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Architect. Building and Location. 

Ackerman & Ross Library, East Orange, N. I 

Ball & Davidson Riverbank Court, Cambridge, Mass 

Barney & Chapman Houses, New York City 

„ ,,, ( Buildings, Orphan Asylum for Indian Children, ) 

Barney & Chapman ^ Iroquois, N. Y. , 

( arrere & Hastings House, Elizabeth, N. J 

Clinton & Russell Houses, New York Cit_\ 

( oxhead & Coxhead House, Los Angeles, Cal 

_•,. ,,, \ Registry of Deeds and Probate Court, Cambridge, / 

Cutter, Olw W --' J Mass . } 

Davis & Brooks Library, New Britain Institute, New Britain, Conn .... 

Day, Frank Miles & Bro Clinical Amphitheater, Philadelphia, Pa 

Eyre, Wilson, (r House, Wilkesbarre, Pa 

Eyre, Wilson, Jr House, Philadelphia, Pa 

Fox, Jenny <S; \\ arner ( Associated ) . . . . Telephone Building, Rochester, N. Y 

Garden, Hugh M. G Scientist Church, Chicago, 111 

Gilbert, Cass Broadway Chambers, New York ( ity 

Gilbert, C P. H House, Elizabeth, N. J 

Green & Wicks House, Buffalo, N. Y . 

Green & Wicks Houses, Buffalo, N. Y 

Green & Wicks Entrance Gates, Buffalo, N. Y 

Howells & Stokes House, Morristown, N. J 

Huehl & Schmid House, Chicago, 111 

lardine, Kent & Jardine Library, East Orange, N.I 

Le Brun, N. iV Sons Metropolitan Life Insurance Building, Baltimore, Md . . 

Long, F. B. & L. L House, Minneapolis, Minn 

Longfellow, A. W Phillips Brooks House, Cambridge, Mass 

Lord, James Brown House, Tuxedo Park, N. Y 

McKim, Mead & White Gymnasium, Cambridge, Mass 

McKim, Mead & White House, Newport, R. I 

McKim, Mead & White Library, New York University, New York City 

McKim, Mead & White Gates, Harvard College 

McKim, Mead & White Architectural Building, Harvard College 

McKim, Mead & White Harvard Union, Harvard College 

Maginnis, Walsh & Sullivan Church, Leominster, Mass 

Mason, George I) Office Building, Detroit, Mich 

Otis, William A House, Chicago, 111 

Peabody & Stearns House, Boston, Mass 

Peabody & Stearns Checkering Hall, Boston, Mass 

Randall, T. Henry House, Tuxedo Park, N. Y 

Rutan & Russell . Church, Pittsburgh, Pa 

Shaw & Hunnewell Medical Library, Boston, Mass 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge Stillman Infirmary, Cambridge, Mass 

Silsbee, J. L Interior, Chapel, Rose Hill Cemetery, Chicago, 111 

Sperry, Joseph Evans Gymnasium, Baltimore, Md 

Sperry, Joseph Evans Library, Woodberry, Md 

Sturgis, R. ( "lipston House, Groton, Mass 

Taylor, James Knox Entrance to Post Office, Annapolis, Md 

Warner, J. Foster Telephone Building, Rochester, N. Y 

Weber & Groves Churches, St. Louis, Mo 

Wheelwright & Haven Randall Dining Hall, Cambridge, Mass 

Wheelwright & Haven Horticultural Hall, Boston, Mass 

Winslow & Bigelow House, Brookline, Mass 

Zimmerman, W. Carbys Inter-Ocean Building, Chicago, 

i Plate 

2 Plates 

2 Plates 

2 Plates 

2 Plates 

i Plate 

i Plate 


















Architect. Building and Location. 

Ackerman & Ross Library, East ( )range, N.J 

Allen & Vance Municipal Courthouse, Roxbury, Mass 

Ball & Davidson Riverbank ( ourt, Cambridge, Mass 

Bragdon & Hillman Livingston County Courthouse, Geneseo, N. \ 

Brite & Bacon Mortuary Chapel, New Britain, Conn 

( arrere & Hastings House, Elizabeth, N.J 

Clinton & Russell Free Library, Stonington, ( onn 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson Public Library, Nashua, N. H 

Cutter Olin W Registry of Deeds and Probate Court, Cambridge, Mass. 

Davis & Brooks ..".'. Library, New Britain Institute, New Britain, Conn 

Elzner & Anderson Store Front, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Everett & Mead Russell Library, Plymouth, Mas; ...... ... . 

( Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Building, Hartford, 
Flagg & Bartlett | Conn 

Month of Issue 



' April' 



( >ctober 


I >ecember 

( )ctober 

















( )ctober 



















I une 



' July 


Plate No. 












5 J > 







8i, 82, 



91. 9 2 > 


1 )ecember 










Vol. X. Jan. — Dec, 1901. 


Flagg, Ernest 

Fox, Jenny & Warner ( \ssociated) 

F rost & Granger 

Carden, Hugh M. G 

Green & Wicks 

I larding & Gooch 

Holabird & Roche 

Howells & Stokes 

Huehl & Schmid 

fardine, Kent Ov Jardine. 

Kennedy & Kelsey 

LeBrun, X. & Sons 

Lord, James Brown 

Lord & I [ewlett 

Mi Kim. Mead & White 

McKim, Mead & White 

Mauran. Russell & Garden 

Mauran, Russell & Garden 

Maginnis, Walsh & Sullivan . . . 
Newman, Woodman \ Harris 

Newman, Woodman & Harris 

Peabody & Stearns 

Peabody & Stearns 

Peabody & Stearns 

Rutan & Russell 

Schweinfurth, J. A 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge 

Sperry, loseph Evans 

Taylor. Alfred H 

Taylor, James Knox 

Taylor, James Knox 

Winslow & Bigelow 

Wood, James M 

Wood & Howard ( Associated) . . . . 
York & Sawyer 

Building and Location. 
( United States Naval Academy Buildings, Annapolis,) 
j Md I 

Telephone Building, Rochester. X. Y 

. House, Cleveland, Ohio 

. Scientist ( 'hurch, ( 'hicago, 111 

Art Gallery, Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, X. V 

St. Peter's (hurch, New Brighton, Staten Island, X. V. . 

Central Trading Company's Building, Chicago, 111 

1 louse, Morristown, X. J 

House, Chicago, 111 

Library, East < 'range. N.J 

House. Philadelphia, Pa 

Metropolitan Life Insurance Building, Baltimore. Md.... 

I louse. Tuxedo Park, N. Y 

Home for Aged Men, Brooklyn. \. Y 

Gymnasium, Radcliffe College, Cambridge, Mass 

< ongregational Church, Xaugatuck, Conn 

House, St. Louis, Mo 

Building for Lindell Real Estate Company, St. Louis, Mo. . 

St. Leo's ( hurch, Leominster, Mass 

Corn Exchange National Bank, Philadelphia, Pa 

t Drill Hall and Gymnasium, University of Maine, ) 

l Orono. Me \ 

Market Building, Pittsburg, Pa 

1 louse, Boston, Mass 

Details, ('nickering Hall, Boston, Mass 

St. Augustine's Church, Pittsburgh, Pa 

St. Peter's Church, Boston, Mass 

Stillman Infirmary, Cambridge, Mas-, 

. Pratt Tree Library, Woodberry, Md 

Building, New York City 

. Tost < )rhce, Annapolis, Md 

Post Office, Joliet, 111 

. House, Brookline, Mass 

Elks' Building, Detroit, Mich 

Theater, Boston, Mass 

House. Hyde Park. X. Y 

Will S. Aldrich, Del 

Will S. Aldrich. Del 


Detail of ( 'ampanile, Piacenza < 'athedral 

Details of Italian Chimneys 

Plate No 


17, 18, 19, JO, 


21, 2 2, 23 


I >ecember 

5-- 53 


83, 86 


10. 15 


58, 59, 62, 63 


33. 40 


9°- 95 



( ktober 



66, 7 1 


34. $9 




89, 96 


11, 14 


13. 14. 15> 46 


49- 5 6 




57, 64 


36, 37 


5°. 55 


1, 5, 6 






60, 6 1 


84, 85 




-'6. 3 1 



( )ctober 

-'• 7 


4'. 42, 47 




7 6 > 77 

( )ctober 

74. 79 

< >ctober 

i, 29 




s 7 



Building and Location. 

Houses, Rue de Lille, Ypres, Belgium 

( bateau, I >'< lydomk, Bachte, Maria-Leerne 

Palace of Margaret of Austria, M alines, Belgium 

Town Weighing House, Eukhuyzen, Holland 

Town ( rate, Eukhuyzen, Holland 

Town Hall, Hoorn, Holland 

Market. I laarlem, Holland . . 

Market, Ypres, Belgium 

Hospice Saint Jean, Hoorn, Holland 

Houses, Ypres, Belgium 

Houses, Ypres, Belgium 

I louses, Alkmaar, I lolland 















nut include illustrations made in connection with articles, nor those of terra-cotta details. 
Title and Location. Architect. Page. 
ADMINISTRATION Building, United States Vrsenal, Watertown, Mass. . . . ( lharles H. Alden, Jr 40 

Apartment House. Cincinnati, Ohio Elzner & Anderson 238 

Apartment House, New York ( ity < linton & Russell . 1 75 

Apartment I louse. Washington, 1 >. ( ' A. B. Heaton 1 96 

Armory, Medford, Mass Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge 191 

\rt Gallery, Whitechapel, London, England . ('. H. Townsend 104 

BAPTISTRY, Tremont 'Temple, Boston, Miss Blackall & Newton 

Battery Park Building, New York City 20 

Big Tree Swimming Pool, Cambridge, Mass K. Clipston Sturgis 18, [9 

Broad Street National Bank, Trenton, N. J., Entrance William A. Poland 87 

CHIMN LA'S. Power House for Manhattan Elevated Railroad, New York City 21 

Church, Lindall Avenue, St. Louis, Mo Link & Rosenheim 22 

Church, St. Louis. Mo Weber iV- Groves 106 

( hurch, St. Leo's, Leominster, Mass., Interior Maginnis, Walsh & Sullivan 173 

( hurches, St. Louis, Mo., Plans Weber & Groves 106 

Clubhouse, < Cleveland, Ohio T. W. Streibinger 194 

( lubhouse, Mobile, Ala Charles Pearson 215 

( 'ommercial Building, St. Louis, Mo ('. S. Holloway 152 

Commercial Building, Louisville, Ky Dodd & Cobb 153 

Commercial Building. Minneapolis, Minn K.ees & Colburn 174 



Vol. x. Jan.— Dec, 1901. THE BRICKBUILDER.— INDEX. 3 

Title and Location. Architect. Page. 

Commercial Building, Minneapolis, Minn F. B. & L. L. Long 107 

Commercial Building, New York City Charles C. Haight . . . i 9 8 

Commercial Building, Minneapolis, Minn \\ ]>,. \ L. I.. Lono- >i r 

Compton Wynyiates, Warwick, England g, 

Cookham Buildings, London, England .104 

ENGINE House, Boston, Mass John -\ Fox iqi 

FIREPLACE Mantel Elmer Grey .'.'. '.'.[ ' .40 

Fireplace Mantel |. A. SchwVinfurth 107 

Fireplace Mantel K. R. Liebert .,,, 

Fireplace Mantel , , 

Friendship School, Pittsburgh, Pa CM. liartberger 85 

GATE Lodge, Ardsley on the Hudson, N. Y L. C. Holden 1 s 

Gate Lodge, Cleveland, Ohio Charles W. Hopkinson '95 

Gates, Brown University, Providence, R. I Hoppin, Ely & Koen 263 

HOME for Aged Men, Brooklyn, N. Y Lord & Hewlett .260 

Horticultural Hall, Boston, Mass., Fntrance Wheelwright <S; Haven . . . . . 1 co 

Hospital, New French, New York City Welch, Smith & 1'rovot 192, 193 

House, Newark, N. J Howard & Cauldwell 17 

House, Short Hills, N.J Parish & Schroeder 1 8 

House, Buffalo, N. Y Green & Wicks . 39 

House, Minneapolis, Minn F. B. & L. L. Long 60 

House, Weirs, N. H 62 

House, Cambridge, Mass, Interior of Loggia H. Langford Warren 63 

House, Brooklyn, N. Y W. B. Tubby & Bro 

House, Hyde Park, N. Y York & Sawyer 84 

House, Newton, Mass Willard T. Sears 84 

House, Cincinnati, Ohio S. S. Godley 85 

House, Beverly Farms, Mass William G. Rantoul 85 

House, Buffalo, N. Y Green & Wicks 105 

House, Cincinnati, Ohio Elzner & Anderson 105 

House, Cincinnati, Ohio Elzner & Anderson 132 

House, Wyoming, N.J J. W. Dow 1 g 1 

House, St. Louis, Mo George W. Hellmuth iqi 

House, Cheyenne, Wyoming W. E. Fisher 107 

House, New Britain, Conn F. W. Crosby 215 

House, Hartford, Conn Davis & Brooks 215 

House, Cincinnati, Ohio E. M. Spinning 216 

House, Chicago, 111, Plans and Interior Huehl & Schmid 216, 217 

House, Brookline, Mass Winslow & Bigelow 236 

House, Chicago, 111 Handy & Cady 236 

House, ( "hicago, 111 '• Hugh M. G. Garden 238 

House, Cincinnati, Ohio Elzner & Anderson 238 

House, Chicago, 111, Interiors William A. Otis 261 

House, Avondale, Ohio CM. Foster 263 

Houses, Semi-Detached, Louisville, Ky Mason Maury 62 

Houses, Riverside Drive, New York City Janes & Leo 1 96 

Houses, Riverside Drive, New York City Janes cS: Leo 219 

Houses, Covington, Ky Elzner & Anderson 239 

LIBRARY, Concord, N. H Ernest Flagg 108 

Library, Wayland, Mass Cabot, Everett & Mead 1 29 

MASONIC Temple, St. Louis, Mo W. Albert Swasey 20 

Murtland Building, Pittsburgh, Pa Alden & Harlow 107 

OFFICE Building, Baltimore, Md Joseph Evans Sperry 61 

Office Building, Springfield, 111 George H. Helmle 1 09 

Office Building, Brooklyn, N. Y . R. L. Daus 151 

Office Building, St. Louis, Mo Isaac Taylor 262 

Office Building, Washington, D. C Ceorge S. Cooper. 263 

Orphan Asylum for Indian Children, Iroquois, N. Y, Dining Hall Barney & Chapman 237 

POST Office, Washington, D. C, Interior Construction 21 

Pumping Station, Spot Pond, Mass Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge [O 

Pumping Stations, Boston, Mass Vrthur F. Cray .42 

SCHOOLHOUSE, Glendale, < )hio 62 

Schoolhouse, St. Bernard, Ohio Werner & \dkms , 75 

Stable, New York City, Interior S. Gifford Slocum 62 

Swiss Cottage, Cincinnati, Ohio William W. Franklin 153 

TABERNACLE, Moline, 111 O. Z. Cervin ,,,:. 

Telephone Building, Baltimore, Md Joseph Fvans Sperry 6i 

Temple Bar Building, Brooklyn, N. Y George L. Morse [32 

Theater, Orpheum, Brooklyn, N. Y Frank Freeman 216 

UNION Club, New York City, Design for •■ Wood, Palmer & Hornbostel 56 

WALBRIDGE Building, Buffalo, N. Y Green & Wicks . . 10S 

Warehouse, Detroit, Mich Stratton & Baldwin 60 

Warehouse, Design 1! ruce Price 54 

Windsor Arcade, New York City < harlea 1. Berg 56 

Woodward Hall, St. John's College, Annapolis, Md T. Henry Randall 57 

\ \LF Club Building, New York City Tracy & Swartwout 55 



V. A Village Bank 

Criticism and Award by ( ■ ' '• Blackall t,^ 


Vol. X. 

I '('(.. 1901 

V I. An Entrance to an Art Museum 

Criticism of Competition by C. Howard Walker 96 

VII. An Entrance to a City Park. Programme 2 

( 'riticism and Award by Henry Bacon 1 40 

VIII. Ticket Window in Vestibule of Theater. Programme 6g 

Criticism and Award by C. Howard Walker 229 




Paper I. 
Paper II. 
Paper III. 

Paper II. 

Paper III. 
Paper IV. 
Paper V. 

Paper III. 



(Continued from Vol. IX.) 






(Continued from Vol. IX.) 

by Edgar V. Seeler 12 

by Dwight H. Perkins 31 

by Frank Lloyd Wright 160 

( Continued from Vol. I X. ) 
bv lohn Galen Howard C2 



. . 69 

• 134 

. 201 

Paper I. 

Paper II. 

Paper III 


Paper I. 

Paper II. 

Paper III 

Paper IN' 



Paper 1. 

Paper II. 

Paper 111 

I 'a per I V. 



( Continued in Vol. XL ) 

Paper I. Salem, Mass .'44 






2 1 1 


An Unusual ( ase 181 

Architectural and Building Practice in Creat Britain 1 |, 104, [82, 253 

Brickwork in Paris by William T. Partridge 25 

Chemical and Physical Properties of Portland Cement B. Brentnall Lathbury 235 

Clay Goods for Hospitals 159 

Cost of Using Enameled Prick : 21 

Design and Construction of the Modern Warehouse Augustus N. Rantoul 249 

External Color at the Pan-American ( harles H. Caffin 208 

Exhibition of the Architectural League of New Vork . . 53 

Local Color 154 

Modern Architecture Prof. Otto Wagner 1 Translation by N. Clifford Ricker) .124, 14^. 105 

Planning of Small Libraries ... Charles Knowles Rolton 162 

Portland Cement 58 

" Progress" Cass Gilbert 122 

Results of License Law for Architects in Illinois N. ( lifford Ricker 28 

( Should the Study of Architectural Design and the Historic Styles Follow ) , . . _. e . 

i 1 u t> j v 1 j * t» r» liv Robert < . Spencer, r 120 

I and be Based upon a Knowledge of Pure Design ? 1 - ' 

Steel Construction 171 

Terra-Cotta and Steel Thomas Cusack 226 

The Use of Enameled Brick J. Van Inwagen, \r 42 

Third Annual ( 'onvention of the Architectural League of America 112 




*3 2 

io 3 



An Attempt to Devise a System of Absolute Fire- 
proofing for Interior Steel Construction 

Annual Fire Waste and its Relation to Fire-proof 

Fire Losses 

Fire in Philadelphia 

Illustration of the Evolution of Constructive Archi- 

Is a Fire-proof Structure Possible ? 

Lessons from the Montreal Fire 

Practical Fire Tests 

(Conducted by the British Fire Prevention Committee.) 

Rational Methods of Fire-proofing 14S, 258 

Report on Fire in Pierrepont Apartment, New Vork 

City 37 


A < arnegie School of Architecture 

American Institute of Architects 

An Insurance Trust 

Andrew Carnegie as an Architectural Educator. . . . 

Architectural League of America 

Better Brick Buildings 





Building Trades Exhibition 

Color : ■ • 

Fire Losses 

Fire-proof Construction 

Horticultural Hall, Boston 

Housing the Poor 

Influence of Environment 

Legislative Committees 

Liability in Case of Injury 

Licensing of Architects 

New Fra for New Vork ( ity 

Outdoor Work 

Permanence in Building 


Protection of Structural Steel 

Quality of Modern Brickwork 

Question of Style 

Registration for New York Architects 

Rock Island Library Competition 

Safety of Saint Paul's 

State Supervision of the Practice of Architecture. 


The Rewards of Architecture 

Typical American Schoolhouse 

What a Student Should Know 









' 33 



22 1 










m vol. 10 

NO. I 





JAN. fjt 

1901 iii 

h r b. 




85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as -Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1S92. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States 

and Canada ......... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union S6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 
For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied 
by the American News Company and its branches. 


Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following: order : — 

Agencies. — Clay Products .... II 

Architectural Faience II 

„ Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

„ Enameled Ill and IV 


Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 


THE State of Illinois has for nearly three years had 
in operation a law obliging all arehitects who 
desire to praetise to apply for a license, which is only 
"ranted upon satisfactory evidence of the applicant's 
ability, this ability being tested by means of an exami- 
nation. The Architectural League of New York has, 
with most commendable zeal, taken the initiative in 
preparing a bill to be presented to the legislature of 
New York, this bill providing for a New York State 
Board of Architects, whose duty shall be to supervise 
the granting of licenses to practising architects, such 
licenses to be granted upon the results of an examina- 
tion. A convention of the architects of the State of 
New York is being held at the rooms of the Architec- 
tural League as we go to press, the object of the conven- 
tion being to consider the proposed bill, to awaken a 
more general interest, and to stimulate a more complete 
understanding of the subject and of the precise nature of 
the ends to be accomplished. A movement of this sort 
is to be commended in every respect. The registration 
law has worked admirably in Illinois, and has encountered 
comparatively little opposition. We can conceive of no 
good reason why it should he opposed by any one except 
from motives quite distinct from such as we would honor 
in our professional brethren. Indeed, we doubt if there 
would be any except the opposition from a political 

source; for the bill as drawn and about to be presented 
before the convention is sufficiently elastic to adapt 
itself to all proper existing conditions, and if passed, 
could not fail to be a benefit in every way, both to the 
profession at large, and, what is perhaps of more real 
importance, to the community as a whole, which very 
often has to suffer through the ignorance of dishonest or 
incompetent practitioners. We sincerely trust that the 
convention will succeed in arousing sufficient enthusi- 
asm and interest to carry this bill beyond the reach of 
political opposition, and to make it, or something cover- 
ing the same "round, the law of the State of New York. 


THERE was presented to the Boston Society of 
Architects at its last meeting a very interesting- 
report, made by a committee from the society which has 
had the especial care during the past year of the inter- 
ests of the profession as affected in one way or the other 
by the action of the legislature. This committee has 
made it a point to be present at all hearings on bills 
relating to alterations in the building law, or legislation 
in any way affecting real estate or building; and its 
members have been authorized to represent the Society 
in such action before committees as would seem to be 
for the best interest of the profession. Judging by the 
report, this committee has been able to exert a decided 
influence in the legislative halls. If there had been no 
other tangible results, its efforts would have been well 
worth while as showing our legislators that the architec- 
tural profession is entitled to consideration in matters 
which directly affect it or its work. We wish that the 
various architectural bodies throughout the country 
could in some such manner as this come more directly 
in touch with the law-making bodies. The interests in- 
volved by any meddling with building laws are so vast 
that the more the educated members of the profession 
can be brought to assist in the formative processes, the 
better are sure to be the results. It is the constant re- 
proach of nearly all of our municipal building regulations 
that they arc conceived in ignorance, and enforced with- 
out proper consideration for results. Boston has been, 
perhaps, more fortunate than some other cities in that its 
existing law was drawn "up, in a large part, by a com- 
mittee representing the best elements of the architec- 
tural, the real estate, and the financial professions; but 
the experience of the last session has shown that nothing 
but constant watchfulness on the part of those intimately 
interested can preserve tin- best of laws from being 
viciously tampered with, and the fad thai architects not 
only are interested, but arc willing to give the time and 


study to legislative work of this sort is an indication 
that architecture is a public profession to be considered 
in estimating the forces which make for good or evil in 
metropolitan life. Not many years since, the better 
architects were content to leave all such work to the 
professional politicians, and trust to luck that the laws 
were not too severely strained. Building since then has 
become so complicated, and also so vastly increased in 
possibilities, that the profession has almost been forced 
in self-defense to take a part in these affairs, such as has 
been, on the whole, SO courageously and efficiently taken 
by the real estate and Master builders' associations. 


WE have received from a subscriber the terms of a 
competition for plans for the Rock Island 
Public Library Building. It is fair to assume that the 
board of Directors and the librarian, who are responsible 
for the somewhat peculiar conditions set forth, have been 
actuated by a desire to obtain the best possible results. 
If so, the chances are that they will be doomed to com- 
plete disappointment. Then' surely has been enough 
said in the professional journals all over the country to 
enable an ordinary and self-respecting librarian to 
know better than to expect any good results to follow 
when terms are as herein stated. The story is an old 
one to us, and every year there springs up a crop of such 
competitions! We trust the time will come when all 
self-respecting architects will rigidly eschew competi- 
tions of every sort for anything less than a large and 
important public building; but to expect, as is evident 
in this case, that competent architects will waste their 
time over quarter-scale drawings for a building for 
which the appropriation is manifestly too small, and 
will guarantee their plans by a check for a thousand 
dollars to be forfeited in case the building exceeds the 
limits of cost set forth, and all this when there is no 
assurance that the selection will be a fair one, and with 
tin' positive statement that only ?, per cent, will be paid 
for the architect's work, means simply that the so-called 
competition will very likely result in the choice of a man 
who will be either dishonest or ignorant. We should 
advise the librarian to study the ethics of business hon- 
esty a little more carefully and become more thoroughly 
acquainted with the means by which dishonest builders 
or architects are able to cheat their employers, before 
committing the work to the care of an architect such as 
a competition like this will call out. 

THE T Square Club Catalogue might very fairly be 
classed among the hardy annuals. Surely the 
vitality and unflagging enthusiasm of the club seems 
limitless, and the catalogue this year keeps up the pro- 
cession of constant progress in a most satisfactory manner. 
As in past years, it is preceded by a certain amount of 
literary endeavor, — recapitulating the work of the club 
and enumerating the progress of the past as well as set- 
ting forth the work of the future, — Mr. William Charles 
Hays being the secretary and editor of this portion. At- 
tention is called to the increase of 12 per cent, during 
the past year in the number of architectural clubs. This 

is a most gratifying fact, the full significance of which as 
.1 factor in our national development is, we imagine, not 
always rightly appreciated. These architectural asso- 
ciations, which only a few years ago were entirely un- 
known, are now acting most powerfully to stimulate the 
younger element, and, at the same time, to educate the 
community and to raise the standard of popular taste. 

The catalogue shows that the present exhibition must 
be extremely interesting. A feature new to American 
exhibitions is the introduction of quite a considerable 
amount of representative work from Germany. Every 
contributing architect from that part of the world is a 
professor of something, which, perhaps, seems strange to 
us, but apparently is the rule there. The work sent 
from Prague is particularly interesting, and the drawings 
from Munich and elsewhere, while showing the very 
strong influence of the school of Otto Rieth, are full of 
individuality, and show promises which are not always, 
unfortunately, manifested in current German work. 




THE municipal authorities of a large city, in the 
residential portion of which is a park, have con- 
demned adjacent property for the purpose of enlarging 
the park. 

The present park is bordered by wide streets, devoted 
to traffic and car lines, none of which can be closed. 

The addition to the park will be rectangular, of the 
same width as the present park, and separated from it by 
one of the streets which runs from east to west. 

The purpose of this competition is to provide an 
entrance to each of the portions of the enlarged park, 
at the west end of the intersecting street, and to so treat 
the street that its commercial character will disappear as 
much as possible. 

The park ground is undulating, and the general 
character of the roads and planting is rural. 

The design for the entrance is to be such as is adapted 
to working out in burnt-clay products. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED: A perspective sketch 
design for the entrance, and a sketch plan showing 
treatment of the street made in black ink, with no 
wash work, upon a sheet measuring 1 S ins. wide by 
12 ins. high. The drawing is to be signed by a nom </t 
plume, or device, and accompanying the same is to be a 
sealed envelope with the now i/t plume on the exterior, 
and containing the true name and address of the 

Drawings are to be delivered, flat, at the office of 
Tut BRICKBUILDER, 85 Water .Street, Boston, on or before 
April 1, 1901. For the four designs placed first, The 
Brickbuilder offers prizes of fifty, twenty-five, fifteen, 
and ten dollars, respectively. All premiated drawings 
are to become the property of The Brickbuilder, and 
the right is reserved to publish any and all drawings 

The competition will be judged by Mr. Henry bacon 
ot the firm of brite & Bacon, New York City. 


Terra-Cotta Work in the Smaller 
Towns of Piedmont. 


ITALY, so rich in marbles, where the quarries of Car- 
rara, the Luni of the Romans, have for centuries 
provided architects and sculptors with quantities of 


marbles of every kind, is not deficient in buildings con- 
structed of brick ; on the contrary, she possesses them 
in every province, where they stand beside the structures 
of stone and marble themselves. There exist, however, 
differences between one region and another, and it is well 
known that the most remarkable examples of terra-cotta 
in Italy are found in Lombardy and in the Emilia. 
These are precisely the two regions of which the terra- 
cotta has been made the object of special study, and The 
Brickbuilder itself has at several different times illus- 
trated specimens of these Italian productions which 
contributed so largely to the artistic glories of the 
Renaissance. The work here is mostly of the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries; and when in Italy the terra- 
cotta of the Renaissance is spoken of, the memory reverts 
at once to Lombardy and the Emilia, 

But to say that all the terra-cotta work of Italy is con- 
centrated in Lombardy and the Emilia is an exaggeration. 
As a matter of fact, the eye of the searcher, even in these 
provinces, is generally arrested at Milan, at the Certosa di 
Pavia, at Bologna, and at Ferrara, without seeing the 
treasures which exist in less important towns. 

One region has certainly been forgotten: a district 
which lies just beside Lombardy, - Piedmont, and I 
may add that from the point of view of art Piedmont has 

been the least studied of all the Italian provinces. " Pied- 
mont Discovered *' might he the title of an artistic work 
that would he successful and astonish the public. It is 
not generally known that some Italian students have 
turned a curious eye toward this region of Piedmont, and 
have begun to collect lc fronde sparte, as the Divine 
Poet says; that is, the scattered fragments of the artistic 
treasures; but the organic work, the entire collection 
which would give the general and complete idea of artistic 
Piedmont, remains only a wish, the realization of which 
is still a long way off. Therefore, in writing in this 
excellent review, I shall wisli to draw my material from 
the unpublished subjects, and look for the objects of my 
study in the unknown works of the smaller towns, out- 
side the natural and easy paths of hurried travelers, and 
I will now ask my readers to give with me a glance at 
the terra-cotta work of one section of this great and pic- 
turesque surface of Piedmont, which extends from Lom- 
bardy and Liguria as far as the frontiers of France. 

The foreign reader will desire me to explain to him at 
first the reason for the indifference and neglect to which 
Piedmont has been left, and I will endeavor to satisfy his 
wish. The historians have always considered the Pied- 
montese as a people instinctively devoted to the exercise 
of arms rather than the love of the arts, an opinion 


which has an indisputable basis of truth; hut while it is 
true that one cannot compare the Piedmontese with the 
Tuscan, or the native of Turin with the Florentine, 
nevertheless, Piedmont has never closed its territories to 
artists; and especially during the Middle A.^es and dur- 
ing the last two centuries (seventeenth and eighteenth), it 
has exerted a remarkable influence on the development of 
the arts, having encouraged a number of artists and 



M i\ \R A. I 5 I II CEN I IKY. 

given them an opportunity of producing and executing 
their works in the- midst of its cities, villages, and 


But one of the most important and least clearly per- 
ceived reasons that account for the indifference and neg- 
lect of which we speak is the habit of judging all the 
work of a section from a small portion, especially if that 
small portion forces itself upon the attention by its con- 
spicuous location or other advantage. 

Thus, if one judges Tuscany by Florence, or Venetia 
by Venice, one should also judgfe in its art Piedmont by 
Turin, which is its capital, perhaps, because during the 
last few centuries it has been found at the head of all the 
progress that has been made in Piedmont. But it has 
been forgotten that while the arts flourished in Tuscany 
and Venetia, the unification of Piedmont under the 
dynastyof Savoy had scarcely begun. At that period art 
was protected In- the Marquis of Saluzzo and Montferrato 
and the bishops of Asti and of Alba so diligently that, in 
their localities, much more important buildings were 
erected, and paintings and- sculptures executed, than were 
seen in Turin and its environs. 

It should be added that feudal customs continued in 
practice much longer in Piedmont than elsewhere in 
Italy, so that even at the end of the fifteenth century 
they were still in vigor. This circumstance tended to 
isolate Turin, and while the artists all visited Florence 
and Venice, they never came to the capital of Piedmont, 
but rather turned their attention to the smaller cities 
and the rural valleys of the Province. It is, moreover, 
true that in the expositions of ancient Piedmontese art 
that have been held in recent years, Turin has exhibited 
almost nothing, its suburbs very little, while the other 

cities of Piedmont have exhibited a great deal. In the 
same way, when in 1884 the project was agitated of re- 
constructing' a feudal castle in connection with a grand 
artistic and industrial exposition held in Turin, the archi- 
tects underwent the tortures of Tantalus for the choice 
of motifs destined for this typical reconstruction, and 
they were obliged to seek inspiration in localities com- 
paratively distant from the capital. 

There is still another reason that explains this indif- 
ference toward artistic Piedmont: it is that the region 
has been so overrun by the artists of the baroque, who 
in reducing the old buildings to their own taste have 
destroyed several monuments of the Renaissance, and 
have imposed their mannerisms in such a way that 
Turin is to-day one of the most baroque cities of Italy 
the Dresden of the peninsula. As the art of the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries has not been in favor 
during our own times, it has followed that Piedmont has 
been most injured by this unjust scorn in the past, and in 
her case it has been forgotten that the baroque -which, 
after all, has the right of respect — constitutes only a 
portion of her art, and that she also possesses many 
monuments of the Renaissance, Gothic, and even Roman 

I do not insist further on this point, and I will con- 
fine myself henceforth to telling you that the lovers of 
art will find material to satisfy their taste in Piedmont as 
well as in all other Italian territories, and those who are 
especially interested in works in terra-cotta can even 
look in Turin the same as the smaller Piedmontese cities, 
but in the latter there will be found a wider series of 
monuments, particularly of the mediaeval period. Turin, 
I have remarked, is the city par excellence of the baroque, 

\\IM>o\\ IN TERRA CO! I \, PRI0RAT0 l>l S. 0100. AOS1 v 


and its buildings are entirely built of brick, which is used 
for the walls and all the details of the doors, windows, 

■ M»i W m q» m 

^^■*--»* * fftf.* ifl rtrt4 L ^" *-~ 


and cornices, following the lines and undulations of this 
spirited and original style. 

At present I will ask the reader to follow me and 
keep an eye on the illustrations. Considering that we 
are discussing works of the fifteenth century, the 
reader will be at first a little disconcerted and surprised. 
His surprise is legitimate. The Italian art of the fif- 
teenth century is the art of the Renaissance, and here we 
find ourselves considering a Gothic monument. This 
requires an explanation, which is easy, nevertheless, to 
furnish. Piedmont, a frontier region, was dominated by 
a family which lived for a large part of the year in 
France, beyond the Alps, and naturally could not receive 
at once the results of the new doctrines, which, thanks to 
Brunelleschi, turned the architecture and decoration of 
Italy topsy-turvy during the fifteenth century; it re- 
mained, on the contrary, insensible to the taste which 
renewed the aesthetic spirit of the Italians, and during 
the fifteenth century was more French than Italian. Thus 
the general character of Piedmontese art at the time of 
which we speak is Gothic ; and although some buildings 
in the style of the Renaissance exist in the Piedmont of 
the fifteenth century, it is nevertheless true that the 
Piedmontese taste of this century differs from that of 
other parts of the peninsula, as is shown by my illus- 
trations to which I must now return. 

The most important and most curious illustration is 
the facade of the cathedral of Chivasso. Where is the trav- 
eler, who, arriving in Italy by Modanc or Frcjus, would 
stop at Chivasso' Nevertheless, this little city, which is 
situated on the railway between Turin and Milan, even 
if it had only this facade, would justify the intelligent 
traveler in stopping. I do not exaggerate in assuring 
you that the facade of Chivasso is one of the most singular 

monuments of Italy. Every one will see for himself the 
French influence in this rich, sculptural decoration, 
whose figures, moldings, and ornaments glitter around the 
pointed doorway and on the jambs which rise at its side. 
Abundance of sculptural and figure decoration does not 
exist in the Italian tradition; with us the contribution of 
the mediaeval master figurist is always reserved ; any sug- 
gestion of elaboration may be traced to the further side 
of the Alps rather than to this side; and in Italy, even in 
the monuments where sculpture and statues occupy a 
conspicuous place, as in the cathedrals of Orvieto and of 
Milan, its distribution is different. Italy, in a word, 
does not possess such monumental portals as those of 
Notre Damede Paris, Amiens, and Rheims, and the align- 
ment of statues in the embrasures of Chivasso is inspired 
bv the richness of the sculpture of France. The facade 
of Chivasso is also interesting in that it seems to connect 
the French Gothic influences with the Lombard (Roman) 
influence, as is shown by the large and fine and elaborately 
molded rose which opens above the portal. All this one 
can see in the reproduction, but the reproduction fails to 
show the reader the beauty of the terra-cottas, though 
every one will notice at once how well they have resisted 
the ravages of centuries. The attention of artists will 
generally be attracted by the independent way in which 
the architect has gotten out of the affair without recourse 
to any horizontal lines. At the point where the side- 
shafts (jambages) are grafted on the lines of the frontis- 

1 1 i\ i< 1 01 i \s 1 1 1 \ 1 VINOVO. 

piece, he has abandoned the stalues, and commenced and 
followed a system of little arches, too small in scale, it 
may be said, beside the decoration below. Whatever it 
may be worth, we may accept this solution as one ot 

great independence. A very pretty bit ot work is tin 


angel, which, standing in an inspired attitude, holding 
in its hands the emblem of Christ, seems the personifica- 
tion of sweetness. I would have liked to add to my 
illustration a detail of this never-to-be-forgotten statue, 
but 1 was not able to find a photograph. 

Fulness of modeling is not perhaps the principal 
merit of the artist of Chiva&SO, but it is indeed the prin- 
cipal merit of the author of the ornaments of the " Monte 
di Pieta " at Carignano. This city, near Turin, fell sev- 
eral times under the domination of I' "ranee ; but its art. 
of which a remarkable example is illustrated by the win- 
dow reproduced herewith, is not French, or at least, if 
you wish, is French only in the matter of the freshness 
with which the ornament copied from nature is rendered 
by the modeler, who here has shown himself indeed a 
master. The frieze underneath the window, composed 
of branches of oak, 
rich in foliage and 
aco r n s, is such a 
piece of work that 
one of the master 
ornamentists of the 
most celebrated 
cathedrals of north- 
ern France, Paris, 
Amiens, R h e i m s, 
Troves, Bourges, or 
Rouen, might well 
a d m i t having ex- 
ecuted it. Nor will 
my reader fail to 
notice how full y 
architectonic is the 
struct ure of the 
window of Carig- 
nano, which frames 
in t h e decoration 
marvelously w el 1. 
marrying itself so 
easily to the move- 
ment of the orna- 
mentation. We see CASTLE 
here a work of the 

fifteenth century, which, in Florence, especially, could not 
be found at that era, and which explains the difference in 
development in Italian regions, a not less interesting 
thing to call to the attention of foreign students. It 
should also be known that differences even between one 
city and another exist in certain regions, and that the 
window of Carignano, which could not have been found in 
Florence during the fifteenth century, could, however, 
have been found at Siena, the city which was the only 
one that through the passage of centuries resisted the 
influence of the Splendors of Florence. I do not say 
victoriously, but with honor. Siena is the terra-eotta 
city of Tuscany, the "red city," as Bourget called it in 
his ••Sensations d'ltalie," because of the innumerable 
buildings of brick built there. 

Returning to the window of Carignano, I may add 
that the pieces of terra-eotta of which it is composed are 
the finest that Piedmont possesses of this kind. 

Of an entirely different kind are the ornaments which 
compose the Gothic window of the Palazzo della Porta at 

Xovara, a city nearer to Milan than Turin. Here we 
are concerned with a strictly geometric decoration, and, 
therefore, the window lacks the suppleness of the win- 
dow of Carignano. These are two exquisite examples, 
but in a different and opposite taste: I might almost say 
that the example of Carignano is artistic, while that of 
Xovara is industrial, and I made this choice purposely in 
order to show two compositions, whose only point in 
common is that both are made of terra-eotta. In short, 
the severity of the ornament in the window of Xovara is 
not corrected by the architecture: and this severity is 
derived from the repetition of the same geometrical 
motif. The alternating of the motif scarcely exists in 
the window we are studying, where the over-repeated 
rosette motif and the other linear motif degenerate into 
a monotony. The example, however, may serve for 

something, and the 
manufacturer who 
aims to obtain an 
artistic effect with 
the easiest and most 
economical means 
will find a model to 
imitate in the win- 
dow of X o v a r a. 
This much may be 
said: it is very 
much to be regretted 
that the quality of 
this piece of decora- 
t i v e architecture 
should not be differ- 
ent from what we 
now see; let us 
hope, however, that 
the fragment may 
be at least preserved 
just as it is to-day. 

A more impor- 
tant example now 
awaits us. I found 
it in that valley of 
Aosta, which with 
its castle of the fifteenth century is a veritable mine of 
artistic terra-eotta, so that I propose to submit to my 
readers other specimens as well as that which they will 
readily admire in the present reproduction. The window 
of the " PrioratO " of Saint ( >rso belongs to a collection of 
buildings which should be visited by every intelligent 
traveler who goes to Aosta. We must at present confine 
ourselves to the " Priorato, " a magnificent structure, which 
took this name from the fact that it was inhabited by the 
•' priors " of the Chapter of Saint < >rso from the end of 'the 
fifteenth century. This building was built at the expense 
of George de Challant, whose coins are seen painted on the 
eastern facade. There are three facades, corresponding 
to three ranges of buildings, which connect at a right 
angle; and in this ensemble is a profusion of admirable 
ornaments in terra-eotta, among which are developed the 
most rich and fantastic designs that one can imagine. 
Wishing to give an idea of these ornaments, I chose a win- 
dow with cross mullions, a type which though not Italian, 
but French, yet occurs in Italy at Turin, Rome, Perugia, 



Pistoja, etc., as well as at Aosta. But these examples 
have not the richness and importance of that of Aosta. 
This is in terra-cotta, while the others are in stone and 
without ornaments. The frieze which forms the jambs 
and architraves of the window of the " Priorato " has 
some points of resemblance with the window in terra- 
cotta of the Ospedale Maggiore of Milan; these " putti " 
which interlace with the foliage, whose appearance docs 
not have that symmetrical stamp which is at the bottom 
of Renaissance ornament, are really pretty; though 
the decoration of these little cherubims in the last mold- 
ing of the four empty spaces into which the window is 
divided is none the less done with discernment. These 
heads are like an embroidery around the exterior mold- 
ing, and this embroidery is indeed in its right place with 
the abundance of ornament around all the window. 
Take it away and you will see that its presence is more 
than essential and indispensable. At the same time, the 
little busts which grow out of rosettes, placed at the 
intersection of the cross and of the lines which frame 
the window above the frieze, are indispensable. Not less 
here than in the moldings with cherubims has the master 
ornamentist shown a perfect knowledge of the effect of 
architectural decoration in connection with the conditions 
imposed by the use of terra-cotta, which, as in the case 
with all stamped ornaments, requires a certain discretion 
on the part of the artist. I do not speak of the great 
cornice which runs above the window, and which appears 
a little heavy beside these decorations; the windows of 
the " Priorato" of Aosta are supposed to have the place 
of honor in the facades where they are found ; and all that 
rests above or below them, at one side or the other, has 
only a secondary importance. In short, the windows of 
which we speak are jewels, and like jewels ought to be 
imagined alone in a velvet box! 

To those of my readers who wish to see a superb 
cornice in terra-cotta chosen from Piedmont, I would 
suggest observing that of the former Palazzo Catena at 
Asti ; and I could cite other specimens if it were desired. 
By the side of all my Gothic illustrations, there is the 
court of the castle of Vinovo in the style of the Renais- 
sance. We are still in Piedmont, but my reader knows 
that for the richest and most interesting Italian terra- 
cotta of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries he must 
not look in Piedmont, but in Lombardy and the Emilia. 
As I have already said, this is not making the statement 
that Piedmont is absolutely deprived of it, and the court 
of Vinovo shows us not only the existence of Pied- 
montese terra-cotta, but the existence even of a monu- 
ment of the first order. I regret that the candelabra 
which form the trimmings of the pilasters and frieze of 
the arches of the portico at Vinovo arc reproduced at too 
small a scale to be understood; a detail would show that 
the master modeler here far surpassed the work of the 
merely correct and reserved school, and that these medal- 
lions below the cornice are truly incomparable! These 
medallions are worthy of the most refined artists of the 
Renaissance, and the Lombard ornamentists, who en- 
riched the several monuments of Milan, might well wish 
to have to their credit these medallions of Vinovo, 
true examples of elegance and clever reality! 

At the earliest opportunity, 1 hope to continue, as far 
as possible, my " gleaning " of unpublished material. 

Byzantine Brickfcmilding. II. 

l',Y II. I'.. PENNELL. 

TO fully appreciate the magnificence of Santa Sophia 
we must reconstruct it in our minds as it was 
when Justinian, on the day of its dedication, stood before 
the altar and exclaimed: "Thanks be to God who has 
judged me worthy to accomplish so great a task! Solo- 
mon, I have surpassed thee!" That was in 537, before 
the ravages of time and man had despoiled it; before the 
conquering Turks, unawed by its sanctity and bent only 
on plunder, dug from the walls the glittering bits of 
mosaic, and from the sacred vessels the precious stones; 
before the Mohammedans whitewashed its gorgeous 
walls, hung high on the piers their Koran-inscribed disks, 
and covered the pavement with their prayer-carpets. 
The Santa Sophia of to-dayis the mosque " planted in the 
bosom and attached to the walls " of the ancient basilica. 
Fortunately the interior arrangement is unchanged ; and 
aided by the descriptions of authorities like d'Amicis and 
Bayet our imaginations can present to us at least an approx- 
imate idea of Justinian's lavishly adorned masterpiece. 

Every one knows Santa Sophia as modern photo- 
graphs represent it: its tremendous nave surmounted by 
the great central dome and two half-domes; the small 
round chapels that terminate the east and west axis; the 
vast porticoes, themselves as large as an ordinary church, 
that form the north and south arms of the cross; the 
galleries that meet the eye wherever it turns. Innumera- 
ble columns of green breccia, of porphyry, and of marble 
are the spoils of all the temples of the world ; placed 
together by chance, their capitals present a strange mix- 
ture of styles and a fantastic conglomeration of motifs 
in the carved "animals, leaves, crosses, and chimeras, 
all woven together." "Among the columns, the balus- 
trades, the pedestals, and the slabs which remain of the 
ancient lining of the walls may be seen marbles from all 
the mines of the Archipelago, from Asia Minor, from 
Africa, and from Gaul. The marble of the Bosphorus, 
white spotted with black, contrasts with the black Celtic 
marble veined with white; the green marble of Laconia 
is reflected in the azure marble of Lybia; the speckled 
porphyrv of Egypt, the stained granite of Thessaly, the 
red and white striped stone of Jassy, mingle their colors 
with the purple of the Phrygian marble, the rose of that 
of Synada, the gold of the marble of Mauritania, and the 
snow of the marble of Paros ' (d'Amicis, " Constanti- 
nople, "p. 179). To complete the basilica as Justinian 
knew it, we must reclothe the dingy walls with marbles 
which " send back reflections of gold, of ivory, of steel, 
of coral, of mother-of-pearl, " and replace the mosaics of 
crystal which shine like silver and diamonds in the light 
from myriad windows. The capitals, the cornices, the 
doors, the borders of the arches, arc all of gilded bronze. 
The vaults of portico and gallery arc painted with colossal 
figures in a golden field. On the great domes, mosaics 
represent saints and angels, the Virgin, and the Cross; 

and on the pendent i ves appear the gigantic wings of 
cherubim, whose faces are hidden by gilded rosettes. 
•■ In front of the pilasters, in the chapels, beside the 
doors, among the columns, stand statues of marble and 
of bronze"; there .oe, besides, " enormous candelabra 


of massive gold, gigantic evangelists bending above 
reading-desks resplendent as the chairs of kings, high 
ivory crosses, vases shining with pearls." In place of 
the Mussulman pulpit and the tribune of the Sultan 
stood the ambon, with its dome and cross of gold, and 
marble, and precious stones; the balustrade of the choir 
of gilded bronze; the priests' seats and the emperor's 
throne sculptured, inlaid, and set with pearls; and in 
the apse, "the altar, of which the table, supported on 
tour -olden columns, is made of -old, silver, pewter, 
and pearls all melted together; and the pyx formed of 
four columns of massive silver surmounted by a -lobe 
and cross of -old weighing two-hundred and sixty 
pounds." {Ibid., p. 182 183). 

One cannot wonder that Justinian was obliged to in- 
crease his taxes and resort to arbitrary measures to meet 
the expense of so splendid a monument. The result 

VIEW KROM i: U.I.KRY, ST. Sol'lll \. 

satisfied his ambition to build a church whose magnifi- 
cence should surpass even the reports of all that had 
-one before, Bayet accuses Justinian of valuing the 
cost more than the beauty of his edifice. " The ancient 
Creeks used for the walls of the Propylaea or the Parthe- 
non the most perfect marbles because they admired their 
purity and luster; Justinian wished gold and silver 
everywhere because they are a sign of wealth " (Ch. 
Bayet, " L'Art Byzantin," p. 42). However, we can forgive 
any mercenary tendencies in view of what his architects, 
Anthemius and [sidorus, accomplished for their art. For 
without doubt the dome of Santa Sophia, which has stood 
for so many centuries, has been a model for construction- 
ists, and an incentive to the careful study of methods 
and results in dome-building. Its solidity was not 
accomplished without effort, but is the result of repeated 
experiments. As it stands to-day it is a vast dome 105 
ft. in diameter, carried on pendentives between four 
arches; thence the weight is carried to the -round by 
four huge piers of a kind of I'epperino freestone. The 
pendentives are filled in with a whitish stalactical mate- 

rial in its rough state, and showing impressions of plants; 
the mortar, in joints 1 to 2 ins. thick is reddish, appar- 
ently from the addition of pounded tile. The pressure 
of the east and west arches is resisted by the transept 
walls, and semi-domes form buttresses on the north and 
south. During the process of building, the structure 
twice showed signs of weakness on the east side; the 
dome was rebuilt, and the piers and buttresses were 
strengthened. The third dome, according to ancient 
writers, was of pumice, or light Rhodian bricks whose 
weight was one fifth that of the ordinary brick. But our 
modern authority, Salzenberg, has found no trace of any- 
thing but the customary well-burned brick in the present 
dome. Further support being necessary, the arches on 
the north and south were tilled in with clearstory walls 
whose windows and arcades are now prominent features 
of the interior. 

During the next twenty years numerous earthquakes 
shook city and temple, fissures were made in the dome, 
and in 558 a portion of it fell. Justinian entrusted its 
reconstruction to a nephew of Isidorus, who, like his 
famous colleague, Anthemius, was dead. According to 
some writers, the consulting architects decided the 
main cause of the weakness was that the wooden frames 
of the arches had been removed too soon in order to 
facilitate the work on the mosaics. Isidorus' nephew, 
accordingly, took great precaution, and while he some- 
what increased the height of the dome, he gave greater 
solidity to the arches. He also left the frames and scaf- 
folds in place a Ion-' time, and before their removal had 
the lower part of the church Hooded in order that the 
pieces of wood in falling should not shake the new con- 
structions. That dome has stood nearly thirteen cen- 
turies and a half, with the addition by the Greeks in the 
fourteenth century of works on the exterior to strengthen 
the eastern angles. All through its history it is notice- 
able that the substructures, not the dome, were at fault. 
Mr. F. W. Marks, A. R. I. B. A. (American Architect, 
Sept. 1 2, 1 s 9 1 , ]>. 169, et seq.), gives the following facts of 
the construction: " Whether constructed of pumicestone 
or of Light or heavy bricks, the recent dome seems to be of 
homogeneous construction without separate ribs, answer- 
ing, in fact, to our ordinary idea of a dome as typified by 
the internal brick dome of our own St. Paul's ( London). 
The general thickness varies from about 2 ft. to 2 ft. 6 
ins. It has strong buttresses as abutments (8 ft. 6 ins. 
thick) above the Springing, and the walls under are ex- 
cessively thick as compared with the thickness of the 
vaulting. Some of the bricks in the vaultings are 14 ins. 
square by 2 ins. in thickness. In the lower part of the great 
cupola some are 27 ins. Ion-', <j ins. wide, and 2 ins. 
thick, and others are 27 ins. square on the side. The 
principal cupola appears at first sight to rest upon four 
arches, each 100 ft. wide, but in part only those on the 
east and west have that span, and on the north and 
smith tlie real supporting arches are reduced in width to 
72 ft., and only three fourths of the circumference of 
these last arches has radiating joints, the parts next the 
springing being laid horizontally. . . . The abutments 
(of the arches running transversely north and south) were 
at first only carried up to the spring of the great arches, 
and were concealed beneath the roof over tin- side gal- 
leries, but after the fall of the dome they were raised by 





command of Justinian, so that they arc now within i.s ft. 
of the base of the cupola, and form the vast projecting 

masses called pyramids." The base of the dome consists 
of a crown of forty windows, which seem already to sug- 
gest the Romanesque lantern tower. "The windows 
project externally, and now support metal plates curved 
to correspond with the window-heads, but they probably 

e carried brick arches and served as an effective tam- 
bour to the cupola. The piers (between the windows) 
arc continued as ribs on the inside of the vault (which 
begins with a thickness of 29 ins. over the windows); 
they project at first 6 ins , gradually decrease, and die 
away into the great central disk of the cupola. At the 
crown the cupola is only 24 ins. thick, measured through 
the holes left for suspending lamps. . . . The cupola is 
covered with sheets of lead % in. thick, fastened to wood 
laths resting directly on the vault." 

No wood is used in the construction of the church, 
and stone courses occur only in the foundation and at 


the base of the main dome. The bricks used for the 
walls are inscribed with David's words: " Deus in medio 
eius non commovebitur. Adiuvabit earn Deus vultu suo." 
Customarily, Byzantine bricks were marked with a stamp 
to indicate their destination, those for churches bearing 
the cross and monogram. On Roman bricks we more 
quently find the name of the maker. Some facts 
given in the introduction to " Byzantine Architecture" 
by Texier & Pullan are of interest in connection with 
the materials used in Santa Sophia. Bricks were made 
of tempered clay, pressed into molds shaped like the 
Roman plinthos, and show the prints of the feet of men 
and children. Cornices and moldings were formed of 
pieces made in molds. Bricks used for the shafts of 

columns were circular and in two parts, if the column 
was not over 12 ins. in diameter; in segments, if the col- 
lumn was larger. Like the Roman, these bricks were 
i'_. ins. thick, and the mortar was E j in. thick. Mortar 
was made according to the Roman formula: ' j richchalk, 
Yi sand, and ' .; brick-dust. The lime was carefully 
chosen, and the sand was taken from river-banks, not 
from the seashore, and was free from foreign particles. 
In hydraulic works the sand was omitted. They bor- 
rowed from the Arabs the kind of mortar referred to in 
the previous article as •• Khorassan," which was brown- 
ish, and composed of hydraulic lime and fine sand, to- 
gether with particles of tile. It was very similar in 
quality to Portland cement, and by using it the Byzan- 
tines could erect their domes at slight cost. The bricks 
were dampened before being laid on the mortar, as is 
apparent from the rough surface of the brick visi- 
ble on the bed of cement. The joints were always 
carefully pointed to form a projecting fillet. In founda- 
tions and the cores of walls where large masses of con- 
crete were used, the courses were laid by means ol 
frames, or large wooden boxes without top or bottom, in 
which, in the case of walls, the bricks of the facing were 
first adjusted, then the cement was thrown in and pressed 
down by a rammer When the cement was properly set, 
the pieces of wood were removed, leaving holes which 
are still to be seen in some ancient building's. 

Viewed from the exterior. Santa Sophia is more 
mosque than basilica. One can see only the dome, flat- 
tened and unimposing, rising above Mohammedan addi- 
tions, and overtopped by the four graceful minarets. 
The spacious atrium, once enclosed by vaulted porticoes 
with marble columns and piers of brick, is now sur- 
rounded with the tombs of the Sultans. The lower part 
of the church is hidden by small modern houses and shops, 
which seem to desecrate the ground purchased at a high 
price by Justinian in order that his church might stand in 
the imperial quarter, close by his Hippodrome and palace. 

Santa Sophia, to M. Ha vet. is the most important church 
of Christian art : "Notre Damede Paris reckons its equals 
right in the neighboring provinces ; St. Peter's at Rome 
lacks originality, and is Christian only in its destination. 
Santa Sophia, on the contrary, has a double advantage in 
that it marks the advent of a new style, and attained at 
one lea]) such proportions as have never been equaled in 
the Orient" [op. cit., p. 41). While in a way it resem- 
bles the earlier church of SS. SerglUS and Bacchus, 
from which it might have been evolved by splitting the 
[dan in the middle and inserting a huge dome between 
the half-domes, in its turn it served as a model for later 
churches. But it has no closer imitation than the Church 
of the Mother of God, built in Constantinople in the 
ninth century. No attempt was made to copy its pro- 
portions. Architects showed their originality rather in 
the plans, the grouping of domes, and more decorative 
exteriors. The churches of Daphne and of St. Xieodemus 
in Athens remind us of tin- Eiagia TheokotOS and SS. 
Sergius and Bacchus in plan and structure, and af- 
ford illustrations of the alternation of brick and stone 
ill the wall courses. Hagia TheokotOS also shows orna- 
mental columns and arches; and the crown of windows 
in the dome, first introduced by Anthemius in Santa 
Sophia, is here evolved into a circular drum. 


i i 




The "Village Bank" Series. III. 


AMERICAN' villages, and indeed American cities, 
have for the most part developed from a few 
scattered buildings, the store, the inn. the public 
meeting-place, -set down irregularly along the main 
road <>r at a crossroads. The public square, the plaza, 
were unthought of, or the cost of maintenance precluded 
their adoption. In the more recent suburban enterprises, 
where the conditions might be supposed to render it 
possible, the open public space has by some short-sighted 
policy been considered too great a luxury to make the 
investment a profitable one. Exceptions may be found 
in one or two industrial towns, but the reason has been 
in a greater or less degree a charitable one. 

The plaza must be a part of the conception of a town 
from the beginning, or it is difficult of realization. It is 
strange, tow, considering the dignity, the attractiveness, 
and the architectural possibilities which the plaza adds to 
village life, that it should have been so universally neg- 
lected. Nearly every town of live thousand inhabitants 

that which represents the dignity, the artistic and intellec- 
tual sentiment of the community, a composition, a corre- 
lated group, a harmony of style, color, and setting. 

The bank of which this article is the immediate sub- 
ject is intended to be one building of such a group. As 
a financial institution it can scarcely be supposed to have 
monumental approaches; generally speaking, banks do 
not put much of their capital into excess territory. And 
even though the general tenor of the architectural group 
is picturesqueness, the bank, by reason of its more serious 
nature, should partake less of that quality than many of 
the other buildings. There can be no use for towers, 
little need of bigh roofs, and ornamentation, if used, 
should be quiet and restricted to the constructional lines, 
except, perhaps, at one or two points of central interest and 
accent. It should correspond in color and general Style 
to the other buildings, and in these two qualities should 
find its chief accord with the picturesqueness which 
might more reasonably be supposed to attach to them. 

Color correspondence in buildings is to the mind of 

the average observer the most striking source of resem- 
blance of which he is capable of taking cognizance. The 

A VI LI u,l-. BANK. 

or more has a dozen buildings of public or semi-public 

nature, which naturally group themselves about a plaza. 

This neglect may not be considered so strange either, 
Upon second thought, if we remember that even the 
national Capitol has, in its development, wandered far 
from the fundamental principles laid down by its founders. 
It may be in this instance that the scheme was a vast 
one and difficult to carry out in the earlier and poorer 
davs of the republic; but the erection of important 
buildings in out-of-the-way places, devoid of natural or 
artificial setting, continues, and the future looks to the 
perpetration of other crimes — for the importance of the 
case raises the offense to a crime of the same sort. 

And yet the lesser importance of the village does not 
relieve the architect, the engineer, the surveyor in 
whosesoever charge the laying out of the village rests 
of the responsibility of making the center of the village, 

buildings about Copley Square, Boston, before the Public 
Library was built, were infinitely quieter, more in key 
one with another than they have been since. One who 
has followed the architectural development of the square 
feels, perhaps, that the library is an intruder. He will- 
ingly, gladly, accepts the design, its proportions, its dig- 
nity, its details, its expressiveness of the purpose of the 
building; respects it and studies it as one of the finest 
buildings that America bas produced. But there ever 
remains the wish that it might have harmonized in color 
with Trinity Church and the Art Museu n, with the dull 
tones of the New ( >ld South, with the row along the north 
side of the square, the buildings of the Institute of Tech- 
nology, and with the various other structures in view 
from the square. It is unfortunate always to object 
without suggesting the remedy, and it is difficult to think 
of executing the library design in any material not similar 



in col or value to the granite 
of which it is laid up. It 
remains a fact, however, 
that color correspondence 
is the first note of har- 
mony that the average eye 
asks and appreciates. 

The village bank may 
justly be supposed to oc- 
cupy a corner property, 
related to the public 
"•roup, but certainly not 
on the principal axis, 
probably not on the secon- 
dary axis. It would 
balance, in a symmetric 
grouping, with a small 
office or store building, or 
some building of similar 
purpose. It is intended 
to be constructed of 
brownish brick with terra- 
cotta trimmings of the 
same color, and roof of 
dull red tiles. 

It is scarcely to be as- 
sumed that all the build- 
ings about the plaza would be designed by the same archi- 
tect. There is the likelihood of their being different in 
style, or at least in character of detail. It is also likely that 
the court-house or town hall, as the center of the group, 
would require to be, by way of emphasis, of more strik- 
ingly colored materials than the remainder of the build- 
ings. All of which argues in favor of the subordination 
of the minor structures. The natural setting of lawns 
and trees in addition to the character of the particular 


building under considera- 
tion supports the choice of 
dull rich browns for the 
exterior finish. 

In plan, the building 
has been kept as simple 
and direct as possible. 
The public has full access 
to the tellers and clerks, 
convenient but not free 
access to the officers. The 
officers and clerks have all 
the privacy they need. 
The rear entrance can be 
used by the clerks before 
ami after banking hours, 
as well as by the janitor 
and watchman at all times. 
The city bank is tend- 
ing of later years towards 
a plate glass enclosure. It 
is practically open to the 
sweeping view of all pass- 
ers, who, with the police, 
act as a safeguard as much 
as the watchmen in the 
hank's employ. This 
system is scarcely applicable to the small town, so thai 
the requirements of smaller windows, well grilled, and 
not too near the ground, are imperative. Light is an- 
other absolute essential, and can best be accomplished 
by the overhead system. While the design, therefore, 
shows a series of small windows, they are grouped inte- 
riorly within large arches, corresponding to the arch of 
the entrance, and the central panels of the Hat caisson 
ceiling are glazed. 






7"*HE nineteenth century has ended in England with- 
out having evolved a distinctive style of its 
own. At the commencement there was a Strong classic 
movement: first the old traditional classic of Chambers 
and his school, and then the new Greek style, carried to 
such a high degree of excellence by Decimus Burton; 
later came the enthusiastic revival of Gothic architec- 
ture; and at the present time we seem to be at the 
height of what is termed " English Renaissance," a 
style which appears to have the best chance of success 
in competitions. But despite the fact that the more 
monumental work of recent times has been disappoint- 
ing, in the region of domestic building, the small 
country house, — considerable success has been achieved, 
for a style has been developed, based on the frank recog- 
nition of domestic needs, which will outlive the English 
Renaissance and its more pretentious buildings. Un- 
doubtedly, the chief architectural event of the past 
year has been the competition in connection with the 
new street (100 ft. wide) to he formed between Holborn 
and the Strand at a cost of S2 5, 000, 000. London has 
materially suffered in the past from the fact that the 
architectural features of new main thoroughfares have 
not been adequately controlled by the authority carrying 
out the improvement, with the result that we possess such 
places as Charing Cross Road and Shaftesbury Avenue, 
where the buildings are utterly lacking in civic dignity 
and character. In order to secure a fine architectural 
effect, tlie London County Council decided to invite eight 
architects to submit designs for the buildings facing the 
crescent portion of the new street and those on the 
Strand frontage, agreeing to pay each architect .£250 
($1,250). The competing architects were : Messrs. Regi- 
nald Blomfield, Edward W. Mountford, Leonard Stokes, 
Mervvn Macartney, Ernest Geo rge, Henry T. Hare, 
Ernest Runtz, and William Flockhart. With one ex- 
ception, the designs were more or less Palladian in 
Style, and though several of them were very meritori- 
ous, none exhibited that massing and grouping of parts 
so essential to the effective treatment of large blocks of 
buildings and so ably represented in the works of the 
great French architects. The official report on the de- 
signs by Mr. Norman Shaw has not yet been published, 
but coming as it does from the leading architect in this 
country to-day, it is awaited with more than usual interest. 
A proposal in connection with this new street, which 
attracted a great deal of attention, was made by the emi- 
nent engineer, Sir Frederick Bramwell. He suggested that 
the buildings facing the straight portion of the thorough- 
fare, which will be about a third of a mile long, should 
be constructed after the manner of the "Rows" at 
Chester; that is, with shops and a covered footway at 
the first-floor level, bridges spanning the side streets 
and stretching at intervals over the main thoroughfare. 
This proposal, however, did not meet with approval 
in professional circles, as it was considered that the 
buildings would not present a satisfactory appearance; 

besides, the London County Council could not erect all 
the buildings themselves, as this would cost $200,000,000, 
and there was, therefore, the question as to whether 
individual lessees would bear the cost. 

Another large competition decided during the past 
year was that for the new Sessions House to be erected 
on the site of Newgate Prison, which is soon to be 
pulled down. The successful competitor was Mr. 
Edward W. Mountford, whose estimate amounted to 
si. 125,000, this sum including $15,000 for sculpture, 
$30,000 for heating and ventilating, and $15,000 for 
electric lighting and fitting. The main building com- 
prises about 2,390,000 cu. ft. and was priced at is. 6d. 
per cu. ft. 

Though competitions are well responded to, there is 
a growing dissatisfaction with the principle on which 
they are based and with the manner in which they are 
conducted. In several instances, the first premiated 
design has not been carried out, which accentuates the 
evil. A church competition in the south of England 
attracted one hundred and lift} - competitors; allowing 
six weeks for the completion of each design, this gives a 
total of nine hundred weeks (or about seventeen years) 
of vain labor, for of what use were the one hundred 
and forty-nine rejected designs? 

The last architectural exhibit at the Royal Academy 
was, taken as a whole, a very good one, the most impor- 
tant drawings being those of Mr. Aston Webb's building 
for the Royal College of Science, at South Kensington; 
Mr. J. M. Brydon's design for the circular court (160 ft. 
in diameter), which will form the chief feature in the new 
government offices to be erected in Whitehall; Mr. John 
Belcher's Eastern Telegraph Company building now in 
course of erection in the city; Mr. Collcutt's building 
for Lloyd's Registry; and the design for new Medical 
Schools at Cambridge by Mr. Edward S. Prior. 

For the past fifty years considerable attention has 
been drawn to the problem of housing the working 
classes, which, with the increased cost of materials and 
labor, has assumed an alarming aspect. Attempts 
have been made to cope with it throughout the kingdom, 
with more or less success (large tenements and hundreds 
of cottages have been erected at Manchester, Birming- 
ham. Liverpool, Edinburgh, Dublin, and Bradford), but 
it is felt that no real solution will be possible until 
certain modifications are granted by Parliament in 
regard to the tenure of land and the borrowing of money 
by municipal authorities. The Largest scheme yet 
undertaken in this country has been that of the Bound- 
ary Street Area in the east of London. In the eighties, 
this was one of the worst places in the metropolis, 
crowded with houses not fit for human habitation, and 
occupied by thieves, ruffians, and people of the very 
lowest class. The widest street was barely 2.S ft. across, 
and in the building of the hovels no mortar was used, 
being replaced by a material called " billy-sweet. " the 
chief characteristic of which was that it never properly 
dried. The whole of this plague spot has been swept 
away, and on the area of fifteen acres twenty-three blocks 
of tenements now stand, the last of them having been 
Opened in March by H. R. H., the Prince of Wales. 
The buildings are for the most part of red bricks and 
are quite pleasing in appearance, despite the fact that 



the most stringent conditions were imposed. The major- 
ity of them were designed by Mr. Thomas Blashill, the 
late superintending architect to the London County 
Council, the remainder being the work of Air. Rowland 
Plumbe. In all, 5,380 persons have been accommodated 
at a cost of $2,500,000. At the present time, the Council 
has fifty-four dwellings open, which provide accommoda- 
tion for 10,686 persons at a cost of more than $3,000,000; 
in addition, buildings are nearly ready which will pro- 
vide for 5,666 persons at a cost of $1,500,000; so that 
altogether there is provision for 30,000 persons at a 
cost of $9,000,000. It will readily be understood that 
schemes of such magnitude entail a vast amount of labor 
and difficulty, and it has recently been considered im- 
perative to form a special Housing Department con- 
trolled by a Housing manager, whose salary will be 
$4,000 per annum. 

The problem of providing accommodation for the 
working classes is made more complex by the fact that 
during the last fifteen years the cost of building has in- 
creased enormously, owing to the shorter hours of labor, 
the increase of wages, and the rise in the price of ma- 
terials. Moreover, the same amount of work is not done 
in a given period. The bricklayer at one time laid be- 
tween 800 and 1,000 bricks a day, but now not more than 
400 are laid; and when it is remembered that in a work- 
man's dwelling there are probably about 35,000 bricks, 
with stone-work for windows, it is obvious that there 
is a great increase in the cost ; in fact, a building which 
could have been erected for $1,200 fifteen years ago now 
costs $1,600. The following figures show the difference 
in the net cost, for labor only, in the several trades 
named for a superior workman's dwelling, the total cost 
of which was in 1890, $1,860, and in 1900, $2,525: - 

1 890 1 900 

Bricklayer 8>'^o $210 

Joiner 240 325 

Mason 100 140 

Plasterer 7° 12 5 

On February 23 last, the eminent architect William 
Butterfield died. He was the last survivor of that little 
group of enthusiasts who brought about the Gothic 
revival, and all his work was characterized by great 
sincerity, frank loyalty, and a striking originality. Brick 
was the chief material used in his buildings, and he 
employed it as an artist does his pigments; that is, he 
treated the brick not only as a building material, but as 
an element of color, in a manner unequaled by any of 
his followers. This is most markedly seen in Keble 
College, Oxford,— perhaps his most characteristic work,— 
but Jesus College, Cambridge, All Saints' Church, Lon- 
don, and the numerous other beautiful buildings de- 
signed by Mr. Butterfield all exhibit the same artistic- 
treatment, and are splendid examples of brick architec- 
ture. In the list of deaths during the past year must 
also be included the names of William Young and 
Charles Barry. The former was a classic architect of 
repute, and the author of the new War Office design; 
the latter was the son of the late Sir Charles Barry, who 
designed the Houses of Parliament. He was an honor- 
able and kindly man, and an able architect. Mr. Henry 
Curry, the architect of St. Thomas's Hospital, London, 
also died on November 23. 

During 1900 building has been brisk, despite the fact 
that the prices of materials are so high. 

The following prices were current in December: 

Marti Stock Bricks 36/ (about 88.751 per 1000 

Flettons 30/6 ,, 7.30 

Red Wire Cuts 35/6 ., 8.50 

Best Red Pressed Ruabon Fac- 
ings '°5/- •• 25.10 

Best Blue Pressed Staffordshires 87/- ,, 21.00 

,. Portland Cement .... 38/- ,. 9.15 per ton 

,, Ground Blue Lias Lime . 24/6 ,, 6.00 

,, Plain Red Roofing Tiles 41/d ., 10.00 per 1000 

,, Broseley Tiles 48/6 ,, 11.75 

During the past year the Society of Architects has 
continued to press forward its bill for the compulsory 
registration of architects; but this measure has en- 
countered considerable opposition, and has not yet be- 
come law. Much attention in professional circles was 
also drawn to the present very inadequate provisions for 
architectural education in this country. 

In January last a scheme was started for erecting 
Homes of Rest for discharged soldiers, particularly those 
disabled in the South African War. A freehold site at 
Bisley was given by Lord Pirbright, and an appeal was 
made for gifts in kind and money. This met with a 
hearty response from the building trades, and at the 
present time practically all the necessary materials have 
been presented and sufficient money subscribed to com- 
plete the Homes, which will form "The Building Trades' 
Gift to the Nation." Mr. Edwin O. Sachs, the honorary 
architect, is largely responsible for the success of the 

The most notable books relating to architecture pub- 
lished during 1900 have been: " Gothic Art in England " 
(Prior); " The Art and Craft of Garden Making" (Maw- 
son); "French Architects and Sculptors of the Eigh- 
teenth Century " (Lady Dilke) ; "Old Cottages and Farm 
Houses in Kent and Sussex" (Davie and Dawbcr) ; 
" Later Renaissance Architecture in England " (Belcher 
and Macartney); " Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty " 
(Flinders Petrie); "Pompeii" (Man); "Homes for the 
Working Classes in Urban Districts" (Cranfield and 

. The space at my disposal docs not allow reference to 
many other events affecting architecture which have 
taken place in this country during the past year, but 
from the particulars already given it will be seen that 
considerable activity both in architectural and building 
circles is being displayed throughout Great Britain. Pet 
us hope for unprecedented progress in the arts and in- 
dustries during the new century; let us hope for the 
time when 

We shall rest, and faith! we shall need it lie down for an 

aeon <>r two, 
Till 'the Master of All Good Workmen shall put us to work 

anew ! 
And only the Master shall praise us. and only the Master shall 

blame ; 
And no one shall work for money, and no one shall work for 

But each for the joy of the working ; and each, in his separate 

Shall draw the Thing as he sees [t, for the God of Things as 

They are. 






A NUMBER of floor tests have been (.'(inducted by 
the British Fire Prevention Committee with most 
interesting results. 

A test was made with a floor of wood joists (9 by 
3 ins., spaeed at 1(1 '..•-in. centers) filled in with concrete; 
it should be noted that a third of the space was filled 
with concrete composed of coke-breeze and cement, a 
third with concrete composed of ballast and cement, and 
the remaining third with concrete composed of ballast, 
coke-breeze, and cement. Coats of plaster were put on 
the under side of the floor, but no laths were used, 
though lathing nails were driven into the exposed joists. 
The area of the floor was 100 ft. super, and ten weeks 
(winter) were allowed for construction and drying. The 
test was with a smoldering fire of thirty minutes' dura- 
tion, followed by a fierce fire for one hour, followed 
by the application of water for four minutes. The 
floor was not loaded. During the test the joists caught 
alight, and certain portions of the soffit of the concrete 
filling were disintegrated, particularly when water was 
applied. The floor stood the test, but appeared seri- 
ously weakened; it collapsed five hours after the test 
was concluded. The floor boards were charred on the 
under side and in the joints, but they did not catch alight. 
The under side of the coke-breeze and cement concrete 
showed its straight, Hat, original soffit; that of the ballast 
and cement concrete had crumbled away; and that of 
the coke-breeze, ballast, anil cement concrete had also 
crumbled away. 

On another occasion, the committee tested a floor of 
steel joists with concrete filling, the breeze anil cement 
composing the concrete being in the proportion prescribed 
in March, [899, by the London County Council in their 
addenda to Schedule 2 of the London Building Act. 
This particular floor, however, was given extra tire- 
resistance; firstly, by the corrugated iron centering which 
was used in the construction and was not removed, 
and, secondly, by a suspended lath and plaster ceiling. 
During the test (which lasted an hour and a quarter) the 
suspended ceiling fell, and the concrete was slightly dis- 
integrated on the under side. The floor deflected 2-V + ins. 
at the center, but subsequently returned to within 1 in. 
of level. The fire did not pass through the floor, which 
had been loaded with 16S lbs. per sq. ft. 

During another test a floor of steel joists and coke- 
breeze concrete, which the Metropolitan Building Act 
maybe taken to describe as " fire-resisting, " collapsed 
after a fire of less than an hour and a half, the tempera- 
ture not exceeding 1.700 degs. Fahr. The composition 
of the concrete used was exactly as defined by the London 
County Council, and the most favorable form of joist 

the steel joist — was employed. This test was followed 
by one with a floor of deal joists and coke-breeze concrete 
which, while being constructed so as to comply with 
Section 74 of the London Building Act, did not present 
those features which are usually associated with " fire- 
proof" floors. The joists were of fir 7 by 2 ins. and 
were spaced at \i l />-\\\. centers; wooden fillets were 
nailed to their sides. Concrete was filled in on the top 
of the centering and between the joists to a depth of 
5 ins., and to the soffit >s-in. tongued and grooved 
matchboarding was fixed, and a floor of ~K-in. straight 
joint boards laid on to]) of the joists. The floor was 
loaded with 100 lbs. per sip ft. distributed. The following 
is a summary of the effect: In fifteen minutes all the 
boarding to the soffit was consumed. In fifty-four min- 
utes the flame came through the floor between the last 
joist and the wall. In sixty minutes the floor had 
deflected, and the concrete had cracked transversely. In 
seventy-four minutes the concrete between two of the 
joists fell, and in eighty-two minutes the whole floor and 
load collapsed. The joists were charred up 2 ins. on 
the under side, but the floor boards were practically 

The following is the result of a test with a floor made 
by the " Gypsine " Brick Company, Ltd., of London and 
Paris: In twenty-seven minutes small flakes dropped off 
the soffit in places, and the upper surface was quite cool 
to the touch. In thirty-four minutes further small 
flakes dropped, and a longitudinal crack about 5 ft. long 
appeared. In fifty-nine minutes, when the gas was shut 
off, the soffit was red-hot and vapor issued through 
cracks in the upper surface and from the stack of bricks 
forming the load. After the test, cracks surrounding the 
floor were observed ; they were about 'a in. wide in places 
and went down obliquely through the floor, appearing as 
hair cracks on the soffit. The floor at one end had sunk 
about 1 ' 4 ins. in the center. The material used crumbled 
away when broken for examination. Its composition 
was stated by the manufacturer as "a mixture, by means 
of water, of plaster, hydraulic lime, some sort of neutral 
material, such as coke, sand, etc., and a tire-proof ma- 
terial, such as asbestos, with an addition of sulphuric 
acid." The floor was 10 ft. by 3 ft. 6 in., and consisted 
of a single slab, without joists. 

The floor erected by the Mural and Decorations Syn- 
dicate, Ltd., <>f London, tested by the committee, was 
io ft. sq. in the clear, and was loaded with 56 lbs. per sq. 
ft. distributed. Eight weeks (winter) were allowed for 
construction and drying. Secured to the top of the 
joists and covering the whole area of the floor was some 
patent terra-cotta wired lathing of ^/4-in. mesh. The 
thickness of the concrete varied from 2 ins. over the to]) 
of the joists to 7 ins. between the joists. Patent lath- 
ing was used for the ceiling. The fire lasted an hour 
and a quarter, and the result was as follows: A consid- 
erable portion of the plaster ceiling fell during the test, 
some of the lathing being bare before the test closed. 
The floor cracked at each side to the extent of '_• in., and 
dropped ' 4 in. When water was applied, smoke, steam, 
and sparks came through cracks in the top of the floor. 
( Ine of the joists carrying the ceiling was entirely de- 
stroyed, two partially so, and one, though discolored, 
was practically sound. 



Selected Miscellany. 


The last monthly meeting and dinner of the Architec- 
tural League was particularly interesting; in fact, just 
such a meeting as the members have been waiting for, 
and consequently there was a large attendance and much 
enthusiasm. The majority of the dinners are attended 
principally by those who occupy their time in conjuring 
up constitutional amendments, or who want to say a few 
words upon the ethics or psychology of architecture, or 
to plead the cause of women as the great architects of 
the future. The subject for discussion at the recent 
dinner was the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo, and 

Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

Turner, and Bitter, respectively. The latter two gentle- 
men were unable to be present, so that their part of the 


the subject was to be treated from the standpoint of the 
architect, painter, and sculptor by Messrs. Carrere, 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

program was effectively outlined by Mr. Carrere as well 
as his own. Mr. Carrere was very enthusiastic about the 
approaching exposition, and gave those who were fortu- 
nate enough to have heard him a splendid idea oi its 
scope and undoubted beauty, as well as a comprehensive 
understanding of the great undertaking, leaving us all 
with a fixed determination to " get there or bust." Among 
other things, Mr. Carrere said that this is the first great 
exposition where the entire grounds will be treated as a 
unit, making possible a perfeel erisemble, logical and 
complete. The color scheme will be particularly attract- 
ive, and is under the personal direction of Mr. Turner. 

The general motif of the buildings will be Southern 
Renaissance, but not necessarily Spanish, as many 



.-•- '* i ' --I 

jfif 11 




I., c. Kolden, Architect. 

Roofed with American S. Tile, furnished by Pfotenhauer & Nesbit, 

agents for New York. 

Suppose. There will he speeial attention paid to the 
sculpture in regard to harmonious scale and appropriate- 
ness. The groups will represent the story of man in a 
logical growth, from his origin to his present high state 
of development, starting in order from the entrance to 
the great Electrical Tower, the point rouge of the whole 

Plans are being prepared for a tunnel and sub-surface 

terminal under the Grand Central Station. The possi- 
bilities of this innovation are a special suburban train 
tunnel connecting with a loop at the 42c! Street 
Terminal; electricity as a motive power for suburban 
trains, and underground connection for passengers be- 
tween the New York Central tunnel and the Rapid 
Transit subway station later: a track connection enabling 
trains to run through to City Hall. 

It is reported that a syndicate of which two Boston 
capitalists arc Largely interested is to build a new Hotel 
Brunswick in New York, and that plans are to be pre- 
pared by architect Henry Ives Cobb of Chicago. The 
hotel will be erected on the site of the old Brunswick on 
Fifth Avenue, from East 26th Street to East 27th Street. 


Parish & Schroeder, Architects. 

Roofed with American S. 'file, furnished by Pfotenhauer & Nesbit, 

agents for New York. 




j* m *ih ojvKt 








K. Clipston Sturjcis. Architect. 

overlooking Madison Square. The building will be 
eighteen stories in height. 

The New York Athletic Club's summer home on 
Travers' Island, bono- Island Sound, was destroyed by 
fire last week, and steps will be taken immediately to 
rebuild on a more elaborate scale. 

Mr. Richard H. Hunt, architect, announces that he 
has formed a partnership with his brother, Mr. |arvis 

The Chamber of Commerce has purchased the old 
Real Estate Exchange on Liberty Street, and will erect 
their magnificent new building on that site. This is a 
fact to In- sincerely regretted, as Liberty Street is very 
narrow, and the building will be as wretchedly placed as 

Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, makers, 




K. Clipston Sturgis, Architect. 



Fire-proofed by the National Fire-proofing Company. 

the beautiful Clearing House on Pine Street, which is 
lost between two sky-scrapers on a narrow little alley. 

We regret to announce the death of Mr. Frederick 
Clarke Withers, one of the oldest and most re- 
spected of New York's architects. Mr. Withers 
was best known for his work during the Gothic 
revival in this country, and perhaps the best 
monument to his memory is the Jefferson Market 
Court at 6th Avenue and Eighth Street. 


The international competition for the Uni- 
versity of California, which marked an architec- 
tural epoch in America, has taken a definite step. 
In order to carry out the execution of such an 

New York- Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

extensive and important work, covering so long a period 
of time, a perpetual board of advisers has been appointed, 
composed of the following well-known architects: I). 
Despradelle, of Boston, and Charles F. McKim, John M. 
Carrere, andjohn Galen Howard, of New York. 

Prank Lloyd Wright and Webster Tomlinson. archi- 
tects, Chicago, have formed a copartnership, with offices 
at Oak Park, 111., and 17 Van Buren Street, Chicago. 

Vivian & Gibb, architects, Ithaca. X. Y.. have dis- 
solved partnership. Arthur W. Gibb will retain the firm's 
offices in the Trust Company Building, while Clinton L. 
Vivian opens an office in the Hawkins Building, Ithaca. 

(»n the evening of January 12, Mr. Sid H. Nealy read 
a paper before the Washington Architectural Club on 
the " Architectural Lessons of the Calveston Disaster." 

At tlie regular monthly meeting of the Cincinnati 
Chapter, A. I. A., the drawings of the first competition 
of the year were exhibited. The problem was a school- 
house in a thrifty suburban town. Although there were 

I \l'l I \l , EXE( I I I li l\ I ERR \ CO II \ \:\ I Ilk 

W. Albert Swasey, Architect. 
il gray and white impervious brick. Made by the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company. 


1 1 

but four entries, the 
work was of the 
most satisfactory 
character, and the 
comments of the jury 
led to an interesting 
discussion. On the 
same evening Mr. 
Ludwig Eid gave a 
talk on building ma- 
terials employed i n 
the construction of 
buildings on the con- 




THERE is a very 
prevalent idea 
that enameled bricks 
are too expensive to 
be commonly used 
where such material 
would be desirable. 
Aside from the broad 
question that nothing 
is too good to meet 
the necessities of a 
particular case in the 
best manner, the fact 
is that a facing of 
enameled brick can 
now be applied to a 
masonry wall at so 
comparatively slight 
an e x p e n s e as to 

Brick furnished by Sayre & Fisher Company. 


make it undesirable 
to economize in first 
cost by using any- 
thin g e 1 se. The 
Tiffany Ena m eled 
Brick Company man- 
u f ac ture bricks of 
varying thick n e s s, 
Tunning from i '4 to 
4 '- ins., all present- 
ing, when laid up in 
the wall, the appear- 
ance of bricks of the 
ordinary size. These 
bricks range in price 
from twenty-seven 
cents per square foot 
for the thinner vari- 
eties to forty-three 
cents for the thick- 
est. The t h i n n e r 
bricks are made with 
a slot, so that they 
c an b e firmly an- 
chored to the wall, 
and except in pre- 
serving the b rick 
form on the exterior, 
are practically en- 
ameled tiles, but are 
made on the s a m e 
body and with the 
same care in apply- 
ing the enamel which 
ch ar ac t e rizes the 
more commonly used 
sizes. There is no 


Work done by the Central Fire-proofing Company. 

T< 1ST 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 




Link & Rosenheim, Architects. 

Roofed with Ludowici roofing tile. 

reason why 
these thin fac- 
ings should not 
be applied in a 
perfectly satis- 
factory manner, 
and there cer- 
tainly is no 
question about 
the exce llent 
appearance of a 
w a 1 1 which is 
faced through- 


The entrance to " Riverbank Court." il- 
lustrated in the halt-tone plate form of this 
number, has a dome ceiling of Guastavino 

< reorge S. Mills, architect, Toledo, < >hio, has 
opened a branch office at Lima, Ohio, in the 
Masonic Building, which has just been com- 
pleted from his plans. Charles W. Dawson, 
formerly of Colorado Springs, has been placed 
in charge. Manufacturers' catalogues and 
samples desired. 

Sylvain Sehnaittachcr, architect, after seven 
months spent in Europe, has resumed business 
at his former address, 404 Adams Building, 
San Francisco. Manufacturers' catalogues and 
samples desired. 

Architect James I'. Hubbell, formerly of 
Keokuk. Iowa, has moved to Dallas, Texas, 
and will be associated with Herbert M. Greene 
of that city under the firm name of Hubbell & 
Greene. The firm would bepleased to receive 
late catalogues and samples. 

R. Guastavino Company are now operating 
a factory of their own, exclusively for the 
making of the glazed and finished material with which, 
as contractors, their name has been so long identified. 

The National Fire-proofing Company, Pittsburgh, is 

sending out a very attractive " Cake Walk " calendar, in 
which " burnt clay " is shown in a novel and pleasing 

The Penn Buff Brick and Tile Company, manufac- 
turers of "Blue Ridge" enameled brick, have recently 
added to their plant considerable new machinery of the 
most modern type, which will increase their capacity 
about threefold. This company sold every brick it could 
make during the year [900. 

i>ki \n . EXE( 1 1 ED l\ llkia mm n 
BY I HE \oi< 1 1 1 w ES I ERN I ERR A 
( o 1 1 \ COMPANY. 

out in enameled brick. For elevator 
wells in the interior of a building, for 
lavatories, sub-basements, and interior 

courts, the use is already verv preva- 
lent. There are also an increasing 
number of buildings which have been 
faced throughout with enameled brick. 
A good enameled brick is the best 
known resistant of tire and water, and 
will stand for inside or outside work in 
any climate; while with the new dead 
finish enameled brick, handsome effects 
can readily be obtained, and the un- 
pleasant effect of the glaze avoided, 
while all the advantages of the imper- 
vious and easily washed surface is re- 


Blackal] & Newton, Architects. 

The Faience has a glazed surface with subdued colors, pale yellow and green predominating. 

The pilasters at side are a pale gray blue. Grueby Faience Company, makers. 





IT 111 Islll- li MONTHLY HV 


85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . I'. ( ). Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12. 1S92 


5.00 per year 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States 

and Canada $; 

Single numbers 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union £6.00 per yeai 

Subscriptions payable in advani e. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied 
by the American News Company and its branches. 


Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order 

Agencies. — Clay Products .... II 

Architectural Faience II 

„ Terra-Cotta . II and III 

ISrick Ill 

Enameled Ill and IV 


Cements I V 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 


WE have so repeatedly in these columns placed our- 
selves on record as unreservedly favoring laws 
looking to the proper licensing and control of" the 
practice of architecture that we are especially glad in 
this number to present to our readers the very inter- 
esting article upon the subject, contributed by Dr. N. 
Clifford Kicker, Dean of the College of Engineering, and 
Professor of Architecture in the University of Illinois. 
While such strong efforts are being made in New York 
to arouse professional interest in this subject, the article 
comes with especial timeliness, and based, as it is, upon 
the observance of the operation of the law during a 
period of several years, its conclusions possess a value 
which entitle them to the highest consideration. The 
standing of the architect in a professional sense has 
changed immensely during the past few years. Indeed, 
it might almost be said that as a profession, architecture 
was not practised at all in this country before the Cen- 
tennial of [876. There was little concerted efforts and 
almost no appreciation on the part of the public of what 
an architect was expected to know and to do wisely and 
correctly. It would have been impossible to have 
enacted any laws such as that which has graced the 
Statute books of Illinois without the growth in public 

appreciation on thejjjpart, not£ merely'of jjthe",architects, 

but also of the casual citizen who is interested in the 
welfare of this country. It must he borne in mind, 
however, that the Illinois law, admirable as it is and 
efficacious as it has proved, in practice does not make 
the slightest attempt to discriminate between what we 
would professionally call a "good" or a "had" archi- 
tect. Such a discrimination, as far as it relates to 
artistic interests, would certainly be desirable in many 
ways, and if it could be applied with any sort of fairness, 
would do a great deal to enhance the worthiness of our 
profession. The examinations which are held in Europe, 
looking to the licensing of the architects, do include a 
careful inquiry into the applicant's artistic ability; but 
the spirit of our constitutional laws, as Dr. Ricker very 
aptly puts it, gives Americans the inalienable right to 
spend their money in erecting buildings that are master- 
pieces of ugliness. And so the most we can hope from 
laws to be enacted in this country looking towards the 
control of the practice of architecture is that such laws 
shall make it impossible for a man to practise unless he 
at least knows how to make his building strong and 
sanitary. Such restrictions arc fairly within the consti- 
tutional powers of every State, and it is only a question 
of time when they are bound to be exercised in souk 
form or other. 

The Illinois law, in fact, might almost be termed not 
so much an act to license architects, as a law to regulate 
building construction; for it makes it impossible for 
either engineer, contractor, or self-styled architect to 
undertake the erection of any building which has walls 
and a roof unless he has satisfied the authorities that he 
has the requisite knowledge. This is a purely practical 
and utilitarian limitation, and vet it has been remarked 
repeatedly that some of the most enthusiastic sup- 
porters of laws of this description have been architects 
who have won their chief title to favor through their 
artistic rather than their practical attainments. 

Dr. Kicker calls attention to one result of the law 
which possibly was not anticipated by those who pre- 
sented it, namely, the suppression of the infliction oi 
immature architecture on the unsuspecting community 
by draughtsmen not yet out of their artistic swaddling 
hands. We fancy that very few architects in ordinary 
practice are at all alarmed by the kind of competition 
which their draughtsmen can set up against them, for 
it is a sort of work which generallj brings its own 
reward, though not always in the shape in which the 
ambitious draughtsmen anticipate; but it is so thor- 
oughly a mistake for a young man to start in business 
until he is fully equipped that any hindrances which 
would keep him in training until he has attained his 



majority is a blessing to him. no less the real because he 
may not appreciate it. 

Dr. Ricker calls attention to the excellent work which 
was done in the interpretation and application of the 
law by the late Mr. Dankmar Adler and Mr. P. I!. White. 
but he very modestly fails to rightly emphasize the 
value of his own high reputation and his strong artistic 
common sense which were so effectual in making a law 
of this kind acceptable to the many interests which were 
at stake. If a similar law should he passed in New 
York, we cannot wish it a better fate than that its inter- 
pretation and application should he entrusted to a hoard 
seleeted as wisely as the hoard which has had the 
Illinois law in charge. 



ROM time to time there have been in this country 
spasmodic and generally abortive attempts to es- 
tablish regular exhibitions of building material and 
appliances. They do those things better, however, in 
London, where the Building Trades' Exhibition has 
come to he a regularly recognized necessity of the con- 
structive arts. This year the executive of the British 
[•"ire Prevention Committee, whose members have learned 
an important lesson from the trade aspect which tire- 
proofing has assumed since the Cripplegate fire, have 
organized a special feature of the exhibition, which 
promises to be productive of considerable good. A 
separate hall has been set aside for the fire-proofing 
exhibits, and a snb-eommittee headed by Mr. Edwin ( >. 

Saehs, the well-known architect, is apparently endeavor- 
ing t<> interest all the leading authorities on fire pro- 
tection, etc!, throughout England to participate in the 
exhibition in question. There will be a great deal of 
this exhibition which will be of value to the architectural 
and engineering professions as well as to the municipal 
authorities and the insurance companies, and the Fire 
Prevention Committee will show a model of their testing 
station, with reports, photographs, etc. Something of 
this kind is badly needed in America. We have only the 
most fragmentary, sporadic atttfffipts at anything of this 
description now, and this, notwithstanding that fire- 
proofing as a science is far in advance of what is prac- 
tised abroad. There can nothing but good come from 
an interchange of ideas on such subjects, and to be most 
efficacious such ideas should be presented conjointly, 
where comparisons can be made and the different points 
of view studied together. It is hoped that something of 
this kind may shortly take practical form in Boston, if 
not in New York. 

'"'TMIL question of housing the poor is just now occupy- 
L ing the attention of many cities, both in the United 
States and England. The League for Social Service, 105 
Last 22d Street, New York, of which Dr. Josiah Strong 
is president and Dr. William II. Tolman is secretary, is 
taking a deep and active interest in this work. 

A petition signed by prominent men in New York 
City, men who are taxpayers, is about to be presented to 
the State legislature of New York, urging that body to 
enact legislation which will result in acquiring one block 
of -round on the East Side of New York City to demon- 

strate the feasibility of building on said ground model 
houses for the people. The block of buildings, it is pro- 
posed, shall be owned by the city, and rented at prices 
which will pay the legal rate of interest on the invest- 
ment, and the cost of keeping the homes in first-class 

The petition from the city of New York, asking the 
Legislature of New York to pass a bill authorizing the 
city to acquire property and erect model houses for 
the people, embodies plans as follows: 

The plans for such homes to include the block as a 

The buildings to be fire-proof, with every modern 
improvement that can be advantageously used, the 

whole to be owned by the city, and rented at such rates 
as will pay the Legal rate of interest on the investment 
and the cost of keeping such homes in first-class condi- 

The city to be forever debarred from renting any 
such property for the purpose of selling intoxicating 
Liquors therein. 

These recommendations are made in the belief that 
the best interests of the city demand some such plan be 
put in operation, because it will 

First. Furnish homes for the people who otherwise 
would never have them. 

Second. Furnish employment tor its own mechanics, 
laborers, and tradesmen, and thereby benefit the whole 


Third. Do away with the present unsanitary tene- 
ments, which are a menace to life and health; it being an 
undisputed fact that over six thousand deaths a year 
occur from consumption alone, contracted under condi- 
tions the average wage-earner is powerless t<> protect 
himself against. 

Fourth. By refusing to allow any intoxicating 
liquors to be sold on such premises, the municipality is 

committed to a line of policy which must in time com- 
mend itself to the citizens of the city by checking the 
causes which lead to demoralization and vice, and as an 
object-lesson show that the municipality stands for the 
ideals it must strive after if the nation is to survive and 
prosper, as its ultimate tate must depend to a great 
extent upon the training the children of the great cities 
receive, and the environment that surrounds them. 

/■/////. Gradually put in operation a system that 
will restore to the people the right to live on the earth 
without paying, at least, one fourth of all they earn, to 
landlords for what nature intended should be the com- 
mon heritage of all the people. 

The Third Annual Convention of the Architectural 
League of America will be held at Philadelphia, May 
23 25. 

The proceedings of the Second Annual Convention ot 
the Architectural League of America, held at Chicago, 
[une, iijoo, have just been issued in pamphlet form. All 
the papers read before the convention are included, 


Brickwork in Paris. 


THE predominant characteristic of nearly all the 
brickbuilding in Paris is picturesqueness. Whether 
that quality be altogether a desirable element in city 
buildings is at least open to question. Brick, of course, 
lends itself readily to the picturesque; and the small 
size of the buildings in which brick is employed in this 
city offers further temptation for the use, perhaps the 
exaggeration, of that quality. It is certainly much easier 
to make a picturesque design when the problem is a small 
one, or the site irregular. 

To this picturesqueness of outline, color is the natural 
accompaniment; and the domestic structures in Paris, 
being, as we have said, small, are freed from the strict 
regulations governing larger buildings, and open a limit- 
less field for the use of brick in obtaining the desired color. 

In the smaller domestic work, then, and wherever in- 
dividuality and color are sought for, brick is much em- 
ployed, although stone is a cheaper material, and is 


more easily obtained. Therefore, in looking for examples 
of brickwork, we naturally turn to those residence centers 
where small private houses mark individual ownership. 

Many of the buildings we find there might fittingly 
be called architectural misfortunes. They are almost 
grotesque. In many cases, to be sure, there occur happy 
combinations of color; but they are usually wasted upon 
buildings unspeakably poor in architectural form. Ex- 
amples of the reverse instance — good outline and 
atrocious color — are no less common. In most of this 
smaller work, indeed, the so-called "emancipation" of 
the French architect from the influences of the past is a 
matter for sincere regret. Many an attempt to reproduce a 
Louis XI I. motive is marred by molding, or rather expand- 
ing, its graceful detail into conformance with the school 
traditions. The consequent changes in scale are ruinous. 

It is in the new quarter of Paris that the most inter- 


esting examples of brickwork are to be found. Brick is 
employed there occasionally in apartment houses as well 
as in private dwellings; but the larger structures are so 
hampered by building laws that there is little or no 
attempt at actual recognition of that material. ■ Several 
schools and colleges, by the way, are built entirely of 
brick ; and some attempts at a commercial or factory type, 
employing" a combination of brick and iron, have been 
made from time to time. 

The quarter of Hausmannized Paris that we mean to 
designate lies around the Place des Etats-Unis, the Pare 
Nouveau, and the little street of Eugene Flachat. 



T II E B RICK BU 1 L I) E R . 

STUDIOS, RU1 EUOEN1 I ! \< II \ I . 

On the south side of the Place des Etats-Unis stands 
tin- house of Julian Story, the American artist. It is of 
a light-colored brick, — originally yellow. with red- 
brick quoins. The entrance, bay, an addition, and win- 
dows above are of stone, following an Italian rather than 
a French Renaissance precedent. A further touch of 
Italy is given l>v the wide projecting eaves. The studio 
is recessed, and. breaks the roof-line pleasantly. But the 
large window lighting the studio proper is bare and 
meager in comparison with the charming stone motive 
directly above it. The brick decoration contributes an 
air of gaiety that is not displeasing; but greater refine- 
ment and dignity might have been obtained by using, 
below the attic at least, brick of only one color; with no 
attempt to enliven the surface by the weak cornice 
decoration of imitation quoins. 

Another innovation that is. on the whole, rather 
unfortunate is the addition of the entrance, which, 
although it makes an interesting composition, mars the 
mass of the main building. 

Another dwelling which, by its overhanging root' and 
arcaded upper story, is stamped with Italian influence is 
found in the street of Eugene Flachat. It is a logical 
expression of the plan, and satisfactory in spite of what 
may seem to in- a lack of symmetry. A few simple, 
broad lines of stone frame the lower three stories, while 
the arcade and overhanging roof lend dignity to an 
irregular though frank fenestration. Colored mosaic 
decoration is used in the cornice and under the arch of the 
principal window. A unique iron balcony binds the doit ble 
window, and all of the stone carving is refined in detail. 

Further along the same street is another and simpler 
Italian motive, a house of glazed brick, with no attempt 
at architectural treatment except in the strong basement 
and crowning eaves. Much of the decoration in brick- 
work is coarse, and much is meager, as. for example, 
where the votissoirs of the arches are ornamented. 

( )n each side of this building is a smaller house, one 

ii - 1 1 1 1 \< i 

1M \c I M \l ESHKRBES. 

ii 5IDF \i I . SK \k PI At I DES ETATS I MS. 

Gothic, the other in a late Renaissance style. The 
former, to the left in our picture, is made entirely of 
brick except the base and entrances. Considerable effect 
is obtained by brick corbels. Colored tile-work appears 
in what serves as a frieze, and a diaper pattern of dark 
brick covers the body of the building. The small build- 
ing to the right in the picture is of a common type of the 
French Renaissance, brick with architectural members 
of stone. varying only in proportion and in refinement 

of detail. 

The example of bfickbuilding next pictured is also 
on the Rue Flachat, where its picturesque broken sky- 
line looks somewhat out of place among more conven- 
tional neighbors. But the broad treatment in the use of 
colored brick, and the spotting of the wall-surface by 
headers, makes it worthy of study. 

The more formal specimens surrounding those we 
have selected follow two conventional styles. the French 
Gothic and the style of Henry IV. or Louis XIII. The 



Gothic examples in brick are for the most part modeled 
after the Louis XII. wing at Blois. 

'I'he house on the Place Malesherbes rivals in size 
Blois itself, from which it has drawn nearly every motive 
and detail. The view in front is more interesting than 
that on the sides, where the plan demanded a certain 
monotony of fenestration. The building is a clever, free 
adaptation of a precedent to meet modern requirements. 
Situated on a corner and occupying all the frontage of a 
small block, it preserves its carefully studied sky-line 
uninterrupted by adjoining constructions. 

A small, though none the less interesting, mass is 
near the Place des Etats-Unis. In contrast to the free- 
dom of its large rival, its sky-line is marred on account 
of a bald, utilitarian background, — the walls of a neigh- 
boring apartment house. The re-enforcement of the soft 
stone party-walls of the latter by brick ties is interesting. 


There are illustrated two more examples of Gothic 
work in brick between party-walls, examples differing 
widely in situation as well as design. 

The florid house on the street of Leo Delibes, with its 
great studio window, suffers in comparison with the 
charming little composition near the Sorbonne, which 
has an individuality as distinct as the work of Burgess 
or Wilson Eyre. 

There are several attempts at the use of brick and 
iron in domestic work in the Style Nouveau, but the 
result is one to avoid. In the suburban streets are many 
especially attractive brick compositions. Here the back- 
ground of foliage gives contrast and makes welcome that 
picturesqueness of which one is timid in the city. 

Thus far, it will be observed, the notes of tins archi- 
tectural pilgrimage have omitted accrediting work to the 
several designers. But in the domestic architecture of 
Paris there is an utter lack of that individuality of con- 
ception that stamps the London dwellings, for example. 

An architect visiting in Paris finds himself compelled 


to refer to the architectural periodicals tor the identifica- 
tion of the smaller buildings. In England, on the other 
hand, the first glance at a building enables him to name 
the designer, Shaw, Belcher, or Ernest George, as the 
case may lie. 

Does the Ecole training destroy individuality ? 

I \( \ Ml , i< 1 I Ml. CHANIN. 



Results of License Law tor Architects 
in Illinois. 

President, Board ol Examiners of Architects, State oi Illinois* 

IN continental Europe, the profession of architecture 
can only be entered after a full course of technical 

studies in a school of architecture, a term of practical 
experience, and by passing a severe examination by State 
authority. This insures the possession of an amount of 
professional knowledge and experience at least equaling 
the requirements for admission to the professions oi law 
and medicine. It results that the duties, powers, and 
remuneration of an architect are more clearly defined, 
and his responsibility for his work is greater than is the 
case in the United States, where the profession is 
practically open to any person possessing the moderate 
capital necessary to equip an office, and who can secure 
some confiding clients. 

This condition of affairs was long since considered 
objectionable l>v thoughtful architects, who agreed that 
at least a minimum professional knowledge should he 
possessed by every architect, and that, like law and 
medicine, this profession should he protected from 
ignorant and dishonest pretenders, dangerous to life and 
health, and promoting large expenditures of money, 
producing neither good architecture nor any adequate 
financial return. 

The average citizen is frequently unable to distinguish 
between scientific physicians and quacks : he is still less 
likely to appreciate the great difference between a com- 
petent architect and one ignorant of sanitation, of the 
principles of construction, relying entirely on Divine 
providence to sustain his buildings until after the 
collection of his commission. 

The most feasible and effective method of regulating 
the architectural profession is the enactment of a license 
law, requiring some examination of the professional 
qualifications of architects, and exercising some control 
over practice, with the punishment of dishonest acts. 
Such a law is quite similar to the laws regulating the 
practice of law, medicine, and pharmacy, now existing 
in nearly all civilized communities. It can only be 
based on the police powers of a State to protect the- lives, 
health, and property of its citizens, because a law author- 
izing" inquiry into matters of taste and style would 
probably be adjudged to be unconstitutional. Americans 
have an inalienable right to spend their money in erect- 
ing buildings that are masterpieces of ugliness, so long 
as these do not endanger the health and lives of their 
occupants or of their neighbors; and this right cannot be 
abridged, anymore than their right to employ physicians 
of any " path}'," or lawyers belonging to any party. 

New York was probably the first State to pass such a 

license law for architects; but this act was summarily 

vetoed by Governor Flower, who regarded it as merely 

a means for organizing a professional trade union, thus 

Lg purely class legislation. 

Similar laws have been proposed in other States. 
especially in Ohio, Missouri, and Texas, but no such law 
has been enacted except in Illinois. 

As early as [895, at least, a license law was drafted 

by a committee of the Chapter of the American Institute 
of Architects in Chicago, being chiefly the work of the 
late Dankmar Adler of Chicago, who devoted much very 
valuable time and thought to this subject. The same 
committee appears to have endeavored to induce the 
legislature to favorably consider and pass this law. but 
it never passed the initial stage. 

Some changes were made, and a bill embodying them 
was introduced in [897 by Hon. C. W. Nothnagel, an 
architect practising in Chicago, then a member of the 
Legislature, and seconded by a committee of Chicago 
architects. To the general surprise of the profession, 
these efforts were successful, and the law was enacted 
and approved by the governor. A few amendments to 
remedy defects were further made in [899. 

The chief points of the present law are as follows: 
Bach practising architect must procure a license, obtain 
a personal seal bearing his name and address, and im- 
press this on all working drawings and specifications 
issued from his office. This locates the personal respon- 
sibility for defective construction, and for injuries to 
life or health. This license may be revoked for non- 
payment of annual fee, and restored on payment thereof. 
Or it may be revoked for incompetency, recklessness, or 
dishonest practices after due trial before the Board. 
Penalty of from fifty to five hundred dollars per week is 
provided for practising architecture without a license, 
and the Hoard is required to prosecute all violations, and 
is authorized to expend funds for this purpose. These 
penalties are not received by the Board, but are paid into 
the local school fund, I believe. 

In order t<> avoid any strong opposition to the enact- 
ment of this law. it was considered necessary to make 
two concessions, whose effect is temporarily injurious; 
but this condition is rapidly improving. 

1. License without examination. Any person prac- 
tising architecture as a profession on July 1, 1 S<j 7. the 
time at which the law went into effect, was entitled to a 
license without examination of his qualifications, pro- 
vided he made application before Jan. 1. [898, and fur- 
nished satisfactory proofs of the fact. Although a care- 
ful investigation of the evidence was made in each case, 
the competency of the applicant could not be considered, 
and it is probable that a considerable number of incom- 
petent men were necessarily licensed, to the disgust of 
some fully qualified practitioners. 

I!ut it is certain that without this provision, strenu- 
ous opposition to the law would have been made by 
prominent architects, who regarded any examination 
into their competency as humiliating and as a possible 
means of injury that might be utilized by professional 
rivals. but a single architect, entitled to license on ac- 
count of practice, has ever voluntarily taken the exami- 
nations prescribed by the law. 

However, this mode of obtaining license became im- 
possible after Jan. 1, 1.X9X, and the holders of this class 
of licenses are being rapidly replaced by those licensed 
after careful examination of their professional qualifica- 
tions and experience, as provided in the law. Nearly 
one sixth of the entire number have been thus replaced 
by younger and competent men within the past three 
years. SO thai at the end of fifteen vcars from this time 
verv few will be left, and the architects in Illinois will 



form a professional body unequaled in professional 
equipment in any other State. 

2. Contractors may make their working plans without 
obtaining license or using a seal. It is common for large 
contractors to furnish their own plans and specifications, 
accompanying these with a bid for the work, just like 
builders of steel bridges. When such plans are offered 
for bids from others, and the work is let to another con- 
tractor, the author of the plans becomes an architect 
practising without license, and is liable to the penalties 
of the law. 

This provision was inserted to avoid opposition of 
large contractors, but its operation is practically pre- 
vented in Chicago, where an ordinance authorizes the 
issue of building permits only for plans stamped with the 
seal of a licensed architect. This ordinance has practi- 
cally compelled railways, builders of steel structures, and 
manufacturing companies erecting their own buildings 
to place their work in charge of an employee possessing a 

This provision of the law sin mid be canceled, since 
no reason exists why any distinction should be made in 
the responsibility for buildings, whether the designer and 
superintendent be a professional architect or an experi- 
enced contractor. 

The law defines an architect as being professionally 
engaged in preparing plans and specifications for build- 
ings, which are further defined as structures possessing 
foundations, walls, and roof, which includes some classes 
of engineering structures, and, therefore, engineers en- 
gaged in designing such structures are required to obtain 
licenses. This is simply just, because it would be im- 
proper to permit an engineer to practise architecture 
without a license, just as he would not be permitted to 
plead in a court of law without having been admitted to 
the bar. 

The statement has sometimes been made that the law 
practically prevents non-resident architects from practis- 
ing in Illinois. But this is entirely untrue, for such 
architects may obtain licenses on exactly the same terms 
as those resident within the State. A considerable num- 
ber of such licenses have been issued to architects resid- 
ing in Boston, Cincinnati, St. Louis, and in various cities 
in Indiana. 

In accordance with the provisions of the act, the gov- 
ernor appointed a Board of Examiners to execute the 
license law, consisting of Hon. Dankmar Adler, president 
of the Board for the first two years, Peter B. Wight, its 
secretary, W. H. Reeves, W. C. Zimmerman, and N. C. 

This Board first met and organized on Sept. 3, 1897, 
and since no forms nor precedents for conducting its 
business existed, it first became necessary to prepare a 
series of blank forms, and to arrange a system for hand- 
ling the work that should insure justice to all applicants, 
and speedy decisions in all cases. A blank application 
was sent to all applicants, to be properly filled out and 
accompanied by an affidavit. 

As a check on the statements made in the application, 
the names of two buildings were required, for which the 
applicant had been employed as architect, together witli 
the names and addresses of their owners. Letters to 
these owners soon elicited the facts, whether the appli- 

cant had actually been the architect of the building or 
merely a contractor for its construction. If satisfactory 
replies were received, and personal knowledge or in- 
quiries made by the Board corroborated this information, 
the license was issued. It was manifestly impossible for 
any member of the Board to have personal knowledge of 
each of the eight hundred applicants for license on ac- 
count of practice. But if it appeared that the applicant 
was merely a contractor, superintendent, or mechanic 
employed on the building, or if bv a singular mental 
error lie had named a building with which he had no 
connection whatever, the case was laid aside, and the 
applicant was requested to furnish more evidence. 

It was quite common for a doubtful candidate to ob- 
tain remarkable certificates of professional competency 
from his townsmen, believing that such papers would 
paralyze the Board. It was often interesting to learn 
that in the opinion of his friends, Mr. Blank, of Podunk, 
was the professional equal of any Chicago architect, thus 
giving to fame the name of a practitioner hitherto un- 
known to the profession. It was generally found that 
these certificates formed the chief qualification of the 
applicant, although the citizens sometimes expressed 
themselves entirely satisfied with his work, and saw no 
reason why the State should interfere. 

The dire vengeance of local political bosses and of 
legislators was occasionally threatened if a license were 
refused, but this vengeance always failed to materialize, 
possibly because architects seldom have much time to 
devote to practical politics and to acquire such influence. 

About eight hundred applications for license on 
account of practice were filed, and of these about seven 
hundred were granted, after a very careful and patient 
consideration of each ease, with a disposition to interpret 
and administer the law as leniently as possible. More 
than five hundred of these were issued to architects prac- 
tising in Chicago or its suburbs, which, indeed, seemed 
to be a large number for a city, where building had been 
almost prevented since 1892 by hard times, and by dis- 
putes between contractors and trade-unions. About one 
hundred and fifty architects were licensed in the re- 
mainder of the State, and a score or more of non-residents 
obtained license. The number of applicants was indeed 
surprising, since no member of the Board would have 
expected to find more than four hundred architects 
practising within the State. 

Besides the great number of architects in Chicago, 
other evidence demonstrated its vastness and its un- 
Americanized foreign population, for a Bohemian archi- 
tect was found there, practising entirely among his com- 
patriots, who actually used specifications printed and 
written in the Bohemian language. It was even neces- 
sary to employ an interpreter at his appearance before 
the Hoard. 

After Januarv 1, a new form of application blank was 
used, together with a different form of license, stating 
that its possessor had passed a satisfactory examination 
of his professional qualifications as prescribed by the law. 
This application for examination and license specifics the 
education and professional training of the candidate, the 
nature of his employment for the live years previous, and 
names any buildings designed by him. Working drawings 
and specifications of these buildings may be sent in, and 


resident architects are required to personally appear be- 
fore the Board for oral examination, [f this evidence and 
the qualifications of the applicant appear inferior t<> those 
required in the class examination, he is directed to appear 

at the next class examination, which is entirely writti n, 
continues for two and a half or three days, and is con- 
ducted by a committee of three members of the Hoard. 
which marks the papers, identified by numbers only. 

Two or three class examinations have been held 
annually, alternately in Chicago and at the University 
of Illinois. These relate only to the live points specified 
in the license law : 

"The examination shall have Special reference to the 
construction of buildings, and a test of the knowledge of 
the candidate of the strength of materials, and of his oi- 
lier ability to make practical application of such knowl- 
edge in the ordinary professional work of an architect, 
and in the duties of a supervisor of mechanical work on 
buildings, and should also seek to determine his or her 
knowledge of the laws of sanitation as applied to 
buildings. " 

A.S before stated, no inquiry on any other subjects is 
authorized. Those specified are within the police powers 
of the State, upon which the law is based. 

These examinations have been carefully arranged so 
as to place on equal footing the graduate from a school 
of architecture, the man trained in the office of an 
architect, or the competent mechanic or superintendent, 
educated by experience and private study. Possession 
of the required knowledge is essential, no matter where 
obtained. All kinds of candidates have been examined, 

from the simple mechanic or draughtsman to the graduate 
of the best French school with a diploma entitling him 
to practise architecture in France. 

Up to this time [86 applications for examination and 
license have been received, and 120 of these candidates, 
or nearly two-thirds, have successfully passed the ex- 
aminations, and licenses have been issued. This makes 
a total of about .S20 licenses issued, about 670 of these 
being now in force, showing a loss of about 150 

This loss is caused by deaths, by removal from the 
State, by abandoning the profession, etc.. but chiefly by 
revocation of licenses for failure to pay the annual re- 
newal fee. It has doubtless chiefly occurred among 
architects licensed on account of practice, affording a 
basis for my previous statement, that about one sixth of 
this class has been replaced by men that have passed the 

One license has been revoked for dishonest practi 

The license law is enforced by the attorney of the 
Board, Hon. Charles N. Goodnow, of Chicago, who keeps 
a close watch on buildings and architects, and conducts 
all prosecutions in the courts for violation of the law. 

The system of administration is largely due to the 
wise foresight and the careful thought of the late Dank- 
mar Adler, a gentleman imbued with the noblest civic- 
spirit; the very complete forms required were chiefly 
devised by Peter I'.. Wight, the secretary of the Board; 
other members have devoted especial care to the 
examinations and the general work of the Hoard. 

The general results of the law have been decidedly 
advantageous to the public as well as to the profession. 

Numerous shysters and incompetents have been driven 

out of practice, especially in Chicago and its vicinity, 

where a considerable number of men have been prose- 
cuted and fined. There is plenty of room for this class 
outside of Illinois. 

The professional status of the architect has been very 
materially elevated, and the general public is learning 
that there is a great difference between the architect 
and the contractor, and to beware of a person attempt- 
ing to perform both services at the same time. No man 
should have an interest in the profits of the erection of 
a building built under his direction and subject to his 
approval, acting as the expert adviser and agent of the 

Draughtsmen in the larger offices have been restrained 
from practising on their own account, unless they pass 
examinations and obtain a license, when they usually 
commence for themselves. This kind of practice has 
been quite common in Chicago, to the detriment of regu- 
lar practitioners, who have to pay rent and other ex- 
penses, from which the draughtsman is free. It has usually 
been forbidden in the best offices. Cases have even oc- 
curred where draughtsmen have been employed to work 
on competition drawings, and have made and presented 
other designs made by themselves on their own account. 
certainly a matter of bad faith. 

The professional education and training necessary to 
the successful practice of architecture lias very materially 
increased during the existence of the law. Nearly one 
sixth of the number of architects licensed without examina- 
tion have been replaced by men who have passed the 
examinations now required. Since this change has oc- 
curred within three and one half years, it may reasonably 
be expected that all incompetent men will have left the 
profession at the end of the next ten years, when all 
practising architects will have either passed the examina- 
tions or possess equal preparation for their work. The 
professional standing of the architect should then, in 
Illinois, equal that of the lawyer or the physician. 

Two very important changes are very clearly apparent 
at this time, and they are certainly in part due to the 
license law. 

The country practice, excepting court-houses and 
large school buildings that are still designed by spe- 
cialists, is rapidly passing into the hands of local archi- 
tects instead of Chicago architects. This .^'ives the 
country architects plenty of work, and produces a conges- 
tion of practitioners in Chicago, where architects do not 
yet appreciate this great change. 

With the exception of -real office and mercantile 
buildings, still monopolized by a few Chicago firms, the 
work of the profession is rapidly passing into the hands 
of younger men, whose education, training, opportu- 
nities for travel, etc.. are far superior to those of their 
predecessors. It may be confidently expected that if 
a truly American style of architecture ever appears, it 
will be the work of these enthusiastic and energetic 
young men. and it is more likely to appear in Chicago 
than elsewhere, the place of origin of these three great 
advances in modern architecture, the steel founda- 
tion and skeleton, the office building, and the rational 
mercantile building now just developing into its perma- 
nent form. 


3 1 

The "Village Bank" Series. IV. 


IN a prosperous inland village, in the center of an 
agricultural community, the local bank has out- 
grown the limitations of the small store building which 
it had formerly occupied, and has determined to build for 

A country college is also located in this village, and 
the intelligence and taste of the community is higher 
than the average. This is evidenced by the public 
library, the church, schoolhouse, and town hall, which 
have been built around the public square, and which by 
rare good fortune happen to be well designed. 

The bank is to occupy the only remaining vacant 
space fronting the square. It is, therefore, the desire of 
the directors to make their building beautiful as well as 
convenient. They believe that it is commercially wise 
and prudent to do so; they do not consider good design 
as a luxury, but as an evidence of good character on 
their own part, and as something which would be 
required by their customers and fellow-citizens. 

The practical requirements are as follows: A central 
working space with room for two tellers, a cashier who 
assists in the correspondence and clerical work, and a 
bookkeeper; this working space to be directly connected 
with the vault by means of a private passage, and to be 
connected with the official department through a semi- 
private passage. 

The official department must contain a directors' 
room, which will be the president's private office when 
the board is not in session, an outer office for the presi- 
dent, a consultation room where customers may confer 
with the officers, and the usual store and toilet rooms. 

Around the working parts and connecting with the 
official parts must be commodious, well-lighted lobbies 
for the public. An examination of the plan will show 
one of the many possible solutions of the problem. The 
only entrance is through the vestibule in front. The 

7 ■ 

- i ,r - i — T~ -** 

LUA^E BANK Pl-AN.SiMrNsiONa- Woth Soio- Le^TH 6l-e- 
lSc' f .'j*-, J* jk 4s rr.T 

lobby is in front and at the right and left. It is well 
lighted by windows in the two side walls. The clerks are 
in the center, and their space is lighted from the lantern 
above. The vault is so placed that it is near the tellers. 
and is visible from all points; it is especially arranged 
with reference to the outside windows so that a passing 
patrolman may see it at any hour of the night by means 
of the light kept burning constantly. The vault is a 
"triple-decker," having capacity for old books and 
records above and below the money division. Storaere 



^4* %>£<# : 






\ \ I I . I . A 1 i I- I : \ \ k . 

3 2 

T II E P, R I C K B l' I LDER 



- » .- ■ 




- > . - . . 


*? &* 


4?* ' 


~ 1 1 1 1 ii n \ i i o n . 

for plate and valuables of all kinds is given in the base- 
ment, as shown by the section, the plan being similar 
in extent to the main story. 

The section shows the method of lighting the interior. 
Access is given to the lantern windows by means of the 
vault staircase and the balcony, so that the windows 
may he easily regulated and cleaned. It also shows the 
arched construction of the interior cross walls and the 
method of abutment. 

There is also near the group of central public 
buildings a power-house which supplies heat and light 







to the neighboring buildings, and it is. therefore, unnec- 
essary in this building to put in a heating plant. The 

smoke nuisance, so far as this building is concerned, is 
therefore overcome. 

The interior is all of brick and tile, brick being used 
in color combination for the walls and counters, and tile 
for the floors and ceilings. The color tones are to be 
light and warm, the whole being permanent and very 
easily cleaned, and the annual calcimincr will not be 

The exterior walls are built of light-colored Roman 

brick with t e r ra-co tt a 
trimmings, and the roof is 
of green tile. 

The design is the or- 
ganic outgrowth of the 
. and, like it. is based 
upon a ij-ft. unit, thus 
making the com position 
metrical t h ro u g h o u t. 
Where light is especially 
needed, the window open- 
ings are grouped, and, be- 
ing wide, no arch construc- 
tion is attempted above 
them, arches being used 
for the main entrance and 
window openings solely. 
Al love the main windows 
the space is enriched by 
terra-cotta tracery. 

The entire building is 
raised 4 ft. above the 
street walks, and grass 
and shrubbery is used in 
addition to the low wall 
on the lot line to make 
;i proper setting for it. 

"v. r* 





"The Brickbuilder ' Competition. V. 



THE problem of a village bank is one which certainly 
has enough in itself of interest to attract any one. 
In simplicity of requirements and unity of purpose, with 
opportunity for quiet dignity and pure design, it strongly 
recalls the conditions of the old Greek temple, being in 
some respects the nearest approximation to the classic 
type which our modern life can offer; and while there is 
not the slightest necessity of reverting" to the typical 
Grecian structure, one cannot but be reminded of it in 
judging such a competition as this. The problem as laid 
down is perfectly clear and comprehensive: " A building 


preference is given to a picturesque, village-like treat- 
ment. Elegance, refinement of detail, and, in this par- 
ticular ease, the character of detail and design as adapted 
to burnt-clay products are all conditions which must be 
considered, and taking these into account, as well as the 
balance between the civic nature of the problem and the 
village character of its location, I place first the design 
marked "Turk." This has all the appearance of a hank, 
is of a design such as could well he treated in burnt claw 
and, with the possible exception of the somewhat un- 
fashionable female in the foreground, the presentation 
is excellent. One would wish that the sense of propor- 
tion between the columns and the base-course were a little 
better felt, and, indeed, the whole building would have 
gained immensely by being set up more from the level of 
the street. It would also have been quite within the 
bounds of the conditions if more had been made of the 

W. Pell Pulis, New York, X. V. 

to cost in the vicinity of twenty-five or thirty thousand 
dollars is to be built facing a village green. The build- 
ing is to be one story in height, and is to be used for a 
small bank. The design is to be of such nature as is suit- 
able for being carried out in burnt-clay products." That 
sounds very simple, but its very guilelessness might 
easily prove a snare to the thoughtless. A bank is essen- 
tially a civic function. It suggests aggregations of people 
and accumulations of wealth, so that while the fact of the 
proposed building being a part of a village implies a cer- 
tain freedom and even license in design, these qualities 
must somehow be combined with reminders of the 
strength, financial resources, and cultivation which 
should give a design the peculiar qualities of a bank in 
the abstract, so that in deciding between the competitors 
a distinction has in a way to be made between a judgment 
based on purely architectural grounds and one m which a 

approach to the building by means of a terrace or plat- 
form raised four or five steps above the sidewalk level, 
leading thence directly to the steps at the door of the 
bank. The entrance itself is admirable. The treatment 
\\ itli antes is always pleasing, and the doorway, though a 
trifle crowded, suggests excellent detail. It is not char, 
however, how the side pediment window is treated, this 

feature being discreetly masked by the perspective; but it 
is more than likely that study would show the impracti 
cability of using the same ante and column motif here as 
about the door, and would suggest rather a simple win- 
dow, with more wall space, and with the antes carried 
more frankly around the corner. lint, as a whole, the 
design is very pleasing, the details are such as would per- 
mit of refinement and elegance in treatment, and in my 
judgment it fairly deserves the first prize, The village 
character is made manifest chiefly by the smallncss of its 


T II E B R I C K B l' I L I) I", R 


1 «* \ 

Li/ -'■ ^ 


1 6o o© 


Francis S. Swales, Detroit, Mich. 

[ames I >. Burt, New Yi >rk, N, V. 



actual size, and it is perhaps more truly a hit of civic 
architecture on a small scale. 

On the other hand, the design submitted by " A-X 
About An Anchor " is essentially village like in character. 
It escapes entirely the civic look of " Turk's " design, and 
as a bit of picturesque architecture is most charming in 
every respect, and in execution the building would un- 
doubtedly look even better than does this drawing. The 
small annex at the left is over emphasized in the sketch, 
and the railing in the foreground is unduly pronounced; 
but as a composition it certainly is admirable, and has 
such freedom from severe academic lines as we would natu- 
rally look for in a village bank. Its architecture is not in 
as refined a key as the design submitted by "Turk," but 
it is a very close second. The idea of the treatment of 
the entrance is fortunate in many ways. The terrace and 

but in nearly every instance the plan lias been broken so 
as to show ells on each side in addition to projection at 
the rear, and the entrance portico adds another note of 
confusion. 1 should like to have seen this problem 
treated as a single building without break or projection 
except the portico, and it is not difficult to imagine such 
a structure as simple as the Greek temples, to which refer- 
ence has been made, and no less pure and straightforward 
in detail. The Volta Bureau, built by Peabody & Stearns 
in Washington a tew years since, is just such a design as 
I have in mind, and is of interest as a comparison. The 
four designs which are so nearly equal are marked " Thir- 
teen," "Black Cat," -Oak Brook," and " K. E. M." The 
design marked " ( )ak Brook " is simple and straightfor- 
ward, regretfully large in the windows, and unnecessarily 
pronounced in its roof, but it is a design which might be 




balustrade make one forget any criticism of the propor- 
tions between the height of the order and its base, and, 
at the same time, while giving abundant access to the 
premises, afford just the slight degree of fencing-in which 
adds to its character as a conservative financial institu- 
tion. It is manifestly a brick building, with either stone 
or terra-cotta trimmings. This design I place second. 

It is harder to judge which competitor is entitled to 
the third place. There are five designs, all of which are 
so nearly equal in merit, or at any rate in possibilities of 
development, that it hardly seems fair to place one above 
the other. They all have a common failing of trying to 
get too much into the problem, of putting too many 
motifs on a very simple facade. Indeed, it would seem 
a matter of surprise that among all the designs sub- 
mitted hardly any have treated the building as a whole, 


refined into a very presentable village bank. " l\. E. M." 
and " Black Cat " are earnest attempts, and are to be com- 
mended in many ways, even though one might wish for 
a little less architecture in each. "Thirteen" has a 
pleasing composition, and looks like a thoroughly inter- 
esting design, but the scale is unfortunate, and the design 
suggests a building several times Larger than this could 
possibly be. The only way to pick out the third man 
among all these is to choose the one 1 personally like the 

best, and accordingly I shall vote lor "Thirteen," ao1 
withstanding its large scale and its rather hard outline. 
The proportions of themselves are excellent. The build- 
ing could be set and surrounded so as to present a very 

stately appearance, and if it is not. strictly speaking, 
village architecture, it could certainly be made into an 

exceedingly attractive suburban bank. 


T II E B R I C K B U I L I) E R . 


1. . ., 

II r 

•i %■'■ 


- ■, 









• • (Submitted by- K- E-M- 

fc* .. ... 






ON the i st of February there occurred a fire in a real 
fire-proof building, which is one more practical 
demonstration of the great strides which have been 
made of late in this most important branch of building, 
and which should be impressed not only upon profes- 
sional men, but upon the general public, who should be 
glad to know that tall apartments, which are a necessity 
in large cities where ground is scarce and worth a 
fortune, are safer and more secure against damage by fire 
than the suburban cottage. With such demonstrations 
constantly occurring, it seems strange that people should 
be timid about living in these lofty homes. The fire in 
question occurred on the ninth floor of the Pierrepont, 
43 West 32d Street, at 11 a. m., and was caused by the 
upsetting of an alcohol lamp. The accompanying plan 
shows the arrangement of the apartment at the point 
where the fire started, and the arrows show the position 
of the camera when the pictures were taken. The occu- 
pant immediately gave the alarm, but owing to the 
presence of many inflammable articles of furniture, cur- 
tains, etc., the fire gained great headway at once, and the 
smoke was intense. The fire burned for about twenty 
minutes, during which time it was gradually being 
subdued by the employees of the building by means of 
the fire hose, which is available on each floor of the build- 
ing. It was well under control by the time the fire 
department took hold, and was soon extinguished. 

The fire was confined entirely to this apartment, in 
which, of course, the contents were absolutely destroyed. 
The door leading to the main corridor was not destroyed, 
but the leaded glass panel was burned out, and the ceiling 
in the corridor smoked a little. The front windows were 


I'l W or SUITE. 

all burned out, but no damage was done to the front of 
the building itself. The interior doors were destroyed, 
but the floors are, on the whole, still in good condition. 
In the small bedroom where the fire started, the plaster 
has for the most part fallen off, but the terra-cotta parti- 
tions are in no way injured. They are straight and true. 
and the work of replastering and finishing was begun 
at once. 

Showing that the fire burned fiercely and that the 
heat was intense, a brass bedstead was destroyed, the 
frame being badly warped and twisted, and parts of it 
melted, and a brass chandelier was similarly affected. 
Without a doubt the damage done would have been 
much less had the doors and trim been fire-proofed by 
one of the several good methods now in vogue, provided 
that they had been closed. The greatest monetary loss 
was in the valuable paintings which hung upon the walls 
of the parlor. The actual refitting of the apartment will 
probably cost not over $<Soo. 

Tlie Pierrepont is only one of a large number of 
hotels and apartments which are constructed absolutely 
fire-proof and in the most modern and up-to-date manner. 
making life in the center of the metropolis not only con- 
venient and comfortable, but reasonably safe. The mate- 
rial used in the construction of this building was furnished 
by the National Fire-proofing Company, t<> whom great 
credit is due for the production of a result upon which it 
seems almost impossible to improve. It will not be 
necessary here to go into details concerning the develop- 
ment of fire-proofing methods, which subject has been 
given special attention by Tim-, BRICKB1 [LDKR for years, 
but it probably will prove interesting to examine the 
unique features of fire-proof construction which were 
adopted in the Pierrepont. The spans between the 
beams averaged 5 ft. '> ins., the largest being (1 It. S ins. 


T II E B R I C K B V 1 L I) E R 


The arches were to ins. flat and put together in end con- 
struction. This company made an interesting test re- 
cently, by which it was clearly demonstrated that their 
system of end construction could be safely applied to 
spans of 7 ft., and with arches io ins. in thickness. It is 
only within a few years that the end-construction system, 
as shown in the accompanying cut, has proved really 
successful, because in the earlier methods the joints were 
not broken. Then the use of porous tile is a great advan- 
tage in this system over hard tile, because a much better 
joint can be had. as the material is thicker. End con- 
struction is practically a porous terra-cotta product, 
although some makers use hard stock. It is made with 
the cell running across the arch, or when set. from beam 
to beam, and the soft plastic state to which the clay is 
tempered, in order to properly mingle the proportion of 
sawdust, destroys all " liber" to the material, and makes 
a granular product which has no tendency to "check " in 
drying; the body of the clay is uniform and the evaporat- 
ing surface greater; the sawdust and claw being thor- 
oughly disintegrated in tempering as well as properly 
mixed, provides for the equal shrinkage "i all portions of 
the block, and insures a perfect article unless deformed 
in handling. When set in the arch it provides one con- 

tinuous wall of material instead of separate portions of 
an arch, mechanically connected. By this method there 
is no continuous air-duct for the accumulation of heat, the 
conveyance of draughts, the housing of dirt and vermin, 
or the weakening of the ceilings. It prevents vibration 
which will ultimately break the key's clinch or adhesive 
qualities of the mortar, and surely and finally destroy 
the ceiling. 

The partitions in the apartment were 4 ins. thick of 
porous terra-COtta blocks, as illustrated in cut, and the 
cells are exposed only at the 
angles. These partitions were 
left absolutely intact, as the 
photographs sho w, 
although tlie plaster- 
ing in the small bed- 
room w a s a 1 m o s t 
entirely stripped off, 
leaving the walls 





Selected Miscellany. 


The condition prevailing among architects and build- 
ers in New York at present is "healthy," which is 
perhaps the most satisfactory thing which could be said 
of it. Business lias settled down to a common-sense 
basis; and while there has been a dearth of important 
competitive work to keep up a lively interest, there has 
been a great deal of activity among investors of moder- 
ate means, and those architects and builders who have 
attended strictly to business have their hands full. 

There is so much opposition to the proposed bill for 
licensing architects, among the members of the profes- 
sion themselves, that it is doubtful whether such a bill 
can be passed in this State, and there is also a question 
as to whether anything would be gained by the passage 
of such a bill. The matter of good and artistic work 
will adjust itself in the natural course of evolution, and 

pure and durable marble instead of the sandstone origi- 
nally intended. This will increase the cost of the build- 
ing $700,000, and will make the total cost, including the 
removal of the old reservoir, $3,390,000. 

l'lans for the new East River Bridge at Blackwell's 
Island have been approved, and work can be started 
without further delay. < >ne million dollars has been 
appropriated for the work. It is estimated that the 
entire structure will cost $N. 000, 000, and will take about 
three years to complete. It will be wide enough tor two 
railroad tracks in the center, with ample driveways and 
walks for pedestrians on either side of the railroad. 

The southeast corner of Maiden Lane and Broad- 
way has been bought by a syndicate, who are to 
erect a sky-scraper on the site Clinton & Russell are 
at work on the plans, and the cost will be $900,000. 
The property cost $1,300,000. 

The United States Senate has reported favorably 
upon the bill appropriating $2,500,000 for an up-town 
post-office in this city. This news will be hailed with 


the education of the public to a proper appreciation of 
good work will do more than anything else to bring it 
about. An architect's ability to construct might be 
licensed, but you can never check his flights of imagina- 
tion or measure them by precise standards. There will 
always be 3 per cent, architects among us, license or no 
license, and there will always be clients who will not 
pay 5 per cent., and whose demand for cheap labor must 
be satisfied. 

There is a growing desire on the part of the public to 
become reasonably intelligent as architectural critics, 
and there is consequently a growing public interest 
taken in the Architectural League exhibitions, the six- 
teenth of which is now open and is free to the public 
every day in the week except Tuesdays and Thursdays. 

We are glad to state that the city authorities have 
been generous in regard to the new public library. 
They have decided that the building should be built of 

general satisfaction as a timely step for a much-needed 
improvement. It is twenty-four years since the Post- 
office Building in City Hall Lark was completed. A 

quarter of a century is not a long space in the life ot a 
city, or a public building; but in that short period, 
New York has risen as if by magic, and the post-office, 
deemed amply capacious when built for at least fifty 

years, has already become entirely inadequate to the 

postal needs of the city and country. 


Rankin & Kellog are last making a national name for 

themselves, and assisting to bring the profession in 
Philadelphia more prominently before the country. It 

has just been announced that they were the successful 
Competitors in the competition for the new Indianapolis 

post-office, this being the second governmenl building 
they have won in competition, 


T II E l\ R I C K T» U 1 L I) E R 

The i 'Ul Maritime Exchange ;it Third and Duck 
Streets, one of the few buildings in Philadelphia oc- 
cupying a commanding position, and one of the best 
classical structures in the country, is to he converted 
into a permanent home for the Philadelphia Stock 
Exchange. Louis C. Hickman recently won the com- 
petition for the proposed alterations, and we are as- 
sured that his design will add to, rather than detract 
from, the dignified character of the old building:. 


There are signs which encourage the belief that a 
revival in building has come with the new century. 
There is no longer any uncertainty in regard to the 
World's Fair, and it only remains for the site to be 
selected before architects can be selected for the 

Architect Isaac S. Taylor has commenced the Bank 
of Commerce Building, on the corner oi Broadway 
and Olive Street, and has prepared plans for the new 
Kennard Building (seven storv and basement), of 

I IKl.1'1 Hk MANTF.l 


Church at Vandalia, 111., and are preparing plans 
for St. Paul's Southern Methodist Church on St. 
Louis Avenue. 

The Turner estate is erecting a six-story 
building on the northeast corner of Locust and 
4th Streets, for which Harnett. Hayncs & Bar- 
nett are the architects. The building is to be of 
steel construction, with terra-cotta facades. 

I- 1». Legg is the architect of the new court- 
house at St. Charles, which will cost S.S5.000. 

The St. Louis Chapter of the American Insti- 
tute of Architects has tendered its services to the 
World's Fair committee to assist in selecting a 



With the new year t here has been a great boom 
in building operations, and this promises to be 


Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects. 

Roofed with Celadon Roofing Tile. 

slow combustion, red brick, and terra-cotta. He is also 
preparing plans for an eight- story fire-proof Building, to 
be built on the south side of Washington Avenue, be- 
tween i 1 tli and 12th Streets: and a little farther east, in 
the same block, an eight-story, slow combustion building. 
The first-named building is to be faced with white en- 
ameled brick and terra-cotta. and the latter with red 
brick and terra-cotta. 

Mr. Taylor has also plans for a banking building on 
the northeast corner of Locust and 8th Streets for the 
.Mercantile Trust Company, and a six-story factory 
building on 23d and O'Fallon Streets for the Tennet 
Shoe Company. 

F. C. Bonsack has prepared plans for a residence in 

Westminster Place for Mrs. Charlotte Rogers, and for 
the club-house of the Glen Echo Club. 

Mathews & Clark have just finished a Methodist 


loWN, M.b\ 

Charles II. Alden, Jr.. Architei 1 




New York Architectural Terra-Cotta 

Company, makers. 

the best y ea r that 
architects here have 
known in sonic time; 
good draughtsmen are 
in demand. 

The People's Sav- 
ings Bank will build 
a fifteen-story office 
building at the corner 
of Fourth Avenue and 
Wood Street. Alden 
& Harlow a re t h e 

Work has been be- 
gun on an addition to 
the Hotel H enr y, 
which will double the 
size of this hotel, and 
it is said t h a t the 
II otel Shenley will 
also build a large an- 

Alden & liar 1 o w 
have let the contract 
for a new building for 
the Western Pennsyl- 
vania Institute for the 
I )eaf a n d I) u m b. 
Cost, about $130,000. 

'Phe famous competition for the new Pennsylvania 
State Capitol Building of several years ago has been 
recalled by several bills introduced in the legislature 
during the winter. By building of common brick, fire- 
proofing with a coat of " tire-proof paint," and leaving 
the walls finished in rough plaster, the building was 
completed for $500,000, the amount of the first appro- 
priation. Now it is proposed to appropriate $6,000,000 
to carry on the work, and one bill recommends that the 
present building be torn down and the work begun all 
over; at any rate, it has cost the State $500,000 to learn 
a few things about competitions, legislative committees, 

'flic Farmers Deposit National Bank will soon com- 

, — 1 ~^~'- 



('■. I.. Hcins, Architect. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, makers 

mencc work on a large bank building. Alden & Harlow 
are the architects. 

McClure & Spahr, a firm new to Pittsburgh and who 
have recently come from the office of Peabody & Stearns, 
are preparing plans for a large riding academy. 

Baltimore capitalists are interested in building a large 
apartment house on Fifth Avenue, to cost $300,000. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company has purchased ground 
in the East End, and will build 
a new station there. 


Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, makers 


W. L. P.. Jenncv, architect, of 
Chicago, is in receipt of notice 
that he has been elected "Corre- 
sponding member of the Societe 
des Architectes Francais, " a so- 
ciety of the highest standing in 

Mr. II. Kino Conklin, archi- 
tect, of Newark, N. J., has asso- 
ciated himself with Messrs. Boring 
& Tilton, New York City. 

Messrs. Howard, Cauldwell & 
Morgan, architects, announce the 
termination of their partnership 
on the completion of work in hand. 
Future work will be undertaken 
l>v individual members f t h e 
firm, who will retain their present 
offices in common at 10 and u 
East 23d Street, New York City. 

Messrs. I >avis & I! r o o k s, 
architects, announce their associa- 
tion with Mr. Francis W. Crosby, 
and their removal to offices in the 
Phoenix Mutual Life Building, \>> 
Pearl Street, Hartford, Conn., 

1 n 1 \ 1 1 . r. \ copb .\ 

Perth-Amboj Tei 1 u Cotta 
Company, makers, 


T II E H R I C K B V 1 L I) E R 

where they will continue t h e i r 
architectural practice under the 
firm name of Davis, Brooks & 
Crosby. The old firm's office at 

New Britain will be continued. 

On the evening of January 26, 
Mr. James P. Jamieson, of Cope & 
Stewardson, addressed the mem- 
bers of the St. Louis Architectural 
Club on "The Design and Con- 
struction of the New Buildings for 
Washington University. " 

At the 548th regular meeting 

of the Society of Arts. Boston, held 
at the Institute. Rogers Building, 
on Thursday, February 14. Mr. 
Robert S. Peabody, presi- 
dent of the American Insti- 
tute of Architects, lectured oil 
"The I ) e s i g n i n g of the 
Buffalo Exposition." Illus- 
trated by stereopticon. 

( >n the evening of Feb- 
ruary 3, a party of Philadel- 
phia's "smart set" made 
merry in the limited vet hospi- 
table quarters of the T Square 
Club. Mr. James Russell 
Harris, a member of the club, 
furnished a program, which though a departure 
from the conventional was greatly enjoyed by many 
of the younger members of Philadelphia's elite. 

The first architectural exhibition of any preten- 
sions ever held in Canada occurred at Toronto. 
January 26 to February <), under the auspices of the 
Toronto Architectural Eighteen Club, and from all 
points of view it was voted a success, and heralded 
as a permanent entry on the part of the architects 
of Canada into the progressive movement for the 
advancement of architecture and municipal arts. 
Besides a goodly display of Canadian work, there 
were exhibited about fifty drawings of the Fan- 
American Exposition, and also the Circuit Collection 
of the Architectural League. 

The most successful features of the entertain- 
ment program were a smoker to the Ontario Asso- 
ciation of Architects, the Ontario Society of Artists, 
and the Engineers' Club of Toronto, and a lecture 
on "Modern City Making" by Mr. Albert Kelsey, 
of Philadelphia. 


I I ci s. 
North western Terra- 
.1 la Ci unpany, 


TE give below extracts from a paper recently 

I'll VSTER. 
PI \ la i|>\ ,\ 
S I E I R N S, 
\ R C U I 
lie lis. 
Atlantic T< rra 
Cotta Com- 
pany, makers. 

read before a clayworkers' association by Mr. J. 
Van Inwagen, Jr.. general manager of the Tiffany En- 
ameled Brick Company. It seems to us that Mr. Van 
Inwagen presents the manufacturer's side in a fair and 
reasonable manner, and that his suggestions by way of 
remedy of some of the existing evils arc worthy of con- 
sideration. I Ie says: 

•• In the first place, the average architect or contractor 
is too busy about his own affairs to know how much 
time is required to make the various clay products which 

go into his buildings, and the result is that the order is 
often not placed, either until the material is actually 
wanted, or too late for the manufacturer to get it out on 
time, causing the substitution of some other material, or 
perhaps a vexatious delay. In the latter event, the 
manufacturer is urged to rush out the material, and you 
know that the results of a rush order are likely to be 
less satisfactory in the way of quality. . . . 

" < Mir customers are often surprised that we have not 
in stock the particular size and color or shape they want: 
but if they would think it over, they would realize what 
it would mean to the manufacturer to do this. For 
instance, say that we only manufacture twenty-five 
colors and ten sizes; to carry in stock 5,000 bricks in 
of the twenty-five shades and in one size alone would 
1111 an 125,000 bricks in stock. Multiply this by ten (the 
number of sizes manufactured), and you have 1.250,000. 
Xow we make both a bright and a semi-bright finish, 
either of which may be required, this brings our 
total ii]) to 2,500,000, and we still only have 5,000 
of anyone shade, size, and finish in stock, and wc 
have not even considered returns, round corners. 
octagon, radius, and molded or ornamental bricks. 

"Of course, we are all working to sell as much 
of our material as possible, but I do not believe any 
of us would object to occasionally running against 
an order where it was impossible to get in on the 
deal, owing to the architects having specified some 
other make than our own. as much as wc do t,, 
having a specification made which 
means practically nothing. 

" What is the result of not speci- 
fy i n e, v Contracts are often not 
given to the general or sub-con- 
tractor until shortly before the ma- 
terial is wanted; consequently, no 
order has been placed. You do not 
know, nor do your rivals, who will 
be fortunate enough to land the 
order, and you must either take a 
chance and put in stock the required 
material, or run the chance of losing 
the job through inability to deliver 

the goods on time. If we do the 

former, several of us have a lot of 
finished material on our hands to 
carry an indefinite length of time, 
some of which will very likely event- 
ually reach the scrap pile, on ac- 
count of its being suited perhaps 
only to the special work on which 
you have been figuring and ' got 
•'Another difficulty you art- often 

asked for prices on your material, and at 

the same time, how soon can you furnish 

it. You quote your price and name the 

time in which you can deliver the goods. 

That is perhaps the last you hear of the 

matter for six months, when all of a sud- 
den in comes the contractor to give you 

1 In- order, and wants to know how soon he 

can have it on the ground. You state Company, makers, 


en mi e s 

S I El . \1.\\ I R, 

\K( III I'H I 

X e w [its e v 

Til K B R I C K B l' I I. I) E R . 


that it will take such and such time, which is perhaps 
two weeks or a month longer than you told the architect 
you could do it in — and your troubles have begun. 
The contractor, calls up the architect, and the architect 


Winkle Terra-Cotta Company, rnakers. 

sails into you. Are you to blame under the circum- 
stances ? At the time when you first called upon him, 
did he say he would use your material? Did he state 
when he would need it, or what size, color or quantity 
would be required ? As a rule, no. .Since you were 
first called in, which perhaps was a slack time at your 
factory, orders have come from other sources which will 
alone keep you busy for months to come. What is the 
result ? The architect, contractor, and owner arc all 
disappointed, and unless they appreciate fully where the 
blame really lies, are inclined to lay it all onto you, and 
you have thus, through no fault of yours, lost not only 
that order, but perhaps what is worse, the chance to fig- 
ure on subsequent ones. You might be asked : ' Why did 
you not keep in touch and know when the work was going 
ahead?'' Any one who has had much experience as a 
salesman can answer this question as well as I. It is be- 
cause you are likely to get yourself disliked if you are 
constantly running after and bothering them ; and yet 
how are you to otherwise get the information if you are 
so many times put off with indefinite answers ? 

"I can remember several cases where our material 
has been specified, without any notification to us, several 
contractors been invited by the architect to figure the 
work, and not one of those contractors asked us a price 
on which to base their estimate until the lucky one 
secured the contract. . . . 

" At another time yon are told that a certain size and 
color will be wanted, your material will be used, and 
when it will be required. You go ahead and make it. 
The contractors figuring the job, perhaps a few days 
before the contract will be let, and a little longer before 
the material is wanted, ask a quotation on an entirely 
different size or shade, the architect in the meanwhile 
having changed his plans without notifying you. 

"What are some of the possible advantages to the 
architect, contractor, and manufacturer of specifying: 

" First. As far as possible, specified material only 
would be figured on and used. In this way the archi- 
tect would not be bothered by the salesman, as the 

latter would know that the order must eventually reach 
his office. 

"Second. Responsible contractors would know that 
irresponsible rivals, who had perhaps figured too low, 
would not be allowed to substitute inferior and, conse- 
quently, cheaper material. 

" Third. The manufacturer would be ready at the 
right time to deliver the goods, and would know in 
plenty of time to get them out in good quality. 

" Fourth. Valuable time would not be lost by con- 
tractor and manufacturer, where contractor is allowed to 
choose between two or more goods of like character. 
which is very likely to be the case, on account of tin- 
former's desire to save something. 

" Fifth. Reliable trade papers, at proper times (to 
be determined by the architect), could cither publish in 
their columns such specifications, or notify parties whose 
materials were specified. Less trouble to architect's 
offices, to allow, say once a week or oftener, if necessary, 
a few representatives of reliable papers to get this infor- 
mation th in to be constantly bothered by a raft of sales 

" Some of the objections to these arc: 

" First. The fear of the architects of a raise in prices, 
induced by specifying: but need that follow' I think 
not. A good many of us, perhaps all, would be only too 


C. n. J. Snyder, Architect, 

Standard Terra-Cotta Works, makers, 

willing to place in their offices a price-list, which would 
not change except on account of a higher freight rate, or 
wages, or some manufacturing item affecting the cost oi 

production, of which we could and would give them 

reasonable notice. 



"Second. Unfortunately some manufacturers offer 

what amounts to a bribe, in the way of a discount to 

architects, who specify 

their material, and the re- 
sult is that your upright 
architect cannot specify 
that material without hav- 
ing the suspicion of his 
fraternity and his clients 
thrown upon him that he 
is getting a ' rake off.' 
The remedy for this is in 
the manufac t u r er ' s or 
dealer's own hands. 

" Third, You m a y 

object that this specify- 
ing of material does not 
give a fair chance to the 
one who has something 
new and good to place 
upon the market. We 
are all practically in the 
same boat as regards 
that, and c x p e r i e n c e 
teaches that it takes time 
to introduce and prove 
a n y thing- new. and the 
alter benefit of having 
yours specified will more 
than make up for your missing the first order." 

Huntington Chambers, Boston, Mass., Arthur II. Bow- 
ditch, architect: Central Fire Station, Providence, R. I., 
Martin & Hall, architects; House for Primates, Bronx 

Park, X. V.. Ileitis & La Kargc, architects. 

DE I All . BY I-. o. I A Ills. 

St. Louts Terra-Cotta Company, 



This book, although issued by the American Cement 
Company, of Philadelphia, is not in any sense a trade 
publication. It seems to cover the entire history of the 
manufacture of Portland cement in this country, and 
reviews many of the larger operations in which this 
product has been employed. Tests by eminent chemists 
and engineers are recorded, and many valuable sug- 
gestions are given for the proper use of cements. Mr. 
Lesley is a well-known authority upon the subject, and 
his new work will have a special interest to all users o\ 
American Portland cement. 

BRICKLAYING. — Edited by Owen II. Maginnis. 
Owen II. Maginnis, Publisher, 510 West 12.SU1 Street, 
New York City. Cloth, x.'.oo. 

This book contains extensive detailed explanations of 
the most approved modern methods of "Bricklaying," 
as applied at the beginning of the twentieth century. 

The information has been obtained directly from the 
work during construction, and is the current practice 


Some very handsome faience work is being done in 
two of the principal stations of the Boston Elevated 
Railway Company by the Grueby Faience Company. 

Fred II. Hersey, 16 State Street, Boston, Mass., has 

been appointed New England agent for the Standard 
Terra-Cotta Works. 

Owen Finch, architect, has opened an office at 1X4 
Main Street, Oneonta, X. Y. Manufacturers' catalogues 
and samples desired 

I". Xeil Brodie, architect, has 
42 Princess Street. St. John. X. 
catalogues and samples desired. 

ipened an office at 
P. Manufacturers' 

Among the orders recently taken by the Atlantic 
Terra-Cotta Company are the following: Commercial 
Trust Company Building, Jersey City, X. [., Ceo. p. 
Post, architect: residence, Cedarhurst, L. I.. Barney & 
Chapman, architects: Empire Building, Atlanta, Ga., 
Bruce & Morgan, architects: Chickering Hall. Boston, 
Mass.. Peabody X Stearns, architects: Young Men's 
Christian Association Building, Xew Haven, Conn., 
Brown X Von Beren, architects; Young Men's Christian 
Association Building, Brooklyn, X. Y.. Parish & 
Schroeder, architects; public schools Nos. 1 7.S and [82, 
Xew York City; State Hospital for the Insane, Howard, 
R. I., Martin & Hall, architects; Xew England Building, 
Vassar College. Xew York, York X Sawyer, architects: 

American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, makers. 

and experience of the l>est authorities, supplemented by 
chapters on '-shoring," ••needling," and ••underpin- 
ning," the whole making an invaluable book of reference 
for architects, engineers, contractors, builders, and 

Illustrated by over two hundred engravings with full 
descriptive text. 




m vol 10 

NO. 3 





MARCH fjg 

1901 $ 





85 Water vStreet, Boston, Mass. . . P. (). Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12. 1892. 


Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States 

and Canada ......... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 

To countries in the Postal Union 

50 cents 
$6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advani e. 

For sale by all newsdealers iii the United States and Canada. Trade supplied 
by the American News Company and its branches. 


Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : — 

Agencies. — Clay Products .... II 

Architectural Faience II 

„ Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

„ Enameled Ill and IV 


Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 


WE read in the daily papers that Andrew Car- 
negie has offered to build for the city of New 
York some sixty odd branch libraries, the total cost of 
his proposed gift amounting to over $5,000,000. There 
is an ancient proverb which relates that he who causes 
two blades of grass to grow where one grew before is 
a public benefactor. We might apply a similar statement 
to Mr. Carnegie's numerous public gifts, and say that he 
who causes many good buildings to grow upon the face 
of this earth, where without his fostering help none 
would have appeared at all, is truly one of the greatest 
benefactors of his race. It is doubtful if Mr. Carnegie 
has ever considered himself as having a special mission 
to educate the public along the lines of good architec- 
ture, but, consciously or otherwise, his gifts have had 
precisely this effect; and it is a somewhat remarkable 
fact, that a man who was literally the maker of his own 
fortunes, who worked himself up from the humblest 
position to that of one controlling far more influence 
than any political ruler, should show such judicious dis- 
cernment in the working out of his gifts. He has made 
a specialty of the smaller public libraries, and it can 
almost be said that through his efforts there has been 

created a distinct type of library, admirably fitted to 
practical conditions, and at the same time designed in a 
thoroughly artistic manner. The average millionaire is 
a person who surely cannot be congratulated upon the 
possession of a great deal of taste, and many memorial 
buildings, which have been donated to the natal village 
by some wealthy citizen who has gone West and struck it 
rich, have been entrusted to architects whose sole recom- 
mendation was that they had some pull with either the 
donor or the town authorities. Mr. Carnegie seems to 
have proceeded in an entirely different manner. Tin- 
architects who have been selected to design his various 
buildings have been almost without exception of the 
highest rank. He has aimed apparently not merely to 
give the money and the building, but at the same time 
to present to the community which he endows as good a 
specimen of architecture as the circumstances will per- 
mit. In this respect he has been emphatically a public 
educator, while in his larger buildings, such as the 
Carnegie Library at Pittsburgh, or the Music Hall in 
New York, he has succeeded through his architects in 
creating buildings which are veritably monuments, 
and has evinced an appreciation of the fine arts which 
is none the less to be commended because of its extreme 
rarity as an attribute of the average man of his class. 

PHE greater part of Mr. Carnegie's donations for li- 
_L braries have been to the smaller towns, to locations 
in which it is probable that without his help there would 
have been not only no library for the town, but no 
example of good architecture. He has at once educated 
the community in art and in literature, with results 
which may not at first be readily apparent, but which as 
the time goes on and the intrinsic value of his gifts is 
made more manifest will show for what they are worth. 
The average rural community in this country seems to 
be about as barren of artistic possibilities as could well 
be imagined. Indeed, outside of Xew England the 
smaller towns and villages arc mere clusters of abiding 
places, without the slightest suspicion of esthetic sur- 
roundings or good taste. It is not to be expected that 
Mr. Carnegie's benefactions will extend to everyone oi 
these benighted localities, but it is beyond question that 
his example will inspire other wealthy men to similarly 
endow our smaller towns, and he surely has made a 
beginning which in time ought to give to our country or 
village life at least a measure of the charm which is so 
distinctly a feature of the smaller English cities. 

A single, well-designed, carefully studied building 
oilers an object-lesson that can neither be forgotten 

nor ignored, and however deeply a community may be 

steeped in an atmosphere of artistic poverty, it is sure to 



be aroused by even one bit of pure art, with results which 
will reflect far beyond the range of a circulating library. 
We believe that architecture in some respects is the 
greatest educational force within the reach of ordinary 
mortals; that the elevating tendencies of a good building, 
while they work very slowly, are sure to bring forth 
tangible results. In fact, good architecture is the 
exponent of the highest civilization, and in choosing 
libraries as the special form of his benefactions, Mr. 
Carnegie has selected the type of building which otters 
the greatest possibilities to the architect, and which is in 
many respects closely in touch with the tendencies of 
thought and life which are to mold the early years of 
the twentieth century. 

IN one of his recent essays Mr. Carnegie lias very clearly 
stated his principles regarding the distribution of 
wealth before death, and he makes the statement that 
while it is extremely difficult to make donations to 
individuals which shall neither pauperize nor demoralize 
them, there are plenty of opportunities to give in a 
public way to a community as a whole, and that these 
opportunities far exceed the combined possibilities of all 
the millionaires in the country. It is surely a fact that 
if any one would wish to spread his money in such 
manner that it would reach the furthest and come nearest 
to helping the greatest number of people, he could select 
no better means than to build a large building, for s. . 
much enters into the construction of a building nowa- 
days, and modern work embraces such a variety of labor, 
from the commonest kind of manual work to the highest 
intellectual study, that when the bills are all paid it can 
safely be said that the money has gone directly to the 
producers, to those who work with their heads or their 
hands, and that instead of being distributed to a favored 
few, it has spread through all ranks of society. So that 
if our millionaires desire to benefit the greatest number 
in the best way, so as to help them to be self-respecting, 
to earn what they receive, and to learn something while 
they are earning it. there can surely be no better way 
offered than to follow exactly the example Mr. Carnegie 
has set, not necessarily, however, building libraries all 
the time, for there are plenty of other things to be done, 
and many of which art' even more beyond the reach of 
individuals. It is our belief that the good which Mr. 
Carnegie will accomplish by giving money as he has will 
in the long run be far greater, will reach more people, 
will elevate the community as a whole to a higher degree 
of intelligence and appreciation, and will leave a more 
lasting memorial in the hearts of his countrymen than if 
he had taken the same amount of money and with it 
endowed either schools, hospitals, or churches. 

discussion, and has portioned them out among the vari- 
ous affiliated societies for consideration and report. All 
of these questions relate to what should be expected of a 
graduate from an architectural school when he begins 
office work. It is not likely that the League will be able 
to call out exact answers to these questions, for the 
reason that the proper solution of what is best for an 
architectural student is materially modified by tem- 
perament, disposition, environment, and local usage. 
Some of the questions might seem to the elders in the 
profession as unnecessary, or even frivolous, but that the 
League should spend its time in seriously considering 
and discussing just such topics is a good sign. It is a 
wise provision of our intellectual nature that we are un- 
able to set' more than a short distance ahead of us. The 
beginner in any art or profession can never fully realize 
all that he has to meet, and is seldom able to appreciate 
how little he knows. In fact, the average student, fresh 
from a technical college, can generally consider himself 
fortunate if his four years' schooling has given him even 
a beginning of a" sense of appreciation of what constitutes 
good taste. If he gets no more out of college, that of 
itself is a good deal. At the same time, however, it is 
a most excellent mental discipline for every architect, 
young and old, to take account of stock, to see what he 
thinks he is good for, and wdiat he hopes to be. The 
mere question of whether one student should accentuate 
the mathematic side of the profession, or whether another 
should devote himself to tine art. whether the school 
problems should be of a monumental nature, or whether 
the study of the style should be based upon a knowledge 
of pure design, all these have an undeniable value, no 
matter how they are solved, provided the solution seems 
a fair one to the one who is studying them. The real 
advantage of questions of the sort proposed by the 
League is. we repeat, in stimulating thought, in helping 
its members and their friends to focus their vision, to 
formulate their artistic creeds and keep on thinking. 
These same questions were asked years ago, and will 
be asked when we are dead and forgotten. The gain to 
the individual will come in the solving rather than in the 
process of solution, and tin- League is fulfilling its mission 
by just such queries as it has propounded. 


THE Architectural League of America neither slum- 
bers nor sleeps, and if there is anything which is 
of vital interest to the younger generation of architects, 
the League evidently intends to find it out and put it in 
the best light for its members. The executive board of 
the League has formulated a number of questions for 


WE wish to eall the attention of our younger Massa- 
chusetts readers t< < the approaching examinatii ms 
lor the Rotch Travelling Scholarship, which arc to be 
held on Monday and Tuesday, April i and 2. This 
scholarship enters upon its eighteenth year with these 
examinations, and during this period it has won for itselt 
through the achievements of its past holders a name 
which is so familiar as to require no explanation. Its 
opportunities ought to be the goal of every active, alive, 
young architect, and it is to be hoped that this year's 
competition will be a good strong fight that will bring 
out the best kind of fellow. Particulars and details of 
the approaching examinations can be had upon applica- 
tion to the secretary, ('. II. Blackall, No. 1 Somerset 
Street. Boston. 



"Terra-Cotta in the Small Cities of 


WHEN one speaks of small cities in Italy, it is well 
to make at once a distinction between those 
which are actually small in the matter of their size and 
their influence, and those which, while being large 
enough and having played in their time an important 
role on the political and social stage of Italy, are at 
present only secondary and entirely forgotten towns. 
With the exception of Rome, Florence, Venice, Milan, 
Naples, and (ienoa, which remain even now capital 
cities, the other towns which formerly shared with these 
centers the Italian activity, which was the glory of the 
peninsula, arc depopulated places without commerce 
and without any intellectual aspiration. Such are Fer- 
rara, Mantua, Rimini, and Qrbino. The possession of 
an extraordinary cultivation is not necessary to appreci- 
ate the place these cities occupied in the Italy of the 
Renaissance. The princes of Este, the families of Gon- 
zaga, of Malatesta, and of Montefeltro, who held their 
courts respectively in the above-mentioned cities at the 
time of the Renaissance, were possessed of unbounded 
wealth and authority. It was precisely on account of 
these reigning families, who divided among themselves 
the territory of the peninsula, that the art of Italy 
was concentrated in several centers. 

These families looked to find the pleasures of life in 
strength and in amiability, now in war, and now in 
peace; and especially in war with enemies who spoke 
the same language, these families kept in their service 
two armies, one of soldiers, and one of artists, and 
courtiers and wealthy citizens naturally possessed the 
same tastes as the reigning families. Thus, in these 
strange times, full of miseries and amours, the cause of 
art received a formidable and unexampled impulse, do 
at the present time to these cities which formerly stood 
at the head of all Italian progress, go to Ferrara, for 
example, and you will receive the most desolating and 
disagreeable impression. Ferrara is situated in the midst 
of a vast, richly cultivated but monotonous plain, 
whose limit at the horizon offers nothing fine or attrac- 
tive; for the Veronese Alps are only indicated in the far 
distance, while the nearer Apennines lack grandeur of 
outline. Placed not far from Bologna, the city of the 
Estensi would still rejoice if it had one half of the life 
which circulates in the loins of the capital of the Emilia. 
But it has it not. Ferrara is a dead city; in the wide 
streets, flanked by ruined palaces, the grass -rows as 
luxuriantly as if these streets had never been trodden by 
men. Solitude is the mark of the city, which at the 
epoch of the Renaissance received the homage of the 
most illustrious princes of the time, thanks to its reign- 
ing family, which, after that of the dukes of Savoy, was 
the most ancient and most famous of Italy. 

In approaching Ferrara the traveler perceives with 
admiration four enormous brick towers rising at the 
angles of a grandiose and fortress-like edifice. These 
are the towers of the Castello, or Caste] Vecchio, that is, 
the palace of the princes of Este. The military air of 
its construction recalls the terrible dramas of its history, 

the remembrances of cruelty; but happily, the Castello 
was not alone a place destined to be the scent- of the 
crimes of the Estensi, for at all times there were gathered 
there guests of distinction who gave the family of Este 
occasion to display a truly princely wealth and diplo- 
macy. I do not at this moment wish to speak of the 
artistic elegancies of the Castello of Ferrara, of the 
paintings which ornament the halls and the chambers, 
mostly by Ferrarese masters; but one cannot interest 
oneself in this city without taking account of the exis- 
tence of the Castello, which is the personification of the 
place, just as Florence is personified by Santa Maria del 
Fiori, Rome by St. Peter, Milan by the Cathedral. Be- 
sides, this superb construction, which silhouettes its 
enormous mass in every panorama of Ferrara, initiates 
us into the search for monuments in terra-cotta, with 
which the town is largely ornamented. 

The attention of the traveler who walks through the 
streets of Ferrara is often struck by the palaces and the 
remains of constructions in terra-cotta, which mingle 
with those of stone and marble work, existing side by 
side in the same edifice. I do not care to linger at the 
monuments of the first class, such as the Palazzo Rover- 
ella, whose graceful terra-cotta facade is a piece of archi- 
tecture known by every one. I desire, on the contrary, 
to turn to less known works, unpublished if it is possible, 
for often one finds treasures among the works with 
which the world has not been acquainted. A fine series 
of reproductions accompanies my study ; hut as I cannot 
give in an article for a review all that I would wish, 1 
must limit myself to reproducing some specimens which 
continue the series of things that 1 have already shown 
in the first article of this scries; and casting aglance over 
these reproductions, one sees that those which concern 
Ferrara have evidently a Bolognese air. Bologna is par 
excellence the city of terra-cotta, and John II. | Bentivog- 
lio;died 1506), in his pride of being compared to Augus- 
tus, said that he had found this city of wood and left 
it of brick. I am not sure that I have quoted this 
phrase correctly, but it is nevertheless true that Bo- 
logna possessed during the sixteenth century, and even 
before, a great number of brick kilns, which put into 
commerce an enormous amount of terra-cotta, and this 
output served the city and even the surrounding country. 

Thus, one is often surprised, in visiting the small 
towns about Bologna, to see Gothic terra-cotta work on 
buildings which belong to a more advanced age, and 
this anomaly is explained by the fact that the provinces 
received from Bologna the old pieces that in the capital 
could not well he used. This anomaly, which occurs 

quite frequently in the smaller cities, sometimes exists 
even in Bologna, as in the court of the Palazzo Par- 
bazzi, now Pallotti, and in the Palazzo Coltelli, on the 
Via Porta Castello; signifying thai lor reasons of econ 
omy, the Bolognese architects accepted old pieces 
that the Polognese kilns continued to sell at a very 

moderate price on account of their being out of style; 
this point of the Bolognese production in that which 
concerns the terra-cotta of the little towns, especially, is 

most remarkable, although it dors not escape the stu- 
dents who on the apparent aspects "t the style would 
attribute an earlier date to the Italian constructions in 
brick. Another curious point is that which is concerned 

4 8 


with the reproductions of ancient medals and carvings. 
It was the mania dt' the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 
to imitate. t<> counterfeit, and to imply. It is enough to 
have traveled in the north of Italy to know with what 
completeness and what preconception the physiognomies 
of all the personages known, unknown, and imagined of 
classical antiquity have been evoked by the architects and 
the sculptors on the walls of the buildings which they 


raised. The skill of the fifteenth-century masters in 
composing in the antique style was startling, and in many 
cases we are to-day often embarrassed to tell the copy from 
the original, while often the original has disappeared. 
The modelers in terra-cotta. and more frequently the 
sculptors in marble, borrowed their images from an- 
tiquity; and these same modelers often finished by 
reproducing the carvings of the quattrocento. I know a 
terra-cotta at Bologna on a house No. 123 Borgo S. Pietro, 
where the author has copied in a very free fashion a cele- 
brated carving of Mantegna, that of a combat between 
marine deities. 

Returning to Ferrara, my specimens all have an orna- 
mental character, and these shown are picturesque bits 
of a marvelous harmony. For, indeed, these terra-cotta 
edifices have a remarkable property of composing into 
decorative ensembles that are often admirable: the 
bricks receive from their centuries of age a seal of daz- 
zling beauty given by their contrasts and the play of 
magic lights. For example, see the Casa Paparella 
(Fig. 1 1 and the Casa Trentini (Fig. 2). The Paparella 
facade is very simple, but what charm it has! As in all 
brick buildings, the effect is obtained by modest pro- 
jections and light arabesques, which, on the background 

against which they are set off, resemble jewels in a 
great velvet box. Here we are in the presence of one 
of the most picturesque facades of Ferrara, and any 
one, even if he does not possess an exquisite perception 

of beauty, will discern in this fragment the tranquil ele- 
gance which is its chief merit, and which again shows 
that art does not reside in rich plastic ornament, and that 
pompous decoration can well be successfully replaced by 

the reserved brightness of simplicity. 

I ought to write with the Name consideration on the 
subject of the detail of the Casa Trentini. which would 
delight the heart of a painter as much as that of an 
architect or an ornamentist. Here geometrical decora- 
tions are used which repeat themselves often in terra- 
cotta construction; but the Gothic profiles of the 
archivolts partially corrects what might be called the 
monotony of geometrical ornament, and the contrast 
with the bricks does the rest, heightening the original 
effect with the palette of time. This last piece from the 
point of view of style appears a little older than the 
Paparella facade, but the difference is not noticeable, 
and both belong to the fifteenth century. 

A line detail from Ferrara is the door of the Casa 
Stramigoni (Fig. .^). one of those pieces of decorative 
architecture with which northern Italy is plentifully 
ornamented. Its geometrical Style has an aesthetic kin- 


ship with the terra-cotta of the Casa Trentini. The 
ornaments have facets like diamonds. I desired to show 
an even larger detail by reproducing a part of the archi- 
volt (Fig. 4 1 where the zigzag (which is well shown this 
time) harmonizes with the other faceted ornaments in 

TH E B R I C K BU [ L I) E R 


an energetic and powerful play of light. If the orna- 
mentist had discarded the leaves that are seen at the 
side of the archivolt, the effect would be that a great 
part of its beauty would be lost. And while the occa- 
sion is at hand, it is well to remark that the terra-cotta 
of north Italy has a tendency to dazzle by its richness, 
and a long list might be made of loud and overloaded 
works in terra-cotta. The use of this material invites 
the artist to ostentation more than the use of marble 


or of stone, so one need not be surprised at a circum- 
stance which, after all, is but natural. The ornamentists 
who used brick, however, had the habit of resorting to 
color, and polychrome terra-cottas are frequent in Italy. 
Once color was not admitted in architecture and in orna- 
ment, but now all is changed on this question, and the 
polychromy of the Middle Ages and of the epoch of the 
Renaissance constitutes the evidence of a fact that for 
some time has been above discussion. Sincere and 
vigorous study of the monuments has proved that the 
principle of color in plastic art has made one of the most 
imperious rules of the art of the past centuries. How- 
ever, the existence of this fact is sometimes contested by 
laggard minds, and perhaps some of them are ignorant 
of the precise state of the question. So far as terra- 
cotta is concerned, I propose to collect in The Brick- 
builder the capital propositions showing that polychromy 
was an absolute rule of the statuary and the ornament, 
and was, moreover, a species of corrective for over- 
loaded works. 

The color with its tones, deepened especially with 
azure and gold, served to give the air of repose where 

the reliefs followed each other without rest, and to 
correct as well the disastrous effect of a too lively 

In contrast to the simplicity of the Stramigoni archi- 
volt, here is a detail of a not badly overloaded archivolt, 
that of the Casa Zanirati (Fig. 5). Here we are in the 
full swing of the Renaissance. The frieze with its 
groups of dolphins and the shells is very well conceived, 
but the ensemble, in the eves of an Italian artist, is not 
graceful in scale. Color might make this bit more 
sympathetic, but I do not know if the palette of the 
painter has ever touched up the reliefs of this archi- 
volt. I could give no assurance on this subject, for one 
can scarcely count the times that in I tab' the colors and 
the gildings of sculptured ornaments have been made to 
disappear by false notions that polychromy was an 
aberration of the individual taste of a few artists: and in 
the study which I present to you I will submit a few 

Before leaving Ferrara, after having called your at- 
tention to a fragment of the Renaissance cornice of the 
church of S. Stefano (Fig. (>), one of the cornices with 
little niches much used in the terra-cotta of north Italy, 
whose source is in the Gothic style, I wish to mention a 
few other buildings where terra-cotta plays an important 


IT. \ I \ . 

role, thinking that the list may he of use to some 

The facade of the church of the Madounina, con- 
structed towards the end of the sixteenth century by the 



Ferrarese architect Alberto Schiatti, is very simple 
and very elegant; the facade of the Palais de Justice is 
Gothic in style; the facade of the Palazzo Calcagnini- 
Beltrame, now in a sadly dilapidated state, is another. 
This latter grandiose edifice has also been called the 
Palazzo Scrofa, and is a work of the Ferrarese architect 
Biagio Rosetti, and the- sculptor Gabriele Frisoni of 
Mantua. I will not speak of these, nor of the facade of 
the Palazzo Roverella which I cited above, a celebrated 
work of the beginning of the sixteenth century, nor of 
the facade of the Palace of Lions, now known as Pros- 
peri, where a rich and grandiose portal in reddish marble 


11 \n. 

contrasts admirably with the rest which is in brick. In 
place of continuing my enumeration, I wish to have you 
observe the importance of this facade, one of the most 
beautiful at Ferrara, a work of the sixteenth century, 
remarkable as well for the mixture of marble and bricks 
which compose an ensemble of picturesque antiquity and 
of perfect beauty. The most interesting portion is 
easily the portal, the design of which is sometimes 
attributed to Baldassare Peruzzi, and sometimes to 
Ercole Grandi; but the background of bricks contrib- 
utes powerfully to emphasize its magnificence, which 
is rendered still more admirable by the light arabesques 
which in point of taste have no companions in Ferrara. 
Let us now turn our attention to Mantua. Mantua 
•occupied at the era of the Renaissance a position not less 
imposing than that of Ferrara; a city in a swamp, whence 
the industry of man drew the most brilliant rewards, had 
as early as the end of the fifteenth century united its 
destinies to those of the Gonzagas, and the protection ac- 
corded to artists by the reigning house was almost with- 

out parallel at the time. Happily, the proofs of this pro- 
tection still exist in great measure; and it is sufficient to 
recall that Leon-Hattista Alberti raised at Mantua the 
church of S. Andrea, one of the masterpieces of Italian 
architecture, that by his side the great painter Andrea 
Mantegna worked, and that two buildings, the Ducal 
Palace and the Palazzo del Tc, contain such a collection of 
decorative paintings and sculptures that no ornamentist 
who wishes to get even one idea of the art of Renaissance 
decoration can possibly afford to ignore them. Having 
said so much, it is well to speak of the monuments in 
terra-cotta of Mantua, which, however, are not as nu- 
merous as at Ferrara, although the city of Gonzaga 
possesses some remarkable pieces, the fragments of the 
old cathedral, for example. 

The church, such as it is now. has the taste of the 
advanced Renaissance in its interior. The facade is 
baroque. As a matter of fact, the actual interior is by 
Giulio Romano, architect and painter, who worked much 
at Mantua during the sixteenth century, and the facade- 
was built in 1 7 5 ' > by Niccolo Buschiera, an Austrian 


As for the brick, it only colors with its red the frag- 
ments of the anterior construction, as I remarked above, 
and on one side one may admire still the Gothic fron- 
tons, which recall the Venetian manner of the fifteenth 
eenturv, — frontons in brick which show the original de- 
sign of the Mantuan cathedral, which, by the way, still 
lives in its full beauty in a picture by Domenico Moroni, 
an artist of the latter part of the sixteenth century, at the 
Crespi Gallery, at Milan. Neither could [ classify among 
the less important fragments that you would publish the 
old Pretura, the details of which, light and delicate as lace, 
I very much regret not being able to show you. Terra- 
cotta rarely reaches the point of delicacy that we see h 
(Fig. 7). 'Idle facade of which 1 am Speaking is not in 


IT \ia . 

such absolute disorder that it loses the right of considera- 
tion, and all artists and friends of art will protest against 
seeing the large capitals of the columns serving as fasten- 
ings for the cords of the awning, as is clearly indicated 
in the photograph. In a city as artistic as Mantua, there 
will probably be no lack of persons, whose tastes are 



formed by the Ducal Palace and Palazzo del Te, who will 
have the audacity to pronounce the Latin phrase De 
minimis non curat pr at or with regard to our little facade; 
but every sensible man will feel a great respect for it. 
Nevertheless, some one has attempted to improve upon 
it, as may be seen above the first window of the second 
story, but apparently good counsels prevailed, and at 
present we can ask only the rigorous application of the 


irffTr ''^'''''^'A 


original design. While we arc speaking of things which 
damage the old work, I would add that in northern Italy, 
especially in the smaller cities where advanced intelli- 
gence arrives later than at the capitals, much terra-cotta 
decoration has been covered with whitewash, that is, when 
a red more delicate than that of the natural brick has not 
been used. This is explained, as I remarked before on 
the subject of architectural polychromy, by the disdain 
which almost until yesterday the Italian artists and public 
have felt for color. If the writer were not an Italian, and 
if he did not write from the very places where this hap- 
pens, perhaps, among my readers, who are not acquainted 
with the country oil fleurit /' oranger, some one would 
make the reservation, or would say that this was a case 
of exaggeration. But the facts themselves bear witness 
to the truth of my statement; and if 1 should add that 
the terra-cotta work of Italy has no longer the flourishing 
life of the past, because public opinion is not yet reac- 
customed to the pleasures of color, I would add willingly, 
for I wish to accpuiint you with a new truth, and to show 
you " the state " of the Italian question concerning brick- 
work from the point of view of actual application. This 
may appear inopportune in an article 011 the employment 
of terra-cotta in the past centuries, but it is useful to 
know it in order not to have to repeat it on future 

I add, as a curious complement of my photographs, 

and even as a speaking witness of my statements, a 
little facade from Rimini (Fig. <S), the facade of the 
church of S. Andrea dell' Ansa. You may see for your- 
self in what fashion this has been treated by the enemies 
of color, and the false beauty of this little facade, which 
would be pretty enough in its original state; but our 
enemies, those who think that beauty dwells only in the 
strident whiteness of chalk, wanted to cover its nudity, 
but in a different way from that which the " Brachet- 
tone " follows in the Judith of Michelangelo. Under- 
stand, I am not making an unlikely comparison ; every 
amateur will be glad to see that the mason lias saved for 
us above the facade of S. Andrea dell' Ansa a rect- 
angular surface, which, by reason of its novelty, 
strongly attracts tlie attention. It is an arrangement of 
little pieces, faceted and put together with diligence on 
a surface which forms a wall, where the light dances 
almost as in a cave of stalactites. This example is not 
common in Italy, and excellent ideas may be drawn 
from it. 

I must confine myself to this single example from 
Rimini, but I do not wish to pass it without saying that 
even this city, now fallen into decay, led formerly, at the 
time when Ferrara and Mantua flourished, a splendid 
existence under the Malatesta family, a famous house 
which during the fifteenth century drew around itself 


\\ni;n DELL 

\l S \. U I MINI, 

the most celebrated representatives of the literary and 

artistic culture of the age. Every one will recall the 
touching episode of ITanecsea da Rimini, in Dante's 

" Divine Comedy," and Francescawas in fact an ancestor 

of these Malatestas, of whom the history of the Renais 
sance leaves us so nian\- sjood and bad souvenirs. 


Til E i; KICK B r I L 1) !•; K 

The "Village Inn" Series. Ill 

|:\ InllN GALKN lie iH \KI>. 

THE site for the Inn is charming. What makes it 
doubly interesting is the fact that while it fronts 
on the public square and is thus in the thick of the 
village, the land behind, toward the full south, is free 
and open, down to the river nine hundred feet, and 
away beyond over the whole country-side. 

Three hundred feet broadside on the square, and 
900 ft. and more from the square, down the slope to the 
winding river, room and to spare for an inn with all 
its accessories; especially as the property widens to the 
south of the flanking shops, by a hundred feet, easterly 
in a right jog, and. on the opposite side, by the western 
slue of the boundary. The square itself seems cramped 
bv comparison. We can well afford then to set off a 
little of our land to public uses, and widen the square by 
so much in a liberal sweep, we shall gain in the effect of 
our new buildings by so doing, profiting as well bv the 

placing our main nucleus of the hostelry farthesl toward 
the south. 

The stables will lit in admirably in the east jog, 
behind the shops; and there is just room enough on the 
other side for the kitchen offices and servants' quarters. 
Tucked thus into the corners the service departments 
are out of the way. and leave room and air in the best 
part of the site for the center building. The Inn we will 
call the Kin-, and the stables and kitchen his humble 
retainers, bowing low before him. We can imagine them 
taking hands with the outsiders, the village folk, (the 
village shops, etc., that is), in a general merry-go-round, 

•■We're all of a kind," crying; "the Retainers, 
they're a little finer folk than we," (this from the vil- 
lagers), "but they are the same kind; they are village 
folk, too, only they are rigged up somewhat to do honor 
to the King. Ah! The Kin-'! that's different. He likes 
us and we like him, —only, only, -he's for Phila- 
delphia people, you know ! 

That is the point, the Inn proper must have aspi- 
rations; it must be of a little higher caste than the vil- 



' ■ {W- 

A t- • - A 

r-^rTl^JF A 

iV- " -n * 

increased importance and beauty of the village, which 
will have its effects on our receipts later. At the same 
time we will suggest to the village fathers a modest and 
inexpensive improvement of the square, by the intro- 
duction of refuges, or slightly raised pavements in parts. 
and the planting of trees, to give a definite arrangement 
to the otherwise disorderly place. A fountain on the 
west side where the river-road comes in. — a bit of a 
monument to the forefathers in the axis of all, and we 
have everything ship-shape and orderly, already an 
ensemble in which the heterogeneous elements of coun- 
try shops, Parisian town hall. Gothic church, and Co- 
lonial mansion, all take their places, without sacrificing 
their own peculiar characters. The task of harmonizing 
our new works with their neighbors is bv so doing much 
the more readily solved. 

Nothing gives a building the quality of distinction so 
much as setting it well back from the street, and intro- 
ducing between it and the entrance minor features which 
serve to give the key and the scale. Here then is an 
added reason, in the beautiful view toward the river, for 

lage, of which it is, or is no doubt to be, the Leading lion. 
Noblesse oblige! The steep slope of the land toward the 
river is a rather ticklish problem. only if we attack it 
in the right way it is sure to yield us a special beauty. 
We will try terracing all the way down. Let the square 
itself be the first terrace looking over the wall down into 
the court of honor, which is the second terrace. All 
this still more enlarges the apparent amplitude of the 
Public Place. The court of honor, of course, is flanked 
to right and left by the stables and kitchen offices, which 

on its own terrace; the third side, the bottom of the 
court, is built across by the main body of the Inn. The 
fourth side of the court, behind us, is, as I have said. 
open to the square, except in the center, where the 
entrance is marked by the drive-porch. 

The Inn is on the third terrace, its main floor being 
level with the court of honor, and entered from it 
through the vestibule which juts forward from the main 
building to the swing of the retaining wall which defines 
the south side of terrace number two. So the basement 
of the inn is entirely above the ground of its own terrace. 



Beyond the buildings we descend by successive ter- 
races, a tennis-court on each, to the water, where the 
boat-houses are placed at either end of the quay. Bowl- 
ing-alleys, avenues of trees, summer houses, the or- 
chard, trellises, arbors, shrubberies, and river walks, 
-all the delights of country life are at hand. 

But I have not said a word about the material or the 
color. Good rich rough red brick, with overburnt bats. 


■rtni T .. r :zu ; 


laid up in warm gray mortar, — and, where you must have 
it, a quoin, or a key, or a springer, —or a little careful 
detail about a dormer, a chimney, or a porch, of lus- 
terless tawny terra-cotta, — that will be best, and cheap- 
est at the same time. Overhanging eaves with the 
rough rafter ends showing their deep bronze-brown 
elbows underneath; and for the roof, yellowish ^ray- 
green, deep-toned tile, with plenty of play of dark and 
light to keep it from being dead or heavy, just a water- 
color executed. Here and there an earthen pot of 
flowers in a window, a trailing vine, a few homely plants 
and shrubs, and the place is redolent of comfort and of 
tjood times. 

The Exhibition of the Architectural 
League of New York. 

THE sixteenth annual exhibition of the Architectural 
League of New York opened on February 17, and 
closed March 9. 

A threat deal of space was occupied this year by the 
drawings and models of the buildings and accessories of 
the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo. These build- 
ings being of a temporary character and in perishable 
material are not of the first moment to those who are 
interested principally in the development of permanent 
style, or of the use of durable materials. Nevertheless, 
since such expositions have usually had a widespread 
influence on the art of their times, an influence which 
is often observed and felt by those not directly inter- 
ested, — it is perhaps justifiable to give a large amount 
of space to work of this character. 

It is not at all probable that the buildings at Buffalo 
will have any such effect on the contemporary work of 
the country as did those at Chicago, and it may be hoped 
that they will not, since it is apparent that the designers 
have had in mind something of the French idea of an 
exposition, that it is a temporary thing, a gala affair, 
and fit subject for experiment and for the production of 
gay and somewhat fantastic effects. 

It is not to be understood from this that the de- 
signers of the Buffalo buildings have in any way taken 
their inspiration from those in Paris last year. The 
contrary is the case, there being remarkably little evi- 
dence of direct French influence. The prevailing style 
is Southern, chiefly Renaissance with leaning toward 
Spanish. The most striking thing about the whole, 
being the free use of color. The entire color scheme has 
been under the direction of ('. V. Turner; and while 
it is too early to try to predict results, it is evident from 
the drawings on exhibition that the matter has been 
gone into with the utmost thoroughness, and from the 
hands of such an artist as Mr. Turner we may be sure 
we shall get satisfactory effects. 

The prevailing note in the color scheme is furnished 
by the roofs which are all of red tile. This is indicated 
in the general plan of the grounds by Carrere & Hast- 
ings, who have general charge of all Landscape work, and 
of the laying out of the grounds. 

In general, the scheme is intended to lead from light 
tones at the entrance up to more brilliant effects at the 
end of the court, which is terminated by the Electric 
Tower by John Galen Howard. 

Two of the galleries were almost entirely given up 
to paintings by Mr. Turner of color schemes and details 
of the various buildings. In the Yanderbilt gallery there 
were a number of drawings by the architects, and the 
sculpture part of the exhibition is given over entirely to 
work in connection with the Exposition. 

Among the more prominent work in this connection 
may be mentioned the following: Ethnology Building 
by George Cary ; Manufactures and Liberal ArtsbyShep- 
Ley, Rutan & Coolidge; Temple of Music by Essenwein 
& [ohnson; Machinery and Transportation, Electric, and 
Art buildings byGreen & Wicks; Forestry, Horticulture, 
and Graphic Arts by Peabody & Stearns; Stadium and 


Propylaea by Babb, Cook & Willard. We should also 
mention the bridge by Carrere & Hastings, which is 
almost the only piece of French work in the Exposition. 
It is presented in a beautiful water-color by Hopkinson 

Smith, and is very decorative, though somewhat more 
monumental than the other work. 

Mr. Howard's Electric Tower closes the view from 
ihe bridge, and is well worthy of a place of honor. It is 
shown by a characteristic water-color elevation and a 
very fine model, also colored. The treatment of the 
shaft of this tower with perforated panels in geometrical 
patterns, picked out by color, is original and very effec- 
tive. We expect good work from Mr. Howard, and his 
work does not sutler from being less Parisian than usual. 

Apart fro m 
t h e Exposition 
work the most 
notable thin g 
about the exhibi- 
tion is the evi- 
d e n c e it fur- 
nishes o f the 
s j) r e a d of the 
French style. 
A p p a rently if 
you are doi n g 
w o r k in t h e 
vicinity of New 
York, and if you 
are not one of 
those privileged 
mortals w h o 
years ago made 
a reputation for 
peculiar merit in 
some other style, 
you must n o w 
work in French 
whet h e r you 
know how or not. 
The style is as 
prevalent at this 
year's exhibition 
as was the Rich- 
ardson Roman- 
es q u e ten i > r 
twelve years ago, 
a n d the result 
promises to be quite as disastrous. The question arises, 
" Will it he as disastrous to the style itself"'" Even now 
there are those who think they see the reaction setting 
in. There is noticeable about the work of some of the 
older and abler men of the French school a purity of 
style and a restraint in detail, the lack of which marred 
much of their earlier work. This is noticeable in the 
very tine model of the New York Public Library, by 
Carrere & Hastings, which stands in the entrance hall, 
and which shows a scholarly and dignified structure, hav- 
ing the French influence it is true, but showing it in a 
way with which none need quarrel. The same may be 
said of Mr. Howard's tower, of which mention has been 
made, and of the Soldiers' Monument by the Messrs. 

Bruce Price, 

Drawings by Boring & Tilton show the same tendency 
in a very marked manner. A design for a government 

hospital by this firm is almost colonial, though it avoids 
the weaknesses of the style which threatened at oik- time 
to bring it into contempt. This hospital building is 
largely of red brick in connection apparently with stone. 
There is hardly a design in the classic styles in the 
whole exhibition which does not show some sign of the 
French influence, and in many cases it can only be 
characterized as a mania. No one need quarrel with the 
work of the Beaux Arts men as a whole, nor with their 
influence properly considered, but it does seem regret- 
table that architects who formerly did quiet and inoffen- 
sive, if not brilliant, work should feel impelled to work 

in a style which 
they do not un- 
derstand, and to- 
ward which they 
have no natural 

T h e r e a r e 
some notable ex- 
ceptions, h o w - 
e v e r , to t h e 
general rule of 
being French at 
any cost. ( reorge 
B. Post's design 
for the Xew York 

Stock Exchange 

is one of them. 
His draw i n g s, 
among which is 
an e x cell e n t 
w a t e r-color by 
I [ughson 1 1 a w- 
ley, show a dig- 
nified classic 
f a 5 a d e with a 
basement, above 
which is a Cor- 
inthian colon- 
nade surmounted 
b y a h e a v i 1 y 
sculptured pedi- 
ment. An inter- 
esting point i s 

that the wall re- 
cessed behind the large colonade is almost entirely glass. 
Another notable exception is the accepted design for the 
Union Club by Cass Gilbert & John I hi Pais. This de- 
sign is purely Italian, and will be a monument well 
worthy of the prominent site it will occupy. Other 
architects who do not seem to be afflicted by the desire to 
pass as belonging to the French school are Bruce Price 
and Clinton & Russell. 

The competitions of the year have not been very 
notable, the most important being those for the Yale 
Memorial Building and for the Union Club. 

Carrere & Hastings's accepted design for the Yale 
Building is a worthy effort, showing the same character- 
istics of dignity and restraint as their Xew York Library. 

besides that of Gilbert «.V- I Hi Pais, two other competi- 

A'.l \v ^REHOUSE. 

Til E B R I CK BIT I L I) E R . 


W. B. Tubby & Bro., Architects. 

tive designs for the Union Club are exhibited, those by 
Wood, Palmer & Hornbostel and Donn Barber. Both 
are well planned, and no doubt in the hands of their 
designers, who are men of ability, would have developed 
into buildings of high merit. The design by Wood, 
Palmer cV Hornbostel is the only one which proposed the 
use of brick. 

Another competition in which brick was more gen- 
erally used was that for the Carnegie Library at Eas1 
Orange. fardine, Kent & Jardine were the successful 
competitors. Competitive designs for this library were 
exhibited also by Ludlow cv Valentine, and Aekerman 
& Ross. These were published in The Brickbuilder 
last month. 

Aekerman & Ross also show a very charming design 
for a public library at San Diego. It is not necessary to 
say that the draughtsmanship is excellent. 

Ferry & Clas show a photograph of a historical society 

library at Madison, Wis., which is a .dignified and pleas- 
ing structure in good classic. Not being near New York, 
its architects did not feel impelled to make it French. 

Probably the most notable design in the exhibition in 
materials of clay is that lor a storage warehouse, a very 
large building by Bruce Price. In this the piers are 
treated with bands of terra-cotta, and the large arches 
are filled in with brick in a diaper pattern of red and 
buff. The cornice is heavily bracketed, the brackets or 
corbels being in colored terracotta. 'Idle building above 
the basement gives the impression of being entirely of 
brick, and yet it is extremely varied in color, which shows 
that the terra-cotta is used in its best form as a material 

Tracy & Swartwout, Architects. 

of clay capable of any amount of ornamentation and 

variety of color. The design is the work of a man 

who thinks out his designs and withal makes few mis- 


T II E BRlCKRni. I) E R 

Charles I. Berg, Architect. 

Two very large office buildings by Clinton & Russell, 
the Broad Exchange Building and the Atlantic Building, 
are largely in brick and terra-cotta. Little variety has 
been attempted in the color, hut the terra-cotta matches 
and blends in with the brick and seems part of it, which 
is another way of using terra-cotta right. J. II. Fried- 
lander, who is a Beaux Arts man. has a design for a 
detention hospital, which is largely of brick above the 

basement, and in which he has introduced some variety 
oi color in the arches of the top story. 

York & Sawyer show a building for Vassar Coll 
of brick and stone which is a Strong and able piece oi 
work. They also have a country house design of brick 
and stone which should work out well. 

T. Henry Randall has two designs. One lor St. 
John's College, Annapolis, is a scholarly structure in 


? : 


Tp-f'r^T f |" j r rp*w« 

\ i . I 

» » U 1 > M "g ■ * t guy- 

--' -> 




■■ -, 

. ■ 


wd I .- 


Wood, Palmer & Hornbostel, Architects 



classic of brick and stone. The other, the residence of 
Mr. Poor at Tuxedo, is a very interesting Elizabethan 
building in brick and stone. 

Snelling & Potter have a plan and a very well -ren- 
dered elevation of a large apartment house which is quite 
French and very interesting and clever. 

The Messrs. Stoughton also show a church in New 
York of buff brick and stone in Romanesque, with appar- 
ently more or less classic feeling in the detail; it is 
restrained and agreeable. Their soldiers' monument. 
mentioned before, is presented by several drawings and 
an excellent model. It is a pleasing, dignified, and well- 
studied design and should be an ornament to its location. 

Hugh Lamb shows a design for an office building, 
twenty-eight or thirty stories high, in brick and terra-cotta. 

by the best pen and ink rendering in the exhibition, and 
is in itself a very good thing and strictly in keeping with 
t he main building. 

R. II. Robertson is represented by only one drawing, 
but he is at his best in a country house at Lenox in 
brick and half-timbered stucco work. 

Cope & Stewardson exhibit a very good water-color 
by Hughson Hawley, a bird's-eye view of Washington 
University, St. Louis. 

Van Yleck & Goldsmith show several designs, among 
them one for a house for a Mr. Williams, in the modern 
French, well-studied, restrained, and pleasing 

[Catherine C. Budd has a number of very vigorous 
and pleasing sketches; they almost persuade us that it 
may be possible for a woman to do vigorous architecture. 

T. Henry Rand 

C. B. ]. Snyder exhibits a drawing and model of the 
Peter Cooper High School. It is designed in English 
collegiate Gothic, to be executed in brick and terra-cotta. 
It is a pleasing design, and the designer has obtained 
the large window space necessary without ruining his 
building artistically. 

Charles I. Berg exhibits several drawings of the 
Windsor Arcade, now familiar to New Yorkers, and a 
design for the Hotel Touraine in brick and stone. 

W. Albert Swasey has a large water-color of an office 
building in Memphis, Tenn., which is nearly all brick 
and terra-cotta. 

Charles A. Rich shows a studio building in brick and 

Price & Darrach have a dormitory for the Morning- 
side Realty Company in a free Elizabethan style, which 
is largely of brick. 

N. Le Brun & Sons exhibit a competitive design lor a 
lady chapel at St. Patrick's Cathedral. It is presented 

S COLLEGE, ANN \I'oi is, \ll>. 
all. Architect. 

Ernest Flagg's exhibit is entirely composed oi draw- 
ings for the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis. 
He shows nine drawings in all, some of them very large, 
and all well rendered. They show a group of well- 
designed and rather monumental buildings, which arc 
decidedly French in character, but show a restraint which 
is seldom absent from Mr. Flagg's work. 

II. J. Hardenbergh is represented by the new Willard 
Hotel at Washington and an office building. 

Some familiar names are lacking. McKim, Mead & 
White are entirely unrepresented. Peabody & Stearns 
show only their Exposition work. Charles C. Haighl 
sends nothing, Israels & Harder do the same, and many 
others. Our Boston friends are particularly conspicuous 
by their absence. Are they afraid there is no room for 
them unless they "do" French. Let them take heart 
and send along their best work next war, and he sure il 

will lind plenty of admirers even though we can't find a 

cartouche in the lot with a microscope. 



Portland Cement. 

PORTLAND cement is the product of the burning to 
the point of sintering, and subse [uent grinding to 
a fine powder, of an intimate mixture, in certain definite 
proportions, of materials consisting essentially of car- 
bonate of lime and clay. Ordinarily about 75 per cent. 
of carbonate of lime and 25 per cent, of clay, or their 
equivalents, would he mixed together, the materials 
containing, besides the lime, silica, and alumina which 
arc necessary tor the production of a cement, a certain 
amount of iron oxide, magnesia, alkalies, sulphuric acid, 
and other minor elements which, although quite unneces- 
sary as essential constituents, influence the character of 
the cement to a certain degree, depending on their 

According to the Union of German Portland Cement 
Manufacturers, anything produced in any other way than 
that above described, or containing an addition of more 
than 2 per cent, of other substances, cannot be called 
Portland cement. 

Portland cement is a sharp slate-gray powder with a 
greenish or bluish-green tinge. It is distinguished from 
natural cement by the fact that it is burned at a much 
higher temperature, sintering of the product being neces- 
sary for the complete combination of its constituents. 
It is also marked by containing a much larger proportion 
of lime to silica and alumina, or greater hydraulic index, 
as it is called, than natural cement; by the fact that its 
composition can be varied within only very narrow 
limits, and by its very much higher specific gravity, 
about 3.15, and consequently greater volume weight or 
density. It sets usually much more slowly than natural 
cement, hardens more rapidly, and has a much greater 

Comparison of the analyses of a good Portland cement 

with those of two natural cements of the lime and mag- 
nesian class shows the very decided differences which 
exist in their composition: — 

Portland. Natural. 

Lime* Magnesian. 

Alkalies [.5 i.,; 1.8 

Sulphuric acid 1.3 1.3 1.0 

Fgnition . . -■. 1 8. j j. s 
Silicates unde- 

composed . .0 7.9 12. t 

Portland cement must be free from magnesia, or 
nearly so, so that it cannot be produced from the rock 
from which most of our American natural cements are 
made. The temperature of burning is such that little or 
no silica or silicates are left uncombincd with lime, and 
with the increase in the proportion of the latter there is 
a relative decrease in the percentage of some of the Other 

Although there may be wider variations found in the 
composition of all available cements which pass under 
the name of Portland, the best brands will fall far within 
the following extremes : 

Silica 20.0—24.0 Magnesia 5- 

Alumina Alkalies 5 

tron oxide .... 2.0 — 5.0 Sulphuric acid ; 

Lime '1 1 Ignition ....... .5 1 

Should a cement fall outside these limits, it is desir- 
able that it should be carefully examined, especially if 
the magnesia or sulphuric acid arc excessive, or the lime 
amounts to more than 64 per cent. 






. J 1. 6 




■ 7-4 



Iron oxide 

a j 



Lime. . 

. 62.8 







OX the night of January 25 last, there occurred one 
■ it the most destructive tires ever recorded in the 
history of the city of Montreal, the total hiss approxi- 
mating £.}. 500, 000. Commencing in the Saxe Build- 
ing, on the southeast corner of St. Paul Street, it quickly 
communicated to the Nelson Building adjoining; from 
thence it swept across St. Peter Street, and in a few 
hours reduced the Board of Trade Building and tin- 
whole of the warehouses, contained in the block bounded 
by Lemoine, St. Nicholas, St. Paul, and Commissioner 
Streets, to ashes. 

Of the buildings destroyed, the most important was 
that of the Board of Trade, erected in [889 at a cost "I 
nearly $5°°. 000 and at the time said to be of slow 
combustion construction. That it was of the combusti- 
ble order is shown by the rapid manner in which the 
fire seized upon it and in a comparatively short time 
reduced the structure to ruins. 

Amidst this mass of destruction is to be found many 
valuable lessons as to the behavior of the many differ- 



cut materials which enter into modern construction, 
under the action of fire and water. 

For some reason (presumably in case of lire to pre- 
vent its spreading) the floors over the restaurant and 
boiler rooms were constructed of " porous terra-cotta " 
side arch construction, and strange to say, two forms 
were used : the one having skew-backs designed to pro- 
tect the beam flanges; the other, depending on metal 
lathing and plaster for the same purpose. Possibly no 
better illustration could be found of the behavior of 
these two tonus of construction under precisely similar 

By referring to Fig. 1 it will be seen that a porous 
terra-cotta skew-back, properly designed and placed, 
will sufficiently protect the lower flanges of steel beams. 



The skew-backs and arches are intact, except where 
a large safe falling from above has broken a portion of 
one panel, and it is to be noted that the arch did not 
collapse, but the safe remains where it fell on the top of 
the arch. The arches and skew-backs have sustained 
no practical damage, remaining true and level as when 
they were built, despite the fact that tons of debris in 
the shape of broken cast-iron columns, twisted and broken 




girders, bricks, mortar, sheet-iron, etc., fell and is now 
deposited on them, the depth in some places exceeding 
six feet (see Fig. 2). 

The metal lath and plaster covering failed to afford 
any efficient protection to the lower flanges of the steel 
beams, the lathing having been stripped by the action of 
heat and water from the hangers, and in every case 
where this form of construction was used, the lower 
flanges of the beams were apparently left unprotected at 
an early stage of the fire. The beams are twisted, the 
arches have sagged, and this portion of the work is 
practically a total loss. When one views these two forms 
of arches side by side, there can be no question of the 
superiority of porous terra-cotta over metal lathing and 
plaster, as a protection from fire. 

The cinder concrete used to level up the top of the 
arches disintegrated under the action of tire and water, 
and little, if any, traces of a continuous piece can be 
found. There is no doubt that this material is not lire- 
proof, and should be carefully avoided where positive 
results are desired. 

The sandstone with which the three fronts of this 
building were faced has suffered severely. Everywhere 
is to be seen splintered stone, broken lintels, string- 
courses, and cornices, even some of the carved shields on 
the upper stories being entirely obliterated by flaking, 
and one can but come to the conclusion that sandstone is 
not a safe material to use in the construction of fire-proof 

The Board of Underwriters have in the past demanded 
that all communicating doors in the openings of interior 
division or separating walls of a building shall be of wood 

covered with tin. These were placed in the Hoard of 
Trade Building, but not a vestige of them is to be found 
other than a few scraps of tin in the basement and a 
small piece hanging on one door, although the brick 
openings are standing intact. 

The brickwork, on the whole, has stood the test well. 
In no case has the hard brick been damaged to any ex- 
tent, but in many places the soft has scaled under the 
action of fire and water. This apparently shows that the 
use of soft brick should be avoided where stable results 
are desired. 

Much has been said and written of the failure of the 
vaults to protect papers and documents placed in them 
for safe-keeping, but not one word has been written of 
the cause, or even an attempt made to locate the fault. 
In all eases examined, the papers were most charred near 
the iron doors, and this would tend to prove that these 
were faulty in construction. Both the outer and inner 
doors evidently became overheated, and the vaults being 
shallow (the papers almost touching the doors), nothing 
inflammable could remain near them without being dam- 
aged or destroyed. 

One cannot but be struck by the difference in behavior 
between the I joist forming the lintels over large open- 
ings in the brick division walls of cellar and brick 
segmental arches which were used for others. The 
former have buckled in the center badly; the latter have 
not moved, and are as perfect as the day they were built 

That cast iron will undergo a severe fire test with less 
damage than steel construction has once again been 
demonstrated bv this fire. The former used as columns 

s I o \ I \ \ I ) \ BRICK WALL. 

invariably broke rather than buckled; the latter twisted 
and buckled. Neither can be safely used without the 
protection of some fire-proof material. 

Although no attempt was made to erect a lire-prool 
building other than the portions herein before described, 
it is a satisfaction to those who have advocated terra- 
cotta fire-proof construction that it has in tins conflagra- 
tion withstood such a severe test perfectly, and thai il 
can without a question of doubt be relied upon in the 
hour of trial. 


T II K ' H R I C K BT I L I) E R 

Selected Miscellany. 


S* — ^L» 

ill ty 

\. 1 m 


i '' 



■1 1 i 


1 ™B5 ijft 



Built of 


All signs point to a great local revival of building 
activity this spring. The practical ending of the long 

and bitter strife be- 
tween capital a n d 
the building trades 
at last opens a clear 
held to real estate 
investors. The past 
four years of increas- 
ing commercial pros- 
perity has brought 
sufficient growth and 
new busi n e SS to 
Chicago to out-strip 
the over-bui 1 d i n g, 
incident to the 
World's Fair, a n d 
the years of build- 
ing stagnation which 
h a v e foil w e d . 
Rents for all classes 
of buildings have a 
strong upward ten- 
dency, and m a n y 
tlats and apartment 
houses art' being planned to meet the demand. Office 
space down-town is already so well taken up that in many 
of the best buildings there is scarcely a vacancy. The 
growing demand for office Space will be partly met by 
the new fourteen-story office building soon to be begun 
by the National Life Insurance Company on La Salle 
Street between Madison and Monroe. Jenny and Mun- 
die are the architects, and the cost of the structure will 
be nearly $1,000,000. 

Three of Chi- 
cago's daily papers 
will soon be in 
m od e r n buildings 
exclusiv ely t h e i r 
o w n . The Inter- 
Ocean's new building 
on Monroe Street 
near Dearborn, de- 
signed by William 
t'arbys Zimmerman, 
is rapidly approach- 
ing completion. The 
Tribune's new build- 
ing, designed by 
Holabird & Roche, 
will soon replace the 
old structure at the 
corner of Dearborn 
and Madison Streets. 

All leases in the 
old Central Music 
Hall Building will 

terminate on May 1, and the building will be demolished 
to make room for the first section of Marshall Field's 
mammoth new store, which will, when completed, cover 
the entire block on State Street between Washington and 

Mandel Brother's new retail store on the site of the 

old McClurg book- 
store at Wabash and 
Madison Streets is 
n o w finished a n d 
counts for one more 
in the group of new 
steel buildings cov- 
ered with c re a m - 
w bite e n a m e 1 e d 

Adamo Boari, the 

architect who dis- 
tinguished h i m self 
by taking first place 
in the Mexican Capi- 
tol competition, has 
be e n commissioned 
by the government 
t<> prepare plans for 
a new building to 
replace the old Na- 
tional Theater in the 
the work here at his 

[ronclay" brick, Columbus Face Brick Company, makers. 
F. B. & L. L. Lontf, Architects. 

city of Mexico. Mr. Boari will d< 
office in Steinway Hall. 


Strattoo & Baldwin, Architects. 

Seven large country houses, by as many different 
architects, are to be erected this year on the newly 
opened " Hubbard's Woods " tract on the North Shore 
between Winnetka and Lakeside. 

Trustees of the John Crerar Library are formulating 

plans whereby they 
hope to secure the 

privilege of erecting 

their new building 

on the lake front at 
the foot of Washing- 
ton Street. The fact 
that the library is 
distinctly a public 
institution and will 
be an ornament to 
the city are among 
the reasons offered 

for desiring this par- 
ticular site. Provi- 
sion for the building 

was made in the will 
w h i e h created the 
library. Further, the 
testator. Mr. Crerar, 
set forth that it 
should ••be tasteful, 
substantial, and fire- 
proof." The build- 
ing, p 1 a n n e d by 




to j. 


• .c 

5 S" 



Roofed with Ludowici roofing tile. 

Herbert Dumerasq, Architect. 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, is to be two stories high and 
classic in style. As originally intended, the institution 
has become of practical value to " the great army of arti- 
sans of the city. It is preeminently a library to which 

the mechanic, the artisan, the electrician, the 
engineer, the architect, and all others inter- 
ested in applied sciences may go to obtain the 
results <>f the latest and best research in their 
particular held of work." Cooperation with 
the public library which has developed is also 
mentioned as one of the reasons why the 
public should favor the lake front location. 
By this means the public library is enabled 
to save the great cost of scientific books. 
Scientific societies are provided with meet- 
ing rooms in the library free of charge. If 
located far out in either division of the city, 
the trustees argue, the benefits of the institu- 
tion could not be enjoyed by the down-town 
workers, nor would it be convenient to the 
societies, to say nothing of the extra car- 
fares required to those who would be com- 
pelled to consult its volumes. No other location is found 
available in the loop district, and it was this fact which 
first turned the trustee's attention to the old post-office 
site. The library now contains sixty-five thousand vol- 
umes, has an endowment of £3,400,000, and a constantly 

increasing building fund which already 

amounts to $320,000. 

At the last meeting of the Architects' 
Guild, Mr. Charles A. Coolidge was present 
as the guest of the evening, and the dinner 
was followed by a very interesting discussion 
of the best methods of teaching architecture 
in the Art Institute, Mr. Coolidge being one 
of the directors of the Architectural School. 
This school, with its steadily growing patron- 
age from the Middle West, promises to be- 
come a strong factor in the training of the 
future draughtsmen and architects of Chi- 
cago, and demands the intelligent guidance 

of the best men in the profession, that it may advance in 

accordance with modern ideas of architectural education. 

At the next meeting of the Guild, the same subject will 

probably come np for further discussion. 

Roofed with American S. 'rik'. 


The New Century opened propitiously for San Fran- 
cisco, ami everything in the building line looks rosy for 
the year. The amount of building done during 1900 was 
$6,150,000 against $4,711,000 for 1899, and this year it 
is hoped to far out distance last. 


Brick furnished by tin- 1 >hio Mining and Manufacturing Con 
Mas. .11 Maury, Architect. 


Lined with " Blue Ridge " enameled brick, Penn Buff Brick and 

til.- Company, makers. 

s. Gifford Slocum, Architect. 



There are many 
large projects in the 
offices of our leading 
architects, but none 
that is exciting such 
general interest as 
the building to be 
erected on the Bald- 
win Hotel site, which 
has been vacant since 
the hotel was burned 
down over two years 
ago. The property 
was bought from 
E. J. Baldwin by 
James L. Flood for 
$1,425,000. It is the 
owner's intention to 
erect a nine-story, 
fire-proof office build- 
ing with stores. The 
building will cover 
31,816 sq. ft., the 
size of the lot, and 
front on three main streets. Albert Pissis is the architect. 

Another large improvement that will be started im- 
mediately is the Pacific States Telephone & Telegraph 
Company's Building on New Montgomery Street, four 
stories in height and fire-proof throughout. The style 
will be French Renaissance, in sandstone and chocolate 
colored brick. The cost of this improvement will be 

George W. Percy, one of our prominent architects, 
died suddenly of heart disease, last December, at the 
age of 53. Mr. Percy's early death is much regretted In- 
die profession and, indeed, by all who knew him ; he was 

1) Mi 

■ — 


8> &J&£$ 




a genial man and a general favorite. His head draughts- 
man, H. H. Meyers, has taken up his work, which 
includes several large structures in this citv and one in 
Honolulu, IF I. 

Death has also removed James E. Wolfe, one of our 
pioneer architects: lie died in harness at the age of So. 

The revised plans of M. Benard, of Paris, for the 
University of California were accepted by the Hoard of 
Regents last December. As they now stand they are 
materially reduced in size and cost of buildings from 
those that won him the prize of $10,000. The arrange- 
ment is also somewhat modified, and it is estimated that 
it can be executed for about 812,000,- 
000, none of the buildings shown in 
the prize scheme being omitted how- 
ever. A permanent advisory com- 
mittee was appointed consisting of 
the five original judges: Paul Wallot 
of Germany, Jean Louis Pascal of 
France, Norman Shaw of London, 
Walter Cook of New York, and J. B. 
Reinstein (lawyer) of San Francisco; 
together with these will be associated 

C. P. McKim, J. M. Carrere, and 
J. G. Howard of New York and 

D. Despradelles of the Boston Insti- 
tute of Technology; to this committee 
will be submitted any changes or 
additions that may be deemed neces- 
sary in the plans. 

The perforated tiles forming the screen are copied from Chinese tiles. The color is pale blui 
C.rueby Faience Company, makers. 
H. Langford Warren, Architect, 


Rankin & Kellogg, architects, an- 
nounce their removal to 1012 Walnut 
Street, Philadelphia. 

Among the recent events at the 
Post on Architectural Club was a paper 
by C. IP Blackall on " The Construe- 



tion and Design of the New Colonial Theater"; a 
paper by John E. Cheney, assistant engineer, city of 
Boston, on "American Bridges"; a paper by II. C. 
Holt describing sonic observations on tin.- Caryatids 


Showing wall built of hollow tile fire-proof blocks. Raritan Hollow 

and Porous Brick Company, makers. 

George B. Post, Architect. 

Porch of the Erechtheon, and a 

dinner at the Hotel Thorndike. 

Steak and Stein " 

John II. & Wilson C. Ely, architects, announce their 
removal to the Globe Building, <Soo Broad Street, New- 
ark, X. J. 

The John Stewardson Scholarship in Architecture of 
the University of Pennsylvania for njoi has been 
awarded to Mr. Ira Wilson Hoover, of New York, a 
graduate of the architectural department of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. The holder of the scholarship, 
the income of which is one thousand dollars, is required 
to spend a year abroad in the study of architecture. The 
jury of award this year was composed of Messrs. John 
M. Carrere and Walter Cook, of New York, and C. How- 
ard Walker of Boston. 

Ernest Flagg, who is the architect of the new 
buildings for the Naval Academy at Annapolis, has been 
selected as the architect of a naval arch, which the pro- 
moters hope to erect, at the cost of about a million 
dollars, near the Battery in New York. The arch is to 
lie higher than the Arc de 1'Etoile, in Paris, but it is to 
be treated in a different and quite original manner. The 
affair is in the hands of the Alumni Association of the 
Naval Academy; and. as soon as the site is secured and 
the design approved by the Municipal Art Commission, 

an appeal will be made for subscriptions for carrying out 
the work. 

A bill has been introduced in the Wisconsin Legis- 
lature providing for the licensing of architects. It is 
almost identical with the law in force in Illinois. The 
bill sets forth that licenses shall be issued to all archi- 
tects now practising, and that others shall pass an exami- 
nation before being granted a license before a board of 
five examiners, created for that purpose. An original 
license fee of twenty-five dollars will be charged and 
five dollars a year thereafter. The measure does not 
prohibit builders from making plans for their own use, 
nor does it prohibit owners from making plans. 

The Illinois Chapter of the American Institute of 
Architects held its regular monthly meeting in the Art 
Institute on Monday evening, February 25. Three 
papers on French, Italian, and Japanese architecture. 
respectively, were read. All the papers were illustrated 
bv lantern slides, and were of unusual interest. The 


.New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

C. B. J. Snyder. Architect. 

first paper was written by John Galen Howard of New 
York City; the second paper was written by Prof. A. D. 
F. Hamlin of Columbia University; while the paper on 
[apanese architecture was written by Mr. Hunda ol 
Tokio, Japan. 

The Chicago Architectural Club gave a smoker at the 
rooms of the club in the Art Institute on Monday even- 
ing, March 4, at which an informal discussion was held 
on the questions: " Should Architectural Design and the 
Study of Historic Styles follow and be based upon a 
Knowledge of Pure Design?" and "How can Pure 
1 lesion be best Studied? " 




Edward R. Diggs & Co., of Washington, I). C, in 

addition to their Baltimore and New York branches, will 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

shortly open offices in Philadelphia and Boston, for the 
sale of their front brick. 

The Tewettville Pressed Brick and Paving Com- 
pany, of Buffalo, N. Y. , has purchased the good will 
and plant of Brush & Schmidt. Among the stock- 
holders of the corporation are: William C. Brush, Wil- 
liam H. Brush, Warren H. Brush, and Stephen C. 
Brush, who will control and manage the company. Their 
experience in the brick business, covering a period of 
fifty years, is a guarantee that patrons will be well 
served. The Jewettville company will make specialties 
of the manufacture of high-grade front and paving 
brick. The facilities of the plant are being greatly 
increased in order that all contracts may be filled 
promptly and satisfactorily. 

The increased use of roofing tile in this country is 
made manifest by the statement of the Cincinnati Roof- 

Winkle Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

ing Tile and Tcrra-cotta Company, that they booked 
orders during February for five hundred squares of 
American S. tile, in addition to an order for three 
hundred squares, for work being done in New York City 
for |ohn D. Rockefeller, Esq. 

Y. Emile Thebaud & Co., architects, have opened an 
office at 54 (Thick Building, Niagara kails, N. Y. Cata- 
logues and samples desired. 

George Trust, architect, lias opened an office at 
Tacoma, Wash. (P. 0. Box 813). Catalogues and 
samples desired. 

Savre & Fisher Company have been awarded the 
contract to furnish all the front and enameled brick 
which will be used in the new Mount Sinai Hospital, 
New York City, of which Adolph Brunner is the 
architect, William .Schickel, consulting architect, and 
NorCTOSS Brothers, builders. The hospital will cost 
about ,$1 ,600,000. 


A REPORT has been going the rounds of some of the 
English technical papers which lias excited a good 

deal of amused interest. " What sort of bricks have you 
in your country? " said the lecturer to a student from 
South Africa the other day. " < >h, they are well enough," 
replied the student; " they break if you let them fall onto 
the ground, or hit them too hard, hut when they are 





Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 
George B. Post, Architect. 

covered with stucco at the front and wall-paper at the 
back they do well enough." It wouldn't be wise to say 
that such an experience could not be duplicated in this 
country. Some years since we had occasion to investi- 
gate some bricks in a far western State where good clay 
was scarce and fire-proof brickmakers even more so. 
We found a product whose color matched the pale tint of 
the indigenous salmon. The bricks were so brittle that 
out of a lot of one thousand selected at random from a 
pile, less than half were perfect and none would stand 



Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, makers. i & Rolph, A l elm. . I ■ 



a drop of three feet onto an ordinary firm soil, while 
they were all so porous and thirsty, that after we had 
immersed one in water and it had 
bubbled and sizzled for full fifteen 
minutes, we gave up trying to 
determine what percentage of 
water it would absorb. Those 
were in the early days, hut even 
these days are early for South 
Africa; and because bricks are 
now poor is no reason for suppos- 
ing that an intelligent demand in 
that part of the world will not be 
met by a higher grade of supply. 

in I \ 1 1. r.\ PI ABODY 

STEARNS, \killl- 

I EC I s. 

Conk ling- A r mstro n 

Terra-Cotta Company, 



Northwestern Terra-Cotta 

Company, makers. 

\ :n : i & Sterner Architects 




r PHE fifteenth annual conven- 
L tion of the National Brick 
Manufacturers' Association of the 
United States of America was 
held at ( >ld Point Comfort, \'a., 
February [3 to 16, and was at- 
tended by between three and four 
hundred delegates, representing 
all branches of brick and burnt 
clay manufacture, coming from 
nearly all sections of the coun- 
try. The various papers 
which were presented to the 
convention were of a thought- 
ful, serious nature, and were 
listened to in a spirit which 
shows that our brick manufac- 
turers are not disposed to be 
contented with any conditions 
which can be bettered: while 
an appreciation of educated, 

scientific thought applied to 
the manufacture of brick and 
terra-cotta was manifested by 
the convention to an extent 
which is exceedingly en- 
couraging to those who realize 
how much hard work has been 
expended in developing the 
modern brickmaking plant. 
This convention represented 
the fundamental materials of 
which all our architecture is 
built, the special mediums to 

the use of which The Brick- 
builder is committed; and 

while the papers read were 
very largely of a technical 
nature, there was much in 
them which would appeal with 
force to our architectural 
readers. The processes of 
the manufacture of brick and 
burnt clay have been thor- 

oughly modernized and equipped 
with labor-saving devices, which 
represent most careful study and 
thought; but in many respects the 
brick industry is in much the same 
condition as relates to the essential 
manner of production as it was in 
the days of Pharaoh. The mechani- 
cal processes are still very largely 
manual, and there is apparently a 
great field for some one to apply to 
the manufacture of common brick 
the same kind of engineering intel- 
ligence which has made possible our 
enormous national development in 
the manufacture of steel and iron. 
Just what shape this development 
will take in brick manufacture is 
entirely an uncertain element. But 
that it will come seemed to be one 
of the lessons which could be read 
between the lines of the official 

report of the brickmakers' conven- 

The following-named officers we 
elected for the ensuing year: \V. H. 
Hunt, of Cleveland, Ohio, president; 
Charles A. Bloomfield, of Brooklyn, 
first vice-president; J. II. Davis, of 
New Haven, Conn., second vice- 
president; and C. H. Vohe, of Alex- 
andria. \'a., third vice-president; 
T. A. Randall, of Indianapolis, sec- 
retary, and J. W. Sibley, of Birming- 
ham, Ala., treasurer. 

IX connection with the housing of 
the poor, the building of public 

bath-houses by municipalities to give 
free baths to the poor 

is also being agitated. 
Buffalo is in advance 

of man_\- cities in the 
United States in this 
field. The second of 
the public bath-houses 
maintained by the city 
of Buffalo was opened 
to the public January 2. 
This bath-house, includ- 
ing the site, building, 
and equipment, cost 
$18,900. It provides 
twenty-nine baths and 
h a s two apartments, 
one for men and one 
for women. The baths 
are absolutely free, in- 
cluding soap, towel, 
and attendance, and 
have been patronized 
by a very large number 

of people. 





I'll \s I IK, (.1 51 WE 
W. I> K \ C II, 
\ki 111 1 1 
Indianapolis Terra- 
Cotta Company, 

I l-.KKA-i 1 ITTA KEY. 

New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, 








85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12. 1892. 


Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States 

and Canada ......... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers 

To countries in the Postal Union 

50 cents 
00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied 
by the American News Company and its branches. 


Advertisers are classified and arranged ; n the following order : — 


Agencies. — Clay Products . . . .II 

Architectural Faience II 

„ Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

„ Enameled Ill and IV 


Cements . . IV 

Clay Chemicals . . IV r 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 


WITHIN the last ten years steel has come to be a 
most important factor in the construction of our 
commercial buildings. In fact, it is the material upon 
which nearly all of our reliance is based for the provision 
of scientific support. The preservation, of the steel from 
corrosion, no less than from fire, has received most careful 
consideration; but if we are to judge by an article which 
has recently appeared in Insurance Engineerings we have 
by no means arrived at the final conclusion. The writer, 
Mr. Frank B. Abbott, offers a statement that structural 
steel to be imbedded in a wall which is laid up in cement 
mortar should receive no paint of any description, no 
surface coating, but should be simply thoroughly cleaned, 
and every trace of rust removed by cleaning with wire 
brushes before the metal receives its masonry coating. 
He claims that the only proper protection for the steel is 
what is offered by the cement in the masonry; that this 
cement forms an impervious protection against rust, 
provided it can attach itself directly to the steel, hut 
that if paint of any description is applied to the steel, it 
is only a question of time when the paint will entirely 
disappear, leaving an opportunity for moisture to work 
in between the cement and the metal. We cannot see, 
however, that Air. Abbott has at all proved his point. 

On the contrary, we have seen abundance of evidence 
that the right kind of paint is of very great value in pro- 
tecting the steel, and that the cement on the outside of 
the paint is certainly in some cases an apparently perfeel 
protection for both the paint and the metal. Some years 
ago a large building was torn down in Xew York, from 
which were taken some wrought-iron beams which were 
among the first which had been used for structural pur- 
poses in this country, having been in position for at least 
thirty years. It was found that the cement mortar had 
formed a solid cake about the metal work, and this coat- 
ing had protected the paint, which in its turn apparently 
protected the iron. We have seen numerous other 
instances showing that it is far safer to trust to the 
protection of properly applied paint than to expect that 
the careless methods of laying up brick or terra-cotta 
about a steel frame will insure the deposition of a pro- 
tective cement coating on the metal. 

There is one statement which is constantly encountered 
which we are always inclined to question, and that is, that 
unless steel or iron is thoroughly cleaned from scale and 
rust, the protective coating of paint, or whatever it may 
be, cannot be depended upon. Our observation leads us 
to directly contrary results. We have experimented by 
selecting a wrought-iron water pipe which was entirely 
covered with thick rust, so that it could be brushed off 
with the finger. Over that coating of rust we have 
applied a heavy coat of paint, and have left the pipe 
exposed to the weather for two winters, at the end of 
which time we were unable to detect any difference in 
the amount of rust. While we would by no means argue 
from this that it is safe to neglect the proper cleaning 
of structural steel, we cannot help feeling that the real 
danger from careless painting is not from the presence of 
scale, or slight amount of rust under the paint, so much as 
from imperfect application of the paint, or poor composi- 
tion of the material itself. About all that we really 
know in regard to the durability of steel in a frame 
structure is that in some cases it rusts and in some it 
dors not. Experiments and investigations are not con- 
clusive as showing cause or prevention in one ease or 
the other, but in default <>f any more positive informa- 
tion we certainly shall be very loath to accept Mr. 
Abbott's conclusions and omit painting entirely. 


COMPARISONS are apt to be invidious, and it is 
seldom safe to draw conclusions based upon a 
comparison of the past with the present day. It is a 
question, however, whether the advent of the steel frame 

has not, on the whole, resulted in a lowering of the 



standard of what is considered good brick masonry. 
Where the whole structure is supported by a steel skele- 
ton, where the worst that could happen from defective 
masonry would be the falling out of a few panels, and 
where the results most apparently desired are good looks 
and lire protection, it would not be strange if builders 
no less than workmen, should minimize the value of 
what we sometimes designate as an honest masonry 
construction, and should be content with a character of 
bonding and bricklaying which is by no means up to 
the ideal standard. Human nature is so constituted 
that it will acquire bad habits far easier than good ones ; 
and though steel construction has not yet crystallized 
into a thoroughly coherent system, it has been used 
long enough to make our workmen careless, and we 
regret to see every day more instances of it in our 
modern work. Furthermore, not content with assigning 
to it the static loads, the engineers have called upon 
the steel skeleton to resist variable wind pressures, and the 
tendency of structural designers is to ignore entirely 
the stiffening effect of a well-built curtain wall between the 
supports of a steel frame, with a result that the contractor 
would very naturally feel that it mattered very little how 
his bricks are laid up, provided the metal is thoroughly 
protected and the external appearance is preserved. 
'Phis is surely a mistake; fortunately, it is one which will 
rectify itself in time. The ideal steel frame building to 
our mind is one in which the brickwork is laid up in the 
most thorough manner, so as to not merely inclose, but 
to thoroughly brace the framework, and to form a most 
efficient protection against any probable infiltration 
of water. The building laws in many cities allow the 
curtain walls of a steel building to be only 12 ins. thick. 
We are inclined to think that 16 ins. would be far safer, 
and in the lower stories this ought to be 20 ins; and the 
high quality of laying which characterizes some of the 
older work ought to be insisted upon in every case in 
connection with a steel frame, not merely as an addi- 
tional safeguard, but because it is an integral part of 
the stability of the structure. 


SOME interesting figures were published in one of the 
magazines last month, showing the immense strides 
this country has made during the past ten years, not 
merely reversing its position from that of a debtor to 
that of a creditor nation, but, in addition, building up an 
enormous balance of trade, and adding to its wealth at a 
rate which borders upon the marvelous. Such financial 
combinations as now exist in this country are beyond the 
fables of the past generation, and we have grown accus- 
tomed to capitalizations running up into hundreds of 
millions and backed by solid tangible values. The per- 
sonal thought suggested by all these figures is what 
share of all this wealth is coming to the architects, and 
why haven't we seen more of it. As a matter of fact, 
the volume of new building is increasing all the time, 
but it is our conviction that we are only just beginning 
to realize on our balance of trade, and that it will be at 
least another year before the accumulations will be dis- 
tributed in the shape of large building operations. Real 
estate is the last to feel the good times, as also it is the 

last to feel the approach of hard times. The twelve 
months just elapsed have been marked by a large in- 
crease in building and a constant raising of the quality 
of the work, so that architects have had opportunities 
that were beyond their reach a few years since. But 
there is every evidence that good times have only just 
begun. The increase in building operations for Feb- 
ruary over the corresponding month of a year ago 
amounts, considering only the principal, large cities, to 
something over 122 per cent. Some cities, it is true, 
show a loss. Philadelphia, Washington, Denver. Min- 
neapolis, and Atlanta have all fallen behind, but the 
gain in Kansas City amounts to 2X1 per cent., Chicago 
goes ahead 231 per cent., and from that, the advance 
drops down by degrees to Indianapolis, which is ad- 
vanced only .49 of 1 percent. We find in nearly all the 
offices a good deal of activity in the preparation of 
sketches and schemes for large public work, and where 
there is so much of this evidenced it can be taken as a 
fair sign that the investing public is looking around for 
opportunities to place the money reserves which have 
piled up during our prosperous export years. 


The Brickbuilder" Competition. 



THE design is to be of the ticket windows in the 
vestibule of a theater, and the immediate treat- 
ment about these windows. 

There are to be three windows, at a height of about 
4 ft. above the floor, and they need not be of equal 
size. The intention is to obtain a design which, while a 
decorative motive in character with the surroundings, is 
complete in itself. All glass used shall be plain, un- 
decorated glass no stained glass. Grilles to be simple 
in character, if used. The treatment of the adjacent 
wall and its relation to the windows is to be indicated. 
The design is to be such as is adapted to the working 
out in faience. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED: An elevation drawn to 
the scale of ' _• in. to the foot, with plan at left and sec- 
tion at right side, near the bottom of the sheet. The 
drawings to be in black ink with no wash work, on one 
sheet measuring 22 ins. wide by 15 ins. high. Shadows, 
if indicated, to be done in free hand, parallel perpendic- 
ular lines. Drawing is to be signed by a nom deplume, or 
device, and accompanying the same is to lie a sealed 
envelope with the nom deplume on the exterior, and con- 
taining the true name and address of the contestant. 

Drawings are to be delivered, Hat, at the office of Tin-; 
Brickbuilder, 85 Water Street, Boston, on or before 
July 1, 1901. 

For the four designs placed first, the Grueby Faience 
Company offers prizes of fifty, twenty-five, fifteen, and 
ten dollars, respectively. All premiated drawings are 
to become the property of the Grueby Company, and 
the right is reserved to publish any and all drawings 

The competition will be judged by Mr. C. Howard 

Old English Brickwork. I. 

6 9 



IN writing on the subject of " Brickwork in England," 
it is necessary to make mention of the very early 
periods of its use, although these may possibly have an 

interest more for the 
antiquary than the ar- 
chitect. vSo far as can 
now be ascertained, the 
Romans were the first 
to introduce the art of 
m anufactu ring and 
using bricks in this 
country, and during the 
period of time which 
elapsed between their 
conquest o f Britain, 
a. d. 43, and their final 
departure about a. d. 
418, bricks were very 
.'«5AnvAe«ty generally used in the 
construction of the for- 
tified towns and camps, 
which they founded in 

ST. ALBANS ABBEY TOWER, HER'I- Various parts of the 

for dsiii re. country. 

There is little doubt 
but that these towns possessed temples, baths, theaters, 
houses, etc., upon a scale not far short of those founded 
in other colonies of the Roman Empire; for instance, the 
remains of villas at Begnor in Sussex, Great Witcomb in 
Gloucestershire and Woodchester, exhibit in their plan 
and arrangement most of the characteristics of those in 

The bricks, or rather 
wall tiles used in these 
buildings, vary very 
considerably in dimen- 
sions. Those found at 
York, Colchester, Veru- 
lam, Porchester, and 
other places measure 
from between 1 and 2 
ft. in length, 8 to 1 2 ins. 
in width, and about 1%. 
to 2 ins. in depth ; and 
in all cases these brieks 
are very hard and well 

At Richborough, in 
Kent, the walls are from 
20 to 30 ft. high and 
about 11 ft. thick, 
formed of courses of 
bricks and stones regu- 
larly laid. The ancient 
wall of London is sim- 
i 1 a r i n construction ; 
two courses of brieks 
and then a layer of CHURCH TOWER at COLCHESTER, 
stones, about 2 ft. in essex. 

thickness, alternate throughout the height. The art of 
building must have reached a high stage of perfection, 
as it is recorded that when the Emperor Constantine 
rebuilt the city of Autun in Caul in the third century 
he brought the workmen chiefly from Britain, which 
abounded with the best artificers. After the departure 
of the Romans, it is more than probable that the practice 
of brickmaking was discontinued tor a long time. 

The Saxons and Normans certainly did use bricks 
in their buildings, but these are generally believed to be 
the old Roman wall tiles, or bricks, taken from ruined or 
existing buildings and reused. That this was done in 


some places has been satisfactorily proved by finding in 
Norman buildings some of these old bricks still having 
the traces of Roman mortar adhering to them. 

In Brixworth Church, Northamptonshire, some arches 
formed with Roman bricks can still be seen in the walls 
of the nave, and at Darcul Church, in Kent, similar 
remains exist. 

The Abbey Church of St. Albans, in Hertfordshire, is 
perhaps the most important building of the Norman 
period. Begun by Abbot Paul, \. d. 1077, and consecrated 
in \. i). 1 1 1 5, it is very largely constructed of Roman 
bricks, all of which were probably obtained from the ad- 
jacent Roman city of Ycrulam, which was then ruined 
and deserted for the new city clustering round the church, 
founded in honor of the martyr Saint Alban. These 

bricks here used are from 1 '• to 2 ins. dee]), and the 
mortar joints are very thick, about 1 ';; to 1 ){ ins. 

The extremely fine central tower is entirely built of 
brick, and being fortunately in much the same condition 
as when Completed by its Norman builders, gives a very 




good idea of what must have been the general external 

appearance of the Norman church, most of the other 
portions of which have been refaced at various periods, 

although the core of the walls is still of brickwork. The 
whole building was planned upon a vast scale, with nave 
arcade, triforium, and clearstory. The interior was 
plastered completely and decorated throughout with 
mural painting, some remains of which still exist. 

Two other churches, also at St. Albans, present ex- 
amples of Roman brick used anew. St. Michaels, where 
some very early windows, of Saxon or Norman date, 
having brick jambs and arches, exist above the present 
Norman arcade. St. Stephens, founded \. i>. <;No, where 
these bricks art' used instead of stone quoins to form the 
angles of west end of nave, the walls of which are con- 
structed of flint rubble. 

There is also much early work at Colchester, which 
during the Roman occupation was an important fortified 
town. The church tower illustrated, of which the 
quoins, windows, arches, doorways, and dressings are 
formed with thin Roman bricks, presents a good ex- 
ample of the old materia] at hand being reused by the 
Saxon and Norman architects. 

The examples mentioned above rather tend to show 
that the art of brickmaking was not practised by the 
Saxons and Normans, who found scattered throughout 
the country many remaining Roman brick buildings, 
from which they could, and probably did, draw their 
supplies. On the other hand, the art of brickmaking 


may have only been lost for some time after the depar- 
ture of the Romans from Britain, as the process was 
simple and easily learned. 

However this maybe, we probably owe the introduc- 
tion of brickmaking in more or less its present character 
to the Flemings, who came over from the low countries 
(Holland and Flanders) and settled in the eastern coun- 
ties, that part of England where there was the greatest 
scarcity of building stone; in fact, the conditions here 
were very much akin to those the new colonists were 
used to in their own countries, where brick was certainly 
the principal, if not almost the only, building material. 

The earliest examples of brickwork, of which the 
bricks have very much the form and dimensions of those 
used at the present day, are to be found in these eastern 
counties, and it is more than probable that these bricks 
were imported by ship from the Netherlands. 

Flemish wool manufacturers arc first recorded to have 
settled in Norfolk in the second halt of the thirteenth 

Cjrwl -jiuddoui Church < £ 

9(a\T Cfmrjfbj'y. 


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century, and in the course of another century had become 
very numerous throughout the eastern and southern 
counties, their influence on the brickwork in these 
places being distinctly perceptible. 

The earliest known instance of brickwork in the 
modern manner is at Little Wenham Hall, in Suffolk, 
which was built \. i». i .:(>o, which date coincides very 
nearly with that of the first Flemish settlement here. 

The building is a rectangle about 45 ft. long and 
24 ft., wide, with a tower about 17 ft., 6 ins. square 
attached to the northeast angle. The ground story 
is vaulted in three bays. The hall, or living apart- 
ment, is on the first floor, and opening from this, on 
the east side, is the very interesting domestic chapel. 

On the second floor is a long apartment, and over this 
is a flat, leaden roof. The exterior walls arc finished 
with battlements, under which are loopholes, or oilcts, 
widely splayed internally, through which arrows and 




other missiles could be discharged. The bricks used in 
this building measure 9^ by 4^ by 2^ins., and are of 
a pale red color. 

The Grammar School at Eweline, in Oxfordshire, 
is an excellent example of fifteenth-century brickwork, 


and the quadrangle of the adjoining hospital, 
or almshouse, which dates from about \. d. 

144X, has its walls formed with oak uprights, 
and the spaces between these filled in with 
bricks laid in the herring-bone manner. 

Eton College, a royal foundation of Henry 
VI., was begun about \. i>. 1440, and to obtain 
a regular supply of bricks, a piece of ground 
was hired at Slough for an annual rent of 
twenty shillings, a brick kiln built upon it in 
144.2, and 66,000 bricks were brought to the 
College in May of the same year. 

Many of the college buildings at Cambridge 
present excellent examples of early brickwork. 
The earliest parts of Queen's College, 
founded by Queen Margaret of Anjou, \. i>. 
144S, are of but little later date than the 
foundation of Eton. The very fine gateway 
tower on the eastern side of the main quad- 
rangle was commenced in [44.S. It is built of 

red bricks, which are small and laid witli very coarse 

mortar joints. 

The western building upon the riverside is later, and 

the walling is of red brick with stone dressings. There 

is a small cloister walk under part of this building, 


\ Milk I |)i .!■ . 

J r cha P-U 

■ r ■ ' '' ' / ' 



built entirely of brick with four centered arches in three 
orders, with splayed bricks and plain piers. 

The magnificent gateway towers <>i Trinity, St. 

John's, and Jesus colleges are entirely built of brick 
walling with stone dressings. 

The first two are on a large scale, the tower in each 
case being flanked at the four angles by large staircase 
turrets rising well above the roof. 

7 2 

feki. 1 '^ Iff? 


In all these towers the bricks are rather irregular in 
form, and vary very much in color, and laid in the walls, 
with coarse wide joints, little trouble apparently was 
expended upon keeping the courses truly level, or the 
bricks exactly over those below, and the effect is now 
very fine and quite different to the snug and smooth 
look of most modern work, which is so dear to the 
bricklayer of to-day. 

Caistor Castle in Norfolk, built by Sir John Falstaff 
some time prior to the year 1460. was a moated building 
of great size, originally covering six acres of grounds. 

Oxburgh Hall, Norfolk, was erected at the end of the 
fifteenth century by Sir Edmund Bedingfield, who ob- 
tained a grant from Edward IV. in the year 14S2 to build 
the manor house with towers, battlements, machicola- 
tions, etc. It is entirely built of brick, in square form, 
round a courtyard approached by a bridge spanning the 
moat, and through an arched gateway flanked by two 
octagonal turrets .So ft. high, one of which contains a 
spiral stair of brick excellently worked. The floor of the 
great hall is paved with small fine bricks. 

In the first year of Henry VII., a. d. 1 4 S 5 . a license 
was granted to Roger Fienncs to embattle and fortify his 
manor house of 1 1 urstnionceaux in Sussex, and there is 
no doubt that the whole of the present building was 
erected at that date. It is of much interest as, though 
retaining all the general form of a castle with drawbridges 
and moat, it was rather intended for a residence, and 

though strong enough 
to stand the attack of 
marauders, would have 
been incapable of en- 
during a regular siege. 
The building con- 
sists of three courts, 
1 .ue Large and two small 
ones. The main gate- 
way here illustrated is 
in the center of the 
south front, and at each 
angle stands an octag- 
jrf^rca Ifall onal tower 84 ft. high. 
"""JaSznham. The whole plan meas- 
ures about 200 ft. north 
to south and 214 ft. east 
to west. The art of 
brickmaking was now 


carried to some perfec- 
tion, as Dr. Lyttleton, 

writing some one hun- 
dred and fifty years 

ago, states that the 
fabric had stood three 
centuries' wear and 
t ea r, although in a 
very exposed position 
near the sea, without 
suffering the least in- 
jury in any part of its 

The church at Great 
Baddow, near Chelms- 
ford in Essex, has a 
fine clearstory over the 
nave arcade entirely 
built of brickwork. 
Even the mull ion s, 
tracery, and cuspings 
of t h e windows a r e 
made in this material. 
The manner in which 
the window crisping is 
done is instructive. 

The church at Peer- 
ing, in the s a m e 
county, has much good 
brickwork, notably, the 
porch, the buttresses, 

t HI \l\ K\ S I \< K^, PENSH I RST 

window tracery, mullions, trefoil arch, eaves course, and 
battlements are built with bricks. 

The aisle parapets of St. Mary's Church, Redbourne, 

cJ « 



Vroncf Catk ue y 







near St. Albans, have brick battlements, under which is 
a corbel table supporting cusped trefoil arches, also in 

Very late in the fifteenth or early in the sixteenth 
century, molded brick and terra-cotta began to be used 


in building, and with this variation came unmistakable 
signs of the Renaissance appearing here and there amid 
Gothic details and moldings, although the main features 
retained their mediaeval character long after. 

The introduction of terra-cotta was chiefly due to 
the influence of Italian workmen brought to England 
by Wolsey and Henry VIII., although it had been man- 
ufactured here in a very crude form before their ar- 

East Barsham Manor House and Great Snoring Rec- 
tory are very early examples of brick and terra-cotta 
work of this period; and the character of the work and 
the mastery over the material clearly show the influence, 
if not the execution, of Italian workmen. 

The buildings date from quite the end of the fifteenth 

century, and are gen- 
erally English in de- 
sign; but the perpen- 
dicular tracery and 
moldings at E a s t 
Barsham are combined 
with shields a n d 
plaques arranged as a 
frieze and cast from 
molds, and are dis- 
tinctly Italian ; while 
at Great Snoring the 
frieze is ornamented 
with terra-cotta heads, 
separated from each 
other by balusters en- 
riched with the classic- 
acanthus leaf. 

The sedilia in Wy- 
mond h a m C h u r c h, 
N o r f o Ik, is an ex- 
tremely rich piece of 
work, built early in the 
sixteenth century. 
The earlier portions 

<7ht nianc 

Wqlt*' fna 



of Hampton Court Palace, commenced by Wolsey in 
A. i). 1515, though mainly built of brick with stone dress- 
ings, in the picturesque if debased style of the Tudor 
period, contains some interesting examples of early terra- 
cotta work, notably, the circular panels containing busts 
and Wolsey's coat-of-arms, all of which were probably 
executed by Magano. 

Torrigiano, another Italian workman brought from 
Italy by Wolsey, executed a tomb with numerous large 
figures in terra-cotta, in the Rolls Chapel, Chancery Lane, 

Great Cressingham Priory, built early in the sixteenth 
century, is a curious and interesting example of brick- 
domestic work. The whole of the upper story and also 
the angle turrets on the south side being covered with 
richly molded brick panel work. 

Other good examples of the use of brick and terra- 
cotta are to be found in the late Tudor domestic chapel 
attached to " The Vyne, " a large house near Basingstoke 

"I Copmci t Jinia/ 

QrcA rnou/d. 


1 ^ v f- r/«> 


in Hampshire; Sutton Place, near Guildford, in Surrey, 
where the terra-cotta details are extremely rich; and also 
Layer Marney in Essex. 

The latter house is situated about twelve miles from 
Colchester, and is one of the best and at the same 
time almost the earliest example of brick and terra-cotta. 
Its erection was begun about a. d. 1506. The large 
gatehouse, giving access to the main courtyard, still 
remains in a fairly perfect condition. It is three stories 
high, the carriageway and two stories above the same, 
and at the four angles large turrets or towers, eight 
stories in height, Hank these apartments, that is. two 
for each story of center block and two rising above 
the roof. The details of windows arc well worked out 
in molded bricks with an enriched terra-cotta band at 
every alternate tier. The whole is crowned with an 
exceedingly rich cresting, or parapet, executed in terra- 

The center windows of large apartments over the 
carriageway have elaborately molded and modeled 
mullions and heads in terra-cotta, of which material 
parapets and copings are constructed. 

The bricks here employed measure- about 1 o ' .• ins. in 
depth lor every four courses, and the joints are about 
>y, in. thick; great effect is gained in the plainer por- 
tions of walling by the use of vitrified bricks arranged 
in diagonal lines. 



Brickbuilding in Modern France. I. 


BRICK has always been employed in French archi- 
tecture. There are Romanesque brick edifices in 
France, and, in the south, Gothic ones. We know bow 
successful brick was during the Renaissance, and numer- 
ous castles and palaces in which it was employed were 
illustrated in The Brickbuii der last year. It might 
have been expected that the unfortunate revolution 
brought about in French architecture by the neo-classic 
would prove fatal to the use of brick. In fact, since 
the middle of the seventeenth century the development 
of so-called classical principles bas bad the effect of ban- 
ishing from all architecture the colored element. Gray 

weighty vaults. Iron sufficed unto itself"; the trusses 
leaned upon steel piers: the wall became useless, at least, 
as a support, and was only necessary in order to isolate 
the interior from the exterior, as a space to be tilled in. 
Henceforth, thin, light materials sufficed. None pre- 
sented more advantages than brick, and brick was there- 
upon allied to iron. Both still have a glorious future. 

Brick is not. however, necessarily employed with iron. 
It is. in itself, capable of every function; it bas been 
employed in modern French palaces, castles, town halls, 
private houses, lyceums, schools, and barracks, for villas 
and for business houses. In fact, there arc no services 
that have not been demanded of it. 

1 should like, in a series of articles, to pass in review 
the most interesting buildings which have been erected 
during the last twenty years in France, to criticize them, 


was deemed, then, the only really noble tone for build- 
ings, and stone the only material worthy of being em- 
ployed by architects. This opinion existed for sonic 

It was only during the nineteenth century that people's 
eyes were opened anew to the charming possibilities of 
brick in architecture. Again it occupied a place of 
honor; the elegant structures of the Renaissance were 
studied, and it became evident that original might, by a 
good architect, be produced with brick. On the other 
band, new materials affected the very life of architecture. 
Iron made a triumphant appearance, and brought with 
it absolutely new principles. With iron, in fact, there 
was no more necessity for heavy stone walls bearing 

and draw from them a few, never-failing rules alas, 
too often forgotten! of the architectural employment 
of brick. 

There are a few axioms relating to this subject that 
can be briefly stated. In spite of their simplicity, they 

are not always applied. 

In the first place, brick is not stone. This seems to 
be a foregone conclusion, but it is often forgotten. How 
many architects reproduce, in brick, forms proper to 
stone! This is contrary to all good sense, but happens 
frequently, as we shall see. Brick is a material of small 
dimensions. We must remember that in classical archi- 
tecture the orders were not created for brick. It is true 
that they were imitated in brick during the Renaissance. 



This is, perhaps, not a sufficient reason for our doing 

Brick, made as it is in different colors, should, if we 
would develop the merits it possesses, inspire us to 
create a polychrome system of architecture, that is, a 
system where color not only plays a decorative part, but, 
moreover, accentuates the very structure of the building. 
This is not always the case. Do we possess a very reli- 
able sense of color? 

Finally, I beg the reader not to examine the monu- 
ments assembled here as he would models. There arc, I 
believe, but few works in contemporaneous architecture 
which might serve as such. The fault does not lie with 
brick, and I should have as much trouble, perhaps more, 

to dissimulate its object. The exterior tells of the inte- 
rior, and the two great arcaded galleries which encircle 
the concert hall form convenient outlets. The brick here 
is absolutely polychrome; the great matched brick arch 
stones alternate, in the arches, as do the layers of light 
and dark brick in the main building. Enameled bricks 
are introduced in the frieze in order to produce a decora- 
tive effect, completed by the roseworks of enameled 
terra-cotta in the tympanums. Finally, almost through- 
out the edifice, the architectural forms are exactly suited 
to brick. The arcades on the small and large towers are 
well becoming to brick buildings, and were inspired bv 
the Romanesque style, which itself borrowed them 
from the Lombardian school, but whose first appearance 


in finding good models of stone architecture. I give 
here a glimpse of what has been done during the last 
twenty years. .Some buildings are good, some mediocre, 
and some bad. The critic is not responsible. He can, 
and should say, this or that is good in such a monu- 
ment, or this is bad. This conforms to reason and taste, 
and this does not. 

Here, first, is the Trocadero. which was built in 1S7S 
and considered worthy to survive the Exposition for 
which it was erected. The two great wings added to the 
central building now shelter the Museum of Compared 
Sculpture. The central building encloses a vast concert 
hall, and we cannot accuse the architect of attempting 

really dates from the Byzantine monuments of Ravenna. 
The little edicules terminating them are of less happy 

Before examining the more modern applications of 
brick, we must point out one or two restorations as 
modern copies wherein brick plays an important part. 
We give here the facade of the Capitol of Toulouse, 
which in the majesty of its development might rank 
among the monuments of the seventeenth century. It 

was, however, built during our time, and I thought it of 
Sufficient interest to be reproduced here, even if it is 
absolutely Louis XIV. in style. As we know, Toulouse 
has always excelled in the use of bricks. St. Sernin is 



one of the most beautiful Romanesque brick monuments. 
Here we see the Ionie order, but I believe no architect 
can remain indifferent to the fine qualities of this 

The Luxembourg Museum of Paris is modern, also, but 
built in the Renaissance style. The only color effect 
sought for here, as in many other well-known monu- 
ments, is the contrast between the white stone and the 
red brick. Brick can rightly aspire to newer combina- 
tions than this. 

In the north, brick has always been successfully em- 
ployed. Here is a big school at Armcnticres where brick 

this facade is of brilliant aspect. It is an example where- 
brick, with very slight expense, can enliven a facade 
which economy obliges to be of great simplicity. 

We have come to the most interesting work of this 
series, the Lyceum of Lakanal, which M. de Baudot built 
twelve years ago. M. de Baudot is a man possessing a 
thorough knowledge of the history of his art; he teaches 
it at the Trocadero Museum. Hut he has studied the 
history of architecture, not as many architects do, in 
order to find motives to copy or imitate, but, on the con- 
trary, to discover the principles which were applied dur- 
ing the best periods, and to see if the same principles 


only is used, and in an intelligent manner by Mr. Chipiez. 
I mean by this that decorative effects are drawn from its 
architectural employment, as. for instance, in the arches 
of the windows. On the other hand, decorative motives 
belong also to brick decoration. We find, in the form of 
the roof, the general shape dear to the northern regions, 
and of which Belgium gives us so many examples. 

At Vieryon, in central France, another great school of 
the arts and crafts shows us a facade not entirely com- 
posed of brick, and where it is used only to play a decora- 
tive role in the filling in under the windows, in the 
VOUSSoirs, and finally in chains across the facade. A 
white and a yellow Stone complete the polychrome effect; 

would not be of use to us if we knew how to employ 
them according to our new materials and the different 
needs which are ours. 

Hut M. de Baudot is a clever man. He has carefully 
refrained from trying to revive the Romanesque or Cot hie, 
which are as ridiculous for our civilization as is the Greek 
style. He is truly modern. Consequently, we can always 
be sure that his works, whatever they may be, will be 
interesting. Here, then, is Lakanal. built of brick. And 
we see at once that the architect has treated it as such, 
that he has understood not only the structural forms of 
brick, but also its decorative possibilities. 

Study these two photographs in their smallest details; 



it is quite worth while. See how the walls are built, the 
piers between the windows, the window arches and their 
supports. Then see how happy is the decorative effect of 

harmony of the whole, and the hardy manner in which 
the lines of construction are accentuated. This is not 
stone indifferently converted into brick. The building is 


the line of brick, and how the most complicated orna- 
ments assume the shapes proper to brick. 

Notice, also, the original cornice in high relief, the 

one which all architects will find profit in studying, and 
which, if it is understood, will have an excellent influence 
on the rational development of good brick architecture. 





LYCEUM hi I \K an Al . PARIS. 



The Works of Rafael Guastavino. 



THE extensive works performed by Rafael Guasta- 
vino and those associated with him, in many lo- 
calities throughout the United States, displaying such 
originality of conception and care in execution, seem to 
merit more than a passing mention among the many new 
constructive expedients for which the last few years 
have been memorable. Coming among us from Spain in 
1 88 1 a comparative stranger, he has, through extraordi- 
nary perseverance, not only merited the confidence which 
many of the leaders of architectural thought have placed 
in him, but made possible the development of architec- 
tural design in directions heretofore considered imprac- 
ticable. While he has made possible many projects in 
design which were heretofore thought to be difficult and 
almost prohibitively expensive in execution, and carried 

f . : > - : 

them out with a simplicity of construction by many con- 
sidered daring if not impossible, it may be said that we 
have as yet but reached the beginning of the possibilities 
of original designs, for the execution of which we may 
intend to employ " Cohesive Construction." This is the 
name which Mr. Guastavino has applied to the system of 
which he is the father and main exemplar. After these 
nineteen years of untiring effort, the architects of 
America owe him a debt of gratitude for not only having 
been a faithful and conscientious contractor, but for hav- 
ing made possible a larger field for architectural design. 

It is pleasant to know that all this has come to us 
from a trained architect, and that it is not the work of a 
self-seeking contractor only. It is also interesting to 
know that the subject of our story was brought up as a 
musician, and came from a family of musicians, and has 
given another demonstration that the transition is easy 
from a musician to an architect, as lias hern seen in the 
lives of the late Jacob Wray Mould and John Wellborn 
Root. He was born in Valencia, Spain, in 1842, but at 
seventeen forsook music for an architect's office, and 

became a student of I). Jose' Nadal, who was Royal 
Inspector of Public Works. On his death, which came 
from an accident in pursuit of his official duties, Mr. 
Guastavino went to Barcelona, took a University course, 
and afterwards entered the School of Architecture. He 
was connected with the office of the architects Granell & 
Robert until 1862. 

His first important order as an architect was gained 
in competition in 1866, and I am able to present to the 
readers of The Brickbuilder a photograph of it, for illus- 
tration, which will well bear examination (Fig. 1). This 
and some of the succeeding illustrations will serve to 
show that Barcelona is a modern and progressive city. It 
shows also that her architects were not without refine- 
ment and moderation in their designs, and that even in 
old Spain a young professional of twenty- four years had 
opportunities which^were rarely exemplified at that time 



FIG. 4. 

even in our own country. Mr. Guastavino was an enthu- 
siast in cohesive construction from the very beginning of 

his career, first pinning his faith to cement and concrete. 
But in so doing he encountered difficulties; for then no 
reliable cement was made in Spain, and the ultimate 
improvement in its manufacture was due to his exertion. 
The cement that he first used was made at Gerona. It 
was a semi-quick-setting cement. But when he erected 
his own house at Barcelona in 1872, of which he was both 
architect and builder, of which a photograph is here 
shown (Fig. 2), he used an English Portland cement. 
After that he used a cement made by Dr. R. Montestru 
at Tardienta (Aragon), a few miles from his own country 

seat at St. Gines. During his dealings with Dr. Mon- 
testru he gave the doctor Vieat's book on cement manu- 
facture, with the help of which he succeeded in making 
a free silicate, or Portland cement of fair quality. 

Having embraced the profession of a builder as well 
as architect, as was then customary in .Spain, he was 
largely engaged for many years in the erection of mills 
and factories, in which the necessity of fire-proof con- 
struction was evident, and while erecting these he had 
every opportunity to experiment with concrete and tile 
for floor and roof constructions. lie was guided by the 
study of tin- architecture of the Byzantines and Persians, 
whose influence had been felt in Spain from the third to 
the fourteenth century. These conditions can best be 
described in his own words. Buried in the uncut publi- 
cations of the American Institute of Architects, without 
table of contents or even headlines, can be found a paper 
read by Mr. Guastavino before the International Congress 
of Architects at Chicago, in 1893, from which I may 

FIG. 6. 

FIG. 5. 

make frequent quotations. On this condition of the 
development of the primitive cohesive system of building 
in Spain, he said: "The imperial edict of Constantine, 
declaring Christianity to be the .State religion, transfer- 
ring at the same time the capital of the Roman Empire 
to Byzantium, drove the eastern European and western 
Asiatic Jewish race and other sects, for the first time 
after Christ, into emigration, giving occasion, perhaps, 
for the later invasions of the Arabs and Mussulmans. 
Spain was the principal attraction for emigrants, not only 
on account of climate, richness, and the already relatively 
large commercial relations with tin- Creek Empire, but 
also on account of the freedom and religious tolerance, 
as is always the case in new countries. Byzantine churches 
and cathedrals were built in Spain at the same time that 
Synagogues were tolerated. These edifices were of re- 
markable constructive character. . . . The character of 
the most ancient Byzantine anil Romanesque types in 
Spain was of monolithic construction, made of con- 
glomerated material. The walls and floors (like other 
specimens relatively modern) were, some of them, of 
stone and concrete, others concrete alone. For the second, 
it seems that molds or heavy centering were used, giving 
to the material an appearance outside like a cast mass, as 
can be seen by specimens of walls with large portions of 
floors and vaulted ceilings, which are yet in existence. 



FIG. 7. 

showing perfectly their construction. Some domes were 
built with stone and packed with the same casting-pack- 
ing material referred to, probably without centers, be- 
cause there is small ashlar; and it is yet customary there 
to build domes of that kind, using only a stick-pole as a 
radius, and closing each time the ring of stone, so that 
no centering is used in such case. The construction 
was the same in the period of the Arabs and the Moors. 
It was like that of the rest of Spain, Byzantine in style." 

It was the study of these that led him at first to re- 
vive the ancient concrete constructions. In 1868-69 he 
built the great factory of Batllo Brothers, covering four 
blocks, which was gained in competition. The buildings 
contained 64,000 spindles, 1200 looms, a bleachery, ware- 
house, etc. These buildings were, some of them, five 
stories high and all of cohesive construction, that is to 
say, some of the floors were of concrete, and others, and 
the roofs, were arched with tile, while the circular stair- 
ways were built monolithic with tile. The general style 
of the exterior was similar to Fig. 3., which, however, is 
from a photograph of a factory built later for Muntadas, 
Aparicio & Co., in 1875. The erection of the Batllo 
building, the first in which cohesive tile construction 
was used, attracted a great deal of attention from archi- 
tects and the instructors of the School of Architecture, 
who visited it with the students while it was in progress. 
It was during the erection of the Muntadas factory that 
the government engineers made an inspection of the 
floor and roof construction, a combination of tile arches 
and iron tension members for which a patent was granted 
to Mr. (juastavino. The illustration (Fig. 3) shows the 
ingenious way in which he combined rubble masonry and 
brick in the exterior walls. Other mills and factories, 
built or designed by him after this time, in which the 
cohesive construction was used, comprised the woolen 
mills of D. Carreras (of which an illustration is given in 
Fig. 4), erected in 1876, of Vidal & Sons, Rosic, and the 
porcelain works of Florens & Co. In the latter lie first 
used tie-rods of iron concealed in the arch, on account of 
the great heat of the kilns, which has led to the use of 
this system so extensively in our own country. 

Fig. 5 is an illustration of the interior of the roof of a 
warehouse built for Mr. Grau at Barcelona, in 1877. Tin's 
was the first building in which the cohesive construction 
was used of dome form with tie beams. The span oi tin 
roof is 28 ft. Fig. 6 is an interior view of a circular con- 

cert theater erected at Villasar. The roof over the boxes 
is supported by segment arches, from wall to columns, 
between which are the ceiling arches, and the dome roof 
is 46 ft. in diameter, with lantern in the center, all of 
cohesive tile construction. 

Two more examples only of street architecture will be 
given. Fig. 7 is another example of a corner house de- 
signed and built by Mr. Cuastavino. in Barcelona, in 
1868-69, as the result of a competition. A large part of 
the exterior details arc executed in cement, including the 
frieze, with bas-relief figures on the "pan-coup^" and 
the main cornice. This house has a spiral stairway en- 
tirely built of concrete, with marble treads. 

Fig. 8 is the city warehouse, office, and residence of 
D. M. Cossademunt, the glass manufacturer, for whom 
also he designed a factory. The roof of the latter was a 
trussed tile arch of about 40 ft. span. The location of 
Mr. Guastavino, in the important manufacturing city of 
Barcelona, was of great advantage to the development of 
his ideas. His clients were manufacturers to whom fire- 
proof methods of building were before unknown. They 
were prosperous, and hence there was also opportunity for 
the refined taste of an architect in designing their resi- 
dences. The illustrations here reproduced give evidence 
of the existence of a modern and progressive city in 
Spain, which will surprise many readers. The building 
shown in Fig. 8 will be seen to be a very excellent and 
rational one, built of two shades of brick with stone, 


At-: $ 


while adjoining it on the right is a six-story building, 
which was in progress when the photograph was taken. 
The cohesive construction, making it possible to make 
these buildings fire-proof, supplied a want that was then 
beginning to be felt at Barcelona, and Mr. Guastavino 
might have continued to fill it but for an accident which 
brought him to this country, where he found a still Larger 
field Oi Operation, as will be seen in the article to follow, 







F*ORMERLY, the words "fire-proof building" de- 
noted one in which certain incombustible materials 
were used. Then the words ••modern fire-proof build- 
ing " came to be used to indicate one in which improved 
methods had been used, and in which some attention had 
been given to protecting steel construction. Sometimes 
we hear the words " absolutely fire-proof," which some 
claim has no meaning in fact. The '•absolutely tire- 
proof" buildings referred to are generally those which 
will resist total destruction if their combustible contents 
take fire, but are liable to be damaged to the extent of 
their inside furnishings, whether of wood, marble, iron. 
or any other destructible material. It is only in propor- 
tion as these materials are omitted in the interior finish 
and the fire-proofing materials become indestructible that 
the building approaches the condition in which it may be 
called "absolutely fire-proof." Wall plastering as an 
interior finish is not referred to, because it is used almost 
everywhere as a coat- 
ing upon fire-clay tiles. 
In all experiences thus 
far of fire-resisting 
construction, w hen 
subjected to an acci- 
dental and actual con- 
flagration, the plaster- 
ing, of whatever kind, 
has proved to be of 
little assistance to the 
hollow tile. It gen- 
erally falls off in the 
early stages of a fire. 
And while some own- 
ers of proprietary com- 
positions claim that 
they are fire-resisting, 
none of them as yet 
has had an actual ex- 
perience in a fire to 
point to. The only 
kind of wall plastering 
that has heretofore re- 
sisted fire to any extent 

is the simplest of all — ^ u ' Fi 

lime and sand used 

both for first coat and finishing coat without gauging, and 
very seldom used now except in the city of Cincinnati. 
It may be assumed that unless this is used on fire-clay 
fire-proofing, the fire-clay must be the sole dependence 
for protection. 

A building, all the interior surfaces of which are of fire- 
clay covered with plain lime mortar, in which as little as 
possible of anything else is used, and the floors of which 
are finished with Portland cement (the use of which in 
sidewalks has lately been brought to such a high degree 
of perfection), may now be considered the nearest ap- 



■ &mc*w> r#.* 

proach to an "absolutely fire-proof" building. The 

United States Clay Manufacturing Company, of Pitts- 
burgh, New York, Boston, and Chicago, with the assist- 
ance of their expert in fire-proof construction, Peter B. 
Wight, of Chicago, has recently prepared a series of 
drawings and specifications of interior construction, 
showing their latest improvements on svstems which 
are no longer experimental and now most successfully 
used, and their adaptation in detail t<> buildings in which 
the highest order of fire protection is required. 

First, with reference t<> material. They have decided 
to recommend, in such cases, neither dense hard tile 
which is brittle, nor porous terra-cotta which is soft, 
but semi-porous terra-cotta, which partakes of some of 
the qualities of both, and in some respects (one of which 
is resistance to the smashing test) is superior to either of 
them. Semi-porous terra-cotta has. in actual and severe 
fires, already demonstrated that it has this quality. It is 
made with the largest possible amount of tire-claw some 
shale, and about one half of the proportional amount of 
sawdust usually employed in the manufacture of porous 
terra-cotta. The thickness of the walls and webs of the 
hollow semi-porous tiles is about 50 per cent, greater 
than that of hard tiles, which makes it about 25 per cent. 
less than the thickness of porous terra-cotta hollow tiles. 

for most porous terra- 
cotta is twice the thick- 
ness of hard tile. The 
weights of the tiles 
are about the same in 
all three kinds when 
measured by s u p e r- 
ficial feet. 

The drawings here- 
with published, which 
w e r e made by Mr. 
Wight, do not show 
any essential novelties 
of construction. In 
one respect they are 
made according to the 
theory advanced by 
h i m (first i n the 
columns of The Brick- 
bi 1 1 der), t h a t t h e 
under side of a hollow 
tile floor, to be abso- 
lutely fire-proof, must 
be a double construc- 
tion: a heavy con- 
struction above for the 
floor, and a light con- 
struction beneath for the ceiling. The light construction 
of the ceiling is an additional protection to the under 
side of the floor." It takes the first brunt of the fire. 
and, therefore, must be made of the best fire-resisting 
materials, used so as to thoroughly protect the steel 
members necessarily used with it. Not forming any 
part of the floor construction, it is easily and economically 
repaired if damaged by fire, saving much of the exten- 
sive repairs, practically amounting to reconstruction if a 
few tiles forming the floor arches are cracked. Put it is 
not to be supposed that the space between the two can 



P£T£RB W,cht 



be used for ventilation or for any purpose that would 
prevent its being- hermetically sealed against the admis- 
sion of fire draughts. 

For further description, reference will be made to the 
illustrations which show in detail the steel work, fire- 
proof material, and concrete ballast. Fig. r is a section 
of a floor, constructed with 20-in. steel girders placed 
12 ft. from centers, with bearings on columns at 13 ft., 
4 ins. from centers, to carry a movable load of 150 lbs. 
per superficial foot. The columns are tied together 
transversely with 12-in. I-beams, which are covered in- 
dependently. The 20-in. girders are also tied at their 
centers of span with tie-rods set high enough to be built 
into the segment arches. The sections of the girder and 
skew-back tiles are self-explanatory. All walls of tiles 
are 1 in. thick, and all exposed parts of girders are 
covered with at least 3 ins. of tile, with a hollow air- 
space. The soffit tiles are secured with tapped screws 

shown in Fig. 1, of the same steel construction of col- 
umns, girders, and ceiling, but varied by the insertion of 
12-in. I-beams between the girders, and segment arches 
between the 12-in. beams — a less economical construc- 
tion by reason of using the 12-in. I-beams. These are 
6 ft., 8 ins. from centers. The soffit tiles give a protec- 
tion of 1 in. of tile and %-in. air-space to the beams. 
The hollow skew-backs are longitudinal with the beams, 
and the end pressure arch tiles are 6 by 10 ins. with six 
holes in each. The plan of the column is here shown in 
Fig. 4. It is covered with four L-shaped tiles 3 ins. 
thick, with walls 1 in. thick, and a i-in. air-space in each. 
In addition the space between the column and the tiles is 
filled with concrete. The edges of the tiles are o.g. 
shaped, and they are cramped with steel cramps. In every 
other course the tiles are reversed, thus breaking joints. 
Fig. 5 shows the section, and Fig. 6 the plan of con- 
struction for a light attic or ceiling floor to carry 50 Lbs. 

S£cj-/o/v Of Gl RD[f>$ /IfiD /(pcjl fOR l?oof 
F r iCUFiE 7 

/■XT" f~ Laa p co^^rftocjio^ *w/W I W/" 14 

to the girders. The segment arches arc end pressure, 
built with 8 by 12 in. tiles having six holes in each. For 
the flat ceiling, shown in Fig. 2, 3-in. 5.5-lb. I-beams are 
built between the girders at 3-ft. centers; and between 
the 3-in. I-beams are set loosely 1.33-lb. T's at 1 <S ' _. -in. 
centers and 0.9-lb. angles at the ends against the girder 
covering. Each T or angle carries three hollow ceiling 
tiles, which are 12^ by 18 ins. with rebated ends, where 
they rest on the T's and angles. The tiles have coves at 
both sides to hold the mortar joints. The small T's and 
angles are set by the tile layers. The small T's and 
angles are thus covered by the tiles and mortar joints, as 
well as the 3-in. I's. 

Fig. 3 is a sectional drawing at right angles to that 

per superficial foot. The girders are light 20 in., and the 
floor beams 7 ins., and all spaced as in Fig. 3. Here the 
girders are covered in the same manner as in Fig. 3, the 
soffit tiles and skew-backs of the Hat arches arc of semi- 
porous tcrra-cotta, and the 9 by 12 in. arch tiles are of 
hard tcrra-cotta. The column shown in Fig. 6 is similar 
to that in Fig. 4, but smaller. 

Fig. 7 is a section of roof construction with 20-in. 
light girders, 12 ft. from centers, and light segment end 
pressure arch. The same care in here protecting the 
girders is taken. The segment arch is of 6 by 10 in. 
semi-porous tiles with six holes, and the haunches filled 
with concrete only to the tops of the girders. The tic- 
rods are buried in the arches. 


Selected Miscellany. 


The progress made in New York in any single year 
is really wonderful, speaking from the architect's stand- 
point. The last ten years have seen a revolution. The 

New York in magnificence, if not in size. It will cost 
$2,000,000, and will he erected 011 the southeast corner of 
Fifth Avenue and 52CI Street, which property is valued 
at si ,000,000. Several architects have prepared com- 
petitive plans, but at this writing do decision has been 

The number of plans tiled recently, and the amount 

» -V*- > *• 



building of the Columbia University Library, of the 
Cathedral of St. fohn, the great arches of which are 
conspicuous on Morningside Heights, the new buildings 
beyond the river, of the University of New York, the 
improvement of Riv- 
erside Drive, giving 
one of the noblest 
views in the world. 
the completion of the 
enlarged Museum of 
Natural History, the 
great Public Library 
that is to be erected 

on 4 2d Street, the 
new building of the 
Brooklyn Insti tute 
near Prospect Park, 
the new bridge across 
the East River, the 
subway in course of 
constru ction, and 
most of all the in- 
tellectual a n d 
aesthetic p ro g r e s s 
that all these imply, 
denote that t h e 

metropolis is taking 
its plaee among the greatest cities of the world as a de- 
sirable place of residence as well as a profitable plaee to 

And still there are rumors of more big hotels. Mr. 
(bites of the great Steel Trust and his friends intend to 
erect a hotel which will rival anything of the kind in 

---.ur-- ■• ., . ' 

11. ii S] \ I NEW 1 ON, M ISS. 
Roofed with " Ludowici " roofing tile-. 
Willard T. Sears, Archib 

VoKk & > \\\ \ Ik, ARCHITECTS. 

of expenditure represented, is simply marvelous. Good 
times have certainly come to the architects of this city, 
and we are praying for "many happy returns of the 
day." By the way, it may interest readers of The 


know that there is a 
g r eat s e a reity of 

good unemp 1 y e d 
draughtsmen in the 

city, and if there are 

any embryo Rugelos, 

or Wrens, or danders 
hidden away in ob- 
scure plaees, t h e y 
might do well to take 
a '• run down to the 
e i t y." There are 
s e v e r a 1 architects 
who have spent lots 
of valuable time try- 
ing to find good men. 
< )f course, most of 

us politely bow out 

the average " jour- 
neyman dra u g h t s- 
man." Some sort of 
an e DO pi y m e n t 
agency would fill a long-felt want, and would be a legiti- 
mate business for a good man. 

Another hotel to be built by a wealthy syndicate will 
be erected on Park Avenue, between 41st and 42d Streets, 
being very convenient to the Grand Central Depot. The 
building will be commenced very soon, but great secrecy 



will probably be no opposition to this act, and a result 
will be reached which has been striven for for many 
years, and for which result we will be eternally 


Roofed with " American S." roofing tile. 
S. S. Godley, Architect. 

has been preserved as to the identity of the architect and 
as to particulars in regard to the building. 

The carrying into effect of the plan for the Interstate 
Palisades Park now depends upon the action of the New 
York Legislature. The Legislature of New Jersey has 
approved the Park act, which authorizes the joint com- 
missioners of New York and New Jersey to "select and 
locate such lands, lying between the top or steep edge of 
the Palisades and the high water line of the Hudson 
River, as may, in their opinion, be proper and necessary 
for the purpose of establishing a State Park, and thereby 
preserving the scenic beauty of the Palisades." There 


As a result of the prolonged period of building 
inactivity, through which Chicago lias passed since 
1893, the present revival finds her short of architec- 
tural draughtsmen. As a result, the demand so 
exceeds the supply that a good T square and pencil 
pusher is at a premium, although there is really no 
" boom " in building nor is there likely to be one. 

The first annual traveling scholarship of the Chi- 
cago Architectural Club has been awarded to N. Max 
Dttnning. The interest in the five competitions, in- 
volving the various stages in the design of a " United 
States Embassy in a European Capital," has been very 
keen, and the competitors, varying in number from 
fourteen in the second to four in the final competition, 
have done themselves and the club great credit by their 
industry, and by the ability they have shown in attacking 
a very difficult problem. 

The Architectural Club has appointed as delegates to 
the approaching second annual convention of the Archi- 


Terra-COtta made by the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company. 

C. M. Bartberger, Architect. 


Roofed with Celadon roofing tile. 

William G. Rantonl, Architect. 

tectural League of America, at Philadelphia, Joseph C. 
Llewellyn, president of the League, and Robert C. 
Spencer, Jr., of the executive committee. 

Herman Van Hoist is preparing to make an extended 
European tour, and has resigned his position with Shcp- 
ley, Rutan & Coolidge. 

The fourteenth annual exhibition of the Architectural 
Club, which opened on the twenty-eighth of March, is now 
in progress, and while the number of exhibits is less than 
in recent years, the standard of quality is high and pre- 
sents unusual interest and variety. There are compara- 
tively few profits from the schools which usually take up 
much space and do not greatly interest the average visitor. 
Chicago has a room of selected drawings, the well-known 
contributors being Mr. Sullivan, with photographs of the 



New York Architectural Terra-Cotta i ompany, makers. 

Guaranty and Condict Buildings, his cottage at Ocean 
Springs, Miss., and a very fiercely polychromatic Russian 
Church in blue, purple, scarlet, and gold; Birch Long's 
imaginary garden, embassy gates, and Jackson Pari 

sketches show a charming originality and artistic feel- 
ing; Hugh Garden's little theater and country house are 
particularly nice, both in design and drawing; Richard 
Schmidt's hospital, drawn by Mr. Garden, is a very dig- 
nified and restrained piece of design, somewhat sugges- 
tive of " the new movement "; and Mr. Spencer and Pond 
\- I'ond have some characteristic country houses. 

The feature of the exhibition is undoubtedly the 
collection of drawings from San Francisco, chiefly con- 
tributed by Willis K. Polk. There are also a number of 
interesting things from liliss & Faville and Coxhead & 
Coxhead. The star drawing is Mr. Polk's line ren- 
dering, a very large bird's-eye of the proposed peristyle at 


the foot of Market Street. San Francisco, from behind the 
tower. The city and hills beyond are managed with 
unusual artistic skill and a remarkably clever technique. 
Altogether the club is very grateful to Mr. Polk. 

To conclude a hasty survey, there is a cast' of the 
always beautiful Grueby ware and a case of equally 
interesting pottery from Mr. Gates, of the American 
Terra-cotta and Ceramic Company, who is producing 
some new and beautiful effects in soft, dtdl glazes in 
greens, yellows, reds, and metallic lusters. 

uncertainty regarding the fair is removed, the impression 
prevails that the coming years will witness unprecedented 
activity in building; in fact, many important projects arc 
assuming definite shape, and architects are busily engaged 
on prospective work. 

The scheme to condemn the property in the block 
immediately north of Union Station, and make a park of 
it, has been revived and is receiving such universal 
support that it is thought the municipal assembly will 
act favorably upon it. One or two large hotels and a 
number of other substantial improvements are now being 
considered tor adjacent blocks should this be done. 

Architect Isaac Taylor has prepared plans for a build- 
ing for the Delmar Jockey Club, to be located on Taylor 

Standard Terra-Cotta Works, makers. 

Avenue, and has drawings on the boards for a large 
commercial building on the site of the old Belvedere 
Hotel Building on Washington Avenue, Thirteenth, and 
St. Charles Streets. 

Mr. William P. Ittner. commissioner of school build- 
ings, is t<> be congratulated upon the design of the 
Horace Mann School, on the corner of ( >ak Hill and 
Juniatta Streets, it being the most interesting of the 

number of successful schools he has built. 

The munificent gift to the public library of Si, 000,000, 
by Mr. Andrew Carnegie, will doubtless enable the erec- 
tion of the long-desired building, and also several branch 
libraries, it being one of the conditions that one half the 
sum should be used for that purpose. 'Idle board several 
years ago purchased the block between (Hive. Locust, 
Seventeenth, and Eighteenth Streets, but this is not 
generally considered the most desirable place, it being 
the almost universal opinion that the Exposition Building, 


The site tor the World's Pair has become the absorb- 
ing topic in building and realty circles. Now that all 


Perth Ainiioy Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 



having outlived its usefulness, especially in view of the 
more important event in prospect, should be removed 
and the library built there. The ground belongs to the 
city, having originally been a park, and must eventually 
become a park again, and it would be an ideal location. 

The St. Louis Architectural Club is considering the 
feasibility of establishing a traveling scholarship, and 
hopes to be able to send one of its members abroad this 
summer. At a recent meeting, William B. Ittner gave 
an illustrated lecture entitled the " History of World's 
Fairs," and at a meeting held March 23, he read a paper 
on " Japanese Gardens. " 

Mr. John B. Hughes has presented the club with the 
library of the late Architect Furber. 





It is difficult to realize that, with the first of April, the 
greatest business concern of Pittsburgh, one so intimately 
associated with the building business, the Carnegie Steel 

Company, has ceased to have 
a separate corporate existence, 
and is now but one of the many 
divisions of the United States 
Steel Corporation. Many of 
us who have been accustomed 
to " call up " the Carnegie 
Company to find out this and 
that about our framing plans 
will still be asking for the 
Carnegie Company, I fear. 
What effect this new concern 
will have on Pittsburgh indus- 
tries is the subject of some dis- 
cussion here. 

With the announcement of 
Mr. Carnegie's retirement has 
come a letter to Pittsburgh 
outlining some of the many 
things he is to do here, not 
only for the Carnegie Institute 
and the new technical insti- 
tute, but for the libraries in 
surrounding towns, and for his 
old employees. He has already 
given $4,000,000, the income 
of which is to be used to 
pension old employees, aid 
•those who may be injured, and 
help the families of any of the 
workmen who may be killed. 
This is, we believe, the first 
attempt of this kind where the 
men themselves do not con- 

This year the examinations 
for the John Stewardson Me- 
morial Scholarship were held 
here simultaneously with those 
in Philadelphia. The an- 
nouncement was not made suf- 
ficiently long before to enable 
many of our draughtsmen to 






Conkling-Armstrong Terra- 

Cotta Company, makers. 

Willis G. Hale, Architect. 


Whole first story of mottled gray terra-cotta. Excelsior Terra-Cotta 

Company, makers. 

William A. Poland, Architect. 

enter, and we hope they will be given here again next 


The committee on Vacation Traveler of the Boston 
Architectural Club announce the election of Gordon 
Allen as the recipient of this year's fund. 

There was an exhibition of Beaux Arts drawings by 
Herbert D. Hale, J. Harleston Parker, and Guy Lowell 
in the rooms of the Boston Architectural Club and 
the Boston Society of Architects, from Saturday, April 
6, to Saturday, April 13, inclusive. 

Woodman, Newman & Harris, Philadelphia, have won 
the competition for the new Rittenhouse Club Build- 
ing, this being the third local competition of prominence 
they have gained. The others were the new City Troop 
Armory, and the Corn Exchange Building at 3d and 
Chestnut Streets. 

The Perm Buff Brick and Tile Company of Newark, 
N. J., manufacturers of the "Blue Ridge" enameled 
brick, has changed its corporate name to that of Blue 
Ridge Enameled Brick Company. In all other respects 
the company remains unchanged. 

On April 1, the general offices of the Tiffany Enam- 
eled Brick Company were removed from the Marquette 
Building, Chicago, to the company's works at Momence, 
111., about fifty miles out of Chicago. The Thomas 
Molding Company, Chamber of Commerce, will act as 



American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, makers. 

general sales agents for the Tiffany Company at Chicago, 
although the company's business will be under the direc- 
tion of the president of the Tiffany Company, Mr. J. Van 
[nwagen, while J. Van [nwagen, Jr., takes full charge 
at the works. 'Phis change is necessitated by a largely 
increased business. 

In the fall of 1872, the Union Akron Cement Com- 
pany, through its Chicago house, furnished twenty- 
one hundred barrels of the Akron (Star brand) cement 
to the United States Government, for putting in the 
lower part of the concrete foundation for the Chicago 
Post-office. Nearly twenty-live years afterwards, during 
the spring of 1897, the Chicago Post-office was taken 
down, to make room for a new and Larger building. 

In the May. [897, issue of the Cement and Engineer- 
ing News, page 74, the following in reference to the con- 


Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

A. II. Bowditch, Architect. 

crete foundation is found: "In the wrecking of the 
Chicago Post-office, the contractor encounters a mass of 
14,000 cu. yds. of concrete, underlying all foundations, 
walls, and vaults, while a continuous mass or slab of con- 

Height 15 it. 


Made in white terra-cotta, by I!. Kreischer & Sons. New York. 

Frank Freeman, Architect. 

crete covers the entire area of the building from 3 ft., 6 

ins. to j ft., 6 ins. thick. The space between the under side 

of the basement floor and the top of the concrete slab is 
tilled in with Louisville cement; this yields easily toonly 
slight efforts. The concrete slab, composed of a higher 
grade of cement, is tough and refractory, and is giving 
the contractors much trouble, and is the cause of the 
delay in clearing the site, and involves a penalty of one 
hundred dollars per day to the contractors, running since 
April 1. The work of removal of this large body of con- 
crete is being vigorously prosecuted by the aid of nu- 
merous steam drills and dynamite. Even this proves a 


St. Louis Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

slow and tedious process, and is an object lesson as to the 
respective qualities of a good and a sometimes indiffer- 
ent cement." The concrete slab mentioned, that was so 
tough and refractory, was made with the Akron (Star 
brand) cement, manufactured by the Union Akron 
Cement Company, Buffalo, X. V. 






85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1S92 


Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States 
and Canada 

Single numbers ......... 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... 

S5.00 per year 

50 cents 

?6.oo per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied 
by the American News Company and its branches. 


Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 

Agencies. — Clay Products .... II 

Architectural Faience II 

„ Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

„ Enameled Ill and IV 


Cements . . IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 

IT has come to be the rule nowadays that if any one is 
injured around a building, no matter from what 
cause, some one else is expected to pay the bills. This 
view has not only gained wide currency among the work- 
ing-men, but has been supported by many decisions of the 
lower courts. Fortunately for the principles of fair deal- 
ing, however, such decisions have frequently been re- 
versed by superior courts, and while a belief is still held 
by the average workman that anything which happens to 
him of an adverse nature about a modern building will 
give him just cause for collecting damages from some 
one who is more blessed in this world's goods than him- 
self, such belief does not obtain the final sanction of the 
law. Some years ago a building in New York collapsed 
under most distressing circumstances. The resulting 
investigation showed that one of the column founda- 
tions was altogether inadequate to the load placed upon 
it, affording ample cause for the failure. Further in- 
vestigation showed that the foundation was properly 
planned and contracted for, but that the foreman of the 
work seemed to have deliberately made his footings 
smaller than the drawings called for. The heirs of one 
of the workmen who was killed in the accident brought 

suit] against the |owner,gbut the highest court of appeal 
has just decided that the owner, after having employed a 
competent architect and made contracts with a reputable 
builder, was not liable for the results of carelessness, igno- 
rance, or maliciousness on the part of a foreman. The 
question naturally arises, Who is responsible in a case of 
this kind? And following out the very current theory that 
some one must pay for all our woes, the workmen would 
naturally seek to fasten the blame upon the most guilty 
party, which in this particular case was the foreman. 
But as this particular foreman was not blessed with 
attachable worldly goods, it is extremely probable that 
damages will never be collected. It is, however, a pity 
that at least a certain measure of the rigid accountability 
for bad workmanship which is insisted upon in France 
should not find its counterpart with us. We do not 
sympathize with the communistic feeling that we can 
make our neighbors pay for our mishaps, but, aside from 
any qitestion of pecuniary damages, one of the conditions 
which constantly encourages poor workmanship is the 
fact that the responsibility therefor is so seldom pressed 
home in the right direction. 

And this brings tis back to a theme which we have 
repeatedly advocated in these columns; namely, the 
public necessity for limiting the practice of building, of 
architecture, or the direction of engineering operations 
strictly and solely to those who are qualified by education 
and experience to properly attend to the same. The 
attitude frequently taken by the parties in interest at an 
inqitiry into the cause of a bad building accident reminds 
one of Thomas Nast's celebrated cartoon, showing the 
members of the Tammany ring standing in a circle, each 
man pointing to his neighbor, and saying, " He is to 
blame," and so passing the responsibility entirely around 
the circle indefinitely. Rigid legal liability may some- 
times work hardship, but if it served no other good 
than to keep out of building operations the ignorant or 
the unqualified, it would be worth doing. 

A striking incident directly in point occurred a short 
time since in one of our suburbs. A hotel was being 
built on speculation. The nominal owners bought the 
land, heavily mortgaged it twice or three times over, 
obtained some plans, and contracted with a builder to 
put up a certain structure. The whole scheme was 
rotten to the core from the start, and every one connected 
with it knew it, if we may judge by the results. The 
first to draw back was the sub-contractor for the piling. 
He found that when the piles were driven to the 
depth required by the contract, they seemed no nearer 
hard pan than if they had not been driven at all, and, 
very wisely, lie immediately threw Up his contract and 
abandoned it to another pile driver, who, less scru- 


Til E BR I C K 15 IT ILDER. 

pulous than his predecessor, simply stuck his piles into 
the mud and left them for the masons to erect a hastily 
thrown together building thereon. < >f course, the build- 
ing went to pieces, and there has been no end of trouble 
ever since. The original promoters did not get out 
quick enough, so they tailed to make the profit they 
expected to make by a quick turn before the building 
should go to pieces, and the principal loss fell on the 
mortgagees, who found their security rather worse than 
valueless. This is not an isolated example. We find 
such in every large city, and Budensicks do not all come 
from New York. We cannot hope to entirely prevent 
rascality, but we can, and we ought to minimize the 
possibilities for deliberate and dangerous swindling, by a 
proper system of restricting the practice of architecture 
and building to those who are qualified therefor. 

made to serve the older building would by its use have 

enhanced the artistic value of the modern structure. 


[THIN the past month work has commenced 
upon the demolition of the old Horticultural 
Hall of Boston. This lias been one of the prominent 
Structures of this city, and its passing means the disap- 
pearance of one of the landmarks. At the time it was 
erected, some fifty years ago, it ranked as one of the 
best buildings in the city. The front was what was, for 
those daws, considered a very ornate one, constructed 
entirely in granite, with heavy orders in three tiers — 
Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, and a considerable degree 
of embellishment with heroic-size statues in full relief. 
It is disappearing to make way for a modern office build- 
ing. In the meanwhile the new Horticultural Hall, in 
another part of the city, is rapidly approaching comple- 
tion, the society expecting to occupy it this summer. It 
would be difficult to find a more fitting comparison 
between the past and the present methods of archi- 
tectural design than is afforded by these two buildings 
the old and the new Horticultural Hall. The one repre- 
sents the kind of blind adherence to tradition which, 
notwithstanding the limitations of the period in which it 
was created, managed to produce some buildings which 
were large, imposing in effect, with a big, generous 
scale which has only of late years been rightly appre- 
ciated. The best that can be said of the details is that 
they are correct. It is not a building of which, in an 
architectural way. we should to-day feel proud; and yet 
it is what we should have once been glad to call our best. 
On the other hand, the newer building eschews granite 
entirely, and presents a structure which is essentially 
brick in it-- character, and which is studied in a way 
which we like to think characterizes the lust oi our 
recent work. The details are proportioned to the general 
scheme, and the design is a comprehensive entity rather 
than an aggregation of independently correct units. In 
other words, the new building is a distinct idea, while 
the old one is a compilation ; and right there is the em- 
phatic difference between the best this country produced 
during the first three quarters of the last century and 
the work which we are turning out now. There is a 
monumental character about the new Horticultural Hall 
which is extremely successful, together with a satis- 
factory feeling of completeness which is quite independ- 
ent of material. Nor can one have any thought that the 
ponderous, monumental sounding granite which was 

SPEAKING of color, no one can ignore the Pan- 
American Exposition buildings. It is fair to say 

that never before in the world's history have buildings 
been created on such a scale and with such a lavish 

nipt at exterior polychromatic decoration. They arc 
still too new for final judgment. A brand-new building 
always needs weathering and mellowing; but however 
they may change under the touch of the summer breezes, 
they are sure to present a most impressive object-lesson 
to our architects of what can be done with color. The 
buildings of the Columbian Exposition of [893 were 
white throughout, the dazzling purity of the tone being 
only enhanced and accented by the restrained decorative 
spots of color at isolated points. Indeed, the only build- 
ing at Chicago which attempted any marked polychro- 
matic treatment was the Transportation Building, by 
Adler & Sullivan. The Buffalo buildings leave practi- 
cally no white whatever, but every foot of wall service, 
every molding and ornament, every statue, is clothed in 
its mantle of light. 

These buildings are all huge experiments. They are 
built of the shoddiest of materials, and will scarcely 
survive a single winter. They are mere full-size models, 
but they will undoubtedly have their effect upon the 
architecture of our country, and especially on the use of 
burnt clay, for in no other material would it be possible 
to repeat even an echo of the color treatment so success- 
fully carried out at Buffalo. None of these exposition 
buildings pay in dollars and cents, but each one has been 
a powerful lever to awaken the art sense of our nation, 
to show what we can do, and to call out our best. Terra- 
cotta as an American industry dates practically from the 
Centennial Exhibition. Its scope was vastly widened by 
the lessons of the Columbian Exposition, and we feel 
perfectly safe in predicting that the next few years will 
show the abundant fruit of the lessons to be learned at 

THE final award of the Rotch Traveling Scholarship 
was this year made by a jury consisting of John 
Galen Howard, of New York. Edward B. Green, of 
buffalo, and \V. T. Partridge, of Columbia University. 

That time passes rapidly is shown by the fact that Mr. 
Partridge, who was the seventh Rotch scholar, has this 
year assisted in the selection of the eighteenth. The prize 
has fallen to William L. Mowll, who was one of the 
first graduates from the architectural department of 
Harvard University, and is a student in the office of 
Peabody & Stearns. There were seven competitors this 
year. The conditions of this scholarship are too well 
known to our younger readers to require explanation. 
The prize ought to be one to call out the best efforts of 
every live young architect in Massachusetts. For that 
matter, its influence goes far beyond the borders of the 
Bay State, and several of the young men who have in 
past years achieved the scholarship came to Boston 
expressly to study therefor, and on their return from 
abroad have resumed their life in other cities, carrying 
with them, however, the benefits which this boston 
institution has conferred. 


9 1 

Terra-Cotta in the Small Cities of Italy. 


I WILL direct my reader's attention once more to the 
north of Italy, the region most rich in monuments 
of terra-cotta, and will stop at Cremona, a city near 
Milan, which is rarely visited by travelers making the 
tour of Italy. Cremona, which has had a glorious history 
and has given birth to so many renowned artists, ought 
not to be forgotten by those who visit Italy. From the 
particular point of view of terra-cotta, it ranks among 
the first cities of the peninsula. Its most important 
monuments in brick are the Torrazzo, the Cathedral, the 
Baptistery, the Communal Palace, and that of the Gon- 
falonieri; and these monuments recall and represent the 
most splendid period of the Cremonese life. Built in the 
Lombard or Romanesque style of which the origin is not 
to be found outside our region, they are the living dem- 
onstration of the power and wealth of the city at the 
time when these monuments were raised amid the en- 
thusiasm which almost always accompanied in Italy these 
great constructions. Thus, among these, the Torrazzo 
has ended by representing alone the city of Cremona, 
almost a monumental symbol, as has happened in several 
other Italian cities. What this Torrazzo of Cremona 
which is loved by the Cremonese with a transport closely 
akin to fetishism is, is shown by the reproduction which 
accompanies this article, and I am bound to admit that 
this "campanile" is one of the most famous, lightest, 


and most elegant in the peninsula; and although its re- 
nown is far spread, its history has been hitherto amass 
of inaccuracies and mistakes. The truth about the Tor- 
razzo is, finally, that far from being a monument of the 
eighth century, as has been stated by writers insensible 

to the language of forms (I speak of the foundations), it 
was only founded at least four centuries later than they 
pretend, that is, the earliest date of the monument is the 
thirteenth century. The Ogival windows are the best 
witnesses of my opinion, which is accepted by the most 
serious writers of the peninsula. 

My opinion, to speak truly, is not supported by writ- 
ten documents, but it is the monument itself which tells 


the story of its commencement; besides, those who main- 
tain the great age of the Torrazzo, placing its beginning 
during the eighth century, found their statements on a 
false and imaginative inscription, according to which on 
the 15th of April, 754, Stefano II. being pope and 
Astolfo, Seigneur of Cremona, king of the Longobards, 
the first stone of the tower was laid by the Bishop Sil- 
vino. If other reasons were not lacking to demonstrate 
the falsity of this Cremonese inscription, it would suffice 
to remark that Pope Stefano II. died in 752, two years 
before the date marked in the inscription (this pope lived 
only three days after his consecration), and the King 
Astolfo died in 738, seven years before the date of the 
same inscription. Whatever this may amount to, we 
know with absolute accuracy that in U67 the square sides 
of the Torrazzo were finished, and as for the upper 
portion, we have reason to suppose that at about p;oo it 
was also finished. A document of the secret archives of 
Cremona informs us that in [297 the Commune set aside 
certain revenues for the profit of the Torrazzo, which in 
this year found its work well advanced. The age of the 
artist-architect ought to be found here firmly written, but 
alas! in regard to the author or authors of this work the 
chronicles and the documents are mute, and no inscription 

9 2 


comes to our aid; so it would lie puerile in the present 
state of our information to advance a theory or pro- 
nounce a name. The most exquisite part of the Toirazzo 
is the polygonal portion of two stories in height, which 
lifts itself above the square part, anil it is only to deplore 
the fact that I mention here that a rose-colored lime wash 
covers, vandal fashion, the line red color of the brick- 
work which makes the background for the ornamentation 
of white stone, and causes the finest part of the Torrazzo 
to resemble something like a superfluity beside the square 
portion which preserves the natural red color of the bricks. 
This extravagance should not surprise my reader, who 
knows that in Italy, at a time, alas! not Long ago, brick 
construction was considered vulgar, and certain monu- 
ments received coats of lime wash by order of competent 
authorities, and this was the ease with the Torrazzo. 

The tower always accompanies the cathedral, of which 
it is the campanile, so here I have not wished to separate 
it, and the reader will find reproduced beside the Torrazzo 
the detail of two windows of the cathedra] of Cremona, 
an edifice in part more ancient than the campanile. The 
Cremonese cathedral was commenced in 1107 (as is 
assured by an inscription which has always existed), but 
ten years after it was ruined by an earthquake. imme- 
diately recommenced, it was almost entirely finished in 
1196, but it was not until 1 2.X7 that our monument re- 
ceived from Giacomo Porrata the splendid rose window- 
on the principal facade, which leads us back to the win- 
dows shown in the engraving, which are the finest orna- 
ments of the south facade, and take us beyond the time 


of Giacomo Porrata to 1332. the period at which the south 
arm of the cathedral was built by the artists Franceschino 
and Canino de' Taselli. The other part, that is. the north 
arm of the church, was finished in 1 2<S,X by the artists 
Bertoldino Bragerio and Giacomo de Camperio. 

Here is another Cremonese monument of capital 
importance, the Palazzo dei Giureconsulti, a work in 
brick built in 1292, at the period when the Torrazzo re- 

ceived its finishing touches. This building has not the 
finesse of the ornamentation of the famous building at 
Piacenza, of which mention will soon be made; but the 
Cremonese structure should not be passed over by those 
who are making a study of Italian brickwork. 

Among the edifices I have chosen for reproduction 
the fragment of the court in the Palazzo Stanga, whose 
lower portion, with its great entablature sustained by 


little consoles, may be cited as a model of the architectonic 
style which flourished in Lombardy at the end of the 
fifteenth or the beginning of the sixteenth century. 
Especially worthy of notice are the proportions of the 
portico, the richness of the ornamentation, and the charm 
of the profiles, which reveal a true master,— a master ex- 
quisitely skilful in decorative architecture: and truly 
brick can only be used successfully by the master orna- 
mentists, by the poets among the decorators; the latter 
alone can use it tastefully and understand all its resources, 
'flic luxury of the ornament in the Stanga court attains 
such a ravishing effect as to be worthy of being cited as 
an example; for here the richness of the ornamentation 
does not distract the eye from the architectural lines, a 
merit not always found among the architect ornamentists. 

Returning a step chronologically, we will notice a 
very beautiful fragment, a rose window belonging to the 
Broletto of Brescia, in the Gothic style of the Torrazzo 
and of the Palazzo dei Giureconsulti of Cremona. Even 
this Lombard city is forgotten ; the traveler casts a glance 
from the ear window as he passes on his way from Milan 
to Venice, taking no account of the importance of its 
monuments. Its picturesque church of the Miracoli and 
its old Broletto or Communal Palace, which presents at 
present the appearance of the fragment in brickwork, 
which we reproduce, are important objects for the artist 
and the traveler who love the beautiful. If I could Stop 
to day in this city, which has given birth to one of the 
most celebrated women in the history of humanism. 
Veronica Gambara, Countess of Correggio, and to a 
painter of the worth of Vincenzo Toppa, the famous 
chief of the Lombard school, I would show you that 
Brescia, among the secondary Italian cities, is one of those 
where the ornamentists had the best reason to rejoice. 

But still other cities and other monuments await us ; 
and if the reader will glance at my illustrations, he will 
perceive easily that I have culled the finest specimens 
from the field of our researches. 



Lodi, with its facade of the Casa Ghisalberti, is the 
first city that we encounter. We are not getting far 
distant from Milan; on the contrary, we are merely tak- 
ing the route opposite to that to Brescia. We take the 
great line which unites Milan to Florence, and Florence 
to Rome and Naples, and our stop is the first stop of the 


express running from Milan to Florence. "One min- 
ute's stop " announce the employees of the railway to 
messieurs les voyageurs : and among these last there will 
be many who arc ignorant of the fact that the little town 
of Lodi contains artistic works of considerable worth. 
The church of the Incoronata, with its jewels of decora- 
tive painting, would suffice to justify a stop-over at Lodi; 
but the locomotive whistles, and, the minute passed, 
steams blustering over the Lombard plain. Beside the 
principal works of Lodi (among these should be placed 
the Gothic Church of S. Francesco, with its very impor- 
tant decorative paintings) are cited the terra-cottas, which 
are illustrated. The great frieze which runs below the 
monumental door has the delicacy of the most remarka- 
ble terra-cottas of Milan and of the Certosa di Pavia, of 
Bologna and of Ferrara; and while the marine deities 
who hold in their hands the pretty garlands, and the other 
divinities who gallop over the tranquil waves recall the 
friezes of Aemilia, the friezes which ornament the win- 
dows seem to be the paraphrase of those which arc found 
around the windows of the Grand Hospital of Milan. 
These putti who frolic in a charming decoration of 
leaves and flowers are ravissante, says Burckhardt, in 
the midst of this architecture, which has in its profiles none 
of the finesse of the portico of the Casa Stanga; but the 
frieze is a piece of a much more important work than the 
friezes of the putti, and, for my part, I put this frieze 
among the most beautiful decorations in brickwork ot 
north Italy. In the highest degree pagan, it is a sou- 

venir of similar fragments of antiquity, in sculptured 
and mosaic motifs, and I deeply regret that the name of 
its author is unknown. How many unknown artists, in- 
cluding those who helped the architects, who are gen- 
erally the only ones remembered, toiled to make these 
architectonic monuments! A special study of the deco- 
rators in terra-cotta is to be made in Italy; and the writ- 
ers to whom this difficult task has been given will make 
a meritorious work, and will enrich it. I am sure, with the 
history of the art of a precious capital. 

I have spoken of the resemblance of the frieze of 
Lodi to the friezes of Aemilia. This reminds me of the 
custom which existed at Bologna during the fourteenth, 
fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries of giving a red tint to 
the terra-cotta. This solid preparation, the nature of 
which is not yet well known, was intended especially for 
the preservation of the bricks, and I am not informed 
whether the terra-cotta of Lodi presents any traces of it. 
for in order to decide upon this delicate matter, experi- 
ments would be necessary, which I have not undertaken 
upon the edifice in question. 

Let us stop for a moment at a little town near Parma, 
Borgo vS. Donnino, situated on the same Milan-Florence 
railway where we found Lodi. It is a town of less than 
five thousand inhabitants, of entirely secondary interest, 
which, however, occupies a place of some importance in 
the national art. Provided with a very remarkable cathe- 
dral, with sculptures which are among the most inter- 
esting of the twelfth centurv, Borgo S. Donnino possesses 


a little chapel with terra-cottas, clinging to the side ot 
the cathedral. The reader, looking at my illustration, 
will notice the heaviness of the upper entablature, which 
is evidently a superfluity, and that the beauty of the 
structure does not extend beyond the second entablature. 
The type of the ornament of the chape! of Borgo S. 



Donnino is adapted leafage, differing from that of the 
Casa Ghisalberti at Lodi, where figures interlace with the 
leafage. Although my reproduction can only give a 
weak idea of the original, my reader will perceive him- 


self to be in the presence of a work which should be 
preserved with the greatest care. 

The fragment, exposed as it has been during three 
centuries to all sorts of injuries, reveals to us marvel- 
oiisly the excellent manner in which the workmen of the 
period executed their terra-cotta work; and the endur- 
ance of these delicate decorations arouses a sentiment of 
surprise and satisfaction. 1 do not wish to leave this 
chapel, little known and almost ignored as it has been, 
without calling attention to the friezes, which achieve an 
absolute charm by means of an original design divided 
into small sections, which repeat without fatiguing the 
eye. The richness of the ornament is well brought out, 
and the effect is heightened by the quietness of the 
cornices, the capitals, and other parts of the chapel, which 
contrast their surfaces to the ornaments in relief. This 
knowing distribution of ornament always has an excel- 
lent effect, and is common to the Italian monuments in 
terra-cotta, and an overloaded monument is difficult to 
find. Thus, near Borgo S. Donnino, in a city otherwise 
quite important, stands one of the finest palaces in Italy, 
of great richness in that which concerns its details, but 
of a line sobriety of ensemble, and this palace gives a 
fine idea of this contraposition, or placing of ornament. 
Those who know the Italy of the region that we arc 
traversing, have already heard of the Palazzo Commu- 
nale of Piacenza, sometimes called theGoticoof Piacenza. 
It is of this monument that I wish to speak, where the 
use of brickwork has attained a marvelous result. Be- 
low, a portico supported on massive piers of marble in 
primitive Gothic form, above, bricks everywhere, the 
imposing semicircles framing windows composed of col- 
onnettes and of a great arch ring, wide but not deep, 
and of a most striking expression. A remarkable anal- 
ogy exists between the Goticoof Piacenza and the Palazzo 
dei Giureconsulti at Cremona, but I have noticed in the 
building at Piacenza a finer and more distinguished 
taste; and in the same way an analogy can be traced 
between the wide windows of our building and those of 
the Cathedral of Cremona, but the first are superior in 

possessing an amplitude and a nobility which in work of 
this kind has been rarely surpassed. Fortunately, an 
inscription carved on the facade of the Gotico informs 
us of the year of its commencement and the names of 
tile architect builders, and at the side of these words, 
ll \i, one I'eads easily the names of the architects Pietro 

Burgeto, called otherwise Da Borghetto, Gherardo Cam- 
panario, 1'ietro Cagnano, and Negro dei Negri. 

The architects who built a palace as important as this 
must have occupied a remarkable place in their time. 
What, then, are their works both before and after the 
Palace of Piacenza? Hippocrates would say the answer 
is difficult, or entirely impossible. No document or 
evidence exists bearing on the career of Burgeto, Cam- 
panario, Cagnano, and Dei Negri; and at the present 
time we are reduced to merely affirming as we gaze on 
the palace that the artistic life of these architects was 
admirably complete. 

Piacenza is ornamented with other edifices of brick, 
and possesses in its Palazzo dei Tribunal] (formerly Pa- 
lazzo Landi) a magnificent fragment of a facade that I 
regret not to be able to show in the reproduction. Near 
Piacenza. Modena and Reggio ought to detain us. At 
Modena, the brick facade of S. Pietro and the Palazzo 
Coccapane are specimens of some importance on the 


subject of terra-COtta works of the early Renaissance: 
and at Reggio, the pretty Palazzo Vizzani Pratoniere 
should lie seen, a work in brick of the same period as the 

In our excursion through a respectable number of 
small Italian cities, we have not stopped to notice any 
tombs. Prick has been successfully used, a great many 



times in funerary architecture, and Italy possesses a 
series of these monuments in terra-cotta in churches 
which, although passed over in silence by most writers, 
could furnish material for important study. For all 
the cities, which built largely of brick, constructed tombs 
and even altars in terra-cotta, and citing at random, I 
remember that one of the finest funerary monuments of 
Bologna, that to Alessandro V. (died 1410), lately rebuilt, 
the work of the artist Sperandio da Mantova, is in 
terra-cotta. To ^lean through the field would be an attract- 
ive task, for it would perhaps bring unexpected results, 
knowing, as we do, that many of the decorative works 
have been covered with a bed of white or of gray to the 
great profit of their aesthetic quality (!!). And as fu- 
nerary tombs in terra-cotta are in no way a specialty of 
cities where brick is the ordinary building material, here 
is an example of a tomb belonging to a small city of 
Tuscany, Arezzo, — the tomb of Antonio Roselli (died 
1467) in the church of S. Francesco. 1 

It is, perhaps, well to recall that Arezzo was one of the 
cities of the valley of the Arno which close around 
Florence like a great girdle of flowers. Who has not 
perceived our city in passing on the journey from 
Florence to Rome' But like Lodi, Arezzo, which is 
more important than the Lombard city, is not one of 
the cities to which travelers ordinarily devote even a half 


day. It possesses, however, numerous monuments, the 
Pieve, the cathedral with its incomparably beautiful 

1 Reside the tombs and the altars might be placed the altar tables, which preceded the 
tables of enameled clay made by the Delia Robbias. The National Museum at Florence 
has one of these little tables in a mediocre Tuscan Gothic style, but important from the fact 
of the existence of this kind of pre duetions, 1 do not mention the numerous lunettes with 
figures in relief or in bas-relief, in painted terra-cotta on the tombs, altars, etc., which in- 
spired I.uca della Robbia to the application of enamel on the sculpture of painted clay. 

windows, a museum, and the church of S. Francesco, 
which apart from the tomb of Roselli, the principal 
object of consideration, contains the celebrated frescoes 
of Piero della Francesca. The tomb, which in artistic 
merit cannot rival the frescoes, is of a very curious 
character in its ensemble and details, belonging to the 


transitional style, with classic detail placed side by side 
with the Gothic elements. 

The strangeness of the tomb increases if one con- 
siders that the monument was practically executed in 
the Gothic style during the full flowering of the Renais- 
sance. This seems to be justified by the fact, that in a 
small place one could use up old pieces of terra-cotta 
without exciting the sleeping critic. Not knowing the 
author of this tomb, we can only say in general that it 
belongs to the school of Niccolo d' Arezzo, an eminent 
artist, less known than he deserves. 

He was the supposed author of the tomb of Ales- 
sandro V., to which I have just referred, and was cer- 
tainly superior to the unknown author of the Roselli 
monument, which has, however, certain qualities worthy 
of notice — the beauty of the head of the recumbent 
personage, which is not equaled by the too meager 
draperies. But this is a fault of the period which was 
influenced by Masaecio and his school rather than of the 
artist, who recommends himself to our attention by the 
elegance of the well-conceived sarcophagus, and the air 
with which he has modeled the leafage. 

The Roselli tomb is only a specimen of a series of 
monuments of a kind not too much cultivated in Italy. 
but always worthy of study; and if some day or other 
I am able to make a study of this kind of art, I shall feel 
it an honor to acquaint the readers oi The Brickbuilder 
with the results of my investigations. 

9 6 


"The Brickbuildcr" Competition. VI. 




THE design is to provide for the entrance porch of a 
large metropolitan art museum, of the nature of 

;.' " 'I 







tin.- South Kensington Museum, London. The entrance 
will be in the center of a perfectly blank wall, permitting 
of an individual treatment without reference to the de- 
sign of the building as a whole. The entrance should 
cessed io ft., and should allow for tour doors, each 
3 ft. wide, besides such transoms or side lights as are 
incidental to the character of the design, 'the entrance 
leads to the first floor, 
which is supposed to 
be at an elevation of 
8 ft. above the street, 
a flight of steps lead- 
in-" thereto projecting 
from the line of the 
building. Any treat- 
ment of col u m n s. 
pilasters, or buttresses 
is to project from the 
build i n g line. The 
height of the first story 
is to be 20 ft. in the 
clear. The design is 
to be such as is adapted 
to working out in 
burnt-clay products. 

nate. Mr. Edward Robinson, who was judge of this 

competition, has decided that none of the designs pre- 
sented is worthy of a prize, a decision in which I heartily 
concur, and I have been asked to say something in regard 
to this conclusion. 

These competitions have been instituted to encourage 
the study and treatment of burnt-clav products, and to 
commend and reward ability in architectural design in 

those products; and an 
award in these compe- 
titions is assumed to 
indicate merit. There 
a r e abundant prece- 
dents in North Italian 
W o r k of the twelfth, 
thirteenth, and inn r- 
teenth centuries, and in 
North German and 
English work of the 

present time to guide 

an intelligent student. 
Such works as those of 
Street, of Strack, and 
the book of suggestions 
by Frank Miles Day are 
sufficient for some en- 
lightenment <>n the sub- 
ject. Burnt clay must. 
by the limitations of the 
f i r i n g, be a material 
used in comparatively 
small pieces as com- 
pared with stone and, therefore, has a smaller scale 
both in its detail and its motives (excepting in wall sur- 
face masses). The competitors in most cases have seen 

fit to ignore this fact and have merely transposed stone 
forms into terra-cotta, without the changes in those forms 

natural to the change in the material. If this were the 
only objection, such a design as Number I., while ignor- 

The result of The 
Brickbuilder Compe- 
tition Number VI., for 
an entrance to an Art 
Museum, is unfortu- 




•scale JiN-oNc-rooT- 



NO. 3. 

ing the four doors (unless a double door can be counted 

as two), would be worthy 

of the award; in fact, 

the design is the only 

good one in the entire 

set, as in most cases 

orders of architecture 

are used without t h e 

slightest observance of 

their proportions. With 

the constant teaching of 

the orders in the schools, 

it should be unnecessary 

t i m p r e s s u p o n 

draughtsmen the fact 

that their proportions 

have been determined by 

the ablest architects in 

history and by centuries 

of use, and that it is 

foolish to experiment 

with these proportions, 

excepting, perhaps, in 

small details under stress 

of conditions. The chief fault of the designs is lack of 
relative proportions of parts. 

To rapidly analyze the designs: 

Number I. is good in proportions; entablature seems 
not sufficiently decorated for motives below, and corner 
globe terminals, while in scale as far as mass is concerned, 
are much out of scale in detail; treatment of arch surface 
as considered with arch soffit surface is weak. 

Number II. would have effect of thin frame to 
the opening; poor cornice profile; lion's head out of 
scale and unnecessary. If openings were poched, it 
would appear that the transoms were too wide and too 

Number III. Bad connection with wall of building; 
bad relation between parapet corner piers and piers 
below; corner piers below too narrow for length of archi- 
trave; balusters unnecessary. Pediment motive requires 
very careful treatment; brackets are too heavy for facia 
above. The whole design has in it too many minor 
motives too much scattered. 

Number IV. Figure frieze too broad and heavy even 
for the Doric order below. 

Number V. General proportions good ; relative pro- 
portions of details not studied especially in frieze; too 
many angular block forms in voussoirs, etc., disturbing 
general proportion. 

Number VI. Is not apparently certain whether his 
motive is that of a pierced pylon, a frame, or a loaded 

Number VII. Has adopted a terra-cotta treatment, 
but with uninteresting detail and bad division of tympa- 
num, especially behind the figure. 

Number VIII. While adopting a simple and good 
motive, has placed inadequate divisions between the 
doors, and for the sake of a title tablet, has overloaded 
the door heads. 

It is unnecessary to mention the remaining drawings. 

C. Howard \V \i KER. 




NO. 4. 



Ncte'- The- EJe-vohort and 
ore drawn to a scale of \" 


Edi roR "i The Brickbuilder : 

Dear Sir: The editorial on the first page of The 
Brickbuilder, April number, on the protection of struc- 
tural steel, leads me to add a few words in partial support 
of Mr. Abbott's article in the Insurance .Yews, which you 
quote. Unfortunately, the subject of rust protection, as 
well as fire-proofing, has not yet received adequate con- 
sideration, lint to discuss the question of rust-proofing 
alone. Mr. Abbott is entirely right when he savs that 
ironwork intended to be enclosed {in concrete) should not 
be painted, and also that it should be absolutely clean 
and free from rust and mill scale. 

The matter oi rust-proofing is so simple and so easily 
u n d e r stood, when 
once the causes of 
rust are known, that 
there is little exetise 
tor ignorance if one- 
is diligent in seek- 
ing causes. 

Rust is the hy- 
drated oxide of iron, 
and is caused by the 
agency of three fac- 
tors ivor king together , 
viz., water, oxygen, 
and an acid. These 
three- factors must 
be present to pro- 
duce it. See I.ede- 
li u r's •' Handbook " 
on the oxidation of 
iron, etc., pp. 277 
2S1. See also Pro- 
ceedings of the Engi- 
neers' ( tub of Phila- 
delphia, vol. xii., 

p. 225. See also 
Kent's " Engineers' 
Pi icket Hook." ]>. ;.si>, 
quot ing from the 
Chemical News, 
which gives the re- 
sults of the exposure 
of pe r fectly clean 
blades of steel to the 
action of 

Dry oxygen and 
carbonic acid gas 
mixed, w ith n 

I >aropoxygen and 
ammonia, no oxida- 

I) a m ]) carbonic 
acid, slight appear- 
ance of white pre- 
cipitate of carbonate 
of iron. 

1) a m ]> carbonic 

a c i d and oxygen, 

oxidation very rapid. 

Iron immersed in water distilled, treed from gases by 

boiling, rust in spots found to be due to impurities. 

The chemistry of the matter is very simple; the pre- 
caution also very simple; keep these three factors apart, 
that is, the water, the oxygen, and an acid. 

The practical procedure in rust-proofing also is very 

simple, and should be, first, clean the metal down to the 
actual surface, then apply the concrete composed of 
Portland cement and a neutral sand, with or without an 
aggregate of neutral crushed rock; slag should not be 
used under any circumstances. This material should be 
rammed so that it is in actual contact with the surface of 
the metal, and free from voids or faults. The aggregate 
should be in small pieces, or it is liable to "bridge" 


THe Brickbuilder. Cohpetition 


NO. 6. 



i g n orance exhibited, 
o i" l h e ca r e lessness 
shown by responsible 
designers in not using 
the means at their hand 
in preventing the decay 
of costly buildings, is 

\V~\i. C. Furber, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

over and cause a void below it. Concrete containing a 
liberal quantity of cement should be used for this reason. 
Portland cement is a product of lime and forms a con- 
venient base for the absorption of any acid likely to be 
found under ordinary circumstances, so that any water 
finally reaching the metal by infiltration is free from acid 
and consequently harmless. 

Brickwork covering is, therefore, not suitable, as it 
cannot perform the chemical function which the cement 
performs. Therefore, all iron work, which is covered up 
and cannot be painted at intervals, should be encased in 
a concrete envelope, both above as well as below the 
ground line. 

Painting iron work which is to be enclosed in concrete 
is a distinct detriment, because the lime in the cement 
destroys the oil, and then there remains the loose pig- 
ment, which prevents the close contact between the cement 
and the iron which is essential, and permits the accumu- 
lation of water which may filter through the concrete, 
and may become dangerous if the pigment is an oxide of 
iron or electro-negative to the metal. Painting is not 
only worse than useless, but dangerous. 

Rust in iron work is augmented by galvanic action. 
Two substances, one electro-negative to the other, will 
cause it in the presence of dampness. Mill scale and 
slag arc such active corrosive agents that in the plates 
used in the hulls of ships it is necessary to get rid of this 
scale and slag - either by pickling, or by the sand blast. If 
paint is applied to the ship plates without the scale and 
slag being removed, "rust cones" form around these 
points under the paint, because paint is not impervious 
to moisture. The inner sides of the plates are covered 
with cement or asphaltum compound to prevent the bilge 
water from corroding them. It is surprising in view of 
the experience in rust-proofing vessels that go in the 
water, that so little seems to be known as to how to 
protect buildings that stay on the land. 

The cause of corrosion is known; the means which 
can be used to prevent are also known; therefore, the 


IN the March number 
of T u e Brick- 
builder there was il- 
lustrated a house a t 
Weirs, X. II., and by 
mistake the name of 
Mr. Herbert Dumerasq 
g i v e n a s architect. 
Mr. Dumerasq is the 
o w n e r of the house, 
and Henry J. Carlson, 
Boston, architect. 

Entr^ne Torch. 

A /AE.Tr\oroi_iT/vN Afvt Auseu^ . 

NO. 8. 



The Lite and Work of Rafael Guastavino. 


l'.\ i'l ii:k B. « IGHT. 

IN reviewing the work of Rafael Guastavino in America. 
where he is known rather as a constructer and con- 
tractor than as architect, an answer must first be given 
to a question which will naturally be asked, "What is 
cohesive construction?" This can be most easily an- 
swered in his own words taken from the paper before 
referred to After dividing construction in general into 
two generic kinds, "mechanical construction, or by 
gravity," and " cohesive eon struct ion, or by assimilation," 
and leaving out of consideration wood and iron construc- 
tions, he says: " The first is founded on the resistance of 
any solid to the action of gravity when opposed to another 
solid, and from these conjunctive forces, more or less 
opposed to one another, results the equilibrium of the 
total mass, without taking into consideration the co- 
hesive strength Ol the material set between the solids. 
The second has for a base the property of cohesion and 
assimilation of several materials, which, by transforma- 
tion more or less rapid, resembles nature's work in mak- 
ing conglomerates." This is a generic definition, and the 
second includes all structures in which several materials 
are combined to produce a monolithic material. It may 
mean a concrete wall of arch made with cement, sand, and 
other ingredients, or the various combinations of con- 
crete with various stiffening materials, or the addition of 
steel, to give them greater resistance to tension or com- 
pression in certain directions. For illustration, the 
hollow tile fire-proofing systems are gravity systems, and 
the Monier system, in which concrete is stiffened with 
steel, is a cohesive system. All Persian, Roman, Byzan- 
tine, Mohammedan, and early Spanish systems of con- 
struction, in which concrete formed the main material, 
and bricks and tiles the subsidiary material, were cohesive 
or monolithic. 

'fhe difference between these and the Guastavino 
system is that in the latter the hard-burned, Hat clay 
tiles form the principal part of the mass, and the cement- 
ing material the smaller part of the mass. To a certain 
extent good brickwork laid in strong hydraulic cement is 
cohesive construction after time has hardened it. but it 
is always laid and used according to the same principles 
that control all kinds of gravity construction. Pricks are 
laid, breaking joints, just as tiles are in the Guastavino 
system, the difference in favor of the latter being its 
decreased weight and increased strength in proportion to 
each unit of weight, making it far superior to brickwork 
for floor, roof, and dome constructions. This is one of 
the natural results of an evolution that has been going on 
for a long time. In the paper before referred to, Mr. 
Guastavino says on this subject: " During the fifteen hun- 
dred years that the cohesive construction has been in use. 
all the improvements and inventions have been, as we have 
said, toward the idea of obtaining the maximum strength 
with the minimum weight and ratio of the mass of 
materials compared with the space covered." 

For the information of those who have not used or 
seen this latest invention of cohesive construction exe- 

cuted, it will be well at first to describe the materials 
used, and how the work is set. Only three materials 
are used: hard-burned, flat clay tiles, Portland cement 
mortar, and plaster. The tiles are generally <> by 10 ins. 
or 8 by i j ins. in size and - ; 4 in. in thickness. They are 
made in this country on clay presses, which run them 
out through mandrel dies in gangs of six each, cut off to 
the proper length with a wire. These square blocks are 
so scored that after burning a smart blow will cause 
them to fall apart into six. tlat, rectangular tiles, having 
rather a rough surface well adapted to the adhesion of 
cement or plaster. The process in this country is very 
much cheaper than that followed in Spain, where the 
tiles are made by hand in molds, though labor there is 


K. Guastavino, Architect. 

much cheaper than here. The tiles are also more uni- 
form and true. They were thus made before Mr. Guasta- 
vino came to the United States, in 1881, for covering flat 
roofs, being laid in Portland cement over coated felt. 
Hence he found material better adapted to his purpose 
than that which he had previously used, and with such 
change as was necessary in size and thickness, they were 
all that he wanted. The simplicity of the system can be 
illustrated by the fact that one size of tile would be 
sufficient to perform all the examples of cohesive con- 
struction that have thus far been executed. 

In building a simple floor arch, supposing it. for 
example, to be set between four brick walls properly tied 



together, and that the arch is 8 ft. wide and 20 ft. span, 
the first course of tile is set as a skew-back on a ledge 
or in a groove in one of the short walls, which is slightly 
elevated in the center. These are set, using only a 
light frame center slightly curved, and as wide as one 
tile, and the joints between edges of the tiles are of pure 
plaster of Paris, used only on account of its quick-setting 
properties. A second course of half tiles is set on top of 


these and breaking joints with them next to the wall, 
with rich Portland cement, the joint being not more than 
one-quarter of an inch. As soon as this second course of 
tiles is set, the whole will be self-supporting, and the 
curved board is moved out to serve as a center for the 
second row of the first course of tiles. This is set the 
same as the first row with plaster at the edge joints, and 
the second row of the second course is set on top of 
them with Portland cement mortar, breaking joints and 
covering only half of the second row of first course 
tiles. Then the first row of the third course of tiles is 
set next to the wall, covering the first row of half tiles 
set in the second course and half of the second row of the 
same course. This brings the thickness at the skew-back 
to 3 ins., which is the thickness of the completed arch. 
The next row of first course tiles is then set as 
before, then a row of the second course and a row 
of the third course, and so on until the arch is built 
across the twenty feet. The curved centering is set for 
each row of the first course to a guide traced on the side 
walls of the space to be covered and indicating the rise 
of the whole arch, which is presumably about 2 ft. in 20. 
Only the simplest conditions for building a cohesive or 
timbrel arch are here given for the purpose of illustra- 
tion. It will be seen that the plaster used plays a very 
small part in the construction. It is used for conve- 
nience only on account of its quick-setting properties to 
keep one isolated row of tiles in place until the next 
course can be set above it. When completed with three 
courses of tiles, the arch has two bed joints of Portland 
cement through its whole area, and only the edge joints 
of one course of tiles are of plaster. The breaking of 
the joints in both directions practically makes the arch 
homogeneous if the cement becomes as hard as the tiles. 
It will thus be seen that the Guastavino cohesive con- 
struction depends as much upon the quality of the 
cement used as of the tiles, and is only reliable when the 
best Portland cement is used in the most careful man- 
ner. It was only because Mr. Guastavino found when 

he first visited the United States that it was a market 
for the best grades of Portland cement that he decided 
to change his residence and make this the field of his 
future operations. Here at last were the ideal materials 
he had always longed to have. While he saw that the 
opportunities were great, he had no other encourage- 
ment at first. At the time of the Centennial Exhibition 
at Philadelphia in 1876, a number of photographs of his 
work as an architect and inventor was exhibited in 
the Spanish government section; and having received a 
medal for these, he felt encouraged 1>v that alone to 
visit this country as soon as he could find it convenient 
to do so. This did not occur until 1881. He gives an 
account of some of his early experiences in his hook on 
" Cohesive Construction," published in 1X93. Of these 
he said: " I had not been here long before I recognized 
the necessity of studying American methods, materials, 
and facilities. To this work I devoted five years. " He 
had determined to introduce his system because he had 
found the best materials here for it, but he was full of 
anxiety lest a failure with new and untried workmen 
might endanger their lives, and that the arches, being 
for floors and requiring speed)- work, to meet our require- 
ments, might not become sufficiently firm before they 
were used. He says: " Explanations were given to 
interest prominent architects and builders; but some 
seemed to take the matter as a dream, or as though I 
were a visionary; while others, more benevolent, said it 


might be beneficial in Spain or Italy, but never in this 
country, so different in climate, processes, and neces- 
sities." His anxiety at first about getting tiles was not 
well founded, for, as above slated, such tile were then 
being made for other purposes, though he did not know it. 
His first work was done in [886 ina four-story private 
house on 7 S 1 1 1 Street, Xew York, and later in the Arion 
(lull, 59th Street, whose building committee accepted 



his proposition, when they ascertained that with his 
arches they could make a saving of over £5,000 in two 
floors alone, largely mi account of the amount of iron 
that was omitted. 

Willi this experience and a scries of experiments 
that he undertook in New York, he commenced the study 
of his art along scientific lines, and endeavored to adduce 
formulas based on constants, which for the first time in 
his experience he was able to obtain. Part III. of •• Cohe- 
sive Construction " is devoted to an explanation of these 
investigations. He found that the cohesive strength or 
resistance to shearing of two hard tiles cemented together 
with good Portland cement was equal t<> 124 lbs. per 
square inch, so that this could represent the cohesive 
strength of an entire arch whenever the tiles are as hard 
as the cement. Then as the butt joints are not depended 
Upon to sustain the arch, there could be no shrinkage of 
joints t<» cause it to contract, as is the case with all brick 
arches, and curved boards used for centering could be 
replaced after the work had been fully set, showing that 
there had been no settlement. Another test for tension 
in a section of three courses of tile laid with two courses 

of cement gave a tensile strength of 287 lbs. per square 
inch on work ten days old, as the average of two tests, 
while the average "I four compression tests was 2.060 lbs. 
per square inch. With these constants he was enabled 
to find a bending moment on which to base his calcula- 
tions for future work. He also tested tiles cemented 
together with plaster of Paris for shearing, which showed 
only 34 lbs. per square inch as against 124 lbs. for 
Portland cement. From this will be found another evi- 
dence of the unreliability of plaster mixtures for carry- 
ing loads, no less than for fire-proof qualities. In [887 
he worked out formulas for all the constructions he is 
likely to undertake under his system, which will well 
repay examination by those who are in any way skepti- 
cal as to its utility. Some of these deductions may not 
meet the approval of scientific engineers, but in most 
cases it mav be said that they are within the results that 


his practical experience has demonstrated in many in- 
stances. He has thus accumulated a mass of information 
for future use. which makes it easy for him to accom- 
plish witli safety constructive feats which appear to the 
uninstructed as simply marvelous. Unite different from 
an engineer who holds that all good construction is in a 
state of repose, he calls his product a live material, but 
not in the sense usually applied to the word. It is used 
rather to remind us that it has many other properties, 

such as stiffness and a disposition to transfer stresses in 
directions not experienced in gravity constructions, than 
those which are demonstrated by the authorities on 
building construction in general. 

Before closing this part, it may be well to see how the 
Guastavino cohesive construction is regarded by other 
acknowledged experts, and for that reason I will quote 


fnun L. I )e Coppet Berg's "Safe Building": "The 
arches have some very great advantages. The principal 

one, of course, is their lightness of construction and 
saving of weight on the floors, walls, and foundations. 
Then, too. in most eases iron beams can be entirely dis- 
pensed with, the arches resting directly on the brick 
walls; of course, there must be weight enough oil the 
wall to resist the horizontal thrust, or else iron tie-rods 
must be resorted to." He gives an example of a 3-in. 
cohesive tile arch of _>o ft. clear span, with a rise of 20 
ins., and a floor load of 150 lbs. per superficial foot, uni- 
formly distributed, computed graphically. His compu- 
tation, however, is for a barrel arch, as if built in VOUS- 
soirs; while Guastavino seldom builds, and does not 
recommend, barrel arches, but gives them a slightly 
curved section, longitudinally. It is, therefore, a very 
conservative calculation, but demonstrates that the greal 
est pressure per square inch in the arch section would be 
[30 lbs. As he gives ^00 lbs. as a safe stress on a sample 
that he tested when only twelve days old, which is better 
than that obtained in the Guastavino tests of 1887, this 
computation is greatly in favor of the arch. He also 
calls attention to the danger of sliding in the horizontal 
joints, only in case Strong cements are not used. Put re- 
ferring to his tests again, he says: " The shearing stress 
of the mortar joints is evidently greater than the tension, 
as samples tested tore across the tile and could not be 
sheared off." In this connection the following advice 
applicable to all arches applies equally to this kind : " In 
arches with heavy concentrated loads at single points 
there might, in rare cases, be danger of the load shear- 
ing right through the arch. The resistance to shearing 
would, of course, be directly as the vertical area of cross- 
section of the arch, and in such cases this area must be 
large enough to resist any tendency to shear." 
( To be continued. ) 







^"PHE firm of Holabird tV- Roche has just completed 
X another of a series of buildings at Chicago, which 
serves to give additional evidence of the evolution of 
Constructive Architecture in steel and clay in that city. 
The Central Trading Company's Building, occupied as 
part of the department store of Mandel Brothers, has 
been erected during the past six months at the north- 
west corner of Wabash Avenue and Madison Street. It 
fronts 64 ft. on the avenue, an equal amount on a wide 
alley in the rear, and 150 ft. on Madison Street. As will 
be seen, it is divided into three bays on the avenue front 
and seven on the street. Each bay is 21 ft., 1^ his. 
from center to center of steel exterior columns, and con- 
stitutes a constructional unit. The width over all is 
64 ft. and the length 150 ft. The total height is nine 
stories and basement, but this height is not shown on any 
of the illustrations. Fig. 1, showing the method and 
order of construction, is from a photograph taken from 
the upper story of a building on Wabash Avenue, look- 
ing over the Elevated Railroad Station, and Fig. 2 shows 
only five bays and the four upper stories of the Madison 
Street front, from a photograph taken from the window 
of a building on Madison Street. Figs. 3 and 4 (see line 

plates, Nos. 33 and 40) show the details of the whole 
construction to scale. It may he added for explanation 
that the buildings to the right and left, as shown on 
Fig. 1, are the older parts of the Mandel establishment, 
the latter being connected with the new building by en- 
closed bridges across the alley. 

The spacing of the steel columns of the interior cor- 
responds with those 011 the exterior, and the columns 
that carry the north side are built against the old party 
wall of the adjoining building, which belongs to the 
same owners. The fire-proofing and floor construction 
throughout is with porous terra-cotta. The floors are 
15 ins. hollow tile, end-pressure construction, and were 
set before the enclosing walls. Outside and inside 
columns and girders were lire-proofed alike. The north 
wall above the roof of the adjoining building was en- 
closed with 12 ins. of brickwork-, which was carried, 4 
ins. in thickness, around both sides of the fire-proofing of 

FIG. 2. 

the columns, and enclosed the fire-proofed wall girders 

The entire exterior is built with cream-colored en- 
ameled terra-cotta by the Northwestern Terra-cotta 
Company. Fig. 2 shows what this is so perfectly that 
no additional description is necessary. To show how 
this was attained, in one respect, I will say though I 
hope that in so doing I am not betraying any secret 
that all the bed joints of this terra-cotta were ground on 
a rubbing bed. No attempt has been made to " flatten 
the surface of the enamel; it is as perfect as can be 
made. This perfection of workmanship has made it 
look as if made in a single piece, which is not satisfying 
to the critical eye. But time, and more especially smoke, 
will soon make the joints more evident. 

The speaking illustration (Fig. 2) and the scale 
details (Figs. 3 and 4) show better than words can tell 
how the problem has been considered from the point of 
view of artistic design. Here, again, is seen the use ol 
broad windows in a high building so successfully used 
elsewhere by the same architects. But in this, also, the 
constructive lines are emphasized and harmonize with 
the commercial demand for the greatest amount of day- 
light. The idea of a wall is only suggested, the piers 
and transoms being only sufficient to cover the steel 
structure and sustain the window frames. The detail 
docs not show its derivation from any of the historical 
styles of architecture ; hence it must look to the future 
historian for a name. Some may saw " This is not art," 
but better let I he flit lire decide t hat. 



Selected Miscellany. 


(By Our Special Representative.) 

IN the retrospect of 1900. published in The Brick- 
bi ILDER for January. I gave some particulars of 
the efforts made to solve the great problem of housing 

C. Harrison Townsend, I". K. I. B. A., Architei I 

the working classes, with special reference to the work 
of the London County Council. This is a subject which 
naturally concerns architects and builders particularly, 
for not only is there the planning of houses suitable for 
accommodating large numbers of persons in separate 
families, but special methods of construction are involved 
to a considerable extent, the great difficulty being to erect 
satisfactory houses which can be let at a low rental. The 
council have undertaken a new task. Hitherto their 
attention has been almost exclusively devoted to large 
blocks of tenements within the metropolitan area: now 
they have decided to erect a number of cottages on the 
outskirts of the city. At Norbury, in Surrey, an estate 
of thirty-one acres has been purchased, on which 551 
single cottages and 211 double cottages will be erected : 
while at Tottenham (on the north of the city) cottages 
are to be built to house nearly 40,000 persons. This 
latter scheme is by far the largest of its kind yet under- 
taken by the council. < opinions differ as to the success 
of the projects. Some are optimistic, while others, 
reflecting on past experience, believe that the council 
will never be able to erect houses at such a price as will 

enable the rents to be within the reach of those workmen 
who are earning from one pound to thirty shillings a 
week. It is certainly true that the jerry-builder with 
limited capital is able to build houses cheaper than the 
authorities, but. if one believes at all in the influence 
of environment on character, the appearance of these 
houses is a deterrent against this view of the case. It 
was hoped that the housing question, which is one of the 
most pressing of the day, would come before Parliament 
during the present session, but other matters have so far 
prevented this. When the subject is discussed, however, 
there will be such zeal displayed that some effective 
measure for solving the problem will most probably be 
passed. It is. perhaps, opportune to mention that the 
daily influx of inhabitants from the outskirts of London 
to the central parts is to a great extent the creation of the 
last thirty or forty years; it is estimated that nearly a 
million people enter and leave London daily by railways 
alone, and that the number of road vehicles has trebled 
during the last twenty-seven years. At the present time 
we have thousands of men, women, and children living 
amid the most distressing conditions, and our main 
thoroughfares, at certain times of the claw are so choked 
with vehicles and pedestrians that locomotion is im- 
peded to a most inconvenient extent. 

Cookham Buildings, here illustrated, cost s;o,ooo. 
The block provides accommodation for ^o(> persons in 
2 1 tenements of two rooms. 22 tenements of three rooms, 
10 tenements of four rooms, and 1 tenement of five 
rooms. The rents vary from Si. 75 to $3 a week. 
according to the tenement. 

In my previous article I pointed out that there was a 
growing dissatisfaction with the manner in which some 
architectural competitions are conducted. It is not 
desirable now to refer at any length to this somewhat 
hackneyed subject, but here is a case in point which 
shows how very unsatisfactory these competitions may 
become. Sometime ago it was decided to reconstruct 
the Royal Infirmary at Glasgow as a permanent memo- 
rial of the Diamond Jubilee of our late revered Queen. 
A competition was held, and Dr. Rowand Anderson, a 




Green & Wicks, Architects. 

very capable architect, was appointed assessor. Out of 
the designs submitted he placed first those by Mr. H. E. 
Clifford, of Glasgow, which was estimated to cost 
$1,190,000 to carry out, but the executive committee 
(who themselves appointed Dr. Anderson) thought fit 
to choose another of the designs submitted, a design cost- 
ing more to execute than that selected by the assessor, 
and not even among the first four chosen by him. Now 
the question may very fairly be asked, What is the 
use of appointing a skilled assessor and paying him a 
large fee if you totally disregard his decision? The sug- 
gestion has been made that sometimes he may act as a 

decoy, but this is unworthy of any self-respecting au- 
thority- The Glasgow Institute of Architects very prop- 
erly resented the committee's action, and issued a strong 
protest against such practices. Certain it is that if 
competitions are conducted in this manner, no reputable 
architects will enter for them. Another fact to be 
recorded in connection with this Glasgow competition is 
that with the printed conditions were issued two sets of 
sketch plans indicative of alternative arrangements, 
which the sub-committee recommended. These were 
not in accord with present-day principles "\ hospital 
design, as their authors possessed no architectural experi- 
ence: the plans were out of date, and this fault is dis- 
played in the accepted design, which is an elaboration <>\ 
one of them. Six of the ten competing architects found 
it necessary, in spite of risk, to entirely throw over 
these plans. 

For years past attention has been directed to the exist- 
ing law in regard to what are termed "ancient lights," a 

Elzner X- Anderson, Architects. 

Elzner & Anderson, Architects. 

constant and most aggravating source of annoyance to 
architects. Under the Prescription Act, when a window 
has enjoyed unobstructed light for twenty years, the right 
to light is deemed absolute, and any encroachments by 
new buildings result in compensation — or worse. It 
has come to be considered that the rights are satisfied if 
the owner of the privileged windows get an uninter- 
rupted view of 45 degs. f sky from the zenith, but the 
whole system is a most objectionable one. A joint com 
mittee of the Royal Institute and the Surveyors' Institu- 
tion considered the matter and recently made certain 
proposals for reform, and it is hoped that these pro- 
posals will receive legal sanction, thus ridding archi- 
tects of a constant source of trouble. Scotland has no 
" ancient lights. " 

The Architectural Association, which may be called 
the teaching body of the Royal Institute, has matured an 
important scheme lor day courses of instruction. Archi- 
tectural education is very inadequate in this country at 
the present time, and this scheme, by which pupils may 

learn the drawing of the Orders, elementary problems oi 
construction, and a certain amount of practical office 
work and tracing, is worthy of every support. The 



tuition is intended to 
be preparatory and 
supplementary for 
those who are about 
to enter, or who have 
entered, architects' 
offices as pupils. The 

first course of studies 
will last one year. 
Referring to the 
Architectural Asso- 
ciation reminds one 
of the •■ New Cen- 
tury ( I r e e t i n gs" 
from past-presidents 
w h i c h were pub- 
lished in the associa- 
tion's journal. Mr. 
Blashill, the late su- 
perintending archi- 
tect to the London 
C o u n t v C o u ncil, 
gives, perhaps, the 
m o s t amusing ad- 
v i e e. lie s a y s : 

"Your work is to design, estimate, and superintend 
buildings. Stick well to that. Eschew gardening, pas- 
toral staves, and hammering of pots, but know about 
(lowers. lie easy with archaeology. Study old work 
sufficiently, modern work incessantly. Study, also, work- 

Weber & Groves. Architects. 

men and tools. Form 
an opinion of every 
building new to von ; 
ponder wonderingly 

over the rest. Listen 
with discrimination. 
Pray against twad- 
dlers, and stop your 
ears. (Have I not 
suffered fifty years 
under their droning!) 
Be always t r y i n g 
your hand at design, 
of which plan is the 
root, elevation t li e 
flower. Vou will do 
better than you ex- 
pect ; might found a 
School. I low t h e 
criti c would enjoy 
the scent of v o u r 
heels! " 

I may now refer 
to the accompanying 
illustration o f t h e 
new art gallery erected at Whitechapel from designs by 
Mr. C. Harrison Townsend, F. R. I. If A. The build- 
ing was formally opened by Lord Rosebery on March 12 
last, and is a most distinctive piece of work. The facade 
is carried out in terra-cotta, of a pleasing buff color. 
supplied by Messrs. Gibbs & Canning of Tamworth, and 
of the same kind as that used in the Bishopsgate Insti- 
tute, which was described by the late Sir Edward Burne- 
J ones as "most beautiful." The architect, as an advo- 
cate of the wider use of color in London street frontages, 
has, as at the Ilorniman Museum, made a prominent 
feature of the introduction of a large mosaic panel, sug- 
gestive of the objects of the building. It will be 25 ft. 
long by 13 ft. high, and will be recessed between the two 


Grable & Weber, Architects. 
See Half-Tone Plate Form. 1 



Weber & > rroves, Architects. 

1 See I l.-iii Toni m. 1 

T 1 1 E B RICK B IT I L D E R 




Work executed by the Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Company. 

Rankin & Kellogg, Architects. 

turrets so as to allow a pent roof to protect it from the 
beating weather. This panel has not yet been executed, 
but a beautiful design for it has been prepared by Mr. 
Walter Crane. The subject is, "The Sphere and Mes- 
sage of Art." 


" Moving day " has come and gone, and lias brought 
many changes in the downtown district. The historic 
old Stock Exchange is being demolished to make way for 
the new and larger building which is to be erected on the 
site, from plans by George B. Post. The Exchange 

f (£11 U 

'ill! 1 

m m 

meets temporarily in the Produce Exchange Building. 

In this connection I cannot refrain from a brief pause 
for a eulogium on the Produce Exchange Building, one 
of the first really large buildings in the city, and still one 
of the very best architecturally. There is a massive 
dignity about it, with its heavy walls and deep recessed 
openings, that in this age of skeleton construction will 
never be duplicated, and which effect is lost to architec- 
ture as far as office buildings are concerned, unless the 
architect boldly disregards current methods, as in the 
case of the Singer Building, and makes his outside walls 
of solid masonry. The Produce Exchange Building is 
beautifully proportioned, beautifully detailed, and has a 
rich warm color which makes it a landmark of lower 
New York, and which adds greatly to the ensemble as 









1 j 

— > — --JL ^ 


Built of brick made by the I )hio Mining and Manufacturing Company. 
Altlen & Harlow, Architects. 



J. A. Schweinfurth, Architect. 

seen from the bay. It is, moreover, according to my 

notion, the best work ever done by Mr. Post. 

Other noticeable changes are taking place on Liberty 
Street, where two old office buildings are being removed 
t<> make room for the new Chamber of Commerce, and 
on the corner of Broadway and Maiden Lane, where two 
buildings are being removed to make way tor a 

Mck'im, Mead & White have filed plans for a hand- 
some residence to be built on 73d Street for Mr. Joseph 
Pulitzer. Brick and limestone will be used for the front 
of the house, which will be live stories high. The archi- 
tects estimate that the dwelling will cost $200,000. 

Mr. I'lrieh |. Iluliertv, a Brooklyn architect, has won 




Showing roof covered with " American S." roofing tile. 

Ernesi Flagg, Architt ct . 

the competition for the large brick crematory to be built 
at Ravenswood, L. I. The building will cost $70,000. 


The outlook lor 1901 has been unusually promis- 
ing, there being a large demand for business quar- 
ters, as well as for tlats and modern residences. There 
will lie a considerable number of heavy warehouse build- 
ings erected this year, several of which are already under 

< >ur new Chamber of Commerce will be six stories, of 
pressed briek and terra-eotta; cost, $400,000. Kees & 

Colburn, architects. 

The Minneapolis Times has broken ground for a busi- 
ness building for its own use, to cost about 875,000. 

The superstructure of the new Asbury M. E. Hos- 
pital will be completed during 1901. It will be thor- 
oughly modern and tire-proof, the floors and roof to be 
of hollow tile. Tile exterior will be of eream or buff 

briek, and a large amount of ornamental terra-eotta will 
be used. There will be practically no structural iron or 
steel in this building. Cost complete, $200,000. E. I'. 
( )vermire, architect. 

At St. Paul the items of greatest interest are the 
appropriation of another $1,000,000 for completion of 
new State Capitol. Cass Gilbert, architect. 

S. F. Heath, who formerly practised in Minneapolis 
with the late \V. II. Hayes, has given Up his plan to 
return here, having formed connections at Seattle, Wash. 

L. S. Buffington, formerly the leading architect of the 

••Twin Cities," is here, having made a fortune out of his 
acetylene patents. 

Since the dissolution of the Minnesota Chapter, A. I. A., 

\\ VLBRIDGE inn dim;, 1a 11 aid, n. \ . 

Union Akron cement used in foundation and construction. 

Green & Wirks. Architects. 

the architects of St. Paul and Minneapolis have had little 
in common. It is to be hoped that returning prosperity 
will lead to reorganization and the interchange of cour- 
tesies and ideas that characterized the old chapter. 


Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

'1'. 1'. Chandler, Architect, 


George A. Freeman, architect, New York City, an- 
nounces his removal from 27 East 20th Street to ^(>(> 
Fiftli Avenue. 

Rowland Russel and William II. Schuchardt announce 

T II E BR IC K \\U I L I) E R 



Rj^JF V*1_V 

w?^>-Wr ^r 



jfW^ -^J^s 

► ^v~ 

^^^. v ^ 


Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, 


that they have 
formed a part- 
nership for the 
practice of 
archite c t u r e, 
with offices at 
51 Hathaway 
Building, Mil- 

Edward R. 
Swain, archi- 
tect, of San 
Franci se o, 
has opened 
a 1) r a n c h 
office in the 
wald Build- 
ing', Hono- 
lulu, H. I. 

constitution: President, Robert C. Spencer. | r. ; vice 
president, Emil Lorch; second vice-president, E. C. 
Hemmings; secretary, John II. Phillips; treasurer, 
Adolph Bernhard. The other members oi the executive 
committee arc Robert E. Bourke and T. E. Talmadge. 

At the annual meeting of the St. Louis Architectural 
Club the following list of officers was elected to serve for 
one year: President, (1. F. A. Brueggeman ; first vice- 
president, James P. Jamieson; second vice-president, 
Charles ( ). Pfeil; secretary, Ernest I Iclfcnstcllcr, Jr.; 
treasurer, Charles II. Deitering; advisory committee, 
Edward G. Garden, Frank A. P. Burford; 
auditors, S. L. Sherer, Charles II. Deitering. 

The preliminary draft of program, showing 
the genera] allotment of time at the third 

Manufacturers' catalogues and samples desired. 

Reynolds Fisher has given up the practice of archi- 
tecture and has settled in business in Seattle. The 
architectural firm of Patton, Fisher & Miller, Chicago, 
from which Mr. Fisher has retired, will be continued 
by the remaining partners, Normand S. Patton and 
Grant C. Miller, under the title of Patton & Miller. 

The Committee of Experts of the Art Federation 
of Philadelphia, composed of the following architects 
and engineers — John Bnrkenbine, president of the 
Franklin Institute, Theo. N. Ely, superintendent of 
motive of the Pennsylvania Railroad, Wilson Eyre, 
Jr., Charles E. Dana, and Albert Kelsey, chairman — 
have completed plans for a new parkway to connect 
the City Hall with Fairmount Park, and an ordinance 
prepared by ex-Mayor Warwick will be immediately 
presented to councils. 


Sf _ 

New Jersey Terra- 
Cotta Company, 

New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

annual convention of the Architectural League 
of America, to be held at Philadelphia, May 
23, 24, 25, 1901, is as follows: First daw May 
23. — In the galleries of the Art Club. 9 \. \i , 
registration of delegates, etc.; 11 \ m. first 
session of convention; 3 p \i., take special 
steamer to Newcastle, Del., where the old 
Colonial architecture of the place will be in- 
spected, and the whipping-post and pillory, 
still in occasional use, will be viewed. Supper 
will be served on board in the evening, while 
returning to the city. Possibly other stops 

Winkle Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

The residence at Minneapolis, Minn., F. B. and L. L. 
Long, architects, which is illustrated in the half-tone 
plate form of this number, was built of brick manufac- 
tured by the Columbus Brick and Terra-cotta Company. 

The house at Wilkesbarre, Pa., Wilson Lyre, Jr., archi- 
tect, illustrated in the half-tone plate form oJ this number, 
was built by George T. Dickover, to whom we are in- 
debted for the photographs. 

The Chicago Architectural Club at its last meeting 
elected the following officers under the newly revised 


I 1 >\IP \\\ , SPRING1 HID, ILL. 
G( orgl II Hi linle. At. Int. 1 1 



may he made. Second day, May 24. At the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, to a. m. to 1 p.m., business session 

in Houston I lull ; 1 to 

.30 P. M. 

Luncheon and reception 

by the provost, trustees, and faculty in the Museum of 
Archaeology; 3.30 p. m., business session in Houston Hall; 
8.30 P. M., an entertainment will be given at the rooms 
of the T Square Club. Third day. May 25. In the 
galleries of the Art Club. 10 a. m. to 1 p. m., morning 
session; 2.30 P. u., afternoon session for tin finished busi- 


Tm«»> .11 , __ Jgl _.«■>« n 


Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

Levi T. Schofield, Architect. 

ness, etc.; 7.30 p.m., banquet at Horticultural Hall. The 
T Square Club will be most happy to welcome its friends 
in Philadelphia during the third convention of the Archi- 
tectural League of America, to be held May 23 t<> 25, in- 
elusive. The Hotel Walton, Broad and Locust Streets, 
has been selected as visitors' headquarters, special ac- 
commodations, at reduced rates, being held in reserve. 


HENRY MAURER & SON beg to extend to all 
architects and engineers visiting the Pan-Ameri- 
can Exposition a cordial invitation to inspect their 

exhibit of clay products for building and other purposes, 
assuring them of a hearty welcome. 

To those engaged in tire-proof construction, as well as 
to those branches of manufacturing requiring a high 
grade of tire-brick, much will be found of interest. 


E. Winslow, graduate of the School of the Technical 
Society, Copenhagen, Denmark; Architectural Engineer 
for the Chicago Hoard of Education. 

This book furnishes to engineers, architects, and others 
interested ill the construction of small or large structures 
of wood or metal a rapid and easy means of computing 
the sizes of beams and columns by the use of graphical 
tables. The tables have been in use for several years in 
making calculations for the erection of school and other 
important buildings in Chicago. 

Cloth, oblong, 12 by 9 in. ; 53 pp., including 19 full- 
page plates. Price, ,$2.00. The Engineering News Pub- 
lishing Company, 220 Broadway, New York. 

We are frequently asked for information regarding 
clay-working machinery, by those who are considering the 
enlargement of their plants, or others who are contem- 
plating starting in business anew. As if to aid us and 
those of whom we speak, there has just come to hand a 
publication, issued by the American Clay-working Ma- 
chinery Company, of Bucyrus, Ohio, which is in itself 
an encyclopedia upon the subject. In this work the 
company describes in detail its whole line of manufacture 
in a most comprehensive way. The reputation of this 
company, which is the largest in the country, gives to 
this new work the value of a text-book upon the whole 
subject of clay-working machinery. 


The Union Akron Cement Company, of Buffalo, are 

furnishing 1,000 barrels of their Akron Star brand for 
the new buildings of the Iroquois Portland Cement Com- 
pany, at Caledonia. X. V. Also a large quantity for the 
new elevator being built at Xelsonville. < >hio. 

Sayre & Fisher Company's brick have been specified 
on the following new work about Boston: Institute for 
Savings, Roxbury, Peabody & Stearns, architects; addi- 
tion to Converse Building, Boston, Winslow & Bigelow, 
architects; library, Plymouth, Everett & Mead, archi- 
tects; bank building. Maiden, Sheplcy, Kutan X Coolidge, 

The Hartford Faience Company announce- that they 
will at all times carry a full line of wall, base, and capping 

PANEL, llol. \i:|kl> a ROCHE, \Ki III I I ( I s. 
Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

tile in various colors, but that mantel work will be 
made only on order. Estimates will be furnished on 




m vol io 

NO. 6. 





h r. b. 



85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. f). Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1S92 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States 
and Canada ........ 

Single numbers ......... 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... 

S5.00 per year 

50 cents 

$6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied 
by the American News Company and its branches. 


Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order 

Agencies. — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

„ Terra-Cotta 


„ Enameled .... 


... II 
... II 

1 1 and 1 1 1 
. . .111 
III and IV 


Cements . . IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile 1 >' 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 

'"PHE Architectural League of America held its third 
_L annual convention at Philadelphia, May 23, 24, and 
25. The proceedings were marked by a degree of earn- 
estness and enthusiastic interest which promises well for 
the possibilities of this the youngest of the architectural 
organizations. Enthusiasm is always contagious, and 
when it is coupled with such willingness to work and 
readiness to tackle the vital problems of the clay as was 
manifested in Philadelphia, there can be no doubt about 
the League being ready to work out its mission. Ten years 
ago such an organization as this would have been impos- 
sible. To-day it is rapidly becoming a necessity, and the 
third convention has seemed to be characterized by a 
soberness and a serious consideration of the duties before 
the organization to an extent which was perhaps less in 
evidence in the earlier meetings. The League is in no 
sense a mere association of architectural draughtsmen, 
but is a union of earnest, determined young architects, 
whose manifest aim is to raise the standard of intelligent 
architectural and professional practice throughout the 
country, and we feel that our readers will he interested 
in the papers which were presented at the convention, 
some of which are found elsewhere in our columns. 

However opinions may differ as to the art products of 
the Germans, there is no denying their theoretical excel- 
lence. There has never been a time when the best of 
the German work could compare favorably with the 
average production of Italy or France; but, on the other 
hand, when it comes to matters of abstract discussion, of 
statement of principles, of ultimate analysis of the vague 
and oftentimes illusory principles which lie at the bottom 
of all creative art, there is no race which seems so well 
fitted to grapple with these questions and put them in 
usable, helpful shape as the Germans. As archaeologists 
they have stood unrivaled. Much of our best knowledge 
of Greek and Roman architecture and a large proportion 
of our best architectural publications are of German 
origin. Of recent years, however, there have been signs 
of a change in the point of view of the German school of 
architecture, and the modernizing influences, which have 
been so potent in England, in America, and in France, 
have found an echo across the Rhine. One of the fore- 
most representatives of what might lie termed the 
modern movement in architectural design in Germany 
has been Otto Wagner, who is an architect, and a pro- 
fessor in the Vienna Academy of Formative Arts. We 
begin in this number of The Brickbuilder a translation oi 
Professor Wagner's recent work on Modern Architecture. 
The translation is by Dr. N. Clifford Richer, of the 
University of Illinois, who is certainly most thoroughly 
qualified to translate such a work and present it in .1 
shape which shall have in its English guise the force and 
value of the original German. The architect in the busy 
turmoil of professional practice sometimes bul dimly 
realizes the fierce academic battle which is waging be- 
tween what is, perhaps, improperly styled the old and 
the new, between those whose point of view is back- 
wards to the monuments of Greece, Rome, and the 
Renaissance, and those who would make all our 
architecture a spontaneous creation of to-dav. The 
discussion, truly, is an academic one, for at heart the 
differences are far less vital than they sometimes seem, 
and the essentials of good architecture, whether retro- 
spective or most thoroughly modern, are in reality quite 
in accord. There is little in Professor Wagner's paper 
which would awaken hostile criticism from a true artist, 
from whatever school, and there is a great deal which is 
put in such manner as to be of much value to every 
student. We doubt if all our young friends would agree 
with his statement, however, that the successful activity 
oi 1 he architect comes after his fortieth year. We believe 
our readers will agree with us that this translation con- 
stitutes a most valuable accession to our stock of formu- 
lated architectural ideas. 

I 12 



DID the Philadelphia Convention sustain the en- 
thusiasm created at Chicago? No: for it had 
gotten beyond merely clamoring tor American ideals, 

and attempted to grapple with the problem itself. En- 
thusiasm, however, was not wanting, and many of the 
speakers were constantly applauded. The program was 
a full one, covering three days, and, in order to get 
through with it, a session was held on board the steamer 
which had been chartered for a trip to Newcastle. Del. 

Thursd \y, M w 23. 

The first session began in the galleries of the Art 
Club, on Thursday, and was given up to routine business. 

Mr. George Bispham Page welcomed the delegates on 
behalf of the T Square Club, and, as its president, did the 
honors gracefully. Mr. J. C. Llewellyn, president of the 
Architectural League of America, responded, and in a 
brief address reviewed the work of the year, and in no 
uncertain words stated the independent attitude of the 
League. He congratulated the Institute upon the im- 
proved working of the Tarsney Act, and especially in 
regard to the efforts of that organization in having an 
expert commission appointed to plan the future extension 
and embellishment of the city of Washington. 

The formality of electing a speaker and secretary of 
the convention was gone through with, and Messrs. 
Llewellyn and Lorch, of Chicago, were elected. The 
reading of communications followed. Over one hundred 
and sixty letters and a score of telegrams were received, 
and only those showing a genuine interest in the work of 
the League were read. 

The annual report of the Executive Board showed 
that the affairs of the League had been more easily 
carried on under the new constitution and by-laws than 
in the past. It recommended that the Exhibition Circuit 
Committee be in future appointed from the same club as 
the officers of the League. 

Several architectural clubs corresponded in regard to 
joining the League. The Toledo Club was admitted. 

The continuance of the Exhibition Circuit as a helpful 
means of cooperation was recommended, and special 
stress was put upon education and the promise of success 
in that field. 

With the reading of the report of the Committee on 
Code of Ethics and Competition Walter E. Owen, 
chairman (New York) — a difference of opinion enlivened 
the session. Mr. Harder presented a Strong minority 
report. The committee advocated and reported the result 
of a joint meeting with a committee from the Institute. 
Mr. Harder objected to accepting part of the Institute's 
code, on account of its conciliatory tone, claiming that 
nine years ago that body came out boldly and demanded 
that competitions should be judged by a committee made 
up of a majority of practising architects, while now it 
proposes to " try to control" competitions, and recom- 
mends "that at Last one architect" be placed on every 
jury. A heated discussion followed, and Mr. Laccy 
(Philadelphia) gave a practical illustration of the utter 
disregard of many business men for professional conduct. 
The matter was finally referred back to the committee. 

Other reports followed during the adjourned meeting 
011 board the Sylvan Doll. V.. ). Russell (St. Louis) 
reported for the Committee on Current Work, and 
recommended clubs to affiliate themselves with kindred 
societies, in order to broaden their scope. A scheme 
whereby the individual members of one club, Upon re- 
moving to another city, may become members — if 
properly recommended of the club in the city to which 
they go, without the payment of an initiation fee, was 

Frid w , ok University Day. 

Prof. Warren P. Laird opened the second day's pro- 
ceedings by welcoming the delegates to the University of 
Pennsylvania, and delivered an address in which he said 
the schools were in sympathy with the Ideals of the 
League, and all live problems looking to the regeneration 
of architecture. 

The report of the Committee upon Education was 
then read by Prof. James M. White of the University of 
Illinois. Its discussion and the reading of analogous 
papers marked the first systematic efforts to study the 
opportunities and extraordinary source of architectural 
inspiration offered by contemporaneous life in the United 

States. That the results were somewhat obscure is not 
to be wondered at, though they demonstrated that a good 
deal of thinking had been done since the last convention. 
The following telegram was read: — 

'• Greeting to the convention. I regret not to be with 
you. I hope that your deliberations will result in a firmer 
stand than ever for a rational conception and working 
ideal of the architectural art. Push on in the good work ; 
I am with you in spirit. 

I Signed. | " Louis H. Sn.i iv.w." 

Professor White, of the University of Illinois, out- 
lined the methods adopted by the Committee on Educa- 
tion, to endeavor to procure a consensus of opinion in 
regard to pure design. Replies to questions were read 
from many clubs and individuals. All were theoretical. 
The best came from the Chicago, Toronto, and Phila- 
delphia clubs, and a letter from Howard Walker (Boston) 
was somewhat to the point. 

If, in the future, an entire year were given up to this 
study alone, and if half as many questions were taken up, 
something more tangible and capable of immediate 
application might be obtained. The thin edge of the 
wedge has begun to penetrate; to drive it home concen- 
tration is necessary. 

The subject was nevertheless ably debated, question 
by question, and when "Should instruction in design 
be restricted to monumental problems ? " came Up, a 
lively tilt occurred. One speaker made the mistake of 
referring to small buildings as "hack-work," and Mr. 
Spencer (Chicago) championed Art for Art's Sake whether 
it was large or small, and carried his point, being sup- 
ported by half a dozen eager speakers. 

Mr. Harder then rose and brought the morning's dis- 
cussion to a focus. His pregnant remarks commanded 
close attention. 

He reviewed the results of the work of the Centralized 
Art School of Prance, and its influence at home and 
abroad. In foreign countries he claimed its results were 


1 i.l 

not as successful as in France, where it had grown upon 
local traditions and expanded to meet local needs. The 
pith of it all was the need of the establishment of a 
National School of Fine Arts in the United States. 

Mr. Kelsey (Philadelphia) pursued this line of 
thought, but contended that first a deep-rooted purpose 
must be made to underlie our art, and that, until this is 
felt more keenly than at present, such an institution 
would be futile. Mr. Lorch (Chicago) thought the 
United States was as yet too young for such a move- 
ment, but Mr. Page (Philadelphia) pointed out that it 
was very seldom that a country had a chance to be 
caught young and in a susceptible and receptive state. 
He thought the movement might well begin at once. 
Mr. Elwell (New York) feared that a national academy 
would mean politics, and as there are already "art 
bosses," he feared that politics would be a fatal barrier 
to the creation of a National School of Fine Arts in 
which to foster the best talent. 

"Mysticism and Architecture," by Claude Fayette 
Bragdon (Rochester), proved to be the best paper of the 
morning. Mr. Bragdon's easy confidence and rapid 
illustrations on the blackboard, as he spoke, made his 
remarks carry conviction. He began at the beginning, 
and ended nowhere. Yet his theories upon the arith- 
metic of beauty were unanswerable, and only had to be 
heard to quicken and strengthen the analytical power of 
every designer. 

At the afternoon session Prof. Newton A. Wells 
(Urbana) delivered a paper upon " The Relation of Color 
to Form in Architectural Design," which accidentally 
happened to supplement Mr. Bragdon's paper, and was 
equally sound and instructive. In fact, it carried his 
theories to every-day application, and was full of useful 
suggestions, and pointed out many of the laws that 
govern all successful creative effort. 

The paper was well studied and carefully balanced, 
in proof of which I quote his concluding paragraph : - 

" While form through the logic of its structure may 
convince the head, color shall, through the magic of its 
sensuous charm, captivate the heart." 

The educational debate, however, practically occupied 
the entire day. Francis S. Swales (Detroit) read the 
reply of his club to the question, " Should the study of 
architectural design and historic styles be based on a 
knowledge of pure design? " and Mr. Emil Lorch 
(Chicago) read a paper entitled "Some Considerations 
upon the Study of Pure Design." Likewise, Frederick 
W. Streibinger (Cleveland) took a hand in the reading of 
opinions on these subjects. 

As has been said before, all this is in the right 
direction, though somewhat scattered. If some one will 
boil it all down and present the meat intangible form, 
the third annual convention will have contributed 
notably to the progress of architectural thought. 

In the evening an amusing little play, written for the 
occasion by Herbert C. Wise, was given in the rooms of 
the T Square Club, entitled " De Bumps and Buonarotti." 

Saturday, May 25. 

The last day opened with the reading of the report of 
the National Committee upon Municipal Improvements. 
H. K. Bush-Brown (New York) had brought with him 

several large maps of American cities and their suburbs, 
and quite a library, consisting of reports from various 
municipal art societies, part boards, etc. 

Communications were read from Boston, from the 
secretary of the American Park and Outdoor Art Asso- 
ciations; another from Springfield, Ohio, from the 
president of the National League of Improvement Asso- 
ciations. The latter expressed a hope that the League 
would send a delegate to the Buffalo Convention in 
August. Favorable action was taken upon this sugges- 
tion later in the day. 

Mr. Bush- Brown then read a letter from Hon. Tom 
Johnson, mayor of Cleveland, in which he promised his 
cooperation in furthering the work proposed by the 
Cleveland Architectural Club, namely, the grouping of 
the new public buildings to be erected in that city, 
which was endorsed three years ago by the Architect- 
ural League of America. 

Mr. Bush-Brown's report dealt largely with the com- 
mercial value of the City Beautiful in attracting 
strangers. It appeared that several appeals had been 
made for information in regard to town improvement; 
among others, letters were received from officials in two 
cities. It was pointed out that literature upon this sub- 
ject has been lacking, and speakers with collections of 
lantern-slides are often in demand. The League en- 
deavors to supply both. 

With this end in view, Chas. Mulford Robinson 
(Rochester), a member of the Committee, has written a 
book, entitled " The Improvement of Towns and Cities " 
(Putnam's Sons). Its purpose is to supply laymen and 
city officials with a description of what has been done in 
the broad field of modern city making, and what is 
required of all communities where any civic pride 

Sylvester Baxter (Boston) explained the impulse 
back of the metropolitan system, whereby Boston and 
forty neighboring communities have acquired for all 
time adequate public recreation grounds, bathing 
beaches, and a good water supply. 

Chas. F. Caffin (New York) made some telling 
criticisms in regard to the inappropriate architectural 
treatment of several small parks, and justly scored archi- 
tects for striving after monumental effects rather than 
attempting to ameliorate the condition of a neighbor- 
hood. The practical art of sizing up such requirements, 
from a sociological standpoint, he contended was fre- 
quently missed. 

Mr. Day (Philadelphia) contributed some informa- 
tion in regard to local endeavor along these lines, and 
Mr. Elwell, reinforced Mr. Caffin by describing the 
condition existing in Mulberry Alley, New York, and 
advocated public wash-houses, athletic -rounds, sand- 
courts for children to play in ; anil Mr. Hynes (Toronto) 
explained that his club had started an agitation lor im- 
proving the condition of several of the streets in his 
e i 1 y . 

Mr. Caffin spoke earnestly and showed an aeute 
knowledge of his subject. "Art with a big A," he said, 
" was often a menace to many of the projects and sehemes 
which otherwise business men would be apt l<> foster." 

Sylvester Baxter concluded the morning session with 
an instructive talk, entitled " The Spanish Renaissance 


T II E H RICK B V I L 1) E R . 

in the New World." A score of large photographs, 
many beautifully colored, hung on the walls while he 
described the monastic architecture of Mexico, its 
brilliantly glazed domes, and gold encrusted interiors. 
This was the only theme of an archaeological nature, 
and he might well have brought it up to date by calling 
attention to the modern architectural requirements of 
our Spanish colonies. 

James Knox Taylor (Washington) was not pres- 
ent at the opening of the afternoon session, when he was 
scheduled to speak He, however, arrived in time t<> 
conduct the members of the convention through the new 
Mint Building, and while passing from room to room in- 
formally explained the present aims of the office of the 
Supervising Architect. 

Under unfinished business, several more letters upon 
the study of pure design were read. One by Denman 
W. Ross (Brooklyn) was particularly lucid; he defined 
the subject by saying, 

" It means doing what the public knows, understands, 
wants. Design is the plane of fashion, the handmaid of 

Toronto was selected as the place for the next con- 
vention. St. Louis asked for that privilege for 1903. 

Several nominations were made for president, but 
J. C. Llewellyn (Chicago) was reelected. 

The League thus enters upon another year of activity, 
with Chicago once more the seat of government. 

The dinner given at Horticultural Hall in honor of 
the visitors by the T Square Club was a success. 

Mr. Day made a good toastmaster. 

The reelected president affirmed his strong belief in 
the usefulness of architectural clubs, and showed how 
work in a small way had led to larger responsibilities. 
He frowned down "brass-band " methods, and reminded 
his hearers that " in union there is strength." 

Communications were read from Randolph Coolidge, 
Jr., I). H. Burnham, and the editors of the \,u' England 
Magazine and the Review of Reviews the latter. Dr. 
Albert Shaw, congratulated the League upon the good 
work it is doing by studving the larger relation of archi- 
tecture to the whole life of the community. 

The most stirring speech of the convention was 
" Intellectual Honesty in Architectural Design," by 
Chas. F. Caffin. He began by saying that we live in an 
age of universal knowledge, when it is weak not to be in- 
tellectually honest, and that, notwithstanding the absorb- 
ing interest the true architect takes in his work, there is no 
excuse lor his being narrow. He said many good things, 
and had a fling at "Progress before Precedent," asking, 
"Will a man deny his mother and refuse all responsi- 
bility for his mother-in-law? " which, by the way, was 
ably answered later in the evening, when it was admitted 
that that provoking maxim had been used merely for 
campaign purposes. He confessed that intellectual dis- 
honesty was often the prevailing condition of our times, 
and regretted that we were not better masters of our- 
selves, lb- pointed out that the Greeks never knew that 
they were doing classic work, and asked why that word 
"classic " should exercise such a great influence over the 
profession, when we have such great opportunities all 
our own. 

He paid a tribute to American ingenuity and the lofty 
building, but lost his popularity by announcing that the 
engineer would soon eclipse the architect. 

Cass Gilbert was equal to the occasion, and his 
address was most impressive. 

Inspired by the word " Progress," lie dwelt upon the 
rapid changes of the day, and finally declared that the 
engineer was doing much to help progress, but that he- 
would always be the servant of the architect, concluding, 
amid great applause : 

"Above and beyond all this is the intellect and ever- 
guiding hand of the architect." 

Mr. Hynes offered a toast to the Cleveland Club, in 
whose quarters the League found its being, and prom- 
ised a warm welcome to all who might attend the next 
reunion in Toronto, 

Clarence II. Plackall (Boston) captured every one by 
his flattering allusion to the spirit of the work of the 
League. He told of a fiery youth who had written some 
years ago from Paris, saying that he was coming home, 
and did not know whether he could make a living or not. 
but that he heard there was room on top in Boston; 
"and SO God help the fellows on top when he got there' 
He said the young man did make his mark, and that that 
was what he expected of the members of the League. 

Mr. Kelsey made a few remarks upon the undimin- 
ished enthusiasm of the convention, and the growing 
fraternal feeling among architects and draughtsmen, and, 
above all, their increasing loyalty to their art. 

Dr. Talcott Williams (Philadelphia) gathered up the 
ideas of the evening and blended them into an eloquent 
speech, in which he urged a more perfect union of the 
past and present, which would insure "that ripe coming 
of beauty which is the dower of the future." 





1. (7) What should be expected of a graduate from an 

architectural school when he begins office work' 
(/>) What should the schools leave for the offices to 
teach ? 

2. Is it advisable that the architectural Student devote 
the time necessary to obtain a so-called classical 
e lucation as a foundation for refined culture and 
taste, or can the same refinement be gained by 
studies more closely allied to architecture? 

3. (a) How much mathematical and engineering training 

should an architect have? 
(/>) Should design and construction be separated so as 
to train specialists in each of these lines? 

4. Should schools' study of architectural design be 
limited to monumental problems? 

5. (a) Should architectural design and study of historic 

stvles follow and be based upon a knowledge of 
pure design ? 
(/>) How can pure design lie best studied ? 
(,. To what extent and by what methods should an 

architect acquire a knowledge of the art industries 

allied to architecture? 


i «5 


There are two old Oriental proverbs of which I am 
rather fond: One is, " The strength of the pot begins in 

the clay." The other: " To the man with shoes all the 
world is coYered with leather." 

My answers are based somewhat on those proverbs. 

i. (a) The object of a school is to produce architects 
or to train them. The training they receive as draughts- 
men in a school is only an incidental part; therefore, 
much the most important part of a graduate's attain- 
ments is not called upon for a very considerable time 
after he has entered an office, and may not be called 
upon until he starts for himself in his profession. The 
expectations for attainment from the office when he 
enters is slight, and can be roughly stated as follows: 
Good draughtsmanship, i. c, neatness, speed, and 
knowledge of how to lay out yb, %, and % scale draw- 
ings. Knowledge of combinations of material and 
construction and how to represent them, especially how- 
materials should be assembled, and their points of 
junction. Ability to use constructive formulae from 
books. Knowledge of the orders of architecture, and 
especially a realizing sense that these orders are so 
organized that fundamental changes in them produce 
architectural disease. 

(/>) Tradition of the office. The adaptation of ways 
and means. Eternal vigilance with both the contractor 
and the client. A high standard of integrity. This last 
might be begun in the schools. 

2. Note my first proverb. It depends upon the 
individual, since some men can never obtain refinement, 
and others cannot be prevented from obtaining it. The 
classical education is so closely interwoven with many of 
the studies allied to architecture that either leads to the 
other. They cannot be divorced. It is merely a 
question of the relation of time to be devoted to each, 
and that depends upon the man himself. In a general 
way I should say that an architectural student in the 
schools needs more direct teaching from instructors on 
the studies allied to architecture, and would depend for 
his classics on his knowledge of how to use books. If 
the question implies a knowledge of Latin and Greek, 
they are not necessary. 

3. (a) Enough to prevent him from originating absurd 
combinations of materials, and to enable him to compre- 
hend where strains and stresses will occur, at what points 
to anticipate weakness, and when to economize strength 
under present conditions. No matter how thoroughly 
trained as a civil engineer an architect may be, few, if 
any, have enough constant calculations to make to trust 
their conclusions as anything more than approximate, and 
it is almost a duty to have their work gone over by a 

(/;) That comes naturally. The man falls into 
either class by predilection. Both classes should be 

4. No. But the principal stress should be laid on 
monumental problems. Monumental design gives much 
that tends to restrain and better ordinary hack work, 
while hack work gives absolutely nothing valuable to 
monumental work, unless it be an accommodation of 
ways and means. First-rate monumental work is as 

heedful of conditions as is any other, but is devoid of the 
exaggeration of pettinesses. Teaching in hack work is 
merely the encouragement of common sense, which 
should, on general principles, be taken for granted, how- 
ever lacking a large proportion of the students may be 
in it. I suppose this question is aimed at the teaching 
of small house designing, etc., and should say that very 
little of it was necessary in the schools. The office 
supplies it. 

5. (a) I sec no reason why " pure " design, by which 
I understand the study of proportioning construction, 
solids, and voids, devoid of ornament and dependent 
upon construction requirements and materials, should 
not be carried on together. Every style was naked 
before it was clothed, and the transitions are instructive. 
The student who is brought up on a knowledge of dis- 
position of masses needs as much training in beautifying 
those masses as the student who has a knowledge of 
styles needs in adapting the styles. It is somewhat as if 
Sandow tried to make his own clothes, or a fop tried to 
make himself look like Sandow. Certainly the con- 
structive organism is the more important, but with 
students, analytical, sitbtle study of proportions is a late 
achievement, not an early one, and while the first year in 
school may have teaching in simple construction propor- 
tions, little of value can be expected in the results, and 
if a knowledge of the styles and appreciation of the 
delights of cultured, soignS, accomplished work by the 
best men of all times is held back from the student, he 
is lacking stimulus, encouragement, and much of the joy 
of architecture. I see no reason why the two things 
cannot be taught together to the benefit of both. 

(/>) By comparison of problems, the determining 
qualities of pure design affect both the reason and the 
eye. The reason, inasmuch as they must appear stable 
and must not violate the laws of gravity, and conse- 
quently must have symmetry. The eye, as they must 
be agreeable to it. Each person can judge as to how far 
the reason is satisfied, but there will be a vast difference 
of opinion in regard to the usual merit. A discrimi- 
nation in this respect can only be cultivated by constant 
comparisons which can be obtained through problems. 
As architecture deals with solids, I am not at all sure 
that models would not be of great value, for while 
accomplished architects comprehend, or think they do, 
what the effect of masses will be as indicated on plans 
and elevations, the student is completely at sea on the 
subject. It is the most difficult thing to get him to think 
in the third dimension. 

6. This hits at the old idea that crops up now and 
then that an architectural student should be a competent 
bricklayer, should wipe plumbing joints, lay matched 
floors, forge joint bolts, etc., in order to know how they 
should be done. If he wants to, let him. The kind of a 
man who wants to either has a deal of time on his hands, 
or will never get beyond those details. Business is car- 
ried on (no matter how many lapses there may be) on 
the fundamental principle that good work and honesty 
are necessary for success — if it was not, theix' would be 
no good work and the architect who spends a large 
part of his energies in making himself a searching com- 
mittee for minor defects is bound to be in hot water all 
I he time and get no better result, nor as good, as the one 



who insists upon the employment of men of reputation 
and insists that bis specifications be followed. The 
harping critic immediately asks, •• I low docs he know his 
specifications are followed ? " He knows by the training 
he gets in a good office, by his constant connection with 
good work, and by his knowledge that any firm of 
reputation cannot afford to do had work. No amount of 
time devoted to craftsmanship of his own hands will give 
him any more than an occasional advantage over the 
student who has devoted himself to the greater things in 
his profession, and this last student will whip him hands 
down in many other things. I notice the question says 
■■art industries." Perhaps I have misconstrued it. It 
mentions decoration in all materials, and if wood and 
stone carving, etc., are implied, the more he can learn 
about these the better; the schools should teach some- 
thing in regard to them, and if he is an artist, he cannot 
keep his hands away from them, schools or no schools. 



The two questions to which an answer is attempted 
in the following paper seem to hinge so much the one on 
the other as to make it impossible to answer the one 
without the other. 

It is obvious that when we have outlined, as we shall 
try to do presently, what we expect a young graduate to 
be capable of on beginning office work, at the same time 
we must indicate what we do not expect him to be 
capable of until we have taught him. 

It is evident that we cannot expect from a graduate any 
more than from any other person what he has not been 
taught, or more strictly what he has not learned; there- 
fore, we are in a manner compelled to bring into the sub- 
ject wdiat the teaching of a graduate should have been 
during his college course. We assume as being conceded 
on all sides, and, therefore, as being outside the range of 
this discussion, that every architect should have as a 
foundation a liberal general education, whether he be a 
graduate of an architectural school or no. So we shall 
proceed to technical matters. 

We believe it to be impossible to make courses in 
architectural schools, in the time that is generally 
devoted and may reasonably be expected to be devoted 
to them, comprehensive enough to turn out graduates 
proficient at draughting in all its branches, mechanical and 
artistic; at the same time proficient in the knowledge of 
architecture, its history; its design and the arts indis- 
solubly connected with it; and at the same time proficient 
in architectural engineering, and all the practical con- 
structional detail that is but imperfectly mastered, and is 
being constantly revised during years of active profes- 
sional work. It is to be deducted from this that if we 
intend the student to know something of all these things 
we do not and cannot reasonably expect him to have 
such familiarity with them on entering an office as to go 
on in the practice of them with all the smoothness that is 
desirable in actual work. 

We may assume it possible to have an architectural 
school with three courses embracing the three heads just 
previously outlined. Graduates from any one of these 

departments who had wisely chosen that most suited to 
his temperament and t<> his abilities might reasonably be 
expected to come into an architect's office able to give 
points all round in his special line of knowledge, to have 
gone beyond grounding and theory, in short, to have all 
the working smoothness of a practitioner, and to be a 
valuable man capable of earning a considerable salary, 
but he would not have as yet the education necessary for 
the making of an architect. 

At the present date the graduate from an architectu- 
ral school looks forward to being what is known as an 
••all-round" architect; therefore, we expect him not to 

have had a specialized course, but to have been grounded in 
all branches of architectural training. In this grounding 
it is possible to give more weight to one department than 
another, and this seems to be the kernel of the question 
before us. The question, then, is what branches may be 
given less time to in order that more attention may be 
paid to Others? It seems to us that too much attention 
cannot be given to such departments as are not likely to 
be thoroughly and correctly looked after in the experi- 
ence that comes to the graduate after he enters on office 

Of architectural history the student is likely to get 
nothing in the office; of architectural design he will gel 
some, and in time a great deal, hut it will be given in the 
most unsystematic manner; we believe, therefore, that 
in those two branches the student should be thoroughly 
grounded in the school. In office designing he sees the 
thing done, but most usually without a reason being 
offered: in the school he should lie taught how to dis- 
cover the reason, how to apply the principles governing 
design so as to be able to work out for himself the gen- 
eral scheme, for in the office his mind is only too likely 
to be contracted to that small portion of the work that 
falls to his share. 

Mechanical draughting is likely to form a large part of 
his immediate experience in the office, and that he will and 
must become proficient in, in a very short time, so that 
in the school no special effort need be made in that 
direction. Free-hand drawing, on the other hand, must 
be largely developed outside of office work. We expect 
a student from a school to be so grounded in this as to 
have all his natural ability well developed. Modeling, of 
course, should be part of his training to that end. The 
student who has not spent considerable time in thus 
educating the hand has at the same time not had his 
eye educated for the appreciation of form and proportion. 
He sees without accuracy, and too often fails to see at 
all. In the office there is but little time for this training, 
so the graduate should be expected to be proficient here 
on beginning office work. 

In considering what should be expected of the gradu- 
ate in the way of construction and constructional detail, 
it is necessary to be rather nice in making a statement. 
There are certain lines of architectural construction which 
have -one quite over to the specialist the architectural 
engineer. The steel skeleton for the high building, the 
steel truss, and some of the more complicated forms of 
built columns and girders lie properly with him. 

We still have a grip on wood trusses, girders, posts. 
etc., and on all forms of construction in stone and brick, 
and we should expect the graduate to have explored the 


i r 

theory of construction and to have knowledge of the 
strength and possibilities of these materials as well as 
steel and iron in their simple constructional shapes. 
When it comes to the detail of construction, a very gen- 
eral knowledge only should be expected. The student 
has been trained to understand general principles, which 
will enable him quickly to follow the office practice in 
detail-making. It would be idle for an architect to 
expect a graduate to be educated up to his special idea of 
the correct form of window-box or wood gutter. So he 
expects him to come with his mind open in that respect. 

It is impossible to give answers to the questions under 
consideration that cover the ground from all points of 
view. In the large office one thing is looked for, and in 
the small office something quite different. The graduate 
who enters an office should be expected to know some- 
thing about the class of work likely to be done there. In 
the large office a more general knowledge should suffice; 
in the small office he should have given more thought to 
work, such as frame houses, but right here comes up a 
point we wish strongly to insist upon. To a great degree 
architects and draughtsmen arc of one of two classes: the 
first, designers with a general knowledge of construc- 
tion; the second, constructionists and practical men with 
a general knowledge of design. 

The architectural student, early in his college course, 
must discover to which class he leans, and take Up with 
most care the studies in that class. Having done so to 
the time of graduation, he must then look up a position 
where one of his class is desired. Then we believe that 
what should lie expected of him is something very likely 
to be fully realized. 



3. (a) An architect should have as much mathematical 
and engineering training as will enable him to solve, by 
means of formulae derived from the experimental re- 
search of scientific experts, every problem the erection of 
a modern building may involve in the safe and economi- 
cal use of the materials of its construction, including steel 
construction, heating, lighting, ventilation, and sanita- 

In considering this question we have borne in mind 
the difference between education and merely a knowledge 
of the expedients of modern practice, for these expedients 
vary so much in different localities, and change from time 
to time, so many men devising their own and ever learn- 
ing fresh ones, that we think no rule may be laid down 
concerning them. 

The use of formula- and tables thus derived we think 
one of the most justifiable expedients of modern practice. 

The architect's work is the harmonious association of 
all the crafts, which harmony can only be considered com- 
plete when the possibilities of each craft in relation to the 
whole is perfectly developed, and to do this a knowledge 
of the nature and functions of every material used is 

{/>) Design and construction should not be separated 
so as to train specialists in each of these lines, because a 
specialist is one who, in addition to the ordinary knowl- 

edge of his craft, acquires a special knowledge of one 
line, not one who has acquired a knowledge of one line 
only of the general knowledge of his craft. 

Design in architecture is surely, as seen in the study 
of the highest design, the human figure, constructing 
beautifully. Certainly, the most intellectual part of the 
esthetic satisfaction derived from the contemplation of 
the human figure comes from the perception of the har- 
monious grace of its constructional requirements. 

Could we imagine a figure built up of compression 
members covered with tension members and concealed 
beneath a coat of ornament? 

What we understand by architectural design lias to be 
based upon the use of some material. To what material 
shall we limit it? Stone and wood only? We do not 
know what the material of the future may be; there may 
be no stone or wood. Times change, and we must change 
with them. 

If to build with steel construction is engineering only, 
then to cover this construction with an architecturally 
ornamental plaster is decoration only. 

Though the expedients of modern practice may in- 
volve the use of specialists, we must consider it as an 
expedient only. The architect is the opposite of a 



4. No reason can exist why general study of any art 
or science should be restricted to any branch or division 
of it, and more particularly, not to an unusual and ideal 
one. Nor is this the case so far as we know, anywhere, 
in any school. The remedy, if there be any necessary, 
would be, that instead of architectural design being 
limited to monumental problems, it is advisable to limit 
the school of architectural design in monumental prob- 
lems in so far as it causes a sacrifice of time and atten- 
tion necessarv to the acquirement of information, not so 
pleasantlv monumental, but absolutely imperative to 
professional practice. 

5. (a) The "historic styles" should be studied as 
solutions of the problems which were presented by them 
in their time. It is a fact that too much stress is laid 
upon this matter. It is of very secondary importance. 
It is the most serious blunder of the schools that the 
" historic styles" are impressed asof primary importance. 
The schools are the only influence in the architectural 
life of to-day which seek to keep these ghosts imbued 
with artificial life. 

Were America free from influence of foreign schools, 
the conviction is forced home to us, that by this time its 
people would have made more progress in substantial 
architecture. All in all, the results might not have been 
better, but, upon the other hand, they could not have been 
worse, or more enslaving and retarding in effect. 

This is proven by the universal progress which is 
recorded in all departments in which " schools " have 
not existed, and consequently have not interfered. 'flu 
shortcomings, however, are not t li< >si- of architecture nor 
of archaeology, nor is tin's an argument against schools, 
but theart of education itself is only in a formative stale. 



and hut recently has itself become progressive and self- 

We would much prefer to go to the root of the whole 
matter and discuss the queries : Of what dors architec- 
tural education consist? How can it best be imparted 
to the student? The root answer to both would be: 
Hereditary disposition on the part of the student : his 
physical and mental Illness; sympathetic environment. 
Here we have the school, the system of imparting 
knowledge, the methods of acquisition, the subject, the 
materials, and the object all combined. The school, the 
student, and the course are hut details growing out of 
this general proposition. The profession of education, 
reaching out to inform itself as to its own functions, 
looking for light that it may behold the fruition of its 
own ends, asks itself first of all: Of what does any 
kind of education consist ? How can the various kinds 
he imparted to the various individualities of students ? 

The problem of architectural school education applies 
equally, although with less force, perhaps, to other 
educational departments. In the sciences and in law, 
for instance, definite and absolute quantities and propo- 
sitions are dealt with, whereas in architectural art we 
may only say of what it has consisted in the past, and 
admit with more or less reluctance that the materials, the 
methods, and the forms and organization of modern life 
make the imitation of the real art of the past hut the 
mockery of the present. We testify to lack of knowledge 
and inspiration, to wrong analysis, to an education which 
is worse than none at all. by dogmatic insistence that the 
art triumphs of the past must contain the solution of the 
new problems of to-day. It is all very well to make 
demands upon the schools. The school itself must have 
opportunity for healthful life, its own disposition, its 
own environment. The hereditary disposition of the 
American school must he the spirit of American institu- 
tions and American inventiveness and progressiveness. 
Its environment must he one free from influences beyond 
its own. of specters, and of shadows. Its equipment 
must consist of an understanding; that there are real, 
modern problems of architectural necessity to he met 
with real modern materials, as evolved by modern 

Finally. In order that an art school may create its 
own atmosphere, fulfil its purpose, contain in itself an 
inspiration and an incentive to work and study, all the 
various art branches of the colleges and universities of 
the country should he detached from other branches of 
study, and be amalgamated in one American art school, 
thus gaining in scale, volume, influence, and effect 
through concentration and through singleness of purpose. 

Answering the final question, then under these con- 
ditions only "can pure design he best studied." Given 
now a buoyant and vigorous American student-body, 
under the tutelage of independent and progressive men, 
and who shall say what are the restrictions set upon the 
American architectural art of the future. 



If this question means that the student's time should 

he divided between constructive work and monumental 
problems, it is one thing, and if it means that his time 
should lie divided between "the theory of design " and 
monumental problems, it is quite another. The prime 
object of all education is to fit the student to cope with 
the problems of his profession in a masterful way. The 
prime object of an architectural training is to tit the 
student to he a successful architect in all that the word 
implies, hut it is not at all to the point that lie shall 
become an expert engineer. At the same time it should 
he remembered that it is the intent of architecture to 
beautify structural forms. Consequently, a knowledge 
of structural forms cannot he ignored. 

Modern construction calls for an unusual condition in 
design, and makes it possible for the untrained mind todo 
seemingly impossible things, — things which the trained 
mind would utilize to develop proper legitimate design. 
Mr. Marshall says in an article on the " Education of an 
Architect." which appeared in the Record: — 

" It is evident, then, that we must teach our architec- 
tural student most emphatically to work in structural 
forms, but it seems to me equally true that in the 
education of the architect we should follow the develop- 
ments of tlic past, i. ,., that we should endeavor to teach 
the youth the principles of beauty and how to apply them 
to structural fi >rms which are already settled and common- 
place to the race as a race of builders. It were well, as 
I have said before, to make the education of the architect 
as wide as possible in every direction, for the broader the 
man, the more effective will he his work so lone," as his 
dominant artistic impulse is left full play; hut there 
seems no reason to insist upon the attainment of knowl- 
edge of highly technical engineering methods which are 
useful onl_\- in the solution of' new structural problems, 
although it would, of course, he desirable, if possible, for 
the architect to gain the acquaintance of such methods. 
Of course, he should know thoroughly the underlying 
principles of engineering method, the way in which the 
Strength of materials and foundation values are devel- 
oped, and the most practical tonus of construction in 
stone and brick, wood and iron, especial attention being 
given to the nature of arch thrusts, and he should he 
able to work out the less complicated problems in each 
case, hut beyond this all that he needs to know are the 
general forms within which he may work economically." 

Now, on the other hand, it is a choice between monu- 
mental problems or the study of the "theory of 
design," and it would seem that, infercntially. the train- 
ing in monumental work would so familiarize the mind 
of the student with the principles of good design that 
he could easily meet the requirements of any other 

It has been said that "the student is fortunate if his 
school training gives him even a beginning of a sense of 
appreciation of what constitutes good taste." It is 
essential that the architect, to do good work, must be 
thoroughly grounded in the rudiments of design, and the 
student should he taught his design as the child is taught 

his alphabet. He should learn to use his moldings, his 
surfaces, and his openings as a child is taught to use his 
letters in the formation of words, and words in the con- 
struction of sentences. If monumental problems em- 
brace a greater number of the principles of design than 



other problems which are given to the student, then 
instruction should be limited to the monumental, but it 
would seem that the mind which had been taught to 
skilfully handle a composition which embodied the 
heavier principles might easily express itself in any 
style, the principles being the same, the difference being 
in the manner of expression. 

It is the duty of instruction to place high value upon 
the spirit of design, and it is for those who have in hand 
the education of the younger generation of architects to 
determine what method is best. The student should be 
taught to think inductively, that his individuality may 
be expressed in his work, just the best method to 
accomplish this end depends largely upon the aptitude 
of the student, but it would seem that the mind trained 
upon monumental work and filled with the traditions of 
the best historic work would put into his problems an 
interpretation which generally would be correct. 

Naturally, from the diversity of human ability, all 
students trained under the latter system may not become 
successful practitioners or draughtsmen, but with proper 
administration in the hands of capable instructors, this 
system should produce many successes and few failures. 



2. Assuming that it is meant by a "classical educa- 
tion " the regular Arts Course of the universities, it is 
advisable, because a classical education forms a good 
foundation to build upon in after life; advisable, how- 
ever, only if a post-graduate course in some recognized 
school of architecture is to follow. The refined culture 
and taste so gained can hardly be obtained by other 

5. (a) Pure design being the logical solution of a 
given problem, it must follow that the architectural 
styles of the past are of their day and generation only. 
They may be studied as stepping-stones to the develop- 
ment of modern architecture, though no contemporaneous 
problem can be solved without meeting modern require- 
ments in a modern way. 

(/;) Pure design can best be studied by an unbiased 
consideration of all the diverse conditions entering into a 
problem; thus, the dominant conditions will then govern 
the character and expression of the design. 



On entering an office after pursuing a course of study 
in an architectural school, the student should be prepared 
to execute simple office work under the direction of an 
older man, so that he will be of immediate use and value 
in an architect's office. Besides this, he should under- 
stand all the general principles of all branches of an 
architect's practice, so that he may quickly learn the 
office methods of applying this fundamental knowledge. 

The school should teach general principles; the office 
should teach the technical application of these general 

In a four years' course of architecture there can be 

no time for specialties. The time is all too short to 
cover the general knowledge required in all the different 
branches of an architect's practice. 

The student should not find that an excessive amount 
of his school time has been taken up in studying monu- 
mental problems, whereas in li is entire future practice 
he may never have a monumental problem to solve. 

He should not find that an excessive amount of his 
time has been occupied by historical research, taking in 
consideration those principles which would enable him 
to design architectural forms suited to his own surround- 
ings, and making of him an archaeologist, capable of re- 
producing historical forms, but unable to design new- 
forms suited to his own atmosphere, material, and 
indigenous conditions. 

He should not find that an excessive amount of his 
time lias been occupied in perfecting methods of making 
pictures, which his defective knowledge of constructional 
forms renders him incapable of constructing. 

He should not find that he lias given so much time 
to the study of applied mechanics and its application to 
architectural engineering that he is deficient in artistic 

When a student enters an office he very often finds 
that his study has been biased by one or another of the 
above points of view, and also that he has not made an 
adequate stud}' of the arts and crafts, or, in other words, 
that he does not know anything about the artistic uses 
of building materials. 

The superior knowledge of the artistic possibilities of 
building materials marks the greatest epochs in architec- 
tural history. It is the basic principle, the vital and 
essential quality of Grecian and Gothic architecture. 

The artistic chisel, feeling the firm and homogeneous 
Pentelic marble, brought forth those subtle curving 
forms and refinement of proportions which constitute the 
greatness of Grecian architecture. 

The character of building material forced the archi- 
tect to invent the arch, the vault, and buttress, and at- 
mospheric conditions produced Gothic masses silhouetted 
against the sky. 

The Japanese carver studies the grain of his wood, 
and from its twistings evolves the creatures of his 

What does the American architect know of the artistic 
possibilities of building material, or wish to know? 

The student who is expected to understand all the 
fundamental principles of an architect's future practice 
will Study the subject from three general points of 
view. As an artist, he will Study drawing in charcoal, 
pencil, pen, brush with color, modeling in clay, terra- 
cotta, cement, metal castings, carving in stone and 
wood. Designing, both applied color and form, and 
imbued colored material, stained ^lass, wrought iron, 
etc. Ornament, historical and creative, based on native 
flora and fauna. 

Architectural design, not only monumental problems, 
but artistic solutions of practical problems. 

History of art, architecture, sculpture, and painting 
as the development of principles. 

Building materials, development of their artistic 

As a construction, the student will understand the 

1 JO 


general principles of building materials; of wood, 
masonry, and steel constructions and their superin- 

Laboratory work should supplement the abstract 
consideration of building materials. The student should 
pursue courses of shop-work in carpentry, masonry, 
metal, and spend considerable time in watching building 

It might be advised, before allowing an architect to 
practise, to require him to pass a certain amount of time 
as clerk of works; the gain to himself, to his client, and 
t<> the future of American architecture would be 

As a business man, the student should study specifi- 
cations, contracts, and civil law relating t<> building 
contracts and operation. 

The school should teach all the fundamental principles 
which will control the architect in his practice. 

The office should teach the practical methods of 
applying these fundamental principles. 

The time of the student should not be taken up in 
perfecting the practical application of any of these 
studies of rendering; too much time is taken up in 
learning t<> make perfectly graded washes. 

Beautifully rendered drawings are an important 
factor in competitions, but are properly the work of a 

The study of mental instructions should embody 
principles and methods, and leave abstruse mathematical 
calculation to the specialist. The application of applied 
mechanics is the work of a specialist. Post-graduate 
courses should be arranged to meet the requirements of 
specialists. The school must form and direct the artistic 
tendencies of the student, and to that end the study of 
classical problems in architectural design is advisable, 
but the study of design should not be restricted to ideal, 
classic, or monumental subjects. 

A majority, or more, of the students of architectural 
schools will devote their entire efforts in their practice 
to solving the requirements of ordinary commercial and 
domestic problems, and will never have an opportunity 
to design a monumental structure: students, therefore, 
should be instructed in the fundamental principles of the 
problems on which their entire future life will be passed. 

They should understand the desirable arrangements 
and the conditions to be avoided in designing houses, 
commercial structures, churches, municipal buildings, 
schools, theaters, libraries, etc. 

Their instruction should show them how to satisfy the 
practical conditions of ordinary problems in an esthetic 

How can the solution of these practical problems be 
left for the office to teach, for it is generally conceded 
that the office solution of those problems is unsatis- 

For this end, the student must know building ma- 
terials, how to use them practically, and especially how 
to develop their esthetic possibilities He should under- 
stand and sympathize with the arts and crafts, and re- 
ceive instruction in modeling, carving, stained glass, 
wrought iron, etc., not to the extent of manual dexterity, 
but to gain a knowledge of esthetic possibilities in using 

The most essential requirement of an architectural 
education is cultivation of the artistic creative faculty. 

The creative faculty, the art instinct, the artistic 
imagination, is the most valuable and most essential 
quality that the architect can have or acquire : it is the 
essential element in all great art. To awaken and 
develop this faculty is the greatest opportunity of the 
architectural school. 







THE question before us is one which vitally concerns 
architect, student, and teacher alike. Not alto- 
gether clear or exact, perhaps, in its wording, but clear 
enough, I think, tons for all the purposes of discussion. 
Of " pure design " or abstract design we cannot readily 
conceive apart from some medium of expression as a 
means, or apart from beaut}' as end to be attained. 

But with certain universal principles of design we arc- 
all more or less familiar, and we can readily conceive of 
the existence of others, yet unknown, but vaguely felt by 
us apart from any concrete application through any 
specific medium. 

Many of us are also familiar with these abstract 
exercises in design based on these principles which may 
be practised in various media, and which are employed 
chiefly as yet by certain teachers and masters in the field 
of decorative art to whom design inspired by these 
principles and ideas without reference to any special use 
is, for lack of a better name, known as "pure design." 

It is, therefore, to these principles and their study in 
relation, first, to beautiful design in general, then to the 
design of beautiful buildings in particular, that our 
discussion to-day must be confined if we would lie of 
some direct helpful service to the cause of architectural 
education. I am not attempting here to show, and I do 
not believe, that a general knowledge of principles, such 
as one man can impart to another, or which can be 
learned by cold-blooded routine stud}', will enable an 
architect to employ them in the reasoning department of 
his mental laboratory with any certainty of creating 
beautiful buildings. 

In the case of an individual without that inborn 
creative instinct which seeks expression in line, form, 
color, and material, the best education, the most thor- 
ough intellectual knowledge of abstract principles, 
coupled with the highest reasoning powers, will not 
alone enable him to do what the untaught Savage, imbued 
with the beauty-creating spirit, does apparently by in- 
tuition through the unconscious and intuitive guidance 
of imagination by their eternal laws. There is a certain 
intuitive power in some minds which might be called the 
electro-motive force of the inventive and creative 
faculties. Whether this force can be intensified and 
,]e\eloped we scarcely know. But we have faith and 
hope that while vouth lasts it can be fanned into a divine 
flame. We do know, however, that in many minds this 
force is there, though not manifest, simply waiting to 


I 2 I 

flash forth, as the arc of dazzling light leaps between the 
carbon points when the switch is thrown and the subtle 
but powerful current is liberated. How best to free this 
force, how to guide it. and how to supply its deficiency 
by certain knowledge of broad principles and established 
truths is the real problem which confronts the parents 
and teachers of our future architects. 

The parents first. The schools alone cannot make 
architects, nor can the kindergartens, which so beautifully 
lead into the schools, more than begin the work. The 
parent must realize fully his responsibility to the child 
for its right guidance, physically, mentally, and spiritu- 
ally, from the cradle. Example and precept at home are 
more than schools and formulae. And since one of man's 
highest and purest delights is in the expression of the 
spirit through creative effort, the education of every 
child should look from the beginning to the evolution of 
an individual, intelligent, and creative personality, gifted 
with a reasonable mastery of at least one medium of 

Whether that one medium of expression is to be music, 
literature, painting, sculpture, or architecture will behest 
determined by the free choice and natural bent of the in- 
dividual. Our architectural schools will then no longer 
be hampered by sons who have been sent. Their places 
will be more than filled by those who come. Among the 
many who now crowd these schools but few are led 
thither by a genuine enthusiasm for art. The heads of 
the schools, therefore, protest that their function, in large 
measure, is to so drill the average student by means of 
the " Orders," the literal following of historical examples, 
and by the suppression of any undue evidences of indi- 
viduality, that he may become a sane (?) and safe (?) mem- 
ber of an eminently respectable profession. 

But, in spite of this protest, I know that the schools 
are not satisfied with a sane, safe, and eminently respect- 
able product. They would fain be the nurseries of great 
masters, and each would, if it could, be the Alma Mater 
of the men whose works are to be landmarks in the un- 
written history of architecture in America. There is a 
feeling of disquiet and unrest abroad, as well as a spirit 
of disquiet and unrest. We are looking and groping for 
a knowledge of principles and methods which, when 
intelligently and earnestly applied by talent to the solu- 
tion of practical problems in terms of beauty, shall be 
found as universally sound and vital as are the special 
applications of these principles and methods to planning 
as taught by the world's best schools to-day. The basic 
principles of design apply to all art and to all of architec- 
ture. They can be taught to a child or to an unlettered 
savage, for they are elemental — they are beautifully 
simple. It is only in their applications that they appear 
diverse and assume an apparent and almost paradoxical 
complexity that bewilders and misleads and makes us 
doubt in our ignorance or blindness. The artists of all 
ages have been guided by them, consciously or uncon- 
sciously, in their broader aspects. The children of the 
public schools almost unerringly choose from the crude 
efforts of their fellows penned upon the walls, the best, in 
unconscious, inevitable, natural obedience to Nature's 
laws. For these laws are, after all, natural laws, since 
they spring from the same infinite Intelligence which 
created the lily and the mountain crag, and made to mul- 

tiply upon this little earth millions of marvelous human 
eyes to see in them simplicity, unity, strength, repose, 
harmony, order, rhythm, purpose, and, through the more 
wonderful eye of the awakened spirit, to see the living 
and tangible expression of infinite Power and infinite 
Intelligence and infinite Spirit. 

Working through the inspired intelligence of man, as 
through a marvelous instrument, this same infinite Spirit 
manifests itself through toil and struggle in the works of 
men which they and their fellows have deemed beautiful. 
How are we as instruments to become responsive to the 
touch of the Master, producing sweet tones and har- 
monies, not jarring noise and hopeless discord? 

Are we to do this by denying these laws arid their 
existence? By applying them here and casting them 
stubbornly aside there? By declaring them to be so con- 
tradictory as to annul each other"- Putting aside any 
question of faith in or reverence for an infinite Intelli- 
gence, disregarding even the beautiful and unerring 
working of natural law throughout the universe, can we 
close our eyes and ears to nature and to the precepts and 
discoveries of the students of beauty in nature in this 
scientific age, which is preeminently an " Age of 
Reason "? 

Do we fear that the temple dedicated to Art is about 
to be profaned by the steel-shod foot of Science? Why, 
then, this doubting — this looking askance — this ti.mid 
shrinking at the thought of Beauty, understood and 
approached, not through Science, but in the light of the 
knowledge which Science by her sane and searching 
methods has already given, and of which she stands 
ready to give more to those who earnestly seek? 

These are generalities — but generalities must pre- 
cede particulars. The cloud must precede the infinitude 
if rain drops. 

I have already mentioned some of the most universal 
principles underlying the arts. With just a little sound 
knowledge of these principles, and just a little apprecia- 
tion of the possibilities of pure design, the student under 
right guidance is prepared to study architectural design 
and the history of architecture, as well as the specialized 
study of material and structure, bringing to bear upon 
each of these the test of universal laws in so far as lie 
has already been able to grasp them, and, guided by wise 
and stimulating instruction, learning of the application 
of these principles as exemplified in the great historic 
monuments and of their misuse as exemplified in the 
decadent periods of our art. In short, the study of 
architectural history may be made simply one phase of 
the study of those principles upon which all good archi- 
tecture is based, be it the architecture of Egypt or the 
architecture of America in the twentieth century. As 
for "the Orders," instead of making them a fetish to be- 
llowed down to and blindly worshiped as having some 
mysterious intrinsic qualities of proportion which make 
them to a degree applicable and bodily transferable to 
any building, they should be honestly given their due 
place in the study of architectural history and art, and 
no more. If they are beautiful and universally appli- 
cable to anything from a circular Roman temple to the 
base of a twenty-story modern office building, depend 
upon it, the young man trained in pure design will appre- 
ciate these facts, regardless of time-honored tradition and 

I 12 


without further teaching; to him "the Orders" will 
speak for themselves. But he will consider them first 
hut as details of buildings* which are themselves of far 
more significance than their structural and decorative 

parts. He will understand that an order cannot he 
studied intelligently apart from the structure or type of 
structure to which it originally belonged To him, col- 
umn, entablature, and pediment will he primarily nothing 

more than simple structural elements, to be east aside as 
useless where the structural requirements can better be 
nut by other means. 

He will build naturally, he it on paper, in the solid 
clay, or in materials. He will build simply, honestly, 
and reasonably. Obedient to the laws of Unity and 
Harmon)-, his decorative details will he as natural an 
outgrowth of Structure and of Use as the flower spring- 
ing lightly from the stem is an outgrowth of the plant, 
and so in sympathy with the whole that the melody of 
simple, beautiful structure is made rich harmony. He 
will not he content to remain in practical ignoranci 
the modern materials, tools, and processes which should 
he his media of expression On the contrary, once 
acquainted with the possibilities opened up to him by 
the study of pure design, he will not rest until he knows 
thoroughly, by intimate and Ion- study and use, the 
material side of his art. The failures and successes 
which others have made in the past in the use of 
materials and tools will he studied by him in the light of 
the great fundamental laws. 

He will not abuse materials nor unduly force them. 
He will appreciate the natural charm of simple, beau- 
tiful surfaces, colors, and textures, ami let them alone. 
He will know how to seize and put to his own use the 
inimitable effects of nature which we call ••acciden- 

All this, and more, if he he taught Principles first, last, 
and all the time. And, once a beginning has been made, 
he may in large measure he his own teacher, seeking for 
evidence of The Law everywhere in Nature, in Art, and 
in Life, and making The Law always the final test of his 
work. I believe that we are fast coming to a parting of the 
ways. There is a vast army of children in tin- schools, 
who, as the men and women of to-morrow, will demand 
something more than the dry husks of an imitative or 
interpretative architecture. They will see the- radical 
difference between the artisan-architect, who skilfully 
reproduces the works of other periods, and the artist, 
who creates for his own time, for his own people for 
himself. The common-school education of our cities, 

with kindergarten training, drawing and nature-study in 

the lower grades, and manual training and more draw- 
ing in the higher, is developing in our children an appre- 
ciation of beauty and developing their powers of 
independent thought and analysis. Let us hope that 
the artists who Spring from their ranks may he trained 
as to meet the real needs of their times. Tin- study of 
pure design, as a means of strengthening creative power, 
of developing an appreciation and understanding of the 
principles of line, form, and color, of light and shade, 
rhythm, balance, and organization, should be made an im- 
portant and primary feature of every school of archi- 
tecture, of its value to the individual I have the most 
direct personal knowledge. 

In closing, and before we enter together upon a dis- 
cussion of this vital question, I urge vmi all from the 
bottom of my heart to seek with us, in a hroad, optimistic, 
hopeful, and scientific spirit the spirit of the true artist 
for a better knowledge and appreciation of these laws 
which govern all successful creative effort. You cannot 
deny their existence or their power. 



1AM very much -ratified to he called before the Archi- 
tectural League of America to address vuu upon 
any topic, hut I am particularly flattered that I am called 
upon to adress you upon the topic of " Progress." It is 
a topic that appeals to every man of intellectual integrity 
or intellectual honesty, and especially so to the American 
of to-day. I cannot hope to express to you in eloquent 
terms the thoughts that rise, perhaps, in the minds of 
every man present hereto-night the thoughts that may 
be inspired by the word "progress." It seems to me 
that if there is one word more than any other to-day that 
inspires American intellectual life, American energy, and 
American achievements in every direction, it is the word. 
or the thought expressed by the word, "progress." 
Progress in our political institutions, progress in our 
mechanical inventions, progress in our intellectual life, 
progress in our spiritual movement forward in the world, 
and progress in the arts — which is simply the expression 
of all the others combined and the record of events from 
day to day as they go forward. 

I contend that the architects, the artists, the painters, 
and sculptors in all the various departments of art-life 
have borne their share well in the field that is represented 
by the word "progress." I want to express my appreci- 
ation of the very admirable and instructive statements 
that have been made by Mr. Caffin. It seems to me that 
his point of view is excellent. 11c speaks, however, from 
the standpoint of the layman the layman who is espe- 
cially interested in art. There is no class of men from 
whom the professional architect can gain more instruct- 
ive and valuable knowledge than he can from just that 
sort of man. one who thinks ahout the subject in which 
the architect, as a professional, is interested, who thinks 
so clearly and puts his thoughts SO clearly in writing as 
does Mr. Caffin. Nevertheless, 1 think that Mr. Caffin 
made sonic statement to the effect that we are "up 
against " the problem as to whether we were going 
to he decorators of interiors or exteriors of buildings, 
and assumed apparently that we were ahout to step 
aside and admit the engineer to he the master builder 
and we to he the decorators of' his work. I want to con- 
trovert that statement! Are you , gentlemen, read) to 
admit such a proposition? I think not. Mr. Caffin con- 
tradicts himself when he says that the office buildings in 
Chicago are demonstrations of intellectual honesty. By 
whom were they built? By the engineers' They have 
condemned them as very faulty in their construction. 
They might let him pass by the architects, and say that 
they did not create the conditions that made such struc- 
tures necessary. We will then have to go to the real 



estate men and capitalists who did. We architects want 
our share of credit and believe that we deserve it. 

I look back into the history of architecture, and it seems 
to me that I see that the great engineering achievements 
in the direction of buildings have been by the architects. 
My engineer told me the other day that scientifically the 
dome of St. Peter's in Rome was impossible; yet I know- 
it has stood several hundred years, to the admiration of 
the world. The engineers of Florence told Brunelleschi 
that he could not build. He was a modeler in clay, a 
sculptor, a man who competed for the bronze doors and 
gates of the Baptistery of Florence; then went to Rome 
and measured the old buildings and studied the same as 
I did, as we all have gone around the world and tried to 
learn the works of the masters. He started with the in- 
stinct of taste, with the desire to develop the things he 
saw around him to things more beautiful. He found 
the necessity, and he met that necessity. We do the 
same thing. 

Twenty years ago there were no sky-scrapers; the 
problem did not exist. We have found the problem, and, 
to a certain extent, at least, have met it. I claim it is the 
highest evidence of progress of American architecture, 
and the highest title we have to claim for ourselves the 
right of existence as a profession, that we have met a 
thoroughly modern problem in a thoroughly modern way, 
and practically in ten years, as you see it. Will you tell 
us that we are not engineers? I say we are something 
better than engineers, and they shall act but as the serv- 
ants of the architect who tells and directs them what to 
do, and they do it; intelligently, but only under his 
bidding and his control, and it must be so. It must be 
so, and why? The architect and the engineer may work 
together. The architect deals with two elements of 
human life, — the material and the spiritual ; the engineer 
deals with but one, — the material. Which is the greater 
of the two? Yon know and I : it is the spiritual element 
of life and the spiritual element of art. Those of us who 
have been in practice a few years refer back to the sub- 
ject of progress and remember the time when our draw- 
ings were made in a very simple way and reproduced in a 
very simple way; the needs were simple and the require- 
ments few. Things have developed since then. We 
have grown all along the line. The requirements upon 
the architect now are multifarious. He must meet them, 
and meet them perhaps in a new way. He calls to his 
aid the various arts and the various sciences; they all 
contribute. Far be it from me to detract or take one 
single jot or tittle of the value of the credit that belongs 
to the noble allied professions that so admirably aid in 
forwarding our own work. But, gentlemen, I tell you I 
am glad to stand as the champion, perhaps for the 
moment, of the idea that architecture, more than any 
other profession, has been in the very forefront in the 
line of progress, progress in the sciences and in the arts 
of to-day. It is a very interesting study, this thought of 
progress in the arts. It is a trite thought, perhaps, to go 
back to the time when the first man lay a few boughs 
across from one stick to another and formed a shelter for 
himself, and enclosed it, little by little - finally he built a 
house; or he who took the log and hollowed it out, dug 
the log out, and got inside and paddled, and so on until 
we come to the steamship all that is progress. Any 

man who has been about the United States very much 
has seen something of progress. A few years ago I saw 
men who had been more or less in the West and seen the 
time when the broad prairies had scarcely a house upon 
them, when there was scarcely a tree, when there was 
scarcely a road, when there was practically nothing; and 
yet within our short lifetime those prairies have been 
developed. To-day one finds beautiful groves of trees, 
well-made roads, well-built houses, and electric com- 
munications of all kinds, developments of the arts and 
sciences; a contribution of the young men coming out 
of those homes and entering into the walks of life in all 
departments, very largely into art. The prairie has been 
made to blossom like the rose, and the earth has covered 
herself in the presence of man with a mantle of green 
and gold. We have seen progress enough in our country, 
and it seems to me that we can reflect upon it, not in a 
boastful spirit, but in a spirit of thankfulness for the 
power that has given it to us, the power that has con- 
descended to give us an opportunity. We have seen the 
development of our country in its sciences and its arts, in 
its national life, and it is peculiarly gratifying to us that 
it is so. 

I feci that the plea of the previous speaker made for 
intellectual honesty is one of the fundamental things we 
should bear in mind in relation to progress. It seems to 
me that the most progress is made by exactly the thing 
for which he pleads. For if a man simply takes a 
problem given him and solves it in the way that comes 
easiest, the way in which he is most accustomed to work, 
he makes but little progress. If he is an observant 
man, he finds new conditions in each new thing. He 
follows those new conditions. He looks them plainly 
and squarely in the face, and the result is something new. 
That is progress. And yet progress is not a novelty ; it 
is a development. Progress does not mean, from my 
standpoint, gentlemen, the throwing away of that which 
was before, but the development of that which was 
before. There are two kinds of progress, a progress 
forward and a progress backward. There is only one 
animal that I know of that goes equally well one way or 
the other, and that is the crawfish, and we do not admire 
him. We must go forward or backward. We are happy 
in living in a da)- when things go forward, and the 
Architectural League of America is one of the things of 
the country which is trending in that forward direction. 
Speaking of the Architectural League, I set' gentlemen 
here to-night who were members of the first Architec- 
tural League in this country. In 1881 half a dozen 
fellows got together, and with them we made an Archi- 
tectural League. We didn't call it by that name, but 
the result was the Architectural League of New York. 
From that has grown up this whole system of clubs and 
leagues, and, finally, this organization and society. It 
seems to me that is progress. In those days we were 

just starting in; we thought we were. We knew we 
were, in a sense, as the poet says: 

"... dreamers, dreaming greatly 

In the man-stifled town. 

And we yearned beyond the skv line where Strange roads go 

di nvii : 
Came tin- whisper, came tin- vision, came the power with the 

Till the soul that was not man's soul was lent to us to lead." 

I2 4 


Modern Architecture. 


Translated by X. Clifford kicker. Published under the auspices of The 
Architectural League of America. 

THE VRCH l l EC I'. 

HT^HE architect from his happy combination of the 
L ideal and the real should be esteemed as the best 
of modern mankind. But, unfortunately, he himself alone 
feels the truth of this expression, while his contempo- 
raries stand aside with reserve. I must join in his praise 
at the risk of being accused of delusions. 

The training of the architect, extending throughout 
his life, the responsibility connected with his creations, 
the great difficulties opposing the erection of his works, 
the indolence and the preposterous views of the multi- 
tude concerning architecture, an unfortunately too com- 
mon envy, and the diversity of opinions among men of 
his profession almost invariably cover with thorns the 
path of his life, so that he too frequently looks longingly 
on the younger of the sister arts, which usually offers a 
life strewn with roses offered by mankind. Praise and 
criticism make the career of the artist fruitful, just as 
sun and rain do the earth, hut they seldom appear in the 
architectural sky, where' only the eternal gray of practice 
and the dismal darkness of public indifference veil every 
clear and cheerful prospect. 

The architect can never count upon immediate suc- 
cess, or on the ideal rewards. Recognition sometimes 
comes to him after perhaps years of work, if under 
numerous difficulties he has completed a building; hut 
the acme of his artistic ecstasy and the joy of creation 
occurs in the moment when he sketches out one of his 
ideas according to correct ground principles, which are 
neither evident nor understood by every one. There- 
fore, the architect must seek in his own satisfaction the 
chief part of his reward. But he must with constant 
love and persistence keep his work ever in hand, and 
neither wander nor tire, even if, as is the rule, his 
pecuniary recompense is hut moderate, and if the world 
is pleased to give as much to a vocalist for an hour of 
song, as Gottfried Semper, with all his economy, saved 
during his entire life. 

Among all formative arts, architecture alone creates 
and produces, it is alone prepared to originate forms 
that appear beautiful to mankind, but whose models are 
not found in nature. Even if these forms have their 
germs in natural objects, and their origin in building 
materials, the result lies so distant from the origin that 
they must be accepted as entirely novel objects. 

Therefore, it cannot be Surprising to learn that in 
architecture is to he see// the highest expression of human 
pozver, striving after the divine. There is proof of this 
in the incomprehensible and overpowering influence 
exerted on mankind by works of architecture, which 
plainly demands consideration. Hence, architecture must 
be esteemed to be the mightiest of all arts. 

All artistic ability is composed of two qualities of the 
man: Of the innate power (creative ability) and the 
acquired knowledge (science). The more clearly these 
two possessions appear and balance each other, the 
greater will be the value of the art work produced. It 

is scarcely necessary to give an example, yet to make it 
clearer, it may be stated that Hans Makart possessed 
more innate power that acquired knowledge, while for 
Gottfried Semper, the reverse is plainly true. On 
account of the vast quantity of material to be studied. 
the condition of Semper will be most common among 
architects. Among painters and sculptors, results appear 
without any apparent scientific knowledge, but this is 
manifestly impossible for architects. 

This creative power chiefly consists of imagination, 
taste, and manual skill, just those qualities so essential 
in the profession of the architect, and so neglected by 
one deciding on a future vocation. The youth may love 
the work and take pleasure in it, but if imagination, 
taste, and manual skill are wanting, or even if one of 
these qualities is absent, the toil of his training is mis- 
spent. For this reason, there occur among architects 
change of profession, misery, and dreary examples of 
wasted lives. Therefore, tin- system of attempting to 
educate a man as an architect, because he might possibly 
become one, must forever be dropped, unless some 
authority decides that he is born for it, or has a decided 
inclination for it. 

It is unnecessary to emphasize that peace of soul, 
freedom from care, inspiration and experience, must be 
combined, so that the qualities mentioned may all exist 
in their fulness in the individual. On this will it depend, 
whether the creative power of the architect will retain its 
strength or fail during the course of his life. But it 
must be stated that the wealth of knowledge to be ac- 
quired, the experience, the successive production and 
perfection of fresh and youthful ideas until their embodi- 
ment, all postpone the date of the full maturity of the 
architect far beyond the time when other artists have 
already attained the climax of theirpowers. It is not ex- 
treme to place the successful practice of the architect 

after his fortieth year. 

To the difficulties resulting from the vocation itself 
are added others, which make his life still less roseate. 
The worst and most injurious one is the numerous sham 
architects and practising vampires. Hence, the architect 
must utilize every means to reach and maintain that posi- 
tion which justly belongs to him and accords with his 
powers and knowledge. 

The protection of architecture by the State should be 
discussed here. It is certain that the State enjoys the 
greatest advantages from the culture of art. Italy is a 
Country where the chief nerves of its life are certainly 
the art works of past ages, and France likewise owes its 
prosperity chiefly to art. This protection may occur in 
various ways. For example, all public buildings should 
be executed only by real architects. The purchase and 
use of old or rented buildings for public offices should 
cease, mere utility should yield to the artistic and practi- 
cal, and every opportunity for free architectural competi- 
tions should be utilized. 

Mention should here be made of the City Improve- 
ment Fund of Vienna, an institution especially favorable 
to art and art industries in Austria, in its noble results. 
This alone made it possible t<> adorn Vienna by many 
monumental buildings, which certainly could not other- 
wise have been built. The means at its disposal for such 
purposes are exceedingly small, compared to those as- 


I2 S 

signed to monumental art in foreign countries. There 
can be no comparison with Paris, but it is even far infe- 
rior to conditions in Berlin, where during nineteen years, 
from 187 1 to 1890, monumental structures costing about 
$62,500,000 were erected by the government alone. 

The architect cannot evade the reproach of having 
done much to lower his position and profession. The 
attempt to attain success by dishonest competitions, by 
neglect of strict recpiirements, or by a sanguine excess in 
promises made to his clients has greatly injured the 
architect. Another cause is the usually inartistic and 
tasteless manner of executing the drawings for his works. 
A simple and insipid drawing without any artistic attrac- 
tion inspires professionals and laymen with anything but 
interest. Opportunity will occur later for treating this 
more fully. 

Yet the heart of the evil lies more deeply. The chief 
reason why the importance of 1 he architect is not fully appre- 
ciated lies in the xvorld of forms heretofore employed by 
him in his expressions addressed to the multitude, and 
zvhich in most cases remain entirely unintelligible to it. 
To explain this point thoroughly is the chief purpose of 
this work. It is not sufficient to condemn the architec- 
ture of the present time, to lose courage in the artistic 
contest forced on mankind, or to simply yield to the in- 
difference of the masses for architecture, and to throw 
away our weapons. 

Unwearied contributions to the exhibitions, an iron 
industry, and untiring activity will certainly produce a 
gradual improvement. Participation in competitions can- 
not be too strongly urged, since they are exceedingly 
instructive, in spite of all their defects. Although pro- 
fessional colleagues are usually silent concerning ex- 
hibited works, yet every one is aware that artists can 
only be improved by their works, in whose presence all 
baseless claims vanish. By his works the artist shows 
his power, thought, and feeling, his soul and truth, and 
they are always interesting, if beautiful. All artists are 
susceptible to such truths ; the opportunity for showing 
them is at exhibitions and competitions. 

The title of architect clearly belongs to the artist in 
architecture alone, and it is improper to create architects 
of different kinds, such as architect-contractor, architect- 
constructer, etc. The titles conferred by the State, like 
State-examined-architect, diplomaed-architect, civil-ar- 
chitect, etc., frequently show as great misuse of the title, 
as when it is appropriated by persons without shadow of 
justification therefor. 

It is unfortunately everywhere the custom for parents 
or guardians to decide on the future occupations of chil- 
dren without investigating their individual tendencies. 
Yet this should never be done, especially in choosing the 
vocation of architect. The motives influencing the ad- 
viser of the youth all concentrate in the short-sighted 
view that this or the other calling will be most profita- 
ble. It is then impossible to judge of the capacity of 
the young man, since the required qualities of imagina- 
tion, taste, and clear thinking only appear later, when 
the choice of occupation has already been made and his 
fate decided. Early facility in drawing docs not of itself 
stamp the youth as a future architect. In order to act 
correctly, the best method would be to refer the already 
scientifically educated candidate at the age^of twenty-two 

to twenty-six years to the K. K. Academy of Formative 
Arts, whose instructors should have the power to decide 
whether he might successfully pursue the architectural 
course. This is easily done by the instructors. There 
lie before them certificates, drawings, sketch-books. 
They may permit candidates to take a novitiate year of 
academic studies, and in case the expected tendency does 
not appear, they can ascertain the facts without error, or 
even correct a previous decision. Were this consistently 
done, it would produce healthier conditions, and would 
introduce a more natural relation between the number 
of architectural problems and the number of architects. 
That an improvement in architecture and in art would 
result, together with many advantages to the State, the 
people, and the city, does not require emphasis. 

The fact that every architect must also be a con- 
structer has led to a confusion in ideas, yet it is clear 
that one may be a skilful builder without being able to 
lay claim to the title of architect. Examinations estab- 
lished by the State are at best only designed to determine 
whether the candidate appears competent to make the 
necessary Statical calculations, and whether he is able to 
construct buildings suitable for residence and other 
purposes; but whether these structures may also be 
works of art can only be determined by artist architects. 

There is now a certain tendency for great architects to 
attain to authoritative positions as officials, and it must be 
admitted that so long as these are the best men, just 
decisions will be made by them. But if such architects 
no longer exist, the laws remain, and opportunities are 
opened to men who are not architects. There is some- 
thing unhealthy in all these conditions, and we must 
then rejoice that the architects have themselves taken 
up the work of improvement. The Architects' Club is 
selected from the .Society of Formative Artists in Vienna, 
and exactly corresponds to an architectural court of 
judgment. It can only lie warmly recommended that 
officials may recognize its worth and may utilize its 
assistance in the solution of all important questions. It 
is desirable that the question of title should be settled in 
this natural manner. 

The earlier life of the architect and the development 
of his powers have been discussed. But on leaving the 
school the maturing architect must possess some intel- 
lectual qualities, which alone completely fit him for the 
practice of his profession. As one of the most important, 
I may mention the ability to clearly perceive the require- 
ments. It is evident that our contemporaries propose 
the problem and compel the architect to solve it and 
to invent its form. Numberless things influence this 
form, all of which must be known to the artistic archi- 
tect if the form created by him is to be the proper one. 
Modes of living, customs, fashion, etiquette, climate, 
location, materials, tools, as well as the means at com- 
mand, all strongly influence the production of the art- 
work. To these are daily added numerous novelties and 
inventions, of which the architect cannot be ignorant, 
but must quickly and fully inform himself of their value. 
It is evident that the study of books and journals, 
practice, traveling, etc., play a principal part in this 

A few words arc necessary in relation to traveling. 
Alter the youthful apprentice to architecture has com- 



pleted his studies and leaves tha academy as mature, 
before he commences to practise, a journey of one or 
two years in Italy usually occurs. I believe this is a 
mistake. It is certain that much in this step is tra- 
ditional, and that our modern conditions have essentially 
changed the point of view. Aside from the fact that the 
duration of such a journey is now much shorter, modern 
publications have fully prepared one for everything 
worth seeing there. This is opposed to the two years' 
residence in Italy, formerly customary, and which too 
fre piently leads the youthful architect into dissipation. 
Entirely aside from this, I believe that after three or 
four years of study at the academy the future architect 
is not sufficiently mature for a successful tour in Italy, 
the nursery of ancient art, and therefore that such a 
journey is always taken to teach shade, well-balanced pro- 
portions, arrangement for show, sharply fixed distances 
of vision, correct perspective contours, the genesis of 
forms and their motives, characteristic effects in painting 
and sculpture, etc., can only be appreciated by a skilful 
and experienced eye. 'Phis maturity does not exist at 
the age of departure from the academy. A tour in Italy 
for making the commonly epiite incorrect drawings of 
selected buildings can only be regarded as practice in 
drawing, but to use it in collecting architectural motives 
that are afterwards to lie used on every occasion and at 
any cost is to be esteemed almost a crime, and certainly a 
mistake. A very important motive for a journey after 
completing studies and after the manual labor therein is 
a certain longing for freedom and for observation, which 
always arises at that time of life. For this reason I most 
warmly recommend a brief study tour, which must evi- 
dently first be in Italy. But the purpose here indicated 
is entirely fulfilled in three to five months; after a rest 
of a month the larger cities may be visited as well as 
places where luxury is at home, and where one may 
thoroughly observe and appreciate the requirements of 
modern mankind. Three months will suffice to fully 
carry out this plan, and the student will return with im- 
pressions received, when he can commence his further 
work in an office with undiminished love of labor. Years 
are to be spent there in patiently and industriously learning 
the practice of the art, so as to pass into independent archi- 
tectural work at about the end of his thirtieth year. He 
then has about ten years before his perfect maturity, 
during which he may produce art works at the cost of 
others or of himself, which he can scarcely regard with 
complacency in his later days. 

One fact requires mention, and which every archi- 
tect finds out. This is the constant lagging of ability 
behind the desire to accomplish. Even ability does not 
protect the newly Hedged architect from this. Thus the 
architect learns from each new building and is aware of 
his progress. This perception and the impossibility of 
improving anything after execution naturally produce 
a certain artistic depression. A reason for greater con- 
fidence in the creating architect is that his experience 
never diminishes, nor does his love of creating lessen, if 
it remains healthy, until very late in life. Striking 
proofs are afforded by the ages of many great architects, 
which far exceed the usual limit, — Hramante, 70; Sanso- 
vino, 93; Michael Angelo, 89; Maderna, ,S^ ; Bernini. <) 1 ; 
Jones, xd; Vim Klen/.e, 80; Semper, 76; Garneier, 7.5, etc. 

Before passing to the next topic, a very pertinent 
question must be answered. Why is not the modern 
architect likewise a painter and a sculptor like most 
architects in past ages ? The chief reason for this is to 
lie sought in the fact that the knowledge required from 
the modern architect, and to be acquired by him, has 
attained such dimensions that it already far exceeds the 
normal powers of acquisition in man: while the period of 
s'tudy and practice by the apprentice to the art is di- 
minished in accordance with our social conditions. This 
fact must necessarily produce specialists. But other 
things are added, and which entirely explain the type of 
modern architect. Most are mentioned in this work, and 
reference may here be made to the more prominent. 
Modern social conditions have permitted the typical art 
worker to entirely disappear, and have indeed changed 
each workman into a machine. The natural result must 
be that this great domain of art is left to the architect . 
Thus more than ever claimed on all sides, the modern 
architect is compelled to devote all his time and powers 
to his limited profession. We might, with equal justice, 
propose the query, Why are not our modern painters and 
sculptors also architects ? Doubtless for the same 
reasons that prevent architects from being likewise 
artists, though with the limitation that the architect is 
more fully justified by the reasons stated. 

So much for the person, period of study, and the 
existence of the architect. What he is to create will now 
be discussed. The topics to be examined are style, com- 
position, construction, and practice of the art, although 
their absolute separation is evidently impossible. 

The opinion is unfortunately very common in pro- 
fessional circles, indeed is accepted as an axiom, that the 
architect must create a basis for each one of his com- 
positions by selecting a so-called style, it even being 
demanded that he should always show an especial prefer- 
ence for that style tendency whose owner he appears to be. 

However repugnant to me to speak on my own 
account, yet I cannot hesitate to spurn the reproach that 
I employ the so-called "Empire" style, or utilize it as 
a basis for further development The reason for this 
imputation is to be sought in the frequent use of Mime 
characteristic motives of the Empire period in my build- 
ings and designs, such as the projecting horizontal band 
and the straight line. It is only necessary to refer to the 
importance of the straight line in our modern buildings. 
Our perfected construction, machines, tools, and struc- 
tural methods all require it, while externally (mistered 
construction, long since elevated to be a full}- justified 
art form, directly requires the band and band-like forms. 
It would be a great error to overlook these facts: 
opportunities will occur later for clearly presenting my 
views and freeing myself from this reproach. 

'fhe style basis mentioned above is adopted by the 
opponents of this theory, even in the smallest detail; it 
becomes a hobby, and is finally made a standard of value 
in deciding on created art forms. 'fhe thoughtful archi- 
tect is now much perplexed to place the lever for 
overthrowing such a crazy theory. 

It is first to be noted that the word "style" in the 
sense employed here always denotes the climax oi the 


i _>' 

period, the apex of its highest elevation. But it is more 
eorrect to speak of an art period as not being distinctly 
limited. Thus it is certain that during the development 
of their own style, the Greeks were not conscious of its 
contrast with the Egyptian style, just as little as the 
Romans were conscious concerning the Grecian. The 
Roman style was slowly developed from the Grecian, as 
the latter was from the Egyptian. Hence, from the 
climax of one style to that of the next there lie before us 
an unbroken series of transitional forms. The different 
forms are shaped and evolved by the nations according 
to their powers, their modes of expression and thought, 
until they correspond to the ideal of beauty for the 

Each new style is generally produced from an earlier 
one by combining new methods of construction, new mate- 
rials, new human problems and opinions, with the older 
one, there/'v creating 7iew forms. 

When events convulse the world and rage through a 
state, art stops, and when nations have by their might 
won power, importance, and finally peace, then art has 
blossomed anew. Great social transformations have 
always produced new styles. Art and its so-called style 
are always the fully developed expression of the ideal of 
beauty for a definite period of time. The artists in all 
ages had the clearly stated problem of composing new 
forms from those coming or transmitted to them, which 
then represented the art forms of their era. 

// is indeed to be assumed as demonstrated, that art 
and artists always represent their period. 

It is self-evident that the strongly agitated latter half 
of the nineteenth century also seeks an expression cor- 
responding to a view of art original with itself. But 
events progress more rapidly than any development of 
art. Therefore, what is more natural than to seek art in 
haste, to atone for neglect, to look for happiness every- 
where, and to believe that it may be found; hence, so 
many artists have cried " Eureka," and have sought and 
found men inspired by their views. The impetuosity of 
all style tendencies in recent decades was the result of 
this tendency. Who does not recall the electric effect 
produced by the words "Old (lerman " style after the 
great political events in Germany? 

If in a quiet and unprejudiced way we now consider 
the clamor about styles and the philippics of the last fifty 
years, by which the art views of the world were to be 
guided into true paths, we can only regard the mistakes 
of those apostles of style with compassionate smiles. 
After the earlier art mists had blown away, the result 
was found to be without motive and unsuitable; it be- 
came clear that all so-called styles were once fully justi- 
fied, but that a different expression must be sought for 
our modern period. Even if such styles caused tem- 
porary satisfaction, because the results usually recalled 
good old models, this artistic debauch cannot continue, 
since such art works appear to be merely the fruits of 
archaeological studies, and all creative value is almost 
entirely wanting in them. 

Ihit the problem of art, even of modern art, has always 
remained the same in all periods. Modem art must yield 
for us modern ideas, forms created by us, which represent 
our abilities, our acts, and our preferences. 

Whether Durer, Michael Angelo, Rubens, or Fischer 

von Erlach created a building, an allegory, a statue, or 
a portrait, such an art work always bore the original 
stamp of the master and the period, and it never occurred 
to such artists to base their works on a definite style, nor 
to copy the modes of expression current in previous cen- 
turies I!ut we too frequently find, in opposition to what 
is here said, an endeavor by modern artists to reproduce 
old ideas with the greatest accuracy, and even to imitate 
the changes produced by weather upon ancient monu- 
ments still remaining. This cannot possibly be the 
problem of modern art. and it certainly shows an absence 
of all artistic feeling, that nothing disturbing is found in 
the use of such "art forms" in the modern world. 

A few style pictures will serve to further illustrate 
what has been said. A Grecian temple, painted in bright 
colors, with a grove adorned by vari-colored statues, a 
handsome, high-girt Greek with brown skin, the sacred 
olive tree in its harmonious coloring, the deep blue sky, 
the atmosphere tremulous with the heat, the sharply out- 
lined shadows, — this is indeed a picture, a symphony. A 
Gothic church, the solemn gleam of candles softly shin- 
ing through colored windows, the multitude gently flow- 
ing toward the church in their dully, party-colored, slashed 
doublets and smock frocks, the incense, the pealing of 
bells, the organ tones, beneath a frequently very gloomy 
sky, — this is again a picture. The French kings, from 
Louis XIII. to Louis XVI., the court ladies and courtiers 
in their rich and heavy clothing and perukes, their 
etiquette, their richly scrolled halls, at last becoming 
more simple, the shepherd plays in their artificial gardens, 
far removed from the depressed people, — again a series 
of pictures If the attempt were made to take from these 
pictures only the smallest portion, and to replace this with 
another bit in another style, this would become a discord 
in the harmony. If the picture is to become harmonious 
for us, then must art and its unchanging forms keep in 
close touch with man, his appearance, and his endeavors. 

The style pictures just mentioned lead us logically to 
perceive the intricate and heretofore ignored connection 
of taste, fashion, and style. Even a slight gift for 
observation must produce the con suction that the ex- 
ternal appearance, the clothing of men in its form, color, 
and appointments, entirely expresses contemporary art 
views and art creations, and indeed nothing else could 
be conceived. Xo period and no style is an exception to 
this. These facts become clearly evident by comparing 
pictures of costumes with contemporary works of archi- 
tecture, or still more so by an examination of paintings 
representing both together. (Carpaccio, ('allot, Bosse, 
Lepautre, Chodowiecki, Canaletto.) This subject may 
be pursued so far, that the conviction is finally forced on 
US, that the great masters in past ages failed when they 
attempted to represent figures in the costumes of their 
ancestors. Their views and their perceptions always 
corresponded to the forms of their own epoch alone. 
The creations of pencil and brush were always the origi- 
nal style of their own time. Why entirely otherwise 
to-day ? A collected medley of styles, everything copied 
and even applied superficially, and this is expected to har- 
monize with our surroundings' It is not necessary to lie 
an artist to reject this result. Where is the error ? Why 
this discord between fashion and art? Modern mankind 
has certainly not lost taste, but now more than ever 


before notices the least error in fashion, which is increas- 
ingly more critical than formerly. Our clothing and 
our fashions are dictated by genera] consent, arc properly 

determined, and thus exclude all errors. Discord is not 
to be sought therein, but must consequently exist in the 
works of current art, and this is indeed the case. 

Objects resulting from modern views (it is evident that 
tins can only apply to such as have become art forms) 
harmonise perfectly with our surroundings ; but copied and 
imitated objects never do. 

For example, a man in modern traveling costume 
accords very well with railway waiting rooms, with 
sleeping cars and carriages, but how would it appear t<> 
see persons in the costumes of the era of Louis XV. 
making use of them? The very delicate feeling of the 
public concerning fashion and this indifference or even 
Stupidity in reference to artistic works are based on the 
following principle. Fashion is nearest, most popular, 
most easily influenced, and is the precursor of the style, 
while the developed style itself represents a crystallized, 
less easily affected and more refined taste, whose criti- 
cism demands depth. But the most potent reason why 
people usually are so thoroughly indifferent to works of 
art is that the language of art is unintelligible to them, 
and the objects produced are not works of our period. 

Our era has wandered far in seeking and groping for 
truth, in expressing our views, and has sought safety in 
monkey-like imitations rather than in new creations and 
in a natural development. It has pleased artists to 
dissect the dead with microscope and knife rather than 
to lay hand on the pulse of the living and to alleviate 
their pains. 

The assumption that many architectural problems, 
such as churches, appear to be the same now that they 
were centuries since, while other problems are of the 
most recent origin, has produced ^reat errors. Hence 
laymen, and unfortunately many architects, are of the 
opinion, for example, that a parliament house may be 
Greek, but a telegraph or telephone building may not be 
Gothic, while they directly require a church to be in that 
style. They all forget a single fact, that men entering 
these buildings are all modern, and that it is not the cus- 
tom to ride with naked legs to parliament in an antique 
triumphal chariot, nor to go in a slashed doublet to 
church or to the city hall. All such errors are eventually 
charged to the architect. In extenuation there may only 
be pleaded the haste required and a search for the true 

A striving after " picturesque effect "'and for harmony 
with existing structures have produced similar peculiar 
results. In a very recent competition for a city hall, the 
architects, the professional and non-professional judges, 
all honestly tried to bring the proposed structure into 
harmony with the ancient " picturesque " surroundings, 
proceeding as in the decoration of theaters, never under- 
standing that the erection of the new city hall would 
cause the rebuilding of all adjoining edifices, so that finally 
an '• ancient " city hall would be surrounded by modern 
buildings. In another competition for a city hall, some 
fifty-two out of fifty-three designs were executed in 
Gothic or Old German. Yet the author has found that the 
controlling factors in such eases are anything but Gothic 
or old German men, being rather plum]), self-conscious, 

modern Germans, and he aimed to express these peculi- 
arities in his treatment of the city hall. 

Artistic attempts to join imitations to existing edifices 
without taking account of other conditions, with a certain 
poverty of spirit and lack of independence, must always 
produce an effect like that of a man in the costume of a 
past century, hired from a dealer in costumes, who 
attends a modern ball. Hence, this cannot possible be 
the true path for modern architecture to follow, even 
were all creative power denied to it. 

All modern creations must correspond to the new ma- 
terials, to the requirements of the present time, if they arc 
to suit modern mankind; they must manifest our ere// 
better, democratic, self-conscious, ideal nature, and must 
take into account the colossal technical and scientific acqui- 
sitions, as ;ccll as the thoroughly practical tendency of 
mankind ; this is even self-evident! 

What colossal labor there remains to modern art, and 
how zealously must we lay hold of it, to show the world 
that we have become equal to the problem set before us! 
If we enter the true path, the innate perception of man- 
kind's ideal of beauty will naturally be more strongly 
evident, architectural expression will become intelligible, 
and a style representing our epoch will be created. Nay 
more! We find ourselves in the midst of this movement. 
This general departure from the broad road of imitation 
and habit, this ideal striving for truth in art. press for- 
ward with gigantic force, overthrowing everything oppos- 
ing their definite and victorious course. As always 
heretofore, art will have the power to hold up their own 
ideal before the eyes of mankind. 

Hut the revolution will be so powerful, that we may 
scarce speak of a revival of the Renaissance. . 1 completely 
new birth, a creation, will result from this movement, and 
unlike earlier masters with few traditional motives and 
intercourse with some neighboring nations at command, 
but in consequence of our social conditions and by the power 
of modern acquisitions, we shall have all the abilities and 
all the knowledge of mankind at our free disposal. /his 
new style will be the " modern," representing us and our 
epoch, plainly derived from new conceptions in art, which 
must eh arly express the a/most total disappearance of ro- 
manticism and the generally dominating prominence of 
reason in all our acts. 

This future style, representing us and our era. and 
built up on the basis here indicated, requires time for its 
development, like all preceding styles. But our rapid/]- 
living century likezvise here endeavors to reach this end 
more quickly than was the case earlier ; therefore will the 
world attain success more quickly and to its own sur- 

Such views require that one should never speak of 
the choice of a style as the basis of modern architectural 
creation, but the architect must strive to produce new 
forms, or those forms that most readily harmonize with 
our modern construction and requirements, thus best 
expressing truth. The architect may search in the full 
treasury of traditional forms, but he may not copy those 
selected, but rather adapt them to his purpose in new 
forms, [f this process can be but gradual, it is indeed 
evident that it requires for this end the suggestions and 
aid of our contemporaries. 

( To be continued.) 


Selected Miscellany. 

1 29 

selected as the architects of the Garth Memorial Library 
at Hannibal, Mo. They have also designed an interest- 


The reports of the Building Commissioner show for the 
past four months an increase in value of building per- 
mits of more than one and one half million dollars over 
that for a corresponding time last year, and both archi- 
tects and builders are busy. 

A recent decision of the Supreme Court, sustaining 
the city in its power to issue special tax bills against 
property for street improvements, has opened the way 
for the making of streets, and the Board of Public 
Improvements is losing no time in availing itself of it. 

The corner-stone of the building for the Mary In- 
stitute of the Washington University group was recently 
laid. The building will cost $200,000. Work on the 
other buildings is 
progressing rapidly, 
some of them being 
now under roof. 

Baker & Knell 
have been selected, 
through competition, 
as the architects for 
the hospital and dor- 
mitories of the State 
Federal Soldier's 
Home at St. James, 

The contract has 
been awarded for a 
thirteen-story f i r e- 
proof office building 
for the nort beast 
c o r n e r of Seventh 
and Market Streets, 
which will replace 
the historic Masonic Temple built during the early '6o's. 
The building will cost $600,000. W. Albert Swasey is 
the architect. Mr. Swasey has also a fine residence for 
Dr. J. J. Lawrence on the corner of 89th Street and Fifth 
Avenue, New York City. 

The new Centenary Hospital, adjoining the Barnes 
Medical College on the north side of Chestnut Street, 
will be six stories, and cost $85,000. J. B. Legg is the 

Architects Mauran, Russell & Garden have been 


Roofed with Celadon Tile. 

Cabot, Everett & Mead, Architects. 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company, makers. 

ing half-timbered house for Westminster Place, and an 

English Gothic residence lor Forest Park Terrace. 

Architect Will 
Levy is building the 
Jewish Hospital on 
1 >elmar A v e n u e , 
west of Union Ave- 
nue. The pavilion 
plan has bee 11 
adopted, a n d t h e 
buildings will be fire- 

The Metropolitan 
Life Insurance Com- 
pany is building new 
offices on the corner 

of I Ira lid A v e n u c 
a n d Palm Street. 
Messrs. Le Brun & 
Son of New York, 

the architects, have 

employed the hutch 
Renaissance, using red brick with red tile roof. 

Frank A. I'. Burford has resigned as chief assistant 
to Commissioner of School Buildings Wm. 1!. Inner, to 
accept the secretaryship of the Jean Johnston Con- 
struction Company, and George K. A. Breuggeman, for 
uierlv with Mauran, Russell & Garden, succeeds to the 


The reports so far this year from the building inspec- 
tor's office show that this is the best year that Pittsburgh 
has ever known, both in number and importance ol new 

New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

Executed in gray terra-cotta by the New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company. 



buildings, and if the reports of only a few of the many 
new buildings announced in the papers during the month 
are true, the remainder is likely to prove even better. 

Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

H. C. Frick, who is building the twenty-story office 
building at Fifth Avenue and Grant Street, is reported 
to be negotiating for the purchase of the property on 
the opposite corner of Fifth Avenue, now occupied by 
St. Paul's Roman Catholic Cathedral. The congregation 
has voted to sell and to build a new building in the East 
End. If this goes through, one of our most interesting 
brick buildings will be torn down, but it will likely be the 
ending of all opposition to the removal of "the hum])" 
on Fifth Avenue. 

Alden cV Harlow are preparing plans for a fifteen- 
story building at the corner of Fourth Avenue and Wood 
Street, and for an eight-story building to be built in the 
East End. They have also prepared plans for a large 

residence to be built on Forbes Street, cost about $100,000. 

1)1. r A 1 1 V.\ MMMINS ft FELLOWS, ARCHITE( FS. 
Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

McClure & Spahr are the architects of a fifteen-story 
building for the Keystone Bank. 

D. H. Burnham, of Chicago, is reported to be prepar- 
ing plans for a $1,000,000 office building to be built here. 


House and Garden, the first number of which we have 
received, is a magazine devoted to architecture, gardens, 

and decoration. It comes to us from Philadelphia in a 
very attractive and presentable form, and shows through 
all its numerous illustrations the recognizable evidences 

of the appreciative, refined taste of the trio of Phila- 
delphia architects in whose hands it has been placed, 
Messrs. Wilson Eyre, Jr., Frank Miles Day, and Herbert 


C. Wise. There is a large possibility for publications of 

this kind, and we are glad to welcome it. and commend 
it to all our architectural readers. 


John A. Davidson, architect, whose office for the past 
five years has been at .SjS Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn, 



Indianapolis Terra Cotta Company, makers. 

Gustave W. Drach, Architect. 

has removed to the Continental Building, 46 Cedar Street, 

Xew York. 

The Roxbury Courthouse, illustrated in our May 
number, was designed by J. Laurence Berry and Francis 
R. Allen, associate architects, and not Allen & Vance 
as stated. 

The Inter Ocean Building, Chicago, illustrated in the 

HI I \ll BY I . S. MAN MAN, \Kl III 111 I . 
Standard Terra-Cotta Works, makers 



half-tone plate form of this number, is of white enameled 
terra-cotta, some touches of gold being burned in on the 
ornamental work. The tinted columns, 24 ft. high, are 

made in three pieees, which is 
quite a problem in a shrinking, 
warping material, when it is 
considered that these s a m e 
fluted columns are in reality 
nothing but bundles of straight 
lines. The two large groups of 
statuary above the double col- 
umns are finished in dull white 
enamel, and the central figure 
of " Progress," at the entrance, 
is in dull green enamel, as also 
is the semi-circle of columns 
at the entrance and the domed 
framework above, holding the 
glass panels. The work was 
executed by the A m eric a n 
Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Com- 

Akron Star Brand Cement 
is being used in the erection of 
a new church at Avon, Ohio, 
and for a large beet sugar fac- 
tory at West Bay City, Mich. 

The Perth Amboy Terra- 
Cotta Company have secured 
contracts to furnish the terra- 
cotta for the following build- 
ings: Arrott Building, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., F. J. Osterling, 
architect; building for the 
People's Land Company, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., Alden & Harlow, 
architects; residence for R. W. 
Patterson, Dupont Circle, Washington, U. C, McKim, 
Mead & White, architects; hotel for the Toronto Hotel 
Company, Toronto, Can., Henry Ives Cobb, architect. 

Shawnee brick, made by the Ohio Mining and Manu- 

Broad Street, New York City, R. S. Townsend, archi- 
tect; apartments, 85th Street, New York City, Hill & 
Turner, architects; residence, Fifth Avenue, New York 
City, Ren wick. Asninwall & Owen, architects; ware: 




American Terra-Cotta and Ce- 
ramic Company, makers. 


White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

facturing Company, have been used in the following new 
buildings: Apartment, 21st Street, New York City. 
Thorne & Wilson, architects; offices and warehouse, 


rooms, Mercer Street, New York City, Robert Mynicke, 

Fiske & Co., Boston, will furnish brick for the follow- 
ing new buildings: National Food Conservatory, Niagara 
Falls, N. Y., Earle & Fisher, architects. (This building 
takes upwards of 800,000 face brick.) Parish House, 
Park Congregational Church, Norwich, Conn., Earle & 
Fisher, architects; Y. M. C. A. Building, New Haven. 
Conn., Brown & Van Beren, architects; Y. M. C. A. 
Building, Hyde Park, Mass., Thos. Rowe, architect; Ma- 
sonic Building, Lewiston, Me., Coombs & Gibbs, archi- 



B. KrejSCher & Sons, makers. 

Prank Fi eeman, An 

I' RE, I : Rook I N \. 




U [M 33 33 3 3 

33 33 33 3 3 

between practical problems and school projets 
is becoming less every year, and though we 
fancy that Mr. Myers' Study for a Depart- 
ment Store, which appears in the Year Book, 
would hardly suit all the requirements of 
Jordan-Marsh, or Wanamaker, it is quite 
probable that these commercial houses may 
grow up to something of that sort some of 
these days, and in the meantime, the training 
the students obtain from the study of these 
purely academic problems is beyond question. 
The Hand-book of the Department of 
Architecture of Cornell University is in a 
similar way a very excellent presentation of 
the students' work. We notice particularly 
a design for a reception room in a State Cap- 
itol, l>v Mr. Tissington, as a most careful 
Study of a very elaborate problem. 

Architectural terra-cotta furnished by the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company 
nished by Sayre & Fisher Company, 
irge I.. Mi irse, Archit* 

tects; Town Hall, Warren. Mass., Dwight & Chandler, 
architects; Y. M. ('. A. BTHlding, ball River, Mass., Nat. 
C. Smith, architect; Franklin Hank Building, Pawtucket, 
R.I., Wright & [sham, architects; Lowell Textile School, 
Lowell, Mass.. Lockwood & Greene, architects; Bowdoin 
College Library, Brunswick, Me., Henry Vaughn, archi- 
tect; Knights of Pythias Building, Somerville, Mass., 
J. W. Cobb, archil 

SOME striking facts concerning the ques- 
tion of housing the poor in Liverpool have 

recently been collected by the League for 

Social Service. At various times the Munici- 
pal Corporation of Liverpool has obtained 
powers from Parliament to borrow sums 
amounting to s.' for the demolition 
and improvement of property found to be un- 
sanitary. This large amount has already been 
expended with the exception of about $35,000. 
The Medical Board of Liverpool now reports 
that many houses are in an unsanitary condi- 
tion, unlit for habitation, and they recommend 
an immediate appropriation to carry on the 
work of destroying this property, and then 
improving it with new homes. The number 
of houses which have already been demolished 
by the Municipal Council of Liverpool as un- 
fit for habitation is 6,500. The City of Liver- 
pool has now in the course of erection i>Sj 
houses, with recreation grounds for the poor, and since 
fanuary 1, the city has appropriated to be used 
in erecting 95 additional houses for the poor. 

Brick fur- 


HENRY MAURER & SON beg to extend to all 
architects and engineers visiting the Pan-Ameri- 
can Exposition a cordial invitation to inspect their 
exhibit of clay products for building and other purposes, 
assuring them of a hearty welcome. 

To those engaged in fire-proof construction as well as 
to those branches of manufacturing requiring a high 
«rade of fire-brick, much will be found of interest. 

7 MHO Year Look of the Department of Architecture 
of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
is in a suggestive way a good epitome of the work which 
is done at this most excellent school. The distinction 

Elzner & Anderson, Arch;: 








85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. ( ). Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter. March 1 2. 1S92. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States 

and Canada $5.00 per year 

Single numbers .......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied 
by the American News Company and its branches. 


Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : — 

country life afford a valuable opportunity for a kind of 
serious study which we are only too prone to ignore. 


Agencies. — Clay Products .... II 

Architectural Faience II 

,, Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

„ Enameled Ill and IV 


Cements . . IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing . IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 

7"*HERE is a lot of outdoor work which is directly in 
the line of architectural study ; and when the tem- 
perature in the office is too high for serious book study 
or work with drawing' board and T square, it well re- 
pays the earnest student to go out in the country and 
study form and composition as he can find it in plant life. 
We had occasion a few days since to examine some of the 
summer work of students in a neighboring school, which 
was devoted primarily to the arts. The work of one 
student was remarkable in that he managed to get so 
much real, positive, helpful study from the simpler plant 
forms. This is something which is easier to illustrate by 
example than by precept, but every architect knows how 
much of the vegetable kingdom can be directly assimi- 
lated in the architectural world in detail, and how im- 
portant it is to freshen one's perceptions by going back 
as it were to the fountain head of decorative work and 
study nature. The only trouble is in our vacation days 
we easily confound simple loitering and admiring ol a 
pretty plant with the careful reasoning examination and 
analysis which can be productive of so much architec- 
tural good. Most of us loiter our vacations away, and 
regret it when the fall and its new problems come in on 
us unawares. But looked at aright, a hot season and the 

THE question is sometimes asked by our too im- 
patient friends. Why is it this country docs not 
produce more and better brick buildings' That we will 
ever know the full answer to such a query is hardly 
likely. We certainly admit the limitations of our brick- 
architecture as well as those of buildings erected in a less 
pliable and permanent material, and it is to be hoped 
that the time may never come when we cannot see 
possibilities of improvement even in the best of our 
work. But granting for the moment that the difficulty 
lies not wholly with the mere ability of our designers, 
there are, it seems to us, some explanations, or, perhaps, 
more truly, some possibilities of improvement in the 
design and increase in the quantity of our terra-cotta 
and brick architecture. When an architect is entrusted 
with a commission for a large, prominent building, the 
temptation to select at once the material which is popti 
larly associated with the architectural triumphs of so 
much of the old world is sometimes too strong to be 
resisted. He feels that this may be his only chance, and 
that if he can only persuade his client to be sufficiently 
complacent, he, the architect, may be more sure of his 
ground and of his results by using stone than by attempt- 
ing brick and terra-cotta. Then sometimes we are a bit 
lazy, and it is easier to copy, or at least we think so. 
than to bend ourselves to the really difficult task of prop- 
erly designing a burnt-clay structure. An architect will 
often lack the courage of his own convictions, and 
though he may know that brick is the proper material to 
use, will run off into free stone or granite because his 
client tells him to do so. Indeed, the architect who, 
becoming thoroughly convinced that brick or terra-cotta 
should be used under certain conditions, will resolutely 
impose his convictions upon his client, is rare. There 
is no lack of abundant demonstration, however, that the 
difficulty lies almost wholly with the intent of the 
architect, and not with the material. Four of the most 
successful recent buildings in this country are the Horti- 
cultural Hall. Philadelphia, by Frank Miles Day; the 
Natural History Museum in the same city by tin- same 
architect in conjunction with Wilson Eyre and Cope & 
Stcwardson; the Broadway Chambers, New York City, 
by Cass Gilbert ; and the Horticultural Hall, Boston, by 
E. M. Wheelwright. All of these structures arc built ol 
brick. Nor does this by any means exhaust the list. 

Monumental, impressive buildings in brick have come to 
stay, and if we arc asked why we do not have more ol 
them, we would reply, give us time and the courage ol 
our convictions, and they will come. 



Old English Brickwork. II. 


THE second period in the history of brickwork in 
this country was, broadly speaking, from and 
including- the time of Queen Elizabeth to that of Inigo 
[ones, through that time of chaos in archi- 
tecture when the mason or carpenter prob- 
ably undertook the work of designing as well 
as the erection of the buildings upon which 
they were employed, under frequently the 
direct supervision of the employer; when men 
like Abel of Herefordshire, Thomas Holt of 
Oxford, both of them carpenters, and Simons 
and Wigge of Cambridge were the nearest ap- 
proach to the present-day architect. John 
Thorpe and the Smithsons, being almost the 
only men whose names have come down to us 
as acting in the true position of architect as 
we know it. 

Brickwork had ceased to be much employed 
ornamentally after the time of Henry VIII., 
through whose long reign it and terra-cot ta 
had been very freely used for the execution 
of moldings, window tracery, copings, etc., 
but from the middle of the sixteenth to the 
latter half of the seventeenth ccnturv it was 

building activity, the material used being chiefly the red 
bricks, which have weathered by time to a beautiful 
color, and. as we know them, add so much charm to our 
English landscapes, and are so characteristic of them. 
A friendly spirit of rivalry was abroad as to the posses- 
sion of the most magnificent house, the largest rooms. 
or the longest gallery (this latter feature so character- 


very rarely used except for plain walling, stone being 
very generally used for dressings in every position, as 
in the case of large houses such as Rlickling Hall in 
Norfolk, Moyns Park in Essex, Kentwell Hall and Long 
Melford Hall in Suffolk, Hatfield House in Hertford- 
shire, Aston Hall in Warwickshire, and Bramshill House 
in Hampshire, which are a few examples out of very 
many of its use in this manner. 

Many, however, of the smaller and less important 
country houses built during this period are constructed en- 
tirely of brickwork, and furnish good examples of its use 
ornamentally in their door and window dressings, string- 
courses, gables, parapets, copings, and chimney-stacks. 

The reign of Queen Elizabeth was a time of great 


istic of these houses), a spirit which was bound 
to give an immense impetus to building, and 
which fortunately for us was productive of 
better results than that which occurred later. 
in the history of our Renaissance, when good, 
honest brickwork was thought to be too mean 
a material for use in the great showy houses 

such as were built in vast numbers in the 
eighteenth century except as a core to be 
plastered over in imitation of stone in those 
cases where the use of stone dressings was 
found to be too costly, and the effect of stone 
had to be obtained somehow. 

This, too, was a period of fanciful houses, 

both as regards plan and elevation, such as 
some of those designed by John Thorpe ami 
Sir Thomas Tresham. The triangular lodge 
at Rushton, in Northamptonshire, and the 
house designed by Thorpe on the lines of his 





own initials are good exam- 
ples of the eccentricities 
prevalent at this period. 

Great impetus was given 
to the use of brick as a build- 
ing material by the growing 
scarcity of wood in English 
forests, a fact which caused 
much uneasiness, and into 
which inquiry was made at 
the time: the iron works in 
Kent and Sus- 
sex being re- 
s p o n si b le, 
in a 1 a r ge 
measure, for 
much of the 
destruction of 
wood by using 
great quanti- 
ties as fuel for 
their furnaces. 
The consequence was that half -tim- 
ber building was discontinued, a method 
of building which was almost universal 
throughout the wooded tracts of coun- 
try, and even largely used in London, 
until in a. d. 1605 James I. issued a proc- 
lamation forbidding buildings to be 
erected in London, except of brick or 
stone, the great advantages and increased 
safety of the houses built of these mate- 
rials being then understood. 

Brick was much used as a filling in 
between the studs in half-timber work ; 
the Deans Cloister, at Windsor, though 
now rebuilt, and exactly on the old lines, a very good 
example of this method, the brick filling being put 
in herring-bone fashion. 

Shrewsbury and Worcester furnish us with many ex- 
amples of this kind of work, the one illustrated here be- 
ing a typical example, the brick corbelling over the door- 
way being interesting and picturesque even if not very 
architectural. It is also very prevalent in the smaller 
domestic houses and cottages in the counties of Kent, 
Sussex, and Surrey, and to a lesser extent in Norfolk, 
Suffolk, and Essex. 

At Great Tangley Manor House, in Surrey, though 



most of the house is timber and plaster, there arc parts, 
as our illustration here shows, where brick is used in con- 
junction with the timber; the great square brick chimney- 
stacks also add greatly to the picturesque effect of the 
charming spot. 

Brick chimneys, again, are a history in themselves, 
showing in their varying forms, from the large square 
single flue to the highly ornamental groups of chimneys, 
such as we sec at Hampton Court Palace, the progress 
made, both in design and scientific construction. 

The earliest-known example of a chimney in England 
is most probably the circular chimnej - 
stack of the king's house, at Christchurch, 
in Hampshire, a ruined building of Nor- 
man date; but at this early period chim- 
ney-shafts were doubtless the exception 
and not the rule, and at Rochester Castle, 
in Kent, also a building of' Norman date, 
the flues from the fireplaces are continued 
vertically up in the thickness of the exter- 
nal walls for a short distance, and then 
turned horizontally through the wall, show- 
ing on the outside face merely a square 
aperture, a method probably productive of 
much smoke and discomfort in the rooms. 
The plans of the smaller domestic build- 
ings were simple in the extreme: a large 
apartment formed the hall, which was gen- 
erally used for living and even sleeping in. 
There also was a kitchen and usually an 
apartment off the hall, called the "solar." 
perhaps, devoted to the use of the female 
inhabitants of the house. These apart- 
ments generally had fireplaces and chim- 
neys, but in many cases a lantern upon 
the roof carried off the smoke from the 
hall fire, which often was on a raised hearth in the center 
of the floor. 

At a later date when the need of greater privacy and 

bs " " -S^fjp^ i^rsf^M- : Vf* rr *~'- 



comfort was recognized, more rooms were added, and the 

necessity for a Large hall no longer existed; it became the 
usual expedient to insert a floor at a convenient height, 

i3 6 

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~B*,ihurst fruit 

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dividing the hall into two stories, thus increasing the 

The same feeling which prompted this extension of 
plan also required the comfort to be obtained by, the 


more general construction of fireplaces, and, consequently, 

Brick chimney-stacks seem to have come into very 
general use about a. d. 1500. Many extremely beautiful 

examples still exist in buildings of much earlier date, but 
in most eases these are of stone. 

Chimney-stacks may be broadly divided into two 
types internal and external staeks and from the usual 
plan of having a huge recessed fireplace or ingle nook 
upon the ground floor, were frequently of large dimen- 
sions, the effect of which, when seen, as in the ease of an 
external staek. is very fine. 

Early brick chimneys were generally grouped in 
rows upon square bases, which rise well above the roofs. 

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The plans of the shafts enclosing the lines are of very 
varied form — circles, octagons, and hexagons, and 
these again were varied by having their sides curved, on 
plan, or again the moldings of an octagon or hexagon 

chimney-shaft were worked spirally from base to cap. 
The walls or shafts containing the flues were at first in- 
variably separate, only being united by the projection of 
the cap and base molds, 
as the chimneys of Eton 
College, i I a 111 p t o n 
Court Palace, Eastbury 
House, near Barking, 
and Penshurst Castle, 
in Kent, which very 
well illustrate the mas- 
tery the brickbuilder 
had attained over his 

By degrees the dues 
w e re diminished in 
si/.e, and their enclos- 
ing walls in the chim- 
ney-shaft proper were 
connected at first SO 
slightly as still to give 
the appearance of de- 
tached shafts, as the 
chimney-stack i 1 1 11 s- 
trated f r <> m Wheat- 
hampstead in Hertford- 
shire, which has three 
flues grouped together, 
the chimney-stack from 
Long Melford, or the 
very fine early exam- 
ple at East Barsham in ^ 
Norfolk, a prototype of 
the many rubbed brick bramshu.l, Hampshire, 






chimneys which were 
afterwards built in this 
country. Towards the 
middle of the s e v en- 
teenth century the Hues 
in many houses were 
often carried up together 
in o n e large square 
stack, and this was sim- 
ply paneled on each face. 
The chimnevs of the 
Deanery, at Winchester, 
and the old Sick House 
or Infirmary of the col- 
lege at the same place 
are good examples of 
this variety of finish. 

It is also interesting 
to note that brick was 
very generally used, on 
account of its adaptabili- 
ty and ease of manipula- 
tion, in some of the very 
beautiful Kent and Sus- 


ESS! \. 

sex country houses for the construc- 
tion of the chimney-shafts proper. 
Even when the lower part of the 
stack consisted of masonry, the up- 
per part was often built with bricks. 
This method of building is probably 
due to the fact that the stone em- 
ployed in building these houses was 
hardly suitable for the construction 
of chimneys, but whatever the cause, 
the present effect of these brick 
chimneys upon stone bases or wall- 
ing is very charming. 

The chimney-stack from Pens- 
hurst, Kent, here illustrated, is a 
good example of this. 

The villages in the counties of 
Kent, Surrey, and Sussex abound 
in man\- varied examples of the 
plainer forms of chimney-stacks, 
many of which are worthy of illus- 
tration, and would amply repay 1 
careful study. 

The caps of these simpler types are generally formed 
of the ordinary walling bricks, rubbed or molded brick 
being of very rare occurrence in these cottage buildings. 
The two simple forms, here illustrated, are from I'd i- 
more in Sussex, and Kilndown in Kent. It was a very 

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common practice to 
project n e course 
of brickwork along 
each side of a chim- 
ney-stack i m m e di- 
atcly above the roof 
line and to fill in the 
space from the under 
side of this project- 
ing brick to the tiles 
of the roof with 
mortar; this method 
obviated the neces- 
sity of lead, which at 
that time was very 
expensive for flash- 
ings, and a ]) a r t 
from this re a son 

adds much charm to the effect of the chimney-stack. 
The long bay windows running up the whole height 
of the house were especially typical features of this 
period. They were, it is true, built with stone dressings 
and window jambs, etc., but brick was the body of the 
structure, the one material setting off the other with 
splendid effect. 

At Moynes Park, in Kssex, built 
in about a. d. 15.S0, the gables and 
bays are alternated, a distribution of 
parts somewhat unusual to find, but 
which looks in this instance extreme- 
ly well. The chimney-stacks here, 
also, are very lofty, and have molded 
brick caps and bases. 

Blickling Hall, near Aylsham, in 
Norfolk, is one of the many beautiful 
Elizabethan houses of red brick with 
stone dressings, with great chimney- 
stacks, long bays, and curved gables. 
The bay windows on the cast front 
are alternately canted and square. It 
was built in \. D. 1619 or A. D. 1 (120. 
A moat running along the front, over 
which the main entrance is approached 
by a bridge of brick and stone, and the 
squareangle towers at each end of this 
front are features of very frequent 
occurrence in houses of this time. 
Charlton House, near Woolwich, in Kent, is another 
typical house of this period. Here the roofs do not 
show, and the walls are crowned with an elaborately 
pierced parapet. The date of this house is about \. i>. 

Bramshill, in Hampshire, was built upon the site of 
an older house, [ohn Thorpe being very generally sup- 
posed to have been responsible for it, although it has 
been assigned to the hand of Inigo Jones. 

It is like a flat II on plan, and is built of brick, with 
dressings of Headington stone. With tin- exception of 
the front entrance, the work is of plain character. Much 
of its effect is gained bv Hat stretches of wall, pierced by 
many mullioned bay windows running up in this instanci 
to the pierced parapet, which crowns the walls and is 
carried round the heads of these bays as a finish. The 


i 3 8 


bays, here illustra- 
ted, are those of the 
front overlooking the 
terrace w a Ik an d 
bowling green. 

Hatfield House. 
in Hertfordshire, is 
another remarkably 
fine house of this 
period, and. Like 
Bramshill. i s built 
upon the II plan. 
The south front has 
angle towers much 
after the design of 
those at Blickling. 
Hatfield was erected 
by Sir Robert Cecil, 
between the years \. 
i). 1605 and \. i>. i(n 1 . 

Another charac- 
teristic building is 
that of I lam House, 
near R i c h m o n d 
(Surrey), built in 

A. 1>. l6lO. 

Eastbury House, near Barking, in Essex, is a smaller 
type of house, built entirely of red brick, the mullions. 
window jambs, and gable copings being of that material. 

The window iambs in this case have been plastered 
over in imitation of stone quoins. Possibly, at a later 
date, this lias also been done in other cases: for in- 
stance, the windows of Seckford Hall, in Suffolk, where 
there is some cut and molded brickwork of this date in 
the jambs and mullions of the windows. 

Some almshouses at Audley End, near Saffron W'aklen, 
in Essex, have much good brickwork of the same period. 

At St. Albans, in Hertfordshire, the entrance gateway 
of Pemberton's almshouses is worth notice, and in the 
village <>f Flamstead, six miles away, the almshouses are 
built entirely of red brick, the copings and finials being 
particularly good. 


Water End Manor House, a small country house near 
Wheathampstead, in the same county, is also a good ex- 
ample of this date, and likewise lias copings, strings, and 
finials executed in molded brick, as are the caps and 
bases of the very perfect and beautiful chimney-stacks. 

The almshouses at Harefield, near Uxbridge, present 
another good example. They are built around three 
sides of a small quadrangle, and have the characteristic 
chimneys of the period. The springers to thegablesin 
cut brickwork are especially instructive. 

At King's Lynn, in Norfolk, the almshouses, here illus- 
trated, are built entirely in brickwork. The -allies are 

■ ^ 



• iJi Eiii 




^ "** Z- 

- '!'■■ 



— "*■ 



^ - " * 




very simply treated with plain hollow curves, finishing 
with a fiat pediment. 

The gables of this period were treated in many and 
various ways, and were perhaps the most thoroughly 
typical feature, as they afterwards fell into disuse, owing 
to the increasing influence of the classic- 
school whose chief if not sole idea of the way 
to finish a building was to run a parapet 
round the summit of its walls, keeping the 
roof and chimneys as much out of sight as 

The earliest form was the stepped gable, 
doubtless of Flemish origin, which afterwards 
gave way to those formed of segments of 
circles and curves. 

The stepped gable was common throughout 
the eastern counties, and is also to be found 
in some places in Kent and Sussex. The 
gateway from Canterbury, previously illus- 
trated, has this form of gable. 

St. John's College, Cambridge, has some 
extremely good examples of the later segmen- 
tal gables. 

Restoration House, Rochester, also has 
gables of this type. 

The gables on the south front of Maekcraye 





End Manor House, near Wheathampstead, in Hertford- 
shire, present another variety of this form. In this in- 
stance, a flattish pediment forms the crowning member 
of the gable. 

Perfectly straight gables were also often built in 
brick. Those at Water End Manor House and the alms- 
houses at Flamstead, both places in Hertfordshire, are 
formed with molded bricks, as also are the springers 
and the finials which sit upon these and the apex. The 
gables of Moynes Park, Essex, are another instance of 

this form. 

The large 
houses of this 
date were gen- 
erally sur- 
rounded by ex- 
tensive and 
elaborately laid 
out formal gar- 
dens, the pro- 
tecting walls of 
which were fre- 
quently built in 
brick. At By- 
fleet M a n o r 
House, in Sur- 
rey, the fore- 
court w alls, 
here illustrated, 
still remain ; the 
walls here are 
14 in s. thick, 
but from t h e 
trea t m cut of 
t h e 1) r a d, 
sloped coping 
have a fine and massive appearance, giving a feeling 
of strength and security to the enclosed space. 

The almshouses at St. Albans, already referred to, are 
set back from the main road within a forecourt enclosed 
by brick walls, the entrance gateway in which is a good 
example of work of this period. 

Brickwork is not very often to be found in ecclesias- 
tical structures of this period, indeed very few churches 
were founded, or even added to, at this time, and in 
most towns and parishes the existing churches probably 
amply sufficed for the needs of the population. 


The illustration of Feering Church, Essex, shows 
part of the aisle and porch which are entirely built of 
brick, and though possibly rather earlier in date than 
the period we have been considering, it is too excellent an 

Qlmshnusu Q t flamj/iact 
nvar JrQ/bans J/irH 

'OvToih nf fine* C/abki 


" 'few 

example to be passed over. The moldings of arches of 
porch, jambs, and mullions are executed in molded 
bricks, as are the battlements and cusped corbel table 
under. The gable of the porch is of the stepped variety 
already referred to. 

Examples of brickwork with half timber construction. 

i 4 o 


u The Brickbuilder" Competition. 



HE municipal authorities of a large city, in the 


residential portion of which is a park, have con- 
demned adjacent property for the purpose of enlarging 

tile park. 

The present park is bordered by wide streets, devoted 
t" traffic and ear lines, none of which can he closed. 

The addition to the park will be rectangular, of the 
same width as the present park, and separated from it by 
one of the streets which runs from east to west. 

The purpose of this competition is to provide an 
entrance to each of the portions of tin- enlarged park, 

at the west end of the intersecting street, and to so treat 

between the sidewalks ami fountains is well adapted for 
the avoidance of congestion, and the fountains and per- 
golas shading the scats at each side of the entrances to 
the two sections of the park are useful and agreeable 
features. On the other hand, the two columns sur- 
mounted by figures are not of a character which would 
be best perpetuated in the material called for in the pro- 
gram. The design would be better if the fountains were 
enlarged and the columns either omitted entirely OT re- 
placed by piers treated in a manner more suited to the 

materials prescribed. 

The design placed second, designated by a capital, 
shows a knowledge of detail superior to that evidenced 
by any of the other competitors. This design is excel- 
lent from all points of view except one, which is that it 
is too small in scope for the large site. The materials, 
brick and terra-cotta, are employed with a good under- 
standing of the principles which underlie their proper 
use, and none of the other designs, including the first, 
approach the scheme of the designer in this particular. 


\V. Pell Pui is. New York, X. V. 

the street that its commercial character will disappear as 
much as possible. 

The park -round is undulating, and the general 
character of the roads and planting is rural. 

The design for the entrance is to be such as is adapted 
to working out in burnt clay products. 

Most of the designs submitted are far below the 
standard that might be- reasonably expected, considering 
the requirements of the competition, and, though some 
show a certain excellence of conception of the general 
scheme and others a good expression of detail, none of 
them present a satisfactory solution from all points of 

( M" the designs submitted in this competition live have 
been selected tor criticism. 

The design placed first is marked by the symbol 
" FF." In general plan this design is broad and simple, 
giving ample space for the uses noted in the program for 
the competition. The general view of this design is 
pleasing, and shows a generous space given up by the 
park to the street, an excellent feature which is too often 
overlooked in the design of park entrances. The space 

The entrance to the two sections of the park are not 
as distinctly placed as in the design submitted by " FF," 
nor is the space devoted to the intersecting street so 
planned as to give the right expression to its voluminous 
use. The plan of entrance in this design and the other 
designs criticized, with the exception of the one placed 
first, does not give the freedom for traffic provided in 
the latter. 

The design by " Quaker," placed third, is simple and 
orderly, but falls short of the first two designs in concep- 
tion and detail. The entrance to the two sections of the 
park are as well placed as those in the design placed first, 
but there is no climax in the composition, and the pro- 
portion of terra-cotta to brick is too great for a successful 

The design by "Old Virginia," placed fourth, is of a 
character that would be more appropriate for an entrance 
to a private institution. The minor entrances are too 
small, the curved ramps between the large and small 
posts are in poor taste, and the vases and lamps on these 
posts arc of a severely contrasting variety. 

The design by "Pipe Dreams" is placed fifth, and. 


II. K. Jones, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Robert C. Heath, Germantown, Pa. 

like that placed fourth, is too small for the purpose. 
The character of the central opening is not in keeping 
with that of the rest of the design, and the large beam 
surmounted by a cartouche over the two columns indi- 
cates too clearly the use in its interior of the iron neces- 
sary for its support. The bad proportions of this open- 

ing area good illustration of the error into which it is easy 
to tall by too intent a consideration of the practical use 
of iron in designing masonry. The plan of the intersect- 
ing street is tortuous, and the whole scheme is more 
restricted in spacing than any of the other designs 



ft & <*■? 


|||p : 

Francis S. Swai.ks, DETROIT, Mich. 

This dLra-wim.^ Imj Pipo JD^egsms* who siu^ests the following materials :c^ ^"JAM )' 
Harvard. Bi^R 9 CT°eg[unni terracotta trirogMra^j^anJie basse cou^ y roaipJb3e JFiirdaJls, \§r 

C*l ' LIN EJ - 14*0 


Francis S. Swales, Detroit, Mich. 



Modern Architecture. 

(c ontinued from June number. ) 

If we look around with unprejudiced eyes, and see 
how art moves everywhere, how artists toil in forming 
new ideals of beauty, and we consider what has been 
already accomplished, then must we be convinced 
that between the modern and the Renaissance there now 
extends a wider gulf than that between the Renaissance 
and the antique. 


As already indicated by the word, art is ability or 
power, elevated to perfection by a few of the elect, and 
furnishing beauty with a perceptible expression. If this 
expression be received by the eye, this power corresponds to 
the conception of formative arts. Of the formative arts, ' 
painting and sculpture always have their models in nature, 
while architecture has man's creative power as a direct 
basis, and it is able to present its product as an entirely 
new creation. The primitive germ of this new creation 
has its fruitful soil in human life; to this is related the 
problem, which art must solve by means of the architect. 
This problem is to correctly recognize the requirements of 
mankind, and it is the first basal condition of successful 
creation by the architect. 

The beginning of all architectural creation is compo- 
sition. It is well known that a recipe for an architectu- 
ral composition cannot be given; yet in considering what 
has been said, the following may serve as the commenc- 
ing point of composition. Before taking up the pencil, a 
good and great conception is to be studied and thor- 
oughly considered. Whether it appears as a lightning 
flash or slowly reveals itself, whether it be worthy of 
deep thought and refining, whether on first being 
worked out it appears a prize or a blank, or whether it 
must repeatedly be commenced anew, all these are of no 
importance. But this is certain, that a happy idea as a 
basis and its perfect mental evolution are of far greater 
importance to-day and contribute more to the appreciation 
of a work than the most lavish ornamentation produced 
by the natural and unconscious powers of the artist. 

A certain practical element, with which mankind is 
now saturated, cannot be created without reference to 
the world, and every artist must eventually conform to 
the law: Anything that is unpractical can never be 
beautiful ! 

After grasping the basal idea, it is further important 
to note the requirements according to the program for 
the building, and to arrange these clearly together, thus 
producing the skeleton of the edifice. This arranging 
must follow the development of the ground plan, which 
concerns the building in the most important way, and we 
must proceed with the aim to produce the clearest and 
simplest solution by making prominent rooms and 
masses in an empirical way, until a so-called academic 
ground plan or type of building results. The simple 
arrangement of the plan will always aid orientation in 
the building and the required economical construction of 
the edifice. It is evident that the external form of the 
building must keep equal pace with this planning. Such 
a mode of procedure is advisable in every architectural 

design and is indispensable in competitions, if any result 
is expected. 

It must always he deemed a great error to adapt the 
required internal structure to a favorite external motive, 
or to sacrifice it thereto. Falsity is then unavoidable, 
and the resulting form has a repugnant effect. An 
apartment house for renting, which parades projections 
without apparent motive, towers, and domes, or prides 
itself on having the appearance of a palace, as well as 
the so-called stylish furniture, on which one sits with 
discomfort, both alike have the same foolish effect, and 
are merely artistic lies. 

Every composition will essentially be influenced by 
the material in which it is executed and by the technical 
skill applied to it. This will be discussed later, and is 
merely mentioned here, because composition must 
always adapt itself to materials and workmanship, and 
not conversely. The composition must also very 
plainly show the materials for its execution, and the 
mode of working them. This is true, whether for a 
monumental edifice, or for the design of the smallest 
ornamental object. 

But composition is plainly connected with main 
other things. The most important are the pecuniary 
means at command, the geographical location, the 
special attention to be paid to that locality, the probable 
duration of use, esthetic suitability to its surroundings, 
and an external appearance entirely corresponding to its 
internal construction. In the cases mentioned, an en- 
deavor to express truth must be the guiding star of the 
architect; then characteristic treatment and a symbolism 
of the work arise naturally; in the church will appear 
sanctity, purpose and dignity in the building for govern- 
ment purposes, and cheerfulness in the edifice for 

But too frequently must the composition comprise the 
entire object produced, and the desired opportunity is 
then offered to the architect for influencing and deciding 
by his abilities those points, such as heightening the 
effect, preparation for the view, creation of resting points 

for the eye, etc. Our modern era is very susceptible to 
grand effects, which arc caused l>v the previously un- 
known congregating of men in large cities, and this sup- 
plies the motive for a certain noble impulse, which 
frequently permeates modern creations. It may then be 
stated with great satisfaction, that in the arrangement of 
the general design, of the squares and streets, in the loca- 
tion of monuments, and in the consideration of avenues, 
entirely aside from great structural creations, the vast 
advance in engineering science has made results possible, 
and our modern art has created works, beside which 
neither the Renaissance nor the antique can place their 

Here should we loudly cry "Forward" to the modern 
creating architect, and warn him against too great and too 
devout adoration of the Ancient, so that although modest, 
his self-consciousness may again appear, witboul which a 
great work cannot usually be produced. 

To composition likewise belongs the higher treatment 
of architecture. By this is meant a proper cooperation 
with the sister arts of sculpture and painting. The archi- 
tect should never lay down the supreme command. 
Whether it concerns the external or internal ornamenta- 

i 4 4 


tion of his work, or art monuments are to adorn more 
extensive designs, streets, and squares, the architect must 
alone and always be the leader, since everything must be 
subordinated to the basal conception made by the archi- 
tect. Errors of this kind in art monuments become very 
apparent and constantly occur. livery art monument is 
an integral portion of the square on which it is intended 
to stand, since the square must exist before the monu- 
ment is designed for it: thus the square is not created 
for the monument, but conversely. 

All such mistakes are always charged to the executing 
artist, and they usually occur because the monument was 
designed before its location was fixed, or the artist 
adopted the too common opinion that the work must be 
considered by itself alone, instead of adapting it to the 
dimensions of the square, the height of the enclosed 
space, or the outline of the background. It must be said 
that the architect will generally decide on such points 
more correctly than will the sculptor <>r painter. Similar 
importance must be placed by the architect on the magni- 
tude of statues in relation to the building and to each 
other; it is immaterial whether they adorn a square, a 
building, or a room, are executed in relief, or in the 

To composition further belongs artistic economy. By 
this is meant moderation in the application and treatment 
of forms transmitted to us, which corresponds to modern 
ideas and extends to extreme limits. This is especially 
true of forms, which are accepted as lofty expressions of 
artistic conception and elevated feeling, such as domes, 
towers, quadrigas, columns, etc. Such forms are gener- 
ally only clearly sketched out and are sparingly employed, 
since their too frequent use would always produce an 
inverse effect. A simple and practical basis must be our 
point of view, if the work is to be a faithful reflection of 
our era, full_\- and completely expressed. 

Not to weaken these principles, but to come nearer 
truth in design, it must be emphasized that architects in 
different countries have to employ forms of more or less 
richness t<> express local characteristics. It is only logi- 
cal that the South Germans, the French, or the Italians 

must have different ideals of beauty, and composition 
should go so far in the endeavor after true modes of 
expression that even the period and fashion may be 
properly emphasized; all enduring art-works are thus 
adapted with tolerable accuracy to their time and location. 

This is the place tor a careful consideration of the 
points mentioned in this work as plainly influencing com- 
position, so that in different places are found differences 
in the artistic expression of the object. It is further cer- 
tain that the national element has only entered into art in 
this natural way. From the similarity of the modes of 
life of peoples in civilized countries, these diversities will 
never be great. For these reasons, an obstinate adher- 
ence to ancient styles for certain monuments, or the selec- 
tion of an antique style for a certain people, may be 
termed a fad, even although Germans are very well 
suited by a portion of what is known as the "Old Ger- 
man " style. 

It cannot be the object of this essay to illustrate 
everything relating to composition, nor is it possible 
to restrict it within a domain in which any subject is 
classed. Hence, much that has been said must be ex- 

tended by the reader. Limited to the most important 
ideas, space may be found for the following. 

A simple and clear arrangement of the plan generally 
requires symmetry of the building. There is something 
decided, completed, well weighed, incapable of extension, 
indeed, self-conscious, in a symmetrical design, which is 
required by earnestness and dignity, the constant atten- 
dants of architecture. Only where the form of the site, 
the purpose of the building, the means at command, or 
the style to be used make symmetry impossible, is an 
unsymmetrical solution justifiable. The aping of an 
unsymmetrical building, or a designedly unsymmetrical 
composition, to produce a picturesque effect is entirely 
to be condemned; yet all ancient models of this character 
originated only because later generations introduced suc- 
cessive alterations into the symmetrical design of the 
.building, causing thus its unsymmetrical form, which 
was never originally intended. 

The designing architect must place great stress on 
perspective effect, or must so arrange the outlines, the 

subdivision of the masses, the cornices, the projections 
and recessions of the masses, the relief of moldings and 
i irnaments, so that they may appear with correct emphasis 
from a single point of' view. This point will naturally 
and most commonly be that from which the work will be 
most frequently, most easily, and most naturally viewed. 
Nearly all art monuments show the great weight their 
creators laid on this principle, since examples occur where 
the architects limited the distance of vision so as to com- 
pel the observer to view the building in this way and not 
otherwise. Hence, edifices in narrow streets must be 
quite differently outlined and have ornaments and projec- 
tions in lower relief than those on wide streets and squares, 
or such as are to produce an effect at a distance. These 
forms are so much influenced that an increase of one or 
two yards in the width of the street must be taken into 

There are also architectural works in which it is plainly 
evident that they were designed for two different dis- 
tances of vision. Many buildings with domes and 
towers, some triumphal arches, etc., make this apparent. 
The aim for external effect in such edifices is then 
two-fold; the facade and its details must satisfy the 
observer on the square or the street, while the lofty 
superstructure, with its rich outlines, either forms an 
integral part of a perspective view, or must harmonize 
with the view of a city, in order to become a character- 
istic monument, visible from afar. Especially well 
designed in this respect are some edifices in the Barocco 
Style, and their study in relation to perspective effect 
and to well-considered distance of view is therefore 
warmly commended to the future architect. 

Less refined, although always sufficiently finished. 
arc some examples of buildings in the Gothic period. 
The bringing of Gothic cathedrals into greater prominence 
by removing adjacent structures is, therefore, very objec- 
tionable, although this has been favored of late, 
because it was certainly not so intended originally, and 
all such changes have ended in failure. The changed 
distances of view for the cathedrals of Paris. Cologne, 
and Milan are eloquent in this matter. 

It is a property peculiar to human designs that tin- 
eye of the observer of every art work seeks a point of 



rest or concentration, because otherwise a painful inse- 
curity or esthetic dislike results. This always causes 
the architect to arrange such a focal point on which the 
visual lines of observations may be concentrated. Failure 
to accent the center of axis of a square, that of a large 
building or apartment, the perspective view of a street 
ending in nothing, or any unjustifiable lack of symmetry 
are all to be classed as faults, since they do not fulfil the 
preceding requirement. 

A more important human peculiarity even more 
strongly influences architectural composition, and con- 
sists in the need and desire for heightening the intel- 
lectual effect, and only after this is accomplished does 
there occur greater satisfaction. The mental reception 
of the impression made by great monumental designs 
may be explained, as that the general image is at first 
indistinctly received, and only after a few moments does 
the glance and the impression slowly concentrate on a 
point, in which the outlines, the surroundings, and the 
general arrangement participate. Then occurs the fixa- 
tion of the eye. The necessity then first appears for 
observing the effect of the different parts and of the de- 
tails by continually changing the point of view. To 
satisfy such human requirements by artistic creation 
belongs to the most difficult problems of architecture. 

The object created only receives at a late period an 
unprejudiced judgment, since this results from the 
long duration of its construction, and the slowly matur- 
ing appreciation by the public. The laws by which such 
problems are to be solved form an integral part of the 
main ideas of the composition and frequently are a rev- 
elation of the creator of such works. The)' may be 
said to form the "counterpoint" (theory of harmony) 
of architecture. A few hints may make this clear. They 
will show where, among other things, the architect must 
fix his aim to obtain artistic solutions of such problems. 

Constant consideration of horizontal and vertical 
angles of vision by the observer under every mode of 

Grouping of separate buildings for general effect. 

Utilization of the site and of the landscape back- 

Adoption of new, and a correct estimation of existing, 
perspective views and vistas, both outside and inside the 

In designing a street, continual regard must be paid 
to the varying views at its ends, which will be presented 
to the observer. 

A properly emphasized and well-placed point for the 
eye to rest upon. 

Correct location and marking of axial breaks, both 
externally and internally. 

Dignified accenting of the ends of important streets. 

Well-considered magnitude and importance of build- 
ings and monuments in relation to the forms of cities, 
squares, and streets. 

Clear and easily understood characteristics of the 

Consideration of the effects of dimensions, of se- 
quence, and of coloring of rooms. 

And many other things as well. 

If the solutions of such questions are to satisfy the 
previously stated requirements of mankind, such as 

desire for enhanced effect, for a carefully arranged point 
of view, for a point of rest for the eye, for proper limita- 
tions of form, and for entire satisfaction, they then 
demand from the architect high abilities and strenuous 
thought. The Renaissance and Barocco masters supply 
excellent examples. Our modern period particularly 
esteems large dimensions, has often successfully em- 
ployed such suggestions and traditions, and it has 
created works which we may regard with justifiable 
pride. Thus the view from the future central building 
of the imperial Pacale in Vienna towards the Maria 
Theresa Square, after the completion of the rear portion 
according to Sempcr's immortal design, and the removal 
of the ancient gateway, will excel all others in effect, in 
visual arrangement, in well-conceived surroundings, in 
outlines, and in a resting point for the eye. That these 
remarks can only influence the future architect, and that 
they would be entirely useless without artistic treatment, 
scarcely requires emphasis. 

Hut all qualities indispensable to the architect retire 
behind imagination and taste, these alone being able to 
produce those magical results which are required to free 
and elevate mankind. 


The necessity for protection against injury by 
weather, by men and animals, was certainly the earliest 
occasion and purpose of the building. In the edifice it- 
self is the germ of all construction, whose development 
progresses with its purpose. Such creation is based on 
the idea of mere utility, which cannot suffice, for the 
feeling for beauty is innate in mankind, calls for the aid 
of art, and makes it the constant companion of construc- 
tion. Thus arose architecture! The decoration of huts 
and caves by flowers, boughs, trophies, arms, and memo- 
rials certainly aroused the earliest tendency to imita- 
tion, and thus originated the earliest art of architecture, 
which awakened its sister arts of sculpture and paint- 
ing. Their works are the independent creations of the 

Requirements, purpose, construction, and idealiza- 
tion are then the primitive germs of artistic life. 
United in a single conception, they form a necessity for 
the origin and existence of every art work, and this is 
the meaning of the words: " Necessity is the sole mis- 
tress of art." 

Gottfried Semper first directed our attention to this 
truth (even if he later deviated from it), thus clearly 
showing the path to be pursued. Requirements and con- 
struction keep equal pace with the aspirations of man- 
kind, which majestically progressing art can only follow 
distantly. A fear lest the principle of mere utility may 
suppress art is then apparent. This has even led to a 
contest, unjustly commenced, where persons were of the 
opinion that the opposition between realism and idealism 
is insurmountable. The incorrectness of this view is in 
the assumption that utility may completely supplant 
ideality, and in the deduction that mankind could live 
without art; while it is true that utility and realism pre- 
cede in order to prepare for the works to he executed by 
art and idealism. From the origin of art to this time, 
this precedence and this progress have remained the 
same, as will clearly appear by a glance into the past. 



Man's earliest architectural form was the roof, the 
protecting ceiling, certainly used as a substitute for non- 
existent eaves. It preceded pillars, walls, and even the 
hearth, being- succeeded by supports artificially built of 

trees or stones, later followed by wattled work forming 
the wall or partition. These elements received a further 
development in permanent settlements by tools and by 
natural accidents. Traditions, a continual addition of 
new purposes and new materials, together with the art 
innate in man. after an infinite period of development, 
all these have generally raised to artistic forms the primi- 
tive shapes of pillars, walls, rafters, etc. ( >nly in this 
manner can prehistoric art have arisen. No doubt can 
exist concerning the accuracy of this statement. Besides, 
if we examine all art forms of historical periods an 
almost unbroken course of general progress from the era 
of their structural origin until the present may easily be 
proved to exist. Logical reflection must, therefore, lead 
us to the conviction that this law is unavoidable : " Every 
architectural form was produced by construction, and it 
has gradually become an art form." This primary law 
bears all analyses and explains to us every art form. 

Already in the essay on ••Style" and in the Intro- 
duction, it was emphasized that art forms experience 
changes. Aside from the fact that the form must corre- 
spond to the ideal of beauty during the period considered, 
these changes occurred because the mode of execution, the 
materials, the tools, the means at command, and the re- 
quirements all have varied, and, further, because in differ- 
ent countries was added thereto the fulfilment of different 

I 'fence, a structural basis influences forms, and it may 
therefore be deduced with certainty that new constructions 
must likewise yield new forms. More than in any earlier 
period our latest era has produced the largest number of 
such constructions (merely consider the results of the use 
of steel). What can be more logical than to maintain: 
That if art is by construction supplied with so much that 
is entirely novel, there must arise from it new forms, and 
usually a new style. If all these forms have not yet become 
perfected art forms, this can be explained by the reasons 
previously given, since mere utility first prepares them 
for art. The fact may also be emphasized that every 
development of form always proceeds slowly and im- 

Semper has the merit of having proved this axiom in 
his book "On Style." although in a somewhat indirect 
way. Like Darwin, he did not have the courage to fully 
complete his theories, and stopped at a symbolism of con- 
struction, instead of designating construction itself as the 
germ-cell of architecture. Construction always comes 
first, for no art form can originate without it, and the 
problem of art, which is to idealize existing objects, 
becomes impossible without the existence of the object. 

The development of original art forms corresponding 
to modern construction thus depends on ourselves, and 
the possibility of creating such forms is afforded and 
made easier for us by the rich inheritance that we have 
received. The useful result of this discussion is a very 
simple one: " The architect must always develop the art 
form from the construction." Modern mankind accord- 
ingly understands the immense importance of construc- 
tion, and has assigned the most distinguished experts to 

its greater perfection. This domain has thus become so 
vast that it naturally leads to subdivision of the work; 
hence, the technical specialties of bridge construction, of 
railway construction, of girder construction, etc., which 
are now developed very rapidly. 

Vet construction enters the domain of art, for the 
architect will select, specify, perfect, or invent the con- 
struction most naturally applicable to the edifice to be 
created by him and best suited to the art form to be 
produced. The means at command and the purpose of 
the building will always produce variation between the 
limits of mere utility and of artistic execution, but correct 
judgment will guide the influence of the architect or 

Therefore, the engineer, who takes into account not the 
future art form, but only the statical calculation and the 
matter ofcost, speaks a language unsympathetic to man- 
kind, '.chile the mode of expression of the architect remains 
unintelligible if he docs not proceed from the construction. 
Both of these are great errors. 

Since the engineer is seldom a born artist, and the 
architect is generally made an engineer, it is safe to 
assume that if art is in time to improve, the architect 
must extend his influence over the domain now occupied 
by the engineer, so that the correct esthetic requirements 
may be satisfied. The succession of preliminary utility 
and of art development will always occur, and in time 
will increase the unsatisfactory effect of the work of the 
engineer. There is no thought of lowering the status 
of the engineer, but great abilities in both lines are 
seldom combined in the same individual. 

If the proposed art form is derived from the con- 
struction, the latter is further influenced by many other 
things, to be mentioned later. One of the most impor- 
tant elements may be taken as a strictly expressed re- 
quirement of our modern period, and may be discussed 
here. This is the time allowed for erection and the du- 
rability usually dependent thereon. It is a very general 
opinion, though in part entirely false, that modern 
methods of construction arc greatly lacking in solidity, 
because they are very rapid. This is the result of specu- 
lation, which naturally has nothing in common with art. 
but is its greatest enemy. Vet if our modern construc- 
tion be closely examined, we are easily convinced that 
the reverse is true, and that modern construction is 
suited to a definite problem, as well as to produce both 
economy of time in erection and durability, two oppo- 
nents. Modern construction exhibits great results in 
this way. 

In the methods of construction employed during all 
periods, there is an evident desire to assure to build- 
ings the greatest possible stability and permanence in 
order to obtain eternal duration, one of the most im- 
portant ground principles of architecture. After modern 
construction produced a complete change in the time of 
erection required, though the principle of durability 
remained the same in art, construction was required to 
solve this problem, and it was compelled to adopt new 
means to satisfy this requirement. These methods were 
chiefly the use of new materials and the introduction of 
machines. Their influence on art forms must certainly 
become apparent. 

A further problem therefore falls to the architect, and 



he not only has to plainly indicate the construction in the 
art form created by him, but he must also produce the 
conviction in the observer, that the material employed 
and the time of erection have both been properly ex- 
pressed therein. Faults in this respect are only too 
numerous. Art forms, where the time of erection 
neither corresponds to the effect nor to the material 
employed, always have something untruthful or irritat- 
ing. To this category belong consoles and corbels that 
support nothing, steel structures that bear the impress 
of stone forms or exhibit a latticed appearance, plastered 
exteriors that appear to be of stone construction, and 
most external details that seem to be other than they 

But where the aim of the construction is to combine 
reduced time of erection with equal or greater solidity, 
and with artistic forms of equal worth, this must be 
accepted as correct and as required by the problem. An 
example will show the correctness of this view. For a 
prominent monumental edifice, a colonnade with an en- 
tablature is executed as the chief motive of the archi- 
tectural treatment of the upper story. The building is 
constructed of horizontal courses of stone, which mate- 
rial is procured with great expenditure of time and 
money. Immense stone blocks, that recall the system 
of construction used by the ancient Romans, are cm- 
ployed for the lower members of the main cornice, 
being structurally necessary because the modillions of 
the entablature are wrought in them. The procuring 
and dressing of these blocks cause great sacrifices of 
time and money. This mode of execution should be 
termed the " Renaissance mode of construction," and a 
" Modern method of construction " with it, for the same 
problem. vStone slabs are employed for the external 
covering (plane surfaces) of the building. The volumes 
of these slabs being materially less, they may be of 
nobler materials, as in marble. The anchoring of these 
slabs would produce bronze knobs or rosettes. Anchored 
steel supports would be used to bear the strongly pro- 
jecting cornice, divided in thin courses, and these 
supports would be covered with gilded bronze cover- 
ings in form of consoles. The result of this comparison 
would be, that the volume of stone-work would be from 
one fifth to one sixth that of first method, the number 
of ashlars would be less, the monumental effect would be 
enhanced by the nobler material, the amount of money 
required would be largely reduced, and the time of 
erection would not exceed the desired limit. 

Here are certainly sufficient advantages to cause the 
preference of the modern method of construction in such 
a case. But the list of advantages is not exhausted, a 
greater one being that a number of novel artistic motives 
are produced, whose development is not only very desir- 
able for the architect, but he must seize upon them with 
haste and zeal to truly make progress in the art. Re- 
sults of this kind are not isolated, for every object with- 
out exception will yield them to the creative architect, if 
considered from similar points of view. 

It must be natural for modern men, who prize the 
value of time, to promote those systems of construction 
that can satisfy their wishes in this respect. This again 
occurs by the use of materials quickly obtained and oi 
good quality, by subdivision of the work, or by commenc- 

ing different portions of the structure at the same time, 
so that a quicker method of erecting the edifice results. 
tf the structure be substantial, it will supplant earlier 
methods in spite of an increased cost. It is evident that 
new forms must result from this procedure. 

Ease in obtaining any material must vary in different 
countries, and, therefore, its use and the perfection of its 
treatment also vary. Thus, in certain countries some 
materials predominate, a fact that the architect can 
never neglect, since the aspiring ideal of beauty also 
requires "local character" (exteriors in brick, plaster, 
half-timber work, etc.). 

One matter is in close relation to the time of erection 
of a building and requires mention, since most clients, 
and even the architect himself, are incorrectly informed 
in regard to it. This is the time required for the graphi- 
cal, artistic, and structural working out of the project 
entrusted to the architect. The production of artistic- 
works is partly empirical creation, and is but too fre- 
quently dependent on caprice and inspiration, but such 
work will never be so free from faults that the artist 
executing it could not indicate desirable changes (although 
usually too late). 

For apartment houses, which owe their existence 
solely to a tendency to " investment of capital," the time 
during which the architect must complete his work is 
always so small, or is even limited to a few days, because 
the owner usually permits the building to be commenced 
immediately after employing the architect. For monu- 
mental buildings, a sufficient time is usually allowed to 
the architect for studying and completing his project so 
far as to make great changes unnecessary, and he even 
frequently enjoys the privilege, not sufficiently prized, of 
being able to properly take everything into consideration 
by means of a model of the edifice, before its erection 
is commenced. It is, therefore, proper to consider this 
fact in judging artistic works. 

Among materials that particularly influence the mod- 
ern fashion of architecture, steel naturally plays the chief 
part. Its structural forms accommodate themselves least 
to the multitude of forms transmitted to us. In the rich 
inheritance of art now available, we find almost nothing 
that, would aid us in a beautiful treatment of the forms 
of steel. If there be a further adherence to the unsym- 
pathetic principle of mere utility connected with steel, it 
is not sufficiently considered that where art shapes this 
material, entirely novel forms are produced, and that one 
of the greatest impulses is thereby given toward the 
existence of the new style. The properties of steel are 
indeed so extraordinary that it is able to satisfy almost 
any requirement, and, therefore, in regard to the use of 
this material, only pecuniary limits need be considered. 
Its universality has led to its predominance, so inartistic 
and offensive a few years since. Other new materials, 
together with its incomplete and somewhat doubtful 
resistance to tests, as well as pecuniary reasons, have 
had a sobering influence, and have limited its use to 
correspond with the artistic views of modern mankind. 
There still remain many edifices structurally and csthcti- 
cally affected by the use of steel, so that its existence 
and its influence on our present architectural system may 
be said to set a fashion. 

( To he continued. ) 

1 |S 




B\ \\ 1 1 LIAM COPELAND FURBER,* M. AM. Sin'. C. E. 

THE experiments by James E. Howard (Iron Age, 
April 10, 1890, Kent's " Engineers Pocket Book," 
]>. 382) indicate that steel has its maximum Strength at 
about 400 degs. Fahr. These experiments are also con- 
firmed by other experiments of a similar character (see 
Journal of Franklin Institute. CXI I., p. 241). 

Howard's experiments show that the strength is 
affected also by hardness of the steel, the hard steel 
having a higher resistance than the soft steel: thus he 
found that .10 per cent, carbon steel had a strength of 
20,000 lbs. per square inch at [ 000 degs. Fahr., and .60 to 
1.00 per cent, carbon steel had the same strength at 1,600 
degs. Fahr. These facts teach us that in order to pre- 
serve the integrity of the structure, the temperature 
of the framework should not be allowed to greatly exceed 
400 degs. Fahr. 

Fire-clay is a native combination of the hvdrated 
silicates of alumina, mechanically mixed with silica and 
alumina in various subdivisions, and sufficiently free 
from the silicates of the alkalies and from iron and lime 
to resist vitrification at high temperatures. According to 

the authorities, tire-clay contains from 47 to 80 per cent, 
silica and from 17 to 48 per cent, alumina. Fire-clay is 
probably the most durable substance that can be applied 
to the protection of ironwork from heat. The knowledge, 
however, of its virtues has frequently led the architects 
and manufacturers t<> decrease the thickness of the cover- 
ing of the ironwork to a point where it no Longer answers 
its purpose in a satisfactory manner. 

Since the substitution of ironwork for brickwork in the 
structural parts of a building, the tendency has been to 
restrict the space occupied to the minimum, and this has 
resulted in begrudging every inch required for fire-proof 
covering, and, as a consequence, in such cases the tire- 
proofing is no longer of sufficient thickness to fully insure 
that the ironwork will be properly protected in event of 
great heat. 

The skeleton building has reduced the area of piers 
and columns to such a small part of the area formerly 
required that the other extreme has been reached in 
making the sections of the minimum dimensions, with 
tin- least possible allowance for thickness of lire-proof 
covering, and, as a result of this, at least some of the 
so-called fire-proofing is a mere pretense; for while it 
is true that the covering is tire-proof in the sense that it 
is non-combustible andalmost indestructible itself under 
trying conditions, yet it is not thick enough to afford 
insulation to the metal within it. to preserve it, and the 
term "fire-proof" has become, therefore, a misnomer. 
In those instances where buildings have been subjected 
to severe tests and failure has resulted, the unthinking 
critic has condemned the system of fire-proofing, whereas 
the method only, was at fault. 

'flic necessity for dead air space cells makes it more 
difficult to insulate the structural work by preventing 

litect and consulting engineer, (--i Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 

any considerable conduction of heat from the point of 
application. A glass lam]) chimney is kept below the 
melting point of glass because tin- heat of the flame is 
rapidly carried away by the upward current of air and 
by radiation, while if the heat were stored in it it would 
soon reach its melting point. The column and beam, 
not being able to give up their heat by conduction and 
radiation, store it up, and are, therefore, placed in an 
unfavorable position compared with the lamp chimney. 
'fhe dead air space cells, however, play a very important 
part in fire-proofing, and are highly effective in the 
nonconduction of heat. Some authorities give the 
thermal conductivity of air as ,,.,',,,, part of that of iron; 
the data relating to these matters, however, is not 
complete, nor is that which is in existence in a very 
satisfactory shape, 'fhe value of dead air spaces, how- 
ever, is very great, and the use of air-cells in terra-cotta 
fire-proofing is essential. Fire-clay with air-cells has 
many times tin- value of the solid material; it is evident, 
therefore, why they should be used in fire-proof coverings. 

The value of air-cells as a nonconductor of heat is 
shown very clearly in the illustrations, taken from the 
catalogue of a prominent manufacturer, and will bear 
study by designers and manufacturers. Volumes might 
be written as to the behavior of fire-proofing under tests, 
but these illustrations contain more practical information 
than pages of general description of how a particular 
accident occurred, and why one place failed when another 
did not. 

These experiments show that after a test of twentv- 

Botrom 2IS0" 

Bottom 2150" 


l llkoi on hoi low I n I S. CONDUC1 ED v.\ 
HK\"k\ M \1 RER a SON. 

five hours, with a final temperature of 2.150 degs. on the 
outside of the floor tile, a temperature of 1,560 degs. was 

found in the first cell adjoining the outside 1 in. of terra- 
cotta wall, and while twenty-five hours is a very severe 
test (for if time enough be given the whole mass would 
attain the same temperature), yet the reduction of heat is 
not sufficient to have maintained the lull strength of the 
beam, even for a short time. 

The temperature in the first air-cell is 1,560 degs. 
Fahr. If this temperature is obtained here, it is evident 
that the lower flange of the I-beam, which has not as much 
protection, is considerably hotter, and, as the temperature 
of the iron should not be allowed to greatly exceed 400 
degs., it is apparent that this beam has lost a greal part 
of its Strength temporarily. The second cell shows a very 
much greater reduction in the temperature, ami the to]) 
of the block shows a comparatively low temperature. 
The great capacity of the iron to absorb and transmit heat 
is shown in the temperature of the top flange of the beam, 

T II E B R 1 C K BU 1 L I) K \i . 


which is much higher than that of the terra-cotta. While 
this experiment was evidently made without scientific 
precision, yet it answers the purpose in an admirable way 
as illustrating the progress heat makes in going through 
the floor. 

The cellular construction used in the body of the ordi- 
nary floor tile is wholly omitted about the flanges, and 
this is shown to be a mistake. The reason it is omitted 
is because it would make the floor thicker than usual, and 
this means that the building must be made higher, be- 
cause the floor thickness would be increased. 

The protection the beam should have is, of course, 
determined by the maximum temperature to which it is 
likely to be exposed, but in conflagrations temperatures of 
2,500 degs. Fahr. are easily obtained. 

S. Albert Reed [Franklifi Institute Journal, Novem- 
ber, 1 896) estimated that the temperature of a fire at a 
lard refinery at 59th Street and Eleventh Avenue, New 
York, was 5,000 degs. 

In the tests made by the committee of Fire Insurance 
Underwriters, the Architectural League, and the Amer- 
ican Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1896, the com- 
mittee decided to make tests on the following basis: 2,500 
degs. for six hours, representing a conflagration; 1,200 
degs. for one hour, representing a mild external fire; 700 
degs. for one half-hour, representing a mild condition 
such as might occur in an office building or dwelling. 

The building, to be effectually fire-proof, should be 
capable of resisting the probable maximum temperature, 
and, assuming that to be 2,500 degs., the ordinary cover- 
ing is not sufficient. 

It is quite possible to cover metal work in buildings 
so that the application of great heat for a short time 
shall not injure it, but in order to insure this, the cover- 
ing must be thick enough. 

The fire-brick lining of steel-melting furnaces is 
about 12)4 ins. in thickness; the temperature of melting 
steel is about 2,900 degs., or 12/2 ins. of fire-brick is re- 
quired to insulate 2,900 degs. of heat. This thickness of 
lining insures that the hot steel shall not be chilled from 
the outer air, and also that the iron covering of a Besse- 
mer converter shall not be reduced enough in strength 
to prevent it answering as a constructional envelope. 
This practical example gives us some basis for arriv- 
ing at the thickness of covering necessary to protect the 
structural parts of a building. 

The conditions of exposure, however, are greatly in 
favor of the steel converter, or the open hearth furnace, 
in this respect that, in these instances, the heat is con- 
ducted or radiated away from the outer walls into large 
volumes of air of ordinary temperature, which keeps their 
surfaces at a temperature corresponding to the capacity 
of the surrounding air to absorb it; while with a beam or 
column in a building, little or no opportunity can be 
afforded to conduct the heat away, because the air spaces 
must be "dead," that is, they must not be continuous, in 
order that, under no conditions, they could act as Hues to 
conduct heat and fire along their length, and thereby 
defeat their purpose as a protective covering. 

In buildings a covering of 1 in. of porous terra-cotta 
is all that protects the lower flanges of the I-beam; the 
girders usually have a trifle more, or a total thickness oi 
1 y, to 2 ins. covering. 

The experiments of Howard and others show that 

steelwork, to preserve its integrity, should not be allowed 
to attain a temperature exceeding 400 degs ; 1 to 2 ins. 
of terra-cotta cannot prevent this. It is probably true 
that manufacturers are not wholly responsible for the 
thinness of their covering, but are compelled to follow 
the footsteps of the original designers, because architects 
have been accustomed to the previous shapes and forms. 
and will not make any changes in the direction of in- 
creased thickness, and, if this is true, the responsibility 
for the present insufficient methods must rest upon the 
architect's shoulders. Manufacturers cannot be expected 
to make things they cannot sell, and if the thin coverings 
are the only kind they can dispose of, then they are in a 
commercial sense blameless; nevertheless, a moral respon- 
sibility rests upon them to prove to their patrons the 
necessity for a greater thickness of covering to insure the 
result striven for. 


THIS is a question which was asked of an architect 
in connection with buildings of the State institu- 
tions of Indiana. "A fire-proof structure is possible," 
was the answer. " Fire-proof buildings have been de- 
stroyed," was the reply, " and how do you prove your 
assertion? " The architect said, " Why not consider a 
cupola furnace? Here is a structure of steel and clay. 
Where is there a building which may be submitted to 
such heat, and yet we find the furnace a relatively per- 
manent structure. Of course, this is not an architectural 
structure, yet it shows possibilities. It indicates that 
with steel structural supports and a proper use of burnt 
clay such a structure is indestructible." 

Now, it is true that many buildings with a minimum 
of steel and a minimum of clay protection are quickly 
and easily destroyed by the burning of a large amount of 
combustible material on the interior, but who will say 
that it is not possible to protect a steel structure by the 
use of burnt clay when he considers the intense heat to 
which the cupola furnace is subjected? The protection 
is not relatively heavy, but the work is thoroughly done 
and" well applied. No architectural structure, with the 
material which it contains in the state of combustion, 
is ever subjected to the heat which is applied in a cupola 
furnace. The coke furnaces of Pennsylvania and ma- 
chinery of steel manufacturing indicate clearly enough 
that fire-proof construction is merely a question oi ade- 
quate thought and adequate workmanship. Steel or iron 
in itself is a material more readily destroyed by lire than 
wood, yet steel adequately protected presents an abso- 
lutely lire-proof building. 

Many of our buildings are adequately protected in 
the places where they need it the least: for instance, 
there is 8-inch fire-proofing between beams, and only 
one inch under them. The surface between beams needs 
the protection the least, and the surface under them or 
over them needs it the most, and yet it is there where 
they get it the least. If any one ever questions the 

possibility of absolute fire protection or fire-proof quali- 
ties of a structure, why not think of the cupola furnace 
or the coke oven' The (lay Worker. 



Selected Miscellany. 


Hot! Well, I should say so! Although allusions to 
the weather may seem inappropriate in these columns, 

stone office building to be built at 72 and 74 Broadway, 
to take the place of two small buildings which burned 
down about two years ago. The cost of the new build- 
ing will be about $900,000. 

Janes & Leo have prepared plans for three five-story 
stone and brick dwellings to be erected on 83d Street, at 
a total cost of $225,000. 

Wheelwright & Haven, Architi 
Showing tile ceiling executed by R. Guastavino Company, 
(Another illustration •>! tin- Guastavino work in this building is shown in the half-tone plate form of this Dumber. 

they will have to be excused this time, for no influence is 
affecting business so much at present as the awful heat, 
and perhaps no business will suffer so much by the delay 
necessitated as the building trade and its branches. 

Down-town there are a great many old buildings being 
torn down to make way for new ones, and this work of 
demolishment is always trying in hot weather, but dur- 
ing the past week it has been impossible for the men to 
work, to say nothing of the 
horses, whose sufferings a r e 
even worse. A prosperous 
state of affairs still holds good 
with our architects, and the 
merry pencil pushers are all 
happy, fen- although the chance 
for liberal vacations is slim, 
there is a pecuniary compensa- 
tion for those who deserve it 
that is eminentlv satisfactory. 

A few items of new work 
follow: — 

Bruce Price has filed plans 
for a twenty-story brick and 

A twelve-story tire-proof building is to be erected at 
140 West 42d Street, the site of the old St. Cloud Hotel. 
Bruce Price will be the architect for the building. 

Clinton & Russell are preparing plans for a six-story 
factory building to be erected at Seventh Avenue and 
[6th Street, tor the Oxley & Enos Manufacturing Com- 

H. J. Hardenbergb has filed plans for an eleven-story 
brick and stone office building 
to be erected at Bridge and 
Pearl Streets, for the Maritime 
Building. Geo. A. Fuller Com- 
pany will build it, and it will 
cost about ,S400,ooo. 

lames B. Baker has tiled 
plans for the new Chamber of 
Commerce Building to be built 
on Liberty Street near Broad- 
way ; cost §500,000. 

Rcnwick, Aspinwall & ( )wen 
have planned a twelve-story 
brick and stone hotel to be 
built on 44th Street; cost 


Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 


[ 5' 


The following New York architects have been invited 
by the supervising architect of the Treasury to submit 
competitive plans for the new building for the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, the cost of which will be $2,000,000: 
Babb, Cook & Willard, Howells & Stokes, Carrere & 
Hastings, Brite & Bacon, and John Russell Pope. 


Robert Watson Bruce was this week appointed county 
architect by the Board of Commissioners of Cook County. 
As is well known, Mr. Watson is also State architect. 

Governor Yates has appointed Fridolin Oswald, of 


White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

Alhambra, Madison County, a member of the Board oi 
Examiners of Architects in place of William Carbys 
Zimmerman, of Chicago, resigned. 

The old buildings at 225 227 Michigan Avenue are 

being removed preparatory to beginning the construc- 
tion of the addition to the Auditorium Annex. The 
building will be twelve stories, and will cost S<Soo,ooo. 
Holabird A Roche are the architects. 

John Devereux York, architect and illustrator, has 
just returned to Chicago from a year's visit to Japan, 
and is considering two plans for the future. It is pos- 
sible he will return to the practice of architecture in the 

New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

office of Henry I ves Cobb, with whom he was formerly 
associated, or he may go to South Africa as an illustrator 
for Scribner's, with whom he was also associated, and in 
whose interest he lias visited many parts of the world. 

Nimmons A Fellows have made preliminary plans 

for the eight-story hotel and sanitarium which it is pro- 
posed to build at the northwest corner of Michigan 
Boulevard and Eldridge Court. A number of well- 
known surgeons and physicians are interested in the 



Front brick made i>y Sayre & Fisher Company; Architectural terra-cotta 

by Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company. 

R. I,. Dans. Architeci . 

*5 : 


The Chicago & Western Indiana Railroad will next 
year begin the construction of a new depot on the site of 
its present one, Dearborn Station, at Dearborn and 

Polk Streets, the COSt of which will be between $2,ooo, 
ooo and $3,000,000. It is possible that land will be ac- 
quired on both sides of the present station lor additional 
space on which to build. < M'ticial anno 
intentions of the company 
W as made a! the meeting 1 'I 

the board <>f directors recently 

•uncement of the 

The eighty odd concrete 
piers, resting on hard-pan, 
over So ft below datum, which 
are to support the new Field 
Retail Building, are com- 
pleted, and the caisson work 
for similar foundations for the 
new Tribune Building is well 
advanced. It is doubtless safe 
to say that this absolutely 
permanent and unyie I din g 
type of underpinning will 
largely supersede piling or 
"floating" foundations for 
first-class high buildings in 

The following paragraph 
appeared in a recent number 
of the Construction Neivs : 

" Architects whose specialty 
is designing and constructing 

beautiful homes should find 
cause for congratulation in 
the status of affairs in Chicago 
at the present time. From a 
financial standpoint, pro 
sional practice of this sort. 
unless one receives more than 
the ordinary commission, is 
un remunerative ; but from an 
artistic standpoint and from 
a social aspect, it presents 
opportunities rarely to be 
found in architectural practice. 
T h i s dissatisfaction from a 
pecuniary view is due to the 
whims of the opulent, who 
are sensitive a b out t h e i r 
homes as they are about noth- 
ing else and demand that the 
architect earn his salary twice 
over. It is believed that they 
could be shown how essential 
it is that the practice of cue's 
profession involving so much 
learning, combined with rare 
good taste, should be more 
profitable than the ordinary 
class of construction, and for 
this reason it should be possi- 
ble to obtain much better 

commissions. It is said that there are some architects 
who are constantly in receipt of 7 percent, for this class 
of work, and even then they consider that they are none 
too amply compensated." 

The Architectural League of America bavin-- elected 
as president for the ensuing year Joseph C. Llewellyn, 

of Chicago, the choice of the 

remaining members of the 
executive board devolved 
upon the executive committee 

of that club of which he is a 

Said executive committee 
now desires to announce that 
they have filled the executive 
board by the reappointment 
of the members who served 

last year. 

The board is as follows: 
President, Joseph C. Llewel- 
lyn, Chicago; vice-president. 
Richard E. Schmidt. Chicago; 
corresponding secretary. Emil 
Lore h, Chicago; recording 
s c c r c t a r y, Hugh M. G. 
Garden, Chicago; treasurer. 
A u .^' u st C. Wilmanns, Chi- 
cago; members of executive 
board. Prof. Newton A. Wells. 
I'rbana. 111., and Robert C. 
Spencer, Jr.. Chicago. 


1 a 11 DING 
C. S 

620 LOCUST s I KKK I , ST. LOl IS, 
Holloway, Architect. 



The rush of work, such as 
now prevails in our architects' 
offices has not been experi- 
enced for the past ten years. 

Bliss & Faville are t h e 

architects for a new hotel to 
be constructed by the Crocker 
estate. It will be ten stories 
high and fire-proof. The first 
story is to be of a light-colored 
stone, and the upper stories 
of brick and terra-cotta in the 
French Renaissance Style. 
Its cost will exceed $1,000,000. 

A bill was passed by the 

last legislature making it nec- 
essary for all architects to take- 
out licenses to practise in Cali- 
fornia, and for those entering 
the profession after March, 
1 (jo 1, to pass an examination 
in design, construction, and 
the determination of the in- 
vestment value of buildings. 
A very capable board of ex- 
aminers for the northern dis- 
trict, consisting of Seth Bab- 


r 53 

son, Henry A. Schulze, 
William Cnrlett, a n d 
Lionel Deane, has been 
appointed by the gov- 

Willis Polk, one of 
our best local designers, 
is now associated with 
D. H. Burnham & Co., 
Chicago. He was as- 
sociated here with the 
late George W. Percy. 

John G. Howard, of 
New York, has been 
appointed the architect 
for the Mining Build- 
ing at the University of 
California. He was the 
winner of the fourth 
p r,i z e in the Phoebe 
Hearst Competition. 

Theodore F. Laist, 
one of the designers in 
the government archi- 
tect's office, has lately 
been on a trip here on 
business connected with 
the new San Francisco post- 
known in San Francisco where 
signer of great versatility. 

represents. As such it 
is of immense value to 
the busy architect or 
builder who needs it for 
ready reference. 

We need say little 
more than that the new- 
catalogue issued by the 
above-named company 
meets all these essen- 
tials. It presents their 
manufacture of enam- 
eled brick in an inter- 
esting and instructive 
manner, and should be 
possessed by all who 
are in any way inter- 
ested in the rapidly 
growing demand for 
this material. 


Faced with Hydraulic-Press Brick Company's buff enameled brick 

Dodd & Cobb, Architects. 


I). A. Crone, [133 
Fayette Street, Alle- 
g h e n y, Pa , desires 

architects' samples and 

office. Mr. Laist is well 
he made a name as a de- 

Mayor Phelan has donated a public library building 

New York Architectural Terra 


■Cotta Company, makers. 

The Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company has been awarded 
the contract by the George A. Fuller Company for the 
Flatiron Building, Fifth Avenue and Broadway and 22d 
and 23d Streets, New York City, D. H. Burnham & Co., 
of Chicago, architects. The company is making an exten- 
sive increase in its plant. 

Tlie new power station for the Edison Company, at 
Brooklyn, N. Y., will be roofed with Ludowici Tile, 
Meeker, Carter & Booraem, New York agents. 

Meeker, Carter & Booraem are supplying the enamel 
brick which are being used in St. Joseph's School, 87th 
Street, New York City, Schickel & Ditmars, architects. 

The brick used in the construction of the new St. 
Michael's Church, Brooklyn, R. F. Almirall, architect. 

to the city. It will cost about $20,000, and be of Roman 
brick and terra-cotta. William Curlett is the architect. 

Newton }. Tharp has been appointed architect for a 
monument to commemorate Dewey's victory. It will be 
located in Union Scpiare, and will cost $45,000. 


ANOTHER valuable work for the architects' and 
builders' "Trade Library" is the new catalogue 
issued by the American Enameled Brick and Tile Com- 
pany, 1 Madison Avenue, New York. 

The valuable catalogue (all catalogues are not valua- 
ble) is one that contains essential facts regarding the 
business it represents, put into concise and intelligible 
form. It is the result of observation and study by those 
who are most interested, and, as has been stated before, 
is a text-book on the particular line of manufacture it 

s\\ iss COTTAGE, CINCINNATI, ollii 
Roofed with " Americans." Tile. 

William W. Franklin, Architect. 



-i >CA I. COLOR. 


Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

Fisher & LauTie, Architects. 

and the new building for the American Express Com- 
pany, Madison Avenue. New York, S. Huekel. architect, 
are being supplied by Meeker. Carter & Booraem. 

Aknm Star Brand Cement is being used in the follow- 
ing new work: V. M. C. A. Building, Medina, X. V. : 
for street paving at Gloversville, X. V : also on extensive 
work for the B. & O. K. R., in the States of Ohio and 


Henry Maurer& Son have put up at the Buffalo Expo- 
sition a building which is of burnt clay throughout and 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

absolutely fire-proof. 'The fact that it is visited by thou- 
sands of people every day indicates the interest that the 
public takes in matters of this kind. It was an expensive 
undertaking, and Messrs. Maurer & Son are to be com- 
mended for their liberality and enterprise in presenting 
to the public so practical a demonstration of fire-prooi 

COMPARISONS, though invidious, often help us to 
appreciate our blessings An architect, recently 
returned from abroad, has expressed himself as being 
particularly struck with what he chooses to term the 
absence of local color in the street architecture of Paris 
as compared with the civic aspect of Boston, and for that 
matter of many of the American cities. The prevailing 
building medium in Paris is the Caen stone, which is one 
of the most beautiful of building materials when fresh 
and clean-cut, but which, like nearly every stone known 
to the building trades, becomes speedily very dirty, and 
catches all the impurities which are so rife even in a 
city as clean as Paris. The extensive use of brick in our 
public work has infused a note of color whose value we 
often do not fully appreciate. There is much to be de- 
sired, and everything to be hoped for, as regards pure 
design; but when it comes to any question of local color. 


Conkling- Armstrong Terra Cotta Company, makers. 

Willis I'., [lair. An i 

it is hard to gainsay the position our architecture occu- 
pies. A brick building will keep clean indefinitely, sup- 
posing, of course, that the proper kinds of bricks are 
used in the beginning; and it is not only easy to impart 
a strong local color to our architecture, but it is inevit- 
able that that local color should be both abundant and 
of constantly increasing value. Bricks and tcrra-cotta 
off er a range in tones such as can be found in no other 
material; and when the time arrives that the average of 
excellence of our public buildings is. on the whole, as 
high as the average abroad, it is fair to predict that the 
appearance of our future cities will be extremely inter- 
esting, full of local color, and at once beautiful and en- 




\t jLj. ,. ,.j j.- i — 14 Lw- ^Bywp^P ^j ii M i ui ii iM^WjiMy^inup.u.1^ 1 . . ■ 






h r. b. 




85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter. March 12, 1892. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States 

and Canada ......... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 

To countries in the Postal Union 

50 cents 
^6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied 
by the American News Company and its branches. 


Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order ; 


Agencies. — Clay Products .... 11 

Architectural Faience II 

„ Terra-Cotta . II and III 

lirick Ill 

„ Enameled Ill and IV 


Cements . . IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 


ANY one who has attentively studied the history and 
development of fire-proof construction in this coun- 
try cannot have failed to appreciate the motive forces which 
have not merely evolved the special forms in general use, 
but have really created the science. Reasoning without 
reference to the facts one might readily assume that the 
two most potent factors in developing a fire-proof con- 
struction would be on the one hand, the interests of the 
great fire insurance companies who are so vitally affected 
by loss and damage from fire; and, on the other hand, 
the municipalities who make laws prescribing what con- 
struction shall be used in certain cases. As a matter of 
fact, the insurance companies have borne a very slight 
part in the development, their function being practical lv 
confined to the very important one of placing a premium 
upon good construction. We would wish that the pre- 
mium were higher, and that the insurance companies 
might see fit to more earnestly encourage the best con- 
struction, by making more difference between the rates 
upon the fire-trap and the fire-proof building. But even 
the little difference that they have made in the rates of 

the two kinds of buildings has certainly helped a great 
deal to encourage the right sort of construction. It 
surely is not due to any very great extent t<> the building 
laws that we, to-day, are able to construct a building which 
will resist almost any kind of conflagration. 

Bl T I LDING laws cannot at most do more than formu- 
late what is considered good practice, and practice 
must come first. It is safe to say that nearly every 
advance of a radical nature which has been made in 
building construction during the past fifteen or twenty 
years, if not originally designed in conflict with existing 
laws, were certainly not regulated by them ; and those 
cities have indeed been fortunate which possessed build- 
ing regulations upon the subject which were even fairly 
intelligent and in line with the scientific understanding 
of the educated constructor. We mean by this that fire- 
proof construction as a specialized science has developed 
as a direct result of tangible appreciated need, and its 
growth has been regulated and retained with only a very 
slight stimulus from either insurance or legal inspection. 
It is a matter of common business sense. 

IN a large city a fire-proof building is, in the long run, 
the best investment as compared with any structure 
which is exposed to damage by fire. Even in the smaller 
towns it has come to be recognized that a structure of 
any more than moderate height or extent is a safer in- 
vestment if constructed in accordance with the fire-proof 
principles. There has been a very good illustration of 
this fact afforded by an office building at Atlantic City, 
the permits for which were issued by the city granting 
the right, in accordance with existing ordinances, to put 
up a ten-story structure of what is called the second class, 
namely, with briek external walls, wooden floors, and 
wooden internal construction. After this permit was 
granted a new ordinance was introduced and passed, 
requiring buildings of that height to be lire-proof. The 
holders of the permit had a perfect right to carry out the 
original plan, but careful consideration id' the whole 
matter apparently convinced them that the extra expense 
of twenty-five thousand dollars needed to make the build- 
ing thoroughly fire-proof was money well invested, and 
that their building so constructed would be safer, would 
rent better, and the insurance rates not only tor Un- 
building, but for those near-by, would be less, than it 
only the first cost was considered, and second-class con- 
struction adapted. This is only one of many instances 
which show the economic value of lire-proof construction, 
and which illustrates the manner in which fire-proofing 
has been developed from commercial necessities rather 
than as a result of academic theories. 



Brickbuilding in Modern France. II. 


ONE of the most pleasing buildings of brick of these 
recent years is the Boucicaut Hospital 
(Fig. i). interesting for so many reasons. The 
architect is Mr. Legros, and the several build- 
ings, which cover a very considerable amount 
of land, show a superior knowledge on his part 
of the requirements of a Large hospital and 
the exigencies of modern science. 

In this structure brick alone has been em- 
ployed, and intelligently so. We give two 
views of it. The one facing the private 
garden shows the little pavilion where wealthy 
people, who prefer going to a hospital, are 
treated. The facades are gay with their 
simple brick designs and a few notes of white 
stone. The roofs are uniformly covered with 
red tiles of excellent effect. 

The second view ( Fie;. 2) shows the minor 
buildings of the same hospital. Most of them 
have, as can be seen in the one at the right, 
an elevated ground floor and one vaulted floor 
above it. The form of the great discharging 

roof reminds one of the buildings of the time of Louis 
XIII., and the houses of the old Place Royale, now the 
Place des Vasges. This monument shows us no new 
formula, but is a good example of the style to which it 


arch makes visible from the exterior the in- 
genious form of these hospital wards. 

Brick also was chosen for a well-known 
building, the Pasteur Institute (Fig. ,?). Here 
all the qualities of brick are by no means de- 
veloped. The architect was satisfied with an 
unoriginal style, with the angles and frames 
of white stone in a background of brick. It 
is of sombre elegance, but of little interest 
for our special study. 

Brick and stone are again the elemenst of 
the Agronomical Institute (Fig. 4). Here are 
the window frames and the angles of white 
stone, which we shall often have occasion to 
see. However, a certain distinction of the 
whole, a certain elegance of proportion, can- 
not escape our observation. The form of the 


is circumscribed, and is one of the most seri- 
ous works of the time, giving proof of long 
study and reflection on the part of its de- 

The Chaptal College (Fig. 5) is much more 
characteristic. It is by one of the most no- 
torious architects of our time, who has always 
shown a fondness for the use of brick, of 
which, in fact, he has made a specialty. Mr. 
Train, when he designed Chaptal twenty 
years ago, did not intend his facade to be en- 
tirely of brick. He made but a discreet use 
of it. although an interesting one. as we may 
see by the view reproduced here. Prick is 
only introduced in the base of the first floor, 
between the bays of the windows which are 
pierced throughout the length of the two 
stories, for the window arches, and, finally, 
between the corbels of the cornice. It plays 
here a clearly polychrome part, which is 




J 57 



moreover accentuated by enameled terra-cotta. It is 
shown, too, under a new aspect, and I would point out, 
before we pass on, the really original way in which it ap- 
pears under the cornice. It is placed in the wall so as to 
be seen at an angle, and the architect draws from this 
new and characteristic arrangement an excellent and un- 
expected decorative effect. 

We shall have other works of Mr. Train to examine. 

The building which demands our attention now is by 
Mr. Magne, professor at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, one 
of the architects who has made the best employment of 
brick. It is the Greek pavilion (Fig. 12) of the Exhibition 
of 1900, but is destined to survive it, for the pavilion 
will be pulled down in Paris to be erected again in Greece, 
where it will serve as a little museum. The system of 
construction is simple. The supports of the iron cupola 

are visible from the interior and rest on iron columns 
which rise from the ground. On the exterior we see 
big squares of brick of a delicate rose tint, separated by 
layers of horizontal brick of a very dim blue-green. The 
frames of the doors and windows are of the same com- 
bination of colors. A frieze of enameled terra-cotta 
decorates the upper portions of the walls. In the illus- 
tration (Fig. 12) we can see in what manner the bricks are 
laid. At one side is a piazza, and the whole is covered 
with big red tiles. The ensemble of the pavilion is 
satisfactory in line, the choice of materials excellent, and 
the polychromy in charming taste. We were not spoiled 
by the Exhibition of 1900, and the little Greek pavilion 
had but few rivals. 

Now we must enter the vast field of private construc- 
tions. Beautiful works do not abound here, although 








there is a large number of brick houses in Paris and the 
provinces. We have a right to hope for an improvement 
in these brick residences in the future. More satisfac- 
tory buildings of this material are erected now than 
twenty years ago. We begin by the oldest ones, and will 
examine, in another article, the most interesting modern 
houses. We will be sober of commentaries on the works 

that deserve but few. First, comes quite a common type 
of private house (Fig. 13), such as we see often in Paris, 

frames of white stone and reminiscences of Louis XII. 
architecture. Such is the formula dear to many a con- 
temporaneous architect. 

The next example (Fig. 7) shows another and more 
classical style, white stone and brick combined. This 





sadly lacks individuality. Among the cheaper 
houses there have been many very small 
ones built in the style of the one in the 
next illustration (Fig. 9), of brick in two 
shades of red, and somewhat awkward appli- 
cations of enameled terra-cotta. Houses re- 
sembling this one in general effect are, alas, 
too often to be found. 

The residence shown in Fig. 8 is of more- 
elegant appearance, but built after the same 
idea, — white stone at the angles, the body 
of the building of plain brick, and the great 
windows, with balconies, in the Renaissance 

I prefer the house pictured in Fig. 10. 
Here we have a real brick building. The 
architect has sought the decorative effect in 
the material alone; he has ignored the half 
Renaissance, half Louis XIII. formula which 
has been so painfully abused. The window- 
frames only are of stone, but we cannot see 
the advantage of it. The rest with the little 
motive of dark brick is of good construction, frank and 

We must bring our first examination of private build- 
ings to a close with a glimpse of a big private house on 
the Place Malesherbes (Fig. 6), the most important one of 
its kind to be seen in Paris. Here is no modern style, 
but a quasi-restitution. This is historical architecture, 
and we are in the midst of the Renaissance; the different 
parts of the house are clearly accentuated, the dormer 
windows monumental, and the roof high. The color 
effect lies still in the contrast between white stone and 
red brick, winch is here, as in many Renaissance monu- 
ments, — the Louis XII. wing of the Castle of Blois, for 
instance, — of two shades. We see this in the view of 
the detail (Fig. n). 


This is a house of lordly dimensions, but it is a pity 
that the architect was content to make a copy. Brick 
was thus employed four centuries ago. We can, in our 
time, create works which are more personal to us. 

This is what I shall prove in my next article. 



AN eminent German doctor has recently been dis- 
cussing English methods of hospital construction, 
from a doctor's point of view. He says that our 
architects are too fond of erecting barrack-like buildings 
of enormous size, and that the walls of these latter tend 
to absorb to such an extent that they soon become con- 
taminated, and are powerful agents in the propagation 
of certain forms of disease. Instead of these enormous 
permanent buildings for hospitals, he advocates the more 
extended employment of smaller isolated buildings, 
which can be rapidly destroyed on the appearance of 
anything like unfavorable symptoms, and new buildings 
erected in their place. There is much in the German 
critic's observations, but they fail to appreciate the 
enormous advances made in recent years in the employ- 
ment of sanitary clay goods for hospital purposes. In 
such hospitals as have been properly equipped, where the 
walls and floors are entirely covered with glazed sanitary 
ware, the outer walls of the building of glazed brick, and 
where practically every part of the working portion of 
the hospital is armored in the same way, there is no 
necessity for the erection of trumpery temporary build- 
ings. We do not know of a single ease of " hospital 
fever" in properly constructed and defended hospitals, 
where sanitary clay goods have been adopted. But we 
must say that now and again there is some room for 
improvement. The fixing of glazed tiles as a dado is at 
best a poor expedient, and no architect worthy of being 
called a hospital specialist would dream of adopting it, 
unless, indeed, it were a question of finance, which, 
mi lortunatel v, is too often the case. The British 



The "Village Bank" Series. 1 V. 


WHILE there is probably little romance about a 
bank, - less poetry in the bray of Sancho Panza's 
substantial, positive gray donkey than in the sound of 
Rosinante's spirited neighing, - yet the community likes 
to feel that this same bank is there to stay. It is, in 
fact, the town strong box. and it is a temple to the (bid 
of Money, as modern temples go. In its temples, though 
they perform the function of modern mercantile machines, 
the community would find the lack of some attempt at 
ideal enrichment intolerably offensive. Just what this 
ingrained human love of ornament is, is not clear — not 
vet. Though this love is more indiscriminate than ever, 
more easily satisfied with meretricious gewgaws and 
meaningless signs and symbols, we may be thankful that 

some concession to the time-honored love of ornament, 
with a monumental and significant simplicity arbitrarily 
associated in the popular mind, perhaps, with a tomb, 
or a mausoleum. Most mausoleums arc neither monu- 
mental nor significant, unless they are monuments to the 
well-meaning ignorance of their builders, and significant 
of a cold, stupid horror of death. The whole genus 
" monument. " as we build it in our cemeteries, rests upon 
a false basis. a memorial is better. 

The plan is intended to satisfy the necessities of the 
average banking business in a direct way, without waste 
space or waste motion. The entrance (and it is the only 
entrance) is barred with bronze gates closing over bronze 
doors, one of which would remain open during banking 
hours; as both bear the legend of the bank, one would 
always be in place to advertise its function. This matter 
of advertising, as usually practised, seems better adapted 


\ \ 11 I M.I. BANK. GROUND I'l \\. 

we still possess it, for back of it are probably the only 
instincts that make life bearable or desirable. 

This design lias taken shape with some conception of 
the dignified character of the mercantile machine, and 


The problem is to be treated primarily from a pic- 
turesque standpoint. The building is assumed to cost 
in the vicinity of twenty-live to thirty thousand dollars, 
and be only one story in height, the interior arranged for 
a main banking room, a small consulting room, adirctors' 
room about 12 by 14 ft., a vault measuring outside of the 
brick walls S by 10 ft., and any other interior arrange- 
ments which may seem suitable. The main entrance is 
to be preceded by a small vestibule, and the building 
itself should be set back not less than 10 ft. from the 
street line and be isolated on all sides. The site is sup- 
posed to be a level one, and the bank will be in close 
proximity to the public library, the village church, the 
schoolhouse, and the court-house, which together will 
form the center of a town of a few thousand inhabitants. 
The design is to be of such nature as is suitable for 
being carried out in burnt-clay products. 

to the handling of a three-ring circus than the handling 

of a dignified institution. 

Within these doors there is a vestibule of glass and 
bronze, and the customer is compelled, by the swinging 
of the doors, to enter at one side and leave at the other. 
The public is thus thrown directly to the tellers and 
clerks. The cashier is located to the left, although the 
plan might better be reversed to keep the custom of 
moving to the right. The cashier uses the director's 
room, which is ceiled with glass, as a consulting room. 
The stenographers' room also is conveniently connected. 

All this machinery, including the vault, is kept down 
to the height of the top of the screen, and the screen 
presents a solid front to the public. A door is left at 
either end, one for customers, cashier, and directors, 
and the other for clerks, all coming and going through 
the one doorway to the street. 

Stairs are provided on either side of the entrance to 
supposed safety deposit vaults below, artificially lighted 
and ventilated. This provision for the deposit vaults 
presupposes a clerk below; in a village bank probably a 
luxury. The stairs could be moved within the control 
of the machinery behind the screen if necessary. 



This machinery is lighted overhead and ventilated 
from above, as shown in the section ; the windows at the 
sides passing free behind the caps, as a screen of bronze 
frames, sash, and glass. The interior walls are lined with 
a mosaic of enameled ceramic work laid in broad panels 
marked by simple lines of gold mosaic, and the screen is 
to be constructed of terra-cotta and antique bronze, the 
terra-cotta being worked out in a soft Pompeiian red, and 
the bronze finished in verdegris. The building is con- 

structed entirely of brick. The ornamental members 
throughout are of terra-cotta, except the window sills and 
the caps, which are cast in bronze, finished in antique ver- 
degris. The floors in the public space are laid with a 
mosaic of unglazed ceramic. The design makes use of 
the structural feature of the piers carrying ceiling beams 
of the long span as the decorative element providing the 
enrichment of the facades, and this feature is merged with 
the gently sloping walls in eminently plastic fashion. 

A \ III. Mil. BANK. 

I 62 


The Planning of Small Libraries. 


I Librarian Huston Athenaeum.) 

BEAUTIFUL as many library buildings arc, it is 
significant that few librarians or State library com- 
missioners, when approached for information, will name 
one that is wholly satisfactory in arrangement for the 
work for which it was constructed. This is to be ex- 
plained in several ways. The library as an educational 
and social factor is still in 
course of development, and 
the plan must change as 
the purpose broadens or 
changes. The librarian, 
too, is not always compe- 
tent to guide the architect, 
and the latter is frequently 
unwilling or unable to be- 
lieve that a good design for 
this particular kind of 
building can and ought to 
be developed from the in- 
side rather than from with- 
out. The usefulness and 
convenience of the building 
should be considered first 
and foremost, for on that 
depends its success; its 
architectural beauty is ca- 
pable of as lasting and real 
value to the community, 
but it must be subordi- 
nated to the floor plans. 

It is certainly true that 
many librarians do not 
know what they want. 
They had for some years a 
disposition to condemn the 
alcove system of arrange- 
ment as wasteful and in- 
c o n v e n i ent for modern 
needs, however beautiful 
and appropriate it may have 
been when employed in the 
stately libraries of Europe, 
and in the earlier institu- 
tions here. Architectural 
effects, and even the 
"bookish atmosphere " 
which is so valued in the 
old-world ecclesiastical and 
collegiate libraries, seemed 
tor a time somewhat out of 
place in the smaller libra- 
ries devoted to the public. 
T o w n libraries are the 
meccas not so m u c h o f 

scholars as of laborers, of children unnumbered, and the 
countless readers of light literature. Of what use is a 
"bookish atmosphere" and an alcove system to them? 
the librarian began to ask. Moreover, the sleepless 
energy of the printing-press and the book-bindery soon 



Alck-n ft Harlow. Architects. 

led to the annihilation of available shelf space, and there 
was little or no land in most town centers over which 
alcove could be added to alcove. Did the alcove waste 
the space? Was it appropriate? Here was a real prob- 
lem. As an answer came the stack, with its immovable 
steel cases, placed so close together that the aisles, with 
their glass or gridiron floors, look like tunnels. Now that 
the movement to admit to the shelves has grown popular, 
the objections to alcoves have been in a measure with- 
drawn. They give an air of quiet comfort that charms 

the student. The b o o k s 
that interest him are 
almost within his reach, 
and the partial enclosure 
made by the cases affords 
a restful seclusion. When 
the alcoves are a part of 
the plan, and the outer 
e n d s o f the cases form 
columns which reach to the 
ceiling, there is a unity, 
dignity, and seeming fitness 
to the whole. 

At present the two sys- 
tems — alcove and stack — 
are being combined. From 
two to three fifths of the 
books, including works of 
reference, belles-1 e t t r e s, 
history, travel, and biog- 
r a p h y. are arranged in 
alcoves accessible to read- 
ers, with few, if any, re- 
strictions, but under careful 
supervision. When t h e 
cumber of volumes makes 
it necessary, an upper tier 
of alcoves is added. Care 
should be taken to have 
the room high enough to 
permit a future gallery, and 
also for adequate gallery 
windows, reaching so near 
to the ceiling that light will 
be thrown upon the top 
shelf of each bookcase. A 
high light is of much more 
value than a light entering 
close to the floor. 

In village libraries, to 
cost from §5,000 to $15,000, 
the books of general in- 
terest may be placed about 
the walls of the reading 
room without need of 
alcoves, until the collection 
"rows large enough to 
compel an arrangement of 
movable bookcases to form alcoves. A wise foresight 
suggests double windows or narrow windows close 
together, so that there may be one for each alcove when 
crowding makes alcoves imperative. It happens not 
infrequently that an extra bookcase must be set in a 



particular place because the number of books upon a 
certain subject (the Philippines, for example) has increased 
at that point with unexpected rapidity. To be able to 
provide shelving in this way, with proper windows for 
light, may put off for some years an entire readjustment 
of books in all the cases. In a library, to cost from $15,000 
to $50,000, fixed alcoves add to the quiet, and may well be 
a part of the plan. 

In the ordinary arrangement of space, the reading 
room is on one side of the entrance. There is a chil- 
dren's room on the other 
side, and the delivery desk 
is opposite the front door. 
Back of the desk is a stack, 
which forms an ell or pro- 
jection. All persons pass- 
ing to and from the stack 
must go by the attendant 
at the desk. The projection 
may be suggested architec- 
turally, but not at the time 
constructed, if the build- 
ing is small. In branch li- 
braries, or in libraries hav- 
ing collections which grow 
very slowly, a semi-circular 
wing is attractive. The 
cases radiate from the de- 
livery desk, and the win- 
dows throw light between 
them. The spread of the 
cases may allow space be- 
tween their outer ends for 
small study tables and 
chairs. The stack itself 
(for the storage of books 
relating to science, etc.) 
should have aisles at least 
30 ins. wide; the top shelf 
of each case, on which the 
books rest, should be not 
over 6y 2 ft. above the floor, 
although in the alcoves one 
or two higher shelves may 
be used to advantage, be- 
cause a step or ladder will 
be at hand. Shelves are 
frequently made so broad 
that ninety-nine cut of 
every hundred books do 
not reach the back board. 
A space is then left where 
dust gathers, and an occa- 
sional book, crowded out of 
sight by a careless boy, lies 
forgotten and is after a time reported as lost. A shelf 8 
ins. wide is all that is necessary. The length of the shelf 
should not exceed 30 ins., to avoid sagging, and the ma- 
terial may be of steel or of wood. vShelves of iron or steel 
are much in use, but they are said by many to injure the 
books. As a building settles, the slightest variation in 
the uprights throws the steel shelves out of adjustment, 
and an expert must be employed to refit the metal, while 


J. A. Schweinfurth, Architect, 

a janitor can alter shelves of wood whenever they become 
too short or too long to serve their purpose. Most li- 
brarians allow about 10 ins. between the shelves, and any 
book which is over 10 ins. in height must lie on its front 
edge until out of shape, or must be taken from its proper 
place to sleep in oblivion in the corner set apart for large 
books. A librarian will sometime be found bold enough 
to advocate a greater space for all works except fiction. 

On every floor of the stack there should be space for 
a small table and a chair, with a shelf to hold books 

reserved for special stu- 
dents. In this way, the 
stack becomes more than a 
mere storehouse, and serves 
to provide a series of quiet 
study rooms. When the 
stack consists of three or 
five floors, the middle one 
should be on a level with 
the delivery desk f 1 o o r, 
with a stairway going down 
and another leading up, in 
order to minimize the 
amount of climbing forced 
upon an attendant. 

Provision for a stack 
should be insisted upon in 
every library plan, as a 
means of escape from the 
pressure which inevitably 
comes upon a growing col- 
lection of books. It may 
be unimportant in extent, 
but it must be capable of 
enlargement. Archit e ct s 
often plan buildings so 
perfect in proportion and in 
ornament that they cannot 
afterwards provide a stack 
without ruining their ex- 
terior designs. In a few 
years the disgusted trustees 
are forced to ask the people 
for more money to mutilate 
the most attractive edifice 
in town. In consequence, 
architects should endeavor 
to plan a building, which 
is either capable of enlarge- 
111 e n t without disfigure- 
ment, or has extra space 
already provided, though it 
may not be used for years. 
The del i v e r y desk, 
which is also an informa- 
tion desk and a vigilance station in a small library, is 
closely associated with every function of administration, 
and should be a distinct feature of the plan. It must be 
near the stack, so that books may be brought quickly for 
those who do not care to visit the shelves. This operation, 
and the cancellation of the charging record when books 
are returned, require the best of light overhead or at the 
side and steady. Finally, the person in charge should 



Everett & Mead 

he able, if the library cannot afford to have two assistants 
constantly on duty, to see the greater part of every room 
which is open to the public the reading room, the 
children's room, the reference room, and also the card 
catalogue, which must be well lighted and near a table. 
If the library is too small 
to boast of all these, the 
subdivision of one large 
room bv glass screens may 
serve the same purpose; in 
any case there will be need 
of ease in super v i s i o n. 
Much may be said in favor 
of an unbroken roof, and a 
plan which has as its chief 
feature one large room. 
This is economical in re- 
pairs and simple in admin- 
istrative problems. 

It will be seen that 
much is required of an 
architect in placing the de- 
livery desk. ( )ne is amazed 
to see in some fine build- 
ings a desk dependent upon 
art i f icial light, and si i 
placed that secluded corners 

(even in small buildings) permit children to romp and 
commit acts of vandalism beyond the eye of the at- 

A word in general. Among the requisites for a 
library of any pretention to good work area reading room 
and a children's room. A 
larger library may be ex- 
pected to have a reference 
room, although the reading 
room will answer the pur- 
pose, a library work room, 
and a conversation room, 
which may also he the his- 
torical and exhibition room 
as well as a meeting place 
for the trustees. 

Equally important in 
the large library are the 
bicycle room, the librari- 
an's room, a room for un- 
packing cases of books, 
lockers for employees and habitues, 
and a lift for heavy hooks. The con- 
versation room may profitably he pro- 
vided with shelves for a collection of 
standard authors to catch the eve. It 
is ci uning to he recognized as the duty 
of every town library to preserve every 
book, newspaper, and pamphlet of 
local interest, and to exhibit antiquities, 

social as well as geological and historical. A room, or 
even a bookcase with glass doors, can soon he filled with 
attractive gifts from old mansions and farmhouses. A 
series of portraits of pioneers is a delightful addition to 
the historical room, and a map with names of roads, 

in \i< u 111. 
. Architects. 

Everett & Me* 

old houses is a valuable acquisition. Owners of colonial 
and revolutionary, and even later military commissions. 
signed by famous statesmen, will gladly give these family 
papers t i be flamed and hung forever in the library. 

There should be wall space in every library for 

exhibitions of pictures. A 
library art league has been 
formed in an eastern state 
to pool subscriptions for a 
fund; several groups of 
pictures are purchased each 
year, and are forwarded 
from member to member. 

Still another feature of 
the more enterprise n g 
library must be mentioned, 
the school-reference codec - 
t ion. The assistant in 
charge of work with the 
schools needs, as provided 
at Brookline, a large sunny 
room, to contain children's 
reference books and many 
copies of works useful as 
collateral reading. A room 
of this character may be 
situated in the basement. 
The building should in any case be set high enough out of 
the ground to make a light, airy room in the basement 

It is hardly necessary to say that thought should be 
given to the position which the library is to occupy on 

the land. It seems incon- 
ceivable that one of the 
best firms of architects in 
New York could be guilty 
of placing a building on a 
lot in such a way that en- 
largement is possible on 
one side only, and then to 
block that side by an enor- 
mous old-fashioned chim- 
ney and fireplace. T h e 
trustees of that library are 
now facing a problem that 
these architects have done 
their best to make impos- 
sible of solution. 
The usual conveniences and devices 
to attract, instruct, and amuse the peo- 
ple fail to interest a considerable part 
of the community. This is due, in a 
measure, to the fact that libraries, 
and particularly those given as memo- 
rials, are furnished after the taste and 
station of the donors or trustees. It 
never occurs to a man who is able to 
make and give away a fortune that the leather-seated 
chair which he enjoys is to Jthe laborer less comfortable 
than a pine stool. Women of the laboring classes are 
quicker to adapt themselves to more luxurious surround- 
ings, and they soon feel somewhat at home in a beautiful 

I Iks I II mil; pi \n 

VYLAND, M \ss 
id. Architects. 

lanes, brooks, hills, meadows, swamps, and the sites of room with its mahogany furniture and oil paintings; but 



their husbands are in many cases far less appreciative of 
these things. These men need the influence of the li- 
brary, and it certainly should seek their friendship and 
support. Radical measures are necessary, and a lounging 
room with daily papers may bring the desired result. It 
can best be placed in the basement, with a separate en- 
trance from the street, so that with its toilet room it may 
be used after the rest of the building is closed. Smoking 
will perhaps be interdicted, but there should at least be a 
place where men may feel at home. The conclusion can 
hardly be avoided, that, whether you will or no, the pub- 
lic library is slowly but very certainly drifting toward the 
position of the poor man's club-house. 

A final suggestion seems appropriate in an age when 
it has been proved by example to be more blessed to give 
than to receive. 
A benef actor 
does not always 
remember that 
a town may find 
i t difficult t o 
support proper- 
ly the large li- 
brary which his 
pride quite as 




Cutting, Carleton & Cutting, Architects. 

much as his generosity prompts him to build or be- 
queath. Several New England towns have massive 
granite buildings which stand as monuments of folly. 
Had the same sum in each case been divided, half for a 
modest building, and half as a fund to provide income 
for administration, leaving to the town the task of pur- 
chasing books, how much greater results might have 
been achieved! Money for administration means a wide- 
awake trained librarian, who can convince the people that 
every dollar spent for books is well spent. But building 
and books alone can never persuade a sleepy town of the 
need of an up-to-date administrator. Architects have an 
opportunity in this matter to advise wisely and un- 
selfishly those would-be benefactors who have the inter- 
ests of others near to their hearts. 

Modern Architecture. 

{Continued from July number. ) 

The making possible and the facilitation of so many 
constructions, the unlimited choice of dimensions of 
rooms, the execution of any prescribed pier construc- 
tion, the free selection of and form of ceiling, with arti- 
ficial lighting of the interior at pleasure, the great reduc- 
tion in the thickness of walls, security against fire, and 
the great reduction in time required for erection, and 
many other things, are entirely due to the use of this 

The immense importance of construction and its 
energetic influence upon modern architecture have been 
sufficiently emphasized, but it will save time for the 
future architect to study this with the most thorough 

Well-conceived construction is not only the vital re- 
quirement of every artistic architectural work, but it 
cannot be sufficiently repeated that it places in the hands 
of the modem creative architect an infinite number of 
suggestions for the creation of new forms in the fullest 
meaning of the ivord. 

Most structures must be arranged throughout by the 
architect himself. But this not only demands constant 
progress and the acceptance of every novelty in the 
domain of construction and materials, but also rightfully 
requires in the architect a strongly cultivated and natural 


There have been frequent mentions of the " Practice 
of the Art." By this is meant skilful practice in the 
production of form. It will become manifest in every 
one who devotes himself to the artistic profession for 
a long series of years. I therefore consider it appro- 
priate to arrange its most important principles in this 
essay. Before entering on the subject proper, the ques- 
tion should be considered: "How are architectural 
works to be represented by drawings ? " 

It is not to be denied that so long as architectural 
creations remain on paper, very little interest in them is 
manifested. This is caused not only by the fact that 
almost every observer fails to bestow on them the in- 
tellectual labor required for understanding a project, but 
this is also likewise the reason why so many architects 
prefer to represent the design in a spiritless manner, not 
in accordance with the demands of modern taste. Since 
constant improvement in the mode of representation 
occurs by new artifices and inventions, and the taste of 
the designer varies, the method cannot be precisely 
fixed, so that mere suggestions can only be made here. 

Commencing at the alpha of architectural drawing, it 
must first be emphasized that all jaunty mannerism is 
entirely objectionable, and that it must always be the 
problem of the architectural artist to place his ideas on 
paper in the clearest, most accurate, neat, direct, and 
convincing way. livery architectural drawing exhibits 
the taste of the artist, and it should not he forgotten that 
proposed and not existing objects are to be represented. 
The mania for presenting the most deceptive viewoi the 

proposed object is therefore an error, since it must 
contain an untruth. All charming accessories and har- 

1 66 


monies taken from nature, embodied in a good water- 
color drawing and transferred to a non-existent object, 
are intentional deceptions, and are therefore to be 
rejected for that reason. 

We may say that it is more direct, correct, and, there- 
fore, more natural to place the work before the eyes of 
the observer by a representation adorned by symbols, 
arousing interest and filled with ideas. The artist thus 
has opportunity, while always remaining within the 
truth, for exhibiting imagination, taste, and his prefer- 
ences, for moving and captivating the observer. There 
is now a not sufficiently esteemed youthful freshness in 
modern art tendencies and publications. It is only 
necessary to refer to the large number of excellent Eng- 
lish, German, and French art journals, where almost 
everything is presented in a modern, artistic, alle- 
gorical, or symbolical manner. Such publications offer 
an abundance of suggestions to the architect. One must 
nevertheless be warned against too much of this "doc- 
toring." A refined taste will further be a guide to the 
architect, and in spite of rich suggestions it will cause 
him to adopt in his drawings only things that properly 
accompany the chief object and enhance the interest of 
the observer. 

He will naturally employ only those modes of repre- 
sentation from which the greatest effect may be expected 
with the least expenditure of time, and which do nut 
prevent easy and beautiful reprod actions. By the use 
of drawn borders, titles, separate details, etc., the most 
harmless orthographic drawing may be transformed into 
an art work worth seeing. Architectural representations 
intended for exhibitions require the exclusion of every- 
thing inharmonious with their surroundings. Plans, 
elevations, and sections that show broad surfaces of 
white paper can never be arranged between pictures 
and sculptures, since they certainly disturb the general 
effect. This is also the reason why architectural works 
are so frequently treated in a more than neglectful way 
in exhibitions. 

However important the manner of the representation, 
this is evidently of far less importance than its subject, 
to which we will return after this brief digression. As 
elsewhere in this essay, only certain important principles 
can be made prominent here. The most modern of all 
in architecture are our existing great cities. Their 
earlier and smaller dimensions originated an infinite 
number of novel questions, whose solution is expected 
through architecture. In the most recent period, the 
problem of improving the plans of cities has become 
especially prominent, there being in many eases an 
imperative necessity to strive for a rational solution of 
this question, caused by the enlargement of cities. 

A combination of art and purpose is always, accord- 
ing to modern views, the first requirement of a good 
solution. Cases may indeed frequently occur in which 
the artistic idea overshadows the purpose, but it must 
naturally be assumed that the converse relation occurs 
in municipal architecture and engineering, since the 
opinion is certainly becoming general that no sum of 
money for business purposes is too great, while for art, 
"nothing" is just right. It is sure that the practical 
question in city improvement must be most prominent, 
ami that really art has only to see that all vandalism is 

avoided. It will only become more definite and demand 
its rights where its own work naturally occurs. This 
causes the requirements of traffic, business, and sanita- 
tion to be accurately stated and fixed, and the architect 
who designs the plan of the improvements must 
endeavor to fulfil these demands in an artistic manner. 

Every improvement in a city naturally divides into 
two parts, one in which technical science and art act 
without restriction, especially in what is built around the 
exterior of the city, and another, in which the desire for 
anew form must adapt itself to the multitude of exist- 
ing houses, to the art monuments, to existing arrange- 
ments and plans, as in the interior of the city. Both 
naturally depend upon each other, and there are many 
problems that can only be solved by a consideration of 
the entire domain of the city. Unfortunately, greater 
emphasis is always laid on the apparently more pressing 
inner portion, and the suburbs are sparingly treated. 
This is entirely wrong, since new difficulties must 
speedily arise and problems appear that just as urgently 
demand solution. 

It is certain that some future requirements (tracks, 
parks, food supply, removal of sweepings and snow, 
transport of building materials, funeral processions, 
stations, precinct buildings, etc.) will be more conve- 
niently fulfilled, be better in appearance and cheaper if a 
broad railway extends throughout a plan for improve- 
ments. From the neglect of the suburbs, especially in 
Vienna, there has resulted great inconveniences, success- 
fully avoided in nearly all German cities, where the im- 
provements have made the suburbs more habitable, 
healthier, cleaner, and more beautiful. The reverse is the 
case in Vienna, where the suburbs of the city are no 
better than the Hungarian villages that have become 
proverbial. It may be stated that the constantly press- 
ing enlargement of a city is certainly in direct relation 
to the traffic conditions, and that bad traffic facilities 
must produce high cost of ground, an increased number 
of stories, and a contracted style of architecture, and 
badly planned suburbs materially contribute to make 
this evil worse. 

Streets and squares demand the greatest care and 
attention in the plan of a city, and first require consider- 
ation. It is unnecessary to prove that the magnitude 
of a square must be in proportion to the height of the 
buildings around it. The dimensions of a square appear 
to be taken at pleasure, yet their natural limit is that 
the maximum height of the surroundings is pretty 
clearly fixed. Whether these are edifices or trees, this 
height can scarcely exceed 97.6 ft., except for higher 
portions of buildings. If a square with the given height 
is to produce a sufficiently powerful impression on the 
eye, with other proper conditions, about 29.64 acres may 
be assumed as the esthetic limit of area. The Place de 
la Concorde in Paris has an area of 24.7 acres (includ- 
ing the Seine). 

But the surface of so large a square requires for 
artistic reasons certain points of rest for the eye and 
very bold subdivision. These rest-points are produced 
by locating statues, architectural monuments, fountains, 
etc., while rows of lamp-posts, balustrades, walks 
bordered by trees, broad flights of steps, or sidewalks, 
furnish the gruild lines for the eve and subdivide the 



surface. For the esthetic limit of width of a street, with 
buildings 65.6 to 98.4 ft. high, about 262.4 ft. may usu- 
ally be taken, but this likewise requires strongly empha- 
sized subdivisions, so that this may be intelligible to the 
eye with ease and pleasure. From experience, the length 
of a street should not be less than five times its width, 
nor exceed fifteen times without a strongly marked 
interruption. The least dimensions of a square evi- 
dently depend upon its form and on the height of the 
buildings enclosing it, while to the width of streets must 
be applied the principle generally accepted everywhere, 
that the height of buildings on them must never exceed 
the width of the street. 

It is here necessary to oppose the preposterous view, 
that a great portion of the public cherishes and decorates 
every open space by a formal garden. The advocates 
of this opinion invariably use numerous catch-words in 
a bombastic way, such as visual width, aerial center, 
absorber-of-nitrogen, etc. These catch-words are em- 
bodied in patriotic phrases and given to the public, 
everything being asserted to be extremely sanitary, but 
not stating whether such designs are likewise beautiful. 
Such sanitary arrangements are more than questionable 
in their effect, these miserable caricatures of gardens are 
always in every one's way, and then render impossible 
one of the most beautiful of architectural motives, the 
effect of surfaces and their leading lines. The enchant- 
ing effect of the Place de la Concorde in Paris, or of the 
Place of St. Peter in Rome, will permanently remain in 
the memory of a visitor. Formal gardens on those 
places (fortunately, no one has had the temerity to 
desire this) would have entirely destroyed their effect. 
But in Vienna, one of the largest squares in the city 
(City Hall Park, containing nearly 20 acres), has been 
robbed of all artistic effect by an absurd formal garden, 
and also disfigured by awkward arrangement scorning 
all practical requirements. Formal gardens in cities 
must fully satisfy both esthetic and practical require- 
ments (two ideas that generally coincide), both provid- 
ing for the pedestrial in haste, by a shaded path, but 
also preserving the imposing effect of the area of the 

In addition to what has been said, the park question 
presses into prominence, and therefore demands brief 
consideration. In a proper and original sense, parks 
are extensive domains, including beautiful landscapes, 
causing their wealthy owners to make them family seats. 
Drives and footpaths are laid out to connect in an easily 
accessible manner, and to bring into picturesque alterna- 
tion, hills, woodland scenes, groups of trees, lakes, ponds, 
rivers, brooks, clusters of rocks, lookout points, etc. At 
the most beautiful and most suitable places are built 
castles or kiosks. These motives are produced by the 
contrast of nature and art. but are changed into carica- 
tures or imitations of the English park (City Park in 
Vienna, and so many others) by a reduction in scale and 
by the introduction of objects, neither appropriate to the 
ground nor to the location. Further reduction evidently 
makes them ridiculous, as shown by many examples. 
This is the more to be lamented, because Renaissance 
masters, and particularly those of the Barocco period, 
have left us unsurpassable models of formal gardens 
near buildings as examples worthy of imitation. They 

have clearly pointed out the true path to be pursued, so 
that the edifice and the formal garden may reciprocally 
support and supplement each other in effect. It is not 
sufficient to recommend the architect to energetically lay 
hold of this idea, and to elevate as rapidly as possible the 
art of landscape gardening, now, indeed, at its lowest. 

Thus he must not only beautifully treat the principal 
arrangement of such designs, but must also so far inform 
himself in regard to the flora that in designing such a 
project it will be an easy matter to undertake the proper 
arrangement of groups of trees, borders, shrubbery, and 
hedges; he must know the hardiness of plants under 
local conditions; he must be fully acquainted with the 
color and appearance of the proposed plants; he must 
have a clear knowledge of the ground and of its artificial 
grading, of the location and arrangement of avenues, 
vistas, points of rest for the eye on lawns, of artificial 
waterworks, of the use and placing of statues, of hot- 
house and decorative plants, of the construction of con- 
servatories, of carpet gardening, and of the apparatus 
for maintenance. He must further be accurately in- 
structed in regard to the kinds of trees suitable for 
avenues in different cases and what additions of hedges, 
shrubs, etc., may be required, and finally, he must know 
how to successfully provide against the dying of vege- 
tation along streets from the escape of gas, leaking of 
sewage, vibration produced by wagons, and from lack of 
sufficient depth of ground beneath it (on account of 
canals, sewers, etc.). 

Attention should be devoted to the monumental effect 
of the surface of the ground. Squares may be treated in 
mosaic patterns by paving with stones of different colors, 
and by the arrangement of lawns with isolated plants, 
then obtaining the grandest effects by the addition of 
principal lines, well-located objects of display, etc. These 
are in such intimate relation to the artistic and monu- 
mental appearance of the square and of the street that 
their most careful consideration cannot be sufficiently 

Returning from this digression to the forms of 
squares and streets, it is evident that these must be 
strongly influenced in another way by the architect to 
fulfil artistic requirements. But on many questions the 
architect exercises no influence, since other reasons gen- 
erally predominate over the esthetic one. The most 
important of the remaining requirements for producing 
an artistic and richly varied result are, that the proper 
location be fixed for public buildings, and that the always 
omitted esthetic, but absolutely necessary, terminal 
object be provided on the visual axis. 

The neglect of artistic requirements, the principle of 
utility so prominent everywhere, an antipathy to great 
monumental works of architecture, an invariable lack of 
money for art effects, gives the architect many a hard 
problem, and these and similar difficulties have produced 
a kind of sham architecture that attempts to conceal 
faults by deception. The obsolete apartment house 
facades and the pattern type of facade most recently 
affected (arcades and buildings on Francis Joseph Quay, 
in Vienna), an artistic and not a practical suggestion, 
belong here. The swindling ideas, teeming with decep- 
tions and recalling I'otemkin's villages that occur in such 
arrangements, cannot be sufficiently censured. No other 

1 68 


art period has such things to show; they give a very 
melancholy representation of the art conditions of our 

era. A partial excuse for them may he that taste takes 
wrong paths toward the desired artistic expression, and 
that modern mankind must generally deny to it the 
means of attaining this, since the continually increasing 
multitude of buildings for rental increases in a ratio very 
different from that of the necessary number of public 

Modes of living daily become more similar and have 
almost suppressed the separate house. The building 
regulations have done more, and these cause the present 
uniformity of our houses for rental. In no other city 
does the modern rented dwelling play so great a part as 
in this (Vienna). Conditions of ownership of land in 
London have produced an architectural type for this pur- 
pose, which disclaims almost entirely the assistance of 
art, and in Paris a solution has been reached, starting 
with the requirement of placing the servants in the man- 
sard story. The area covered by buildings in Berlin is 
greater than in Vienna, and hence the prices of land 
there have never reached that height which has injured 
our long-restricted city. Such a great increase in the 
number of stories in buildings for rental would not be 
possible, like that so common in Vienna. Buildings for 
rental (or investment buildings) are not rare here that 
have six or seven stories above the street level. Similar 
types of edifices in many stories, with the larger resi- 
dence of the owner in the principal story and accented on 
the exterior, are becoming more rare. Warehouses and 
detached dwellings are not included here. 

Under the compulsion of economic conditions, our 
present buildings for rental fulfil no other purpose than to 
accumulate small and easily rented flats in a single struc- 
ture so as to produce the greatest revenue from the 
capital invested. After the rental value of the different 
stories was approximately equalized by passenger eleva- 
tors, it naturally resulted that an architectural treatment 
by accenting the different stories was no longer possible, 
so that architectural exteriors are entirely mistaken 
when their motive is sought in palace architecture, since 
this contradicts the internal construction of the building. 
Therefore, in the treatment of the facades of modern 
buildings for rental, architecture has been reduced to a 
plane surface broken by numerous similar windows, to 
which are added the projecting main cornice, with per- 
haps a crowning frieze and a portal. The ground prin- 
ciples maintained in this work show that the problem of 
the art cannot be to contest these economical tendencies, 
or to conceal them by deceptions, but must consist in the 
proper fulfilment of even such requirements. The mod- 
ern eye has lost the usual small scale, and has become 
accustomed to forms less rich in variety, to Longer 
straight lines, to more extensive surfaces, and to larger 
masses, so that a stronger handling of the masses and a 
plainer outlining of such edifices certainly appear to be 
indicated. Hence, art must chiefly express itself where 
its dominion remains uncontested and its interference is 

Therefore, in case of apartment houses for rental, 
which will always continue to lie the- chief factor in the 
appearance of streets, the architect must seek effects by 
ornamenting the surfaces, by contrasting forms, by 

simple and properly chosen details, and by clearly em- 
phasizing the construction, but without permitting these 

to degenerate into a mutual strife to excel, as unfortu- 
nately to,, comm >nly preferred. Designed artistically as 

indicated above, our apartment houses would very soon 
combine in an esthetically pleasing view, and they would 
certainly be suited for all purposes for which the street 
is provided. 

It must always be remembered that a modern great 
city neither can nor should have the appearance of 
ancient Rome or that of old Nuremberg. 

The importance of the straight line in modern archi- 
tecture has frequently been mentioned. A number of 
reasons clearly and strongly indicate its use to the great- 
est extent. It is a justifiable requirement for the direc- 
tion of streets, since mm always walks in a straight line, 
and a person in haste would certainly be irritated by the 
least deviation, causing loss of time. The last decades 
bear the motto: '-Time is Money." Projectors of curved 
avenues may inform themselves on this point by observ- 
ing men crossing the surfaces and angles of lawns. Still 
worse befalls those who introduce inconvenient streets, 
and many unflattering changes will be made by those led 
into this difficulty. It is evident that straight streets are 
not always possible. The curve or broken line must fre- 
quently be chosen for lines of streets, to preserve exist- 
ing buildings, or to produce better forms of building 
sites. Such are then existing conditions that contribute 
to make the appearance of the city richer in contrasts 
and also more interesting. 

( Mie matter requires special mention, that breaks in 
the direction of the street must never be located at the 
middle of a block. If the straight line, or the shortest 
line, is admitted to be best for pedestrians, then for 
carriage traffic it is certainly permissible to arrange 
slight turns and curves, but only where they would 
result from existing natural or artistic causes. The 
greatest protection for the public, demands for carriage 
use a sufficient width of the streets, and a considerable 
increase in width at the intersections of streets. 

The lack of public buildings which by grand forms 
or by richer outlines are suitable for interposition be- 
tween facades of apartment houses to powerfully break 
the view of the street by strong contrasts, must allow 
the architect to produce such effects by other means. 
The most suitable of these are: the insertion of squares, 
a moderate projection and recession of facades of build- 
ings, the arrangement of parkings, placing subdivisions 
in the streets, a division of the street by inserted monu- 
ments and fountains, and, finally, by objects placed in 
the street, such as trees, shrubbery, hedges, kiosks, etc. 

It scarcely requires discussion that a pious preserva- 
tion of inherited works of art, a strict acquiescence in the 
preservation of their surroundings with reference to well- 
weighed visual distance of view, and many other things 
afford other valuable means for enriching the artistic 
treatment of the perspectives of streets. 

But the problem of the architect does not end with 
the artistic treatment of the streets and squares of a city. 
The most recent period has produced many institutions 
and many improvements awaiting artistic development. 
Railways are first mentioned, whose influence on the 
view of the street is but too frequently fatal. Aside 



from all other disturbances produced, railways on the 
street level nearly always disfigure its appearance, 
whether they are horse, steam, or electric. This opinion 
has become a conviction in the great cities. Thus the 
Parisians would never permit them on the Place de la 
Concorde, or on the Champs-Elysees, nor the Berliners 
on the Unter den Linden. Main railways, to which 
every large city must adapt itself, may be either elevated 
or subterranean. The choice of either system depends 
entirely on local conditions and practical reasons. The 
results for and against them may be collected in a few 
main points. vSubterranean railways, when covered, 
scarcely affect the appearance of the street, are more 
convenient for traffic, but are usually more costly in con- 
duction, and are disagreeable to the traveling public. 
Elevated railways sometimes strikingly disfigure streets, 
arc somewhat cheaper than subterranean, and afford the 
passengers much enjoyment by unobstructed and chang- 
ing views. But the inhabitants will always decide to 
preserve the most beautiful appearance of the city, and, 
therefore, the elevated railway will not receive their 
approval, which is invariably the opinion of the architect 
as well. 

Law or custom, practical or financial reasons, produce 
in every city some quarters occupied by villas, manu- 
factories, or dwellings that depend on a suitable location 
of the city, and frequently develop very rapidly during a 
period of prosperity. In more recent times there is a 
certain tendency to restore the importance of the separate 
house, with the ideals therewith connected, in order to 
recover what has been neglected. This tendency has 
taken possession of building speculation, so that a new 
type of city and street has arisen, the cottage and villa 
arrangement. Although the streets in such villa quarters 
are to be approved for esthetic reasons, where so fre- 
quently laid out with alternating, contrasting, detached 
buildings, or those in solid blocks with gardens before 
them, interposed squares, etc., they have so far only 
shown defective results, chiefly because speculation has 
killed this mode of building by the unrestricted duplica- 
tion of a single architectural type. Popular estimation 
has pronounced its justified and destructive judgment by 
designating such quarters as villa churchyards. Whether 
separate dwellings or apartment houses, a large number 
of similar buildings, placed beside each other, must 
destroy all effect and produce esthetic weariness, only to 
be removed by strong contrasts. Therefore, such villa 
quarters at least require to be intersected by streets 
needed for business traffic, executed in a very different 
architectural arrangement. 

The important influence exerted on the appearance of 
streets by monuments was fully treated under Composi- 
tion, except for fountains, the step-children of modern 
art. vSquares and streets of modern dimensions impera- 
tively demand prominent and strongly marked points. 
This cannot be done by monuments, since their necessary 
number and dimensions would far exceed their purpose 
and meaning. Recourse must be had to other objects 
for display, and monumental fountains come first in 
consideration. To refreshing and animating effects 
offered to the citizens is added, as an important artistic 
motive, the fact that they arc very readily adapted in 
form and dimensions to the shape of the square. This is 

then a standard motive, especially in our own city 
(Vienna), whose general use is not sufficiently considered. 
The influence of modern bridges on the appearance of 
the street has almost vanished. vSteel has supplanted 
stone, and the means at command tell the rest of the 
story in a way not to be misunderstood, so that bridges 
have almost entirely sunk to become structures of mere 
utility, mere elevated extensions of streets. The earliest 
brutal appearance of the new material led the citizens to 
protest energetically, and this has now at last resulted 
that even where only partially possible, the deck bridge 
is used to retain the always beautiful perspective unob- 
structed. It is likewise imperatively necessary for art 
and artists to contribute weighty suggestions for such 
undertakings, that the heretofore neglected view of the 
bridge lengthwise may receive a certain development, 
thereby in part affording the esthetically required view 
for the person approaching it. The artistic treatment of 
bridges must in most cases exhibit strongly emphasized 
bridge ends, with a richly designed railing for the bridge. 
< )ur great advances in sanitation, the undisputed re- 
sults of sanitary precautions, the vast and increasing 
population in great cities, and also the fact that cleanli- 
ness is inseparable from works of art, — all indicate the 
necessity for a scrupulously clean condition of our 
business streets, and a spotless appearance of public 
buildings and monuments. This requirement is more 
than justified, and the architect must even in his first 
sketch take corrresponding precautions. It cannot be 
our object to mention everything pertaining to sanita- 
tion, but weight must be laid on this, that the architect 
must be perfectly acquainted with current information 
in this field, especially since modern requirements de- 
mand novel artistic forms. 

Not belonging to sanitation, but allied thereto, is the 
problem of the disposal of gases of combustion and soot, 
continually becoming more prominent in our great cities. 
Sanitary regulations, such as compulsory use of coke, 
location of manufactories on the outskirts of the 
city, apparatus for consuming smoke, etc., evidently 
afford but slight relief, since these do not affect the vast 
number of heating apparatuses in our dwellings and 
public buildings. The appearance of the city is affected 
only in esthetic respects by manufactories and their 
great chimneys, while smaller smoke flues remain almost 
invisible. Even if more beautiful forms were perhaps 
devised for the former, yet, according to the present con- 
dition of science, no hope exists for the elimination of 
smoke and soot from our cities within any conceivable 
time. But smoke and soot are most injurious to modern 
art works. A mixture of dust, soot, and sediment 
quickly covers every work of art in the open air, giving 
it an entirely changed appearance, certainly not intended. 
Attempts have not lacked for taking into consideration 
the innate sense of color in man by the aid of the sister 
arts. All such are thwarted by the esthetically and 
chemically injurious result of the evil just mentioned. 
Combined with this are also unfavorable climatic con- 
ditions, from which result blackened facades, with their 
sculptured ornamentation made unrecognizable by soot. 
The unpleasant color of bronze monuments, the lack of 
durability in all paintings on the exteriors of public 
buildings, the necessary boxing of all marble decorations 



of squares and buildings during winter, etc., are the sad 
result of this evil. A remedy is only to be provided by 
the use of the simplest possible forms, of smooth sur- 
faces, the use of porcelain and majolica, stoneware, 
mosaic pictures, etc., and modern architecture is able to 
show important results in this field. 

Sufficient light, pleasant temperature, and pure air in 
rooms are very justifiable requirements by mankind. 
While these were esteemed unattainable a few deeades 
since, a number of improvements and inventions have 
given us the possibility of their complete fulfilment. 
Thus the electric lis^b t makes possible the ideal lighting 
of rooms with avoidance of danger from fire. 

Political and social conditions influence in a high 
degree architecture in cities, and these must even be 
taken as the primary causes of our so greatly changed 
type of buildings. Democracy has placed before the art 
a large number of new problems, but it must be stated 
that though art has gained by the power of the new im- 
pulse and by the possibilities created by modern con- 
struction, it has certainly lost the will of the sovereign, 
energy, and love of fame in individuals. Our colossal 
structures (exhibitions, railway stations, parliament 
houses, etc.) are eloquent witnesses, when compared 
with castles, palaces, etc. 

Finally, we should consider the influence of economy 
upon art. It seems as if the influence of art first begins 
only where abundance and wealth exist. This is cer- 
tainly wrong. Simplicity, indeed, best suits our present 
views, which in the appearance of the city at least require 
the artistic and the practical. Mere utility and over- 
loaded tastelessness must therefore disappear. Even 
the simplest object may be treated artistically without 
increase in cost. More than ever in such cases there 
comes to the architect the earnest warning to demon- 
strate his artistic powers by exact and conscientious 
fulfilment of requirements by using the simplest and 
most appropriate forms. Doubtless it can and must go 
so far, that nothing visible to the eye may be produced 
without receiving the consecration of art. It should never 
be forgotten that the art of a country is not only the 
measure of the value of its wellbeing, but, above all, of its 
intelligence as well. 

A general and inflexible adherence to such ground 
principles by architects would soon give an entirely 
different appearance to every city, and cause the disap- 
pearance of the offensive and overloaded ornamental 
chaos of suburban buildings. At every such opportunity 
the influence of the modern endeavors of mankind upon 
the future treatment of architectural works would be 
considered. But while there still frequently prevails in 
the external appearance of our buildings some uncer- 
tainty, a groping and seeking after the true generally 
appears in internal architecture, in the treatment of 
objects for use, an energetic and well-aimed application 
to industries, as well as very advanced powers, that take 
a fuller account of modern tendencies. 

The word " comfort " has been naturalized in all lan- 
guages, and everything would now be designated as 
mistaken that is opposed to its strict laws. Two condi- 
tions serve as criterions, and are prescribed by modern 
mankind : The greatest possible convenience, and the utmost 
cleanliness. All attempts to ignore these axioms produce 

only worthless results, and all products of art not in 
accordance with these rules bear within themselves the 
germ of death. Examples are innumerable. Incon- 
venient stairways, everything ugly, unpractical, hard to 
clean, all inconvenient sanitary arrangements, furniture 
with sharp angles, seats unsuited to the form and not 
adapted for occasional use while reading, eating, or 
smoking, or for receptions, all unpractical works of art 
industry, even if the greatest minds are responsible for 
them, and many other things belong in this class. It is 
here immaterial whether these articles were intended for 
the palace, or for the simple dwelling of the citizen. If 
our modern creations of this kind, corresponding to the 
idea of comfort, be compared with the productions of 
even the most luxuriant French periods, the vast differ- 
ence is very clear, and it must be confessed that good 
and entirely novel things may now be created, and have 
indeed been produced. The English first fulfilled these 
requirements, and they have for decades borne allegiance 
to this modern tendency; they have so far succeeded in 
the most recent times by a happy choice of forms taken 
directly from nature as to tolerably make amends for 
the lack of taste so long prevailing among them. 

It was stated in the essay on the Architect that the 
modern architect has become the supporter of art handi- 
work. Strenuous endeavors made by the State to again 
unite art and industry have so far been without result 
worthy of mention. This is because art industry, art 
handiwork, and the ideas therewith connected are merely 
phrases, and that any elevation of this conception under 
present conditions is entirely inconceivable. Industry 
and handiwork naturally tend toward production by a 
manufactory, and money or wages alone attracts in this 
direction; but production in a manufactory is incompati- 
ble with art. This fact will also briefly and clearly show 
the defective, one might almost say the obsolete, point 
of view of our schools for art industries. It may. there- 
fore, without further discussion, be maintained that 
everything really good and novel in industry and handi- 
work at this time is created by architects alone. In de- 
signing such works, the architect must have the technics 
of the material and of the workmanship before his eyes, 
and must know them thoroughly. 

If we now turn aside from these endeavors in handi- 
work, an extensive knowledge of which the architect 
must possess for ordinary architectural works, and merely 
glance over the different tendencies, like stonework, 
textiles, ceramics, metal-work witli its hundreds of pro- 
cesses, it will become clear that the architect must accu- 
mulate a treasure of knowledge if his creations are to be 
successful. There are vast numbers of things that 
modern civilization produces, for which modern art has 
already invented forms, and even given to many per- 
fected shapes, that scarcely recall forms in past times, 
and are, indeed, entirely novel, since even their basis or 
structural principal has come from our original require- 
ments and observation. A refreshing breeze passes over 
the sterile field of art, and luxuriant shoots put forth 
everywhere. Not everything that germinates and grows 
there ripens into fruit, or becomes an art form, but as 
the natural development of art requires, novelties do 
arise, and finally the dirty sewer of copying will be left 
behind, a circumstance fortunate for us. Art strides 



forward slowly and seriously, produces creatively and 
constantly, until it attains the ideal of beauty that fully 
corresponds to the period. The noisy talk of mankind 
may again cause it to descend, but it will arise again and 
again if its new and inspiring impulse is supplied. 
Thus it was and so will it ever be. It is the sacred prob- 
lem of the architect to accompany and not depart from 
it, even if the path be thorny, so that mankind may 
rejoice in the objects created by art through his means. 

As these words suggest, earnest advice is given to 
those who are to become architects, to exercise them- 
selves in observation, in perception, in the recognition of 
human needs, and to take the results of their observation 
as a basis of creation, but not to copy existing objects, 
unsuitable for modern men, or with slight changes to 
dish them up as novel and good. If architecture be not 
rooted in the life, in the needs of existing mankind, then 
will it lose the direct, animating, vivifying quality, and 
it will sink down to the depth of a wretched level, even 
ceasing to be an art. 

The architect must always keep before his eyes, that 
art is called to work for mankind, and that mankind is 
not here for the sake of art. Creative power must ever 
shoiv itself anew in every work of art, and they are right 
who dee/are beautiful novel creations to be the supreme 
measure of value of art qualities. 


This essay has extended far beyond the original in- 
tention, and yet it appears to me only to give expression 
to my convictions in the briefest form. Its contents can 
merely be the foundation; the method and means of pro- 
ducing other ashlars for the structure, how they are to 
be laid, and what forms they are to receive, — all these 
must be left to the pencil in the school. I have yet 
much to say, but illustrations would then be necessary. 
I would then avoid this, since my previous publications 
form in a certain sense illustrations of what is said. 
They clearly show how my expressed views have ripened. 
I believe that in this essay I have pointed out the path 
that must be followed in order to approximate to the 
proposed aim, — a modern architecture. 

A direct question, "How should we build? " cannot 
indeed be answered. But our feeling must indeed say to 
us to-day that the antique horizontal line, the arrange- 
ment of surfaces in broad areas, the greatest simplicity, 
and an cm rgetic prominence of construction and material 
will thoroughly dominate future developed and novel art 
forms ; this is demanded by modern technical science and 
by the means at our command. It is self-evident that the 
beautiful expression, which architecture will give to the 
needs of our time, must harmonize with the views ami with 
the appearance of modern mankind, and it must show the 
individuality of the architect. 

There can now be no suggestion of smothering the 
ideal, or of lowering the level of art, and those convinced 
by this essay or strengthened in their convictions must 
admit that the great and new impulse for which mankind 
constantly longs, when rightly understood, will assuredly 
contribute more powerfully to clear up the now very 
erroneous views on art than all well-meant and obsti- 
nately defended theories on the use of the forms of past 
centuries, pure in style and well copied, but which no 

longer have any connection whatever witli modern man- 

But architects who strive for the aims indicated in 
these essays are, then, what the architects of all periods 
were, the children of their era ; their works will bear 
their own stamp, they -will themselves solve their problems 
by contributing to development, and they will truly create ; 
their language will be intelligible to mankind, the world 
will behold its own reflection in their works, and self-con- 
sciousness, individuality, and convictions that belonged to 
the artists of all periods will fill their hearts. 

The errors of our ancestors in permitting impiously 
the works of their own ancestors to be neglected or 
destroyed will be avoided by us, and we shall place in a 
suitable setting like jewels, works transmitted to us, so 
that they may be preserved for us as modeled illustra- 
tions of the history of the art. The vast progress of 
civilization will plainly show us what should be learned 
from the ancients, and what should be omitted, and the 
indicated true path will certainly guide us to the aim of 
creating the novel and the beautiful. 

May what has been said in these essays fall on fertile 
soil for the welfare of art and artists; may the thoughts 
expressed contribute to arouse a freshly pulsating life, a 
rich development of architecture with a definite aim, so 
that in a not too distant period we may see embodied our 
ideal of beauty, the predicted and hoped for! 


STEEL construction is the most characteristic archi- 
tectural development of the nineteenth century. It 
came as an inspiration to a few of our best architects, 
and its possibilities, extreme adaptability, and scientific 
accuracy at once commended itself to every constructor. 
It has undoubtedly influenced our national architecture 
far more than we can now appreciate, and its effects will 
continue for many years to come. But, like all good things 
which come in this world, it has its inconvenient side. All 
of our architecture is fortunately not limited to fifteen and 
twenty-story office buildings. In fact, our best architec- 
tural successes have been in buildings of a very moderate 
height, and worth in design is by no means measured by 
either expanse or altitude. The steel cage construction is 
so new, and gives the architects such boundless control 
over the material forces of the building, that we have un- 
doubtedly at times put too high a value upon it, and, in a 
way, it has tinctured our whole idea of construction. When 
it is no longer necessary to carry piers on anything more 
substantial than an I beam, and when the external effect of 
the building is obtained by the use of a thin veneer of archi- 
tecture over a minimized web of steel, and while the whole 
problem is, in reality, still in its infancy, we must expect, 
and we do find, more failures than successes from an esthetic 
standpoint. The very fact that the problem is so interest- 
ing can easily blind us as to what is its essential nature 
We do not mean by this that the steel skeleton is to be 
deprecated, but rather that in our designing we should 
not forget that the principles of constructive design are 
older than I beams, and that artistic composition, balance, 
and unity are not factors of Z-bar columns or built girders. 
The fact that terra-cotta and brick lend themselves so 
thoroughly to steel construction should not make us for- 
get the limitations of either material. 

i7 2 


Selected Miscellany. 


The universal topic at present is the coming World's 

Fair, and now that the site has been determined upon 
and the Commission of Architects selected, the work will 
soon he tinder way. 

The selection of the site lias been very fortunate, the 
municipal assembly having granted the privilege of 

ments of such a nature as to remain permanent as well 
as that some of the buildings shall remain a permanent 

Perth Atnboy Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

using the western or undeveloped part of Forest Park, 
and the available land contiguous to the park will fix no 
limit upon the space that may be used. 

The plan pursued in selecting the architects has fol- 
lowed closely that which prevailed at Chicago, a commis- 
sion of ten architects having been chosen, five from 
St. Louis, and live from the country at large. Mr. Isaac 
S. Taylor has been chosen the chairman of the com- 

9 Jtm'Ps * tB 

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I f lMmr^ 

If' o\ mS, V 


i 12 IS 1 /■ 

£ 1 fljfli 11 IE 

Ol H^l K / -\ Mil I f* * 

1 kVl HBt •■ K Wit 1 

iJR { 

UL99 v . ^ J J 

Winkle Terra-Cotta Company, makers, 

mission and the director of the works. The other St. 
Louis members are: Fames and Young, T. C. Link, 
Barnett, Haynes and Barnett, YVidman, Walsh and 
Boissellier; and the members from a distance are Cass 
Cilbert and Carrere and Hastings of New York, Van 
Brunt and Howe of Kansas City, Walker and Kimball of 
Boston, and D. H. Burnham & Co. of Chicago. 

A desire is manifest to have some of the improve- 


J. M. Wood & J. <;. Howard, Associated Architects. 

Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

and enduring monument of the occasion commemorating 

the hundredth anniversary of the " Louisiana Purchase." 

The building permits since the first of the year show 
a total value of buildings >>( six and one-half million 
dollars for that period, being a gain of 121 per cent, over 


Standard Terra-Tut ta Works, makers 

that for the same period last year, and for May and June 
the gain was 272 per cent, over a similar period for 1900. 

In designing the new Ralph Waldo Fmcrson School, 
Commissioner of Schools Win. B. Ittner has followed the 
lines of English schools in plan as well as in exterior 
treatment. The building will contain 18 rooms besides 
the kindergarten department, and will he 200 ft. long, 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 



MaginniS, Walsh & Sullivan, Architects. 




B. Kreischer & Sons, 

catholics are build- 
i ii g a church on 
< I rand Avenue at a 
cost of $50,000, and 
St. Mark's congre- 
gation are build- 
ing a church and 
parochial residence 
on Page and Acad- 
e m y Avenues, to 
C o s t t h e s a 111 e 
a m o u n t. T h e 
former is a classical 
design by C. S. 
I [olloway, and the 
latter is Gothic by 
G. W. Helmut!). 

but only two stories and basement 
high. It will cost $125,000. 

A number of large churches are 
being built, a permit having been 
issued for .St. John's M. E. Church 
at the corner of Kingshighway and 
Washington Avenue. Barnett, 
Ilayncs and barnett have prepared 
drawings for the new Roman Catho- 
lic cathedral, to be built on the 
northwest corner of Lindell Boule- 
vard and Newstead Avenue. The 
building will be of marble, m the 
Renaissance style. The Italian 

Chestnut Streets. James Windrim has been appointed 

Guy Lowell, of boston, has prepared plans for a 
palatial country house, to cost $300,000, at Jenkingtown, 
Pa. : and an equally large if not so costly a suburban 
residence has been started at Bryn Mawr, Kenned v & 
Kelsey, architects. 


St Augustines Church, Pittsburgh, Pa., Rutan & 
Russell architects, illustrated in the plate forms of this 
number, was built of " Ironclay " brick, made by the 
Columbus Pace Brick Company. 

The architectural terra-COtta used in St. Peter's 

C h u re h, Harding & 
1 1 OC h, architects ( il- 
lustrated in the plate 
form of this number) 
was made by the Excel- 
sior Teira-Cotta Com- 

1>. Kreischer & Sons, 
Xew York City, manu- 
facturersof architectural 
terra-cotta and brick, 
report the following new 
con tracts : Residence, 
Washington, L). C, Mc- 
Kim. Mead c\: White, 



Kees & ('..burn. Architects. 
Built of ■• Ironclay " brick, made by the Columbus Pace Brick Company. 

Edward P. Casey, architect, has removed from 171 
Broadway to 1 Nassau Street, New York City. 

Walter H. Kilham and James C. Hopkins, Boston, 
have formed a copartnership under the firm name of Kil- 
ham & Hopkins; office at g Park Street. 

The School of Architecture of the University of 
Pennsylvania, like the Architectural School at Harvard, 
is soon to have a building of its own. 

( hie of the largest office buildings in Philadelphia will 
soon be erected on the northwest corner of 12th and 

architects; white brick. Press 
Club, 9 1 1 and 13 Spruce Street, 
Xew York City, A. \V. Hrunner. 
architect; buff -gray brick. Resi- 
dence. Tuxedo Park, Xew York, 
Clinton & Russell, architects; 
gray terra-cotta. American Ex- 
press Building, Madison Ave. 
Xew York City, Samuel Huckel, 
architect ; dark gray speckled 


New Jersey Terra-Cotta 
Company, makers. 



Celadon Roofing Tile (Charles Bacon, Boston agent) 
will be used on the new addition to the Hotel Somerset, 
Boston, A. H. Bowditch, architect. 

Charles Bacon, Boston agent for Sayre & Fisher 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, makers. 

Company, reports the following new contracts for 
furnishing brick: Clinker brick for stable, Brookline, 
Mass., Coolidge & Carlson, architects; house, 
Brookline, Mass., W. G. Preston, architect; 
Massachusetts General Hospital, new build- 
ing, Wheelwright & Haven, architects; South 
Terminal Trust Company Building, Boston, 
Winslow & Bigelow, architects; Walker Build- 
ing, Boston, Winslow & Bigelow, architects; 
Sears House, Weston, Mass., J. E. Chandler, 
architect; block of houses, Bay State Road, 
Boston, L. M. Merrill, owner. Total of nearly 
a million brick. 

Adjoining the Canadian Government Ex- 
hibit, at the Pan-American Exposition, 
Buffalo, 1 90 1, Messrs. Henry Maurer & Son, 
of 420 East 23d Street, New York City, have 
erected a structure, a view of which we re- 
produce, to exemplify the various uses to 
which clay is adaptable. 

They have here erected a flat arch of the 
"Herculean" method of fire-proof construc- 
tion, spanning 25 ft. in the clear, from wall 
to wall, without the use of iron beams or 
girders; all the metal necessary being Tee 
irons 1 l /o ins. by 1 y 2 ins. by -\ in., which are 
thoroughly imbedded in Portland cement to 
render the metal rust-proof, and again en- 

cased in terra-cotta grooves, being everywhere covered 
by such fire-proof material never less than 2 ins. in thick- 
ness; presenting the acme of fire-proof construction. 
The strength and rigidity of such an arch is phe- 



Werner & Adkins, Architects. 

Roofed with " American S " tile. 

nomenal; >ne of 18 ft. span having been tested to meet 
the requirements of the Philadelphia Building Depart- 
ment, to cover buildings of any and every class, at 600 
pounds to the square foot, showing, during a prolonged 
test of several days, no perceptable deflection whatever. 

Another arch of 13 ft. span, 8 ins. deep, was erected at 
the New York Glucose Company's Factory, now building 
at Shady Side, N. J., and stood without any visible 
structural strain a load far exceeding even that. 

This construction presents many radical features of 
interest to architects and engineers 

They also show terra-cotta partitions of different 
thicknesses, the so-called " Phoenix " 2-in. partition be- 
ing especially worthy of examination ; column covering, 


Clinton & Rnsscll, Architects. 

Terra-cotta furnished by the New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company; front 

brick furnished by the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company, Predenburg X- l.ouns- 
bury, New York Agents. 



gas retorts, front brick of different colorings; red clay 

roofing tiles which, if more extensively utilized for ware- 

entire exhibit is an instructive lesson to all interested in 
lire-proof building. 

Northwesti rn I i i ra-Cotta Company, makers. 

houses, depots, sheds, etc.. would materially reduce the 
fire losses so frequent when shingles are used; in fact, the 






SCllool. ARCHITECTURE. By Edmund M. 
Wheelwright, Boston. Rogers & Manson. Size. 
lY-2. by ioO ins. 350 pp. 250 illus. Price, $5, delivered. 

In 1898 1900 there appeared in The Brickbuilder a 

series of papers on ••The American Schoolhouse, " by 
Edmund M. W hcel- 
wright. The success of 
these papers suggested 
the publication of this 
book, in which the orig- 
inal material has been 
recast and the scop, 
the subject has b e e n 
greatly widened. 

Many A m e r i c a n 
schools not considered 
in the original papers 
arc illustrated and de- 
scribed, but the work 
is especially enriched 
from foreign sources. 
Examples are presented 
of the most typical and 
practically suggestive 
sc h 00 1 s of Germany, 
Austria. Switzer 1 a n d, 
the Scandinavian coun- 
tries. England, and 
France, the subject be- 
ing more comprehen- 
sively treated than in 
a n y b o k heretofore 

published. All details of school construction are consid- 
ered, vet the information is studiously condensed within 
the limits of a convenient handbook, which is made 
readily accessible by an unusually full index. 

It is hardly necessary to refer to Mr. Wheelwright's 
wide experience in the designing and construction of 
schools, or to his general recognition as an authority on 
school architecture. 



St. Louis Terra-Cotta Company, 


"School Architecture." 

A General Treatise on Designing and Planning o\ Schoolhouses. 


More than 250 Illustrations of Schoolhouses and Plans; many of the best types of all grades having 

been chosen. 
An indispensable Text-book for Schoolhouse Designers. 

Price, $5.00, delivered. 

ROGKRS & MANSON, Publishers, 
Boston, Mass. 



i 901 . 





85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada . . . . . . . . $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... $6.00 per year 


For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 


Advertisers arc classified and arranged in the following order: — 


Agencies. — Clay Products ... II 

Architectural Faience .... II 

" Tena-Cotta . 11 and III 

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" Enamelled . . . .Ill and IV 


Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 


IN a recent number of Munsey's Magazine there was 
published an article on the profession of architec- 
ture, this being- one of a series dealing with the great 
enterprises of the business world. Particular stress 
seemed to be placed upon the pecuniary rewards which 
the profession of architecture holds out, and these re- 
wards, which, though they come to few architects in the 
copious abundance which the Munsey writer imagines, 
are yet very tangible realities, and are so large and en- 
ticing in nature that a layman reading the article might 
very naturally draw the conclusion that architecture is 
a profession in which the rewards are sure as well as 
large, and would very naturally wonder therefrom why 
the profession is not vastly overcrowded and why all 
bright young men should not devote themselves at once 
to preparing to reap the magnificent incomes which the 
magazine writer depicted so alluringly. In one sense 
the profession of architecture is decidedly overcrowded. 
We doubt if there is any calling in which the subordinate 

ranks are any more crowded than in architecture. Our 
universities are grinding out graduates by the score year 
after year, but somehow the number of practising archi- 
tects who win large financial returns increases but very 
little from decade to decade. The reason is not hard to 
discover. It is very easy to get into the lower ranks of 
architecture, but he who would aspire to the great prizes 
must spend so many long years in arduous preparation 
that unless he has a special aptitude for that particular 
kind of work he is pretty sure to be tired out and thrown 
off the track before he arrives. It requires very little 
talent to be a third-rate architect. It requires a great 
deal to be first-rate. And though there are exceptions, 
and some architects who are mere business managers are 
able to reap large pecuniary rewards, it is nevertheless 
true that the large rewards are every year being more 
and more turned into the hands of the best fitted. Ar- 
chitecture is a profession which, as we understand it, 
will never be overcrowded in the upper ranks. There 
will always be room for the thoroughly well equipped 
architect, and though we occasionally hear pitiable sto- 
ries of pluck and courage in the face of long years of 
small business and no prospects, such as was told in 
the columns of a contemporary a few weeks since, it 
is extremely rare to find a thoroughly well equipped 
architect with a natural bent for architecture who fails 
of an opportunity to exercise his talents. We think the 
Munsey article, which by the by seems like the work of 
a layman, exaggerates the financial rewards. The aver- 
age income of a good architect we imagine rarely exceeds 
six or eight thousand dollars a year. At the same time 
the rewards are pretty certain for the right kind of men, 
and the profession has advanced amazingly during the 
last quarter of a century in its financial possibilities no 
less than in its artistic intrinsic capabilities. 

ONE by one the states of this country are falling into 
line on the matter of supervision of the practice 
of architecture. We have just received from a sub- 
scriber at San Diego an abstract of "an act to regulate 
the practice of architecture as a profession in the state of 
California," with a copy of the laws and rules of the 
board. The carrying out of the act is committed to a 
dual board consisting of ten members, five of whom 
have jurisdiction over the northern part of the state and 
five over the southern. It is provided in the act that 
half of the board shall be members in good standing 
of the San Francisco Chapter of the American Institute of 
Architects, or some similar institution or association 
of architects. This board is empowered to formulate and 



adopt its code <>f rules and regulations so long as they 

shall not be inconsistent with the general intent of the 
act. Any person shall be entitled to examination for 
certificate for the practice of architecture upon payment 
to the district board of fifteen dollars. Should he be 
successful in his examination, he is required to pay a 
further fee of five dollars. It is provided, however, as 
in nearly all of the other states in which such legislation 
has been made, that any architect in good Standing 
engaged in the practice of his profession on the date of 
the passage of the act shall be granted a certificate with- 
out examination upon payment of a fee of live dollars, 
but such application must be made before September 
twenty-third of this year. The act further stipulates 
that no person shall practise architecture without a cer- 
tificate under penalty of a tine of not less than fifty 
dollars nor more than five hundred dollars. The law as 
a matter of fact is rendered of rather doubtful efficiency 
for the reason that it is expressly stipulated that "noth- 
ing in the act shall prevent any person from making 
plans for his own building nor furnishing plans or other 
data for buildings for other persons, providing the per- 
son so furnishing such plans or data shall fully inform 
the person for whom such plans or data arc furnished 
that he, the person furnishing such plans, is not a certi- 
fied architect." It would seem to us that under that 
clause of the law there is no real necessity of a certifi- 
cate of any sort except as a matter of personal pride or 
business advertisement. It has been found that in Illi- 
nois the last named motives really count for a great deal, 
and it is quite probable that although the California law 
practically leaves it optional with an architect whether 
he shall or shall not have a license, the natural workings 
of human nature will probably result in a very general 
application for licenses. In regard to architects residing 
outside of the state, they are not required to pass an 
examination provided they can present satisfactory evi- 
dence of competency upon which they can obtain a tem- 
porary certificate upon payment of the fee of five dollars. 
The act is weak, furthermore, in that it does not dis- 
tinctly define what an architect is, and the provisions 
apparently do not apply to engineers or constructors of 
any sort. 

Among the by-laws we note that a diploma of gradu- 
ation from the full course of architecture or architec- 
tural engineering of any university or technical school 
approved by the board may be accepted in lieu of an 
examination. We notice also a curious provision in 
regard to the seal which a licensed architect is required 
to possess, that as this seal is for the purpose of making 
an impression a rubber stamp is not permitted. The 
subjects for examination sound very comprehensive. 
Thev include the demonstration of ability to make prac- 
tical application of knowledge in the ordinary profes- 
sional work of an architect as follows: i. Merit as 
investment. 2. Planning. .}. Construction. 4. Design. 
5. Rendering. Beyond this there are the ordinary 
requirements which are found in all technical schools 
and in all similar laws. 

The law is good as far as it goes and is on the whole 
a very fair beginning. It is a pity that it could not go 
a great deal further and be really mandatory instead of 
simply permissive. 

THE development of the typical American public 
schoolhouse plan has called for a great deal of 
Study and thought, and to the solution of the problems 
involved probably no one has contributed more than 
Mr. Edmund M. Wheelwright, whose book on School 
Architecture has just been put on the market. The 
architectural profession in this country can feel a great 
deal of pride in the schoolhouses which have been 
evolved as a result of so much study and which have 
met the public demand so completely. There is even 
now. however, hardly a single large city in this country 
wherein the school accommodations are entirely adequate 
to the demands. There is a constantly increasing neces- 
sity for larger and better schoolhouses, and at the same 
time the architectural necessity that schoolhouses shall 
he artistic is growing in every community. Mr. Wheel- 
wright's book is therefore specially timely, and it is one 
which appeals not merely to the trained architect, but 
with quite equal force to every one who is interested in 
schoolhouse construction. This book should be in the 
hands of every school committee. It is not likely that 
any publication of this sort would make good architects 
out of good school committee men, that is neither nec- 
essary nor desirable, but it would show to the intelli- 
gent reader how schoolhouse architecture has developed 
and how a schoolhouse may be not only thoroughly well 
planned, but also well designed. It is fair, we think, to 
claim that this book marks an epoch in schoolhouse con- 
struction. The time was not very long since when almost 
anything would answer for a schoolhouse. and the struc- 
tures in which our ancestors learned the rudiments of 
education were cheerless, barren and often unsanitary. 
The modern school can and should be a thing of beauty 
in which the most exacting considerations of hygiene, 
lighting and arrangement are most scrupulously con- 
sidered. Mr. Wheelwright has rendered a great service- 
in reducing the requirements of a modern schoolhouse 
to least terms, expressing them in a concise, comprehen- 
sive manner and formulating the results of the best 
practice both here and abroad. The work is by no 
means exhaustive. Within the last few years thousands 
of well-built, well-equipped schoolhouses have made their 
appearance in various parts of the country, and the 
writer could only select from the best of material which 
was offered; but he has gathered together the typical 
examples of all sorts and has brought to the subject 
an analytical mind and a trained intellect, which makes 
his deductions of -real value. 


The thirty-fifth Annual Convention of the American 
Institute of Architects will be held at Buffalo, < >ct. 4 and 5, 
Quarters have been secured for members near the Expo- 
sition grounds. Members who have not already signified 
their intention of being present should send their names 
at once to Mr. William H. Broughton, Secretary, Buffalo 
Chapter, Prudential Building, Buffalo. 

A very interesting program has been arranged for 
the ('..mention, and the indications are that a large num- 
ber of members will be in attendance. 



Brickbuilding in Modern France. III. 


WE will examine in this article mure interesting 
brick residences. The examples will be varied 
so as to demonstrate the diversity of forms to which 
brick has been applied. 

In Fig. i we see it employed in the wisest and most 
sober manner, in a rich private house on the Pare 
Moneeau, frames of stone appearing at the windows 

There is something restful in the simplicity of this 
house, and we find pleasure in contemplating it after 


having visited some of the fantastic structures which 
we are obliged to accept under the head of modern art. 

Fig. 2 is of an apartment house in the west of Paris. 
It is by one of the most interesting of the young archi- 
tects, Mr. Plumet, and is of light-colored brick. The 
window arches are interesting, and the whole of great 
sobriety. There is, however, a slight heaviness in the 
central balcony of the fourth floor. 

The villa reproduced in Fig. .^ is at Asineres. The 
bricks are of two shades, and the whole framed in 

ponderous chains of white stone. The general effect 
is bad. 

I prefer, however, original as it is, the next little 
house (Fig. 4). The architect was instructed to build 
a home for a bachelor. He was told that the house 
must be of limited dimensions, but that there should 
be a large drawing room where the master of the house 
eoidd receive his friends. And so all the high ground 
floor is occupied by one vast room, and the private 
apartments are on the upper floor. From this comes the 
tower-like aspect of the little house. When the photo- 
graph was taken it stood quite alone in a street of vacant 
lots. The growth of the city towards the west has 
changed the appearance of its surroundings, and now 
the Romanesque tower is flanked by small Renaissance 

Fig. 5 is a house which I do not give as a model, 
but which is of interest because it shows that something 
may be done with brick alone, and that we can find color 

FIG. 3. 



effects without eternally turning for them to white stone 
and red brick. 

The stable and coachman's house (Fig. 6) in the 
courtyard of a big private house in the Rue Ampere 
are built of the same material. Here the brick of the 
ground floor is varnished, and on the first floor it fills 
the intervals between a timber work which is a real 
timber work, bearing weight, and not an application of 
a lattice on an ordinary wall which we have so often 
seen in England. The effect is gay, and the owners can 
dispense with the usual dining-room stained-glass win- 
dows destined to hide the court from view. 

The house illustrated in Fig. 7 and situated on the 
Avenue Henri Martin is by the same architect who built 
the Greek Pavilion, which we examined in the preceding 
article, Mr. Magne. 

It also is of brick, well designed and of good color 
effect. White stone appears here in the window frames, 


T II E B RICK BU I L 1)1", R . 

in,. 4. I'KI\ A I I. HO rEL, PARIS. 

but its arrangement is by no means traditional and has 
evidently been independently thought <>nt, according to 
its role in the building. The arches of the windows 
introduce a red note in the light-colored facade. In the 
right fore part of the house where the three windows 
are joined in one a discharging arch of red brick 
strengthens the wall above the vast opening. 

The tiles in the frieze, of enameled terra-COtta, 
placed under the cornice, complete the decoration of the 

in,, (i. 


The last work to be seen is by the excellent brick 
specialist, Mr. Train (Fig. 8). It is a house on the Place 
St. Sulpice. It is entirely of brick and treated in the 
most agreeable and simple «"ay. The iron lintels of the 
windows are visible. T'ue varnished brick in the walls 
are in relief. The upper arches are ingeniously drawn. 
In fact the facade is a model from the point of view of 
decoration and brick construction. 

The facade faces a court, not the street. The build- 
ing to which it belongs is a shop of religious works of 
art. Hence the design of the windows. 

Before examining brickbuilding in the north of 
France, where it has always been held in great favor, we 
give an illustration (Fig. <>) which will serve to illustrate 
one way of employing brick as an accessory, to show its 
intervention as a purely decorative element. 





Liiui 3 in « 


IfljJl Jinn iran Z 

MMMM*M UUti wwwn r 





imn mm 

ji.B w ■ ■ ■ : iiihii 



It is a large villa designed by Mr. Grandpierre. 

The walls arc in pierre meuliere; brick and white 
stone intervene to enliven the angles, the window 
frames and the walls beneath the cornice. The whole is 
picturesque and highly colored, as a country residence 
should be. 


COMPETITIONS of the old and more familiar sort 
have usually meant a selfish scramble on the part 
of some unfortunate architects to secure the approval of 
a few well-meaning but misguided committee men. It 
is not always thus, however. A subscriber writes us 
from Omaha calling attention to the proceedings of the 
county commissioners of Hall County, Nebraska, who 
were authorized to employ an architect for a proposed 
eighty-five thousand dollar courthouse. Several archi- 
tects were invited to meet the commissioners. After a 
conference with the six architects present and before the 
meeting adjourned, the commissioners selected an archi- 
tect, J. R. Kimball of Omaha, agreeing to pay five per 
cent commission on the cost of the building and in addi- 
tion all traveling and other expenses, plus eighty-five 
dollars per month for superintendence. Such practice is 
not as rare as it was a few years ago, but it is none the 
less deserving of commendation, and it shows that the 
architect's position is not in the forlorn condition which 
some of us remember so well. It is our conviction that 
competitions for any except the large monumental public 
buildings do far more harm than good, are an expense 
to every one concerned, and simply delay the final selec- 
tion of an architect without any compensating advan- 
tages. We have yet to know of a single competition for 

buildings of the larger type in connection with which 
the desired results would not have been accomplished 
quicker, with less expense and with pleasanter feelings 
on the part of every one concerned, had the procedure 
been adopted which appears to have worked so success- 
fully at Omaha. The architecturally uneducated public- 
has an idea that a competition among architects is insti- 
tuted for the purpose of selecting or obtaining or in 
some mysterious manner evolving plans. As a matter 
of fact this is not true; a competition means simply the 
selection of an architect, and in nearly every instance 


after the architect is selected the whole problem has to 
be restudied, and valuable time, money and nerve tissue 
are wasted. We certainly congratulate the commission- 
ers of Hall County both on their method of procedure 
and on the result of their selection. 


1 82 

T H E H K I C K B U I \. 1) E R 

Architectural and Building Practice 
in Great Britain. 

l:\ (H K SPECIAL REPRESI \ I \ I l\ E. 

THE most important event in the architectural world 
since the publication of my last letter in The 
Brickbuilder has been the action taken in regard to the 

national memorial to our late revered Queen Victoria. 

When the executive committee discussed the matter. 


three points came before them: the first, as to whether 
one architect of eminence should be selected for the 
work; the second, as to whether there should be an open 
competition; and the third, as to whether a few men 
should be selected to prepare designs and be remuner- 
ated for their trouble. Unfortunately, the last course 
was adopted. A great outcry against the decision was 
raised in the public and technical press, when many 
leading architects and artists expressed themselves 
strongly in favor of an open competition. The five 
architects chosen by the committee were Mr. T. <',. Jack- 
son, Mr. Aston Webb, Mr. Ernest George, Sir Thomas 
Drew and Dr. Rowand Anderson; Mr. Brock being the 
selected sculptor, around whose statue the architect will 
be asked to arrange an architectural envelope-. In mak- 
ing such a choice the committee, after selecting the first 
three architects, seem to have been influenced by a 
patriotic spirit, which caused them to throw in a repre- 
sentative of Ireland and of Scotland. 

Mr. Norman Shaw's opinion on architectural matters 
is probably the most influential in this country at the 
present time, and he had no reticence in expressing his 
dissatisfaction with the restriction of the competition to 
a few men. He pertinently remarked : "English archi- 
tects of to-day know nothing of monumental work. 
This is perhaps because they have done so little- of it. 
That little has been done badly. In this respect there- 
is a vast difference between ourselves and the French 
and the Germans. Our best work is domestic archi- 
tecture, theirs monumental. In the hands of people 
who could design the Arc <lc Triomphc and the- magnifi- 
cent votive church at Montmartre, such a work as the 

Victoria Memorial would be perfectly safe." And not 
only did the committee make a great mistake in select- 
ing only a few men to submit designs, but it was worse 
to choose only one sculptor, especially at a time when the 
great art was witnessing revivals both in this country 
and in France. It would be waste of time to repeat 
what other prominent men have said about this memo- 
rial; suffice it to say that from the very first there has 
been an emphatic demand for an open competition. The 
site chosen by the committee is that of Buckingham 
Palace, and it is generally understood that the memorial 
will occupy a position directly facing the building, with 
an avenue of columns or sculpture leading up to it. 
There are two objections to this site. The one is that 
Nash's palace is not worthy to form the architectural 
background to a great memorial, and the second that 
the- line of the building and that of the mall are not in 
accord, the mall leading slantwise to the palace. 

The Royal Academy exhibition this year is not ex- 
ceptional, the architectural room especially preserving 
its wonted appearance. There are i<><> drawings ex- 
hibited, which is fewer than usual, and of these the 
domestic work is, on the whole, good, several delightful 
country houses being shown; such as " Glebelands, " a 
red brick building in Mr. Ernest Newton's most character- 
istic manner, the round-topped gables being very familiar. 
Mr. Aston Webb's "Sick Quarters for the Britannia Royal 
Naval College at Dartmouth " (of which an illustration is 
here given) is skillfully planned and worthy of this archi- 
tect. The buildings are now in course of erection, the 
walls being faced with red brick, with Portland stone 
dressings. Mr. Caroe shows several churches (the one 
here illustrated is about to be erected of local bricks and 
tiles. The chief characteristics of the- plan are the single- 
Span nave and the arrangement of the sanctuary and 
east window). 

In April last the Building Trades' Exhibition was held 
at the Agricultural Hall, London. It was the most com- 


plcte of its kind up to the present and was well attended 
by architects, builders, engineers and others. In con- 
nection with it an important conference between repre- 
sentatives of the Royal Institute of British Architects, 
the Institute of Civil Engineers and brickmakers was 
held relative to the proposed standardization of bricks. 
As was pointed out by Mr. Thomas Blashill (late super- 
intendent architect to the London County Council), win. 



presided, a great difficulty arises by reason of the vary- 
ing sizes of bricks needed to be used in the same wall, 
and it is very desirable that a standard should be deter- 
mined. The following resolutions, drawn up by a joint 
committee of the two institutions named above, were 
submitted to the meeting: 

sider the propriety of standardizing the size of bricks." 
Despite the diversity of opinion on this matter, how- 
ever, of three things there is no doubt : First, that it is 
extremely difficult to determine what the shrinkage in 
a particular brick will be ; secondly, good bricks con- 
forming to the standard will cost more than those which 

The length of the brick to be double the width plus the thickness 
of one vertical joint. 

Brickwork to measure four courses of bricks and four joints to a 

Joints to be '., inch thick and an extra 1-16, making 5-16 inch for the 
bed joints, to cover irregularities in the bricks; thus giving a standard 
length of g' 4 inches center to center of joints. 

Tile bricks to be measured in the following manner: 


Eight stretchers laid square end and splay end in contact in a 
straight line to measure 72 inches. 

Eight headers laid side by side frog upwards in a straight line to 
measure 35 inches. 

Eight bricks laid, the first brick frog downwards and then alter- 
nately frog to frog and back to back, to measure 21 ] , inches. 

The foregoing to apply to all classes of walling bricks, both 
machine and hand made, and facing bricks. 

A variety of opinions were expressed at the meeting, 
and nothing more definite was arrived at than a resolu- 
tion "that it is desirable to form a committee to con- 

do not ; thirdly, brickmakers at present experience 
no difficulty in selling their bricks irrespective of any 
standard, and therefore, if any change is made, it is 
for the convenience of architects, engineers and con- 
tractors. Perhaps the most the committee can do is to 
decide on a standard and leave it to the brickmakers to 
do their best to conform to it; but brickmaking is not 
an exact science, and those bricks which will need to be 
"thrown away" because they are above or below the 
standard size will doubtless offer considerable hindrance 
to the proposal being adopted throughout the country. 
It is interesting at this juncture to note that the further 
south one goes the smaller are the bricks. They are 

nrrcHir< row.ri.HAii, heuts 




inni»t an 


i ~ ■ . . p ■ 1 ■ i ~ — f — i= — p — p — r— 


smallest in Italy, then in Holland they are 2 inches 
thick, in London 2 ,/ 2 inches, while in Edinburgh the 
thickness increases to 3 inches and 3 '2 inches. 



Two men of note in the architectural world have 
recently died- Mr. J. M. Brydon and Mr. Arthur 
Cates. The former was the architect of the great new 
building for the Local Government Board and Educa- 
tion Department now about to be erected in Whitehall, 
and it is a melancholy fact that, like Mr. William Young 
(the architect of the new War < M'liee). Mr. Brydon should 
not have lived to see the completion of his greatest 

, II n? 

i — iiiiiiii 

CHI Kill BY W. I). CAROE. 

work. Mr. Cates devoted himself to architectural edu- 
cation and was largely responsible for the examinations 
now held by the Royal Institute of British Architects. 

In concluding, I may refer to those of the accom- 
panying illustrations which have not already been men- 

In the house by Messrs. Penty & Penty, sandstock 
facing bricks (2 ' 4 inches thick), with rubber arches and 
quoins, are being mostly tised. finely tooled stone being 
employed for the dressings. It is intended to cover the 
roofs with sea-green Westmoreland slates, laid in courses 
which diminish from eaves to ridge, the coverings to 
ridge and hips being of lead. 

The new Town Hall at Hitchin (in Hertfordshire! has 
a frontage of 78 feet, and its architectural style may 
be described as a simple treatment of the late English 
Renaissance. The joint architects of the building were 
Mr. E. W. Mountford and Mr. Geoffry Lucas. 

The house at Four Oaks, Sutton Coldfield, was 
designed by Mr. Bidlake for himself, and is an excellent 
type of the new domestic design. It is more especially 
successful in its grace and modeling (if the latter term 
maybe borrowed from another branch of art), suggest- 
ing comparison with the domestic buildings of Gloucester- 
shire, which are unsurpassed in this respect. 

The Life and Works ot Rafael 
Guastavino. Part III. 



IT has been told in a previous paper how Mr. Guas- 
tavino's first work in America was architectural 
practice. Some reminiscences of this may be interest- 
ing. As stated, he came to this country in 1SS1. attracted 
by what he considered to be an appreciation of his work 
in Spain, as shown by the 
award of a medal at the 
Philadelphia Exposition, 
1 876, not knowing that 
nearly every exhibitor re- 
ceived a bronze " medal 
of merit " and no graded 
awards were made. He 
saw at once that here was 
a g re a t e r field for his 
talents than in the old 
country ; but how to get 
the chance to cultivate it 
was not so clear to him. 
He had introductions to 
several architects in New 
York, but they did not 
enthuse over his ideas of 
construction. He there- 
fore sought to firing him- 
self before the public as 
an architect, and got an 
opportunity in the only 
journal then open to him. 
The Decorator and Fur- 
nisher ; to publish some of 
his original drawings and 
perspectives on the Span- 
ish Renaissance, with de- 
scriptive essays. He then 
got an opportunity to sub- 
mit designs in competi- 
tion for the new building 
of the Progress Club on 
59th Street near 4th Ave- 
nue. In this he was suc- 
cessful and was chosen as 
architect for the building. 
Afterwards the late Henry 
Fernbach, who was the 
expert adviser of the com- 
mittee and had recom- 
mended Mr. Guastavino's 
design for adoption, was 
appointed as consulting 
architect, a n d together 
they carried out the work. 
The front of this building 
(of which we present some 
details) was then the only 
brick front in this countrv 


in 1 \n - 





treated according to real Moorish principles. It is in the 
" Mudejar " style of the primary epoch, one of the phases 
of the beginning of the Spanish Renaissance before the 
Italian influence came in as the result of the Hispano- 
Italian wars. It is also illustrated and described in The 
Decorator and Furnisher of June, 1883. 

Before the clubhouse was finished he again succeeded 
in a competition for the synagogue at Madison Avenue 
and 65th Street, New York. In carrying out this build- 
ing he selected as his associate architect Mr. Schwartz- 
man. He made all the drawings and details for both 
of these buildings, as well as designs for the interior 
decorations. He was next employed by Mr. Bernard 
Levy to design a residence. Mr. Levy had enough con- 
fidence in him to allow him to introduce his system of 
cohesive construction, and in this house, the first in 
America, he used his timbrel arches from basement to 
roof, and built the stairway with tiles and cement. 

regarded by all but himself as an experiment. Another 
reason that actuated him in so doing was that, as he 
had as yet not been able to put entire confidence in the 
Portland cement he was using, he set the first two 
courses of tile with plaster of Paris. His main object 






in 1 ti N M)^H-lH-i-f r Tf =jfy 

The same year he competed for the Arion Club, but 
was unsuccessful, and this was his last attempt to prac- 
tise architecture as a profession. He however suc- 
ceeded in getting the contract for the floor construction, 
which was shown on his plans. The illustration here 
given (Fig. 2) shows a plan 
of one of the 
section of th 
tion. It wi 
that these ar 
of seventeen 


in coming to America was thus accomplished, and he 
was now successfully launched as a contractor and 
expert. He had designed several private houses also, 
not above mentioned, and as soon as they were completed 
had no more desire to combine the profession of archi- 
tecture with the business of a contractor, as he had done 
in his own country, especially as it was not considered 
good practice to unite them in our own. 

He called his construction "timbrel arches" or "Span- 
ish arches," but was surprised to find that architects 
would not call them by these names, but preferably as 
"Guastavino construction," by which they are now known. 
The number of buildings in which cohesive construc- 
tion has been used since those above men- 
tioned has been so great that it would be 
manifestly impossible in the limits of these 
articles to mention and describe all of 
them. Nor is it necessary, for 
thev are the work of some 

1 . 


FIG. 4. 

feet span are not domical, but plain segment arches made 
of five thicknesses of tiles, and computed to carry the 
extraordinary safe load of 725 pounds per superficial 
foot. They are such as he would not now recommend 
for such a building, but it was necessary to make them 
five inches thick to insure confidence in what was 

of our most eminent architects as well as of Mr. Guasta- 
vino, and many of them are well known to the architec- 
tural profession through observation and publications. 
If some of the most important arc not herein mentioned, 
it will be because they have already been illustrated in 
Tui', Brickbuilder and other journals. No attempt will 




be made to arrange them in chronological order, and it 
will not be necessary for the purpose of these articles to 
give the names of the architects. In most cases they 
gave only the outlines of the constructions and Mr. 
Guastavino did the rest; such is the confidence that his 
work has inspired. In some, where the constructive 
steel used has been reduced to the minimum consistent 
with the performance of its office in connection with the 
cohesive tile work, both steel and tile work has been 
planned and executed by him alone. 



His most remarkable and, to all appearance, daring 

constructions have been domes built over large areas. 
That which will be first selected for illustration is on 
( irace Universalist Church at Lowell, Mass., the ex- 
terior of which is seen in Fig. .}. The sectional draw- 
ing of this dome (Fig. 4) makes the construction clear. 
This dome has a span of seventy feet. Its thickness at 
the bearing edge is six inches, or six courses of tiles; 
and at the top four inches, or only four thicknesses of 
tile. So far it was a simple problem, but the penetra- 
tions of twenty feet each on the four sides required 

extraordinary precautions, accurate calculations and 
great care in execution. It was thought wise, as will 
be seen in the drawings, to insert steel angles in the 
intersections. The work was executed six years ago 
under the immediate direction of R. Guastavino, Jr., 
and required seven weeks to build it. The result has 
been entirely satisfactory. 

The dome of the East Boston High School, the 
exterior of which is seen in Fig. 5. is sixty-eight feet 


in diameter, and only fifteen feet rise, while near the 
center it is reduced to three inches in thickness. It 
also was personally directed by R. Guastavino, Jr. The 
method of using the skeleton centering is shown, per- 
manent radial ribs being used. Between these a 
curved board was set for each course of tiles, and 
removed as soon as the second overlapping course had 
been set. As a test of the quality of the work during 
the construction, the upper end of the ribs was lowered 
from time to time, to see if there was any settlement. 
leaving the dome self-supporting at various stages of its 
progress. The eight-inch dwarf walls at the angles of 
the octagon and the intermediate four-inch walls are 
shown built on the haunches of the dome to support the 
weather roofing, a part of which is in place. 

I [G 


\\i iSPITAL 




The work in the Buffalo General Hospital is shown in 
three illustrations. Fig. 6 is a room with ceiling in the 
form of three flat domes, photographed before the plas- 
tering was done. Only two pairs of steel beams are 
used, which carry angle beams, forming octagons, from 
which the domes are built. They are so flat that the 
tiles are not laid concentric, but all breaking joints in 
the same direction. The beams are all covered with 
grooved tiles. Fig. 7 shows an elliptical staircase in the 
same building, the balustrade and risers of which are 
built with enameled tiles, and the walls are lined with 


the same. Fig. 8 is a vieYV of the clinic room, which 
has a dome ceiling on pendentives. The gradients are 
all covered and the Yvalls lined with enameled tiles. 
The elliptical stairway last shown terminates at the floor 
above the gradients. For thoroughly antiseptic treat- 
ment this probably surpasses any clinic room heretofore 
built. All the enameled tiles used are made at the fac- 
tory of the R. Guastavino Company at Woburn, Mass., 
and are the result of much expensive experimentation in 
burning enameled tiles without saggers, by which process 
it has been possible to make large quantities in less time 
than formerly. 

St. Joseph's Seminary is the largest and most com- 
plete example of cohesive construction ever executed. 
Problems of masonry engineering were encountered and 
solved at every turn. Our illustrations show the library 
(Fig. 9), the chapel (Fig. 10) and the grand staircase 
(Fig. 11), all as they came from the hands of the R. 


Guastavino Company, and before being turned over to 
the finishers. The library, even without any interior 
work or the fire-proofing of the steel columns, at first 
suggests the remains of some newly discovered Moresque 
building, as indeed it really is the modern evolution of 
the constructive arts of the Moresque builders. After 
what has been heretofore said it hardly needs further 
description. The chapel (Fig. 10) is a revival of the 
true Romanesque construction, in which, however, what 


1 86 



be made to arrange them in chronological order, and it 

will not be necessary for the purpose of these articles to 
give the names of the architects. In most cases they 
gave only the outlines of the constructions and Mr. 
Guastavino did the rest ; such is the confidence that his 
work has inspired. In some, where the constructive 
steel used has been reduced to the minimum consistent 
with the performance of its office in connection with the 
cohesive tile work, both steel and tile work has been 
planned and executed by him alone. 


HH^fl jPJ ' 



1 Jr 




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His most remarkable and, to all appearance, daring 
constructions have been domes built over large areas. 
That which will be first selected for illustration is on 
Grace Qniversalist Church at Lowell, Mass., the ex- 
terior of which is seen in Fig. 3. The sectional draw- 
ing of this dome (Fig. 4) makes the construction clear. 
This dome has a span of seventy feet. Its thickness at 
the bearing- edge is six inches, or six courses of tiles; 
and at the top four inches, or only four thicknesses of 
tile. So far it was a simple problem, but the penetra- 
tions of twenty feet each on the four sides required 

extraordinary precautions, accurate calculations and 
great care in execution. It was thought wise, as will 
be seen in the drawings, to insert steel angles in the 
intersections. The work was executed six years ago 
under the immediate direction of R. Guastavino, Jr., 
and required seven weeks to build it. The result has 
been entirely satisfactory. 

The dome of the East Boston High School, the 
exterior of which is seen in Fig. 5, is sixty-eight feet 

1 [G. '1. Bl it \l o GENERAL HOSP1 I \l .. 

in diameter, and only fifteen feet rise, while near the 
center it is reduced to three inches in thickness. It 
also was personally directed by R. Guastavino, Jr. The 
method of using the skeleton centering is shown, per- 
manent radial ribs being used. Between these a 
curved board was set for each course of tiles, and 
removed as soon as the second overlapping course had 
been set. As a test of the quality of the work during 
the construction, the upper end of the ribs was lowered 
from time to time, to see if there was any settlement, 
leaving the dome self-supporting at various stages of its 
progress. The eight-inch dwarf walls at the angles of 
the octagon and the intermediate four-inch walls are 
shown built on the haunches of the dome to support the 
weather rooting, a part of which is in place. 





The work in the Buffalo General Hospital is shown in 
three illustrations. Fig. 6 is a room with ceiling in the 
form of three flat domes, photographed before the plas- 
tering was done. Only two pairs of steel beams are 
used, which carry angle beams, forming octagons, from 
which the domes are built. They are so flat that the 
tiles are not laid concentric, but all breaking joints in 
the same direction. The beams are all covered with 
-moved tiles. Fig. 7 shows an elliptical staircase in the 
same building, the balustrade and risers of which are 
built with enameled tiles, and the walls are lined with 


the same. Fig. 8 is a view of the clinic room, which 
has a dome ceiling on pendentives. The gradients are 
all covered and the walls lined with enameled tiles. 
The elliptical stairway last shown terminates at the floor 
above the gradients. For thoroughly antiseptic treat- 
ment this probably surpasses any clinic room heretofore 
built. All the enameled tiles used are made at the fac- 
tory of the R. Guastavino Company at Woburn, Mass., 
and are the result of much expensive experimentation in 
burning enameled tiles without saggers, by which process 
it has been possible to make large quantities in less time 
than formerly. 

St. Joseph's Seminary is the largest and most com- 
plete example of cohesive construction ever executed. 
Problems of masonry engineering were encountered and 
solved at every turn. Our illustrations show the library 
(Fig. 9), the chapel (Fig. 10) and the grand staircase 
(Fig. 11), all as they came from the hands of the R. 


Guastavino Company, and before being turned over to 
the finishers. The library, even without any interior 
work or the fire-proofing of the steel columns, at first 
suggests the remains of some newly discovered Moresque 
building, as indeed it really is the modern evolution of 
the constructive arts of the Moresque builders. After 
what has been heretofore said it hardly needs further 
description. The chapel (Fig. 10) is a revival of the 
true Romanesque construction, in which, however, what 


1 88 



appear at first to be barrel arches arc in reality domical. 
The timbrel or cohesive construction has everywhere 
been applied to the Romanesque tradition. The whole 
effect is architectural, though without surface finish. It 
illustrates the little importance of finish when the con- 
struction is rational and logical. The stairway in the 
same building (Fig. 11) is another example of daring, 
though safe, construction. But perhaps the use of the 
word "daring" in this connection is a mistake. We 
call things "daring" only because at first we do not 
understand them. If we study awhile we will see that 
there is nothing daring in this work. He who made it 
certainly did not think it was. else he would have left it 
undone. The very life and soul of architecture is seen 
in the construction before us. It is therefore a "thing 

of beauty " even before the art of decoration has covered 
it and perhaps will injure rather than improve it, for all 
that we know. It all depends Upon the amount of sym- 
pathy of the decorator with the constructor. 

We give in Fig. 12 the interior of a mortuary chapel 
at Pawtucket, R. I. Here we have the old Romanesque 
construction reproduced almost exactly. It takes us back 
to reminiscences of Perigueux. Under this chapel is a 
crypt, all of which is finished in enameled tiles. 

In the same vein, but in the style of a later historical 
period, is the chapel of the crematory at Mount Auburn 
Cemetery, Cambridge, Mass. (Fig. 13). The entire inte- 
rior is of cohesive construction, but the ceiling is of 
groined arches with transverse and wall arches in the 
manner of the latter part of the twelfth century. This 
is the first illustration I have given of this system of 
construction, and it shows how perfectly the Guastavino 
method is adapted to it. A similar construction was 
illustrated in The Brickbuilder for November, iyoo, in 
the ceiling of St. Paul's (Roman Catholic) Church at 
Chicago; but there the transverse and wall arches as well 
as the groins were of molded brick, and the filling only 
of cohesive tile construction (executed by Paul Mueller 
of Chicago). Here it will be seen that the groins arc- 
dispensed with, which is possible only when the Guasta- 
vino method is used. The whole of this is a new con- 
struction within the walls of an old building. The whole 

110. 1 

I 1 \ I I RSON tin HALL, I' \ I I Km >\. 



interior has architectural expression without a molding 
or any kind of architectural detail, and again illustrates 
what has been said about the stairway last referred to. 

Again I show a stairway (Fig. 14). This time it is 
seen in process of construction. The flying arches have 
been built and the steps finished to the first landing only. 
The whole thins;' speaks for itself; and the picture tells 

us as well that the appreciation of the projectors of this 
building for reliable fire-proof materials and methods did 
not extend to the partitions. 

In Fig. 15 I give a view of the entrance vestibule of 
the City Hall at Paterson, X. J., of which a view on the 
stairway was given in Part II. This shows the Guasta- 
vino construction in smooth (but not enameled) tiles, 
carefully set as finished work in connection with orna- 
mental terra-cotta. 






THE fire waste in the United States in the year 1900 
reached the enormous amount of $130,028,489 
(Standard Fire Insurance Tables). The total receipts for 
169 fire insurance companies only, in the United States 
for the year 1900 were $164,033,656, while the total dis- 
bursements were $163,657,371; or these 169 companies 
paid out their entire income, less $376,285, for losses 
and expenses. The losses paid out in the year 1900 ex- 
ceeded the losses paid out in the year 1899 by $3,000,000, 
although during this time there were no conflagrations ; 
but the ordinary fires were so costly and came in such 
rapid succession that the receipts from the premiums 
and the income from investments barely met the ex- 
penses of conducting the business. As a consequence of 
this loss an increase in the rates is recommended as the 
only remedy ( The Investigator and Insurance Chart). 

A careful study of these figures of over $130,000,000 
waste and an additional $34,000,000 for administration 
of the business of the companies will lead to the con- 
clusion that a considerable part of this money paid out 
for waste and administration could have been saved by 
the erection of better classes of buildings. 

If the actual fire waste of $130,028,489 be considered 
as interest paid out for the year, it would have repre- 
sented an investment of $2,600,569,800 at five per cent; 
or in other words the actual waste would have paid 
interest on the use of $2,600,569,800 more as capital in 
business enterprises. This illustration shows clearly 
how much opportunity there is for the erection of better 
buildings. The community needs but to be educated up 
to the facts to realize that good business policy would 
dictate that the money now paid out in insurance pre- 
miums should be capitalized and this capital invested 
in fire-proofing their buildings. 

Few people realize that all fire losses, even though fully 
insured, actually waste the resources of the country. It 
is only because the natural wealth of this country is so 
great that these losses have not attracted more attention. 

Destruction of valuable property by fire does no one 
any good and leaves the country just that much poorer, 
and the burden of the loss is borne by the community in 
assessments in the shape of premiums on their insurance, 
which each owner is compelled to maintain, not only to 
protect himself against the danger of his own building 
becoming the origin of a fire, but also against his neigh- 
bor for a similar reason. 

Moreover, fire insurance up to the full amount of the 
investment never covers the actual loss to the individual 
person or company insured, because of the disarrangement 
of the organization, the loss of time, the sacrifice of con- 
venience and other things which cannot be itemized. 

While it is not possible to prevent all this annual 
waste, because a greater part of the dwellings and small 
shops could not be made of fire-proof material by reason 
of the additional cost, yet the most expensive and disas- 
trous fires are not in dwellings or small shops, but in the 
* Architect and consulting engineer, 421 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 

business districts of towns and cities; and it is unreason- 
able to suppose that owners and investors would con- 
tinue to erect combustible buildings if they were better 
informed as to the facts and commercial advantage of 
fire-proof construction. 

Legislation on the matter of fire-proof buildings has 
already been enacted in some of the large cities. The 
new building code of New York city provides "that any 
hotel, lodging house, school, theater, jail, police station 
or institution for the care or treatment of persons, hos- 
pital or asylum which exceed thirty-five feet in height 
shall be of fire-proof construction ; and any other building 
which exceeds seventy-five feet in height shall be simi- 
larly constructed." St. Louis has a somewhat similar 
restriction regarding the height of combustible build- 
ings, and it will be but a matter of time when enlight- 
ened public opinion compels the adoption of stringent 
regulations forbidding the erection of combustible build- 
ings in the important business and manufacturing cen- 
ters of all cities and towns. 

A sharp distinction should lie drawn between fire- 
proof and non-combustible buildings. 

A fire-proof building is one that no fire within reason- 
able limits will affect its strength and stability. 

A non-combustible building is one that will not itself 
furnish fuel to a fire or add to a conflagration, but is not 
sufficiently protected to withstand great heat without 
distortion or damage. Each class of building lias its 
place in the community, and this place must be de- 
termined by the use to which the building is to be put 
and its exposure; but the non-combustible building 
should not masquerade as fire-proof, and it is to be 
feared that many of the so-called fire-proof buildings 
are simply non-combustible. The architect should make 
the distinction between the two very plain to his client 
and the public, and govern his own work accordingly. 
No building in which large sums of money are to he 
invested should be anything else than fire-proof. It is not 
to be supposed that intelligent bodies of men or capitalists 
deliberately invest large sums of money in costly build- 
ings and then gamble on the chances of fire rendering 
these investments valueless or injuring them to such an 
extent that expensive repairs have to be made to render 
them habitable again ; yet this is not an uncommon thing, 
and the blame must rest on the architect and manufac- 
turer of fire-proof materials. No architect is justified in 
designing a costly building unless it is made as near fire- 
proof as the knowledge and ingenuity of man can make it. 

The architect who permits and encourages the sinking 
of large sums of money in buildings which an accident or 
the neglect of a careless workman or servant may destroy 
is not a creditable member of the profession. 

If only a limited amount of money is available, it is 
better by far to restrict the size of the building, or its 
facilities or ornament, than to spread out an elaborate 
cover upon perishable groundwork. 

The responsibility of subjecting a beautiful and 
costly building to the possibility of destruction by rea- 
son of its inflammable construction is one that should 
not l>e lightly assumed by any designer, for it is the 
most inexcusable folly to lavish great sums of money 
upon the architectural treatment and artistic embellish- 
ment of a building which may dissolve into smoke at 



the least expected moment. If money is available for 
decoration, it should be available first of all for per- 
manent construction. 

If a painter of fame and skill portrayed his best 
efforts upon canvas which would rot away in a few- 
years, he would receive and well deserve unstinted 
abuse; yet architects are doing a similar thing all the 
time, as the lire losses show. The painter's neglect would 
cost a waste only of his own efforts, but the architect's 
neglect or ignorance is the means not only of wasting 
his own efforts, be they great or small, but the substance 
of his client and part of the wealth of the community. 

Much can be said on the question of the amount of 
the investment being determined by the possible earning 
power of the enterprise and in some instances prohibiting 
fire-proof or non-combustible construction, and this is a 
rational argument and should be considered in all eases, 
particularly where the conditions are such that the perma- 
nency of the building is problematical or maybe unde- 
sirable, or possibly when the enterprise is in a transitory 
Stage. Then it would be folly to argue for permanent con- 
struction. But these conditions are not likely to obtain 
in the valuable business section of a town, and therefore 
these eases need not be considered in this discussion. 

It may be argued in defence of the architects that the 
owner of the building would have it thus and so, and that 
the question of whether the building was to be com- 
bustible or fire-proof was not left to the discretion of the 
architect; and if this be true it argues ill for the prestige 
of the architect and indicates how little weight his 
knowledge and judgment have with his clients. The 
client who decides such questions without consulting his 
architect on the business side of the proposition shows 
his lack of confidence in the architect's commercial 
knowledge; and it must be confessed that a greater 
knowledge of the commercial side of the matters relat- 
ing to building on the part of the architect would result 
in better architecture and the rational treatment of many 
questions which are now determined by the whim or 
fancy, prejudice or ignorance of the architect or his client. 

If all buildings were constructed in abetter manner, 
and if all the designers <>f buildings were intelligent and 
conscientious and actuated by true public policy, and if 
farsighted owners of real estate were educated up to the 
facts, then those people who now for their own temporary 
gain erect dangerous and inflammable buildings would be 
compelled by laws passed in obedience to an enlightened 
public opinion to erect non-combustible buildings, and 
the money which is now annually spent in repairing pre- 
ventable losses eotdd be applied to better uses. 

Upon the question of fire-proof buildings of the best 
class much remains to be said. When the amount of the 
investment in a modern high building is considered and 
the little or inadequate study given to the question of 
fire-proofing is borne in mind it is surprising that capital- 
ists and investors have been contented so long with the 
perfunctory way in which this matter has been treated 
by the architects. 

The stability of the structure is wholly dependent 
upon the integrity of the ironwork, and ordinary pru- 
dence dictates that nothing which can be done within 
reason to insure this integrity should be left undone. 
The wealth of marbles, mosaics, wrought metals, rigid 

and plastic ornament and the elaborate cabinet work arc 
often squandered if any precaution has been neglected to 
keep the structure safe from the distorting and destroy- 
ing effects of fire and the insidious work of corrosion. 

The investment of large sums of money in monu- 
mental buildings cannot be considered wise or in line 
with true public policy unless the buildings arc perma- 
nent, and they cannot be considered permanent unless 
they are fire-proof and rust-proof. 


IX the last bulletin of the American Statistical Asso- 
ciation Dr. Samuel \V. Abbott, the secretary of the 
state board of health, gave certain interesting facts con- 
cerning the fires in European cities, statistical data which 
should have a bearing upon our American methods of 
meeting and lessening our annual fire losses. The 
tendency in the Old World, as in the New, is toward 
the annual occurrence of a larger number of fires. We 
are all the time increasing the number of commodities 
used that are either susceptible of spontaneous combus- 
tion or of easy ignition. The use that we make of 
chemical compounds of various kinds which may be 
productive of fire is far greater than the use thus made 
by our forefathers, while gas, electricity and a number of 
other heating and lighting devices are the causes in all 
parts of the world of a large number of tires. The dif- 
ference between our experience and that of cities ami 
towns of continental Europe is that while in the United 
States the amount of loss by fire remains tolerably uni- 
form, so that as more fires occur in a year there is a 
much larger annual loss by fire, in Europe, while the 
number of fires occurring, when the size of a city is 
taken into account, are frequently as great as the num- 
ber experienced in American municipalities, the loss 
ratio per fire tends steadily downward, and even the 
aggregate loss by fires in a municipality has a down- 
ward tendency in spite of their growth in numbers. 
Dr. Abbott has said, as a matter of personal experi- 
ence, that when a few years since he visited the fire 
department at Venice he found that it consisted of an 
ordinary hand engine which was placed in a small room 
under the Ducal Palace, and that while the city had a 
population of nearly 200,000 the annual reports showed 
that the fire losses were not over $20,000 a year. The 
statistics which he has gathered indicate that in Milan, 
with a population of nearly half a million, the total fire 
losses for the last ten years have averaged less than 
X 1 50,000 a year. In this instance the city is one about 
the size of Boston, is a large industrial center, and yet 

its tire losses, as compared with those of Boston, are 
about as ten cents is when compared to one dollar. 
Budapest has a population considerably larger than 1 Jos- 
ton. It is, perhaps, the most important manufacturing 
center in eastern Europe, and yet the average fire losses 
for a number of years past at this Hungarian capital 
have been not much larger than the fire losses of Milan. 
The city of Paris, with a population of over two and one 
half million, has had a fire loss for a number of years 
past approximating somewhat near to that of Boston. 
In 1895 the fire loss was about $2,500,000, but in [898 
it was less than a million dollars, these representing 
the extremes for a number of vears. — Boston Herald. 



Selected Miscellany. 


The real-estate journals are predicting a record- 
breaking fall and winter in realty transactions, and we 
are all confidently looking forward to such a condition 

John A. Fox, Architect. 

of affairs. The past two months, although usually very 
quiet, and this year unusually hot and disagreeable, have 
been marked by a steady increase of business among 
architects and builders. 

So long as the country continues in a state of pros- 
perity and prices in the iron trades are held firm, so long 
as millionaires from all sections of America insist on 
residing' and building: in our midst and scattering the 


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accumulations of recent years, so long will the archi- 
tects and builders share in the good things of the day. 
Work on the new Custom House has progressed 
so that the foundations now nearly reach the street. 
Special provision is to be made for water-proofing of 


Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects. 
Riiof covered with Celadon Roofing Tile. 

the sub-basement, owing to its situation at tide water. 
Granite composes the stonework of the basement. The 
material for the superstructure has not yet been decided 


Indianapolis Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 


George W. Hellmuth, Architect. 

Built of Hydraulic-Press Brick. 



Z 1 




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x £ 

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upon, and will not be 
until bids for the same, 
which will be advertised 
for this month, are re- 
ceived. The entire build- 
ing will cost about 
X }, 000,000. 

Mr. Cass ( rilbert is also 
the architect for the new 
building of the Union 
Club at Fifth Avenue and 
5 1 st Street. The work 
has progressed nearly 
through the second story. 

Caissons are being 
sunk for the foundations 
of the new Stock Ex- 

.Mr. Bruce Price is com- 
pleting a residence for Mr. Samuel Thorne on Fifth Ave. 
It will be one of the most beautiful buildings in the city. 

fust at present the people of New York are being 

Frederic W. Streibinger, Architect. 

underground rapid-transit re 
bright, and work on the new 
being rapidly pushed. 

treated t<> a surfeit of real- 
estate news. The Herald 
a few weeks ago began 
the publication of a real- 
estate supplement every 
Wednesday, which imme- 
diately proved successful 
and interesting, so much 
so that one of the " yel- 
low" journals inaugurated 
the same institution, 
which appears upon the 
same day and closely 
copies the Herald supple- 
ment. They are both 
fully illustrated and very 

At present the outlook 

for the completion of the 

ad within contract time is 

steel East River bridge is 







The Brooklyn Rapid Tran- 
sit Company are about to 
begin the erection of a 
$100,000 car barn. It will be 
built of brick and fire-proof 

Another handsome apart- 
ment is the Dorilton now 
being erected at Broadway 
and 71st Street, from plans 
by Janes & Leo, architects. 
It is a twelve-story building 
in modern French Renais- 
sance style, and is finished most elaborately. There 
are forty-eight apartments, trimmed in mahogany, oak, 
white enamel and bird's-eye maple. On top of the 
building there are two sun parlors and a roof garden. 
No expense lias been spared to make it one of the finest 

Perth Amboy Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 


While the drawings of St. 
Leo's Church, Maginnis, 
Walsh & Sullivan, architects, 
published in last month's 
number, indicate that lime- 
stone was used in connection 
with the brick in construction, 
it is nevertheless a fact that 
terra-cotta was finally chosen 
in place of the stone, the 
Excelsior Terra Cotta Com- 

pany having furnished same. 

A wall about forty-five feet long and twelve feet 
high, of white enameled brick glazed on the flat, is laid 
up as a facing for the partition wall required by the 


(). Z. Cervin, Architect. 

apartments in the city, and apartments will rent for 
$1,500 to $3,500 a year. 

The profession has suffered a decided loss in the 
recent death of Mr. John 
R. Thomas, a successful 
and well-known architect, 
whose latest work, which 
was well under way at 
the time of his death, 
promised to be a fitting 
memorial, but as it seems 
likely that an incompetent 
firm of political architects 
will be called upon to 
complete the work, we 
fear greatly for the final 
effect. I refer to the 
magnificent new Hall of 
Records on Chambers 


Charles W. Hopkinson, Architect. Roof covered with American S. Tile. 

board of underwriters between the rear of the switch- 
board of the General Electric Company and the rear 
wall of the Electrical Building at the Pan-American 

Exposition. This wall was 
made necessary on account 
of the high voltage (10,000 
volts) at which the current 
is received by the trans- 
formers of the General 
Electric Company to be 
converted into lower volt- 
age for use in the exhibition 
grounds. The brick used 
in this wall was manufac- 
tured by the American 
Enameled Brick and Tile 
Company of New York 
City. Within the enclosure 
of the General Electric 
Company there are exhih- 




Conkling, Armstrong Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

ited samples of the brick used in the wall, and architects, 
engineers and builders desiring same will he supplied 
from the home office if they will enter their names in 
the register kept on hand for that purpose. 

The American Enameled Brick and Tile Company 
have made extensive additions to their plant at South 


^•f 'ff *#f 'Mf *>f '# 


Excelsior Terra Cotta Company, Makers 

River, N. J., and now have special facilities for the 
manufacture of arches and special-shaped brick. 

The New Jersey Terra Cotta Company report a very 
prosperous year, having furnished architectural terra- 

■ 3 9 

— 1 IS E?9? 

3 'M 

In 11 

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1 B.wMH 

cotta for many prominent buildings around New York. 
of which a number are mentioned here: Addition to 
bank building, Red Bank, X. J., Joseph Swannel, archi- 
tect. Residence, Spruce Street. Newark, X. [., ]. II. 
& W. C. Ely, architects. Mercantile building, West 8th 
Street, Xew York City, Clinton & Russell, architects. 
Brewery buildings, West Hoboken, X. [., C. F. Terney, 
architect. Hospital building, Jefferson Street. Xew York 


NEW \ oKk CITY, 

Janes >v Leo, Architects. Terra-cotta made by the New Y"ork 
Architectural Terra (.'"tta Company. 

City, Flemer& Koehler, architects. Seventeen apartment 
houses. West 140th Street. Xew York City. John Hauser, 
architect. Four apartment houses. West 141st Street, 
Xew York City, John Hauser. architect. Mercantile 
building, Academy and Halsey Streets. Newark, X. J., 
Herman Rreitler. architect. Four apartments, West 
1 1 2th .Street. Xew York City. Charles Stegmayer, architect. 

The plant of the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company of 
Xew York lias been very largely increased, and it now 

ranks as one of the largest companies in the United 


A. B. Heaton. Architect. 


White Brick and Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



F. B. & L. L. Long, Architects. 
Architectural terra-cotta made by American Terra Cotta and Ceramic 
Company. "Ironclay" brick made by Columbus Face Brick Company. 

States. The dull enamel, of which it is making a 
specialty, has been very highly commended by archi- 
tects and contractors. 

The Flatiron Building at 22c! and 23d Streets, Fifth 
Avenue and Broadway, New York City, calls for a 
larger tonnage than any building heretofore erected in 
New York City. 

The company is now furnishing terra-cotta for the 
following buildings : Office building, Cedar and Liberty 
Streets, New York City, John T. Williams, Jr., archi- 
tect. Martinique Apartment Hotel, Broadway and 33d 
Street, New York City, H. J. Hardenburgh, architect. 
Office building, Euclid Avenue and Erie Street, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, Levi T. Scofield, architect. Office building, 
corner Smithfield and Water Streets, Pittsburg, Pa., 

W. E. Fisher, Architect. 

James T. Steen, architect. New Runkle School, Brook - 
line, Mass., Peabody & Stearns, architects. Elks' Club- 
house, Voungstown, Ohio, Owsley & Boucherle, archi- 
tects. Stable for Craig Biddle at Radnor, Pa., Peabody 
& Stearns, architects. Calvert Bank Building, Baltimore, 
Md., Joseph Evans Sperry, architect. Dayton Build- 
ing, Nicollet Avenue, Minneapolis, Minn., Charles S. 
Sedgwick, architect. Residence, Seabright, N. J., Car- 
rere & Hastings, architects. Power station, Western 

by the New Jersey Terra Cotta Company. 


I). II. Bumliam & Co., Architects. 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

Avenue, Cambridge, Mass., Sheaff & Jaasted, archi- 
tects. Westminster Savings Bani Building, Westmin- 
ster, Md., J. C. Gott, architect, office building, corner 

Atlantic and North Carolina Avenues, Atlantic City, 

1 98 




?v ; .d 

Li ^^" ^ r ' 








« 9 

t j» 



and Broadway. New York City. I). H. Burnham & Co., architects. Building 
for Mrs. Ellen P. Stevens, Detroit, Mich.. Donaldson and Meier, architects. 
Building for Virginia-Carolina Chemical Company, Richmond, Va., M. ]. 
Dimmock, architect. Charlotte Williams Hospital, Richmond, Va., Fuller & 
Pitcher, architects. Flannery apartments, Pittsburg, Pa., F. J. Osterling, 
architect. Keystone Bank Building, Pittsburg, Pa., MacClure & Spahr, 

The formation of an architectural club among the draughtsmen of 

San Francisco is about to be consummated. Mr. August G. Headman is 
an enthusiastic supporter of the movement, and says that the idea is heartily 
approved by all the draughtsmen who have been approached, and the 
club will receive the sanction and support of the architects of the city. 
The Builders' Exchange have voted their meeting hall for the use of the 
club, and the first meeting will be held about the middle of the present 
month at that place. 

DE I All. BY H. C. K.OCH & Co.. \k< mi I i I S. 
Northwestern Terra Cotta Company. Makers. 

X. J.. Newman, Woodman & Harris, archi- 
tects. Theatre, corner Tremont Street and 
Van Rensselaer Place, Boston, Mass., |. M. 
Wood and J. G. Howard, associate architects. 
Bank building, Marietta, < >hio, E. C. & 
G. C. Gardiner, architects. Arcade Building, 
corner Woodward and Washington Avenues, 
Detroit. Mich., Donaldson & Meier, archi- 
tects. Carnegie Library, Beaver Falls, Pa.. 
F. J. Osterling, architect. St. Anthony's 
Church. Detroit, Mich., Donaldson & Meier, 
architects. Office building, Farrar and 
Farmer Streets. Detroit, Mich., A. C. Varney 
& Co.. architects. Physics Building for Uni- 
versity of Minnesota. Minneapolis, Minn., 
Charles R. Aldrich, architect. Flatiron 
Building, 22c! and 23d Streets, Fifth Avenue 

»'-' ifn^" ...1 511'" - ?J !< ■'>...-; 

:::: :;; ;;i«jij ^i33Ull^^:v;::::: 

— ni W WW HI Ml HI rfr ^7^rrr-J 

w»*--' ■ > ■" 1 m 

■'-■iinivniji firs 


Charles C. Haight, Architect. 

Built of gray mottled brick, made by Sayre & Fisher Company. 

" School Architecture." 

A General Treatise on Designing and Planning of Schoolhouses. 


More than 250 Illustrations of Schoolhouses and Plans; many of the best types of all grades having 

been chosen. 
An indispensable Text-book for Schoolhouse Designers. 

Price, $5.00, delivered. 

ROGERS & MANSON, Publishers, 
Boston, Mass. 



i 901. 

Agencies. — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

' ' Terra-Cotta 


. . 11 

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II and III 

. . Ill 

" Enameled 

III and IV 



85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 1 2, 1 892 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada . . . . . . . . $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 


Advertisers arc- classified and arranged in the following order: — 


Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 


THE American Institute of Architects held its thirty- 
fifth annual convention at Buffalo, October 3, 
4 and 5. The attendance was large and enthusiastic 
and the address of the president, Robert S. Peabody, 
was certainly in line with the feelings of the members, 
and found a ready response. When we recall the slow 
growth of the first twenty-five years of the life of the 
American Institute and compare the disheartening 
apathy of those clays with the strong, confident tone of 
the present, it is easy to appreciate how much the pro- 
fession in this country has advanced. The Institute 
occupies a recognized and a high position in the com- 
munity, and the service which architects can render to 
a community in meeting an opportunity such as was 
afforded by the Pan-American Exposition was very 
gracefully acknowledged by President John S. Milburn 
in his address of welcome. 

This convention is of interest to the younger mem- 
bers of the profession in that it has so cordially acknowl- 
edged the position of the enthusiastic young architects 
and draughtsmen who are working so hard to make the 
junior clubs as well as the Architectural League a factor 

in their development. Mr. Peabody called especial at- 
tention to this and expressed the hope that the- Archi- 
tectural League of America might take the same relation 
to the Institute that the Architectural Association in 
London has borne so well with the Royal Institute of 
British Architects. He would have the Architectural 
League the center for class and club life, from which its 
older members, as they recognize that their turn is past, 
would naturally graduate to the Institute, and to their 
hands when the proper time comes he would gladly be- 
queath the American Institute, trusting that they would 
do far better than their predecessors, who have had no 
architectural leagues in which to prepare themselves for 
their work. And Mr. Peabody puts in a well-timed word 
for the relation between the head of a large office and 
his draughtsmen: "And when the head of it says 'I,' 
let us hope for his sake that he intends it as Admiral 
Dewey might, and let us not forget the men behind the 
guns, without whom the guns are powerless. And when 
the young aspirant for fame in a large office talks as if 
he were the nameless ghost whose spirit pervades all the 
successful work in the office, let us remember how long 
the Army of the Potomac vainly struggled and fought 
before Grant's master mind turned that same armed 
machine to victory." 

The Institute has taken a very wise step at this con- 
vention in voting to invite the American Society of Civil 
Engineers to send to future Institute conventions a dele- 
gate who shall have all the privileges of the convention 
except the right to vote. This is entirely as it should be. 
Engineers are not architects, but architects have to be 
engineers occasionally, and certainly the paths of the two 
professions cross so frequently that there could be noth- 
ing but good result from cooperation between the two 
in the convention meetings. 

The officers elected for the ensuing year are: Presi- 
dent, Charles F. McKim of New York City; first vice- 
president, Frank Miles Day of Philadelphia; second vice- 
president, Alfred Stone of Providence; secretary and 
treasurer, Glenn Brown, Washington. 


A MAN with so many millions to dispose of annually 
as Mr. Carnegie might very easily develop a pref- 
erence for founding new institutions rather than helping 
or amplifying the scope of existing ones. The libraries 
which his wise generosity has scattered so plentifully 
over this country have surely been productive of nothing 
but good in every sense, but wc cannot fully sympathize 
with one of the latest announcements of his proposed 
endowment for a school of technology for the city oi 



Pittsburg. We are heartily in favorof technical schools 
as such, and there is surely nothing to be said against 
placing opportunities for technical education within the 
reach of every young man who is able to profit by it. nor 
will we undertake to set any limits upon the number or 
extent of such schools in as far as they teach the mechan- 
ical or engineering branches, but when it is intended to 
incorporate in their curriculum the study of architecture 
as a fine art we feel justified in entering a protest. The 
Carnegie School proposes to include a College of Archi- 
tecture. In the commission which was appointed to con- 
sider the formation of the school there was apparently 
no one who can claim any special knowledge of the re- 
quirements of the profession, and we cannot believe that 
any one who is familiar with the present status of archi- 
tectural education in this country would seriously advise 
such a department in the proposed school. Architecture 
is preeminently an art which is best studied by associa- 
tion with good architecture and with those who are most 
capable of creating it. We believe it would be absolutely 
impossible to create a successful school of architecture 
without an architectural setting and without the influ- 
ences which can be acquired at their best only in the 
most favorable localities. That is precisely why our 
young men every year and in increased numbers go to 
Europe to study. And that is why in our judgment Mr. 
Carnegie's money could be employed to far better advan- 
tage in helping to build up the existing centers of archi- 
tectural studies rather than in attempting t<> create one 
out of hand. 

It would be vcars under the most favorable circum- 
stances before a school of architecture in Pittsburg 
could for a moment compare with any one of the four 
or five leading schools of architecture in this country at 
present existing. It is not necessary nor desirable that 
there should be a multitude of scantily educated, par- 
tially equipped architects, but it is most highly desirable 
that there should be a high standard and that the best 
should be cultivated to the greatest possible extent. 
The standard is surely set by the highest and not by the 
average. London in the seventeenth century profited 
far more by one Sir Christopher Wren or one Inigo 
[ones than it would have by ten thousand architects of 
mediocre ability. A general diffusion of architectural 
training is by no means a matter of prime necessity. 
We must educate the type rather than increase the area 
of the planting bed, and for these very reasons we be- 
lieve that the attempt which Mr. Carnegie is fostering 
at Pittsburg with undoubtedly the best motives in the 
world is a mistake and is likely to do more harm than 
good. It is not a kindness to a young architect to en- 
courage him to lie content with anything but the best 
or to lead him to think that anything but the best will 
answer his need. There surely is abundant Opportunity 
for increasing the effectiveness of our present schools 
without diverting that help into new and untried chan- 


THE iron trade has just emerged from the struggles 
of a strike. We are threatened with similar com- 
plications in other departments of the building industries. 
In New York the condition of struggle between the me- 

chanic and the contractor is almost chronic. All these 
conspire to produce an increased cost of production and 
at the same time a diminution in the quality. But our 
condition, though deplorable from an economic stand- 
point, is immeasurably more satisfactory than that which 
prevails in England, if we may judge by a very thought- 
ful article on the subject in a recent number of the North 
American. Trade unionism in ('.real Britain has killed 
the yiass industry, is strangling the cement industry, has 
driven shipbuilding out of several locations, and has 
made it in many localities impossible for English pro- 
ducers to compete with foreign trade. The mechanic 
has by far the upper hand in England and he uses his 
power unsparingly. Here the relations between the me- 
chanic and builder though sometimes strained are on the 
whole very amicable, and in Boston there has for years 
prevailed the utmost harmony between the masons and 
the master builders. All disputes have been settled with- 
out strikes, and in the rare cases when appeal has been 
taken from the arbitration boards the decisions have been 
accepted by both sides in a spirit which speaks well for 
our American mechanics. We have strikes in plenty, 
but notwithstanding it all we believe conditions here are 
improving, notwithstanding the retrograde motion which 
seems to characterize conditions abroad. It is our inten- 
tion in a subsequent issue to present a statement of the 
manner in which disputes are settled in this country be- 
tween the masons and the master builders, believing that 
such statement will be of interest to all our readers. 


(\NE of the daily papers a short time since with its 
s usual weak logic published an editorial against 
building for all time, reasoning that because condemned 
and half worn out locomotives or machinery should be 
promptly discarded and substituted by the latest ap- 
proved inventions, the same rule would hold good as to 
buildings, and that therefore to put up a great hotel, 
office or business building with the idea of so construct- 
ing it that it will last for centuries is in all probability 
to make a serious mistake from an investment point of 
view. The argument is entirely a specious one. We 
are not troubled in this country with building too well: 
our trouble is rather that we build too poorly and take 
too little account of both practical and artistic necessi- 
ties. We will venture the broad statement that very 
few of the buildings which have been torn down in the 
last quarter century and replaced by what we are pleased 
to term modern up-to-date structures would not have 
been removed if they had been constructed in what 
would have been termed at the time of their erection 
really first-class manner. The trouble is that only of 
recent years has architecture risen to the dignity of an 
educated profession, and the buildings which have been 
torn down have been almost without exception struc- 
tures which were erected without intelligent architectural 
planning or supervision. There are of course instances 
where a small building had to make way for a large con- 
solidation of interests, but that is not due to the building 
being necessarily out of date either in plan or construc- 
tion, and our contemporary need have no fear that we 
will build too well. 



Old English Brickwork. III. 


ENGLLSH brickwork underwent a complete change 
in treatment about the middle of the seventeenth 
century, chiefly owing to the introduction of soft bricks 
commonly called "rubbers," that is to say, a brick capa- 
ble of being easily cut or rubbed to any desired shape or 
size after being burned in the kiln. 

In most buildings anterior to this date the moldings 
and other details were of necessity executed with the 
ordinary molded brick, which was shaped or molded 
before burning in the kiln, a method which produced a 
durable brick, but also one which entailed much expense 
in cutting to any desired shape and thus greatly limited 
their use. 

The manufacture of a brick which could be cut or 
carved in situ was a great factor in promoting the use 
of brickwork, even in buildings of the most ornamental 
character, and once again we find it used in the place of 
stone for the dressings and other architectural adorn- 
ments, as well as in its original position, the plain wall. 

Amongst the earliest example of its use in this man- 
ner may be cited the old house in Great Queen Street, 
near Drury Lane in London, and the charming old Pocock 
School building at Rye in Sussex. Both these buildings 
are designed with orders, 
and the limitations of brick- 
work are frankly acknowl- 
edged, particularly in the 
latter where all the mold- 
ings are of rubbed brick 
adapted to suit the mate- 
rial. The order is Tuscan, 
the frontage being divided 
into five parts in two stories, 
the pilasters and their ped- 
estals running through 
these with the entablature 
breaking round, and an 
attic story above treated as 
three dormers with pedi- 
ments over. 

The work is coarsely 
jointed and perhaps somewhat rudely executed, but the 
different members of an ordinary Tuscan order are all 

The arches 
over the win- 
d o w s a r e 
straight brick 
o n e s c h a n - 
neled to form 
voussoirs. The 
building was 
erected about 
the middle of 
t It e s e v e n - 
t e e nth c e n - 

The house 
pocock school, rye. i n ( \ reat Queen 



Street was probably 
built about the 
same time, and was 
designed by Inigo 
Jones and either ex- 
ecuted by him or 
his pupil and suc- 
cessor, John Webb. 
It is much more 
orthodox in charac- 
ter, though not so 
complete a speci- 
men of brickwork, 
the moldings and 
entablature being 
formed with plaster 
and wood. The or- 
der is Corinthian, 
comprising the first 
and second floors, 
the ground floor 
being treated as a 
basement. T h e 
frontage is divided 
by brick pilasters 

into five bays; the ornaments of cut brickwork above the 
first floor windows are curious features, taking the place 

of the usual apron. 

The tiled roof springs 
directly off the cornice with- 
out either balustrade or 
blocking course, and is well 
broken up by the five very 
simply designed dormer 
windows which have hipped 
tile roofs. 

An extremely fine brick 
house dated A. D. 1646 and 
the design of which is also 
ascribed to Inigo Jones ex- 
isted until recently, facing 
the old church of St. 
Helens Bishopsgate in the 
city of London. 

The general design of 
the front is much the same as the Great Queen Street 
example, but in this instance the whole of the brick 
walling between pilasters and windows was worked with 
channeling, as well as the arches over the ground, first 
and second floor windows which were channeled into 
voussoirs; the central voussoirs were extended up to the 
underside of the brick cornices and those of the first 
floor windows to the underside of the second floor win- 
dow sills which were well and elaborately worked in 
molded brick. A third floor of much later date had 
been added to this house. 

Raynham Hall in Norfolk was one of the later works 
of Inigo [ones and is built of brick with stone dressings, 
with the exception of the center of the garden front, 
which is entirely of stone. 

This illustration shows the entrance or west front 
with the two wings which project about ten feet from 
the main frontage. The whole building is a little 

2 02 

T H E H R I C K H U I L L) E R 

unusual in character, the frieze with its fiat baluster-like 
ornaments, the broken curved pediment in the center 
feature with the pediment growing out of it and the 
curved gables on the wings with the pediment over, 
which remind one forcibly of the west front of one of 
the early Italian Renaissance churches with the scrolls 
at the sides to hide the flanking aisles. 

The grand flight of steps up to the entrance doors 
adds greatly to the effect and the dignity of the whole 
composition, which, viewed from the front looking up the 
hill with the combination of red brick and stone and the 
background of green trees, is as pretty a picture of Eng- 
lish domestic architecture as one may wish to sec. 

The house is very solidly built, some of the walls 
being over four feet thick. The plan of the house is 
a simple one, the entrance leading to n large hall with 
reception room surrounding and opening off it, the salon 
being at the back, opening on to the east front, the curi- 
ous feature of the planning being that although there 
are staterooms on the first floor there is no grand stair- 

The school of architects immediately following Jones, 
his kinsman Webb, Marsh and Cerbicr, all did work 
directly inspired and very similar in style. 

The Yyne, a house near Basingstoke, already referred 
to, was enlarged by additions designed by Webb, who 
used brick for the wall, with stone dressings. 

The brickwork in this house is relieved by diamond 
patterns formed by using vitrified headers, a very effect- 
ive method, and which is to be found all through the 
eastern counties. In many old houses in Hertfordshire, 
when the brick walling is in Flemish bond, all the head- 
ers are in vitrified bricks. 

Perhaps the effect when first erected was rather 
Spotty, but now that time has toned down the material 
tin- result is charming. 

Though in London and the districts where [nigo 
Jones's immediate influence made itself felt, architecture- 
was assuming a more scholarly and grammatical form, 
still in other places only a faint glimmer of the coming 
Renaissance was in evidence and the classic feeling was 
long in penetrating to the more remote districts. 

In such buildings as Sustead < >ld Hall near Cromer 
in Norfolk these indications of the coming revival made 
themselves evident, for although the character of the 
gables is distinctly earlier, yet in the brick quoins, the 
chimney and the pediments over the second floor win- 
dows, and the rude frieze over those of the first floor, the 
influence of the classic revival is evident. The windows 
nf ground and first floors are insertions of a later date 
than that of the main building, which was erected A. I>. 
1663, shown by the iron lettering in the gables. 

The original openings were larger, and probably brick 
mullioned, as in one at the back of the house which stili 
exists. This very interesting example of a transition 
Stage is now unfortunately quite a ruin, and soon will 
have to be numbered among the buildings of the past, 
buildings that exist only in name and in archaeological 

To study rubbed brickwork in its perfection it is nec- 
essary to examine closely the work of Sir Christopher 
Wren, who introduced the use of fine jointed work in 
the reign of Charles the Second, and used it to a very 

large extent, both for wall surfaces and moldings, fre- 
quently in combination with Portland stone, the two ma- 
terials forming a beautiful and harmonious contrast, the 
one of a rich and varied red and the other of a silver gray. 

The entrances to the Middle Temple Lane, London, 
and the one from Newgate Street to Christ's Hospital, 
London, recently taken down and rebuilt at the New 
School buildings near Horsham in Sussex, arc good and 
typical examples. 

Further examples here illustrated are the entrance to 
Kensington Palace and the very charming church of St. 
Benet in Thames Street, both in London and both the 
work of Wren. St. Benet's Church is particularly good. 
The angles of the main building and tower are empha- 
sized by slightly projecting pilasters formed with alter- 
nate bands of courses of stone and brick. The carved 
swags over the windows are executed in brickwork. 

The old house formerly at Enfield in Middlesex was 
also a notable example of this kind of brickwork. The 
portion here illustrated gave access to a flat near the 
first floor level between the projecting wings, and as 
will be seen from the details, the work was well and 
Carefully carried out. When the house was demolished 
some years ago the central portion was carefully pre- 
served and is now to be seen in the South Kensington 
Museum, London. 

The gate piers of Lindsay House, Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, London, probably the work of [nigo Jones, and 
those of Hampstead-Marshall are good instances of 
rubbed brickwork. 

The use of rubbed brick was continued throughout 
the whole of the eighteenth century for the construction 
of window jambs and arches, doorways, etc. The door- 
way here illustrated is taken from a lar^e house, the front 
of which is entirely in this method of building, in the 
King's Bench Walk, a part of the Temple, London. 

Side by side with the use of rubbed brickwork in such 
profusion we find in the humbler buildings molded bricks 
being again used in forming the dressings and other 
architectural embellishments. 

The old house here illustrated at Basingstoke in 
Hampshire is a good examine. The brickwork of wall- 
ing is rather rough; the bond and vertical joints are not 
very carefully kept. The brick architraves to the win- 
dows, the cornices and caves are formed with molded 
bricks roughly cut and with rather wide joints to the 
required sizes; yet the effect of the whole gable end is 
very charming. 

The bricks used in the walling measure .S-- 4 Ions;- by 
wide by 2 ' 4 deep. The side of the house abutting 
upon the street has been rebuilt at a later date 

Chelsea Hospital. London, is a well-known building 
and deservedly so, designed by Wren. It was founded 
by Charles the Second as an asylum for aged and dis- 
abled soldiers, and is so used at the present time. The 
main building is planned on a large scale, with a central 
block and two boldly projecting wings ranging in height 
with this. A central hall gives access to the chapel and 
dining-hall on either side. These two apartments have 
tall circular-headed windows of great size, the jambs 
of which are executed in carefully rubbed brick. The 
wings are three stories in height, with square-headed win- 
dows, rubbed brick being again used here for the arches 


j 03 

and dressings. The whole is crowned by a large and 
well-designed wooden cornice, from which springs the 
high-pitched slate roof, which is pierced by dormer win- 


dows. The chimney stacks form a very important part 
of the general design, rising high above the ridges every- 
where. They are square in outline with strongly pan- 
eled facings. The lodge's outbuildings and old garden 
walls surrounding this fine block of buildings are worth 
more than passing notice. 

The center turret, being of stone, does not come 
under the heading under immediate discussion. It is 
particularly well designed and adds greatly to the ap- 
pearance of the building. 

Wren also prepared designs on a large scale for addi- 
tions to Hampton Court Palace, of which, however, only 


a small part, the court at the southeast corner, was carried 
out. The work was begun A. 1). [689, and the materials 
employed are Portland stone and red brick of a most beau- 
tiful color. The design is simple and dignified. The 
ground-floor story forms a basement, and is lighted by 
segmental-headed windows. The state apartments are 

placed upon the first floor, have large square-headed win- 
dows over which arc the circular windows of the next 
floor, and above these are the square windows of the 
uppermost rooms. The whole is crowned by a stone 
cornice surmounted by a blocking course and balustrade 
which conceals the roof from view. Here again as at St. 
Benet's Church the angles of the building are marked by 
slightly projecting pilasters which are constructed of 
equally deep alternating bands of stone and brick. 

The banqueting house attached to Kensington Palace, 
London, is an extremely fine example of cut and rubbed 
brickwork, although of course of much later date than 
the above mentioned examples, as it was probably de- 
signed by .Sir John Vanbrugh early in the eighteenth 
century. The cut and rubbed brickwork of the square 



and circular columns of the center bay and the tall win- 
dow reveals or curved splays on the south side are worth 

Tyttenhanger House, near St. Albans in Hertford- 
shire, built A. I). 1654 by Sir Henry Blount, is a good 
and complete example of a country house completely ex- 
ecuted in brickwork. It is planned with a central block 
and two wings and is three stories in height. 

A flat brick band is carried round the building at the 
first floor level. The molded underside of this hand 
breaks round the head of architraves of windows of the 
ground floor. The first-floor windows have brick aprons 
under their sills springing off this brick band, and these 
windows also have pediments as well as architraves in 
molded bricks. In the case of the wings these pediments 
are pointed, but in the center portion they are alternately 
circular and pointed. Above these windows are those "t 
the second floor, which also have molded brick an hi 
traves. The angles of the walls have brick quoins pro 
jecting beyond the face of brick walling. 



The whole is crowned 
by a boldly projecting 
coved cornice, and the 
tiled roof springs directly 
off this. 

The chimney stacks 
are massive and well 
designed; they present a 
variety of the paneled 

stack before referred to. 

I Jroombridge Place, 
near Tunbridge Wells in 
Kent, is somewhat later in 
date than Tyttenhanger 
House. It is built upon 
the site of a mediaeval 
house, of which the walls 
enclosing the large and 
ancient moat still exist. 
The present house is ap- 
proached by a bridge over 

O/cfVlouse or OifiiJd »»» cfano/uftcj 
Ccn/rc portion m 71u6t>cd fynctworX 
flout in Joufff tltnsingfon 9^u.i<jsm. /nnrtM 

ST. BENET S CHI kill. 

this moat, the piers and 
gates on the house side 
being very tine specimens 
of their class. 

The house itself is an 
almost perfect example of 
the medium-sized country 
houses of this period, 
which are to be met with 
throughout the whole of 
the southern and midland 

The entrance front here illustrated is very simple and 
broadly treated, but the mellow tone given by time to 
the old brick walling, the boldly hipped tile roofs, com- 
bined with the tall and characteristic chimney shafts and 
the beautiful setting of the whole house with its ancient 
gardens, make an impression upon the mind which is 
not easily forgotten. 

Of the same type of house, and about the same age, 
is the old mansion of Movies Court near Ellingham, 
upon the western borders of the New Forest in Hamp- 
shire. A Hat brick band marks the level of the first 
floor, and the angles of the wings are emphasized by the 
same alternate long- and short brick quoins as noted at 
Tyttenhanger and Groombridge. The house is addition- 
ally interesting to some as being the home of Lady Alice 
Lisle, the widow of one of Cromwell's officers, who gave 
food and shelter to two of the Duke of Monmouth's 
adherents after the battle of Sedgemoor. For this Lady 
Lisle was arrested and tried at the Winchester Assizes 
and condemned by Judge Jeffreys to be burned alive, 
lames the Second, however, altered the sentence to that 
of beheading, and she was accordingly thus executed 
at Winchester in A. I). 1687. 

I'p to nearly the end of the seventeenth century, 
except in some isolated cases, the small country houses 
generally present the same appearance as the three 
houses (Tyttenhanger. Groombridge and Movies Court) 
above mentioned. The roofs of the projecting wings 
were either gabled or hipped back, and the walls fin- 
ished under the eaves with a large coved cornice as at 
Tyttenhanger House, or by the tilting rafters showing, 
and these being shaped on their undersides formed a 
modified kind of modillion cornice as at Groombridge, 
or a cornice of molded bricks off which the roof sprang, 
as at the almshouses, Flamstead, and Mackeraye End 
House in Hertfordshire. Hut as time went on the 
boldly projecting wings, which were a survival from the 
early type of quadrangular house, became less pro- 
nounced in projection, until at last a mere break forward 
in the walling was the last surviving mark of these once 
important features, and in the smaller country house 
even this was omitted and the house became very square 
in form. 

The brick quoins at the angles, which are such strik- 
ing features, gave way to 
stone quoins, generally 
much smaller in size, and 
the walls were often fin- 
ished with an elaborate 
modillion cornice con- 
structed in wood, off which 
the roof directly sprang. 
The flatness of the front 
was relieved by a slight 
bringing forward of the 
wall in the center, in 
which the entrance door 
was usually placed, and 
this projection was carried 
up to the roof, the cornice 
breaking round it, the 
Upper cornice members 

being sloped upwards 
to form a small, flattish 

The Moot House at 
Downton near Salis- 
bury is a good example 
of this treatment, and 
may be taken as the 
type of design adopted 
for country houses dur- 
ing the first half of the 
eighteenth ecu turv, 
after which the craze 
for erecting houses as 
much like a Creek or 
Roman temple as pos- 
sible, adorned wit h 
enormous porticoes and 
orders of great scale, 
fairly set in and ren- 
dered the further em- 
ployment of brick an 
impossibility in country 



houses, as these 
structures had either 
to be built in stone 
or of brick plastered 
over the plaster face, 
being marked out with 
sham joints to imitate 
stone if the expense 
ol masonry were too 

Fortunately, how- 
ever, this craze was 
not generally adopted 
in the building of 
small rural houses or 
those in the towns 
until quite the end of 
the eighteenth cen- 
tury, when in nearly 
every case in which 
brickwork was used 
for the construction of 
the walls it was en- 
tirely hidden from 
view under a thick 
coating of plaster, and 
this method of building was carried on until under the 
influence of the Gothic revival brickwork once again was 
used honestly and well. The consideration of this, how- 
ever, does not come within the scope of the present 

Another innovation which materially altered the char- 
acter of English brickwork toward the end of the seven- 
teenth century was the introduction of the sash window. 
Up to this period the windows had been constructed 
with solid oak mullions and transoms, which in them- 
selves were amply strong enough to carry the weight of 
the walling over without the assistance of an arch, 
which was very often omitted, especially in the eastern 
counties, as illustrated in the example given in the last 
article from an old house at Trowse near Norwich, in 
which the splayed or molded bricks of the jambs are 


merely carried across and supported upon the head of 
the window frame, the great strength of which effectu- 
ally prevented the possibility of fracture or settlement 
of the walling over. 

Brick relieving arches were sometimes employed, as 
shown in the illustration of a part of the Deanery at 
Winchester, where they are elliptical in form; hut the 
effect generally when arches are used is not so good as 
the simpler way of finishing the window openings as 
described above. 

With the advent of the sash window the hollow frames 
of which were incapable of sustaining any great weight 

9/orIh acS/Toa. 

Cap of QilaiVars 




the employment of brick relieving arches to carry the 
walling over the head became an absolute necessity. 
These arches were often executed in cut and rubbed 
bricks; a slight camber or rise was often given to the 
soffit in order to deviate the appearance of dropping in 
the center which an absolutely Hat soffit of large span 
sometimes had. 

In buildings of large scale the use of sash windows 
did not at present materially detract from the appear- 
ance, as, for example, the window openings of 1 bun pi' mi 
Court Palace and Chelsea Hospital, where the openings 



are tall in comparison to their 
width, a very necessary essen- 
tial in the design of windows 
constructed in this manner; 
hut in the smaller domestic 
buildings, when the necessary 

height could not he obtained, 
the effect is very poor when 
compared with the mullioned 
and transomed windows they 
displaced. For instance, the 
mullioned and transomed fen- 
estration <>f Tyttenhanger 
House. Hertfordshire, is very 
charming, but it would he 
difficult, if not impossible, to 
have obtained as good an 
effect with the later type of 
window on account of the low 
proportions of the openings 
upon the second tloor. For 
these reasons probably we find 
that the mullioned windows 
were still mueh used in the 
smaller buildings until quite 
the end of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, and in some instances side by side with the sash 
window as shown in the illustration of Movies Court in 
Hampshire, where, however, the sash windows in the 
projecting wings appear to have been inserted in the old 
openings early in the eighteenth century. 

There is mueh good brickwork of late seventeenth 
and the eighteenth century date to he found in Cam- 

St. John's College has already been referred to. and of 
other instances St. Catherine's College maybe mentioned 
here. The buildings are grouped around three sides of a 
square and are three stories in height. The materials 
employed are brick for the wallings, and stone dressings 
for doorways and windows. _,.. 

I I, , I , l,.,l„ 1 ,1, ,1 3 
'■■' ■'■''.'■'■ ' " 

NETHERH \ M V lo\. 




in i \n OF G \kl)K\ FRON I . 

DOWNTON MANOR in il si.. 

The Frowde Almshouses at Salisbury present mueh 
of interest to the student of brickwork. The garden 
front here illustrated is a very effective, if rather plain, 
pieee of design. 

The long range of piers and arches, seventeen in all, 
forming a kind of cloister walk, giving access to the 
ground-floor rooms, is very charming in 
its effect of light and shade. 

The circular windows over these 
arches light a long corridor on the first 
door, into which all the upper rooms 

Many houses around the Cathedral 
Close in the same city, particularly the 
choir school, are worthy of study. 

At Guildford in Surrey are many fine 
brick houses of eighteenth-century date. 

The old town of Blandford in Dorset- 
shire was entirely rebuilt early in the 
eighteenth century, after being destroyed 
by fire, and most of the existing houses 
are built of brick of this date. 

In London and the district round. 
brick from the first date of the intro- 
duction had always been a favorite 
building material, and after the great 
fire which occurred A. D. 1666 most of 
the houses and shops were rebuilt in this 
material, and in spite of the changes 



necessitated by modern ideas there are to this day 
numerous examples of late seventeenth and eighteenth 
century still standing in much the same state as when 
newly finished. 

many doorways in this material, one of which is here 

The increase in trade and the consequent converting of 
houses into offices and shops in the city drove the wealthy 

« n fWfpW.. ^***ff^JS 


The block of buildings called the Temple, London, 
afford many instances for study. New Court, a quad- 
rangular block, was built in A. 1). 1677, — the buildings 

trades and merchants into the suburbs where they built 
their houses, and it is perhaps here can still be found 
the best specimens of eighteenth-century brickwork. 


are four stories high, with brick bands of slight projec- 
tion marking the levels of the floors between the win- 
dows, which have flat arches and jambs in cut and 
rubbed brickwork, — and in King's Bench Walk are 

Highgate and Ilampstead, then villages on the north 
side, abound in brickwork of this period, and Fulham 
and Putney on the west at one time closely rivaled them 
as residential resorts. At Richmond in Surrey and in 



the neighboring parish of Kew many line did eighteenth- 
century brick Imiisus aix- still remaining. 

Maid of Honor Row at Richmond is a good example 
of a Georgian terrace, while at Kew many old houses of 
this date are grouped round the green, 


:T -f - ! 

? 4 ! - 


In such a short review of a very extensive subject it 
is impossible to do full justice to the later periods which 
abound in beautiful examples of typical English brick- 
work which deserve to be treated more in cxtenso. but 


I^incs -Bench WvlK; Lomixun. 

3)tlatl ij Jomh - 


- s A- 

• >( 

3 tyi&tltffamt 

the foregoing articles give a general idea of the gradual 

development of brickwork in England from the time of 
the introduction by the Romans, with examples of all the 
t vpes of impi irtance. 

External Color at the Pan-American. 

r.Y < ll \kl Is II. CAFFIN. 

r THE buildings at the Pan-American are constructed 

1 of Staff and have been treated with external color. 
The analogy of this with the use of colored terra-cotta 
was so complete that it suggested itself as a subject that 

might interest the readers of The Brickbi n hi k. I pro- 
pose to treat it under the three heads of what we looked 
for, what we found, and what we missed. 

I am writing this in New York with special reference 
to its clear skies and freedom from smoke. Yet, if the 
introduction of color into architecture is desirable under 
such conditions, it must be even more so in cities where 
the atmosphere is less clear, provided the color is such as 
not to be unfavorably affected by the smoke and dam]); 
and for this purpose colored terra-cotta from its imper- 
meability seems to be eminently suitable. It has other 
qualities that recommend it, lightness, toughness and 
non-combustibility, so that how far it may be made to 
contribute to color also is a practical consideration. 

The problem is surely one of construction rather than 
of decoration. At least that is the aspect of the matter 
uppermost in my mind, the building in color rather 
than the enlivening of the structure afterwards with 
spots of embellishment. No modern city presents more 
charming features of color than Paris, and the founda- 
tion of it is the Caen stone so generally used in building, 
which can be cut almost like cheese and then hardens by 
exposure and takes on a delicate gray tint that composes, 
as if an artist had arranged it so, with the normal color 
of the sky; forming, also, a background of subtle neu- 
trality to the accidental notes of color in awnings, shut- 
ters, flowers, and to the prevailing green of the innumer- 
able trees. This gives a general local color to the city 
that one readily recognizes and carries away in one's 
memory as altogether characteristic. Such a uniformity 
of impression is not to be looked for in American cities. 
In them the prevailing note is individualism; it is the 
pith of enterprise and will inevitably make itself felt in 
the architecture, so that any consideration of colored ex- 
terior must look not to uniformity of effect but to sepa- 
rate action. 

It was this that raised one's anticipation when it was 
announced that color was to form an important integral 
part of the ensemble at Buffalo. For it was felt, not 
unreasonably, that both the occasion and the circum- 
stances wotdd warrant and make possible some very not- 
able contributions to the solution of the problem. The 
occasion was one of festivity which would permit a gen- 
erous application of color, while the temporary life of the 

buildings would justify an adventurous spirit of experi- 
ment. Even if enthusiasm should overstep the limits of 
discretion, tin- structures would not remain to plague 
their inventors as in general practice, where an architect 
may well hesitate to go far in experiments the value of 
which he cannot truly estimate until it is too late to 
alter the results. But at Buffalo the designer's imagina- 
tion might have been allowed to swing freely. Let us 
see how far tlu- opportunity has been grasped. 

As one approaches from the south, the eye is first 
arrested by tin- blue dome of the United States Govern- 



Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 

ment Building and by the pyramid of red roofs and pin- 
nacles that surmount the Horticultural Building. These 
are emphatic notes of color against the sky and whet 
one's anticipation of a pronounced scheme of color to 
follow. We hasten towards the Triumphal Bridge, eager 
to view the color ensemble of the " Rainbow City," con- 
cerning which so much had been written in advance. 
But where is it? There are two more blue domes, other 
red roofs, there is a s^ood 
deal of color also on the 
Temple of Music immedi- 
ately on our left which we 
shall examine later, but 
where is the architectonic 
scheme of color ? Where 
indeed is there any definite 
suggestion of color except 
in the details before men- 
tioned? The ensemble is cer- 
tainly not white, neither is it 
colored in any sort of signifi- 
cant manner. It has, in fact, 
a suggestion of innocuous 
neutrality, except for the 
Electric Tower which is 
ivory white with details of 
green-blue and gold. 

Gradually it dawns upon 
us that our expectation must 
be modified ; that instead of 
an ensemble we must look 
for detail ; that instead of a 
scheme of color we must 
fall back on separate features 
of decoration. The realiza- 
tion of this makes one a little 

more critical regarding the 
objects that first attracted 
attention and were for the 
time accepted provisionally 
— the blue domes and red 
roofs. It is recalled that the 
architectural style adopted 
is free Renaissance, particu- 
larly the Spanish-Colonial 
brand, and that a feature of 
Mexico, the country of splen- 
did domes, is the use of 
majolica in some of them. 
And with that thought in 
one's mind, how dry, luster- 
less, unvibrative is the blue 
of these domes! without any 
beautiful quality of hue or 
suggestion of structural 
material — in one word, 
painty. Equally the red 
roofs fail to supply illusion 
of burnt clay; the color 
being uniform and heavy, 
with none of the subtle vari- 
ations and vivacity of color 
that red tiles yield. To be 
frank, these features indicate the work of a painter 
rather than of an architect; of one who thinks in sur- 
faces rather than in materials of construction. 

Let us turn, however, to the massing of decoration 
over certain parts of the buildings. Here we shall find 
a much more architectural feeling. A very successful 
example is the main portal of the Horticultural Build- 
ing, designed by R. S. Peabody of Peabody & Stearns. 

ETHNOLOGICAL li 1)11,1)1 NO 
George Cary, Architect. 

2 IO 

T II E B R I C K \)V I L DK R 

This entrance, surmounted by a flat gable, is round 
topped, with a series of ornamental bands supported 
upon little columns, decorated with raised orna- 
ment on a blue ground. Over the arch is a car- 
touche with supporting figures and scroll work in 
relief, colored blue, green and yellow. On each side 
is a panel, blue -round and white raised figures, 
quite Robbia-like in feeling, and below them arc 
two -roups of sculpture, naturalistically colored. 
With the exception of these last the ornament is 
Renaissance. In the side pavilions loggias are 
introduced, the vaulted ceilings of which arc deco- 
rated with signal success after the Villa Madama. 
Indeed the whole of the colored decoration of this 
building is exceedingly pleasant, rich even to 
profusion and yet controlled by excellent taste. 
And the same is true of almost all the principal 
entrances, notably those of the Machinery and 
Electricity Buildings. Both of these are l>v Green 
& Wicks and, were we discussing the architecture, 
it would be pleasant to dwell upon the combined 
sprightliness and dignity of these two very charm- 
in- structures. But it is with the decoration that 
we are concerned, and that is massed around the 
different portals and colored with a bold use of 
primary tints that merge in a very agreeable har- 
mony. The eaves also are very effectively treated 
with an imitation of timbers and carved woodwork, 
that really suggests the material, tin- dark brown 
being picked out with bright color. 

There is an instructive lesson in the color deco- 

Green & Wicks, Architects. 


Shepley, Rutau & Coolidge, Architects. % 

ration of the Temple of Music. An attempt has 
been made to secure vivid emphasis by the intro- 
duction of red, but its interrupted use in patches 
deprives it of any constructive value. With the 
exception, however, of this building, two very 
crudely colored band stands close l>v and sundry 
"roups of sculpture, intended to simulate bronze 
but more suggestive of chocolate, the colored deco- 
ration is very agreeable and in some cases ex- 
tremely good in detail. But it is detail. 

What we miss is any definitely intelligible 
scheme of color. Only to a very limited extent has 
the color been used structurally as an intrinsic 
part of the design; instead, it has been applied 
almost entirely as extrinsic ornament. Herein is 
the disappointment, for ornament is not architec- 
ture, more particularly in the case of the huge 
buildings which have become a feature of Amer- 
ican cities. In these the problem is, or ought to be. 
essentially one of structural design, to which the 
embellishment bears but a very insignificant rela- 
tion. Without any, the building may still be very 
attractive, while no amount of embellishment will 
disguise or atone for a poverty of construction. 
We had hoped, therefore, to see at Buffalo an 
attempt to build in color. Perhaps the architects 
will assert that they have made it, for certainly 
the buildings are not white. But just as certainly 
they give no definite impression of color. In their 
pale buffs and drabs they are, as I said before, 
innocuously neutral; whereas we were justified 


2 I I 

in expecting some more or less adventurous essay in 
constructional color. 

The treatment of the Electric Tower will illustrate my 
contention. The structure itself is very majestic and it 
rises among the other buildings with a certain exclusive- 
ness, for it does not follow the Renaissance type. Indeed, 
one of its best features is that it embodies the character of 
type that is gradually being formed to meet the conditions 
of the modern office building. It smacks of what is going 
to be distinctively an American contribution to architec- 
ture. Here surely was incentive for some distinct style of 
color treatment. What has been used is an arrangement 
of ivory, green-blue and gold, the combination that the 
decorator of a theater falls back upon as safe. The green- 
blue is a very charming tint suggested by the water at 
Niagara Falls, and is used as an accessory to remind us of 
the source from which the electric power is derived. Then 
why not have made it the dominant motive? Evidently 
this was too adventurous, beyond the depth in which the 
architect cared to venture. He preferred paddling in 
shallow water to the daring freedom of the swimmer. It 
is characteristic of the whole ensemble — a timid holding 
on to conventionalities rather than a bold leap of the 
imagination — in a word, an opportunity lost. 

The director of color was Mr. C. Y. Turner of the 
National Society of Mural Painters, but I do not think 
he must be held responsible for the partial failure of the 
scheme. The story current in Buffalo is that the archi- 
tects approved of his plans in the gross, but that each 
one demurred to its application to his particular build- 
ing. If this was the case, it may be explained by the 
fact that the Renaissance style had been adopted as a 
type, and that its accepted conventions restrained them. 
As an endorsement of this, it is a fact that those build- 
ings in which the embellishment has been carried farthest 
are the ones in which the architects have handled the 
type with the greatest freedom. 

Towards a solution, therefore, of this problem of 
structural color the Pan-American Exposition contrib- 
utes nothing, unless it be by suggestion. The idea of 
green-blue in connection with the Electric Tower kindles 
one's imagination. Suppose that the shaft of the tower 
had been of this green-blue, and that the superstructure, 
which sits upon it like a crown, had still preserved some 
of the color but been freely decorated with gold, and 
that the near-by buildings had been constructed in violet 
and those more remote in orange, we should have had 
a scheme distinctive, yet certainly not bizarre, and com- 
bining local tints which might be introduced into city 
architecture without offense. As it is, orange-red shows 
very effectively on the walls of the colonnade of the 
Ethnological Building, a structure distinguished by har- 
mony of mass and excellent adjustment of its parts and 
decorative details; but the definite note of orange is not 
carried through the structure, which is of a kind of pink 
buff, agreeable but quite unadventurous. 

For it was not a tentative and obviously safe thing 
that we looked for, but the resolute tackling of some 
really imaginative scheme or even a bold recourse to 
examples of constructional color already used abroad. 

As it is, the result accomplished does not advance 
experience a single peg and has not adequately repre- 
sented what experience might have suggested. 

The Life and Works of Rafael 
Guastavino. Part IV. 



( ( oncluded. ) 


THUS far the illustrations have shown what cohe- 
sive construction has accomplished as a factor in 
the evolution of architectural design, and I think the 


promise made in a previous part to demonstrate it has 
been fulfilled. As Mr. Ouastavino is no longer prac- 
ticing his profession, but conscientiously carrying out 


the conceptions of his brother professionals, he is una- 
ble longer, except by way of suggestion, to express the 
longings of his own inspiration in the materials whose 


2 12 


<a flTHDriiimim ,. , ;'. SiiiJSSs- 

FIG. 19. FIRE-PROOF lk\lMi.\l HOUSE, NEW York CITY. 



use he has brought to such great perfection. But what 
he has done has been given as a legacy to the profes- 
sion which it cannot too highly prize and by the use of 
which it can go on developing new constructions and new 
forms forever. 

It lias seemed needless heretofore to remind the 


I' \ I I RSI »N, N. J. 

reader that all the work in cohesive construction herein 
described is as thoroughly fire-proof as any of the other 

constructions in burned clay. It is this quality that has 
been the main inducement for its use. But it differs 
from ethers in that it makes many constructive forms 
possible that were before unknown, and has been, 
therefore, a potent element in architectural design. Its 
largest use, however, as may be readily supposed, is 
where its fire-proof qualities only are sought for. It 





2 I 

FIG. 25. 

fSecfion on lint 


therefore is important to select one illustration of the 
system of fire-proof floor construction most urgently 
recommended by Mr. Guastavino. Supposing a large 
area of fire-proof floor to be required, the best applica- 
tion of the Guastavino system is where columns and 
girders only are used — that is, where the floors are 
divided into squares or rectangles with steel columns 


at the corners of the rectangles connected by 
girders in both directions. The steel girders are 
only used to carry a small part of the loads of the 
floors, and act mainly as braces and tie rods as 
the circumstances require. The loads of the 
floors are almost entirely concentrated on the 
columns by the tile construction. This will be 
illustrated by three photographs of the work in 
process of construction in the Munsey Building 
at New London, Conn. Fig. 16 shows the work 
commenced. Segmental centerings of wood are 
set under the girders, and on these are built 
segmental arches of three courses of flat tiles, 
much wider than the gird- 
ers, on which are set three 
courses of brick covering 
the sides of the girders. 
The lower course of tiles is 
the widest, and each course 
above sets back enough to 
receive the bearing of the 
edges of the courses of tiles 
forming the domes. The 
square domes are really 
square sections of domes 
intersecting the girder 
arches, and are built in three 
or four courses as may be 
necessary and filled on top 
with concrete Or ballast. 
As compared with the tradi- 
tional systems of construc- 
tion this is a form of masonry 
in which the pendentives 
and the dome are united in 
one. The principle is old, 
dating from the Greco- 
Byzantine period, but the 
application is new and 
original. Fig. '7 shows 
the top f the dom es 
ready for the concrete. Fig. 

pi ... 

FIG. 22. PL \N \M> ELEV VI'loN 




2I 4 

T H E H R I C K B U I L I)K R 

iS shows the underside when completed. This being in 
the basement, it will be seen that the arehes start from 
the top of the brick piers which carry the columns. The 
section of floor carried by each column is tg by 25 feet, 

which is also the exact size of each dome. The domes 
contain no steel whatever. These are guaranteed to 
carry a safe load (distributed) of three hundred pounds 
per superficial foot. 

The next illustration will show two sections (Figs. 19 
and 20) of one of the earliest works of Mr. Guastavino in 
this country, designed as well as built by him. This is 
one of two fire-proof tenement houses built in the city of 
New York in [883. The first floor was entirely vaulted 

Fig. 22 shows the plan and vertical section of this 
stairway, and Fig. 23 will give some idea of the amount 
of careful study necessary to the successful construction 
of such work as this. 

In conclusion I present part of the working drawings 
of the ambulatory of the New York University, con- 
nected with what is called "The Hall of fame" (Figs. 
24, 25 and 2(>)- The whole of the ceiling and roof arc 
constructed of tiles and cement. The ceiling has very 
tlat vaulting carrying dwarf walls and flat tiles, covered 
with roof tiles. The ceilings are of enameled tiles 
throughout. This is one of the latest of the (iuastavino 


from the masonry. The upper floors and the roof were 
built with segment arches between beams spaced so that 
each arch covered a room. As in the Arion Club, the 
arches were five inches thick, and the first two courses 
were laid in plaster of Paris because he had not yet been 
able to put entire confidence in the Portland cement then 
obtainable. The stairways of this building were also 
built of tiles. A good beginning was here made which 
was well worthy of imitation. 

Fig. 2i is a view of part of the elliptical stairway 
built in the first National Bank at Paterson, X. J. It 
is shown as left by the tile layers and ready for the deco- 
rators. The floors of this building were not of cohesive 
but of flat hollow tile arch construction. 

These articles would not be complete without allusion 
to the conscientious work that has been done since 1890 
by Mr. R. (iuastavino, Jr., who has been such a valuable 
assistant to his father. I saw him on the first work that 
was entrusted to his sole charge, the Telephone Building 

at Denver, and then learned to admire the conscientious 
way in which the work was done. It is one of those 
buildings in which he used the minimum of steel, 
but it would be useless to describe it without diagrams. 
Since then he has had special charge of nearly all the 
domes of large span which the (iuastavino Company 
has erected. 

[ THE KM). I 


2 '5 

Selected Miscellany. 


The prospects of new work are very satisfactory and 
all the architects are busy. 

Before lQng some of the immense new structures for 
which foundations have been laid during the summer 
will begin to rear themselves high into the air and 

Francis W. Crosby, Architect. 

assume their place among the massive and beautiful 
buildings of which New York may be justly proud. 

The new Custom House and the Union Club, both by 
Mr. Cass Gilbert, bid fair to equal anything of their kind 
in the city and to add greatly to the reputation of this 


Charles Pearson, Architect. 

Built of brick furnished by the Hydraulic Press 

Brick Company, St. Louis. 

eminent American architect, whose scholarly and beauti- 
ful work shows the influence of McKim, Mead & White, 
being a free and intelligent use of Italian motives, com- 
bined with an indefinable feeling of whole-souled truth 
and liberality which it seems to me approaches very 

near to our true ideal of an American style. It is not a 
case of "Progress before Precedent." They should go 
hand in hand. 

Mr. Post's new Stock Exchange is making satisfac- 
tory progress, and will be a dignified addition to the 
Wall Street section. 

Mr. R. W. Gibson will soon begin work on the Wom- 
an's Hotel on 29th Street near Madison Avenue. It 
will be eleven stories high and will cost, exclusive of the 
plant and fixtures, $350,000. The general plan is to 
have a large number of moderate-sized rooms for the 
use of business women of limited means, as well as 


Davis & Brooks, Architects. 

expensive rooms for those who desire them. It will be 
a skeleton-frame structure, with the two lower stories 
devoted to millinery stores, etc., generally controlled by 


Activity in building circles continues, and especially 
is it noticeable on account of the many substantial resi- 
dences being built. 



!•'. is. & L. 1.. Long, Architects. 

limit of "Ironclav" brick made by Columbus Face Brick Company, 

2 l6 

T UK B R I C K BU I K I) K R. 

Architects J. B. Legg and C. X. Frig arc building a 
Methodist church at Mexico. Mo. 

Eames & Young have awarded the contract for con- 
structing the Dolph building on Locust Street. The 
building will be of dark brick with terra-cotta trim- 
mings, tire-proof, six stories, and will cost 

The same architects, associated with Will Levy, are 
preparing plans for an eight-story wholesale building, to 
face 213 feet on Washington Avenue and 150 feet on 
Twelfth Street. The building will be one of the largest 
of the kind in the city, having 275,000 square feet of 
floor space, and will be occupied by a dry goods com- 
pany. The cost will be $400,000. 

An interesting five-Story building in the Italian Re- 
naissance style is being put up on the corner of 1'ourth 
and Locust streets by Harnett, Hayncs & Harnett. 

Architects Mauran, Russell & Harden are having 
considerable success in designing library buildings, they 
having been chosen as the architects for the new library 
at Decatur, 111. 

I-:. M. Spinning, Architect. Roofed with American S. Tile. 

building was one of the pioneer fire-proof office build- 
ings in the city. It is eight stories high and has one of 
the most interesting facades, being Gothic, after designs 
by Peabody & Stearns. Notwithstanding its being a 

Fi k « r 

fi ff/rr//r<7 » 

b /k/r/ry 
/ fib**-*/ 

Se ccj H D 

/" 'JSTW.»/" ydr. 


A notable event in building circles has been the 
transfer, by ninety-nine-year lease, of the Turner build- 
ing to the Chemical building owners. The Turner 

Frank freeman, Architi 
Architectural terra-cotta made by H. Kreischer & Sons. 

comparatively modern building, it is to be sacrificed to 
modern progress and will be replaced by a sixteen-story 
addition to the Chemical building at a cost of $175,000. 
Henry Ives Cobb, who is a stockholder in the Chemical 
building company and who designed the original build- 
ing, will very likely be chosen as the architect. 

Considerable progress has been made in World's Fair 
matters, the general scope of the work having been 
decided upon and the more important buildings assigned 
as follows : 

Agricultural Building, Isaac S. Taylor, St. Louis; 
Liberal Arts Building, Carii-re & Hastings, New York; 
Mines and Metallurgy, Van Brunt & Howe, Kansas City, 
Mo. ; Transportation Building, Widman, Walsh & Bois- 
selier, St. Louis; Art Building, Cass Gilbert, New York; 
Social Economy Building, Barnett, Hayncs & Barnett. 
St. Louis; Educational Building, Theodore C. Link. 
St. Louis; Manufacturers' Building, Eames & Young, 
St. Louis; Electricity Building, Walker & Kimball. 
Omaha; Service Building, Isaac S. Taylor: and the 
Government Building, James K. Taylor, supervising 
architect. Since the above allotment the commission has 


2 17 



Iluehl & Schmid, Architects. 



decided to 
put up two 
buildings for 

M an u f a c - 
t u re i" s and 
Liberal Arts. 

It is ex- 
pected that 

the contracts 
for the above 
b uil d i n g s 

will b e 
awarded be- 
fore the first 
of January. 
The different buildings are all larger than those of the 
Columbian Exposition. The Italian Renaissance has 
been selected as the style of architect lire, and the main 
cornice line is to be uniformly 65 feet high. 

Mr. E. L. Masqueray of Xew York has been selected 
by director of works Taylor as the chief designer. 

The St. Louis Chapter of the A. I. A. held its annual 
meeting and dinner at the Mercantile Club. Monday 

C \ NT \ I r.\ l'l \m >1m a > rEARNS, 


Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company, 



Darling & Pearson, Architects. 

Perth Amli'iy Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

evening, September 22, and elected Mr. W. S. Eames 
president, \V. B. Ittner vice-president. J. L. Mauran 
secretary, and F. C. Ronsaek treasurer; these officers, 
in connection with Mr. James I'. Jameson, forming the 
board of directors. 


The report of the Department of Public Works so far 
this year indicates that this will be the best year that 
Pittsburg has known in building operations. It is prac- 
tically impossible to yet men enough to carry new work 
along properly, and recently when the bricklayers on 

one of the new office buildings struck for sixty cents an 
hour, their demand was granted at once, though union 
rates, fixed this spring, were but fifty cents. 

The board of trustees of the Carnegie Institute have 
at last been notified that the city is ready to turn over to 
them the ground required for the extension of the pres- 
ent building, and work will probably soon commence on 
this. The trustees are also at work on the preliminary 
arrangements for the technical institute which Mr. Car- 


1). H. Burnliam .v Co., Architects. 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. Makers. 

negie is to build here. Experts from many schools and 
colleges throughout the country have been here aiding 
them in this work. 

In the public 
waiting-room of 
the new Union 
Station glazed col- 
ored terra-cot ta 
has been used very 

Mr. Carnegie is 
to present to the 
city of Allegheny 
a statue of a for- 
mer prominent 
citizen, Colonel 
Anderson. Colo- 
nel Anderson be- 
friend e d Mr. 
Carnegie when a 
boy, lending him 
books and aiding 
him in many ways. 
Daniel Chester 
French is t h e 



\\\ . 


2 19 

sculptor, Brite & 
Bacon of New York 
the architects. 

Alden & Harlow 
are preparing plans 
for a twenty-three- 
story office building 
for the Farmers' De- 
posit National Bank, 
to be built on the 
corner of Fifth Ave- 
nue and Wood Street. 


THE unusually 
handsome man- 
tel which is illustrated 
on this page is the 
work of the Hartford 
F a i e n c c Company, 
Hartford, Conn. The 
illustration does not 
adequately convey the 
variety of rich colors 
employed in the de- 
sign, but enough is 
.shown perhaps to in- 
dicate the rich effects 
which may be ob- 
tained by the use of a 


E. R. Liebert, Architect. 

Made by the Hartford Faience Company. 

material which lends itself 
so readily to graceful orna- 
mentation and beautiful col- 
or decoration. 

Faience, which has al- 
ways been used extensively 
in Europe, is rapidly finding 
recognition in this country, 
and we look to see a greater 
use of it when the possibili- 
ties of the material are more fully 
understood and the quality of our 
product better appreciated. 

Concerning this particular man- 
tel, the architect writing the manufac- 
turers says it is thoroughly well done 
and adds much to the charm of the 
whole work. The Hartford P'aience 
Company carry a fine line of mantels 
or will execute from special designs. 

the Northwestern Terra Cotta Company, which furnishes 
the material, by the use of which he has demonstrated 
his absolute confidence in this form of burnt clay to 
withstand successfully not only the ordinary ravages of 
time, but the defacement of accumulated soot, which is so 
common in many of our larger manufacturing cities. 

The roof is covered with a light green semi-glazed 
tile, made by the Ludowici Roofing Tile Company. 




Excelsior Terra Cotta 
Company, Makers. 


HIS beautiful house illustrated in 
our plate form is built of a semi- 
glazed, cream-white terra-cotta from 
foundation up. As an architectural 
creation it has additional interest from 
the fact that Mr. True is president of 



Janes & Leo, Architects. 

Terra-cotta by the New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company. 




We have received from the following institutions 
publications which contain interesting descriptive mat- 
ter relating to the different branches of art and scientific- 
study which they severally maintain: 

Laurence Scientific School. Cambridge, Mass. 

The Art Institute of Chicago. 

Architectural 1 )epartment. University of Pennsylvania. 

Copies will be furnished upon application to those 
who are interested. 


A new chapter regarding the Herculean Fireproof 
Floor Arch is contained in a pamphlet just issued by 
Henry Mauivr <.V Son. This new pamphlet is made 

White Brick and Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

especially interesting because of the illustrations it con- 
tains of work which has been executed. Henry Maurer 
& Son, 420 East 23rd Street, New York City. 

From the new catalogue issued by Gladding, McLean 
& Co., San Francisco, Cal., we are led to believe that the 
burnt clay interests are well looked after on the Pacific 
slope. In this book are illustrated many of the best type 
and most prominent buildings which have been erected 
in the far western states, in which the company's product 
brick and terra-cotta has been used. 


Architects Dennison and Miller of Warren, Ohio. 
have removed their offices to Youngstown, Ohio. 

The opening smoker of the Washington Architectural 

Club was held in the club room on Saturday evening, 
October 12. Competition sketches and photographs 
made during the past summer were exhibited. 


Standard Terra Cotta Works, Makers. 

E, A. Quick & Sons, Architects 

Mr. Walter M. Evatt has been appointed New Eng- 
land manager for the National Fire-proofing Company, 
with offices in the Tremont Building, Boston. 

Charles Bacon, Boston agent for the Celadon Roofing 
Tile Company, reports the following new contracts: 
Library. Derby, Conn.. Hartly Dennett, architect: resi- 
dence, Newton Centre, Mass., Coolidge & Carson, archi- 
tects; residence. Weston, Mass.. J. E. Chandler, architect. 

I!. Kreischer & Sons. New York City, report the fol- 
lowing new contracts in Greater New York: Office build- 
ing, Liberty and Cedar streets, John T. Williams, Jr., 
architect: light gray speckled front brick and buff light 

court brick. Telephone stations. 220 to 224 West 124th 
Street and 123 to 127 East 124th Street, C. W. L. Eidlitz, 

St. Louis Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

architect; light court buff brick. Tontine building, 
Wall and Water streets, George A. Fuller Company, 
contractors; light gray front brick. Twenty apartment 
houses, Kent & Willoughby avenues. Brooklyn; buff 
and gray brick and gray rock-faced brick. 

" School Architecture." 

A General Treatise on Designing and Planning of Schoolhouses. 


More than 250 Illustrations of Schoolhouses and Plans; many of the best types of all grades having 

been chosen. 
An indispensable Text-book for Schoolhouse Designers. 

Price, $5.00, delivered. 

ROGERS & MANSON, Publishers, 
Boston, Mass. 



1 90 1. 



Sft VOL 10 





NOV. fg 


H.r. b. 




85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 

Subscription price, mailed Hat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada . . . . . . . . $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in vdvance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied l>v 
the .American News Company and its branches. 


Agencies. — Clay Products 

. . . 11 

Architectural Faience 

. . . II 

" Terra-Cotta 

. II and III 

Brick . 

. Ill 

" Enameled 

. Ill and IV 


Advertisers arc classified and arranged in the following order: — 


Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Kin-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing file IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 


THE American Architect in a recent editorial makes 
a very sensible suggestion that the fire insurance 
companies might imitate the example of the steel com- 
panies and combine into a trust. Such a proposition it 
seems to us has everything" to commend it, and undoubt- 
edly one of the first results of the union would be the 
raising of the standard of first-class buildings from an 
insurance standpoint. When the Manufacturers' Mutual 
Fire Insurance Company undertook to put a premium 
upon good mill construction it began a work which has ac- 
complished perhaps more than any one agency towards 
the elimination of fire risks in that particular class of 
buildings. This company had the field to itself, and we 
can readily understand how a trust which could control 
all the insurance interests, which would be free from the 
temptations of competition for business, could bring about 
a much needed reform in some constructive features of 
our modern buildings. The terrible annual waste which 
this country has to stand is in large part worse than need- 
less, and if conditions should be such that the American 
Architect's suggestions could not be carried out, it is to 

be hoped that there might be at least a more intelligent 
concerted action on the part of the underwriters towards 
reducing fire risks. That such risks can be reduced is 
abundantly demonstrated by the success which has at- 
tended the use of terra-cotta and burnt clay in what we 
term fire-proof construction, and the danger now is not 
from the few buildings which have been intelligently 
planned by competent constructors and architects, but 
rather from the great majority of buildings which are 
allowed to exist without any fire-proofing whatever. It 
is these which constitute the real menace not merely to 
themselves but to the better class of buildings, as was 
shown in the Rogers-Peet fire in New York. The rates 
on inflammable construction in our cities ought to be 
prohibitory. We cannot look to the building depart- 
ments to discriminate against such structures, but it is a 
matter of business prudence for the insurance companies 
to grapple with the careless condition of the ordinary 
construction in our large cities, and by concerted action 
there is not the slightest doubt that in a very short time 
the fire risks in our large cities could be reduced by a 
very considerable extent. 


AVERY earnest discussion has been going on recently 
in England regarding the architectural style in which 
it was expedient to build the proposed Liverpool Cathe- 
dral. This is a construction which was started on paper 
many years ago, but after a long period of inaction has 
taken a new lease of life and bids fair to assume definite 
shape. It is extremely interesting to follow the discus- 
sions which take place on this subject, and it is also worth 
while to consider what such discussion implies. England 
is a country in which architecture has never been sui gen- 
eris. Its art has been imported, in essence at least, and 
though greatly modified by local conditions and admi- 
rably adapted to the wants of the British public it has 
never had the spontaneous inherent life which has char- 
acterized Italy, France and Spain. In neither of these 
last named countries would there be any serious discus- 
sion as to what style should be used for any building; and 
indeed we even fancy that in the United States, while 
there might be differences of opinion, there would prob- 
ably be very little discussion upon such a subject. We 
would feel a natural gravitation toward a particular style, 
or at least we would not consider it in any sense a national 
calamity if one style rather than another were adopted. 
There will always be room for honest difference of opin- 
ion between the classicist and the romanticist. There will 
always be those who will follow the lead of the Renaissance 

2 J 2 

T H E H R I C K B U I L I) E R 

as well as those who feel that no church edifice can be 
truly religious unless it is a bit barbaric or Gothic. But 
the acrimony of the discussion which seems to be disturb- 
ing the English architects is not easy for us to compre- 
hend, and shows that the question of style, after all, is 
quite as much <me of fashion as of conviction in England. 
The idea that the committee can decide whether the build- 
ing shall be Gothic or Renaissance seems to us indicative 
of a condition several degrees worse than we have to con- 
tend with here. There is probably not an architect in the 
world who could do equally well in any two styles; and, 
judging by the discussion, there is at present in England 
no recognized tendency towards a particular style; her 
architects are working individually rather than collect- 
ively, and the passing period is one which will leave no 
distinctive creation of English architecture. Under these 
circumstances it would seem by far the wiser way for the 
Liverpool committeemen to ignore the question of style 
and make the selection one of men, trusting that the best 
architect the} - can select will be most likely to give them 
the best building, rather than that a predetermination of 
style will be any guarantee of architectural success. 


\ \ rE quote from a contemporary: "The School 

V V of Architecture which opened its new year is doing 
a valuable work in an unassuming manner. The course 
embraces the same studies as in the great schools. It is 
perfectly well recognized that a young man may get as 
good an education for all practical purposes at a small 
college as at a great one and that more depends upon the 
student himself and his immediate instructors than upon 
his environment." For all practical purposes we agree 
fully with the foregoing. Fortunately, however, archi- 
tecture is far more than a matter of practical purposes. 
It is an art, and as all creative arts are essentially imita- 
tive in their processes of development, architecture is 
the art which must be studied by example. So that 
while having every good wish for the school of archi- 
tecture to which the quotation refers, and without doubt- 
ing its good work in practical lines, it is evidently un- 
qualified to teach architecture as a fine art, and the 
students therein who rely upon themselves and their 
instructors to make up the deficiencies in environment 
will surely appreciate what they miss when they are able 
to compare themselves with graduates even less richly 
endowed by nature, but who have profited by the artistic 
environment which counts for so much in the three or 
four leading architectural schools of this country. 


AFTER all, there are some conditions which if not 
more successfully met in this country than any- 
where else an- certainly here overcome in an easier and 
more assured manner. We have seen many statements 
in both the daily and the technical papers in regard to 
the structural safety of Saint Paul's in London. The 
cathedral rests upon a relatively thin layer of clayey soil 
superimposed upon a deep bed of alluvial deposit which 

extends to so great a depth below the pavement that at 
the time Sir Christopher Wren built the structure he did 
not deem it necessary to carry his foundations down to 
the firm subsoil, which we believe is some sixty <>r sev- 
enty feet below the sidewalk. The numerous tunnels 
which have been carried under London in all directions 
have raised fears that their construction would sap the 
Strata of soft earth and so undermine the cathedral 
foundations, and the English constructors seem to be 
much exercised as to what to do. There are probably 
a score of architects and engineers in this country who 
would not have the slightest hesitation in grappling 
with a problem of this sort and solving it successfully, 
and aside from a question of cost there is not the slight- 
est reason why tunnels should not be carried anywhere 
under Saint Paul's and the foundations extended down 
to a proper bearing; but the difficult problems of foun- 
dation work which were so new to the profession in this 
country a generation ago are almost a closed chapter to 
our English confreres, and while the imputed American 
invasion of London need not be carried to the extent of 
an American architect being employed to properly con- 
struct foundations for the city's great cathedral, we be- 
lieve that those having the building in charge would be 
relieved of many of their fears as to ways, if not means. 
by a visit to this country and a study of the heavy foun- 
dation work which has been put under so many of the 
huge buildings in New York and Chicago. 


The annual exhibition of the T-Square Club will be 
held in the galleries of the Art Club of Philadelphia, 
from January 4 to 1 S. Entries must be received not 
later than November 2.;. Exhibits must be received not 
later than December 7. Exhibits will be discharged 
January 20. 190J, when they will be returned to the 
owners, or will be forwarded to New York (subject to 
selection by a committee representing the Architectural 
League of New York), as may be directed on the entry 

The T-Square Club has just issued a syllabus an- 
nouncing the subjects for competition among its mem- 
bers for the coming season. In accordance with a re- 
cently established custom of the club the subjects for 
study are limited to one department of design. Certain 
phases of city street embellishment are to be taken up at 
each meeting. Far from encouraging attention to purely 
imaginary studies for beautifying thoroughfares without 
regard to public needs the programme invites a solution 
of practical problems. Architectural treatment is to be 
suggested for an elevated railway station, a city square, 
facilities for bill posting, a public wash-house, street ac- 
cessories and public conveniences. That the question 
of these improvements is a pressing one in the rapid 
growth and development of our cities is shown by a num- 
ber of instances of actual legislation. It is this desire 
for civic beauty and convenience that the T-Square Club 
recognizes and to which it turns its attention with char- 
acteristic zeal. The competitor whose designs receive 
the highest number of approving votes is awarded the 
T-Square Club Traveling Scholarship. 

Brickbuilding in Modern France. IV. 


WE pass on to the north of France. We must choose 
with discrimination, for here stone is the excep- 
tion and brick the rule. The warm tones of the brick 
seem to have been created to brighten this rather dull 
climate. They add a spot of color to the hazy horizons 
of the North. The brick is almost always red. Some- 
times it is. relieved by notes of lighter brick. 



The series of houses given here call for few commen- 
taries. They were all built at Lille or at Roubaix, large 
manufacturing towns, or in their immediate neighbor- 
hood, to serve as habitations for wealthy manufacturers. 
In their general form we can see that they belong to a 
septentrional country. They have conserved a certain 



reminiscence of the Flemish Renaissance in general taste 
and sumptuosity, even heaviness sometimes. The desire 
for comfort is evident, as is the love of the picturesque 
which is, perhaps, not always refined, but which, such as 
it is, has a certain originality. Towers are popular. 
Belfries and pinnacles, high dormer windows and the 
clear accentuation of the different parts of the house, 
divided and asymmetrical facades, great steep roofs and 
monumental chimneys, — all these elements, even if they 
have donned Renaissance garments, come from the mid- 
dle ages. 

Such are the different characteristics developed accord- 
ing to the different tastes of the architects, with more or 
less happy results. Sometimes the whole is decidedly 
too heavy, as in Fig. 1, and the forms of baroque septen- 
trional architecture are evident. Sometimes, on the con- 
trary, as in Figs. 2 and 3, the construction and decoration 
are remarkable in their sobriety. Some architects use 
only red brick, with angles and window frames of white 

rn,. 2. HOUSE AT LILLE. 




1 IG. 5. HOUSE VI' 111 11. 


Stone. Others alternate stone and brick, and this sys- 
tem is pushed t<> its utmost in the house represented in 
Fig. 4. Enormous stones in bossages heighten the effect. 
Some houses are very broken Up as for construction, and 
the love of tlie picturesque greatly exaggerated. ( >thers, 
on tlie contrary, retain a certain amount of good taste in 

the picturesque, and from this point of view the house in 
Fig. 5 is certainly one of the best in comfort and har- 
mony. There are town houses rich and correct but of 
little interest (Fig. 6). There is also a collection of most 
picturesque country houses where white stone plays an 
important part at the angles, frames and in the bossages, 

1IO. 6. Hi 11 SE AT Rl IUBAIX. 






and which are characteristic because of the presence of 
little towers (Figs. 7, 8, 9 and 10), some mere orna- 
ments (Figs. 7 and 10) and others, on the contrary, more 

important, and permitting the construction of a loggia 
(Figs. 8 and 9). 

Such is the richness and diversity of brickbuilding in 
the north of France. 

If a conclusion were necessary to these brief notes, we 
might say that, on the whole, brick, which was consider- 
ably employed in France during the Renaissance, is also 
very popular nowadays. 

If all the buildings that have been made of it have 
not been successful, we must remember that the archi- 
tects are to blame and not the material. We have been 
overrun with a quantity of little houses, copies of the 
Renaissance and the Louis XII styles, cheap, vulgar and 
unintelligent imitations. 

On the other hand, a few architects have shown that 
they appreciated the immense resources of gay and poly- 
chrome brick. They treated brick as it should be treated ; 
they made themselves not only brick decorators but 
brick constructors. These few will form an independent 
school. They are in the right, and the right, in spite of 
all, triumphs in the end. 



The Greek pavilion of Mr. Magne, Train's Chaptal 
College, the house on the place St. Sulpice, the Boucicaut 
Hospital by Legros and, above all, the Lakanal Lyceum 
of Mr. De Baudot will offer fruitful study to all those 
wdio have the development of rational brick architecture 
at heart. 

We should write of enameled bricks, but that is be- 
yond the limits of our subject. A word has been said 
about a facade of Mr. Train. A new career opens before 
polychrome brick since the recent experiments made in 
Paris with bricks baked at a very high temperature. 

These bricks offer qualities of remarkable solidity and 
impermeability, and whose colors, forming part of the 
material, penetrate it and cannot crack or fall off. They 
promise a new domain of unlimited richness to terra-cotta 

But these experiments are of too great importance to 
be treated in a few lines. We shall return to them more 
at leisure for the benefit of the readers of Tin-. Brick- 





Terra-Cotta and Steel. 


EXAMPLES of terra-cotta and steel construction 
have appeared in past issues of The Brickbuilder, 
through which medium they came within reach of a 
much wider circle than that wherein they had origi- 
nated. The extent to which the data thus formulated 
have been used in the execution of later work of like 
character shows that these suggestions were found ser- 
viceable by those to whom they were primarily ad- 
dressed. It proves, if it proves anything, that better 
methods had not been discovered — in itself an ade- 
quate if not wholly conclusive indorsement. We are 
therefore inclined to the opinion that further and more 
recent examples of composite construction will receive 
equally favorable attention from architects, engineers 
and others directly interested. Terra-eotta manufac- 
turers who desire to keep themselves posted on what 
is being done by their competitors will find much ad- 
vantage in a free interchange of ideas at every forward 
Step in current practice. They, no less than the pro- 

ET rfiiJb 

p;yfJffa f^M^f^'L^ .^^f^-^V'-T^v, 

1)1.1 AILS OF I'Hk Tit o, CORNELL. 

C. !•'. < isborne, Architect. 

gressive, liberal-minded men in 
other walks of life, are beginning to 
see a "community of interest" in 
contributions that, once made, be- 
come common property. 

Answering the inquiries of a 
well-known architect a few days ago 
as to the advisability of a terra-cotta 
portico, we were able to offer him 
the accompanying scheme of con- 
struction, with some advice based 
on experience gained in connection 
with many similar problems. This 
proposal has since been adopted 
substantially as presented, and the 
result will, we believe, amply justify 
all that has been promised, if it docs 
not satisfy the more sanguine expec- 
tations entertained concerning it. 

The proposed portico has some 
points of resemblance t<> a porte- 
cochere erected a few years ago at 
the Veterinary College, Cornell Uni- 
versity, which we likewise deem 
worthy of illustration, if only by way 
of comparison. In the latter case 
the clear span of widest opening is 
12 feet, the weight over which is 
carried by two 9-inch channels bolted 
together on [-inch separators. In 
the blocks forming soffit provision is 
made for a -'4 -inch rod, from which 
they are supended by -' 4 -inch 
hangers. Said hangers, passing up 
through slot between channels, are 
adjusted to required tension by nut 
and washer. The frieze is molded 
to fit snugly between flanges of 
channels, to which principal support 
the blocks are attached in such way 



that the weight is transmitted to the channels rather than 
allowed to rest on the soffit suspended from them. The 
other members of cornice and balustrade, therefore, 
rest directly on the girder, as do the deck-beams to 
which the whole entablature is anchored. 

A 1^ -inch rod goes through each of the balusters, and 
through a 2-^ x i/% plate, for which a rebate is made in 
bottom bed of capping to balustrade. As the lower sur- 
face of this plate is exposed between the balusters, it 
should always be galvanized to prevent rust and then 
painted to match the terra- 
cotta before setting. A bal- 
ustrade so constructed, when 
properly set in cement mor- 
tar, becomes quite rigid, and 
its permanent security can be 
relied upon irrespective of 
climatic conditions. 

The corner blocks of cor- 
nice, having a projection 011 
two sides with correspond- 
ing reduction of bond, call 

for some additional support. 

This is furnished in the man- 
ner indicated by dotted lines 

at b. Two pieces of i-inch 

pipe are screwed into an or- 
dinary elbow, after which a 

nut with washer is tightened 

on the outer ends. In this 

way the angle is securely 

bolted to the two adjoining 

blocks before any of the 

other members of that course 

are set in position. The ce- 
ment entering the rebated 

ends of these blocks and held 

there under pressure of the 

bolt cannot escape. When it 

sets, the three blocks become 

for all practical purposes a 

monolith. To make a block 

of such size in the first in- 
stance, while not impossi- 
ble, would be inadvisable, if 

for no other reason because 

of the difficulty in handling 

and the liability to injury in 


A photograph of this work 

taken a few years after its 

erection shows that the most 

noticeable defects are due to 

a want of care or skill in the 

setting. The horizontal lines are not as true as they 
might have been, an irregularity not inherent in the indi- 
vidual pieces, but due to a want of accurate adjustment. 
The vertical joints are unnecessarily large, the mortar has 
not been made to match the terra-eotta in point of color, 
which latter oversight accounts for the streaks and mor- 
tar stains that give cause for adverse criticism on an 
otherwise passable piece of work. The disadvantage 
under which eastern manufacturers suffer in the matter 

W. E. Parfitt 

of setting is not shared by our friends in Chicago. The 
latter prefer setting their own work, and architects who 
favor the use of terra-eotta do much to encourage the 
practice. Some indeed insist upon it as a condition of 
the contract. There is doubtless much to be said on 
both sides; but we incline, in this as in some other things, 
to the western example. We have seen work handled 
with as much care and set with as much skill by a general 
contractor as could have been bestowed upon it by the 
most conscientious manufacturer; but we are obliged to 

admit that such instances 
are the more conspicuous be- 
cause of their comparative 
rarity. Of course in New 
York and other cities where 
terra-eotta architecture is 
now the general rule an in- 
creasing number of bricklay- 
ers are gaining experience, 
and contractors who give 
themselves the trouble to 
think have a wider circle 
from which to select the best 
men. The men themselves 
who have acquired an apti- 
tude in that line of work are 
beginning to attract favor- 
able notice, and will in time 
gravitate towards the point 
for which nature or accident 
has prepared them. Some of 
the "front men" are now de- 
veloping into sub-contract- 
ors, with terra-eotta setting 
as a special and presumably 
lucrative employment. 
Whether as a coincident or 
a case of water finding its 
level, this evolution is on 
parallel lines with a similar 
one in England, where terra- 
cotta setting became a spe- 
cialized branch of bricklay- 
ing some years ago. When 
history so repeats itself it is 
usually owing to the force 
of similar circumstances. 

So simple a matter as the 
constituents and method of 
mixing mortar for pointing 
gray (limestone) terra-eotta 
has been known to exercise 
the minds of certain builders 
to an unreasonable degree. 
1, professional and otherwise, 




We could speak of several 

who have come to grief in an unsuccessful attempt to 

master its apparently insoluble 

mysteries. One such, 

with wit enough to grow rich in Wall Street, abandoned 
all hope and employed a painter to "touch up the joints." 
The painter was probably an expansionist, for by the time 
he got through, joints that did not exceed > 4 inch when 
he started appeared at least 5„ from the sidewalk. The 
climax was reached in a vain effort to remove the paint 



Marcus T. Re> nolds, Architi i I 

<>ur Later example, given in a portico for the Baptist 
Home, Brooklyn, is an improvement. Constructed in the 
manner shown, the roof is fire-proof and can be made 
permanently water-tight by cement or asphalt graded so 

as to shed water to leader or other outlet. The ceiling, 
too, can be finished in cement, plain or paneled as choice 
of circumstances may dictate. Tin roofs are liable to 
leak, and when they do, ceilings, whether wood or plas- 
ter, call for the immediate attention of a painter after 
the leaks have been disposed of. In less than five years 
the more durable method of construction will likewise 
be found the less expensive and in other respects greatly 

The proposed portico is in its way an example <>( 
terra-cotta construction per se. Granting the use of steel 
as an auxiliary support, there is no compromise or quali- 
fication in the preference given to burned clay. The 
base, dies, columns and eapitals are in this ease terra- 
cotta. There is but one joint in each column, and it. 
being at the band, is practically invisible. The panels in 
balustrade are made in solid pieces rebated into the dies 
and capping in such way that sufficient rigidity is secured 
without any iron. Instead of two channels we use a u- 
inch I beam with a hanger on each side and a 3 x ■• r , inch 
plate on t<>]). There are four hangers to each block, in 
consideration of the extra weight of roof, a portion of 
which is carried by the soffit. Finally, the rain water 
falling on projection of cornice does not drip down on 
passers by or those entering the building, but flows back 
towards the roof through openings in base of balustrade. 

that had been smeared on the ends 
of the terra-cotta. and so an elaborate 
block of buildings carries these dis- 
creditable scars as a permanent 

Two inquiries from widely dif- 
ferent quarters reached the writer a 
short time ago on the same day, 
touching this question of mortar. 
One asked how to prepare mortar 
to match the terra-cotta: the other, 
not less frankly, though with a shade 
less modesty, requested that mortar 
be sent, also a man to do the point- 
ing. In answer we advised both of 
them to employ an intelligent brick- 
layer and tell him that a neat, work- 
manlike job was expected and de- 
sired. He would do the rest. Fail- 
ing such a man, then an experienced 
stone-setter and, the color being 
gray, preferably one accustomed to 

limestone. The inquiries were not repeated, from which 
it may be inferred that the advice proved salutary. With 
so many brands of cement of different shades, sand from 
silver to dark brown, and lime putty for those who pre- 
fer using it, there should be no difficulty in preparing 
mortar to any desired color, toughness and plasticity. In 
the case of red and black, metallic stains of undoubted 
permanency can be obtained from reputable dealers. 

The propriety of using wood for either deck or ceiling 
is open to question; and on that item at least we think 


This last-mentioned precaution is very desirable in the 
case of an entrance, whatever may be thought of its ap- 
plication to the main cornice of a high building. When 
the cornice is surmounted by a parapet or balustrade it 
is rather difficult to make connection between the outer 
edge of cornice and the metal roof that will remain free 
from leaks for more than a year or two. When such a 
task is attempted, as in an important buildingwith which 

we arc acquainted, the metal roofing is usually cemented 
into a raggle in top bed of cornice. The base of 



balustrade, in which sufficient openings have been] pro- 
vided, is then built directly on the metal. The base 
around dies can of course be flashed separately and so 
rendered water-tight. Should leaks occur at these points 
the necessary repairs can be made without disturbing 
any of the masonry. Not so, however, in long 
stretches of balustrade under which the expansion and 
contraction of metal roofing cannot well be provided for 
except in the imagination of those who have not tried the 

We doubt whether it is really practicable to construct 
a roof of this kind that will stand the extremes of tem- 
perature and remain water-tight* for a great length of 
time. And if it fails to stand that test in the first 
instance, what may be expected after cracks have been 
patched and scams resoldered? One such experience is 
enough to deter most architects from repeating the same 
experiment. This will perhaps go far to account for 
the fact that other methods are almost invariably pre- 
ferred and the one under notice, though sometimes pro- 
posed, rarely adopted. The usual method is to make the 
wash slope outward from face of parapet, allowing such 
rain water as actually falls on projection of cornice to flow 
over the nose. Falling from a height of say four to 
upwards of twenty stories, it gets dispersed, and the 
addition so made to the ordinary rainfall is inappreciable 
by the time it reaches the sidewalk. 

Where no parapet wall or balustrade has been con- 
templated, as in the Rensselaer houses, the cornice 
should, of course, be made to shed water towards the 
roof. In that case the metal was turned down over the 
nose of cornice, as indicated in section a b. Sometimes 
a vertical groove is made a short distance back from the 
outer a}'^L\ into which the metal is fastened. That, how- 
ever, tends to weaken the member, and renders the pro- 
jection liable to get broken off. A better plan is shown 
at X, in which a roll is provided a little back from the 
nose. This affords a convenient hold for the metal, 
also a protection to that salient angle while swing scaf- 
folds are being suspended from the roof. In other 
respects the construction of this cornice is simple, safe 
and comparatively inexpensive. The design, which bears 
evidence of much thought and artistic appreciation on 
the part of the architect, is well in keeping with all 
the other features of an uncommonly handsome group of 

THE use of carbonate of soda to facilitate the laying 
of masonry in cold weather is now becoming 
fairly general on the continent, and is also said to be 
making some headway in the American building world. 
Experiments were made with this system as long ago as 
1890, and mortar treated with soda was employed in lay- 
ing stone with the temperature as low as fourteen degrees 
Fahr., and the masonry was found when inspected some 
time later to be in all respects in a first-class condition. 
The method employed is very simple, and consists practi- 
cally in using lukewarm water, in which carbonate of 
soda has been dissolved, in the making of the mortal-. 
The proportions employed in the solution are two pounds 
anhydrous carbonate of soda to two and a half gallons 
of water, but with intense cold the amount of water is 
generally reduced to one half. — Exchange. 

" The Brickbuilder ' Competition. 



THE designs presented in the competition for a thea- 
ter entrance of faience are few in number and are 
not of a very meritorious character. As a preliminary 
to a criticism of these designs, the consideration of the 

Su)<wr <ytLQ5< ,„/,/, ,y'< ' 4£acdaJiw 





The design is to be of the ticket windows in the vestibule of a 
theater and the immediate treatment about these windows. 

There are to be three windows at a height of about four feet above 
the floor, and they need not lie of equal size. The intention is to obtain 
a design which, while a decorative motive in character witli the sur- 
roundings, is complete in itself. All K'lass used shall be plain, undeco- 
rated k'^'ss — no stained glass. Grilles to be simple in character, if 
used. The treatment of the adjacent wall and its relation to the win- 
dows is to be indicated. The design is to be such as is adapted to the 
working out in faience. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED: An elevation drawn to the scale of '.. 
inch to the fool, with plan at left and section at right side, near the 
bottom of the sheet. The drawings to be in black ink with no wash 
work, on one sheet measuring 22 inches wide by 15 inches high. Shad- 
ows, if indicated, to be done in free-hand, parallel perpendicular lines. 

For the four designs placed first, the Grueby Faience Com]. am 
oil, rs prizes of fifty, twenty-five, fifteen and ten dollars, respectively. 
All premiated drawings are to become the property of the Grueby 

Company, and the right is reserved to publish any and all drawings 

The competition will be judged by Mr. C. Howard Walker. 



individual decorative value of faience as a material is 
suggested. Its effectiveness is as much due to its color 
as to its modeling. It occupies a position midway be- 
tween flat color decoration and sculptured ornament and 
partakes of both, yet is different from either. It is nat- 
ural then that it should not be made in absolutely flat 
planes on the one hand, nor should it merely imitate sculp- 
tured work on the other. Its best effects are gained by 
low relief patterns contrasted with plane surfaces of lim- 
ited superficial area. It is also a wall or floor covering 
more than it is a major factor of construction, and would 
therefore be treated somewhat as a mosaic of large scale. 
It is of oriental origin, developed as a material to clothe 

shaped tympanum filled with characterless ornament: 
design fairly well fitted for faience. 

Italiano. Well proportioned from shelf upward; cor- 
beling below shelf complicated and difficult of treatment 
in faience; design dependent upon modeling picked out 
with color only. 

Rats. According to plan and section, proportions 
seem heavy for the requirements, especially in the pro- 
jection of the metal canopy. 


Bow and Arrow. Design has the scale of wood col- 
umns and moldings, and would be less effective in tcrra- 

' /////, 7 m . "<;t ,y rfi, ~/<7>./,lt /,■ ,i r /,//•,/, •>■ 

• 'A ,il 


^^'jji> r J t &ULf f U\tefi!Jfi&&!MZ 

\ i 


surfaces of meaner substances, and by the nature of its 
manufacture must be made up of pieces not too large to 
be readily fired. For these reasons the designs have been 
placed in the following order: 

ist. Beni Al Hassan. 

2nd. Eagle. 

3rd. Italiano. 

4th. Rats. 

Beni Al Hassan. Plan and composition simple; de- 
sign well fitted for faience; contrast of plain and orna- 
mented surfaces good; parapet pattern at base seems in 
wrong place; design dependent largely on color. 

Eagle. General proportions good; composition of 
one arch above another unfortunate, leaving awkwardly 

cotta than in wood, because of irregularity of surfaces. 
It might be made of fine china clay kaolin. 

Western. Badly proportioned; intercolumniation of 

pilasters too great; entablatures too heavy. 

Ticket Seller. Has better proportions; is thin in 

Dot in Circle. Has no distinguishing merit. 

In most eases the modeled ornament has been made 
too fine or too scattered. As an example of the 
possibilities of the adaptation of sculptured ornament 
and faience, several plates of the decoration of door- 
ways, etc., in Diocletian's palace at Spalatro are given, 
which, while in stone, are well fitted for translation into 



7, " 



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A tt.MO N TOR. A 
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DcjjGl] IupJkhi WiijDMPJ 

I •P" of 




The Recent Fire in Philadelphia. 


IN years to come, when the knowledge of better wavs 
of doing things makes the old ways seem absurd, 
our successors will doubtless look back on the loss of life 
and needless destruction of property by lire, so frequent 
in this generation, with the same condescension and con- 
tempt for our ignorance as we of to-day look back upon 

the needless loss of life in the past from plagues and 

•■ visitations of Providence," assumed then to be entirely 

beyond the control of man. 

" Fire is a good servant but a poor master," and it is 
a serious reflection on the common sense and ordinary 
prudence of business men and upon the wisdom of our 
legislative bodies that such restrictions are not placed 
upon the destructive possibilities of fires that a catas- 
trophe like that of Friday, October 25, in Philadelphia, 
would be impossible. 

If a house is found in an unsanitary condition and 
likely to spread infection, it is immediately disinfected or 
quarantined by the board of health. We have elaborate 
laws governing the arrangement and disposition of lava- 
tory and plumbing fixtures in buildings, yet there are 
hundreds of buildings in every city which are more of 
a menace to life and property than the most unsanitary 
drainage systems. Imperfect drainage usually makes 
itself apparent to the senses of sight and smell, and 
ample warning is given to those who value their health, 
but the " fire trap " carries on its face no advertisement 
of its possibilities for destruction, and on the day of 
reckoning innocent lives are sacrificed and valuable 
neighboring property destroyed because the owner of a 
building chose to construct a combustible building in 
order that he might save a little money on the first cost. 

Railroads, steamboats and other public carriers are 
properly held liable for the safety of life and property 
intrusted to their care, as well as for the safety of the 
lives and property of others which may be jeopardized 
by them in exercising their functions. This is but simple 
justice, the courts holding that any loss or damage which 
could have been prevented by the exercise of due dili- 
gence or care or better methods should be made good. 
The laws of this country place few restrictions upon the 
internal operations of railroads, holding the company lia- 
ble for the results only. This permits the responsibility 
to be accurately placed, without the possibility of evasion. 

The tendency of this argument is this: The con- 
struction and existence of "fire traps" is made possible 
only by our building laws, and by means of these build- 
ing laws the responsibility of bad construction is placed 
not on the individuals or corporations who are directly 
responsible for it, but upon the community. There are 
two evident remedies for this state of affairs: first, a 
change in the liability laws so that the owner of a build- 
ing in which a lire originates could be made liable for 
any loss of life or damage to property, I'aris, I be- 
lieve, has such a law, or. second, a total revision of 
the building laws which would absolutely prohibit the 
construction of combustible buildings in the important 
business centers or in other places where numbers of 
people were to be employed, and which would also compel 
the fire-proof reconstruction of old buildings in centers 



which have become important or permit their condemna- 
tion. A steam boiler which has become unsafe is con- 
demned without hesitation, and the same principle can be 
applied to buildings. A pesthouse would soon be con- 
demned and torn down in response to enraged public 
sentiment, yet dangerous "fire traps" are allowed to 
menace the safety of whole blocks and possibly hundreds 
of lives and not a word of protest is made. 

The fire departments of the cities of the United States 
are acknowl- 
edged to be the 
superiors in 
point of efficien- 
cy of those of 
Eur o p e , a n d 
hereby hangs a 
tale. If this 
were not so, un- 
der our present 
methods of com- 
bustible con- 
struction it 
would not be 
possible for us 
to maintain cit- 
ies. In Europe, 
where wood is 
high priced, sub- 
stantial design 
and permanent 
construction is 
possible and de- 
struction by fire 
is uncommon. 
the mainte- 
nance of expen- 
sive fire depart- 
ments is not ne- 
cessary, as the 
fire department 
is not the alter- 
native between 
possession and 
total loss of 
property as it 
often is in this 

Few people 
seem to realize 
that they are 
taxed in order 

that certain people owning ground in the business cen- 
ters of cities may erect and maintain combustible build- 
ings; but if this fact was appreciated it would not be 
long before an imperative demand would be made for 
laws which would prohibit the construction or existence 
of this class of buildings. A large part of the great sums 
now raised by general taxation to keep an army of fire- 
men waiting, and to maintain costly equipment ready for 
instant use, could be saved if the necessity for the services 
of the fire department was not so great, and this burden 


could then be removed from the shoulders of the people. 
No one has a moral right to save himself at the expense 
of the community and his neighbors and entail upon 
them additional taxation in order that they may insure 
themselves against the damage which may result to their 
property from his selfishness or shortsightedness. 

If the amount of money wasted every year in the 
United States (over $130,000,000) could be used to erect 
better buildings, it would not be long before a marked 

impro vein cut 
took place in our 
constructive ar- 
chitecture; and 
then part of the 
money now 
spent on fire de- 
partment pro- 
tection could be 
either saved to 
the people or de- 
voted to some 
p e r m a n e n 1 1 y 
useful purpose, 
and then de- 
struction of life 
and property by 
fire would be- 
come a rarity. 

The horrible 
destruction of 
life which ac- 
companied the 
fire at 1219-21 
Market Street, 
and the destruc- 
tion of those ad- 
jacent buildings 
to the west of it 
by the falling of 
the walls should 
point a moral to 
the folly of mu- 
nicipalities per- 
mitting' combus- 
tible buildings 
to occupy space 
in parts of the 
city given over 
to business pur- 

This building 
was of the ordi- 
nary party-wall type, with a front of 35 feet on Market 
Street and the same width in the rear, and 1S0 feet in 
length between the two streets. It was eight stories in 
height —the last story having been but recently added 
and not wholly completed. The whole building was 
occupied by one firm as a furniture and upholstery sales- 
room, warehouse and manufactory. The lire is supposed 
to have originated in the basement, where benzine and 
varnish were used, and instantly shot up the elevator 
shaft, spreading the fire and smoke so rapidly that in 

2 34 

T H K B R I C K H U I L I) E K 

a few minutes the interior of the building where fur- 
niture, curtains, bedding, etc.. were stored, was a seeth- 
ing mass of flames. The building was provided on the 
front and rear with ordinary open grille tire escapes, 
upon which some of the occupants were broiled alive 
by the flames beneath them. The rapid spreading of 
the flames and the dense volumes of smoke which ac- 
companied the tire made it impossible for much to be 
done t<> aid the victims, notwithstanding the sclf-saeri- 
fice and bravery of the firemen. Some of the occu- 
pants jumped from the upper stories and were disem- 
boweled on the awning fixtures or crushed by strik- 
ing the pavement : others jumped into nets held out by 




1223 ■ I2IO-?! 

v> Open an SI t'nj-ocapt* 




brave firemen; others still, afraid to attempt the flight 
through the air, remained on the window sills and 
grilles and were broiled alive and carried down with 
the walls when they fell and were crushed under tons 
of brick and mortar. The building was completely 
wrecked within an hour after the fire began. The fall- 
ing of the west part}- wall, which crushed in the three 
properties on the west, prevented the spread of the fire 
in that direction, and the brick and iron building on 
the east stood as a bulwark against the sea of flame 
surging eastward. 

The bricks on the east party wall of the burned 
building evidently felt as if by some mischance they had 
gotten back into the kiln again. The wall, however, was 
kept in its place by the iron joist construction of the 

building No. 1217 on the other side of it. The exposed 
side of this party wall suffered considerably bv the 
streams of water which were thrown on it while the 
bricks were hot, which caused the surface to "shell " out. 
Part of this party wall was originally the 9-inch walls 
of a dwelling which formerly occupied the ground of 
No. 1217, and had it failed it would have occasioned no 
great surprise because of its composite character, but it 
was undoubtedly steadied through the iron joist bv the 
east walls of No. 1217. 

The building No. 1217 Market Street, which prevented 
the spreading of the fire to the cast, was under construc- 
tion, as shown in the photograph. The floors were of 
hard-burned hollow terra-COtta, flat arches in the lower 
stories and segment arches in the upper stories resting 
on 15-inch I beams at 5 feet ,} inches centers with a span 
of 22 feet. The front of the building was entirely open 
between the floors, as shown, and the blackening touch of 
the flames can be seen on the brickwork and terra-cotta. 
which was of a light color. In the rear of the building 
the wooden window frames were reduced to charcoal, but 
the total damage to the building, exclusive of the damage 

to the exposed party wall, was estimated not to exceed, part of which was caused by the collapse of a tank 
house on the roof of the adjoining building. Thus the 
non-combustible building stood the test and saved the 
day. for had this building been of the ordinary wood joist 
construction it certainly would have succumbed and added 
Its quota to the fuel, and a great conflagration would have 
followed. The heat of the fire was SO great that buildings 
on the south side of Market Street took fire, and plate- 
glass fronts and windows were cracked. The flying em- 
bers ignited the roofs of these buildings, and had it not 
been for the well-trained tire brigades of the large stores 
on the south side of the street these buildings would have 
suffered serious damage and possible destruction, and 
possibly a general conflagration would have ensued. 

.Another source of weakness in the design of the 
burned building was a light well opening in the west 
party wall, shown in the plan. This Light well soon 
became a flue and contributed to the rapid spread of the 
flames. The light well also, by separating the party wall 
into two parts, weakened it structurally, and when the 
windows and woodwork of the light well burned out 
left both ends adjacent to the light well without any 
side support. A triangular piece of the party wall south 
of the light well soon after fell into the burning building, 
and soon after the remainder of the wall, down to the 
roofs of the adjoining buildings, fell outward and crushed 
in the roofs and floors of the low buildings on the west. 
The fall of this wall, by depriving the flames of the bene- 
fit of the great height in aiding combustion, and by 
destroying the combustible buildings to the west, made 
it possible for the fire department to gain control of 
the fire. 

The pathetic and horrible death of twenty-two peo- 
ple, the loss of the property in which the fire originated, 
the destruction of the adjoining property, all give a 
warning which should not be disregarded. Life and 
property are not safe in buildings with wood floor con- 
struction. The building No. 1 2 1 7 adjoining the fire, open 
at both ends, shows that iron and brick and terra-cotta 
are safe. The moral is obvious. 


2 35 



THE important ingredients of Portland cement, lime, 
silica and alumina, can properly be divided into 
two classes, basic and acid. The lime, which furnishes 
about 65 per cent by weight of the finished cement, con- 
stitutes the basic part, while the silica and alumina repre- 
sent the acid part. The combination of these three ele- 
ments under the influence of heat gives us the basic 
Portland cement clinker. The source of the basic ele- 
ment is some form of calcium carbonate occurring as 
limestone, chalk or marl ; while that of the acid element 
is furnished by the clay or shale used in combination 
with the lime ingredient. In whatever form the calcium 
carbonate is used, it should be as nearly pure as possible 
except for the presence of clayey matter, for inasmuch 
as clay is necessary for the manufacture of Portland 
cement, a certain proportion is not harmful. Magnesia, 
although present to some slight extent in both limestone 
and clay, is not a desirable element, and in excess con- 
stitutes a serious objection. 

The raw materials from which any Portland cement 
is manufactured are, generally speaking, reduced sepa- 
rately, and their relative hardness or toughness influences 
the cost of production rather than the quality. The 
physical properties of the materials have a direct bearing 
on the hardness of the clinker and the heat required to 
bring them to the point of incipient vitrifaction. 

While it is true that a sound cement depends prima- 
rily on the correct chemical properties of the raw mate- 
rials, yet in the finished cement physical tests are of 
greater importance than chemical in determining the 
commercial value of the brand. On the other hand the 
value of physical results depends largely on the methods 
employed and the skill and personal equation of the oper- 
ator; while the relative importance of the different phys- 
ical tests varies with the use to which the cement is to be 

For general purposes the tensile tests, either neat or 
a mixture of sand and cement, are the most satisfactory. 
While the results of neat tensile tests will give fair indi- 
cations of quality for periods less than seven days, tests 
with sand mixtures should cover at least seven days. 
American cement authorities favor a moderately high 
tensile strength in the seven-day tests with a uniform 
increase up to twelve or eighteen months for maximum 
strengths. Against this are the opinions of some manu- 
facturers who advocate lower results at seven days with 
a uniform increase up to two, three or even four years 
in order to attain their maximum strength. While there 
is reason in the facts supporting each theory, the basis of 
contention is really the process employed in manufacture. 
With the rotary process, necessitating a high degree of 
heat, the lime content must be maintained at a higher 
percentage in the raw mixture in order to insure uniform 
and perfect burning than is the case with the many types 
of set kiln processes used in Europe; the results therefore 
show a greater strength for short periods of time. 

The question of high and low results for tensile 
strength has been discussed for years, and while for- 
merly the more serious objections to the rotary process 

were based largely on high tests, the}* have been grad- 
ually removed as the satisfactory results of rotary ce- 
ments became more apparent each year. From an engi- 
neer's standpoint, maximum strength in a short time is 
greatly to be desired, permitting heavy masonry or steel 
superstructures to be built on concrete foundations im- 
mediately after completion, thus avoiding delays in the 
progress of the work. 

Besides the tensile strength, the next most important 
tests are those for time of setting, fineness of grinding 
and constancy of volume when immersed in water either 
hot or cold. The accelerated tests, while having no direct 
influence on the tensile strength, furnish sufficient data to 
render an opinion possible on the quality of any Port- 
land cement in cases where an immediate decision is de- 

While it is sometimes found necessary under certain 
conditions to use a moderately quick-setting cement, ex- 
perience has shown that it is safer to substitute, if pos- 
sible, one of slower set in case chemical analysis of the 
cement cannot be made. The rapidity of set in a cement 
is influenced entirely by chemical conditions, and while 
many causes of quick setting are harmless, others may 
have a deleterious influence after the cement has been 
used. Fine grinding of a cement, by increasing its sand- 
carrying capacity, is desirable under all conditions of 
use. Both the cold and hot water pat tests are useful 
adjuncts in determinations for quality, but while the 
results of the former are positive, the destructive in- 
fluence of hot water on some sound cements should not 
cause their rejection. While immersion in hot water 
will rapidly detect either an excessive lime content or 
imperfect burning, both undesirable conditions, some 
recent experiments tend to show failures in hot water 
from moderately high but absolutely safe percentages 
of the alkalies. 

The remaining physical tests — strength under com- 
pression and specific gravity — can be classed as the least 
important. Determinations for density, influenced so 
largely by thermic conditions and manner and method 
of manipulation, have slight value other than for pur- 
poses of scientific research. 

Thus it will be seen that while the physical properties 
of Portland cement are better understood than the chem- 
ical action of the ingredients, recourse is had, one to the 
other, in pursuing investigations along either line and 
the results established are correlative. Microscopic in- 
vestigation has also aided in determining both the chem- 
ical and physical properties of Portland cement. 

Based on the foregoing physical properties, any high- 
grade Portland cement should conform to the Eollowing 
specified requirements when tested in a properly equipped 
laboratory under normal conditions. 

Timi or Si 11 ing. Fineness. 

Initial set less than 1 hour. too mesh sie> e no! tnoi e than 10 per 

cent residue'. 

Final set not over 8 hours. 200 mesh sieve not more than 25 per 

cent residue. 

Tensile Strength in I'm nds per Sqi m<i Ini h, 

1 Parts Sand Mi in vr i o 1 Pari 
Nea1 Cement. 

.•I hours 250 lbs. 7 days 17s H's 

7 days 55° " 2S " -S<> 

2S •' 650 " 

2 7,6 


Selected Miscellany. 


Taking everything into consideration, there has beet] 
no time since the "hard times" of '<)?, when prospects 
were brighter or when we had a better right to feel 

The committee having in charge the preliminary 
arrangements for the building of the fifty-seven public 
libraries donated by Mr. Andrew Carnegie have begun 

Winslow & Bigelow, Architects. 

nobly and have made a most satisfactory and sensible 
arrangement by appointing Messrs. McKim, Mead & 
White, Babb, Cook & Willard and Carrere & Hastings as 
an advisory board to supervise the designing and erec- 
tion of all the buildings. 

Although this decision will undoubtedly disappoint 
many of our young architects who were eagerly looking 
forward to competitions galore, it is undoubtedly for the 
best interests of the community, and we feel sure that we 
will have a series of harmonious and scholarly buildings. 

Construction work on the S2, 500,000 annex to the 
Mutual Life Insurance Company's building, which is in 
several respects a very remarkable and unusual struc- 
ture, is now nearing completion. Remarkable engineer- 


ing work has been done, with the result that the cellar 
floor is 55 feet below the sidewalk level and 35 feet 
below the line of Standing water. The foundations rest 
on beil rock 100 feet below the surface of the ground. 
Above the sidewalk the annex is eight stories in height 
in Cedar .Street, matching the older extension in that 
street, while it towers sixteen stories high in Liberty 
Street. The highest part of the building had to be 
underpinned, and is the highest building which has ever 
been so treated. The work was complicated also by the 
fact that the ground floor was filled with the safes and 
vaults of a safe deposit company, and a settlement of 

Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Maker'-. 

Handy & Cady, Architects. 

the sixteenth of an inch would have Stopped the working 
of the locks. 

Caissons formed of steel tubes three feet in diameter 
were sunk to support the adjoining buildings, and then 
work was begun on the foundations proper. A discovery 
that under the hardpan there was a formation of loose- 
sand and crumbling rock in places ,52 feet deep, forced 
the excavators to go to solid rock with all the main cais- 
sons, and this was 100 feet below the sidewalk level. 

A complete enclosure of the lot was made by sinking 





'-I . 
y, o 



y g 

x P3 

2 3 8 


Elzner & Anderson, Architects. 

thirty steel caissons, each 8 feet in width and ranging 
from 15 ' • feet to 22 feet in length. When these were 
down to the rock a complete water-tight enclosure was 
made by ramming the spaces between the caissons full 
of red clay. The entire operation took many months 
and was watched with interest by many architects and 

G. Kramer Thomson is drawing plans for a seven- 
teen-story addition to the building of the Manhattan 
Life Insurance Company to cost about five hundred 
thousand dollars. The design will be similar to the 
present building of the company. 

Percy Griffin is drawing plans for two model tene- 
ments to be erected for the City and Suburban Homes 
Company at 78th and 79th streets near Avenue A. 

Elzner & Anderson, Architects. 
Roofed with American S. Tile. 

Hobart A. Walker has completed plans for twenty- 
seven, two and one half story brick houses to be built on 
Willoughby Avenue, Steuben Street and Emerson Place, 
Brooklyn, for the Morris Building Company. The fronts 
will be of red brick and Indiana limestone, and each 
alternate house will have a half-timbered gable. The 
total cost will be about one hundred thousand dollars. 

Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

C. 1'. II. Gilbert is drawing plans for a fourteen-story 

bachelor apartment house to be erected on S2(l Street 
near Fifth Avenue for Edward Ilolbrook, president of 
the Gorham Manufacturing Company. 

Hugh M. G. Garden, Architect. 


THE chapel at Rose Hill Cemetery, Chicago, J. L. 
Silsbee, architect, illustrated in the plate form of 
this number, is an example of the very successful use of 
faience for interior finish. The tendency, we are glad to 
say, is towards a greater use of burnt clay for interior 
finish of all the better class of buildings, and of this 
material none lends itself more readily to plain, decora- 
tive or color treatment than faience. The work of the 
Grueby Company, which executed this commission, is 
done with a thorough understanding of the material, its 
application, its possibilities and its limitations. 

T HE B R I C K B U I L I) E R 

2 39 

Elzner & Anderson, Architects. 





It' any of your readers ever have occasion to try t<> 
induce possible clients not to hold a competition without 
a detailed and properly drawn out programme and a pro- 
fessional adviser, the argument may perhaps be im- 
pressed by the use of the following illustration: 

the best one. After some little inspection they decided 
that the proper modus operandi was that of elimination, 
and forthwith proceeded to reject six or eight of those 
drawings which seemed to present the least satisfactory 
buildings. They then adjourned. Several weeks later 
they met again and the sifting process was continued 
until there remained two buildings, either of which was 
so eminently satisfactory that there seemed to be little 
choice. One of these was finally unanimously accepted, 


... -.\ / v 

- - . t 



American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Makers. 
Huj;li M. <!. Garden, Architect. 

A large company in the city of New York had decided 
to erect an office building, and in connection with the 
enterprise one of the first points to be decided was that 
of the selection of an architect. Several gentlemen on 

when the startling fact was revealed that the winning 
design was the veritable "stone that the builders re- 
jected," which became "the head of the corner," for it 
appeared that it had been one of the first "eliminated," 

New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

the building committee had friends in that profession 
who must certainly " have a chance "; then there were a 
number of others who applied; so all were given a few 
instructions as to what sort of a building was required, 
and told that they might submit sketches. Some twenty 
drawings of all kinds was the result. These were placed 
around the room and the committee proceeded to select 

Made by the Hartford Faience Company. 



but in some way had crept back amongst the eligibles 

without discovery. It has since materialized into one 
of the successful New York skyscrapers. 

William O. Ludlow. 


THE New Third Church of Christ, Scientist, Hugh 
M. G. Garden, architect, illustrated in the plate 
form of this number, is built of a beautiful velvet-fin- 
ished enameled brick, made by the Tiffany Enameled 
Brick Company. Mr. Tiffany, the president of the com- 
pany, has long contended that the use of enameled brick 
for exteriors is desirable, especially in many of the west- 
ern cities, for many reasons, among them, and one of 
the principal, being that a building so built is better able 
to withstand the smoke and dirt nuisance and so pre- 
serve its original beauty. Another good reason is that 


rich effects may be obtained in the body of a building by 
the use of soft tints under a semi-glaze. Certainly the 
results obtained in this building have been highly satis- 
factory to all concerned. 


Meeker, Carter & Booraem, New York agents for the 
Rogers Terra-Cotta Company, have closed contract for 
architectural terra-cotta for the new High School at New 
Brighton, Borough of Richmond, New York. C. B. J. 
Snyder, architect. 

Charles Bacon, New England agent forSayre & Fisher 
Company, reports the following new contracts for brick: 
Carleton Hotel, Boston, A. H. Bowditch, architect; resi- 
dence, Boston, Peabody & Stearns, architects; Conserva- 
tory of Music, Boston, Wheelwright & Haven, architects; 
Board of Trade Building, Boston, Winslow & Bigelow, 
architects; Carpenter Building, Boston, A. II. Bowditch, 

The successful outcome of the endeavors of the Blue 
Ridge Enameled Brick Company of Newark, N. J., en- 
ameled brick, at the Pan-American Exposition, is doubt- 
less as gratifying to the management as it is to all con- 
cerned, even remotely. It cannot be said that the award 
comes in the nature of a surprise to well-informed per- 

DETAIL BY BARNEY & CHAPMAN, \ k( 1 1 I I E( '. I S. 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

sons, for the reason that it was logical and based upon 
merit. The company has been recognized as being thor- 
oughly representative of the best element in the trade, 
and has by its career fully deserved such a distinction. 
A spirit of enterprise, intelligence in management and 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

industry have rendered every department as efficient as 
possible, and made the finest product, a high order of 

article. The company has enjoyed, however, what is 
more practical and pleasant, and that is a public indorse- 
ment of its products in the shape of patronage. Ex- 



NOW is the winter with its snow slides made as safe 
as glorious summer, by the use of Folsom Snow 
Guards. If the prophet stood no show at home, it is not 
so with this particular make of snow guards, for it is a 
fact that the leading architects of Boston and those who 

ill $0*****% 

Arthur F. Gray, Architect. 

follow have used them in abundance on churches, school- 
houses, libraries, residences, railway stations, pumping 
stations and the like, until we have come to consider a 
building not quite complete without them. See what Mr. 
Gray, the architect of the pumping stations here illus- 
trated, says: 

Folsom Snow Guard Company, Boston, Mass. 

Gentlemen, I have used your snow guards on sev- 
eral buildings, including the following: 

Railway stations for Boston <.V Maine Railroad at 
Maiden and Newburyport, Mass.; pumping stations for 
Metropolitan Sewer at Deer Island, East Boston and 
Charlestown, Mass. ; also many other buildings, and 
have found them satisfactory. 

Very truly yours, 
(Signed) Arthur F. Gray. 

The Folsom method of protecting roofs, which differs 
from the guard-rail by placing 
guards all over the roof, is 
scientifically correct ; the guards 
protect the roof at smaller cost, 
as well as more effectively, by 
holding the snow where it falls 
until it melts and gradually dis- 
appears, preventing masses of 
climax guard. snow and ice, not only from 

sliding off on walks, to the danger of passers, or injuring 

shrubs planted near the building, but from banking at the 
eaves, with the consequent danger of back water and leaks. 

They are so simple and so effective that countless 
imitations have been put upon the market so formed as 
to give a brace to the snow-top (or projecting loo])), for 
which feature greater Strength is claimed. 

It is this feature that is the weakness of all braced 
guards. The Folsom Guard is strong enough to hold 
any load of snow the roof will carry, but under excessive 
pressure it will, bend without raising the upper or punc- 
turing the lower slates. This we consider the most valu- 


-rl i^ HUM 



Arthur F. Gray, Architect. 

able feature of a snow guard, for it insures a roof against 
any damage. 

The Climax pattern for old roofs is applied by push- 
ing the long end into the joint between the slates until it 
touches the lower edge of the slate in the course above. 
This form is securely locked by the sidewise pressure of 
the snow. 

The Standard Guards have spring 
grips that act when the guards arc 
pushed into the joints between the 
slates; when the guard touches the 
lower edge of the slate in the course 
above, it presses the rear clamps 
against the two adjoining slates. 

All the guards made by this 
company are provided with a heavy 

coating of zinc and do not rust out 

like galvanized wire. standard guard. 

" School Architecture." 

A General Treatise on Designing and Planning of Sehoolhouses. 


More than 250 Illustrations of Sehoolhouses and Plans; many of the best types of all grades having 

been chosen. 
An indispensable Text-book for Schoolhouse Designers. 

Price, $5.00, delivered. 

ROGERS & MANSON, Publishers, 
Boston, Mass. 



1 90 1. 




85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada . . . . . . . $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 


Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 


Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 


A copy of The Brickbuilder Prospectus for 1902 will 
be mailed to each subscriber on January 1. 


Agencies. — Clay Products 

. . . II 

Architectural Faience 

. . . II 

' ' Terra-Cotta 

. 11 and III 


. . . Ill 

" Enameled 

. Ill and IV 

NEW YORK CITY is undoubtedly entering upon a 
new era as a result of the recent overturn in the 
elections. Without undertaking to discuss the character 
or limitations of past officials, the city is certainly the great 
gainer by the appointments which have just been made in 
the departments having to do with building operations. 
Mr. Perez M. Stewart has been appointed superintendent 
of buildings of the borough of Manhattan, and Mr. Will- 
iam Martin Aiken has likewise been appointed consulting 
architect. These gentlemen are thoroughly well known 
both for their personal integrity and for their ability in 
their respective spheres. Mr. Aiken made a good record 
for himself while architect of the Treasury in Washington. 
He is thoroughly competent, a good designer and an hon- 
est man, conditions which unfortunately are more con- 
spicuous by their absence than otherwise in the office- 
holders of our large cities. Mr. Stewart is a builder who 
has had over fifteen years' experience, and, unless his 
reputation of the past belies him, there will be no founda- 
tion in the future for the disagreeable rumors which have- 

so persistently been made heretofore regarding pecula- 
tions in the Department of Buildings. Both of these gen- 
tlemen will have large responsibilities and great discre- 
tionary powers, and we feel that New York is certainly 
to be congratulated upon its ability to put such men in 
office. In fact it seems as if the political atmosphere all 
over the country is becoming clarified, and with the high 
standard which marks our President at Washington and 
the mayor elect in New York, we ought to expect a prac- 
tical refutation of the criticism that we so often hear ex- 
pressed of the American political system — that it fails to 
bring into office the best available elements. 

THE capitalization of the United States Steel trust is 
approximately fourteen hundred million dollars. If 
we were to capitalize the fire losses of the United States at 
even so high a rate as eight per cent, it would amount 
to nearly two billion dollars. The United States Steel 
corporation is a money earner, which has the effect of 
bettering social, structural and business conditions. The 
fire loss is a money waster which represents a perpetual 
drain on the community without the slightest redeeming 
feature. And the worst part of it is that the greater por- 
tion of this tremendous annual expenditure is needless. 
By this time the country has had enough object lessons 
to show beyond question that buildings can be constructed 
which will not burn down ; and if, instead of continuing 
to pay money for premiums, it were only possible to spend 
one half the amount in eliminating the danger spots 
of our large cities by substituting fire-proof for inflam- 
mable construction in the cheaper and more crowded 
thoroughfares, the annual fire loss would in a very few 
years be reduced more nearly to the relative proportions 
of the fire loss in such cities as Paris or Fieri in. These 
cities are far from being fire-proof throughout, but they 
are spared the constant menace of inflammable structures 
surrounding and hedging in the costly commercial build- 
ings, a condition which exists in every large city in this 

IT is reported in one of the British journals that an 
office building on American lines is to be erected in 
London on the north side of the Strand near its junction 
with the new thoroughfare from Ilolborn. The building 
is to have an area of 125,000 square feet, or four times 
that of the largest office building in this country, and 
will have six thousand rooms aggregating 900,000 square 
feet of rentable area. Part of it will be seven stories 
and part ten stories high, not very high judged by Ameri- 
can standards, but enough for starting such a structural 
innovation. After all, we cannot expect to hold a mo 
nopoly of tall building construction. 



Colonial Brickwork of New Eng- 
land. I. 


BY W Al IKK H. KII.1I \M. 

OXE hundred years ago the commerce of New Eng- 
land was distributed among a score of ancient 
towns situated at intervals along its irregular and deeply 
indented coast. Northward from Boston within sixty 
miles were situated the then busy harbors of Marblehead. 


Salem, Beverly, Gloucester, Newburyport and Ports- 
mouth, while southward were New Bedford and a dozen 
Cape Cod towns of less importance. All of these places 
have many points of similarity. Placed at the heads 
of rocky bays or broad tidal rivers, their enterprising 
captains and shipowners lined their wide, elm-shaded 
streets with those rows of stately brick mansions which 
with their epiiet old-school refinement have ever excited 
the admiration of later generations, and in our day, serv- 


ing as the models of our revived "colonial" architecture, 
continue to rebuke the ostentation and trivial display of 
the decadent academic taste. How it happened that in 
a newly discovered country, without any of the institu- 
tions which tend to refine the taste or train the ■•esthetic 
sense, and without a single great work of architecture. 

these untaught master builders, laboriously, we may sup- 
pose, studying their details from the few architectural 
books which were at that time available, were able to 
produce these carefully studied and delicately profiled 
moldings and capitals, which the modern draughtsman, 


surrounded by his piles of plates and photographs, vainly 

tries to imitate, is one of the mysteries which surround 
the early life of our republic. We may infer that these 
early builders depended upon a taste which, guided only 
by the few good books at their disposal, and free from 
the injurious influence of any bad or vulgar work, and 


unhampered by distracting notions of sanitation or con- 
venience, led their hands and minds in a Straight and 
narrow but correct and chaste line of thought which, 
interpreting itself in brick and wood, produced the formal 
elegance and well-balanced reserve which characterize 
the buildings of this period. Their materials were few 
in number. Bricks they had and timber in plenty. 
Stone was little used. Carefully squared, rather small 
granite blocks served for the underpinning. ( tecasionally 
white marble was sparingly used for lintels and sills. 
The noble forests of the back country supplied them with 
magnificent wide boards for dadoes and panels. 




1 ! 


j — 

Measured and Drawn by W. R. Greeley and I. R. Adams. 



1)( 11 IKWAV, 

10 CM !•..-. 1 Ml STREET. 

Owing to the comparative isolation of the towns of 
that period, marked differences in style, which are fre- 
quently characteristic of their inhabitants, are seen in 
the different places. For example, Salem work varies 
strongly from Boston, Marblehead work from both, while 
Portsmouth seems to have gone on an entirely different 
idea from either. These articles will present typical 
studies of the architecture of all these cities. 

It must be remembered that the details of the brick 
buildings were generally expressed in wood. Beyond 
a simple molded brick water table or belt course, and 
sometimes a lower member of a cornice, very little orna- 
mental brickwork is seen. The bricks are rather small 
in size and universally laid in Flemish bond. 

HOUSE on (Ills I \i I STREET. 

Chief in interest among the decaying seaports of the 

eastern coast is the old city of Salem. Her broad and 
stately streets, where the sea wind, fresh from the harbor 
islands, blows cool through the great elms, are lined with 
the finest examples of colonial architecture to be found in 
this country. The typical Salem house is a square, three- 
storied, hip-roofed building, with the third story some- 
what lower than the others, often only seven or eight feet 
in height. The house stands but a few feet back from 
the street and is entered through an elaborately orna- 
mented portico or stoop, which, with sometimes the win- 
dow above it, forms the principal architectural motif of the 
composition. These Salem porticoes are almost every 
one of remarkably correct and graceful design. Many of 


doorway, NO. 29 CHESTNUT STREET. 





k I VR "I \ M ) U !•'. \\ HOI 


these house and porches are the work of one Samuel 
Maeintyre, who lived in Salem from 1757 to 1811. His 
father and brother were " housewrights " in Salem, and a 
nephew, Joseph, continued in Salem as a carver until his 
death in 1S52. Samuel Maeintyre appears to have been a 
universal genius, for in addition to his skill in architecture 
he was a skilful musician and organist. As an architect 
he seems to have been easily a rival of Bulfinch, though 
his opportunities fordoing important work were limited. 
To him we are indebted for the beautiful spire of the 
South Church and for old Hamilton Hall opposite, whose 
walls, with those of the old Assembly House, also his 
work, have seen the blooming of generations of the youth 
and beauty of the old town. The Nichols house, on Fed- 
eral Street, is likewise by Maeintyre, and several other 
houses, as well as many of the ornate fence posts, urns. 
eagles and other ornaments about the city. He designed 
the Park Street Church spire in Boston, and many of the 
tall merchantmen of Salem bore for their figurehead an 
example of his skill. 

The Salem of to-day is fast changing from the pictur- 
esque seaport of the early deeades of the last century, 
when the harbor docks were alive with the bustle of fit- 
ting out and receiving Indiamen and privateers. Dingy 
coal barges replace the graceful square-riggers, and the 
trade in dry goods and prosaic household furnishings has 
replaced the romantic voyages to far-off Cathay which 

fired the juvenile mind in the old days and sent the Salem 
house flags to every port in the East. But Chestnut Street. 
upper Essex Street and Washington Square are left almost 
unchanged, with their noble mansions intact and growing 
more beautiful under the mellowing hand of time. 

Half way along Derby Street, at the head of what was 
once a bustling pier, stands the Custom House, a dignified 
brick building dating from iSi.s. From a literary point 
of view the genius of Nathaniel Hawthorne, who was 
once collector of the port, has given the Salem Custom 
House wide celebrity by the description of it in the open- 
in- chapter of "The Scarlet Letter." Architecturally, how- 
ever, the building is an exceedingly meritorious piece of 
work, looking its purpose exactly and with much good 
colonial detail, as the drawings which we publish else- 
where in this issue will indicate. It is interesting to note 
that in its construction slates were imported from Wales 
and flagstones for the sidewalks from Potsdam. X. V.. by 
way of the St. Lawrence. There are pine boards 26 inches 
wide in the dado. This building cost about $,56,000. 



We have used the word '•colonial" in its generic 
sense. It will of course be understood that much of the 
work known under that name was executed after the 
Revolution ; in fact, nearly all of the most important work 
waserected in the prosperous years from i-<;o to 1812, and 
again after the second war with England, when many of 
the seaport towns were enriched with the ill-gotten gains 
of privateersmen, and before the commercial activity of 
the old port had subsided. 

Anything written about the old houses of Salem would 
not be complete without a word about the gardens. Be- 
hind the great houses, carefully screened from the street 
and from the neighboring premises by high lattices and 
board fences, are the gardens, with their high box hedges, 
walks of yellow gravel, trellises overgrown with clematis 
and roses, and geometrical flower beds bursting with the 
glory of the old-fashioned annuals and perennials, holly- 
hocks and asters, gay against the whitewashed fences and 
green foliage; Here more than anywhere else lingers the 
-cuius of the old seaport, and here may it linger for years 
to come, undisturbed by crowding business or modern 



The Design and Construction of the 
Modern Warehouse. 


THE external structure of a warehouse should be of 
the most substantial character. It should express 
immense strength and the greatest security. Thickness 
of walls, the absence, so far as possible, of openings of 
any nature, simplicity of design, and a quiet color, assist 
much in attaining the required effect. Aside from the 

c - • 

. 1 
, 1 ' 
1 l 

1 s 


Andrews, Jaques & Rantoul, Architects. 

real value of these features, the outside appearance of 
these buildings has much of a sentimental value in the 
eyes of the public, and the warehouse should be its own 
best advertisement. 

In some cases trust companies and safe deposit 
vaults have been combined with the storage of goods, 
but this seems to be possible only where the conditions 


are rather unusual. Trust companies and safe deposit 
vaults, in order to be successful, should be in a thickly 
populated district, and the value of land in a location of 
this kind is generally such as to prohibit its use for stor- 
age purposes. Sometimes, however, this high value of 
land is overcome by increased height in the building, 
that is, by obtaining a larger floor area for storage space 

to a given area of land covered, thus enabling the build- 
ing, though costly, to yield a proper return on the total 
investment. The most influential factor in determining 
the height of these warehouses is generally the value of 
the land on which they stand. They are required to 
carry the very heaviest loads, and accordingly the thick- 
ness of the walls and the amount of steel used, and also 
the cost, increase rapidly with the number of stories. 
The height of the building should stand in direct relation 
to the value of the land it occupies. It cannot be good 
policy to build a high and therefore an expensive build- 
ing on comparatively inexpensive land, for the cost of 
handling increases with the height to which the goods 
must be raised. 

For protection against fire from the outside, the ex- 
ternal walls should be carrying walls. They should be 
of sufficient thickness to carry the loads without the as- 
sistance of steel columns. The steel framing should be 
confined to the interior supports and floors. Where this 
composite form of construction is used, the reasonable 
limit of height is soon reached, for the walls of such a 
heavily loaded building over nine or ten stories high 


would be so thick as to be extravagant in the amount of 
material involved and in the area of rentable storage 
space lost. 

In planning, the most careful study must be given to 
the methods of administration now generally adopted in 
these modern warehouses. The error frequently made, 
and which must be carefully guarded against, is an effort 
to obtain an unreasonable amount of rentable storage 
space at the expense of economical operation. Liberal 
space, well lighted, well ventilated and high studded, 
should be given to the steam plant, in itself one of the 
most essential features of the building. This involves 
the heating, the elevator, the electric and the cold-stor- 
age service, and frequently the pumping service for the 
fire standpipes and artesian wells. 

Ample space must be given to the receiving and 
delivery platform. This should be centrally situated be- 
tween the van entrance and the battery of elevators, 
and adjacent to the office. If this platform is too con- 
tracted it will increase the chance of damage to the 
goods and the cost of handling them. On the other 
hand, if this platform is of too liberal dimensions, the 
tendency is to delay the prompt and proper distribution 



of the goods and thus create confusion. It is generally 

considered an advantage to have this space, where the 
principal part of the work is done, under the immediate 
supervision of the office, and the platform should be 
located accordingly. 

Two thirds or at least one half of the building should 
be divided into compartments of various sizes. A unit of 


size should be established, and all compartments should 
be the unit or a multiple of it. Opinion varies as to the 
proper capacity for this unit, but the best results seem to 
have been obtained by adopting a unit which shall equal 
as near as possible the capacity of the van. These vans 
naturally vary somewhat in size, but a unit of 5 feet by 
<s feet on the floor by 10 feet high, giving 400 cubic feet, 
has been found to successfully answer the purpose in sev- 
eral of these modern warehouses, although the height of 
10 feet appears to be somewhat excessive. The least valu- 
able storage space is the space farthest from the floor, 
and my belief is that 9 feet in height is sufficient, and 
that a building containing ten stories 9 feet high will 
earn a Larger return on the investment than one contain- 
ing nine stories 10 feet high, notwithstanding the fact 


that the ten-story building will cost materially more than 
one of nine stories. Though the walls and columns are 
no longer, the additional story, with its added load, in- 
creases the cost of the building, not only by the cost of 
the floor and finish, but by the proportionate increase of 
material required for strength in the columns, walls and 

foundations. This limit of 9 feet applies, however, only 
to the intermediate stories. The basement should have 
good height in order to accommodate the boiler and en- 
gine rooms, and the first floor should have a stud higher 
than 9 feet in order to accommodate the vans. Experi- 
ence has shown that it is best to have the vans drive di- 
rectly into the building. The safety to the goods against 
robbery and against damage by the elements, as well as 
the privacy of this method, appeals strongly to the public, 
and though considerable space must be given up to the 
maneuvering of the vans the sacrifice seems to be justi- 
fied. This method of delivering the goods from tin- van. 
if adopted, establishes absolutely the level of the first 


floor, which must be thirty inches above the grade of the 
van entrance, that being the height of the floor of the van 
above the ground, and this accordingly precludes the pos- 
sibility of good windows in the basement. On account 
of this some form of artificial ventilation becomes neces- 
sary in the boiler and engine rooms. The greatest care 
must be taken also in the ventilation of the van space, 
inasmuch as the introduction of horses into the building 
will create odors which, unless checked, are bound even- 
tually to permeate the whole warehouse. Such a condi- 
tion invariably occasions the severest criticism from the 
tenants. Automobiles, already being so successfully used 
by some warehouses, are likely to prove the remedy for 
this evil. The upper stories should also be higher than 
the intermediate floors, for the careful manager will store, 
as far as possible, in the top of the building, such articles 
as have the greatest bulk and least weight, like carriages, 
sleighs, etc. 

Another reason for making the upper floor higher 
studded is because it must contain the picture gallery, 



where wall space is the chief requirement. The picture 
gallery must be lighted with skylights, thus meeting the 
demands of artists for the storage of valuable pictures. 
These must be stored in the securest buildings, and so 
hung as to have the proper top light to exhibit them to 
possible purchasers. This section, and one or two others 
in the building for the storage of pianos, valuable furni- 
ture, etc., should be made as dust-proof as possible, and 
kept at a higher temperature than the rest of the building. 


A silver vault for the storage of silver-trunks has been 
found an advantage in most cases. It is generally built 
in the basement, the safest place in case the building 
above should collapse. It is built with heavy walls of 
brick, lined with steel, and fitted inside with iron racks 
for trunks. It should have but one entrance with double 
vault doors. The increased security of such a compart- 
ment permits of an extra charge on the storage of very 
valuable trunks. 

The intermediate stories shotdd have the simplest and 
most symmetrical plan, with one liberal distributing aisle 
developing on the battery of elevators, with cross aisles 
serving the numerous compartments and the open stor- 
age space. These cross aisles should be about 6 feet 
wide, in order to accommodate the trucking and also to 
provide for the swing of the compartment doors, which 
are at least four feet wide. 

Cold storage, which has proved to be such a great 
source of revenue, demands special attention. Opinion 
varies as to the best location for the cold-storage com- 
partment, but in many ways it seems advantageous to 
have it in the basement. In the first place the basement, 
on account of its tendency to dampness, is bound to be 
the least valuable storage space, and dampness ceases to 
be a serious consideration where the temperature is con- 
stantly kept below 30 degrees. Again, the temperature 
of the basement is less susceptible to the outside influ- 
ences of the atmosphere, and accordingly less insulation 
is required. By placing the cold section in the basement, 
it can be arranged to come in close connection with the 
cold-storage plant, a decided advantage in the transmis- 
sion of air at a low temperature. The best system, no 
doubt, is an indirect system with a fan. By this system 
the air is chilled in a cold chamber and blown through 
ducts into the cold-storage compartments. This method 

prevents the goods from coming in contact with the great 
amount of ammonia piping required, and reduces the 
chance of damage to the goods from leaking joints and 
from the dampness occasioned by the periodical melting 
of the frost on the pipes. 

In planning, too much deference cannot be shown to 
the requirements of the underwriters. Sometimes the 
buildings themselves are insured, and frequently tenants 
insure the goods they store, and, above all, the quotation 
of a low rate of insurance is one of the strongest argu- 
ments in favor of the building. Frequent fire-walls of 
solid masonry, running from the foundations up through 
the roof, containing as few openings as the plan will per- 
mit, are a great advantage. The elevator shaft should be, 
as far as possible, surrounded with masonry walls without 
openings, and the front should be protected by some 
form of fire-proof shutters. Where the plan permits, the 
elevators, with liberal platforms, should be placed in 
battery side by side, for the result is more prompt, more 
convenient and more economical service. The process of 
running a van on to the elevator and carrying it up to its 
destination is a costly method of operation, now practi- 
cally discarded. Too much time is wasted in unhitching 
the horses and unshipping the pole, and the corridors 
throughout the building must be extravagantly wide in 
order to permit the moving and turning of the vans; 
moreover, no convenient form of power exists for han- 
dling them when heavily loaded. But convenient ar- 
rangement should be made at the grade with at least one 
elevator to receive carriages, sleighs, etc., for storage. 

In their construction these buildings are a most inter- 
esting problem to the architect. The loads they must be 


able to carry, besides their own weight, arc enormous. 
Under different conditions and in different localities the 
loads vary, but the floors must carry a superimposed load 
of from 200 to 500 pounds per square foot of area. When 
such weights have to be carried through eight or ten 
stories, the pressure on the ground becomes tremendous, 
and the design of the foundations frequently taxes the 
skill of the most experienced engineers. 

As I have said elsewhere, I believe the solid exterior 
wall of sufficient thickness to carry the loads, without 
the assistance of steel, containing only such openings as 
are absolutely necessary for the ventilation of the build- 
ing, is the best form of construction. These exterior 



Andrews, Jaqties & Rantoul, Architects. 

I). C. 

walls should be built of brick, an economical material 
having the greatest power of resistance to fire. Under 
most circumstances the greatest source of danger from 
fire is from the outside, and accordingly every opening 
should be covered with some approved fire-proof shutter. 
and openings coming near the ground should be heavily 
grilled as a precaution against robhery. 

The whole interior must be framed with steel, very 
thoroughly protected against fire. Where fire-walls are 
introduced into the building they become more efficient 
if they are made carrying walls, that is, of sufficient 
thickness to carry the floors with their loads. This of 


course makes them thicker than the ordinary require- 
ments of the underwriters and the building laws, but 
the increased protection seems to warrant the small sac- 
rifice of space. The increased cost is partially offset by 
the saving of a row of columns and girders, and the col- 
lapse of the building on one side of such a wall is not 
likely to destroy it, and under these conditions will not 
involve the destruction of the building on the other side. 
These fire-walls should have as few openings as possible, 
and in a newly planned building it can generally be ar- 
ranged to have but one opening in each story. These 
openings should be protected with a double set of fire- 

proof doors or shutters. The amount of steel involved 
is a large factor in cost. Unless a judicious design for 
the steel framing is adopted, making the girders and 
beams of such spans as to use most economically the 
standard sizes of steel, the cost of construction will be 
materially increased. 

Owing to danger of fire in the goods stored it is 
most essential to so arrange the floors as to allow the free 
flow of water down and out of the building- without 
damage to the goods stored in other portions. To do 
this, the floors and partitions should be water-proof, and 
the floors should pitch towards an outside wall, through 
which scuppers can be arranged of sufficient capacity to 
carry off easily a large amount of water. Goods raised 
on skids would be protected from damage by water, but 
the better method is to raise the floors on which goods 
stand, including the compartment floors, slightly above 
the Boors of the passageways, and again, the floors of 
the compartments should pitch towards the doors, so 


\\ ARFHOI si-.. 

that one compartment can be flooded with water, and 
still be drained into the passageway and out of the 
building without damage to other goods. In order to 
prevent a fire in a compartment from getting much head- 
way every precaution should be taken against the admis- 
sion of air. A good plan is to have the edges of the 
fire-proof doors slightly beveled to fit tightly into a 
beveled door frame, and these doors should be clamped 
with heavy refrigerator locks. When this is properly 
done the admission of air (the necessary nourishment of 
a blazing fire) is very much reduced. This tends to 
smother the fire, but the temperature in the compartment 
will gradually increase and set off the thermostatic 
alarm, which will notify the watchman in the office. 
Fire standpipes of ample capacity, with the necessary 
hose, should be placed so that no point in the building is 
more than seventy-five or a hundred feet from any one 
of them. 

One constant source of danger to the finer goods is 
the vast amount of dust which is bound to exist in build- 
ings involving so much masonry, concrete and cement, 
and every precaution must be taken to reduce this to the 



minimum. The trucks should be rubber tired in order to 
grind as little as possible into the cement floors. In some 
cases the imported asphalt has been used for top flooring. 
This produces much less dust than a cement floor, but is 
extremely expensive and is not apt to become as hard as 
is desirable. Good results have been obtained by finish- 
ing the floors smoothly with a Portland cement top and 
covering this with two heavy coats of patent asphaltum 
paint. This is an economical method which, so long as 
it stands, keeps down the dust in the floors and can read- 
ily be renewed from time to time as the wear of the build- 
ing makes it necessary. 

Nothing has been found, however, better than asphalt 
for certain parts of the building, like the distributing plat- 
form and boiler room, which get almost constant and the 
very hardest usage. 

The best form of elevator for freight purposes is direct 
steam or electric, as the elevators should stand absolutely 
flush with the landings to accommodate the trucking. Any 
form of hydraulic elevator allows a slow sagging, due to 
the inevitable leakage in the cylinder, so that the plat- 
form, after it has stood a few moments at a landing, has 
a tendency to drop, making a serious inconvenience in 
the prompt handling of the goods. 

The temperature in these warehouses need not be 
more than fifty degrees, except in the specially heated 
compartments referred to elsewhere. 

The best form of fire-proof shutter and door to be used 
both inside and outside is the regulation tinned shutter, 
built up with two thicknesses of sheathing, covered with 
sheet tin, with locked and soldered joints, no nails being 
allowed, and on the inside of the building left unpainted, 
as it has been found that bright tin is better than painted 
tin in resisting the action of fire. 

I have said nothing concerning the cost of construc- 
tion, a subject of vital importance to the investor and yet 
one that is difficult to touch upon with any degree of 
accuracy. The value of labor and materials in different 
parts of the country and the interior arrangement of the 
building vary in each individual case. I believe, how- 
ever, that the absolutely modern warehouse, equal or su- 
perior to the most recent buildings of this type, equipped 
with the necessary plant required for the heating, electric, 
cold-storage and elevator service, with about one half of 
its floor area divided into compartments of various sizes, 
should cost between eighteen and twenty-three cents per 
cubic foot. 

There are not many well-appointed modern ware- 
houses in existence, but they are destined to multiply. 
Modern habits of changing the residence for summer 
and winter between continent and continent, and from 
section to section of our own continent, fostered as these 
habits are by our rapid and luxurious modes of transporta- 
tion, will insure, if nothing else does, the steady growth 
of the modern warehouse system. Capital is already 
largely involved, and fair dividends are reasonably as- 

In this paper I have endeavored to emphasize through- 
out the conclusion on which I desire to insist, that the 
warehouse, however faithfully and intelligently and eco- 
nomically administered, will fail of the best results if it 
has not been judiciously planned and most economically, 
but most thoroughly, constructed. 

Architectural and Building Practice 
in Great Britain. 


AT last the five designs for the National Memorial 
to Queen Victoria have been exhibited. It will 
doubtless be remembered that, though the opinion was 
generally expressed that there should be an open com- 
petition, in view of the unique opportunities which such 
a memorial afforded, the executive committee decided 


that five architects only should lie invited to submit de- 
signs. Mr. Aston Webb's is the selected one. It is evi- 
dent from the designs themselves that certain main 
features were indicated beforehand, though at the com- 
mencement none of the architects knew anything very 
definite about Mr. Brock's memorial, for which they were 
to form an architectural envelope. Mr. Webb's design 
is, however, undoubtedly the best, though all of them 
possess features of interest. The railings at present 
in front of Buckingham Palace, which is situated in St. 
James's Park, are to be replaced by a stone screen form- 
ing the chord, so to speak, of a great semicircular colon- 



', : 


i V 



nade of Ionic columns, the space thus enclosed measur- 
ing about 800 feet by 400 feet and being called " The 
Queen's Garden." The memorial itself, approached by a 
few steps having an archaic lion at each side, takes the 
form of a great pedestal surrounded by statuary emblem- 
atic of the empire, with a figure of her late majesty at 
the front; a group of sculpture crowns the whole, while 
at each side are arranged crescent-shaped fountain 

nating in a circus, which is an admirable solution of a 

difficult problem. 

Another burst of criticism has centered around the 
new cathedral which is proposed to be built at Liverpool. 
The scheme is an old one, for as long as fifteen years ago 
a competition was held for the purpose, but after the 
selection was made the matter died down. Now it has 
been resuscitated, and the committee have even got so 


Niven & Wigglesworth, Architects, 

basins. The memorial occupies a central position 
against the screen, and at each side against the colon- 
nade is a fountain surrounded by beds of grass and 
flowers. From this "garden" a central processional 
drive and carriage roads (intended to be adorned with 
sculpture) lead practically into Trafalgar Square, tcrmi- 

far as to advertise for portfolios of drawings by June 30 
next, the intention being to select a limited number of 
architects in this manner and to invite them to submit 
designs, for which they will each be paid three hundred 
guineas. There was enough dispute over the site, but 
the question of "style" resulted in greater discussion. 



_. ■ - - 



A. N. Prentice, Architect. 


T H E BR I C K Hi: I L I)K R. 

Four sites were originally under consideration, hut it 
was soon apparent that two of them were to he relin- 
quished, leaving Monument Place and St. James's Mount 
for final selection. The former is undoubtedly the better 
in all respects, but when it became known that the pur- 
chase money would be ,£'200,000 the St. James's Mount 
site was chosen, its cost being only ^50,000. This was 
the committee's first mistake, but matters were made 


much worse by the stipulation that the style should be 
Gothic. To any one familiar with the position of archi- 
tecture in this country to-day it is evident that such a 
restriction could only result in a dead building. There 
is now no such thing as "Gothic" in the true sense of 
the word; that is to say, there no longer exists that col- 
laboration among the various workmen which character- 
ized the age when our great cathedrals arose, for the 
times have changed and the mediaeval spirit is long since 
dead. Had the proposal been made at the time of the 
Gothic revival, when, with such leaders as Pugin, Street, 
Burges and others, a school of men was being trained to 
work in the manner of the old builders, it would not have 
been surprising ; but that it should be put forward on the 
threshold of the twentieth century, when all around us 
we hear a clamoring for a new style in place of mean- 
ingless copyism, and when the finest opportunity since 
Wren's time offers for the building of a great cathedral, 
this is perfectly ridiculous, and more, it is unjust. I 
am, however, glad to record that the executive committee 
(apparently') saw the errors of their ways and rescinded 
their decision, so that the competition is not now restricted 
to Gothic designs. They deserve every credit for their 

action, though the feeling in informed circles is that only 
a Gothic design will win the competition. 

Whilst speaking of cathedrals it is opportune to note 
that the huge Roman Catholic cathedral now being com- 
pleted at Westminster from the designs of Mr. Rentley 
is progressing satisfactorily, and it is expected that the 
opening services will take place on the feast of St. Peter 
and St. Paul next June. But not more than the shell will 
then have been finished, and the mosaics and marbles will 
not be completed for many years to come. It is built of 
red brick, and its nave is higher and wider than any nave 
in England. Altogether the cathedral is considered to be 
perhaps the finest erected in modern times. 

St. Paul's Cathedral was the subject of much attention 
a short time ago on account of the subsidences which had 
taken place. Alarmists were busy as usual and stories 
were current of the impending collapse of the structure. 
The actual facts are that owing to underground tunnel- 
ing the ground has consolidated somewhat, resulting in 
the dislocation of the arches of the nave, choir and tran- 
sept, and, more important, the subsidence of the west 
front with its heavy towers and bells. Moreover, the 

GroctnA flan of Slables 

Ground. F\an of House 

whole of the southern transept has moved, so to speak, 
towards the Thames. In order that no further harm 
may be done, there must be no more "tubes" in the 
close vicinity of the cathedral, — the Central London 
Underground Railway on the north is only 460 feet from 
the center of the dome, yet the new line from Piccadilly 
proposes to come 160 feet nearer; but it is improbable that 
the powers sought will be granted, for the Dean and Chap- 
ter intend to oppose all such schemes. It is somewhat 
ironical that, while money is being wasted inside on Sir 
William Richmond's foreign decorations, there are no 
funds available for structural works to assure the stability 



of the fabric, — not enough to keep the building in thor- 
ough repair; and we even allow Mr. Pierpont Morgan to 
pay for the cost of installing the electric light. 

The building trade in this country at the present time 
is in a very bad state, due to the war and the continued 

The house at Walton-on-Thames, by Messrs. Niven & 
Wigglesworth, is of brick with red-tiled roofs and modeled 
plaster work on the bays. A feature has been made of the 
lead work in the gutters and down-pipes. It is an excel- 
lent specimen of modern English domestic architecture. 

high price of materials and 
labor. In many parts it is 
practically at a standstill.