledge. 

' He was the most important newspaper man whose papers took a 
friendly attitude toward Germany from the outbreak of the war. 

If this inquiry were limited to the question of paid Gemitut 
propaganda, I do not think it could properly include Mr. Hearst, so 
far as I know. We have no evidence, whatever, that Mr. Hearst in 
any way received any funds or any profit from the attitude of his 
papers, from the German Government, or anyone acting for it. 

Senator Nelson. But he was very active in his papers in behalf of 
the German Government all the time, was he not ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. He was, from the beginning of the war, I think„ 
very active. 

Senator Nelson. Of all the leading English newspapers, he was 
the most pronounced in his activity in that direction, was he not? 

Mr. BiELASKi. He was. 

Senator Overman, How about after we declared war? 

Mr. BiELASKi. After the war was declared, his attitude continued 
to be very questionable. Many of the publications which he printed. 
or which were printed in his papers after we went into war, if 
printed later on^ after the espionage act, especially as it was amended 
and became a law, would have subjected him to prosecution. 

I have already read some of the communications between von 
BernstorfF and the Foreign Office which make reference to Mr. 
Hearst, the most pointed oeing the one in which he stated, with 
respect to the Washington Post, "that it will be lost to the cause 
unle&s, as is very desirable, it can be placed in the hands of Mr. 
Hearst.'' 

Senator Nelson. Yes. 

Senator Steruno. Who makes that statement? Von Bemstorff ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. There is von BemstorflTs communication to the 
German Foreign Office. 



BBBWXETO AJn> UQUOB IKTBBB8IB AlH) QSBMAN PBOPAGAKDA. 1587 

Senator Kslsox. In other words, the plan was to get the Washing- 
ton Poet and put it in the editorial charge of Hearst, was it not? 

Mr. BiBLASKi. In the control of Hearst, so that he would control 
its policy in some way. 

Senator Necbok. Yes. That .was BemstorfTs scheme ? 

Mr. BiEx^SKi. Yes ; that was the plan he suggested as desirable. 

This is an extract, I believe, from one of Mr. Fuehr's reports to 
<jermany [reading] : 

BnELABKI EiXHIBIT NO. 186. 

On tbe other hand, the attitude, friendly from the t>eglDnlng, of the ten 
iMiperB belonging to the Hearst syndicate, which reach more than three million 
readers dally In all parts of the country, has recently become still more 
markedly friendly as a result of the boycott imposed by England upon the 
International News Service and the exclusion of all Hearst publications from 
nrcnlation in Canada. Mr. Hearst has replied to the Inconceivably short- 
sighted action of the Britlah authorities against his news service in a series of 
of sharp ftall-page editorials directed against the British censorship, which 
editorials must have considerably shaken the already weakened confidence of 
the American press in the news emanating from England. In the articles in 
<piestion, not only was the present English system of suppressing and distorting 
the truth subjected to annihilating criticism, but it was also shown that 
America has been for years systematically misled by London in its Judgment 
of foreign people ; as for instance, of the " degenerate Frenchmen." 

Moreover, It was repeatedly demonstrated In detail by the Hearst papers 
that the situation of the Central Powers in the autumn of 1916 was an abso- 
lutely brilliant one. while that of Engli^nd and her allies was entirely hopeless. 
It must be emphasized that the Hearst papers are nevertheless not to be dassi- 
lied as blind champions of the German cause, since they print many things 
which could scarcely be to our taste ; for example, occasional articles about the 
" German danger,** an idea which has received fresh impetus as a result of the 
-ezirtoits of the ** U-Deutschland ** and partlcularty of the " U f»8 " and which 
is being used as an argument for the expansion of the Army and Navy. The 
fkct is that the papers referred to stand upon the ground of a sound American 
poUejt but with their sharply anti-English tendency are much more effective 
ka support of our cause than newspapers with pronounced pro-German orien- 
tfttlon could possibly be. Furthermore, the greatest value of the German-ophite 
attitude of the organs of the Hearst syndicate is to be found in the fact that 
tlMir influence extends not to a single city or to a small part of the land, but 
ifnr the wtiole Union. An English critic, S. K. Ratcliffe, recently wrote in the 
" Uancliester Guardian ** concerning American newspapers ; " Northern papers 
are of no account in the South ; the most Influential New York journals do not 
exist for the people of the Pacific Coast, and carry very little weight in the 
Middle States. Hence snmmarles of opinion . . .*' confined to a small number 
of papers published East of the Mississippi are Impecfectly representative of 
the repoblic*' 

It is this correctly discerned evil of the geographical limitation imposed upon 
the influence of the foremost American papers which is practically overcome 
in the case of the Hearst organization^ For the editorials which appear today 
in the ''New York American** are printed tomorrow in the. affiliated papers 
of Boston, Chicago and Atlanta, and on the following day in San Francisco. 

SenatcNr Nelson • How do you account for the friendliness of the 
Hearst papers and of Hearst to the Oennan cause? 

Mr. BiELASKi. How do I account for it? 

Senator Nelson. Yes. 

Mr. BosLASKi. I think Hearst has always been violently anti- 
British. 

Senator Nelson. Yes. 

Mr. BiSLASKi. He was also, I think, admittedl;^ personally friendly 
with Ambassador Bemstorff, was acquainted with Albert, and that 
may have had something to do with it. 



1588 BBEWING AKD UQUOK IKTBBiBSlB AN0 QERMAKPBOPAGAlffUA. 

Senator Nelsoh. Was not a peirt of his agitation, too, the danger 
from Japan? Was he not always advocating that propaganda! 

Mr. BiELASKi. He has always been violently anti^Japanese also. 

Senator Nemon. Yes; and always preaching the danger that the 
country was subject to from Japan ? 

Mr. ousLASKL Yes, sir. 
' Capt. Lesteb. And Mexico also, Mr. Bielaski; was not that the 
fact? His publications were directed to the attempt to get interven- 
tion in Mexico, about the time we entered the war, on the side of the 
allies ? 

Mr. Bielaski. Yes; I think he went so far,' in 1917, as to urge that 
we keep our Army here for use on the Mexican border instead of 
sending it abroad. You will recall that his papers persistently 
opposed the sending of any troops to France. He wanted us to fight 
the German Government over here, but not in the allied countries. 

Senator Nelson. Yes; to get the Germans over in Mexico, and 
then whip them. 

Mr. Bielaski. Mr. Fuehr, in a report about the end of May, 1916, 
said: 

Only the following papers can be described as really neutral : The New York 
Evening Mail, The Milwaukee Free Press, The Washington Post, The Chicago 
Tribune, and the Hearst papers : New York American, New York Journal, Chi- 
cago Examiner, Evening American, Boston American, Allanta Georgian, San 
Francisco Examiner and Call, Los Angeles BiXaminer, and the Evening Herald. 

Of course the New York Evening Mail, I suppose, was owned by 
Germany. The Milwaukee Free Press is a German- American paper 
that has been in constant difficulty with the Government ever since 
the war started. The Washington Post for a time was pro-Grerman^ 
until it changed its policies. 

Senator Nelson. It was very bad up to the time that McLean died. 

Senator Overman. You say the Chicago Tribune was included? 

Mr. Bielaski. The Chicajro Tribune is mentioned. 

Senator Nelson. I used to read the Post mornings, and sit down 
and swear over it. But after McLean died, he evidently went to a 
good place, because the paper changed its tone. For a couple of 
years we only had one fair paper here in reference to this German 
propaganda, and that was the Star. 

Senator Sterling. Who were some of the editorial writers for Mr. 
Hearst during this time? 

Mr. Bielaski. 1 think Mr. Brisbane was one of his editorial writ- 
ers. I really do not know enough about the Hearst organization in- 
side to say. Senator. Mr. Merrill — ^I do not faiow whether he was an 
editorial writer or not. He was one of the men who made the ar- 
rangements with Hale about his trip abroad. 

Senator Sterling. Do you know for what papers Brisbane wrote? 

Mr. Bielaski. I assume for the entire Hearst syndicate. 

Senator Nelson. Did you say he was one of the men — ^Mr. Bris- 
bane — ^that made arrangements for Hale to go abroad? 

Mr. Bielaski. No, sir; a man named Merrill, I think it was, if I 
am not mistaken. 

Senator Nelson. For Merrill to go abroad? 

Mr. Bielaski. No, Senator; Merrill made the arrangements on 
behalf of Hearst witn Hale. 

Senator Nelson. And Merrill was the man who accompanied Bola 
back here ? 



BfiBWnTQ ASTD LIQUOR IKIXBK81B AND GEBHAN «H)PAOANDA. 1589 

Mr. Bi£x^\8Ki. No, sir: they are entirely different. Bertelli was 
tlie name of that man. 

Senator Overman. Was the Chicago Tribune engaged in any prop- 
mnnda! 

JMr. BnuLSKi. I think the attitude ascribed to the Chicago Tri-. 
biine resulted from the correspondent that they had abroad. I Uiink 
his name was Bennett, if I am not mistaken, who only comparatively 
recently returned to this country, with his wife. He, admittedly. 
had an extremely pro-German attitude. I think the character oi 
his diroaches back, and their reproduction in the Tribune, is what 
lead Mr. Fuehr to describe the Tribune as neutral. 

Mr. Fuehr, in another report, says : " Only a few journals, among 
those the newspapers belonging to the Hearst s-yndicate, believe in 
• A stalemate or a victory of the Teutonic allies.' " 

Again: "The interview granted by your Excellency to the Ameri- 
can joomalist Hale was prmted in a most impressive manner bv the 
11 Hearst paoers, and also by all the other subscribers of the 
International News Service. It occupied the entire front page on 
the Kew Yqjjc American on Thanksgiving day, and was adorned 
with your Excellency's portrait Three days later this paper re- 
peated the publication, stating that it had been repeatedly requested 
lo do so." 

Anin: "The papers which are friendly to Germany, especially 
the Hearst papers, declare themselves emphatically in favor of a 
general embargo upon foodstuffs, hinting more or less openly that 
such a measure would compel England to make peace.^' 

Our reeords show that Mr. Hearst went to the office of Dr. Albert, 
45 Broadway, on June 24, 1915. What the purpose of the call was 
is not known. 

One of the men convicted in the Sanders- Wunnenberg case told 
us, as I said the other day, that in the Hearst news reports from 
Hale back to the country were to be enclosed or concealed cipher 
measages for the German Government. But he indicated that that 
was not actually accomplished, because on our entrance into the war, 
that put an end to that plan. 

This same man statea that William Bandolph Hearst had Bem- 
storff at his house several times. But I understand Mr. Hearst ad- 
onts that he and Bemstorff . were friendly and that thev were to- 
gether a good many times. He also stated that Mr. Hearst was 
looked upon in Germany as the biggest man in America, and that 
the German Government had asked Hearst to send Hale to Germany. 

Mr. Albert wrote to Mr. Hearst, under date of November 18, 1916, 
Ktating this: 

Taking advantage of, I am sorry to say, only slight acquaintance, I here beg 
to send ymi copies of letters I have exchanged with the Embassy. 

It was just regretting that Hearst would not or could not send a 
moving-picture man to Germany under the circumstances. 

Hearst wrote Bemstorff, also, to send a moving-picture man to 
Berlin. This letter reads as f ollow§ : 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 137. 

New York Aicebican, 

December IS, t915. 

Mt Deab OouiiT VOJ9 Bebnstobfi^; I am very glad to hear that the moving 
picture matter can be arranged, so that we can expect German pictures. Of 



1690 BBBWINO AKD UQUOB INT£EE»18 AJSTD GB8HAK PBOPAOANDA. 

oourae, you know that I am anxious to do thU tor every reason. I have a 
moving picture man in Holland, whom I can send promptly to Berlin, or If 
desirable, on account of letters of introduction, passport, etc., I can send one 
of our I)e0t men Immediately from here. 

Many thanks for your interest in this matter. 

Mrs. Hearst is getting along very well indeed, and sends her kindest reinein- 
branoes. 

Very sincerely, OEZ. W. R. Hkabst. ' 

Count J. VON BEKNSTOiirr, Qermah Bmbastyf WoMMngton, D, O, 

Senator Sterling. That is from Hearst to Bemstorff? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. 

Mr. Bemstorflf's reply is as follows : 

BiELASKi Exhibit No. 188. 
[German Bmbany, J. Mo. A8171.] 

Washikgton, D. C, December 14, 191S, 

My Dear Hkabst : With man^r thanks for your favor of the 13th inst I beg 
to say that I can arrange the matter any way you like. If you wish me to do 
so, I can send a wireless message to my Qovemment asking them to instruct 
our Minister at the Hague to give all the facilities possible to your moving 
picture man so that he can reach Germany. As I said, however, I can also 
arrange the matter the other way. 

Very sincerely yours, okz. J. Bebnstobfv. 

Wm. R. Heasst, Esq., Riverside Drive d 86th Street, New York City. 

There was a considerable demre on the part of the men in the news- 

giper business to obtain the exclusive rights of wireless service from 
ermany, and there are some telegrams here which indicate that 
Mr. Hearst was very anxious to obtain the service. That is the only 
thing that we have m our files which in any way indicates something 
Mr. Hearst might expect to have received in the way of a favor from 
Germany. 

This telegram from Berlin to Dr. Fuehr says : 

BnCLASKI E2XHIBIT No. ISO. 

Dr. Wilhelm been several days urging arrangement like that proposed your 
telegram and working understanding already reached. Inform Hearst and 
suggest giving Wilhelm full authority. 

It is our guess that " Dr. Wilhelm " was William Bayard Hale ; 
but that is a guess. 

October 26, 1916, the following was sent to William Bayard Hale, 
Berlin : 

BistASKi Exhibit No. 140. 

Mr. Hearst dictated following reply quote Intemewsand international fea- 
ture service supply twelve hundred and eighty important newspapers additional 
Hearst papers their clients in every important town city United States inter- 
news also covers Canada South America collect supplies better fairer report 
•ban any other news association this proved by regular expansion intemews 
and rapid increase its clients while other news associations standing stiller 
Dackwarding intemews can most certainly supply Germany with best most 
detailed news service available America or with condensed or completer news 
service as required associated with intemews and international feature service 
are newspaper feature king feature Pacific news and international film services 
and Hearst pictorial a moving picture service appearing practically every Im- 
portant moving theatre in United States also associated with them are inter- 
national library a book publishing concem and international magazine company 
publishing Oosmopolitan Hearst Good Houseke^ing magazine Harpers Bazar 



fiBBWIKG AND LIQUOB UrTEEE&TB AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1691 

Buiuerous other periodicals circulation these magazines two millions monthly 
•circulation Hearst newspapers clients intemews International film and iDterna- 
tional feature service undoubtedly at least three quarters people of this country 
directly reached. 

Fbed Wilson. 

I take it that was a telegram sent to present strongly the advantages 
that making an arrangement with his service would have. 

Senator Nelson. Mr. Hearst was the main spoke in this service, 
was he not? 

^Ir. BiEi^ASxi. Oh, yes ; Mr. Hearst, I assume 

Senator Neuson, What do you call that special service? 

Mr. BiELASKi. The International News Service, I think it is called. 

Senator Nelson. He was the main spoke in it, was he not? 

Mr.^ BiELASKi. Yes ; I think so. 

Mai. Humes. Do you remember an incident in connection with a 
man hy the name of Lincoln, an Englishman, who was a fugitive 
fnxn justice in this country and had connection with those papers ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes; Lincoln was a man wanted in England who 
had been arrested and held for extradition. He was of German 
origin, and had heeiL I think, in the British Parliament, in some 
way, and got into difficulties over there in violating some laws with 
respect to propertv. . He escaped from jail and came over here, and 
while he was out ne continuously wrote the New York American, I 
dunk it wa»— Mr. Hearst's paper — ^letters about his whereabouts, and 
90 on. It was with some difficulty that he was recaptured. 

Maj. Humes. What was the attitude of the papers toward the 
Department of Justice in assisting in the apprehension of this man ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. They did not assist.^ 

Maj. HiTHES. Were his articles printed in the papers during this 
period while he was a fugitive? 

Mr. BiELASKi. His letters were printed in the papers. The gen- 
eral atmosphere of the thing was that the papers was rather oelit- 
tling the efforts of the Department of Justice to capture this man. 
Nevertheless, he was captured. 

Maj. Humes. What year was that? Do you remember? 1916 ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. 1916, 1 think. It was during the war time. 

Maj- Humes. Mr. Bielaski, have you the **Pahn Beach" tele- 
grams between Hearst and his papers? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes: we have a photographic set of them which 
has been furnished to us by the Naval Intelligence Service some 
time ago. They called them to our attention and they furnished us 
a set. 

Maj. Humes. Will you submit those to the committee? 

Mr. Bielaski. As a lump? 

Maj. Humes. I suppose the committee wants them read in the 
u^tual way. 

Senator Stehxing. May they not be read ? 

M-i). Humes. Yes; I say 1 suppose the compaittee wants them 
x-ead in the usual way. Bead them please, Mr. Bielaski. 

Mr. Bielaski. These are arranged chronologically, I think. 

This is io Phillip Francis, New York American, in which he 
said. February 21, 1917: 

There nhoald be a viKorous attack ou the espionaj^e bill. Note that Senator 
Oimmlxi^ ^lyN flie meaf^ure is the most stringent and drastic ever proposed to 



1592 BREWING AND UQUOB INTEBESTB AND GEBMAN PBOPAGANDA* 

cnrb a free people In time of peace or war. The Government would have abso- 
lute power, In war time, to suppress newspapers, and prevent debate in Con- 
gress. It mlKht even be held a criminal offense for two dtisEens to dl8Ciia» 
with each other questions of military policy. 

Senator Kikg. I am not quite sure, Mr. Chairman, that I see any 
relevancy in this testimony. 

I was in favor of the espionage bill, and aided the chairman of 
this committee in preparing some features of it. I can readily ap- 
preciate, however, that men mi^ht differ as to the wisdom of that 
bill, and honestly differ. Indeed, there were many of our patriotic 
people in the United States that felt that such legislation as that 
was improper and harmfuL Now, if this merely is to show that 
certain newspapers — ^I do not know, having just come in, to which 
newspaper this refers, if any. It is merely an effort, now, to show 
that certain newspapers, or certain individuals, oi)posed the passage 
of the espionage bul, it seems to me that that is not relevant or 
material to the investigation being conducted. 

Senator Overman. I do not know what is in it. 

Mr. O'Brian. On behalf of the Attorney General, Mr. Chairman* 
I would like to say that these telegrams relate to the internal policy 
of Mr. Hearst and his papers. They are not connected witn an^ 
German agent in any way, but consist of instructions given to his 
editors. 

I would suggest that the committee look at the fiUe and see whether 
the committee desires that they, or any part of them, be read, under 
the suggestion just made bv Senator King. 

They are not a part of German propaganda, in the sense that they 
originated with Grerman agents. 'Do I make myself clear on that? 
They relate to the internal conduct of Mr. Hearst's papers under 
his own direction, and I would suggest that the committee look them 
over and see whether they desire them read into the record. 

Senator Nelson. I differ entirely with Senator King. It was very 
important to pass such legislation as that, and if any leading news- 
paper opposed it and attacked it unreasonably, I think that was 
unpatriotic and disloyal, under the circumstances. 

Mr. O'Brian. I am not expressing any opinion, myself. Senator^ 
on my own behalf or on benalf of the Attorney tieneral. I am 
merely making the suggestion that the committee look these papers 
over and determine for themselves what they wish to put into the 
record. 

Senator Overman. The newspaper men suggested an amendment 
of the bill, which we accepted verbatim et literatim, and then they 
began, after our accepting it, a propaganda against the bill. 

Senator Kiko. In reply to the statement made by Senator Nelson^ 
I think that his position is untenable. I think that this is a free 
country in time of war and when we are in time of peace, and that 
men may hon^tly differ, without being branded as being disloyal or 
unpatriotic, as to the internal policies of our Government and as 
to policies which the Government may pursue. 

It is not unpatriotic, in my opinion, for a Senator, a private citi- 
zen, or a newspaper, to oppose the enactment of legislation which 
mav be deemed by that person. Senator, or newspaper to be unwise 
and inopportune. 



B&EWIHG AND UQUOfi INX£B£6IS AND G£BMAX PBOPAGANDA. 1693 

After the legislation has been enacted, then it would be highly 
unpatriotic to oppose its enforcement. 

I know of many patriotic people — some of theui Senators and 
Congressmen — 'who did not thmk that the occasion called for this 
espionage bUl. I did, and heartily supported it, and voted for it. 
Yet I would feel that it was highly unfair for me to brand everybody 
who differed from me as unpatriotic. 

Maj, HuMBS, By way of explanation, I will say that I suggested 
to Mr. Bielaski the production of these, not because of that telegram, 
but I classed them together as the '*' Palm Beach '' tele^ams, accept- 
ing the common expression that seems to have been aoopted. Some 
of these^ telegrams include matters between Hearst and Hale while 
he was in Germany, instructions as to how to carry news matter in 
the papers, and there is only one telegram that related . to the 
espionage bill. 

There are a great many subjects covered, and for Senator King's 
information I want to call his attention to the fact that there is 
only one of these telegrams that refers to the espionage act. I have 
a copy of them, Senator, if you want to look at them and see the 
various subject matters covered. . . 

Senator Kixa I suggest, with respect to these matters as to which 
there maj be some honest difference of opinion as to their relevancy 
or materiality^ that the committee have a chance to examine them and 
determine that question before they go into the record. 

Senator Overman. We will take that course. Proceed. Mr. 
Bielaski. 

Mr. Bielaski. I think, unless the committee wants some further 
details about the course of the Hearst papers after we went into the 
war, that is all I have to say about it. ' 

Senator Nei^son. Have you any statement about the attitude of the 
Hearst papers after our country went into the warf 

Mr. Bielaski. Yes, in general; that I have explained. The first 
thing, I think, that they did was to oppose the sending of our troops 
Abroad. I take it Mr. Hearst based nis opposition — at least his atti- 
tude would be that this opposition was for the good of the country ; 
that he thought that troops ought to be kept here. In numerous parts 
of his paper he makes statements commendatory of Germany, and 
be favored peace in his paper. 

Senator Sterling. In view of his attitude before we got into the 
war, would you not rather think that his opposition to sending troops 
.ibruad was because of his friendly feeling toward Germany and his 
hatred of England ? 

Mr. Bielaski. That would be an expression of opinion only, Sen- 
ator. The best way I can characterize his articles is that they were 
the sort of things which would have resulted in favoring of Germany 
had they been adopted^ in the light of things as we see them now. 

Senator Sterling. Just referring to the arrival of Bola Pasha in 
thift- country, do you recall the date of his arrival, now? Do you 
remember when he arrived? 

Mr. Bielaski. I have it here. 

Capt. Lester* It is right in that summary. 

Mr. Bielaski. I thii& I testified about the arrival of Albert as 
having been the latter part of August or the 1st of September. I 



1594 BREWING AND LIQtTOB INTERESTS AND GERB1A.N PROPAGANDA. 

have found, on examining our files further this morning, that he 
arrived on the 28th of August, I think, at a quarter past 10. 

Senator Sti":rlixg. That was 1915? 

Mr. BiELASKi. In May, 1914, was the first time Bolo was in 
New York. 

The last time he came here was February 22. 1916, when he landed 
in New York City. 

Senator Sterling. Is there any evidence of his acquaintance with 
Hearst prior to his second coming to this country? 

Mr. BiEiyASKi. Not that I know of. 

Senator Steitling. In your statement made a while ago, you spoke 
about his having been invited by Mr. Hearst to luncheon. 

Mr. Bielaski. Yes. 

Senator Sterling. Do you know when that was, after his arrival? 

ifr. BiELASKi. That, of course, is in the files, Senator. It appar- 
ently was some time in February ; between the 22d and the 25tn. I 
do not know the exact date ; soon after his arrival. 

Senator Sterling. Do you know where this luncheon was had? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I imagine that is in our files also, but I do not 
know, personally, without a further examination of the files. 

Senator Sterling. Do you know whether anyone else was at that 
luncheon or not? 

Mr. BiELASKi. No ; I do not, offhand ; ho, sir. 

Senator Sterling. Can you ascertain from the files ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Oh, yes. We have a complete report as to all the 
information that was developed, furnished to us by I)eputy Attorney 
General Becker, who, on behalf of the French Government, made 
that investigation. 

Capt. Lester. Here is the whole history, starting in February, of 
Bolo ±*asha. 

Mr. BiELASKi. There is a summary here, Senator, with respect to 
this matter of Hearst and Bolo, but I would prefer to testify from 
the original records of Mr. Becker. There are some matters here 
that do not agree with my recollection. 

Senator Sterling. And those records will be here ? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes ; they can be produced. 

Senator Sterling. Very well. We can forego that for the pres- 
ent, then. 

Mr. BiRLASKi. Some of this does not agree with my recollection 
at all. 

Senator, if it is agreeable to you, we will furnish the entire fil^ 
in the Bolo Pasha matter to Maj. Humes. 

Senator Sterling. All right. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Shall I proceed, Mr- Chairman? 

Senator Overman. Yes. The committee will examine these papers 
which have been referred to as the " Palm Beach telegrams " and see 
what we will do with them. 

Senator King. Mr. Chairman, so that I may understand the atti- 
tude of the committee ; I have received a number of communications 
inclosing clippings from various newspapers throughout the United 
States, some of the papers published in foreign languages, those 
clippings indicating a friendly bias in favor of Germany, and the 
writers wanted me to present some of those clippings to the com- 
mittee. 



BB&WING Am> UQUO& )NSEBJSI»X!& AND OBfiMAN PAOPAGAJKDA. 159& 

I have not felt that that was the proper thing to do unless it 
could be ^own that those newspapers were operating for and in 
behalf of Oermany or unless some connection could be traced between 
them and Germany. 

Senator Overkan. I think the quc^stion is whether they were trying 
to manufacture sentiment in favor of Germany and against the 
allies. If so, they should go in the record. 

Senator Kiko. I wanted to know the attitude of the committee; 
whether or not the mere fact that newspapers published something 
in favor of Germany, without connecting it all, directly or indi- 
rectly, showing that thev have been employed bv or are in the. 
mterests of Germany, will make it proper that we should investigate 
them and put those publications into the record. 

Senator OvniOiAN. It is hard to tell, because it has been shown 
here that there have been a good many foreign papers that were 
financed in small sums by the German Embassy; and if those papers 
published these items for money, to create sentiment in favor of. 
Germany, it seems to me they ought to be put into the record. 

Senator Kino. For instance, I have before me a document which 
was handed me, showing that a very prominent paper in the United 
States made statements that clearly mdicato a hatred for England 
and high regard for Germany. I did not feel like that ou^t to 
go into the record. I could not sa^ that that paper, because of 
those utterances, was receiving contributions from Gwmany or was 
interested in a material way in German propaganda.; 

I was not present at a meeting in executive session of the com- 
mittee when the scope of this investigation was determined upon, 
and it seemed to me that, unless there can be traced some connection 
between newspapers and Germany, under the resolution there was 
9ome question as to whether their utterances, their editorials, and so 
on, were relevant testimony. 

Senator Nsusok. I do not know whether you were in here the day 
the evidence was offered showing about the advertising propaganda 
of Hammerling. 

Senator Kikg. Yes, I was here; that is, during part of it. 

Senator NciiaoN. Did you notice his circular that he issued to the 
newspapers? 

Senator King. No; I did not. 

Senator Nslsox. And, then, the replies of the newspapers ? Therer 
wastt bunch there that Qapt. Lester mkLand I picked out some relat-* 
inj^ to the papers of the iJorthwest. We did not put them all in* 
They were not all put in. They were written requests to Hammer- 
ling in favor of that propajganda, and in favor of the embargo on the 
^ipment of arms abroad in 1915. 

Senator King. I think that would be material and relevant. 

iSenator NEtsoN. All of those letters pi'oduced by Oapt. Lester were 
there on the table. They were not introduced. 1 picked out about 
half a dozen relating to papers out in my country, and got copies of 
them. 

Senator Oveeman. We halve shown here Uiat Dr. Albert and Dr*. 
Fuehr, (ierman agents, in the, employ of the German Government, 
«»loptwl a j^eheme to creates public ^ntiment in this country against. 
war, against this country going into the war, and figainst England, 
in this roiintry : and a great many things in order to create a public 



1596 BBEWINO AKD UQUOB IKTEBB8T8 AND QEBMAK PBOPAOAVIMl. 

sentiment in the interest of the German cause. How far that has 

fone, I do not know. We have shown, in many instances, that they 
ave spent money — ^large sums of money ; we have shown that they 
spent $35,000,000 or ^0,000,000 on German propaganda. It has 
been shown that this sentiment was attempted to oe created, either 
by means of money or otherwise, in this country' in favor of Ger- 
many, and against our allies. I can not say wl^jether the newspapers 
to which you have referred were affected or not. Whether we shall 
go into that or not is a question for the committee. 

Senator Kixg. I think there could be no question but what the 
committee, with great propriety, could show that any newspaper or 
any individual received a portion of that $35,000,000 or $60,000,000, 
or any money from Germany ; but because some newspaper or so<me 
individual was opposed to war, without any connection being shown 
between that individual or that newspaper and Germany — ^it seems 
to me that there would be a good deal of doubt in respect to that 
matter. 

Senator Overmak. We will reserve that Question. 

Senator King. I know of numbers of religious newspapers that 
opposed the war, and it would be absurd to say that thOT were the 
recipients of anv contributions or of any payments from Germany. 

Now, to read into the record these editorials opposing war, it 
seems to me would be a work of supererogation, and would not 
be a proper procedure. I do not think it is a fair conclusion or de- 
duction to say that every man who opposed war was influenced by 
Germany or German money. 

Senator Overman. I do not, either. 

Senator Kino. Lots of good people are opposed to war and hate 
Germany, and abhor military and autocratic systems. It is. simply a 
question of relevancy and materiality. 

Senator Overman. I think we have kept out those, except those 
connectcKl in some way, by conversation, or letter, or telegram, with 
the efmbassy or the agents representing Germany. I do not think 
we have gone into the matter as broadly as you suppose we have. 

Senator King. I do not sav the conmiittee have ^ne far. 

Senator Overman. I think you are wise in desiring to keep out 
anything that is extraneous; tor example, some person just giving 
his opinion, without beinc influenced by German money or German 
influence. Every man is free to express his opinion in this country. 
As you say, there are a great many good people in this country who 
were honest in being opposed to war. 

Senator EIing. We ao not want to make this proceeding a mere 
sewer or conduit into which may be dumi>ed all the accusations and 
charges and libelous statements, or suspicions, of various persons 
throughout the United States. We adopted the rule, when we started, 
that tittis was to be an impersonal examination, and I think we have 
tried to keep it down to that. Of course, naturally, in reading some- 
thing, a name will creep in. You can not help it. 

Senator King. For instance, I notice the name of Prof. Hart was 
mentioned. I know of Prof. Hart and have read his writings and 
know his attitude, and no more loyal mun, in my opinion, can be 
found in the United States ; and yet his name is brought into this 
record as being disloyal. 

Senator OvimMAN. No. 



BBBWIKG AND UQUOB INTEKB8TB AND OEBMAN PBOPAOANDA. 1597 

Senator Stebunq. No. 

Senator Overman. His name was just mentioned. 

Senator King. Or oro-German. 

Senator Overman. No. He was not charged with anything. His 
name was f owid on a list with other names, m Dr. Albert's o^e, and 
that goes for what it is worth. There is no charge against him. 

Senator Sterling. There is not yet a statement as to an utterance 
made by Prol Hart, Senator. 

Senator King. But the fact is that his name was mentioned. 

Senator Steeling. You would not limit the inquiry to cases where 
it would be shown that money had been received by the newspapers 
pobliahing the alleged German propaganda! That is not charged 
with reference to the Hearst papers, for example.. It is not proven, 
I think, that the Hearst papers received money, and yet Grermany 
praises Hearst as being the greatest American, and being: the most 
outspoken of anyone m favor of the German cause. This is the 
reason for the testimony in regard to the Hearst papers. 

Senator King. I have no person and no newspaj)er in mind, at all. 
I am merely trying to determine just how far this investigation shall 
f^Oj and then to determine, if we can, what evidence would be fairly 
and legitimately admissible, in view of the limitations which may 
fairly and rightfully be placed upon the resolution. 

Senator Overman. I suggest tnat Mr. Bielaski go on, and if Sen- 
ator King, or any other Senator, desires that any matter be passed 
<#ver for rature consideration, we will take it up later. 

Mr. Bielaski. I did not understand, when directed by the Attor- 
ney General in response to your letter to appear here, that you con- 
templated any inquiry into the violations oi law which were fathered 
by the Grerman Government, which resulted in prosecutions; but Sen- 
ator Nelson asked that some r£sum6 of those cases be given. I think 
I can do it very briefly from a few notes, without having to look at 
eor records, although I can not give you the details as rally a^ if T 
had had an opportunity to inauire into them. 

Senator Nelson. That is all I wanted. I wanted a general out- 
Iine of their actual deeds in this country. 

Mr. BiELASKL The first case which resulted in a prosecution under 
Gur criminal statutes was what was known as the so-called passport 
fraud cases. 

Under the direction of Capt. von Papen and Wolff von Igel, of his 
office, a German- American named Hans von Wedell went into the 
bnsiiiess of supplying to German reservists passports of other coun- 
tries in order tnat they might be able to pass through the British 
lines and so get back iq Germany and fight. 

So long as he confined his activities to fumisMngpapers. of other 
countries, we had no particular concern about it. But when he be- 
gan to securo, fraudulently, American passports for the use of Ger- 
man reservists, this country, of course, was interested, and an investi- 
gatiim was made, which resulted in finding that Hans von Wedell 
maintained a refj^ar ofSce to which men were sent by Von Papen 
and the various Greraian consuls in this country to have their passage 
and papoiB amnged for them. 

Von Wedell fllca an application for a passport, and the man who 
bote it was captured by the British off Gibraltar. It therefore be- 
came necessary for him to disappear, and he was furnished with 



1698 BREWIKG AND tlQUOE INTEBESTS AND GEEMaN'PEOPAQANDA. 

funds for his get-a-way by Capt. von Papen, and Carl Buroede took 
his place, a Gterman-Ainerican, I think a natun^ized citizen. 

The day that von Wedell left, I think, Rutoede, his son, and a 
certain German reservist were arrested for this offense. 

We believe that von Wedell has been drowned at sea, and that 
Ruroede^ having served his term, is now at large in New York City. 
The other members of the conspiracy were fined. 

Senator Nelson. Did this precede the attempt to blow up th« 
bridge at Vanceboro, at the international boundary, by Horn? 

Mr. Bielaski. Yes; that was in the fall of 1914. t)n^ of th^ 
strangle coincidences was that, among the lists of names that w:ere 
seized at the time of the arrest of Ruroede as having be6n sent t<> 
him from Capt. von Papen's office so that he might be getting papers 
ready for them — one of the first names on one of these lists was that of 
Werner Horn. 

Werner Horn was a German who had been 10 years in the Ger- 
man Army, and had reached the rank of ober-lieutenant — ^I supi>ose 
about the rank of first lieutenant in our service. 

He was on the inactive list and had gone down, I think, to Guate- 
mala, where he had worked on a coflfee plantation and had become 
a manager of that plantation. Two hours after he got a call to 
return he had resigned his position, which was a good one for a 
man of his type, and was on his way back to this country to join 
the fighting forces. 

He made several attempts to get across, by way of arrangements^ 
never actually making an attempt. 

Finally he went back to Mexico for a while, from whence he sug~ 

fested to Ambassador Bernstorff that they try to take part of Britisli 
[onduras, I think it was, with a force organized in Mexico. 

Then he came back to New York and by Von Papen was furnished 
with money, and one of the checks taken from von Papen by the 
British show that he was furnished $700 at one time, and he carried 
dynamite from New York City on a passenger train to Boston, and 
then from Boston to Vanceboro, Me., where he made an attempt to- 
blow up the international bridge there, which was only partially 
successnil. I could tell you a great many details ^bout it, out that 
was the substance of it. 

Senator Nelson. He was finally convicted 9 

Mr. Bielaski. He was finally convicted of having transported 
explosives on a passenger train in violation of section 285 of the 
penal code, and sentenced to 18 months in the Atlanta Penitentiary,, 
which term he has served, and is now interned. 

Senator Nelson, fie is now interned ? 

Mr.. Bielaski. Yes. 

Another passport fraud case was that in which Capt. Boy Ed, the 
naval attach^ o^ Germany, Richard Steggler, a German, arid Rich- 
ard Madden and Vincent Cook were involved. 

Steggler was to secure an Americanjpassport to be used as a cover 
for spy work in Europe, Capt. Boy Ed financed and directed Steg- 
gler's operations. Stealer, Madden, and Cook were convicted. 

There were some oflier passport frauds, which were rio% prose- 
cuted for the reason that tne principals had gotten away, or were 
diplomatic and could nbt be touched. 



BBKWnrQ MJSTD LXQUOB INTEBBSTB AND 0EBMAK PBOPAQANDA. 160f 

The man Hoist von d^ Soltz, who went to England as a spy, was 
fnmidicd an Amerioan passport throvdb the instrumAntaUty of Kjoi 
M. liuderitz, then the Gennan consul at Baltimore. . Ludehtz has 
been indicted. I do not think that case has been tried as yet; 

Senator Nsijsok. But the other man, who got the paper? 

Mr. BnouLSKi. The other man^ who got the paper, went to England 
and was eaptured by the British. There he made a confession of 
Us activities in this country, which were that he was sent by Capt. 
Ton Papen, von Igel and othors with a lot of dynamite to blow up the 
Welland Canal. He was unsuccessful, I think, because the men. he 
had with him and he himself did not want to take any chances oveEr 
on British territory. They found the canal prett^r. well guarded^ 
and they confined tneir activities verr largely to wiring back to von 
Pap«i for money. So that he finally recalled them, without their 
having accomplished anything. Thej^ were indicted, and Tauscher 
was acquitted. He was the only man indicted, in aU of the so-called 
neutralitv cases, that ever was acquitted* 

One of his associates^ Fritzen, was sentenced to 18 months in the 
Atlanta Penitentiary. 

Von der Goltz was not proceeded against, because he was used as 
:t Government witness. 

Senator Stebung. Yqu say some of these offenders were diplo- 
matic and could not be attacked; do you mean that they were at* 
I ached to the embassy here? 

Mr. Bi£LASKL Yes. I think we could have convicted Von Papen 
and Boy Ed at least, and possibly otliers. if it had not been for their 
diplomiitic immunity. 

Von Papen has l)een indicted^ now, I thiaik, in two jurisdictions, 
w> that if he should return here he might be tried. 

I do not think Capt. Boy Ed was ever indicted, although he par* 
ticipated in the so-called Hamburg- American case, this passport case, 
and the furnishing of supplies, through San Francisco, to the Ger- 
man fleet there. 

Albert Saunders and Charles Wimnenberg I have mentioned before 
as» being engaged, among other activities, in sending spies to Eng- 
land, equipped with American passports^ for the purpose of securing 
Uftilitary inionnation. 

Sanders and Wunnenber^ plead guilty to indictments bro^giit 
against thein; ^nd Qeorjfi Vai|x Bacon, one of the Americaois .s$nt 
over^ waft convicted, as was another one of tine spies whose name I 
do not recall. 

In this connection I would like to say that I testified about a 
man named Reginald Rutherford haying been sent abroad a^ a spy. 
It just ao happened that there i& a man of that name in Washinfltou 
here, employed by one of the banks. I did not appreciate the lact, 
but he says that some people have confused him with this^ spy who 
was sent to Holland, and I wanted the oonunittee to understand that 
he is not the man at all. The Rutherford who was ;sent abroad was 
a Xew York newspai>er man, and I think he is still abroad ; at leaat 
he has. until a short time ago, refused all opportunities to come back. 

Max Zelinski was convicted in New York City for fraudulently 
obtaining papers — ^a passport — for an Austrian named Alfred Bondy; 

It ia interesting to note, in passing^ that while not in violation of 
any law here, the Germans comiteneited our American passports^ 



1600 BBSWINO AKD LIQUOR INTEBBSTB AKD OEBMAN PROPAGANDA. 

lliey took the oiiginal passports from Americans traveling in Ger- 
many, under some rule whereby the police would take a passport 
and retain it for 24 hours and return it thereafter, and a man would 
show up with a passport of that kind, under that name, elsewhere, 
even in England. 

Those thmgs were rather badly done, because the description of 
the man who carried the passport did not affree with the description 
on file in the Department of State as to tne man to whom it was 
issued, and the counterfeits were not hard to trace. 

Certain officials of the Hamburg- American Line, who under the 
direction of Capt. Boy Ed endeavored to provide German warships 
at sea with coal and other supplies, in violation of the statutes of the 
United States, have been tried and convicted and sentenced to the 
penitentiary. Those were the so-called Hamburg-American cases. 
Some of the names of those involved were Buenz, Koeter, Hofmeister, 
sentenced to 18 months, and a man named Poppinghau& to a year 
and a day; they were all Hamburg- American Line officials, who 
made false manifests in order to get these supplies out, or attempt to 
get them out, to the German fleet. 

The German consul at San Francisco, under the direction of Capt. 
von Papen, and also participated in by Capt. Tauscher and Capt^ 
Boy-Ed — ^I should have said under the direction of Boy-Ed, par- 
ticipated in by von Papen and Tauscher — endeavored to send out tc 
the German fleet and in fact did send out to the German flee^ sap- 
plies on a boat known as the Sacramento. The Sacramento cleared 
for Valparaiso, I think it was, but went direct to the German fleet, 
where she delivered her supplies and then proceeded to her port. 

Out of the same place the German consul, his assistants, two of 
them, von Shaick and von Brinken, and numerous others, were en- 
gaged in a conspiracy, together with men in New York and Chicago^ 
to set on foot a revolution in India. They prepared a schooner, the 
Amde Larsen^ and the steamer Ma/oerick. The Avmie Larsen car- 
ried the arms and ammunition and the Maverick certain Hindus 
and men who were to take part in the expedition. They never met, 
for some reason. They missed their connecting point, which was off 
some island off the coast of Mexico, and the Anme Larsen returned 
to this country, where her arms and ammunition were seized and 
later sold by the Government. 

The expedition came to naught; but growing out of it the German 
consul, ^pp, his assistant, von Shaidc, a very prominent HQndu 
named Ram Chandra, a member of the so-called committee appointed 
to handle Indian affairs, with whom the German Government dealt 
indirectly, and concerning whose organization Zimmerman commu- 
nicated with Bemstorff over here and kept these people informed 
as to just what was ^ing on, were all convicted. 1 think there 
were 80 men finally tried, and 29 convicted to 1 acquitted. It was a 
very sensational trial, which ended by one of the Hindu defend- 
ants killing another and the marshal killing the man who killed 
the Hindu. 

Then at San Francisco was also the plot in which Bopp and others 
were involved — Crowley, a man named Smith, and a woman who was 
Crowley's secretary — to interfere with the shipment of munitions to 
Russia and elsewhere. Their plans involved an attempt to destroy 
the Grand Trunk tunnel, I think it is 



:BRBWIK0 AHD LIQTJOB nrTSBBSn AITD OEBICAJT PBOPAGAinXA. 1601 

Senator Nelson. The Canadian Pacific tunnel, I think. 

Mr. O'Bbian. Up in British Columbia. 

Mr. BxELASKi. Ijie Grand Trunk, at Port Huron, just across the 
border. 

Also an alleged plan to destroy steam railroad facilities up in 
Briti^ Columbia. But they were also trying to prevent the shipment 
-of horses, or interfere with it, and matters of that kind; and they 
were convicted, likewise, and are serving their terms. 

Albert Ealtschmidt, of Detroit, was furnished funds by von Papen, 
and entered into a plan to destroy certain munition factories, and rail* 
road bridges of the Canadian Railway Co., and to send into Canada 
spies to obtain information. The defendants were indicted, and five 
of them were convicted and one was acquitted. That was at Detroit. 

Senator Nelson. That ^as a plan to destroy munition factories 
and bridges over in Canada. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes. They were indicted under section 13 of the 
Penal Code, which prohifoite the setting on foot in this country of 
military enterprises directed against a nation with which we are at 
peace. 

Senator Nelson. Yes. 

Mr. Bi£Lu48ia. In connection with this Hindu plot, of which I have 
told you, there was an indictment or two returned in Chicago against 
this man Jacobsen, who was one of the leaders of the American 
Embargo Conference, and certain of his associates. I do not recall 
their names just now, but they were convicted there, and Jacobsen 
was also one of those convicted at Detroit in this other scheme. 

Robert Fay, Walter Scholz, and Paul Dasche were convicted and 
sentenced to the penitentiary, and three others are under indictment 
for conspiracy to prepare bombs and attach them to allied ships leav- 
ing New York Harbor. Fay finally escaped and went to Spain, where . 
he was induced by the Consular Service and the Naval Intelligence 
Service to return to this country, and is now in prison. 

It is interesting to note that Kintelen was introduced to Fay by 
€apt. von Papen, showing that the diplomatic representative of Ger- 
many was in close touch with everything of that kind that went on 
here. 

Senator Nelson. And a part of what entered into the composi- 
tion of these bombs was manufactured on board these German in- 
terned ships, was itf 

Mr. BsBLASKi. No, sir; not these bombs* In the fire-bomb case,' 
the containers were manufactured on the Vaterland. That was 
another stor^. 

Soiator OvEBMAN. Have you evidence as to where these bombs 
were manufactured? 

Ifr. BiELASKi. Yes. They had not gotten to the absolute point of 
completion yet. They were testing out various experiments at the 
time they were arrested. These other bombs of which you make 
mention were under the direction of Capt. Von Pjipen and Yon IgeL 
Dr. Walter T. Scheele, Capt. Von Eleist, Capt. Wolpert, and Capt 
Bode, of the l^mburg- American Line, manufactured these incen- 
dairy bombs. The containers were made on the Vaterland, find 
taken ariiore to an office maintained by Scheele under the name of 
the Agricaltnral Mechanical Co., I think. There, a substance of one 
kind was pat in one part of the bomb, and an acid in the other ; and 



1602 BBBWINQ: AHIX liEQUOfi dK^BBiBBTO AND OSBUAK. FBOPAQANDA* 

Dr. Scheele had so experimented that he could tell by .the thickness 
of the partition put in exactly how lon^ it would be before the acid 
would eat it? way tiirough the tin and cause a tremendously hot fire. 
Capt. von. Papen financed that proposition, and Rintelen directed 
it, and numbers of those men have been convicted. Rintelen was 
also convicted in that matter. 

Another operation of Scheele's, of the same kind, was the prepara- 
tion of what was called fertilizer for shipment intended for Ger- 
many. It was actually a form of oil, heavy oil, lubricating oil. 
which was very much needed in Germany. By some chemical means 
he made it up so diat it looked like fertilizer, and he shipped it^ 
intended to reach Germany, on the steamship Esrom particularly* 
and other ships, where by a treatment which he had outlined the 
oil could be brought fortL It is my recollection that the chemists 
said it was 80 per cent oil, or something like that. The largest 
shipment was captured by the British, and taken. 

Labor's National Peace Council I have already told you about. 
That was in the nature of propaganda; though its purpose, of 
course, was to bring about strikes and prevent the shipment of arms 
and munitions. Rintelen and Lamar and Martin were convicted 
in that prosecution, which took the form of a conspiracy to violate 
the Sherman antitrust act, I thindc. 

Senator Nelson. Was there not an attempt to get up a strike 
among the longshoremen ? 

Mr. BiEiiASKi. Yes, sir. 

Senator Nelson. At Hoboken and New York Harbor ? 

Mr. BiELASKL Yes, sir; there was, but the proof as to the direc- 
tion and financing of that by the Germans was never absolutely clear, 
although, we have no doubt that morally they were responsible for 
it. No prosecution resulted in that case. 

Senator Nelson. The strike was a failure, was it not? It did not 
succeed? 

Mr. BnsLASKi. It did not come off. 

Senator Nelson. I understood that Mr. Gompers had a good deal 
to do with prev^ting it. Do you know anything about that? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I do not know about that particular case; no, sir^ 
I think if it were not for the fact that the statute of limitations has 
run, we might noW5 possibly, with the information we have^ have 
made a case out of that ; but the statute has long since run. 
* Scheele and a man named Steinberg, and Von 1^1, etc., are under 
indictment for having shipped this fertilizer, mi^randed or mis^ 
labeled, falsely manif^ed ; but they have not been tried. 

Paul Koenig, who was the head of the Hamburg- American Linens 
secret investigators, entered the employ of the German Government 
very shortly after the war began, and served as hea^ of their secret 
agency in New York City, working for Albert, Boy-Ed, Von Papen, 
and the German consul and the Austro-Hungarian consul, and main- 
taining quite a force of men. Among other things that he was sent 
to do was to look over the Welland Canal, and to procure plans of it, 
the Government maintaining it as a part of a military plan to destrov 
thatt canal. There were two distinct attempts at the Welland Canal 
that one headed by Koenig, and the one headed by Von der Goltz and. 
his aasociates. Koenig is interned, and has not' yet been tried. lU 



BBEWIKG ASD LIQUOR INTEBE8TB AKD GBBJCAN PBOPAOAKCt^. 1603 

also sent into Canada spies for the Germans, to obtain military in- 
formation : and for that he is also under indictment. 

Senator ^tesllsq. Mr. Bielaski, are these persons who are under 
indictment out on bail ? 

Mr. Bielaski. Not if thev are Germans. Those who were Gtermans 
were, of course, interned. {There are two or three men, I think, still 
out on bail, who are American citizens. In the Fay bomb case, the 
court granted a severance, and only permitted us to try a few of them 
at one time. Of the others who were not tried, when war broke out 
or shortly thereafter two of ^em were interned; and one. of them, 
an American citizen, I think, is still out, although I am not sore as 
to that ; but wherever there was a German or an Austrian under in- 
dictment, he was interned. 

Gustave Stahl was the man whom we familiarly termed thei 
^Lwnt€mia liar?'* He is the fellow that was led to make an affidavit 
that the Lusitama was armed, that he went on board and saw the 
guns, and lifted up the covers, and all that sort of thing. He was 
secret^ for a white by the Germans in New York, the active work 
beine done by Koenig and his men, but finally surrendered. He 
testified before the grand jury that he had seen all of these things on 
the Lusiiania^ then was indicted for perjury, and served 18 noonths 
in the Atlanta Penitentiary. He is also interned. 

^fax Jaeger and five others were convicted of endeavoring to slup, 
onder false manifests, in violation of law^ rubber to Germany. 

Capt. Thierichens, of the interned ship Prince Eitel Friedrioh. 
was mdicted for a conspiracy to bring on shore 19 chrcmometers of 
considerable value. His boat captured a ^reat many vessels, and they 
aomggled these chronometers on shore without regard to the customs 
dnties of this country. 

Senator Neubon. lliat was the Philadelphia case? 

Mr. Bielaski. That was at Philadelphia. The captain was also 
a very vile character morally, and he was indicted for violating the 
white'-slave traffic act and for sending obscene let^rs through the 
mails. He was convicted on, I think, two out of three charges ; I am 
not quite sure which ones. 

Mr. CBrian reminds me that he was acquitted on the smuggling 
diarse, and convicted on the other two charges. 

There were convicted and indicted in these fire-bomb cases a great 
many other than those people I have mentioned by name, but they 
were' all parties to the same plan. 

ilr. O'Brian. They were all convicted, were they not, Mr. Bielaski? 

Mr. Bielaski. YesTsir. 

Senator Nelsox. uo you know anything about strike or bomb plots 
in factories and munition plants? 

Mr. Bielaski. No; very little, if anything. During the period of 
our neutrality I do not think there were any cases developed for 
criminal prosecution. That sort of thing would have been extremely 
difficult to have prosecuted under the Federal law at that time. 
Since that time, of course, the sabotage act makes it possible for us 
to reach isolated attempts. I suppose the only way that a prosecution 
could hav^ been had oi things of that sort before the war would have 
been for a conspiracy to interfere with interstate commerce under 
the Sherman Act, or something of that sort, which would have been 
very involved* 



1604 BBBWINQ AND UQUOB INTEKESTB AND QEBMAl^ PB0PAGA2iI>A^ 

Senator Nelson. It was under that act that Martin was convicted^ 
was it not? 

Mr. BiEi^SKi. Yes. It was rather an involved theory, though, to 
adapt the antitrust act to things of that kind. 

Three defendants, two named Olsen and one named Friedland,. 
were convicted in New York City for having endeavored to ship- 
nickel out of this country without properly manifesting it. NickS 
was one of the things badly needed in Germany. Another crowd 
were also indicted and convicted for endeavoring to ship rubber 
to Germany. The case was headed ^' United States v, Joseph Newman* 
and others." 

Senator Overman. Was there any evidence of any' efforts to injure- 
our airplanes in the process of manufacture? 

Mr. BnsLASKi. Of course, before the war I think our airplanes were 
rather scarce, Senator. There were some attempts to injure them 
after the war started, and there have been some indictments und^- 
the sabotage act; but it is not fair to charge those things up against 
the German Government, because there was no proof of anything of 
that Und, and it is much more likely they were the individual acts 
of either careless or of ill-disposed workmen. 

Senator Kino. Under the word ^f ill-disposed " vou might embrace^ 
those who were hx>stile to our country and favorable to Germany? 

Mr. BiELASKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. O'Bbian. There have been only about 15 complaints presented! 
for prosecution thus far under the sabotage act The amount of 
damage done to airplanes apparently has been somewhat exaggerated 
m people's minds. 

Senator Nelson. Have you any sabotage cases? 

Mr. Bielaski. Of course, only since the act was passed. We do* 
not know just how much sabotage there was in the plants makings 
stuff for the allied Governments, oecause it really was not a Federal 
offense in any way, and it was something with which we could hardly 
concern ourselves or spend any money without getting beyond tfaue 
scope of the authority we had. 

Senator Nelson. I see. 

Mr. BiELASKi. Without naming? them, the members of the crew of 
the German steamship LiehenfeU were tried at Charleston, S. C.,. 
and convicted of sinking the steamship in the navis:able channel. 
They were sentenced to serve a year in the penitentiary. When they 
thought that we possibly were going to take over the interned boats 
they sank this boat in the channel in such a way as to interfere 
with navigation. They were all convicted, as was the captain and a 
newspaper man named Wierse. They were convicted and sent to the 
Atlanta Penitentiary also. 

Senator Ovebman. That was a remarkably light sentence, when 
you consider how they punished our soldiers for violation of the act- 
Mr. BiELASKi. The trouble with the sentences was the trouble with 
the law. I think they got the maximum that could be imposed. At 
that time two years was the maximum for a conspiracy to violate any 
law of the United States. That has been changed under the espion- 
age act. 

Rintelen and Andrew D. Meloy are under indictment in New York 
for conspiracy to obtain a passport for Bintelen — an American pass- 
port. That has not been tried yet, for good reasons. 



BSBWINQ AND UQUOB IKTBBE8TB AND GBBMAN FBOPAOANDA. 1605 

Tliere was another case for conspiracy to get rubberto Gtermany, 
entitled " United States v. Soloman," in which the defendants were 
convicted. 

I think that is a brief sununary of the important cases. 

Senator Ovebhah. Most of them were inspired by Von Papen and 
Boy-Ed? 

Mr. Bdblaski. Practically all of the prindpal and important 
cases, the larger attempts, were inspired and financed and directed by 
some official representative of Germany. 

Capt. Lester suggests that some mention should be made of the 
Capt« Sternberg or Steinberg who came over here with Rintelen. He 
enaeavored to bring, and brought for the purpose, germs — ^tetanus 
germs — intended to inoculate horses and that sort of thing. The 
germs died on his hands before he was ready to use them, and they 
could not be revived. He was under indictment in New York, but 
went back to Germany before he could be apprehended; in fact,. 
before his indictment. " 

Senator Nelson. Was he sent over by the Genoan authorities? 

Mr. BiEi^SKi. Oh, unquestionably/ He came mi the time Kintelen 
did, and was recognized here as having been sent over by the Grerman 
authorities. 

Senator Nelson. He came over with germs to infect our horses 1 : 

Mr. BiEi^SEJ. Yes« sir ; that is, horses going from here, intended 
for the use of the allied Governments. 

I think that complete all of the general cases of which t have any 
recollection. 

Maj. Humes. Mr. Bielaski, I do not remember that you have in- 
doded in your statement the *^ Friends of Peace." 

Mn BTRf*AflKT. No ; I did not bring down that file. 

Maj. HuxK. We have a file that possibly you can use to refresh 
your recollection. 

Senator Overman. Mr. Bielaski, suppose you bring that up in the 
]iiomiii||. I think it will be time to adjourn in a few minut^ 

Mr. BiEiASKi. Senator, that is a relatively unimi>ortant file, any- 
way. It was simply an organization cooperating with these fellows 
in propaganda. 

Capt. Lester (producing papers) . There is all there is of it That 
is their first mass meeting, and l^e names of the organizers. 

Mr. BncLASKi. It was a sort of conglomeration of repres^tatives 
from the pro-German and Irish societies gotten togetner. It was 
not of great consequence. 

Mr. Chairman, this completes all the testimony I have to offer, 
onless you have specific matters or other things. 

Senator Overman. Have the committee any questions to ask? 

Maj. HiTMES. Gentlemen, there have been so many things brought 
ap in connection widi Mr. Bielaski's testimony that it is almost im- 
possible to know just where to start without going over the testi- 
mony to some extent, and without^ ascertaininj^ something from the 
committee as to which of the ramifications or these different enter- 
prises the committee desires to fp into. I was hopeful that at the 
conclusion of Mr. Bielaski's testimony there would be an executive 
session of the committee, so that a more definite understanding could 
be arrived at as to just what ramifications the conunittee might be in- 
terested in. 



1606 BBBWING AND LIQUOB IKTEEESTS AND QEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 

Senator Overman. We will have an executive session right now. 

(Thereupon, at 4.85 p. m., the subcommittee went into executive 
session, after which it adjourned tmtil to-morrow, Tuesday, Decem- 
ber 10, 1918, at 10 o'clock a. m.) 

(The telegrams referred to in this day's proceedings as ^the Palm 
BcMStch telegrams," pursuant to the order of the committee are here 
printed in full in the record as follows :) 

[Telegram.] 

2-21-17. 
nV) Pbkjp Fbangis, 

N. r. Amerioan, N. Y. GUy. 

There should be a vigorous attack on the espionage blU. Note that Senator 
Cummins says "the measure Is the most stringent and drastic ever proposed 
to curb a free people In time of peace or war. The (Jovernment would have 
absolute power In war-time to suppress newspapers and prevent debate in 
Congress. It might even be held a criminal offoice tor two citizens to dis- 
cuss with each other questions of military policy. Under such a law the agita- 
tion would never have taken place In England which led to the assumption of 
the Premiership by Lloyd George " — ^unquote 

In other words under such a law the defects in the management of public 
affairs could not be discussed, eoufd not be presented to the public, and the 
j^eogle unaware of the facts, would be unable to correct them. 

The Democratic party seems to forget that this is a republic in which the 
people govern, and in which fuU information is essential to intelligent govern- 
ment. 

In fiict this Democratic Congress seems to be about the most undemocratic 
institution in the United States. It has passed the Uteracy test immigration 
biU and Is doing its best to suppress free speech and a free press. It would be 
a remarkable thing if the only hope of Democracy in this country should lie in 
the Republican Party. 

W. R. HeabM. 



84JR29 7X 

Berlin via Sayvajjc NY Feb 22 1917 

Via J New York NY Felt 2S 1917. 
WiLUAu Randolph Heabst 

The Breakera Palm Beach 

Since rupture relations Renters misrepresentations more than ever uncon- 
trollable kindly cable brief statement precise situation opinions leading Ameri- 
can circles many thanks beforehand 

VOSSISCHE ZErrUNO. ULLSTBINHAtr Berlzk 

401 P. 



92 JSB 51 Blue Bexa 

J New Yobk 1007 AM Feb 2S 1917 
Hon. Wic. R. BlEABST 

Breakers PB FLO 

Thank you for your noble work on behalf of peace people want no war against 
Germany England arch enemy of United States country not prepared for war 
let us prepare embargo on munitions and foodstuffs no additional powers to 
President disaster will follow war 

Unitebsal Lbaoub of Peace 

Thbodobe Pinteb PsssmENT 

G C Whonino Secty San Francisco 

522 P. 



t Telegram Rush.] 

Hotel BbeakcbSi Palm Beach Fla 

February 2-J, 1917, 
Shiber, Nrif York AmetHcan, Tfew York City 

Please cable following Hale In Berlin — WAjjcombe. 

I firmly believe that the vast majority of the people ctf the United States are 
entirely undesirous of war with Qermany. I believe also that the people of 
Germany are equally undesirous of war with the United State& 



BBSWUTG AND UQUOB INTEBBSTB AND GEBMAN FBOPAGANDA. 1607 

Under soch circumstances, I cannot see why the century-old friendship of the 
United States and Germany cannot be maintained and perpetuated by the high- 
minded and humanitarian rulers and political leaders of our respective 
countries. 

We in America have Just celebrated the anniversary of Washington's birth- 
day and this should remind us that the friendship of Germany and the United 
States was inaugurated by Washington and Frederick the Great, two pf the 
ablest, and wisest, and most far-seeing statesmen that any nations have pos- 
sessed in the history of the world. 

Majr the statesmen of our respective countries today heed the advice and 
follow the footsteps of those two great leaders of men and builders of nations. 

The course of my newspapers has been fair to Crermany not because I am 
I»t>-German any more than I am pro-ally. I am merely patriotically interested 
iu the welfare of my own country and altruistically interested in the progress 
of the world. 

I am sure the United State^ will value in the future the consistent friend- 
ship of Germany as it has valued it, in the past and I think that most Americans 
realize that Germany, like France, represents in Europe a political, social and 
fcononilc progress similar to our own. 

Americans from childhood have been taught to regard both Germany and 
France as their proven friends. We therefore deeply deplore the war between 
these great nations which have contributed so much to the progress and civiliza- 
tion of the world, and we earnestly desire to employ the Influence of our country 
not for the extension and protraction of the war but for the promotion of a 
just and lasting peace. 

William Randolph Heabst 



851 pm 2/24/17 
C.\&VALHo American Nac York 

I)ont you think we should print In New York the dispatch from Vosslsche 
Zeitung which query read as follows 

I note since rupture relations Reuters misrepresentations more than ever un- 
controllable. Kindly cable brief statement precise situation unquote My reply 

In New York 

Heabst 



[Telegram.] 

*.«2 JSB DH CO 

WB Palmbeach Flo Feb ik l^lt 

li. H, LiTFF 

PB 

Ymd the special certainly is for publication both in New York and Berlin and 
Mr Hearst so desires it to go as press rate 

R Lanfobo Lee 
822P 



ITelcgram.] 

2/24/17 

Mr. IJSR 

Breakers^ Palm Beach, Fla. 

We make check full rate and signed Hearst press rate only applies to matter 
fur publication Please see that only matter for publlciUlon is sent from there at 

presw rates. ^^^r^ 

MHL 

PB Please double for very large 



[Day letter. 1 

Febbuaby 25, 1917. 

V. W. Kelloqo, , . ^ ^ ^ 

Waxhingtan Burettu of New York American, Post Bdff., Washington, D. 0. 

When I inscribed the watchword "An American Paper for the American Peo- 
ple,'* over the tltlrt of my newspapers. I meant just what that motto said. 

>Ci71»:J— H>— vm. 2 15 



1608 BBEWIKQ AND UQUOB IKTEBESTS AND GERMAN PBOPAOAKDA. 

I will not supplicate England for news or for print paper or for permission to 
issue. I will not allow my papers to be edited in the smallest degree by any 
foreign Power. I would shut down every publication I have first and I don't 
intend to shut them down. 

In fact, the more foreign Powers endeavor to Interfere in America's domestic 
matters, and the more these foreign Powers try to control our American insti- 
tutions, particularly our free press, the more necessary it seems to me that 
American papers for the American people shall continue to be published. 

I will just add the verses of the Star Spangled Banner to my editorial mot- 
toes and like that free flag continue to wave. 

Hearst. 



[Telegram Rush.] 

Febbuaby 25, 1917. 
S. S. Cabvalho, New York American, New York City 

Please keep standing in American across top of the editorial page the verses 
of the Star Spangled Banner as originally writtea Please keep standing in the 
evening papers the verses printed in American reproduced from Harper's 
Weekly during Civil War and referring to shipment of arms by England to the 
South. 

Heabst. 

[Telegram.] 

Feb. 25. 1917. 

To S. S. CABVAI.H0, 

N, Y. American^ N. Y. City. 

ITse Star Spangled Banner in all morning papers. Do not print Vossiche 
Zeitung message. 

Heabst, 

[Day letter.] 

Febbuaby 25, 1917. 
Philip Fbancis, 

New York American, New York City. 

Please make editorial advocating embargo for American along your own lines. 
Also kindly make one for Evening Journal amplifying and improving following 
suggestions : 

America is not only being starved for the benefit of warring Europe but it is 
being plundered of its wealth as well. 

We are sending abroad genuine wealth, the wealth of our mines and our 
mills, the wealth of our farms and our factories, the natural resources which 
God has given us for our development We are receiving In return counters, 
media of exchange, which may become comparatively worthless, and promises 
to pay which may never be redeemed. Of what use are the I. O. U.'s of a 
bankrupt? 

Uncle Sam is being gold-bricked. He is being sold a satchel full' of green 
goods in return for his genuine and hard-earned property. 

We are revelling in mock prosperity and will all wake up some fine morning 
and find the sheriff at our doors. 

And why are we wasting our wealth? If it were for some noble purpose, we 
could afford to go poor for a generation and find comfort and consolation in a 
worthy deed. But no — ^we are wasting our wealth to continue a carnival of 
murder, to prolong an era of overwhelming disaster, to encourage the destruc- 
tion of the white race, to tear down the achievements of civilization which 
have taken ages to constnict, to repudiate religion and violate all established 
standards of decency, morality and righteousness, to prostitute the progress of 
the world to the meanest and basest and vilest of purposes. 

If we persist in doing this we will reserve the heavy penalty which wU* 
surely fall uiwn us. Let us end. these shipments of food and ammunition and 
money to the warring nations of Europe for tlielr sakes and fur ours, I^et us 
preserve our property and our self-respect. I^t us end the war and the wastage 
of war, and the woe which the war is wreaking. I-.et us feed our own people, 
build up our own country, conserve our own resources. America first and 
forever. 

HE.\B8T 



BREWING AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1609 

[Day letter.] 

Feb 25 1917 
S S Cakvaijio y r American N T City 

Dont yon think the Francis editorial and declaration to Congress of the 
saentiment and will of the ^eat majority of the people of the United States? 
shoald be mailed to every Member of Congress? 

Two^I beljeve it would be a very big thing for all our papers to conduct a 
referendum peace vote in an election district In each one of our cities and in 
another district In each one of our States. The New York American would 
take a district in the city and a district up State. The Boston American would 
do the same in Massachusetts, the Atlanta Georgian in Georgia the Chicago 
Examiner the same in Illinois. 

In California the San Francisco Examiner could take one district and the 
I>w Angeles Examiner another in this way we would get a Nationwide expres- 
s»lon of opinion. The expression of every voter in the district ought to b<» 
secured even if he has to be visited personally and made to put hiti sentiments 
In writing on a card. I think we should start this at once. 

Hbasst 



niJ R 44 Blthb 

J New York 326 P Feb 26 1917 

J W Wnj.:coMBK 

The Breakers Palmbeach Flo 

Tockerton wireless station advises that owing to congestion Mr Hearsts mes- 
sage of twenty fourth to Hale will be delayed three or four days as message 
wail sent to wireless station Saturday It ought to reach Berlin Tuesday or 
Wedneflday night delay via Sayville indefinite. 

W N Shibeb 513-P 



103J R 83 

J New Yokk 425P Feb 26 1917 

W R Heabrt 

Palm Beach Flo 
Earnestly urge Immediate action to check or stop Hale dispatches They 
fonie by wireless and surely are picked up Despite your well known attitude 
of neutrality these dispatches are so worded as to permit the interpretation 
that Berlin is dictating our policy I fear we are drifting Into a situation akin 
to the false McKlnley one only accentuated many fold With profound respect I 
urfe we check Hale and all agencies that tend to throw discredit upon our 
flec'lared attitude of sturdy Americanism 

Van Ham 
436 P 

[Telegram.] 

Feb. 26, 1917. 

R. C. MiTCHKLL, 

A', y. American, N. Y, City, 
Please make strenuous effort to kill the long cable to Hale sent by Chief 
on twenty-fourthu which Shiber says is held up by rush of wireless. See 
Shfber's telegram to me to-day and thank him. Wire me when it is killed. 

J. Willecombe. 
8 35 p m 

51»JBC 58 NL 

San Fbancisco Calif Feb 26 1917 

Wm Randolph Heabst 

Paim Beach Fla 

The Irish jieople of San Francisco assembled in St Patricks Day conven- 
tion of 1917 have instructed me as chairman of the convention resolutions 
r<»nimittee to express to you their appreciation of the attitude of staunch 
Ajnericanism yon have shown In the present crisis and to than^ you for your 
fairness In treating of Irelands rights of freedom. 

Lattbencb S Otoolx 
1252 A 



1610 BREWING AKD LIQUOB INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 



97 J R 106 



J New York 434 P Feb 26 1917 



W K Hearst 

The Breakers PaJmheach Fla 

Cannot find Harpers Weekly Poem In America found one reproduced In 
Fatherland from Harpers Weekly 1863 attacking England for sending amis 
etc therefore In consequence of sinking of Laconia today with Americans 
aboard and President Wilson's address before Congress urge that we not use 
this poem if It is the one you mean as under present conditions It is bound 
to hurt papers bulk of public believes country Is on verge of war with Ger- 
many and this poem prominently displayed will be regarded as our taking 
Germanys side Star Spangled Banner is being run top of column morning 
Editorial Referendum canvass under way 

Carvalho 406 P 



tTelogram.) 

Feb 26 1917 
S S Carvalho N Y American N Y City 

Why not run the red white and blue title that we had for last edition through 
all editions for a few days during these troublous times? I think It will meet 
popular sentiment. Also please run little American flags to right and left of 
date lines on inside pages like the Chicago Herald. Our editorials should be 
patriotic without slightest criticism direct or Indirect of admlnl.«;tratlon. I 
guess Germany Is going to sink ever>' ship that tries to run the submarine 
Mockade and this means three things — first that we will get into the war; 
second that England will be starved into submission in less than six month« 
third that Germany will then have time to devote to us and this country will 
soon he In a condition similar to warring European countries. We must pre- 
pare In every w^ay. Can we say these things editorially 

Hearst 



[Telegram.] 

NS 852p 

Feb 27 1917 

Arthur Brisbane 

Hotel Alcazar 8t Augustine Fla 
Don't you think better advocate commandeering ammunition plants and cold 
storage food plants as steps prellmlnaiT to war? Say of course these plants 
will be taken over by Government as soon as war begins and better take them 
now and begin organizing them as part of Government service. 

Hearst 



B28J BC Paid NPR ^ „_ 

J New York Feb 28 1917 

W R Hearst 

Palm Beach Fla 
The following Is a copy of the Instructions as sent by Dr Alfred Zlmmermann 
German foreign secretary to German Minister Voneckhrdt In Mexico through 
von Bernstorff now In possession of the Unlte<l States Government quote Berlin 
January 19, 1917. On the first of Feby we Intend to begin submarine warfare 
unrestricted; In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral 
the U States of America. If this attempt is not successful we propose an alli- 
ance on the following basis with Mexico. That we shall make war together and 
together mnke peace. We shall give general financial support and it is under- 
stood that Mexico Is to reconquer the lost territory In New Mexi<*o, Texas and 
Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement. You are Instructed to in- 
form the President of Mexico of the above In the greatest confidence as soon as 
It Is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and 
suggest that President of Mexico on his own initiative should communicate with 
Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan At the same time offer to 
mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the Presi- 
dent of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now prom- 
ises to compel England to make peace in a few months. 

(Signed) ZiMMERMANN end quote 

Van Hakm 1220 AM 



BREWING AND LIQUOB INTERESTS AND GEBMAN PEOPAGANDA. 1611 

IICJ XN 8 1 

J New York NY 1155 AM March 1 1917. 
W R Hearst 

The Breakers PcUm Beach Fla 

Senator Swann of Virginia announced In Senate this morning that he was 
authorized by the President to state that the Zimmerman note to Mexico was 
textaally correct I^nsing made same announcement from State Dep't Japa- 
nese emtkassador authorltively announced that Japan would spurn such 
proposition. No ofHclai information from Mexico Will you outline such edi- 
torial fls you want printed Francis is away sick Will be gone week or ten 
days Owing to lateness of news no paper made editorial comment this morning 

• Carvalho 
1141 AM 



63 J BC 249 count punctuations fourteen and 13 extra 

V New York NY 115pm March 1, 1,917. 
Mr W1U.IAK Randolph Hearst 

Palm Beach Fla 

Another Meyer-Gerhard hoax The alleged letter of Alfred Zimmerman pub- 
lished today Is obviously faked; it is impossible to believe that the German 
foreign secretary would place his name under such a preposterous document. 
The letter is unquestionably a brazen forgery planteil by British agents to 
stampede us into an alliance and to Justify violations of the Monroe doctrine 
by Great Britain. This impudent hoax is made public simultaneously with 
frantic appeals of allied premiers enjoining the United States to enter the war. 
If Germany were plotting against us she would hardly adopt so clumsy a 
method. The real polltiker of the Wilhelmstrasse would never offer an alliance 
based on such ludlcrious propositions as the conquest by Mexico of American 
territory: The creaking of the machinery of the British propaganda is clearly 
perceptible ; the intention is of course to arouse the war spirit of the peace lov- 
ing west and to overwhelm the pacifists in evei*y part of the country The entire 
story reads like a dime novel concocted by our guest Sir Gilbert Parker Great 
Britains chief propagandists in cooperation with R Phillips Oppenhelm. De- 
spite the insiduouH work of various Imaginary artists in the pay of Great 
Britain we have still retained our common sense. We can still differentiate 
between fiction and fact. The American people are willing to be thrilled but 
refuse to be humbugged. 

George SyL\'ESTER Viereck 
Editor of Vierecks Weekly formerly the Fatherland 

1123 Broadtray New York City 

143 P. M 



[Telegram.] ' 

3-2-17 

S. S. Carvalho 

N Y AM y r City 

Will take care of letter. Filing long mes.sage from chief. 

WiLLICOME. 



[Telegram.] 

March 2, 1917. 

S. S. Carvalho, 

AVtr York American, New York City, 

AjO-ee with Francis Zlmmermann note all probability absolute fake and 
forgery, prepared by a very unscrupulous Attorney General's very unscrupulous 
department. Everybody knows that the secret police are the most conscience- 
leas manufacturers of forged evidence in the world. The ordinary police are 
bad eni>ugb with their trumped up evidence and railroading methods but the 
federal agents with the Government back of them and more or less immune 
from punishment are the most reckless concocters of evidence and framers of 
jobs in the world. 



1612 BREWING AND LIQUOB INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 

Gregory's whole career in office as Francis showed in recent editorial has 
been as a spy fancier and plot conceiver. He has not been bound by morals, 
facts or the Constitution. He has employed the secret service to enforce Eng- 
land's unlawful orders. He has attempted to put a bill through Congress to 
make any criticism of his acts or of the President's acts or of any political 
move or measure treasonable and punishable as such. 

He is possibly violently pro-British. He is surely violently pro-corporation. 
He is located where he can do the corporations the most good and he has been 
unwilling to be removed or they have been unwilling to have him removed even 
for a position on the Supreme bench. He and Burleson are House's appoint- 
ments and House has been a corporation lobbyist all his life. 

Gregory and Burleson are so crooked that, as Alfred Henry Lewis used to 
«ay, one of them could lie In bed on top of the Woolworth Building and the other 
•on the ground floor and look down and up forty-seven flights of winding stairs 
into each other's eyes and understand each other perfectly. 

The object of the Zimmerman forgery was to frighten Congress into glying 
the President the powers that he demanded and perhaps also into passing the 
espionage bill. When Wilson wanted to give away the rights of the United 
States in the Panama Canal he pretended that he had private information of a 
dangerous international situation sufllcient to Justify his acta He has never 
revealed his private information and no one now believes that he ever had any. 

He could not repeat this false claim on this occasion so a complaisant Cabinet 
officer this time undertook to manufacture sufllcient false evidence to enable 
Wilson to have his way. It is possible that the British secret service co- 
operated in those plans. The only serious consequence is that the whole people 
of this country, ninety per cent of whom do not want war, may be projected 
into war because of these misrepresentations and those forged documents, if 
they are forged. 

I believe in war if the people want war. They have to do the fighting. They 
ought to do the deciding. I believe in first a referendum to the people and 
second, failing that, a decision by the people's representatives on Congress 
assembled. 

We are getting very far away from democracy and very close to autocracy 
when we repose all the power of the people and all the power of the people's 
representatives in the hands of one man whom we thereby create a dictator. 

It may be the right thing to do but Rome in so doing drifted from a republic 
into an empire. 

' I think the United States should remain a republic in fact as well as in name 
and tliat the people should neither be deceived by the machinations of a tricky 
Attorney General nor deprived of their rights to decide a question of war or 
any other momentous question. I do not believe that any other individual has 
an interest in such questions equal to the interest of the great mass of the 
public and I do not believe that the wisdom of any individual is equal to the 
collective wisdom of the people. 

If we do not want to say all this editorially, we can say part o.f it editorially, 
and get someone to stand for interview as Hale used to do to bring all these 
I>olnt8 out, especially those about the probable forgery of the note. We should 
develop the forgery phase of the note for the Sunday paper if Francis and I 
seem to be right. 

DOCTOS. 



[Telegram.] 

8NY B C 14 Paid 

J New York 601 PM Mar. 2, 1911. 

Manages 

Palm Beach Fla 
Have you any more editorial matter in sight from Mr Hearst to Mr Carvalo 

NY Amn 
5:19 PM 



' a-2-17 
FUed 5 :40 PM. 

New York American 

New York, N Y 
Nothing more in sight from Mr. Hearst for Mr. Carvolha 

W. U. Tkl Co. 



BRBWINO AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1613 

[Telegram.] 

^ jg jj Filing Time 2 : 52 P 

Jax Flo 

Have approximately 2,000 words In telegrams for N. Y. American. Can you 
name as a New York Ckt please 

Palm Beach 

Mar 2/17. 



298 Jxn 
PB 

How one man 



J A Jax 3/2 4 :32 p. 



5NY BC 
PB Fla 

Undid yd OrelUy NY Sun NewYork SGD Hearst unknown GBA 

To Desk 32 SVC NY Mar 2 512 PM 

8y8 ours date since Hearst is today Oreilly. N.Y. American New York. 

Palm Beach (Illegible) 

[Telegram.] 

12.20 P. M. 
March S, 1917, 
S S Cabvalho NY American NT City 

If situation quiets down please remove color flags from first page and little 
flags from inside pages, reserving these for special occasions of a warlike or 
patriotic kind. I think they have been good for this week, giving us a very 
American character and probably helping sell papers, but to continue effective 
they should be reserved for occasions. 

Heabst. . 



1224 P 

[Day Press Rates Collect.] 

Mabch 3 1917 
S S Carvalho NY American NY City 

I feel Congress should remain in continual session and protect the people's 
liberties. This making a dictator of President desperately dangerous precedent. 
It may do no immediate harm with a good President but it may do immense 
Injury with some bad one. Augustus Rome's first Emperor was good man but 
Nero who acted under powers and precedents allowed Augustus was fearfully 
bad one. Eternal vigilance is price of liberty. Wilson is federalist as I wrote 
to first year of his term and as Francis showed in alien and sedition editorial. 
Tbe federalists are autocratic in tendency. Hamilton was accused of trying to 
make monarchy of our Government. Quote Monarchies are destroyed by 
poverty, republics by wealth unquote. It is easier to establish a virtual 
monarchy in the rich America of today than in the poor America of a hundred 
years ago. We shy at the name of King but we accept the spirit of absolutism. 
The Romans would have no king but they accepted an imperator with more 
power than any king and so lost their liberties. President of this Republic 
today has more i)Ower than any king in any constitutional monarchy in the 
world* If he gets more he will be a dictator and possibly a despot It is the 
dnty of true democrats to be vigilant especially as all these encroachments on 
popular rights are being made in the name of democracy. 

Heabst. 



[Telegram.] 

Mabch 3 1917 
S 8 Gabvatho NY American NY City 

Mc Csy coold make strong eight column cartoon occupying in depth two 
thirds editorial page, showing smaller figures Uncle Sam and Qermany shaking 



1614 BBEWINQ AND LIQUOB INTEBESrS AND QEBMAK PBOPAGAKDA- 

their fists at each other on left side page and on right side big head and 
shoulders of Japan with knife in hand leaning over into picture and evidently 
watching chance to strike Uncle Sam in back. Title of picture to be quote 
Watchful . waiting unquote Subtitle quote Look out Uncle Sam your neighbor 
Japan is eagerly waiting an opportunity to strike you in the back unquote. 

Heabst. 
[Telegram. 1 

Mabch 4, 1917 
S S Carvalho X Y American N Y City 

Think beneficial thing senate not to give President great powers demanded. 
If my telegram of yesterday explaining my opposition to such powers and advo- 
cacy of extra session was not printed In Sunday paper, please elaborate it some- 
what and make it an editorial approving action of Senate. Speak very highly of 
Wilson, say he is good president and undoubtedly meant to use power for good 
purposes but the precedent is a dangerous one to establish and Senate did well 
to retain Its powers and rights and protect the liberties of the people. 

Say that the few Senators who voted to retain the rights and functions of 
that body constitute a roll of honor. They did not lack respect for President 
but they had a greater respect for the Institutions founded by the fathers. The 
day will oome when their action will be commended by all the people. Print 
their names. 

Heabst. 



2 J BC Paid NPR and MSGR Charges naid 

J New York NY Mar J, 1911 
W R Hearst 

Palmbeach Florida 

Following editorial send by Mr Brisbane for use In Journal and Boston 
Chicago and Atlanta papers. It Is wired to you for a release by orders of Mr 
Hastings. 

Editor in charge Evening Journal St Augustine Fla March 4 following edi- 
torial is written under Mr Hearsts direction publish in all editions to-morrow- 
send to Boston Chicago Atlanta by mail special delivery with a memc^ndum 
that Mr. Hearst requests its publication. 

Editorial Is to be doubled up across the editorial page set three column 
measure the box head to be put at top of tlie page. Centered across eight 
columns. 

(Box head) If war comes this Government will (caps) commandeer ammuni- 
tion plants and raw materials needed for war (end caps) 

(Small type) An emergency that permits the Government to commandeer 
(caps) the lives (end caps) of citizens authorizes without question com- 
mandeering at cost ammunition plants and other material necessities. (End 
box) 

(Set in type to fill not less than half the page) This country appears to be 
drifting against the will of an overwhelmingly majority of citizens into a state 
of war. 

After nearly three years of neutrality, those who predicted " that we should get 
into the war sooner or later" believe that they see the fulfillment of their 
prophesy. War will mean spending thousands of millions — a great opportunity 
for those whose profession is to profit by the countrys misfortune 

War will mean many things disagreeable and painful to contemplate many 
complications that the patriotic citizens would serve most earnestly to avoid. 

What the result will be, how far we shall go into war, to what extent we 
shall succeed In crippling ourselves financially as the European nations have 
done, nobody can say. 

But one thing Is certain. 

The Government will take over and operate for itself, with no extortionate 
profit for anybody, all of the ammunition plants necessary for attack or 

defense. 

And the nation will fix its own prices on raw materials needed In war, 
whether those raw materials be steel, copper, gunpowder, dynamite or alcohol. 

We shall learn from England and other European countries that a govern- 
ment which commandeers the lives of citizens in war time has also the right 
to commandeer the property of citizens. 

As England has regulated the price of every dollars worth of raw material , 
or manufactured material brought for the government, so the United State* 



BB£WING AKD LJQUOB INTEBESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1615 

will regulate every price, and spend every government dollar at a rate of 
profit to the seller that the government and not the seller will fix. 

lo war the young man earning five, ten, two or three dollars a day is taken 
from his profitable work. He is put into the army without asking consent. 
The nation says to him, I will pay you fifty cents a day, and take your life 
in the proc-ess if it should happen to be necessary. 

The custom has been in the past to enroll the ordinary citizen, deprive of 
his employment, pay him a nominal sum, take his life if it is needed. 

And the custom has been to give to the prosperous who make their profit 
out of war, an extortionate profit fixed by the extortioners themselves. 

There will be none of that extortion, none of that robbery of the government 
based on its necessities if this war comes. In the event of war, and it Is 
that the government will fix prices, take over the manufacturing plants of 
tlie raw material at Its own valuation, as it takes the citizen and his life at 
government valuation. 

The people fortunately have had a chance to discuss and think over this 
war in advance. It has not been sprung upon them suddenly. 

The President with great wisdom has fought against it, and is still fight- 
in;; a;aiin5;t it. 

There are men in both Houses of Ck)ngress who realize the nature of the 
fon'es that are trying to bring war upon the country. 

All. of these that oppose war are prepared for it if it must come and will 
9how in the prosecution of it an energy even greater than that with which 
they have opposed war and its dreadful consequences. 

The people have had time to think over the war. They have had to study 
anil understand the forces, the Interests, the selfishness, the professional war 
movement. 

Having had time to think In their homes, and In the Congress that represents 
them, the people are thoroughly determined upon one thing. They do not Intend 
that war which will plunge the nation Into debt, disorganize the lives of citi- 
zena, interfere with this natlon*s possibilities of usefulness hereafter — they 
d<m*t intend that, that condition, damaging to ninety nine percent of all the 
people, shall enrich a selfish few. The people of the United States have seen 
extortion practiced upon the people of Europe, condemned to pay to the ammuni- 
tion makers of the United States any price demanded. 

Tliey have seen the makers of powder and dynamite, the manufacturers of 
killing machinery of all kinds, piling up their hundreds of millions of profit 

What has been done with other nations Is the business of other nations. 

But wliat is done in case war comes to this country will be the business of 
this country. 

When the time comes for the United States to ask for war materials or for 
manufactured engines of murder, our government will not ask the manufacturer, 
the producer, or the banking middleman how much are you going to charge 
your ^vemment, how much profit do you mean to get out of this war. 

The government will say and It will mean I know what you have for sale. 
I know or I shall find out what it costs you to produce. I shall take what I 
need. I will run your factory myself, operate your mine or your plant myself 
If it seema to me advisable, and I will allow you on the actual cost such a profit 
as seems to me advisable. 

There will be In the l^nltH States and the expense of the United States one 
of th;it orgy of graft and murder profit that has gone on thus far In the war. 

The company which proudly tells its stockholders that it produces copper for 
»*lx ifiits a pound and feolls it for thirty-six cents a pound will not sell it to 
the Unlteil States government for thirty six cents a pound— ^but for six cents a 
\m»nut\ plus a fair profit. The steel company that tells its stockholders how it 
linH t'simed dividends of a hundred i>ercent on a thousand millions of watered 
wf^jT-k will not get a hundrwl i)er cent of profit from the government of the 
t'uited States — but will get what the product costs, plus the average, reasonable 
r»*rcent of profit. 

And what Is more, the government prosecuting the war In the Interest of the 
r«^)ple« anil not of private individuals, will act toward Inanimate property as 
justly and impartially as it acts toward the living citizen. 

Tlie goveniment that says on the one hand to the mother, I will take your 
M«u ami Hend him to be killed, will hesitate to say to the maker of steel and 
ammnnition or copper, will take your property, and use it as I see fit, and pay 
> oa ft* I think wise and Just — and not as you decide. 

The United States has the right to regulate prices. Don*t forget that. 



1616 BREWING AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGAISTDA. 

Within a few days, to the writer of this editorial, three members of tlie 
United Stjites Cabinet, the three most influential, those that would have most 
to say, under the President, if war should come have said the same tiling, and 
here is the substance of it. 

The United States will not pay extra vap:ant prices for war supplies. We have 
been making up tables of figures based on years past, w^e have had statements 
prepared as to the average prices during past years of steel, oil, copper, powder, 
etc. " And if we get into this war and begin buying with American money 
we'll pay the average price for years past not the extortionate war prices tliat 
unfortunate Europe has had to pay. 

" We hnve not been studying Europe and its methods in vain. We observe 
that England has commandeered raw material, and has paid what these ra^- 
materials cost plus a small reasonable profit. 

" We shall not pay for raw products like steel, copper, coal and oil, two, three, 
seven, himdred and thousand i)ercent profit. We shall pay a fair profit, no 
more." The government will not ask what will you charge? The government 
will say you have so and so and we know It. 

" We want it and this is what we will pay you for it" 

If those interested doubt that this quotation is given accurately, if they ques- 
tion that tJie three most important members of the Cabinet speaking under the 
President, who, of course, can not be quoted, said exactly what is printed here, 
let them go to Washington and inform themselves. 

They will find in the President a careworn, overburdened, but determined 
man. He does not intend to have the gabling hopes of any industrial king force 
war upon this Nation of which he Is the head. The industrial " Patriot who 
through newspaper control or ownership of Congressmen seeks to force the 
President's hand, will find that hand a heavy and a tight han4 when it comes 
to paying out the money of the people. 

If war comes almost every tiling will be uncertain, the total cost to the Govern- 
ment, the number of lives lost, the effect on shipping, the regulation of food 
prices, as in Europe, the extension to this country of the so-called socialistic 
Government regulations prevailing in Europe — ^all of this at present uncertaln, 

But one thing fortunately is sure. The people are not in a mood to have any 
multimillionaires manufactured out of the country's misfortune, if war must 
come. 

If the people's business must be disturbed, if the high prices of food must 
go still higher, if this Nation must be dragged into the war dance and pushed 
toward the verge of bankruptcy as other nations have been, the makers of am- 
munition, and sellers of raw materials of war shall not stand by and be the 
gainers while all others lose. 

The People through their Government will see to It that everything is done 
fairly and justly, fair pay, as far as possible, for those that enlist and offer 
their lives, moderate pay with a fair moderate profit for those whose inanimate 
wealth in the shape of raw materials and manufactured anununition maybe 
necessary for carrying on the war. The Nation will take and operate ammuni- 
tion plants if war comes, and fix their own price and moderate profit for all 
war materials purchased. 

(BBISBANE) Sig JOUBNAI. 

1S7 AM Mar 5 



BREWLNG AJhD LIQUOR LNTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 



TUESDAY, DECEMBEB 10, 191«. 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

WashingtOTi^ D. C. 

The subcommittee met at 10.45 o'clock a. m., in room No. 226, 
Senate Office Building, Senator Lee S. Overman presiding. 

Present: Senators Overman (chairman), Nelson, and Sterling. 

Senator Overman. The committee will come to order. Prof. Hart, 
we will hear you. 

TESTIHONT OF PBOF. ALBEKT BXJSHNELL HABT. 

• 

(The witness was sworn by the chairman.) 

Senator Overman. I have a number of telegrams here that will be 
put into the record before we begin the examination of this witness. 
There is one from ex-Senator Root, reading as follows : 

"Hon Lee S. Ovebman 

US Senate Waghington, D. C. 
I think I ought to say that Professor Albert Bushnell Hart to my own knowl- 
kUpb was strong and outspoken in his pubUc and private opposition to Germany 
ADil in favor of asserting and maintaining American rights against Germany 
lonif before the United States entered tlie great war. 

Elihu Root." 

I also have a similar telegram vouching for the patriotism and 
loyalty to the United States of Prof. Hart, from Henry L. West, 
rptding as folows: — 

Dec 9. 1918. 
"Lec 8. Overman 

United States Senate Washington, 7). C. 
In December nineteen sixteen All>ert Bushnell Hart was selected as Chair- 
man of Committee on Patriotism through education of National Security League. 
His attitude at that time was and had been so thoroughly American as to appeal 
to the Prenident of the League and led to his selection to take charge of our 
patriotic educational work. When this work grew to such proportions that It 
wan necessary to secure services of someone who could devote his entire atten- 
tion to It Prof, Hart relinquished his chairmanship but has since been associ- 
ated with committee and lias steadfastly laborotl to promote an American morale 
to win the war. His address at annual meeting of National Security League 
in May nineteen seventeen was heartily commended by late Joseph H. Choate 

wtM> was present. 

Henry L. West." 

Also another from Robert Erskine, New York, reading as follows : — 

New York, N. Y. Dectmber 10, 1918. 

Ron. Lbe 8. Ovebman » 

Senator from South Carolina Washington, D, C. 

Pwfemnr Albert Bushnell Hart of Harvard University has been for yeani 
hiscfaly valued and respected lecturer before League for Political Education. 

1617 



1618 BREWING AND LIQUOB INTERESTS AND GERMAN PBOPAQAN]>A. 

February sixteenth last he lectured on " No Royal Road to Peace " Ijefore great 
audience in Carnegie Hall. His position was that prosecution of war with 
utmost energy at all costs until decisive victory secured was only way get 
genuine peace. He denounced Germany in unmeasured terms. Any question 
concerning his attitude throughout war seems to us absolutely preposterous as 
all of our four thousand members who heard him lecture can testify. Our 
leage is iu Its twenty fifth year, has been addressed by President AVilson, Taft, 
Roosevelt, Ooethals, Gerard Van Dyke and others. A Barton Hepburn Is Presi- 
dent Board of Trustees. 

Robert Ebskine 
Director 17 West ^th St New York City. 

Here is another one from Educational Director E. M. McElrov. 
New York, reading as follows: 

1913 Dec 9 pm 3 47 
Honorable Lee S. Overman 

United States Senate Washington DC 

Albert Bushnell Hnrt has worked with me Intimately in auti German propa- 
ganda for over a year and has done as much as any one of my acquaintance to 
create the public opinion necessary to victory. I wish to express my unqualified 
faith in his intense loyalty and devotion to America and the cause for whicn 
she fought 

R M McElboy 
Educational Director. 

. Another telegram from Boston, signed by John L. Bates, reads as 

follows : 

Boston Mass 1918 Dec JO AM 12 
Senator 0\'erman 

Chaimuin Washington D. C. 

Have known Professor A B Hart well for last two years as member of Massa- 
chusetts Constitutional Convention, Never heard his patriotism questioned and 
never discovered anything In his speech or attitude that Indicated any leanlnsc 
toward Germany Think all his associates in Convention would endorse this 
statement 

^ John L Bates. 

Here is one from A. C. McLaughlin, Chicago, 111., saying : 

I have known Professor Hart for years and consider charge of proGermanism 
absurd. 

Also one from Prof. Charles W. Elliott, reading as follows : 

Professor Hart of Harvard University has always been intensely loyal 
American. 

I have also received, in addition to those read, the following tele- 
grams: 

Senator Lee S. Overman 

Washington D, C, 

Professor Albert Bushnell Hart has addressed economic clubs of Boston and 
elsewhere at various times both before and during the war. Reports of his 
speeches furnish, convincing proof of his loyalty and unadulterated Americanism. 
Referring to speech before our club on November twenty third nineteen fourteen 
at which Helnrich Albert then Privy Councillor German Ministry of the Interior 
also spoke Boston Journal next morning snld " Professor Hart besides con- 
demning Germany rushed to the defense of Belgium and criticised tlie violation 
of her neutrality speaking of the violation of Belgium Professor Hart said * I do 
not understand Germanys Treachery * " 

J W Beatson 
Secretary National Economic League. 



BREWIKG AND LIQUOB IKTEKEBT8 AND QBBMAK PBOPAGAimA. 1619 

Boston Mass 1918 Dec 10 AM 
Senator Ovebitan 

Senate Building Washington D C 

Have been Intimately associated wltli Professor A. B. Hart for nearly year 
frequently hearing him speak in public and private and regard him thoroughly 
loyal intensely patriotic and splendid example of self sacrificing American 
litizenship. 

William T Sedgwick, 
Chairman Mass, Division National Security League 
Member Advisory Board U. 8. Public Health Service, 



Boston Mass J9J8 Dec 10 AM 
United States Senator Overman 

Washington, D. C. 

I^ofessor Hart was a member of the Massachusetts Constitutional Conven- 
tion with me in Nineteen seventeen and nineteen eighteen He has frequently 
spolken on the public platform at political meetings with me since that time. 
I have always considered him an enthusiastic American and cannot conceive of 
any SQl>stantial ground for doubting his loyalty. 

David I Walsu. 



San Diego Calif 1918 Dec 10 AM 

Senator Lee Overman 

Senate Office Bldg Washington D C 

Am shocked at charge against Dr. Albert Bushnell Hart. Often dlscussetl 
'rar with him before our entry and ^vorked with him in security league and 
similar patriotic organizations and heard him often on public platform He 
aiwuys Impressed me with his absolute loyalty and anti-German sentiments I 
am convinced beyond any possible doubt that charge is wholly false. 

E. J. HsNiTiNa. 



Philaoelphia, Penn. Dec 9 PM 2 i9 
Senator Lee Overman 

Ch€nrman Committee Washington DC 

Having Just learned that All)ert Bushnell Hart is to appear before your 
Committee Tuesday to refute charges of pro Germanism we desire to state 
ihat such charges are preposterous. Professor Hart has had much to do with 
rfiaping the patriotic activities of the Loyal Order of Moose. These activities 
are known to the several Government Departments. We know that we voice 
the sentiments of our half million members when we pronounce these charges 
ritlimlons 

Charles A C McGee 

Supreme Dictator. 
John W. Ford. 
Chairnutn Executive Committee. 

Now, Maj. Humes, will you please read that part of the testimonj^ 
where Prof. Hart's name was brought in ? 

Maj. Humes. I read from page 1725 of the typewritten transcript 
[page 1399 of this printed record] of the testimony of Mr. Bielaski as 
follows: 

In Dr. Fuehrs papers there appeared, In addition to his note-booft, which 
'^nitalnefl a number i>f items of interest, & list whicli was headed " Important 
ll«t of names/* and wideh contains many names which are familiar to lis as 
harlng lieen active In favor of Germany. I can read the list, if you would like 
t«» hear them. 

Senator Nklson. Yes ; let us hear them. 

Mr. BiEi*.\KKi. No. 1 is Prof. Wm. U. Shepherd, Columbia University, New York 
nty, about which we ylll have something more to say, I think. 

Next, Pnif. Huj^) Muensterberg. Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Prot Wm. M. Sloane. Columbia University, New York City. 



1620 BREWING AND UQUOB INTERESTS AND GERMAN PBOPAGAirDA^ 

Dr. Edmund von Maeh, Cambridge. Mass., who was a very active propagan- 
dist, about whom we have got some information 

Dr. Arthur Von Brlesen. 25 Broad St.. New York City. 

Prof. John W. Burgess, Newport, R. I. 

Prof. Eugen Smith, Columbia University, New York City. 

Prof. Herbert C. Sanborn, Vanderbllt l^iiverslty, Nashville, Tenn. 

Prof. James G. McDonald, of the Unlversltv of Indiana. 
. Prof. Ferdinand Schevllle, University of Chicago. 

Mr. E. C. Richardson, Princeton University. 

Prof. Kuno Franke, Hai-vard University. Prof. Franke was Dr. Alljert's 
uncle, and helped him quite a bit In the preparation of his articles for the 
press, but after our entrance into the war was likewise the author of some ver\' 
patriotic articles. 

Prof. Geo. B. Mc-Clellan, Princeton University. 

Prof. A. B. Faust. Cornell University. 

Prof. Morris Jastrow, Jr., I'niverslty of Wisconsin. 

Senator ^^'oLcoTT. r>o you know what Prof. Faust was professor of? 

Mr. BiELASKi. I do not, no, sir; not ofThand. 

Dr. Walter M. S. McNeill, Richmond, Va. 

Prof. David Starr Jordan. Berkeley, Calif. 

Hon. Peter S. (^rosscup. Ignited States Judge, Chicago, 111. 

Hon. Richard Bartholdt, St. Louis, Mo. 

Prof. Bushnell Hart, Harvard University. 

Dr. C. J. Hexamer, Philadelphia. Pa., President of the Gennan-American 
Alliance. 

Prof. Wm. P. Trent. 

Hon. Charles Nagel. St. I^ouls, Mo. 

Mr. Oswald Garrison Vlllard, New York Evening Post. 

Mr. William Randolph Hearst, New York American. 

Mr. Bernard Bidder, New Y'ork Staats-Zeitung. 

Mr. Edward A. Rumely, New York Evening Mall, and interested in many 
other forms of (Jermnn propaganda. 

Mr. Fretlerlck F. Schrader, 1493 Broadway, New York City, one of the e<litors 
of Mr. Viereck's paper, and a man who serve<l for a time as Washington corre- 
spondent for Mr. VIereck, and the author of a number of pro-German pam- 
phlets publlsheil by the Press Bureau. 

Mr. Frank Harris, New York City, the Pearson man. 

Mr. Rob. I. Ford, The F'reeman's Journal, New York City. 

Rev. Father Thlerney. Anierlc Catholic Weekly, New York City. 

Mr. Max A. Heln, 230 Riverside Drive, New York City. Mr. Hein was a very 
active propagandist, and I think Is Mr. Viereck's father-in-law, or some way- 
related to him. 

George Sylvester VIereck, 1123 Broadway. New York City. 

Senator Overman. Read a little farther, about the other list. 
Maj. Humes (reading) : 

There wns a supplemental list, but I <lo not tliink any of those names are 
especially Important. They are not marke<l on this Important list. 

Senator Nelson. Are there any from Minnesota there? 

Mr. B1ET.A8KT. Minnesota seems to have c*scaped, Senator, as far as I can see. 

Senator Nelson. I feel relieved. Have you got that supplemental list to 
which you referred? 

Mr. BiKLASKi. Yes. 

Senator Nbxson. Suppose you give it to the reporter to be put into the record. 

Mr. BiELASKi. I win furnish you with a copy. 

Senatpr Overman. Prof. Hart,, you asked me about those names 
that were referred to in the record and vet that were not mentioned 
on any " important list."' Your name appeared with those that have 
just been read, and I have also read, now, certain telegrams into the 
record testifying to your loyalty and patriotism. You have requeste<l 
to be heard, and we shall be glad to hear you. Professor, what posi- 
tion do you now hold? 

Mr. Hart. I am professor, of government in Harvard TTniversity. 

Senator Overman. You may say anything that you have to say, 
and we shall be glad to hear vou. 



BBEWING AND UQUOB Il^TEBESIS AN0 GBRMAK PB0PAQAI7DA. 1621 

Mr. Hakt. Mr. Chairman, I very much appreciate the courtesy of 
the committee in giving me so prompt an opportunity to meet it,, 
and further, I very much appreciate the efforts of this committee in 
bringing to light the secret actions of the German agents who were 
lionevcombing the whole country. It is a public service, and I am 
e>i)ecially pleased at having the opportunity, while this whole mat- 
ter is fr^h, to discuss the question of my name getting into such bad 
coiupany. 

It would have been a dreadful misfortune if this had happened 
after my death, and there had been nobody who- was able to oring 
together the evidence which I shall Jay before you upon that subject. 
It would have been a hard thing for me if mv children had ever 
had to bear it, that their father had been included in a list of pro- 
Germans while their country was at war, and that nothing had been 
done about it. 

You observe, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, that 
the statement that has just been read includes two things: First, a 
list of names in which mine is one. That is a matter of fact, and I 
am the last one to find any fault with its production. It was proper 
that it should be read, and should be put upon the record. 

The second part is a statement b^ Mr. Bielaski of his judgment as 
to the general character of that list. I observe that the statement 
does not necessarily include every name upon the list. Upon some 
of those persons he expressed opinions as he went over them. Others 
he left without. But his opinion was that that was a list of persons 
friendly to the Germans, or at least presumed to be friendly by the 
man who made it. Furthermore, that it was. a list of persons who, 
liefore the war some of them, or* all of them, and some of them since 
the outbreak of the American war, had been upon the German side. 

Mr. Chairman, that my name should be among a list of that kind is 
I'v accident, or with a purpose. I think perhaps I may be able to show 
what the purpose was, and perhaps through whom it came ; an effort, 
probably, to put me down as a person who was to be approached; 
hecause,*as I shall show you, I was approached; and I will also tell 
you what came of that affair. 

The accusation touches me very deeply, because I think no one who 
has followed the magazine literature, the periodical literature, with 
regard to the war, can doubt that ever since the United States de- 
clared war upon Germany I have been an absolutely loyal citizen. 
I do not think it worth while to put forward any evidence or sug- 
?e*»tion upon that point. It is not controverted. There is nothing in 
the testimony here that touches that point. 

Therefore "the only suspicion that can be attached refers to the 
period before the war broke out ; that is, between August, 1914, when 
(Germany brought on the war, and April, 1917, when Germany 
brrHiglit'on a war, that time with the United States of America. 

The point is simply this: During that whole period my activity 
was decidedly anti-German. If, therefore, the Germans in their 
^wret councils in any way included me, that means, if it were prov- 
able, not onlv that I was pro-German but that I was a hypocrite 
from top to bottom and that while posing before the country as an 
'opponent of the Germans I was actually in connection with them. 

liet me take this opportunity, then, Mr. Chairman, to absolutely 
^epel any statement that I at any time had any connection with any 



1622 BREWING AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 

a^ent of the German Government, public or secret. I never heard 
of this man Fuehr until I saw his name in the reports of your pro- 
ceedings, 

William Bayard Hale seems to have been connected on the day 
of this testimony. So far as I am aware, I never saw him or had 
any communication with him. 

I never was aware that I was in correspondence with any person 
representing the German Government, arid my record is absolutely 
clear. There are no private letters of mine anywhere in the world 
that disprove what 1 am now saying. My files are at the service of 
the committee. I have brought with me a file of my own publications 
on the war, which some time ago I got together. There are about 
100 articles on the war, and they speak for themselves. I do not put 
them in evidence. There is too much of it. 

I have brought also with me some files of my correspondence. 

I have brought with me five books that during the war I have 
published, bearing on this general question, and I will leave copies 
of those books with the committee in order that you may see if this 
is in all my writings. 

I am glad, therefore, Mr. Chairman, of this opportunity to clear 
my name. Of course it was not criminal for anybody to be i>ro- 
German after the war broke out, any more than to be pro-British. 
Of course our President admonished us to be neutral ; a difficult thing, 
because everybody has his prejudices. That is, nobody can be put 
to the bar for believing^ that Germanj' would win the war, or hoping 
that (xermany would win the war. I have known many honorable 
men, Mr. Chairman, American bom, who thought so. I know an 
admiral in the Navy, one of the most patriotic men in the country, 
who predicted from the beginning that Germany would win the war 
by land and sea, and who evidently hoped that it would ; and I trust 
that he is now agreeably disappointed. 

But that was not the side I took, Mr. Chairman. However honor- 
able and free from blame that may have been for other people, it 
could not have been free from blame for me if I had taken it, because 
I was on the other side. And that was in spite of certain preposses- 
sions. I was a student in Germany 37 years ago; spent a year and a 
half in German universities, and also some time in an institution in 
Paris. 

Senator Nelson. Did you ever do any dueling while you were a 
student in a German university^ 

Mr. Hart. I witnessed dueling, and that was one of the things I 
did not like about Germany. I thought I might as well go and see 
a lot of steers slaughtered in a slaughterhouse as to see those fellows 
chopping each other's faces to pieces. 

Senator Nelson. Then, if you will allow me to break in on your 
statement, can you see any reason for our youth going to round out 
their education in German universities rather than in our own 
countrv ? 

Mr. Hart. I thought I got a good deal more out of the time I spent 
in Paris than out of what I spent in Germany. Germany was still 
strong then, however. It has lost its savor in that respect" also, now. 
There are no eminent professors of history in Germany now. 

Senator Nelson. Would you recommend our youth going to Ger- 
man universities to round off their education, now ? 



BREWING AND UQUOB INXEBEBT8 AN0 GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1623 

Mr. Habt. I should not at present, because there are educational 
institutions in France and England where the results are very much 
superior in general effect. 

Senator Nelsok. Do you not think we have got it in this country? 

Mr. Hart. Well — got it ? I did not catch it. I be^ pardon. 

Senator Nelson. Do you not think we have got as big educational 
advantages in this country as they have there? 

Mr. Hart. I might be thought as praising myself in answering 
that question. But, of course, we have. The best and most efficient 
universities in the world are American universities; but that does 
not mean that there are not students in American universities that 
can learn much in other countries, just as foreigners can learn much 
in American universities. 

Senator Nelson. They can learn more here than anywhere else, 
can they not? 

Mr. Hart. I do not think it is capable of being estimated. I cer- 
tainly leiimed more than I learned in any foreign country. 

Senator Nelson. Yes. 

Mr. Hart. I beg that the members of the committee will ask me 
questions at any point. 

Senator Nelson. Excuse me for interrupting you. 

Mr. Hart. No, sir — ^please interrupt. 

Furthermore, I took my doctorate at the University of Freiburg 
in 1883, and it was no cnromo degree. I worked with Prof, von 
Hoist and in his last days he told me he wished it was possible for 
liim to come and lay his bones in this land, because of his admiration 
for Americans. He felt that it was the country that was really his 
own. He was a man who had objections to certain things in his own 
wuntry. 

Senator Nelson. Did you give anj^ attention to Treitschke on 
history ? 

Mr. Hart. Curiously enough, I went to hear him in Berlin. I 
thought he was a good deal of a prig, and I pointed out 27 mis- 
takes that I thought I had detected in his lectures on English his- 
tory, and, do you know, the man never answered me? That was 
the extent of mv connection with that man. 

Furthermore, in 1914, before the war began, I was designated as 
Harvard exchange professor to go to Berlin in the year 1915. I 
have not been there. That was a service that had been performed like 
Prof. Hadlev, of Yale, or Prof. Schofield, the Canadian, of Harvard 
College, an(f it indicated, of course, the appointment of a man that 
was interested in Germany, and at that time not hostile. 

Senator Nelson. I want to say to you, as an excuse for interjecting 
this interruption 

Mr. Hart. Yes, sir. 

Senator Nelson (continuing). That I have discovered out in Min- 
nesota that young men who have been to the German universities 
seemed to be affected with German ideas of government here, during 
the war. One of them, for instance, said that it was a horrible thing 
to deprive the German children of milk, and that we were a ter- 
ribly cruel countrj'. He had studied at a German university. And 
80 I discovered in many instances that those who had studied in 
German universities were possessed with German ideas of govem- 

8572S— Ifr— VOL 2 ^16 



1624 BBBWIl^G AND LIQUOB JNTEBESTB AND GEBMAK PBOPAGAXTDiL. 

ment, and were not, from my standpoint, as loyal and patriotic as 
they ought to be. 

I^Tow, do you not think it is a dangerous thing for our students to 
go over there and imbibe that system of theirs; I mean, their politi- 
cal system? 

Mr. Hart. I do not think the ordinary student in a German uni- 
versity gets much politics. He may get some beer-: — 

Senator Nelson. Yes; and pumpernickel. 

Mr. Hart (continuing). Yes; and see the duelling; but to my 
knowledge three or four of the men who are now on the steamer 
George Washington have been in German universities, and I sup- 
pose that the presumption is that they came to understand the * crit- 
ter." They can be especially helpful because they have been in 
Germany and speak and read German and know something of the 
people, and I presume they do not like it. 

Nevertheless, despite those prepossessions, I did not favor Ger- 
many. For one reason, I never could stand the Prussian lieutenants 
when I was in Germany. I hated the fit of their trousers. [Laugh- 
ter.] Second, because 1 was satisfied from the start that Germany 
had brought on the war; that she was responsible for the great out- 
break. 

Furthermore, the invasion of Belgium went against the grain. I 
very early took an opportunity of writing a long article in the 
New York Times, pointmg out how it was against law and humanity. 
And then their massacres in Serbia, and also especially in Armenia, 
because the Germans are responsible for the death of a million peo- 
ple in Armenia ; and finally the sinking of the Lvsitania and their 
refusal to make any atonement; and their general brutal way of 
carrying on the war ; and it quite wrought on my mind. I could not 
stand it. No decent man could stand it, it seemed to me. But that 
was a very different thing from believing, and for a long time I did 
not believe that the United States would have to go in; and I did 
not believe until a vear before we declared war, it was not until then 
that the conviction began to come over me, that we would have to 
take part. 

Senator Nelsox. Did it not dawn on you, Professor, from the be- 
ginning of the war, that if Germany was successful in swallowing 
Belgium • and destroying France arid hamstringing England and 
getting control of everything in Europe, we would be the next vic- 
tim, and that therefore it was in a certain measure our war as well 
as theirs? 

Mr. Hart. Senator Nelson, if you had the time to turn over that 
set of my works, you would find that principle, exactly, set forth here. 

Senator Nelson. I am glad to hear it. 

Mr. Hart. And during the war I published several books. Here 
is one called The War In Europe. I am going to leave it for the 
files of the committee. 

Senator Stermng. What was the date of its publication! 

Mr. Hart. October 17, 1914. It appeared early in the year 1915. 
That book is a general review of the nations at war, and the causes 
of the war, and it was, I must say, I think now, a good deal too neu- 
tral. If we had known what we now know about the actual re- 
sponsibility — if we had had the proofs of the resijonsibility— of 
Germany, if we had known what Germany would do in all the con- 



'dT. 



BBBWING AND UQUOB INTEBfiSTB AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1625 

qiiered lands, if we had had the Lusitama sinking to deal with, I 
would not have tried to be so impartial and neutral. That, however, 
Ls an impartial and neutral book in which there are some things on 
which Germany is criticized, but in general I must say it is a color- 
less book, and I wish now that there had been a little more paint 
in it. 

Senator Nelson. May I interrupt you right there, Professor? 

Mr. Hart. Certainly. 

Senator Nelson. You recall the fact of the great brutality and 
barbarism of the German Army in Belgium in 1014 during their 
invasion when they rushed through Belgium ; and do you recall 
the fact that there were a lot of German professors who signed a 
circular letter of some kind. 

Mr. Hakt. Yes. 

Senator Nelson. I can not describe the details. 

Mr. Hart. Yes. 

Senator Nelson. Exonerating the Army and denying all those 
barbarous acts to Belgium ? Do you recall that fact ? 

Mr. Hart. Yes. 

Senator Nelson. What was your view of It? 

Mr. Hart. It was one of the things that most set me against Ger- 
many, because those were the men who ought to have protested ; and, 
so far as T can see. Senator, no body of responsible people in 
(lermany to-day has protested against those outrages. 

Senator Nelson. And there is where their leading men, their 
leading professors and ministers of the gospel, have failed to meet 
their responsibility. 

Mr, Hart. All German professors in the last 30 years have been 
public officials. 

Senator Nelson. Yes. 

Mr. Hart. They could not have held their jobs if they had not 
preached the doctrine prescribed by their government; and there- 
fore, when the time came and they were called upon to sign a docu- 
ment, they just had to do it. I do not mean morally they had to. 
They might have resigned or they might have cut their throats 
before they signed such a thing as that. 

Senator Sterling. I want to ask you whether any part of that 
book or any chapters of that book appeared as magazine articles 
before the book was published? 

Mr. Hart. I do not think any part of this did. I wrote other 
fnapizine articles on other phases, but I think none of them were 
incorporated here. The book is at your service. 

The next book I wrote is entitled " Problems of Eeadjustment," 
which is a composite. I will send you a copy down. It is made up 
of essays by various people, the point being. What is going to happen 
to the United States after the war ? There is not very much about 
ihe conduct of the war in that book. 

Then comas this book which is entitled "The Monroe Doctrine; 
An Interpretation." I see the preface is dated November 4, 1915. 
1 finished the book and sent it to the press then. In that book I 
took occasion to criticize the German policjr in America with ref- 
erence to the Monroe doctrine, and there is a chapter upon the 
fiennan doctrine which treats of Germany in Venezuela andf danger 
from Germany. ' 



1626 BEEWIKG AND LIQUOB INTEBESTB AND GERMAN PBOPAGAKDA. 

Senator Nelson. Will you excuse me for interrupting you? 

Mr. Hart. Yes. 

Senator Nelson. Did you have anything in it about the Argen- 
tine — Germany's invasion of the Argentine 1 

Mr. Hart. You mean the colonists coming in there? 

Senator Nelson. Yes, in large nubmers; and German proi)aganda. 

Mr. Hart. Yes ; certainly. But the main point that I laid down 
was that there was not room for Germany in the United States or 
in the two Americas, 'and if the Germans did intend anything in 
that direction in America, the United States eventually would have 
to protect itself . (Reading:) 

If the Empire, now or hereafter, should fancy a colony in North or South 
America it will not be held htick by Monroe's declaration. • • • 

Nor is the future of California or Texas secured simply by being geo- 
jarnphically a part of the United States, but by the ultimate abUity of tbe 
United States as a Nation to hold on to them. • ♦ • 

Germany is the one power that has enough physical force and a broad enough 
ambition to give any chance of success in Latin America. Against Germany, 
therefore, more than any other nation on earth, all the American powers are 
seeking some rallying cry which would enable them to make head if danger 
came upon them. 

Those are the two books written in the early part of the war by me. 

As soon as the war broke out I entered upon the preparation of 
these two books, the first a Handbook on the War for Public Speak- 
ers [indicating book], and the second entitled "America at War; a 
Handbook of Patriotic Education References." This is made up 
of extracts from various sources. If it could be more distinctly 
anti-German, if there could be a greater effort made to show what 
the Germans said about themselves and the character that they gave 
themselves, if there could have been a greater appeal for protecting 
the United States and civilization against the Germans then I was 
at fault, because that is what I meant to put in those books. 

It is a curious fact — ^not a curious fact, but it is an obvious fact — 
that I have had personal relations with people mentioned in the 
lists, because many of them are men of national repuation; but 
there were five different pro-Germans, several of whom were the 
most intense pro-German agents, with whom I have had some rela- 
tions. Now, of course, if I were pro-German in the period before 
the war these are the men with whom I should naturally form re- 
lations. 

There is one of those men who has been an intimate friend of 
mine for 40 years, Prof. Kuno Francke. I knew him in Germaiiy 
40 years ago. He has long been naturalized and is identified with 
this country. He announced, long before the war, that if war broke 
out he was an American, and he stood by his country; and his son 
is to-day In the military service of the United States. I have alwavs 
found him an upright man. His views and mine upon the responsi- 
bility and character of Gtermany, however, were widely different, 
and we simply had to agree that we should disagree upon the ques- 
tion. 

Senator Nelson. What view did he take? 

Mr. Hart. Well, he was Gferman born, and he had been very active 
in the effort to unite the Germans in this country. 

Senator Nelson. Did he jixstify Germany going into the war? 



BBEWING AKD LIQUOR INTEBESTB AKD OEEMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1627 

Mr. HAirr. Yes ; he did. But he could not stand Belgium. That 
always stuck in his throat. He always said that was absolutely un- 
justined. He could not stand for it. 

Senator Nelson. Did he deny that Germany began the war? 

Mr. Hart. He thought the war was part of a general world move- 
ment. He thought Germany was put upon. Undoubtedly he did 
so think. 

The others are Miinsterberg, von Mach, Heinrich Albert, and an- 
other gentleman, whom I will mention presently. 

Miinsterberg was my colleague. He was the open agent of Ger- 
many for 18 years. I find it hard to think that he entered into any 
secret propaganda before the war, because his open propaganda was 
so clear and frank. He never was naturalized. He considered 
himself a German to the last moment of his life. He is dead. He 
died about a year ago; and this is not a place for criticism upon 
that man, except to say that we had a controversy in the columns 
of the New York Times. His point was that the German- Americans 
came over here for the sake of spreading Germanism, and mine was 
that they came over here to become American citizens; and he did 
not like that kind of controversy, and the result was that from that 
time on we never had any personal relations. 

The next is Edmund von Mach, who was properly characterized 
as a German agent. Von Mach was a neighbor of mine in Cam- 
bridge, although I hardly knew him. In going over these papers I 
chanced upon a note that von Mach wrote me early in 1915, asking 
nie if I could arrange a joint debate between him and President 
Eliot. I did not arrange it. 

Early in the war there was a meeting of the Economic Club, of 
Providence. 

Senator Nelson. You spoke about a certain debate. Was that 
about the war? 

Mr. Hakt. Yes; in Providence. Von Mach took one side and 
I another. These are two men, von Mach and Miinsterberg, that 
<ire acknowledged agents of the German Government, and somehow 
they and I did not agree. 

These minutes are somewhat arid, and I think I may relate this. 
The last time I saw von Mach I met him on the street. I think it 
was in the spring of 1915. He said, " I feel very unhappy to-day. I 
am very gloomy." I said, "What for?"' He said, "Oh, the de- 
struction of London." I said, "London is not destroyed. You 
had better cheer up." He said, "Oh, no; but it is going to be." 
^When?" "The 15th of next month." "How is it going to be 
done? " " By Zeppelins. A fleet of 12 Zeppelins." I said, " That 
is very interesting. How are they going to do it ? " He said, " They 
are going to come over London on a dark and foggy night when the 
wind is blowing hard." I said, "Well, I have Ijeen in London m. 
ereat deal and 1 know something about the weatlier there, and while 
I have known fogs and also high winds in London, thev never com© 
together." "But it has got to be so." "Why?" "Because then 
the firemen can not put out the fires." [Laughter.] You see, the 
Ctermans needed a dark and stormy night when it blew hard and 
there was a fog, and therefore they were going to have it. I think 
we may dismiss von Mach. 



1628 BBEWIKG AND LIQUOR INTEBESTB AND QEBMAN PBOPAGAITDA. 

Next is Heinrich Albert, and he is the Machiavelli of the whole 
thing, apparently. I met him in Cambridge once or twice. Me 
was the finest gentleman you ever saw. He was such an exquisite 
gentleman that it lost its effect. 

Senator Nelson. He was like the man that Byron describes when 
he says " He was the mildest-mannered man that ever scuttled ship 
or cut 51 throat." [Laughter.] 

Mr. Hart. Yes. Heinrich Albert came here November 13, 1914. 
That was pretty early in the war; five months after the war bro&e 
out. He spoke in defense of the German invasion of Belgium. I 
noticed one telegram from J. W. Beacham that called attention to 
it, and I expressed my opinion of a nation that would take possession 
of a country and then leave it to starve. I said that the Germans 
would have to feed the Belgians, or practically be read out of thi* 
category of civilized nations, and I never have seen Heinrich Albert 
since that day or had any communication from him- 

Now, let me speak of the other Grerman- American, because I be- 
lieve it is the key to my name being upon this list. 

Mr. Bielaski is an obliging man, I take it, but he did not know 
what a service he was rendering me by quoting from von Bemstorff 
a passage in which he says that they can not get along with the 
Grerman- American Alliance on account of the management, and he 
says, "This new German University Alliance is doing us a lot of 

food." " German University Alliance," I said to myself. "Ah ! I 
now what that is. That is Otto Merkel, of New York." Let me 
give you my history of this, and what is the reason for my being on 
that list. 

A person named Otto Merkel wrote to me asking me to join a 
new society, to be made up of persons who had been students in 
German universities — a German university alliance — and it was 
going to be a good thing all around ; but somehow I did not like it, 
and I did not join. Mr. Merkel came to Cambridge. I have a 
distinct picture of the way the man looked. That must have been 
it. It was a long time ago, and the details had quite gone out of my 
mind. 

Senator Sterling. What was the date ? 

Mr. Hart. Well, it must have been in 1914. The thing did not 
come home to me until after I had started away from home, so that 
I did not search for the correspondence. I am inclined to think 
that I have got his letters; and if 'so, when I get home I would like 
to send them down and put them before the committee. However, 
it was inconsequential to me, and I may have destroyed them. He 
came and specially urged me to join the. league. The point of it was, 
I did not like the looks of that. It looked entirely too Grerman to 
me. Let me explain how it came about. Edmund von Mach pub- 
lished a book of the correspondence of various parties before the 
war, with comments. That book was suppressed on the ground that 
it had been discovered that his notes were unfair, and that they 
gave a wrong color, and Merkel wrote to me offering me $200 if I 
would examine that book and send them, apparently for the Uni- 
versity Alliance, and possibly for his superiors, a critique. He did 
not ask me to falsify; but if you take $200 for a purpose of that 
kind the presumption is that you will give something that your 
employers want. I did not take the $2W) and did not write the 



BREWIKO AKD LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GFEBMAN PBOPAOAKDA. 1629 

critique. I said that if I had anything to say I would examine the 
book and send a note to Von Macn. I never did that, because I said 
I did not want to be mixed up with German- American clans. 

Now, what became of Otto Merkel ? I never saw him again, and 
it had quite ^one out of my mind until about a year ago it was an- 
nounced in the newspapers that Otto Merkel had been arrested in 
New York. He appeared to be an unusual person, inasmuch as he 
lived in three different flats. Whether he lived there all the time 
or lived alone did not appear in the newspaper story. The Govern- 
ment considered him a dangerous alien, and I believe he is now 
interned. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, it looks to me as though the name of Albert 
Bushnell Hart appeared upon a list of people that were to be tried 
out* and it is a great satisfaction to me tnat if that was the case and 
that man was the agent of the try-out, it was absolutely unsuccessful 
from start to finish. 

Mr. Chairman, let me say again how much I appreciate this 
opportunity of putting my activities upon record. I have prepared, 
and will ask to be inserted in the record, some extracts from my 
writings, beginning on August 2, the day after war broke out, in 
which I expressed the belief that the cause of the war was that the 
ruling elements in Austria-Hungary were so furious at the sudclen 
growth of Slav power that they would run any risks to destroy the 
only independent Slavic kingdom west of Bussia. I said : 

The Germans intended to use Belgium as their highway Into France, treaty 
or no treaty, international law or no international law. 

On September 23, in the Outlook, I declared : 

All of them (the Germans) stood ready at any time to accept the decisions 
of their war lord and his counsellors that the country was In danger. No 
one can doubt that the German nation is completely unified in its determina- 
tion to push the present war with every means, usual and unusual, for the 
ilefenfie of Fatherland and the expansion of the German Empire. 

The war on the part of Germany is a national war in which almost 
every thinking man, woman and child is involved. The only people 
that ever protested a^rainst the war were some of the Social Demo- 
crats and a few of the intellectuals and a few professors, some of 
Mliom. I believe, felt it l)etter and safer to live in Switzerland than 
in the country that they had criticized. 

Senator Stkrlixg. Mav I call attention to one quotation here in 
yoiir hook. The War in Europe. Beginning on page 137, at the bot- 
loin of the page, you say: 

S<) f«ir ns the published dispatches nnd our Imperfect knowledge of the clr- 
riinirtanot*s pro. it is prove<l that Einpernr William would have held his hand for 
u ft«\v fluys if Itusslnn mobilization had not seemed to.hira ti warlike act directe<l 
afoiirim Germany. Whether Austria would in those few days have come to an 
uiH^enctandin?- wliich would practically have nullified her ultimo turn against 
Serbia hi a question to which no answer is written, even in the books of the 
Fnle^. 

Xow. what I wanted to ask in connection with that is whether, 
nftir the knowledge we have now, it is believed to have been proved 
that Emperor William would have held his hand a few days if Rus- 
sian mobilization had not be^n? 

Mr. Hart. Certainly not. That is dated October, 1914, two months 
nftor the war began. Wo now know that the war was set up, and for 



1630 BREWING AND LIQUOE INTEBESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGAKDA« 

about that time. We know it is absolutely proved where the respon- 
sibility is. But I trust you will not go through that book and dis- 
cover how many eases there are of judgments, made in October, 1914, 
that were not verified. 

I will simply make a few more quotations from this list, because 
these quotations are brought together to show that from the begin- 
ning of the war my own influence was against the (Jermans. 

Might I ask you to read the last passage in the preface of that book 
from which you have just quoted? 

Senator Sterling (reading) : 

While syniimthizlnjr with nil the peoples Involvotl, there is one nation in favor 
of which I feel an unnlternhle partiality : it is the Unltwl States of America, 
which has her anxieties nn<l interests also in the tremendous struggle. 

Is that it? 

Mr. Hart. That is it, exactly. Until it became evident that the Unite<l 
States must be involved, my theory was, my belief was, that the inter- 
ests of the United States came first; that they were the things to look 
after. I believed that those interests required a stiffer attitude in regard 
to the treatment of our neutral trade by Great Britain. I believed that 
our doctrine of the freedom of the seas would have justified us in pro- 
testing against action by the allies. You will find in various places in 
my books, however, and in my writings, a distinction made between 
the capture of ships of the allies without the loss of life, and the sub- 
sequent payment lor ship and cargo, usually to the satisfaction of the 
owner, and the (ierman practice of destroying innocent men, women, 
and children, and neutral products. 

Senator Nelson. Coming to the doctrine of the freedom of the seas 
that we hear so much about, Professor, is it not a matter of fact that 
in time of peace, before any war, the sea was free and open, and that 
England made no obstructions to navigation in any respect ? 

Mr. Hart. That is absolutely true, and that is one of the things 

Senator Nelson. Now, then, if that is true, when you come to the 
doctrine of the freedom of the seas, it must pertain to a state of war. 
Where a country is at war, has it not the right to engage in a blockade 
agaimt its adversaries? 

Mr. Hart. Oh, certainly; the United States exercised that right 
in the Civil War. 

Senator Overman. What do you mean by " freedom of the seas '■ i 
I would like to have a definition of that. 

Mr. Hart. Mr. Chairman, the United States of America is waiting 
for an official definition of the term " freedom of the seas." It 
would be hardly safe for a layman to commit himself on that point 
in advance. 

Senator Nelson. Do you not know that there have been less re- 
strictions on navigation, on merchantmen, in Great Britain than in 
almost any other country on the face of the earth ? 

Mr. Hart. Ten years ago I went around the world, and everywhere 
I found German ships in British harbors. The Germans claim that 
their commerce was abridged is absolutely without ground. The 
British admitted them to every colony on equal terms, and there was 
no discrimination against them. They were selling lots of goods. 

Senator Nelson. So that this question of " freedom of the seas "^ 
that we have been talking about can only pertain to the conditio: 



BBEWING AND LIQUOR IKTEBESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1681 

that exist during a state of war. Do you want freedom of the seas 
then? Do you want to cut off the right of blockade in time of war? 
That is the question, is it not? 

Mr. Habt. I submit that is not the question before this jurisdic- 
tion. 

Senator Nelson. That may be, but I would like to hear your views. 
We hear so much about it, and we poor legislators who are sitting 
here like to get all the light we can from you intellectual men, you 
professors. 

Mr. Hart. Freedom of the seas in time of peace ought not to de- 
pend upon the good will of any one paramount sea power. It ought 
to be a matter of world agreement. Great Britain has, for a century, 
l)ehaved handsomely in regard to fffeedom of the seas, but the United 
States is entitled to share in the definition and the application of 
freedom of the seas in time of peace. 

Freedom of the seas in time of war means some freedom of neutral 
trade. 

I was verj' much opposed to the British rastrictions involving the 
stoppage of all vessels whose cargoes might ultimately and indirectly 
reach Germany, because I thought that was a principle that was 
useful for the United States in time of war. 

Furthermore, I am perfectly free to say that I am one of those who 
have never believed in the abolition of the right of the capture of pri- 
vate property at sea, provided you save life. The capture of merchant 
vessels is one of the most merciful kinds of warfare — unless you are 
in Germany — to civilized powers. 

Senator Nelson. Do you think. Professor, that one of the most 
impoitant things they could do in this settlement would be to pro- 
hibit all submarine warfare upon merchant vessels, and limit it in 
that way? 

Mr. Hart. You mean on belligerents vessels? 

Senator Nelson. I mean on all vessels. I mean that submarine 
warfare should stop as to all merchant vessels, and should be limited 
to war vessels. Do you not think that the system of warfare by sub- 
ntarine vessels is of that character that there never can be protection 
of the lives of the men who are navigating the ships, and therefore 
that it ought to be abolished in respect to merchantmen ? 

Mr. Hakt. That is the principle that was once put forward by the 
State Department in the discussions with Germany, but afterwards 
the\' foreboi'e. 

Senator Nelson. What are your views on that question ? 

Senator Sterling. I beg to differ with you there. Professor. Pos- 
sibly I may be mistaken, but my thought was this, that the State 
Department was making inquiry of the other powers as to whether 
or not we had not better disarm merchantmen and not permit them 
i(j be armed for defensive purposes, according to the old rule, even. 

The German Admiralty order of February, 1916, was to the effect 
that ull belligerent merchantmen, whether armed for purely defen- 
>ive purposes or not, should be sunk without notice or warning; 
and upon that order being made, our State Department then began 
making inquiry of the other powera as to whether or not we had not 
better accede to the German Admiralty order. 

Mr. Hart. I believe that we are deahng with two different subjects. 
There is a dispatch, presumably written by the President's hand, in 



1632 BREWING AND LIQUOB INTEBESTO AND OEBMAN PBOPAQANDA* 

which he calls the attention of the German Government to the fact 
. that, as Senator Nelson has suggested, submarine warfare is incom- 
patible with a civilized way of carrying on war — that is, against 
merchantmen; that you can not surround it with the necessary 
protection. 

But the United States did not press that considei^tion aftorward. 
That I believe to be true. 

Senator Stehlino. You are right in regard to that; they did not 
press that. 

Mr. Hart. Now, as to the submarine destruction of merchant ships, 
I can not see that that stands on a different footing, except that tne 
submarines have no boats and no quarters in which they can take 
crews. If you have got to destroy a ship and set the people out 500 
miles from land in open boats, and if you then shell and destroy the 
boats, of course the destruction is absolutely unallowable. 

I snould be very glad indeed if the nations would agree that sub- 
marines should not be used except as warships. 

Senator Nelson. Would not that be one of the most important 
principles that could be inaugurated in that direction ? 

Mr. Hakt. It is a very important principle, Senator; only it does 
not touch the case of a very rich nation which builds 100 submarines 
secretly and then suddenly declares war, and out are your sub- 
mines, law or no law. We have to protect ourselves against outlaws 
among the nations. 

Senator Nelson. That brings you back to the league of nations 
again? 

Mr. Hart. Possibly it leads in that way. 

Senator Nelson. You are familiar with the Capt. Fryatt case, are 
you not? 

Mr. Hart. Yes ; a case of murder ; and I wish the murderer could 
be duly caught and hanged — ^not shot, but hanged. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, that is all I have to say, except that I was 
going to read one or two more of these extracts before I turned the 
list in. 

December 27, 1914, which can not be very far distant from the 
time when this list in the Fuehr papers was prepared, I wrote an 
article on Belgian neutrality in which I declared : 

We are absolutely sure what the Germans would have done to Belgium, or any 
other nation that stood in their way. l»ecause it would be precisely what Ger- 
many has done to Belgium. 

If Belgium Is to be wiped off the map In order that the German Empire may 
feel safer, what is the protection of any power which in military and naval 
strength is inferior to Germany? 

And from that time throughout 1915 and 1916 I continued to w^rite 
in the same direction. 

It is a great pleasure, Mr. Chairman, to have been able to place 
these remarks upon your record, in order that my famil^y after nie 
may have the satisfaction of knowing that when their father was 
called in question he was able — and I trust that you will agree with 
me that he was able— to show that the presence of his name upon a 
list drawn up by a spy, drawn up in secret, is no evidence in itself 
of relations with the Germans or sympathy wit,h their cause ; and that 
as against the continued protest by w^ord, by documents, in various 
patriotic organizations, it is not worthy of consideration. 



BREWING AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1633 

I have been and am now a member of the Massachusetts Constitu- 
tional Convention; was elected in 1917, just about the time that we 
<leclared war; and it is perfectly clear that the voters of Cam- 
bridge and the adjacent district had no suspicion that they were 
voting for a pro-German. 

I have the confidence of my friends and my constituents, and I 
hope that upon the minds of the committee I have succeeded in 
establishing, not an alibi, but an absolute disproof, that the name in 
question had any connection with the Germans, the German Govern- 
ment, or the German propaganda, or that I have been at any time 
from the breaking out of the war anything but a true American; and, 
as the point came where it was possible to see what the responsibili- 
ties were, a consistent, permanent anti-German. 

Senator Stermng. I would just like to ask you one question Pro- 
fessor, as to your opinion in regard to the influence of German 
thought, as (jerman thought is Imown through the exchange of 
professors, and as it is known through the attendance of American 
students at German universities, as to the influence of that thought 
upon American thought and upon American institutions? 

Mr. Hart. The Germans were the first people to introduce into 
universities the idea of research. That is what made the (ierman 
universities great. That is, you could take up anything in which 
you were interested, and push it, and publish your results, and add 
to the body of science. That is, their universities were acade- 
mies. And their principle has been very fruitful in this country. 
It is unnecessary to follow it alone in Germany. It is a world-wide 
principle. 

German thought, as illustrated by Goethe and the great poets and 
the nrreat philosophers — ^Kant, and those men — ^lias been of great 
^rvice to the world. 

The German thought that is hateful and harmful is the German 
Wief which is indoctrinated in the idea that there is something 
'•ailed a "state" which is higher tKan the people, superior to them, 
and whic'h is not subjex^t to any laws of God or man; that the State 
**an do what it likes. That is the most harmful doctrine that can be. 

I have known a gi*eat many American students who have been in 
^lennany in past years, but 1 do not know that I ever knew more 
than one or two who seemed to have been indoctrinated. I have in 
Miind a professor of a university who lived in Germany in his youth, 
and was invited to luncheon by the President, and it turned his 
head. His name is in that list — and it ought to be there. 

Have I sufficiently answered ? 

Senator Sterling. Well, it occurred to me, however, that some of 
these students abroad, and some who afterwards became professors 
m 9ome of our schools and universities, had the wrong impression 
altogether of Germany, and of the real German mind ; and whether 
they really believed it, or whether it was pedantry on their part, they 
were in tteir schools and in their work m the schools parading the 
virtues of Germany, industrially, economically, and so forth. 

Mr. Hast. I left Germany 35 years ago, and at that time the coun- 
irv was utterly different from what it was afterwards. It was 
rather a poor country, an intellectual country, and I never found, 
in my teachers — ^not having the advantage of Treitschke's lectures 



1634 BREWING AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 

on politics — I never found anything that I thought could be ob- 
jected to. 

The whole nature of the country changed, however. They made a 
great deal of money; they built up their external trade; and then 
they developed the internal system of making the professors simply 
the outriders of the military cortege. That is the real difficulty with 
German thought. 

Let me tell you a tale, if you will, Mr. Chairman, that was toldnie 
by one of my colleagues. He said he was working in the Botanical 
Museum in 6onn, and he had a copy of Punch in which there was a 
cartoon of the Emperor, and he happened to leave it around, and the 
director of the gymnasium found it, and he was almost in tears. He 
said, "How could you do such a thing as that? If they found that 
here the Government would take away our appropriation." 

What are you going to do about a condition like that? Why, of 
course, you put people in fetters; you put all the students and the 
whole population in fetters by such a thmg. 

Thank God, the world is aroused at last to what that teaching and 
that influence is, and I do not think we need be afraid of any further 
German influence upon American thought. 

Senator Sterling. I am glad to hear you say so. 

Mai. Humes. Doctor, I would like to ask you if you have any 
knowledge of an organized effort on the part of the Germans in this 
country, or the German sympathizers in this country, to dominate 
the school textbooks, to secure propaganda in those textbooks ? 

Mr. Hart. About five years ago, before the war began, there were 
some evidences that might be construed in that way. The German- 
American Alliance began to pay attention to such matters, and 
schoolbook publishers spoke to me about the matter. They took the 
ground, however, not based on German doctrines, that they thought 
that the Gennan immigrants ought to be better represented; that 
there had been German soldiers in the Bevolution — Steuben, and so 
on — and that the textbooks did not pay sufficient attention to them. 

Maj. Humes. We have some information, Doctor, on that subject- 
Can you furnish us with any information as to the publishers to 
whom vou have referred and as to the activities that vou have in 
mind; not necessarily right at this moment, on the stand, but can 
you hand me some memoranda that may assist us in investigation 
along that line? 

Mr. Hart. I think I could do so. 

Maj. Humes. We would like to have that. 

Mr. Hart. Take my own textbook. I am of the impression that 
the American Book Co. sent me a letter that they had received from 
some German, and said. "What about this? " 1 have written three 
textbooks on American history, and anybody may examine them 
without discovering any pro-German influence. 

Maj. Humes. Wliat do vou know as to the activities in that line in 
connection with books published by Allen & Baker? 

Mr. Hart. I never heard anything about that at all. I have never 
published anythincr with them, so that I do not know. 

Maj. Humes. Has it occurred to you that possibly one of the 
reasons for the inclusion of your name in the list was some state* 
ments that were made in this first book of yours? 



BRBWU^G AND LIQUOB INTERESTS AND OEBMAN PROPAGANDA. 1635 

Mr. Hart. That depends on the date of the list, of course. This 
book was put on the market early in 1915. I am unable to say when 
the list was made up. 

Maj. Humes. It was published in 1914. October 17, 1914, is the 
date given here. 

Mr. Hakt. That was when the book went out of my hands; but 
after that it had to be printed; and the date set down is 1915; it did 
not reach the market until then. 

Maj. Humes. There are in this book a great many extracts that 
are favorable to German contentions, are there not? 

Mr. Hart. Yes. 

Maj. Humes. And after reading this book one is left with the im- 
pression that the author's notion is that the war was rather forced 
upon Germany than that Germany forced the war upon the allies, 
is he not ? 

Mr. Hart. Well, that was not my impression. I must say frankly 
that a person might read the book and feel that it stood up so 
straight that it leaned over backwards. 

Maj. Humes. It is our understanding that the list in question was 
prepared early in the year 1915. 

Mr. Habt. Yes. 

Maj. Humes. Then may it not be a fact that the sentiments in this 
book ^were at least partially responsible for your having been in- 
cluded in this list? 

Mr. Hart. Well, I might think so, but on December 27, 1914, 
which must have been before the list was published, after the book 
was completed, I wrote an article in the rfew York Times, which 
appears to have been widely circulated, which was a slam upon the 
^ierman occupation of Belgium — the violation of neutrality. That 
was the particular point I was considering. I think anybody read- 
ing that would not suppose that I was a friend of Germany. 

jiaj. Humes. In your discussion in that book of the violation of 
Belgium you leave the matter somewhat in doubt as to just where 
ihe rights of the parties were, do you not? In other words, you 
raise the question, and leave it after raising it, in effect that the 
•^tate of war had created a situation which made it impossible to 
<l(termine the proprieties of German conduct until after the war 
was over? Is not that substantially your position in this book? 

Mr. Hart. Well, I do not think that is an unfair statement; but, 
of course, even two months after that book was written, we discov- 
ercnl that the Germans were in Belgium indefinitely. That is, when 
it came to that point, after they were pushed back from the Marne, 
it was the hope of most people in the United States, I think, that the 
Germans would be pushed out, would bedefeated, and that that ques- 
tion would disappear. But, as time went on, it became evident that 
they were not only settled in Belgium, but that they were sucking 
its blood. 

Maj. Humes. And do you not, in this book, infer that while Eng- 
land protested against the violation of Belgian neutrality by Ger- 
many, there is a serious doubt as to whether she would have objected 
to the violation of Belgium's neutralitv by France or by any other 
country, and do you not leave the reader under the impression that 
England^s taking issue with Germany on the violation of Belgium 



1636 BBEWINQ AND LIQUOE IKTEBEST8 AND GERMAN PBOPAQANDA^ 

was entirely due to her animosity toward Germany, rather than to 
her desire to maintain Belgium's neutrality ? 

Mr. Hart. My point there was, and I think it is perfectly sound, 
that it was a mistake to suppose that it was the violation of Belgian 
neutrality that caused England to go in. England was already 
pledged, and must have gone in, anyhow. 

What I am discussing there is that, so far as England's attitude 
was concerned, it was not dependent on Belgium. 

Maj. Humes. In this book you also make the flat assertion that the 
Emperor of Germany did not want war, and point out, as evidence 
of that fact, the fact that he was in Norway at the time of the Aus- 
trian ultimatum to Serbia? 

Mr. Hart. We now know that that was a camouflage; but we did 
not know it then. 

Maj. Humes. I understand that. I am only pointing out these 
matters, professor, with a view of suggesting that possibly the state- 
ments made in your first publication Ted, to some extent, to the inclu- 
sion of your name in this list of persons whom the German agents 
thought they could utilize for propaganda purposes in this country 
in connection with their writings. 

Mr. Hart. That may be; and if I had known what I knew six 
months after that book was writt^, it. never would have been written 
in that tone. 

I think you are right in saying that the book is too neutral, too 
impartial, and too colorless ; but it was written at that time. 

Capt. Lester. May I ask you a question, professor? Do you recall 
a dinner in Boston which you attended, where Dr. Albert was 
present ? 

Mr. Hart. Yes. 

Capt. Lester. Do you recall when that was? 

Mr. Hart. November 23. 

Capt. Lester. November 23, 1914? 

Mr. Hart. November 23, 1914; yes. 

Capt. Lester. Was there not some controversy at that dinner over 
the subject of the war, in which you took part with Dr. Albert in a 
discussion ? 

Mr. Hart. Yes. 

Capt. Lester. What was the controversy? 

Mr. Hart. Over the occupation of Belgium, which he defended. 

Capt. Lester. What was the outcome of the controversy ? 

Mr. Hart. "Well, a good many of the gentlemen who were there, at 
the time and subsequently told me that they thought the outcome 
was that I had put him out of court. 

Capt. Lester. Was it an open debate ? 

Mr. Hart. No, it was a succession of addresses ; only I came after 
him. 

Capt. Lester. Was there any ill feeling brought about between 
you and Dr. Albert as a result of that controversy at the time? 

Mr. Hari'. Why, tre said goodnight, and passed the time of day, 
and I never saw him again. 

Capt. Lester. Could you possibly have left the impression with 
him that you were rather friend] v disposed toward G'»rmany?^ 

Mr. Hart. It may be; because he was a Gterman. But certainly 
there was nothing in what I said to warrant that. That was not 



BKEWIKO AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1637 

the impression of the audience. There is a telegram here from the 
secretary of that club on that occasion, and I have newspaper re- 
fwrts, if you would like to see them ; I have one or two newspaper 
clippings. 
Capt. Lester. Yes ; I have seen the newspaper reports. 
Senator Overman. Had you known Dr. Albert before? 
Mr. Hart. I had known liiim before that dinner. I had met him a 
few days before, in Cambridge. 

Capt. Lester. Did you have any correspondence with him after- 
wards? 

Mr. Hart. I do not remember any, at all. Of course I might 
have had. 

Capt. Lester. The reason I asked you is that it was a part of the 
system, of which, of course. Dr. Albert was the real head, where 
their agents came in contact with prominent people — or people in 
the literary field, especially — that a report would come back to the 
bureau, ani his name would be placed on the list as a future recipient 
of literature, and possibly a candidate for their useful purposes at 
that time. 

Do you recall whether anything was said at this dinner in which 
you could have given Dr. Albert the idea that you would like to 
hear more from him ? 

ilr. Hart. I have no remembrance of it. The point in my mind 
was: Here is this man. He is defending the German occupanon of 
Belgium. I want to make it clear that the point I made was the f eel- 
mg of the people ; that they had taken away their sustenance, and 
that if anything happened to the Belgians, the German Government 
would he lield by the world responsible for their death ; that they had 
to look after those people. Ajid he said : " Of course they will do 
that/' 

Capt. Lkster. For your information, there is a list here, of which 
I have a photostat copy, where some hundreds of teachers and pro- 
f*^sors, and men in public life, were listed as regular subscribers to 
all of the German propaganda literature that was sent out; and 
that list was built up from occasions such as that which you have 
j»>t described: that is, they solicited the literature sometimes, and 
at other times it was sent to them ; and each time it was sent, there 
Was a letter in which a controversy was invited, resulting in their 
• oimec-ting, in that way, many innocent people with the German 
propaganda^ who received, periodically, all of their literature, and 
|K>ssibly never read it. But what I was trying to get at particularly 
was whether in your talk or your controversy with Dr. Albert, on 
^hsit occasion, you gave him any reason to believe that you would 
Welcome that land of literature. 
Mr. Hart. I have no recollection whatever of it. 
Senator Overman. Did you receive any literature? 
Mr. Hart. Oh, yes. You used the term "subscriber," Captain? 
Capt« Lester. These are not subscribers. They are recipients. 
They never put their names down — ^not necessarily — on the list, but 
they received every publication that came through — some in Grerman 
and some in Englidi — and received, periodically, everything that 
vas published relating to the Grerman cause. 

Do you recall how much you received, or how long it was sent 
toyouf 



1638 BREWING AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAaAKDA. 

« 

Mr. Hart. It kept coming, just as the English did, and the Belgian 
and the French, and I never knew where those things came from, 
at all. They kept coming in the mail. Only it seemed to me, after 
a couple of years, that the Germans were not printing so much. 

Capt. MoRiARTY. I may say that I was present at that dinnei 
which has been referred to, and that I sat two seats from Prof Hart. 
I was very anti-German from the beginning of the war, and it 
seemed to me, on that occasion, which was somewhat early in the 
winter of 1914, that Prof. Hart made u very strong defense of 
Belgium, in reply to Dr. Albert. 

I remember the point, particularly, that Dr. Albert made in his 
discussion, that Germany had a right to invade a neutralized but 
not a neutral nation ; in other words, that Germany would not have 
had a right to invade this country, being a neutral nation, but that 
Belgium had been neutralized, and Germany, as one of the parties 
who had neutralized that country, had a right to go in there; 
which was, as Prof. Hart pointed out on that occasion, a distinction 
without a diiference. 

Senator Sterling. In that connection, was not Germany a party 
to The Hague Convention of 1907? 

Mr. Hart. Whether they signed all the conventions or not, I can 
not say. There were a number of them, and my impression is that 
there were one or two that they did not sign. 

Senator Sterling. Do you recall the convention in regard to the 
inviolability of the territory of any neutral nation by a belligerent ? 
. Mr. Hart. I believe that they did sign that convention, and that 
in an article on that subject I brought that out. 

Senator Overman. We are very much obliged to you for j'our 
statement. Doctor. Have you anythfng else that you would like to 
submit? 

Mr. Hart. Two or three of my friends are here, and I thought 
possibly they might express their opinion to the committee. 

Senator Overman. Do you desire to have anybody called? 

Mr. Hart. Yes ; Col. Donges of the War Department is here, and 
Maj. Wambaugh of the War Department. Both of them have 
known me for years. 

Senator Overman. And they will testify to your patriotism? 

!Mr. Hart. Yes ; at that time. That is the issue. 

Mr. Stowell. Mr. Chairman, reference has been made to Mr. 
Merkel, and I would like to say a word or two referring to him, in 
connection with the matter which is before the committee. 

STATEMENT OF MB. ELLEEY C. STOWELL 

Senator Overman. Where are you from? 

Mr. Stowell. I am in Washington. 

Senator Overman. What is your connection in Washington? 

Mr. Stoweli.. I came here to do Government work, and was five 
days in the Government employ, and then an intimation came to 
me asking me to resign. That intimation came to me because I had 
criticized the Government before we went into the war. I did not 
intend to bring this matter in, but 

Senator Overman. I want to find out who you are. That is all. 



BREWING AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND QERBiAN PROPAGANDA. 16S9 

Mr. Stowell. I thought we should go into the war earlier, when 
the allies were fighting Germany. 

Senator Overman, xou have been in Washington ever since? 

Mr. Stowfxl. I criticized the administration for not going' into 
the war earlier, and thereby became persona non grata, and the iii- 
tormation came to me that they would like to have me get out. So 
I resigned. Therefore, at the present time, I am practicing law. 

Senator Overman. Where are you from ? 

Mr. Stowell. I was formerly in Columbia. I was formerly asso- 
i'iate professor of international law in Columbia. 

Senator Overman. What is your native State ? 

Mr. Stowell. My native State is Massachusetts. 

The only point I thought the committee might be interested to 
hear about was this matter of Otto Merkel ; because I had some in- 
formation in regard to this very matter, showing the subtle methods 
of that man, and I think that I hold the threads of some of those 
things that were done; and I telephoned the secret service in New 
York. One of their agents came to see me, and then telephoned me, 
afterwards, and told me that they had interned Merkel ; and he tola 
me, before it came out in the papers, about his having these different 
residences, and numberless suits of clothes and so forth in each, and 
that they thought he was a very dangerous man, and that they much 
appreciated the information that I had given them, by which they 
secured his internment. 

May I go on and speak about this matter? Because it related to 
some of the things that Prof. Hart spoke about. 

I had written a book on the war, which treated particularly of the 
fourteen days preceding the entrance into the war. 

Senator Sterling. Our entrance into the war, or the beginning 
of the war? 

Mr. Stowtell. The beginning of the war. 

In consequence of that, I was applied to by Mr. Merkel, who was 
«e^retary of the German University League — ^if that is the correct 
name. 

Mr. Hart. "Alliance," was it not? 

Capt. Lester. " The German University League " is correct. 

Mr. Stowxll. And he asked me if I would not study the book 
that Von Mach had put out — referred to by Prof. Hart^ — ^because they 
had elected Mr. von Mach as president of their organization, and 
he said, " If there is anything in this book that would indicate that Dr. 
von Mach is not such a man as we should want at the head of our 
organization, we feel that we ought to know it, and therefore I came 
to you, as an expert on this matter, and will ask you if you will not 
make the investigation." 

I examined the names of this association, and felt that it was pro- 
Oerman, naturally, and pro-German in an unfair way, among those 
men who were making a propaganda. However, there were many 
fine names among them. 

I did not wish to get in any way involved in this German propa- 
ganda. At the same time, I had made it a principle always to give 
an opinion on international law matters, whenever I was requested 
to do 80 ; and I did not like to turn down anybody who came to me 

8572a— 1»— VOL 2 17 



1640 BBEWING AND LIQUOB INTERE8TB AKD GERMAN PBOPAQANDA* 

and asked me, in a judicial capacity, more or less, to examine a 
book. 

He said that they were willing to let me fix my compensation, if I 
would imdertake this. 

I thought the matter over, and talked it over with some of my 
colleagues, and felt that it was a very dangerous matter, one in 
which I might become involved, and have my name on some of these 
lists as a pro-German, which I did not want to do. 

On the other hand, I felt that it was the courageous thing to do, 
and the right thing to do; and so I said I would do it, provided Mr. 
Merkel would meet the conditions which I laid down. 

These conditions were that the payment to me should be so low 
that it would be evidently only a fair return for the time spent; 
secondly, that I should notify the other side — McMillan — of what I 
was doing, and ask them to make any observations that they might 
choose (you see, a suit was pending about this withdrawal) and, 
third, that the report that I found on this investigation might be 

Published by me, whether the University League liked it or not. 
'hat seemed to me such a perfectly fair way of getting at it, and, 
more or less, would put this matter in a public way, that 1 told him if 
he wanted to take it on those conditions, that I would do it; and he 
said he would. 

Senator Overman. Who is that ? 

Mr. Stowell. Otto Merkel. 

Senator Overman. How much compensation was paid to you ? 

Mr. Stowell. The compensation to be fixed was $200 — ^the same 
sum as that mentioned by Prof. Hart 

I would like to say that before this I had been offered a retainer by 
the German Embassy, or by lawyers representing the German Em- 
bassy, to take up the Appwm case, and I had refused to enter into 
any of them, although I would have liked to have made that 
money, because I did not wish in any way to be involved in either 
side, but wanted to keep fair on these questions. 

Senator Nelson. What was your opinion, that you finally gave, in 
this case? 

Mr. Stoweli*. Wiould you like to have me go through the whole 
thing? I will answer that — ^the matter comes out in that opinion — 
because several things which happened may be of particular interest 
to this committee. 

I proceeded to read this book, which I had not looked at before, 
except to glance at it, and I found that it was a most atrocious piece 
of German propaganda. I say atrocious. That is a pretty strong 
word, but it was atrocious, because it was ably done, m certain re- 
spects, but it showed such a bias and twist that it showed the kind of 
mentality to which Prof. Hart referred as indicated by the fogs in 
London— it was befogged. 

I was going along with this, and making a report which would 
have put the matter beyond any doubt, I think. 

Just about when I was practically through with the work the 
rupture of our relations with Germany came, and when that rupture 
came I thought that the German University League would have no 
further use for this matter. I did not think it was proper at that 
time to go on with the relations, and so I wrote or telephoned Mr. 
Merkel — ^I forget which — suggesting that, as I had the report prac- 



BBBWIKG AJSm UQUOB INTESEST8 AND GERMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1641 

tically ready, I should turn it over to him, and that the League could 
give me half of the compensation for the work that I had done ; and 
we closed the matter there. 

Senator Overman. Were you a member of the League ? 

Mr. Stoweul. No ; I am not a member of the League. Mr. Merkel 
sent me a check for this $100. He sent me his personal check, as I 
remember. Then he came out to see me, and we discussed some mat- 
ters, and I went into some of the questions of international law with 
him about the war. 

I was told that Mr. Merkel was an American citizen. Then he told 
me« for the first time, that he was a German, although he had told 
me before that all the directors of this organization were Americans. 
He did not tell me that he was a German before. The impression I 
gathered was that the whole thing was American, although with 
German sympathies, of course. 

Senator Oerman. I do not think we will hear you any further 
about this. ' 

Senator Nelson. Just tell us what your opinion was — this opinion 
that you got the $100 for? 

Mr. Stoweix.. This was an opinion that this book 

Senator Nelson. The opinion about that book : yes ? 

Mr. Stowell. That it was unfair, and that — ^I do not remember 
that I summarized the conclusion, but I put forth all this evidence 
of what these unfair instances were, so that it would be perfectly 
clear to anybody who read this that the book ought to be withdrawn 
by ^IcMillan. 

Senator Sterling. Did you characterize it as pro-German ? 

Mr. Stowell. I put foi*tn those instances. I do not remember that 
I characterized it as pro-German. But, Mr. Chairman, I got a com- 
munication from Mr. Merkel, that had been sent to a colleague oi 
mine, that related to another point that Prof. Hart brought up, 
and I think it of very great importance; and then I telephoned, and 
on this Mr. Merkel was interned. 

Senator Overman. Well, I think that will do on that. 

Xow, Prof. Hart, who is it that you want called ? 

Mr. Hart. Col. Donges and Maj. Wambaugh. Maj. Wambaugh 
has been an acquaintance and friend of mine for many years. I 
s-hoold just like to have him say what he thinks of my attitude to- 
ward the war. 

TEStlMONT OF COL. EUGENE WAMBAUGH. 

(The witness was sworn by the chairman.) 

Senator Nelson. Are you in the Regular Army? 

(^ol. Wambaugh. Commissioned in the National Army. They are 
said now to be one. There is said now to be but one Army. I am in 
the National Army, or was. T am assistant to the Judge Advocate 
Genera] of the Armv. I am Chief of the Division of Constitutional 
and International Law. In civil life I am a professor in the law 
school at Harvard University. 1 was in that service for 25 ycr.rs 
until I wn^ called into the Army. 

Senator Ovkrmax. How long have you been in the Army? 

Col. Wambaugh. I was commissioned two years ago. I was called 
into the service on the 3d day of July, 1917. 



1642 BBEWING AND LIQUOR INTEBESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA* 

Senator Overman. Were you called or did you make application 
to the Judge Advocate General for a commission ? 

Col. Wambaugh. I applied for the commission when I saw that 
the war was goin^ to break out. I was commissioned the day after 
the presidential election. My commission was held until that time 
because I was a presidential elector upon the Democratic ticket. If 
I had happened to be elected I should not have been able, I think, 
to serve in both capacities. 

I was at the point of saying that I had been for 25 years in the 
Harvard Law School. That institution is in government largely 
separated from Harvard College, consequently I have not been a 
member of the same faculty with Prof. Hart. I think I will say 
that I have never been an intimate friend of his. I first saw him, 
I fancy, 42 years ago, when we were students, but not classmates. 
From that time until now I have hardlv seen him, and for 25 vears 
when I was actually in practice as a professor I saw him, of course, 
frequently. His subjects are much the same as mine. He teaches 
the history of government, whereas I teach constitutional law and 
international law. For that reason I have taken interest in his 
views. His views have never been mine on political matters. I am 
a Democrat. He is a Republican, who calls himself a Progressive; 
that is to say, he holds Democratic views, though he is unwilling 
to call himself a Democrat. I mention this to indicate that we 
differed in a friendly way for many years. 

Senator Nelson. But the German propaganda was not involved, 
was it 

Col. Wambauoh. I shall come to that in an instant. 

Senator Nelson (continuing). In this difference that you speak 
of between yourself and Prof. Hart ? 

Col. Wambauoh. No, indeed. Just after the war broke out in 
Europe I was employed by the Navy Department for two months as 
an adviser — I believe I was called special counsel to the State Depart- 
ment, on war problems. Consequently my attention was verv ac- 
tively called to the kind of questions in which this committee is in- 
terested. Of course I knew of the administration's position that we 
must all be neutral in expression and as far as possible in thought. 
But after I ceased to be in the public service — for I was with the 
State Department only two months, and then returned to the imiver- 
sity, at the beginning of the university year — after I ceased to he 
in the public service I retained an acute interest in noticing the atti- 
tude or my neighbors, for this I conceded to be a 'matter of coit^- 
quence. The neighborhood was distinctly anti-German, so much so 
that it did not sympathize with the neutral attitude of the adminis- 
tration. 

Senator Nelson. What was your attitude, your mental attitude ? 

Col. Wambauoh. My mental attitude? There is but one mental 
attitude. Senator. It seems to me, and though I trust I did not men- 
tion it when I was in the public service, that mental attitude is hos- 
tility to any country which does what was done by the Germans in 
Belgium. There was but one side possible from the point of view 
of a lawyer, and I am simply a lawyer. 

Now^ I was leading up to this point, namely, that Prof. Hart, a 
most distinguished and learned and influential man, greatly respected 
in that community, was never for an instant classified as pro-German 



BBBWING AND OQT70B. IKtTEBS&TS AKD GEBMAK PBOPAQAKDA. 1643 

or anything of the sort. In that community a person with the slight- 
est prejudice in favor of Germany would have been detected in- 
stAntly. There was no such taint attaching to Prof. Hart's reputa- 
tion, and as I had conversations with him myself from time to time, 
not often, perhaps half a dozen times, I am in a position to say that 
there was no such taint in his mind. Why, gentlemen, it is absurd 
that I or any other man should stand here to seem to defend the 
Americanism of a gentleman whose reputation in that regard is 
as good as that ^f any Member of either House of Congress, as good 
as that of any man who ever sat in any of our cabinets, and as good 
as the reputation of anyone who has been a President of the United 
States- 
Senator Ch-ERMAN. That will do. Who is the next man? 
Mr. Hart. Col. Donges. 

TESTIMONY OF COL. RALPH W. £. DONOES. 

(The witness was sworn by the chairman.) 

Col. Donges. I am now a lieutenant colonel in the United States 
Army, having been commissioned May 9, 1918, as lieutenant colonel 
in the National Army. Prior to that time, and for about four months, 
T was engaged in the office of Gen. Goethals in a civilian capacity. 

Senator Overman. You are in the Quartermaster Department i 

Col. DoxGES. No, sir; in the Division of Purchase, Storage, and 
Traffic of the General Staff, now attached to that division as a mem- 
t*er of the War Department Board of Appraisers having to do with 
the appraisal of all property taken by compulsory process by the 
department. 

Senator Neij^on. Engaged in civilan work? 

Col- DoNGES. No; as a commissioned officer. 

Senator Nei^on. But you are doing civilian work? 

CoL DoNOEB. Yes ; in a sense, civilian work. 

Senator Nelson. Clerical work? 

Col. DoNGES. Hardly ; no, sir. 

Senator Neubon. It is civilian work as distinguished from military 
work? 

Col. DoNGES. It is not field work, I am sorry to say. Prior to my 
commission in the Army I was a member of the bar in the State of 
New York. I resigned* as president of the Public Utilities Commis- 
sion of New Jersey to accept a commission in the Army, with a hope 
of more active service. 

I have known Prof. Hart for some years back, and was associated 
with him as a governor or manager of an educational institution in 
the Middle West, and it was in connection with that work that I came 
in contact with him most, and for the last three or four years quite 
frequently. 

Senator Neuron. What institution was that? 

Col. DoKOES. At Moosehart, 111., a. vocational educational institu- 
tion Khere we are endeavoring to train about 500 or 600 boys and 
^rLs in useful occupations. Prof. Hart is one of the governors, and 
I am one of that board. We spent a {zr^at deal of time together ; he 
and I were on many of the subcommittees of the board, meeting in 
Xew York quite frequently, as frequently as once a week, or once in 
two weeks, attending the monthly meeting of the entire board, as a 



1644 BREWING AKD UQUOE INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 

rule ; and during that time Dr. Hart and I frequently traveled from 
New York or Philadelphia — my home being in Camden, N. J. — we 
frequently traveled together out to Illinois, so that I had occasion to 
discuss in a very intimate and more or less confidential way questions 
relating to the war, both before the entrance of the United States into 
the war and after, and it was a shock to me to take up the paper the 
other day and see Dr. Hart's name mentioned as one of those who 
was identified in any way with any pro-German sentiment or propa- 
ganda. I instantlv remarked to a friend that I believed Dr. Hart 
could and would defend himself here, because I was so thoroughly 
convinced from everything that he had said, privately and publicly, 
and to his friends discussmg things together, when confidences are 
likely to be expressed, he had always taken a decidedly anti-German 
view. 

Senator Overman. Anybody else? 

Mr. Hart. I would like to call Mr. Charles A. McGee. 

TESTIMONY OF MB. CHABLES A. McOEE. 

(The witness was sworn by the chairman.) 

Senator Overman. Where do you live ? 

Mr. McGee. San Dieuo, Cal. I am practicing law and have been 
for twenty odd years. I have known Prof. Hart, I would say, some- 
what intimately for the last four years. I am at present the execu- 
tive head of the Loyal Order of Moose, an institution with some 
550,000 members, which is operating at Moosehart, about which Col. 
Donges has just addressed himself. On that board at one time were 
Hiram W. Johnson, of California, and Senator-elect Arthur Capper. 
I liave known Prof. Hart in that work, in convention work, and in 
war work. I have talked with him, as has Col. Donges, confidentially. 
About this matter of being a real American, I have always classified 
him and thought of him as the ideally patriotic American citizen, 
his views sometimes tempered judicially as a historian. I never read 
what he characterizes as the neutral book, but have frequently used 
his handbook for speakers and have found much of real color and 
worthwhileness in that book. 

Personally I would say that Prof. Hart is as close to the patriotic 
sense of the great membership in our order as any member in it, and 
we have been very active in war work, as the various departments 
know. The Fosdick committee, the Surgeon General, the State De- 
partment, and the secret-service department know of our work. 

It was a vear ago, I think, or thereabouts that we sent a commis- 
sion abroad, and Prof. Hart was one of those who advocated the 
sending of that commission abroad, for the purpose of establishing a 
legion on the battle field, or home on the battle field, for the benefit 
of our boys. We have in the service about 50,000 from Canada and 
the TTniteid States. 

Briefly summarizing the situation, in a rather broad acquaintance 
throughout this country, I can think of no man whom I considei: and 
have reason to believe is more thoroughly in harmony with every- 
thing that America has stood for in this war, her aspirations, and her 
ideals, than has Prof. Hart. 

Senator Overman. Have you anybody else, Dr. Hart? 



BR£WIN6 AND LIQT70B INTEHESTS AND GEBMAN PE0PA6ANDA. 1645 

Mr. Hart. No, sir. State's Attomejr Broening is here from Balti- 
more, and I should be glad to call him, but I have known him a 
shorter time, and I think the committee has given me every facility, 
and I desire to express my thanks. 

Senator O^tjrman. We are very riad to be able to do it. 

Maj. Humes. Here is one letter which I will read : 

L. E. MiLLEB, 

Counsellor at Law, 
192 Broadway, New York, Dec. 9th, 1918, 
Hod. Lee S. ChiatMAN, 

Chairman of Investigation Committee, 

of the United States Senate, 

Washington, D. C 

Deab Sib: I notice in the papers that Chief Bielaskl testifying about Mr. 
rntennyer's purchase of the Warheit stock for the purpose of German propa- 
jcamla, mentioned also my name as one of the parties interested in that pur- 
chase. 

Again, Mr. Untermyer jreplying to the charge of Chief Bielaskl, and explain- 
ing the dreumstances of his purchase of the Warheit stock, without naming 
me, tried to convey the impression that I have been fully awar^ of his motives, 
and that I. with full knowledge of the circumstances cpntinued in the Warheit 
in my former capacity, as one of his co^wners. 

As I am about to sail for Europe (for newspaper work) In a few days, and 
as I am now unable to foresee what further statements Mr. Untermyer may 
make as to my part in the transaction, I beg to submit the following facts, 
easily to be verified and giving some light If not all the light on the trans- 
action under your consideration. 

After I was forced out of the Warheit, because of the pro-Ally attitude, 
from the first day of the war (August 1st 1914) I started a Jewish daily called 
"^Tbe Leader" in which I tried to continue my pro-Ally work among the Jews 
of America. 

una happened in the spring of 1915 which, as the world knows, opened up 
^ one of the most disastrous years for newspapers — new and old alike. 

It 90 happened that Mr. XJntermyer's ** friend " Judge Aaron J. Levy, wfis 
a " friend " of mine when he learned about my financial difficulties with the 
Leader suggested that his friend '* Untermyer " would be but too happy to heip 
oct a friend of his friend. 

We went over to Mr. Untermyer before whom I laid the whole truth of the 
atuatlon which was then desperate to the extreme. When Mr. Untermyer 
learned that the "Leader" had a circulation of over 40,000 daily and that 
less than $40,000 cash would place it on a paying basis, he declared his wllling- 
M88 to come forward with the cash upon the following conditions, viz : That I 
waa to remain with fifty-five (55%) per cent of the capital stock of the 
"Leader," Mr. Untermyer was to receive forty-five (45%) per cent of the 
capital stock of the concern, but that ten per cent of my fifty five per cent was 
to be deposited in trust with our mutual friend Judge Aaron J. Levy who in 
f-nse of a disagreement upon the editorial policies of the paper could act as an 
nmpire and determine its policies. 

Next day after that conference which was August 19th 1916, I addressed 
T«» Mr. Untermyer the following letter, an engraved fac-simile of which I 
beroto attacli : 

New York, August 19, 1915, 

SAUtTEL U!(TEKHT£B; EsQ., 

J7 Wall Street, New York City, 

l>i:At Ma. Untekmyeb: I have considered carefully your proposition. 

While 11 may be fair and even liberal in a way from the viewpoint of business 
pure and simple, I do not see my way clear to it from an angle which I would 
call aenthetical if not exactly ethical. 

Whatever standing, reputation and infiuence are ascribed to me — ^all come 
from thp general conviction that no one can control my pen or collar my 
perwn. 

Yoo may deem extravagant the desire of a man, caught in a wheel of 
adveraitles, to fancy himself independent, but such I am, and I feel myself too 
old to refomt 



1646 BBEWINO AND LIQUOB INTBBESTB AND GEEMAK PBOPAOANDA. 

Upon your receipt of this reply The Leader will be discontinued, which not 
only spells financial ruin, but also adds the burning stigma of failure and defeat. 
I fully realize it, but I cannot change my course. 

Thanking you for all your courtesies, kindness and good will, I remain. 
Sincerely yours, 

L. E. MTTT.1glt_ 

Next day I did discontinue the Leader and did lose every cent invested which 
represented all my w^orldly belongings, but I saved by body and soul from tlit^ 
control of the interest represented by Mr. Untermyer In his proposed transaction. 

In the early part of 1917, the creditors of the Leader became very insistent 
and I began to look around for a purchaser of my stock in the Warhelt. The 
Warheit at that time became a violent pro-German and Anti-Ally publication 
and regardless of my financial embarrassment I could not decently continue* 
as a part owner of the publication, although the World knew that as a 
minority stockholder, I could not be held responsible for its tendencies or 
policies. 

Again Mr. Untermyer's friend Judge Aaron J. Levy came to the rescue. 
He informed me that his friend was willing to take over my stock in the 
Warheit. In the month of April, 1917, Mr. Herman, the Managing Clerk of 
Samuel Untermyer together with Judge Aaron J. Leyy met me at the office 
of Kuhn, lioeb & Ck>. with a certified check of $50,000 which was delivered 
for the 47% of the stock of the Warheit which were owned by myself and ray 
\Aife and was pledged to secure a certain indebtedness to Kuhn, Loeb & Co. 

That then and there I signed the usual transfer of stock, not to Judge Aaron 
J. Levy, as Mr. Untermyer erroneously assumes, but to Mr. Untermyer*s own 
clerk Mr. Herman and said stock of the Warheit Publishing Ck). passed not to 
Judge Aaron J. Levy but to Mr. Untermyer's own Managing Clerk Mr. Herman. 

On the way home from Kuhn, Loeb & Co. Judge Aaron J. Levy informed me 
that while they could not secure more than 47vc of the stock of the Warheit 
Publishing Co. they have made arrangements with the rest of the 8to(^holders 
which virtually places them in the absolute control of the editorial policies 
and management of the Warheit. 

I remain, 

BeefPectfuUy yours, L. E. Moxrat. 

(Thereupon, at 12.40 o'clock p. m., the subcommittee adjourned, 
subject to the call of the chairman.) 



»^ 



BREWING AKD LIOUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 



FBIDAY, DEOEMBEB 13, 1918. 

United States Senaitb, 
Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met at 10.80 o'clock a. m^ pursuant to the call 
of the chairman, in room No, 226, Senate Omce Building, Senator 
Lee S. OTerman presiding. 

Present: Senators Overman (chairman), King, Wolcott, Nelson, 
and Sterling. 

Senator Nelson. I want to make a correction in the record, Mr. 
Chairman, to this effect : The other day I made the remark that the 
Evening Star was about the only loyal paper at the time preceding 
our entering into the war and after the war had begun in Europe. 
It was in connection with the Washington Post. I was mistaken in 
that I ought to have included the Washington Herald in the same 
category as the Star. 

I have here a letter, Mr. Chairman, from former Judge Grosscup, 
who used to be a Federal judge in Cnicago, which I want to put lu 
the record. 

Senator Oyerman. Do you want it read? 

Senator Nelson. No, sir ; I do not think it is necessary. It is a 
disavowaL 

Senator Overman. Very well. Let it be printed in the record. 

(The letter referred to is here printed in full, as follows :) 

The Waldorf-Astobia, 
New York, December 9, 1918, 
Hon. Kntttk Nelson, 

Judiciary Committee, United State* Senate, "Washington, D, C. 

Mt Dbab Senatob: My name was included in a list furnished your com- 
mittee by tbe secret service as having been pro-German. No q;>ecific act in 
proof of this was ascribed to me, but the Juxtaposition of my name with that 
of those to whom specific acts were ascribed leaves a possible inference that I 
was concerned also in some such act I think I am entitled under these circum- 
stances to lay before the committee a bare recital of what I have done. 

In the faU of 1914 I wrote an article, sent to the press without solicitation 
by or amiDgement with anyone, in which I laid the blame for the political and 
Industrial conditions out of which the war arose on Russia — on medieval 
Russia, gripping all the peoples to the east and south of the Qerman and 
Austrian Empires in the iron bands of medieval race and religious influencea. 
As I looked at It then (and I have not changed my view in that particular), 
Rnarta lay like a huge mastiff between modern industrial development, as it 
wan taking place in Germany, France, Ehigland, and the United States, and the 
ooQditioDa of Mexico that still prevaUed in the south and east of Europe. But 
I added in that article tliat it was still incumbent on the German Government to 
give some good reason why it did not accept the suggestion of Sir Edward Grey 
for an International conference before beginning hostilities. This was six 
months before the LnHtania was sunk; two years and six months before 
America was drawn Into the war. 

/ 1W7 



1648 BBEWINO AND LIQUOB IKTEBESTS AND OBSMAN PBOPAQAKDA. 

Following the sinking of the Lusitania, I advocated, along with the then 
Secretary of State, In an Interview in the Washington Post, the separation of 
passengers crossing the ocean from ammunition-bearing ships, denouncing in 
the same interview the sinking of the LuHtania as a crime. 

Save for this article and these interviews, I have published or spoken nothint; 
that I know of that could have led to the Inclusion of my name in the list sub- 
mitted to the Senate. I have been in no one's employ in connection with the 
war. I received no compensation for anything I wrote or spoke. I belonged to 
no league or other organization and spoke for none except the National Security 
League. All that I did can become known by reading t&e article and the inter- 
views to which I have referred. It is possible that in personal conversations I 
have said things that indicated I still believed in the German people ; for, after 
long experience in observing that there are nearly always two sides to every 
controversy, I am loatii to disbelieve where I once believed. Since America 
entered the war I have tried to do what service I could on the side of America 
as a patriotic citizen. Indeed, from the American Revolution down to this 
war, inclusive, except the Spanish War, every generation of the family to which 
I belong has been represented in the American Army — two of my great-grand- 
fathers, one of whom was a captain in the War of the Revolution — ^the husband 
of my only child in the Aviation Service In this war. 

If your committee were to ask me my present views I would answer (differ- 
entiating the Qerman people from their deposed military leaders) that in the 
interval between 1 minute before 11 o'clock on the 11th of November last, when 
the armistice was signed, and 1 minute after 11 o'clock — short as the interval 
was — the world had turned Its face from the most stupendous task of war it 
ever undertook, to confront the most stupendous task of peace with which the 
world has ever been confronted — the line that previously divided the world 
shifting In that brief moment from a line dividing the allies and the central 
powers to one almost at right angles with It, for the line now runs, not so 
much between armed belligerents as between a future founded on social order 
and a future founded upon chronic social upheaval and anarchy. And in the 
assessment of forces thus confronting each other, the German people, who, next 
to the French people, are industrially the most democratic of any people In 
Europe, are a factor to be utilized, not destroyed, by those who stand for social 
order. England, the mother of parllamentaty government, was until within 
my own recollection, 50 years ago, a political oligarchy, and is still an industrial 
oligarchy. It is to the conservative side of the German people, therefore, as 
distinguished from the deposed German Government, that, along with the French 
and English and conservatives everywhere, we of America, who have proven 
our stability by 142 years of trial, must look for our allies In the struggle for 
social order that may not be confined to the east side of the Rhine If it once 
gets headway. 

Very truly, yours, 

Peteb S. Gbosscup. 

Senator Hoke Smith, of Georgia, appeared before the subcom- 
mittee. 

Senator Overman. Senator, the committee will be very glad to 
hear you, and hear whatever statement you want to make to the com- 
mittee. 

STATEUENT OF SEHATOB HOKE SMITH, OF GEOBGIA. 

Senator Smith. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, on Sunday there 
appeared in several of the morning papers references to the mention 
of my name in a letter or report that was presented on Saturday be- 
fore your committee. 

These newspaper accounts were quite vague, but stated in substance 
that among tne many documents introduced before your committee 
one addressed to William Bayard Hale and supposed to have been 
written by C. M. Jacobs, of Chicago, gave an account of the work 
of the Amercan Embargo Conference and referred to me as either 



BBEWIKQ AND LIQUOB INTBBESTS AND GERMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1649 

supporting the principles of the conference or giving moral support 
to it. 

As I knew nothing about the American embargo conference or 
C M, Jarobs, I applied to your secretary Monday lor a copy of the 
paper which made reference to me. He did not furnish it to me until 
late yesterday afternoon, giving as his explanation of the delay the 
large number of documents put in evidence and the further fact that 
the one in which there were a few lines referring to me was very 
long and he did not succeed in finding it sooner. 

I have now the paper before me. xt is a typewritten communica- 
tion addressed to Bayard Hale, signed '' The American Embargo Con- 
ference." The paper is quite lengthy and refers to a great many 
different things connected with what seems to have been the work 
of this American embargo conference, which was described as seek- 
ing to build up public sentiment in favor of forbidding the shipment 
of war supplies to the allies. 

The paper purports to have been written in July, 1915. The pas- 
sage referring to me is in this language : 

The visit of the press men gnve us the opportunity to drive home the fact that 
<»ars was an American organization ; ttiat all of itH members had to he voters ; 
and when it was shown that the organization was receiving the moral support 
of such men as Senators Hitchcock, Works, and Hoke Smith, they departed 
satisfied that this was one organization that was not a " pro-German movement." 

I only wish to say, Mr. Chairman, Uiat I can not recall ever having 
heard of C. M. Jacobs before last Sunday. I knew nothing of the 
American embargo conference or its purposes. I never had relations, 
dealings, or communications of any character with it or its members. 
I never gave the organization support of any kind, and when the 
Hitchcock amendment, forbidding the exportation of war supplies 
to the allies, was before the Senate I voted to lay it on the table. 

The subject of an embargo on war supplies was not before any com- 
mittee upon which I served, and the only time — so far as I can re- 
call — it was before the Senate I voted to lay it on the table. 

A^in let me sa^', I never had an connection with this association, 
and I never gave it any support at any time. 

Senator Overman. t)o you not suppose. Senator, that this was a 
mere inference on a<'COunt of the fight you made in the Senate in be- 
half of the shipment of cotton abroad? 

Senator Smith. Well, I was conscious of the fact that for a while 
in 1915, when I was seeking to enforce the right of American citizens 
to ship noncontraband goods through neutral ports into Germany 
and Austria, it was supposed and even charged by some that I was 
seeking to help the Germans. In point of fact, I was entirely indif- 
ferent to the Germans. I was moved solely by the fact that I believed 
rights of American citizens were being illegally disregarded, and 
especially by the fact that my own constituents who raised cotton 
had been cut off from a large market, many of them ruined in the fall 
of 1914 and the winter of 1914-15 by the low price of cotton caused 
in large part by the loss of their markets. I was conscious of the 
fact that the fight I was making in favor of my constituents was mis- 
judged in some quarters, but I deemed it my duty to do what I could 
to secure for my constituents the right to sell their cotton in every 
market to which they were entitled. 



1650 BREWING AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PEOPAGAin>A. 

Senator Oerman. And they at that time were almost ruined by 
the low price of cotton caused by the loss of markets. 

Senator Smith. In confirmation of your suggestion I may say I 
received letters during the winter of 1914 and 1915 every day— dis- 
tressing letters — from men whose children were taken out of schooK 
whose stock and farms were lost, who were just financially ruined by 
the unprecedented low price of cotton, due to the war and in part to 
the loss of one of their biggest markets, Germany and Austria. They 
had in prior years sold 3,000,000 bales a year into Germany anS 
Austria, and the loss of that market, together with the big crop, put 
the price of cotton down below the cost of production. The suffering 
on the part of my immediate constituents was very great, and I agi- 
tated their right all through 1915 to get cotton into Germany and 
Austria. The hope that they might have a broader market and the 
threat to create a broader market helped somewhat the market price, 
and I believe it did induce British interests to come into the market 
in the fall of 1915 and take over a large quantity of cotton. 

Senator King. I suppose your position, in part, was this. Senator 
Smith, that a belligerent may not of its own volition determine that 
anything and everything is contraband and interdict the shipment to 
neutral nations of everything that they may denominate contraband. 

Senator Smith. That was one of my positions; but Great Britain 
stopped shipments six months before they undertook to make cotton 
contraband. Conceding that it was not contraband, they stopped it, 
and then they undertook to make it contraband. I cited England's 
own action in the Russian-Japanese War, in which Great Britain 

Protested such treatment of her Indian cotton by Russia and forced 
Russia to permit that cotton to go free to Japan. 

Senator Sterling. One claim was made, was it not. Senator Smith, 
that England found contraband concealed in bales of cotton shipped ? 

Senator Smith. Yes; but I believe there was no truth in that 
claim. I challenged those making the claim to name a single instance 
and submit it to investigation. I do not see how cotton could be 
baled with copper inside of the bale. I never learned of an instance 
in which it was done. Cotton was seized on the ocean without regard 
to its being contraband or noncontraband. All shipments of cotton 
to enemy countries were stopped by Great Britain. 

Senator Overman. And afterwards there was a change of attitude, 
so that the people were saved from absolute ruin? 

Senator Smith. Yes; and, frankly, I believe that British agencies 
went into the market as large purchasers and helped to steady the 
price of cotton in the fall of 1915, making up, in a measure, for the 
markets cut off. 

Senator Overman. Then, for the crop of 1915 a reasonable price 
was paid ? 

Senator Smith. By the fall of 1915 cotton went back to 12 cents. 

Senator Sterling. What was the lowest price? 

Senator Smith. It had been as low as 5 cents. There really wah 
no market at all for a while. It could not be sold always for 4 cents 
a pound. 

Senator Overman. You could not sell it at all. 

Senator Smith. The small farmer raised his crop on borrowed 
money and had to settle his debts in October and November. He had 
little market for his cotton in the fall of 1914. Where there was a 



B&EWIKQ AND X.IQXJOB INTEaESTS AND GERMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1651 

market the price did not pay what he had borrowed to make the 
crop. His horses went; his partly paid for land went, in many in- 
stances. In other instances the children were stopped from school, 
and the situation was pathetic. The letters that I received from 
my constituents all over Georgia during the fall of 1914 were dis- 
tressing. 

Senator Ox^erman. The banks sent telegi*ams here saying that they 
were threatened with bankruptcy, because they could not collect their 
debts. 
Senator Smith. Yes. 

Senator Overman. This money having been advanced by them to 
make the crop, they were in bad shape. 

Senator Smith. Had not the price of cotton risen in the fall of 
191.) bankruptcy would have swept over the whole of the cotton- 
growing States. 

Senator Sterhng. Subsequently you got an unprecedentedly high 
price? 

Senator Smitit. Subsequently the cost of production rose very 
greatly and the price, like prices of other things, was high. The 
V'rice has not been higher for cotton in propomon to the prewar 
prices than for other agricultural products, and the cost of producing 
the crops has been larger in proportion, because the greater part of 
the increase in the cost of producing crops has been in the increased cost 
of labor. No other agricultural crop requires the amount of labor 
that cotton does. Every boll of cotton must be picked by human 
lingers, and from the time you start the crop until the time you put 
your cotton in the gin human labor attaches to it. 

Senator 0\7.rman. Notwithstanding that, when the resolution 
came up, you voted to table it? 

Senator Smith. Oh, yes; that was an entirely different thing. 
That was sending munitions to Europe. 

Senator Nelson. I remember the incident very well. I was curious 
to see what you would do on the Hitchcock resolution, and you voted, 
as Tou say, against it. 

^nator SMrrH. Yes. My object was to force our rights, if I 
could, to ship noncontrabahd to Grermany through neutral ports; 
riffhts that the President had asserted in his letter of March 31 ; but 
whether or not I succeeded in doing that I sought to keep up an 
aintation in the hope that the market might be strengthened, lalso 
wished to impress upon the British Government, as far as possible. 
the extent to which they were oppressing a portion of the people or 
the United States by disregarding their clearly established rights and 
to induce more liberal purchases from London so as to steady and 
protect the market. I know that a more liberal price was accorded 
the cotton crop in the fall of 1915 by British interests. 

This is the only paper before you that refers to me, so far as I 
know. 

Senator Overman, That is the only one. 
Senator Nelson. Yes ; that is the only paper. 
5>enator Overman. Are you through. Senator? 
Senator SMrra. Yes. 

Senator Overman. There have been some names mentioned in these 
records that have been sent here. Of course, we can not tell what 
is in the records before they are read. The names of numerous gen- 



1652 BBEWINO AKD LIQTJOB IKTEBE8TB AND QEBMAN PBOPAOAK1>A<. 

tlemen have been mentioned and we have accorded a hearing to 
everybody who wanted to be heard in regard to it. Senator Hitch- 
cock's name was mentioned, as well as yours, and he made a state- 
ment on the floor of the Senate, which is printed in the Congressional 
Record, and at his request I am very glad to have that statement put 
in the record of this committee. I hand it to the reporter for in- 
sertion. 

Senator Smith. I thought of presenting to the Senate the refer- 
ence to myself, but I concluded tne best coui'se was to discuss it be- 
fore your committee. 

Senator King. I think that this situation Senator Smith, illus- 
trates the great danger that may result from a lax interpretation of 
the rules of evidence in the admission into records of hearsay, and 
oftentimes testimony that does not rise to the dignity of hearsay, 
and good men and innocent men are frequently misunderstood and 
misrepresented by that sort of testimony. We ought to be very 
careful in the admission of testimony that reflects upon people whei'e 
the evidence is not valid or proper. 

Senator Overman. I want to say that this evidence having been 
furnished bv the Intelligence Department of the Army and the De- 
partment of State, and most of it from the Department of Justice, 
was not voluntary. In pursuance of the resolution and under the 
instructions of the committee I requested, as chairman of this com- 
mittee, that all the documents and evidence in regard to the brewers 
and in regard to German propaganda should be sent here by ?ome 
agent of the department for investigation, and these names have 
vomv out in certain documents that were found in the Department of 
Justice, and it is not the intention of this committee to reflect upon 
anyone, and it accords to everyone whose name is mentioned here — 
and is glad to do it — ^a hearing. The mention of persons was not 
volunteered by any department of the Government, out comes about 
in response to letters that I wrote to these departments asking them 
to furnish evidence that they may have in regard to German propa- 
ganda, and, of course, documents are furnished and names are men- 
tioned in the documents, as yours was. Senator, where there was just 
somebody who wrote a letter stating an opinion that different per- 
sons were in sympathy with them, as in your case. Of course, there 
is nothing to support such a suggestion in your case. 

Senator Smith. I understood that the Department of Justice did 
not put this letter in with any view of criticizing me, and the men- 
tion of my name was just incident to a long story about other things. 
Still, as it was in the letter, I wished the same record to contain my 
statement with reference to it. 

Senator Overman. We are very glad to put it in. 

Senator Smith. I am much obliged to you. 

(The extract from the Congressional Eiecord, presented by Senator 
Overman, is here printed in the record in full, as follows :) * 

[CoDgreBBional Record Dec. 10, 1918.] 
PERSONAL EXPLANATION. 

Mr. Hitchcock. Mr. President, I rise to a question of personal prlrllege. 

The Judiciary CJommittee by direction of the Senate, is investigating; the 
subject of German propaganda work in this country during: the war. On Satur- 
day before that committee certain evidence was produced by Mr. Bielaski and 
my name was so referred to as to justify me In making a brief comment. 



■^i 



BfiBWIHO ASD UQT70B INTBBB8IB AHD OSBMAJSf FBOPAOANIU. 1653 

The evidence in question consisted of a letter dated July 22, 1915, signed 
** Relsii'itz,*' and sent to some one whom he addressed as " Your JEiXcellency." 
We are told that KeiswiUs was then the German consul at Chicago. His letter 
appears to give the so-called " excellency " information concerning a German 
uMivenieut in this country to stop the export of arms and ammunition. This 
movement was known as the Embargo Conference. In this letter Keiswitz 
mentions my name in the following paragraph : 

"Among others, the following have agreed to cooperate: Senator Hitchcock, 
Congressuian Buchanan, William Bayard Hale, of New York, and the well- 
known pulpit orator, Dr. Aked (born an Englishman), from San Francisco. 

'* Uitehcuck seems to be very strong for ttie plan. He told our representative 
at a conference in Omaha, ' If this matter is organized in the right way, you will 
sweep the United States.* " 

If M» alleged ** excellency " or Keiswitz himself had any intelligence, either 
ur both of them must have known that I was myself the author of the blH to 
pruhlbit the export of arms and ammunition and that I had introduced it in 
the Senate more than eight mouths before the Keiswitz letter was written. 
The>' luiLst have known that I had made a Senate speech upon it and that it 
had been debated in the Senate and discussed in the newspapers. They must 
have known that on February 17, 1915, I had offered my bill as an amendment 
to the .shipping bill then pending and that my auieudmeut had been defeated by 
a vote of 36 to 51. My i)ositiou, therefore, in favor of prohibiting the export 
of anus iind ammunition had been independently and publicly taken and was 
widely known months before Keiswitz discovered It and revealed it to his chief 
as a secret. 

The part I took during 1914 and 1915 in favor of prohibiting the export of 
anus and ammunition during our neutrality has never been a subject of con- 
cealment or apology on my part. It became a campaign issue in 1916 when I 
ran for reelection, and the fact that I was reelected by a comfortable majority 
indicates that my course and my motives were understood and approved by 
the people of Nebraska. 

My stand was taken in 1914 as an American for neutrality. TJie Germans in 
America took theirs by forming the Embargo Conference In 1915 as partisans 
of Germany. They were supporting my bill, but I declined to go to their con- 
ferences, cHmveutions, or meetings, though I was often invited to appear as a 
Fpeoker. 1 made my only speeches here in the Senate or in defending my course 
later before my constituents. 

In those days, Mr. President, the country was under a pledge of neutrality by 
Wrtne of the I'resident's proclamation made when the war broke out. We 
should, no doubt, have remained neutral, at least nominally and officially, if 
Germany had not by a series of outrages made our attitude first dlfllcult and 
then Impossible. 
My attitude naturally changed with changing conditions. 
I stood, first, for a strict, peaceful, and impartial nautrality even to the extent 
of selling no arms and ammunition and lending no money to either side. 

Next, when €(ermany began a systematic attack on our commerce, I was 
rwidy to light to prote<*t our neutrality, 

I KupportfHl the I*resident\s recjuest that we authorize him to assert and pro- 
tect our neutrality by arming our merchant ships, and I had charge In the 
Senate of what was known as the armed neutrality resolution, which died so 
dramatk*ally here in the Senate at noon on March 4, 1917. 

A month later, wh»*n the issue changed from armed neutrality to war. I had 
charge of the (hvlaratlon of war, which was briefly debated and passed by the 
Senate April 4, 1917. 

And so, Mr. President, like other Americans, I have passed from one phase 
of the situation to another— peaceful neutrality, armed neutrality, war. Ger- 
man ooncluct forced these changes not only In the case of public men as Indi- 
vidual.s'but in the case of the country as a whole. This conduct was not wholly 
confined to the outrages perpetrated upon the high seas and in the war areas in 
Europe, hat it included the criminal folly of German agents, whom Mr. Blelaskl 
has been investigating. The latter exasperated American patience at home 
while German atrocities abroad aroused American resentment. 

Ihave no disposition to criticize Mr. Blelaskl for revealing all the secret 
correspondence of these German agents and conspirators with each other. It 
Is evident however, that they In correspondence with each other have used the 
names of a number of public men recklessly if not falsely. They reached the 



1654 BREWING AND LIQTJOE INTEBESTS AND GEBMAN PBOPAGANDA. 

climax of absurdity wlien they recorded Prof. Albert B. Hart, of Harvari!, as 
one of the public men of America who would cooperate with them. 

In my cafie they knew that I had refused to Join their organization, refuse<i 
to speak at their n)eetlngs, or even to attend them, though they were camou- 
flaged- as American. 

i supported in the days of our neutrality the embargo idea as a Senator, as 
tlie publisher of a large newspaper, and as an American, but I declined to 
associate myself with those who became partisans of Germany. 

Maj. Humes. I have here a telegram from Hiram Moei Greene to 
the chairman, embracing a signed statement of Edward Lyell Fox, 
which, at the request of Mr. Greene, has been ordered to be made a 
part of the record. 

(The telegram referred to is here printed in full, as follows:) 

[Western Union Telegram.] 

Chicago, III., Dec. 11, 1918. 
Senator Lee Ovebman, 

ChfUrman, Investigating Committee, Washington, D. C. 

Deab Sib: I am sending a copy of a statement, unsolicited by me, from Ed- 
ward Lyell Fox. This statement was sent me by Edwin Wlldman, president 
of the Wlldman Magazine and News Service, by which concern Mr. Fox was 
employed. 

Mr. Fox states that the use of my name was not only without authority but 
that he never discussed anti-Japanese propaganda with me. This is the state- 
ment: 

New Yobk City, Sept. 8, 1918. 
To whom it may concern: 

I herewith state that the name of Hiram Moe Greene, involved in a document 
1)rouglit before the Overman Committee in the United States Senate on Dec, 6, 
1918 by the Chief of the Department of Justice was not put In that document 
with the consent or knowledge of Mr. Greene. I further wish to state that at 
no time did Mr. Greene discuss Japanese propaganda with me, or so far as I 
know, with anyone else ; and that a great Injustice was done him by Involving 
him in this manner. He is, so far as I know, completely innocent and the un- 
knowing victim of an absurd scheme which was not original with me but in the 
preparation of which I assisted to the extent of copying and revising what 
another gave me, well knowing Its absurdity and its purpose which was not to 
launch an intrigue against the Japanese but which was rather to enable a third 
person to swindle Captain von Papen out of a sum of money and then laugh at 
him, doing not one thing in the scheme proposed. 

Mr. Greene was not a party to this and knew absolutely nothing about this 
and liberties were taken with his name, which it was not my idea to do and for 
which I am deeply sorry. The words pertaining to him were put into my mouth 
and only because I believed that nothing would ever come of a scheme so ridicu- 
lous, and only because I knew, I myself would never stand for It, should Pai)en 
be such a fool to sponsor It, did I stand for the use of Mr. Greens name. 

(Signed) Edwabd Ltell Fox. 

To this I wish to add that I never discussed Japanese propaganda with Ed- 
ward Lyell Fox or anyone else, and to my know^ledge never published propa- 
ganda of any character. 

The Illustrated Sunday Magazine had a circulation of nearly two million 
copies, circulated by seventeen metropolitan newspapers and during my editor- 
ship for about three years none of these papers, their editors or publishers ques- 
tioned my neutrality or Americanism, nor to my knowledge the partisanship or 
loyalty of the paper. 

I never talked with a German agent, nor to my knowledge ever saw one. 
I have been an earnest, loyal, active participant in the loyal activities of this 
war and as such have received the finest commendations from department heads 
at Washington. 

More than half of the money I have was put in allied (Russian) bonds early 
in the war, and I have been a contributor and active worker for all Liberty 
loan. Red Cross, Y. M. C. A., Knights of Columbus, and other Government 
plans. 

Just in fairness and justice I ask you to incorporate this in your records 

HlBAK MOE GBEEKE 



BBEWINa A2n> LIQUOB INTEBE8TB AKD QEBMAN rROFAQAJSTDA. 1666 

[Western Union Telegram] 

Boston Mass 
Hon Lee S Ovebuan 

CS Senate Washn DC 
I was United States Attorney until Oct nine seventeen afterwards Inter- 
state Commerce Ck>mmissloner Have known professor Hart intimately many 
years His thorough going loyalty to the highest American ideals of speech 
aEid conduct are absolutely beyond question. 

George W Anderson Judge Circuit Court 



[Western Union Telegram] 

Phiuldelphia Pa Dec 10th, 1918, 
Senator Overman 

The Capital Washington DC 

Professor Albert N Hart is one of the public spirited men most in the public 
eye in our community and to my knowledge there has never been the slightest 
UoQbt of his loyalty and absolute Americanism 

Edward A Filens 



[Western Union Telegram] 

ToPEKA Ks 1918 Dec 10 
Senator Lee Overman 

WashingUm DC 

I wish to express my absolute and entire confidence in patriotism of Dr 
Albert Bushnell Hart There is not a more loyal American in all this country 
The recent mention of his name in a list of alleged progerman sympathizers 
does Dr Hart a cruel injustice 

Arthur Capper Qovemor 

A letter from Mr. E. C. Richardson to the chairman, ordered to be 
made a part of the record, is here printed in full, as follows : 

E. C. Richardson Princeton, New Jersey 

December 7, 19i8 

The Chairman of the Sub-Committee of the Senate Judiciary Committee 
DR.u.tNa wiTM German Propaganda. 

Sib: In the matter of Fuehr's list of names, may I venture with all reiqpect, 
to protest the lecord of my name in a context which suggests a share in German 
"propaganda." I am not an inconspicuous practitioner of historical criticism. 
As such, I have explored the documents on various live war topics and» on 
some of them, rather to my own dismay, have run across facts or reached con- 
olusioDs contrary to the prevailing informations. Some of these facts and find- 
tugs were in print, and it was doubtless these which Dr. Fuehr thought " im- 
portant" They also brought certain requests for aid in propaganda which 
were declined as positively and promptly as courtesy allowed, although the pur- 
poie of the propaganda was patriotic. I explained that my role of critical 
resfarch was one inconsistent with propaganda. I said that this permitted 
and required the fearless publication of findings however unpopular, but not 
the eifort to influence action by emphasis of things favorable to one side. 
The refusal was received as courteously as it was intended. There Was no 
hint whatever of compensation — indeed I believe financial aid was also invited 
tnd likewise declined. This was in 1915. 

My ruling passion since the war began in 1914 has been, and is, concrete 
patriotic service, and I have not consciously neglected any opportunity to do 
iuy utmost I think I could satiiil^ Mr. Bielaskl that I have been pro patria 
with all my be&rt all the time and pro no other nation where interests conflict. 
1 retftect Washington's advice against excessive partiality or excessive dislike 
for any nation, but I believe that a strong partiality (without excess) for E^ng- 
land has been owing her since Manila Bay, and by considerations of wise 
patriotism. Her brand of liberty seems to me the type nearest to the ideals 
of a moral universe, and it Is our's. I returned in April 1914 from a winter 

8575»— 10— VOL 2 ^18 



1656 BBEWINO A]BI> UQUOB INTBBJBSro AKD GBHBCAN PBOPAGAHDA. 

in Europe, convinced that in the struggle which every one then regardel as 
inevitable, America should and would sympathize with, and perhaps aid Britain. 
I am now convinced that the chief hope for an orderly world lies in a firm 
mutual purpose of England and America to act in harmony. I believe, how> 
ever, that the last way to work in harmony with an Englishman is to back 
him when he is wrong or to be " excessive " in sentiment. 

I add that so-called critical research is simply a fact finding operation or 
investigation such as your Committee Is conducting. If your Committee coulct 
draw the distinction between fact publication and propaganda in such a way 
as to leave honest historical critics free to make their researches without 
regard to the consequences of the facts that they find, it would, from my point 
of view, be the greatest service to the United States Government in its three 
branches, which could be performed at the present moment. • Ignorance of 
facts or mistaken information is a poor basis for action, and poorer for joint 
action at any time. 

Respectfully yours, 

Eabnest Cushino Richabdson. 

Senator Overman. Maj. Humes, here are some letters from various 
persons, in explanation of charges made against them, and others 
volunteering information on the subjects concerning which testi- 
mony has been taken before this committee. I turn them all over to 
you for examination, and will ask you to look at them with a view 
to placing in the record such of them as you think ought to go in. 

Maj. lujMEs. A great mass of similar letters has come to me. 

Senator Overman. There are a great msmy letters from all over 
the country trying to give information which is not information, etc. 

Maj. Humes. I will examine the letters. 

Senator Overman. At our last meeting we put in a letter from 
Mr. Untermeyer and one from Judge Levy, I think. Judge Levy 
has sent a telegram which I think you had better read. 

Senator Sterling. I have here a letter which was sent to Senator 
Wadsworth by Prof. David Eugene Smith, and by Senator Wads- 
worth handed to me for use in this record, in which he protests 
against the use of his name in connection with German propaganda. 
Suppose you take that letter, also, Maj. Humes. 

Maj. Humes. I suppose where there are two letters from the same 
source, addressed to different members of the committee, there is no 
necessity to include both letters where they are practically the same 
and where one explanation will cover the situation in the record. 

Senator Overman. Only one letter will be necessary. I had a 
letter similar to the one spoken of by Senator Sterling. 

Maj. Humes. As requested by the chairman, I wul read the tele- 
gram from Mr. Levy. It is as follows : 

New York, N. Y., Dec. 12, 191S. 
Hon. Lee S. Ovebman, 

Chairman Senate Judiciary Committee, 

Senate Office Bldg,, Washinifton, 2). 0. 

I find to my amazement in this mornings papers that your committee without 
proof or opportunity for explanation has placed upon its records and that 
there has been published a letter from one L. E. Miller containing a mass of 
garbled and untruthful self-serving declarations concerning me and the cir- 
cumstances under which the Miller Interest In ** The Warheit ** was purchased 
and concerning another paper called " The Leader " said to have been attempted 
to be purchased stop This same story and the same Miller letter to Mr. 
Untermyer were published during the last mayoralty campaign here and were 
then fully exploited and exploded in the public press stop Aa a Judicial officer 
I have felt it undignified to reply to newspaper statements but as this matter 
has now gone into your records I feel that an immediate opportunity should 
be afforded me to reply and before Mr. Miller starts on his announced trip 



BBEWIKQ AJSiD LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1657 

abroad and ask that you give me that opportunity at as early a date as pos- 
sible stop Meantime permit me to say that the facts are briefly that upon Mr. 
Miller's urgent and repeated Inslstepce I was finally induced by liim to intro- 
duce him to Mr. Untermyer from whom he sought in my presence and upon 
the strength of Mr. Untermier's friendship for me to secure loan which he 
required to avoid bankruptcy which would have involved the forced sale of 
his Interest In the " Warhelt " which was then pledged stop 

Mr. Untermyer finally very reluctantly consented to make the loan out of 
friendship for me but advised Miller against taking the loan as he considered 
It a hopeless proposition stop He knew nothing about the merits of the loan 
and made no inquiry stop He did not suggest control of " The Larder's" 
stock stop That suggestion was made to him by Miller and Mr. Untermyer ex- 
pressed his willingness to have the control of the Leader placed in a third partv's 
hands to secure the repayment of the stock on Miller's suggestion stop Subse- 
quently Miller being again in great financial distress and owing a minority interest 
In tlie Warheit which was pledged and as to which the loan has been called offered' 
the stock to me stop He had broken with his partners solely because of his 
demands for increased salary to which they refused to accede and there was 
no question of policy stop All this was in 1915 and early in 1916 stop I joined 
with his partners who owned the majority stock in buying his minority interest 
in the Warheit for fifty thousand dollars and borrowed thirty five thousand of 
tliat money from Mr. Untermyer stop The balance of fifteen thousand dollars was 
fnmi.shed by Miller's partners and myself and we divided the stock up between 
us stop Thirty-five thousand of the fifty thousand we paid was used to take 
Millers stock out of pledge stop The transaction was closed whilst iMr. Unter- 
myer was in South America stop His secretary advanced the money on his 
written instructions given before he left stop I have since repaid him fifteen 
thousand of his money and shall soon repay the balance stop That loan was 
made purely out of personal friendship for me stop Mr. Untermyer never saw 
the Warheit or had anything to do with it or knew of the character of the 
sec-nrity and I doubt If he then knew that there was such a paper or knows now 
where It is located stop He was satisfied with my obligation stop I consider 
it but <^>mmou justice to me as well as to him that these facts should be 
promptly known and hope your committee will afford me an Immediate oppor- 
tunity of stating them under oath stop Kindly wire reply to two sixty four 
Madison Street New York City 

Aaron J. Levy 

Senator Overman. I wish you would wire Mr. Levy that his tele- 
Eram has been put in the record, and that if he desires-to come down 
nere and appear before the committee we shall be glad to hear him. 

STATEMENT OF MB. LOinS OAKTHE. 

Senator Overman. Mr. Garthe, do you desire to make a statement 
in regard to the mention of your name before this committee ? 

Mr. Garthe, Yes. Senators, I would not have bothered you by 
appearing before this committee at all except for the fact that the 
statement was made by Mr. Bielaski, inadvertently, I think, that 
there was nothing in the Courier to show that I was in any way 
cfHinected with it. The natural inference was that I was doing this 
work for the little Courier behind the back of my employer. In fact, 
the senior Senator from Minnesota [Mr. Nelson] said that he knew 
Gen. Agnus, and he knew the Baltimore American to be truly loyal. 
Clearly the inference was then t^hat I was writing disloyal, anti- 
Wilson^ anti-American editorials. Senators, that is all I want to 
dear np. 

If von will permit me, I have here one editorial, and there are a 
lot of them« Capt. Lester has the entire set of them. If you will let 
me read jost this one editorial, it will be a sample of the kind of 
editorials that I wrote for the Courier. I did not write them all. 

Senator Nelson. Excuse me. Please repeat what you said. 



1658 BREWING AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGAl!n>A. 

Mr. Garthe. I said that I would not have troubled the coniinittee 
to appear before you at all, Senators, but for the fact that Mr. Bie- 
laski stated that there was nothing in the Courier to indicate that I 
was in any way connected with it, and therefore the impression iivas 
created on the minds of the committee, doubtless, because of what 
you said, that you knew Gen. Agnus and knew the Baltimore Ameri- 
can and knew that Gen. Agnus and the Baltimore American \^ere 
entirely loyal. Therefore, the impression evidently had been spread 
that behind Gen. Agnus's back I was writing sneaking anti-Ajneri- 
can editorials. Gentlemen, I have been with Gen. Agnus for 30 
years ; we are almost like brothers. Here, after 30 years, if a new^s- 
paper man has got anything on God's earth, it is his name for being 
honest, decent, clean, and square. In the way this thing appears it 
made me appear that after being this man's loyal friend for 30 years, 
at the end of that time, at the time this country was in a crisis, I 
was writing disloyal editorials behind his back. Therefore I will 
ask you to let me read one or two of the editorials that appeared in 
that little Courier. The Courier was a little society paper. You know 
the kind of paper. It printed pictures of all the ambassadors. I 
remember on one occasion it had a picture of the German ambassador, 
on another occasion a picture of Sir Cecil Spring-Rice, the British 
ambassador, and it printed a picture of the Eussian ambassador, and 
pictures of all of them. If you will allow me to reiid just this one 
editorial, it is printed in what we call a box, on the first page of the 
Courier, in 6-point black-face type. It is as follows: 

STAND BY THE PRESIDENT ! 

In the crisis that confronts this country, the gravest since half a century a^>, 
wlien the very life of our country was threatened, there is only one sentiment 
and one thought in the hearts of the American people : 

Stand by the President! 

Until to-day the American people have been divided. Some of us have been 
pro-Oernian : many of us have been pro-British. To-day there is not a man in 
this country who is aught but pro-American. For more than two years the 
American people have favored one or the other of the two great warring groups 
in Euroi)e. To-day all America, from Porto Rico to the Philippines, crowds 
out of its heart all former judgment of the right and the wrong of warring 
Europe and centers its devotion on America alone. 

For two years President Wilson, with infinite patience and consummate tact, 
has kept this country out of war, and kept us out of war with our honor unsul- 
lied. He can be trusted to uphold American dignity in the future as in the past. 
At this moment the duty of every American is clear : 

Keep cool and stand by the President! 

Senator Xelsok. What is the date of that? 

Mr. Garthe. February 3, 1917. 

I knew notliing of the proceedings before this committee until 1 
received a long-distance telephone call from my home office. Gen. 
Apius said to me, "What in the world have you been doing?" I 
said, ^'What do you mean?" He said, "Here comes a story from 
the Intei'national Xews Service that you have been writing editorials 
for a pro-German paper and that you have been acting as collector 
for them, and I don't know what all." I said, " General, I don't 
know what on earth you are talking about. Let me come over and 
talk the matter over.^' I went over, and he said, "Louis, my boy, 
. what have you been doing?" I said, "General, I don't remember 



BBBWIKG AND UQUOB INTERESTS AND GERMAN PBOPAQANDA. 1659 

m single editorial. It is two years ago that I wrote them, but Mr. 
Hough is the managing editor. Let me make a statement to him." 
I made a little statement, which the New York Times and our paper 
were kind enough to print. Briefly, it was this, that I have written 
niany editorials for the Courier, that they were 100 per cent Amer- 
ican, that they were editorials such as an American would write 
for an American paper. Senators, I have read you a sample of them. 
I denied then and I deny now that I have ever been a collector for 
the Courier. I have never been. I went on to state then that because 
Mr. Lowe had hoped for the support of Germans in this country 
for his paper, but because the Germans turned down the paper, 
because they would not have it, because it did not contain the kind 
of talk they wanted, this paper failed. 

Senator Overman. Somebody wrote me a lettei* in which it was 
stated that Bemstorff had given you $500 to give to Mr. Lowe, but 
he would not take it. 

Mr. Garthe. No; let me explain that, gentlemen. In one of Mr. 
Lower's letters read before you he pointed out that Dr. Adler would 
not let him get to see the ambassador, that he was writing to his 
excellency because Dr. Adler would not let him get to see the am- 
bassador. That was because Adler had no use for him and had no 
use for the paper. He did not see where BernstorfF was getting 
anvthing out of the Courier with this kind of editorials. 

?>enator Woixtott. The kind you wrote ? 

Mr. Garthe. The kind I wrote; yes. He said there was nothing 
in it, and therefore Adler kept Lowe away from Bemstorff. 

ITie financial matters between Mr. Ix)we and Bemstorff were in 
the hands of John Clifton, who acted as a lawver in behalf of the 
German embassy. The arrangement between Mr. Clifton and I^we 
on behalf of the ambassador was that so much money was to be 
pven by the ambassador for buying paper — it is expensive paper — 
and for paying the printers, and all that sort of thmg. One day a 
shipment of paper came from Philadelphia, and attached to the bill 
of lading was a draft, I think for $loO or $200, whichever it was. 
I don't know. Lowe called up Clifton and Clifton had been called 
to New York. There was this draft that had to be met before 3 
o'clock, and no money, and Clifton was away, so Lowe asked me 




newspaper 

>torff when he came here, owing to a curious situation. I went up 
and saw him and I said to him, " Your Excellency, Mr. Clifton has 
grme and Lowe is up against it, because his bill of lading has got a 
draft attached, and he has got to get that money. He then called 
Adler, and I heard the conversation between them. It was in 
< terman. I can speak German, although I was born in this countrv. 
Bemstorff said to Adler, "Have we so much money in the house?" 
He said. "* Yes." Bemstorff said, " Give it to Mr. Garthe." I said, 
*-Xo: I will not touch a penny of it. Do not hand it to me. You 
ran !»end for Lowe." The draft was over in a Georgetown bank. T 
said^ " You can send for Lowe, and Lowe can get that money, but 1 
do not want it and I will not have it," and I never did got a penny 
of it. 



1660 BREWING AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAaAl$ri>A. 

In this connection, if you will permit me, Senator, there was a let- 
ter introduced by Mr. Bielaski, written from that expensive hotel in 
North Carolina. You know the name of it. 

Senator Overman. The Grove Park Inn. 

Mr. Garthe. The Grove Park Inn. The letter was written on 
Christmas Day, 1916, and he wrote his secretary to go to the embassy 
and get money, and then in the letter he said " Write Mr. Garthe for 
editorials." 

Following immediately after that was read a telegram from me 
stating, " Have made deposit as requested." 

Now, gentlemen, that letter was written on Christanas Day, 1916. 
Bernstorff left here in February, 1917. Lowe tried to run his little 
paper for three or four weeks afterwards, and went broke. Then he 
went to Baltimore and did his very best to raise money. Meanwhile 
they were seizing his furniture here, and on April 12 he telegraphed 
me, "Please deposit $20 to my credit in the American Security & 
Trust Co.," and on April 12 or 13 I deposited $20 to his credit. Mr. 
Bernstorff had gone in February. I deposited $20 of my own good 
money in the American Securitv & Trust Co., and here is a letter 
from the American Security & Trust Co. which states the fact : 

Gabthe Exhibit No. 1. 

Washington, D. C, December 12th, 1918. 
Mr. Loins Gabth, 

715 Riffffs BuiMing, City. 
Deab Mb. Gabthe. In reply to your Inquiry, we beg to advise a deposit of $20 
In currency was deposited of April 12th, 1917, with the American Security and 
Trust Company, Washington, D. C, for credit of Theo. Lowe. 
Yours very truly, 

Ohas. E. Howe, Treasurer. 

Senator Wolcott. You did that for your friend and acquaintance, 
who was in hard luck? 

Mr. Garthe. He was in mighty hard luck. He had lost everything 
he had. I think every Senator has done the same thing as I did then, 
when I deposited $20 to his credit. 

Senator Sterling. What was the date of your visit to Count von 
Bernstorff ? 

Mr. Garthe. That I can not tell. Mr. Clifton can tell you that. 

Senator Stermng. Can you fix the date approximately by refer- 
ring to the date when Count von Bernstorff left? 

Mr. Garthe. It was before that. 

Senator Sterling. How long before? 

Mr. Garthe. I should say it may have been in October or in No- 
vember before he left. 

Senator Sterling. You knew that Mr. Lowe was depending for 
aid upon the German Embassy ? 

Mr. Garthe. Certainly ; yes. 

Senator Sterling. And that he was being partly financed by the 
German Embassy? 

Mr. Garthe. Partly financed by them : yes, I knew that. 

Senator Sterling. You knew that wnfle you were writing these 

editorials? 

Mr. Garthe. Yes ; but as Bernstorff once said to me, and Adler 
also, ^ Wilson is getting it all.'' 



BfiEWIKG AND LIQTJOB IKTESBSI8 AKD 6EBMAK PBOiPAOAKDA. 1661 

Senator Wolcott. You did not have the control of the editorial 
oolimmsl 

Mr. Garthe. No ; he wrote some of them. 

Senator WoiiCorrr. All you were responsible for was what you 
wrote yourself I 

Mr. ijARTHE. What I wrote myself. 

Senator WoLCorrr. And your position is that everything you wrote 
and put in that paper was pro-American, just as much so as this 
sample you have introduced in evidence ? 

Mr. 6arthe. Yes. 

Senator Stertjng. How frequently did you write? 

Mr. Garthe. I presume I wrote once a week. 

Senator Sterling. Is it a daily paper? 

Mr. Garthe. No; it was a little weekly. 

Senator Sterling. And you wrote once a week? 

Mr. Garthe. Yes; but frequently I did not write; because, as 
y<>u can readily understand, sometimes I was busy. Sometimes 
the House was busy and the Senate was busy, and then we would 
have to go down and see the Secretary of State, the Secretary ol 
A^culture, the Secretary of the Navy; and there are many other 
things to do. and frequently I could not write anything for him, 
and lie would have to write it himself; so, several of them are his, 
and not mine. 

5?enator Sterling. For the time that the paper ran, what pro- 
portion of the editorials were yours and what proportion were hisl^ 

Mr. Garthe. I should say 75 per cent and 25 per cent, because 
^metimes late at night I would write him one and mail it to him. 

Senator Sterling. You mean by that that 75 per cent of the edi- 
torials were written byyou? 

Mr. Garthe. Yes. H!e would indicate if he wanted an article, for 
instance, on " Why Washington went dry," after it went dry. That, 
bv the way, reminds me that there is a letter in which it is suggested 
tfcat he was also beinghelped by the .brewers. As a matter of tact, 
that editorial "Why Washington went dry," said it went dry be- 
cau<^ the feeling for prohibition in this country was due to the in- 
famous dives and saloons which were the result of the greed and 
j^hamelessness of the distillers and brewers. If they were giving 
him any money, they were not getting much for their money. I 
should like to say right here that the paper had a number of edi- 
torials denouncing Mr. Viereck and r>r. Hexamer. Mr, Viereck, 
because of what his paper contained, and Dr. Hexamer, because he 
wa«; president of the National German- American Alliance. 

5>enator Overman. The Courier was rather a society paper, was it 
not? 

Mr. Garthe. Why, Senators — ^happily I have one here which has a 
ver>' superior picture of Senator Overman, and a very splendid 
?torv [producing paper]. There was another one of Mr. Vance 
McCorraick. 

Senator Wolcott. I was not here when this matter came out at 
the last Ression, and I will ask you a question for information. Has 
anybody assumed to say that the Courier was a pro-German paper? 

Maj. HtrMEs. Mr. Bielaski said it was financed by the German 
Embassy, and Mr. Garthe, I understand, agrees with that statement 
thflt it was financed bv the German Embassv. 



1662 BBSWINQ AND UQUOB INTBBESTB A17D GEBMAN PBOPAGAKDA. 

Senator Wolcott. But the material point is whether or not the 
paper, as disclosed by its contents, was pro-Grerman or not. Has 
anybody scanned its issues to see whether it was? 

Maj. Humes. I never looked it up until yesterday, but I did ex- 
amine it then, and we found considerable pro-German material in 
the paper. Whether Mr. Garthe wrote it or Mr. Lowe wrote it, 
there is considerable pro-German material in it. In that issue which 
Senator King has there is an editorial, following the Sussex incident, 
advising that Americans should stay off of boats. 

Mr. Garthe. Shall I read it? 

Maj, Humes. It begins about the middle of the second column, 
on page 3. 

Senator King. Is this what you refer to? [Reading:] 

To this country at large the torpedoing of the Sussex again brings forward 
prominently the unpatriotic folly of those Americans who persist in entering 
recklessly into danger, regardless of all warning. In the present case, this 
country has been brought into imminent danger of war with Germany because 
of a score of Americans, some of whom have not even been in America for half 
a decade, and brought Into that Imminent danger at a time when the entire 
military resources of this country are already occupied in an enterprise which 
is straining our resources to the utmost. Every available soldier in the United 
States will be within the next fortnight either hundreds of miles in Mexico, or 
on the border ready to follow the men already there. Already nearly ten mil- 
lion dollars has been voted by Congress for the expenses of the punitive expedi- 
tion and how many millions more must follow no one will venture to predict. 
Surely every American, with the least spark of love for this country, will sub- 
ordinate at this time his personal plans, either of business or of pleasure, to the 
welfare of his country, and, for the time being, refuse to take passage on a ship 
Nvhich courts danger and whose destruction, by mine or by torpedo, may fan the 
present smoulders of resentment into the fierce flames of war. 

Moreover, what will It benefit the relatives of some American whose death 
from a German torpedo throws the country into war? What satisfaction can be 
obtained from the knowledge that thousands of others may die on the battlefield? 
Will the sorrow of one heart be allayed by the knowledge that this death has 
brought equal sorrow into thousands of other hearts? 

Mr. Garthe. I wrote that. 

Senator King. That bears date of March 25, 1916. 

Senator Sterling. You wrote that? 

Mr. Garthe. I wrote that. 

Senator Sterling. You recall the fact that the sinking of the *S?/*- 
sex was the occasion of the President appearing before a joint assem- 
bly of the Congress in protest? 

Mr. Garthe. Subsequently; yes. 

Senator Sterling. Setting forth how it was a violation of Ameri- 
can rights? 

Mr. Garthe. Afterwards; yes. 

Senator Sterling. That messifige followed very soon, a day or two, 
after the sinking of the Sussex. 

Mr. Garthe. It must be so. 

Capt. Lester. You commented favorably, editorially, on the ex- 
ploit of the U boat Deutschland coming to this country ? 

Mr. Garthe. Yes. 

Capt. Lester. And you praised Capt. Koenig and printed his 
picture? 

Mr. Garthe. Yes. 

Capt. Lester. Did you write that editorial ? 



BBBWIKO AND LIQUOB INTEBE8TS AND QEBMAN PBOPAQANDA. 1668 

Mr.^ Gasthe. Probably, the editorial; yes. So did hundreds of 
American newspapers praise the exploit. The Baltimore papers 
praised it. They made a great local story of it. 

Senator Otzbman. Is there anything else that you desire to say ? 

Mr. Garths. There is one other thing. In the statement Mr. 
Bielaski states : 

In farther looking up the record of Mr. Garthe I find that In 1912 Mr. Lowe 
met Mr. Vlereck through Dr. Hugo Schweitzer. 

Capt. Lester. There is an obvious misprint of the name. It should 
be Lowe instead of Garthe. 

Senator Overman. That ought to be corrected. 

Senator King. You have brought into this record the name of Mr. 
Clifton. 

Mr. GAtfTHE. Yes. 

Senator Kino. I do not know him; I never saw him so far as I 
know. We do not want to do an injustice to anyone. 

Mr. Garthe. No ; I agree to that. 

Senator King. I do not think you ought to have brought his name 
in, but having done so you meant to state, as I understood you, that 
Mr. Clifton is a lawyer and was employed as a lawyer by the German 
embassy. 

3fr. Garthe. Yes. 

Senator King. You did not mean to give any other impression in 
respect to him? 

Mr. Garthe. Oh, no. In the record of last Saturday his name 
appears. 

Senator King. I did not know that. 

Mr. Garthe. Oh, no ; I should not have brought in John Clifton's 
name* because I have suffered too much from this thing myself to 
want to drag in another man. 

Senator Kjng. Because the embassy would have a right to have 
legal advice, the same as our embassy would be entitled to get legal 
advice in any nation where we have an embassy. 

Mr. Garthe. Certainly. I merely wanted to identify it,, as his 
name appears in the record as being the counselor for the embassy. 

Senator King. The onlv reason I mention it is because so many 
people, if you say that A, B, or C was employed by the German 
cjnbassy, get the idea that necessarily that particular person would 
be pro-German, and I want the record to show that you did not 
mean that. 

Mr, Garthe. Not the slightest. 

Senator King.* That is not the inference at all. 

Mr. Garthe. Not at all. 

Senator King. He merely acted in a legal capacity. 

Mr. Garthe. Purely. 

Senator Kino. As he had a right to do. 

Mr. Garthe. Purely. 

Sofiator Nelson. That brings us to the other — ^moral — question, 
with which we have not anvthing to do in this case, whether an 
attorney is justifi^ in defending a criminal under all circumstances. 

Senator King. Germany at that time was in amity with the United 
States; there had been no declaration of war. Their representative 
was here and our representative, Mr. Gerard, was in Germany. 



1664 BBEWINQ AND LIQUOB INTBBEST8 AND OEBBCAN PBOPAGANDA« 

Many distinguished men were stating that the relations between the 
nations were friendly. I can not see that there was anything im- 
moral in the embassy hiring a lawyer to advise them, and I do not 
see anything immoral in a lawyer accepting employment at that 
time. 

Senator Sterling. Unless the lawyer was a go-between between 
the embassy and Mr. Lowe, And Mr. Lowe was publishing a paper 
which was pro-German, receiving monev from the embassy. 

Mr. Garthe. Yes; and because of Mr. Lowe's personal unpopu- 
larity with Dr. Adler the thing was being handled by John Clifton. 
I think that is hardly fair to put in the record, however. 

Senator Sterling. I think that ought to go into the record, 

Mr. Garthe. That explains how it was. 

TESTXHONY OF CAPT. GEOEOE B. LESTEB. 

(The witness was sworn by the chairman.) 

senator Overman. Capt. Lester, you were detailed by the Secre- 
tary of War to come here, at my request? 

Capt. Lester. Yes. 

Senator Overman. To furnish such testimony bearing on this 
German propaganda and the brewers as you had m your possession ? 

Capt. Lester. Yes. 

Senator Overman. You are connected with the Intelligence Bu- 
reau? 

Capt. Lester. I am a captain in the United States Army, attached 
to the Military Intelligence Division of the General Staff. 

Maj. Humes. Capt. Lester, have you in your possession any tele- 
grams sent from the German Embassy to the German Government 
relative to any newspaper in the United States? 

Capt. Lester. I have a copy of a telegram that was sent from the 
German Embassy on September 9, 1914, to the German foreign office 
in reference to the Chicago Tribune. 

Maj. Humes. Will you read that telegram? 

Capt. Lester. The telegram reads as follows : 

Chicago Tribune friendly paper. 

The original of that telegram is in the possession of the Government 
agencies and can be produced if necessary. 

Maj. Humes. You heard the testimony of Mr. Bielaski the other 
day in connection with the activities of one Edward Lyell Fox. I 
wish you would state whether or not you made an investigation 
personally of the activities of Mr. Fox, and secured a statement from 
him in connection with the investigation ? 

Capt. Lester. I was ordered to take up the case of Edward Lyell 
Fox after he had been investigated by the Militarv Intelligence Divi- 
sion for some time. I accompanied him to New York by agreement 
with him that he would tell all the facts in connection with his work 
in Germany, and his work for the German Government, and turn over 
all papers and docimients in his possession. He turned over 
a mass of papers and made what was considered nearly a full con- 
fession. We have never gotten the full facts from Mr. Fox, but we 
have gotten a great many connections that were not given in his 
previous confessions. 



BBEWIKd AKD LIQUOB INTBHESTO AKD QEBMAK PBOPAGANDA. 1665 

Mr. Fox was sent to Germany in 1915. 

Senator Nelson. By whom? 

Capt. Lestek. By the German Embassy, by an arrangement made 
through Count von Bernstorff, the German ambassador, Dr. Albert, 
and others representing the Germans in this country. He went 
ostensibly as an employee of the Wildman Newspaper Syndicate. 
Mr. Wildman believed that he was sending Mr. Fox as a writer. 
Mr. Wildman was innocent in the transaction, as far as we were able 
to find, but Mr. Fox was also employed by the Correspondents' Film 
Co., which was operated by Mathew B. Claussen as part of the 
German propaganda in this coimtry, which film company was 
financed by the German Government. In addition an arrangement 
was made by the Hearst newspapers to employ Mr. Fox to write 
articles while in Germany, attaching himself to the headquarters of 
the Hearst service in Berlin, then managed by Mr. Schweppendick. 
He was to write articles and news for the Hearst publications. This 
arrangement is evidenced by a letter given to Mr. Fox by Mr. Brad- 
ford Merrill, who is the publisher or the New York American, on 
Jane 29, 1916. The letter is short. Shall I read it ? 

S^iator Nelsok. Yes. 

Capt. Lester. The letter is as follows: 

Lesteb Exhibit No. 1. 

The New Yobk Auebican. 

June 29, 1915. 
Mr. E. Nobobote Cox. 

" La Gazette de HoUande," NoheUtratt 20j The Hague. 

Dfae Sib: This wiU serve to introduce to you Mr. Edward LyeU Fox, a 
special correspondent of the Wildman Newspaper and Magazine Service of the 
United States, who is also a valued special contributor of war articles to the 
New York American. 

It is possible that Mr. Fox may have occasion to send news to you for for- 
warding by cable or mall, as the case may be, to our London Manager, Mr. 
W. Orton Tewson. 60 Fleet St., E. C, London. In such case, if you will be so . 
kind as to communicate promptly with Mr. Tewson, we shall be greatly in- 
debted to you and Mr. Tewson will make suitable recompense for any expenses 
Incurred. 

Very truly yours, 

Bbadfobd Mebbill, Publisher. 

Mr. E. Norgrove Cox, in The Hague, Holland, was in charge of 
the European end of the Hearst news service — ^that is, the transmis- 
sion end — what was known as the International News Service. Mr. 
Tewson, in London, had the English end of the International News 
Serrice. The western terminus of that was in New York. This is 
the news service which was operated by cable^ which the English 
Government abolished in October, 1916. That is,' the English Gov- 
ernment refused to handle the Hearst news service or let it come 
into their country or have any of their representatives there from 
October, 1916, down to — ^well, I do not think the service has ever 
been resumed. 

Senator WoLCorr. A moment ago you said that this man Fox was 
fsent over financed by the German propaganda organization; that 
the Wildman service was ignorant of that fact when it availed itself 
of the services of Mr. Fox, and you also said that the Hearst publica- 
tions used Mr. Fox. You did not, however, in connection with the 
Henrst publications, say whether or not vour information disclosed 



1666 BBEWIKG AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PBOPAQANBA. 

knowledge on the part of the Hearst publications of the fact that 
Mr. Fox was financed by the German propaganda organization. 
Have you any information on that? 

Capt. Lester. I am not in position to state whether Mr. Hearst or 
the Hearst papers knew that Mr. Fox was in the pay of the German 
Government at the time he went over there or at any other time. 

Senator Wolcott. Your allusion, then, to the Hearst publications 
in connection with Mr. Fox and his German connections was of no 
si^ificance? You have no knowledge of it and do not know any- 
thing about it? 

Capt. Lester. I have no knowledge, and there is nothing in our 
records to indicate a knowledge on the part of Mr. Hearst, that Mr. 
Fox was paid by the German Government. There is evidence, which 
I shall shortly produce, that Mr. Fox was a propagandist for the 
Hearst American papers, that he acted under the direction of Mr. 
Schweppendick, the Berlin manager of the Hearst newspapers, in 
the preparation of articles, and sent them to America for publication 
in the Hearst papers, and they were published. I shall refer to that 
very shortlv. 

Senator King. Did other newspapers of the United States, and 
other nations for that matter, have correspondents or send repre- 
sentatives of their newspapers to Germany at a time when our country 
was not at war with Germany? 

Capt. Lester. Oh, yes. There was a large number. I think from 
1914 up to our entrance into the war there were at least 150 prominent 
newspapers represented in Germany. That is, not all at the same 
time; they were changing, different "men were being sent in. All of 
the prominent New York and Chicago papers had representatives 
who stayed there almost continuously durmg.the war period. 

Senator King. So that there is nothing improper in newspapers 
having reporters or representatives in belligerent nations? 

Capt. Lester. No, sir. 

Senator Wolcxjtt. Have you made a study of these articles that 
came out of Germany to these papers in this country ? 

Capt. Lester. I have read the William Bayard Hale news items 
and articles that came later on to the Hearst publications, of which 
there are. about 1,500. I think the messages came to the Navy De- 

?artment. I have read about 200 of the Hearst editorials in the New 
ork American during the war period, from 1914 down to date. I 
am familiar up to that point. I can not say that I made a study of 
it, because that would be a matter of a great deal of research. 

Senator Wolcott. Yes; a voluminous task. But the point I had 
hi mind was this: I was curious to know whether or not the news 
articles that came out of Germany from Mr. Fox and Mr. Hale weiv 
different in their complexion from the articles that came out of 
Germany from any of these other 150 correspondents. 

Capt. Lester. As to the news articles that were sent by Mr. Fox, T 
can say that they were entirely different in their character and in 
their make-up and the source of information from any articles that 
were published by other newspapers that I know of. 

Senator Wolcott.' You apparently do not know all of the others. 

Capt. Lester. I am speaking of other newspapers. I did not know 
that you included other newspapers when vou asked me if I had made 
an examination of articles coming out of Germany. 



BBEWINO AND LIQUOB INTEBESTS AND GEBMAK PBOPAOAKDA. 1667 

Senator Wolcoit. I meant from all of these 150 papers. 

Capt. Lester. The other papere I have read a great deal. I have 
read a great deal of matter that has been published in the newspapers 
coming from Germany since the war started, principally the New 
York papers, and a great many Chicago papers, and reprints in other 
papers. ' 

Senator Sterli:no. And you found articles coming from Mr. Fox 
different from those others? 

Capt. Lester. Articles coming from Mr. Fox were sheer propa- 
sninda. They are admitted to m propaganda, and they are pub- 
lished by him, and \vritten by him, without any foundation in fact as 
to one article, under direction of the German Publicity Bureau in 
Berlin, who understood from his being over there that his purpose in 
being in (lermany as a so-called war correspondent was to write any- 
thing that they told him to write. He stated that to me and told me 
the instance of writing this particular propaganda article. 

Senator King. Where is Mr. Fox? 

Capt. Lester. He is in New York City. That is, he was the last 
I knew of him. I have before me an article written by Edward 
Lvell Fox, published in the New York American on Sunday, April 
18, 1918, entitled, "Hands and feet of boys cut off by the Cossacks, 
says Edward Lyell Fox. Mutilation of children by retreating sol- 
diers charged in official records. Evidences of atrocious acts found 
eveiywhere. Eighteen lads found maimed and lying helpless in the 
snow.'' Tlien follows a two-column — nearly a three-column — article, 
with illustrations, in which Edward Lyell Fox undertakes to repre- 
sent that in the advance of the Russians on the eastern front through 
the Carpathians the Cossack troops mutilated boys and committed 
atrocities of a shocking character. The facts in respect to that article 
are these. I obtained from Mr. Fox his original notes written in lead 
pencil, that formed the basis of this article. He never saw an atroc- 
ity, never saw any of the events that he described, and he stated to 
me that these events in his opinion never happened, but he was told 
to write an article to counteract the information that was being 
spread through the American press at this particular time in respect 
to atrocities m Belgium. 

Senator Wolcott. Told by whom ? 

Capt. Lester. Told by a representative of the German Govern- 
ment whose name I have forgotten. Mr. Fox was in touch with the 
chancellor, Mr. Zimmermann, and various of the higher officials of 
the German Government. He had courtesies extenoed to him that 
other newspaper men were unable to get in the way of entrance on 
the firing front. He spent six weeks with a squadron in the German 
flying corps on the western front, rode in battle planes over France 
and Belgium, was at one time on the eastern front, and I obtained 
from him photographs taken of himself and German officers — I think 
there were something like 40 or 50 of these photographs — which in- 
<ticated, outside of his statement and admission, that he was taken 
in as a part of the officers' groups, as much as a German. That is to 
say, he was under no surveillance whatever. He could go anywhere 
lie wanted to. He was armed with passes from staff officers and from 
the war office, which permitted him to go anywhere in Germany, on 
any battle front or any part of the firing line that he wanted to, with- 
out hindrance. 



1668 BBEWINQ AND UQUOB IKTBBEBTS AND QBBMAN PBOPAGAHDA. 

Maj. Humes. In that connection, let me ask you, did he or did he 
not admit to you that he was not on the eastern front and had no 
knowledge of the occurrences which are related in the articles you 
have just called attention to ? 

Capt. Lester. No ; he did not state that he was not on the eastern 
front. He was on the eastern front after these events had happened^ 
the second trip he was over there; but in April, 1915, when this 
article was written, he was not on tlie eastern front. 

Senator Sterling. And had not been ? 

Capt. Lester. Had not been, and had no knowledge whatever; and 

he explained to me the purpose of this article, as I have stated, that 

it was written to counteract the disclosures which were then begin- 

.ning to filter out, of the atrocities of the Germany army in their 

entry into Belgium ; and this was the story. 

Senator Sterling. Was there any editorial comment in the Hearst 
papers? 

Capt. Lester. No, sir, not that I have been able to find. All of the 
editorial comments — I have never seen any editorial comments on 
atrocities as described in this article, or in any of the Hearst publi- 
cations that I have examined ; and you will note in this article the 
fmblisher of the New York American takes pains to state in large 
etters, in the headlines, " Hands and feet of boys cut off by the Cos- 
sacks, says Edward Lyell Fox." He published it with that reserva- 
tion. 

Senator King. Was there am-thing in the dispatch which he sent^ 
to indicate to the recipient that the mformation that he got was ob- 
tained from Germany or was writtwi at the request of Cfermany, or 
upon its face did it bear the impress of a genuine newspaper state- 
ment by a writer who was reciting what he liad seen, or as to matter 
with which he was acquainted ? 

Capt. Lester. There is no evidence to indicate that the writer of 
that article had any knowledge or reason to believe that it was paid 
for by Germany. 

Senator King. In other words, on its face it seemed to be an 
uuthentic and truthful report by a newspaper reporter? 

Capt. Lester. Yes, sir. Shall we put that in evidence ? 

Senator Overman. The whole record? 

Capt. Lester. Yes. 

Senator Overman. No ; I do not think so. 

Capt. Lester. I could make a summary of it. 

Senator Overman. Yes; you might make a summary of it and put 
it in. 

Maj. Humes. Are there any other similar instances? 

Capt. Lester. On the 25th of April, 1915, there was published, in 
the New York American, an article entitled "Prof. Stein, greatest 
peace apostle, warns United States of Japenese peril." This article 
was written by Edward Lyell Fox in Germany. Mr. Fox stated to 
me that this article was a result of an interview which he had with 
Prof. Stein, upon general instructions received from the publication 
he was representing; that is, the New York American. He was to 
play up, as the newspapers say, *' Japanese stuff." 

Senator Nelson. Was Stein connected with the New York .Ameri- 
can? 

Capt. Lester. Stein was a German professor. 

Senator Nelson. He was a Geiinan intellectual ? 



HKKWUKQ AND LIQUOB INrTEBBSTB AND GBBMAK PBOPAQANBA. 1669 

. Capt. Lester. Yes; a German intellectual — a gentleman who was 
a specialist in Japanese affairs. 

senator Nelson. Oh, yes. 

Capt. Lesteb. And I might state in this connection that Mr. Fox 
worked with Mr. Schweppendick upon matters of policy. That is, if 
he was told by Schweppendick that they wanted a story of Hindcn- 
berg, he was given credentials and would start off and find Hinden- 
berg. If he was told by the American that they, wanted a story of 
the western front, he would be sent to the western front. If they 
wanted a Japanese story, at that time he would arran^ with the 
(ioTemment officials to see the Japanese expert, who in this case was 
Prof. Stein. 

Senator Sterling. And he received those instructions from Schwep- 
pendick, who you say was the representative of the Heart papers m 
Germany? 

Capt. Lester. Yes, sir. 

Maj. Humes. He was the representative of the International News 
Service? 

Capt. Lester. Noj he was the representative of the Hearst service. 
The Hearst service in Berlin went under the name of " Hearstschen 
Zeitungs-Untemehmungen, Amerika. Generalvertreter : Gustav 
Schweppendick." This is the Hearst News Bureau. That was its 
name. 

Senator Nelson. And this Hearst bureau at Berlin instructed this 
man Fox to get up an editorial on the Japanese matters? 

Capt. Lester. Yes ; they would give Mr. Fox his instructions which 
they had received on topics to be written on ; and in this particular 
case they wanted an article on Japan, which article would be made in 
Germany, to be published in this country. This article which I have 
referred to was the one. 

Senator Overman. What is that article about? 

Capt. Lester. Prof. Stein attempts here to prove conclusively that 
a combination of Japan and China is imminent : that as a combined 
power they will arm, and be a menace to the United States and rule 
the world; what is commonly referred to as the ^^ Yellow peril.'' 

Senator Nelson. Yes. 

Senator Wolcxxtt. The professor did not put Mexico into that com- 
bination, did he, in that article ? 

Capt. Lester. No; I think he eliminated Mexico. He talked of 
Japan as a world menace. 

Senator Nelson. Japan and China ? 

Capt. Lester. Japan and China in combination as a world menace. 

Here is a letter that I would like to get into the record, written by 
Gustav Schweppendick to Edward Lyell Fox on July 27. 

Senator Nelson. What year ? 

Capt. Lester. The year is not given, but from other data it was in 
1916 when Fox was over there, when he first went over. This letter 
reads as follows: 

Lester Exhuut No. 2. 

<BeiitDer Btinau der Heantscben 2Seitiiiijn-niitemehmuiigeii, Amerika. Geleralyer- 

treter: Oostay Scbweppendick) 

BsauN W. July Z7. 

Mr. Edwabd Ltelt. Fox. 

Deax Bla. Fox : Tour note of yesterday is at hand. I see you have secured 
two InterrlewB which you are forwarding to Mr. Merrill/ I also see you expect 



1670 BBEWIKG AND UQUOB INTEBESTB AND QERMAN PBOPAOAHBA. 

to go to Warsaw. Well, I had uiade arranffements to have one of nay men there, 
not knowing nny of your plans at that time. So we may have two men on 
the spot 

Yours 

GrSTAV SCHWEPPKNDICK 

Central Hotel. 

Senator Nelson. Who was Mr. Merrill? 

Capt. Lester. Mr. Merrill's title at that time was publisher of 
the New York American. I think he is the manager of the Hearst 
publications. This was 1915 that this letter was written, by the 
wav. It could not have been 1916. Mr. Fox's articles were also 
published in the Deutsches Journal, the German publication operate<:l 
by Mr. Hearst, or the Hearst American papers. 

Senator Nelson. In this country ? 

Capt. Lester. In the United States; yes, sir. 

Senator Overman. Published whereabouts? 

Capt. Lester. Published in the city of New York. 

Senator Nelson. A German journal ; the Deutsches Journal ? 

Capt. Lester. This article is devoted to a general discussion of 
the efficiency of the German Army. I have not had it translated. I 
do not know that you want it. I have had it read to me and there 
is nothing of particular value in it; it is simply the fact that these 
articles were being used in the Hearst publications. There is also 
another article in the Deutsches Journal of April ^, 1915, on atroci- 
ties in East Prussia, written by Fox. 

There is another article written by Mr. Fox and published in the 
New York American on A'pril 19, 1915, entitled: "A Night on the 
Firing Line Before Ypres; A Thrilling Narrative bv Edward Lyell 
Fox.'^ 

This article is rather of a well written, fanciful account of his 
impressions while on the firing line at the western front, and is en- 
tirely a matter of creation. lie was not there at the time the article 
was written, although he was on the western front on several occa- 
sions. He received general instructions that the reporting of scenes 
of this character would be acceptable, and he wrote them. This is 
simply a sample. 

Senator Overman. He admitted that he was writting from his 
imagination articles that he was told to— purely imaginative articles ? 

Capt. Lester. Yes; most of them were imagination; that is, this 
was an article intended to be of that character. This is not a news 
article; it is simply experiences. 

Senator Overman. Written upon suggestion of the bureau? 

Capt. Lester. Yes. At one time, and in fact for considerable 
periods subsequently, he had been on the western front. 

Senator Nelson. I suppose the gist of this article is extolling the 
powers of the German Army? 

Capt. Lester. All to the end of establishing conclusively the cour- 
• tesy of the German officers, the wonderful discipline of and the care 
taken of the men, and the high state of assumed efficiency, and, of 
course, their invincible character. 

Senator Sterling. You spoke about an article in the Deutsches 
Journal a while ago, and stated that that related to the efficiency of 
the German Anny. 



^BJIWIKG AND. UQUOE I^T^BTB AND QB^MAN PltOPAQANDA. .]^Q7;1 

Capt. Lester. Yes; that is a general article on the subject of the 
war, which iiii^ht appear in any neivspaper. I can have that trans- 
lated and submitted if you like.* 

Senator Sterltng. It is hardly worth while. 

Senator Overman. No; I do not think that is necessary. . \, 

Oapt. Lester. Here is another article published in the New York 
American on April 9, 1915, entitled *'A Day and a Night on the Rus- 
sian Front with Field Marshal von Hihdenberg." This is an arti- 
cle describing some of the events on the Russian front. Mr. Fqx 
riaimed to me that he was on more or less intimate terms with Field 
Marshal von Hindenberg, had met him on several occasions, and had 
been ac orded courtesies by him. The fact is that Mr. Fox was on 
the eastern front on two or three occasions, as indicated by the photo- 
graphs we found among his papers or that were handed erver by 
him. The articles are not of particular significance or value, ex- 
cept to illustrat ^ the glories of the German Army and the wonder- 
ful character of Yon Hindenberg. If you like, I can make a sort 
of summary of each of these artK'lesj and put it in. I can make it 
Hrief. 

Senator Overman. 1 think that would be better than to put in the 
whole article. 

(The summaiT prepared by Capt. Lester is her;^ printed, as 
follows:) 

Lesteb ExgiBrr No. 3. . . 

•<t(»ifmar|f of Article Appearing in The Neic York Aineri<ian, Suhday, April 25, 
1915. — Written Uy Edward Ly ell Fox, Entitled "Prof. Stein, Greatest Peace 
Apo/itle, Warns U, S. of Japanese Peril.'* 

ThU» article Is based upon an alleged Interview by Edward Lyeil Fox with 
Pn>f. Loflwlg Stein, which interview took place In Berlin. Prof. Stein is de- 
nrribed as being G^many*a greatest peace, advocate and a permanent member 
of the Interna tional Peace Bureau organized in Switzerland. Prof. Stein in the 
stUesped interview deate with the. subject of universal peace and his belief In ft 
and then takes up the isubject of a Chinese ahd Japanese menace. 

The foUowing quotation fairly summarizes the views of Prof. Steip on this 
imbject a.^ expressed in the article: "A nation must be prepared' for war. If 
the rulers of a nation leave thielr <^untry unprepared they are guilty of crlmtaal 
neiflect. In China its four hundred milUoAs of i>eople are unprepared and are 
therefore at the mercy of a few million Japanese who are prepared. That is 
beeauae in this 'generation might is right and all thnt we workers for peace can 
do, without injuring our States, is to face the facts of this generation, !^ pr^ 
puivd for waf. If war there is t6 be, and keep on working for our ideal." ' 

Earlier in the article, Prof. Stein states: *'Up to now America has been the 
student from Enrope, but ftom now on America will be the teacher. Today 
doubly 00 -with the Panama Canal you are the forepost of the white race against 
the yellow.'* •* The geographical and moral position that your country holds im- 
poses upon it a great duty. It is to hold back the East. Youi* country cannot 
fitep aside from the jfellow races. You must be prepared to cope with them." 

ftmmmary of ArHcle Appearing in The New York Americaii, AprU 29, 1915. — 
Wriiten by Edward Lyell Fow, Entitled "A Day and a Kight on the Russian 
Front frith Field Marshal von Hindenburg." — A thrilling narative by Edward 
l^^ Fos, Author of Series of Notable Reports on Atrocities in East Prussia. 

This article purports to be an account of an alleged trip by Fox with Ritt- 
meister Tzschlmer of the First Dragoon Regiment in a motor along the eastern 
battle front of the German Army. The article is written to indicate a dialogue 
bK m «i Pox and T»chimer as they passed along a German battle front in 
which tiie bitter la pointing out to Fox the position of the Army and the vai*iou8 
matten of military interest. A vivid description of an alleged bettlei'is gtVen 

S5723 — 11> — VOL 2 1» 



1672 BREWIKQ AND LIQUOR INTBRESTO AND QBRMAK PBOPAQAITDA. 



In which the writer of the article wltneses a Russian jtttack which Is- 
by the German troops. The general tone of the article is indicated by the fol- 
lowing quotation: " Still there is a tension that seems to be tightening. Down 
in the trench I see the flash of an officer's lamp ; it is lilte a firefly. Other fire- 
flies glimmer toward the right of the line, flashing and going out Somewhere 
in the darlcness a young voice laughs nervously. * Why don't you open flre?' • It 
is too soon * whispers the Oberlleutenant. Why did he have to whisper? And 
then I see the Russians. I see them in the great blinding flash of dusty lights. 
I see them revealed as pausing, btlnlcing things, to whom the searchlights point 
with fingers of pitiless white. I see them — while all about me becomes the 
clamor of gims — stumble and fall ; they stagger and crawl, as if the long, dusty 
flashes were lightning, strildng them down ; and wherever the white fingers point 
there death comes, and their hoarse throaty shouts become the walls of death, 
and that open belt between the pines becomes lumpy with men, while the night 
grows horrid with the rattle of rifles and the quick, croaking beat of the guns.*^ 
This being all over the Oberlleutenant gives his opinion of it — " Very fine " he 
snys, ** There are many Russian dead." "And then as is after all this were the- 
important thing, he adds: " Tomorrow, I think we can build our entnnglemenrs.'* 

Summary of Article Appearing in The Seir York Anurican, April 19, J9J5. — 
Writtefi by Edward Lyell Fox, Entitled *'A night on the Firing TAne Before 
Ypren, Where the Fighting is IJnuaUy the Fiercest on the Westei^n Front.*' — 
A Thrilling Narrative by Edward Lyell Fox, Author of the notable nerics of 
reports on Russian atrocities in East Prussia. 

This is a description of an alleged trtp along the Western Front and the 
German Firing Line before Tpres. It Is in the form of a diary and is claimed 
to have been written by Fox at the time the incident described occurred. The 
article deals with the high state of efficiency of the German Army under fire- 
and the ' wonderful discipline among the officers and men. He describes the 
kind of food provide for the private soldiers and dwells upon the particular 
interest thiit the officers have in their troops. Colonel Myers is said to state 
to Fox : " Tell them in America that we are not barbarians." The article gives 
a vivid description of the German bombardment of the French trenches. He 
describes Colonel Myers as being in tears over the receipt of a letter and refers 
to a good looking private entering and saluting the Colonel, announcing that the 
concert was ready. Fox then describes a concert which took place in the l)omb- 
proof underground. The whole article tends to show the human side of the 
German character in war times and the efficiency and discipline of the Army 
and the feeling of good fellowship between officers and men. 

Article Appeafing in " DetUaehes Journal " ok Aprii. It, 191o. — " (ieuerals of the 
Zor Take Part in AtroMies in East PrustUa." — ** OfflK-ers Commit Crimes^ 
which One could not Attribute to Civilized People,*" 

The neutral corresi)ondeut Fox declares that the Governor of the Zor is re- 
sponsible for these atrocities. The Staff of the Commander in Chief of the 
Tenth Russian Army established an official harem. Hundreds of unfortunate 
women and young girls were held prisoners in the Hotel Skantlsun ^t Till- 
kallen. The civil governor held his orgies here a* which innocent gir^wei-e 
forced to take part. A woman was hung up by her feet because she refused 
to give wine to the officers. It describes the Imperial Government of the 
Czar Nicholas as being responsible for the atrocities committed in East Prussm 
during tlie three months* occupation of the Russian troops in a part of thlK 
province. Germany furnishes incontestable evidence of this eflfect. Germany 
also has proof that at least three Russian C^ommanders of Regiments took part 
In the outrages against innocent and helpless women and intends to make U8e 
of this evidence at the end of the war. On my trip through the districts of 
East Prussia, I had no difficulty in securing evidence of the most terrible 
crimes which were committed under the very eyes of the officers. The Staff 
Officers of General Sievers were quartered on an estate in Tillkallen. Every 
day women were dragged to this estate. The Hotel Skandzun was made the 
ofldclal harem of the officers of General Sievers. Troops were sent out to 
(•apture young and beautiful girls and bring them to this hotel. Although u 
was only intended for fifty guests four hundred women prisoners were kept 
within its walls. For many this fate wjis worse than death. When I reataed 
Tillkallen after Hindenberg liad defeated the Army of 240.000 Russians, I found 



BUSWIKG Al^D LIQUOB tNXERjgg'FB iiKD QEBMAN PftOPAGAN0A. 1678 

It In a dreadful stata The houses were in rniUB aud everythiug of value had 
been removed. On a second trip to the front, accompanied by Major Zchlrner, 
while waiting at Juduu Fox. comments ou the r^idlty with which trains passed 
carrying soldiers to the front, and claims that Hindenberg's success in de- 
feating the Russians was due to the efficiency and speed with Vvhich he trans- 
ported soldiers and executed surprise attacks. In an article to be published 
the followiiig week. Fox promises to give details of the atnx»ltleH committed 
117 the JELnasiana on children of Germany. 



o/ Arheie Appearinff m Tht^ \pic York Atnet^ieati, iSundiiy, April 18^ 
ntS^-^M'HUen, by Edww'4 l^M Fox^ Untitled " i/«fi<l« d»ui Feet of Boy» 
Cut Off by the CaH9ack9," ^»ytt Edward Lyell Fox, — MutiUitioti of Children. 
by Retreating Soldiem Chari/td in Official Records. — Evidences of Atrocious 
Act« Found Ercrytchcre. — Eighteen Lads Found Maimed and Lpitiff Helpless 
in the Swtw. 

FMward l-yell Fox, th« neutral war corrt^pondeut with General vou Hiudeu- 
burg*s army in East Prussia, totlay gives the third of his series of articles on 
Russian arnxitles brought to Ifpfht when the Onnans drove the Czar's troops 
out «>f ttie wcupied territory. Russian officers and soldiers are accused of 
mntilatln;; cliiUlien. The crimes are clmrgeil against (3osRacks and not against 
)«ddiers of the lmi)erial guiird. 

ifOknal rtH'orrls are given to substantiate further stories of attacks on wonieu. 
The firman (government plans to use these records when peace lernis are 
nmslflereil. 

By EuWABl) I^YKLL Fo3w, 

(<'opyrl>rht 1915, by the New York Anierlean.) 

The mutilation . of German children by the Russians during their three 
uioQtlis* ocfrupation of Kast Pi'us8ia will be called to the attention of the other 
Powers at the end of the war as further proof that Russian barbarism must 
lie prevented from further expansion. 

I have already told of the profanation of thousands of German women by 
Rimiau officers and soldiers. Uncontrovertible evidence of these atrwritles In 
tIAdavlts and (rourt records has been pi'esented by me in tw<» article s pub- 
ttsitied in the New York Ameri«»an on April 4 and 11. 

The crimes perpetrated upon the children are regarded by Germany as* 
indicative of the same' racial degeneracy exhibited In tlie wanton outragesf 
upon the women. 

lo every ln8tan^H» it was the weak, tli • Innoront and the unprotected that 
suffered. 

Wben tlie nations lay down their arms and sit in Judgment; (Germany will 
point to all the horrors of Russian rule in Kast Prussia and demand that the 
reat of Europe be forever safeguarded against another bloo<ly thrust of the 
daw of Slavic savagery. 

* 

KVIDENCKS or CBITEVr^' K017NI> KX^KRYWHKHK. 

.Vn I followwl the troops of (General Hlndenburg In their triumphant drive 
HlcainHt the crumWtiig Russian Tenth Army under General Rus8k>^ lai* Feb- 
ruary, I found evidences everywhere of Tartar cruelty toward the children 
of an enemy^s country. 

The wild Cossack raiders were charged with most of these awful barbarities^ 
Tbey would pick up .boys along the i*oads, wound and sometimes iiermanehtly 
tnaim them. They would tear babies from the breast of mothers and after 
violating the terror stricken women, cut off the fingers of the infants. 

** We leave no one behind who will be a soldier," a (Cossack prisoner told me. 
'- We do not Intend that Germany will raise up any more men to fight the 
C'xar.'' 

The lu^icle then goes into detail, showing specific caaes of alleged atrocities 
by tlie C^ossack soldiers, the evidence of which the article states was obtained 
by Fox, he being an eye-wltnens to many of the results of these atrocities and 
to have hean! statements of Cossack i)rlsoners In the hands of the German 
siildlerw. 

Capt. Lesteb. In 1916 Mr. Fox was in Germany again. He went 
over in 1915 and .spent about three months and returned in the fall 



1674 BBBWI^a AND UQUOB INTSfiESIB AND G£KHAN,FS0FAQAy04. 

of 1915, and immediately went back in November, 1916, and stayed 
practically through the year of 1916. In 1916 the newspaper corre- 
spondents of important newspapers of different countries were 
taken by the German Government throughout the empire in a private 
train. They left Berlin and went to Dresden, to Munich, from 
Munich to Hamburg and to Kiel, and from Kiel back to Berlin. 
The object of the trip was to show the newspaper men the physical 
conditions in Germai^y, so that articles could be written to counteract 
statements in the press of the allied and other neutral countries 
that Germany was on the verge of starvation. These men were very 
liberally entertained in some 8 or 10 cities, and Mr. Fox was down 
on the list, of which I have a copy — ^the official list — as the repre- 
sentative of the Hearst publications in New York and Boston. I 
would like to have this go in the record. 

Senator Overman. Have you the whole list? 

Capt. Lester. I have the whole list; yes, sir. 

Senator Overman. Let it go in. 

(The list referred to is here printed in the record in full, as 
follows:) 

IjEsteb Exhibit No. 4. 
ilAnt der Tellnehuier an der Relse nacb mitteldeatscben und sttddeiitflelien Stldten.) 

1. loiter : Dlrektor SchuinHcher. z. Z. in der ZentralsteUe fttr Auslandsdienst 
Berlin. 

2. Frau Dr. Lehr de Waal (v.er«c*hle<l. holl&ndlsohe u. indische Zeitungen). 

3. Fraulein Kbba van SlUfti (Swenska PaRblad, Svensk Volkviljan) Stock- 
liolm. 

4. van Lissa (Algemeen Handelsblad) Amsterdam. 

5. Harry Carr (Los Angeles Times) Kallfornien. 

6. Mr. Fox (Hearst Blatter) New York, Boston usw. 

7. Major Sa (Corcio da Manhft) Brasllien. 

8. Rev. L. M. Powers (Boston Journal u. and. Zeitungen) Boston. 

9. Abrecht (New Yorker Staatszeltung) New York, 

10. Philip Powers (Associated Press) New York. 

11. Dr. Lar Lllescu (Rumanische Zeitungen) Bukarest. 

12. Slosteen ( SUdschwedlsche Zeitungen) Goteborg. 
IS. Djelepy (Seraala) Athen. 

14. Saadl Bey (Ikdam) Konstantlnopel. 

15. Olaf Selmer-Anderssen (Dagblad, Tldens Tigh) Krlstlanla. 

16. Moussault Illustratlonsphotograph (VereenlgdeFotobureaux) Amsterdam. 

17. John Everets, Klnophotograph der ZentralsteUe fdr Auslandsdienst 

18. A. Groha, Illustratlonsphotograph, Berlin. 

Capt. Lesteb. In possible response to Senator King's question as 
to what newspapers were represented 

Senator Overman. What newspapers were represented! 

Capt, Lester. The Los Angeles Times was represented bv Mr. 
Harry Carr. The Boston Journal was represented by Rev. L. M. 
Powers. A man who is down here under tne name of Abrecht rep- 
resented the New Yorker Staats 25eitung. Philip Powers repre- 
sented the Associated Press. All other papers are foreign papers — 
that is, of different other countries. 

Mr. Fox, in his letter to Capt. von Papen, which was read in evi- 
dence by Mr. Bielaski, makes refference to a propa^nda scheme in 
conjunction with the plan of violence in San Francisco — the propa- 
ganda scheme being the publication through moving pictures of a 
film play which would illustrate the bitterness toward Japan. Mr. 
Fox, in the telegram which he has sent to this committee, criticised 



BBBWnrG AKD Lrl<|170B IKtraiBBdaS AND CFEBMAN PBOPAGAKDA« 1675 

tilis statement, as he did in his examinati<>n by the Military Intelli- 
gence, as a fanciful idea that never took shape in any form. He re- 
pndiates it, in ot^r words. Now the fact.s are 

Sotator WoiiOOTT. Does he necessarily mean repudiation of the 
story f His criticism of it as faiicifol may mean that it is his opinion 
that it is impractical, but that may not mean a repudiation of the 
statement of the fact that such a thmg was contemplated. 

Capt. Lester. Well, in the telegram he repudiated the fact that 
such a thing was in contemplation. In the telegram to this commit- 
tee he said that it was a scheme to extract money from the German 
agents. In fact, that is what he stated to me, that he and Dr. Karl 
Armand Graves, the man that wrote that famous spy story, had 
framed this up between them ; that they had concocted this plan, and 
that they had done the writing and had sent it to von Papen with 
the idea that von Papen would take hold of it in a tangible way and 
compensate them for the plan, and then they were to drop out. In 
other words, he stated that he never had any idea of personally em- 
harking in the enterprise, or Dr. Graves had no idea of personally 
embarking in it. But the fact is that Mr. Hearst, through the In- 
ternational Film Service Corporation, put out a film in 1916 called 
Patria, which exploited the very idea which was set forth generally 
in Fox's statement. I would like to make a brief statement as to the 
Patria film, as it was suppressed — ^that is, it was changed at the re- 
ifoest of President Wilson, and was suppressed in Canada — as being 
German propaganda or having the earmarks of it and intended to 
stir up trouble between this country and Japan. 

Senator Sterlino. Was that the play shown in this country with 
Mrs. Castle in the title r61e ? 

Capt Lesteb. Yes ; Mrs. Vernon Castle was the heroine. 

Senator Sterling. The play was seen by the President, was it not? 

Capt. Lester. Yes: it was seen by him^; and the report was — ^that 
is, our reports are — that in a personal interview he requested Mr. 
Hearst to eliminate features of the play, which was done. 

•* Patria" was a serial photoplay, released weekly in two-reel 
epiflode&» probably 10 weeks in all. It was made under the direction 
of the Whartons, in upper New York, for the International Film 
Service Corporation, a Hearst-owned company distributing film, later 
reincorporated as the International Film Service Co. (Inc.). It was 
made in 1916, and cost about $90,000, including payment for the 
services of Mrs. Vernon Castle as the star. This is a conservative 
estimate. 

** Patria " had a story with three barrels. Its principal excuse was 
^preparedness.'^ But by the time the first episodes were released 
the country was already committed to that. Therefore only the other 
two elements, anti-Mexican and anti-Japanese propaganda, remained 
active. These showed the attempt by Japan to conquer America 
wibdi the aid of Mexico. A Japanese noble, at the head of the secret 
service of the Emperor in America, was tb^ chief villain. Japanese 
trooDB invaded California, committing appropriate atrocities. 

•* Fatria ** was first shown in New York January 9, 1917, and about 
that time in other citiea The American and other Hearst papers 
carried the story in serial novel form week by week. And the story 
was run — as is the custom with all serials — ^in a large number of 
newqiaperB, one in eadi dty. 



1676 9WWINQ AKD JJQUOa INTEBfiSTB AND OE&MAK PKOPA0Ain>A* 

^' Patria " was shown in the smal]/Br towns and cities, the first four 
or five months of the war, 1 think up until about September 7, 1917. 

Senator Sterling. The whole film was not run in one evening! It 
was like a story ^' continued in our next '' ? 

Capt. Lester. Yes; it was ^^(;ontinued in our next.'' The whole 
thing was to hold the (Hitronage of the people at that particular 
theater, Senator. 

Senator Sterling. Meanwhile the story itself was being published 
in these newspapers? 

Capt. Loiter. The story itself was being published, so that the 
people who missed an evening, for any reason, could keep up and 
know where they were when they saw the next one. 

Senator Sterling. You spoke about the revision of the story of 
the film after it had been witnessed by the President ' and possibly 
upon the suggestion of the President. Do you know how the story 
was consideml and treated in Canada? 

Capt. Lester. Yes, sir. After "Patria*' had been revamped for 
use in this country by the elimination of the anti-Japanese emphasis, 
the word "Japan" was removed, the Japanese characters were 
largely given Mexican names, and the Japanese end was dumped on 
Mexico. That is, Japan was eliminated fix>m the scenery. 

Senator Nelson. And the Mexicans were made the villains? 

Capt. Lester. The Mexicans were made the villains, and they 
changed the whole piece over to Mexico, so that the Japanese had 
Mexican names; but in the film they were still wearing Japanese 
uniforms. [Laughter.] 

Senator Sterling. That is just what I was going to ask you. 

Capt. Lester. Now, the history of the Canadian end was this : The 
Cnpadian rights of the picture had been paid for and secured by a 
reputable Canadian concern which had no suspicion of the possibili- 
ties of the production. Col. Chambers, censor of Canada, was given 
a private view of the first few episodes, and at once recognized the 
design of the promoters of the play. He declared that anyone con- 
cerned in the showing of this play in Canada in its original shape 
would be liable to presecution under the censorship Orders in CounciL 
Consequently, the whole film underwent a remodeling. Japanese 
villains became nondescripts with Latin names, and Japanese interior 
se>ttings as shown in the play, and Japanese troops that in the original 
were shown in deadly conflict with patriotic American troops, were 
entirely eliminated. In fact, when the picture was shown in Canada 
it did not retain the slightest Japanese flavor, and when the United 
States entered the war the Canadian version, even as censored, was 
taken out of the theaters, because the Canadian censor would not per- 
mit it to be run at all. Those films were taken back. 

Senator Sitsrling. Have you stated who wrote Patria? 

Capt. Lester. I can not recall the name. Some of these gentlemen 
here mav know it. 

Mr. Frost. Vance's name was on the film. 

Capt. Lester. Yes; I recall that. The play was put out over the 
name of Mr. Louis Jos^h Vance as being the author of the senario. 

Senator Stmiling. Do you know whether Mr. Vance conceived tlie 
idea or not? 

Capt. Lester. There has been information that has come to us that 
Mr. Louis Vance had absolutely nothing to do with the writing of 



BBEWING AND LIQUOR INTEBJBSIB AND QBRMAN FBOPAiGkAyDA. 1677 

the play back of the scenario — and that he did not write it, and his 
name was used merely for its advertising value. That is merely 
information- I know nothing about it. 

Senator Sterling. But, affirmatively, is there anything to show 
who did conceive it and who wrote it? 

Capt. Lester. No, sir ; we have no evidence. I have none. 

There are one or two other instances in Mr. Fox's connection with 
Germany that might be of interest to the committee. Mr. Fox was 
used by the German Government and by Dr. Albert and Count Von 
Bemstorff as a messenger, as a great many Americans were used, in 
the transmission of important communications to and from Berlin, 
between Berlin and New York. In 1916, upon his return with a 
bundle of very important documents which were given him by the 
foreign office to deliver here, he became possessed of certain of them, 
or copies of them, and took them to the British secret service in this 
comitry. That is, Mr. Fox's story is that another man had the papers, 
but he admitted to our officers tliat he took certain of these papers to 
the British. He gives rather a hazy account of why he took them to 
the British. He told me that on one occasion he had a thrill of 
patriotism, and thought that he ought to show up the Germans, but 
the British did not 

Senator Nemon. Warm up to him? 

Capt. Lesteb. Warm up to him very much, really. They strung 
him along for quite a while and got ail the information they could 
oat of him, and then when he started back in the fall of 1916 with 
a man by the name of O'Brian, to go back into Germany, some- 
thing stopped Fox at Copenhagen. He did not get any farther. He 
was let by Kirkwall but was stopped at Copenliagen; but O'Brian 
got into Germany. I think O'Brian was connected with one of the 
moving-picture nlm concerns. O'Brian, as far as we know, is in- 
volved in no way. He was just going with Fox. 

Senator Nelson. How did he come to be stopped at Copenhagen? 

Capt. Lester. Fox returned to the United States. Mr. Fox was 
known in the British Embassy as a messenger and trusted as a mes- 
tmgptv by Von Bernstorff and also by the foreign office. 

^nator Sterling. The papers he turned over to the British for- 
eign office were papers from the German foreign office ? 

Capt. Lester. Yes ; and destined for Dr. Albert. 

Senator Overman. He kept copies of them? 

Capt. Lester. He told about tour or five different stories on that. 
I think the fact was that he and another fellow thought they would 

Birhaps get a little easy money by turning over these papers to the 
ritish, and I imagine, from what he also stated, that the British had 
already seen the papers and probably had copies of them before 
they arrived in this country. It looks that way, at least. 

As bearing on the article written by Mr. Fox on Atrocities on the 
Eastern Front, I want to read a cable from the German Embassy in 
Xew York to the foreign office, dated April 29, 1915. [Reading:] 

War correspondent Edward Lyell Fox asserts havtng filed with. War Ministry 
nerlin by request report on Russian atrocities Kast' Prussia and sfatt^s Major 
iWrwarth and Censor Roedtger also informed. True? 

If a reply came to the inquiry as to whether it was true that Fox 
had written this article and filed it, as was the custom, there is no 
recnrd "f It h?ro: that is, there is no answer to that message. 



1678 BTtEWIWG AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA* 

In connection with the last trip of Fox and his stopping at Copen- 
hagen, the Berlin foreign office apparently sent an inquiry concern- 
ing O'Briiin, for this message goes back from the German Embassy 
to the Berlin foreign office: 

Replying to wireless 422 (missing) have only known O'Brian as close friend 
of Fox and therefore consider him just as rellahle as Fox. 

Senator Overman. You have no evidence of why Fox wa,s stopped 
in Copenhagen? 

Capt. Lester. I have some evidence, but I never gave it any 
credence at all, because it came from Fox himself. He sta.ted that he 
got to Copenhagen, after spending about a week on the ship at Kirk- 
wall, and went to the American Embassy and told our ambassador 
that he was going into Germany: that is, he had known our ambas- 
sador on his previous trips; and he says for some reason that his 
vis^ was held up, that he could not get his passport viseed, to go into 
Germanv, for days and days. He went to the German chargS there 
and could cet very little satisfaction from them. Then he tried the 
British and got no satisfaction. According to his story, he waited 
around for two or three weeks and nobody made a move, so he i-e- 
turned. I never made any investigation through the British Intel- 
ligence Service as to why it was ; of course, I know that Fox was on 
their list as a German agent — so considered. But, of course, our 
country was neutral at that time, he was an American citizen, bom 
here, and he had a right to go from this country into Germany, and^ 
as long as he was not on British soil, they had no jurisdiction over 
him. He could go and come as he liked. 

There is one cable here which I can show the <ommittee. I frankly' 
c^an not explain what it means, but I will let you read it and see 
whether you want it in the record or not. [Showing telegram to the 
committee.] 

Senator Overman. Just read it, please. 

Capt. Lester. The following is a message from the Gei-man Em- 
bassy to the Foreign Office, dated December 27, 1915 : 

With refereiure to dwree A. X. 56 pnuiiined H<»ttrst aiul ChlfHtro "Trlbiiiie 
faciUties WIegly prob*\bly alrea<ly Geriujiiiy Hearst*8 photographer Nelsons left 
on Ford*8 p«ace ship Please Instruct legation Hajfne facilities Edwards Journey 
Oemiany. 

Senator Sterling. To whom were these sent? 

Capt. Lester. Those were sent from the embassy to the German 
Foreign OflBce in Berlin. The Edwards referred to in this tel^am 
is probably IjOuIs Durant Edwards, private secretary of Dr. Hale^ 
who left about this time. 

Senator Overman. Who is Mi-s. Fairwell, mentioned in one of 
those telesTftnis I see there? 

Senator Woloott. That is in another telegram, not in the one just 

read. 
Senator Overman. Yes. It reads: 

Chicaj^o Trlhune asks about Mrs, Walter FalrweU, coiTespondent (Mildred 
F.) in Monattlr. (Answer safe). 

Capt. Lester. Yes; that is another one. Well, that was an ordi- 
nary inquiry through the German Embassy, I suppose. I did not 
attach any particular significance to it. Do you want me to read it. 
into the record f 



BBSWIKG AND UQUOB INTEBE8TS A3n> QEBMAK PBOPAOAKDA. 1679 

Senator Ovzrmak. No ; you need not do that. 

Capt. liBSTEB. I mi^ht, if the committee thinks proper, make a 
statement about Mr. Fox, about his conduct after the Suited Slates 
went into the war. I think possibly it is due to him to state exactly 
the facts. 

• Senator Overman. If there is anything in his favor, let us have it- 

Capt. Lester. Mr. Fox turned over to me all the personal corre- 
spondence that passed between himself and his wife, and various 
other {personal letters, during the period about March, 1917, down to 
Augnst, 1918. Mr. Fox went to the Plattsburgh Training Camp 
and obtained a commission in the United States National Army, in 
an artillery regiment. I think he was comuiissioned as a first lien- 
tenant, and afterward became a captain. We nuide a very complete 
investigation of his conduct while in the service, and as 1 stated, he 
turned over these letters and I examineii them. There was nothing 
to show the slightest suspicion of any Oerman connections, and Mr. 
Fox's statement made to me and to others, that he had burned his 
bridges behind him in the early part of 1917, I think, is true. He 
made a fatal blunder or mistake before the Military Intelligence Divi- 
sion. He lied consistently for five days, and swore ito it , and it was not 
imtil his documentary evidence was discovered and found and placed 
before him, that he finally came through with a fairly full confession, 
and it was on that account, and of course the fact of his previous con- 
nections, that he was discharged from the Army. I think it is prob- 
ably fair to him to state that there was nothing .of any connection* 
after March, 1917, with the German (lovernment or any GeiTiian 
agents, or anybody connected with Gemiany. 

Senator WoiiCorr. He does not now wear the uniform, then 'i 

Capt. Lester. No, sir; he was discharged in either September or 
October, 1918, after a very complete hearing before the officials of 
the War Department. In fact, the case went to Secretary Baker. 

Senator Steruno. How old a man is Mr. Fox ? 

Capt. IjBflrrER. Either 83 or 34. 

Senator Sterumg. Was there any I'eference, in this correspondence 
tamed over to you, of his past record and his at^tivities as a German 
agent! 

Capt. LsBTBR. No; he had no German connections, that I could 
discover, until the fall of 1914. 

Senator Overman. Do you know whether he had any reputation 
as a newspaper man prior to that ? 

Capt. Lbstkr. He had written quite a number of plays. 

Senator Woloott (after examining book). He is 81. 

Capt LflSTER. Thirty-one? 

Senator Woiioarr. According to Who's Who. 

Capt. liBSTRS. What is the date! 

Senator Wolcott. Eighteen hundred and eighty-seyen is the date 
of his birth. 

Capt. LssTBR. My impression was that he was 88. 

Senator Overmajt. It was a pretty close guess. ' 

Capt. Lester. He has written a good deal for the papers. He was 
employed on varions news{>apers in New York from time to time as 
a reporCerf and he has written a number of scenarios for moving-- 
pietnrs plajna* 



1680 BREWING AND UQUOB INTERESTS A.ND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 

Senator Sterling. You say he turned over to you the correspon- 
dence between himself and his wife after the beginning of the year 
1917? 

Capt. Lester. Yes. 

Senator Sterung. Was there any reference in that correspondence 
to his previous record or activities? 

Capt. Lester. No; none whatever. This correspondence shows 
that he was intensely interested in his military work; and he made 
reference in his correspondence in this sense, that he had made a 
terrible mistake in ever hooking up with the 'German group, and it 
contained statements that he expected to retrieve himself, and 
wanted to go to France, which he did. He was sent to France with 
his regiment, and returned from France upon the order of the 
Chief of Stan upon the discovery of his connection and the various 
ramifications. 

Maj. Humes. Does this complete the Fox matter? 

Ca]^t. Lester. Yes. 

Maj. Humes. There was some testimony produced the other day by 
Mr. Bielaski with reference to the German information service, and 
the preliminary steps leading up to the organization of that service, 
the sending of German representatives to this country to man and 
manage it. Will you outline the preliminary steps that were taken 
as the result of your personal invstigation and your familiarity 
with the records of the Military Intelligence, and outline these 
activities? 

Capt. Le6ter« There are a few things on the connection of the 
German information service as conducted by Albert and Fuehr and 
others associated with them that might be of value in this investiga- 
tion which Mr. Bielaski did not touch upon because I do not think 
they had, perhaps, the infotmation. 

The Military Intelligence Division has obtained from one of Dr. 
Albert's assistants, who was selected by the German Government to 
come to the United States in August, 1914, with Albert, a great deal 
of information concerning the propaganda work of the Germans in 
the United States and elsewhere from 1914 on to the end of the war. 
This man, who was interned in 1917, was a German judge or jurist; 
that is, a man who was a judge in a court of record in Berlin in 1914, 
the year the war broke out. He was in the Government service. He 
4^ame to this country, as I will explain a little later, and was interned. 
We obtained from him a very close insight into the formation of the 
German news bureau or information service, as it was called, from 
the time it started. The facts are these : The men who were in the 
German public service in civil positions, such as judges, members of 
the different municipal gOVetnlnents, members of the foreign office, 
members of other various departments, were required upcm taking 
offi(^e id state whether or not they were available for foreign service. 
That was part of the system and has been, as I understand iU for a 
number of years. In June of 1914 there were about 200 or 300 of 
these men in civil positions, such as judges and men in municipalities, 
etc., who were occup3ring governmental civil positions, who were 
approached by agents from the foreign office and agents of the 
chancellor with an inquiry as to whether they were available for 
foreign service and certain formalities were gone through with, 



BfiEWING iKD UQUOB INTEBSSTS AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 1681 

inquiries were made as to their financial condition, etc., and their 
families, and there were selected about 130 men from Germany, from 
different (rerman cities, who were to be sent on foreign service. 

As early- as the 10th of July, 1914, these men were taken to the 
foreign office, including our iniormant, and privately notified that 
they were to be sent abroad, with the point of destination. This man 
was told that he was to go to Anierica. He and 31 others were des- 
tined for the United States. 

Senator Overman. That was before war was declared ? 

Capt. Lester, Yes; that was before war was declared. 

Senator Wolcott. Do you remember the date of the Sarajevo 
murder? 

Capt. Lester. It was in June, 1914; was it not? 

Maj. Humes. It was in June. 

Capt. Lester. Mr. Benham might look it up in the Times index. 

Senator WoiiCorr. This particular piece of testimony that you are 
giving, that has some bearing upon (lie German prognostications of 
war. the immediate, proximate cause of the war being that murder. 
I would like to know whether that was 

Senator Overman. That is very interesting testimony. Suppose we 
go along now. 

Capt. Lester. It is a little more definite than that, Senator, because 
this man and all his group that he was familiar with 

Senator Nelson. What was his name? 

Capt. Lester. I do not feel that I should disclose his name, Sen- 
ator. The question of his deportation after peace or his remaining 
in this country is a matter, of course as to all these men, now under 
oonsideration, and if his connection was disclosed in a public record 
and it did get back to Berlin, it would be rather uncomfortable for 
him. 

Senator Overman. I think you had better not disclose it. 

Senator Nelson. All right. 

Capt. Lester. Now these men were gathered .together about the 
lOtb of July and their instruction began. That is, these men were 
selected for their knowledge of English, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish, 
their adaptability along certain lines of writing, their legal expe- 
rience, and particularly men were selected with reference to their 
literary attainments and their ability as writers and their historical 
knowledge. They were told^ about the 10th of July — ^their group- 
that they were going to America ; that there was to be a war in Europe 
very shortly: and their instruction began along the lines of the propa- 
ganda work that they were to conduct. 

Senator Sterlino. That was just a few days after the celebrated 
Potsdam meeting of high German officers. 

Capt. Lester. This date is definitely fixed bv our informant *a 
July 10, 1914. 

Senator Overman. Have you found the date of the Sarajevo as- 
snasination ? 

CapL Lester. It was Jtuje 29, 1914. 

Senator OvBitHAK. And this was when? 

Capt. Lester. This was the 10th of July, 1914. 

Senator Wolcott. And this lot of men, over 130, got their instruc- 
tions to mobilize at the foreign office some time early in June? '♦ 



1682 BEEWIKG AND UQUOB INTERESTO AND GEBMAN FI&)PAQAimA» 

Capt. IjEster. Yes; they were approached early in June; during the 
month of June, before the incident 

Senator Nelson. Before the murder ? 

Capt. I.4asTEK. Befoi-e the murder. They were all approached. 
This man was, and he tells me that everv man was. As a matter of 
fact, he says it was common knowledge among men connected m 
Government circles, on the inside, that there was to be a general 
European war. It was absolutely known. On the 10th of July they 
were told that it was to come. Now, out of these 130 men, there was a 
large number sent to South America, a group was sent to Mexico, 
and a group was sent to China ; but they «iil came by the same routes, 
and they — ^that is, the 31 men — all came in August, 1914, on the same 
boat that Dr. Albert arrived on. They arrived with him. The man 
arrived with him and 31 of his group; but the other were filtered 
along through by other lines to South America and these other 
countries. 

Senator Sterling. How manv were destined to this country? 

Captain Lester. Thirty-one. 

Senator Wolcott. Did your informant communicate to you or 
not, whether the calling together of these 30-odd men on June 14 was 
a new event, or was that something that was in line with the perma- 
iient policy of the Imperial Gennan Government ? 

Capt, Lester. No : these men had never been called together before. 

Senator Wolcott. Not this particular group j but do you know 
whether or not every year there was a systematized scheme to send 
out these officials over the world ? 
' Capt. Lester. No ; there was not. 

Senator Wolcott. This was the first time that this had l^een done? 

Capt. Lester. Yes, sir. 

Maj. Humes. May I inten-upt there? 

Capt. Lester. Yes. 

Maj. Humes. It is my understanding from your former statement. 
Captain, that the general policy was to obligate certain persons in the 
Government service to accept foreign service at any time that the Gov- 
ernment might demand it of them f 

Capt. Lester. No; not except in the military or naval sernce: and 
they mdicated. 

Maj. Humes. They indicated, then? 

Capt. Lester. Yes: I stated that. Any man who went into the 
civil service was required to state whether or not he would accept 
foreign service in any capacity. In fact, the formality is rather 
elaborate that they go through with. 

Maj. Humes. In other words, when a man entered the Government 
service he was invited to volunteer for foreign service by signifying 
his willifigness to accept that kind of service? 

Capt Lester. Well, it is the same proposition, the same plan, that 
is adopted at the present time in the United States Army. A man 
indicates, when he enters the service, what his various qualifications 
are. If he understands foreign languages, if he would like to have 
foreign service, he is asked to indicate that. But in this particular 
case it is a civil formality. Of course, in the military and naval 
services they do not have to indicate. They are sent, and go wherever 
they are sent. 



jaUVWIKG AJHTD UaUOB I2irXEBBSTO AliTD OBRMAN PIEOP^Q^NPA. 1683 

Senator Overman. They have prepared a list of these officials that 
can be ordered away in foreign service ? 

Capt. Lester. Yes, sir; they have a record or index system con- 
tjining the name of every man in Gennany that is in the civil service 
of the empire, wherever he is located, with his qualifications, his 
history, and everything connected with him, and on that record is 
his inaicatioo as to whether or not he would accept or desires foreign 
service — that is, outside of Germany proper. And those men are 
selected, for instance, for consular service, and men that are com- 
mercial attaches and have been in times of peace. But on this par- 
ticnlar ooeiMdon. in response to your question, these men were rounded 
up — Uiat is, the men who were skilled as writers and publicists were 
rounded up and these men selected from a large group, these men 
that came to this country, for the purpose of conducting the German 
prDX>aganda along the lines of the propaganda that had been con- 
ducted in Germany for 20 years of tne pan Germanism. These men 
had worked in this very type of propaganda, many of them for 15 
or 20 years. 

Senator Overman. And they were pi-eparing, even before war was 
dei^lared, German propaeanda in this country. 

Capt. Lester. Since 1894: the pan-Germanism propaganda has 
been systematically distributed from Germany over all the United 
States, South America, China, Japan, and every country. 

Senator Wolcott. That prompts me again to ask whether or not 
this group of men that were smnmoned to go in June, 1914, were 
simply brought together to carry on a thing which hdd been pro- 
ceeding for quite some time — ^you say it was since 1894-^or whether 
it was to meet an emei'gency that was new, that wa.^ about to arise ; 
whether it was to meet the special purpose ? 

Capt. Lester. So far as is known, in the United States, outside of 
Prof. MSnsterberg'ts type and Hugo Schweifzer, there was not any 
direct (German propagandist work done in the country except 
thnmgfa the German- American Alliance and the various State and 
local alliances that were affiliated with them. 

Senator Woloott. Did your informant enlighten vou on this, or 
did he say anything to you that would give you information upon 
this, namely : Whether or not, prior to the year 1914, Germany had 
sncfa agents as these 31 men in America^^ or in any other part of the 
world, carrying on German propaganda? 

' Capt. LwTER. Well, they had sent men into different countries 
systematically ever since 1894. That is, the exchange-professor idea 
was a propaganda idea. 

Senator Wolcott. But that was not the sort of thing that was 
done here in June, 1914? 

Capt. Lester. No; cmite different. 

Senator Overman. They had never selected a number like this? 

Capt. Lester. They had never selected a group for a definite pur- 
pO0e Def ore. 

Maj. HnfES. May I interrupt you a moment ? 

Senator Wolcott. Yes. 

Maj. Hrvxs. Capt. Lester has already stated that they were in- 
structed on the lOtn of July that there was going to be a war in 
Europe. 



L684 BB£WINO AND LIQUOR INTERESTS AND GERMAN FBOPAQANDA. 

Senator Wolcott. Yes; I know. 

Maj. Humes. So that entered as an element in the assemblage of 
these men. 

Senator Ovehmax. We will stop here and take an adjournment 1 
until after lunch. I 

(At 1.10 o'clock p. m. the subcommittee took a recess until 2.30 
o'clock p. m.) 

AFl^KKNOON 8B88ION. 

The subconrniittee met, pursuant to the taking of the I'ecess, at 2.30 
o'clock p. m. 

Senator Overman. The committee will come to order. Proceed. 
Maj. Humes. 

TESTIMOVT OF CAFT. OEOBOE B. LESTEBr-Besnmed. 

Maj. Humes. Capt. Ijester. when the committee adjourned you 
were discussing the preliminary stages out of which the propaganda 
activities in the I^'^nited States developed. Will you proceed with the 
statement where you left off when we took the recess? 

Capt. Lester. I stated that these men had been gathered together, 
and about 31 of them had l)een sent over here to the United States. 

There is one point that I think will be of interest, and that is the* 
preliminary instruction that commenced on the 10th of July in 
Berlin, to this group that were assigned for duty in the United 
States. 

This was outlining to them by i^epresentatives of the German 
foreign office and the various German governmental bodies the lines' 
of propaganda work that were to be carried on. This was dont^ 
through a series of lectures and continued dailv for many hours at h 
time; that is, just giving them the methods that they should adopt 
and the plans that should be put into operation. In fact, the plan 
of propaganda was reduced to a form of very elaboi'ate memoranda 
for the different departments or sections that were to handle the 
work. 

For example, there was a certain group of this body that came over 
that were, to handle strictly the commercial end. These men were 
to get into communication with the agents and representatives of 
the Hamburg* American Line and the North German Lloyd Line »]rd 
their various ramifications. 

Senator Nelson. And, T suppose, the German consuls in this 
country ? 

Capt. Lester. Yes. There was another group that was to afliliat«« 
itseli with the political side, and work through the embassy and the 
consular agents on purely political propaganda. 

Another section was to handle the propaganda in connection with 
the propaganda agents in China and Japan, South America, and 
Mexico. 

The men selected for this were men who understood the languages. 
One man I have in mind particularly was aii expert in the Chinese 
language, and could read and write it fluently, and Japanese^ also^ 
and was familiar with conditions in these countries. 



I 

^WIJTQ AND UQUOB INTBBBKCB AND OEBMAN PBOPAOANDA. 1685 

That was what went under the name of Pan-Islamitic propaganda. 

Senator Nkubon. Captaw, hiave you the names of these 31 men : 
ind if so, is there any ohjection to giving them ? 

Capt. Lester. There is an objection, Senator, to giving certain of 
them. I can give you the names of several. I can give you now 
Dllhand two or three of them. 

There was a Dr. Mecklenberff, a Dr. Kraske, and a Dr. Bonn. 

Most of these men went bacK with the diplomatic party. I have 
« list of all of the men who came over with Dr. Albert, or were asso- 
ciated with him, and also a list of everyone who went back with the 
Von Bemstorff parfy. 

Senator Nelson. File those lists with the evidence, leaving out such 
a^ you feel ought not to be filed. Would not that be a good idea, Mr. 
Chairman? 

Senator Overman. Yes. Withhold those that you tjhink ought to 
l>e withheld. 

Capt. LEflTTER. Very well, sir. 

Lbsteb BxHUiiT No. 6. 

iAMt uif eertam of the OemMn ffnmp of thirty-one men who oame to the United 
States as assistants to Dr. Feuhr and the German propaganda, agents. 

I>r. H. Meuiiiann, Duisbnrg, about 45 years old. 

Dr. Jos. Stem (aasmned name — Pascher), GoerUtz, about 86 yeara old. 

Max Rltter, Berlin, about 82 years old. 

Dr. Hans Mack, Koenlgsberg, about 88 years old. 

Or. Karl Femow, Cnknown, about 40 years old. 

FpHx Scheibe. Dresden, about 85 years old. 

Dr. Selbmann, Berlin, about 46 years old. 

Fritz Holf, Hoenchen, about 40 years old. 

Walter Knehne, Berlin, about 40 years old. 

Richard lAskow, Karlsruhe, atK)Ut 85 years old. 

.\. Neoberger, Heidelberg, about 45 years old. 

Hoiu Schmidt, ESssen, about 80 years old. 

Mr. Keppier, Posen, about 85 years old. 

Mr. Homann, Hamburg, about 40 years old. 

Mr. von BorkowalEi, Berlin, about 80 years old. 

NornL— The names in italics indicate that these men, in 1914, or early in 
1915. went tof Mexico. 

The approximate ages are given at the time when they entered the United 
States in Augnut, 1914. 

Lesteb BxHiarr No. d. 

Hecised list of principal persons in the suite of Oount von Bernstorff who sailed 
from New York on the Scandin a iHan -American TAne steamship Frederick 
vni fm F^rmarp H, 1917. 

<Ll8t furnliihed by the Static L>epartment. ) 

(^ount Johteun von Bemstorlft Ambassador. 

Mr. Heniel von Haimhausen, Minister Plenipotentiary. 

Prince Hatzfeld-Trachenberg, Ck)unselor of the Embassy. 

Mr. Heinrtch Albert, Imperial Privy Counselor. 

Mr. Wljbelm von Bietenghoff, Secretary to the Embassy. 

Dr. George Ahrens, Attache to the Embassy. 

Mr. Wolff von Igel, Secretary to von Papen. 

Mr. Riclianl Sachse, Chief of the Chancellor^-. 

l>r. Prederieh Edler, Chancellor. 

Mr. Paul Kuhn, AssiKtant Chancellor. 



i 



1686 BftBWIKG AND LIQUOB :]KX£B88i:8 AND GERMAN PROPAGANDA. 

Pr. Wilhelm BreitliOK. German ConMui, St. Louta, Ma 

Ernest Elchom, German Consul, Savannah, Ga. 

Baron von Relswitz, German Consul, Chicago, 111. 

Brie Ha senf elder, Attache German Consulate, N. T. 

Oscar Mesger, German Consul, Cincinnati, O. 

Pr. Ohrt, Attache Cin<dnnatl Consulate. 

Mr. Paul lioh, Consul, New Orleana 

Mr. Julius Umhach, German Consul, Ponce, Porto Bica 

Dr. Mecklenberg, Former Secretary to Consulate General, Yokohama, Japan. 

Assistant to Dr. Fuehr. 
Heinrich Plage, Former Seoretar}- to < 'consulate General, Yc^ohama, Japap. 
, Assistant to Dr. Feuhr. 

Dr. Ftiehr, Formerly Secretary at German Embassy. Ttilclo. 
Kurt Zeigler, German Consul General, Denver. 
Prof. Morlts Bonn (writer). Assistant to Dr. Albert. 
Eric Zoepfell, German Consul, Seattle, Wash. 
Captain Hans Tauscher, Accredited representative of Krupps, Germany. 

In addition to the above were certain other consuls, consular agents, secre- 
taries, mes^ngers, friends, servants, etc. 

Upon the arrival of this party in the United States, their instruc- 
tions were to get into immediate touch with the Hamburg- American 
Line through the publicity agent, Mr. Matthew B. Claussen. 

Mr. Claussen undertook with Dr. Albert the inauguration of the 
bureau known as the German Information Service, generally referred 
to as the German Press Bureau, at 112S Broadway. 

Arrangements had previously been made with Mr. George Syl- 
vester Viereck to take charge of the party and see that they were 
looked after in New York and brought in contact with prominent 
German- American people ; that is, I am not referring to all of them, 
but such as were to be detailed for specific duty in New York. Mr. 
Viereck arranged all the details, and hired the offices At 112S^ Broad- 
way, New York. They consisted of almost an entire floor for their 
general offices; and then above, on the next floor, which was the 
sixth floor, a suite of offices for Dr. Albert which was the general 
meeting place for conferences of Dr. Albert, and Boy-ed, and von 
Papen, and Dr. Demburg when he came into the conferences, and 
other German agents. It was at this place, 1123 Broadway, that most 
of the conferences took place, although Dr. Albert's official office was 
at the Hamburg- American Line, 45 Broadway. 
'Senator OvtRMAx. Was it hard to get into his office? 

Capt. Lester. If you are interested in that phase of it, I will ex- 
plain about that, Senator. There was a man by the name of Bourg- 
meister who was attached to the Hamburg- American Line, and the 
information gathered was this, which I think is a fact : 

Dr. Albert^ office was accessible through the third-class passenger 
ticket office, by an elevator used by the employees of the Hamburg- 
American Line; and the password was " Bourgmeister." That is, 
men who wanted to see Dr. Albert by appointment had to know the 
password, or they could not get in, and they had to come in in that 
way. Otherwise he was always out, because his movements were 
very much guarded. 

He had not only the two offices, but he f req^uented an office at 60 
Wall Street, New i ork, where Von Igel maintamed his headquarters : 
and there were various other meeting places t;hroughout the city. 

In that connection I intended to state that this party left Copen- 
hagen on the 4th of August, 1914, and arrived in this country on, I 



BREWING AND LIQUOR INTBRESTB AKD GERMAN PBOPAGANDA. 1687 

think it was, the 15th of August. It was the same steamer that Dr. 
Albert and Mr. Hammerling came over on, as was testified here. 

These men were filtered into the different grades of passengers. 
They were not all in the first class. They put some in tjie second 
class, and some in the steerage, and some in the so-called third class, 
and a few of them in the first class. The idea was not that they were 
not all entitled to come in the first class, but they did not want such 
a large body in one part of the ship; so that they scattered them 
around. That was prearranged, and a part of t;he plan of getting 
them here. 

When they arrived they established telegraphic communication by 
direct wireless to Berlin through the Nauen wireless station in Grer- 
many, by way of Sayville, and direct to the headquarters at 1123 
Broadway. That was a government wire — ^that is, a German Gov- 
enmient wire — ^the Sayville service being part of the so-called wireless 
" trust " that is operated by Germany, or was operated by Germany 
throughout the war. These stations are all over in every continent 
and are nimierou& Mr. Becker, I believe, will have some interesting 
information on that angle of it which I think the committee would 
be glad to have in the record. 

The scheme of propaganda, so far as the visible end of it was 
concerned, was to write up each day a series of articles strongly pro- 
German in their character, which articles were compiled from Ger- 
man newspapers, German magazines, German books, American news- 
papers, and American books, and were built up together in what 
the Germans called a scientific propaganda article, meaning an 
article that insidiously presented the subject without slamming it too 
hard as a real advertising proposition. That is the reason that these 
31 men were selected. It was on account of their skill in weaving a 
thought into an article from various sources. 

For that purpose they had transported to them from Gtermany 
enorm