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CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY 
SACRAMENTO 

This book is due on the last date stamped below. 

Books may be renewed if not requested by other 
borrowers. 

Failure to return books promptly may result in 
withdrawal of borrowing privileges. 



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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

JANUARY, 

1902. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

INDEX, VOL. XL JANUARY -DECEMBER, 1902. 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS.— HALF TONE. 



Architect. 



Building ami Lo< ation. 

Alden & Harlow House, Pittsburgh, Pa . 

Alden & Harlow House, Sewicklej , Pa 

Babb, Cook & Willard House, New York City 

Barney & Chapman House, Cedarhurst, L, I., N. Y. . ■ 

Boring & Tilton Town Hall, East Orange, N. I 

Boring & Tilton Municipal Hospital for District of Columbia 

Boring & Tilton Immigrant Station, New \ ork Harbor 

Brite & Bacon Hank, New Haven, ( onn 

Carrere & Hastings Dining Room, Memorial Hall, Yale University. • • 

Carrere & Hastings Library, Auburn, N. Y 

Chase, Ames & Dessez Municipal Hospital for District of ( olumbia 

Clark, Appleton P., Jr House, Washington, D. C 

Cope & Stewardson House, Philadelphia, Pa 

Cope & Stewardson Dormitories, University of Pennsylvania 

Cope & Stewardson Leamy Home, Philadelphia, Pa 

Crosby, G. Fred Fire Station, Brookline. Mass 

Eyre, Wilson, Jr Hospital, Montague ( 'ity, Mass 

Fox, John A House in Boston Suburb 

Fox, Jenney & Gale Library, Weston, Mass 

Gilbert, C. P. H House, New York City 

Gilbert, C. P. H House, Glen Cove, L. I., N. Y 

Hale, Herbert D Hospital for District of ( 'olumbia ... 

Hazlehurst & Huckel Store and Apartment, Phil idelphia, Pa 

Heins & La Farge House for Primates, Bronx Park, N. Y. 

Heins & La Farge House, New York City 

Heins & La Farge Church, Providence, R. 1 

Kees & Colburn Advance Thresher Co. Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Kendall, Taylor & Stevens Hospital, Boston 

Lewis, William Whitney House, Brookline, Mass 

Little & Browne House, Boston 

Maginnis, Walsh & Sullivan Church, Northampton, Mass 

McKim, Mead & White House, New York City 

McKim, Mead & White Karl Hall, Columbia College . 

McKim, Mead & White Y. M. C. A. Building, ( >range, X. J 

Xewmaii, Woodman & Harris Corn Exchange National Bank, Philadelphia, Pa . 

Parker & Thomas Bank, Baltimore, Md 

Parish & Schroeder Y. M. C. A. Building, Brooklyn, N. N . 

Peabody & Stearns ' House at Lenox, Mass 

Peabody & Stearns Runkle School, brookline. Mass 

Peabody & Stearns House, Pittsburgh, Pa 

Peabody & Stearns Gymnasium, Lawrenceville, N.J 

Peters & Rice House, Boston 

Pond & Pond Northwestern University Settlement, Chicago, 111. 

Price, Bruce Dormitory, Barnard College, New York City 

Randall, T. Henrv House, Lawrenceville, L. I., N. Y 

Rutan & Russell .' House, Pittsburgh, Pa 

Rutan & Russell House, Sewickley, Pa . . . . . 

Rutan & Russell Phipps Hall of Botany, Pittsburgh, Pa 

Rutan & Russell Chartiers Trust ( o. Building, Pittsburgh, Pa 

Schweinfurth, J. A Schoolhouse, Brookline, Mass 

Sellers, Horace W House, Philadelphia, Pa 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge House, Boston 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge Hospital for District of Columbia 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge Hospital, brookline, Mass 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge Press Building, Chicago University 

Taylor, James Knox Post Office, Annapolis. Md. 

Thompson, G. K Brick Bridge, Deal Beach, V I. 

Thompson, G. K House, Allenhurst, N. f. ... 

Trumbauer, Horace House, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. . 

Winslow & Bigelow Hou-*, Middletown, R. I. 

York & Sawyer Settle,. *nt House. New V ork ( 



ity 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS. — LINE. 



Architect. Building and Location. 

\lden & Harlow House, Pittsburgh, Pa.. 

Atherton, Walter 'Boston, lass 

Barney & Chapman House t.1 Cedarhurst, L. IV Y_ 

p : ■ vm ••• First Baptist Church, Franklin, Pa. 

eeezer "«*.•■■■■ Municipal Hospital lor the Di I olumbia 17. 

Borinl& Tilton'" Hospital Building, [mmigranl Station, New York Harbor 



& Bacon 1?a,lk ' New H , ven - 



Brite 

Carrere & Hastings 



Memorial Library, Auburn, V N 



V ii 111 be 1 of 




Month. 


1 


November 


1 


November 


.' 


I ic. embei 


2 


I an uar v 


1 


February 


1 


March 


2 


lulv 


1 


fuly 


1 


August 


2 


December 


1 


March 


1 


April 


1 


April 


1 


fune 


2 


November 


1 


August 


1 


March 


1 


lanuarv 


1 


August 


1 


\pril 


1 


May 


2 


Line 


1 


April 


1 


April 


1 


May 


1 


< October 


J 


nary 


1 


March 


1 


Vugust 


1 


Maj 


1 


( )ctobei 


1 - 


lanuarv 


1 


Line 


1 


September 


1 


February 


2 


March 


1 


September 


2 


February 


> 


September 


1 


\o\ embei 


1 


1 December 


1 


lanuarv 


1 


lulv 


1 


fuly 


1 


lulv 


1 


mbei 


1 


November 


I 


mbei 


I 


December 


1 


Ma) 


1 


lanuarv 


1 


May 


» 


Line 


1 


fUSl 


1 


Novembei 


I 


Novembei 


1 


September 


2 


obei 


1 


Mr. 


1 




1 


April 




Month. 




mbei 




79 Octobei 




1. inn. 11 v 


73. 


bei 




■ 1 March 




fuly 


5°. SSi 


fuly 




1 le» embei 



THE BRKklU'ILDKR.— INDEX. 



Vol. XI. Jan. — Dec, 1902. 



Architect. Building and Location. 

Chase, Ames cc. Dessez. . -. Municipal Hospital for the District of Columbia 

( 'ope & Stewardson A New City Hall 

Cope & Stewardson . Leamy Home, Philadelphia, Pa 

( ram, Goodhue & Ferguson Chapel, St. Luke's Home, Boston 

1 St. Mary's Church, Parish House and Rectory, ) 

m, Goodhue & Ferguson Walkerville, ( >nt ' 1 

Day, Frank Miles & Bro Ice Manufacturing Plant 

Day, Frank Miles & Pro Municipal Hospital for the District of Columbia 



Mjllli A 

fenney & dale 
Hale. Herbert D. ... 

Hale. Herbert I). 



House in Boston suburb 

Library, Weston. Mass 

Municipal Hospital for the District of Columbia. 

Path House for City of Boston 

uirst & Huckel Store and Apartment Building, Philadelphia, Pa. . . 

IP-ins & La Farge House, New York City 

Heins <Y La Farge Church, Providence, R. I 

Link, Theo. C St. Luke's Hospital, St. Louis, Mo. 

Maginnis, Walsh & Sullivan Church, Northampton. Mass 

McKim, Mead & White House, New York City 

McKim. Mead & White Y. M. ( '. A. Building, Orange, N. I 

Parish & Schroeder Y. M. C. A. Building, Brooklyn, V Y 

Peabodv & Steams Norfolk County Registry of Deeds, Dedham, Mass. 

Peabody & Stearns Runkle School, Brookline, Mass 

Peabody & Steams Gymnasium, Lawrenceville, N. I 

Peters & Rice House, Boston 

Rutan & Russell Phipps School of Physical Training, Allegheny, Pa. 

Rutan & Russell House, Pittsburgh, Pa 

Rutan & Russell Bank, McKee's Rocks, Pa 

Rutan & Russell Phipps School of Botany. Pittsburgh, Pa 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge House. Brookline. Mass 

Shepley. Rutan & Coolidge Municipal Hospital for the District of Columbia. . . 

Shepley. Rutan & Cooiidge Norfolk County Registry of Deeds, Dedham, Mass. 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge Hospital, Brookline, Mass 

Taylor. James Rnox Post Office, Janesville, Wis 

Thompson, G. K House, Allen hurst, N. J 

York & Sawyer Settlement House. New \ ork City 





Plate No. 


Month. 


19, 


20, 


21,22 


March 




IO , 


1 1, 14 


Februarv 






83,86 


November 






58,63 


August 






9*1 'M 


December 




9, 


15, [6 


February 


* 33i 34. 35> 37, 

1 .V s - 39> 40 


May 






2, 7 


January 






57, 64 


August 


41. 


4-', 


17- I s 


June 






M. 8 S 


November 






2 5 


April 






36 


May 






76, 77 


October 


26. 


*7. 


3°, 3 1 


\pril 






75, 78 


October 






1 


lanuarv 






68, 69 


September 




65. 


7>- ;-' 


September 






28, 29 


April 




66, 


67, 70 


September 






9°, 95 


December 






{,6 


lanuarv 






51, 54 


July 






s , . 88 


November 






89 


December 






96 


December 






i. 5 


January 


43, 


1 1. 


45, 4^> 


[une 






52. 53 


lulv 


59, 


60 


6 1 , 62 


August 






'-• '3 


Februarv 






74 


1 k tuber 






3 - 


April 



FRONTISPIECES.— FULL-PAGE HALF-TONE ILLUSTRATK >NS. 

Building and Location. 

Convent of the ('destines, Tournai, Holland 

A House on the Left Bank of the River Meuse, Liege. Belgium 

( Iffices of the Seigneurial ( 'astle at < 'leydael, Belgium 

The Weigh House at Nimegue, Belgium 

Facade at Nimegue, I lolland 

Church at Haarlem, Holland 

Tympanum, Hospital St. lean, at Bruges, Belgium 

Detail, Church of St. Martin, Ypres, Belgium 

Market House at files a Delft, Holland 

Dormers of an Ancient Market House, Haarlem, Hollai.il 

Dormers of House at Furnes, Belgium 

1 (etail of House at Bruges, Belgium ... 



MISCELLANEOUS ILLUSTRATIONS IN LETTER-PRESS. 

This list does not include illustrations made in connection with regular articles, nor those of terra-COtta detail 
Title and Location. itect. 

Apartment. New \ ork City. . Neville & Bagge 

Apartment, New York City . ... Hugh Lamb 

ixtment, Boston, Mass. Arthur H. Yinal 

Apartment, Chicago, 111 Henry R. Newhouse . 

Vpartment, Boston. Mass. , Parker & Thomas 

Apartment, Boston. Mass Parker & Thomas 

Apartments, New York City. . 



Apartment, Boston .... 

Hank, Ansonia, ( 'onn 

Bank at Moline, 111 

Bank, Newport News, \a 

Bank. Woodstock, Vt 

use, Philadelphia 



Chui 

Chui hi !. Philadelphia 

Church, Berlin, On! . 
Church, Caladonia, Wis. 

I). A. Helmick 

ey City, N. J C.eorge B. Post 

. . Robert Sharp . 



A. H. Bowditch 

Brown & Yon Beren . 
Harry W. [ones 
P. r. Marye 

William W. Clay 
Addison Hutton 

Alfred Zucker 

R. H. Hunt . 
1'urness, Evans & Co. 

H. D. Dagit 

Fden Smith . 

Peter Brust 



Month. 
January 
February 

March 
April 
May 
lune 
July 
August 
September 

October 
November 
I )ecember 



1'age. 


Month. 


40 


Februarv 


6., 


March 


84 


April 


84 


A pril 




April 




\pril 


.76 


Uigust 


260 


December 


>7 


lanuarv 


'7- 1 


August 


218 


October 


2 1 9 


( Ictober 


263 


December 


20 


January 


16 


January 




April 


'74 


August 


260 


December 




December 


'53 


July 


240 


November 


'7 1 


August 



R4A STATE LIBRARY 



Vol. XI. 



Dec. 



062 



:go2. 



THE BRICKBUILDER.— INDEX. 



Title and Location. Architect. 

Deschler Building, Minneapolis, Minn Mark Fitzpatrick 

Fire Department House, Camden, N. J Thomas H. Stephen 

Hotel Raymond, Pasadena, Cal Hunt & Ea°-er 

Hotel St. Charles, New Orleans, La . . Thomas Sully 

House in a suburb of Boston Tohn A. Fox 

House, Cincinnati, Ohio Elzner & Anderson 

House, Cincinnati, Ohio Elzner & Anderson 

House, Lenox, Mass Peabody & Stearns 

House, New York City Ren wick, Aspinwall & Owen 

House, Glenside, Pa 1 1. A. leckel 

House, Bryn Mawr, Pa Newman, Woodman & Harris 

House, Glen Cove, L. I., N. Y C. P. H. Gilbert 

House, Washington, D. C James G. Hill 

House, Avondale, Ohio Des Jardins & Hayward 

House at Lawrenceville, L. I., N. Y T. Henry Randall' 

House, Lake Geneva, Wis Jarvis Hunt 

House, Mt. Holly, N. J T. H. Prior & Sons 

Houses, Toronto, Ont Eden Smith 2 

Houses, City of Mexico, Mexico J. Edward Campbell 

Houses, Minneapolis, Minn F. B. & L. L. Pong . . 

Immigrant Station, New York Harbor Boring & Tilton 

Infirmary, Vassar College York & Sawyer 

Leamy Home, Philadelphia ( 'ope & Stewardson 

Pibrary, Wallingford, Conn 

Library, Mankato, Minn Jardine, Kent & Jardine 

Library, Albany, N. Y Marcus T. Reynolds 

Masonic Temple, Meridian, Miss Krouse & Hutchisson 

Mission House, New York City Howells & Stokes 

Office Building, New Haven, Conn Brown & Yon Beren 

Office Building, Philadelphia, Pa F.dgar V. Seeler 

Office Building, New York City Clinton & Russell 

( )ffice Building, Albany, N. Y ( '. G. Ogden 

Patrol House, Cincinnati, Ohio Boll & Taylor 

Plunge Bath, Gymnasium, Columbia College McKim, Mead & White 

Police Station and Court House, Brookline, Mass r 

Police Station, New York City Horgan & Slattery 

Police Station, New York City Horgan <& Slattery 

Post Office, Annapolis, Md James Knox Taylor 

Railway Station, Moline, 111 O. Z. Cervin 

Railway Station, Lebanon, Pa Wilson Bros. & Co 

Railway Station, Rock Island, 111 ()./.. Cervin 

Railway Station, Richmond, Ind W. S. Kaufman 

Railway Station, Marion, Ind VY. S. Kaufman 

Railway Station, New York Central R. R Reed & Stem 

Russian Temple, Newark, N. J Nathan Meyers 

Schoolhouse, East Boston, Mass John Lyman Paxon 

Schoolhouse, Indianapolis, Ind \dolph Sherrer 

Schoolhouse, Chillicothe, Ohio Prank L. Packard 

Schoolhouse, Hyde Park, Ohio 1 >ornette & Sheppard 

Schoolhouse (Friendship), Allegheny, Pa CM. Bartberger 

Schoolhouse, Madisonville, Ohio S. Hannaford & Sons 

Schoolhouse, St. Louis, Mo W. B. Ittner 

Storage Warehouse, Chicago, 111 Holabird & Roche 

Storage Warehouse, New York City -, 

Store Building, St. Paul, Minn Mark Fitzpatrick. . . 

Store Building, Wheeling, W. Ya '.-... Giesey & Paris 

Store Building, Kansas ( 'ity, Mo Lewis ( "urtis 

Store Building 

Telephone Exchange, Cincinnati, Ohio Geo. W. Rapp >V Son 

University School for Boys, Baltimore, Md 



Page. 


Month. 


[26 


[une 


19 


January 


132 


June 


IT- 


August 


'S 


[anuary 


[6 


January 


iS 


[anuary 


39 


February 


62 


March 


85 


\pril 


107 


May 


107 


May 


1 09 


May 


1 51 


[une 


'5' 


July 


'73 


August 


2 1 1 1 


\0\ ember 




l December 


' 5 


[anuary 


t6 


[anuary 


1 1') 


lulv 


Z M 


November 


239 


November 


19 


January 


1 29 


[une 


237 


November 


150 


July 


40 


February 


'7 


January 


20 


[anuary 


! 08 


May 


'3° 


I une 


152 


lulv 


1 52 


July 


27, [28 


[une 


13' 


June 


'75 


August 


- $7 


November 


105 


May 


'53 


lulv 


'53 


lulv 


197 


September 


218 


< October 


263 


Dei ember 


154 


lulv 


") 


January 


"1 


[anuary 


10S 


May 




May 


'75 


August 


'7'' 


August 




ember 


1 5 


February 


1 6 


Ma) 


'75 


Vugust 


220 


Octol 


238 


November 




1 >ecembei 




I •(•( ember 


41. 1-' 


February 



SERIALS. 



COLONIAL BRICKWORK OF NEW ENGLAND. 

BY WALTER II. KII.HAM. 

(Continued from Vol. X.) 

I'age. Month. 
Paper II Portsmouth, N. H 3 January- 
Paper III Providence, R.I 25 February 

THE 'TOWN HALL SERIES. 



by A. O. Elzner 7 January 

by Pdward G. Garden 51 March 

by Albert Kelsey 225 November 



Paper I. 
Paper 1 1. 
Paper IIP 

TOWN SQ1 VRES 0] NOB I H ITALY. 

BY WALTER H. KII.HAM. 

Paper 1 47 March 

Paper II 7' M ,ril 



ROBBIA l'A\ I Ml \ IS. 

BY Ml \\" M IRQUAHD. 

Month. 

Paper I. 55 March 

Paper II... 98 Ma) 

THE BUSINESS SIDE 01 \N IRCHITE< ["S OFFICE. 

BY I). BVERKT1 WAID. 

Papei I. '"I M"' 1 

Paper IP 91 Ma) 

Paper 1 1 1. 1 5 7 Au 

Paper tV 191 September 

AR( 111 1 1 < 1 UR \i. \\D 1:1 M mm; PRA< 1 [( 1 
IN GR] \ l BRITAIN. 

I. <So April 

I I. 165 August 



THE BRICKIU'ILDER.— INDEX. 



Vol. XI. Jan. — Dec, 1902. 



THE "SETTLEMENT HOUSE." 

' u AN B. POND. 



Paper I. 
Paper 11. 
Paper III. 



I'age. Month. 
.140 July 

. r6o August 

.178 September 



PLANNING OF APARTMENT HOUSES. 

BY WALTER II. KILHAM. 

Paper 1 245 December 



BRICKWORK IX BUFFALO. 

BY ULYSSES O. ORR. 

I'age. Month. 

Residences 134 July 

Apartments and Clubhouses t86 September 

Miscellaneous Buildings 210 October 

BRICK ARCHITECTURE IX PITTSBURGH, PA. 

BY HOWARD K.. JONES. 

Domestic 228 November 

Public and Commercial 253 December 



MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES. 

A French C.othic Cathedral in Prick Jean Schopfer 

Architectural Practice — An Art and a Business J. F. Harder 

Decoration of the Ceppo Hospital at Pistoia Allan Marquand 

Formal Cardens Samuel Parsons, Jr 

Interesting Tile Work of " Dreamwold " 

Report, Fourth Annual Convention of the Architectural League / 
of America | 

Paper Louis H. Sullivan 

Paper Herbert 15. Briggs 

Paper Percy Ash 

Paper John W. Case 

Paper George Pispham Page 

Paper Frederick S. Lamb 

Paper Charles Mulford Robinson 

Some Simple Lincolnshire Brickwork R. Clipston Sturgis 

The Cantilever Arch Truss N. Clifford Ricker 

The Crematorium lohn W. ( 'ase 



FI REPROOFING ARTICLES. 



Conflagration at Paterson, X. J., February *, 1902, Report 

Corrosion of Steel Frames of Buildings 

Designing of Buildings with Reference to Insurance Requirements 

Fire-Proof Grain Storage Buildings 

Fire-Proofing of High Office Buildings 

Insurance Companies vs. Insurers and the Building Laws 

Johnson System of Floor Construction 

Permanency of Steel Skeleton Construction 

Rational Methods of Fire-Proofing 

of Iire-1'roof Partitions by the New York City Building Department 



EDITORIALS. 



A National Scholarship in Architecture 

A Possible function of the Architectural League . 

Alterations at the White House 

Architectural Monstrosities 

Construction of the Dome of the Pantheon, Rome . 
Fire Waste 





Month. 


94 


May 


74 


April 


2 2 2 


November 


■!') 


February 


-°5 


October 


1 1 2 


June 


' 14 


[une 


116 


June 


1 17 


June 


"7 


June 


119 


June 


1 20 


June 


1 2 1 


lune 


10 


January 


34 


February 


200 


October 



■>7 


March 


59 


December 


7° 
J 2 


August 
November 


15 
77 
1 1 


July 

April 

( >ctober 


02 
37 


May 
February 


'3 


January 



fires in Fire-Proof Buildings 1 

Lessons in Fire-Proof Construction 

Obituary — Walter Cope 2 

Provisions of the New Tenement House Law for New York City 2 

Public Art Spirit 

Standard Fire- Resisting Buildings 

Terra-Cotta at the Paterson Fire 

Tests of Fire- Proofing Materials 

The Architectural League of America 

The Campanile of St. Mark 1 

The Civic Improvement League 

The Convention of the Architectural League of America 1 

The Fire at Paterson, N. J 

The Future of the Architectural Profession 1 

The Permanency of Stone 

The Thirty-sixth Annual Convention of the A. I. A 2 

The Twentieth-Century City 

The Twentieth-Century Renaissance 

The Washington Improvement Commission 

Training of the Draughtsman 1 

Why a Building Did not Fall 1 



90 

77 
99 


May 

September 

< H tober 


68 


April 
November 


46 


March 


77 


September 


2 3 
2 1 


February 
November 


2 1 


November 


1 

23 

67 

i 

89 

55 
89 


January 
February 

April 
January 

May 

August 

May 


1 1 


|une 


2 3 
33 
68 

43 


February 
July 

April 
1 )ecember 


2 

45 


January 
March 


90 

09 


May 

( >ctober 


56 


August 



jft VOL. II 
NO. I 



•£**»: 



THE 



BRICKBVILDERI^ 

h r. b. 



ft 

JAN. ft 
902 \>k 



Agencies. — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Terra-Cotta 
Brick 


PAGE 
. . . 11 
. . . II 

. II and III 
. . . Ill 


" Enameled 


. Ill and IV 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & M ANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 1 2, 1 892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada . . . . . . . jjSj. 00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... $6.00 per year 

SlIiSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 

PAGE 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



TESTS OF FIRE-PROOFING MATERIALS. 

MR. EDWARD ATKINSON, the president of the 
Boston Manufacturers' Mutual Fire Insurance 
Company, who has been very thoroughly identified with 
the improvements in mill construction tending to reduce 
the fire hazard, has begun a scries of investigations 
of the various so-called fire-proofing materials mainly 
devised for the protection of steel from heat. Such 
investigations are by no means new, but on the con- 
trary have been pursued with the utmost care during 
the past decade in this country, with results which al- 
ready have been published very fully from time to time 
in the columns of The Brickbuilder, and the architect 
who is well posted and abreast of the times has very 
little difficulty in getting at a mass of data from which 
he can make an intelligent and scientific selection of 
fire-proofing materials. The only difficulty is in distin- 
guishing between what is bona fide evidence and what 
is the result of advertising expediency. If we were to 
take the word of all the circulars which we find travel- 
ing around the country, there are at least ten distinct 
systems of fire-proofing now in vogue, each of which is 
claimed by its business backers to be absolutely the best; 



and furthermore each system has the indorsement, more 
or less ample, of the building inspectors in the various 
large cities. The Brickbuilder has never expressed the 
slightest doubt as to what was the most suitable material 
for the protection of steel against the action of fire, and 
our conviction in favor of brick and burnt clay in various 
forms has been indorsed most unqualifiedly by the ma- 
jority of the tests which have been conducted simply with 
a view to determining relative efficiency. We feel confi- 
dent that Mr. Atkinson will approach the subject in his 
original way, and, viewing the facts as he will from the 
insurance interests, his conclusions arc sure to be of 
value. In his circular he calls attention to the fact that 
in Great Britain it is said to have been proved that many 
of the concretes, some of which are there called breeze 
and of which coal ashes are the principal material, are very 
destructive to iron and steel. These ashes come from 
coals containing a good deal of material which may cause 
corrosion, and the long-continued contact even of dry 
ashes with iron and steel beams where thin plates arc 
imbedded in them is said to cause oxidization. We have 
heard of one instance in which a building was fire-proofed 
with coke breeze concrete mixed, however, with so little 
cement that the construction actually took tire and burned 
as a result of an upset stove on one of the floors. There 
have been some forms of fire-proofing in which even coal 
dust was used, a material which would certainly be any- 
thing but fire-resisting. 

Many investigations and reports have been made on 
the subject by representatives of special methods, but 
Mr. Atkinson states that he is not informed of any gen- 
eral report or conduct of tests corresponding to those 
now being made by the electricians and engineers who 
have organized the Fire Prevention Association of Great 
Britain, 



PUBLIC ART SPIRIT. 

WE are very prone to think of this as a prosaic. 
commercial age marked by acquisitiveness and 

material development rather than any popular enthu- 
siasm for the fine arts. Such a characterization might 
undoubtedly be made with a good deal of" truth of the 
Century which has just closed, and while we cannot hope 
that mere changing from t8oo to 1 <)<><> is to mark an entire 
change of heart on matters of art. it nevertheless seems 
as though we were now in the midst of a spirit far more 
appreciative of the finer qualities of civilization and life 
lli, m tin- world has seen since the days of the Italian 
Renaissance. Our cities are still horrible m many re- 
spects. Individualism will undoubtedly be rampant the 
whole length of Broadway for at least another century, 



T H E H R I C K B U I L D E R 



and we can expect neither our postage stamps nor dollar 
bills to be exactly monuments of decorative art; but on 
the other hand there are not lacking signs which show at 
least the intent, and that is certainly half the battle. As 
our readers are doubtless aware, the United States gov- 
ernment some time since appointed a commission consist- 
in-' of Messrs. C. F. McKim and 1). H. Burnham, the 
well-known architects, and Mr. F. L. Olmsted, the land- 
scape artist, to make a careful study of the artistic possi- 
bilities of the city of Washington. The only parallel to 
this action which we recall at present is that taken by 
Napoleon III with the aid of Karon Haussman when he 
transformed Paris and laid out the magnificent system 
of boulevards which make Paris what it is to day. But 
the scheme before the Washington Commission is at once 
more comprehensive and more interesting. Considered 
merely in mass and in its relation to its purpose, the 
United States Capitol has always appealed to us as one of 
the most magnificent buildings in the world. The city 
of Washington is superb. Many of its public buildings 
are marked exceptions to the rule regarding United 
States government work of the last century, and we 
know of 110 more fascinating problem than has been set 
before the members of this commission. Nor do we 
know of anything which could be more indicative of the 
spirit of the age than that the politicians at Washington 
should appoint a commission of this sort, for it shows 
not that the politicians themselves appreciate art so much 
as that the people who are behind the politicians demand 
that our capital shall be beautiful. 

And the twentieth century is in our judgment to be 
marked by an artistic development in this country such 
as the world has never seen before. It will not be 
Roman art; it may be more like the best of the Italian 
Renaissance. The rewards to the artist to-day are all 
that one could wish. The great opportunities command 
great pecuniary profits. Our public spirit will probably 
never have the keenness of appreciation of the Creeks, 
but with a broader civic spirit than was ever possible 
during the Italian Renaissance, with unlimited material 
wealth at command, and with all the mechanical adjuncts 
which, while making our modern civilization so complex, 
also render possible the largest efforts with the least 
drain upon personal limitations, we ought to see the 
twentieth century develop very speedily an American 
art worthy of our fondest dreams. 



THE TWENTIETH CENTURY CI TV. 

THE American League for Civic Improvement is 
doing missionary work by its pamphlet recently 
published, entitled "The Twentieth Century City: a 
Record of Work Accomplished for Civic Development." 
This cause is too well known to require extended com- 
ment. Its influence has been felt in all the leading cities 
of the country, and its objects are so thoroughly com- 
mendable in every sense that the League needs but be 
known to be well received. Any one who has been 
familiar with the aspect of central Illinois and western 
Indiana during the last ten or fifteen years can appre- 
ciate the possibilities of civic improvement which the 
League tries to foster. Only a few years ago this dis- 
trict of our country was an almost treeless prairie, 



broken only by thin fringes of vegetable growth along 
the river banks. To-day there is hardly a village that 
has not its avenues of thriving shade trees, and even 
along the country roads tree planting has been carried 
to a remarkable extent, with the result of completely 
changing the aspect of the country. Indianapolis in its 
abundance of tries is perhaps unequaled anywhere. 

Of course tree planting is only one of the objects 
which the League tries to foster. It makes an earnest 
plea for better roads, better public buildings, better 
architecture generally, and in these respects it has been 
ably seconded by the efforts of the Architectural League 
in America, which has given earnest support to the 
movement for civic betterment. 



There are about twelve other interesting specimens 
of old Dutch brickwork which will be presented during 
this year as frontispieces. The object in continuing this 
series is to make the collection of this charming old work 
nearer complete. 

Applied Perspective for Architects \m> Painters. 
W. P. P- Longfellow, boston: Houghton, Mifflin & 

Co. 

It would almost seem that there is hardly demand for 
a work such as this, since the topic has been treated so 
thoroughly and exhaustively by others, but Professor 
Longfellow has approached the subject in a manner 
which makes it exceedingly interesting, and the work 
certainly deserves a more extended review than our 
columns would warrant. The value of the work is 
greatly enhanced by the character of the problems which 
are Studied. While, in the nature of things, it is inevita- 
ble that there should be a certain amout of discussion of 
truncated pyramids, across on three steps, etc., very little 
space is given to such elementary, almost axiomatic work, 
and the bulk of the discussion is directed more to real 
problems in perspective, and actual, well-known buildings 
and effective portions of buildings are studied, working 
backwards, as it were, from the photograph to a con- 
structive drawing. This is as it should be. The per- 
spective which does not convey the same impression as a 
photograph, as far at least as pertains to drawing, is just 
to that extent false, and Professor Longfellow seems to 
be able to keep clearly in view all the time the real 
purpose of perspective drawing, namely, to correctly 
represent objects. He also presents a very careful analy- 
sis of perspective scales, including the introduction of 
human figures in drawings. As he very truly says, "the 
practice of perspective depends not so much on many 
principles as on the varied application of a few." He 
refers his readers to Professor Ware's "Modern Perspec- 
tive " for a full, theoretical account of the science, this 
book being rather an attempt to show what trained 
draughtsmen actually do in laying out a drawing. The 
amount of mathematics required for a complete under- 
standing of this subject is really very slight, and -any in- 
telligent reader who does not know geometry can find 
profit in the book and learn what is fundamental in it 
without unreasonable effort. 

This treatise might very fairly be entitled a disserta- 
tion upon the art of perspective drawing as understood 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



and applied by our best draughtsmen and painters, and 
as illustrated by photographs of actual buildings. 

Architectural Engineering, with Special Referenci 
to High Building Construction. By |. K. Freitag, 
B. S., C. E. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 

This is the second edition of Mr. Freitag's well-known 
work, but it is so increased in number of pages and illus- 
trations as to constitute practically an original volume. 
The first edition appeared in 1895, when high building 
construction found its best development in Chicago. 
Since then the Chicago methods have spread throughout 
the country and have been refined into a science which 
is admirably epitomized in this second edition. < >ur only 
criticism would take the form of regret that the author 
did not entirely discard the original layout and rewrite 
the whole book, though the interpolations are manifestly 
obtrusive in only a few places. This volume is a com- 
panion to the same author's work on the " Fire-proofing of 
Steel Buildings " and should be studied in conjunction 
therewith. Both are admirable in their ways, and in the 
few years they have been before the public have won a 
position as being standard. " Architectural Engineering" 
is, so far as we know, the best treatise which has ever 
been published upon the subject. 

Light, Heat and Power in Buildings. By Alton 11. 
Adams. New York: William T. Comstock. 

The object of this volume is to present in a compact 
form the main facts on which the selection of sources for 
light, heat and power should be based. It includes a 
study of gas, electricity, steam and hot water, as well as 
the various fuels. The subject-matter is treated in a 
very clear, concise manner, and in the one hundred and 
two pages of the volume all of the leading facts pertain- 
ing to the subject are set forth in such a manner as to 
make them readily available for the electrician or the 
engineer. Mathematical elaborations of mere theory are 
entirely eliminated, and the solid, available matter is 
packed so closely that there is no waste space in the 
volume. It is a work thoroughly to be commended for 
its purpose. 

The Builder's Handbook. By A. Roberts. Size 4 x 6 ' 
inches; 220 pages. Price $1, delivered. A. Roberts 
& Co., Normal, Neb. 

A pocket manual of information, facts, figures and 
memoranda such as a builder needs every day for refer- 
ence and equally valuable to the owner or anyone intend 
ing to invest money in building improvements. 

The work has been carefully prepared by an architect 
of larj^e experience who is also a practical mechanic, and 
is made for common everyday use by practical men. 
Most of the facts are not new, many of them you will 
already know, though these maybe presented in a new 
light, but the multitude of facts and formulas required 
by the builder cannot always be remembered. The most 
skilled mechanic will find the book invaluable simply as 
an aid to memory. 

Every subject has been treated in the simplest and 
clearest manner and fully illustrated with original draw- 
ings, making it easy to understand. 



Colonial Brickwork of New* England. 



PORTSMOUTH, X. II. 

lo WALTER 11. KILHAM. 

IT is a curious circumstance that the most important 
factor, that of simplicity, in the only style of archi- 
tecture which is in any sense indigenous to our country, 
has never made any distinct impression on the style of 




in 11 -1 \ r POR 1 Mini 1 11. 

design practiced by later generations of architects. The 
Layman who in response to his directions receives from 
his architect a square, box-like structure decorated with 
large pilasters, a dee]) porch, leaded bay windows, other 
windows of shapes varying from oval to square and a 




'ok I sMiil 1 11. 



large amount of papier niacin' garlandry distributed 
where it will do the most good, and fondly imagines that 

he is getting tlie real "Old Colonial," is not more to be 
blamed than the practitioner who places upon a sil 



TH E BRIC'KISl'ILDER 




PETTIGREW HOUSE, PORTSMOUTH. 

forty-foot front all the decorations that originally grew in 
an entire city. Both have signally failed to grasp the 
reason of the charm that each lias felt in the presence of 
the stately mansions which during the eighteenth cen- 
try were erected in America. That charm is produced not 
by slender pillar or delicate molding, but first, last and 
always by the restrained use of one or two good architec- 
tural motifs, relieved against a facade otherwise almost 
entirely plain. Take the illustrations of the old Ports- 
mouth houses which accompany this article. One house 




WARNER HOUSE, PORTSMOUTH. 

has a Palladian window over a porch as its motif; another 

has the front all of Palladian windows and no porch; an- 
other has a delicate pilaster treatment with perfectly sim- 
ple windows. Seldom, we think, will be found any re- 
dundancy of ornament, any evidence of confusion or 
doubt in the mind of the designer. Simple, straight- 
forward and direct, after a century of usefulness these 
charming old buildings stand quietly confounding the 
strenuous taste of the modern designers who go among 
them with sketchbook and camera and come away with- 
out having seen the simple fact at the bottom of all. 

Standing on its rocky promontory, with the whirling 
tides of the Piscataqua eddying around the foundations of 



its weather-beaten brick warehouses the old city of Ports- 
mouth stands as the most picturesque of the ancient New 
England seaports. It has no such regular and stately 
vistas of mansions as has Salem, but it replaces them by ;i 
no less pleasing irregularity which brings its splendid old 
houses into the most picturesque of poses. 

The best type of Portsmouth house is rather prone to 
stand on a grassy ten-ace several feet above the street, 
from which it is approached by a succession of short 
flights of stone steps with chain fences at the sides. 




TYPE oF DOORWAY, PORTSMOUTH. 

Tile house is high and stately, with much arcaded shed 
work and stabling at the rear and a large garden enclosed 
by a tight board fence paneled on the street side, as in 
the illustration, and with urns on the posts. In the 
actual style of the houses there is much variety, ranging 
from the gabled two-story type of the Warner house to 
the square block of the Paddock or Pierce houses; and 
a number of motifs are used in the decorative architec- 




DETAIL, oi.ii CUSTOM HOUSE, PORTSMOUTH. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




PADDOCK HOUSE, PORTSMOUTH. 

ture which from their frequency give the architecture a 
distinctly local flavor. For example, the Palladian win- 
dow enclosed by a wide arch enclosing the entire motif 
and concentric with the arch of the central division 
occurs in Portsmouth quite generally, but in Salmi 
it is almost wholly absent. Noteworthy examples of 
this occur in the facade of the Paddock house which 
we illustrate quite fully. Here the entire fenestration 
of the front is composed of these Palladian windows, 
beautifully spaced, which give a remarkably stately 
air to the elevation. The details are unusually simple, 
even for Colonial work. The central window space is 




PADDOCK HOUSE, PORTSMOUTH. 

enclosed by a marble frame. In the second story the 
side spaces are solidly bricked up. The whole is recessed 
and enclosed in an eight-inch arch ring set flush with the 
wall. Though the whole is exceedingly simple, much 
attention has been given to detail. For example, the 
central section of the window sill projects beyond the 
rest, and the proportions of the first story windows differ 
from those of the second. This establishment offers an 
interesting study in foliage and the placing of shrubbery, 
for which reason we show two views, one in winter and 
one in summer, the latter bringing out the effective 
shadows and masses of shrubs. The fence and flights of 
steps leading to the door are interesting. 

Good examples of the Palladian windows above re- 
ferred to are also to be seen in the house on Middle St i 
next to the old Academy building, and in the building 



known as the did Custom House, these latter having the 
arched space done in white plaster. 

Another characteristic motif is the use of pilasters 
and panels on the facades. ;ts in t h. of the Pierce 

house (built in 1S00) and others. This particular house 
is of wood, but it offers one of the best examples of the 

style. 

Cupolas are common and arc generally well designed 
and elegant. 




PIERCE HOUSE, POR I SM01 I H. 

The Pettigrew house may be taken as the representa- 
tive of the type with which we have become familiar at 
Salem and elsewhere. Like several of the others it 
stands well back from the street on a raised terrace which 
seems to give an added dignity. 

The stabling of many of the houses is as interesting 
as the houses themselves. We illustrate the stable and 
courtyard of the Paddock house, which has almost an old- 
world air of peace and seclusion. The stables were al- 
ways given a regularity of design which consorted well 
with the facades of the mansions they served. 

The ornamentation around the doorways lias unusual 
delicacy. One of the best examples is the entrance to the 
Public Library, known as the old Academy, on Congi 
Street, built in 1809. The front entrance to the I'etti- 




RTVAI ■ \DI101 K HOI 

grew house on the same street has the same idea devel- 
oped by bringing the columns forward cl 'he wall 
and allowing the cornice section alone to form the roof 
of a small porch. The curved pediment is also consid- 



THE HRICKHU I LDER 



erably used, both segmental and broken, as well as the 
broken triangular pediment. 

In the business section of the city other interesting 
examples of old brickworkare found. The streets which 
curve along the steep and rocky banks of the Piscataqua 
are closely lined with blocks of tall warehouses with 
steep roofs and brick gables built up in steps like thoseof 




OLD BRICK CHURCH, PORTSMOUTH. 

Holland, and whose seaward-looking faces have the rich 
red rust only given by the salt air of the Atlantic. From 
the old wharves the line of the warehouses as it sweeps 
out on to Church Point, with the square tower of the old 
church rising above the massive brick walls which cling 
to the rocks above the swiftly running tide, forms a com- 
position as surprising and unusual as anything in Amer- 
ica, and one which for picturesque outline compares with 
anything on the coast of Brittany. St. John's Church 
itself, which crowns the heights, is a good example of 
early ecclesiastical brickwork and has many interesting 
points of detail. It dates from 1S.0S. Besides the wind- 




THE OLD ACADEMY, OR PUBLIC LIBRARY, PORTSMOUTH. 

ing streets of the water front there are several other 
wide and straight thoroughfares lined with blocks of 
leaten brick houses, much resembling the old 
seaports of England. 

In this section of the city stands the Warner house, 
built in 1718, and said to be the oldest brick house in 



Portsmouth. Captain Archibald Macpheadris, a wealthy 
merchant and member of the King's Council, was the 
original owner. As was common at that period, the 
bricks used in its construction, as well as the hearth- 
stones, tiles, etc., were brought from Holland. Tradition 
has it that the lightning rods were put up by Benjamin 
Franklin in person in 1 ;(>2. The interior is rich in panel- 
ing and carving, with wide halls and stately staircases. 
Some years ago the layers of wall paper which had accu- 
mulated on the walls of the lower hall were removed, 
exposing a remarkable series of pictures of landscapes, 
Biblical views, etc., painted on the walls by some long- 
forgotten artist. 

Comparatively few of Portsmouth's brick buildings 
antedate the Revolution, if we accept the authority of 
General Washington's diary, the veracity of which natu- 




ENTR VNCE. 



HI) ACADEMY. POR1 SMI »UTH. 



rally cannot be questioned. On his visit to Portsmouth 
in 17S9 he was apparently not much impressed with the 
architectural achievements of the place, for he wrote: 
■•There are some good houses, among which Colonel 
Langdon's may be esteemed the first, but in general they 
are indifferent and almost entirely of wood. On my 
wondering at this, as the country is full of stone and 
good clay for bricks, I was told that on account of fogs 
and damp they deemed them wholesomer, and for that 
reason preferred wood buildings." This ingenious ex- 
cuse given by the citizens of Portsmouth may have saved 
their local pride, but we doubt if it convinced the astute 
general. The Langdon house referred to is of wood and 
is a remarkably fine example of Colonial architecture as 
well as an unusually historic old mansion, having shel- 
tered no less notable persons than Washington, Lafayette, 
the Due d'Orleans, later Louis Philippe of Prance, and 
many other famous Americans and Frenchmen. 



THE RRICKIUIII.DKK 



The Town Hall Series. I. 

FOR A WESTERN TOWN. 

BY A. 0. ELZNER. 

THE revised statutes of Ohio provide that the gov- 
ernment of a village shall be vested in the following 

officers: a mayor, a clerk, a sealer of weights and meas- 
ures, a treasurer and marshal, and a council composed 
of six members, or two from each ward where there are 
three or more wards. The offices of solicitor and street 
commissioner are optional, and the latter may be com- 
bined in the marshal. Council may by a special ordi- 
nance make suitable provisions for any other depart- 
ments, such as police, fire, park, engineer, etc., as in its 
judgment may be deemed necessary. 

Let us follow custom and therefore suppose in the 
present instance that the marshal will include the office 
of street commissioner, and that the office of solicitor will 
be taken care of by a private law firm in the hire of the 
council. It is customary furthermore for council to hire 
and provide an engineer, who takes charge of all public 
improvements but does not necessarily have a room in 
the town hall at his disposal. It is eminently preferable, 
however, that a room should be set aside for this purpose, 
and the plan of this town hall will so provide. It is not 
essential, however, that the room should be limited to the 
use of the engineer, for he will merely require a table and 
a writing-desk, including possibly a case of drawers for 
supplies. If council should decide to have a special street 
commissioner, such an officer could easily be furnished 
with desk room in the engineer's office or in the marshal's 
office. If a special police department be provided, it might 
easily be housed in the basement; although the fire de- 
partment should be provided for in a separate building 
apart from the town hall. 

There are other minor departments that might be 
created by council, although the above cover what is cus- 

PROGRAMME. 

The problem indicated by the following programme is a town hall 
such as would be requisite in a village of live or six thousand inhabit- 
ants. 

It is supposed to stand on the public square of the town, which 
square is qrite closely built Up with such buildings as would naturally. 
be found in a locality of this kind. Iftherean rences in grade, 

the town hall is supposed to occupy the highest land. 

The contributors in this series represent different sections of the 
country, and each design will indicate not only in the matter of arra 
nient of plan but also in point of architectural style, the sort of thing 
that would be particularly appropriate for the section of the country 
in which the building is to be located. 

In the matter of accommodations and of the sizes ami disposition 
of the rooms, each contributor uses his own judgment, following out 
the idea indicated above by preparing designs particularly fitted for 
the various sections of the United States. 

The principal hall in this building would probably be used as a 
place for certain public entertainments, theatrical am ml no 

provision is mad- for county courts or library. Otl 
included at the discretion of the contributor. 

'I !„ materials an to be, S< ,nm " 

Clay in some of its forms, and the same materials may enter into the 
interior construction and. >o of the building, at 

Of the contributor. 

Tll , C os1 oi I lilding, exclusive of furnishings, should n. 

ceedSsoooo This sum. while perhaps la 'with 

the idea of laying stress on the necessity of having a building of some 

richness to represent the town in itscorp 

The idea is simply to '""'" " f a l ,r "'" 

lem that frequently occurs for 9olut 



tomary, and it would not l>c advisable to encumber the 
building with a lot of rooms that in all probability would 
remain idle and unoccupied. Far better it would be 
t<> limit the number of rooms and in case of necessity 
arrange elsewhere tor emergencies. 

This in general, then, constitutes what might be called 
the ordinary requirements for a village town hall, and 
our plan has been arranged accordingly. 

Beginning with the basement wc can suppose that 
there is ample floor space f<>r the accommodation of the 

police, which would include merely a waiting-room with 
a desk for the officer in charge, and an adjoining small 
room with a few cells. A coat and wash room should 
be provided with lockers for the use of tin- patrolmen. 
Here would also in- located the heating and ventilating 
apparatus, which would consist of an electrically driven 
blower fan and plenum chamber, from which flues can 
be taken to the various rooms. The air supply would 
through a spray of water to thoroughly wash it. then 
through drying tubes and finally to the heating coils. 
Ventilating outlets would be provided in each room, the 
lines being all brought together in the roof space and 
combined in a ventilating lantern directly above the 

center of the assembly room. In the basement would 
also be located storerooms for fuel, implements and 
odds and ends, such as furniture, fixtures, etc. 

The main floor is arranged with the entrance in the 
center of the front which leads through a vestibule 11 
feet wide, thence in a lobby 22 feet by )-' feet, at one end 
of which is the staircase hall full width of the lobby, with 
a central staircase and returns leading to the second 
floor. Immediately on entering at the right of the en- 
trance is the mayor's office, 1; feet by 22 feet, with a 
private office adjoining 14 feet by jo feet: opening from 
this private office is a lavatory. Immediately on the 
left of the main entrance Opposite the mayor's office is 
the marshal's office, a room 15 feet by 22 feet. Directly 
opposite the main entrance across the rear of the build- 
ing is the council room, 22 feet by 42 feet, provided with 
two entrances from the lobby, one at each end of the 
room, so as to facilitate the entrance and exit of the pub- 
lic, who should at all times have flee access to the m< 
ingS. The public space, however, is separated from the 
space occupied by the council by a railing The council 
being limited to a few members, being generally six. and 
only occasionally a few more than this, would arrai 
itself around a Ion- table, instead of having separate 
desks as would be the ease in large bodies. In this way 
they would face the public, who would thus be abl< 
follow all proceedings easily. 

A committee room 14 feet by jo feet is provided eon 

necting with this council room, and from this committee 
room access is had to a private lavatory for tin- 11--' 
members. 

At one end of lobby under flic landing of main stairs 
is provided a public lavatory, and at the other end of the 
lobby across one end of the building are two roon 
equal Bize, jo feet by 25 feet ii inches each, the one for 
the use of the clerk, the other for the use of the tit 

urer; the latter has a connecting door leading into the 
council room for the purpose of affording easy facilities 

for referring to the books during council meetings. The 

clerk's office and treasurer's office also have commufl 



THE BRICK BUILDER 




DESIGN FOR \ COWN HALL. 
A. i ». Elzner, Archi 



T H K BRICKBUILD E R 




ing doors, SO that the public can have easy access to both 
of these officials; each of these two rooms is furthermore 
provided with a vault. At this end of the building is 
placed a special staircase with an outside entrance lead- 
ing directly to the stage above and t<> the basement be- 
low. This is for the use of persons taking part in any 
performance, and for the purpose of carrying scenery 
and other supplies to 
the stage. 

The second story 
contains an assem- 
bly hall 42 feet by 
6 8 feet, having a 
capacity of from 350 
to 400 seats; this hall 
is provided with a 
stage 26 feet by 40 
feet, with two dress- 
ing-rooms at each 
end 6 feet by 10 feet. 
Behind the stage is 
a staircase hall for 
the special use of 
the stage as previ- 
ously mentioned, and 
from this hall open 
two lavatories, one 
for men and one for 
women. The main 
entrance to the hall 
is made full width of 
the staircase hall, 22 
feet, and is arranged 
so that the doors can 
be folded b a c k 
a g a i n s t t h e s i d e 
walls at the close of 
an entertainment, 
opening up the entire 
space so as to facili- 
tate the exit of the 
audience. 

At the head of 
the stairs and adjoin- 
ing the main en- 
trance to the hall are 
two rooms, one on 
either side, 14 feet 
by 20 feet, each 
having a closet open- 
ing from it; one is 
occupied by the seal- 
er of weights and 
measures, and the 
other, while not being 
assigned for any pre- 

scribed office, has been set aside for the use ol th. 
lage surveyor. These two rooms have connecting d< 
leading into the assembly hall, and in ease of a 1. 
gathering they could very nicely he used for reception 
rooms or cloak rooms. It would even be possible to us, 
the one room for the preparation of refreshments on 
occasions, and tor tins purpose a sink has been provided. 



SECOND II "OK'. 




Opening from the assembly hall on the front of the 
building is a loggia, the use of which is essential to 
afford a place from which public speakers can address a 
gathering of citizens that might he held in the space in 
front of the building. 

The exterior of the building has heen treated in the 
style of the classic Renaissance, with a central tower 

having a clock and a 
chime of hells that 
arc always desirable 
i n a com in unity. 
People like to hear 
the hours strike off 
as they pass by, and 
are fond oi ringing 
out the hells on joy- 
ous occasions or cele- 
brations of all kinds. 
It is also a comfort 
to be able to sec a 
clock at a high ele- 
vation, from which 
all the timepieces 
in the town can be 
regulated. The de- 
sign of the build- 
ing is arranged with 
absolute symmetry 
to this rlock tower. 
this idea being 1 

sidered as most ex- 
pressive of the quiet 

dignity of the gov- 
o r a m cut. T h e 
tower iu rt hermore 
serves to mark the 
building from the 
distance, as it should 
be. for after all it 
is the most impor- 
tant building in the 
town, representing 
it in its corporate 
capacity, and should 

therefore be easily 
distinguis h e d 

among all others by 
its magnitude and 
character. 

The material used 

in the construction 

<>f the building is 

intended to he press 
brick of a warm buff- 
gray tone for the 
wall surface, and 
terra-cotta of the same finish as the press brick but of 
a very much lighter shade of color for all the archil 

tural features, oi trimmings, as they are called in the 
vernacular, comprising all moldings, columns, pilasters 
and other ornamentation. 

The roof will be red tile, thus affording a pleasing 
but quiet color scheme. 



MRSI FLOOR. 



IO 



THK BRICKBUILDER 




LINCOl N FROM THE BR \\ 



Some Simple Lincolnshire Brick- 
work. 

l;\ Is. CLIPSTON S II I' 

npiIRnrciK IUT Eng- 
1 land one sees invari- 
ably in the older work the 
reflection of those days 
when railways were not, 
and fast freight and cheap 
transport did not exist. 
The buildings then were 
built necessarily of local 
material, and notwithstand- 
ing the modern facilities 
and local conditions one 
cannot help the feeling that this is right, and that build- 
ings will seem more in harmony with their surroundings 
if they have that connection with the neighborhood 
which local material impl 

In and about Wells, a district abounding in good 
building stone, one finds stone used nearly every- 
where, and the few brick houses which one finds here 
and there seem to strike a false note and look out of 
place. So marked is this use of local material in Somer- 
set that one notes his advance across the country by the 
changing quality and color of the stone, and learns the 
geology as he rides. At Bath it is the familiar warm 
yellow of the somewhat perishable Bath stone; at Wells 
it is the cooler-colored, more durable Doulting. At 
Draycot even the cottages are built of the reddish con- 
glomerate, which when polished can rank among the 
marbles. Further south one gets the rich yellow tones 
of the Ham Hill stone, and beyond Taunton the deeper 




I. I III, CHANCELLORS HOUSE, LINCOLN. 

yellows, merging as one nears the coast into red, mark- 
ing the presence of iron. 

Throughout all this district stone is abundant and 
easily ([Harried and worked, but in Lincoln there are dif- 
ferent conditions. It is true there is good stone, and 
near Lincoln itself there is some abundance, but there is 
also much clay, and brick is therefore the cheaper mate- 



rial. The city as a whole is a city of red houses, red 
brick and red tile; the great cathedral rising above the 
reds in warm yellow or cool gray, according to the light. 
Nothing could be more fascinating than this combination 
of the humbler buildings in the humbler material, and 
the magnificent minster church around which they cluster: 
the minster on its hilltop, the houses around and beneath 
it dotting the hill. 

Nearly all the distant views of the cathedral are tine, 
but none more delightful than that from the Brayford. 
the pool where the barges from the Witham and the 
Fosse Dyke congregate. All the houses which form the 
foreground are brick, of many shades of red, and are 
roofed with tile. 

To take the houses in detail: that of the Chancellor is 
one of the oldest and also one of the most interesting. 
It belongs to the end of the sixteenth century and is 
built of a red brick of very nearly the regulation modern 




FIG. 4. CAS1 IK nil. I., LINCOLN. 

English dimension and running four courses to eleven 
inches. All the cut work, coigns, door and window 
jambs, sills and mullions are stone. The plan follows 
fairly closely the original layout. Within the vestibule 
with the great doors a most unusual feature for a me- 
diaeval private house there are two small doors, one 
giving on the garden and serving as a tradesmen's en- 
trance to the kitchen, and the Other entering the house. 
( >n the ground floor, a little below the level of the street, 
were cellars, and above this the drawing-room. Origi- 
nally, I take it, the two rooms on the front were one and, 
extending up to the roof, constituted the hall. Beyond 
this point the house is a series of surprises, for it stretches 
away in a long wing on the left -the north and the lot 
gradually widens on the south so that the garden space is 
constantly increasing. The wing contains the modern 
dining-room, made out of an enlarged portion of the ori- 
ginal cellars, the great kitchen, and the original chapel 
quite recently discovered and restored. How amusing it 
must be to live in a house where any simple operation of 
repair or renewal may open up some forgotten treasure! 
This chapel had been ceiled down, the walls had been 
furred and papered on canvas, and nothing except the 



TH E BR I CK IU' I L DE R. 



i i 




- ;a 







l 



^fclll'illli l Ml— V * Ml 



* 1 X* 



THK ( HANCELLOR 



LINCOLN. 



somewhat elaborate windows — partly blocked — remained 
to show what it had been. Some years ago a chance 
revealed an aumbry, or closet, used for sacred vessels. 
This, however, might have been for common use, and 
nothing was then done; but three years ago another 
chance revealed a piscina, and there could then no longer 
be any doubt that the original chapel had been found 
It was then most carefully uncovered and restored. A 
finely executed wood screen forms the entrance. The 
walls are stone, the good windows are again opened out. 
and the removal of the plaster ceiling revealed a fine oak 
one. The house is so interesting that one is tempted to 
linger. 

We pass from this mediaeval house to one quite mod- 
ern (Fig. 3). It stands to the north of the cathedral 





with 
si/.e, 
haps. 



and has splendid views of the broad tower 
and the west towers. It is nothing remark- 
able, simply a quiet, unpretentious, com- 
fortable house, such as looks well and wears 
well. 

Between this, in time, is the good old red 
brick double house which stands next the 
half timbered house known in Lincoln as 
the Elizabethan house (big. .)>. This i^ 
our familiar Georgian type, though the 
house. I fancy, dates before the Georges. 
The house with the simple attempt at 1'al- 
ladian windows is perhaps not quite so 
pleasing, because it attempts more (Fig. 
5). Still it looks dignified and has an air 
about it which seems to proclaim gentle 
birth. Opposite it is another house which 
like the Chancellor's gives no hint of what 
lies behind. It is a mere city front on 
the street, but the garden side is almost 
country. ( big. 6. ) 

The double house in the minster yard is 
one of those houses which makes one stop 
and wonder why it should interesl one at 
all (big. 71. There is nothing architec- 
tural about it, a plain three-story house 
a simple roof, it must Ik tin good proportion, the 
division and disposition of the windows, and per- 
not least, the little set-back from the street which 




I lo. 



I II I I \-> I 



FIG. 3. 1 ill. urn lok's HOI sk, UN. 01 n. 



gives chance for a Strip of grass and soil tor the dim 
which partly cover the front. 

Almost the same might be said of the next house 
(Fig. 8), except that here we have the added interest of 
an unusual plan. The main house sets well back from 

the street. some fifty feet or more. and the Wing 
comes forward on the north side to the street line. Thus 

the house encloses a little garden fore-court. Construe- 

tionally this house is even simpler than the last, for 
there is no stone at all. I leads and sills, jambs and coigns 
are all brick. The caps of the brick fence posts anil the 



12 



T HE BRICKI3UILDER 




6. 



I III-. GARDEN I kn\ I A HOUSE IN I.INCoiv 



coping of the wall arc the only bits of stone, yet the 
whole place is thoroughly charming. 

The last house will vie with either of the others for 
absolute simplicity, and in the face of these simple 
things one cannot but feel convinced that we are often 
too apt to spend time and money over elaborations which 
in no way repay the outlay they represent. (Fig. <>.) 

In one respect all the buildings here shown drive 
home the lesson which our own best men have long been 
trying to teach, viz.: that no brickwork looks so well 
as that which shows the variety of surface and color 




MIXSTER \ ARD, LINCOLN. 



h is obtained by the differences in firing in the kiln. 
All these buildings arc built of brick which have been 
used just as they came from the kiln: they were not even 
afraid of an occasional soft brick, and one has all the 
variety of color which this gives. One is inclined to 
think that we are often over cautious about soft brick, 
which are of line color, and which, unless most unusually 



underburnt, will stand a good deal of wear and tear. 
The soft brick in its more rapid weathering often helps 
to vary not only the color but also the surface, and if in 
fifty or a hundred years it has to be replaced, after 
all that is no great price t<> pay for the pleasure it has 
given. In the judicious use of brick we arc, 1 think, 
ahead of the English architects, who seem still bitten 




llo. ,S. HOUSE A I POTTERS GATE, LINCOLN. 

with the philistinism which specifies brick culled to an 
even tone, but I don't think even the English architect 
has done wdiat some of us have, i. <'. . to make a very fine 
joint with mortar to match the brick and thus go as far 
as possible towards imitating a plain painted surface. 
However, there are all kinds of people and all kinds of 
tastes and room enough for all. and one is hardly justified 
in condemning what appeals to the taste of many peo- 
ple, but the old brickwork which most of us admire and 
love had no touch of the over refinement which tends to 
emasculate art. 




-II I. I ill'. ARCHDEACON 



THE BRICK BU I LDKR 



13 



Fire-proofing. 



Tests of Fire-proof Partitions by the 

New York City Building 

Department. 

A REMARKABLY interesting scries of tests has 
been made recently under the supervision of the 
Department of Buildings, New York City, on fire-proof 
partition materials. Briefly stated, the purpose of the 
test was to record the effect of a fire of one hour's dura- 
tion, commencing at 500 degrees Fahrenheit and increas- 
ing to 1,700 degrees Fahrenheit, followed immediately by 
the application of a stream of water from a hose on the 
exposed side for two and a half minutes. The areas of 
the partitions tested were 137.75 square feet, with a width 
of 14 feet 6 inches and a height of 9 feet 6 inches. The 
tests were made in a test house similar in design to those 
heretofore used for such tests. The following forms of 
partition were tested : 

Bell Piaster Composition Blocks. — One partition of 
solid section 2 inches thick and one of hollow section 3 
inches thick. The composition of the blocks was plaster 
of Paris and cinders. After the blocks were put in place 
they were covered with )4-inch coat " King's Windsor" 
plaster. Maximum temperature during test, 1, 724 degrees 
Fahrenheit. 

Metropolitan Partition. — Solid plaster composition 
blocks 2 inches thick. The composition of the blocks 
was plaster of Paris, wood chips, cocoanut fiber and 
asbestos. After the blocks were put in place they were 
covered with '-_> -inch coat "King's Windsor " browning. 
Maximum temperature during test, 2,030 degrees Fah- 
renheit. 

Norman Partition. — v Solid composition plaster blocks 
2 inches thick. The composition of the blocks was plas- 
ter of Paris and wood fiber. The blocks were fastened to- 
gether with rods and turnbuckles. After the blocks were 
put in place they were covered with a '-..-inch coat of 
"King's Windsor" browning. Maximum temperature 
during test, 1,706 degrees Fahrenheit. 

Sanitary Partition. -Solid composition plaster blocks 
2 and 3 inches thick, fastened together with metal rods. 
The composition of the blocks was plaster of Paris, ashes 
and a fluid cement. After the blocks were put in place 
they were coated partly with common lime mortar and 
partly with Piatt plaster. Maximum temperature during 
test, [,832 degrees Fahrenheit. 

White Partition. Solid and cellular composition plas- 
ter blocks 3 inches thick. The composition of the blocks 
was plasterof Paris, asbestos and wood fiber. The blocks 
after being put in place were plastered with " Adamant " 
browning, >4-ineh coat. Maximum temperature during 
test, 1,760 degrees Fahrenheit. 

Freeman-Dobbin Partition. Solid and cellular com- 
position plaster blocks, the solid 2 inches thick and the 
cellular 3 inches thick. The composition of the blocks 
was plaster of Paris, silicate and carbonate of lime and 



wood liber. The blocks after being put in place were 
plastered with a y--inch coat gauged mortar. Maximum 
temperature during test. 1,7(10 degrees Fahrenheit. 

Expanded Metal Lath and Plaster Partition. Com- 
posed of expanded metal on 1 x ,', inch metal studs at 
12-inch centers covered with scratch and browning coat 
of " King's Windsor." making a total thickness ol 
inches. Maximum temperature during test, 1,706 degrees 
Fahrenheit. 

Moeslein Partition. Metal lath and plaster partition, 
Composed of perforated sheet metal attached to both sides 
of T iron studs i x ' inch at 1 [-inch centers, forming an 
air space 1 - inches between the metal sheets, covered 
with "King's Windsor" scratch coat, making a total 
thickness of 3 inches. Maximum temperature during 
test. 2.021 degrees Fahrenheit. 

Roebling Partition. Wire mesh and plaster. Com- 
posed of two sheets of Xo. 21 wire -^-inch mesh, stiff- 
ened by l-4-inch steel rods 7 inches apart attached to 
2 x 's inch metal studs, forming an air space 2 inches 
wide between the metal sheets, covered on the inside 
with white putty coat of plaster, and on the outside with 
"Rock wall plaster" to a thickness of 3 inches. Maxi- 
mum temperature during test, 1,994 degrees Fahrenheit. 

Roebling Partition. Wire mesh and plaster. Con- 
struction same as above, but of one sheet of wire mesh 
on .-h x ~n inch channel studs at t6-inch centers, covered 
with " Acme " patent plaster to a thickness of 2 y. inches. 
Maximum temperature during test. i,8oodegrees Fahren- 
heit. 

Averill Partition. Metal lath and plaster. Composed 
of ■■,. x 1 inch flat uprights at 12-inch centers fastened 
top and bottom to ,';. x 1 inch plates with Schratwieser 
metal lath on one side. The metal lath was plastered <>n 
one side, and the other side was filled in with sawdust and 
hydraulic cement composition flush with the metal studs. 
This was then plastered with a scratch and browning coat 
of sand and hydraulic cement, making a total thickness 
of 2 y. inches. 

Averill Partition. Sawdust and hydraulic cement 
composition blocks 2 inches thick plastered with scratch 
and browning coat of cement mortar to a thickness of 3 
inches. Maximum temperature during test. 2,102 degrees 
Fahrenheit. 

Schratzvicscr Partition. Metal lath and plaster. Solid 
and hollow partition similar to other metal lath partitions, 
plastered with "King's Windsor" asbestos cemenl to 2 

and 3 inches respectively. Maximum temperature of test 
not taken because of accident to pyrometer. 

Pile IU<>ek Partition. Henry M.iurcr & Son. Porous 
terra-cotta cellular blocks composed of 1 2 x <> x 2 inches 

hollow blocks with three air cells each, the walls of the 
blocks beingabout j ,' inch thick. In the horizontal joints 
a metal strap ■ . inch wide of No. 24 United States gauge 
was laid. In another wall S x 12 x 3 inches semi-porous 
cellular blocks with two air cells wen- used without the 
metal Strap. Both partitions were plastered with '-inch 
•• Kind's Windsor." Maximum temperature during test. 

2,057 degrees Fahrenheit. 

Brinkman Partition. S Cx, Brinkman's solid terra 

COtta blocks composed of li 1 2 inches blocks and 

i<>' . x 10 x 1 '_■ inches blocks, with a stamped metal I bar 
laid in the horizontal joints supported by metal uprights. 



14 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Each partition was covered with '- inch of plaster on 
each side. Maximum temperature during test, 1,706 de- 
grees Fahrenheit. 

Concrete Block Partitions. — Sprickerhoff partitions. 
The composition of the blocks was one part Portland 
cement, one part of sand and five parts steam ashes, cov- 
ered with '..-inch coat of "King's Windsor" browning 
mortar. Maximum temperature during test, [,868 de- 
grees Fahrenheit. 

The result of the tests can be briefly summarized: 

Composition Plaster Blocks. All the composition 
plaster block partitions had the plaster coating calcined 
from their surface, and the body of the blocks was also 
calcined to a greater or less depth, generally from \. to 
1 ! ; inches, ami this portion was washed away by the water. 
In no case did the fire or water pass through the partitions. 
It is interesting to note here that had the test been con- 
tinued for a longer time the whole thickness of this com- 
position plaster would have been calcined and therefore 
rendered incohesive and soluble. 

Metal Lath and Plaster Partitions and Metal Lath and 
Cement Composition (Averill). All tin- metal lath parti- 
tions had the plaster or cement composition calcined to a 
greater or less depth, part of which was washed away by 
the water, exposing in some places the metal work. In 
no ease did the fire or water pass through the partitions. 
The same observation holds good here, as in the ease of 
the plaster block composition blocks, that had the fire 
been continued for a longer time the whole thickness of 
the plaster would have been calcined and therefore ren- 
dered incohesive and soluble, and after this the metal 
work would have been directly exposed to the fire. 

Tile Block Partitions. Porous and semi-porous cellu- 
lar terra-eotta blocks. The only effect of the fire and 
water on the terra-cotta cellular blocks, was to remove the 
plaster coating, leaving the stability of the wall intact 
and actual material of the block uninjured. 

Solid Terra-Cotta Blocks with Exposed Stamped Metal 
I Beam Fastenings. One effect of the fire and water had 
been to remove the plaster. Another effect was, the 
metal fastenings were slightly deflected in places. The 
blocks suffered 110 injury. In no place had fire or water 
passed through the partition. 

The result of these tests makes one thing very plain, 
which was already well known to those having an ele- 
mentary knowledge of chemistry that plaster of Paris, 
lime plaster, carbonate of lime or any of its compounds 
are not fire-proof materials; that at best they are merely 
non-combustible and cannot resist the action of fire and 
water either separately or alternately. Therefore any 
partition depending upon these materials for its structure 
or its filling cannot be depended upon to endure greal 
heat for any considerable length of time; and any parti- 
tion whose metal structure is dependent upon an insula- 
tion of plaster and its compounds must fail by reason of 
the destruction of the insulating material and the expo- 
sure of its structure to the direct action of the heat. 
Another result which is also evident is that in the event 
of a fire not sufficient to totally destroy the plaster com- 
Lon partitions, the repairs required to restore them to 
an accept. dition would amount almost to a virtual 

replacement of many of the blocks of the block partitions 
and a refilling of the plaster body in the metal lath parti- 



tions, an item which must be considered in deciding on 
the relative merits of various materials. 

In regard to the tests of the porous and semi-porous 
tile blocks, the solid tile blocks and the concrete blocks, 
had the test been carried further to the point of failure 
of these two different materials the result could be pre- 
dicted almost to a certainty. The concrete blocks probably 
would have been affected first. The component parts of 
the concrete having different coefficients of expansion 
would have been under great strain, and upon the appli- 
cation of water, under the sudden cooling, would probably 
have developed cracks which would have impaired its 
structure. The calcining effects of the great heat would 
also have affected the cement to sonic extent (depending 
upon the temperature), and this would have impaired its 
bonding properties. 

The porous and semi-porous cellular tire clay terra- 
cotta, being a porous homogeneous material, could have 
endured a continuous heat short of the vitrification 
point without any structural disintegration, and could 
then have passed through the water test without harm. 
because its porous structure would have allowed contrac- 
tion of volume without great strain, as the introduction 
of pores or minute air cells into its structure permits sud- 
den contraction without appreciable destructive effects. 

All these results are what might have been expected. 
Fire clay needs no recommendation; its qualities arc too 
well known to require it. The blast furnace, the steel 
converters, the open-hearth steel furnaces, and the dome 
and rotary cement kilns, all testify to the uses to which 
this refractory material can lie put. It is not strange, 
then, that it endures where other materials fail. 

In judging these tests, however, one fact must not be 
overlooked. All these partitions were without Openings 
and rested upon a brick floor, or on steel members which 
rested on the brick floors. It is hardly necessary to point 
out that these conditions were highly favorable ones for 
the test, but one of these conditions, that of no openings, 
cannot always be realized in practice. The fact that it 
cannot be realized, however, makes it highly important 
that the Openings be made as few as possible and that 
all openings be reen forced with metal frames covered 
with insulating material. The partition should be m 
as independent as it is possible to make it of any required 
additional stability, but as conditions sometimes make 
this dependence necessary, the metal frames around such 
openings should be carefully secured to floor and ceiling 
and thoroughly protected from sudden changes of tem- 
perature. The partition should also rest directly upon 
and be cemented directly to the incombustible floor mate- 
rial, so that the bond of these two can be depended upon. 

It is no uncommon thing to see partitions set upon a layer 
of dust, which of course prevents any possible bond be- 
tween the floor and the partitions and may cause the 
partition to fall in case of strain. Partitions set upon 
wood or other inflammable material cannot be considered 
as any more than temporary non-combustible screens 
which may fall at a critical moment. 

In conclusion it may be said that the porous fire clay 
material as a fire and water resisting medium has been 
proven. Now the fulfillment of its highest function de- 
pends entirely upon the intelligent use made of it by the 
architect and manufacturer. 



T HE BRICKBUILD E R 



'5 



Selected Miscellany. 

NOTES FROM NEW YORK. 
The Tenement House Commission, of which Mr. 
Robert W. De Forest is chairman, will have offices in the 
Telephone Exchange, southwest corner of iSth Street 



work can be commenced, [n this connection I would say 
that owing to some of the absurd arbitrary conditions of 
the new tenement-house laws very little work in that 
line is now being projected, or is likely to be until the 
law is modified. It" built strictly in accordance with this 
law they become so expensive to construct that the 
owners must perforce require a large rental to make them 




HOUSE LOCATED 1\ A BOSTON si B1 RB. 
John A. Pox, Architect. 



and Irving Place, and their duties hereafter will be much 
more important than heretofore. All plans for tenements 
will have to be Hied with and approved by this commis- 
sion as well as by the Department of Buildings before 



pay, and they arc generally built in a locality where 
the occupants can afford to pay very little. Then 
the enormous light courts required make it almost im- 
possible to plan a convenient tenement on a narrow lot. 





n m LI 



I 



1 ■ I 



■ I I \ 01 MEXICO, MEXICO. 
|. Edward Campbi 



i6 



THE BRICK B U I L D E R 




A revision of this law 

is an immediate ne- 
cessity. 

For many years 
we have felt the 
pressing need of en- 
larged post-office fa- 
cilities, and with the 
aid of the press every 
effort has been made 
to secure this impor- 
tant result. It now 
looks as though our 

hopes would be real- 
ized, for bills have 
been introduced into 
both houses of Con- 
gress asking for an 
appropriation of 
00,000 for the 
purpose, and al- 
though such bills 
have heretofore been 
defeated the " rural " 



RESIDENCES \l MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 
P. B. & I.. 1.. Long, Architects. 




SUNDAY-SCHOOL CHAPEL, BILTMORE, N. C. 
R. H. Hunt, Architect. 



members have prom- 
ised not to oppose it 
this time. New York 
is the great clearing 
house for the United 
States in the recep- 
tion and forwarding 
of its mails from and 
to all other nations, 
and the increase in 
tin- volume of mail 
matter keeping pace 
with the growth of 
the country and the 
expansion of its com- 
merce is too obvious 
to call for comment. 
The promptitude and 
efficiency of the mail 
service throughout 
all the states there- 
fore depends in a 
great measure upon 
the facilities afforded 
New York. 




HOUSE for ROBERT RAMSEY, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
Elzner & Anderson, Architects, 



THE BRICKBUILD E R . 





SAVINGS BANK, ANSONIA, CONN. 
Brown & Von Beren, Architects. 

In an interview with Mr. Thomas Hastings published 
in a recent number of the Scientific American he makes 
an interesting suggestion in regard to the new post office. 
He proposes building it with a frontage on 
the East River at the foot of 41st vStreet, 
widening this street as far as 5th Avenue and 
thus making a fine boulevard with the post 
office at one end and the new Public Library 
at the other. A post office at this point would 
be central for the greater city, would make a 
beautiful and imposing appearance from the 
river, and foreign mail could be handled with 
the greatest convenience. 



( VPITAL, S I \M> \ K I > I'ERRA-COTTA 
WORKS, M \K I 

( >ur architects arc putting in all their spare 
time now in getting ready for the exhibition 

of the League which opens next month. 

They arc having bird's-eye views prepared 
of the buildings which they showed last year 
in elevation and are (lusting off and revarnish- 
ing old frames. 

The League becomes more and more dig- 
nified each year and everything conduce 
sociability and good fellowship is being weeded 
out. There was a time, which most of us re- 
call with pleasure, when during the exhibi- 
tion a "smoker" was held each Saturday 
evening, when formality was dropped and when a most 
innocent good time was enjoyed by everyone, but for 
sonic unaccountable reason these affairs have been cut out. 





CAPITAL BY FULLER & PITCHER, 

ARCHITECTS. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



LEWIS d MAYCOCK BUILDING, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

■1. Arthit ■ 



1 8 



T HE BRICKBU1L PER 



The members also were in the habit of decorating menu 
cards for the annual dinner, which were all handed in at 
the time and then distributed among those present, be- 
ing pretty and appropriate souvenirs of the occasion. 
This pleasant custom has also been abolished, probably 
being considered undignified. We earnestly hope that 



the competition for the Newark Court House. There 

were about twenty men present besides the guests of 
honor. Mr. Frank Miles Day and Mr. Warren I\ Laird. 
Those who were fortunate enough to be present say that 
they had the time of their lives, and those who know Mr. 
Gilbert's capabilities as a genial host may well believe it. 




LIVING-ROOM. 



. . 



HOUSE FOR ].. 1). DREWRY, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
Elzner & Anderson, Architects. 



the younger members of the League will get together 
and revive a little of the life which it once possessed 

and enjoyed. 

3t week Mr. Cass Gilbert gave a dinner at Sherry's 
to the employees of his office in honor of having won 



A new building is to be erected at Broad and Beaver 
Streets which will be even larger than the Broad-Ex- 
change Building, which is now the largest office build- 
ing in the world. The building is being planned by 
Clinton & Russell, architects, tor the George A. Fuller 
Company. 



THE BRICKIU'ILDKR 



19 




EAST BOSTON HIGH SCHOOL, EAST BOSTON, MASS. 

John Lyman Faxon, Architect. 

Built of Gray Brick made by the Kittanning Brick Company. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. Fiske & Co., New England Agents. 

The Goelet estate intends adding 2 1 1 feet frontage to 
the Hotel Imperial at Broadway and 32nd Street. McKim, 
Mead & White designed the original building and will 
draw plans for the addition. 



NEW LIBR \KY \ I WALLINGFORD, CONN. 
Roofed with Celadon Roofing 

under the new law the last week in October, in which 
they passed two candidate's. The examination occupied 
a space of three days. Among the problems were de- 



NOTES FROM .SAN FRANCISCO. 

Building continues active, and the prospects for the 
new year are very bright. It is probable that this year 
would have been a record breaker had it not been for the 
protracted strike of the teamsters during the fall, which 
greatly retarded building operations. 

The tendency is growing rapidly to build better; and 
particularly the more frequent use of fire-proof construc- 
tion is very noticeable in mercantile buildings as well as 
in residences. 

We are promised at no distant date new building 
laws which, let us hope, will be more explicit and com- 
prehensive than the existing ones, which have outgrown 
their usefulness, if ever they had any. 

The Board of Examiners for the Northern District 
of California held their first examination for architects 





NEW sell .HOI SE AT [NDIANAPOLIS, IND, 

Adolph Sherrer, Archifc 

lbus Brick and ta Company. 



Built of Norman Gray Brick made by the Columl 



FIRE si , 1 VMDEN, \. J. 

Thomas 11 Sti phen, An hiti 
Buill "i from ty " Irick made by the Columbus 

Brick Company, W. Ketcham, Philadelphia Agent. 



signing and planning a large brick and terra 
cotta suburban residence ; calculating founda- 
tions, piers, joists, girders, posts and columns, 
etc., for a heavy brick warehouse; plumbing 
and other specifications, and figuring out 
strains, etc.. in a wooden truss and detailing 
same. 

A marked sign of the rapid growth in popu- 
lation of San Francisco is the large numb 
hotels and apartment houses under way in the 
offices of our architects and in course of 1 
tion. All through the city residences and flats 
are at a premium; rents arc high, with a de- 
cided upward tendency. 

The obliteration of "Chinatown." the show 
place and disgrace of the city, is a dream that 
our citizens hope soon to realize. We hope to 



20 



T H K BRICKBUI L D E R 





REAL ESTATE TRUST \N1> HALLOWELL BUILDINGS, 

PHIL \ I > i: I . [ > 1 i I A , PA. 

Edgar V. Seller, Architect. Terra-Cotta furnished by the 

New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 

have one of the best business localities cleared of the 
unsanitary and ramshackle buildings now occupied by 
the "heathens." and modern improvements built there- 
on. The passage of the Chinese exclusion act will nat- 
urally hasten this blessing. 

Architects Fred II. Meyer and Smith O'Brien formed 
a copartnership the first of the year, offices in the Chron- 
icle Building. 

The San Francisco Architectural Club, a recent or- 
ganization, have rented quarters at 14 McAllister Street, 
near the Hibernia Bank. 

The competition for the new German Hospital ended 
in nothing, the jury, consisting of three architects, de- 
ciding that none of the plans submitted was worthy of 
being selected, so they awarded a second and third prize, 
against which decision the other competitors registered 




CASINO, I 24 111 STREET, NEW YoKk CITY. 

Alfred Zucker, Architect. 

Brick furnished by the Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Company. 

such a vigorous "kick" that the hospital committee 
decided not to award anything, so there the matter 
stands. It is probable an architect will be selected later 

without having recourse to another competition. 



NEW YEAR'S GIFTS. 

We have received from R. Guastavino Company, 19 
Milk Street, Boston, and 49 East 19th Street, Xew York, 
a handsome calendar bearing a photographic illustration 
of an interesting piece of work which they have recently 
executed. 

From Lesley & Trinkle Company, 22 South 15th Street- 
Philadelphia, Pa., a very novel calendar representing 
players at golf. 




DETAIL BY HODDART & WARD, ftRi HITEI I 
Northwestern Terra-Cot1 takers. 



DETAIL 1: \ PHILIP II. JOHNSON, ARCHITECT, 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



TH E H R ICK H I' I L I) E R. 



2 I 





La -* 

; |4 


h. 1 



DETAIL BY FRANK FREEMAN, ARCHITECT. 
B. Kreischer & Sons, Makers. 



DE I All l;\ B \k\l. I I . II \"i NES & 

BARNETT, ARCHITECTS. 
Winkle Terra I o1 ta Compan) . M< 



in I \ll, B\ W. \. i OOK \l \N. 

\Ki III I I I I 

Perth Amboj Perra I otta 
Company, Mai 



From the Pope Cement and Brick Company, 421 
Wood Street, Pittsburgh, Pa., a splendidly gotten up 
vest-pocket diary. 



IN GENERAL. 



Frank L. Packard, architect, Columbus, Ohio, suc- 
cessor to Yost & Packard, has taken offices in the new 
Hayden Building, 16 East Broad Street, Columbus. 



Arthur B. Ileaton, architect, Washington, I>. C, has 
removed his offices to the Washington Loan and Trust 
Building, 1420 F Street, N. W., where he would like to 
receive manufacturers' catalogues. 

Fred E. Field and Harry A. Slocomb, architects. 
Providence, R. I., announce a copartnership, offices. 48 
Custom House Street. 

The terra-cotta used in the house at Cedarhurst, !.. I.. 




DETAIL BY J. T. W. JENNINGS, IRCHITEI I. 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, 

Makers. 



DE rAILS I . .\ 1 II \l'\l W. 

Atla 



u ., I, M , , 111 1 Ml l:\ (AMES BR( IW N 

1 ORD, Al<< 111 1 1 1 1 . 

White Bricfc and Terra Cotta 
Companj . Maki 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



> 


J 




- 








III! 

J-JH.tllLl 
'Ilk II i 

ii in: iv 















Barney & Chapman, architects, which is illustrated in the plate form 
of this number, was executed by the Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company. 

"Harvard brick," supplied by Pfotenhauer & Nesbit of New York- 
City, sole agents of the New England Brick Company for all states 
south and west of Massachusetts, will be used in a fine new residence 
at Westbury, L. I., of which Warren, Wetmore & Morgan are the 

architects. 

Charles Bacon, Boston agent for Sayre & Fisher Company, will sup- 
ply brick on the following new contracts: Meigs Building, Bridgeport, 
Conn., A. H. Bowditch, architect ; schoolhouse, Tarrytown, N. V.. 

Wheelwright & Haven, architects; engine house. Cambridge, Mass.. 
Robert Coit, architect; Weld house. Brookline. Mass.. Peters & Rice, 
architects. 

The Boston Paving brick Company has been incorporated under 
the laws of the state of New Jersey with a capital stock of ^150,000, 
and Messrs. Daniels & Co. of 6 Wall Street, Xew York, have charge 
of the dis- 



EXHIBIT or THE BLUE RIDGE ENAMEL BRICK 
COMPANY VI PAN-AMERICAN. FIRST AWARD. 



posal of the 
bonds. The 

offices of the 
company will 
be at 923 Co- 
lonial Build- 
ing, Boston, 
and .X Booth's 
Block. New 
Britain, 
Conn. Com- 
munications are invited in regard to machinery, shafting, pul- 
leys, belting, kilns, etc., and should be addressed to Box 555, 
Xew Britain, Conn. 

The sixteenth annual convention of the National Brick 
Manufacturers' Association is to be held in Cleveland, Ohio, 
February 10 to 15 inclusive. Headquarters will be at the Hol- 
lenden Hotel, where the annual dinner will be held on Wednes- 
day evening, February 12. The committee in charge are ar- 
ranging a programme which will amply provide for the comfort 
and entertainment of the attending members. 

A novel feature of the convention will be a display of brick 
representative of the brickmaker's art. 

It is expected that many of the leading brick manufac- 
turers of the country will be in attendance, and this in itself 
should insure a large attendance of manufacturers' agents. 
A feature of the programme will be an address by one of 
Cleveland's well-known architects and a paper by a prominent 
Cleveland 1 milder. 







V\ f'\ 



Mad< 



STOCK MANTEL HO. 19. 

by the Hartford Faience Company. 



" School Architecture." 



A General Treatise on Designing and Planning of Schoolhouses. 

BY EDMUND M. WHEELWRIGHT. 

More than 250 Illustrations of Schoolhouses and Plans; many of the best types of all oracles having 

been chosen. 
An indispensable Text-book for Schoolhouse Designers. 

Price, $5.00, delivered. 

ROGERS & MANSON, Publishers, 
Boston, Mass. 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 

FEBRUARY, 

i 902. 




A HOUSE ON THE LEFT BANK OF THE RIVER MEUSE, LIEGE, BELGIUM. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & M ANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. ( ). Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 189a. 
COPYRIGHT, I.S93, BY THE BRICKBUI I.DKK PUBLISHIN Ml'ANY. 



Subscription price, mailed Hat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada ........ $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied bv 
the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 

PAGE 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



STANDARD FIRE-RESISTING BUILDINGS. 

THE Fire Department of the Royal Insurance Com- 
pany of Liverpool has sent out eopies of specifi- 
cations drawn up with the object of encouraging the 
construction of fire-resisting buildings. Fire-proof con- 
struction as a science develops more slowly in England 
than it has in this country, and many of the details, as 
we read them in the English papers, sound like old stories 
to us, simply because we have had to fight worse condi- 
tions here than have ever existed abroad, and what prog- 
ress we have made in fire-proof construction lias been 
forced upon us by dire necessity. But evidently the 
Liverpool company have taken a leaf out of our experi 
ences, for their recommendations in regard to fire-proot 
building include practically all of the features which we 
have learned are of such vital importance. For example, 
doors and frames and window frames are to be of iron 
or other hard metal. Class above the ground floor is to 
be not less than '< 4 inch thick, in sections not less than 2 
square feet, or if of wire glass, in sections not larger than 
4 square feet. The height of buildings is not to exceed 80 
feet, and the cubic contents of any one compartment are 





PAGE 


Agencies. — Clay Products 


. . 11 


Architectural Faience 


. . 11 


" Terra-Cotta 


II and III 


Brick . . . 


. . Ill 


" Enameled 


III and IV 



not to exceed 60,000 cubic feet. Brick, terra-cotta or con- 
crete is to be used for external walls, except that stone 
may be used as a facing when it has a backing of not less 
than 13 inches of brick. As we understand it, these speci- 
fications were prepared to form a standard of fire-resisl 
construction so far as the insurance companies were con 
cerned and to give direct encouragement to building 
owners by reducing the rate to those who would build in 
accordance therewith. We have always maintained that 
a general application of fire-proof constructive principles 
in large cities can be better brought about by the rulings 
of the insurance companies than by any municipal regu- 
lations, and our only regret is that the action of the in- 
surance companies should not be more general and that 
higher premiums should not be put by them upon build- 
ings of anything but the first class. 



'"T^IIE recent tire at Paterson, Xew Jersey, caused 
L losses which conservative estimates made after 
the fire have not reduced materially below seven million 
dollars. Conflagrations relatively disastrous have 0G 
curred within a month at Norfolk, Virginia, and at 
Waterbury, Connecticut. These tires represent a Ir.ss to 
the nation without one single relieving feature unless 
they can furnish object lessons by which we can profit. 
There is no excuse for such fires, and there is no reason 
why the community as a whole should tolerate conditions 
which lead to them. They can be avoided, and to ascribe 
such disasters to mere accident is no more justifiable 
than it is to ascribe them to the hand of God, They are 
purely and simply the result not of ignorance so much as 
of selfish indifference to the public well-being, for while 
the responsibility for constructions which permitted a lire 
of this sort rests principally upon the owners of the 

property, the attendant suffering, if not pecuniary loss, 

comes chiefly upon those who have no hand in the con- 
ditions which mad" such disasters possible. 



IX the training of a young child it becomes necessary to 
repeat and reiterate the ordinary commonplace les- 
sons of growth and development over and over again, 

year after year, before tin- child appreciates even in a 
vague way what is wanted of him. This country with all 
its tremendous resources, its vast accumulations of wealth 
and its scientific attainments, is in some ways still very 
young, and the old familiar lessons of what constitutes 
good construction have to be reiterated again and again. 
The time was when property owners gave little thought 
to tire-proof construction, but we will venture the asser- 
tion that there is not a large holder of real estate to-day 
in any important city who is not at least sufficiently famil- 



T II E B K I C K B l T I L I) E k 



tar with the distinctions between fire-proof and the ordi- 
nary constructions to know the value of each. 



Til ERE arc at least two factors which make for S( 
ritv against fire damage. The first is fire-proof 
construction itself, and the second is the attitude of the 
insurance companies towards fire risks. Let us consider 
them for a moment in detail. 

Our cities will never be thoroughly safe while other 
than lire-proof materials are recognized as suitable for 
building purposes. This is so old a story that it seems 
idle to repeat it. and yet in all our large cities, especially 
in the East, we keep on adding year after year to our in 
flammable districts, and in many of the large cities in this 
country the greatest proportion of yearly growth is of 
this class of buildings which are a positive menace to the 
well-being of the community as a whole. This is purely 
and simply a case of selfishness. There is no more reason 
why a private citizen should be allowed to build a tinder 
box which may in the near future be a menace to a neigh- 
bor than that he should be allowed to maintain any other 
public nuisance. So long as private greed alone is 
to be considered, cheap construction will be the rule. A 
wooden tenement house, for instance, will frequently pay 
ten to fourteen per cent if constructed in the cheapest 
possible manner, while the same accommodation in a prop 
erly built, reasonably fire-resisting structure would imply 
an investment upon which the same rentals would give 
returns probably not over five or six percent, but that 
is surely no reason why our communities should be ex- 
posed to such loss as is represented by the l'aterson fire, 
and the public has a perfect right to demand that if 
people are to live in a city and enjoy the advantages 
thereof they shall be compelled to contribute towards the 

well-being of that city by using nothing but the right con- 
struction, even though that construction shall involve a 
lessening of return on their capital. 



Till', fact that proper constructions reduce the rate of 
dividends is no argument in favor of lire traps. 
(rood sewerage, efficient water supply, sanitary surround- 
ings, all these also reduce the earning capacity of the land, 
but no one would for a moment argue therefrom that the 
individual should have a right t<> neglect these consid- 
erations. If we are to be free from conflagration we 
simply must appreciate that it will be cheaper in the long 
run to pay the bills in advance by constructing our build- 
ings properly than to wait until the whole property is 
destroyed and then face the results which follow in the 
wake of every conflagration. The poor construction, 
with its high rate of return, is cheaper and more profita- 
ble onl\ for the passing time. In the long run the better 

constructions would be by all odds the most economical 
if carried out systematically and if neighborhoods as 
well as individual buildings were constructed properly. 
The truth of this is admirably shown by the report which 
has been issued by Mr. Edward Atkinson as president 
and treasurer of the Boston Manufacturers' Mutual Fire 
Insurance Company. During the past fifty-two years 
his company has received in premiums something over 
twenty-two million dollars and has paid in losses some- 
thing over four million, returning the larger part of the 
remainder to the shareholders of the company as divi- 



dends. During the past year the premiums amounted to 
Si, 151,000, while the losses were $47,343.74. The risks 
— for this company insures nothing but mill property — 
are extremely hazardous, notwithstanding the thorough 

manner with which the company has insisted upon the 
most improved forms of checking and combating in- 
cipient tires, and it would not be fair to compare the tire 
losses of this company with the risks of ordinary dwell- 
ings and commercial buildings. Hut notwithstanding 
this and very largely also because of the care which the 

company has exercised, if the fire losses in Boston alone- 
had been on the same ratio as those of the Manufacturers' 
Mutual Company the entire loss would have been less 
than Si5o,ooo, while as a matter of tact they amount to 
ten times that sum. The point we would make is that if 
the builders were obliged in some way to use proper 
construction, even in the simplest kind of buildings, the 
initial cost, while greatly increased, would undoubtedly 

be more than offset by the actual saving in the reduction 
of lire damage. 

THIS brings us to the second point, the insurance com- 
panies. This is a subject we have often referred to 
in these columns. While the actual responsibility for 
conflagrations should properly be placed upon those 
who knowingly construct inflammable buildings in the 
midst of a city, a very considerable degree of moral 
responsibility rests with the insurance companies them- 
selves. If the companies would unite in putting the 
rates so high on non-tire-proof buildings that it would be 
practically impossible <>r unprofitable to insure them at 
all, while the first result would be a tremendous falling 
off in the business of the insurance companies, there is 
110 doubt that in the course of a very few years there 
would be an equilibrium established, as has resulted 
from similar action of the insurance companies towards 
mill construction. The losses to the companies in pre- 
miums would be more than made up by the reduction in 
tire losses, and individual owners no less than the com- 
munity would in the long run be vastly the gainers by 
such a course of decided unequivocal action by the in- 
surance companies. We confess to an amazement that 
the companies have not taken just such steps. If a net 
per cent premium were put upon every wooden house, 
even if erected slightly outside of what we choose to call 
the business center of a city, we would see very few- 
wooden houses erected within the next ten years. This 
may sound drastic, but is nowhere near as much so as 
such a lire as that at l'aterson, at Chicago in '71, or in 
Boston in '72. We believe insurance companies alone 
can bring this about. Municipal regulations will con- 
tinue to be very largely a reflex of individual thought, 
and that individual thought will be always influenced 
very largely by immediate returns on investment rather 
than the public welfare. No one expects his particular 
house to burn down, therefore he is willing to take 
chances, even though those chances may involve a neigh- 
bor who is equally trustful of the future. Furthermore, 
the average lawmaker follows rather than leads public 
opinion and is very loath t<> interfere with what wemight 
call vested right, though there is surely no more deeply 
vested right than one of self-protection against neighbors 
who willfully ignore the demands of good construction. 



T II E B RICKBU ILD E R 




DOORWAY, BENEFIT STREET, 
PROVIDENCE. 



Colonial Brickwork of New England. 

III. 

PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

BY WALTER H. KILHAM. 

^"TMIE adaptation 
J- <>f Colonial ar- 
chitecture to hilly 
and broken sites is 
a phase of the situ- 
ation that has not 
been generally con- 
sidered. We are 
a c c u s t o m e d to 
thinking of Colonial 
buildings as standing 
four-square on level 
plots of ground such 
as are usually found 
in New England sea- 
ports. Such is the 
case with the houses 
of Salem, Ports- 
mouth, Newbury- 
port, and was to a 
great extent the case 
with Boston houses 
before the encroachments of business had caused their de- 
struction. That this state of affairs is not a necessary 
accompaniment of the style is shown by the pictures 
which we present of the old brick architecture of Provi- 
dence, R. I., where the old mansions stand as gracefully 
on the steeply sloping hillsides as they do elsewhere on 
level streets. 

The residential part of the city of Providence is built 
for the most part on a high and steep hill which rises 
along the left bank of the river. North 
and South Main Streets run along the 
river bank directly at the foot of the 
slope, and are lined with old buildings, 
many of which have been altered for 
business purposes. Those on the west- 
ern side of the street are of ordinary con- 
struction, but on the eastern side they 
are built against the hill and the principal 
rooms are placed upon what appears 
from the street to be the second floor. 
The main entrance is on this level, gen- 
erally at the side, and is approached by 
a long flight of stone steps. The stables 
were at the rear, at a considerably higher 
elevation than the street. This type of 
house appears occasionally also on Bene- 
fit Street, which is parallel to Main 
Street and, being one block higher up 
the hill, has not yet been giyefl over to 
business. 

The most interesting of the old build- 
ings now remaining on South Main Street 
is that occupied by the Providence Bank, 
a three-storied brick structure with a curi- 



ously curved roof and quite elaborate cornice. It is said 
that the building was built as a private residence and that 
the entrance, which now is at the street level, was origi- 
nally au premier and was approached by a high double 
flight of steps. The interior is quite elaborately finished 
with an elegance rather unusual in New England. The 
panels of the wainscot arc of varying patterns, and Co- 
rinthian columns and high mantelpieces with pediments 
and pilasters are much in evidence. 




i ilh < < >l o\ | \| HOUSE, PROVIDENCE. 

Along Benefit Street, in the vicinity of the First Bap- 
tist Church, are some examples of a class of house not 
altogether peculiar to Providence. These houses stand 
on or near the street line and have porches or flush 
trances giving access to the basement, whence a stairway 
leads to the main floors. Some of the basement windows 
have graceful grilles, one of which we illustrate. 

It is on Benefit Street and the streets above that the 




oil) COLONIA1 lloi SK, PRO\ IM 



26 



T HE BRICKRUIL D E R . 




OLD COLONIAL HOI SE, I • K < > \ IDENCE. 

best work of Providence is to be found. Here the stately 
old mansions are surrounded in many cases by ample 
gardens, and, standing well back from the street, are 
approached by handsome gateways and flights of steps. 
The always rising ground necessitates in most cases 
a system of retaining walls, topped with high iron or 
wooden fences, through which a graceful gateway and 
staircase i^ivcs entrance to the front yard, which in many 
instances is treated as a flower garden. At one side, 
usually the upper side, a large gateway affords an ap- 
proach to the stable yard, anmnd which the stables and 

offices are built, forming a sort of court enclosed on 



r 


Lj 














a 3 i ^7 - 




• ij b( 


i 


\ jj]_Ml 


- ▼-•'•'ff^^HB 


: 





C( ILLEGE BUILDINGS, PROA IDENCI . 

three sides, of which the grouping and architecture arc 
scarcely less interesting than those of the house itself. In 
almost all cases the stables are connected with the house 
and form part of the same composition. These houses 
which stand in large plots of ground have the usual cen- 
tral porch with the Palladia!! window over it, which varies 
only in detail from those in other places. The semi-ellip- 



tical transom of the Palladian window 

is usually entirely tilled with leaded 
glass instead of being partly tilled with 
carved woodwork, as was frequently the 
case in other cities. 

At the summit of the hill the build- 
ings of Brown University include some 
interesting old brick dormitories, not 
unlike those at Harvard, but treated 

with greater simplicity. 

The architectural history of Provi- 
dence cannot be told without reference 
to the name of [oseph Brown, one of 
four brothers who during their lifetime 
were among the most prominent citizens 
of the city. Joseph Brown was born in 
1733 and died in 1785. He was distin- 
guished by his philosophical tastes and 
pursuits. He early retired from busi- 
ness with his brothel's to devote him- 
self to his favorite studies. Like Mac- 
Intyre of Salem and Bulfinch of Boston, 
he successfully followed other branches 




ol.D COLONIAL HOUSE, PROVIDENCE. 

of art and science, as is shown by his observing the 
transit of Venus in 1769, having imported the necessary 




ol.D COLONIAL HOUSE, PROVIDENCE. 



T H E H R I C K H l T I L I) E R 



27 



astronomical instruments. The memory of this feat is 
perpetuated in the name of Transit Street. With fames 




OLD COLONIAL HOUSE, PROVIDENCE. 

Sumner, he was the architect of the First Baptist Church, 
erected in 1774-75, and known as one of the finest exam- 
ples of Colonial architecture in New England. It follows 



Hopkins he designed and built the Market House on 
Market Square, now the Board of Trade building, of 



/ 


K. 1 


"/ ^ 


\'*s. 1 


I 


I ^*% 


1 .. 1 


1 m 


?fpl 


1 J 
'-*■ *** * lil P W 


I 


E 


jM 





\ I \ PICAL PRI IVIDENCE ENTRANCE. 

which the corner stone was laid in 1773 by his brother 

Nicholas. 

In 1786 he designed for his brother John the house 




HOUSE ON BENEFIT STREET, PROVIDENCE. 

in a general way the famous church of St. Martin's-in-the 
Fields, in London, the masterpiece of Gibbs. The build- 
ing before referred to, occupied by the Providence Na- 




HOUSE ON BENEFIT STREET, SHOWING SIDE ENTRANCE. 




WINDOW GRILLE, BENEFIT STREET, PROVIDENCE. 

on Power Street known as the Cammed house and now 
undergoing repairs for a new owner. This house is one 
of the finest and most historic in Providence. 




OLD COI.ONIAI HOUSE, BENEFI1 STREET, PROVIDENCE. 



tional Bank, on South Main Street, was also designed by On either side of the- broad sweep of the retaining 

him in 1774 as his home. In association with Stephen wall are two weather-beaten statues, which, accord ir 



28 



T II E H R I C K H V I L I) E R. 





OLD l'ki)\ I UENCE BANK. 



■ \ 1 I > !•". \ i I ■ . 



an old-time fiction of the children of Providence, were 
supposed to revolve at the stroke of twelve on Saturdays. 
Their failure to do this was 
always explained to the 
groups of children who 
would gather by telling them 
that they mistook the hour. 
The solid brick walls and 
partitions of the house are 
made of bricks imported 
from England, and the doors, 
stair balusters, newels, rails. 
etc., are of solid San Do- 
mingo mahogany brought to 
Providence in Mr. brown's 
own ships. The door pedi- 
ments, the mantelpieces, the 
wainscots and deeply em- 
brasured windows are all on a 
scale of unusual elaboration 
and elegance, and formed a 
fit setting to t be many distin- 
guished guests that were entertained in the house, among 
whom was no less a personage than General Washington, 




I . I : I [ L U 1 N I 



on his memorable tour in 1789 lodged here and rode 
the owner's coach. It was here that at an annual 

commencement dinner of 
brown University, with 
many ministers present. < >ba- 
diah Brown, a relative of the 
owner, is said to have given 
the toast, " Here's a short 
respite to the damned in 
hell. " All joined in the toast, 
the host leading off, saying, 
"Truly, gentlemen, a most ad- 
mirable sentiment, in which 
we can all heartily join." 

Unlike .Salem and Ports- 
mouth. Providence has be- 
come a large and busy city. 
The old houses in the lower 
part of the town are fast dis- 
appearing, but on the steep 
residential streets above the 
tide of business the architec- 
tural relics of the last century still hold their ground and 
promise to delight the eye for years to come. 



1 \ [ D ENl I . 





SI VBLE V VRD, PROVIDENCE. 



STABLE N \kl>. PRO\ 1IU M I 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



29 



Formal Gardens. 

BY SAMUEL PARSONS, J R. 

LORD BACON says truly that the enjoyment of 
a garden is indeed the purest of human pleas- 
ures, the greatest refreshment to the spirit of man, 
without which buildings and palaces are but gross 
handiworks. 

And although we are unquestionably impressed with 
these sentiments, we are not unnaturally moved to inquire 
just wherein lie the true spirit and proportion of this gar- 
den, the presence of which is so necessary to the perfect- 
ing of buildings and palaces. Doubtless the explanation 




GLIMPSE OF GARDEN NEAR BOSTON. 
C. A. Piatt, Architect. 

will be found in the fact that a man's home, be it ever 
so princely or ever so humble, if it possesses real value, 
if it expresses anything of his character or needs, if 
it be in a word a true reflex of his spirit and not a mere 
toy or trophy of his pride, will be a creation so designed 
and arranged as exactly to fit its surroundings and 
circumstances. 

Physical needs and comforts should be so yoked with 
nature herself in the garden as to allow the latter always 
to retain the primacy and continually to exert her own 
influence, which, if it is given free play, will become 
all-powerful and all-pervading and, instead of strain- 
ing the natural senses with violent delights, will affect 
us like the sweet odors from heaven, affording uncon 
scions and wholly pure refreshment to the spirits and 
heart of man. 

The object of this paper is the presentation of some 
general considerations which should be borne in mind 
before the development of the practical details of land- 
scape gardening is undertaken. And first we should re- 
member that a man's home, if it is to be an expression of 
his own needs and taste, will be a place of many different 
features and occupations, and among these, extremely 
valuable as it is. the garden will make but a single inte- 
gral part, with definite metes and bounds, occupying a 
position secondary to the whole. 



The house has its own special area which will be neces- 
sarily treated in various ways in accordance with the 
needs and tastes of the tenant. The sharp winds to 
the north and west are to be taken into consideration, 
the preservation of attractive outlooks is highly impor- 
tant, and there are objectionable features that require to 
be relegated to the kitchen side of the house. The roads 
and walks must be tolerated because the}' are necessary; 

naturally we would prefer green grass and shrubs and 

trees to their bare surfaces. In a hundred ways we shall 
find our ideas of beauty continuallj bounded and limited 
by our ideas of usefulness. How indeed can any beauty 
be genuine unless it fits itself to the surroundings and 
carries with it the sane and homely sense of usefulness? 
Therefore the home domain should be a place of comfort 
and convenience as well as of beauty, not all a garden, 
though certainly all a picture, abounding in agreeable 

sights and sounds. And if a picture, it will be evident 
that a definite unity and i\\iv proportion should be secured 
in the disposition of the lawns, roads, groves and gardens, 
the stables, barns, meadows, and different appurtenances 




GLIMPSE 01 i, \ KI>1 \ NEAR BOS ["ON. 
I \ Piatt, An h ■ 



and domestic appliances that help to make up the oppoT 

tunities of country life. 

It will be readily seen that these opportunities be- 
come more and more various as the exigencies of modern 
life continue to increase. Tennis and golf, the bicycle 
and automobile, demand accommodation, as well as tin- 
saddle horse and the hackney. Cattle and sheep may be 
desirable on meadow and hillside, and farm life may be 



3Q 



T 1 1 E URIC K B U I L I) E R 




a feature to be accounted with. Fences and outbuildings 
of different shapes and forms and for different purposes 
will need to be designed and constructed. All these 
things and more may be accounted as part of the fea- 
turesof most country places, but while the garden is only 
one it is a most important one. Indeed it would be hard 
to overrate the aesthetic and useful value of the garden 
in the gen 
economy of the 
country place; 
but it is only fair 
to the other fea- 
tures to plaee it 
in its due order 
and conjunction. 
A distinct and 
well designed 
picture should 

evolve itself in 
the mind, as the 
unimproved ter- 
ritory and its 

possibilities spread themselves out before the eye. invit- 
ing the exercise of creative faculty in the making of 
a home. Bui this picture, if it is to be successfully 
evolved, should not be the hasty creation of an idle 
fancy or uninstructed imagination. It should grow 
slowly like most other good things. Laid out on a 
broad and simple plan, it should be inspired not alone 
by our own desires, but in good part by the suggestions 
of the shape and 
eon tour of the 
surface, the sur- 
rounding scenery 
and the character 
of the trees, rocks 
and soil. 

It becomes 
e v i d e nt fro m 
these considera- 
tions that the 
subject of the 
garden in any 
form should not 
be allowed to en- 
gross our atten- 
tion before study 
has been given to 
the more general 
problem, - that 
of planning the 
arrangement of 
the entire eoun- 
t r y place or 
home territory. 

though it be no more than an acre in extent. Moreover 
it should not be expected that the details of such a 
scheme could be properly thought out in the beginning; 
nor would it be desirable, for room should always be left 
for the development of new ideas which will be sure to 
arise as the years go by and our natures and desires 
change. 

Rut the main and dominant features should be early 



LANDSCAPE WITH GARDEN IN FOREGR01 \ h. 
HOME of CHARLES \. PLATT, ESQ., WINDSOR, VT. 




BIT OF GARDEN Willi OPEN I VNDSCAPE. 
HOME OF CHARLES \. PLATT, ESQ., WINDSOR, VT. 



settled, the position of the house, the extent and shape 
of the lawn, the main drive, the outlying or boundary 
plantations intended to limit and outline the house terri- 
tory, the position of the garden, the stable and other 
important outbuildings. 

To discuss the treatment of all features of the country 
place or suburban home does not naturally come within 

the scope of an 

essay on "Form- 
al Gardens," but 

it is necessary 
to realize the- dis- 
tinct correlation 
that should be 
set up between 
these features of 
landscape archi- 
tecture before we 
can approach the 
subject of gar- 
dens in a satis- 
factory way. 
This broad and inclusive treatment of the garden 
together with other features of a country place has 
not assumed a definite form until within two cen- 
turies. The use of the term "landscape architecture" 
belongs perhaps only to the last century. Vet it 
would not be right to say that no good landscape gar- 
dening existed before the eighteenth century, when the 
present phase of nature worship in art and letters as- 
sumed dominant 
shape. 

Many of the 
Italian, French 
and Elizabethan 
estates show now 
the remains of 
landscape gar- 
dening of an ex- 
ceptionally fine 
type. 

The charm of 
manyof these old 
places lies in 
their entire un- 
consci ousness, 
breadth and sim- 
plicity, and they 
are also devoid of 
the meretricious 
d i s p 1 a y a n d 
lavishness which 
characterize so 
m u ch of t h e 
landscape gar- 
dening of the present day. Conglomerate masses of 
(lowers, evergreens, trees and shrubs, chietly box trees 
and rhododendrons, with a few bits of marble ravished 
from Italian ruins, can hardly be said to constitute a 
satisfactory garden. 

We do not know much of the gardens of ancient days, 
but they were probably formal arrangements of flowers and 
fruit trees, with a few evergreens and deciduous trees, 



T HE BRICKBUILD E R . 



3» 




VIEW OF PERGOLA, HOME OF MRS. FREDERICK BELL, 
Parsniis & Pentecost. Architects. 



and beyond a wilderness. Of landscape gardening and 
park making of the modern type we find little evidence, 
although the love 
and awe of na- 
ture, if less va- 
ried and con - 
scious, was doubt- 
less as great as 
that of our time. 
The ancients had 
wonderful fruit 
trees and flower 
gardens and me- 
dicinal herb gar- 
dens, and com- 
bined with them 
the most remark- 
able effects of 
sculpture and 
architecture. But 
to-day on the hills 
of Italy, where, 
after all, every- 
thing new seems 
a continuation of 
the old, or else 
the old under a 
new name, w e 

find little suggestion of a special liking for natural effects 
as we now understand them. Pan is there without 
doubt, and also the sacred groves of oaks and chest- 
nuts, but the hu- 
man highly so- 
phisticated note 
strikes us every- 
where. Even if 
we lose ourselves 
in the forest, we 
seem aware al- 
ways of haunting 
echoes a n d 
glimpses of sculp- 
tured and living 
creatures, half 
stone, half hu- 
man, yet wholly 
divine. Ancient 
sculptured gar- 
dens — for such 
they seem to be — 
come down the 
ages to us almost 
unchanged in 
their statues and 
marble steps and 
balustrades, their 
gleaming foun- 
tains and ilexes, 
yews and box 
trees, and if we 

are fortunate, "roses, roses everywhe Vel we would 

not give up one touch of these moss-grown, weather- 
stained, often ruined heritages of time for all the glow- 



MADISON, N. J. 




K A HOUSE, BIT OF 



ing parterres and showy horticultural parades that 
appear in astonishing profusion on the modern million- 
aires' ornate and 
expensive lawns. 
But while we 
are profoundly 
impressed with 
all the poetical 
charm, delicious 
melancholy and 
wholly delight fid 
associations of 

the Italian villa 
or garden as it 
appears perched 
on the slope-. "i 
the Apennines, 

we feel, neverthe- 
less, that this be- 
longs to Italy and 
to another age 
w h en it w a s 
thought neces- 
sary to he always 
artificial. It 
would hardly do 
to assert that we 
are not artificial 
to-day, but it has grown to be a fashion, and perhaps 
a theory of life as well as of art. that we should aim 
to he more sane and natural than our fathers, or, at 

least, than the 
Italian nobles of 
the fifteenth cen- 
tury. It follows 
from this theory 
that our country 
places and rec- 
reation grounds 
should accept con- 
tinual sugges- 
tions from the 
unsopb ist [i 
n ature of o u r 
count r y . To 
transport an Ital- 
ian garden of the 
fifteenth century 
to an American 
e n v iro n m e n t 
would bi' t • • " 
much like putting 
nature in domino 
and mask to suit 
the sentiment of 
t wen t ie th -cen- 
tury Americans. 
T h e re ad el- 
ma) - believe and 
undertake to 
show that we already have Italian gardens iii this coun- 
try, but it will be necessary in face of indubitable i 
ontrovert this pleasing but incorrect belii 



PERGOLA VND GARDEN, no Ml Ol MRS. FREDERICK BELL. 
Parsons & Pi nti i ost, Architi 



32 



T H E H RICKBUILDER. 




DETAILS OF GARDEN FOR MRS. I KKDKK11K BELL 
Parsons & Pentecost, Architei 



It is true we have gardens and good ones: but because 
marble steps, balustrades and fountains and fragments of 
marble imported 
from Italian ruins 
have been em- 
ployed in their 
arrangement, we 
should not flatter 
ourselves that the 
Italian garden 
h a s a c t u al 1 y 
r e ac hed our 
shores, with its 
old-time trees 

and (lowers and 
its tender grace 
nt' moss-grown 
beauty. 

( )ur gardens 
may be and are 
"things of 
beauty and joy," 
and they have 
been benefited by 
many sugges- 
tions that fi n d 
their sources in 
foreign lands: 
but if these sug- 
gestions have 
been inspired by 

any instinct for sound and sane art they will check 
tlie impossible attempt to realize the Italian garden un- 
der the widely different conditions of American soil and 
climate ; while on 
the other hand 
they will aid the 
American garden 
to develop itself 
under American 
conditions and to 
harmonize with 
the native cli- 
mate, soil and 
s u r r o u n d i n g 
scenery. 

The Ameri- 
can garden will 
be flanked and 
ornamented with 
arbors and per- 
golas made of 
native brick, 
l-COtta and 
stone, wrought 
in all the beauti- 
ful designs that 
classic models 
ile us to pro- 
duce, but nature 

will be encouraged to work her own will in well-ordered 
abandon, with mses, phloxes, sweet Williams, asters, juni- 
pers, yews and azaleas. For in spite of much fashionable 



MADISON, \. I. 




VIK.W OK I'F.K \. 



HOME hi will | \M \. BUT! ER, I SQ 
Parsons & Pentecost, Architects. 



classic aspiration, the Italian garden in America is a myth 
and will always remain a myth; for we cannot hope to 

attain even a far- 
away imitation 
of either its spirit 
or form. 

T u r n i n g 
therefore with 
respectful admi- 
ration from the 
gardens of other 
lands and days, 
we may gladly 
come back to the 
consideration of 
the garden of our 

own hollies; not 

simply the gar- 
den with the 
house appended 
to it, but a sepa- 
rately embodied 
feature of the 
everyday econ- 
omy and pleasure 
of home life. 

Like the 
house, the situa- 
tion of the gar- 
den needs to be 
selected with all 
due regard to the other features of the place. Very 
careful attention should be given to balance and pro- 
portion in its every relation to the home grounds, for 

it is in the just 
equilibrium of 
its various fea- 
tures that we 
shall find one of 
the chief charms 
of landscape art. 
M u eh s t u d y 
should be given 
to the successful 
blending of the 
lines of the gar- 
d e n and ot h e r 
divisions of the 
country place. 
Hard or inhar- 
monious effects, 
s t a r 1 1 i n g con - 
trastsand sudden 
violent transi- 
tions may be dealt 
with by melting, 
as it were, one 
distinctive fea- 
ture of the place 
into the adjoin- 
ing one by various devices of planting. Architectural 
divisions, such as walls, fences and steps, may be ad- 
visable or necessary, but in such cases the more or less 



YONKERS, N. Y. 



T HE BRICKBUILD E R . 



33 



rigid outlines should be softened and blended with neigh- 
boring effects by means of vines, shrubs and trees. 

General rules 
can hardly be 
said to apply to 
the selection of 
a site for the 
flower garden, or, 
if you wdl, the 
formal garden, — 
aterm used on ac- 
count of the par- 
allelograms, cir- 
cles and ellipses 
that it makes 
use of, — further 
than the simple 
fundamental one 
that t h e s u r - 
rounding fea- 
tures and home 
needs of every 
individual place 
should inspire 
and control the 
location of its 
various parts. 
One place may 
have its garden 
directly attached 
to the house and with most excellent effect, while another 
may be better placed a quarter of a mile away ; and in like 
manner the materials of construction will vary in accord- 
ance with the pe- 




DETAIL OF PERGOLA AM) GARDEN FOR HI 

Parsons & Pentec 



The best method of laying out gardens, in the lirst place, 
is to depend on a few broad principles of design that will 

suit a large num- 
ber of instances, 
but preparing 
ourselves to find 
the next garden- 
ing problem we 
meet entirelyout- 
side of our precon- 
ceived ideas and 
rules. Experi- 
ence and many 
failures will even- 
tually train oneto 
undertake with 
some prospect of 
success the solu- 
tion of such unfa- 
miliar problems. 
In the accom- 
panying illustra- 
tion, for instance, 
it will be readily 
seen that brick 
or stone com- 
mends itseli 
the uses to which 
it is turned, and 
that the secluded 
nook in the woodland just suits the formal garden, nes 
tling as it does in a corner three hundred yards from 
the house and giving the feeling of retirement without 

loneliness by rea- 



1 .1.1 A M A. Bl I I I R, l SQ., VONKE RS, 
st. Architects. 



culiar needs and 
surr o u n d i n g s . 
Brick, terra-cotta, 
stucco and stone 
will be generally 
used to some ex- 
tent in the con- 
struction of form - 
al gardens, but 
it would be easy 
to imagine a place 
where all kinds 
of architectural 
work would only 
create a discord 
in the harmony, 
which, on the con- 
trary, would be 
greatlv enhanced 
and perfected by 
simple associa- 
tions with trees 
a n d s h r tt b s . 
Rules in the case 
of living beauty 
like that of trees 
and (lowers are 

poor guides after all and are likely to fail one just at the 
moment when they are expected to prove especially useful. 




DETAILS 01 GARDEN I ou \\ II I I \ M 
us & Pentec 



son of its open. 

cheerful outlook 

over hillside and 
meadow. 

So much for 
this particu lar 
garden ; the next 
one may be dif- 
ferent in every 
respect : but we 
shall hardly ever 
fail to find in all 
good examples oi 
tlower gardens 
such qualities as 

ari' expressed by 

the words retir- 
ing, pi iii i fill, har- 
monious, richly 
colored, situ < tly 
si i it tut, modest, 
dainty, finely pro- 
portioned iiiii/ 

■I balam i //. 

The beautiful 
garden, in a word, 

is one in which 
the opportunity given by nature has been perfected, not 
perverted, by the hand of living art. 



\. Bl III R, I SQ. . N o\k I RS, 
08t, Archil' 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Cantilever Arch Tru 

l;\ N. CLIFFORD RICKER, l>. ARCH. 



ss. 



MANY railway stations have been built during recent 
years with their train sheds entirely open on 
three sides, instead of being enclosed by walls with wide 
openings tor the passage of trains. The advantages of 
the open shed are obvious, for it is less costly and less 
liable to lire and other injuries. A terminal station usu- 
ally has one end of the shed attached to the wall of the 
enclosed portion of the station containing offices and wait- 
ing rooms. For a through station the side of the shed 
is thus attached, or it may be entirely detached, only 
being connected with the waiting and baggage rooms 
by roofed platforms, likewise open at the sides. 

For such a train shed, or even for any large enclosed 
hall, the balanced cantilever arch truss possesses many 









o>', '3 












: 
















\ 9 


.« / 


























7 / 














'tv v 












s / 










/ | 8^-* 


jX 


6 




" \ 


/ e 


/ (, 


y< 4 ' 




T^*"*-^ 


1, 


J 
. 1 


<■ o 


to art 




,f 


io 1 


\ '° 




: 


V 


,* ." 








\ 














»»--- 


- -L 




" \ 


""--- 


j 


















'a 




B 










Kg. I 



p<;_,,,.. 




Ftge 



advantages and merits careful study by architects and 
engineers. It has been employed but rarely, although a 
somewhat similar arch truss with three joints was used 
with great advantage in some of the larger buildings for 
the Columbian Exposition. The two examples of the 
cantilever arch truss best known to me occur in the 
Market House at Hanover, Germany, and in the Chicago 
station of the Illinois Central Railroad. It is possible 
that others have since been built in the United States. 

A study of this form of truss soon revealed difficul- 
ties in applying the usual methods of Graphic Statics 
for stress diagrams, and a careful examination of all 
available publications on this subject failed to find any 
graphical solution for such a truss. A novel method 
was therefore devised which will probably be found in- 
teresting and useful in the Study and design of this form 
of truss. 

To simplify the problem, skylights and monitor roofs 
have been omitted in the example here worked out, 
although these arc used in practice. The selected roof is 
of gable form, i oo feet span, 20 feet rise at center, and it 
is raised 20 feet clear above the floor. Trusses are of 
steel, placed 20 feet between centers, supporting steel 
I-purlins at each apex of principals, on which are fixed 
2 x 6 pine rafters, set 2 feet centers. On these is laid 
inch matched pine sheathing, covered with tin externally. 



The maximum weight of snow is assumed to be 20 
pounds per square foot of floor area. The maximum 
pressure of the wind on a vertical plane surface is taken 
at 40 pounds, making its normal pressure per square foot 
of the inclined surface of the roof 19.9 pounds by 
Hutton's Table. 

The apex loads arc computed in the usual manner, 
and it is also found that one 10-inch 25-pound I-beam 
will be required for each purlin supporting the rafters, 
weighing 500 pounds. 

\l'l,\ LOADS. 

Permanent or dead, 1.74 tons 

Snow, 2.00 " 

Total P. & S. load. 3.74 " 

Wind pressure, 2. 14 " 

Resultant of P. & W. loads, 3.82 " 
Since it is scarcely possible for the maximum snow- 
load and wind pressure on the roof to occur together, 
the roof is studied under two conditions: 

1. Supporting maximum permanent and snow loads 

on both slopes. 

2. Supporting permanent load on both slopes and 
the maximum wind pressure on one side only. 

The first condition usually produces the maximum 
stresses in the truss members, while the second shows 
whether these stresses are ever changed in character. 

In order to make the method of treatment as clear as 
possible two somewhat similar types of trusses will be 
considered before taking up the balanced cantilever arch. 

All truss and stress diagrams are drawn to uniform 




scales for the three types of trusses so as to permit easy 

comparison. 

The system of notation used to indicate truss mem- 
bers designates the Space on paper above the truss by .V, 
that below it by )'; each triangle is numbered from tile 
outer end of the truss. A member is then designated 
by the letter and figure, or by the two figures, denoting 
the surfaces separated by the member. The correspond- 



T HE BRICKIHMI.I) E R 



35 



ing stress line in the stress diagram will have the same 
letter or numerals at its ends. 

Fig. i represents a truss supported by two columns 
20 feet between centers, their feet being tied to the 
middle of the lower chord to prevent overthrow by the 
wind. This is a simple and novel truss, never used 
within my knowledge. 

For convenience the half load from each side of the 
roof is assumed to act separately at the ridge apex. 
Then five equal permanent and snow loads are supported 
by the left-hand half of the truss and also by the foot- 
ing A. 

Draw the P. & S. diagram by laying off in Fig. 2 the 
vertical load line no, dividing it into four loads and two 
half loads. No stress is found in the member 1 2. The 
diagram is drawn in the usual manner as far as point 7, 



V \ 




when it becomes necessary to commence again at the 
footing A, where the reaction is vertical and = no, so 
that no stress occurs in the diagonal no. Stress lines 
10 8 and 7 8 are then drawn and the diagram completed 
for left side of truss as shown. 

For P. & W. diagram assume the wind to act on left 
side of roof. With I'. & W. loads on left and I'. loads 
on right the reactions at footings A and //arc neither 
equal nor vertical. The resultant of the 1'. & W. apex 
loads on left acts at e, while that of the P. loads on right 
is applied at/. 

Make yC and Cy' = these resultants in Fig. 3, ami 



divide as before. Join yy' and draw in Fig. 1 .hi and 
Bd parallel thereto. Beginning at any point <> on . It/, 
draw equilibrium polygon abed, obtaining the closing 
line ad, and draw py" parallel thereto in Fig. .}• divid- 
ing the load line into the actual reactions at ./ and />'. 
The stress diagram for 1*. &. W. loads is then com- 
menced at left end as before. But a stress must exist 
QOW in the diagonal no, since the reaction at ./ is not 
vertical. In Fig. 3 draw no vertical and y"io parallel 
to diagonal no. Complete the diagram as before, 
The stress in vertical y\o' = y' 10', and in diagonal no' 
= r"ro'. Points on right side of trusses are accented. 
Compression is denoted by heavy Lines in all stress dia- 
grams, tension by light lines. 

This stress sheet shows stresses exceeding twenty- 
five tons in but two members, the vertical posts support- 
ing the truss. The nature of the stress is changed in 
but two members, the diagonals from foundations to 
middle of lower chord. 

S I kiss Sill I, I FOR TR1 ss No. 1 . 



Member. 


I', .v S. 

1.' i.nl-. 


P. & W. 

Loads. 
Windu ard. 


p. & w. 

Loads. 
Leeward. 


M.i \: 

mum. 


Mini- 
mum. 




.11 


+ 5-> 


+ 5-o 


• 2.4 


+ 5' 


' i 




*3 


1 10. 2 


+ 9.C) 


1-7 


1 0. 2 


4-7 




->'5 


' 15-3 


+ 14. 2 


+ 7.1 


' '?•.; 


7 1 




->"7 


+ 20.3 


+ 18.8 


9.6 


20.3 


'i.i' 




*9 


+ 15-3 


+ 9-3 


...i 


■ '5-3 


9 




J' 2 


4-7 


5- 1 


— 2. 2 


~~ 5- ' 


2. 2 




J'4 


9-5 
14.2 


- 10. 1 

- '5-2 


4.4 
6.6 


— 1 0. 1 
1 5 . 2 


M 

1.. i' 




no 


- 18.7 


— 26.3 


- 5-° 


26.3 


-5.0 


Vert. 


no 


0.0 


+ <>■ 7 


2.4 


"• 7 


2. 1 


1 >iag 


1 2 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


O.O 




,1 4 


+ 1.9 


4- 2.0 


4-0.9 


2.0 


• 0.9 




5 6 


• 3-7 


+ 4. 1 


i.S 


4- 4- ' 


i.S 




7 8 


13- ' 


— 20.3 


2.4 


- 20. 5 


' I 




2 3 

4 5 


- 5-2 
6.0 


- 5-5 
6.6 


2. 1 

2.S 


- 5-5 
6.6 


' 1 
- 2.8 




<• 7 


7-4 


7-9 


3-5 


7-9 






8 9 


■ 8.9 


; 15-3 




15-3 


• O.ll 




') </ 


15. 1 


9-5 


"-5 


15.1 







There arc two members no. one vertical, the other 
diagonal, both meeting at the joint ./ or />'. 

bio. 4 represents an arched truss with joints at each 
footing and at apex ( of the lower chord, the upper 

chord being separated at the ridge. There is a canti- 
lever projection of 10 feet at each side. 

Since the pressures produced at the pin ( by the' 

loads on one half of the truss must be transmitted to 

the pin at the footing in a straight line, the equilibrium 

polygon cannot be used for determining the reactions at 
./ and /■'. Join .l( and />< and prolong these lines. 
Intersect them by the lines of the resultants ..t the lo 
on the left and right sides at E, D, F. Join .//. .'/'. 
/,'/'. Then, tor example, the resultant "I 1'. e. S. loads 
on left side will act along the lines /'. / and />/■'. etc 

for the I'. & S. diagrams lav oil and divide the 

load line va as before. Draw yb parallel to /'. /, ba 

parallel to />/•'. ay" horizontal and by" parallel to .)( 

Then (/"£ — reaction at J along line .K . and by — n 

lion along bin . //'. 

Commence at r and draw stress lines yi and \i. 



THK BRICKHUIL D E R 



Then begin at A, drawing stress lines y"io and no. 
Point ii coincides with 10, since no stress occurs in 
member 10 n. After locating point 2 it will be more 
convenient to commence again at the ridge of the roof, 
where the half load is represented by ga in Fig. 5, pro- 
ducing no stress in member xg. Draw 8 9 to intersect 
i'"s, etc., completing the stress diagram. 

The novelty of the method, then, consists in commen- 
cing the stress diagram at three different points instead 
of two, as for ordinary forms of trusses, checking its 
accuracy by the parallelism of the last stress line drawn 
to the corresponding member of the truss. 

The P. & W. diagram in Fig. C is drawn in a similar 
manner. Draw the load line yc, cy' and divide it. Re- 
solve yc into components ya and ac, acting at ./ and />'; 
cy' into components cb and by', acting at the same points. 

Draw ay", by" parallel to be, ca, and y"a, ay will be 
the required reactions at A; y'b, by" those at />'. The 
stress diagram is then drawn by commencing at G, A, C 
for left side, and A, B, C for right side. 

Excepting for the two members joining at . / tin- 
stresses in all members are much smaller than found for 
corresponding parts of the preceding truss, as clearly 
shown by comparing the stress diagrams. 

The only stresses exceeding 25 tons are those of 38.3 
tons compression in the two lowest curved members of 
the truss, hut the stress reverses in nearly half the mem- 
bers. This is of no importance if the truss be made of 
rolled shapes riveted together at joints. Proper allow- 
ances must be made for curvature of members in fixing 
their dimensions. 

Stress Sheet for Truss No. 2. 







1'. & w. 


1'. .V W 










Loads. 


Loads. 








I'. & s. 


Wind- 


Lee 


Maxi- 


Mini 




Loads. 


ward. 


ward. 


mum. 


mum 



XI 4.9 - 5.] t- 2.4 f- 5.1 t 2.4 

x$ 5.8 i-9 + 8.6 + 8.6 1.9 

-t'5 —1.1 8. i f- 4. 2 — 8. 1 f 4. 2 

-i"7 "4-5 8.7 4 0.8 - 8.7 4- 0.8 

Xg 0.0 + 0.5 0.0 4- 0.5 0.0 

.n - 4.6 - 5. 1 — 2.2 5. 1 - 2.2 

.no [8.8 • 1.1 • 2 2.0 - 22.0 t 1.1 Vert. 

.no 38.3 K1.7 34. y -38.3 -16.7 Curved. 

112 —22.5 — 9.8 —20.8 22.5 9.8 

ni 22.5 - 9.9 —20.8 —22.5 - 9.9 

.'I " '5-2 3-5 '7-5 '7-5 3-5 

7.7 ■ 2.3 12.8 [2.8 4- 2.3 

,I'8 4. 1 2. 1 9. 2 9.2 4 2.1 

I Z - 3-° 8.5 • 2.5 8.5 r- 2.5 

3 4 7-9 7-3 4-3 7-9 4-3 

5 " 5-4 4-o 3.4 5-4 3-4 

7 8 2.0 4 O. 2 2.1 2. 1 f 0.2 

9 9 1.9 2. 1 o.y - 2. I - o.y 

10 11 0.0 o.O 0.0 0.0 0.0 

ri 12 1S.7 8. 1 Ki.d 18.7 8. 1 

12 14 5.7 -2.5 4.2 -5.7 - 2.5 

[42 f 3.7 - 1. 5 - 5.2 5.2 • 3.7 

23 — 1.0 + 5.9 6. 1 6. 1 1 5.9 

t 5 +6.7 • 5.3 h 4. ] ■ 6.7 I- 4.1 

6 7 3.2 - 0.2 +3.2 +3.2 - 0.2 

- 4-2 9.3 i 0.8 9.3 + 0.8 
There are two members 110. one vertical and the 
other curved, both meeting at the joint ./ or />'. 



The balanced cantilever arch truss shown in Fig. 7 
is evidently similar to that in Fig. 4, having pin joints 
at ./, />', ("and being divided at the ridge. The span of 
the equilateral arch is 40 feet and the side cantilevers 
overhang- 30 feet each, so that each side nearly bal- 
ances on the pin at its foot, producing very little pres- 
sure at ( '. 

Since the vertical resultant eD falls outside the lines 
of action of its components, HIl, />/>', the pressure on ./ 
exceeds the resultant and that on B becomes a pull from 
/>' towards A Their magnitudes are found in Fig. 8 by 
drawing iw and xa parallel to /'//and />/>'. Then mak- 
ing xy" horizontal and ay" parallel to Hl\ the reactions 
at A arey"a, ay, etc. Commencing at G, proceed as far 
as point 5; commence at ./ and determine 13; then 
beginning at ridge, located. The stress line (1 13 must 
close parallel to member (1 13. 

The resultant eE of I'. & W. loads on left side falls 
between its components EA and ./A', producing a slight 
pressure on pin C. For clearness the middle portion 
of Fig. y is enlarged live times in Fig. 10. The line 
c/> represents the push on pin (\ produced by the P. 
& S. loads 011 left side; ha represents the pull on pin C, 
caused by P. loads on right side. The diagram is com- 
pleted as in the last case. 

The stresses in six members exceed twenty-five tons, 
those intersecting at .-/ and />' and in 5 13. Reversal 
of stress does not occur in any member. 

Stress Sheet for Truss No. 3. 







P. & W. 


P & W. 










Loads. 


Loads. 








I'. & S. 


Wind- 


Ll-l- 


Maxi- 


Mini 


Member. 


Loads. 


ward. 


ward. 


mum. 


mum 



.ri 4- 5.0 4- 5.1 h 2.4 4-5.I r 2.4 

.13 t 10. I • ((.7 • 4.7 f- 10. I +■ 4. 7 

.1-5 [5.2 f 14.3 - 7. I hTS.2 • 7. 1 

.17 +4.6 r- 1.7 f 3.3 +4.6 +1-7 

xg 0.0 f 0.4 0.0 + 0.4 0.0 

11 4.7 5-o 2.2 5.0 — 2.2 

l'2 4.7 5.0 2.2 5.O — 2.2 



IO. 



.1 



4.4 



J4 - 9.4 - IO.3 4.4 

no 39.7 49.5 -12.0 49.5 1 2.0 Vert. 

_no 21.] 33.1 - 1.4 • 33. 1 • 1.4 Curved. 

ri2 (- 1 o.y 417.0 4-0.6 t 17.0 t- 0.(1 

.'" 7-. : ! 3-9 6 -S 7-3 3-9 

yi 2.t - 0.2 3.7 3.7 - 0.2 

1 2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 

3 4 4-1.9 4 2.0 *- o.y f 2.0 4 o.y 

5 13 25.1 28.5 9.5 28.5 9.5 

78 -6.0 1.2 3.5 6.0 3.5 

9 ./ I.y [.9 - o.y i.<) O.y 

- 3 5-° 5-5 2-3 5-5 2 -3 

4 5 ().0 6.5 2.8 6.5 2.8 

12 11 HI.O I- 1 7. 2 f 0. 8 t- I 7 . 2 4-0.8 

13 (i • 17.5 4-20.9 I 6.4 • :o.i) r (1.4 
(17 f 3. 1 4 2.4 1-1.1 I- 3. 1 • 2.4 

8 9 + 4-3 + o-3 + 3-1 + 4-3 + °-3 

8 10 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 

There are two members 1 1 o, one vertical, the other 
curved, both meeting at the joint A or A'. 

Therefore by proceeding in the manner indicated in 
this article the stresses in members of trusses of these 
types may be found as readily and accurately as for 
trusses of simpler and ordinary forms. 



T HE HRICKIU'II.D E K 



37 



Fire-proofing. 



RATIONAL METHODS OF FIRE PROOFING. 

KV WILLIAM COPELAND FURBER. 

IN the construction of modern buildings with the en- 
closing walls carried entirely on a steel framework, 
the framework in the division or party walls is more vul- 
nerable than that in the exterior or street walls if the 
building adjoining this party wall has wood floor con- 
struction. The spread of the flames and rapid combus- 
tion of such a building are greatly augmented l>v the hot 
gases that are confined by the high walls which act as a 
chimney and carry these gases to a great height. Under 
these circumstances, the party or division wall is sub- 
jected to an intense heat, sufficient sometimes to vitrify 



Red Clay 
furrino bnc!<. 



ru;f- proofing 

Scmi-pcroiis 
fins-clayhlc 




Section -through 
Curtain Girders 
snowinp rusr-proof i nq, 
and fire-proafin<g 



the brick, and if the wall is carried on a metal framework 
it will be likely to collapse unless the framework is amply 
protected by a sufficient thickness of non-conducting cov- 
ering, both fire-proof and non-vitrifiable. The ordinary 
hollow tile furring or thin partition block is not capable 
of protecting the iron work under such an exposure, and 
a special covering should be devised. 

From a fire-proofing standpoint it would be much bet- 
ter to build the patty wall solid from bottom to top, rest- 
ing on its own foundation and independent of the frame 
work, with the exception of the lateral tics which secure 
the two together. This gives the metal framework the 
advantage of the full thickness of the masonry wall from 
a fire on the adjoining side of the wall, but it does not 
dispense with the necessity of fire-proof covering against 
possible fire on the inside, which might arise from the 
combustion of the contents of the fire-proof building. 

lu the recent fire on Market Street. Philadelphia, the 
bricks in the party wall between the burning building and 
the non-combustible building to the east of it became so 
hot on the side toward the fire that when water was thrown 
on them they crumbled away to the depth of four inches. 
Had this wall been supported on an iron framework with 



the usual inadequate fire-proof covering, it would not have 

stood the trial to which it was subjected, and the non- 
combustible building on the cast side of it would have 
collapsed, as this party wall was one of the supports for 
its single-span floor beams. 

It is possible, however, to design the fire-proofing so 
that a division wall can be safely supported on iron frame- 
work if under certain conditions it seems desirable to build 
it so. but the question of the use of the solid party wall 
should not be negatively decided excepting under extra- 
ordinary circumstances. When these circumstances exist, 
the maximum temperatures that could result in case of 
lire must be considered ami a covering designed to meet 
it which will resist the alternate action of fire and water 
without disintegration. 

Porous hollow tile is undoubtedly the best material to 
use, for it can be heated to redness and then plunged into 
water without apparent disintegration; but it must be 

of Sufficient thickness. 

The use of the best materials, however, must b( 
companied with sound constructional methods of attach- 
ing the covering to the stei 1 members, i ir it will not endure 
the trial to which it may be subjected. Much remains t<> 
be don ■ by the manufacturers of fire proofing materials 
towards devising proper shapes and better methods of 
attaching them, and until this is done it is to be feared 

that a party or division wall should not be supported on 
an iron framework. 

The manufacturers of fire-proofing materials owe it 
to themselves to improve their product, so that when a 
building is constructed with burnt clay coverings on a 
metal framework, its safety in case of fire is insured be- 







Plan csf external corner column 

yond a question of doubt, and this cannot be until the 
coverings are made thick enough and of proper shape 
and form to permit a good job of setting to be easily 

made. It is also to tin- interest of t he manufacturers, after 
they have provided proper materials, to see that the 
workmanship in setting it is of the best. A great deal 
of the so-called fire-proofing, particularly in columns, is 



38 



T H E HRICKBUILD E R . 



put on with a "dash " (of mortar) "and a promise," and- 

should any slight mechanical injury happen to any part j 
(if it, the blocks above are likely to come tumbling down, 
Lng the columns exposed. 

The manufacturers suffer for all this kind of work, 

ause when a fire occurs in a building fire-proofed in 
this manner and serious injury or failure results, the cry 
is immediately raised that " fire-proof" buildings are not 
fire-proof, and it is therefore a waste of money to spend 
an extra amount to fire-proof them when they will be 
injured or destroyed in case of tire, and it is cheaper to 
pay the insurance companies to take the risk; whereas if 
the truth was known, the fault lay entirely in the particu- 
lar method employed and not in the system. 

What the manufacturers need is the constant use of the 
testing laboratory and apparatus which should be a part 
of the essential equipment of every manufacturer. This 
equipment need not be a large one necessarily; an ordi- 
nary room with a furnace and fixtures and testing ma- 
chines would serve very well, and this laboratory would 
be big enough to answer many questions. With such 
an equipment tests could be made on the transmission 
of heat, the resistance of materials to the action of fire 
and water, the weakening effect of heat on steel struc- 
tural members, and the resistance of fire-proof coverings 
t<> mechanical injury. From these experiments data could 
be obtained which would place the whole matter on a sci- 
entific basis and remove it entirely from the domain of 
empiricism. Such experiments would not only give the 
facts required to convince the skeptical, but would also 
serve to convince manufacturers themselves that their 
product is actually worthy of serious consideration and 
that it could do what was claimed for it. 

The Portland cement industry has been brought to a 
high state of development because its product has been 
required to pass certain tests of strength, of chemical 
composition, of manufacture, of fineness of grinding, 
etc. and as the cement improved in quality to meet 
these tests the requirements were raised. Manufac- 
turers were therefore compelled constantly to be on the 
alert, not only to keep the product up to the require- 
ments, but to be prepared to successfully meet the more 
exacting requirements which might be reasonably ex- 
pected in the future. The study and investigation which 
were necessary in order to keep up with the specifications 
have been of invaluable benefit to the industry. Actual 
knowledge has taken the place of guesswork and mere 
opinion, so that to-day Portland cement is practically a 
fixed product of excellent qualities and deserves the high 
reputation it enjoys. 

The burnt clay fire-proofing industry is greatly in 
need of the application of the same method. When the 
construction of buildings reaches a scientific basis and 
whims and opinions give way to facts and knowledge, 
then we can expect that specifications will call for fi re- 
proofing to meet certain tests, such as degree of heat 
transmission within a given time per inch of thickness, 
resistance of the material to the disintegration under the 
alternate action of fire and water, resistance to breakage 
from mechanical injury, the shaping of blocks so as to 
discount poor workmanship in setting and permit the 
attachment of the material with the least labor, etc. 

[n 1 hes accompanying this article an attempt 



is made to show how great an improvement can be made 
in fire-proofing columns and curtain girders on external 
walls by a better use of some of the present standard 
shapes of materials. These sketches are not put forth as 
suggesting ideal methods or even the best methods, but 
simply as a better method than those now commonly in 
use. An effort has also been made toward protecting 
the columns and beams in the external walls from corro- 
sion by the use of ;i concrete envelope and filling. The 
use of Portland cement as a preventive of rust has 
already been explained and the chemistry of the subject 
touched upon in The Brickbuilder for May, 1901, p. 98. 
Another suggestion shown in the drawings is the 
metal lath binder around the terra-cotta tiles. This 
binder is an important detail of terra-cotta tire-proofing 
which is seldom, if ever, properly considered. Some 




[Detail of external corner column 

Sborviry rusl-ppoofin^andfireproofin^ 
and WirelaH) bindar 

burnt clay material with thin walls is brittle, be it fine 
china or terra-cotta fire-proofing, and being brittle, it 
is likely to be broken. The wire cloth binder, if prop- 
erly applied, serves to distribute the force of any blow, 
and if the blow be great enough to break the tile, pre- 
vents the broken piece from falling out and exposing the 
metal work beneath it. 

if the manufacturers of fire clay materials will only 
take up this fire-proof question in their laboratories and 
study the subject in a theoretical and practical manner 
and find out the best shapes of tile covering that will 
answer to the fullest degree the purpose for which -it is 
intended, and at the same time they are finding this out 
find out how to make these shapes in' a commercial way, 
they will be doing themselves a great deal of good and 
also rendering a great service to the community. 



T II E BRICKHUIL1) K K 



39 



Selected Miscellany. 

Mosaics. 

THE art of producing artistic designs by setting 
small pieces of stone, glass, burnt clay or other 
materials of different colors so as to produce the effect 
of a painting- or a decorative effect by means of conven- 
tional patterns is a very old one, and its origin is lost in 
antiquity. We know that it was much practiced by the 
ancient Greeks and Romans, especially for ornamental 
pavements. Later under the Byzantine Empire, it was 
much used for the ornamentation of churches, in which 
it formed a large portion of the wall decorations. It 
was reintroduced into Italy for the same purpose about 
the middle of the thirteenth century. Since then it has 
been brought to such wonderful perfection that large 
pictures can be minutely imitated by it, although it may 
be questioned if this is the most artistic use to which 
mosaics may be put. Mosaics have been used since the 





^|^ V 






4*£ S 


I 


ii 


i 



r MM I \l s r.\ C. B. J. SNYDER, VR 

New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, Maki 

The material which lias most singularly resisted 
abrasion and disintegration is hard burnt clay. The 
remains of the pavements of the atria and aula of the 
Roman houses in England and Germany have shown that 




WYNDHURST," HOUSE OF JOHN SL0ANE, ESQ., LENOX, MASS. 
Peabody cV steams. Architects. 



time of the ancients whenever decorations were needed 
that would resist wear, destruction by the elements and 
the decay of time. Because of its enduring qualities it 
has been the medium of color decoration in monuments 
and monumental buildings, for 
the idea of endurance which un- 
derlies monumental structures 
requires that the same enduring 
principles must extend also to 
their decorations. From the 
number of such works which re- 
main to us from all periods of 
history of this art under the 
various conditions of wear and 
exposure under widely different 
climatic influences, we are ena- 
bled to point to the material 
which out of the many used for 
mosaic work has withstood de- 
structive influences the best. 



i wi i \i. Hi M. i . 

New Jersey Terra 



mosaics of burnt clay tessera were neither worn away 

by the treading of the feet nor disintegrated by the 

action of frosts, as were all those made from natural 

stones. The celebrated tile friezes of the Assyrians at 

Babylon and Susa, the wall tiles 
from the burial vaults of the 
Etruscans, are monuments to the 
permanent beauty and indestruc 
tibilitj "t ceramic decorations, 

and like the pottery vases of t he 

Greeks were unaffected by time 
and exposure amidst the crum- 
bling and decaying marble and 
granite structures in which they 

were plated. It has been proven 

that in much frequented pla 
under the activity of modern in- 
tercourse, floors of wood, mar- 
endicoi i. ir< hite. i 1,l( ' •"" 1 cement, or composi 

Cotta Company, Mah pavements made of broken mar- 




40 



T II E URIC K B LI I L DK R. 








i pJMiH 



U4UUUUJ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ... . 




Built 



APARTMENT, AMSTERDAM IVENUE, NEW YORK CITY. 
Nevilli . v - Bagge, Architects, 
if Gray Roman Brick madi bj th< Ohio Mining and Manufacture 



ble and cement, soon become unsightly. The mosaics 
of colored marble set in cement, while resisting the 

wear of the Roman sandals, do not stand the severe 
and rough wear of the modern shoes with their metallic 
heel nails. Marble mosaics for a short time are more 
glossy on the surface than ceramic mosaic and for that 
reason may be thought preferable, but this appearance 
is due merely to the polishing produced by grinding the 
marble down to an even surface after it has been set in 
position, its face afterwards being coated with wax or 
oil; but the wax soon wears oil and the oil collects dust, 
thus obscuring the design. The rubbing down reduces 
the particles of marble to a very thin shell, and when 
subjected to the wear of traffic the marble assumes an 
uneven surface and as it wears the joints become larger. 
Marble mosaic being cut with the Mow of a hammer, the 
top is larger than the bottom. Expansion and contrac- 
tion soon make large unsightly cracks in marble mosaic- 
work, the reason being that marble is of a limestone 
formation and is much softer than Portland cement. 

Marble mosaic to hold its position must be set in Port- 
land cement, and as soon as the cement begins to expand 
the floor cither cracks in the joints or more frequently 
straight across the marble itself, not only making the fin- 
work unsightly but difficult and very expensive to 
repair. Ceramic mosaic is set at once with an even sur- 
md cannot afterwards be ground down by rubbing, 
tile material being too hard to be affected by any grind- 
ing which is employed on marble mosaic. It begins to 
polish the first time it is washed, and looks brighter and 
cleaner after every subsequent washing, gradually acquir- 
ing the face which is so pleasing when marble is new. 
This polish will not wear off, being preserved by the 
regular washing necessary to keep any floor clean. 

amic mosaic is incomparably harder than marble 
mosaic, which can be proven easily by rubbing a piece 



of each of the two kinds together. The soft 
marble will grind away while the ceramic 
product remains unaffected. All of the varie- 
ties of color in marble are produced in ceramic 
mosaic, besides hundreds of other shades not 
found in the natural stone. Because of a 
peculiar quality in hard burnt claw which 
may be described as a sort of toughened ce- 
ramic mosaic, when set in Portland cement it 
forms a durable covering for floors or walls, 
is not sensitive to brittleness, and being non- 
poroiis it has no superior as a sanitary article. 
• '.lass mosaics will not last on floors. 
Owing to the extreme brittleness of glass the 
pieces used very quickly become chipped 
around the edges, thus widening the joints in 
an objectionable manner, a greater portion of 
the cement becoming visible where not in- 
tended, thus marring the design. The sub- 
stance of which L^lass mosaic is formed is not 
solid, but contains small, flat, spherical air- 
holes, each increasing in size by chipping, 
just as do the edges of the pieces, thus affect- 
ing the color, and soon the floor assumes a 
dull and dead appearance. 

A word about the setting of tiles and ce- 
ramic mosaics. Much prejudice and dissatis- 
faction has been caused by trusting this class of work to 
incompetent workmen (commonly Italian marble mosaic 
layers) who know nothing about ceramic mosaic, as their 
education is entirely on marble mosaic. 

Sometimes aided by poor and insufficient material 




I 



n 5 3 






f 



§ 



mission HOUSE, IHIKIIKTII STREET -AND THIRD AVENUE, 
NEW VnKK CI n . 

I towel Is & Stokes, Ai chil 
Built "i Speckled Roman Brick muck- by li. Kreischer & Sons. 



THE BRICKBUILD E K . 



4' 




DETAIL BY FRANK K. \\ \r>o\. VRCHITEI I. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

for setting same, many a beautiful tile floor has thus 
been per m a - 
nently .spoiled. 
Sometimes it is 
because a good 
workman is in 
too big a hurry 
and slights his 
work. Few real- 
ize that tile work, 
when rightly set, 
will outlast the 
building which it 
decorates. 




GEORGE M. 

FISKE 

ELECTED 
PRESIDENT. 

T h e a n nual 
convention of the 
National Brick 
Manufacturers' 
Association was 
held at Cleve- 
land, February 
12-15. The at- 
tendance was 
greater than at 
any time since 
the organization 
of the associa- 
tion, an unusu- 
ally large num- 
ber of the lead- 
ing clay workers 
of the country 
being in attend- 
ance. 

T h e w h 1 e 
thought and pur- 
pose of the asso- 
ciation is for the 

advancement of the science of clay working. In addition to the 
usual number of excellent papers treating the various problems ot 
manufacture, the convention was honored by the presence oi Archi- 
tect I Milton Dyer of Cleveland, who read an interesting paper Oil 
"Brick in Architecture." The bringing together of the architeel 
and the clay worker for the discussion of matters of common .merest 
is a new feature which has been recently introduced by Secretary 
Randall of the association, and Judged by the interest manifested in 
Mr Dyer's paper the results will be of inestimable value to both. 

Needless to say, every detail of arrangement for the care ot the 
attending members was planned and executed, under the direction ot 
Mr William II. Hunt, the retiring president ot the association and 



the general manager of the Cleveland Hydraulic Press 
Brick Company, in a manner which left nothing to be 
desired. 

Mr. George M. Fiske of Boston was elected president 
of the association for the ensuing year. Mr. Fiske is the 
senior member of the firm of Fiske & Co., Boston, dealers 
in clay products of all kinds, and is numbered among the 
pioneers in the manufacture of front and ornamental 
brick, architectural terracotta and faience. 

NOTES FROM 

NEW YORK. 

As shown by 
the annual report 
of the Building 

Department, the 
cost of building 
operations in 

New York City 
in 1901 was near- 
ly double that of 
t h e p r e vious 

year. The total 
estimated cost in 
the city, includ- 
ing new struc- 
tures of all class- 
es and alterations 
to old buildings. 
was si 50,072,657. 
For njoo the total 
was SXX, ( o.:, 1 74, 
There seems to 

be no reason for 

this great in- 
crease over njoo 
other than the 
growth of the 
city and a gcner 
ally prosperous 
condition in all 
branches of the 
building indus- 
try. 

The effect of 
the tenement- 
house law. which 
went into effect 

last April, is 
shown in the re 
port. It has 



. ;< 1 1 OR i:o\ S, BA1 1 [MORE, MO. 

Joseph Evans Sperry, Architect. 




CAPITAI EXECUTED B^ I III EXCE1 

<■ \ \ 1 OMP \ns . 



4- 1 



THE BRICKIHULDER 





'lOOR P. -vrt 




BASEMENT. 



FIRST FLOOR. 



PLAN, UNIVERSITY SCHOOL FOR BOYS, BALTIMORE, Ml). 
Joseph Evans Sperry, Architect. 



T HE BRICKBUILD E R 



greatly decreased the 

number of brick tenement 
houses and increased the 
number of frame dwelling 
houses and smaller family 
apartments. 

One of the greatest 
merits of the present re- 
form administration is the 
enforcing of all existing 
laws whether good or bad. 
Among the wise laws 
which have been absolute- 
ly disregarded is the one 
prohibiting persons from 
standing in the aisles and 
back of the seats in the 
theaters. Heretofore 
there has been no limit 
to the number of people 
who could be packed into 
our theaters, and it is ter- 
rible to think what might 
have happened in case of 
fire or panic in spite of 
the fact that most of our 
theaters have ample exits. 
The enforcement of this 
law has the approval of 
the general public. 

Another matter which 
has endeared our present 
administration to the in- 
telligent public as well as 

to the artistic class is their evident desire to cooperate 
in any attempt to beautify or improve the appearance 
of the city. The Municipal Art .Society, which was or- 
ganized with this idea in view, is for the first time recog- 
nized as a body of experts whose suggestions are of great 
value to the city. 

As a beginning, the matter of street signs and lamp 
posts is now having serious consideration, and it will not 
be long before we will notice the improvement. 

Among more costly improvements suggested are the 
public forum at Union Square, the raising of the Colum- 
bus monument and general improvement of the " Circle " 
at Fifty-ninth Street, the water gate and monument at 
Seventy-second Street. 

The League exhibition is now opened and is a thor- 
oughly fine one. The hanging committee are to be 
especially congratulated upon the pleasing arrangement 
of the pictures, as well as the decorations and sculpture. 

Contracts have 
been signed with the 
Hecla Iron Works of 
Brooklyn for bronze 
marquises and other 
exterior decorations 
costing $300,000, for 
the new hotel which 
Colonel John Jacob 
Astor is building at 
a cost of $2,000,000 




13 

at the corner of Fifth 
Avenue and Fifty-fifth 
Street. This hotel will be 
a beautiful structure of 
the best type and will he 
completed by next Sep 

tember. 



STORAOK WAREHOUSE, CHICAGO. 
Holabird & Roche, Architects. 




hi I MLS FOR M « 1 HE \ I I R, BOS ' 
John Galen Howard and James M. Wood. Archil 
Atlantii Terra-< otta Company, Maker'-. 



IX GENERAL. 

The architectural terra- 
cotta with which the fronts 
ot the Cast' and Advance 
Thresher Company build- 
ings at Minneapolis were 
embellished was fur- 
nished by the Winkle Ter- 
ra-Cotta Company of St. 
Louis. The illustrations 
appear in the plate form 
of this number. 

The Keith Company, 

architects. Minneapolis, 
Minn., are desirous of se- 
curing two or three com- 
petent arch itect u ral 
draughtsmen at once. 
Permanent positions are 
offered good men. 

The catalogues of the 

architectural exhibitions 
given by the T-Square 
Club of Philadelphia are 
always interesting, and es- 
pecially so is the one for this year. It includes an un- 
usually large number of well-chosen illustrations, besides 
other matter which will be of interest generally t<> ar- 
chitects. 

At the regular monthly meeting of the New York 
Chapter. A. I. A., held on the evening of Februarj 1 ; 
there was considered an important proposition from the 
Fine Arts Federation to present to the legislature a bill 

to facilitate the selection oi competent architects for 
municipal buildings of the city of New York. 

Raymond F. Alnnrall. architect, New York City, an- 
nounces the removal of his offices from 10 East Twenty- 
third Street to 51 Chambers Street. 

Messrs. Sutter & Putnam, h Louis Block, Dayton, 

Ohio, announce that they have resumed an active busi- 
ness association for the practice of architecture. 

Clarence A. Nl 

formerly of the firm 
of Dwyer & Neff, 
a n d 'I' h omas P. 
Thompson, Norfolk, 

\'a.. have formed a 

irtnership for the 
practice of architec- 
ture under the firm 
name of Nci 

Thompson, 



44 



T II E H R I C K B V I I. I) E R 



•• Love's Dream" is the title of a very beautiful calendar 
which is issued by the Reese-Hammond Fire Brick Company of 
Boliver, Pa., one of which we have the good fortune to possess. 

F i s k e & Co., 
Boston, will supply 
brick for the follow- 
ing new buildings: 
1 touse of Correction, 
Boston Harbor, A. 
Warren Gould, ar- 
chitect; residence, 
Brookline, Mass.. 
Little X Brown, ar- 
chitects; municipal 
building, 1 )orchester, 
Mass., William II. 
Beserick, architect ; 
business block, Deal 
Beach, X. J., Buch- 
man & Fox, archi- 
tects; office building, 
New York City, F. 
L. Ellingwood, ar- 
chitect ; p ubl i c 
school, New York 
City, ('. B. J. Snyder, 
architect ; two public 
schools. Brooklyn, X. 
V.. ('. B. J. Snyder, 
architect; St. Paul 
Episcopal School, 




A CO., 



1)1. I All, I'.Y D. H. I'.l RNHAM 
ARCH) I EC is. 

Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Makers 





DETAIL BY R. M. Mil. I. low, ARCHITECT. 
St. Louis Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



UK I All. \.\ \il NES a Ml BBI ii. \ I' EC I S. 

Perth \m i i-Cotta Company, .Makers. 

Concord, X. II., Henry Vaughn, architect; 
Hospital for Consumptives, Rutland, Mass., 
Kendall. Taylor & Stevens, architects: Chil- 
dren's Hospital, Boston Harbor, Charles Brig- 
ham, architect; Majestic Theater, Boston, 
Mass., Wood X Howard, architects; Y. M. C. A. 
Building, Fall River, Mass., Nat. C. Smith, 
architect: Boys' Club, Pawtucket, R. I., Stone. 
Carpenter & Willson, architects ; office building, 
Pawtucket, K. I., Stone, Carpenter & Willson, 
architects: Colonial Trust Building, Water- 
bury, Conn.. Davis (V Brooks, architects; high 

school. New Haven, Conn., Brown & Yon Beren, architects; 

Y. M. C. A. Building, New Haven, Conn., Brown & Von Beren, 

architects; grammar school. Springfield, Mass., K. C. & G. C. 

Gardner, architects. 

MANUFACTURERS' CATALOGUES AND 
SAMPLES WANTED. 
The following named architects would be glad to have manu- 
facturers' catalogues and samples sent them: liroderick X 
Wade, Union Trust Building, St. Louis, Mo.; Rose X Eken, 
Columbia Building, Norfolk, Va. ; Neff X Thompson, Colum- 
bia Building, Norfolk, Va. : Edwy E. Benedict, 4.; East Main 
Street, Waterbury, Conn. ; Adolph Mertin. 33 Union Square, 
Xew York City; Walter E. Pinkham, 511 Strangenwald Build- 
ing, Honolulu, Hawaiian Isles. 



" School Architecture." 



A General Treatise on Designing and Planning of Sehoolhouses. 

BY KDMCND M. WHEELWRIGHT. 

Mure- than 250 Illustrations of Sehoolhouses and Plans; many of the best types of all grades having 

been chosen. 
An indispensable Text-book for Schoolhouse Designers. 

Price, $5.00, delivered. 

ROGERS & MANSON, Publishers, 
Boston, Mass. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

MARCH, 

i 902. 




< 



x 






x 



X 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 189 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



Subscription price, mailed fiat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada ........ $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products ... II 

Architectural Faience .... II 

" Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

" Enameled . . . .Ill and IV 



PAGE 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



THE TWENTIETH-CENTURY RENAISSANCE. 

THOSE who are in the midst of the march of progress 
can seldom fully realize the trend of events, nor can 
they often see the goal toward which they are moving, 
but it is impossible for any one who is wide-awake and 
who reads the magazines to-day to fail to appreciate that 
we are certainly on the road to something remarkable in 
the way of architectural development. With practically 
unbounded wealth, opportunities which arc constantly 
enlarging-, and an ability to grapple new problems which 
is every day increasing to meet the demand, we arc now 
on the threshold of a renaissance in art. In every respect 
the existing conditions ought to be a source of satisfac- 
tion to the architect who loves his profession and his art. 
The time was not long ago when an architect could make 
a solid reputation and a financial success as a mere busi- 
ness man or as simply a practical constructor aside from 
his artistic ability, but that condition has in our judgment 
gone by. Practical knowledge and business ability always 



command respect and will always he at a premium, but the 
necessity for artistic power as a manifest demand upon 
our architects is something which cannot be ignored. 
Within two years a building firm known throughout the 
country has organized itself into an incorporated company 
with a capital of twenty million dollars. Other builders 
arc following close behind, and these Large concerns are 
so thoroughly equipped in every practical sense that they 
arc able to attend to the material and business functions 
of building operations in a most thorough manner. The 
architect must understand these sides of his profession, 
but in the struggle for success the prizes of the future 
are undoubtedly to go to the man who can add the great- 
est amount of art to his practical business ability. The 
designer is coming to the front as never before, and he 
is coming with the help and hacking of builders who are 
thoroughly trained to every part of their work, who have 
ample capital and command the markets of the world. 
The Centennial Exhibition opened the first artistic pos- 
sibilities of this country. Viewed in the light of subse- 
quent developments it was not in any sense an artistic 
exhibition. The buildings were beneath criticism, with 
a very few notable exceptions, and the whole show was 
characterized by crudeness rather than excellence, but it 
opened the eves of the nation and gave us a beginning. 
The Columbian Exhibition was a beautiful dream. We 
called it in those days the dream city, and it was really 
a tremendous step in advance in its architecture. The 
greatness of that step, the influence it had on the country, 

is unquestioned, and the tan- was undoubtedly in some 
sense a spontaneous architectural evolution which, while 
having perfectly recognized precedence in detail, was 
unique in ensemble. Now we believe the wave of prog- 
ress has gone beyond the Chicago fair, and the most 

casual observation will show how much better our build- 
ings are designed than they were even ten years ago, how- 
much more thoroughly our young men are equipped and. 
perhaps more important than all, how much wider and 
more comprehensive is the appreciation of artistic e 
by the average citizen. We have the money, the men and 
the public Sentiment. The renaissance of art is here, is 
all around us in our big cities, and the next quarter* 
turv will undoubtedly see even a far greater ad vance than 
was marked by the last twenty-live years of the nine- 
teenth century. 



np*HE United States is probably to-day the richest 

1 - ountry in the world, and it is piling up its wealth 

in almost a geometrical ratio, but if we continue OUT 

policy of indifference to lire loss and allow the expense 

runt, due to indifferent construction, to augment at 



4 6 



THK BR I CK BU I L I>K R 



the rate it has grown during the past few years we will 
be forced to either radically change our methods or go into 
bankruptcy. The lire waste is something appalling. 
The Xew York Journal of Commerce places the aggre- 
gate fire losses of the United States and Canada for ujoi 
at $164,347,000. We are constantly improving our facili- 
ties for fighting tire, and our tire departments are quite 
as efficient as any in the world, but the damages by fire- 
are increasing in all our large cities at a greater ratio 
than the increase of population. In [896 the average 
loss per month was $8, Si 0,000. By 1900 it had grown 
to $13,600,000. And during 1901 there were recorded 
eighteen separate tires in each of which the loss was 
over $500,000. The past year was probably the worst 
we have had for fire loss, notwithstanding that at the 
same time it witnessed a more extensive use of fire-proof 
construction than was known before. It is but natu- 
ral, therefore, that the fire insurance companies, which 
after all are simply the collectors and distributers of 
the contribution which the country makes to imper- 
fect construction, should be bound to raise their rates 
very materially. The companies have recently been pay- 
ing out more money than they have taken in. Between 
twenty and thirty companies have within the past twelve 
months retired from the business, believing they could 
no longer afford to continue in it, and but for the in- 
crease in value of the companies' vested funds undoubt- 
edly many more would have been forced either out of 
business or into assignment. 

The trouble with our big cities is fundamental. It is 
a tact that the great majority of the buildings are relics 
of a time when fire-proof construction was unknown and 
insurance was far less extensive than it is at present. 
There arc more fire-proof buildings to the square mile in 
the lower part of Xew York than perhaps anywhere else 
in the world, and yet there is not a single street below 
the City flail, not even excepting Broadway, where con- 
ditions are as they ought to be. A large majority of 
buildings in this district are of second-class construction 
and poor of their kind at that. In Boston there are 
hardlv more than a dozen fire-proof buildings in the im- 
mediate business heart of the city. All the rest are in a 
sense fire traps which ought not to be tolerated. In 
Philadelphia, the corner at Broad and Chestnut .Streets 
and a few isolated spots along the lower part of Chest- 
nut .Street afford the only real bulwark against an ex- 
tended conflagration. Chicago has a greater number of 
fire-proof buildings than Boston, but according to the 
area covered the risk is probably greater in the West 
than in the East. And all this is in the twentieth cen- 
tury when we are so busy with our schemes for model 
cities and know so well what to do. The fact is, all our 
great cities must be practically rebuilt before we can 
have any real assurance against extended conflagration. 

We present elsewhere a very complete description of 
the Paterson, X. J., fire, which in some respects is prob- 
ably the most impressive object lesson the world has seen 
since the Chicago tire of 1X7 1. No building is absolutely 
proof; there is nothing which could withstand heat if 
applied in sufficient volume and under the right condi- 
tions; but the experience of the City Hall at Paterson, 
which is one of the few structures of fire-proof construc- 
tion, shows that the more general adoption of fire-proof 



principles would make such a conflagration as this utterly 
impossible. Large fires have never started in the con- 
struction of even a poorly planned fire-proof building. 
The dangers lie without or in the nature of the contents. 
There is one feature of tire-proof building as at pres- 
ent very generally allowed in our cities which is not right 
and we know is not right every time we use it, and that 
is the use of wood for finish, especially about doors and 
openings in partitions. Nearly every fire of any magni- 
tude which has stalled in fire-proof construction has been 
due to the nature of the contents, but its spread has been 
through these unguarded openings in otherwise fire-proof 
partitions. It ought to be the ride that all inside finish 
should be non-combustible, and that when it is considered 
absolutely essential that sashes should be placed in inte- 
rior partitions, they should be glazed with wire glass, a 
material which is certainly not remarkable for its beauty 
as at present put upon the market, but which is not suffi- 
ciently offensive to make it seem out of place in an office 
building. As a matter of fact, however, most buildings 
when properly planned could dispense entirely with glass 
in partitions and thus eliminate one dangerous feature of 
our modern structures. 



THE building laws of the city of Xew York provide 
for a board of building examiners who are em- 
powered to hear and decide upon appeals from the de- 
risions of the building department. Mayor Low has re- 
cently made some very wise appointments to this board, 
including Mr. A. F. D'Oench, who will be remembered 
for the excellent record he made as chief of the building 
department some years since and who is an architect of 
recognized standing and a fellow of the American Insti- 
tute of Architects. The other members include Cornelius 
O'Reilly, representing the real estate interests; Warren 
A. Conover, representing the mechanics; William J. Fryer 
of the Society of Structural Iron Manufacturers; the chief 
of the fire department, Edward F. Croker; and Francis C. 
Moore of the Xew York Board of Fire Underwriters, who 
has been so well known for his studies of economic fire- 
proof construction. This board has a very large degree 
of power and is frequently called on to exercise 
considerable discretion in the interpretation and ap- 
plication of building laws. The board as constituted 
is certainly a strong one, and having the power to a 
very considerable extent to influence the development 
of new methods of construction it can easily be a 
prominent factor in the building industries of the ensu- 
ing years. 



A CORRECTION. 



Owing to a misunderstanding no credit was given, in 
the paper on Formal Gardens by Mr. Parsons, published in 
our February number, to Messrs. Carrere & Hastings as 
the designers of the pergolas, tea house and other archi- 
tectural incidents of Mrs. Bell's garden at Madison, X. J., 
illustrated in connection with the article. Also by mis- 
take Mr. Parsons was referred to as "architect" rather 
than by his professional title of "landscape architect." 



THE BRICKBUILD E R 



47 



Town Squares of North Italy. 

BY WALTER II. KILHAM. 

THE vast and fertile plain which stretches across the 
Italian peninsula, separating the great ranges of 
the Alps from the more southern peaks of the Apennines, 
has for a score of centuries supported an energetic and 
thrifty population which has ever been the balance wheel 
of the Italian states. Rome rose and fell and rose again 
with the revolutions of for- 
tune's wheel ; Venice be- 
came alternately one of the 
first cities in Europe and a 
quiet provincial town, vege- 
tating in the afterglow of 
its decadence: but Milan 
with its busy workshops 
and Bologna with its lively 
population still flourish and 
accumulate wealth and 
power. 

A\ nile it was not given 
to all of the Lombard cities 
to retain their prosperity 
up to the present time, 
nearly all of them experi- 
enced periods of prosperity 
lasting long enough to per- 
mit of the erection of a 
large number of elaborate 

and magnificent buildings, most of which, owing to the 
nature of the country, were built of brick and terra- 
cotta. Verona, Brescia, Cremona, Piacenza, Bologna, arc 
names which evoke thoughts of the finest productions of 
the Gothic and Renaissance periods as well as of the spirit 
of Italian independence. 

Seven centuries ajjo the characteristic which most 
distinguished Italy from other European countries was 
the growing importance of the populations of her towns. 




PIAZZA OKI. I. ERBE, \ ER( i\ \. 



grown up in secluded localities where they escaped no- 
tice until they were strong enough to assert their power. 
In regions where the central government was unable to 
exert its functions, these cities rapidly became strong 
and vigorous. Their citizens erected Strong walls, and 
enacted their own laws and elected their own magistrates 
in safety. In the darkness of the general situation, 
these cities or burghs appear as the only luminous points. 
Frorn their walls, which enclosed the houses grouped 

around their cathedral as a 
center, the burghers looked 
out on a country studded 
with the keeps of the feudal 
aristocracy lording it over 
the unconsidered serl's. 

In general the bishops 
commanded more popular- 
ity in the cities than the 
outside nobility or counts, 
and in many eases the 

counts were driven to their 

castles, surrounded l>v the 
contadiniox "counts' men," 
while the clergy remained 
to organize the town gov- 
ernment of the richest and 
most influential burghers, 
or popolo. 

The /v/>f/<\ it appears, 
did not include the entire 
people, but was a close aristocracy of influential families 
who succeeded to the authority of the superseded count 
and held it by hereditary right. In those tumultuous 
times the remaining citizens were inclined to challenge 
this right, and from successive turmoils emerged the 
"commune," including the /v/W<> of enfranchised 
burghers, and the non-qualified inhabitants, represented 
by consuls from the different quarters. The architec- 
ture of many of these towns where a "palazzo del popolo" 




BRIDGE ol I III I \- I I ■ I VECCHIO, \ I RON \. 



This came about in several different ways. Some cities 
managed to retain the privileges which had been granted 
them ages before by the Roman government, and to keep 
them more or less intact through all the vicissitudes of 
the Dark Ages. Others, like Venice and Genoa, had 



and "palazzo communale " rise in different streets per- 
petuates the strenuous political life of those stormy 
times. Besides these bodies there wire the councils, 
known by different names iii different cities but perpi 
ating their history in the name of many a gorgeous hall 



4 8 



THE BRICK B U ILDER. 




TOWER OF THE MUNICIPIO, VERONA. 

;md stately building, the Parlatnento, open to all inhab- 
itants; the Gran Consiglio, only open to the popolo; and 
the Credenza, or private council. 

The Crusades, which brought only ruin and wounds 
to the northern nations, brought business, wealth and 
luxury to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic. 
Italian ships sailed on every sea. and the palaces of the 
Italian nobility were gorgeous with the brilliant products 
of eastern art, while the castles of France and England 
were but little better than hovels. Italian factories arose 
on every hand, and banks and money changers appeared 
in every city. Under these circumstances it is not 
strange that we find the sturdy municipalities of north 
Italy rivaling each other in erecting the beautiful series 
of town halls which still stand second only to the churches 
in architectural interest. The ground floors were often 
open, forming a loggia, under whose massive arches the 
citizens might stand sheltered from the weather and dis- 
cuss the affairs of their city. ' >f this class were the 
buildings at Piacenza and Cremona. Grouped around 
the town squares, which were often outgrown by the in- 
creasing size of the city, stood the palaces of the muni- 
cipality, the cathedral, the houses of the guilds and the 
dark-fronted dwellings of the powerful town nobles. 

The Piazza dell' Erbe at Verona is one of the most pic- 
turesque of these old Italian town squares. Verona itself 
is a city of the most striking and varied physiognomy. It 
is divided into two parts by the turbid and swift-flowing 
Adige, which tears in a wide semicircle through the 
densely populated quarters, occasionally rising beyond 
its walls to leave unmistakable traces of its power in 



ruined bridges and crumbling houses, as well as certain 
significant water marks on sundry buildings along its 

banks. The central part of the city is a delightful assem- 
blage of softly colored red brick and plaster buildings on 
narrow and curving streets. Beyond these are the wide 

and straight thoroughfares lined with the productions of 

San Micheli, cold, stately, grammatical and formal. These 
too are often of brick, but conceal their true construction 
under a mask of yellow stucco. Beyond these again are 
the ramparts with their remarkable Renaissance portals, 
again the work of San Micheli, the foremost military en- 
gineer of his time, from the top of which the snowy range 
of the Venetian Alps lies in full view not many miles 
away, together with the neighboring hillsides studded 
with walls and forts. For Verona is still a strong place, 
one of the most important bulwarks of power of modern 
Italv, and in her barracks an army of 6,000 soldiers is 
constantly maintained in readiness to protect the frontier. 
The student who, after visiting Rome and Venice, 
starts on a tour among the north Italian towns, is apt 
to become somewhat indifferent to the often-repeated red 
brick palaces and churches which line the level streets of 
these cities of the plain. The details, while varying in 
different localities, yet have much the same general char- 
acter and after a few repetitions fail to excite as much 
interest as they deserve. Rut it is safe to say that the 
most blase traveler will experience a new thrill when he 

emerges from the Via San Sebastiano into the little vege- 
table market, the Piazza dell' Erbe of Verona. At one 
end rises the white marble pillar bearing the lion of St. 
Mark, the ancient cognizance of the republic of Venice 
which the Venetians were wont to erect in the market 
places of their subjugated cities. hark and weather- 
beaten buildings surround the square the gloomy Muni- 
cipio with its great brick tower, the Gothic houses of the 







STAIRCASE IN COURT OF MERCAT0 VECCHIO, VERONA. 



T II E BRICKBUILD E R 



l" 



merchants and the curious, baroque Palazzo Mallei which 
closes up the end. In the shadow of these houses rise a 



ting at one of the tables in front of the Caffs' Dante at 
the further end of the little square, the imagination may 




l o\ ERED BRIDGE, P \\ I A. 



graceful shrine in the Venetian style, a canopied tribune 
with four marble columns, the old seat of justice, and an 
elaborate fountain. More in evidence than all these are 
the chattering market 
women with their loads of 
produce, the dusty squads 
of soldiers and the remark- 
able policemen with their 
long coats, tall hats and 
gold-headed canes. As a 
"town square" the Piazza 
dell' Erbe has an annex, the 
beautiful Piazza dei Signori, 
which is entered by a short 
passage. This is certainly 
the most dainty public 
square in all Italy. On one 
side is the charming Loggia 
with its delicately colored 
facade and tastefully re- 
stored chambers The 
woodwork of the ceilings 
both of the outer loggia and 
of the interior is remarka- 
bly interesting and typic- 
ally Italian in detail as well 
as in color. 

Around the other sides 
of the place arc the aged 
walls of the MercatoYccchio 
and the Prefcttnra, and but 
a step removed are the fa- 
mous tombs of the Scali- 

gers, the renowned Ghibellinc family who raised Verona 
to her greatest glory in the fourteenth century. Sit 




easily people the dark arches of the Prefcttnra with the 
retainers of the great Can Grande and Mastino. his 
nephew. Brilliant as was the Scala's career, the jeal- 
ousies of the various sons 
brought it to an untimely 
end. Mastino had cheT 
ished the idea of an I talian 
kingdom, but before his 

dream could be realized he 

died, leaving the fortunes 
of his house in the hands of 
his three degenerate sons. 
The youngest killed the eld- 
est ; of the two survivors 
the Stronger slew the weak- 
er and then died in 137 1, 
leaving his domains to two 
of his bastards one of 
whom. Antonio, emulating 
his father's example, killed 
the other in [381 and three 
years later fell a prey to the 

Visconti. 

The stately tower of the 

Municipio, which, like the 
Ton.i bo oi Cremona, seems 
to personify the spirit of the 
city, rises above the roofs 
with its walls of time 
st.uned brick and the seat 

tered puttock holes which 
somehow give so much 

effect to Italian buildings 
and yet are so much avoided by modern architects 
These spots of black give a piquancy and brilliancy to 



5o 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



the mass of brickwork, like the quick black touches of 
pen or pencil in a spirited drawing. It would seem as 
though we in our decadent period might endure the sight 
of a quality in buildings which gave no offense to the 
eyes of the master builders of the quattro auto. 

The old brick walls of the Mercato Vecchio alluded to 
above enclose in the courtyard one of the finest and most 
picturesque of the exterior stairways of Italy. The steps 
are covered with a finely proportioned ascending loggia, 
and the railings and balustrade are most charming in 
detail. The little shops which nestle under the arches 
complete the air of abandon which is so fascinating to 
our western eves and which with the rapid progress of 
restorations is fast departing from the .ancient buildings 
of Europe. 

The finest church architecturally in Verona is Santa 
Anastasia. a splendidly proportioned red brick building 
of the thirteenth century, whose fine tower rises nobly 
above the rapid waters of the Adi-c. The -roup of 
chapels, transepts and gables crowned by the majestic 
campanile forms one of the most striking ensembles ever 
carried out in brick: and the details of the pilasters and 
cornices are equally worthy of study. Fine as is the 
exterior of Santa Anastasia, the interior is even better, 
and it is safe to say that a more complete or beautiful 
composition in the Italian Gothic style does not exist. 
Not only is the plan beautifully proportioned, but the 
entire scheme of color decoration is carried out consist- 
ently and completely. The decorations of 
the vaulting in the late Gothic style, dating 
from 1437, are particularly worthy the notice 



parapets and grim brick castle, a splendid bit of color 
above the curving river. The old castle, the abode of 
Can Grande II. the greatest of the Scaligeri, from which 
tlie bridge leads to the opposite shore, is in itself one of 
the curiosities of Verona, but one which the public are 
not allowed to examine. 

Beyond the Caste! Vecchio you follow the embank- 
ment of the river for some distance, while the houses 
-row thinner, until, turning through a short street, past 
gardens and orchards, you emerge on the sleepy and 
grass-grown Piazza San Zeno, a spot the most typical of 
old Italy that is to be found in the entire peninsula. The 
quaint yellow marble facade of the church, richly stained 
by time, with its grotesque carved animals and figures, 
is balanced by a sturdy square brick 
tower with forked parapets and mass- 
ive walls. The brick tower, which 
has no particular architectural features, 
finds its especial value in the color con- 
trast of its glowing red surface with 
the soft yellow of the church facade. 
completing a most picturesque and 
striking composition, which without it 
would be almost commonplace, as may 
be seen by covering it for a moment 
with the hand. 

Allusion w a s 
made just above to 
the bridge of the 




S. ANASTASIA, VERONA. 



of the student of decoration. The church contains a 
large number of works of art and is full of interest in 
every corner. The great west door, for example, is a 
particularly attractive example of early carpentry work, 
with numerous small square panels and carved edges. 

The river, which flows just behind the church, is one 
of the most picturesque features of Verona. Wide and 
strong, it courses foaming through the town, incidentally 
turning the wheels of a number of Boating water mills 
which tug strenuously at their moorings and threaten 
momentarily to start down the stream. The newer 
bridges of the Adige show many marks of the violence 
of the stream in times of flood, but the old red brick 
Ponte del Castel Vecchio, one arch of which spans 100 
feet, at the upper end of the town, still stands after six 
centuries as firm as ever and makes, with its (dnbelline 



Castel Vecchio. The brick bridges of Italy might form 
the subject for a Study which would reveal a mine of un- 
worked material for the use of our latter-day practition- 
ers in municipal art. I recall one at the entrance of the 
old town of Pavia, not far from Verona, which seems 
almost the ideal of what a bridge OUght to be. The 
simple, powerful arches stride nonchalantly across the 
waters of the Ticino, carrying the delightfully quaint 
roof and bearing on their central pier the brick chapel 
which gives the central point of dignity and repose to 
the composition. The mediaeval bridges, like those of 
Pavia and Verona and that of Montauban in France, seem 
to convey a most satisfying impression of quiet strength 
and suitability, forming a happy mean between the airy 
-race of tin- bridges of modern Paris and the sullen in- 
ertia of the structures of ancient Rome. 



T H E HRICKHUII.D E K 



i 



The Town Hall Series." II. 

A TOWN HALL IN CENTRAL MISSOURI. 

BY EDWARD G. GARDEN. 

THE very broad general requirements laid down by 
the editor of The Brickbuilder for the "Town 
Hall vSeries " have enabled the author of the accompany- 
ing design (in order to produce a projet which lias some- 
thing of a local flavor from a Missouri standpoint) to 
formulate a further 
set of conditions 
based on the climatic 
and topographical 
state of affairs at least 
partially existent in a 
town on the Missouri 
River, which "for the 
sake of euphony " we 
will call DeSoto. 

Central Missouri 
has a long, hot, dry 
summer, a compara- 
tively open winter, 
and abrupt transi- 
tions from one sea- 
son to the other, and 
being situated on 
about the same paral- 
lel of latitude as 



Spain, the general characteristics of thick walls, over- 
hanging caves and other protection from heat should 
strongly influence the expression in design of buildings in 
this district. 

DeSoto originally had its being on account of an ob- 
struction to navigation in the shape of a sand bar caused 
by ail abrupt bend of the Missouri around a bluff on the 
south bank of the stream. This bar also furnished a 
practicable ford except in tlood times, and the settlement 
rapidly became an important trading point. 

With the growth of the town, houses were built upon 

the high ground of 
the plateau, and the 
road from the river 
bank naturally found 
its way by the easiest 
grade up a ravine or 
d r a w that is pre- 
served to-day in the 
for m of B r i d g e 
Street. 

The bottom lands 
of thi' north bank, 
being subject to over- 
flow, were not consid- 
ered as a suitable 
town site, and finally 
the original strip of 
land at the foot of the 
bluff was given up to 
warehouses and simi- 



* PROGRAMME. 

The problem indicated 
by the following pro- 
gramme is a town hall 
such as would be requisite 
in a village of five or six 
thousand inhabitants. 

It is supposed to stand 
on the public square of 
the town, which square is 
quite closely built up with 
such buildings as would 
naturally be found in a 
locality of this kind. If 
there are any differences 
in grade, the town hall is 
supposed to occupy the 
highest portion of the 
land. 

The contributors in 
this series represent dif- 
ferent sections of the 
country, and each design 
will indicate not only in 
the matter of arrangement 
of plan but also in point 
of architectural style, the 
sort of thing that would 
be particularly appropri- 
ate for the section of the 
country in which the 
building is to be located. 
In the matter of ac- 
commodations and of the 
sizes and disposition of the 
rooms, each contributor 

uses his own judgment, 
following out the idea in- 
dicated above by pn 




A rOWK HALL I ox CENTRAI MISSOURI. 



ing designs particularly 
fitted for the various si • 
of the United States 
The principal hall in 

tins building would prob- 
ably lie used ;iv a place for 

certain public entertain- 
ments, theatrii al and so 
cial, but ii" provision is 

made for County courts or 

library. Other depart- 
ments are included at the 
discretion ol the contribu- 
tor. 

The material- .or to 
be, SO far a- thl 

is concerned, burnl 
in gome of its forms, and 
tin same materials may 
into the inti 

Construction ami decora- 
tion of the building, at 

the discretion of tin 
tributof 

The cost of tlic build- 
ing, exclusive of furnish- 
ings, should no 

I !ns sum. while 
perhaps large, is pin : 

Iv made so with tin 
ing stress on th 

I v of having a build- 
ing of some richness to 
..lit the town in its 

corporate capacil y. 

The idea is simply to 

suggest an appropi 

I problem 

that frequently oci m 

solution. 



T HE BRICK B UILDER 



lar structures, the public, business and residence buildings 
of the community being transferred to the plateau. 

The advent of the railways on the north bank (made 

possible by the construction of a government levee or 
embankment) necessitated the building of a bridge and 
opened to manufacturing and commercial industries a 
practically unlimited opportunity for expansion, while 
the superior situation of the old town on elevated ground 
secures for it the more attractive elements of municipal 
life. 

The public buildings, very fortunately, have been 
grouped around DeSoto Park, a small square bounded 
by the four principal streets, and the lot selected for 
the new town hall occupies a commanding position at 
the head of Bridge Street and on the corners of Prentice 
Avenue and Main and DeSoto Streets. 



This room, with its accessories, occupies the second 
floor, and as this apartment gives its name to the whole 
structure, its level has been treated as the "belle itage" 
giving an abundance of li^ht and ventilation through the 
large windows of the arcade. 

The entire structure above the granite base course 
will be constructed of brick and terra-cotta, the interior 
walls of the corridors and assembly hall being of the 
same material, treated in glazes and color. The ceilings 
throughout will be built in the Guastavino method, and 
the roofs will be of tile. 

The opportunities for a delightful color scheme, both 
inside and out, are sufficiently obvious to the educated 
eye, and within the limitations of black and white repro- 
ductions, and without the pen of a Ruskin, the author 
declines to commit himself. 




SECTION, A I'iiwn H \\ I. FOR CENTRAL MISSOl'KI. 



The following description of the design will be made 
as brief as possible, the reader being referred to the draw- 
ings for all detail of arrangement. 

The building is to be two stories on the Main street 
frontage, and, owing to the slope of the -round, three 
stories are obtained on DeSoto Street. 

The departments housed in the lower level are ap- 
proached through a walled fore-court and are as follows: 
marshal's office, police cells, police court room and en- 
trance to a private staircase giving access t<> the stage 
and dressing rooms of the assembly hall two stories 
above. 

The main floor contains the usual town offices, mayor's 
rooms, and council chamber, reached by a public corridor 
on the north and south axis, while the entire frontage on 
Prentice Avenue is devoted to the entrance and staircase 
to the assembly hall. 



A study of the foregoing conditions will, I hope, 
justify the solution of the problem here presented, and in 
this hope I submit myself to the tender mercies of that 
most intelligent body of critics, the readers of The 
Brickbuilder. 



The Department of Architecture of the Lawrence 
Scientific School, Harvard University, following the ex- 
ample set by other similar institutions, publishes a pam- 
phlet showing samples of students' work, together with a 
synopsis of the course of study and the work required. 
The pamphlet also contains an interesting description of 
the new building erected from the plans of McKim.Mead 
& White with funds donated by Mr. and Mrs. Nelson 
Robinson of New York. The examples of students' work- 
are all that could be expected of a department so richly 
endowed and wisely directed as is this school. 



T H E URIC K BUILD E R 



53 




54 



THE HRICKBUILDKR 




PLANS, A TOWN HALL FOR CENTRAL MISSOURI. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



T H E B R I C K HI' I L I) E R 



55 



Robbia Pavements. I. 

BV ALLAN MARQUAND. 

TWO facts are generally known concerning Robbia 
pavements: (i) that Luca della Robbia made a 
pavement for the " Scrittoio " of Piero de' Medici in the 
Medici palace at Florence; and (2) that Luca della Rob- 
bia the younger made pavements for the Vatican under 
the direction of Raphael. The Florentine pavement has 
completely vanished, and of the Vatican pavements only 
a few fragments remain. Hence those who concern 
themselves with the products of the Robbia school have 
been content to record the above-mentioned facts de- 
rived from Vasari, and make no mention of the Robbia 
pavements which still exist. In endeavoring to acquire 
some knowledge of this branch of Robbia work, we shall 
refer to these existing pave- 
ments as well as to the sculp- 
tural monuments which in 
their decoration show similar 
designs. 

LUCA DELLA ROBBIA 
( 1 400 1482). 

We can point to no exist- 
ing pavement by the founder 
of the school, but there are 
several designs used by Luca 
in other applications which 
his successors employed for 
pavements. A design well 
adapted for pavements may 
be seen upon the background 
of a Madonna recently re- 
moved to the Museo Nazio- 
nale from the Galleria di San- 
ta Maria Nuova, Florence. It 
consists of a connected series 
of circles enclosing quatre- 
foils. A finer development 
of this design occurs in the 
background of the Madonna 
on the exterior of Or .San 
Michele. In his coffered 
ceilings at Impruneta, Luca 

uses a circular design inscribed within a square and em- 
phasizes by an independent ornament the angles of the 
squares. At San Miniato the angles of the square com- 
partments are modified so as to produce what Vasari 
admired as a most charming distribution of octagons. 
Such geometric devices are frequently employed in pave- 
ments as a framework to break the monotony of a mere 
repetition of conventional floral design. 

We find again in the ceiling of the Portogallo Chapel 
at San Miniato a design which reappears in several Rob- 
bia pavements. Here square tiles imitate a mosaic col- 
ored and arranged so as to appear like a network of 
cubes. As a frame for the medallions of the same 
chapel he uses a reticulated fish-scale ornament (Fig. 
1). Luca's Tabernacle at Peretola, his Tabernacle of 
the Holy Cross at Impruneta, the medallion of the Stone 
Masons on the exterior of Or San Michele, and the ex 




I. FROM III \ DELLA 
PORTOG \11.0 til \rhl 



quisite frame of Bishop Federighi's tomb at Santa Tri- 

nita furnish still further examples of designs which he 
might have modified for use in the borders of pave- 
ments. 

ANDREA DELLA ROBBIA (1435 1525). 

In the Collegiata at Empoli there is a chapel which 
contains a noteworthy statue of Saint Sebastian by 
Antonio Rossellino. Overhead is a tondo or circular 
medallion in glazed terra-cotta representing Cod the 

Father. On the sides of the statue are painted angels, 
attributed to Botticelli, and below it a predella assigned 
to Ghirlandaio. The medallion bears every indication of 
being an early work of Andrea della Robbia. made at a 
time when he was strongly under the influence of his 
uncle. At the foot of the altar is a pavement measuring 

2.40 x 1.53 m., of which a por- 
tion is reproduced (Fig. 2). 
The central part consists 

of hexagonal tiles exhibiting 

rosettes surrounded by a leaf 

pattern. Both the rosettes 

and the leaves remind us of 
the predella of Luca's Taber- 
nacle at Peretola. The bor- 
ders on each side represent a 
network of cubes, a design 
similar to that which Luca 
made for the vault of the 
Portogallo Chapel at San 
Miniato. The front border 
exhibits a narrow fringe-like 
design and a wider band of 
opposing palmettes and pop- 
pies. This border is not far 
removed in pattern from 
the friezes of Andrea's cele- 
brated altarpieces at the l >s 
servanza near Siena, at I. a 
Verna and Gradara Rocca. 

Bui the border as a whole 
is not very happily applied. 
It docs not seem to have 

been originally designed for 
its present situation. Possi- 
bly Andrea adopted the very 
patterns which Luca used in the Medici palace and ap- 
plied them here somewhat incongruously. That Andrea 
did not concern himself t" invent the patterns of these 

tiles seems probable when we find him using essentially 
the same design on other occasions. Before a baptismal 
font set in a niche very beautifully decorated by him in 
the Pieve at Santa Fiora, an- tiles of the Empoli pattern. 

Similar tiles are employed in a pavement before the altar 
of the Church of the Madonna della Neve at Santa Fiora, 
and in a pavement once in the Cappclla Santa Fina at 
San Gemignano, now in the Museo della Biblioteca <>f 
the same city. 

From the workshop of Andrea appear to have ema- 
nated the glazed terracottas in the Collegiata at Monte- 
varchi. Here is also a tile pavement, the pattern of which 

is but a slight modification of that at Empoli. Essen- 
tially the same pattern is used also for the background 



ROBB1 \ s 1 I [LING 01 1 111 
\ 1 SAN mini \ Id. 



56 



THE BRICKBUILDKR 



of a niche containing the statue of Saint Peter Martyr in 
the Church of San Domenico at Arezzo. 

In all these eases blue and yellow and green and vio- 
let are the colors used for the rosette and leaf pattern, 
also for the palmette and the fringe-like borders. The 
design is painted against a white ground. In the net- 
work of cubes at Empoli, Andrea used green, yellow and 
violet, the colors employed by Luca for the same pattern 
in the Portogallo Chapel. Elsewhere he sometimes va- 
ries the selection of colors. 

If we should examine the monuments left us by 
Andrea della Robbia. we find that he used the reticulated 
cube ornament in other applications, for wall decora- 
tion and for the predellas of altarpieees. And in these 



school. It consists of the so-ealled nail-head pattern, 
constructed here by dividing squares by means of their 
diagonals into four equal triangles colored respectively 
blue, green, yellow and violet (Fig. ,3). 

Many more pavements than the few we have men- 
tioned may have been furnished by the atelier of Andrea. 
Under the constant wear to which they would be sub- 
jected in Italian churches and palaces, it would not take 
many centuries to remove the glaze and obliterate the 
design. 

Till-: SONS OF ANDREA DELLA ROBBIA. 

( >f the seven or eight sons of Andrea della Rob- 
bia, at least five are known to have produced works in 




llUilM/i i\vtJII^VWIJJ)W///l!ll\\\\ 




FROM ANDREA OKI. I. A ROBBIA S PAVEMEN 



IS I UK COLLEG1 \ 1 A A I KMI'OI.I. 



other applications we find another design well suited for 
pavements. This design is seen in Figure ,;. It con- 
sists of a reticulated series of circles applied to a series of 
squares, each circle having as its radius one half the diag- 
onal of the square. In the center of each square appears 
a disk surrounded by smaller disks or ovals. Andrea 
used this design for part of the wall-surface back of the 
font at Santa Fiora and upon the predellas of altarpieees 
at Arezzo, Foiano and Montepulciano. He passed it on 
to his son Giovanni, who used it in his celebrated lavabo 
at Santa Maria Novella in Florence. 

Compared with the pattern of the Empoli tiles, this is 
more geometric and conventional. Behind the font at 
Santa Fiora we find still another design worthy of notice 
because it became part of the inheritance of the Robbia 



glazed terra-cotta. These are Giovanni, Girolamo, Fra 
Ambrogio, Fra Mattia and Luca. From the tile patterns 
which decorate the recesses of Giovanni's lavabo in 
Santa Maria Novella, we see that in 1497 he used the 
nail-head and the reticulated squares and circles, de- 
signs which Andrea had employed at Santa Fiora. He 
also uses the fish-scale ornament which Luca had em- 
ployed at San Miniato and a simple quatrefoil, which may 
be considered a simplification of one of Luca's designs. 
The central decoration of the wall behind the lavabo, 
however, seems more original. Here the square" tiles 
have what appear to be green leaves covering their edges, 
while in their centers the design Suggests a pin-wheel. 

A few years ago I saw in a shop in Paris (M. Lowen- 
gard's) a Madonna ami Child by Giovanni, dated 152,3. in 



T HE BRICKBUILD E R . 



57 



which the background imitated a curtain, the pattern on 
which reminded me of the central tiles in the Empoli 
pavement. 

Giovanni's designs, as well as his sculpture, were 
cruder than those of his father, and we have no reason 
to believe that his pavements proved an exception to the 
rule. 

Girolamo's works are still an unknown quantity. lie 
may have made many of the works which still survive in 
Italy, but it is hazardous even to attempt to identify 
these from the few fragments which remain of his work 
in France. At the Muse'e de Sevres and at a restaurant 



Fire-proofing. 















FIG. 3. FROM GIOVANNI OKU \ ROBBIAS I W \ r.o 
IN SANTA MARIA No\ ELL \. 



near the Bois de Boulogne are fragments of tiles said 
to have been saved from the Chateau de Madrid. The 
designs are here partly architectural, and amongst them 
we note a few, such as rosettes and nail-heads and 
braided ornaments, which appear to he pari ol the 
Robbia repertoire. 

Too little is known of Fra Ambrogio or of Fra Mattia 
for us to venture even to guess what kind of pavements 
they may have made. More, however, may he learned 
concerning the work of Andrea's son. Buca. His con- 
nection with Raphael lends such an interest to his pa 
ment that we may well consider his achievements in a 
subsequent article. 



The Conflagration at Paterson, N. )., 

February <S and 9, 1 902. 

1)ATERSON, X. |. : Paterson the prosperous; Pater- 
son the careless city, like Belshazzar, "praised the 
gods of gold and of silver and of brass, of iron, of wood 
and of stone," content in her fancied security ; hut also of 
Paterson, as of Belshazzar, in the same hour was written 
in letters of tire with lingers of flame the message, " .!/<//,, 
Mene, Tekel, Upharsitl," "Thou are weighed in the bal- 
ances, and art found wanting." 

Paterson the city with no rigid " lire limits." where the 
permit to erect a frame addition to an existing building 
was to be had almost for the asking, has paid the price 




PATERSON SAVINGS INS I I I I I l"\ \i Ilk I Hi I in 

of her good-natured folly, and the- reckoning of the cost 
is now going on. 

' Paterson, like a great many other American towns 
whose growth has been rapid but whose legal restraints 
have not kept pace with its growth, suiters, through the 
devastation of a conflagration, the penalty of temporiz- 
ing, which could have been avoided by radical action and 
Legislation. 

The condition that Paterson was in previous to the lire 
is the condition that many towns in these United States 
are in to-day; and while in fancied security they trust to 

luck and the tire department, yet sometimes the "blutl " 
is called, and luck and the lire department arc not suffi- 
cient to avoid the consequences of the lack of other re- 
sources. 

In the lire which began <>n Saturday night, February 

X, in a frame shed or ear barn and swept over the busi- 
ness sections of the city, fanned by a fort v-milcs an hour 
-ale. the city ottered up a sacrifice of about N,j, 500,000 
in the form of two hundred buildings covering an art. 
thirty acres and on which the insurance is approximately 
- 00.000. The difference, or the uninsured part of this 



58 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



loss, or §2,000,000, the people of Paterson will have to 
bear, together with the loss of business and time in the 
interim of rebuilding. The $2,500,000, or the part cov- 
ered by insurance, the people of other parts of the coun- 
try will have to make good in the form of increased pre- 
miums on their property; or because Paterson, like many 
other towns of similar character, chose to indulge in folly, 
the other parts of the country will have to pay the reck- 
oning, for this is simply what it comes to in the end. 
The insurance companies act merely as clearing houses; 
they do not make money themselves, but merely collect 
it in one place and pay it out at another. It may also 
be observed that the insurance companies are not wise 
and that they do not favor or insist upon the proper con- 
struction of buildings, and as a result of their lack of 
wisdom the burden is laid upon the shoulders of the 
innocent as well as the guilty. 

Looked at in its broad relation to all the country, the 
fire at Paterson is a monument — evanescent though it 
will be — to the 
folly of the peo- 
ple, the legisla- 
tive government 
and the insur- 
ance companies ; 
or let us reverse 
the order and put 
the insurance 
companies first. 
Had they refused 
to insure prop- 
erty in this sec- 
tion or in any 
section similarly 
situated, lcgisla- 
t i v e action 
would undoubt- 
edly have fol- 
lowed, and then 
the citizens 
would have real- 
ized the hazard- 
ous position they 
were in; but in 

the competition of insurance agents for business almost 
any risk is insurable, and people blind to their danger 
rest in fancied security. 

When the truth of the interrelation of all commercial 
affairs is better understood and the value of true economy- 
is appreciated in all departments of life, then intelligent 
business managers will select their insurance companies 
with the same degree of care that is given to the selec- 
tion of their banking houses. Then insurance companies 
which insure poorly constructed buildings or buildings 
situated in localities menaced by poorly constructed build- 
ings will be shunned for the same reason that banking 
houses are shunned when they are known to make loans 
on doubtful security. 

The manufacturers' mutual insurance companies save 
themselves great losses and keep the cost of insurance at 
a minimum by declining to insure any building or plant 
in which the fire hazard is great, and as a consequence 
these companies are sought instead of their having to 




MAP OF BURNED DISTRICT, PATERSON, N. I. 



seek business, and their business is made up from sub- 
scribers who become mutually obligated for the losses; 
consequently losses seldom occur, and no reasonable pre- 
caution is neglected to prevent fire. Buildings insurable 
in these companies are designed to offer the least encour- 
agement to fire, and apparatus and appliances are pro- 
vided that automatically quench it in its incipient stages 
if it does break out; and while it is not to be recom- 
mended or suggested that buildings in cities should be 
built as isolated factories are built, on the "slow-burning 
construction " plan, yet the general policy should be fol- 
lowed as to permissible risks. 

In view of this illustration no argument is needed to 
show that the policy of the " line " insurance companies 
actually encourages poor and inflammable construction, 
and therefore outside of intelligent, far-reaching and radi- 
cal legislation no improvement in the conditions which 
prevail in the cities need be looked for until the "line" 
insurance companies change their business policy and 

offer induce- 
ments in the way 
of low premiums 
on fire-proof and 
non -combustible 
buildings. 

If legislation 
coidd be enacted 
making any 
losses caused by 
fires of external 
origin recover- 
able by suit 
a g ainst the 
owner or occu- 
pant of the build- 
ing in which the 
fire originated, 
there would be 
fewer fires, and 
the value of 
money and the 
products of labor 
which annually 
go up in smoke 
could be devoted to other useful purposes, and insurance 
companies which are founded on the principle of making 
one man pay for the losses caused by the carelessness of 
his neighbor would soon go out of business. 

If it should be argued that when a city or town im- 
proves the quality of its buildings around or adjacent to 
old districts or buildings which offer opportunities for 
destructive fires, nothing can be done to compel unwill- 
ing owners to improve their properties and thereby lessen 
the fire hazards, the answer is, that it is within the pow- 
ers of the Commonwealth, under proper legislation, to 
tax these buildings in proportion to the risk to which 
the\ T subject the adjacent properties or the town, or by 
condemnation proceedings remove the menace. If the 
test of proper legislation is the measure of the greatest 
good for the greatest number, then under the most radical 
legislation on the subject the individual hardship and loss 
resulting would be trifling compared with the loss and 
destruction to which a community is subjected by a con- 



T H E B RICKBU ILD E B 



59 



flagration. The American policy of maintaining paid fire 
departments in cities and trusting to the fire departments 
to keep the possible destruction within narrow limits is 
a wrong one and is responsible for the many poor build- 
ings and a great deal of waste. If the cost of the fire 
department were kept separate, as it equitably should be, 
and not combined in the general budget for city main- 
tenance, there would soon be a complaint from the tax- 
payers that they were being unjustly compelled to pay 
for the carelessness of others. Also, if each city were 



of lire, and while this is true to a certain extent, because 
the maximum strength of iron is at about 400 degrees 
Fahr. and the resistance rapidly diminishes as the tem- 
perature is raised, yet they lose sight of the fact that 
though uncovered iron is not tire-proof, yet it is non -com- 
bustible, and while wood is capable of souie resistance 
until it is destroyed, yet it carries within itself the ele- 
ments of its own destruction and is at the same time a 
menace to materials yet untouched by tire: therefore to 
argue that wood is a better constructive material than 




PORTION or BURNED DISTRICT, PATERSON, N. I. 
HAM. IN FOREGROUND. SECOND NATIONAJ BANK BUILDING 



AT Kli.lll . 



compelled to insure itself or carry its own insurance or 
stand for its own losses, a great and immediate improve- 
ment in the construction of buildings would soon be 
apparent. 

From another point of view the absolute reliance on 
the efficiency of the fire department can also be shown to 
be wrong; thus given a strong wind, a combustible sec- 
tion of a town and a fire with a fair start, and the fire- 
department is helpless. The total amount of water that 
can be thrown by a score of engines on such a fire is in- 



iron is absurd, because iron can be covered with a non- 
conductive covering and insulated against injurious de- 
grees of heat, and thereby become capable of resisting 

high temperature; but even without covering, a block of 
buildings of steel and brick without wood joist or floors 
would stop a fire in a conflagration, and though they 
suffered, they would not add fuel to the (lames. In a 
business or closely built up section of a town, if all build- 
ings were so constructed, fires of magnitude would be un- 
known. 




PORTION 01 BURNED DISTRICT, PATERSON, V I. 
PATERSON SAVINGS INSTITUTION \ I Mil. ( I I \ II M I \ I RIGHT. 



significant in comparison with the amount of heat gener- 
ated; and with a conflagration another very potent and 
irresistible factor enters into the problem, the " regen- 
erative" effect of the hot air on combustion. In the com 
bustion of wood with an air supply of ordinary tempi 
ture 2,500 degrees Fahr. is a high limit, but with a heated 
air supply very much higher temperatures are not diffi- 
cult to attain, which few materials are capable of with- 
standing. 

A great many insurance men talk about the superior 
resistance of wooden girders and columns to iron in case 



The specific lessons to lie learned from the lire at 

Paterson 

First. That ordinary buildings constructed of brick 
and wood, with or without columns and girders of steel, 
cannot resist a conflagration or prevent it from spreading. 

Second. That a conflagration is liable to occur in any 
town similarly constructed and at any tunc when the at- 
mospheric conditions arc favorable, and that under ti 
conditions the fire department is impotent. 

Third. In order to insure safety the closely built up 
portions of a town should be constructed entirely of lire- 



6o 



T H E B RICKBUILD E R 



proof or non-combustible material, with restrictions as to 
height of non-combustible buildings; all buildings above 
a certain minimum height and area being required to be 
fire-proof and all buildings under this minimum to be of 
not less than non-combustible construction. 

Fourth, old combustible buildings coming within 
the fire limits to be taxed in proportion to the risk to 
which they subject adjacent buildings, <>r it' very danger- 
ous then tn be taxed in proportion to the risk of the 
town; or as a wise precaution, to be subject to condemna- 
tion by the municipal authorities. 

In the business sections of the burned district of 
Paterson there arc but three buildings standing that were 
in the direct pathway of the flames and these three build- 
ings are of what is commonly known as " fire-proof con- 
struction": yet they were not strictly " tire-proof" ; two 
of them might be termed "high class non-combustible, " 
and the result of the fire shows certain defects which 
could have been seen quite as well before the tire made 
them apparent. 

The City Hall is a three story and basement structure 
with tlat roof, with the exterior of the basement faced 
with granite, and the first, 
second and third stories faced 
with Indiana limestone 
backed with hard red brick. 
The floors are of hollow tile, 
some of the floors covered 
with wood laid on sleepers 
in concrete; windows and 
door frames of wood; stair- 
ways of Guastavino tile 
and concrete, with marble 
facings; partitions of hard 
red brick. This building is 
what would be termed 
strictly "fire-proof," and the 
defects which the fire de- 
veloped were due to the 
non-fire-proof character of 
the window frames, sash, glass and furniture. 

The City Hall stands isolated in the center of a small 
open space and was in the direct path of the flames. 
The buildings on three sides of it were completely de- 
stroyed. The building on the right as you stand facing it 
is the Second National Hank and is the only building near 
it which was not destroyed. The City Hall and the Second 
National Hank building are two of the three buildings 
that were left standing in this section of the burnt district. 

A careful examination of the City Hall will show 
that the damage was caused by the ignition of the wooden 
fixtures and furnishings, and that had the fixtures been 
of metal or even of fire-proof wood little damage could 
have resulted to the building. As it was, however, almost 
every piece of wood in the building was consumed, with 
the exception of the frontdoor and a few window frames; 
even the sleepers in the concrete floor were burned up; 
the flames bursting out the openings disintegrated the 
stonework around them. In the basement the granite 
mullions of some of the windows are entirely destroyed. 
In the upper stories large spalls of limestone are broken 
off from around the windows, and the stonework is 
badly scorched and in some places entirely ruined. 




UPPER FLOOR, PATERSON SAVINGS INSTITUTION, SllowiM 

i.i iSTAVINO III I'. DOME VFTER FIRE. WHITE 

l' \ l CHES SHOW PLASTER ON TILES. 



The vertical supports of the floors of this building 
are the outside walls and internal brick partitions carried 
up from the ground. The outer walls are not damaged, 
excepting parts of the stone facing previously referred 
to. 'Phe internal brick partition walls are in good shape 
with one or two exceptions in the thinner partitions where 
cracks have developed. 

The floors of flat arch hollow tile are in good condition 
excepting where the lower covers of some few of the tiles 
have fallen off, and even at these points the floor itself is 
not damaged beyond this and is structurally intact. 

The temperature of some of the rooms of this build- 
ing at the time of the fire is shown by the evidence to 
have been at least ^.,v So degrees Fahr. the melting point 
of glass as the glass lights in the doors were melted 
and ran down and settled in little pools on the floor. 
The plaster is off in many places, and the interior of the 
building has been blackened in almost every part by the 
flames and smoke. 

It is noticeable that the front door is not damaged, 
nor is the opening around it, which clearly shows that 
the damage to the building came from the combustion of 

the wooden fittings and fur- 
nishings, and this suggests 
the thought that had the 
windows been protected the 
building would have escaped 
damage; and while fire shut- 
ters are seemingly out of 
place on a monumental 
building, yet an efficient sub- 
stitute for them can lie pro- 
vided in the form of "wire 
-lass" and metal frames and 
sash foi- all windows, with 
metal-covered doors of wood. 
To repair this building 
all the stone facings around 
the window openings will 
have to be replaced, the gran- 
ite base almost entirely renewed, the wood flooring and 
sleepers replaced, all the window frames and sash re- 
placed, some of the brick partitions will have to be 
rebuilt, and all of the interior fittings renewed. 

I lad this building been impervious to the entrance of 
the hot gas and flames, it would have suffered little if any 
damage, or had the window frames and sash and the 
interior fittings been of incombustible material, no great 
harm could have resulted, even had the glass broken and 
fallen out. An examination of the photographs will show 
that the damage which did result from the fire came about 
through the agency of this building's own defects in the 
form of wooden fittings. 

The Second National Hank building, a seven-story 
office building, containing banking rooms on the first 
floor, .stood opposite one side of the City Hall. 

This building is faced with white marble to the fifth 
floor, the two other or uppermost stories are in the man- 
sard roof. The floors of this building are (iuastavino 
arches and concrete, with lower flanges of the iron floor 
beams unprotected. The partitions are hollow tile. The 
stairway is of (iuastavino tile and concrete faced with 
marble. The roof was covered with slate attached to 



T HE BRICKBUILD E R . 



61 



terra-cotta blocks set on iron purlins which in turn were 
attached to the iron structural work supporting the roof. 

This building had two street exposures and two party 
line exposures. The rear end of the building toward the 
origin of the fire, containing the elevator and stair well. 
and also the back of the building, were subjected to a 
direct attack from fire in adjoining buildings. 

The party line exposures of this building have window 
openings, some of which were protected witli lire shutters, 
while others were not, or the shutters were open. The 
window openings on the mansard roof had no protection. 

The fire entered through the unprotected openings in 
the walls and roof and burned out all the woodwork on 
the two upper floors and many of the window frames on 
the lower stories in the stair and elevator well. The hol- 
low-tile partitions in the two floors on the roof fell down 
presumably because they were fastened to wood studs at 
the door openings. The ironwork in the mansard roof 
was exposed, and some of it is now out of shape as a re- 
sult of this exposure. 

The City Hall sheltered the marble face of this build- 
ing on one side from the gases and hot air, and therefore 
no damage was done to the 
stonework below the mansard 
roof. In the roof the facings 
around the dormer windows 
are scorched and blackened 
from the fire inside the 
building. 

In the mansard, on the 
other street front, the facings 
around the dormer windows 
are badly scorched. In the 
interior of the building many 
of the glazed tiles on the 
stair well have fallen off, 
and the stair well and toilet 
room adjacent are blackened 
with smoke. 

The buildings adjoining 
this bank building on the 

side and rear were completely destroyed, as were also 
the buildings directly opposite to the bank building on 
the other side of Market Street. 

The woodwork of the City Hall directly across a 
street was also burned out as previously referred to. This 
bank building then, it will be seen, had fire on four sides 
of it. Had it not been for the openings on the party wall 
sides and roof of this building, with the prevailing direc- 
tion of the wind, it is probable that it would have escaped 
with but little damage; but even as it was live floors of 
the building, including the bank, were open for business 
on Monday morning, February 10. 

Had the party wall of brick been carried up to the 
top of the roof, the building would probably have escaped 
with slight injury, but with no greater protection to the 
inside of the rooms in the roof than the two or three inch 
terra-cotta roof blocks and the slate the temperature must 
have been very hi^h. Had the terra-cotta partitions been 
properly secured to the floor and ceilings, with non-com 
bustible door frames and fastenings, the spread of the fire 
would have been greatly retarded ; or had a perforated line 
of pipe connected to an " underwriters' pump" been at- 




HAMILT0N, CLUB, SHOWING GALVANIZED IRON CORNICE. 



tached to the party wall, so that a sheet or curtain of 
water could have been used to protect this exposure, 
there would have been but a minimum of damage. 

The same criticism regarding wooden frames and sash 
applied to the City Hall is applicable to the bank 
building. Another fault of this building is the absence 
of proper coverings on the lower flanges of the 1 beams. 
While in this tire no injury was done to the floors, vet 
under other conditions the exposed beams might have 
yielded and serious damage to the building followed. 

Summed up, the defects of this building as a high 
type of fire-proof Construction can be said to be: 
From external exposure — 
First. < >penings in party or division walls. 
Second. Mansard roof on party line side with open- 
ings in roof 011 this side. 

'/'//irt/. Lack of protection to structural parts of roof. 
/'our///. Lack of " water curtain " or horizontal dis- 
tributing pipes on all exterior walls. 

Fifth. Wooden window frames and sash. 
From internal exposure 

First. Lack of proper coverings on lower flanges of 

floor beams. 

Second. Wooden Interior 
finish. 

Third. Partitions im- 
properly erected with wooden 
studs around doorways and 
not properly secured to lie, or 
and ceiling. 

Fourth. Lack of protec- 
tion to structural parts of roof. 
Fifth. Lack of sufficient 
water supply for tire pro- 
tection. 

Paterson's Saving Institu- 
tion, a five story and basement 
office building with flat roof, 
with banking rooms on the 
first floor faced with yellow 
brick and terra-cotta. is the 
third one of the three buildings left standing that were 
in the pathway of the conflagration. The walls of this 
building are of brick, the floors of Guastavino tile, with 

the lower flanges of the floor beams unprotected, the 

partitions of hollow tile. 

This building has two street front exposures and two 
party line exposures. The buildings adjoining it on the 
party lines were completely destroyed. This building 

undoubtedly prevented the fire crossing Market Street at 
this point. 

Had the party line exposures been without openings, 
or had the openings been protected with fire shutters, 

this building under the prevailing condition would have 
escaped without material injury. The fire entered the 
building from the openings into the stair and elevator 
hall in the rear party walls on the upper floors, and burned 
out the woodwork in the fourth and fifth stories and 
caused the hollow-tile partitions to fall, presumably be- 
cause they were not properly secured to the floors and 
ceilings, and also because the door openings were framed 
with wood studs. The elevator and stair well is black- 
ened with smoke and some of the glazed tile have fallen 



62 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



off. On the street fronts the outside brickwork around 
the windows in the two upper stories is blackened some- 
what from the smoke and fire inside the rooms; barring 
this the building is not damaged and was open for busi- 
ness on the following Monday morning. 

Had the partitions in this building been properly 
erected with non-combustible door frames and well se- 
cured to the floor and ceilings the lire could not have 
spread to any great extent; but this lesson, evident as it 
is, has not been learned, as the new partitions are again 
being erected with wood studs at the door openings. 

The faults of this building can be summed up: 

From external exposure — 

First. < Ipening in party or division walls and exposed 
light well. 

Second. Lack of water curtain. 

Third. Wooden window frames and sash. 

From internal exposure 

First. Lack of proper covering on lower flanges of 
floor beams. 

Second. Wooden interior finish. 

Third. Partitions improperly erected without being 
properly secured to floor and ceiling and with wood studs 
around door openings. 

Fourth. Lack of sufficient water supply for lire pro- 
tection. 

The Hamilton Club. The shell of the Hamilton Club 
is standing. The walls are of light-colored terra-cotta 
and brick, the cornice was galvanized iron, the interior 
construction was wood joist on iron girders and columns. 
The roof and third floor are entirely burned out, and 
parts of the second and first floors destroyed. The iron 
girders and columns are bent and twisted; the window 
frames in third story are entirely burned out. The walls 
of the building are but little damaged. This building 
being on the edge of the conflagration and separated in 
a measure from the adjoining buildings on the side 
toward the tire, therefore escaped total destruction. Had 
the roof and floors been fire-proof or even non-combusti- 
ble, under the prevailing conditions it is highly probable 
that the tire would have "passed by on the other side" 
without seriously harming it. As it is now, the interior 
construction will have to be entirely renewed. Had this 
building been in the direct pathway of the flames it is 
highly improbable, with its wooden internal construction, 
that its walls would be standing to-day. 

Of course it is easy to " point a moral " after the facts 
are made apparent by such a calamity as this, but witli 
all the disastrous tires that we have had recently is it not 
about time to carefully "take account of stock " of the 
conditions of buildings in our cities"- Say the council- 
men of our cities organized a " Board of Fire Examiners " 
with about the same powers as the Board of Health, does 
any one doubt that hundreds, possibly thousands of places 
would be found which are a standing menace to the 
property and the lives of our citizens ? Smallpox, scarlet 
fever, diphtheria, etc., are isolated, quarantined and de- 
stroyed by radical municipal action, vet tire traps are per- 
mitted to exist without even a protest. When every man 
realizes that he is required to give an affirmative answer 
to the question "Am I my brother's keeper'" com- 
bustible buildings will give way to non-combustible build- 
ings, and destruction by tire will be regarded as a crime. 



Selected Miscellany. 

A LESSON FROM THE PATERSON FIRE. 
Publishers of The Brickbuilder: 

Gentlemen, — Being in Paterson shortly after the re- 
cent tire which devastated the heart of the business dis- 
trict of that town, 1 took the opportunity of making a 
careful study of the fire-proof qualities of the materials 
that were called upon to withstand the extreme test of 
the flames. Many of the buildings were of the modern 




DETAIL BY I- . C. SAUER, ARCHITEI I. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Makers 

"fire-proof" type, and according to the testimony of 
eyewitnesses, these stood upright among the flames 
until they became seething furnaces within, owing to the 
great amount of inflammable material they contained. 
When the limit of endurance had been reached the steel 
frames buckled and fell, heavy steel girders and posts 
being twisted and knotted like whipcords. But to get 
down to the ability of the different materials to with- 
stand the flames as evinced bv the remains: In wander- 




HOUSE, 15 EAST 84TH STREET, NEW VORK CITY. 

Built of brick made by the Ohio Mining and Manufacturing] Company. 

kenwirk, A spin wall & Owen, Architects. 



T H E H R I C K BUI L I) E R 




CHAT1LION APAR 1MKXTS, RIVERSIDE DRIVE, NEW YORK CITY. 

Built of Standard Size White Brick made by B. Kreischer & Sim. 
Hugh Lamb, Architect. 

ing over the ruins I did not discover enough wood to 
make a match stick of, which fact may serve to give an 
idea of the tremendous heat that existed. One of the 
first thing's to be observed was the extent to which the 
stone had disintegrated under the heat. Granite and 
sandstone alike had failed to stand the test. Wherever 
they had been touched by the heat they scaled off in 
large sections and crumbled to dust. Heavy bearing 
blocks under iron columns had crumbled to pieces in 
many cases. The flames rushing out of the windows 
and doors of the City Hall had licked off corners, 
molds and cornices as though they had been of wet clay 
and some great thumb had smoothed them off to shape- 
less masses and rounded corners. 

The heavy granite mullions dividing the basement 
windows of the City Hall had in some cases been wiped 
out of existence altogether by the flames. Almost with- 
out exception the steel work had been twisted and dis- 
torted into all sorts of grotesque shapes, giving one a 
much different impression of the strength of steel from 
that obtained by observing steel frame buildings in the 
course of construction. The manner in which east-iron 
columns and girders withstood the flames is most mar- 
velous. The great majority that I saw were not only 





intact but were as 
good as new. although 
some had apparently 
fallen from great 
heights. Without try- 
ing to reach any con- 
clusions at all I would 
suggest that cast iron 
might well occupy a 
more prominent place 
in our thoughts when 
we contemplate the 
erection of fire-pro. if 
structures. 

To the most casual 
observer it was very 
evident that brick had 
proved itself the best 
fire resistant of all. 
Many walls fell, to 
be sure, because they 
were unable to with- 
stand the pressure to which they were subjected and 
the leverage exerted upon them by falling floors, etc., 
but on every hand could be found evidence of the abil- 
ity of brick itself as a material to resist fire. In the 
City Hall the interior walls and the backing of the outer 
walls are of brick, which has stood, although the building 
is entirely gutted. To repair the damage to the exterior 



Dl I Ml BY ill VR] ES B, MEN ERS, 
VRCHITE* I . 
White Brick and Terra-i 
Company, Makers. 




DETAILS MN II \KM : . .\ SHOR I . IRCHITEI rS 
Excelsior Ten a-Cotta Company, Makers. 

of this building it will only be necessary to remove the 
veneering of Stonework and replace same. It is to be 
deplored that we do not follow the example of other 
countries in building our brick walls of such thickness 
and framing the timbers in such manner that the walls 
would remain standing in the greatest fire, as they most 
assuredly would if properly constructed, to be them 
selves guards against the spread of the flames to other 
buildings beyond. 

('. A. Zn ..it u, Architi 
Philadelphia, Pa., February i8, 1902. 



DETAIL BY HARKS HAKE, \l<i Mill' I. 
Indianapolii 1 otta Company, Makers. 



NOTKS FROM NEW York. 
Over confidence, begotten of a fatuous reliance on the 
supposedly fire-proof quality of the building; defective 

construction of the elevators, and a too lavish use of 



64 



THE BRICK B U I L I) E R 



wood: result — a holocaust of twenty-one victims. The 
Park Avenue Hotel is a massive structure, erected about 




DETAIL r.\ PHILIP H. JOHNSON, ARCHITECT. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company. Makers. 

thirty years ago, is a seven and eight story and basement 
building forming a hollow square. 

The floors consist of brick segmental arches between 
heavy iron beams, spaced about three feet six inches 
apart. The inside partitions, 
however, are of lath and 
plaster on wooden studs. The 
main stair, extending up to 
the seventh floor, is of iron, 
with iron treads up to the sixth 
floor; between the sixth and 
seventh, however, it is of 
wood, painted to imitate iron, 
and with wooden treads. 
( )n cither side of the main 
stair are elevators running 
from the basement to the roof 
in brick shaft, but having 
wooden trim, doors, windows 
in each floor; with a window 
of wood and glass on each 
floor opening to the inner 
court for purposes of light. 
At the end of the two side 
wings of the hotel are two 

fire-proof stairs for use in case of fire. The doors of the 
elevators on each floor are of wood, with wooden trim- 
mings. The fire was started at one of the elevators, al- 
though the lower portion of the same docs not seem to 
be much damaged, running up the elevator and feeding 
on the superfluous wood. The damage appears to have 
been greater after the fourth floor and becoming worse 
as it proceeded further up, feeding on the wooden trim- 
mings, doors and partitions. The main stairs being 
hedged in between two burning elevators, were rendered 
useless by the dense masses of smoke arising from the 
burning wood. The iron beams supporting the brick 
arches are unprotected by any fire-retarding material 
whatsoever, but owing to their massive construction suf- 
fered no damage, and the brick arches will need but little 




PANEL, STATE OF NEW York COAT OF ARMS. 

1 li orge L. Ileitis, Architect. 

Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



repair. Had the partitions been of fire-proof material 
and the doors and trimmings in the hallways fire-proof 
wood or metal covering, an altogether different story 
might have been told. Had the hotel been, as ordinary 
prudence would have dictated, provided on each floor 
with some one or other of the fire-extinguishing appara- 
tus, and had standpipes with opening's on each floor, to 
which hose ready for use was attached, any outbreak of 
flames could have been instantly extinguished. It will 
readily be seen that to have considered the Park Avenue 
Hotel a fire-proof structure in the present acceptance of 
the term is wrong, the fire-proof portion being confined 
to the arches and walls alone. 

An attempt has been made to introduce a bill into the 
New York Legislature providing for an "eligible list of 
architects " from whom are to be chosen those who shall 
execute municipal work, and none others need apply. 
The bill is said to have originated with the Fine Arts 
Federation, who want to make a list of not more than 
one hundred and fifty architects, from which list the 
mayor is to select fifty as a permanent architectural 
"trust." I am exceedingly glad to be able to report 
that the Architectural League and the Brooklyn chapter 
of the American Institute of Architects have voted to op- 
pose the bill with all their power. It is not difficult to 
anticipate the hard feelings and jealousies to which such 

an unjust act would lead, to 
say nothing of the injustice to 
the "dark horse" who is 
waiting for a fair public com- 
petition to show what he can 
do. Probably there is no 
other profession where the 
first opportunity means so 
much to a beginner as in our 
noble profession. 



Among the items of new 
work are the following: James 
Brown Lord has completed 
plans for the first of the Car- 
negie libraries, which will be 
erected at Xos. 222 and 224 
East Seventy-ninth Street. 

Herts & Tallant have 
planned a new theater for Mr. 
Daniel Frohman to take the 
It will be built on Forty-fifth 



place of the old Lyceum 
.Street, near Broadway. 

Charles I. Berg, architect, is drawing plans for a tive- 




DETAIL FOR BALCONY. 

Robert \V. Lyons, Architect. 
Standard Terra-Cotta Works, Makers. 



T H E BRICKBUILD E R 



65 



story brick and stone apartment to be built at Nos. 34 and 

36 East Fortieth Street. Cost about $200,000. 

Trowbridge & Livingston have planned a nine-story 
hotel to be built at No. 6 East Fifty-fifth Street for 
Colonel J. J. Astor. Cost $150,000. 

Hobart A. Walker has just completed plans for a brick 
and stone dwelling to be erected on Clinton Avenue, 
Brooklyn. 



IN GENERAL. 



James P. Jamieson has been admitted to partnership 
in the firm of Cope & Stewardson. 

The annual exhibition of the St. Louis Architectural 
Club will be held at the St. Louis Museum of Fine Arts, 
Lucas Place and Nineteenth Street, April 3 to 14. 




PARAPET PANEL FOR FLATIRON BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY. 

D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 

Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company. 

The annual exhibition of the Boston Architectural 
Club will be held in the gallery of the Boston Art Club, 
Dartmouth Street, May 5 to 19. Entries must be made 
before April 15. 

The Illinois Hydraulic-Press Brick Company of St. 
Louis are sending out a sample brick for which we feel 
certain there will be an unusual demand. It is a regular 
size brick, on one of the broad sides of which there is 
a convenient size cavity meant to hold matches. Tins 
"match case" is further embellished with four rubber 
tips securely fastened to the underside of the brick, which 
will prevent its scratching when moved about on a desk. 
Apart from this unique feature, as samples of brick they 
are interesting because of their texture and color, repre- 
senting as they do in these respects the very acme of the 
brickmaking art. 

The White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company will fur- 
nish the architectural terra-cotta for the following new 
buildings: High school, Watertown, N. V., Wilson 
Potter, architect; amusement hall and cafe, Brooklyn, 
N. Y.,' Herts & Tallant, architects; residence for R. 



F. Schell at Northfield, Mass., liruce Price, architect; 
store and apartment, corner Forty-fourth Street and 
Madison Avenue, New York, II. J. I lardenbergh, archi- 
tect; Bates Building, Forty-third Street and Longacre 




DETAIL BY II. J. HARDENBERGH, \u< III Mi I. 
New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, Makers 

Square, New York, F. L. Ellingwood, architect; resi- 
dence, 123 and 125 East Thirty-fifth Street, Hoppin & 
Koen, architects. 

The American Enameled Brick and Tile Company 
report the closing of two contracts; one for the District 
of Columbia Pumping Station in Washington. D. C, 
which George A. Fuller Company are erecting and in 
which there will be used about one hundred and fifty thou- 




l,K 1 \m . n\ 11. 11. in RNHAM .\ CO., \K> 111 1 El I S, 
Northwestern Trim Cotta Company, Makers. 

sand enameled brick; and the other in Baltimore for the 
United Electric Railway Company's new power house, 
for which they have just closed the second contract with 

Mr. fohn Waters for the use of over one hundred thou- 
sand second quality enameled brick. The first contract 
was for a like amount in a previously built portion of the' 

power house. 



66 



THE BRICKBU1L L) E R 




m WHS 

■ 

E POWER HOU.'»K 
r AMBULANCE * ' 

H CHAPEL 
I MEDICAL MRUMS 
\ J ASmV, Btlfc, COI 

L 'WAKD 

M NUK3es HOME 

N TUBHttl 

BOHE 



COMPETITIVE DESIGN OF MUNICIPAL HOSPITAL FOR IIIK DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, \l WASHINGTON, 

Boring & Tilton, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

APRIL, 

i 902. 





y. 



Hi vol ii 

NO. 4 



-££♦32+ 



THE 

BRICRBVILDER 



APRIL & 
1902 i> 

9 

h r. b. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PI 1:1 ISHED MONTHLY RY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 

85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. ( ). Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass. , Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PI BLISHING COMPANY. 



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Canada ........ $5. 00 per year 

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Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied bj 
the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order 



l»Ar;E 

Agencies. — Clay Products ... II 

Architectural Faience . . . II 

" Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick HI 

" Enameled . . . .Ill and IV 



PAGE 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing I\ 

Machinery 1\ 

Rooting Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



TERRA COTTA AT THE PATERSON FIRE. 

IN reviewing the results of the Paterson fire one can- 
not fail to notice the extent to which terra-cotta 
proved itself worthy of all that has been claimed for it 
as a fire-proofing material. In the City Hall, which was 
strictly fire-proof as far as relates to construction, the 
flat terra-cotta arch tiles were not materially damaged at 
all, though the heat in some of the rooms was so great 
that the glass in the side lights of the doors was melted 
and ran down in pools on the floor. The Second Na- 
tional Bank likewise was severely in jured, but the damage 
was not due to any defect in the terra-cotta fire-proofing, 
notwithstanding that the terra-cotta was not applied in 
the most intelligent manner to the beams. 

Without claiming that the fire-proofing systems which 
employ terra-cotta have arrived at perfection, and while 
admitting that every lire of this kind teaches us new 
lessons, it nevertheless must be conceded that terra-cotta 
itself is about as near being absolutely lire-proof as any 
material which is at present known to the building trades, 
and even in eases where it has not been applied in the 
most thorough manner it is still a very efficient fin 



tarder, and it is very rare indeed to hear of a terra-cotta 
floor arch of any description being crippled in a tire. 
The Paterson experience emphasizes the necessity for 
more care in constructing partitions. The practice which 
is sometimes followed of setting the partition blocks 
upon a plank Upper Hour is a bad one and should not be 
tolerated. The use of wooden door frames in terra-cotta 
partitions is also a source of weakness which can very 
easily be avoided. The ideal office building is one into 
which no particle of wood enters for construction or fin- 
ish. A few years ago such a building would have been 
commercially an impossibility, but now there are various 
devices which answer every purpose of finish without 
employing a particle of exposed wood. The practice of 
bedding sleepers in concrete over the terra-cotta and 
having an upper and under floor nailed directly to these 
sleepers is, in the light of the Paterson experience, an 
unwise procedure, and a far better plan is to use deeper 
terra-cotta blocks, cover them with a slight layer of con- 
crete and apply Over the concrete some form of mono 
lithic construction which is not based upon the employ- 
ment of wood, either tiling, cement or one of the mag- 
nesia compounds which can now be obtained in tin- 
market. 



EXPERIENCES are of value only as we are able 1" 
draw from them lessons which are available for in 
ture use. and while it can hardly be said that the Paterson 
fire brought out any decidedly new facts, it certainly em- 
phasized and corroborated the lessons of the past. A num- 
ber of the burned buildings employed architectural terra- 
cotta. Very few of the buildings were really fire-proof 
in any sense, but comparing the effects of the tire it will 
be noted that in those buildings which were faced with 
si., nc nearly all of the exterior work was practically 
ruined, while on the other hand tin- total amount of dam- 
age done to exterior terra-cotta by the entire conflagra 
tion was very slight. Both the Paterson Savings Insti- 
tution and the Hamilton Club, which were the most 
conspicuous examples of tin- use of exterior terra-cotta, 
suffered little damage that cannot be removed with a 
scrubbing brush. If it is a commercial necessity that 
our buildings shall be as nearly as possible indestructible 
by fire, and the experience of last year certainly shows 

the desirability of such a condition. there is no in 
rial except terra-cotta which can be absolutely depended 
upon. A degree <>f heat which would rend granite into 
a thousand fragments and which would reduce lime or 
sandstone to the consistency of chalk, would have hardly 
mori "ii terra-cotta than to discolor the surface and 

burn out some of the pointings. And there certainly is 



68 



THE HRICKBUILDKR 



no material except terra-cotta which would stand the 
combined action of fire and water. If terra-cotta were 
difficult of application, were expensive in first cost or of 
a nature which would not respond readily to the plastic 
feeling of the designer, there might be some excuse for 
using other material in its place, hut where it meets so 
thoroughly the thought of the architect and answers 
so completely the exact requirements of the engineer, i1 

is little wonder that in SO few years it should have grown 
to be preeminently the material for the construction and 
embellishment of so many buildings. 



THE urgent need in our great and glorious, but we 
fear still somewhat crude country, of some prac- 
tical means for preventing the erection of architectural 
monstrosities is daily being emphasized by the many 
glaring, not to say brutal and wholly unnecessary 
offenses against good taste that are constantly being per- 
petrated from the Atlantic to the Pacific, from the Lakes 
to the Gulf. 

It may be that the laws which formulate good taste' 
and beauty cannot be so easily either codified or applied, 
and that much as we might wish to see an art censorship 
established which would make it impossible for even the 
most utilitarian Philistine to encumber the earth with an 
Ugly building, we will not arrive at art achievements by 
municipal enactment, but will have to wait until the 
people are educated to a proper appreciation of the eter- 
nal fitness of art, and though the process will be a long 
one and the subjects difficult to handle, we cannot doubt 
that the result desired will come so long as we have faith 
in the virility of American art. 

The buildings that offend most are. generally speaking, 
those devoted to commercial or business purposes, hotels 
and apartment or tenement houses. These buildings of- 
fend in everyway possible general outline, proportions 
of parts and details, materials and color. We have said 
the proportions offend, but take back that word; such 
buildings have no proportions. As a rule they are bald 
and dreary monotonous lumps of brick and stone and 
cast iron, without form and void. These buildings have 
not even the negative merit of being of ephemeral con- 
struction. They are well, too well, built and will probably 
cumber the earth for a century or more as monuments of 
the Stupidity, cupidity and ignorance of those who in de- 
fiance of public and private Opinion called into existence 
such misshapen and unlovely blots upon the fair name 
and fame of any city permitting their erection. Such 
buildings are a daily offense and irritation to those com- 
pelled to sec them even from afar off. If such offenses 
were committed in private, if such buildings were put up 
in out-of-the-way places where none but their creators and 
accomplices were compelled to sec them and suffer, there 
might be little cause for complaint. Unfortunately, im- 
portant streets and conspicuous sites are almost exclu- 
sively selected to bear the brunt of this offending. In 
some cases buildings at least respectable even in their 
mediocrity have been removed to make room for malig- 
nant cases of commercialism run riot. In many instances 
those responsible for these architectural blunders are not 
confined to the class able to make the specious excuse that 
lack of means precludes the modest additional outlay ne- 



cessary to raise their buildings from mere constructions 
to the planeof intelligent architecture. On the contrary, 
the worst and most persistent culprits are those who hav- 
ing ample means could at least put up, not monumental 
work, but inoffensive buildings temperately designed. 

With regard to increased cost of buildings caused by 
reasonable architectural adornment, it has been calculated 
or rather demonstrated that five per cent added to cost of 
buildings will make the difference between a plain mill- 
like Structure and an architectural creation. 

It is not necessary in order to produce a pleasing de- 
sign to restrict the height of buildings; still less is it 
necessary to confine the architect to any one style of 
architecture. Experiments as to proper limits of height 
and use of styles or style are to be desired. It is the 
function of art to solve just such problems. It is only the 
total disregard of style and want of invention or feeling 
to which objection is made. 

Historical examples of street architecture, even where 
the facade has been a simple flat front, are numerous 
enough to convince one that the solution of such a prob- 
lem in a satisfactory manner is entirely possible. And it 
is fair to say that modern examples of good and satisfy- 
ing street architecture are by no means uncommon. 

Is it not reasonable to believe that, even looking at the 
question of increased cost of architectural buildings from 
the financial point of view, at least a part of the interest 
on the money spent on adornment could be earned by the 
larger rents and more permanent tenants to be secured 
thereby ? 



THE fallacy of the very common idea that stone used 
in a building implies permanence and solidity has 
been well illustrated by Westminster Abbey. It is well 
known that the stone of which the western facade is con- 
structed, while having all the appearance of solidity, has 
few of the elements of permanence and has required con- 
stant repairs almost from the time it was built. The stone 
employed is a material closely resembling the French 
Caen stone, but it is not identical therewith, and as early 
as [713 Sir Christopher Wren reported that it was 
decayed four inches deep and was continually falling off 
in great scales. The amount of money which has been 
spent in the last two centuries to preserve this fabric is 
enough to have rebuilt the edifice several times over. 
.Since r888 an annual expenditure of over fifteen thousand 
dollars has been necessary, and there is no surety that this 
sum may not In- required indefinitely. The acrid quality 
of the London atmosphere is sometimes charged with the 
responsibility for the decay of the stone, but it is doubt- 
ful whether the material would stand anywhere very much 
better than it does in Westminster. There arc really very 
few natural stones which are suitable for securing perma- 
nence in building, and it may be stated as a general rule 
that any stone which is easy to work will decay readily. 
We have seen base courses of ma^nesian limestone which 
have been eaten away by the weather so that they looked 
like lump sugar which had been played on by a stream of 
hot water; and the experience of the last four centuries 
points pretty conclusively to burnt clay as almost the only 
building material which, when properly constructed and 
applied, can be absolutely depended upon. 



T H E B R I C K H l* I I. I) E R . 



69 



The Business Side of an Architect's 
Office. I. 

BY I). EVERETT WAID. 

AN architect should be first of all an artist. It', how- 
ever, his strength lies in his artistic perception 
alone, he is weak, and his designs will exist chiefly on 
paper. He must be a master builder, as his title implies; 
he must be an executor as well as a designer. Otherwise 
men without conception of the beautiful will continue to 
build ugly structures and perpetuate frozen discords in- 
stead of " frozen music." 

Although the complex buildings of to-day are the 
product of many workers, all must be under the direction 
and control of the one mind which conceived the whole, 
if artistic results are to be achieved. 

And yet this essential duty of the architect, that of gen- 
eral supervision, has its dangers, for under the stress of 
modern conditions the tendency is to divert the architect's 
artistic powers to the strictly utilitarian details of his prac- 
tice. Instead of one building occupying several years, 
many building's must be erected in one year. The multi- 
tude of details in one building multiplied by many build- 
ings are beyond the capacity of one man, and the architect 
needs a simple system by which he can keep a finger on 
every part of his work and yet leave his mind free to give 
his best powers to the artistic development of his designs. 
The execution of even one building involves from first to 
last so many details that it is important so to organize 
one's office that bookkeeping, office records and the host 
of transactions required in letting contracts and superin- 
tending work shall be done by a machine. This machine 
should take care of the drudgery and do it so thoroughly 
and easily that its presence is hardly noticed. It should 
be so well oiled that no one apparently has anything to do 
with it except the office boy, and it should do its work so 
surely that drawings will be finished on time and never 
lost; that any letter or detail can be found at a moment's 
notice; that no mistake can occur in a certificate; that 
"work not according to contract" will be discovered in 
time; and that no bill for an extra will ever be presented 
without a written order. 

It is easy for an architect to begin practice without any 
system and as business increases to adopt one device 
after another as need is felt. The result is that while 
work maybe well done, yet complicated and burdensome 
methods of business have been developed. The point is 
that if a comprehensive scheme is adopted at the begin- 
ning of a small business it may be expanded to meet 
the wants of a large practice, and the inconvenience be 
avoided of making revolutionary changes at a later date. 

The duties of architects lie in a more or less rigidly 
defined routine, from sketch designs to completed build- 
ings. We may say that the functions of an architect's 
office from a business point of view arc three and that 
these three functions represent three things which the 
architect as a skilled agent does for his clients: -first, 
designing buildings and making working drawings and 
Specifications; second, taking estimates and letting eon- 
tracts; third, securing proper execution of work and cer- 
tifying when payments are due contractors. 

It is proposed in these papers to consider the strictly 



business side of an architect's office and illustrate details 
■I office practice involved in these various functions. 

Beginning with the letter tile about the only essen- 
tial piece of office furniture after the draughting table 
it may be averred that an architect cannot be too punc- 
tilious in his correspondence. One may economize on 
rent, but lie should not on postage. ' Mie's maxims should 
include not only "Keep engagements on time," but 
"Answer letters promptly." Starting with the time 
when one has been engaged to design a building and as- 
suming that the circumstances have prevented the sign- 
ing of a contract defining the architect's status and f< es, 
he should write a letter to the owner mentioning in a 
gentle way the copy of Ids schedule of charges which he 
hands him "herewith" or referring to the recognized 
code of the Institute of Architects. After sketches have 
been submitted and approved it is well to write the 
owner apprising him of the understanding that he is now 
to proceed with working drawings on the basis of the last 
and approved set of sketches. Later on, particularly 
after working drawings art- completed, a letter should be 
written t<> the owner every time that he gives instruc- 
tions, placing them on record and doing it in such a way 
that the owner will be under no necessity of replying to 
the letter. When work is under contract the builder 
should receive frequent and full written warnings and 
instructions concerning work not properly executed, and 
all directions which involve extra work should state the 
fact in plain terms. In short, it is well to make the cor- 
respondence a very complete record of one's business, and 
very frequently such records are important not merely 
as safeguarding the client's interest but as affording pro 
tection to the architect's own good reputation. 

Printed forms for extras and deductions arc desirable 
forseveral reasons but are not essential. Whether forms 
similar to those to be illustrated in this series of articles 
arc used, or letters, the architect should never fail to 
inform the owner of everything that is done, and obtain 
his consent before either extras or deductions are incurred. 
One prominent architect expressed himself on this sub- 
ject thus: " I make it a point in my practice that not a 
dollar of bills for extras shall come in on any building 
without my client having had knowledge of it in advance, 
or without his having had an opportunity to know all 
about it." 

In order to outline a scheme which has been found 

useful in conducting architects' offices we might glanc< 
at the correspondence file in an imaginary office The 

first building in the office was numbered 1. and each 
succeeding commission as it came into the office was 
given the next higher number. < >n a shelf may be seen 
letter tiles marked on the backs with the names of the 
respective buildings and large numbers 1. 2, ;. |. 1 
and one file marked "Miscellaneous " ; that is to say. there 
is one file for the correspondence of each building and a 
miscellaneous file to contain letters which do not relate 
to any particular building. There are no letter books, 
foi letters arc- all written in duplicate or else copied on 
loose sheets, and copies of letters sent are filed with letters 

ived, alphabetically and in order of date. 

Drawings are filed away in large drawers or other 
chosen receptacles in similar order, all drawings for build- 
ing No. 2 in drawer No. : and all for building No. 5 111 



JO 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



drawer No. 5, and so on. In other words each building 
has its individual number, and that number serves as a 
file number tor the identification and orderly arrangement 
of all drawings, correspondence and records of whatso- 
ever sort which have to do with that particular building. 

We may assume that two trays have been purchased, 
with a supply of 3-inch by 5-inch blank index cards. 
One of these trays is used for addresses and the other 
for registry of drawings. When addresses are entered 
one card is taken for each name. If John Smith is the 
name of a fellow architect who has written about some 
draughtsman or a Beaux Arts Society dinner, his letter and 
reply will be found under "S" in the miscellaneous file. 
If. however, fohn Smith happens to be a contractor, cor- 
respondence with him is found under -- S" in the file of 
the particular building with which he is concerned. If 
perchance fohn Smith is a client, then on his address 
card a note is made of his building, with record of its 
number. 'Phis card tray, therefore, serves not only as a 
list of addresses, hut as an index giving the number of 
every building. ( big. 1. ) 

The other one of the two card trays contains cards 
(all the cards may be standard ruled stock or specially 







"— 1 



S 






'V 



-Z 3 <5taJ&. at .37/ 3/"<3/ L . A? Gj, 











f 






< 



- 



A 



m 



FIG. I. CARD LIST OF ADDRESSES SHOWING MANNER 

OF ENTERING VARIOUS NAMES AND RECORDING 

BUILDINGS ERECTED FOR EACH CLIENT. 

printed) for the registry of drawings. The exposed 
tabs of the guide cards show the name and number of 
all the buildings or commissions in connection with 
which the architect has made drawings or had correspond- 
ence. Each card back of the guide cards represents one 
drawing and shows the number and title, scale, date and 
author of its respective drawing. This idea was borrowed 
from Mr. Harold B. Magonigle, who gives each print of a 
given drawing a letter, and the card contains the names 



of those to whom the prints were issued, these entries 
being transcribed from the issue book. In my own expe- 
rience I have found that drawings can be located in the 
issue book so easily that the transcription may be omitted 
and the registry card so simplified that each card will 
contain the record of ten drawings five on each side. 




FIG. 2. REGISTRY OF DRAWINGS. 

(Fig. 2. Each guide card represents one building, 
or commission. 

Behind each guide card are placed the cards which 
show the list of all drawings made for that particular 
building. 

As the guide cards are placed in order of the building 
numbers, the tray contains a chronological list of all 
work turned out by an office. 

The cards at the left | A | represent various drawings 
for building No. 2. The guide card for same building is 
shown at the top | B]. Each guide card has on it a brief 
record showing location of building, brief description, 
cost per cubic foot, etc. 

The lower card above the open tray | C | shows a form 
with spaces to register ten drawings, five on each side of 
the same card. The second card in the series for build- 
ng No. 88 would contain record of sheets Nos. n, 12, 
[3, etc., and the third card. 21. 22, etc. 

The scheme for numbering drawings shown by the 
lowest card at the left |D| classifies the drawings in a 
convenient way for reference; and for a large building 
each group may have a drawer by itself.) 

Thus much has been said about three necessary things 
in an architect's office, namely, a list of addresses, a list 
of drawings, and files for correspondence, to suggest that 
giving each piece of work a number which becomes at 
once a file number for all letters, drawings, specifications 
and records is a simple framework idea which can be 
elaborated to any extent. Illustrations will be given in 
succeeding papers showing the practical application of 
this scheme. 



THE BR I C K BUILD E R 



7' 



Town Squares of North Italy. II. 

BY WALTER H. kll.il \M. 

UNLIKE the busy little town square of Verona, de- 
scribed in our previous article, the Piazza Vittorio 
Emanueleat Bologna is large, spacious and never crowded. 
The herd of little tram cars finds abundant room to wait 
under the facade of the Palace of the Podesta, and the 
prancing statue of the popular king seems almost lonely 
in the center of the great expanse of pavement. Com- 
ing from Tuscany, where the cities are paved with Large 
blocks of hard stone beautifully fitted together, the small 
round cobbles of Bologna seem to give a mean scale to 
the streets and squares, unworthy of the majestic build- 
ings with which they are lined. 

The public square of Bologna is in a sense disappoint- 
ing. Although a group of the most important buildings 
in Italy fronts upon it, the unfinished state of two of them 
and the rather unmonumental appearance of the third 
tend to takeaway the impressiveness which really belongs 
to them, and impart a note of sadness to the somber red 
facades. The Palazzo Communale, shown in the center 




PUBLIC SQUARE AT BOLOGNA, Willi PALAZZO COMMUNALE. 

of the illustration, is a building which contains an unusual 
amount of interesting brick detail. The trims of the 
windows and arches of the facade arc especially dignified 
and simple, and the interior court contains still more of 
the best class of detail. The building, which has been 
lately restored, dates from 1290. On the right in the 
illustration is the imposing but incomplete facade of the 
Palazzo del Podesta, the tall tower of which rises pictur- 
esquely above the roofs as seen from the narrow streets 
at the back. The juxtaposition of these two buildings is 
an interesting example of the use of the different branches 
of the municipal government described in the preceding 
article. This facade with its powerful two-storied arcade 
is the most monumental on the square. Directly opposite 
rises the great mass of S. Petronio, which is the largest 
church in the town and is internally one of the finest in 
Italy. The beautiful marble Tuscan-Gothic west front 
was never completed above the plinths, and the vast mass 




\ I'sh. VND CLOISTERS OF S. DOMENICO, BOLOGNA. 

of rough brickwork rises boldly above the piazza. The 
sides, however, were carried out complete in brick, and 
present some notable though not always praiseworthy 
details. Our photograph shows a typical aisle window 
with mullions and tracery in molded brickwork and an 
attractive and simple rose in the tympanum. The whole 
effect is simple, dignified and easily executed. In con 
trast, at the left of the picture there is shown one of the 
absurdities that sometimes appear even in the works of 
the best masters. Nothing could be more ridiculous than 
the conception of placing a delicately traceried window 
at the angle of a great building and bending back the 
archivolts on the faces of two rierht-aneded walls. The 




w l\ linn s 1 H s. i'l I l;n\|ii, HOI.OONA. 



7 2 



THE BRICK BUILDER 




WINDOW, PALAZZO I'M. LA V 111 M. BOLOGNA. 

interior of S. Petronio is remarkably well proportioned 
and lighted, and contains an unusual number of works of 
art, and particularly a very fine set of characteristic chapel 
screens. 

Before speaking of the characteristic details of the 
buildings of Bologna which stand on its public square 
and in the immediate vicinity, it is well to mention the 
one feature of its architect lire which places Bologna in a 
class by itself. Each city of the peninsula has some spe- 
cialty in which it individualizes its architecture. Genoa 
has its splendid staircases; Florence its massive stone pal- 
aces and deep cornices ; Venice its charming semi-oriental 
facades. Bologna has its arcades. Throughout the entire- 
city the sidewalks are carried through the first Boor of the 




buildings, the upper floors projectingto the curb line and 
resting on rows of graceful arches and pillars. The floors 
of these arcades are paved with brick or terrazzo, and the 
pillars are generally built of brick laid in a circular shape 
or whatever is desired. The graceful capitals of the pillars, 
which are often done in terra-eotta, have themselves a 
characteristic modeling, and are beautifully adapted for 
carrying the arches which spring from them. They have 
usually only one row of delicate leaves which rise Straight 
from the necking, clinging closely to the vertical sides of 
the bell and supporting slightly projecting volutes. The 
result, as seen in the picture of the Palazzo Pallavieini, 
gives, for a Renaissance cap, a surprising impression of 
virility and sturdy Strength. The usual Bolognese build- 
ing is in three stories. The windows of the main tloor 
rest upon a decorated string course which runs along 
above the arcade. These windows are usually of the type 
shown in the illustration a wide archivolt made up of 
several patterns of bricks and with a little finial at the top 
of the arch which encloses a double motif, with either a 




CHUkCH OK THE MADONNA Ul 



LUCA, BOLOGNA. 



PALAZZO PALLAVICINI, BOLOGNA. 

slender pillar used as a mullios or a pendant terminating 
just below the springing of the secondary arches of the 
two divisions. This type, with slight variations, appears 
throughout the town, and is not, I think, characteristic 
elsewhere, especially in materials of clay. The upper or 
frieze story has circular or arched windows, much smaller, 
and is surmounted by an elaborately modeled terra-cotta 
cornice, with modillions and dentils, which terminates the 
composition, the projecting Italian eaves being omitted. 

The Palazzo Pallavieini, shown iii the picture, is a very 
good representative of this class of buildings. Except 
where there are shops there are few windows opening on 



THE BRICK BU I L !)!•: K 



::> 



the arcades and these are high and heavily barred, the 
ground-floor rooms receiving most of their light and air 
from the courtyards. In this connection it is worth 
while to take a look at the courtyard of the Palazzo Fava, 
one of the best of these buildings, which stands just 
around the corner from the great square. The court has 
a two-storied loggia of arches supported on most graceful 
round pillars of brick, with capitals of the greatest refine- 
ment. The brick walls of the building have at some 
period been given a light coat of lime wash which is 
wearing off and exposing the true construction. The 




COURTYARD, PALAZZO FAVA, BOLOGNA. 

upper loggia, in particular, is especially charming in 
detail and proportion. At the left are seen the remark- 
able corbels which support an overhang <>( the main floor. 
A general view of the facade has already appeared in 
The Brickbuildeh but a detail is given to show the 
beauty of the ornament. These buildings give a very 
regular and uniform air to the older streets of Bologna, 
and the builders of the newer quarters have followed the 
same style, especially in the buildings on the streets lead- 
ing from the station to the heart of the city. 

Brickwork and terra-cotta in the Gothic style are well 
exemplified in the old Mercanzia and S. Petronio. The 
early Renaissance work in the same material is princi- 
pally in evidence in the palaces of the Pallavicini cl 
and it only remains in this connection to show one or two 
specimens of the work of the eighteenth century in the 
same material. The Church of the Madonna di S. Luca, 
built by the architect Carlo Francesco Dotti in 1731, which 
stands on a high hill outside the city wall, is one of those 




DETAIL, PALAZZO FAVA, BOLOGNA. 

ambitious affairs which seem to recall the airy concep- 
tion of an architectural school rather than a solid con- 
struction of brick and mortar. Nevertheless the first 




I'dki \i . PA1 \//o PEPOLI, 1:01 oc\ \. 



74 



T H K BRICKBUILDER 



view of it conveys a decidedly pleasing impression t<> the 
visiting architect, who seems to experience the sensation 
of seeing one of his student projets actually carried out 

ore his eves. The main dome of the church with 
its encircling loggias and pavilions, brilliant in light 
and shade, makes an extremely interesting composition, 
which, like all other unfinished buildings, gains in interest 
by Leaving something to the imagination. The only other 
example that I shall show is the apse of S. Domenieo, 
remodeled in the eighteenth century, and decorated with 
seven Doric pilasters. The best part of this illustration 
is the picturesque Italian cloister, whose ample aisles and 
groined ceilings seem to personify the very type of the 
monasticism of centuries. 

The brick architecture of Bologna is always dignified. 
Very little of the riotous character of some of the north- 
ern work appears. The great portal of the Palazzo Pepoli, 




PALAZZO COMMUNALE, PIACENZA. 

a short distance from the Piazza, is one of the best exam- 
ples of this. Nothing could be simpler or more powerful 
than the great plain arch rings of sturdy bricks, with the 
firm and decided lines of the encircling ornamentation: 
and what is found here is typical of all the rest of the 
Bolognese work. 

The Public Palace of Piacenza has been so often illus- 
trated that a lengthy description here would be out of 
place, and yet when the subject of Italian town halls is 
mentioned probably that at Piacenza springs first to 
every one's mind. Certainly no building expresses better 
the energy and independence of the old Italian munici- 
palities than this glorious monument of Gothic art, a 
monument that stands as an eternal example of possibili- 
ties of good brickwork in the hands of a master. It is 
impossible for us to refrain from showing this grand old 
building, fronting sturdily on the market place of the 
brown old town above the rococo statues of the decadent 
worthies of a later age, as if to contrast the virile spirit 
of tin' early municipalities with their subjection under 
the later despotisms. 



Architectural Practice,- -an Art and a 
Business.* 

" What is ^ocxl for the swarm is good for tin- bee." 

THERE exists a belief as vague as it is general and 
possessed of all the tenacity of an agreeable reli- 
gious faith, that the practice of the architectural profes- 
sion, that is to say, the designing of buildings and super- 
vision of their construction, is a fine art; that it consists 
of certain mysticisms executed largely with pencil and 
paper, and is governed by an intangible something held 
rigidly fast by fixed recipes, either of ancient tradition or 
of modern schools, which must not be contravened; that 
the architect is a fantastic dreamer, and that ability in 
design and capacity for business are fatally antagonis- 
tic qualities and impossible of friendly association in the 
same brain; that architects, in order to be good architects, 
must be steeped in an intoxication of ornamental forms 
made respectable by old age, with minds almost closed 
against progressive thought, and above all without disci- 
plined mentality or ordinary business habits. Also that 
an architect is some manner of picture maker, one who 
can tell plausible lies in perspective or in " rendered ele- 
vations with accurately cast shadows " with equal facility, 
and that he may ignore every tenet of manners, customs 
or of common sense which all other men following any 
other profession or business are bound to and do respect. 
In short, that the architect is a creature of moods and 
emotions, and as these elements have neither responsibil- 
ity, quantity nor standard, he is therefore himself unac- 
countable, unsubstantial and unreliable. This is all pretty 
much a delusion, and although I am aware that it is a 
dangerous thing to disturb comfortable beliefs for the 
substitution of disagreeable facts, things which involve 
readjustment of personal philosophy and contain a prom- 
ise' of work ahead, because the fallacies are harmful and 
the causes of conditions that are deplorable and injurious 
to thi' profession and its practitioners and constitute ob- 
stacles to the progress of art which are otherwise insur- 
mountable, they ought to be exploded. The first fact is 
that instead of our successful architects as a whole con- 
stituting a class of befogged dreamers they are in real- 
ity fully as keen and of as large capacity in the business 
of money getting as any other constituency in American 
affairs. 

As we cast an eye over the personnel and work of the 
architects of the country of whom it may be said that 
they have achieved success, we find the number of those 
successful by artistic qualities alone a minority so small 
as to become relatively a negligible quantity. Upon the 
other hand a Large majority have achieved worldly dis- 
tinction as successful architects purely because of busi- 
ness capacity. In other words, the practice of architecture, 
by reason of conditions over which the profession as 
such had no control, has been a business rather than an 
art. In this connection it is perhaps proper to say that 
there is also a distinct class of practitioners who, owing 
their successes primarily to social position, make the sim- 
ple error of ascribing their successes preferably to artistic 

*A discourse before the New Jersey Chapter, A I. A . April 17, 1902, 
by J. F Harder. 



THE BRICK B U I L I) E R 



75 



merit. Of course without the quality of business acumen 
upon their own part or upon the part of friends or family 
the presumed artistic merit would have remained long in 
obscurity. The only point made here is that these in- 
stances should evidently be counted with the majority of 
business successes rather than otherwise. While there 
have been and are architects who adhere to the pet delu- 
sion before recited, and others who have conveniently in- 
dulged it for business profit, there are also those who with 
great sincerity make not the slightest pretense that their 
successes are founded upon anything other than superior 
business ability. Of these it may be said that they have 
no delusions at all and deceive neither themselves nor 
others. They were and are business men engaged in 
gaining money by practicing the business of architecture. 
They employed men of such artistic ability as were 
to be found, as their business demanded such, and paid 
them well. Now there are those who atfect to believe 
that there is something in this last condition which is 
wrong and reprehensible. I do not share this belief. I 
cannot find reason to reproach those who achieve success 
because they are forceful business men, provided that they 
practice their business under fair and honorable methods 
and do not sail under false colors. I prefer to learn some- 
thing from the evidence furnished by those examples of 
many of our architects whose names and works have be- 
come familiar. The deduction which I make is that the 
ordinarily accepted belief of a successful architect's com- 
position is a delusion, and that business capacity on the 
part of the architect, under the organization of modern 
society, is a prerequisite to his success and consequently 
to the progress of architectural art. The reason for 
this is quite apparent. The architectural opportunities 
fall to those who are preeminent for business rather 
than artistic ability, and thus it is they who build the 
architecture of the country, good, bad or indifferent. 
The architect must be a business man first and an 
artist afterwards. 

Now of course it must be admitted that the condition 
is a happier one when the architect-designer is at once 
his own business-architect, an individual fitted by under- 
standing, character and training for the divers demands 
of daily practice. Environment and demand tend to 
produce the peculiar combination of equipment required, 
but right in this connection the peculiar anomaly is pre- 
sented that normal evolution is often diverted by the 
errors of advisers and teachers who, themselves victims 
of hereditary prejudice and not sufficiently close to active 
practice, have failed to analyze and understand the pre- 
cise position of the art in modern systems, do not know 
what is the matter, and have therefore driven uncon- 
sciously but persistently against the current of [easl 
resistance. No one can say that the pressure of active 
normal causes assisted rather than diverted by extrane- 
ous forces would not rapidly and adequately produce 
results qualified to fit the conditions of demand. 

The practice of architecture is unique in that its 
function is so thoroughly misconceived by both prai 
tioner and public. It is variously regarded as a busi- 
ness, a fine art, a science, a trade, an occupation, and 
often as a pastime and recreation. But it is the prof 
Sion of architecture alone which is important and by 
which the body social is affected and involved. The pro- 



fession of" architecture results from the union of the art 
<>f architecture with the business of the architect. It is 
thus only by the advancement of the profession that the 
art may progress. It is only by the perfection of busi- 
ness discipline that the profession may be advanced. 

All the discourses upon archaeology and historv, upon 
form and color, all the abstract theorizing concerning 
the beautiful, can have no material effect upon the art 
architecture of the nation. If this can be affected at all 
it could only be by some force acting upon the body of 
professional men who produce it and who are responsi- 
ble for it in the sum total. 

There is much thoughtless complaint and alarm at 
present concerning the growing invasion of commercial- 
ism into art. Analyzed this means nothing at all. Com- 
mercialism, far from being antagonistic, is, upon the 
contrary, friendly to art. Commercialism deals only 
with the finished product of art. and if it has any inter- 
est at all it would naturally be to desire the lust art in 
order that it should command the largest pr<>iits. If 
commercialism could affect the conditions under which 
art is produced it surely could only be in the direc 
tion of improving those conditions and to accomplish 
the security and satisfaction of the producers to the 
end of encouraging the very highest quality of art 
production. 

Let it be conceded that the condition thus proven by 
the past and present must inevitably continue in the 
future, and that the practice of the architectural pro- 
fession is of such character, involving as it does busi- 
ness transactions of the highest importance committed to 
the care of its practitioners, that business methods and 
capacity on their part are inexorably demanded. It is 
this condition, peculiar to our profession, which makes 
the establishment of orderliness relative to business 
affairs particularly important, and it is to this demand 
for double qualifications upon the architect and the fail- 
ure of the profession collectively to realize in a large 
sense either the condition or the demand that the de- 
plorable lack of ethical progress in business questions 
relating to the profession is to be ascribed. 

While it is true that architects individually have 
understood their business interests very well and have 
been at least as enterprising in advancing their personal 

affairs as most American business men. it is also true 
that collectively they have been and still are tardy in 

recognizing that advantage and advancement for the pro- 
fession as a whole and to themselves as members of it 
which resides in collective action and agreement. They 
apparently are still unaware that the crude resultant of 
many individual self-interests is not identical with col- 
lective self-interest or the general welfare, and that 
collective self-interest is preferably to be intrusted with 
the welfare of the individual, even to the extent of 

guarding his selfish personal interest better. Society is 

founded on individual selfishness, but it is understand 

able that this may be either enlightened or ignorant. 

What is good or bad collectively is also favorable or 

unfavorable individually; and what is to the advantage 

of architects as a whole is equally to the advantage ol 
the individual practitioner. No one may violate the 
laws of good practice for presumed personal advanti 
without working a tenfold injury to the profession an, | 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



thus to the cause of art advancement. In every case 
the injury reverts to the individuals, guilty and innocent 
alike. If all violate the tenets of good ethics, whether 
innocently or through intent or ignorance does not 
matter, then there can be no ethics or business order- 
liness and no foundation under the conditions of modern 
social organization for a wholesome development of 
characteristic architecture. How can a thinking and in- 
telligent public be expected to respect and gain serious 
confidence in architectural art if its practitioners, al- 
though of great capacity individually, have not collect- 
ively reached a sufficiently elevated ethical plane t<> raise 
their profession out of the mire of degradation and sus- 
picion and made it worthy, dignified and deserving? 
Now so far as questions relating to the art of architec- 
tural design are concerned these must remain with the 
individual alone. An art work is inseparably identified 
with the one who is responsible for its creation. This is 
a matter of personality and of the emotions, and is not 
amenable to rules, laws, codes and constitutions. The 
artist takes the raw material, infuses it with his glorious 
genius and there is created a work of art. Placed upon 
the market it at once becomes an article of merchandise. 
It is entitled to be created under the most favorable 
commercial conditions and to command the highest mon- 
etary reward that the market affords. The greater the 
remuneration the more substantial the recognition of and 
compliment to the skill of the artist. This consummation 
is a blessing both to the artist and to the public. Hut 
the questions of business, dealing not with the imagina- 
tion or emotion, but exclusively with commercial rela- 
tions, contracts, codes, charges, laws, ethics, rights, re- 
sponsibilities and things of quantity and quality definitely 
fixed and tangible, under which, if rightly ordered, all are 
benefited, elevated and protected and under the neglect 
of which all suffer alike, are on the other hand, while 
also of individual concern, much more so that of the col- 
lective body and of the public as well as of the state. 
These are entitled to and they demand rigid establish- 
ment, maintenance and control. 

The process known as architectural competition has 
worked more harm by degrading professional practice 
and corrupting practitioners than any other one cause, 
but the prevalence of these competitions and their attend- 
ant well-known gross abuses can be attributed to only 
two causes the presumed necessity for them in public 
work under republican institutions and professional in- 
firmity ethically on the part of architects collectively. 
The former is probably a fixed condition. The latter is 
one which can and must be removed. Is it not common 
knowledge that nine tenths of the competitions which 
take place are mere fraud and jobbery from inception? 
Then why do we permit the disgrace to continue? Is it 
because we are without the desire, or because we lack the 
moral courage to resist; or is it because such fine archi- 
tecture results that the rotten system should not be dis- 
turbed? Because architects believed that by participat- 
ing in these operations, often partaking of the nature of 
criminal conspiracies of more or less seriousness, where 
one hundred competed, one might to his immediate gain 
win a commission, although someone must have secured 
it eventually in any ease, they have not learned that they 
injure themselves by destroying their prestige and by the 



loss of confidence and respect of the public. Competi- 
tions are not harmful when conducted under conditions 
recognized as just and equitable under the laws of con- 
tests and subject to conditions established upon ethical 
principles; that is to say, when conducted upon plain 
business principles and not Upon architectural disordcr- 
liness. 

Better conditions of practice under which the profes- 
sion may improve and the art prosper can be obtained 
only at the cost of investigation, labor and time. The 
establishment and maintenance of sound business prin- 
ciples, ethics of professional conduct and standards of 
probity and fitness, although a long and difficult under- 
taking, should nevertheless be attacked with vigor. We 
must conquer hereditary prejudice and ignorance as well 
as the cowardice for which art is historically noted. The 
first step must consist in the recognition of abstract prin- 
ciples, their concrete application to the more grave exist- 
ing evils, permanent relief from these, and finally the 
amelioration of lesser abuses and the establishment of 
advanced ethics. Among the specific measures awaiting 
action are: first, a wider, more representative and effect- 
ive organization of practitioners; second, state regulation 
of practice and registration of practitioners; third, a code 
governing competitions ; fourth, a code of ethics of pro- 
fessional practice; fifth, reconstruction of schedule of 
charges. All of these are important and each requires 
thorough analysis and enlightened treatment. 

The closer consideration of each of these subjects 
passes the limits of general discussion; each requires offi- 
cial resolution and action by such organizations as already 
exist, and upon the part of active practitioners stirred by 
awakened conscience, interest and understanding. Eth- 
ical advancement depends upon something more, however, 
than mere advocacy. The action of individuals and or- 
ganizations and the machinery of state power may con- 
tribute to its realization, but it can only result from 
deeper understanding upon the part of the practitioners 
collectively. A campaign of education is the first neces- 
sity. The debate must be before the forum of the entire 
profession, the men who build the nation's work in city 
and country, palace and barn. Enlightened self-interest 
must displace narrow individual selfishness. In this con- 
nection a recent discourse by President Iladley of Yale 
is interesting and prophetic. He says: 

" People see the vast business corporations, they see 
these combinations in politics, they see what is and what 
is not accomplished by what the world calls success. 
Very few take these things to heart, but it is recognized 
that liberty won't do everything that was expected of it 
once. Some persons want to go back to authority, but 
that is past. What shall we do ? 

'• We must rely upon the development within the indi- 
vidual of a sentiment identifying our welfare with that of 
the community. The lesson of trusteeship is what we 
need and what I believe the world is ready to accept as a 
principle." 

Practitioners must eventually comprehend that they 
arc best benefited individually by what is best for them 
collectively, and that what is best for them is also best 
for the public and for good architecture. While it is true 
that there will always remain some obstreperous practi- 
tioners, these will constitute a disappearing minority. 



T H E H R I C K H r I L I) E R 



11 



The assumption may be relied upon that enough self-re- 
specting practitioners can be brought to agreement to 
develop a professional solidarity. While organizations 
must be relied upon to contribute much towards results, 
the professional organizations as existing at present arc- 
entirely insufficient either to establish or maintain new- 
conditions. Upon the other hand it is not necessary to 
resort to the organization of a trust, monopoly or trades 
union, even were this possible in the premises, which is 
not the case. 

Even the modern trust, however, does not attempt to 
stifle all competition. The fact is that there are many 
kinds of competition which not only kill the competitors 
but are hurtful to the community. The approved trust 
attempts to substitute for a faulty and destructive com- 
petitive system which does nobody any good, an orderli- 
ness and economy based upon a comprehensive and analyt- 
ical understanding of the whole subject and all the par- 
ties affected, in which personal merit shall receive its 
full measure of opportunity and deserts, under which the 
greatest benefit may accrue to the largest number and 
which renders the best possible service to the public. 

The business method of the nineteenth century found 
expression in the much-abused maxim, "Competition is 
the life of trade." When the competitive system wroughl 
abuses which threatened to destroy and did destroy that 
which it was presumed to protect, the twentieth century 
adopted a modification of the system upon the discovery 
that "Competition is the death of the competitor." 

Competition lies at the very foundation of human 
progress. It is acondition which is fundamental and must 
always remain. But its control may be perfected. Xo 
one can object to a just and reasonable regulation under 
which the greatest usefulness results to society and 
abuses are eliminated. 

To sum up, the ethical advancement of the profession 
lies in the hands of its practitioners collectively; its mem- 
bers have proven by their great individual competence 
that they are fully able to deal with the subject effectively 
if they but will to do so. The profession owes this duty 
to itself and to the public, out of devotion to architecture 
and because of national patriotism. 

As the past is brought nearer to us by wider investi- 
gation, and its glories are uncovered in their real sig- 
nificance, it becomes ever more apparent that the only 
art deserving of the name is that which is representative 
and expressive of its nations, peoples and races. The 
slavery to tradition, the mannerisms of schools, the fixed- 
ness of styles, contribute but an obstruction to normal 
evolution. The best of any art, and the only art that ever 
was, is that which nations, peoples and races had made 
for themselves out of themselves to meet their necessi- 
ties, and not that which had been taken from others. 
Any kind of rationalism is better than all kinds of imita- 
tion. 

May it not still transpire that it is not an idle dream 
that American architecture may yet be constituted upon 
truth instead of delusion, reality instead of imitation, 
knowledge instead of ignorance, art instead of mechan- 
ism, and beauty attendant with a capacity to enjoy it? 
that a people may have an architecture belonging to 
their own life, an attribute only of ancient civilizations 
and a distinction belonging to no nation of to-day? 



Fire-proofing. 



The Insurance Companies versus the 
Insurers and the Building Laws. 

l:\ W II I 1 AM ( 0PE1 \M> FURBER. 

THROUGHOUT the principal cities of the East and 
possibly also the South and West a heated discus- 
sion lias been going on regarding the recent action of the 
insurance companies in raising the rates of insurance on 
property in the business sections of the cities and in sec- 
tions contiguous thereto, and a great deal of this discus- 
sion has been futile because the facts were unknown and 
therefore the discussion was beside the point, or if the 
facts were known, then the remedy which is in sight was 
ignored. Some of the discussions led to suggestions for 
legislative action which would compel the insurance com 
panies to cease acting in harmony in maintaining the 
rates, etc., and other discussions attempted to establish the 
proposition that with the increasing size of floor areas in 
buildings with wooden interiors such additional precau- 
tions were always taken by the occupant that the in- 
creased hazard was eliminated by the use of fire-fighting 
apparatus, etc. 

The discussion in Philadelphia has been widespread, 
and a great deal of it unreasonable, in condemning the 
insurance companies as a "trust" in arbitrarily raising 
the rates because they had the power; and it must be ad- 
mitted, if this were true, that this sort of discussion might 
have weight and be worthy of consideration if there- 
were no justification for such action on the part of the 
insurance companies; because trusts of all kinds which 
for their own profit arbitrarily raise the price of com 
modifies are to be condemned as doing monstrous moral 
wrong to the communities which are dependent upon 
them; yet before the objectors to. and critics of. the 

present policy of the insurance companies can have proper 
grace to present their grievances they must show first 
that their alleged grievances are just and that thev them- 
selves are not wholly responsible for the deplorable con- 
dition in which they now find themselves with practically 
uninsurable risks on their hands. 

The moral of the Biblical Story of the foolish man who 
built his house Upon the sand, which the rams and the 
floods washed away, is not wholly inapplicable in a some- 
what parallel case to the man who constructs his building 
of inflammable material and then complains of the exl 
tion of the fire insurance companies when they charge a 
high rate of premium for a risk which he himself is afraid 
to carry. 

Insurance companies arc not charitable institutions, 
and while there may be much to criticise in their met hods 
of doing business and their almost entire lack of inspec- 
tion of their risks, yet it must be conceded that the) i 
not be run as commercial propositions if they are run at 
a loss. 

The figures compiled for one of the state governments 
seem to indicate that the insurance companies have been 
doing business at a very great loss in the busi; 



78 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



tions of some of the principal cities, and show that but 
for the premiums collected in the residence sections there 
would have been a much greater deficit than now appears. 

To take Philadelphia as an illustration: Since [895 the 
insurance companies have been obliged to make reports 
of the premiums collected in that city. These reports 
show for seven years, from 1895 to 1902 inclusive, that 
the aggregate losses in the whole city have been §2,904.- 
570, and the aggregate profits have been $2, 147.755, mak- 
ing a net loss on the whole city of $756,615. 

Table A shows the business in the city of Philadelphia 
for a period of seven years. The figures cannot be had 
for a longer period because it was not until 1X95 that com- 
panies were obliged to make returns of the premiums col- 
lected in said city. 

TABLE A. 

Underwriting Results in Philadelphia for Seven Wars. 





Premium 


Losses 

and 

Expenses, 


Increased 
Liability. 


Total 
Losses. 
Expenses 

and 
Increased 
Liability. 


Balance. 


\ FAK. 


Profit. 


Loss. 


1895 

1896 

1K!>7 

lH'.IS 

1899 

1900 

1901 


$3,345,371 
3,449,089 
8,474,164 

3,525,420 

4,l*4,i;27 


12,678,426 

8,648,007 
2,676,794 
6,061,989 
6,038,644 
3,761,804 


$100,361 
34,490 

69, !>■'; 
138,116 

i7t;,'ji? 

209,231 

212,951 


$2,778,786 

:;,71i!.4ihi 

2, 714. '.III'.' 
.'..L'L'S.llir. 

6,247,876 

3,974,755 


$566,686 
668,920 

737,969 
284,281 


1,602,786 
1,068,248 



Of the total fire losses in the city during the last ten years, about 40 per cent (or 
$8,076,496) occurred in the congested district ; it is estimated that the premiums collected 
in that district did not exceed 22^ per cent of the total. 

In the "congested district" alone the report shows 
that for the same period the aggregate losses have been 
Si, i 16,315, and the aggregate profits have been $505,904, 
making a net loss in the congested district of $3,610,41 1. 

Table B shows the business in the so-called congested 
district for a period of seven years. Figures for the 
preceding years are not accessible for the same reasons 
as stated in Table A. 

TABLE B. 

Showing Results in the Congested District of Philadelphia 

for Seven Years. 





Premiums. 


Losses 
and 

Expenses. 


Increased 
Liability. 


Total 
Losses, 
Expenses 

and 
Increased 
1 .iahilitv. 


Balance. 




Profit. 


Loss. 


1895 

1896 

1897 

L898 . 

1899 

1900 

1901 


$669,074 
689,817 
694,830 

1,046,166 
1,277,710 


$503,444 
404,286 

1,949,182 
689,219 

2,404,496 
1,239,306 


$20,072 
g,S98 
18,896 
19,628 
35,264 
52,307 
61,966 


411,184 
1,963,078 

608,842 
2,118,953 
2,466,803 
1,801,261 


#145,558 
81,713 


$1,268,248 

1,413,869 
1,410,647 

23,551 



It will be noticed that the net losses in the congested 
district are almost five times as great as the total net 
losses; and this is because the premiums in the city 
taken as a whole reduced the loss in the city taken as 
a whole. 

It is also estimated that for the eleven years 1890 to 
1900 inclusive the profit and loss on the underwriting 
business in the United States has been: Aggregate losses, 
$64,097,569; aggregate profits, $37,151,764; net loss in 
eleven years. $26,945,895; estimated total loss in 1901, 
$ 1 9,000,000. 



Table C gives the results of the business throughout 
the United States at large. It is compiled from the rec- 
ords of the insurance department of the state of Penn- 
sylvania, and contains the total business, wherever done, 
by all the companies that report to that department. This 
is for a period of eleven years. 

TABLE C. 
Underwriting Result/ for Eleven Years. 



Ybar. 


Premiums. 


Losses 

and 

Expenses. 


Increased 
Liability. 


Total 
Losses, 
Expenses 

and 
Increased 
Liability. 


Balance. 


Profit. 


Loss. 


1890 


$108,676,963 




$5,689,278 


$108,674,651 


$4,901,811 




1891 


116,360,298 


112,328,698 


10,884,979 






$7,848,379 


1892 


127,378,316 


124,828,489 


9,899,022 


134,227,51] 




6,849,195 


1898 


129,868,228 


184,922,806 


5,269,769 


140,183,216 




10,314,337 


1894 


127,048,726 


121,372,431 


2,884,926 


124,207,867 


2 341,369 




1895 


129,848,968 


120,194,471 


3,690,444 


128,884,916 


6,042,053 




1896 


131,682,111 


119,486,940 


1,267,969 


■"., 13,! 19 


10,808,202 




ls;i7 


185,544,263 


120,486,361 


2,400,074 


122,885,426 


12,668,828 




1898 . ... 


136,192,286 




.-,.1150,194 


138,749459 




1,666,866 


1899 


142 064 986 


167,447,654 
140,768,793 








22,469,366 
16,069,427 


1900 


1I1.H7<;,7S7 


6,367,821 


166,136,214 





The third column, " increased liability," shows the difference in liabilities of the 
companies at the close of the several years by reason of increased premium reserve, 
unpaid losses, etc. The fourth column aggregates the losses, expenses and increased lia- 
bility ; the difference between this column and the first column shows the profit or loss for 
the year in the underwriting business. 

The result for 1901 by " I he Spectator " tables shows a loss on the underwriting of 
$11,290,109, to which must be added the increased liability column 3 above), say 57,5110,1 II Hi, 
or a total loss for 1901 of about $19,1 ,000. 

These figures are taken from a circular compiled by 
Mr. George E. Wagner, president of the Philadelphia 
Underwriters' Association, on " Why the Rates have been 
Advanced." Where estimates have been made they are 
believed to be correct ; where other figures are given they 
are taken from the records filed with the state govern- 
ment. 

One does not have to be so very bright or apt in fig- 
ures to see that the insurance business has not been ex- 
actly a money-making enterprise and that it might have 
been better for the companies had they indulged in some 
pleasanter way of spending their money; therefore one 
cannot fail, in the face of these figures, to understand why 
the rates of insurance have been advanced. 

Having taken a look at the facts, let us now look about 
for the causes which have produced these results and see 
if a remedy can be found. Let us say first that the losses 
which the insurance companies have suffered they partly 
deserve to suffer; and if that seems harsh or severe let us 
modify it just a little by saying that perhaps they brought 
it about, or part of it about, by their own shortsightedness, 
acting in ignorance of the inevitable result ; or if that state- 
ment makes it appear as if the critic considered himself 
superior, let us say that in the commercial instinct to get 
business, fire-pronf buildings not affording a sufficiently 
lucrative field, they rather favored less imperishable 
forms of construction, basing their judgment on the past, 
when buildings occupied relatively small areas and losses 
were few; but their recent experience has proved that 
their judgment was wrong and that large premiums are 
frequently followed by large losses. 

Let us be reasonable and say that the insurance com- 
panies were acting on what they thought was good busi- 
ness judgment in giving such rates of insurance on 
buildings with interior construction of combustible ma- 
terial, that the owner found it also good business judg- 
ment to allow them to take the risk, and pay the pre- 



T H E H R I C K B U I L I) E R . 



7 ( > 



mium on such risks out of the money lie saved on cheap 
construction; but the figures show that the insurance 
companies have paid very dearly for their experience. 

Now that we have progressed thus far. we have the 
facts which show the losses; we also now know that the 
insurance companies have realized that they were wrong in 
making the premiums so low on combustible buildings 
that it led to the multiplication of such buildings, and 
we also now know that in endeavoring to make them- 
selves whole they have advanced the rates enough to 
make good their losses, which is the only natural thing 
for them to do; and while this action on their part may 
seem harsh, yet it must result in better construction of 
buildings, which might have come about long ago had 
the insurance companies been wise; but as hindsight is 
easier to the eyes than foresight we will not discuss this 
point any further; and if a better class of buildings re- 
sult from their action we must thank them, even if they 
have been delinquent in deserving our thanks. 

If the insurance companies make reply, as they do, 
that they are not responsible for the present state of 
affairs, that they can only insure what they find, let the 
answer be this: that they have now discovered the pre- 
mium they were charging on combustible risks has not 
been sufficient to cover these risks and that they are now 
trying to make a rate that will cover them ; consequently, 
as their rates are now high, it does not take a prophet to 
discern that having now discriminated against this form 
of risks the man who proposes to build will consider his in- 
surance more carefully than he formerly did, and that as a 
result of this consideration wooden interior construction 
will givewayto fire-proof or non-combustible construction. 

But entirely aside from the insurance phase of this dis- 
cussion, the community itself should take action and by 
proper laws prevent the waste now going on in our cities 
caused by these unnecessary fires. 

With the increase of the size of establishments for re- 
tail and wholesale trade and manufacturing purposes in 
the cities demanded by modern conditions, the fire hazard 
has been so enormously increased that combustible build- 
ings should not be allowed to be used for such purposes; 
for with these great areas, if fire once obtains a head wax- 
it is impossible to extinguish it because of the inability, on 
account of the heat, to get close enough to put on water, 
and it must therefore burn itself out before it can be eon- 
trolled. When the floors of buildings were only say 50 
feet wide by 150 or 200 feet in length, enclosed by brick- 
walls, it was not a difficult thing for the firemen to keep 
the fire entirely confined to the building in which it origi- 
nated ; but with the areas of 80,000 square feet, not di- 
vided by fire walls, a condition not uncommon in our large 
department stores, the spread of the flames would be so 
rapid that before the firemen arrived the building would 
probably be doomed, and the loss of life which would un- 
doubtedly result and the damage to which such a fire would 
subject the surrounding property, are sufficient excuses 
for the most radical legislation on the subject of large 
areas in combustible buildings. 

Philadelphia is suffering at present from a lack of 
proper building laws to meet the modem condition^ 
The existing laws were framed when the congregation or 
large department stores around a common center could not 
have been foreseen; but owing to the lack of preventive 



legislation the business section of the city, now called 
••the conflagration district," has been called upon to pay 
an increase of insurance in district menaced by the de- 
partment stores. Buildings with wooden interior construc- 
tion, with great undivided areas, form such a serious and 
threatening danger to the neighborhood that the business 
section of the city IS now at tin- mercy of the owners of 
these buildings. 1 1 is needless to point out that this danger 
could have been avoided had it been foreseen, but having 
now been demonstrated, the remedy Is to restrict the size 
of the floor areas or to insist upon absolute lire proof 
construction. 

In this connection it is interesting to note the provi- 
sions of the building laws of Greater New York on the 
permissible areas of non-fire-proof and tire pro. if build- 
ings. 

•' NoN-FlRB -PROOl lb NGS. 

"In all stores, warehouses or factories, in case iron, 
steel or wood girders, supported by iron, steel or wood 
columns or piers of masonry, are used in place of brick 
partition walls 

"The building may be seventy-five (75) feet wide and 
two hundred and ten (210) feet deep. When extending 
from street to street, or when otherwise located, may 
cover an area of not more than eight thousand (S.ooo) 
square feet. 




LIMITING AREAS Ol NON-FIR1 PROOl BUILDINGS 
I \ \ I u YORK CITY. 

"When a building fronts on three streets it may be 
one hundred and five (1051 feet wide and two hundred 
and ten (210) feet deep. 

"Or if a corner building fronting on two streets, il 
may cover an area of not more than twelve thousand 
five hundred (12.500) superficial feet, but in no case 
wider nor deeper, nor to cover a greater area except in 
the case of fire proof buildings. 

"An area greater than herein stated may, considering 
location and purpose, be allowed by the Board of Build- 
ings when the proposed building does not exceed three 
stories in height. " 

It will be noticed that the building laws make no 
restriction on the ground areas of tire proof buildings, 
and if a further argument in favor of lire proof con 
struction is needed here it is. 

The New York City building laws in this respect 
furnish a model which may profitably be followed br- 
other cities. Tin- conditions under which many business 

enterprises an- conducted to-day require large floor areas 
unobstructed by walls, this fact is recognized by these 

laws and concession made to it by permitting such areas 
under the only condition upon which they are saf( 
which is. that the structure shall be fire proof 



8o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Architectural and Building Practice 
in Great Britain. 

BY OUR SPEC! \l Rl PR] SENTATIVE. 

F(iR some months past the problem of bricklaying 
has been before the public. The discussion was 
started by the Times, whose statements, despite all the 
generalizations of labor leaders and socialists, have been 
Upheld; and very serious statements they are. The 
Time s contended that there was a steadily growing dis- 
position among bricklayers to " ca' canny" or "go 
easy" and that trade-unionism was responsible for it, 
the system in its mildest form keeping the Strong, 
efficient and willing worker down to the level of the 
weakest and most inefficient, and in its worst aspect 
amounting to deliberate loitering. Moreover, wages 
and the price of materials have both substantially in- 
creased of late years; so that the combined effect has 
been to increase the cost of building enormously. Ten 
years ago a plain brick wall could have been erected for 
,{ i: ISdoi per rod [2-2 feet); to-day the same wall would 
cost JJ20 ($100). Allowing for the increased price of 
bricks the average cost of labor alone in brickwork 
(exclusive of pointing) has risen from /,".; (Si 5) to ,/.'<> 
($30) during the period mentioned. Innumerable in- 
stances could be cited to prove the truth of these state- 
ments, but I will content myself with one more only, 
taken from the experience of a Leeds master builder. 
Two years ago he had a certain contract in hand which 
cost about ,/.7° ($35°) m labor. At the beginning of 
this year he was carrying out an identical contract, but 
the labor cost ,{"15 ($75) more, "on account of the men 




11 ii 





GARDEN FRONT, HOUSE AT SONNING, READING, ENGLAND. 
E. L. Lutyens, Architi • 



ENTRANCE To COURTYARD, MOUSE AT SONNING. 

not doing the work as they should do." No reasonable 

person with a knowledge of the facts would deny that 
the workmen have just as much (if not more) right as 
the masters to combine into unions, and they have 
doubtless secured many benefits from such an amalga- 
mation; but it is impossible to shut one's eyes to the 
present condition of things, a condition under which 
both masters and men regard one another with suspicion 
and distrust, resulting in disputes and lockouts which 
are detrimental to the best interests of both parties. At 
Bath a short time ago one hundred masons and brick- 
layers left a job rather than work with five society men 
who had not paid certain penalties. The five refused to 
pay, the firm would not discharge them, and so the whole 
one hundred struck work and remained out till ordered 
to return by the local officials. This is what is con- 
stantly happening. To make matters worse a dispute 
often occurs among the different trades as to who should 
do certain work: a plasterer may object to a bricklayer 
putting down some "granolithic" stable-paving, or the 
bricklayer max- take it into his head that roof-tiling is 
his work arid not the tiler's. There are many unwritten 
laws among the bricklayers, and one of them is con- 
cerned with the mystic words "sail-ho" and •• spell ho." 
The former is the signal that the foreman or employer 
is in the vicinity, and then the clink of the trowel can 
be heard one hundred yards off; but when the overseeing 
presence has departed the latter word brings the men 
back to their normal slow speed of work. One brick- 
layer has attempted to explain why fewer bricks are now 
laid by instancing the nine-hours day as against the ten 
and one half of old, and the disappearance of the jerry- 
built front with its stucco veneer; but this is not a sat- 
isfactory explanation, though partially true. That a 
much greater number can be laid by British bricklayers 
is now proved at the immense new works being erected 
by the Westinghouse Company at Manchester. Here the . 
men are paid good wages, they are well supervised and 



THE BRICKIU'ILDKR. 



Si 



they are aided with mechanical appliances, with the re- 
sult that instead of three hundred or four hundred or 
even six hundred, we find each man laying an average 
of eighteen hundred bricks a day on face work as 
many as twenty-two hundred and fifty are laid on com- 
mon work. These are American methods, and their 
effectiveness is in marked contrast to the ordinary con- 
servative methods of this country. 

One of the most able of modern English architects lias 
recently died — J. F. Bentley, a great builder in brick, like 
the late James Brooks. Mr. Bentley was a man of strong 
individuality and masterly talent, in this respect resem- 
bling Butterfield ; but owing to a retiring nature and a 
rooted dislike of publicity his work is comparatively lit- 



fixedly at its gradual advance to completion and then 
turning away with a sigh at the belief that he would DOl 
live to see his designs carried out in their entirety. More- 
over, the tragedy was heightened by the fact that on the 
following Monday a special meeting of the Royal Insti- 
tute of British Architects had been convened for the pur- 
pose of nominating him as the recipient of the Royal < rold 
Medal '-for his work as an architect"; but he is now be- 
yond such honor. Americans may perhaps like to know 
that he left completed designs for the new Roman Cath- 
olic cathedral to be erected at Brooklyn. 

One of the finest buildings being completed in Lon- 
don is that for Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign 
Shipping, designed by Mr. Collcutt, the architect of the 




CROOKSBURY," FARNHAM, SURREY; ENGLAND. E. L. Lutyens, An 



tie known even among architects, though latterly his great 
Roman Catholic cathedral at Westminster has brought his 
name before the public. Architects of his character be- 
come famous only after they are dead. Mr. Bentley re- 
sembled Mr. II. Wilson in his versatility, for in addition 
to being an architect he was a painter, a worker in stained 
glass, a designer and a craftsman, and one could wish for 
no better example of this wide range of talent than the 
Church of the Holy Rood at Watford in Hertfordshire. 
He will, however, be chiefly known by his cathedral at 
Westminster, into which he "built his life." Mr. Lent- 
ley's death was tragic. To all appearances he was well 
and hearty on a Friday, yet the next night he died of 
paralysis in a friend's house in London. He had been 
seized on two previous occasions, and one who knew him 
well has set down how Bentley would stand evening after 
evening in the shade of his great tower, gazing long and 



Imperial Institute at South Kensington. In richness of or- 
namentation and detail there is only one other commercial 
buildingin the city that can compare with it the Hall of 
the Institute of Chartered Accountants, <>n which tin- late 

Harry Bates did such splendid work Mr. Collcutt has 

called in the service's of Mr. George Frampton. A. R. A., to 
execute the sculptured frieze on the main facade, the gates 
and other metal work, while Professor Moira (professor of 
design at South Kensington), Mr. F. Lynn Jenkins. Mr. 
Henry PegTam and other well-known artists have- com 
bined to produce a very beautifully decorated intd 

In February last a paper of unique interest was read 

before the Architectural Association, unique as being the 

first paper read by a lady before such an association in 

this country. The subject was "A Plea for Women I' 

ticing Architecture." The results of women candidates 

at university examinations are indeed remarkable, and 



82 



tup: brick builder 



there is no denying the possibility of similar success 
being attained by them in architecture. There are, how- 
ever, limitations of sex, not the least of which concerns 

the necessity of 



going on works 



In conclusion I may refer to the accompanying illus- 
trations: 

Mr. Lutyens is a brilliant member of that younger 
school which endeavors to express itself truthfully and 
unpretentiously, setting aside the stock in trade of the 




AKTMl«.T.C\R<,->iAnteo / 



HOUSE \T 



and directing contractors. 
The subject is too wide to dis- 
cuss here, and I will there- 
fore simply sum up the opin- 
ion that if women enter the 
profession they will probably 
find it inevitable for them 
to restrict themselves to the 
office or to decorative work, 
lca\ ing the rougher and out- 
door work to " mere man. " 
Several ladies have passed the 
architectural societies' exam- 
inations here, but none really 
practice on their own account. 
Besides what I have al- 
ready mentioned there is 
nothing of special interest to 
record. The Queen Victoria 
Memorial Fund has not vet 
reached y'200,000, so there is 
little hope of the work being 
completed ; it has not been 
begun up to the present. 
For similar reasons the new 
cathedral at Liverpool, about 
which there has been so 
much controversy, is not 
likely to be built just yet. 



iNSTEAD, SURREY. E, Guy Dawber, Architect. 




SIIOKK1II I 



I'll LIBRARY AND BATHS, LONDON, ENGLAND. 
Henry T. Hare, Architect. 



ordinary architect. The ex- 
amples illustrated clearly 
show this. The house at S011- 
ning derives its beauty from 
the excellent proportion ob- 
served and the "function" ex- 
pressed in each feature. The 
lighting of the inner court- 
yard, with its little statue, is 
particularly happy. 

Mr. ( 'itiv I >awber is well 
known as an architect of 
country houses, and the de- 
sign of the house at Stan- 
stead is a good example of 
his work. The plan of the 
house is evident from the 
exterior, which is treated in 
that restrained, almost se- 
vere manner that lends such 
dignity to the houses of the 
< reorgiaa period. 

Shoreditch Public Libra- 
ry, Baths and Wash-houses 
are built of bricks ami Bur- 
mantofts terra cotta. Some 
of the interior decorative 
work is by Professor Moira 
and Mr. F. Lynn Jenkins. 



T HE BRICKIU'II.D I". K 



83 



Selected Miscellany. 



Color in Architecture. 

BY H. i:. PENNELL. 

OSTON, like many other American cities, was ..nee 
a city <>f red brick and brownstone, but now it is 
fast losing this character, owing to the larger use of light 
colored building materials which the architecture of to-day 
has demanded. Then, too, the -real wealth and variety 



B 




DETAIL BY SASS & SMALLHEISER, ARCHITECTS. 

New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

of building materials in America has been an important 
factor in changing the use of color in cities, and is largely 
responsible for the present patchwork appearance of our 
streets. Add to this the individualism, the keynote of 
American life, which is felt even in our architecture, and 
we can readily see why uniformity of color is not possible 
and not to be expected in our buildings, even if that were 
an artistic necessity. There are those who maintain that 
monotone is the only ideal and dignified treatment of an 
exterior. There are countless examples in architecture, 
both here and abroad, which could 
be cited to substantiate this theory ; 
but dignity and grandeur are not 
the only possibilities in architec- 
ture — there are picturesqueness 
and quaintness for example, 
which, in their 
proper places, 
have a charm 
of their own. 

Paris is an 
example of a city 






or by day. and makes 
a background fur the 
innumerable trees. 
bright-colored awn- 
ings, shutters, bal- 
conies, and the color 
in its street life. It 
is safe to say that 
this ensemble of neu- 
tral color, enlivened 
by brilliant bits of 
color, is one of the 
List ing impressions of 
this gay city. 

The reasons lor this 
Ci 'lor are evident. The 

quarries are close by, 

the stone when quar- 
ried is very soft and 
easily worked, and the 
building laws are also 
rigid in prescribing 
the use of material as 
well as '.he height of a 

building. There are main- towns m Italy and Spam 
where the materials closest at hand have determined the 
characteristic color of the place: but these instances of 
uniformity, attractive as they are. do not mean that Lon- 
don is not quite as interesting from its variety of color 
and architecture, or that an architect should always work 
in one material. It would be quite as logical to ex] 
an artist to paint pictures only in mon- 
ochrome. 

Building materials make up an 
architect's palette just as pigments are 
used by an artist. Marble, granite, 
limestone, brownstone, various colored 
bricks, terracottas in many shades, 
bronze and wood, are 
^^~~~~._ _.w» onlv a few of the colors 

in an architect's work- 
box. Tiie difference 
between the artist and 
the architect is that 



HI I Ml EXECUTED B> I III NEW 

YORK \K< III RA1 I I 1; K \- 

1 \ COMPANY. 



example 01 ,1 e 1 1 \ r^- -^- 1 1^- 4 \ 4 nn- tuvimwi i.-> w« 

whose buildings ,1 )L\ )Af I) t,1t l " nm ' r applies 

are largely mono- \\ /Al\ //'A J A <-o]or to surfaces and 

tone, owing to A.\ //\r A '». sj* ,V //^ the other constructs 

the uniform use "^g^^^± -^*^^" ^ ±^Zi*°^± color, that is, if the 



OKI All. BY K. J. LENNOX, 

ARCHITECT. 

Perth Amboy Terra i 
Company, Makers 



of Caen stone. 
The impression of 

Paris is that of a 
soft gray city, from 
one end to another. 
In the slums as well 
as on the Champs 
Elysees the warm 
neutral eolor of 
buildings is won- 
derfully harmonious 
with Nature, with 
its gray skies or 
blue, in summer or 
in winter, by night 




f 






DETAILS I \ I ' i III) B^ EXCEI 
SIOK TERRA-t o I i \ COMPANY. 



eolor effect is obtained 
by the use of natural 
materials Whether the 
color of the building is 
natural or applied will 
depend largely on its 

cost and the climate In 
the South, pigments can 
easily form a large part 

of exterior decoration, 
while in the North they 

COUld Only be used in PANEI B> BARNETT, 

loggias, friezes and sot. haynks a barnett, 

lits. The skv and at. """ rs ' 

1 ..ii.i 

impanj Maki 



mosphere of southern ( . 



84 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




varies her colors by many differences in shades and tints. 
It is this that gives beauty to color in brick walls and tile 
roofs, and one of the chief differences between artistic 
and mechanical results. 

This principle is perhaps best shown on color of exte- 
rior in laying brickwork and terra-eottas in diaper pat- 
terns. In order to obtain this result the color of the 



BUILDING, HUNTINGTON AVENUE, BOSTON, MASS.. BUILT OF 
FISKE & CO.'S ROUGH TEXTURED RED ROHAN BRICK. 

Arthur II. Vinal, Architect. 

countries also permit of very brilliant colors, while in 
the North quiet colors have to be used. 

The contrast of colors used in large masses must be 
very slight, and strong contrasting colors used only in 
small points to give brilliancy. But the effect of strong 
colors on duller hues has always to be carefully consid- 
ered. 

The size of a building is also necessary to be consid- 
ered. A small building may be a glowing mass of color. 
while a large one constructed in the same material would 
be tiresome. The choice of the dominant color for a 
building should be 
most carefully chosen, 
and theoretically 
should depend on the 
surroundings of ad- 
jacent objects and 
buildings; but the real 
estate of our cities is 
not yet sufficiently set- 
tled to make even this 
a safe rule. All other 
things being equal, 
the Juxtaposition of 
colors is one of the 
most important ele- 
ments to be consider- 
ed, and if harmony is 
to be the result it 
should be decided by 
the architect and not 
chosen by whims of 
clients. 

One of the niceties 
'or work in sur- 
faces is this variation 
lor within certain 
limits, as Nature 




in l A 1 1 BY BOl l 8 l \N LOR, ARCHITEC I S. 

SI Louis Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

design should receive careful consideration from the 
first, as the color is quite as important a factor in effect 
as form or proportion, line ormass. If vivid colors are to 
form a part of a scheme, large simple masses of color 
must surround them, and color focused at one point as 
carefully as an artist would focus the light and color in 




EPPS BUILDINO, BOULEVARD, CHICAGO. 

Henry R. Newhouse, Architect. 

First story, dark Norman brick. Upper stories, light gold stretchers with dark i;reeu. salt-glazed headers. 

Furnished by the Columbus Face Brick Company. 



THE BRICKBUIL DE K 



8' 




BELVIDERE COURT, BROOKLINE, MASS. A MODERATE 

RENTAL APARTMEN I . 

Parker <M- Thomas, Architects. 

composing a picture to form a climax. Color should also 
have a constructive value just as distinct as certain archi- 
tectural forms express a purpose. 

A pier, a dome, a pendentive, a frieze, a lunette, all 
mean something" in architecture, and the color they bear 
must express this purpose or their meaning is lost. Just 
how this meaning - is obtained is best learned from prece- 
dent and history, from which also we find the best au- 
thority for the use of color in exterior decoration. 



BOOK REVIEW. 

American Gardens. Edited by Guy Lowell. Boston: 
Bates & Guild Company. 1902. Price, $7.50. 

An examination of this volume leaves one amazed at 
both the quantity of excellent work of this particular de- 




scription which now exists in our country and also at the 
admirable manner in which the publishers have been able 
to present the subjects. A garden has always been a fa- 
vorite theme and it suggests combinations of light and 
shade, color and form, which are always entrancing; but 
in this collection of one hundred and twelve photographs 
every one is a picture, and a very interesting picture, by 




FLATS, ST. GERMAIN STREET, BOSTON, \l \ss. 
Parker .V Thomas, Architects 



itself, aside from its merit as a representation of garden- 
ing. The views have been beautifully and most artistic- 
ally chosen, and it is a delight to turn over the pages and 
study the pictures as works of pure art. It was a thor- 
ough artist who stood behind the camera for these plates; 
none other would be able to choose such a view as plat 




I > !■ I \ M 



MoNkKS HOI SE, BRONX PARK, 
NEW VORK CITY. 
Heins & I. a Farge, Architects 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, Makers 



nih \. 1 \ 1 01 ENSIDI . PA. 
II \ 
Built of Kittanning Roma ham Philadel] 



86 



THE BRICK B UILD E R 




- 
- 

p ~ 
- S 

X t 



T UK BRICKBUILD E R 



87 



in the wild garden of the "Old Place" in Brookline, with 

its delicious foreground of texture-like tree trunks and 
fern banks. Carrere & Hastings's work at Indian Harbor 
has been published before to a slight extent. The Foster 
house at Lenox is also known in a general way. but aside 
from these two nearly all of the views are of work which 
is little known and 
which needs a publi- 
cation of this sort to 
properly present it. 
We are not disposed 
to find fault with any- 
thing' about the work ; 
we could only wish 
that the estate of 
" Rohallion " at Sea- 
bright might have 
been more fully il- 
lustrated, and the 
single view of the 
Hunnewell estate in 
Wellesley is tantaliz- 
ingly inadequate to 
show all its beauties. 
But, on the other 
hand, it would be dif- 
ficult to make a se- 
lection of any plates 
which might be omit- 
ted, and even a work 
of this kind must 
have its limits. We 
unreservedly comme nd this hook to our readers. 




MANUFACTURERS' CATALOGUES AM) 
SAMPLES WANTED. 

The following named architects would he glad to have 
manufacturers' catalogues and samples scut them: Max 
< ). Jordan, 280 Broadway, New York City; Crowe & 

C r o we , Wa llac e 
Bl ick, New Castle, 
Pa. : F. 1". Parsons, 
53 Bitting 1! lock . 
Wichita, Kan. ; Jo- 
seph Bell 1 >e Remeri 
Herald Build in g • 
('■rand fork. X. D. ' 
Vierheilig & Clarke, 
7 1 1 [ouseman Build- 
ing, Grand Rapids, 
Mich. 



INTERIOR VIEW, CHURCH or THE VTONEMENT, I'llll \I>IIMII\, PA. 
In which a warm buff shade <>: brick made bj the Kittanning Brick Compi 
Hi. W. Ketcham, Philadelphia Agent) was used. 
Furness. Evans & Co.. Architects. 



NEXT ANNUAL CONVENTION OF Till- AR 
CHITECTURAL LEAGUE OF AMERICA. 

The fourth annual convention of the Architectural 
League of America will be held at Toronto, Canada, on 
Thursday, Friday and Saturday, May 29, ;,o and 31, 1902. 

The Architectural Eighteen Club of Toronto, hosts for 
the occasion, and the various committees are endeavoring 
to secure good speakers and to make the occasion profit- 
able and entertaining. 

The topics for discussion will follow in the main those 
of last year, special attention being given to municipal 
improvement, architectural education and the various de- 
partments of architectural club work. 



CRUSHING 

TESTS OF Tllb. 

AKRON" STAR 

BRAND CEMENT. 

RE PO R T o f 
crushing tests 
made by the United 
States -,,\ ernment at 
the Watertown Arse- 
nal, Watertown, 
Mass., "i concrete 

blocks made during 
years njoo and kjoi 
with the Akron Star-Brand Cement, the Mocks being 
cubes 12 inches each way. thus making each block one 
cubic foot of concrete. 

There were three blocks of each kind, making 45 
blocks in all. 

Crushing strength is average of the thr< 



CKMKNT. 


sanii 


OR A VI 1 . 


HKOKl N 
STONI 


30 l>\> s. 




1 ink 
















1 Part. 




Part 


1 Pai 1 ■ 








1 


i 


•• 










1 


2 


; Parts 


1 








1 


2 


7 


o 








1 


-•'■ ■■ 




o 









The above report sh.>ws the great strength and hard- 
ness of the Akron St. ii- brand Cement. 

The manufacturers claim that no other natural cement 




1,1 1 \n. i:\ 1.01 1- 1 ini 1 . VRi in 1 El 1 
Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Ma 






+ <r 




DETAI1 Bl Willi-'- 11 \i 1 . ARCHITECT. 
Conkling-Armntrong Malci 1- 



88 



THE B R I C K B U I L DK R 




directors. The increased growth of the brick- 
making part of their business has made necessary 
the addition of new machines and kilns and the 
discontinuing of their architectural terra-cotta 
department. 



INTERIOR hi \ PUMPING STATION, PHILADELPHIA. 

Lined with Enameled Brick made by the American Enameled Brick 
and Tile Company. 

can show anywhere- near such strength and but few brands 
of Portland cement can go beyond it. A large mass of 
such concrete could not be crushed with all the weight 
possible tu be placed on it. It can therefore be used with 
safety for foundations in the largest buildings or other 
heavy work. 




IX GENERAL. 

The Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Company will 

remove their Xew York offices May i to 96 Wall Street. 
Messrs. Pfotenhauer & Nesbit, 1133 Broadway, New 




DETAIL \:\ BARNEY a CHAPMAN, VRCHITKCTS. 
White Brick and Terra-( any. Makers. 

The Xew Jersey Terra-Cotta Company have furnished 
recently the architectural terra-cotta for the following 
buildings: Mercantile building, Cedar and William 
streets, Xew York City, Goldwin Starrett, architect: 
residence, Elberon, X. J., Carrere & Hastings, archi- 
tects; residence, 64 East Fifty-fifth Street. Xew York 
City. Raleigh C. Gildersleeve, architect; addition to 
public school. Xew York City, Charles IS. J. Snyder, 
architect; naval storehouse. Navy Yard, Brooklyn, Mor- 
decai T. Endicott, government architect; bath house, 
Philadelphia, Philip II. Johnson, architect: fire house. 
Philadelphia, Philip II. [ohnson, architect: high school, 
Coatesville, I'a., Albert W. hilks, architect: apartments, 
Newark, X. J., Oscar S. Teale, architect: apartments, 
Brooklyn, Sass & Smallheiser, architects; eight apart- 
ments. Xew York City, F. H. Amsler, architect. 



OKI All. r.\ GEORGE K. THOMPSON, ARCHITEI I. 
Standard Terra-Cotta Works, Makers. 

York, have been appointed general sales agents 

for their brick, the '•Shawnee." 

The business carried on for the last three 
years as IS. Kreischer & Sons, 1'. Androvett, 
proprietor, has been organized into a stock 
company under Xew York state laws, with 
the following officers: Peter Androvett, presi- 
dent; James Murray Androvett. vice-president : 
Charles II. Puis, secretary and treasurer. 
These gentlemen also constitute the board of 




PRESS Room. PRUDENTIA1 1NSI RANCE COMPANY BUILDING 
Lined with "Blue Ridge" Enameled liriek. 
rge 1!. Post, Architect. 



NEWARK \ 1 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

MAY, 

1902. 




FACADE AT NIMEGUE, HOLLAND. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. (). Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada ........ $5. 00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 
For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: 

PAGE PAGE 



Agencies. — Clay Products ... II 

Architectural Faience .... II 

" Terra-Cotta . 11 and III 

Brick HI 

" Enameled . . .Ill and IV 



Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing file IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



THE Architectural League of America is to hold its 
third annual convention at Toronto on the 29th, 
30th and 31st of this month. There has been held during 
the last fortnight, in Boston, a convention of civic im- 
provement societies which has been largely and enthusi- 
astically attended and has awakened much popular inter- 
est. The Rotch Traveling Scholarship, in some respects 
one of the most potent educational factors for the profes- 
sion in this country, has just made its annual award. 
These are three notable occurrences in one month se- 
lected out of many which give us cause for a certain 
taking stock, as it were, of the existing architectural con- 
ditions. This is the springtime, when human nature is 
temperamentally optimistic, when life and our profession 
all seem hopeful, and the world is too small almost for 
the energies of the enthusiasts who do so much to keep 
alive the spirit of progress. We can look forward with 
every hope for future possibilities. We can also look 
backward with a considerable degree of satisfaction to 
the progress which we can actually trace. It is by meas- 
uring our past successes and failures that we are able to 
rightly meet the problems of the present and prepare for 
those of the future. Even the most autumnal pessimist 
would find it difficult to complain of the past. 



forces ot tins kind, and the architects in New York. Phil- 
adelphia, Boston or Chicago might very readily fail t<i 
appreciate how much the League stands for to the archi- 
tects in other cities. It is not good for man to be alone 
in any department of human thought, and the League is 
able to bring about a very considerable degree of com- 
munity of interests which makes for a broader feeling, a 
more keenly sensitized public spirit and an enlarging of 

the hopes and aspirations, if not the actual possibilities, 

of architects both young and old; and. after all. the spirit 

of hopefulness is what we sometimes most need. To 

show how others meet their problems ; to make possible 
a personal acquaintance with those who are called on to 
battle just as we do; to sharpen aesthetic appreciation by 

contact with keen minds; and to broaden and unify the 
processes of architectural education, especially among 

the vast number of those who are perforce educating 

themselves, these we take to be the objects of the Archi- 
tectural League. These are surely included in the list of 
work which the League is accomplishing, and the gath- 
ering at Toronto will be more than a mere pleasant re- 
union. Those who remember the convention at Phila- 
delphia last year will recall the excellent spirit which 
prevailed through all the meetings, and how we parted 
with a sense of moral bracing, with increased sell respect, 
which was sure to react on our professional work. And 
while the convention of the League does not intrench 
upon those strictly professional aspects which are pecul- 
iarly a function of the American Institute, it has stepped 

into a field of its own in the fostering and encourage 
ment of a mutual desire for the best architecture by the 
younger members of the profession. 



^TpiIE Architectural League of America, though hardly 

J. three years old, has become a vital factor in the 

professional growth. It is not always easy to measure 



' I "HE Civic Improvement Convention is another sign 

1 of the times. This convention was not arehi' 

tural except as an incident. It appealed u> e\ ery one who. 

accepting conditions as they were, has any desire to 
make them better; and the man or woman who cannot 
be classed in this category must be blind indeed to all 
that is going on around us. The civic improvement 
work has swept like a wave over this country during 
the last year. Residents of the few larger eities hardly 
appreciate what has been done, for the work has grown 
almost entirely in the small towns and cities. It has 
transformed many towns of the western and middle 
states from dreary, uninterest in.; ttions of houses 

to tree-embowered parks. The architect lire itself in 
these towns is not yet mueh better than it was. but that 
the public sense is aroused, and the bid that any consid- 
erable proportion of the community desires better things, 

is one of the most hopeful si^ns of the times marking 



go 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



the new awakening which has accompanied the growth 

of this nation in its material aspects. The work of civic 
improvement is closely paralleled by the work of the 
Architectural League and of the other art associations 
throughout the country. Its effects have come to stay, 
and we can never fall back into the dreary civic indiffer- 
ence of twenty or twenty-five years ago. 



C~" [VIC improvement has been largely a matter of the 
smaller cities and towns. The large cities, how- 
ever, up to a certain extent caught the spirit. Our muni- 
cipalities during the last year have recognized as never 
before the necessity for selecting good men and having 
their work done right. St. Louis has made a splendid 
stand in schoolhouse improvement by placing it so 
largely in the hands of Mr. Ittner. In Boston Mr. R. 
Clipston Sturgis, who is so well known to the profession, 
has been made a member of the schoolhouse commission, 
the body which has immediate charge of the erection of 
school buildings. Some time ago Mr. George L. I lines 
accepted an appointment as state architect for New York, 
which implies, if the politicians do not interfere too 
much, that the state may be at least saved from some 
of the public atrocities which have disgraced the past. 
In New York City Mr. William Martin Aiken, who made 
such a good record as architect of the treasury depart- 
ment, occupies the position of consulting architect for 
the building department. These arc only a few indica- 
tions that our municipalities are learning how to get the 
best and that they mean to retain it. 



NOR is our national government behind in the race. 
In the former times when the government wished 
to make a local improvement it was placed in the hands 
of the politicians, or at the most, and what amounts to 
practically the same thing, it was handed over to a com- 
mission of lawyers. Xow, when the feeling for civic im- 
provement stirs our national capital, Congress appoints a 
commission composed entirely of experts, including men 
at the very top of the architectural profession, and this 
commission is given the freest hand to study and report 
upon the very best possibilities. The result is the splen- 
did collection of drawings and photographs which Messrs. 
McKim, Burnham, Olmsted and St.Gaudens have brought 
together to show what might be done to beautify Wash- 
ington. And our strenuous President has resolutely 
tackled the time-worn problem of how to increase the 
capacity of the White House and, seeking advice, has 
looked not to politicians but to those who make it their 
business to study just such problems and solve them suc- 
cessfully. Mr. McKim has been commissioned to design 
a separate building, removed from the White House, to 
which the business offices for the President will be trans- 
ferred. He is also employed to study the remodeling of 
the White House itself, and in his hands we can be sure 
that the interiors, which have before been so unworthy of 
our President's office and the nation, will be made all that 
they should be. These appointments are also signs of the 
times. 

WHEN the Rotch Traveling Scholarship was founded 
twenty years ago it was alone of its kind. For 
nearly a generation it has been stimulating the zeal of 



our broadest young men and holding up to the juniors of 
our profession a prize which has almost invariably when 
won been used in the best possible manner. Now there 
are many scholarships, and every year an increasing 
number of picked young men are sent abroad to study, 
and come back to take their places in the development 
of our national art. It has quite recently been proposed 
to establish a national scholarship, and there have been 
steps taken looking toward the founding of an American 
academy abroad endowed and sustained by our national 
government. This would have been an absolute impossi- 
bility twenty-five years ago or even less, but the growth 
of public spirit has recognized the national necessity for 
fostering of the fine arts. One of the subjects to be dis- 
cussed at the convention of the League is an American 
Art University. And all these influences in a sense have 
grown out of a feeling which in its earliest form gave rise 
to the Rotch Scholarship. 



THIS country is still young in one sense. For that 
matter the world is young in the same sense, for all 
over the world humanity is daily learning new lessons 
and art is seeking new expression. But there is a freer 
field here, our youngness troubles us less where we have 
less tradition to bind us, and looking from what the past 
has brought into our national development towards the 
possible future which may lie before us, we can feel noth- 
ing but hope for the architectural profession. Our oppor- 
tunities will be larger, they will be better met: our meas- 
ure of growth will be greater than ever before; and 
though many of us will make mistakes and successes 
may turn our heads, the resultant of all our strivings, 
our conventions, our scholarships, our public civic spirit 
and individual enthusiasm, is bound to be in the right 
direction. 



OCR architectural accomplishments are very credit- 
ably presented in the pages of the Architectural 
Annual, edited by Mr. Albert Kelscy of Philadelphia, the 
appearance of which has been timed very happily to coin- 
cide with the other occurrences of this month. Mr. Kel- 
sey is nothing if not enthusiastic. He views everything 
in the strong hopeful light of the man who loves his work 
and his fellow workers and who delights in the zest of 
competition just for its own sake. His criticisms of 
current architecture are frank and straight from the 
shoulder. Whether we agree with him in detail or not, 
we recognize their honesty and the attempt of their 
author to look every problem square in the face and seek 
for the best there is in it. In turning over the three 
hundred odd pages of this Annual one has a feeling that 
the author has during the year been on the alert to cull 
out everything from modern architecture which seemed 
to him thoroughly good and to present it here in its 
most attractive form. We do not unreservedly assent to 
either the choice or the criticisms. There would be no 
growth if we all felt alike, and differences of opinion give 
to our thoughts the glow of health; but the spirit that 
prompted the compilation of this Annual is surely wor- 
thy of encouragement if for no other reason than that it 
helps to keep things going, prevents moth and rust and' 
the theft of our best intent. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D I". R 



9' 



The Business Side of an Architect's 
Office. II. 

BY 1). EVERETT « All). 

THE three functions of an architect's office named in 
the first of this series may enable the reader to 
discern some order in these scattering considerations. 
First, then, the preparation of drawings. 

If certain little details become the rule or habit of a 
draughting room, some of them prevent awkward omis- 
sions, some are matters of business convenience, and still 
others are as important as is the phrasing of a contract. 
of which they in reality form a part. 

Every sketch even should have a date, for the lack of 
a date sometimes becomes a matter of considerable mo- 
ment. The other features of the title of a drawing il- 
lustrated (Fig. 1) are matters of more or less importance 
and convenience. Even in small offices it is well to 
have initials signed to show who made a drawing, who 
checked it and on whose approval it was issued. It cer- 
tainly should be a rigid rule that no drawing or sketch, 
however abbreviated (except those copied as parts of let- 
ters), is to go out of the office without being entered in 
the list of drawings. 

For purposes of record, ordering blue prints, etc., 
no title at all is needed save a circle with sheet num- 
ber in it, building number above it and date below it. 
(See Fig. 1.) The pencil drawing in the illustration is, as 
indicated by its number, sheet 2 of the second series of 
sketches for a country cottage. It was building number 
533 and was made February 5, 1902. The title below it in 
the illustration is copied from a regular working drawing. 

For convenience of reference in correspondence the 
numbering of all windows and doors on the plans is a 
useful device. On the basement plan all openings are 
numbered in rotation from 1 up; on first-story plan from 
100 up (or for a large building 1,000 and up); second 
story, 200 and up, and so on. 

If the various rooms lack distinctive names, it is con- 
venient oftentimes to number each one with a broad- 
faced figure or a Roman numeral. 

In placing dimensions on drawings it is a good rule to 
run two complete lines of figures on all four sides of the 
building, particularly on both basement and first-Story 
plans. This allows a contractor to check the figures and 
avoid a mistake which sometimes results from the blur- 
ring of a figure on a blue print by an accidental drop 
of lime For the same reason, interior lines of figures 
should run through to the full totals. Never depend on 
a single figure to locate a partition. Another good office 
rule is to have all figures checked by a different person 
from the one who made them. 

Although it is usually impracticable to adopt a uni- 
form size for all drawings, it is a matter of convenience 
to adhere to one size for all the drawings of a particular 
building, or, in the case of full-size details, some multi- 
ple of the adopted size. 

It seems to be common practice to file drawings of 
current work in drawers. In A. J. Manning's office. 
New York, after a building is completed, one set of 
drawings is preserved, folded and placed in a special file 
similar to a letter file but the size of legal cap. All docu- 



ments, correspondence, specifications, etc.. arc placed 
with the drawings in the same box, and the long row 
of such boxes, the accumulation of years, in the order 
of the building numbers makes a tidy-looking library. 

Kendall. Taylor & Stevens. Boston, file their draw- 
ings tlat, all hung in cupboards, which serve as a file for 
Completed work as well as for work under construction. 
(Fig. 2. ) The drawings hang vertically by means of 
wood strips between two of which eacb set of drawings 
is bound. 

('. II. Blackall, Boston, has varied their idea and in a 
large cabinet has hinged a lot of stock doors. (Fig. (.) 
These doors hang six inches apart at the back and have 
hooks screwed to their faces on which arc hung the office 
copies of drawings. Each set of drawings is secured to 

a stick ' __• inch by 1 ' • inches by 3 feel long by means of 

small bolts and washers and thumb nuts. In the top 
edge of the stick two screw eyes arc placed to engage 
corresponding hooks on the doors. Five sets of drawings 








figu re 1 . 

can be hung on each side <>( each door, and any set is 
easily lifted out or replaced without disturbing the others. 
Often they can be consulted in place by swinging the 
doors apart. Sets of drawings for current work are kept 
in this cabinet for convenient reference. When a build- 
ing is completed the drawings are removed from the 
sticks and filed away flat in drawers. A number of large 
offices have done .away with the method of keeping draw- 
ings rolled, and file them flat. Some place their drawings 
in large folders or big " home-made " envelopes. In this 
shape they can be filed most compactly cither in drawers 
or on shelves and of eourse in order of the respective 
building numbers. 

Without launching into a treatise on specification Writ- 
ing, it may be remarked briefly that a few Considerations 
should be kept in mind for business reasons. One may 
indulge in very comprehensive general clauses in his 
specifications for the purpose of guarding against omis- 
sions and throwing responsibilities on contractors. But if 
one does not follow these with painstaking, specific pro 



92 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



visions he is likely either to make the work unduly ex- 
pensive to the owner or get caught with some awkward 
oversight, or perhaps both. 

For example, the following two phrases are suggestive 
of a desirable method: " This contractor shall furnish and 
set all -lass needed fully to complete the building, with 
exceptions specifically mentioned herein," and "All glass 
not otherwise specified shall be best quality polished 
American plate." Such clauses guard against the possi- 
bility of finding that no glass has been provided for es- 
sential parts of the work, hut such general provisions 
should be followed by detailed requirements, otherwise 
plate glass will be used where other kinds should have 
been used and in some plaees where cheaper oiass might 
have been used: and there may be a dispute over mir- 
rors because they were not definitely mentioned. This is 
given simply as an illustration applying to specifications 
for the various branches of work. 

The matter of shop drawing is one that should be 
emphasized Strongly in specifications of steel and iron 
work, cut stone, etc., if one wishes to avoid disappoint- 
ment in the execution of his designs. Slight, easily made 
changes in iron drawings may prevent humiliating and 
serious disfigurements. Cut stone contractors are prone 
to arrange the jointing and the thickness of ashlar in a 
way to save stone and thus make the work cheap in 
appearance as well as unsubstantial structurally; their 
drawings should be submitted to the architect. 

All shop drawings should be scrutinized carefully. 
But during a rush of work some shrewd or careless pro- 
visions in shop drawings may easily slip the architect's 
attention. A valuable safeguard in this matter is one 
used by Frederic Thomas, who gives contractors written 
notice holding them responsible for departing from the 
architect's designs. I have thought it wise to use his idea 
in specifications and make it read somewhat thus: 

•'Shop Drawings. The contractor shall submit all 
shop drawings to the architect for approval before execu- 
tion. Bach drawing shall be submitted in duplicate, and 
one of the copies will be returned to the contractor with 
approval or corrections noted thereon. The architect 
will not be responsible for the checking of figures on 
shop drawings. The contractor shall not make any de- 
viation from the architect's drawings without calling the 
same to the attention of the architect in writing, and he 
may be required to replace work for which no permis- 
sion has been obtained to make such deviation." 

Without discussing specifications further in this con- 
nection the following are given as useful preliminary 
paragraphs which, with slight modifications, can be used 
in writing specifications for any branches of work. A 
large part of the following has been borrowed from the 
specifications used by George B. Post, whose courtesy is 
hereby acknowledged. 

General Conditions. The contract based on this 
specification will include the furnishing by the contractor 
of all material, labor, scaffold and other apparatus neces- 
sary properly to prosecute and fully to complete the en- 
tire painting and glazing as herein described or shown on 
the accompanying drawings, Nos. , and including 

everything necessarily involved or which reasonably can 
be inferred, with exceptions mentioned hereinafter. All 
necessary freights, cartage and cost of handling materials 



shall be paid by the contractor. All notes, figures and 
details on said drawings shall be followed and executed 
by the contractor as a part of these specifications with- 
out further mention. 

On drawings concrete is shown in section dotted, 
brickwork hatched and stonework more coarsely hatched. 

Complete full-size detail drawings will be furnished 
by the architect, and the contractor must apply for same 
before executing work. If the contractor considers any- 
thing in any full-size detail as beyond the requirements 
of the contract he shall at once notify the architect. Fail- 
ure to make such claim within ten days after receipt of 
any detail shall constitute an acceptance of the same. 
Lar^re scale and full-size drawings shall be followed in 
preference to small scale drawings. Shop drawings, tem- 
plets, models and all necessary measurements at the 
building shall be made by the contractor. Figured di- 
mensions on the drawings shall be followed in all cases 
in preference to scale measures. 

The contractor shall be responsible for the correct 
execution of this work according to the drawings. Any 




FIGURE 2. 



apparent error in the drawings must lie reported to the 
architect at once, and the contractor shall not proceed 
with the work or make any variations from the drawings 
without written orders. The contractor shall be respon- 
sible for verifying all measurements at the building and 
reporting any inconsistencies or errors of other contract- 
ors before executing his own work. 

Any work made without or not in strict conformity 
with the drawings or which differs from the requirements 
of the drawings and the specifications will be rejected, 
and must be removed and replaced with work in con- 
formity with the contract. All work injured or de- 
stroyed thereby shall be made good at the contractor's 
expense. The owner, through the architect, reserves the 
right to cancel the contract in case the contractor ueglects 
or refuses to remove rejected work, and to replace the 
same in accordance with the above specifications. 

No extra work shall be done without written order 
from the architect, and all such orders must be referred 
to by numbers in bill rendered before final certificate is 
issued. Special emphasis is laid on the requirement that 
no extra work shall proceed without written order except 
in an emergency, and then it must be followed imme- 
diately by the written confirmation. 

All material and workmanship shall be new and the 



THE BRICK Bt' I L DER 



best of their respective kinds and subject to the approval 
of the architect. 

No work shall be sublet without written approval by 
the architect of the parties to be employed as subcon- 
tractors. The contractor shall submit with his estimate 
the name of the subcontractor for each principal branch 
of the work. Failing to do this, he shall be limited in 
the taking of sub-bids to the list of contractors approved 
by the architect. 

When more than one kind or manufacture of a mate- 
rial is specified the option shall be with the contractor. 
When one kind or "equal " is specified no change may 
be made without written consent of the architect, who 
may select an equivalent if requested by the contractor. 

Each contractor shall be responsible for the protection 
of his own work until the final completion of the build- 
ing, and each shall be responsible for and shall make good 
at his own expense any and all damages done or caused 
by his workmen or due to the execution of his contract. 

In order to insure consideration all bids must be made 
out in accordance with the form accompanying this speci- 
fication and with all items of prices, etc., filled out. 

A schedule of the prices on which the contract is based 
must be furnished to the architect before the contract is 
signed, which schedule shall be the basis for all payments 
on account of the contract. 

The owner, through the architect, reserves the right 
to reject any or all bids. 

Time of Completion. — The entire building shall be 
completely finished and delivered ready for occupancy on 
or before the first day of - — , 190-. 

The work included in this specification must be pre- 
pared and erected in its various stages at such times as 
may be necessary to complete the building by the time 
mentioned and without interfering with or delaying- the 
progress of the work of other contractors. 

The contractor shall provide all necessary night and 
overtime work without extra charge. 

If any delay occurs in the progress of this work or if 
the work of other contractors be delayed on account of 
delay in the painting and glazing work or on account of 
replacing or altering defective or rejected work, the con- 
tractor shall pay to the owner, or if so directed by the 
architect, to the general contractor, the sum of one hun- 
dred dollars ($100) as liquidated damages for each day 
that he so delays the work of another contractor as to in- 
terfere with the completion of the building at the time 
specified or for each and every day that the various parts 
or stages of the woik included in this specification may 
be unfinished after such times as may be determined by 
the architect as necessary for the erection of such parts 
or stages of the work. 

Payments will be made only on the certificate of the 
architect. 

On or about the first day of each month a certificate 
will be given by the architect for a payment on account 
of the contract of eighty-five per cent (85%) of the value 
of the work furnished and put up at the building, pro- 
vided the contractor has made application over his signa- 
ture on or before the twenty-fifth day of the preceding 
month and that a schedule has been furnished as before 
specified. 

A certificate for the balance will be given by the ar- 



chitect upon completion of the contract in conformity 
with the drawings and specifications, application having 
been made as before specified. 

No certificate will l>c given in case any work is fur- 
nished not in strict conformity with the drawings and 
the specifications, until detective work lias been removed 
and replaced as specified and to the satisfaction of the 
architect. 

Any certificate given or payment made on account of 
the contract for work furnished and erected at the build- 
ing docs not act as an acceptance of any materials or 
work which subsequently may be found to be defective 
by reason of existing defects at the time such certificate 
is given or payment made or defects arising from acci- 
dental injury or otherwise until the completion of the 
contract. 

The contractor shall replace all defective work on 
which payments have been made before final certificate 
will be issued. 




1 1 ' . 1 R 1 3 . 

Subcontract. The contract for the painting and 
glazing work will be made at the option of the owner 
a subcontract to the general contract for the erection of 
the building, and all payments, in the manner described, 
will be made by the general contractor, and the con- 
tractor shall be liable to the general contractor for the 
proper performance of the contract, and shall not be re- 
lieved from any of the obligations herein specified. 

Cl mini,. Each mechanic or material man shall do 
all cutting in his line to accommodate the work of others, 
and shall repair his work after all other mechanics. 

Superintendence, The contractor shall give his own 
personal supervision at the site and at shops. IK' shall 
place a competent foreman in charge at the building, who 
shall remain in charge constantly throughout construc- 
tion, or until replaced on written consent of the architect 

Rubbish. The contractor shall remove his rubbish 

from the building or premises as often as directed by the 
architect. On completion the contractor shall leave his 
work clean and whole, and satisfactory in every way to 

the architi 

'■' iRANTBi The contractor shall be responsible 
for and must make good any faults appearing in his work 
within eighteen (18) months alter acceptance, if due to 
any defects of material or workmanship. 



94 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



A French Gothic Cathedral in Brick. 



BY JEAN SCHOPFER. 



ALB1 CATHEDRAL. 



Til E Gothic style of architecture is, as everyone knows, 
primarily a style of architecture in stone. When 
at the beginning of the twelfth century the problem of 
vaulting large areas in the cheapest and at the same 
time strongest manner the problem which had exer- 
cised the minds of the mediaeval architects was solved 
in France by constructing vaults on independent arches, 
on ogival arches (from augere, to increase, i. < ., increasing 



Stone, lacked the frankness to avow it, and covered the 
walls with a plating of marble, as can be seen in the case 
of the Florence Cathedral, for instance, which is com- 
pletely clothed with slabs of black marble and white, the 
commonplace arrangement of which causes one to think 
of a set of gigantic dominoes. 

In the southwest of France brick has always been the 
favorite material. No good building stone is to be found 
there, and besides in the Middle Ages the means of trans- 
port were very inadequate, so that it was necessary to be 
content with the materials that were near at hand. The 
admirable Romanesque architecture at Toulouse and in 
fact in all the southwest is in brick. Saint-Sernin, the 




SAINT CECILE S CATHEDRAL, SOI in SIDE, Al.1',1. 



the strength of the vaults), stones of small dimensions 
were used for the purpose. Vaulting on independent 
arches constitutes the very essence of the system of 
building absurdly called Gothic and which ought to be 
called the " French " style, for it came into existence in 
the Isle of France and its finest examples are to be found 
in France. 

In the Isle of France the builders had stone of first- 
rate quality at their command. All the principal edifices 
of the twelfth century and the early part of the thirteenth 
were built of stone. So excellent was the Gothic System 
that its forms were adopted throughout Europe. First 
England, then Germany and then Italy copied the new 
style from France and applied it in their own ways. The 
Italians, who on various occasions used brick instead of 



only Romanesque church with five naves, is constructed 
in brick. 

We know how this part of France was ravaged by the 
religious wars. After the great expansion of Romanesque 
art a series of calamities afflicted this unfortunate region, 
and no sooner had religious strife ceased than the Hun- 
dred Years' War broke out between France and England. 

The troubles of this period had a great influence upon 
the development of architecture in the southwest. Al- 
most all the churches in that part of France were forti- 
fied, and even the smallest village protected itself by a 
wall. Fortified, too, was Saint-Ceeile's Cathedral at Albi, 
which we now introduce to the readers of The Brick- 

BUIl DER. 

This building was begun at the end of the thirteenth 



THE BRICK BU I I. I) K R, 



95 




INTERIOR Ol NAVE, SAINT-CECIL1 > \ I III UK \l . \l I: I. 



9 6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



century, Bernard de Castanet having laid the first stone ing appearance presented by this cathedral-fortress. Lo- 

thereof on the fifteenth of August, [282. The work of cated in the very heart of the region where the most for- 

erection was carried on very slowly, with occasional stop- midable outbreak of heresy of the Middle Ages took place, 




SAIN! CECILE S CATHEDRAL AND ARCHBISHOPS PALACE, U.l'.l. 




THE ARCHBISHOP S PALACE, ALBI. 



pages. Two centuries later, namely in 14S0, the church 
was consecrated, but the building was not entirely com- 
pleted until the year 1512. 

The various views which we reproduce show the strik- 



and erected at a time when the war between France and 
England was covering French soil with ruins, it has not. 
as far as its exterior goes, any of the graces of pointed 
architecture. 



T H E B R I C K B U I L I) E R 



97 




SAINT— CECILE S CATHEDRAL, ALBI. 

The walls are flanked at regular intervals by towers, 
the windows are narrow and placed high above the 
ground, while a gallery with machicoulises runs round 
the edifice. The five towers at the apse are crowned by 
sentry boxes. In front there is a square bell-tower which 
with its massive corner turrets is more like a dungeon 
than the tower of a church. This tower rises to a height 




of 7.) meters ; at the top there is a platform 64 square 
meters in area. It is only at the height of thirty meters 
from the ground that this tower assumes an appearance of 
lightness and elegance and is pierced by elongated bays. 

The different views of the cathedral enable the reader 
to see the beauty of the bond and the masterly way in which 
brick was employed by the builders of the Middle A.ges. 

Here, as almost everywhere in the south of France, 
a brick of somewhat Large dimensions was used. It i^ 
almost square, measuring [3 inches by 10. with a thick- 
ness of j. 4 inches. The mortar is of excellent quality 
and the mortar bed particularly thick. 

Thus Albi Cathedral is noticeable for the severe plain- 
ness of its walls, for its series of towers and for its nar- 
row bays. Xo counterforts are to be seen, no buttresses 
for the enemy to damage. It is certainly a thorough 
cathedral-fortress, and one cannot help admiring the line 




GATE, D0MINIQ1 E DE FLORENCE, SUM CECILE S 
CATHEDRAL, 4LBI, 



INTERIOR OF CHOIR, s \l\ I CECILE S CATHEDRAL, \l .1:1. 

architectural arrangement of the work. The lateral faces 
and the apse deserve to rank amongst the best examples 

of Gothic buildings, and can lay claim to a foremost place 
in the history of edifices in brick. 

[n the beginning of the fifteenth century a charming 
doorway was added on one of the sides, after a design by 
an Italian, Domingo di Fiesole. This was done at a pe- 
riod when monumental statuary was flourishing again in 
a magnificent manner on the walls of the French cathe- 
drals. As regards the necessary statuary, this doorway, 

as can be seen, was constructed in stone. 

()n going inside the cathedral we are struck by the 

astonishing richness of the decoration. The architects 
made up for the absence of ornamentation without by be- 
stowing a profusion of it within. Albi Cathedral, though 
Utterly bare outside, is one of the most remarkable in 



9 8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Prance as far as its internal decoration is concerned. 
Architecturally its arrangement is interesting. It has only 

a single nave, a very wide one, and the counterforts and 
other buttresses which, as we have said, could not be 
placed on the outside, are placed inside those turrets 
whose picturesque effect we have noticed. 'Phis is an 
ingenious arrangement. 

In the next place we must mention the evidences of 
the survival of Roman methods of building. The vaults 
are built by concretion ; they are massive, and only the 
revetment panels are in the Gothic style. In the fifteenth 
century an extremely rich rood screen in stone was put 
up for the purpose of separating the choir from the nave. 
It is one of the most celebrated screens of the period. 
The sculptures on the choir stalls are equally remarkable. 




CHURCH OK SAINT SA1.VV, ALBI. 

The vaults are entirely covered with frescoes consisting 
of gilded arabesques standing forth on a sky-blue ground. 

Thus Albi Cathedral presents the piquant contrast of 
a plain, military exterior and an interior of dazzling rich- 
ness. 

We have grouped around the cathedral a few views of 
Albi, which possesses numerous fine mediaeval buildings 
in brick. ( )ne of these views shows the river, the old brick 
ramparts, the archbishop's palace, and at the top of the 
city the cathedral. Another illustration gives a near view 
of the archbishop's residence, a noteworthy construction 
in brick. Like the neighboring cathedral, it is solidly 
built and in appearance bears a close resemblance to a 
dungeon. Lastly, the Church of Saint-vSalvv, also partly 
built of brick. 



Robbia Pavements. II. 

I!\ ALLAN MARQUAND. 

THE PAVEMENTS OF LUCA DI ANDREA 
DELLA ROBBIA. 

V A SARI informs us in his life of Luca della Robbia 
that the younger Luca, son of Andrea and grand- 
nephew of the elder Luca, was most active in the produc- 
tion of works in glazed terra-cotta, and that he made for 
Pope Leo X pavements for the loggie of the Vatican under 
the direction of Raphael, as well as pavements for various 
other apartments in which he placed the insignia of that 
pontiff. These pavements doubtless centered in Bra- 
mante's buildings about the Cortile di San Damaso. 
There still remain some tiles in the rooms known as the 
Greek and the Secret Libraries on the ground story. As 
similar tiles are supposed to have been used in the first 
loggia and the Borgia apartments, the new pavements of 
the vSale Borgia have been made in accordance with this 
pattern. Giovanni Tesorone, to whom the restoration of 
the Borgia pavements was intrusted, considers them to 
have been made in Perugia or Deruta or some other 
l nibrian town. They are published by Paul Fabre in 
the Melanges d. Archiologie et cTHistoire of the French 
School for 1895. They have little in common with 
Robbia designs. 

The tiles for the second loggia, known as Raphael's 
loggia, were undoubtedly made by Luca della Robbia 
the younger. This we know not only from the state- 
ments of Vasari in his lives of Luca della Robbia and of 
Raphael, but also from the official archives from which 
the following entries are published by Miintz in his Ra- 
phael, page 452, note 1: "151S, j AgOStO. I: pi// a >//" 
Luca de la Robia che fa el pavimento de la gran logia per 
parte di pagamento ducat i 200. 1518, /<> Settembre. I: 
piii at Prate de la Robia, per el pavimento ducat i I 'eu/iciu- 
t/ue." These entries raise some difficulties in interpreta- 
tion. Is the Luca of the first entry the same person as 
the prate of the second"- Or are they different persons? 
Whichever alternative we select, we do not Leave the dif- 
ficulty completely solved. It is perhaps best to assume- 
that the younger Luca was the individual by whom the 
pavement was made. Fra Ambrogio della Robbia seems 
to have acted as fiscal agent for his father in connection 
with the lunettes made for Santa Maria della Ouercia at 
Viterbo, and possibly performed the same offices for his 
brother Luca when the latter was away from Rome. 

Within the memory of living persons the pavement 
of the loggia of Raphael was still in situ, though much 
effaced. But now its last vestiges have been removed. 
Is it possible for us to restore its appearance to our im- 
agination? 

An important step in this direction has been taken by 
Giovanni Tesorone in a pamphlet entitled L'Antico Pavi- 
mento dclle Logge di Raffaello in Vaticano, Naples, 1891. 
He not only searched the Vatican for existing remains of 
pavements, but gathered from an aged custodian, Achillc 
Costantini, and from Professor Mantorani their recollec- 
tions of the now vanished pavements. In his search of 
the Vatican apartments he discovered, in a room adjoin- 
ing the Sala dci Chiaroscuri, a pavement in fairly good 
state of preservation. In the center was a medallion 
containing the insignia of Leo X. This was on a ground 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



99 



of lozenge-shaped tiles, colored green and blue and yel- 
low, arranged so as to give the appearance of a reticulated 
system of cnbes. This design was common property of 
the Robbia school. The outer border is a Greek meander 
with insignia of Leo X. There is nothing here that sug- 
gests design on the part of Raphael. This is probably 
one of the pavements adorned with the insignia of Leo 
X of which mention is made by Vasari. 

Tesorone attempts to restore to our imagination the 
pavement of Raphael's loggia. On the center of each 
compartment he places a medallion with the papal arms 
set in a general 
ground of plain blue 
tiles. The border is 
a narrow one, con- 
sisting of two inter- 
twining oak branches 
of green, which en- 
frame a series of yel- 
low-edged violet 
disks. Border tiles 
of this character 
were found in one of 
the corridors of the 
Vatican, and are now- 
preserved in the Bor- 
gia apartments. 
This border reminds 
us of Florentine de- 
signs by the elder 
Luca, although the 
rover r, or oak branch, 
appears in decora- 
tions of the Vatican 
made by Roman 
artists in the time of 
Julius II. The long 
corridor of the loggia 
is divided into a 
series of bays b y 
means of broad pi- 
lasters which mark 
the divisions of the 
vaulting compart- 
ments of the ceiling. 
Extending across the 
corridor from the 
outer to the inner 
pilasters were on the 
pavement broad 
bands of tiles which 
separated the nearly 

square compartments of the pavement. These broad 
bands Tesorone restores as ornamented by four green 
oak stems or branches forming a braid with square opi n 
ings, in the centers of which were violet disks. This 
quadruplex braid is somewhat complicated, but is an- 
alogous to the two-strand braid of the narrow border. 
If Luca the younger might naturally have been the au- 
thor of the square compartments, it seems unnecessary 
to suppose that he should have called upon Raphael to 
design the broad dividing bands. 

There is a document, apparently unknown to Teso- 




FIG. I. 



rone, which removes the design of at least a portion of 
this pavement from the region of hypothesis to that of 
certain fact. This is a drawing made by Francesco La 
Vega, a Spanish painter, in 1742 and preserved in the 
Vatican Library. A photograph of La Vega's draw- 
in-, by Tuminello, was published by Emma Perodi in 
the first volume of Arte Italiana Decorativa e Indus- 
triale (1892), and is here reproduced (Fig. 1). The draw- 
ing was a pen and wash drawing and was one of a 
scries presented by Cardinal Silvio Valcnti Gonzaga and 
his nephew under the title " Disegni delta prima e seconda 

;ia I 'aticanafatti 
tia Francesco La 
I ega, pit tore Spa- 
gnuolo, mi 1/0 /,-/■>-. /v r 
ordine cd a spese dell 
E"" Signor Cardinalc 
Silvio I alcnti (ion- 
saga, Segretario ,/i 
Stato delta S. M. di 
Benedetto XIV edeir 
/:'"" nipote ,ii tin ( ,n 
dinale Luigi bibliote- 
cario </i S. I.. , pro- 
tettore della Biblio- 
teca I aticana, donati 
a questa I'anno 1802 
ml giorno medesimo 
net quale n'ebbe 1/ so- 
lentii flossi sso. " The 
date 1745 represents 
evidently the date 
when this series of 
drawings was com- 
pleted. The drawing 
displays one com 

partment of a pave- 
ment witli its broad 
dividing bands. ( )n 
these lateral bands 
the design consists 
"fa quadruplex braid 
of /<<:,)■, branches 
intertwined with 

Medici rings and the 

yoke with Leo's mot 

t". Suave est (Jugutn 

iii, 11 111). The central 
compartment has on 

two sides a narrow 
border of a two- 
strand roVi 1 > braid. 

and in the interior an elaborate design consisting of a sys- 
tem of interlacing bands such as Italian and Saracenic de- 
signers alike derived from Byzantine sources. Between 
these geometric patterns is an elaborate arabesque such as 
we see on Italian Renaissance pottery and which would 
have brought the pavement into harmony with Giovanni 
da I'dine's elaborate stuccoed ornamentation of the loggia. 
Near tin- four angles of the square are Medici rings com- 
bined with Medici plumes and the motto Semper. Near 
the border is inscribed "Leo x M[edicis] Po[ntifexl 
M| axiinus |." If it be true as Vasari in his life "I Ra 



PAVEMEN1 I KoM RAPHAELS LOGGIA 01 nil-. VATK W B\ III \ 
DI ANDREA DELLA ROBBIA. FROM \ DRAWING B\ 
FRAN( ES( o 1 \ \ ERGA, 17)2. 



IOO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



v 5 "w^ 
<h 



> »" r 8r , H 












phael states, that these pavements were ordered from 
Florence, then such a design as this may well have been 
furnished by Raphael or by one of his assistants. But it 
seems more probable that Luca della Robbia the younger 
came to Rome and made these various pavements, and 
at the same time the Large medallions with papal insig- 
nia now in the Museo Industriale in Rome, perhaps also 
the medallions and pavements at the Monte < Hiveto in 
Naples. That La Vega's design represents the real pave- 
ment seems to be substantiated by fragments of tiles 
still existing and 
exhibited in a 
case in the Sala 
Borgia. There 
are here exposed 
two tiles about 
0.20 m. square 
with Leo X in- 
signia. One con- 
tains the ring 
and feathers, the 
other the yoke. 
These two tiles 
c or r e s p o n d i n 
size and design 
to the tiles dis- 
covered by Teso- 
rone in the room 
near the Sala dei 
Chiaroscuri. The 
remaining tiles 
in the ease are 
somewhat larger, 
m e a su r i n g a s 
nearly as 1 could 
estimate about 
0.225 m - square. 
In design, four 
correspond with 
La Vega's draw- 
ing of the central compartment and exhibit parts of 
the braided bands, one with his representation of the 
narrow border and one corresponds in general, though 
not absolutely, with his reproduction of the broad band 
between the pilasters. According to Tesorone it would 
require seventeen tiles meas- 
uring 0.227 m - square to 
reach from pilaster to pi- 
laster across the corridor. 
It may be noticed that pre- 
cisely this number of tiles 
appears in this position in 
La Vega's drawing. 

From the fragmentary 
tiles preserved in the Sala 
Borgia we may obtain a par- 
tial notion of the coloring of 
the pavement. In the cen- 
tral compartment the general 

ground was blue and the interlacing network yellow, and 
in the broad dividing bands between the pilasters green 
rovere branches appeared against a white ground, and the 
whole was framed in yellow. The narrow rovere braids 



4 



b$ h> m so m h 



s 



m 



am sa < «^- 







1 [G. 



2. I' w EMENT IN 
V.NDREA DELLA 




on the other two sides of the central compartment are 

clearly to be reproduced from existing tiles. Here two 
green rovere branches were braided against a white 
ground, showing a series of violet oculi, each of which 
is framed with a circular band of yellow. We may infer 
from the drawing that yellow was the color used for the 
arabesques and inscriptions, and that white was employed 
for the Greek crosses which appear at regular intervals 
and form one system with the interlacing yellow network. 
The tiles from the Sala dei Chiaroscuri, the medallions 

in the Museo In- 
dustriale and 
other tiles in San 
Silvestro al Qui- 
rinale enable us 
to determine the 
J' tar. coloring for the 

Medici insignia. 
We cannot be far 
wrong, there- 
fore, if we re- 
store the rings 
in yellow, the 
feathers maroon, 
white and green, 
and the motto 
Semper black on 
a white scroll. 
Thus the entire 
color scheme 
may be reestab- 
lished with al- 
most absolute se- 
curity. 

Tiles which 
would seem to 
have been made 
by the younger 
Luca della Rob- 
bia may still be 
seen in at least two other places in Rome in the Pan- 
theon and in the church of San Silvestro al Quirinale. 
The tiles in the Pantheon are to be found in a dark stair- 
way which starts from the porch and leads up to the 
roomsofthe Accademia di San Luca. These tiles, though 

set in the floor, serve House- 
ful or decorative purpose. 
They are evidently mere 
mementos transported thith- 
er after they had exhausted 
their usefulness elsewhere. 
There are seventeen of these 
tiles preserved in whole or 
in part. They measure 0.28 
m. square and are deco- 
rated with green rovere de- 
signs on white ground. Here 
and there remains a blue 
border. The rovere design 
does not follow curved lines as in La Vega's drawing, 
but straight lines with angles. These tiles are larger 
than those preserved in the Sala Borgia and are not 
adapted tor the dimensions of the Vatican loggia. 




THE SAN SILVESTRO A I QUIRINALE, ROME, BY LUCA 
ROBBIA. KROM A DRAWING \w COUN1 VESPIGNANI. 




3. DETAIL or PAVEMENT IN s\N 
SILVESTRO AL QUIRINALE. 



T HE BRICKBUILD I". R 



101 




DETAIL OF PAVEMENT IN SAN SILVESTRO \l ol [RINALE. 



In color and design, how- 
ever, they are not far re- 
moved from the pavement 
of Raphael's loggia, and 
may well have been re- 
moved from some apart- 
ment of Julius II or Leo X. 
The tiles at San Silves- 
tro al Quirinale are ar- 
ranged as a pavement in 
the Cappella Santa Cateri- 
na, where was buried Frate 
Mariano Fetti, a follower 
of Leo X. The tiles are 
noticed by Professor Gnoli 
in an article entitled "Raf- 
faello alia Corte di Leone 
X," published in the Nuo- 
va Antologia for 1888, also 
in an article on " La Cap- 
pella di Fra Mariano del 
Piombo" in Archivio Stori- 
co dell' Arte for 1891, and 
again by Professor Teso- FIG 

r o n e in the pamphlet 
above mentioned. The 
very beautiful drawings here reproduced 
(Figs. 2 to 6) were executed by Count Vespi- 
gnani, architect to the Pope. The border 
consists of a series of interlocking Medici 
rings, with the diamonds pointing alter- 
nately up and down. Behind each ring 
are the three Medici feathers, green and 
white and maroon. The background on 
some of the tiles is green and on others 
blue. Viewed as a whole, it is evident that 
these tiles were not originally designed for 
the space they now occupy. At the angles 
of the pavement the tiles do not unite 
naturally, but have been cut down to fit 
the new position. The number of tiles 
with the blue hack-round is larger than 
that with the green, and these two va- 
rieties are arranged without reference to 
each other. When shown these tiles Cos- 




DET Ml OF I' \\ I.Ml \ 1 IN SAN 
- 1 1 \ ESI RO \l Q1 IKIN M 1 • 



tantini recalled that some of the compart- 
ments of pavements of the loggia had bor- 
ders of this design instead of the two-strand 
rovere braid. He recognized, however, that 
these tilts are smaller than those which oc- 
cupied a similar position in the loggia pave- 
ment. The central compartment consists of 
square tiles surrounded by oblong tiles. 
The square tiles are considerably smaller 
than the border tiles, measuring only 0.125 
m. They are ornamented either with blue 
Medici diamonds or with live white Medici 
disks upon a blue background. The smaller 
tiles are decorated with intertwining fruits. 
flowers, feathers and rovcrc branches or 

rings. 

It seems evident that these tiles were 
originally for Leo X or other member 
of the Medici family. In 
1 olor, in design, in tech- 
nique they betray the work- 
manship of the younger 
Luca della Robbia. We 
cannot be far wrong in sup- 
posing that they also were 
made for some room in the 
Vatican. 

If we consider as a 
whole the information we 
have been able to gather 
concerning the Vatican 
pavements, we cannot be far 
wrong in concluding that 
the designs, as well as the ex- 
1 cution, arc to he ascribed, 
not to Raphael, as is popu- 
larly supposed, but to Luca 
di Andrea della Robbia. 

An account of the Rob- 
bia decoration of the In- 
nocent! and the San I'aolo 
Hospitals in Florence, and 
the Ceppo Hospital at Pis- 
toia, will be given in an- 
other article. 




in,. ;. m 1 Ml 01 PAVEMEN1 in 3AN MI\V-IKo \l QUIRINALE. 



102 



T HE BRICK BUILDER 



The Permanency of Steel Skeleton 
Construction. 

BY .1. K. FREITAG. 

A FEW weeks ago, in an address before the Chicago 
Real Estate Exchange, General William Sooy 
Smith, member Western Society of Engineers, gave 
some opinions regarding the probable life of steel 

buildings, which, on those at least who are unfamiliar 
with the subject, or even on architects and investors 
who have attached no importance to questioning the per- 
manency of our present methods of construction, must 
either have made a great impression or else have been 
soon dismissed as the visionary opinions of an alarmist. 

But, unfortunately, even if one cannot agree with 
many of General Sooy Smith's deductions or with his 
apparent distrust of the majority of steel-constructed 
buildings, his warnings are only too well founded in 
many particulars, and his criticism cannot be met by 
simply ignoring the points at issue or by disregarding 
statements. It will therefore be the object of this 
paper to consider General Sooy Smith's opinions, and 
to see what assurances, if any, may be found to justify 
the better methods of present-day steel skeleton con- 
struction, and to ascertain what causes, if any, contrib- 
ute to rapid or alarming deterioration. 

Evidently what General Sooy Smith intended prin- 
cipally to emphasize was the distinction between cheap 
and wretchedly poor steel building construction, built 
for immediate profit only, without regard for the future, 
and structures which are built with care upon as accu- 
rate and scientific knowledge as may be possible to de- 
rive from past experience and conservative practice. 
General Sooy Smith drew attention, as he has done be- 
fore, to the great difference, in the probable ultimate 
life and safety, between a steel skeleton building of good 
and careful construction, in which the metal framework 
is given adequate initial protection against rust or other 
deterioration, as well as permanent protection by means 
of adecpiate coverings of cement masonry, and those 
other buildings which receive little or no early consid- 
eration as to the quality or protection of the metal work, 
and which are then covered up by inadequate envelopes 
which hinder inspection without accomplishing their pro- 
tective functions. It was stated that the first class of 
buildings was good for a life of two thousand years, while 
in the latter and probably much more numerous class 
deterioration proceeds with such rapidity that failure 
may be expected at any moment, or certainly within a 
very few years. 

We have not seen any published account of General 
Sooy Smith's remarks which gives either the authority 
for his opinion that steel imbedded in cement masonry 
will safely withstand for two thousand years the corro- 
sive tendencies incident to our modern methods of build- 
ings, or his investigations of existing structures which 
reveal such rapid and dangerous decay or deterioration 
as to warrant the belief that many structures stand by 
the barest possible margin of safety, and that they arc- 
on the verge of collapse at any time. It would certainly 
be interesting and of great scientific value to know the 
precise facts or experiments upon which such statements 



are founded; but the writer believes that it is impossible 
at the present time to prove either of these extreme 
positions as applied to modern conditions. From certain 
known facts under other conditions, and from certain 
partial deductions drawn from the range of a compara- 
tively few years, it will be safe to assume that certain 
buildings, built with all due regard to this but imperfect 
knowledge, are secure and reasonably permanent ; while 
others, built with little or no thought of permanency be- 
yond the time necessary for the mere building Operation 
and the subsequent sale or transfer to other hands, may 
properly be questioned and looked upon with deserved 
distrust. 

It has been said that the ultimate life of steel build- 
ings under modern conditions is not calculable, and this 
docs not overlook the possible, but very improbable, 
actual immediate investigation of all steel skeleton build- 
ings which have been built perhaps fifteen or twenty 
years. 

Such an examination would prove the safety or dan- 
ger at the present time of the structures examined, but 
of those built very recently the elapsed time has been 
too short to warrant any absolute conclusions, and to 
judge present methods of construction by deductions 
drawn from earlier and different constructions would be 
manifestly unfair. .Many improvements differing radi- 
cally from earlier methods would be sufficient to change 
entirely the power to resist corrosion or deteriorating in- 
fluences. The absolute result is therefore to be had with 
time only. 

It may be urged that the action of other metallic 
structures, such as bridges, viaducts, piers, etc.. may be- 
taken as sufficient basis upon which to work, but this is 
a comparison <>f little value, due to the great difference 
in the character of the exposure. Any and all experience 
gained from a study of bridges or other metallic struc- 
tures is of undoubted value as fixing their action and 
wear under the various circumstances in which they 
were used, but the deteriorating conditions in buildings 
are of a different character, and it is therefore reasonable 
to presume that the effects may be different in both kind 
and degree. 

Bridges are always open to inspection, and repainting 
is an easy matter as soon as traces of rust are discovered. 
Such structures are also subject to alternate wetting and 
drying, rains, fogs and severe heat and cold. Are these 
conditions more or less severe than those affecting the 
framework within a building? In the latter class .if 
structures the steel is covered from sight, and frequent 
inspection or repainting is impossible; but while the 
temperature is probably much more even, no winds or 
circulating air act to dry the moisture which may be con- 
stantly penetrating the envelope after each rain or storm. 

It has also been stated that whereas engineers usually 
count on an average life of about forty years for bridges. 
etc.. with their accessibility for inspection and repainting, a 
life of much more than forty years is expected of build- 
ings, without the possibility of inspection or renewal. 
This is not a fair comparison, as the length of life in our 
bridges and viaducts has been determined rather by the 
great increase in rolling loads and 'the attendant over- 
straining of the parts than by causes of deterioration. 

Assuming now that the more alarming conditions of 



T II E URIC K IUUI.I) E R 



io- 



which General Sooy Smith speaks are true, —and it is to 
be supposed that actual investigations are the cause of so 
radical a statement, — it might lie well to consider the 
probable effect arising from the possible collapse or even 
partial failure of some great steel skeleton building. It is 
to be devoutly wished that actual investigations by individ- 
ual owners be at once undertaken, but it is to be feared 
that such a proceeding, involving even a most moderate 
expense for removing a few of the column coverings in 
the lower story or stories, would seem a useless expendi- 
ture to owners who begrudge such inexpensive and yet 
such vital initial features as adequate inspection and 
painting for the steel frame. Such an investigation 
would be a comparatively simple matter, involving as 
it would only the uncovering of a few typical members 
of the construction in any locations or under any special 
conditions which it might be thought would be especially 
liable to show more marked effects in deterioration. This 
could be accomplished with little or no fear of criticism 
or apprehension on the part of tenants; and while inves- 
tigation might only serve, as the writer believes it would, 
to increase the faith or to quiet the fears of owners of 
good buildings, it might also serve to show the owners 
of a different class of structures the folly of a penny 
wise, pound foolish policy which could better be cor- 
rected at once than after some dire calamity had thrown 
distrust upon all steel structures. 

Let us now consider some definite criticisms which 
have been made against skeleton construction and some 
actual cases of the deterioration or preservation of metal 
work which intimately bear upon this discussion. 

First, as regards the recent criticisms by General Sooy 
Smith, something more definite to work upon than his 
late opinions may be found in a paper which he delivered 
some years ago before the Western Society of Engineers.* 
From that article we quote as follows: 

" The rate of corrosion of iron and steel varies greatly 
under different circumstances. In pure water containing 
no free air, with an air-tight covering of paint or imbedded 
in quicklime, it scarcely corrodes at all, but when in the 
open air, particularly when alternately wet and dry, it 
rusts quite rapidly, and when exposed to steam and sul- 
phurous fumes it is eaten away by corrosion at the rate 
of one-eighteenth of an inch per annum, as was the case 
in the floor system of the viaduct in Milwaukee Avenue, 
Chicago, under which locomotives were passing fre- 
quently; and corrosion at the same rate occurred in a 
portion of the western approach of the Eads bridge at 
St. Louis, where the same circumstances exist. 

"As the metal in a steel column is usually not more 
than one-half inch thick, corrosion at the above rate would 
make a steel building unsafe in less than twenty years. 

" In an iron or steel skeleton building the columns 
starting at the basement floor or at the Moor at street 
level extend to the top of the building. They arc hollow 
and painted only on the outside and this with paint that 
is so perishable that it will afford no prote< tion from cor- 
rosion after the first five or ten years. The girders arc 
nearly as much exposed as the columns, while the beams 
arc generally bare on the top and bottom surfaces of the 

"Fireproof Construction and Prevention <<• • n." by 

Genera] William Sooy Smith, "Journal of the Western Society «i 
Civil Engineers," April. 1X9*. 



flanges and sometimes over a considerable part of the 
webs. " 

Now, as we have seen, it is manifestly unfair to make 
any comparison between the rates of corrosion for via- 
ducts over railroads and for buildings, but here we seem 
to have one of the principal arguments upon which Gen- 
eral Sooy Smith bases his prediction of failure of build- 
ings "in less than twenty years. " Again, the mention 
of floor beams which "arc generally bare on the top and 
bottom surfaces of the flanges and sometimes over a con- 
siderable part of the webs,"and the mention of columns 
which are assumed to be protected by a doubtful coating 
of paint only, indicate most exceptional practice, if indeed 
precisely such cases could he found. 

Examples from building practice of actual corrosion 
have from time to time been brought to public attention 
by architects and engineers, notably in discussions on the 
permanency of skeleton construction before the American 
Institute of Architects* and before the American Society 
of Civil Engineers. \ In the former instance the princi- 
pal example of corrosion was cited by Mr. Post, where 
the condition of certain beams taken from the old New 
York Times Building was mentioned. These iron beams, 
which had been in use some twenty-five or thirty years, 
had carried brick arches over a boiler room and kitchen, 
and the unprotected Imver flanges, exposed to the action 
of steam and cooking gases, were found to be nearly de- 
stroyed, while the corrosion had also extended upwards 
between the iron and brickwork until the beam webs were 
almost entirely worthless. 

Other similar instances of corrosion were brought for- 
ward at this discussion, and. without a single exception 
we believe, their unprotected condition could lead to 
nothing but deterioration sooner or later. But such ex- 
amples as these are about as worthless as the compari- 
sons to railroad viaducts, and that Mr. I'ost attached no 
importance to the action of such unprotected members 
may be judged from his later statements before the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, when he said: 

"While the speaker was not a great admirer of steel 
in concrete, the evidence of the last few years seemed 
to him to prove forcibly that where iron or steel is in 
direct contact with masonry it is thoroughly protected 
from corrosion. In pulling down the first Herald build- 
ing, which was over thirty years old, he directed the in- 
spector to bring him the worst corroded pieces of iron he 
could find in the building. There wen- no bad examples 
found, and where the mortar had been in absolute con- 
tact with the paint, the paint itself was preserved. All 
the reliable evidence obtainable goes to prove that cement 
mortar has the faculty of preserving iron and steel to a 
great extent from corrosion, and certainly of preserving 
from injury the paint which it covers." ] 

Such testimony as this from the very wide experi- 
ence of Mr. Post, and the testimony of others who have 
cited remarkable instances of the preservation of iron 
within cement or concrete. as, for instance. Mr. W. L. 
li. fenney, who mentions the excellent condition in which 

•Sec Tin Bhickbi m iii k. November, 

Transactions American Si Ivil Engineers," Vol 

XXXV. 

1 t an i' • ■■ \ mi 1 can 3o Vol . 

XXXV, ].. )7 ; 



104 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



a piece of iron was found after being imbedded some 
One thousand years beneath the Egyptian Obelisk now 
in Central Park. X. Y. ; and the practically perfect con- 
dition recorded of iron after a four hundred years' en- 
tombment in cement concrete beneath water, such testi- 
mony must show that the reasonable permanency of the 
better class of skeleton construction is not only possible 
but probable. While this may not lie susceptible of ac- 
tual proof, it will still be a pretty safe guide to follow 
well-proven facts regarding the known actions of iron 
or steel under certain conditions; and if all causes are 
avoided which have apparently produced bad effects, and 
other examples of unquestioned preservation are prof- 
ited by, there would seem to be little doubt that the 
result will be a permanency equal to the space of time 
within which any building would naturally outgrow the 
usefulness for which it was erected. What these well- 
proven facts seem to establish we will now briefly enu- 
merate. 

First, as to the causes of corrosion or deterioration. 
Prom the very beginning of service all metals suffer a 
diminution of strength, however slight or slow in ac- 
tion, due to the corrosive or deteriorating influences of 
moisture, deleterious gases, vibrations or shocks, or pos- 
sibly electrolysis. These influences may be initial — 
that is, existing only or with greatest force at the time 
of placing in position or permanent or progressive, 
due to the continued conditions during use. It must 
also be remembered that initial rust will almost certainly 
lead to permanent and progressive rust. 

The question of vibration or shock is not pertinent 
to this article, while electrolysis is only vaguely to be 
estimated and is also questionable in decree or impor- 
tance. The principal deterioration to be feared is there- 
fore rust, due either to lack of initial protection of the 
steel work, to moisture arising from the employment of 
mortar during building or to moisture which either pene- 
trates the protective coverings during service or else em- 
anates from piping within the structure. 

Considering now the phenomenon of rusting, we 
know that iron and steel are but very slightly oxidized 
or rusted under the action of pure air or pure water, but 
when the air becomes moist so that it condenses on the 
surface of the metal, or when water becomes impure or 
acidulated, oxidation is speedily established, and when 
once started the ultimate destruction of the metal is as- 
sured unless the process is arrested. 

As to the materials ordinarily employed, iron, steel, 
stone, brick, terra-cotta, concrete, lime or cement mortar, 
— if these can be so selected as to better withstand cor- 
rosion or be less liable to promote corrosion in other 
materials, the initial choice is as important as later con- 
siderations of protection. 

It is now generally considered that under usual condi- 
tions the eorrosibility of east iron, wrought iron and steel 
will be about the same. Under very trying conditions, 
as for instance in salt water, east iron will show the best 
results, but in protected building work the reliability of 
steel far offsets any possible slight advantage which cast 
iron might possess in the power of endurance. 

In selecting the class of masonry or terra-cotta to be 
used it should be remembered that limestone must never 
be employed in locations where there is any possibility of 



contact with the steelwork or where moisture could pene- 
trate the joints and then reach the steel frame, for ex- 
perience has shown that anchorage cables of suspension 
bridges have been badly corroded and even entirely sev- 
ered where imbedded in limestone masonry or concrete 
made with limestone. If limestone is used, a thick layer 
of cement mortar should first surround the metalwork. 
Brickwork should be built of dense and hard brick with 
a vitrified appearance and with a minimum of soluble 
salts. Terra-cotta protections should preferably be of a 
porous variety,* both on account of the ready evapora- 
tion of moisture from the mortar used in setting and 
the evaporation of penetrating- dampness from without, 
to say nothing of fire-proofing qualities. Regarding 
lime versus cement mortar there are great differences in 
opinion. Many claim that lime mortar is an excellent 
preservative of steel, and this opinion is believed to be 
substantiated by examples. Other authentic cases, how- 
ever, tend to show that, under certain conditions at least. 
lime mortar is not to be depended upon. On the other 
hand cement mortar or concrete is now generally re- 
garded as a most perfect conservator of iron and steel. 
Mr. Post's conclusions as to cement mortar have been 
previously quoted, and Mr. J. Newman + states that 
"iron imbedded in properly made and mixed water- and 
air-tight Portland cement concrete has not yet been shown 
to rust, and the preservative effects of such concrete may 
be considered to be established, provided the surface of 
the metal was clean and dry on the Portland concrete 
coating being applied and free from corrosion." 

Proper materials, however, may be rendered nugatory 
through improper usage. A few words, therefore, con- 
cerning the methods of use to secure both initial pro- 
tection and permanent effectiveness. 

When delivered from the rolls which form them to the 
cooling beds all steel plates and shapes are largely cov- 
ered with scales which are only partially attached to the 
surface and hence form cracks for the ready formation of 
rust. If such plain material is then handled or stored 
out of doors before being painted, rust will quickly start 
beneath the scales, and if allowed to become well devel- 
oped any subsequent painting will never arrest the oxida- 
tion which proceeds under cover of the paint. The first 
essential, therefore, for effective painting is the early 
removal of all mill scale, rust, grease, etc., and here the 
services of a careful mill or shop inspector are worth the 
entire charge made for inspection. A coat of pure boiled 
linseed oil is generally specified for the material before 
shipment, to be followed as soon after erection as prac- 
ticable by at least two coats of different colors of almost 
any of the better grade paints, oxide of iron, red lead. 
asphalt or graphite paints, provided the oils and pigments 
used are of the best quality, and provided the painting is 
done in dry weather on dry surfaces.] 

In designing the steelwork a minimum area should be 
presented to corrosive influences, as the ratio of exposed 
surface to sectional area largely determines the amount of 

For reasons, etc., sue- the author's " Fire-proofing of Steel Build- 
ings," pp. 1 15 to 1 [8 

\ Sct "Metallic Structures: Corrosion and Fouling and their 
Prevention " 

; Por a more extended discussion of paints and painting sec- the 
author's "Architectural Engineering," revised edition, 1901. 



THE BRICKBUII.DKk 



IO = 



the corrosion. The practice of using very thin columns 
of large areas in exterior walls, like vertical plate girders, 
is to be avoided, as this presents large areas to exposure 
and possible corrosion. Columns should be as compact 
as possible, open where practicable, in order that all sur- 
faces may be protected. When used in closed or boxed 
section the interiors should be filled with cement mortar 
or concrete. 

In using masonry or terra-cotta envelopes or cover- 
ings, either exterior or interior or around foundation 
members, the function of excluding all possible moisture 
or air should be borne in mind. The masonry should be 
thick enough, laid in cement mortar, all joints carefully 
laid and repointed from time to time, and where in con- 
tact with the steel a heavy coating of cement mortar, 
asphaltum or other impervious covering, preferably a 
casing of hollow terra-cotta laid in cement mortar, should 
first surround the metalwork. Floors should protect the 
entire beam or girder surfaces, the upper and lower 
flanges as well as the webs; column coverings should 
extend from floor to floor without any holes or openings 
at the various floor levels ; and in fact every precaution 
should be taken to surround the steelwork with as air- 
and water-tight a covering as possible, this covering to 
have some acceptable material everywhere in contact with 
the metal frame. Architects Holabird & Roche, who have 
designed many notable high buildings in Chicago, state 
as the result of their extended practice: " We have found 
that in fire-proofing, wherever the terra-cotta shapes are 
so arranged that the entire surface of the beams, girders, 
columns, etc., is covered with the mortar or cement 
in which the fire-proofing is to be set, practically no 
oxidation takes place, and that such beams, girders 
and coulmns are in perfect condition after twelve to 
fifteen years; while beams, girders and columns that 
are simply protected, without having the mortar in con- 
tact with the steel, have been found somewhat seriously 
oxidized." 

Finally, the detrimental radiation of moisture or the 
leakage of gases from pipes, vents, etc., can be avoided 
by placing all piping in separate chases, shut off from 
the metal columns by means of masonry or terra-cotta 
coverings. In many early examples of high building 
work the piping was run up alongside the metal col- 
umns, within the same enclosure, and certain column 
forms have been recommended for use because they 
allowed space between the flanges for the running 
of pipes. The writer even knows of instances where 
the column cap-plates were cut with slotted holes to 
permit pipes to pass up close to the shaft. This is a 
most dangerous practice, and owners of buildings where 
such methods have been followed would do well to make 
investigations without delay. 

The conclusion therefore seems tenable that skeleton 
construction can be made safe and permanent. There arc 
certainly flagrant examples of poor, cheap and even inse- 
cure construction, but wide-sweeping condemnations of 
skeleton methods cannot be drawn from the shortsighted 
practice of careless or ignorant investors. If the proper 
materials are used, with adequate care for initial protei 
tionand for permanent preservation, we can see no reason 
to question the ultimate wisdom of present conservative- 
methods. 



Selected Miscellany. 

ROTCH TRAVELING SCHOLARSHIP. 
The nineteenth Rotch Traveling Scholarship has ibis 

year been awarded to Mr. J. F. C'lapp. a graduate of the 
Institute of Technology and a student employed in the 
office of Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge. Mr. Clapp is thor- 
oughly equipped for the prize which he lias won, and will 
go abroad under the most favorable circumstances. The 





R \ll u W STATION, MOLINE, 111. 
1 1 7. Cervin, Archil e< t 

problem for the competition in design was a city hall 
such as would be required by a municipality like Boston, 
Buffalo or Cleveland. The jury consisted of Messrs. E. 
R. Willson of Providence, A. W. Lord of New York, 
and W. E. Chamberlin of Cambridge. Mr. Lord was 




01 UNITED STATES POS1 OFFICE, MADISON, l\n. 
■villi Ludowicl Roofing i 



io6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



the fifth holder of the Retch Scholarship. The custom 
has been started of including in the jury each year one- 
past holder of the scholarship. There were seven com- 
petitors for the scholarship this year. 



NELSON ROBINSON, JR., HALL AT 
HARVARD. 

The Department of Architecture which Harvard Uni- 
versity has established upon so thorough a basis ded- 
icated its new building on May ::. This structure, 
known as the Nelson Robinson. Jr., Hall, is probably the 
most thoroughly equipped structure for the purpose in 




THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 

SECOND STORY IS \ hi PLICATE or THE FIRST EXCEPT 

IN PLACE OF TEACHERS' Rooms THERE ARE 

SEWING Rooms. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

PIERCE GRAMMAR SCHOOL, BR00KLINE, mass. 
J. A Schweinfurth, Architect. 

! ll LUSTRATION IN PLATE FORM) 

the country. It was built entirely with funds given to 
the university for the purpose, and there has apparently 
been no limit to the amount available for every reason- 
able demand. The structure was designed by McKim, 
Mead & White, and has been illustrated in past numbers 
of The Brickbuilder. The department, under the fos- 
tering care of Prof. II. Langford Warren, has developed 
in an eminently satisfactory manner and in spite of the 
limited accommodations with which it has heretofore 
n provided. Its material surroundings are now so 
ideal that we may reasonably expect a large access to its 
growth. 



■it— 




1 - 



■H ■ T" mm mm mm mgS: 

■ ■■_■_■ ■ ■ ■■ 

n^ ;; ;; sa ;; 




HAMILTON STORAGE WAREHOUSE, NEW YORK CITY. 
Built of Brick made by Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Company. 

ART NOUVEAU. 

PROF. A. I). F. HAMLIN of Columbia University 
recently delivered before the Boston Society of Ar- 
chitects a very interesting lecture upon the subject of the 
particular manifestation of design which the French have 
characterized as L'Art Nouveau. In the course of his 
lecture he took occasion to call attention to some of 
the work in this country which in his judgment, if it 
had been executed abroad, would have attracted much 
notice and would have been classed within the province 
of the Xew Art. The inference which might be drawn 
from Professor Hamlin's statements is that the Xew Art 




INTERIOR VIEW, PUMPING STATION, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Lined with Brick made by American Enameled Brick 
and 'Pile Company. 



THE BRICK H U I L DE R 



107 




HOUSE AT BRVN MAWR, PA. Newman, Woodman & Harris, Architei 




• • • • • • 



• • 



HOUSE \T GLEN COVE, LONG ISLAND. ' P. H. Oilb 



ioS 



THE BRICKBUILDHR 




HIGH SCHOOL AT CHILLICOTHE, OHIO. Frank L. Packard, Architect. 

[i inch Conosera Tile, made by Celadon Roofing Tile Company. 



was practically a product of this country; that its earliest 
manifestations would include the work of Mr. Sullivan of 
Chicago, the Transportation Building, and would even 
include certain phases of the work of such men as Wilson 
Eyre and Frank Miles Day. We have been producing a 
New Art in this country without making any of the fuss 
or feathers about it which the French seem to find so nec- 
essary, and our Art Xouveau, while having much of the 
element of protest and the direct return to natural forms 
which has won such favor abroad, has been to a very 
large extent free from the mere eccentricities of design 
which have prejudiced the French manifestation. 



WE were interested a short time since in an edito- 
rial which appeared in the Xew York Sun under 
the title "Carved Xew York," which gave the impression 
that ornamental terra-cotta, the use of which was charac- 
terized as the first step in the break from the old-time 
baldness of design, is rapidly disappearing before the 




demand for the more expensive and more substantial 
forms of adornment. As the yellow journals say, this is 
important if true. Hut if the Sun writer could have 
used his eyes a little more intelligently he would have 
appreciated that much in recent building work which he 
took to be elaborately carved stone was in reality terra- 
cotta. We cannot alto-ether blame our designers if so 




sell ,m i[ SE, HYDE PARK, oil lo. 

tte & Sheppard, Architects. Roofed with American S Tile. 



BUILDING FOR ASTOR ESTATE, BROADW \\, NEW STORK. 

Clinton & Russell, Architects 

Buill with Red Stretcher and Black Header Brick, made by 

Sayre & Fisher Company. 



THE BRICKBUILD E R . 



109 




only conic to stay but it has ceased to be in any sense a 
sketch material. It is a finished product. 



RESIDENCE AT WASHINGTON, 1). C. 

James G. Hill, Architect. 
Built of Columbus Fare Brick (Ironclaj 

much of the terra-cotta passes under casual observation 
as stone, for to the average observer everything which 
is not red is of stone or iron, and nothing but the old, 
time-honored Peerless brick color passes for terracotta. 
The differences would be at once perceptible to the 
trained architectural mind. The editorial in question 
was admirable. Its only slip was in assuming that all 
the good architecture was necessarily of stone, which is 
not the case. Actual count shows that an increasing 
proportion of the modern buildings are yearly being 
adorned with terra-cotta. We quote : "Gradually the feel- 
ing of respect and appreciation for professional skill and 
expert advice in matters pertaining to the parks and other 
public properties is spreading among the people, in spite 
of occasional outbreaks of well-meant but destructive ig- 
norance. The day of haphazard blundering has gone by. 
The public eye has been educated to a standard demand- 
ing something better than architectural misfits or statues 
made by stone masons. " What is true of New York is 
equally true of all our large cities. Terra-cotta has not 




IX GENERAL. 



Hems & l.a Farge, architects. New York City, have 
removed their offices to _^o East Twenty-first Street. 

J, M. McCollum and Press ('. Howler have formed a 
copartnership for the practice of architecture: offices, 
Bank for Savings Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Joseph L. Xeal and George M. Rowland announce 
tlie formation of a copartnership for the practice of archi- 
tecture under the linn name of Xeal & Rowland: offices, 
215 Fourth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 




DETAIL BY SASS & SMALLHEISER, AR< mil 1 1 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



DEI All l:\ DONALDSON S MEIER, ARCHITECTS. 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

J. A. F. Cardiff, architect. Jersey City, X. J., has iv 

moved his office to 288 Monmouth Street. Manufac 
turers' catalogues desired. 

At the annual meeting of the Detroil Architectural 

Club, held April 14, the following named were elected as 

officers for the ensuing year: president. Cheri Mandel- 
baum; vice-president, <l. II. Ropes; secretary, Edward 
X. Schilling; treasurer, fohn J. Frauenfelder; directors. 
John <1. Gillard and Adolph Eisen. 

The Xew York office of the National Fire-proofing 

Company has been moved from 874 Broadway to 170 

Broadway, corner of Maiden Lane, 

Frank ('. Manson has been appointed manager of the 
newly opened office of the Ludowici Roofing Tile Com- 
pany, Townsend Building, Twenty-fifth Street and 
Broadway, Xew York Citv. 



I IO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




DETAIL BY BRUCE PRICE, ARCHITECT. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

The National Fire-proofing Company have secured 
the contract for fire-proofing the Fanners' Deposit Na- 
tional Hank Building, to be erected at corner of Fifth 
Avenue and Wood Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. The building 

is to be twenty-four stories high. Alden & Harlow, archi- 
tects; George A. Fuller Company, general contractors. 

What is to be one of the finest buildings in Canada 
is now under construction at Quebec for the Metropoli- 
tan Life Insurance Company of New York, from plans of 
Messrs. .\. Le Brun & Sons. It is to be faced with rough- 
textured, red-face brick, furnished by Messrs. Fiske & 




DETAIl BY MARCUS T. REYNOLDS, ARCHITECT. 
Excelsior Terra Cttu < ompany, Makers. 

Co., Boston, Mass. The effective qualities of this brick 
are attested by the ever-increasing demand for it, it being 
shipped to all sections of the country. 

To meet the demands of a rapidly increasing business 
the Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company has been obliged to 
make extensive additions to its plant. Two seventy-ton 
kilns and necessary shop rooms are now being erected. 



The plant when completed will be one of the very largest 
in the country. As is well known, the company is sup- 
plying a very superior grade of terra-cotta to the market. 
Among the most recent buildings on which they are 
supplying terra-cotta are the following: Studebaker 
Building, New York City, James Brown Lord, archi- 
tect; Marie Antoinette Hotel. .Yew York City, C. 1'. II. 
Gilbert, architect; Berkshire apartment house, Xew York 
City, II. Fairchild Steven, architect: Asbury Hospital, 
Minneapolis, Minn., E. 1'. Overmire, architect; I'ennsvl- 




01. I AM. EXECUTED i:\ THE NEW YORK VRCHITECTURA1 

r ik K \ I I I l l \ COMPANY. 

vania Building, Philadelphia, Pa., II. L. A. Jekel, archi- 
tect; Belvidere Hotel, Baltimore, Md., Parker & Thomas, 
architects. The company is making a specialty of semi- 
glazes and dull enamel. The terra-cotta which they are 
furnishing for the Flatiron Building, Twenty-Third 
Street and Fifth Avenue, Xew York City, is an example 
of the dull enamel terra-cotta manufactured by them. 

WANTED Thoroughly experienced architectural 
draughtsman for general office work. Apply, stating 
qualifications and salary desired, to Albert Kahn, 1117 
Union Trust Building, Detroit, Mich. 




DETAIL BY REED i STERN, ARCHITECTS. 
Northwesters Terra-Cotta Company. Makers. 



" School Architecture." 



A General Treatise on Designing and Planning of Schoolhouses. 

BY EDMUND M. WHEELWRIGHT. 
More than 250 Illustrations of Schoolhouses and Plans; many of the best types of all grades having 

been chosen. 
An indispensable Text-book for Schoolhouse Designers. 

Price, $5.00, delivered. 

ROGERS & MANSON^ Publishers, 
Boston, Mass. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

JUNE, 
1902. 




CHURCH AT HAARLEM, HOLLAND. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 



ROGERS & MANSON, 



85 Water vStreet, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass. , Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada . . . . . . . . $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 
For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 



Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: 



Agencies. — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Terra-Cotta 

Brick 

" Enameled 



PAGE 

. . II 

. . II 

II and III 

. . Ill 

III and IV 



PAGE 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



THE recent convention of the Architectural League 
of America was notable for a marked improve- 
ment in the work of the constituent clubs as shown in 
their reports. A broader scope, a wider range of effort, 
was evinced, and if equal progress is maintained in com- 
ing years it will be difficult to set any limitations to the 
achievements of the League. In a broad way the follow- 
ing topics were discussed by the convention: Education, 
— and its possible betterment through the founding of an 
American Art University, -Architecture and Citizen- 
ship, Landscape Architecture and Municipal Improve- 
ments. It was of interest to see how the vigor and activ- 
ity of individual clubs had anticipated in practical work 
the points covered in the discussion. It was shown that 
diligent effort had been made to get the best informa- 
tion from foreign sources, and as usual the most marked 
activity in this direction was displayed by the Philadel- 
phia T-Square Club. To obtain accurate information of 
foreign work, traveling scholarships have been estab- 
lished by various clubs, notably by Chicago and Phila- 
delphia. Nearly every club maintained classes and many 
held monthly meetings and competitions with beneficial 
results. The monthly meetings were often but an ex- 
cuse for a technical paper or a lengthy discussion upon 
some leading topic of the day. 



Interest in municipal improvements was most notable, 
and the reports showed that clubs, particularly the Chi- 
cago Architectural Club and the St. Louis Architectural 
Club, had successfully cooperated with the city authori- 
ties in many reforms and improvements accomplished 
during the recent year. The grouping of public build- 
ings in Cleveland, discussed at the first convention of the 
Architectural League <>\ America, is now an accomplished 
fact, due in no small measure to the untiring energy of 
the Cleveland Architectural Club. 

The report from Washington was made doubly inter- 
esting from the fact that the projected replanning and 
improvement of that city now under contemplation were 
shown during the convention by an elaborate series of 
lantern slides and explained by an interesting lecture. 
This work, whether executed or not. demonstrates a 
marked advance in conception, as well as increased pub- 
lic interest in the planning of cities. 

An interesting feature of each year's work is the cir- 
cuit exhibition, and reports from the various cities told 
of difficulties encountered and successes achieved. To 
improve and perfect this exhibition was one of the most 
important results of the convention. After full and de- 
liberate discussion it was recommended that for the com- 
ing year the main feature of the exhibition be photo 
graphs of the executed work. The Toronto Architectural 
Club demonstrated in their local exhibition held in tin- 
rooms of the Ontario Society of Artists the possibilities of 
such a collection. Many of the difficulties and objection- 
able features of the circuit exhibition would be removed 
by the adoption of this recommendation. It will be the 
aim of the committee having this work in charge to se- 
cure a representative collection of photographs of foreign 
works, securing them if possible from Germany, France, 
Italy and England. The circuit exhibition will probably 
be accompanied by a lecture on municipal improvements, 
with the necessary lantern slides and explanatory phot" 
graphs. This could be given in every city and modified 
in each municipality t<> fit the local conditions. 

Endeavor will be made to have a committee <>n muni- 
cipal improvement in each city so that those desiring to 
obtain information on this most interesting question can 
do so with as little trouble as possible. The interest of 
the country at large in the work of the League was shown 
by the numerous communications received, notably the 
series of letters from professors and art teachers on the 
advisability of founding a national university of art. It 
is hoped also during the coming season to establish a 
System of inter club self-education by means of which the 
most advanced information on architectural and artistic 
questions may be rapidly forwarded from one club to the 
otlx 1 



I I 2 



T HE HRICKBUILDEK 



Fourth Annual Convention of the 
Architectural League of America. 

REPORT 

BY OUR SPEC! VL REPRESEN I A I IYK. 

'"TTI E fourth convention of the Architectural League of 

L America, held in Toronto, Canada, in the last days 
of May, proved an extremely interesting meeting. The 

gatherings of the League since the first convention held 
three years ago have never failed to bring together many 
of the younger men of the profession. As a body, the 

men who have formed and maintained the new organiza- 
tion may perhaps be classed as •• protestants" or " seces- 
sionists." They are young, sane, intensely American, am- 
bitious and discontented. Since their organization they 
certainly have given every evidence of being very much 
alive, of knowing what they wanted and sometimes suc- 
ceeding in negotiating their desires. They have done 
some thinking', and if the architectural history of the 
past few years is read aright they have also been the 
cause of more thinking on the part of others. There are 
in evidence much individuality of character, fearlessness 
of expression, and a fine disregard for a multitude of 
things which arc generally accepted but not proven. All 
these qualities came out strongly in the course of the dis- 
cussion upon the report of the committee on education 
and in the election of the new president. All precedent 
and prejudice were cast to the winds when a president 
was elected who was "not an architect." The discussion 
Upon education revealed that the League has a decided 
leaning to the belief that students should be taught first 
to work with their hands before the refinements of brain 
operations are undertaken; that the art of architecture 
consist of building in execution and not of draughts on 
paper; and that the workshop rather than the draughting 
room lies at its foundation. 

In advocating a national art university strong empha- 
sis was laid upon the necessity of workshop instruction 
as fundamental to art training and for the development 
of character and individuality. The school should pro- 
duce the skilled mechanic and craftsman first, from the 
ranks of whom alone should spring the master artist, be 
he architect, painter, sculptor or artisan. 

There can be no doubt but that such an order of things 
would revolutionize present systems of art education and 
have a most beneficent effect upon the art of the country. 
The thought occurs at once that men so trained would in- 
evitably extend their influence to all articles of manufac- 
ture, for instance, as to which the lack of design has been 
so frequently deplored but no remedy for the condition 
ever presented. We may reflect upon the vast output of 
manufactured articles issuing from American workshops 
and factories utterly lacking the touch of the skilled de- 
signer, all of which could so readily be improved and 
made more useful and valuable under the hand of the 
trained artisan. If the influence of the school extended in 
this direction alone, enough would be accomplished; for 
after all is it not more important that the common things 
which are in our constant sight and with which we are in 
daily contact should be made refined and beautiful rather 
than that more great paintings and sculptures should be 



collected and housed in museums:- The denial of this 
proposition would seem to be equivalent to denial of the 
seriousness of art itself. 

The fact is not sufficiently remembered that the men 
who wrote the great books that make the libraries of 
to-day, themselves saw comparatively little of libraries. 
The men who designed and carried to execution the great 
buildings which we now declare to constitute the archi- 
tecture of the world were themselves master mechanics 
rather than draughtsmen. Now we rise up and call them 
great. They were not so sure that they were great. 
They built their architecture along the lines of a normal 
evolution, and they were artists who were at home in the 
workshop with chisel and mallet, anvil and sledge. 

It is probable that ignorant labor carried the hod in 
Egypt, Greece and Rome, but it is not possible that the 
architectural triumphs of the past were created under the 
conditions of ignorant workmanship and untrained artisan- 
ship which prevail to-day. The art of building in all its 
departments stands in sore need of some vigorous exter- 
nal influence to supply the unsatisfied demand for skilled 
labor in the arts. 

It is a well-known fact, deplored generally by contract- 
ors, owners, architects and all in authority in building 
operations, that ignorance and indifference among me- 
chanics in the building trades are becoming more and 
more marked. Men arc indifferent because they do not 
know their work, do not respect it, have no love for it 
nor for their finished handiwork. What architect but can 
recite instances of wanton defilement of work by the very 
men who created it? Nothing has as yet taken the place 
of the ancient and efficient system of apprenticeship, and 
it is one of the wonders of our age that the great building 
enterprises — in a commercial sense at least the greatest 
which history records — are brought to completion by 
practically unskilled and uninterested labor. There is 
food for a tremendous amount of reflection in this con- 
dition of affairs, and it is not at all out of place that 
systems of education, and particularly higher education, 
should take note of it. 

It is the function of schools to educate. It is the func- 
tion of all the schools to supply education to all the peo- 
ple. It is a reflection upon a school system as well as 
upon a nation if at a certain development its youth must 
be sent to a foreign land among a strange people to be 
educated. No reason exists why the American people 
could not or should not provide at once every advantage 
and facility for higher art education equal to that pos- 
sessed by any other nation, or all others together for that 
matter. The only answer which we hear to this is: "( )h, 
but the museums! What about the archives of the 
past-" Now of course we should dislike to be compelled 
to worry along without these dear old relics, but would 
their absence be really such a material disadvantage? 
Let us consider that the designers who produced the 
extremely interesting exhibits worthy of preservation 
under glass were actually under the same disadvantage. 
If the Gothic engineer-architects had been surrounded on 
every hand by museums filled with casts of the Elgin 
marbles, by photographs and measured drawings of the 
Athenian acropolis, and a thousand professors pointing 
out with menacing finger each line and shadow, would- 
the molded pier and vaulted roof, the flying buttress and 



T HE BRICKIUH1.I) E R 



glorious window ever have been achieved? No; the edu- 
cation of the library and the museum is sleepily agree- 
able, but it is not essential to the training which achieves 
results. 

Mr. Dwight Perkins read a paper under the nominal 
title of "Architecture and Citizenship," in the course of 
which he made some very frank and outspoken criticism 
of current American architecture and architectural prac- 
tice, particularly as it is found in the East, though by no 
means sparing much of the work which is found in his 
own city of Chicago. Honest difference of opinion is al- 
ways welcome, and even though we may feel a good deal 
like the old Quaker in regard to the queerness of all the 
world except himself and his wife, with a doubt regard- 
ing the wife, at the same time progress and entire self- 
complacency are hardly compatible, and we need good, 
vigorous expressions straight from the shoulder, such as 
Mr. Perkins has delivered so tellingly, to make us not 
only appreciate our own blessings, but to keep us awake 
to the necessities of development. The mere question 
of style in architecture is a convenient peg upon which 
to hang an unlimited amount of conflicting criticism, and 
the question as to whether Mr. Sullivan's style is essen- 
tially American in spirit, or whether in order to be true 
we must shut our eyes to or at least close our sketch- 
books against all antiques, is one really, as we conceive 
it, of far less fundamental importance than the deeper 
question of whether we shall have ideals and stick to 
them. And because architects like Mr. Wright, Mr. 
Maher and Mr. .Sullivan of Chicago have ideals, or at 
least view points, quite different from those of men like 
Cass Gilbert, Frank Miles Day or Mr. McKim, that docs 
not in the slightest degree alter the fact that both ideals 
are of value to our national growth, and that from each 
arise sources of strength to our national architecture. It 
is the so-c'alled business architect who is to-day the great- 
est menace of our artistic growth; the one whom Mr. 
Perkins characterizes as being "primarily constructive 
and money-making. He is not emotional in politics; he 
is content to let well enough alone and does not allow 
principles to interfere with his practice. He usually 
votes, but does not allow civic duties to divert his atten- 
tion. He watches the trend of public affairs closely in 
order to determine where they can serve his own inter- 
ests. He does not care about design and is not identi- 
fied with important work except as the partner or em- 
ployer of some other architect. He comes nearer to 
contentment than any other type." 

To quote Mr. Perkins further: " The young man am- 
bitious to become an architect studies building construc- 
tion and structural design. He becomes familiar with 
processes and problems, and when he can design a struc- 
ture that will not fall down, that fulfills the practical re- 
quirements and conforms to some scheme of proportion 
and embellishment, he considers himself an architect and 
is so considered by the majority of people. 

"But is that all — has he yet distinguished between 
mere building and architecture:' It seems to me that 
architecture is something belonging to the mind, that it 
is an idea which finds its expression on paper and its 
manifestation in stone, iron and wood. Ideas and ideals 
are the materials of architecture; stone, iron and wood 
are the materials of building." 



Mr. Perkins's paper is to a very considerable extent 
one of protest, and he asks some questions which he 
himself is unable to answer. Just why some architects 
find their best expression in a blind subservience to the 
past, while others feel it their duty to be original even at 
the expense of being good, and still others try to follow 
Up what they consider a logical development of the past 
into the needs of the future, is something which lies at 
the base of temperament, and the conflict between two 
schools of this sort is an ever present one. We would 
not wish it to be less, and it would be a calamity if all of 
us felt the same upon this subject. 

There is one aspect of Mr. Perkins's paper which 
ought to receive most hearty commendation from every 
one and it is really the kernel of his thought as we un- 
derstand it. " Work has been done that can be com- 
mended, but it is frankly the purpose of this paper to 
emphasize our duties as citizens in regard to bad work 
and the public misapprehension resultant therefrom. Is 
it not the duty of an organization like our League to criti- 
cise fairly but fearlessly prominent current work- If a 
committee report or criticism were expected at each con 
vention I believe keen interest would be taken in its 
findings and that the publication of that report by tin 
League after deliberation in convention would be of tell- 
ing benefit to the public. Then we would be citizens 
acting in a body. 

" I was asked to write a paper for this convention on 
architecture as practiced by an educated architect of ad- 
vanced standing. I cannot better state the basis for my 
conception of such an architectural practice than to say 
that in my opinion the time is coming when we cannot 
be architects alone, but that we must also be conscious 
and conscientious citizens. 

"Architecture practiced by such an architect would 
include both architecture and citizenship, creation and 
criticism, individual work and civic performance. It 
woidd involve the broad study of modern industrial con- 
ditions and an effort to perform his own peculiar tasks in 
the light of public needs as well as private interests. It 
would also involve a closer acquaintance with politicians, 
and, too, the joining with them, making their causes our 
causes, as well as gaining their cooperation for tin- things 
we desire. 

"We have in this and all our conventions indorsed 
and applauded municipal improvement and we have 
justly assumed a right to speak on that subject. We are 
in danger of having our offers of advice and servici 
cepted. Disaster to the cause, our profession and our- 
selves is impending unless we rise to high citizenship of 
the type described. It is not enough to be good archi- 
tects unless the other is added. 

"If we were really public-spirited citizens endowed 
with eyes to see, minds to think with, training with 
which to serve the public, and with courage to speak, we 
would protest against the ghosts of Roman temples now 

masquerading as banks." 

After all. there is a good deal of hope for American 
architecture. And whether we turn our eyes backwards 
for inspiration to the noble works of those who have 
gone before us, or whether we feel that we must individ- 
ually hew out an ideal path, forgetting the things that 

are past and looking only to nature for innate original- 



H4 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



ity, we can say of our national architecture as a whole 
much as Milton said of himself, that it is not what it 
ought to be, it is not what it might be, and surely not 
what we would hope it to be, but it surely is not what it 
was, and grace to the earnest efforts of both classicist 
and idealist it is what it is. 

And both schools will surely agree with the closing 
statement of Mr. Perkins's admirable paper. "If we 
found our work upon the principles which have been ex- 
emplified in every age, instead of merely copying or 
adapting their forms, we may proceed in the faith that 
good work is certain to result. 

" In the presence of so much that is bad and selfish 
we may receive inspiration from the infinite truth and 
beauty in the works of nature surrounding us in pro- 
fusion, we may receive encouragement from the engi- 
neering and industrial arts because they are free, and 
lastly, we may receive guidance from antiquity and 
the middle ages wherever the spirit of art was the master 
and the form was the tool. Architecture and citizen- 
ship have gone hand in hand in the best work of the 
past. It would be impious to doubt that they will do so 
again." 

The Architectural League of America is an organiza- 
tion composed not of individuals but of clubs. Its lati- 
tude and scope of organization are as broad as those of 
the clubs themselves. It is quite remarkable that almost 
without exception these clubs sprang into life in all the 
larger cities, out of similar conditions, in a similar man- 
ner, produced similarity of results and progressed along 
similar lines. These clubs nearly all started as sketch 
clubs among draughtsmen, and were founded upon a 
desire for cooperation, social contact, advantages for 
self-education and advancement of common interests. 
Nearly all developed through reorganization from sketch 
clubs into "architectural clubs," and consciously or un- 
consciously patterned themselves after the Architectural 
League of New York. Their distinctive features con- 
sist of the holding of exhibitions, various methods of 
self-education, social intercourse, the possession of club- 
rooms and the admission to membership of practitioners 
in the fine arts allied to architecture. The wide use- 
fulness and generous democracy of such a scheme of 
organization are thoroughly progressive and in accord 
with the spirit of the times. It recognizes that the 
technical architect alone cannot produce the best obtain- 
able results, and that he must be supported by able 
allies in the various departments which contribute to 
the successful execution of architectural works. There 
cannot be too much contact and perfect understand- 
ing between the architect and the workers who de- 
pend upon him and upon whom he must eventually 
rely. 

Art education must ultimately be advanced by the 
work done in its behalf by all the clubs, and especially 
valuable in this regard were the information and sugges- 
tion received from Urbana through its delegate, Pro- 
fessor Newton Wells. A suggestion was made for a 
possible curriculum for a national university which would 
greatly aid the advance so much desired. Architecture 
as a whole will shortly feel the benefit of the energy 
of Toledo, Detroit, Washington and the many affiliated 
societies. 



In the election of Frederick S. Lamb as its president, 
the League found a man who personifies its ideals. 
Everybody who knows Mr. Lamb knows of his enthusi- 
astic devotion to decorative as well as structural art. 
He brings to the office a ripe experience gained in many 
organizations, and it would be difficult to find another 
who can so accurately gauge the position of the League. 
He can be depended upon materially to strengthen and 
advance its interests. He is a past master of diplomacy, 
has good executive ability and a wide acquaintance among 
specialists. Mr. Lamb is an M. A. in the true sense and 
directs a workshop of his own. It is to be expected that 
some disappointment will be felt and that even a note of 
discord may be heard when it is fully realized that a 
"decorative artist" and not an "architect" has been 
elected president of the League. But the League is in a 
splendid position to meet the issue in the particular in- 
stance with the man. At any rate architects elected him, 
and the remedy, if one is needed, is to provide in the 
future an abler man, incidentally an architect. 

The broad lines of work as shown in the three days' 
session of the convention must commend themselves to 
all and eventually attract to the Architectural League 
of America the support of all organizations having the 
permanent welfare of the art development of the country 
at heart. 

Nothing could better exemplify the social side of the 
work of this organization than the hospitable way in which 
the Toronto Architectural Club entertained the delegates 
" within their grates. " 



Papers of the Convention. 

SUBJECT, " EDUCATION." 
Introductory: Three functions of the science of educa- 



tion. 

(a.) The information of knowledge. 

■ (Ik) The discipline of human faculties. 

(c. ) The nurture of character and individuality. 

BY LOUIS H. SULLIVAN. 

AFTER the long night and longer twilight we envis- 
age a dawn-era —an era in which the minor law of 
tradition shall yield to the greater law of creation, in 
which the spirit of repression shall fail to repress. 

Man at last is become emancipated and now is free- 
to think, to feel, to act — free to move toward the goal of 
the race. 

Ilumanitarianism slowly is dissolving the sway of 
utilitarianism, and an enlightened unselfishness is on its 
way to supersede a benighted rapacity, and all this, as a 
deep-down force in nature, awakens to its strength, ani- 
mating the growth and evolution of democracy. 

Under the beneficent sway of this power the hold of 
illusion and suppression is passing; the urge of reality is 
looming in force, extent and penetration; and the individ- 
ual now is free to become a man in the highest sense if 
so he wills. 

There is no estoppel to his imagination. 

No limitation to the workings of his mind. 

No violence to the dignity of his soul. 



THE BRICKBCIIJ) E R 



i 1 



The tyranny alike of church and state has been curbed, 
and true power is now known to reside where forever it 
must remain — in the people. 

Rapidly we are changing from an empirical to a 
scientific attitude of mind, from an inchoate to an 
organic trend of thinking. Inevitably we arc moving 
toward the larger significance of life and the larger rela- 
tions of the individual to that life as embodied in the 
people. 

Truly we are face to face with great things. 

The mind of youth should be squarely turned to these 
phenomena. He should be told, as he regards them, how 
long and bitterly the race has struggled that he might 
have freedom. 

His mind should be prepared to cooperate in the far- 
reaching changes now under way, and which will appear 
to him in majestic simplicity, breadth and clearness, when 
the sun of democracy shall have arisen but a little higher 
in the firmament of the race, illuminating more steadilv 
and deeply than now the mind and will of the individual, 
the minds and wills of the millions of men, his own mind 
and his own will. 

He should be shown, as a panorama, as a great drama, 
the broad sweep and flow of the vast life in which he is a 
unit, an actor ; and that of a vital necessity fundamental 
principles must nourish the roots of his life work and per- 
meate its branches, just as they must animate the work 
and life of the neighbor, for the general harmony, the 
good of all. 

He must be shown what the reality of history shows, 
namely, that optimism is an abiding emotion in the heart 
of the race, an emotion arising from the constant pres- 
sure of aspiring democracy seeking its own. 

He must be imbued with that pride, that sure quality 
of honor, which are the ethical flower of self-government 
and the sense of moral responsibility. He must be dis- 
tinctly taught his responsibility to his fellow-men. 

He should be taught that a mind empty of ideals is 
indeed an empty mind, and that there will be demanded 
of him, if not self-sacrifice, at the least self-restraint, self- 
denial, and that the highest of ideals is the ideal of de- 
mocracy. 

To this end history must be illumined for him and the 
story of his own day clarified. 

To this end he must be inspired first and always with 
a clear, full conception of what democracy truly means, 
what it has signified and now signifies for the emancipa- 
tion of man; what its cost in time, blood and sorrow- 
that it might emerge from the matrix of humanity; 
how priceless is it as a heritage — the most priceless of 
heritages ; and how valiantly, how loyally, how jealously 
should he as copartner in its beneficence cherish its su- 
perb integrity. 

He, born into democracy and therefore especially apt 
to deem it negligible, must be taught with persistent, un- 
tiring assiduity, by constant precept, warning and eulogy, 
that its existence, its perpetuation, its development, is as 
necessary to the fullness of life as is the physical air In- 
breathes. 

The beauty of nature should most lovingly be shown 
to him, and he encouraged to venerate and to prize that 
beauty. 

He should lie taught that he and the race are insepa- 



rably a part of nature and that his strength must come oi 
her bounty. 

His mind and heart should be opened to the inspira- 
tion of nature, his eye directed to the borderland of 
that infinite and unknown toward which she leads the 
thoughtful view, that he may know how great is man 
and yet how fragile, so will he see life in its momentous 
balance. 

He should be taught that the full span of one's life is 
but a little time in which to accomplish a worthy pur- 
pose: and yet should he be shown what men have done, 
what man can do. 

An art of expression should begin with childhood, 
and the lucid use of one's mother tongue should be typ- 
ical of that art. 

The sense of reality should be Strengthened from the 
beginning, yet by no means at the cost of those lofty 
illusions we call patriotism, veneration, love. 

He should be taught that high ideals make a people 
strong. 

That decay comes when ideals wane. 

He should be taught that civilization has a higher 
reach than the goal of material things, that its apex lies 
in the mind and the heart. 

He should be taught common honesty and that there 
is but one standard of honesty. 

He should be taught to despise hypocrisy and cant. 

This in my view is the fundamental of education be- 
cause it leads straight to manhood, because it makes for 
the moral and mental vigor of the race, because it leads 
toward a constantly expanding sense of humanity, be- 
cause under its aegis a true art may flourish. 

I am not of those who believe in lackadaisical methods. 
On the contrary I advocate a vigorous, thorough, exact 
mental training which shall fit the mind to expand upon 
and grasp large things and yet properly to perceive in 
their just relation the significance of small ones. to 
discriminate accurately as to quantity and quality, and 
thus to develop individual judgment, capacity and inde- 
pendence. 

But at the same time I am of those who believe that 
gentleness is a greater, surer power than force, and that 
sympathy is a safer power by far than is intellect. There- 
fore would I train the individual sympathies as carefully 
in all their delicate warmth and tenuity as I would de- 
velop the mind in alertness, poise and security. 

Nor am I of those who despise dreamers. For tin- 
world would be at tin- level of zero were it not for its 
dreamers gone and of to-day. He who dreamed of de- 
mocracy far back in a world of absolutism was indeed 
heroic, and we of to-day awaken to the wonder of his 
dream. 

How dee]i this dreamer saw into the heart of man' 

So would I nurse the dreamer of dreams, for in him 
nature broods while the race slumbers. 

So would I teach the art of dreaming as I would teach 
the science of thinking, as I would teach the value of 
ael ion. 

lb who knows naught of dreaming can, likewise, 
never attain the heights of power and possibility in p< 
SUading the mind to art , 

He who dreams not creates Qol 

For vapor must arise in the air before the rain can fall. 



u6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The greatest man of action is he who is the greatest 
and a lifelong dreamer. For in him the dreamer is forti- 
fied against destruction by a farseeing eye. a virile mind, 
a strong will, a robust courage. 

And so has perished the kindly dreamer, on the cross 
or in the garret. 

A democracy should not let its dreamers perish. They 
are its life, its guarantee against decay. 

Thus would I expand the sympathies of youth. 

Thus would I liberate and discipline all the construc- 
tive faculties of the mind and encourage true insight, true 
expression, real individuality. 

Thus would I concentrate the powers of will. 

Thus would I shape character. 

Thus would I make good citizens. 

And thus would I lay the foundations for a generation 
of real architects real because true men and dreamers 
in action. 



(d. ) Is a national American Art University a desir- 
able or necessary institution .' 

(c.) Should the art education of a nation he central- 
ized in one great school, and therefore the present schools be 
united with such central school anil detached from their 
present associations with other fields of instruction .' 

BY HERBERT B. BRIGGS. 

[d. ) In the discussion of this phase of our general 
subject we can very appropriately turn to the growth of 
the American liberal educational systems as typifying the 
true possibilities of united, intelligent, scholarly effort 
directed toward a desired end. 

Tracing the educational history of America through 
the country school, the grammar and high schools, the 
small college, the technical school, the post-graduate in- 
stitution and the great university, we find an uninter- 
rupted forward movement, irresistible in its giant force. 
going from poor or unorganized effort to perfected or- 
ganization. In all this growth, one of the most potent 
factors in its success has been the connection and re- 
lation of the municipal, state anil, in a way, the national 
governments to the public school, college and univer- 
sity. 

But our educational systems have tended more to the 
business than to the aesthetic development of the masses. 
In America the business idea predominates; the purely 
utilitarian means to the end is all-sufficient; a college ed- 
ucation is a good business investment; art has not been 
considered necessary to make brick, raise wheat, roll I 
beams, sell beef, refine coal oil, pave streets, run electric 
ears, make pressed carved furniture or build a country 
schoolhouse. 

The question arises, why this condition? Who, if 
any one in particular, is at fault? Not the farmer, the 
manufacturer, the mechanic, the business man. They 
have neither the time nor the inclination to develop the 
art side. 

The answer lies deeper, in the very necessary slow 
formative development period, as in all great, lasting 
movements for the upbuilding and betterment of man- 
kind; in the chaotic "catch as catch can" art educational 
methods of the past, and the lack of united effort and co- 



operation in those of the present. lint the continued 
growth of a better appreciation of good art; a disapproval 
of the bad; the organization and successful operation of 
art schools; the attention and space devoted to art litera- 
ture in the popular magazines; the encouragement given 
the various arts and crafts societies; the growth of the 
science and beautification of cities; the increasing num- 
ber of students studying in Europe; the influence of the 
art and architectural clubs and societies; the great im- 
provement and opportunity in government buildings, 
their embellishment and surroundings; and a general 
quickening of the American art pulse, — all indicate that 
the harvest is ripe, and we must look about for the 
proper implements to garner it and safely house it for 
the future. 

These conditions, with the ingenious American mind, 
the fundamentals of our government, the age and wealth 
of our nation, make possible, if the proper methods are 
pursued, the beginnings of the greatest art era the world 
has ever known. 

As have grown the American popular educational sys- 
tems, so should American art education grow. America 
can bequeath to coming generations an art inheritance 
such as ('■ recce and Rome gave to the world, if she will 
but grasp her opportunity. A national American Art 
University is a desirable and necessary institution in 
crystallizing and systematizing the art idea along lines 
of the greatest attainment. 

All permanent institutions must be builded upon the 
broadest possible foundation, fostered and maintained 
from sources which shall not be hampered by financial 
limitations, administered by the greatest minds of their 
age, supplied with every facility necessary to the fullest 
and most exhaustive study, and clothed with such legal 
powers as shall insure respect, consideration and re- 
sults. 

The national government can alone successfully meet 
all these essentials. 

I,. | The national university should lead, direct, fos- 
ter, encourage, create, supervise. Present art schools 
should not be detached from their present associations. 
They should continue their work in their own localities; 
they should be tributary to the national school, ever 
working in harmony with it. 

The university should be post-graduate in its work, 
offering opportunities for advanced study and research. 
It should encourage the organization of schools in every 
part of the country, so that students of small means might 
enjoy the opportunity of proper training. 

In a word, the national university should be the 
great art center of the nation, whose influence should 
radiate in living, working institutions. 



( /'. ) Should the national government have connection 
with and jurisdiction over a national art university, or 
should the organization and control be similar to that now 
existing in American universities ? 

{jr.) Would the artistic groivth of the nation reach its 
highest development without a great national centralized 
university? 

(h. ) ( on Id the present centers of art education, scattered 
in reference to locality and influence ami developing more or 



THE BRICKBUILD E R . 



i i 



less independently, attain to as high a total of efficiency and 
accomplishment ? 

BY PERCY ASH. 

(/. ) It seems to me that a great art university, in 

order to be national and to exert the influence that such 
an institution should exert, must by all means be under 
the jurisdiction of the national government. However 
valuable and important the courses in architecture at our 
universities are, the very nature of their surroundings 
precludes their exerting an influence wide enough to be- 
come national. 

The influence that our universities exert depends 
largely on tradition, endowment and location, and in this 
respect no one college preempts a field unapproachable 
by the others. In fact the course in architecture at most 
of our universities is far from equaling in importance the 
course in the arts or belles-lettres. The schools of archi- 
tecture and engineering being parallel courses of dis- 
tinctly less importance than those of Greek and Latin, 
the atmosphere at our great universities is therefore that 
of scholarship rather than art, and until the art atmos- 
phere dominates the entire school or university its influ- 
ence can in no sense be national. Columbia College is the 
first of our great universities to recognize the importance 
of the art atmosphere for a school of architecture. There 
they have recently separated the architectural course 
from that of the civil engineering and have started a new 
school of art, with course in architecture and music, soon 
to be followed by course in painting and sculpture; and 
in doing this Columbia College is the first of our uni- 
versities to recognize the fact that an architect is an 
artist and not a business or professional man in the usual 
acceptance of the term — a fact but scantily recognized 
in this country. 

A school of painting, sculpture, music and architec- 
ture, subsidized by the government, located in New York 
City and controlled by our most distinguished painters, 
sculptors, musicians and architects, with the resultant at- 
mosphere of art, would attract the most active minds from 
all parts of the country. The influence for good that such 
a national school would exert would be incalculable, har- 
monizing discordant ideas and allowing the national char- 
acteristics to develop in time to a distinct national style 
or manner. 

(£\) Individual effort, however well directed or tire- 
lessly sustained, has never accomplished as much as well- 
directed united effort. Therefore I do not think the high- 
est artistic growth of the nation can be reached without 
a great centralized national university. At present the 
architects of America are groping, " blind followers of 
the blind," without a definite end in view. That they are 
seeking the ideal is the one saving element. Among the 
warring styles which have appeared for a brief season, 
only to be cast aside when their incongruities have be- 
come apparent, may be numbered the Neo-Greek, the 
Gothic revival, the Romanesque, the Italian Renaissance, 
etc. Now we have the French manner of the " Beaux 
Arts " student, the archaeological manner of the purist, 
the stony manner of the engineer and the nameless man- 
ner of the untaught ; but the manner or style in thorough 
harmony with our civilization and environment the most 
charitable will admit that we have not. Only in the conn- 



try house (lot-s one see the first glimmering of a distinctly 
national art of architecture. 

A great national school of art, supplementing the work 
of our separate universities and colleges, teaching the 
basic principles of all living art and imbuing its students 
with the splendid enthusiasm necessary for the production 
of any great work of art, would accomplish in one decade 
what our present systems could not accomplish in ten. 

(//.) Sporadic effort has never accomplished as much 
as united effort. Then, too, the establishment of a great 
centralized university will not necessarily rob our archi- 
tecture of the variety due to local color. Local color is 
not style, only variation of style. Venice and Florence 
produced distinct varieties of Italian Renaissance, not two 
distinct styles. 

It is true that in the fourteenth and fifteenth cen- 
turies the independent cities of Italy reached a very 
high degree of development through individual effort. 
But Italy in the fifteenth century is not comparable with 
America in the twentieth. Art was almost a passion with 
those people, "a people who invested every form and 
variety of intellectual energy with the form of art." 
With us it has hardly touched the great mass of the 
public. Italy produced intellectual giants in those days, 
men who set a world's pace fur generations to follow 
and hope to equal. Then, too, they were united in this: 
they were working on the broad field, first, of Italian 
Gothic and later of Italian Renaissance always Italian, 
whether the type be that of Venice or Florence or Rome. 
What but a great and essentially national school of art 
can hope to produce harmony from the present discord, 
to breathe life into the dry bones of the "copyists," to 
clothe the foreign style with a national garb, to stimulate 
a new American Renaissance, having the old of Italy for 
its mother, beautiful with Iter beauty, grand with her 
grandeur, but imbued with life and courage, expressing 
not the civilization and life of Italy in the fifteenth cen- 
tury or of France in the seventeenth, but American civi- 
lization of the twentieth ? 



t /. ) What should be included in its curriculum ? 

(/•. I Should art art isanship, namely, the art crafts, he 
included? 

(I.) Should a national university he one primarily for 
the arts and era lis, and secondarily for tin (in< arts' 

\\\ ioiin \v. case. 

( /. ) The curriculum of a national American Art Uni- 
versity should include the study of the methods ol 
pression of all the fine arts, for all art is one at soul. 

whether expressed in poetical words, or in musical sounds, 
or witli a chisel or brush, or in building stone 

A university worthy the name is a seat of the highest 
culture, its courses of study cap the climax of educational 
effort, and requires from intending competitors for its 
honorary degrees comprehensive and thorough entrance 
qualifications. This is especially true of an art univer- 
sity, where the aim must be quality rather than quantity. 

An American university of art should exact, as an 

entrance qualification in architecture, the diploma of 
graduation from a recognized School of architecture or a 

■ ssful examination covering the same ground. 



IIS 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



'Phis is the province of the university, to supplement 
the instruction of the college; and it will allow the schools 
of architecture to lay broader foundations than at present, 
and leave to the university the study of specialties. 

The college graduate will not he obliged to go to 
Paris to perfect himself in architectural rendering and 
design. The university course will embody the highest 
principles of the aesthetics of architecture and the allied 
arts, and also a complete knowledge of the mathematics 
of architecture. 

The schools of architecture should be encouraged and 
broadened, their art influence extended. They should be 
tributaries to the university, whose doors should be open 
only to those who have already distinguished themselves. 

As an encouragement to undergo its long and ar- 
duous course of study, competitive examinations might 
be held each year to select those artists worthy of gov- 
ernment patronage and of travel abroad. 

(/. ) The arts and crafts should be included in the 
curriculum of a national art university; not at all from 
the standpoint of a trade school, nor to teach an appren- 
tice his trade: but on the contrary, the courses of study 
in arts and crafts should appeal to the exceptionally 
gifted artisan. They must give him the opportunity to 
meet the architectural student, and with him study the 
aesthetic qualities of his trade, the possibility of its future 
development, and its relations to its fellow arts. 

Such a course requires a professor with broad views, 
an inventive and enthusiastically creative art mind, that 
such courses might become creative sources of a charac- 
teristic and living art. 

If the arts and crafts are not instinct with art, the ab- 
stract art will not be great. 

Every epoch that produces great abstract art is a 
period of spontaneous and widespread appreciation of art 
by the masses of the people, as it was in the days of 
Greece and in the time of Gothic art and as it is to-day 
in Japan. 

Hence the arts and crafts at such epochs are sponta- 
neous, indigenous in the sense of being characteristic and 
instinct with art. 

When such an epoch arrives in America the brick- 
builder will produce brick beautiful in color and in tex- 
ture, possibly in shape. 

The steelmaker will produce beautiful forms not to be 
hidden in mock masonry. 

The plasterer will produce work beautiful in color, 
texture and surface pattern. And so on through all di- 
visions of the arts and crafts, each will be art. 

(/. ) So-called fine art. produced in a period when the 
arts and crafts are dead, is mere dry rot. 

All great art (fine or otherwise) has its source in and 
owes its being to a widespread and deep-rooted art in- 
stinct in the people. 

Great art is produced only in periods when art is liv- 
ing and indigenous in the sense of being characteristic. 
Such is not the character of our day. Our period has no 
widespread and deep-rooted art instinct, and no effort of 
the fine or luxurious arts will ever produce a widespread 
and deep-rooted art instinct in the people. Hut this art 
instinct will be created by the widespread influence of a 
living, growing art impulse in the arts and crafts, and 
this is the duty of our day. 



The most able architects of the day in designing their 
buildings consider the grouping of the parts of the build- 
ing in satisfying the practical requirement of the uses of 
the building. They study the proportions of the masses; 
the openings and wall spaces; the texture and color of the 
building material; the light and shade of the moldings; 
the decorative use of marbles, carving, color, etc. The 
elevation grows out of ami is the result of the plan and 
not simply an antique building adapted to a new use. 
But when all this is done the important part is left out. 
That which makes great art is still lacking. 

To all these essential qualities must be added charac- 
ter. Characterization in terms of beauty is the soul of art. 

The majestic intellectuality of the Greek temple and 
the poetical sublimity of the Gothic cathedral arc great 
characterizations of art. 

Will fine proportions make a great work of art? Is 
there any absolute law of proportion? Are the propor- 
tions of a Greek temple any better than those of a Gothic 
cathedral' and yet how different' 

Though the arts and crafts have proportion, color, 
texture and all else and lack character, character as Jap- 
anese art shows it to-day, they are nothing and utterly 
inadequate to a glorious opportunity. For architecture 
has a new constructive system and material, the steel 
frame, invented by the engineer, secreted by the archi- 
tect, but as yet the arts and crafts are unable to imprint 
upon this constructive system any form of beauty. 

The creative artistic imagination is necessary to every 
great work of art. It is the essential element in all pe- 
riods of living art, the highest attribute of the artist's 
mind, the most to be desired and the least sought after. 
A few projects will not develop this great power in the 
architectural student, nor will it be developed by the pro- 
saic routine of office work. It is the very life of the arts 
and crafts, without which they are dead. In studying to 
put new life in the arts and crafts the student is gaining 
the power of characterization; he is developing the cre- 
ative artistic imagination: he is gaining the power to cre- 
ate, to endow art with life. The architect of to-day lias 
a great moral obligation to fulfill, a duty to his art. to his 
day, to his fellow-men. His influence, if rightly exerted, 
can exercise a great power in the nascence of art. He 
must attempt to exert an art influence in every branch of 
the building trades, that their results may become spon- 
taneous art. 

This influence is widespread and extends through 
many branches, which once become spontaneous will ex- 
ert a powerful influence in creating an epoch of sponta- 
neous, characteristic art, a great art period. 

Therefore it is of great importance that the arts and 
crafts be studied from the artist's point of view by pres- 
ent and future architects. 

This is said commonly in cold words lacking power to 
stir the imagination. It should be written in characters 
of fire of entrancing hue to the eye and soundsof thunder 
in harmonious cadence to the ear. 



{r.) Can a system of self-education by means* of club 
association be permanently established t 

(s. ) Is such a system demanded by present conditions ? 

(t .) Won l<i such a system, seriously undertaken, self- 
supporting, and maintaining itself by methods of self-gov- 



THE BR I CK BU I L I)K R 



119 



ernment, be productive of commensurate results, both of 
quantity and quality ? 

(11.) What should be the plan and scope of such a sys- 
tem of club and inter -club self-education f 

(?'.) Can a connection be established between such a 
system and the architectural educational institutions ? 

{70.) What could and should be the nature of such a 
connection ? 

BY GEORGE BISPHAM PAGE. 

It is difficult to determine when the education of an 
architect terminates, or, indeed, whether it may ever he 
said to have terminated, as is evidenced by many instances 
where an architect has done or is doing his best work only 
after many years of practice, and this, too, in face of the 
commonly accepted supposition that his education has 
long since been completed. But the thinking architect 
in the course of his practice is continually developing new 
ideas, and perhaps unlearning many of the rules he had 
been brought up to believe hard and fast, and to take a 
broader and more modern view of the subject. This de- 
velopment is largely, or one might say almost entirely, 
due to the conscientious and logical solution of problems 
arising in his practice, and the more frequent and varied 
these problems the more facile will he become, the more 
rapid will be his development and the sooner will he reach 
a higher plane of architectural education. To this end, 
then, it is most important that the architectural draughts- 
man or student should avail himself of every opportunity 
to exercise his ability and train his mind in the solution 
of problems carefully drawn up for the purpose of bring- 
ing out those qualities tending towards his development 
to a degree that it is almost impossible to attain in the 
routine work of the office, which (as far as that which 
falls to his share is concerned) may be of a very limited 
and far from stimulating character. 

(;-. ) We are asked, "Can a system of self-education 
by means of club association be permanently established?" 
It would seem that such a system by such a means conlcl 
be established on a permanent basis by the cooperation 
of the clubs forming the Architectural League of America 
if taken up seriously by the administrative bodies of the 
individual clubs, and the interest of the members aroused 
in the formation of the necessary classes that would be 
required in order to attain the best results. 

{s.) That this system is actually "demanded by pres- 
ent conditions" is not, perhaps, to be so affirmatively 
stated as it might have been a few years since, in view of 
the numerous and excellent schools of architecture estab- 
lished in different parts of the country. 

But the fact remaining that such schools do not as yet 
exist in many localities, and also that there arc many 
draughtsmen who are unable for various reasons to avail 
themselves of these opportunities where they do exist, it 
would seem that the establishment of such a system 
would be most excellent and beneficial. 

(/.) That such a system to be a success must be seri- 
ously undertaken, goes without saying. 

It could certainly be carried out on a practically self- 
supporting basis and, it would seem, "be productive of 
commensurate results, both of quantity and quality.' 

(u.) Now, then, we naturally come to the considera- 
tion of "what should be the plan and scope of such a 



system of education " in order to bring it to a practical 
working basis, avoiding anything that would cause com- 
plications or discourage possible candidates; in other 
words, to make it as attractive as possible to all, and more 
especially to induce the younger element of the clubs to 
enter into it enthusiastically and not to be discouraged 
by competing with older men who have had greater 
experience and possibly already sonic school training. 
Mapping out a scheme in general terms, let us consider 
the system as consisting of a two years' course; the sub- 
jects of study being papers in the form of compositions 
on various architectural topics, construction in its various 
branches, the history of the different periods, etc., water- 
color and pencil sketches, studies from the model and 
problems in design; that a scholarship of some sort be 
awarded to the student who shall have made the best 
general showing in his work and who shall have per- 
formed all the work prescribed for the full course of two 
years in the most creditable manner. In the formulation 
of a few simple rides for a basis upon which to establish 
this system it might be suggested that 

No student shall become a second-year man until he 
shall have completed the full course of the first year, and 
no student shall be an eligible candidate for the scholar- 
ship who shall not have completed the full course of both 
the first and second years. 

The names of all candidates shall be enrolled with the 
central committee at the commencement of each year. 
It seems that these conditions would serve to bring out 
and encourage a greater number of younger students and 
at the same time insure the serious application of all who 
should enter, whereby alone the best results are to be at- 
tained. This would also preclude the possibility of some- 
one man entering at random and perhaps, by a few lucky 
strokes, winning over those who for general excellence 
were more deserving. In addition to the award of tin- 
scholarship, first and second honorable mentions might 
be awarded in the two classes. 

The various topics as above mentioned on which the 
students would prepare papers would be propounded by 
a central committee or board of governors and examined 
by them and each student given a mark according to the 
merit of his composition, these marks to be taken into 
consideration in determining his standing at the end "I 
the year. 

Sketch and life classes should be established in the 
various clubs, and each student should submit to the ecu 
tral committee at the end of the year examples of his 
work in these classes, which would also be taken into COD 

side-ration in determining his standing. 

There should be five problems in design in each year. 
and in order that these subjects might also be made a 
part of the regular work of the individual clubs as a part 
of their regular club competitions it would be expedient 

that the same subject be given both the first and second 

classes, each drawing properly marked to designati 
which class it might belong. These drawings would then 

be voted upon in the various clubs at their meetings and 
first, second and third mentions awarded in each class, and 

e mention drawings sent to the central committee t<> 

be examined at the end of the year to determine the stu 

dent's standing. After the central committee shall have 

made the award of the scholarship all these mention 



120 



T UK B R I C K B U I L I) E R 



drawings shall be sent from club to club, forming the cir- 
cuit exhibit of the Architectural League of America. 

(;. :<•. ) That connection be established between a sys- 
tem of club and inter-club self-education and the various 
institutions of architectural education docs not seem alto- 
gether feasible, unless it be that such a connection he es- 
tablished by having the central committee composed of 
professors from the various architectural schools, whose 
experience in educational matters and ability to turn the 
thoughts of the student in the proper channels would be 
a distinct advantage and practically insure the successful 
working out of the system as suggested by the educa- 
tional committee in the questions to which it has here 
been sought to give a practical solution. 



ADDRESS BY FREDERICK S. LAMB. 

This question is one of great interest to us, because 
the future of all the professions depends in great meas- 
ure on the system of education as established. In listen- 
ing to the papers which have been read, particularly the 
papers of Mr. Sullivan of Chicago and Mr. Robinson of 
Rochester, it seems to me we have had presented a diffi- 
culty which is likely to confront us in the future. We 
have heard a number of statements which show the in- 
fluence of the sociological tendency of the present time; 
and it has occurred to many of us that if this is allowed 
to influence the curriculum or system of art education 
throughout the country, the progress of educational ef- 
fort will be delayed by overweighting the professional 
man with a task which will be more than he can possibly 
accomplish. For instance, we are called upon as profes- 
sional men to solve questions of sanitation and engineer- 
ing; we have thrust upon us questions of clean streets, 
model tenements, bridge-building, and many others which 
as a matter of fact are not within our province. 

A brief summary of what has been accomplished in 
the past may in a measure indicate to us what may be 
accomplished in the future. In looking back we find that 
the guild system produced a state of civilization which 
created one of the greatest arts the world has ever seen. 
The Florentine guilds to take probably the best ex- 
ample by a system of organization, intercommunica- 
tion and correspondence, practically controlled the art 
development of the world for two hundred years. In 
fact, they went further: they enunciated a principle which 
in time controlled the political development of the coun- 
tries in which they existed. From the time of the guilds 
we come to the Middle Ages, in which fortunately we 
find none of those distinctions or differentiations in art 
with which we are afflicted to-day. In the Renaissance 
there was no such thing as fine art distinct from the arts 
and crafts no such distinction as we are to-day trying 
to build up and with which we arc confusing ourselves. 
The men of those days started as apprentices, worked up 
through the various stages of their craft and did their 
work as craftsmen, and future generations regarded them 
as great. I do not think any of those men considered 
themselves great. They were simply answering the 
questions asked in the country and the day in which they 
lived, and future generations referred to them as masters. 

After the Middle Ages we come to a larger form of 
development and consolidation. I might say parenthet- 



ically that even so great a movement as the Crusades 
was practically organized, promoted and carried out by 
the commercial interests of the times. It came to me as 
a great surprise when I discovered that motive power 
behind this great religious movement. As a matter of 
fact the Crusades were financed in Florence, and were 
projected as a great commercial venture. There can be. 
in fact, no true art that does not conform to the require- 
ments of the age in which it exists. In that deduction 
we have the answer to one half of our questions. It is 
impossible to-day to dictate methods in the art of to- 
morrow. These must be formulated to meet the needs 
of their own time. Now, we have a problem much 
larger than any that was ever given to any group of art 
workers in the world's history. Within the last fifty or 
sixty years two great forces have been harnessed and 
practically made subservient to the government of men. 
I speak of steam and electricity. The moment we realize 
this fact, that moment we must recognize the influence of 
machinery on art products; and hence we must realize that 
all former systems of art education fall to the ground, and 
that any reference to precedent is a waste of time. Any 
system of education, whatever it may be. whether under 
government auspices or under private control, must take 
into consideration these great forces which are molding 
and guiding the development of the present day. 

We have another point to consider: while we refer to 
the precedents of the past, we must recognize, in watch- 
ing the development of art from the time of the Floren- 
tine guild to the present day, that the so-called art of 
that time was deflected and lost touch with the develop- 
ment of the world as a whole. We find, in watching this 
to the present day, that we have created, through three 
or four hundred years of development, what is called a 
great Salon picture. We had a striking illustration of 
one at the Pan-American Exhibition at Buffalo in Roche- 
grosse's painting "The Fall of Babylon." He had been 
one of the brightest pupils in the European schools of art, 
carrying off all the medals, and had been hailed as one of 
the greatest of modern painters. Vet his great picture 
was exhibited in the Midway at an entrance fee of ten 
cents, and practically took its place with The Trip to 
the Moon and The Land of the Midnight Sun. In that 
case we have a striking example of the so-called modern 
development of art. The man who has followed art for 
art's sake, who has created an aristocratic atmosphere, 
who locks himself up in his own little studio and produces 
something dictated by himself, for which he formulates 
the conditions under which it is produced, is a false prod- 
uct of the times, and is a thousand miles away from the 
product as it ought to be. We have a partial solution of 
the question presented in a very remarkable way in the 
development of the exposition idea. The one sign of 
hope which we have at the present time is this great art 
development, which is nothing more nor less than a result 
of commercial enterprise in the form of a great exposition. 
The first exposition in France produced the Trocadero, 
which was left by the promoters of that exposition as a 
permanent asset to Paris, and which established a style of 
architecture which up to that time had been unknown. 
The first exposition of any importance in England, the 
Crystal Palace Exposition, practically founded the South 
Kensington school. Englishmen recognized how much 



THE BRICKfU'II.]) E R. 



1 2 I 



England was behind the continent in various designs of 
the arts and crafts, and after that exposition they founded 
the South Kensington school and all that it implies. 
Coming to this country, we find that the Centennial Im- 
position left us as its permanent contribution the Art 
Gallery in Philadelphia. We find that the promoters of 
one of the later French expositions attempted a most 
elaborate system of sculpture applied to architecture. I n 
our Pan-American Exposition we find not only sculpture 
but color as an adjunct to architecture experimented with. 
The promoters of the St. Louis Exposition are going one 
step further, and instead of having an art department, like 
previous expositions, they are having an art department 
so broadened as to include decorative arts and the arts 
and crafts. 

In the matter of education much can be done by such 
organizations as the Architectural League of America. 
The point of view not only of colleges and universities 
but of the public schools must be such as to recognize 
that a true art ediication must be established on a broad 
basis and answer fully the demands of the particular time 
and age in which it exists. 

Just one word on the question of style. We have had 
the injunction telegraphed to us: "Put yourselves on 
record in favor of a national art." Mr. Perkins very 
truly and wisely suggested that we should favor art, not 
a national art ; that we should speak of style, not a 
national style. Every one of us has been more or less 
confused by constant changes in style. We find a style 
of art springing tip, arousing widespread interest for 
a time, then suddenly losing its popularity, declining 
and ultimately disappearing. The truth is that art must 
return to nature and be revivified by a constant contact 
with and study of nature in order to live; and the reason 
a style becomes effete and lacking in interest is that the 
custom prevails of the sttident merely copying the master 
without understanding the purpose of the master or the 
sources from which he draws his inspiration. The result 
is that the student merely retains the mannerisms of the 
master while losing his spirit. The student copies the 
master and then the student copies the student, and when 
that happens you have the death of the style. Any move- 
ment in art which is to be of advantage to the world at 
large must sooner or later return to nature to be revivi- 
fied and refreshed. If we keep this point before our 
eyes we shall have no difficulty in defining the cur- 
riculum and the necessary course to be pursued in order 
to establish a system of art education which will be a 
great success. 

You may say that I am indulging in generalities. I 
will give you a concrete example of what I mean. There 
is no doubt in my mind that there should be in this coun- 
try a great national center for the development of ai I 
a university which should deal with it upon broad, general 
lines. Such an institution would have its annexes or de- 
partments relating, for instance, to textiles, metals, glass, 
and other specialties. These departments could be easily 
classified, and to them only those men should devote 
themselves who intend to pursue them as their life work. 
Yet these departments would be merely addenda or an- 
nexes to the general school, the purpose of which would 
be to teach the fundamental principles of art on broad, 
simple lines. 



Civic Art as Evolution, not 
R.e\ olution. 

\:\ ill VRLES Ml I I ori) ROBINSON. 

I WISH to suggest for your consideration civic art as 
the latest step in the course of civic evolution, that 
the flowering of great cities into beauty is the sure and 
ultimate phase of a progressive development. Consider 

how it has represented the crown of each successive civi- 
lization. If decadence has followed it; if the beauty of 
Babylon, the storied splendor <>i Carthage, if the chaste 
loveliness of Athens and the magnificence of Rome 
marked in each case the culmination of an empire, it has 
been through no effeminacy and weakness inherent in 
the development itself. Rather has it been because the 
glory showered upon these cities was a concentrated ex- 
pression of the highest civilization and the highest culture 
of which the empire was capable. 

All that is best the city draws to itself. As magnets 
acting on filings of steel, the cities .attract from their de- 
pendent fields whatever there be of learning, culture and 
art. The adornment that was lavished upon Venice, 
Florence and the minor city-republics of Italy, and again 
Upon the blemish cities, represented not weakness but 
the virility and rich abundance of those qualities of mind 
and heart which expressed themselves in the southern 
and northern renaissance. Had the cities been less beau- 
tiful, the renaissance had been less notable. They mutu- 
ally interpret each other; and cities begin to bud ami 
flower in beauty only when learning, culture and art are 
flowering around them. As long as these grow in might, 
cities grow in nobility, being concentrated expressions "t 
these forces. 

The development will differ, of course, in aspect as 
the civilizations differ in character. The art of Greece 
was sculpture, and the glory of Athens in her golden age 
was the chiseled art of the Acropolis. Rome was impe- 
rial, and her glory found expression in construction that 
was colossal and magnificent. The art, again, of the 
southern renaissance was painting, and we find in fres- 
coes and in the more delicate, more pictorial phases of ar- 
chitecture the triumph of the Italian republics. To-day 
the spirit of the time is commercial and industrial, and 
our modern civic art expresses itself in terms that com- 
merce and industry comprehend. That our civic art 
must differ from that of Other tunes does not mean, th 
fore, that it is not art, or that the new day for cities will 
be less brilliant than of old. Rather, if truly the heir of 
the past, it must be the new glory of a new time. 

Commerce and industry now express themselves, in 
tlie realm of city aesthetics, in greal highways, in com- 
mercial palaces, in bridges and wharves and stations. 
The love of nature, the lately aroused consciousness oi 
what we may call the sentiment for landscape, brings 
vegetation into the busy city to soften and brighten; and 

then the spirit of practical philanthropy, so evident to-day, 
plants playgrounds, builds schools, and insists that mod- 
ern civic art shall pervade all quarters of the town. 
modeling alleys as well as avenues. 

If, in general, civic art be a phase of urban evolution. 
it should be possible to trace the steps by which it is ap 



I 22 



TIIK HRICKBUILDER. 



proached. hi the new rise of cities, consider what these 
have been. There came first the aggregation. Where 
no city had been the people flocked the reason need not 
now concern us — until there was a city. The aggrega- 
tion continuing led quickly to congestion, at least in parts 
of the community, and close upon congestion came 
squalor. We had now a large city, a crowded city and 
a miserable one. ( Hit of misery came corruption, de- 
bauch of the popular conscience, and, from such favor- 
able conditions, political knavery. These, swiftly, are 
the steps of the downward course. But all the time there 
were forces at work for good. The very evil into which 
affairs had passed created a disgust that vastly aided the 
reform endeavors. So reform efforts gained gradually in 
importance. 

Ideals were put before the people, and to some extent 
assimilated. There had already been evidences of aes- 
thetic aspiration, first noted in those quarters in which 
was congregating wealth, that wealth which had begun 
to accumulate in accordance with the laws the foreseeing 
of whose operation had induced the forming of the city. 
But such is the force of good example that the aesthetic 
aspirations had spread broadly through the town. Ele- 
mentary construction, also, had begun. At first this was 
for the sake of the traffic and of sanitation, but by 
degrees it had a more distinctly .esthetic purpose. Of 
these forward steps, sonic of course were taken eoinci- 
dently with the backward, for the community did not 
march first one way and then the other. Two forces 
were pulling in opposite directions, and if political knav- 
ery turned constructive efforts in the public works to its 
own evil purposes, the physical condition of the town in 
its turn gained something from the official eagerness to 
rob it and the Stupid dormancy of tin- popular conscience 
that afforded the opportunity for such outrage in ordinary 
constructive work. Thus the early improvements were 
purchased at an immensely extravagant price; but there 
were improvements and they were hastened. 

With varying celerity the conscience now awakens. 
The reform efforts enlisted individuals, and then associa- 
tions of individuals, who were concerned in bettering 
not alone the government, but the aspect, of the town. 
Where officials were distrusted and individuals and asso- 
ciations tried to act by themselves, or where the trust in 
officials was misplaced, there followed necessarily much 
waste, extravagance and positive injury by poor taste. 
As the like result followed either of these choices, we 
find its expression indeed almost universal. Then came 
another phase in the civic development. This was per- 
ception of the waste, extravagance and lack of artistic- 
judgment, and a willingness to seek their correction by 
submission to expert guidance. With this conic cooper- 
ation, eagerness to learn the experience of other places 
and to profit by it, and dependence on those authorities 
whose knowledge, genius or talent is broadly recog- 
nized. With this new chapter, wherever it is now entered 
upon, begins modern civic art as distinguished from 
merely the improvement of cities. 

In the broad field of cities examples can readily be 
found to illustrate the successive steps in this general 
evolution. The phases will differ slightly here and there 
as national and local peculiarities stamp the development, 
but the course is clear, essentially uniform, and leading 



surely to civic aesthetics as its visible crown. So civic 
art properly stands for more than beauty in the city. It 
represents a moral, intellectual and administrative prog- 
ress as surely as it does the purely physical. It stands 
for conscientious officials and for public spirit. Where 
officials arc elected by the people it must be an evidence 
also of an aroused and intelligent populace. 

Perhaps the Steps of this civic evolution will stand out 
more clearly if we turn from abstractions to the concrete. 

The census bulletins of the United States show that 
in that country during the nineteenth century there came 
into existence 533 communities of S.ooo or more inhabit- 
ants each. If we call them all by the name that doubtless 
four fifths of them claim, we shall group them as cities, 
and can say, in the census phrase, that in 1800 the urban 
population was contained in twelve communities and rep- 
resented four per cent of the total population, while in 
1900 it constituted 545 communities containing more than 
thirty-three per cent of the total population. 

This is a group of statistics that illustrates conven- 
iently that nineteenth-century phenomenon which is 
known as the "urban drift," and which was no more 
marked in the United States than in other nations 
most notably in Germany and England. This, as repre- 
senting the " aggregation," constitutes what we may call 
the first step in the civic evolution. 

To find some of these communities that are vet in the 
earlier stages of the subsequent development we may turn 
with best assurance to the western states. In the newer 
towns congestion will not, happily, be revealed; but that 
is a spectacle too familiar in cities of all nations and all 
times to need illustration, and dreariness has not waited 
upon congestion. We find the town growing on lines 
determined partly by accident and partly by the push of 
enterprising real estate holders, not at all according to 
artistic design. There is little that can be reasonably 
called architecture. If a man wants a store, a barn or a 
house, he goes to the carpenter, and the carpenter puts up 
the long, single-gabled frame structure that is the sim- 
plest and cheapest. Possibly, if the owner be a merchant 
ami ambitious to have his emporium impressive, a square 
front, built to the height of the roof peak, may he put 
before the skeleton structure, but this, misleading no one, 
hardly serves to change the type. If there be no time to 
build attractive houses, certainly there is none in which 
to plant gardens. People have not come to live in the 
place because it is pretty, but because they want to make 
money, and they have not learned yet to love the town. 
It will not even represent "home "to them for several 
years. Clearly, civic aesthetics are at the antitheses of 
this phase; we are yet at the beginning of urban develop- 
ment. In fact such public spirit as there may be is so 
crude and sordid that it counts anything — even a water 
tank as growth. The moral, intellectual and political 
conditions in this dreary town need not here concern us. 
Put they cannot be high. 

We may pass now to those thriving cities of about 
thirty thousand inhabitants which, met so frequently in 
the more closely settled portions of a country, well rep- 
resent another stage in the development. In the United 
States they are frankly industrial communities. Political 
affairs are in that condition when out of the sore need 
of reform endeavors there is a more or less continuous 



THE HRICKHC1I.I) E R . 



1 23 



series of spasmodic reform efforts. But the physical im- 
provement of the town has gone steadily though expen- 
sively forward. The town is well lighted; most of the 
important streets are paved, and there are rather more 
sewer and water pipes than perhaps are needed, or if 
the aggregate be not excessive, their location is not of 
the best, for they have been extended on some streets 
that may not be built up for a decade at the expense of 
others that are populated. The industry of the town 
has begun to roll up the expected private gain. The old 
type of building has given way again and again to some- 
thing ornate, garish and showy. Iron is favored because 
it can be made to suggest stone, while being cheap. 
There are stores with cast-iron fronts; there are lawns 
with red iron deer; there is a soldiers' monument of iron. 
It is the iron age. The houses are now of all kinds. 
From the extreme of monotony the town has reacted, 
seeking the extremes of originality. But the residence 
streets are lined with trees, the square in front of the 
court house is kept in order, and most of the houses 
stand in little gardens that add much to the attractive- 
ness of the place. The people have begun to love their 
city. It is their home, and they like to have strangers 
call it " attractive." There are distinct yearnings toward 
better things. ^Esthetic ambition has been born. 

The next step in the evolution develops rapidly. A 
park is laid out. If it is done somewhat apologetically 
with a pushing forward of philanthropic reasons, no one- 
is deceived as to the relative importance of these. Gifts 
are made to the town. The memorial fountain is really 
stone, for the iron age has passed; and the new public 
library is so unmistakably a thing of beauty that although 
it did not cost as much as the post office, it is shown to 
the visitor with no less pride. The new public schools 
are not barracks within and do not resemble factories 
on the outside. The factories themselves are improving; 
and public sentiment has so crystallized that a society 
has been formed to insist that rubbish be not thrown into 
the street, that the station grounds be improved, that 
flowers be generally grown, and the waste places taken 
care of. 

This improvement effort is, however, unguided. 
There is immense scope for the poor taste of untrained 
individualism. And as the city grows larger and its re- 
sources increase, the public works become more spectacu 
lar and are striking. The need of artistic guidance both 
in public and private affairs is more keenly felt; the ex- 
travagance and wastefulness of duplicated effort is real- 
ized; the value of an authoritative aesthetic control is 
perceived, and it is appreciated that to make true advance 
in civic art — which is now frankly a goal- there is 
needed something more than means and impulse. 

Various efforts are made to provide the required artis- 
tic supervision. If these are reasonably successful, the 
city — now rich, self-confident, ambitions for its hig 
life and its development in beauty — has reached an ad- 
vanced and healthy phase in its evolution. Without 
much regard as to what the means are, so long as they 
are successful, there dawns a period of civic art. 

The plan may be to elect as administrative officers of 
the city persons whose education, refinement and culture, 
as well as executive ability and business sagacity, are 
a guarantee that the right things will be done and done 



well. This has been for the most part the outcome of 
the civic reform efforts in Great Britain, and has hastened 
the dawn among British cities of a civic art based on 
business principles. In France, under the leadership ol 

Paris, the method has been to summon to the services 
of the municipality in an advisory capacity the best ex- 
perts and artists of the city, and the result has been the 

development of civic aesthetics on thoroughly artistic 

lines. In the United States, where the effort has included 

the appointment of "art commissions," the banding to- 
gether of cities and of conscientious city officials in 
leagues, the association for the public good of artists and 

architects, and an immense amount of effort by popular 
improvement societies with the usurpation by them of 
critical functions the tendency, so far as there may be 
said to be a tendency, is toward federation, cooperation 
and the exchange of experiences, to the end that there 
may be evolved so precise a science of city building that 
henceforth no community need be Ugly. 

The German theory of city administration is based still 
more emphatically on scientific principles, almost to the 
exclusion of other considerations, but it differs from the 
American in that its dependence is not so much upon 
a science as upon scientists. '['lie burgomaster and his 
magistrates are the best experts procurable, and the 
council of the latter dot's not pretend to be citizen-rcprc- 
sentativc, but is made up of honored, highly paid, pro- 
fessional and permanent employees trained to the work 
of city administration. In Germany, therefore, civic art 
takes on something of the thoroughness and exhaustive- 
ness of German science. 

The varying national developments of this late phase 
or urban evolution are thus interesting mainly as empha- 
sizing the fact that the modern movement toward civic 
art is international. They reveal, too, that however the 
exact course of the evolution may vary in different 
places, municipal aesthetics the flowering of cities in 
beauty is the ultimate, the highest step. It is the phase 
toward which all the other urban changes tend. It is the 
goal toward which we are swiftly moving and which is 
to mean more perhaps to architects than to the members 
of any other one profession. Its coincident demands upon 
them will be many, and in its gradual rounding into com- 
pleteness they will find much for them of lofty inspira- 
tion. 



The officers of the convention were Ernest J. Russell. 
St. Louis, speaker, and Albert E. Skeel of Cleveland. 

rotary. 

There were no other League officers elected besides 
Mr. Lamb as president, as the remainder of the executive 

committee arc to be elected by the new president m eon- 
junction with the organization which he represents. 

The next convention of the League will be held in St. 
Louis during the month of ( ictober, 1903. It was thought 

advisable to hold t he eon vent ion there at that time, that 

the work of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition might 

studied in its progressive Stages, rather than to wait until 
l, when the work will be completed and the Exposi- 
tion itself would offer attractions to visiting members 

which would possibly jeopardize the interests of the con 
vention. 



I 2. 1 



THE BRICK1UIILDKR. 



Building Construction and the Insur- 
ance Companies. 

THE recognition of the duty of the community to 
protect its inhabitants against inflammable con- 
struction has been already delayed too long. In times of 
plague and pestilence the apprehensions of the people de- 
mand radical measures for the elimination of the threat- 
ening danger; yet the dangers of conflagration are con- 
tinually overlooked, and fires are regarded as inevitable. 

That the community looks upon destruction by fire 
with easy toleration is due to the ignorance of the pos- 
sibilities of fire prevention and retardation, as well as the 
belief that if the building is insured there will be no loss, 
because the insurance company will pay it. It is sur- 
prising to learn the prevalence of the belief that no loss 
is incurred if the building is insured, and before any 
popular realization of the actual destruction by tire can 
be hoped for, this widespread belief must be shown to be 
erroneous. 

The old adage that " it makes all the difference in the 
world whose ox is gored " finds its confirmation in the 
easy acceptance of the losses of the insurance companies 
by the people who thoughtlessly believe that the in- 
surance companies pay the losses, and as long as this 
belief finds ready acceptance, natural selfishness and in- 
difference t<> the losses of others will retard the progress 
toward the better construction of buildings. 

When the actual truth is recognized that the insurance 
companies merely perform the ..flue of collectors, and that 
the community pays them not only for doing this service 
but also pays all the losses as well, we may then hope for 
a better state of affairs. 

The first demand which the community will then 
hasten to insist upon, through the promptings of what 
the statesmen call "enlightened selfishness, " will be the 
establishment of ;t "board of Fire Prevention." Mill- 
ions of dollars are annually spent in maintaining men 
and fire-fighting apparatus, yet who has ever heard of 
a cent spent to prevent the conditions which give rise to 
tins- We have our Boards of Health, which promptly 
abate nuisances and abolish the causes which produce 
them, and who frame regulations which prohibit the con- 
struction of apparatus or fixtures which tend to cause 
insanitary conditions; we have our boiler inspectors to 
prohibit the use of unfit boilers; our building inspectors 
to guard against the use of inferior materials in the con- 
struction of buildings; our steamboat inspectors to pre- 
vent the use of dangerous vessels; our street-cleaning in- 
spectors to certify that the streets are clean; we have 
inspectors of the poor and coroners for the investigation 
of sudden deaths; yet we have no officer corresponding to 
that of coroner to investigate the cause of sudden fires 
and fix the blame and prescribe the penalty for their oc- 
currence. 

It hardly needs an argument to show that if a frac- 
tion of the money which is now spent in maintaining fire 
departments were spent in the inspection of buildings 
already erected and occupied, thereafter less money would 
need to be spent on the fire department, because there 
would be less need of its services, and as an outcome of 
this pre-fire inspection the inferior construction of build- 



ings and the condition that gives rise to fire would be- 
come so manifest that an immediate improvement in 
building construction could be looked for. 

Let us for the present pass over these manifest duties 
of the community to itself and look at the conditions as 
we find them to-day. and see if there is a remedy at hand, 
and if so how it can be applied. 

The remedy which first suggests itself is this: Let a 
rate be made which discriminates against poor construc- 
tion of all kinds. Let also an agreement be made speci- 
fying the kinds of construction which are hazardous and 
prohibiting the placing of insurance on such properties. 
It would not be long after such an agreement had been 
made and lived up to before a howl would arise from 
the owners of uninsurable property against the insurance 
companies, and this howl would serve a twofold purpose 
of not only calling the attention of the neighbors and 
the community to the hazardous condition of the property 
in question, but it would also convince the public that the 
insurance companies were looking after their (the people's) 
welfare in not accepting hazardous risks; and from this 
agitation the public attention would be called to lax laws 
which permitted such construction, and an intelligent pub- 
lic sentiment in favor of safe construction would be formed. 

If the insurance companies could reach such an under- 
standing regarding the non-insurable risks, — and such an 
agreement should be much easier of attainment than the 
existing requirements as to rates, — it would of course put 
upon them the responsibility of formulating or determin- 
ing a set of building laws which would have to be followed 
out in order to obtain insurance, and such a responsibil- 
ity would have to be met in the most intelligent manner. 

The recent meeting of the National Fire Protective 
Association in Philadelphia demonstrated the neeessity 
of the widest knowledge in attempting the framing of 
laws or requirements governing the construction of 
buildings. Without this knowledge all regulations will 
fail of acceptance because of their unreasonableness or 
their manifest inapplicability to the structural and eco- 
nomic recpiirements. Recpiirements that are based on 
mere whim or prejudice or on unanalyzed experience 
will not be accepted by reasoning and analytical design- 
ers, and therefore it behooves the insurance companies 
to see that their recpiirements can stand analysis and 
demonstration. 

As an illustration of this point, the underwriters 
require in the case of what is known as "Standard Mill 
Construction," that the posts shall rest end on end, and 
that all girders shall be self-releasing. This requirement 
practically prohibits the use of continuous columns and 
girders, and at the same time prevents all lateral stiffness 
in the interior construction and compels reliance on the 
walls alone for all resistance to lateral distortion. This 
failure to utilize the stiffness of the interior construction 
requires the outer walls to be needlessly increased in 
thickness and greatly increases the cost. The design of 
high buildings has necessitated the study of winds and 
Other forces acting on them tending to cause lateral dis- 
tortion or overturning, and as a result of this study the 
building laws of most cities require provision for these 
forces in determining the sections and the connections of 
the columns and girders. 

If a high mill building constructed under the present 



THE BRICKIUJIIJ) E R 



specifications of the underwriters were subjected to analy- 
sis for these lateral forces, it would be found to be inade- 
quate to resist them, and the only reason it does stand is 
because it is not exposed to them; but the fact that it is 
not capable of withstanding the same forces which a 
skeleton building would be designed to resist, shows the 
necessity of using the internal construction to help resist 
these lateral forces. 

The conditions under which mill buildings are de- 
signed to-day under the underwriters' specifications, 
which ignore the question of lateral stability, produce 
a similar type of buildings in structural design to those 
we formerly had under the cast-iron-column system, 
which type was abandoned by structural designers, for 
one reason, because of the impossibility of securing 
adequate connections between the abutting columns and 
between the column and the girder. 

A much better type of connection is possible than that 
now prescribed by the underwriters, and it is to be hoped 
that the insurance requirements will be so amended as to 
permit it. 

This illustration is brought forward merely to show 
that if the responsibility of better constructive methods 
is to be assumed by the insurance companies, in order for 
it to be effective it must in the first place be right and in 
the second place be reasonable. 

It is quite easy for any one in authority or any body 
of men who have power to control the placing of insur- 
ance to arbitrarily frame regulations and give no more 
demonstration of their necessity than to say, " I want it 
so, "or for a body of men to vote upon regulations or 
requirements influenced by and depending upon the judg- 
ment of one or two men of their number. 

It is also quite easy to legislate other people's money 
away in making requirements which place an unwarranted 
burden on the owners of buildings, and that without any 
corresponding good to the owners or to the community. 

By study, knowdedge and experience the structural en- 
gineers and the railroad and bridge companies have been 
able to frame a general specification governing the de- 
sign of steel bridges which will insure the construction 
of a bridge for any span, etc., meeting all the require- 
ments of good practice; and practically the same thing 
can be said of the steel frame of the modern skeleton 
building. It is of course an easier matter to write such 
a specification for a bridge with its simple requirements 
than it is for a building with its multitudinous require- 
ments and its various shapes and sizes, but much can be 
done in this direction if the attempt is made in a broad- 
minded way and the results of science and knowledge 
utilized and empiricism and mere opinion excluded. 

If such an outline specification could be prepared, the 
insurance companies would immediately have the coop- 
eration of the intelligent designers of buildings, and in- 
surance companies would then be able to hold up the 
hands of the designers and strengthen them against the 
parsimonious, ignorant or selfish owners who might other- 
wise insist upon cheap construction ; and if such reason- 
able specifications existed, the designer who attempted to 
evade them would immediately write himself down not 
merely as Dogberry wanted to be written down but as 
an irresponsible practitioner as well and in the same class 
with the "Jerry" builders. 



tn attempting to frame such a specification the self- 
styled, self-lauded and self-satisfied "practical" man 
should be eliminated in the work of preparation. Much 
harm is done and many people are unwarrantably de- 
ceived by the empirically minded man who only "knows 
what he has seen " and who cannot analyze or formulate 
the results of his experience, so that no matter how ex- 
tensive his experience may have been, it is almost useless 
in framing requirements which involve the underlying 
principles of design which are to govern the erection of 
structures which may differ widely from their predeces 
sors both in purposes and in the conditions under which 
they are to be built. 

It is a noticeable tact that a prejudice exists in the 
minds of many insurance men in favor of wood construc- 
tion and against iron, and if this prejudice is analyzed it 
will be found to rest upon the fact that large Sticks of 
timber arc slow burning and that exposed ironwork is not 
a stable material in event of great heat; but the tempo- 
rary superiority of wood to iron beams rests upon the 
employment of automatic fire-quenching apparatus and 
the question of the timely arrival of the tire department. 

One way to get at the solution of a proposition which 
is not ev.dcnt is to reduce it to its limits ; so, applying this 
method to the question of wood versus uncovered iron, we 
find that if the element of time is eliminated it will be 
seen that whatever superiority wood may possess over un- 
covered iron at first, its superiority is but temporary, and 
that after this short period wood construction becomes a 
menace and contributes its share of fuel to the flames. 

Iron construction without covering, it is true, is not a 
proper material to use to support floors if surrounded by 
inflammable materials, but if two blocks of building, one 
of the slow-burning type and one of the all-iron type, were 
stocked with the same goods and allowed to burn, it does 
not need a prophet to predict the total destruction of the 
one, with its risk to the neighborhood, and the possible 
distortion of the other, with no risks to the adjoining 
property. 

It should, however, be laid down as a cardinal prin- 
ciple of construction that no ironwork of any kind should 
be left unprotected ; as ironwork possesses its maximum 
strength only at about .too degrees Fahrenheit, it there- 
fore becomes necessary to cover it to prevent it from c\ 
ceeding this temperature. So while slow-burning con 
struction is immeasurably superior to joist construction, 
yet iron construction properly covered is immeasurably 
superior to both. 

It is an unfortunate fact that at this time when lire 
proof construction is most sorely needed, the cost of 
iron is so great, and that any argument in favor of lire 
proof construction is met by the unanswerable one of 
cost, and thus the practical cornering of the iron market 
in this country by an enormous trust works not only a 
hardship to the users of this material, but at the same 
time, by the excessive prices of iron, compels the employ- 
ment of inferior materials of construction; and while 
people who cannot help themselves are paying the inter 
est on watered securities, the surplus products of the 
trust are sold in European markets at prices below those 
charged American consumers, and communities are suf. 
fering now and will suffer hereafter because of the en- 
forced employment of wooden structural members. 



126 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



Selected Miscellany. 



FL< lATING FOUNDATIONS. 

WE sometimes pride ourselves on our ability to grasp 
quickly, assimilate and put in practice an idea, 
but after all, looking back at progress, we find that some 
new ideas are accepted very slowly. It was Frederic 
Bauman who first scientifically studied and applied the 
principle of isolated pier construction for foundations of 
a heavy building on the Chicago soil, and the so-called 
floating foundation has been for the last twenty-live years 
considered as the only feasible one for a large building. 



extremely clever work has been done in this respect by 
the Chicago constructors, but it is now beginning to be 
felt that the assumptions have been wrong and that there 
is no intrinsic reason why buildings should not be built 




DESCHLEE BUILDING, MINNEAPOLIS, MINX. 

Mark Fitzpatrick, Architect. 

Terra-Cotta mack- by the Winkle Terra-Cotta Company. 

The original surface of the ground in Chicago was so 
slightly raised above the level of the lake that under ex- 
ceptional conditions what is now the heart of the city 
would be entirely under water, and as the apparent soil 
was a thick layer of alluvial deposit over a rather soft 
bed of mud it was assumed that foundations could not be 
earned more than twelve or thirteen feet below the curb 
grade. Consequently nearly all of the buildings which 
have been built in Chicago of recent years have base- 
ments hardly more than ten feet high in the clear, and 
the foundations are of the grillage type, proportioned so 
that the building will settle uniformly throughout. Some 




DETAIL I J X GEORGE W. BOWER St Sox, ARCHITECTS. 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

in Chicago with sub-cellars carried to any desired depth, 
these sub-cellars being perfectly dry and sanitary. Under 
the layer of mud upon which past foundations have rested 
there begins a deposit of blue clay which at a certain 
depth below the curb, varying from twenty to thirty feet, 
is found to be very compact and dry. The rock is reached 
at a depth of from sixty to one hundred feet. In the more 
recent buildings the practice seems to be to sink open 
wells down through the blue clay and into the thoroughly 
hard compacted mass toward the bottom, filling these 
wells with concrete to form huge piers which directly 
support the building. These piers are sunk with very 
little troiible from water, as the blue clay itself is so 
strongly compacted as to prevent infiltration, and no 
caisson work seems to be required. This system of 
foundations was carried out by Holabird & Roche in 
the new Tribune Building, the sub-cellar of which is 
something over thirty feet below the sidewalk, and the 
same architects are applying the same construction to a 
building under process of erection at the corner of Mon- 
roe Street and Wabash Avenue. In the eastern cities 
there has been little difficulty in sinking cellars from 




DETAIL BY K1I.HAM * HOPKINS, ARCHITECTS. 

Standard Terra-Cotta Works, Makers. 

fifteen to thirty feet below tide water, and the fact that 
for all these years Chicago real estate owners have con- 
tented themselves with cellars not more than ten or 
eleven feet in height shows how an idea will sometimes 
persist. 



T HE HRICKIU'11.1) E R 



127 




DETAIL BY SASS & SM AI.I.H K.1SKK, ARCHITECTS. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

TERRA-COTTA WALLS. 

IN most of our cities the laws prohibit the erection of 
wooden structures of any sort within the business 
and manufacturing districts. We have recently had oc- 
casion to notice the extent to which terra-cotta blocks 
have been used for constructintr the walls of one and 



of course this could be varied with very slight expense, 
and such construction suggests very entertaining possi- 
bilities. 



THE LSI-: OF PLASTER. 

\ A T K have repeatedly had occasion to notice the ex- 
VV tent to which other materials than plaster are 
used for the finish of inside partitions and walls. The 
only real advantage of plaster is its cheapness and the 
case with which it is applied, but when one considers the 
readiness with which it is broken by slight settlements 
and its inability to resist dirt unless painted at frequent 
intervals one is inclined to be surprised that it should so 
often be used in public buildings. In a private residi 
its use is inevitable, but even in domestic work there 
are many Opportunities where brick or terracotta in some 
of its various forms might take the place of plaster for 




POLICE STATION AND COUR1 HOUSE, BROOKLINE, MASS. 
J. A. Schweinfurth, Architect 



even two story buildings of a more or less temporary 
nature. The blocks are of the same style that is made 
for partition work, except that the exterior surface is 
glazed and the blocks are made of uniform size and laid 
up with a plumb bond. Such a wall is very quickly 
erected and is impervious to the weather both by reason 
of the glazed surface on the exterior and of the hollow- 
spaces in the blocks themselves, while the roughness of 
surface gives a pleasing texture to the wall which goes 
nicely with the necessarily rather large joints. Tb 
is no reason why terra-cotta of this description should 
not be used quite extensively for the exterior walls of 
mills, offices and such structures not over two stories 
high, and used with great economy of first cost and 
with very decided artistic possibilities as to appearance. 
Such tiling could also be tised very advantageously for 

fence work. The color of the glazes which we have- 
on the market for this work is a dull reddish brown, but 



wall treatment without any very serious added expense, 
but with the result, however, of securing almost absolute 
permanence. We recall at this moment a very entertain- 
ing dining-room built by one of our artist friends in which 
the stud framework was laid out with some care t" regu- 
larity, and then the studs were simply tilled in solid with 
brickwork laid in white mortar. This treatment was car 




DETAI1 r.\ 1 . B. a 1.1.1 0NG, M" him 
Northwester) >tta Company, Makers. 



128 



THE BRICKBUILDKR 




T II E BRICKBUILD E R . 



1 29 



ried over the entire wall, and a dado was applied directly 
over this work consisting of Guastavino tiles set in plas- 
ter of Paris. The effect was an exceedingly pleasing 
one, and the added expense was very slight. The 
effect of the room was of an old-fashioned half-timbered 
interior. 



entirelj offset l>v a very clever introduction of dull oak 
and low-toned gilding in connection with cornice and 
ceiling work. 

There was a time when it was quite the fashion to 
build churches showing brickwork inside, and Maginnis, 
Walsh & Sullivan have recently made some very interest- 





r — 1 



k 



A 



I 



^ 




mf-- — -S 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY, MANKATO, MINN. 
Jardine, Kent & Jardine, Archite 



Or a larger and much more ambitious scale Car- 
rere & Hastings have recently finished the interior of 
the large dining-room which forms a part ol the 
Memorial Hall at Vale University. In this interior 
the walls are of a dull red brick and the ceiling is 
Open timber work, recalling somewhat in the decora- 
tive treatment the roof of San Miniato at Florence, 
but any crudeness in the tone of the brickwork is 



ing studies in this direction which have been published 
in 'I'm Brickbuilder. Tlie field for decorative interior 

treatment of walls with enameled and glazed terra COttaS 
is almost unlimited. Plaster of Paris is. aside from wood. 
almost the only practical material for ceilings, but surely 
for walls there is no reason why the more durable bricks 

and terra-cottas should not entirely supplant plaster for 
public buildings. 



ISO 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




DETAIL HV 



SEYMOUR AND 
ARCHITEC IS. 



PA1 I. DAVIS, 



[sior Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



W E wisl 

V V read 



3h to call the attention of our 
.-aders to the competition for 
the selection of an official emblem for 
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The 
programme as set forth in the circulars 
which have been issued leaves every 
latitude to the designer. Judgment is 
to be made by a jury composed of two 
painters, Frederick Dielman and John 
LaFarge; two sculptors, J. Q. A. Ward 
and Lorado Taft; two architects, Charles 
1". McKim and Wilson Eyre; and a his- 
torian, Professor Alcee Fortier: a prize 
of two thousand dollars being- awarded 
to the design placed first. This is a 
very entertaining problem and one from 
which the best results ought to be ob- 
tained. Drawings are to be sent to Bud- 
worth & Son, Xew York, between Sat- 
urday, November i, and Wednesday, 



"Notice is hereby given to all architects practicing the profession of 
architecture in the state of New Jersey as defined in 'An Act to regulate 
the practice of Architecture ' ( approved March 24, 1902 ) and in effect July 
1, 1902, that they should now apply for a certificate to practice architecture 
under Sections 9 and 10 of said law. 

" For the information of those who desire to secure certificates the act 
has been printed in full by the State Hoard of Architects, and copies will 
be furnished on application, together with a form with affidavit attached 
that has been approved by the board. 

"The privilege extended to practicing architects by Sections <) and to 

of said law will ex- 
pire July I. 1902. 
after which another 
form of application 
for examination un- 
der tlie provisions 
of the act will be 
furnished when re- 
quested. 

"All certificates 
issued on the present 
form of application 
and affidavit will be 
forwarded to the ap- 
plicant after the pay- 
ment of the registra- 
tion fee of 85. said 
amount being paya- 
ble after notice of 
acceptance of appli- 
cation is received by 
the applicant from 
the secretary. All 
certificates issued are 








FOR THE ALBANY TRUST COMPANY 
BUILDING, ALBANY, N. Y. 
C. «i. Ogden, Architect. 



November 



Further information can 



be obtained of Mr. Walter 1'.. Stevens, secretary Louisi- 
ana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis. 



ARCHITECTS MUST BE LICENSED To PRAC- 
TICE IN NEW JERSEY. 

The State Board of Architects for the state of New 
composed of the following named gentlemen: 
Charles P. Baldwin, president; Hugh Roberts, secretary 
and treasurer; Arnold II. Moses. Charles Edwards and 
David B. Provoost — have issued the following notice 
under date of May 19 : 



subject to the powers of revocation 
vested in the board by the above 
mentioned act." 

The office of the board is lo- 
cated at 1 Exchange Place. Jersey 
City. 



THE CLEVELAND ARCHI- 
TECTURAL CLUB 
ELECTS OFFICERS. 

At the annual meeting of the 

Cleveland Architectural Club, held 




•DETAIL BY THE NEW 
YORK ARCHITECTURAL 
TERRA COTTA 
c OMPANY. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



>:o 




SIXTY-FIFTH PRECINCT POLICE STATION, NEW YORK. 

Horgan & Slattery, Architects. 

Brick furnished by the Kreischer Brick Manufacturing Company. 

May 22, the following officers were elected: President, 
F. W. Striebinger ; vice-president, G. B. Bohm ; secretary, 
L. Fewsmith, Jr.; treasurer, William H. Nicklas; libra- 
rian, William A. Bohnard; chairman of current work 
committee, G. W. Andrews; chairman of entertainment 
committee, V. E. Rondel. 



A NEW CATALOGUE. 

Another of the large clay-working concerns of the 
country, the Kreischer Brick Manufacturing Company of 
New York, has issued a catalogue which shows in a most 
admirable manner its extensive plant and product. One 
of the valuable features of this new work is the illustra- 
tion of the stock shapes of their molded brick. This is 




DETAIL BY V. C. SAUER, ARCHITECT. 
Coiikling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

also true of the illustrations of their front brick in color. 
It is a trade publication in which the manufacturer 
has presented to the busy architect and builder those 
essential facts relating to his product in such clear and 
concise form that it cannot fail to have a value for all 
parties interested. 



L\ GENERAL. 

E. J. Weber has been elected t<> be this year's vaca- 
tion traveler of the Boston Architectural Club. 

Samuel Alexander Hall, architect, formerly with I". 
J. Osterling, has opened an office in the House Building, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., and will be glad to receive manufac- 
turers' catalogues and samples. 

Clarence R. Ward, architect, has succeeded to the 
practice of the late Edward R. Swain of San Francisco, 




HOUSE A I AVONDALE, OHIO. 

Des Jardines & Eiayward, Architects. 

Roofed with American s. Tile. 

and will continue same at his former offices, jj; Crocker 
Building, San Francisco. 

The new warehouse for Hibbard, Spencer, Bartletl & 
Co., which will be one of the Largest of its kind in the 
West, will be fire-proofed by the Pioneer Fire-Proofing 

Company. 

Charles Bacon, Boston representative for Sayre & 
Fisher Company, 
reports the follow- 
ing new contracts ; 
Face brick for 
the new gymna- 
sium at Groton, 
Mass., Peabody & 
Stearns, archi- 
tects; Divinity 
School, Harvard, 
I' e a 1) o d y & 
Stearns, archi- 
tects; enameled 
brick for engine 
house. Fast Bos- 
ton, J. A. Fox, 
architect: engine 
house. Boston, A. 
II. Gould, archi- 
tect ; Technology 
Chain ,B -ton, 

K i 1 h am & Hop- 




UK I All. I'.S UK I (I. I'Kll 



\ K ( 1 1 I I I ' I 



White Brick ■< < ompan) . 

Maki 



132 



T II E H R I C K H U I L I) E R. 



kins, architects; Conservatory Apartments, Boston, E. T. 
Barker, architect ; Massachusetts ( reneral I [ospital, Wheel- 
wright & Haven, architects; and power house, Navy 
Yard, Boston. 



possible, even though the cost of building was enhanced. 
This is the right spirit. Anything more monotonous than 

a blue-black slate rout" on a big church or town hall can 
hardly be conceived. It may be argued in reply that red 




PAS IDENA, CAL. Hunt .\ I 

d with Ludnvt ici Roofing Tile. 



ROOFING TILES IX BRITTANY. 

IN Brittany there are a number of churches erected 
during the past thirty years. A journey during the 
Easter vacation has given us an opportunity of studying 
some of these buildings, and we have not failed to notice 
that not only in churches but in many recently erected 




tile roofs also are monotonous. So they are. when they 
are first put up. lint in course of time they become ir- 
regularly vegetated, and a few years suffices to render 
them quite picturesque, especially when the tiles are of 
a roughened, sandy character. These tiles on various 
churches to the north of Rennes, at St. Aubin, St. Brieuc, 
St. Quay and near Laval, impart quite an antique appear- 
ance to the edifices, even when the stone in them is as 
fresh as when erected. There is another aspect in these 
buildings which, however, is a purely architectural mat- 
ter they are errand buildinsfs and show that the Bre- 



DETAIL r.\ l>. II. BURNHAM .\ CO., ARCHITECTS. 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

other public buildings prominent use has been made of red 
and ornamental tiles. With the slate of Angers not far off 
we were rather agreeably surprised to find that this is the 
case. Inquiry amongst the very obliging clergy shows 
that warmth in effect of the buildings has practically led 
the architect to abandon the dull slate roof wherever 




DETAIL \:\ ROOT a SIEMENS, ARCHITEI Is. 
St. Louis Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

tons have an eye for the beautiful. Some of the village 
churches, in which so much elaywork has been employed, 
would be called "cathedrals" in some other countries. 
/'//(■ British Brickbuilder. 



"SCHOOL ARCHITECTURE." 



A General Treatise on Designing and Planning of Schoolhouses. 

BY KDMUND M. WHEELWRIGHT. 

More' than 250 Illustrations of Schoolhouses and Plans; many of the best types of all grades having 

been chosen. An indispensable Text-book for Schoolhouse Designers. 

Price, $5.00, delivered. 
ROGERS & MANSON, Publishers, Boston, Mass. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

JULY, 

I902. 




I. 



ti 

X 






X 



ft 

$ VOL II 
NO. 7 



5*£#9* 



THE 

BRICRBVILDER 



%$£&. 




h r. B. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 



ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BV THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



.00 per year 

50 cents 

.00 per year 





PAGE 


Agencies. — Clay Products 


. . . II 


Architectural Faience 


. . . II 


" Terra-Cotta 


. II and III 


Brick 


. . . Ill 


" Enameled 


. Ill and IV 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 
Canada ........ 

Single numbers ......... 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 
For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 

PARE 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



A CONTEMPORARY recently published a very dole- 
ful article by Mr. F. W. Fitzpatrick in which he 
painted a most alarming picture of the future of the 
architectural profession, which to him is rapidly degener- 
ating into a condition where business hustle counts for 
everything, and art for art's sake commands nothing 
more than a feeble weekly stipend in a subordinate posi- 
tion, while the future seems to point to a time when 
there will be no architects, but the great building corpo- 
rations which it is assumed will then exist, will buy up 
art by the year and turn it out by the bushel, at com- 
mand, the individual artist being allowed full sway only 
on paper and even then being limited by the most severe 
practical considerations. We cannot help a sort of feel- 
ing that Mr. Fitzpatriek's acquaintance among the 
architects has been somewhat limited and that his dark- 
forebodings are reflections of observations upon a really 
extremely limited class of practitioners. There certainly 
was never before a time in the history of the world when 
the pecuniary rewards of those of our architects who have 
the largest practice were as great and as sure as they are 
at present. Furthermore, there has never been a time 
when there were so many architects who were able for 
one reason or another to earn a handsome living, and 
one has but to mention names like Pcabody & Stearns, 
McKim, Mead & White, Bruce Price, Carrere & Hast- 
ings, Cope & Stewardson, Frank Miles hay, Shepley 



Rutan & Coolidge, Ernest Flagg, Babb, Cook & Willard, 

Clinton & Russell, Ilolabird & Roche, I ). II. Burnham, 
and perhaps altogether a score of others, to appreciate 
that though these twenty or thirty names are but a frac- 
tion of the total number of architects they certainly serve 
to show what architecture as an art and profession may 
be, both pecuniarily and artistically. And it would be 
unfair to deny to any one of these firms the quality to 
being primarily artistic in their intents and their aims. 
It would not be possible to select a dozen names in any 
other country in the world to-day which would include so 
much real talent and financial success; and yet certainly 
a generation ago there was hardly an architect either at 
home or abroad who could begin to show the work in 
either quality or quantity which is yearly turned out by 
most of these firms. It is a very common mistake for a 
draughtsman to think that because his employer does not 
spend eight or ten hours over his drawing-board every 
day, or because he allows the draughtsman to exercise 
a very considerable degree of artistic latitude, there 
fore the architect in question is not the real artist but 
only the chief manager, and that the real art comes from 
the underling. But somehow we notice that when these 
same underlings leave their nests and strike out for 
themselves, their work, while often better than the ear- 
lier work of their former employer, is very apt to lie far 
behind the kind of work these same draughtsmen them- 
selves turned out while in a subordinate position. The 
difference between a good design and a poor design is 
often very slight, so slight that a beginner fails to appre- 
ciate it, and when suggestions come to him from his em- 
ployer he does not realize their full import. 

We claim distinctly that the profession of architecture 
never was in as healthy and promising a condition as 
at present; that so far from there being any observed 
tendency towards the builders absorbing the architects, 
we believe it is far more likely to be the other way; and 
that the educated architect, the thoroughly posted man 
who knows what he wants and how to gel it, will stand 
far more chance in the keen competition fur business 
when he is equipped as an architect than when he is at 
the head of a large building company. These building 
companies have been a great help in the development of 
our country and they will continue to lie. There never 
has been a time when there were not plenty of so-called 
architects-and-builders, and if the modem instances of 
this kind are far more efficient, better equipped and 

better organized than their predecessors, the same can 

surely l>e said of the modern architect to even a greater 

degree. So while we regret Mr. Fitzpatriek's pessimistic 
forecast, we cannot take it very seriously, for the I 
d< ad against it. 



134 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Recent Interesting Brickwork in 
Buffalo. 

RESIDENCES. 

BUFFALO, the city (if frame houses, is awakening to 
the possibilities of brickwork. True, we have had 
brick buildings in Buffalo always, and some good ones, 
but, as the exception proves the rule, they are the proof. 
For example, one of our oldest buildings, and one archi- 




PORCH, FORM AN HOUSE. 
Green iV- Wicks. Architects. 

tecturally good, is the historic Wilcox house, to which, it 
will be remembered, several pages of history were added 
last year when President Roosevelt took the oath of 
office. But strip it of its woodwork and what have we? 
Blank, characterless brick walls, and painted at that. So 
it is with many of our new buildings; but, as already 
stated, Buffalo is awakening, and now we have brick 
buildings possessing character in the brickwork; the 
woodwork, in fact, may be entirely removed, still the 
walls will he interesting. And now that Buffalo has 
started in the right direction, she is to be congratulated, 
for truly there is no building material wherein lie such 
possibilities as are to be found in brick. 

It might be said that some one is to blame for the 
poverty of our earlier brickwork. Who is it"' Is it the 
public? Goodness knows, the public is blamed for a 
great deal that is bad in architecture, and perhaps justly 
so in many cases; but our public is young in this country, 
and with decided notions, be they good or bad. But we 
cannot lay the blame there; we can but deplore the fact 
that it takes so long to bring the public to a proper appre- 
ciation of the good and bad in architecture. And that 



there is improvement is a matter for congratulation. 
Can we blame the bricklayers? Yes and no. With few 
exceptions they do not know how to lay brick, but it is 
not their fault. They never have been taught, and it 
takes time to get them out of old ruts. Then whom can 
we blame, the architects? Perhaps with some justice we 
can, and still how can they be expected to get artistic- 
work from inartistic bricklayers? Just as they are doing 
now. It is a long and discouraging task, but time and 
patience, with intelligent direction, will work wonders. 
By spending an hour or two with the men when they be- 
gin a piece of brickwork, and directing every moment, 
explaining why a certain brick or joint is best in a certain 
place, then by avoiding absolute uniformity of shade in 
the bricks, microscopic joints, the false, so-called Ameri- 
can bond, etc., until eventually the bricklayers will 
understand what is required of them, the public will 
know good from indifferent, and the architect will be re- 
warded for his pains. The transition is coming, slowly 
but surely. 

A charming example of brickwork, well laid, is the 
residence of Mr. Carlton Sprague, from plans of Habb, 
Cook and Willard. Here we have a pleasing variety in 
the brick, the color values are good and the texture satis- 
factory. 

In contrast to the variety of tone is the residence of 
Mr. C. H. Williams, designed by McKim, Mead& White. 
In this building a uniform red brick was used, relying 
upon the white stone trimmings and white mortar joints 
for the pleasing color effect obtained. 

The residence and stable of Mr. William Hamlin, from 
designs by the late Marling & Burdett, demonstrate the 
pleasing effect in detail obtainable with brick. The pho- 
tograph of the front porch shows this clearly, the orna- 
ment being entirely of brick. 

A very interesting example of brick used in a some- 
what unusual way is the picturesque colonial porch to 




WILCOX HOUSE. 

Mr. George V. Forman's residence, planned by Green & 

Wicks. 

The little Elizabethan cottage designed by Lansing >\ 
Beierl for Mr. John A. Mann is an example of effective 
brickwork obtained by a judicious use of common brick. 

Another example of brick used to good advantage is 
the residence of Mr. Harlow C. Curtiss, from designs of 
Boughton & Johnson. This charming colonial residence 



THE BR1CKBUILDKR 



•35 



1 r v 

■ 

jByHkl^-ji • jg j;.vf g*N ' 


jj^^^r*a 


!'.' -V3^ 

- -"jiatf^ 

" • VLB 

1 Jj 


■ 1 l In IB 

' « In. m \W 






'.''." .'*'.-"'*'" ; ■-*•"■*■■"'■"""" ■■■ "»» 


■ti^^^^^^^^| 



GEORGE I.. WILLIAMS HOUSE. 
McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 




SMITH HOUSE. 
Swan & Falkner, Architects. 





GATES, GEORGE L. WILLIAMS HOUSE. 
McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



wil.soN HOUSE. 
Esenwein & Johnson, Architects. 





GOODYEAR HOUSE. 

Green & Wicks, Architects. 



WII,su\ SI \l:l I 

Esenwein & Johnson, Arc 



BRICKWOHK IN BUFFALO. N. Y 



136 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



emphasizes the fact that it is not so much the quality of 
the bricks used, especially from the manufacturers' view- 
point, as the manner in which they are used. 

The Stately mansion of Mr. George L. Williams, from 
plans of McKim, Mead & White, demonstrates that no 
work is too good or too imposing to be executed in brick. 
The Roman brick of a warm cream tone, with variation 
enough to avoid monotony, a white mortar joint and white 
marble trim, make a dignified, imposing and harmonious 
structure. 

An effective example of wide mortar joint is shown in 
the unfinished residence of Mrs. Robert I'. Wilson, from 
plans of Esenwein & Johnson. A warm brown to yellow- 




SPRAGUE HOUSE. 
i, Cook & Willard, Architects 



Goodyear, unfinished, but far enough along to get a 
fairly good idea of the excellent effect obtainable by a 
judicious use of brick and mortar. It will be noticed 
that the walls of many of these buildings would still be 
interesting if every vestige of trimming were removed. 

A simple but pleasing colonial residence by Esenwein 
& Johnson is that of Mr. Clarence L. Bryant. This 
building, like the last two, is built of paving brick, 
which seem to be more satisfactory in the walls of a 
building than for the purpose for which they were origi- 
nally intended. 

A charmingly located colonial cottage, snugly placed 
in a grove of trees, is the residence of Dr. A. M. Curtiss, 
planned by J. A. Johnson. No small amount of credit is 
due the fence in front of this building for its share in the 
general effect. 

The value of some architectural line surrounding their 
grounds was recognized by Messrs. <J. L. and C. H. Will- 
iams, who permitted their architects, McKim. Mead & 
White, to provide for this effect, which they did very 
cleverly, assigning brick to the principal role, as is shown 
by the entrance gates. 

Examples of simple brickwork dependent largely 
upon the wood trimmings for effect are the French Re- 
naissance residence of Mr. George W. Derrick, designed 
by Lansing & Heierl; the colonial residence of Mr. R. W. 
Pomeroy, from plans by Boughton & Johnson; and the 
colonial residence designed by Swan & Falkner for Mr. 
John H. Smith, this last building being an example of 
veneered work. 

An excellent example of English half-timbered work 
is the stable designed by Green & Wicks for Mr. J. J. 
Albright. 






brown, iron-spotted Roman brick, with plenty of variation, 
and ?-;-inch to .' 4 -inch black mortar joint, are used in this 
building with excellent effect. The same brick in standard 
shape and a somewhat narrower black joint were used in 
the stable, where the effect of the widely overhanging 
cornice is shown by the heavy shadows, catching the Ital- 
ian spirit nicely. 

A dignified building in the Italian Renaissance, built 
of a very light cream, almost white, brick, is the residence 
of Mr. William C. Warren, designed by George Cary. 

Another example of a light cream brick is the colonial 
residence of Mr. Robert k\ Root, from the plans of Mc- 
Kim, Mead & White. The garden front is shown, and 
with the cream and white in combination with the dark 
green tile roof a most pleasing color effect is obtained. 

The other extreme, a black brick or nearly so, is the 
Renaissance stable designed by George Car}' for Dr. 
Charles Cary, a very satisfactory piece of brickwork. 

Some very interesting English pattern brickwork is 
shown in the new residence for Mr. George I!. Mathews 
planned byGreen & Wicks. Unfortunately this building 
is not far enough along to photograph, but a pencil sketch, 
kindly furnished by the architects, shows it very clearly. 
A promising bit of detail from this building is shown and 
will bear examination, the brickwork being unusually 
well laid, the texture good and the color values excellent. 

Another example of pattern brickwork, planned by 
the same architects, is the residence of Mr. Charles W. 




1)K. CARY S STABLE. 
George Cary, Architect 



The vine-covered cottage with the many peaks and 
roofs is an excellent example of brickwork, designed by 
J. L. Silsbee for Mr. C. I). Arnold. 

The residence of Mr. C. E. Walbridge, from plans by 
M. C. Miller, was unfortunately wedged in between its 
neighbors so closely that it docs not do its author justice. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



i37 




MANN HOUSE. 
Lansing & Beierl, Architects. 





PORCH, HAMLIN iloi SE. 
Marling cV Burdett, Ai chit ■ I s 



ROOT HOUSE. 
McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 




HAM I. IN STABLE. 
Marling & Burdett, Architects. 




KAMI. IN HOUSE. 

Marling & Burdett, Archi 




WARREN HOI 1 

\ 1 1 lull . I 



K IN BUFFALO. N Y 



138 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





DETAIL, MATHEWS HOUSE. 
( reen & Wicks Archil ects. 



GATES, C. H. WILLIAMS HOI SE. 
McKim, Mead & White, Archil 




CURTISS HOUSE. 
Boughton t V- Johnson, Architects. 





ALBRIGHT STABLE. 
Green & Wicks, Architects. 




I»K. CURTISS HOUSE. 
Jmnes A. Johnson, Architect 



ARNOLD HOUSE. 
J. L. Silsbee, Architect. 



IR1CKWORK IN BUFFALO. N. Y. 



T H E H R I C K H U I L I) E R 



> 39 








V 



■Jr-J 





BRYANT HOUSE. 
Esenwein & Johnson, Architects. 



WALBRIDGE HOI SE. 
M C. Miller, Architect 




DERRICK HOUSE. 
Lansing & Beierl, Architects. 







. 










,; 



MATHEWS HOI SE. 
Green & Wicks, Architects. 




Pi IMEROY IH>( SI . 
Boughtoti & Johnson, An 




M. WILLIAMS HOI i 
McKim, Mead & White, Arch 



BRICKWOHK IN bUKI-ALO. N. Y 



140 



THE BRICKBU1LDER 



The "Settlement House." I. 

BY ALLEN B. POND. 

IN the year [884 ;i group of young English university 
men under the leadership of Rev. Samuel A. Barnett, 
the then vicar of St. J tide's, established their home in the 
Whitechapel district, London. The purpose underlying 
this enterprise was the desire on their part to bring 
themselves to bear the more effectively as individuals on 
the lives of some of their less fortunate fellows; to share 
their culture, the fruits of their opportunities for educa- 
tion and reading and travel, with men who had been 
barred by the accident of birth and environment from 
any chance at life in its larger meaning. They sought to 



with the man who had received the least, and to let the 

relation thus established evolve the determination of the 
next step. It converted philanthropy of the immovable 
fortress and heavy artillery type into philanthropy of the 
light cavalry type; it rendered philanthropy flexible and 
responsive to a more subtile need than was being met 
through its established channels. 

That the new enterprise, unicpte though it might be, 
was not fantastic but was in fact the timely issue of a 
situation already ripe, was shown by the immediate re- 
sponse. Toynbee Hall, through activities social, recrea- 
tive and educational, became rapidly an integral part of 
its neighborhood, enlisting the hearty cooperation of 
those whose cramped and somber lives it had been its 




rOYNBEE HALL, LONDON, ENGLAND. 



fulfill this purpose in part by quasi formal agencies, but 
always and emphatically by personal contact, by neigh- 
borliness. It was in consonance with this purpose that 
Mr. Harnett in that year dedicated Toynbee Hall, the first 
settlement, "to social unification." 

The enterprise that was thus happily launched, by 
contrast with the ordinary machinery of organized phi- 
lanthropy, was curiously unique. It did not aim at reli- 
gious conversion indeed sought rather to avoid any 
connection with sects or creeds. It did not aim at the 
promulgation of specific political or economic doctrines. 
It did not seek to enter the field of those institutions and 
organizations that were already engaged in some special- 
ized form of philanthropy. It sought to bring the man 
who had received the best that the social organization 
had to offer into a natural and enduring personal relation 



purpose to broaden and to cheer. It furnished a vivid 
illustration of a way in which one of the most difficult 
problems of philanthropy might be approached — the 
problem of creating an organization that should have 
sufficient coherence for effectiveness without losing the 
individual in the institution, and that should afford the 
Opportunity of sharing one's best self instead of merely 
doing or giving things. It became at once a type and an 
ideal. It drew the eyes of many who were eager to lend 
help lest the modern city should become in very truth 
that vision of the poet, a "city of dreadful night." By 
the year 1900, that is, within sixteen years after the. found- 
ing of Toynbee Hall, some one hundred and fifty similar 
enterprises had been inaugurated in the larger cities of 
England and the United .States. 

By an analogy not far to seek, the descriptive name 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



141 




SIDE ELEVATION, NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY SETTLEMENT, CHICAGO. 



" university set- 
tlement " was ap- 
plied to Toynbee 
Hall. But the es- 
sential character- 
istic of the move- 
ment was not in 
the fact that it was 
set on foot by uni- 
versity or college 
trained men, but 
in the fact that 
men who by abil- 
ity and opportu- 
nity had received 
much from life, 
had devised a new 
method of reach- 
ing- in a normal 
and intimate way 
the daily lives of 
men who had re- 
ceived little. Out 




FRONT ELEVATION, NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY SETTLEMENT, (UK VGO. 



of that intimate 
persona] relation 
would naturally 
arise the seeking 
of wholesome rec- 
reation, the lend 
ing of books, the 
discussion of hooks 

and of topics of the 

day, the study of 
vital conditions, 

the effort to better 

environment in 
whatever way the 
particular situa- 
tion and immedi- 
ate need might 
suggest. Such a 
movement was 

manifestly open 
alike to the col 
lege bred man and 
the non college 





GERARD RECEP1 ION HAIL, 



KKSIDKN I 



DIN I No ROOM, 



NORTHWESTERN ini\iksii\ SETTLEMENT. 



'4 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




man, to men or women or both together, to the married 
or the unmarried or both together, to him who could give 
his whole time or only the leisure that remained after his 
own hours of bread earning. So that the general move- 
ment has come to be known as the "settlement move- 
ment" and such social centers to he known as "social 
settlements," whether founded by men or women, by the 
collegian or the non-collegian. 

It needs but a moment's consideration to see what a 
wide and varied field of activity opens before such an en- 
terprise. The activities will vary as do the abilities, train- 
ing and interests of the -roups that organize or make up 
the several settlement 
centers or homes, and 
will be still further 
varied by the reaction 
on each of these di- 
verse -roups of the 
environment and the 
capacities and partic- 
ular needs of those 
with whom the group 
is brought into con- 
tact and into coopera- 
tion. Everywhere 
there will surely be 
clubs for reading and 
study and debate, lcc- 
tures, concerts and 
distinctively social 
gatherings whose 
major purpose is 
frankly recreative. 
In this place or in 
that will surely be 
billiards, bowling, 
dancing, gymnastics, 
baths, laundries, kin- 
dergartens, creches, 
classes in handicrafts, 
amateur dramatics, 
cooking schools, coffee 
houses, resident nurs- 
es and doctors and 
lawyers, penny sav- 
ings banks, etc. In 
some places religious 
work has been super- 
added to the kind of 
activities that are more 

peculiarly the function of the social settlement, resulting 
in a hybrid enterprise that partakes in pari of the char- 
acter of a settlement and in part of that of the parish 
house or institutional church. 

It is natural, indeed almost inevitable, that a true- 
social settlement should in its inception feel its wav 
through small beginnings. It stands for personal con- 
tact and must make its first appeal through unostenta- 
tious neighborliness. This vantage -round once gained, 
it will by observation and experiment find its way to 
broader activities. It has thus happened that with few 
exceptions each new social settlement at its inauguration 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 




GROUND FLOOR PLAIi. 



has been housed in some already existing building. Ion- 
its immediate purposes there are to be desired a modi- 
cum of creature comfort for the '-residents," that is, 
the members of the new community,— a certain relative 
spaciousness to adapt it to larger social uses, and a form, 
external and internal, expressing, or capable of being 
made to express, hospitality and home-likeness. Many of 
the settlements have found the fulfillment of these first 
requisites in some old mansion that had seen better days; 
others, environed from the- outset in some wholly squalid 
city wilderness, have had to make the spirit of hospital- 
it}' atone for the forbidding shell. 

( 'ccasionallv a set 
tlcment has expanded 
its influence and ac- 
tivities through a con- 
siderable number of 
years without mate- 
rial or conspicuous 
change in its first 
chosen home, such, 
for example, is the 
case with the "College 

Settlement " at No. 95 
Rivington Street, New 
York City. Some- 

times a settlement, 
holding to its first 
home and keeping that 
still as the focal point 
of its life, has -cue on 
w idening its territorial 
boundaries as it has 
widened the scope of 
its activities, such. 
for example, is Hull 
House in Chicago, 
which at first occupied 
a portion of an old 
family mansion and 
which now occupies 
with its various build- 
in- s the whole front 
age of a city block. 
Other settlements, 
finding their first habi- 
tat for one reason or 
another unsuited to 
their work, have 
moved into buildings 
built for them and expressly designed for their work. 
This is probably the experience of the average settlement 
that has passed the perils of adolescence and has estab- 
lished some claim to permanence; and anion-' frequent 
examples of this class arc "Passmore Edwards House" 
Tavistock Place, London; " University Settlement, " 1S4 
Eldrid-e Street. New York City; "Goodrich House," 
368 St. Clair Street, Cleveland; the "Chicago Commons." 
at Morgan Street anil Grand Avenue, Chicago; "The 
Northwestern University Settlement,'' at Augusta and 
Noble streets, Chicago. 

This last, "The Northwestern University Settlement," 






THE BRICK IHU L 1)1- R 



14: 



by virtue of limitations, in part self-imposed and in part, 
perhaps, the result of circumstances, conforms more 
closely to the strict type or form of the social settlement 
than either of the other Chicago settlements above re- 
ferred to. Originally housed in a small, three-story, flat 
building- with a twenty-foot front and overflowing with 
its boys' clubs into an adjacent basement, it moved last 
fall into its present quarters in a building newly erected 
for it. The lot, situated at the northwest corner of 
Augusta and Noble streets, has a south exposure of 
seventy-nine feet on Augusta Street, from which is its 
principal entrance, and an east exposure of one hundred 
and twenty-five feet on Noble Street, from which is an 
auxiliary entrance and from which, also, by an alley in 
the rear (north), access is had for fuel and for house- 
keeper's supplies. In planning and designing this build- 
ing it was at the outset made a fundamental postulate by 
the architects that the premises were in essence to be a 
home, and that an air of homelikeness was to be secured 
outside and inside in the highest degree compatible with 



he had, plans to be devised, records to be kept, and the 
like: and an office must be provided which shall be de- 
voted to this side of the life and work. It is highly de- 
sirable that this should be in a position that is accessible, 
and if it is not a contradiction to say so. where it is both 
commanding and unobtrusive. In this instance it is 
sought to meet these requirements by placing the office 
at the far end of the reception hall, where it opens into 
the reception hall and also into the thoroughfare leading 
to the principal staircase, and where, by a set of inte- 
rior windows, it gives upon the lobby that leads from the 
auxiliary entrance to the auditorium, the gymnasium and 
the basement clubrooms. The telephone room opens 

from the office. Opening from the reception hall isacoat 
room and lavatory primarily intended for men visitors. 

The third story is entirely devoted to the bedrooms of 
the residents, with the requisite accompaniment of bath, 
toilet and linen rooms. The south and west portion, al- 
lotted to women, is reached by a supplementary stair ex- 
tending only from second to third story. The north and 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 

the conduct of the necessary quasi formal functions and 
with the limitations imposed by space. A comparison of 
the photographs of the exterior with the plan will show 
that at present the portion of the building north of the 
east entrance is yet to be built. The east entrance, which 
incidentally serves to give a more direct access to the 
men's clubrooms in the basement, is primarily intended 
as an entrance to the auditorium and gymnasium that are 
to be installed in the fragment yet to be erected. The 
south entrance leads directly into a large reception hall 
which is intended to be so designed and so furnished as 
to serve the double purpose of reception room and draw- 
ing-room, effectually doing away with anything tending 
to impart a formal or institutional flavor. QuieJ can 
hardly be expected to be found on the drawing room 
floor of a settlement that has really struck its roots deep 
down into its neighborhood, but the little library at the 
right of the entrance is partly detached from the hall and 
its constant current of active life. Although the family 
life and the easy friendliness give the settlement key- 
note, they are only the framework in which other activi- 
ties are set; incessantly there are serious things to be 
done, puzzling questions to be faced, quiet interviews to 




THIRD FLOOR 



east portion, reached by the principal staircase, is al- 
lotted to men. 

At the west end of the second story are the residents' 
dining-room and its serving-room. The remainder of the 
second story is chiefly given to a series of clubrooms or 
parlors opening one into another and thus capable of 
being used singly or in pairs or in groups as the occasion 
requires. The corner room is provided with a special 
equipment of hanging rods and gas lighting for use ot 
the " circulating picture gallery." Opening from the hall 
arc a series of closets and lockers for the storage of the 
apparatus and equipment appertaining to the work o| 
the several clubs and classes that must necessarily share 
the use of particular rooms on different evenings. In 
addition to this series of rooms there are in the second 
story a small domestic science room. inadequate, but as 

large as available space permits, a residents' private coal 

room where each resident has a locker for wraps, etc., and 
a general toilet and cloak room for women visitors. 

In the basement arc the men's clubrooms, reached by 
the stairs from the auditorium lobby and bv the principal 
staircase, and the kindergarten rooms, which, in addition 
to access from inner corridor, are reached through a ves- 



i 4 4 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



tibule from a separate outer entrance under the main 
south entrance. To insure abundant light and cheeri- 
ness in the kindergarten its windows to the southward 

give on a sunken garden. The basement also contains 



have been built it will provide on the ground floor an 
auditorium with a small stage adapted for lectures, 
concerts, amateur theatricals and the like, and in the 




COFFEE ROOM, 




COFFEE Room, 



NORTHWESTERN I NIVERSITY SETTLEMENT. 



general toilet room for men, 
special store and toilet rooms 
for the kindergarten, store- 
room for housekeeper's sup- 
plies, locker and toilet room 
for servants (for the most 
part not living on the prem- 
ises), and in the angle to the 
northwest, boiler, engine 
and coal rooms in a fire- 
proof basement and half- 
story portion. The circulat- 
ing library is provided for 
in the outer kindergarten 
room, where a collapsible 
folding counter and rail are 
installed on occasion. 

When the north wing shall 





















Kri 








llhHH 


lii 1 






-3* 1 ! 




Li 


k * 


gtOP 










a 


HMSn 





KIN DERGARTEN ROOM, 

NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY SETTLEMENT. 



top story a gymnasium, its 
noise shut off from the audi- 
torium by an intervening 
story given to locker, shower 
bath and physical director's 
rooms. When thus com- 
pleted the plant will still 
lack, owing to inadequate 
si/.e of building resulting 
from limited available funds, 
one or two much to be de- 
sired features — <-. g., more 
ample space for cooking- 
school, boys' clubs and man- 
ual training facilities, and a 
laundry where neighborhood 
people can have use of tubs 
and driers. However, with- 





KINDERGARTEN ROOM, 



CLUBROOMS, 



Nok I HWESTERN UNIVERSITY SETTLEMEN I . 



T H E H R I C K HI' I I. I) 1". R 



'45 



out these desirable features the building will afford in 
fair proportion a good working equipment for a social 
settlement with functions somewhat closely limited to the 
settlement form. 

In addition to the above features there is also on the 
first floor a small public cafe', the kitchen for which is at 
one and the same time the kitchen for the residents' pri- 
vate table. This feature is no essential part of a well- 
equipped settlement plant, and in a small building it may 
be questioned whether the required expenditure of space 
is wholly justified. However, its advantages, provided 
it can be made self-supporting, are obvious. As placed 
in this instance it has its own street entrance at the ex- 
treme southwest corner, and it also opens through a wide 
door (double set of sliding and folding, to shut off noise 
and odors) into the reception hall in such a way that it 
easily serves as the dining-room on the occasion of large 
receptions or entertainments, and may be used after close 
of business hoitrs for club and other purposes. It has its 
own toilet room, and the kitchen for all uses is directly in 
the rear of the cafe, service to the residents' dining-room 
being by dumb waiter to the upper serving-room. 

The number of people who throng a settlement build- 
ing and the personal habits of some of them make some 
form of indirect heating with plenum or exhaust change 
of air exceedingly desirable. In this instance, for that 
matter in most instances, the funds are insufficient, and 
a fairly successful substitute has been provided by the 
use of direct-indirect radiation and numerous fireplaces, 
the latter serving the double purpose of aiding ventilation 
and of adding in a marked degree to the homelike aspect 
of the various rooms. Considered with reference to home- 
likeness of exterior aspect, the building has the advantage 
of lowness; and the design has been cast in a style that 
lends itself to a broad, simple treatment favorable to the 
desired effect. The walls are of brick trimmed with 
stone. Basement and rusticated work are faced with a 
purplish gray brick and the masses above with a red 
brick of mottled shading, the diaper pattern being in bull 
brick. The stone is "blue" Bedford limestone. The 
mortar is uneolored except for admixture of some Mil- 
waukee hydraulic cement to the lime. The slopes of the 
roof are covered with "unfading green" slate. There 
is yet to be provided the iron fence surmounting the 
walls of the sunken garden and enclosing the bit of 
turf at the street corner. 



Fire-proofing. 



LONDON ARCHITECTS. 

THE British Architect quotes the statement that a 
Building Trades Directory indicates the addresses 
of some sixteen hundred architects in London. In some 
of our newer towns we occasionally see a statement to the 
effect that there is not as much opportunity in the older 
cities as there is in the growing West because the old 
cities are already built over and there is not so much de 
mand for an architect's services; but the number of Lon- 
don architects, who are in the ratio of about one archi- 
tect for about every two hundred and fifty families, would 
seem to indicate that the demand for such services as 
they can offer has not entirely ceased. It is stated also 
that there are only four landscape gardeners in London, 
and two of these are father and son. 



THE FIRE PROOFING of I1ICII OFFICE 
BUILDINGS.* 

'"T~' > I1L high office buildings have been made a success 

1 by the possibilities of construction that have been 
developed with them. They were first built with brick 
walls, and the highest reached to sixteen stories with 
this material for support on the outside, as at Chicago, 
even with its compressible soil and floating foundations. 
Skeletons of cast-iron columns and rolled-iron beams 
were going up to the same height at the same time. The 
whole-steel skeleton came when the introduction of 
rolled steel superseded rolled iron, and it has continued 
to be the standard construction for these and many other 

kinds of buildings ever since. 

But the possibility to attain this great height with 
safety came with the inventions of the fire-proofers ; to 
speak more accurately, the inventors of light hollow-tile 
systems of floor construction. The weight of floors was 
reduced before the weight of walls. I'p to 1SS1 the aver- 
age of fillings between I beams of buildings having com- 
bustible floors was seventy pounds, whether with brick 
arches or with corrugated iron covered with concrete 
They were at one stroke reduced to thirty pounds by the 
use of fiat hollow-tile six-inch arches in the nine-Story 
Montauk Block at Chicago. You all know what that 
means in computing the strength of foundations, walls 
and columns. From that time the number of distinc- 
tively high office buildings increased rapidly. Other in- 
ventions followed, though as a matter of history the 
iron rail and concrete foundation (now nicknamed the 
'•floating" foundation) was first used under the same 
building. It was one of the accidents of my life that I 
supplied both. 

The steel skeleton having become an accepted fact, 
heavy walls, both exterior and interior, have been practi- 
cally abolished. The earliest high office buildings had 
not only exterior but interior walls of brick wherever the 
conditions of the plan would make their use practicable. 
In addition they were filled with stacks of heavy brick 
vaults which were permanent fixtures placed when- it was 
supposed there would be a demand for them. Tenants 
had to select such quarters as suited them according to 
the original plan of the building, as changes in plans were 
very expensive and often impracticable. Bui when the 

all-steel skeleton abolished the heavy wall it also abol- 
ished the vault, and in abolishing the vault it warned all 
concerned that the lire-proof qualities must be of such a 

high grade that the whole building would be a fire-proof 

vault. So the fire-proof closet had its birth. This was 

one stimulus to a greater study of fire-proofing conditions. 

The modern office building so far as it can be seen 
when completed is practically built by the lire- pro. >fcl\ 
His methods render common bricks, on which the main 
dependence was formerly placed, quite unnecessary. 
The first great Chan) the all steel skeleton was de 

■ 1! Wight, P. A I A . Consulting Architect. R< 

Western Pennsylvania, Pittsburg, Maj 



146 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



veloped was the substitution of the hollow fire-brick, or 
"hollow tile," as it is called, for the common brick ; and 

this was only possible by the use of refractory clays in- 
stead of brick clays. It was carried to such an extent in 
the erection of the eighteen-story Fisher Building at 
Chicago that in this building, which fronts on three 
streets, there are no bricks except a few that the con- 
tractor for external terra-eotta used in filling chinks be- 
hind his terra-cotta wall. Even the dead wall is all built 
with terra-cotta (meaning thereby that made by the con- 
tractor for exterior work) and hollow tiles. 'Phis illus- 
trates to what extent the hollow tile (meaning such as is 
made by the hre-proofcr), as well as the manufactured 
terra-cotta, have contributed to the development of the 
high office building. 

I am aware that it is contended by many men of your 
profession that concrete in combination with metal is a 
better fire-proof material for constructive purposes than 
hollow building tile. I agree with you that in some cases 
it is, and therefore will not seek to provoke discussion. 
But the fact remains that the hollow building tile made of 
refractory clay is the material which has actually devel- 
oped the high office building as we find it to-day, and I 
think it will always hold the most important place in such 
constructions. For while the common brick has been to 
a great extent supplanted, the wall and the arch have not 
gone out of use. The wall has only been reduced in 
thickness and in weight, and the weight of it has been 
reduced in greater proportion than the thickness. Long 
walls and high walls unsupported are no longer necessary, 
but they cover just as many superficial feet in height and 
breadth as before. The mason with his trowel is just as 
necessary ; and while there are many ingenious methods 
for constructing subsidiary partitions without hollow tiles 
and without the help of the mason, there is still no way 
known for building the exterior walls or the main interior 
division walls of a building with the greatest rapidity in 
all kinds of weather and without the use of unnecessary 
quantities of water except with previously prepared dry 
blocks of refractory material, and of such only are the 
hollow tiles of burnt clay. Where an arch of large span 
is required, whether it be a large door, a dome or a wide 
span between deep floor beams, there has not yet been 
invented anything that is lighter for the work required, 
drier, more fire-proof, more rapidly constructed and 
cheaper than the products of lire-clay set in good cement. 
Vet there are substitutes, and they have their value, and 
for special purposes are desirable. 

The special qualities and true value of this material 
and the kinds that are most reliable for fire-proofing pur- 
poses will be considered when the conditions affecting a 
truly fire-proof office building are considered. 

The main conditions to be considered are ( 1 ) the plan, 
(2) the materials, and (3) the constructive methods. 

THE PLAN. 

The plan belongs to the architect, and if he consults 
his engineer it will be a very simple one. It is safe to 
say that the best planned office building on a rectangular 
lot will be one that is worked out on a system of smaller 
rectangles into which the lot is subdivided, with a column 
at each intersection. The main thing to do is to ascertain 



the best proportionate dimensions for these rectangles. 
If they are all the same there will be only two dimensions 
for all the girders and beams in the building. Such an 
arrangement will result from making several sketch plans 
upon different subdivisions into rectangles until the best 
one is discovered. If this is found to be impracticable 
the system should be abandoned; but if possible the gird- 
ers should be in straight lines, and the width of the exte- 
rior bays should be controlled by the spacing of interior 
columns. The general dispositions of the plan being 
adopted, the next thing to do (and one which few archi- 
tects ever consider) is to study all the contingencies that 
would permit (ire to attack such a plan from without or 
invade it within. Every high office building is by its na- 
ture a Hue, and the problem has heretofore been how to 
make it less so. So many have despaired of this that I 
am inclined to say that what might be possible in a great 
warehouse, in which vertical draughts can be avoided, need 
not be thought of lest the true value of the building as an 
investment be destroyed. I would therefore advise that 
the natural line conditions of a high office building be 
improved by planning it so that the natural draughts which 
carry fire upward will as far as possible be directed away 
from the inhabited rooms and allowed to escape harm- 
lessly through the top of the building. This can be ac- 
complished by permanent flues built of double air-space 
hollow tiles running through the offices where they are 
least likely to interfere with future changes of partitions. 
These flues can be covered at the top with skylights of 
thin glass which would break in case of tire, while perma- 
nent capped pipes, also at the top, would serve for ordi- 
nary ventilation. The openings from the offices into 
these shafts should be permanent, and close to the ceilings. 
Such flues would carry fire and smoke through the roof 
and prevent it from spreading laterally. Large glass- 
covered courts should be avoided, as they tend to carry 
smoke and fire to upper stories and smother the occu- 
pants. As elevators may become as valuable as stairways 
for means of escape, they should if possible be placed not 
in one stack but in two, and as far apart as practicable. 
In large buildings this would be a convenience to tenants 
in reaching their rooms expeditiously. Every large office 
building should have two entrances connected by a com- 
mon hallway, and it is equally important that it should 
have two stairways from the second story to the top and 
as far apart as possible. They should not be in position 
where a rising current of air can involve both a stair- 
way and a stack of elevators. Theorists have sometimes 
claimed that stairways and elevators should be individ- 
ually isolated. Such a disposition would so injure the 
value of the investment that it should not be considered. 
Besides, an isolated stairway in case of a panic would be 
unknown to most of the occupants or visitors to such a 
building. With two vertical stacks of stairways and two 
vertical stacks of elevators, all connecting with corridors, 
it would lie practicable to place spring doors across the 
corridors which would isolate each stairway and each stack 
of elevators. Such cut-offs in the corridors should be en- 
tirely made of light metal frames and polished wired glass. 
This latter material will also be considered later on in 
connection with "Materials of Construction," but as part 
of the plan of the roof it should take an important place. 
There are many instances in which the study of the natu- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



m; 



ral action of fire in the top of a building shows that it is 
desirable to use glass that will break as soon as attacked 
by fire, so as to let the flames and smoke escape. Tie 
indiscriminate use of wired glass, therefore, because it 
will admit light and still resist a current of fire is not to 
be encouraged, and it is easy to see that it might be the 
cause of many deaths from the accumulation of smoke 
which cannot escape. It is much more important that 
skylights should be of breakable glass, and to prevent in- 
jury caused by its fall they should have wire nets sus- 
pended beneath them. There should be such skylights 
over every elevator and every stairway, and if skylights 
are not required over them, as in the case of their being 
next to outer walls with windows, they should have large 
ventilators running through the roofs. 

Any suggestions as to the capacity of elevators, stair- 
ways, corridors and doors seems hardly necessary here, 
for they are the important considerations which enter into 
the planning of every building and are equally if not more 
important in a high office building than any other. The 
objects of a properly built high office building other than 
the interest of the owner as an investment are safety to 
human lives and safety to the property contained in the 
building, as well as the building itself, as against lire. 

THE MATERIALS. 

This brings us to the second consideration mate- 
rials. That such a building must consist of fire-proof 
materials reenforced with the commonly accepted steel 
frame has been said. For the exterior, terra-cotta and 
brick take first place, but these are not necessarily backed 
with brick. Where they are not, the only material that 
has been used successfully is hollow fire-clay tile. I have 
never yet heard it suggested that such materials as con- 
crete or hollow plaster blocks should be used. It is now 
customary in the best buildings to construct the floors 
and protect the columns and girders before the exterior 
is covered. The exterior walls are not sufficient to pro- 
tect the exposed columns and beams at the outer line of 
the structure. They are only a mask and may fall away, 
exposing the stntcture. These columns and girders should 
be first protected exactly as are those of the interior. 
Various methods are in use. By some it is advocated 
that they should be encased in Portland cement concrete, 
completely buried in it, but it is not suggested that any 
fastening is required other than the adhesion of the ce- 
ment to the steel and its own monolithic character. This 
method denies the necessity for any non-conducting air 
spaces. I know of only one building in which this was 
ever done; it was owned by a fire insurance company in 
New York, and it was done twenty years ago. The col- 
umns, which were of the Phoenix pattern, were covered 
with Portland cement run from a cornice mold and show- 
ing a molded finish all around. By others it is proposed 
to plaster the columns with cement on a lathing of wire 
or other perforated metal, and where one process like this 
is not considered sufficient it is proposed to repeat it tv 
and even thrice. This is frequently done, and its chief 
merit is its cheapness. The common method is to build 
hollow-tile blocks around the columns like a wall, and in 
some cases two courses of these are used. In severe fires 
which have occurred in several buildings it has been dem- 



onstrated that the exterior layers of these crack, for the 
reason that the exterior expands, while llie interior iscool. 
Tile worst defect in the use of hollow tile around columns 
is that no provision is made for longitudinal expansion. 
The)- are built from the girder of one story to the girder 

next above. As a result it was demonstrated in the last 
lire that occurred in the I Ionic I department Store at Pitts 
burg that before the steel columns had absorbed enough 
heat to cause expansion tin- hollow-tile coverings were so 
badly crimped bv expansion against the unyielding gird- 
ers that many of them fell off. In an earlier lire in the 
Home Office Building at Pittsburg, in [897, the column 
coverings, which were of thick slabs of semi-porous terra- 
cotta built as a wall around them, were uninjured. My 
earliest practice was to use solid blocks of a very high 
grade of porous terra-cotta both for columns and girders. 
For column coverings I always secured them to the iron 
with tap screws. For girders I made the blocks to lit the 
sections of 1 beams, and found that no fastenings were 
needed, for the form of the I beam is such as to hold the 
blocks tight between the flanges when well bedded in ce- 
ment. Cast-iron columns, covered with porous terra-cotta 
two and one half inches thick, fastened to the iron with tap 
screws, were tested in a fire in the Grannis Block at Chi- 
cago in 1885, where they were pulled out of the ruins with 
all the fire-proofing attached. There was nothing fire-proof 
in that building except the columns. I am now satisfied 
from experience of all the known materials in actual tires 

that the softness of porous terra-cotta is almost as objec- 
tionable as the brittleness of hard-burnt, thin-bodied 
tiles, and that the best lire-proof material is the medium 
between them, and that is semi-porous, hollow tiles witli 
walls at least three fourths of an inch thick. The best il- 
lustration of their efficiency was seen in the I lornc Office 
Building at Pittsburg in iSci;, the material having been 
made in your own city, Pittsburg. 

Whenever a contract is let for the fire-proofing of a 
building with clay products, the lowest bidder who 
cures the contract executes it witli the kind of material he 
can make to the best advantage it is the product of the 
clay he happens to mine. It may be suitable for the 
high-grade porous material or only for hard-burnt tile. 
Rut the best material to produce the results above S 
jested can only be made by mixing clays in their nat- 
ural state they are not suitable. This should be a sub- 
ject for investigation and study by every manufacturer, 
so that a reasonably uniform standard article can be pro- 
duced. It was the good fortune of the Pittsburg Terra- 
Cotta Lumber Company, which made the material that 
went into tin- Home Office Building, to produce a tile 
with their own natural clay which filled every require 
ment for a lire proof material, and which had the m 1 
sarv toughness and refractory powers to resist extreme 
heat. Other clays may resist heat, but lack toughness ; 
they become brittle and are not lit for hollow tiles with 
thin walls. Others again can be burned witli large quan- 
tities of sawdust, and are wonderful 11011 conductors, but 
an too soft and not suitable for resisting severe strains. 
M own observation has shown that in most localities 
shales may be obtained which, when ground and burned 
with low-grade fire-clays, produce the best material for 
semi-porous terra-cotta. 

Too little attention has heretofore been give 



i4'S 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



standard qualities in burnt-clay fire-proofing. When a 
standard is established, recognized and insisted upon by 
architects, there will be some hope for uniformity in re- 
sults. As it is. there may be several kinds of burnt- 
clay fire-proofing used in one city, and 1 know of some 
buildings in which the clay used was not above the grade 
required for ordinary Mower pots. Where used, however, 
it was the result of indiscriminate competition and want 
of investigation. As a matter of fact most of the build- 
ings fire-proofed with burnt clay contain the highest 
grade of material. But the world will never see this fact 
demonstrated by the ravages of tire. It has never given 
the fire-proof office buildings that have been erected 
within the last fifteen years the credit that is due them, 
and it never will. It only hears of the occasional one 
that shows failure in a crucial test. Those that have re- 
sisted the elements are dismissed with a paragraph. An 
occasional failure is not a demonstration that others may 
be expected. When it betrays the fault or the weakness 
it should be an object lesson that is profitable. I regret, 
however, that this is not always the case. I wish the 
men of my own profession would take as much interest 
in scientific investigation as you do. 

The value of wired glass has been referred to. In an 
office building it will prove to have its greatest value- 
when used in vertical positions where glass is necessary. 
It should also be used in all external windows wherever 
possible. But it should always be set in metallic sashes 
and frames. The supposed necessity for using wood in 
partitions, for door and window frames, has led to many 
demonstrations of the fact that this use has helped to 
destroy the efficiency of the fire-proof materials of which 
they have been constructed. Experience has also shown 
that wood should be practically abolished from the inte- 
rior finish of office buildings, and this can be done now 
without raising any objections on the part of the tenants. 
Recent inventions have supplied all that is wanted. 
There is no longer any necessity for wooden floors. Not- 
withstanding it has been claimed that they will not burn, 
they f/o burn, and the oil and varnish which saturate the 
modern hard-wood floors carry fire with great rapidity. 
The tenants have already anticipated the change, for the}' 
have abolished carpets and substituted rugs. If marble 
and tile are too expensive for floors, cement can be used. 
A very valuable substitute for cement finish has recently 
been invented, called "monolith." Doors need no longer 
be made of varnished wood, but of common wood cov- 
ered with sheet brass and hung to metallic frames built 
in fire-proof partitions. 



THE CONSTRUCTIVE METHODS. 

Referring now to the third division of my subject — 
constructive methods — I feel compelled to tread my path 
with caution, for I may be invading the domain of the C. 
12. All discussion of constructive methods in fire-proof- 
ing seems to lead to the building of floors, and this is 
where the C. K. has crossed the path of the architect 
more than once. The fact that extraordinary strength 
has been developed in constructions in which various 
combinations of Portland cement, sand and steel have 
entered, has made them very attractive to gentlemen of 



your profession. I admit the strength and the ability to 
prevent fire from passing from one story to another 
within a given time, and to one who seeks only for these 
results they are satisfactory. But house building has 
many ramifications. The conditions under which houses 
are built are various. Among the most important of 
these are time and climate. Another one is permanence. 
The oldest of the indestructible manufactured materials 
known to exist on the face of the earth is burnt clay. 
Time may show that the high grades of cement made at 
the present day come next to it, but we cannot wait for 
the outcome. Finely divided steel, with which it is com- 
bined, is a very delicate material, and scientists all over 
the world are discussing the question " What is the best 
material to paint steel with' " even where it is used in 
heavy members of construction. At such a time you will 
see if you look at nearly all of the high office buildings 
that have been erected and are now being erected, that 
the architects who have to do with those buildings pin 
their faith to burnt clay. The}' have no time to wait 
and see whether the cement will eat the steel or preserve 
it, but they know that they have a good thing in clay, 
and as long as it is the only material which makes possi- 
ble the building of furnaces in which iron can be made 
into steel, -they will continue to build it up around the 
steel skeleton; and I hope it will preserve the steel skele- 
ton for all time. For as the steel must be protected from 
fire and every inch of it covered, it is certain that when 
protected from one element it will be found to be pretty 
well clothed against the storms that try to beat against it 
and the insidious dampness that steam heat expels. 
However, I suppose that the discussion about corrosion 
will last until we have steam-heated bridges, and about 
electrolysis as long as we have damp cellars. 

I have said that the architect will always be a believer 
in the brick and its substitutes, and his affection will 
always cling to his brother, the mason, even though 
houses may be built without heavy walls. With these 
materials and his skillful assistants he does not fear that 
terrible enemy to cement, Jack Frost, and he can get his 
work done fast enough to suit his client, which is saying 
a great deal. These are the convincing arguments for 
the use of burnt clay. My only plea is that this most 
important and universal material may be in the future 
the object of greater study for the purpose held in view 
in this paper; that as much investigation and experi- 
mentation will be devoted to the determination of the 
proper methods for manufacturing of clay products into 
fire-proofing materia] as has been given to the adaptation 
of clay for use in the manufacture of steel. Its inde- 
structibility is admitted; but it has a different office to 
perform in the burning building from what it has in the 
open hearth furnace. It can lie made, for it has been 
made, to withstand water as well as fire. By proper 
mechanical means it can be made to keep its place under 
all conditions. It has also a field in constructive work 
such as has been developed by no other material, in the 
building of domes such as those erected by Guastavino. 
Whatever apparent failures there may have been in this 
as a fire-proofing material arc exceptions to the general 
practice that has been followed in its use, and only serve- 
as a warning against its unscientific and unpractical ap- 
plication. 



THE B R I CK BU I L I) E R 



i p, 



Selected Miscellany. 



FALL OF THE CAMPANILE. 

AS we go to press, the daily papers publish tele-rams 
from Venice stating that the Campanile of St. 
Mark's has collapsed into a heap of ruins. This structure 
was begun in the year 888, but in its present form it 
dates from the close of the fifteenth century. It con- 
sisted essentially of a plain shaft of brick, broken only by 
slight projections on each face, carried up to form a scries 
of pilasters connected by arches at the top, the whole 
crowned by a quite elaborate loggia or upper story of 
stone, consisting of an order with full entablature and a 
high attic, above which was a pyramidal roof. The pub- 
lished details so far are too meager to assign any cause 
for the break. The body of the tower was very solidly 
constructed, with walls about five feet thick built out of 
flat, square bricks, giving an effect on the exterior similar 
to what we now style the Roman brick, though the bricks 
were actually some sixteen inches scpiare in plan. In- 




DE I \ll l:\ il IN ["ON .\ Rl SSI II. VRCHITECTS. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, Makers 

PERMANENCE IX BUILDING. 

AI'K( >!'< >S of the fall of the Campanile of St. Mark's. 
we were asked by an inquisitive reporter whether 
the buildings which are built to-day would stand any 
better or longer than the buildings dating from the 
period of the Campanile construction. In these days <>\ 
large building enterprises, when, especially in commer- 




immi . noN 

EUB-13 H IIAKHOK 



side of the tower is a ram]) which extends from the ground 
floor to the loggia, on a gentle incline, being enclosed 
towards the center by continuous piers and arches which 
are also solidly constructed. The destruction of a monu- 
ment of this sort is a great loss to the artistic world. It 
could very easily be replaced, but it is doubtful if Vene 
tian finances would make such replacement probable un- 
less outsiders gave their aid. 



E^P^C^iJ 








DETAIL BY PARISH & SCHROEDER, VRCHITECTS. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, Makers, 



cial buildings, everything has to give way to considera- 
tions of return on the money invested, and where time is 
of such tremendous importance, it is very easy t<> slight 
the hidden portions of a building and it is also easy t" 
greatly overestimate the importance of saving time; or. 

in other words, time saved in the rate of construction 
does not always imply money saved in the long run. We 
believe that the best of our modern buildings arc far 
better constructed than the best of the buildings erected 
(luring the time of the Italian Renaissance: but a very 
considerable number of our recent Structures arc hurried 
to SUCb an extent that while the immediate safety of the 

building may not be impaired, its life is undoubtedly 
shortened. The head of one of our largest building COD 
cerns, who has won a reputation of doing more work in 
less time than any other one contractor in the country, 
recently made the statement that in his judgment it was 
not possible to build a commercial building well in less 
time than one year. He had repeatedly done it in less 
than seven months, but always under protest and with the 
conviction that the best interests of the investors >■ ■ 
not considered. If we build our large buildings to last 



i5o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



twenty or thirty years the masonry can be thrown together 
in almost any way, but if they are to lie built with the idea 
of permanence, time is worth far more put into good con- 
struction than a few thousand dollars earnings the first year. 



VALUED INSURANCE. 

IT is some years since the legislature of New Hamp- 
shire passed the law providing that "if insured build- 
ings are totally destroyed, the sum insured shall be taken 
to be the value of the insured's interest therein, as such 
interest is described 
in the policy, unless 
over-insurance there- 
on was fraudulently 
obtained. If they are 
only partially de- 
stroyed, the insured 
shall be entitled to 
his actual damages 
not exceeding the 
sum insured." Under 
this law policies 
issued in New Hamp- 
shire are what are 
known as valued pol- 
icies. The passage 
of this law called 
forth very strong 
protests from the 
companies interest- 
ed, who claimed that 
it provided an oppor- 
tunity for excessive 
over-insuring, but the report of the insurance commis- 
sioner, which has just been issued, seems to show that the 
statute as a whole has not been a disadvantage either to 
the insurance companies or to the insured. Such a law 
throws on the insurance companies the burden of valuing 
the property before it is insured. In other words, they 
have to act exactly as a loan or mortgage company dors 
before it will make any advance of money upon real prop- 




MASONIC TEMPLE, MERIDIAN, MISS. 

K rouse & Hutchisson, Architects. 

Built of Brick mack- by the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company 



erty. In other states a man can buy as much insurance 
as he chooses to pay for in premiums, but when it comes 
to a loss the company will pay no more than the actual 
proved damages. This very often works a hardship, 
which is entirely obviated by the New Hampshire law, 
for there, if a company is willing to accept premiums on 
a one hundred thousand dollar policy, for instance, and 
there is a total loss, the company is obliged to pay the 
whole face of the policy. It can readily be understood 
that such a law, given a combination of agents only de- 
sirous of writing 
large policies, and 
owners who are quite 
read)' to see then- 
property disappear in 
smoke, would result 
in excessive frauds; 
but on the other 
hand it can fairly be 
claimed to be the 
business of the com- 
panies not to over- 
insure. They have to 
settle the losses in 
case of fire, and they 
ought to be equally 
competent to deter- 
mine the value of the 
property in advance. 
In the case of an 
honest man who is 
desirous of protect- 
ing himself it would 
seem no more than fair that he should have the measure 
of protection that he pays for; and accordingly, while 
recognizing that there are outs from both standpoints, it 
is our conviction, based especially upon the results of the 
application of the law in New Hampshire, that the valued 
policy is a move in the direction of protecting the inter- 
ests of the honest insured person, and that its extension 
to other states would work gfood rather than harm. 




INTERIORS OF RAILWAY STATION VI' DAYTON, OHIO, SHOWING TILE WORK BY HARTFORD FAIENCE COMPANY. 

Elzner cV Anderson, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



i m 



BRIDGE DESIGN. 

A CONSIDERATION for aesthetics is surely not the 
strongest feature of an engineer's practice, and 
very few of the large bridges which have been erected in 
this country have the slightest pretense to beauty. The 
Brooklyn Bridge has been cited as an examine of harmo- 
nious lines, and seen at a distance, where its magnitude 



not in the world. The new East River Bridge between 
Xew York and Brooklyn is a colossal monument of en- 
gineering Ugliness, but evidently the Boston example is 
not without its weight in Xew York, for we notice that 
Mr. Henry F. Hornbostel has been appointed consulting 
architect to the Xew York Department of Bridges. How 
much this may mean remains to be seen : but all those 




HOUSK At LAWRENCEVILLE, LONG IS1 \\1>. X. V 
T. Henry Randall, Architect 



can be viewed by comparison with cities on each side, it 
certainly appears as an admirable feature, but it hardly 
would be fair to ascribe any innate aesthetic qualities to 
the towers, and the beauty of the lines of the cables is due 
to nature far more than to art. There has been growing, 
however, a feeling that our bridges are public monu- 
ments, and that they demand a certain artistic treatment 
in their design. The new bridge over the Charles River, 
between Boston and Cambridge, has been designed by 
Mr. Edmund M. Wheelwright and promises to be one of 
the handsomest structures of its kind in this country, if 



v>fc 




/' 



•l^w. 



< I" 










DETAIL EXECUTED BV THE NORTHWESTERN TERRA <oii\ 
COMPAN\ . 




DETAIL i:\ A I 1)1 \ t HARLOW, VRCHITEl 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, Maki 

who know Mr. Hornbostel will feel that if the Xew Y<>rk 
bridges of the future are not materially better than those 
in the past, in an .esthetic sense, it will surely not be his 
fault, for he is exceptionally well trained for just this 
kind of work. 



BRICKS WITH TAR 

A NOTICE in one of the ivcnit architectural papers 
is tn a patent which has been taken out in Ger- 
many for a kind of brick made with porous concrete and 



152 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




PORTICO, BAPTIST HOME, BROOKLYN, N. V. 

\V. K. Parfitt, Architect. 

Terra-Cotta made by New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 

saturated with tar, for building into walls in place of the 
ordinary wood brick for nailing grounds and finish. The 
list- of wood bricks at all or anything like them is hardly 
a commendable practice from a fire-resisting point of 
view, but to manufacture bricks out of concrete and tar is 
courting disaster. We remember some years since a fire 
which occurred in a building, supposedly of fire-proof con- 
struction, but in which the filling between the beams was 
composed of cinders mixed with quite a proportion of 
coal screenings, with the result that the so-called fire- 



tflmUR^AIg- 



PLUNGE BATH, GYMNASH W, COLUMBIA COLLEGE, 

NEW YORK CITY. 

McKim, Mead & White. Architects. 
Enameled Brick used made by American Enameled Brick Company. 



proof construction actually took fire and was partially 
consumed. It is pretty hard to improve on terra-cotta as 
a fire-resisting material, and its quality surely would not 
be enhanced by the addition of any such construction as 
coal tar. 



nook" REVIEW. 
Estimating Frame and Brick Hoi ses : a Practical Trea- 
tise on Estimating the Cost of Labor and the Quantities 

of Materials in the Construction of Frame and Brick 
Houses, and of Stables, Barns, etc. By bred T. Hodg- 
son, Architect. Second edition, revised and enlarged. 
With scale drawings and other illustrations. New 
York : David Williams Company, publishers. Price 
Si.oo. 
A book of this sort can be a great help to a builder and 
often is of advantage to an architect in making rough es- 
timates. Such a work has naturally to be used with dis- 
cretion, and no hard and fast rules can be laid down by 
which one can say in advance what a contractor will 
probably charge for a house. The personal equation en- 
ters into all such things and cannot be described in 




PATROL HOUSE, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

Bull .* Taylor, Architects. 
Roofed with American S Tile. 

books. We remember one builder who habitually never 
figured a building in detail, but looked the plans over 
very carefully and compared them with structures he had 
built, thereby arriving by a species of deduction at a con- 
tract price, and he was uniformly successful in being able 
to build his buildings at a profit. But ordinarily one has 
to take everything in detail, and for such purposes this 
book is a very valuable guide. The architect's work is 
far easier when the builder is able to form a logical, in- 
telligent estimate, and a good deal of trouble with extras 
is obviated if the builder is able to follow a systematic 
method in taking off his quantities, such as is set forth in 
this book. 



ADDENDA. 



In the preparation of the designs submitted -by -Mr. 
Herbert D. Hale in the competition for the Government 

Hospital at Washington (see illustrations in plate form 
of The BRICKBUILDER for June) Mr. Hale was assisted 
by Mr. George B. de Gersdorff, formerly with Messrs 



THE BRICKBUII.DER. 



153 




RAILWAY STATION, LEBANON, PA. 

Wilson Bros. & Co., Architects 
Built of "Ironclay" Bricks made by the Columbus Face Brick Company. 

McKim, Mead & White but now located in Washington. 
This fact was not noted in connection with the illustra- 
tions, at time of publication. 



IN GENERAL. 

John Galen Howard announces the removal of his 
office to 156 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Elmer L. Gerber and Louis Lott, architects, have 
formed a copartnership, with offices in the Reibold 
Building, Dayton, Ohio. 

The following is the complete list of officers and com- 
mittees of the Architectural League of America for the 
year 1902-3 : 

Executive Committee: President, Frederick Stymetz 





I. anil), New York; vice-president. Clarence II. Blackall, 
Boston; treasurer, Julius F. Harder, New York; corre 
sponding secretary, II. K. Bush-Brown, New York; re 
cording secretary, William E. Stone, New York; Frederic 
Crowinshield, New York: David Knickerbacker Boyd, 
Philadelphia. 

Publicity and Promotion: Ernest J. Russell, chair- 
man. St. Louis: Joseph C. Llewellyn, Chicago ; Frederick 
Stymetz Lamb. New York. 

Codes of Ethics and Competition : Julius F. Harder, 
chairman, Xew York: Frederick \V. Striebinger, Cleve- 
land: Charles M. Shean, Xew York. 



*-* 



> f 




1 I n II W.I.. BIRMINGH Wl. VLA. 
I) A Helmick, Architi 
Built "i Graj Speckled Brick made by the 1 
1 . 1 1 .t ' otta Company 



Exhibition Circuit: William Laurel Harris, chairman, 
Xew York: Walter II. Kleinpell, Chicago ; Carleton Mon 
roe Winslow, Xew York. 

Current Work: Charles C. Pfeil, chairman, St. Louis; 
William C. Hays. Philadelphia: J. P. Ilynes. Toronto 

Education: Emil Lorch, chairman. Detroit; Percy 
Ash. Washington; fohn W. Case. Detroit. 

Publicity and Records: Emil Lorch, chairman, St. 







RAILWAY STATION, ROCK ISLAND, ILL. 
O. Z. Cervin, Architect. 






154 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



Louis; Albert E. Skeel, Cleveland; Herman Kregelius, 
Cleveland. 

Supplementary Committee on Publicity and Promo- 
tion: David Knickerbacker Boyd, chairman, Philadelphia; 
Clarence H. Blackall, Boston; James M. Hewlett, New 
York; Albert E. Skeel. Cleveland; Dwight Ilcald Per- 
kins, Chicago. 




TEMPLE FOR THE CONGREGATION ANSHE (RUSSIAN), 

NEWARK, N. J. 
Nathan Meyers, Architect. 

The Blue Ridge Enameled Brick Company was 
awarded the gold medal for enameled brick at the South 
Carolina Interstate and West Indian Exposition, Charles- 
ton, S. C. 

Pfotenhauer & Nesbit, manufacturers' agents. New 
York City, report the closing of contracts on the follow- 
ing list of new work : Front brick — Battery Place Build- 
ing, New York City, II. J. Hardenbergh, architect; Re- 
publican Club, New York City, York & Sawyer, archi- 
tects; Bank of Metropolis, New York City, Bruce Price, 
architect; residence of James A. Burden, Jr., New York- 
City, Warren & Wetmore, architects; telephone build- 




ings, Xew York City, C. L. W. Eidlitz, architect; resi- 
dence for Mr. Blumenthal, New York City, Hunt & 
Hunt, architects: Young Men's Christian Association 
Building, New York City, Parish & Schroeder, archi- 
tects; Old Ladies' Home. Harrison, N. Y., Bruce Price, 
architect; C. B. Newbold's residence at Jenkintown, Pa., 
Guy Lowell, architect, Boston: residence for Hugh I >. 
Auchincloss, New York City, R. H. Robertson, archi- 
tect; residence at Morristown, N. J., George A. Freeman, 
architect; Home for the Aged, Brooklyn, N. Y., Lord & 
Hewlett, architects. Roofing tile contracts — Hall of 
Records, New York City; United States Printing Office, 
Washington, I). C. ; power house, New York City ; Saks 
& Co., mercantile building, New York City; residence at 
Tuxedo Park, N. Y. ; residence at Fisher's Island, N. Y. 

The Standard Terra-Cotta Works have completed the 

terra-cotta work for the following new buildings: P. II. 
Macy & Co. building, Broadway, New York City, He 
Lemos & Cordes, architects; Century Building, 72 




DETAIL BY WINSLOW & BIGELOW, ARCHITECTS. 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

Broadway, New York City, Bruce Price, architect; Pit- 
cairn Building, Arch Street, Philadelphia, Hewitt Pros., 
architects. 



DRAUGHTSMEN WANTED. 

Draughtsmen Wanted — Familiar with architectural 

terra-cotta work. Apply by letter. Perth Amboy Terra- 
Cotta Company, Perth Amboy, N. J. 



DETAIL BY JAMES II. WINDRIM, ARCHITECT. 

Conkling- Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



We require an additional draughtsman in our draw- 
ing department. Permanent position. Address Excel- 
sior Terra-Cotta Company, 105 East Twenty-second' 
Street, New York City. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

AUGUST, 

1902. 




DETAIL, CHURCH OF ST. MARTIN, YPRES, BELGIUM. 



$ VOL II 
NO. 8 



§^£♦3^ 



THE 

BRICKBVILDER 



n 

AUGUST f % 

1902 m 



h r. b. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



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Agencies. — Clay Products 


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Architectural Faience 


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" Terra-Cotta 


II and III 


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" Enameled 


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ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 

PAGE 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



THE CAMPANILE OF .ST. MARK. 

NOTHING that has happened for a great many years 
seems to have so profoundly impressed the art- 
loving public both at home and abroad as the recent col- 
lapse of the tower which for so many hundred years has 
stood watch over the Piazza of San Marco. While the 
campanile was by no means a monument of the first 
order of architectural merit it was an exceedingly inter- 
esting composition and one which will forever be asso- 
ciated with the Venice we have known in the past. From 
a purely artistic standpoint its total destruction does not 
imply such a very severe loss to the art treasury of the 
world, but at the same time it is a monument which we 
have every hope will be speedily replaced in its former 
condition and will continue to serve the purpose for which 
it was so fittingly adapted. The world does not build tow- 
ers of that description now, and we trust that the work of 
reconstruction will not only be undertaken at once but 
will proceed with more speed than is usually characteris- 
tic of Italian public works. 

A loss of this kind is so unexpected, and it is so hard 
to realize that a structure which seemed to be so stable 
in its build should be entirely destroyed, that it is small 
wonder some of the newspaper correspondents and even 
some of our artists should become slightly hysterical in 
regard to it. We have seen it stated very gravely that 



the cost of rebuilding will be anywhere from a million 
to a million and a half dollars. If this amount were in 
francs instead of dollars it would even then be far in ex- 
cess of what such a structure ought to cost. A little cal- 
culation will show how absurd are the reported estimates. 
The tower was approximately 42 feet square and 323 feet 
high. As considerable of this height was pyramidal roof 
and open loggia it would be fair to assume the cube of 
the building at not over 550,000 cubic feet. There was 
almost no finish whatever about it except what appeared 
on the outside. The construction is of the kind that 
could be pushed with almost any desired rapidity, the 
foundations are all ready to begin on, and by all methods 
of comparison we cannot feel that a building of this sort 
ought to cost at the very outside over twenty-five cents per 
cubic foot. We have had estimates from builders as low as 
fifteen cents per cubic foot for just such work. At twenty- 
five cents the total cost would be $137,500. This is a long 
ways from the $1,200,000 which some of our friends are 
claiming should be subscribed for at once by every lover 
of art throughout this country and Europe. 

The foundations of the campanile, we have every 
reason to believe, are in perfectly good condition. The 
tower is built upon oak piles which were driven into the 
mud, the tops being cut off about seventeen feet below 
the piazza level or ten or twelve feet below the water 
line. These piles were uncovered and examined by Mr. 
C. H. Blackall in 1885 and were then found to be in 
apparently perfect condition. Some pieces <>( the piles 
which were broken off at that time as a souvenir are 
apparently now as well able to resist such loads as were 
put upon them as if they were of new wood. Above the 
piles was a double grillage of larch or hard-pine timbers 
about 6 x 8 inches each, and on this grillage began the 
solid stone foundation work. The foundations are per- 
fectly good for another thousand years at least, and tin- 
failure of the superstructure was in no wise due to any 
insecurity or any settlement of the foundations. The 
whole of the Istrian coast about the mouth of the Poe 
has been settling at a known rate ever since the time of 
the Romans, but the subsidence has been so gradual that 
so far as is known there have been no displacements of 
buildings. 

LIKE most all calamities which when thev occur seern 
like dispensations of Providence, the cause for the 
falling of the campanile is an extremely simple one and 
the conditions giving rise to it were due entirely to human 
negligence or carelessness. By summing up the reports 
which we have received it appears that the Logetta cm the 
side of the campanile toward St. Mark's was under the 
care of one engineer or director, while the campanile ii sel I 



156 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



was controlled by another, a duality of management which 
is by no means uncommon in Italian cities. A fireplace 
was cut out of the inner surface of the outer wall of the 
campanile on the side towards the loggia and the flue 
from the fireplace was carried across the wall towards the 
corner so as to almost entirely cut away the inner half of 
the wall. The patching was undoubtedly done in such a 
way as to take little account of careful pinning. Next, a 
course of stone which was built into the outer wall of the 
campanile so as to form a portion of the roof of the Lo- 
getta was to be taken out and metal flashing substituted 
therefor. This stone course was several inches thick and 
the stones ran quite a distance into the wall. Instead of 
shoring up the building before these were removed or tak- 
ing out alternate stones at a time, apparently the whole 
course was removed, with the immediate result that the 
tower wall settled and began to crack. Even then the 
structure could have been preserved if there had been 
some one on the spot with nerve and knowledge sufficient 
to take proper precaution, but apparently no one knew 
how or dared. The piazza was cleared of people and the 
helpless engineers and constructors stood around wring- 
ing their hands and waiting for one of their grandest mon- 
uments to tumble into dust, which of course it did in a 
leisurely, regretful way, not falling in a mass but appar- 
ently squashing out into a misformed heap, There was so 
little lateral motion in the collapse that the large statue 
which formerly crowned the apex of the roof of the 
tower came down and imbedded itself in the debris within 
a few feet of the foundations, and the adjoining buildings 
were but slightly injured. The mortar in which the brick- 
work for the tower was set appears to have been entirely 
of lime and sand and was dried almost to a powder with- 
out hardening, so that it possessed practically no binding 
quality, but there is little doubt that if the cutting into 
the base on both sides had been done with any degree of 
foresight or if there had been some one on hand who un- 
derstood how to shore up the building the tower would 
never have collapsed. 



IF there are any more such towers in Venice — and to 
judge by newspaper scare lines they are nearly all 
of this kind — it is high time the Venetian authorities 
sent off to America for some capable builder's foreman 
who would know how to protect such structures and to 
keep them from tumbling into the street. 

There is every prospect, however, that the tower will 
be rebuilt at once. With commendable despatch, and 
emulating the historical personage who so carefully 

locked his stable door after the thief had paid his visit, 
the Venetian authorities have placed what is left of the 
campanile under the care of Sig. Giacomo Boni. Sig. 
Boni was associated with Mr. Blackall in the investiga- 
tions of the foundations in 1885. At that time he was in 
charge of the repairs of the Ducal Palace. Since then he 
has had an important post in Rome in charge of the an- 
tique monuments of the Eternal City. He is a man who 
is well educated, well posted and thoroughly competent 
to take care of the work and prevent such accidents in 
structures under his care. We very much doubt if the 
campanile would have fallen at all or been endangered 
had it been under his direction, and the city of Venice is 



certainly showing most commendable wisdom, even if it 
be somewhat late, in summoning such a man to its aid. 
Subscriptions have been opened calling upon the public 
for funds to aid the rebuilding, and unless the reconstruc- 
tion is going to be on a scale of magnificence far beyond 
anything that existed in the past the money will be very 
soon forthcoming'. 



WHY A BUILDING DID NOT FALL. 

APROPOS of the fall of the campanile and the para- 
lyzed manner in which the Italian authorities seem 
to have been unable to avert the calamity, we are re- 
minded of an incident which occurred in connection with 
the erection of one of the large office buildings in New 
York City some twenty years ago. This structure was 
one of the first of the heavy office buildings, and while 
by 110 means as tall as what we have become familiar 
with since, the column loads were very considerable and 
required some careful manipulation. The building was 
partly on made and partly on natural ground, and for 
some reason the foundations were partly Upon the earth 
and partly upon piles. It is a well-known quality of piles 
driven into the earth that after they have once acquired 
a set they can be very heavily loaded without any appre- 
ciable settlement until the load becomes so great that the 
skin friction and resistance of the soil are overcome, when 
the pile suddenly settles very perceptibly until it comes 
down to a bearing. In other words the pile presents con- 
siderable inertia to the load. This is what happened in 
this case, and after the masonry was all in place and the 
columns very heavily loaded one of these columns under 
an inner corner of the building began to give way. We 
remember the very graphic description of what happened 
given us by the builder who had charge of the work, — how 
he stood beside the column putting his ear to the iron- 
work and could hear it snapping and givingway, and how 
he took a stand at the entrance to the building with a 
crowbar and by sheer pluck and muscle forced the badly 
terrified workmen to get the necessary shores in place and 
hold up the building. He was successful. The building 
did not go down, but he did not have many seconds' lee- 
way, and it was a kind of experience which left its mark 
upon him for years. 



TIM", AMERICAN PARK AXI) OUTDOOR ART 
ASSOCIATION. 

THE meeting <>f the American Park and Outdoor Art 
Association in Boston August 5 was the occasion 
for presenting to the public some very interesting facts 
in regard to the growth of the public park system in this 
country. Of all our civic improvements the public parks 
undoubtedly appeal most strongly to the greatest num- 
ber. Quite aside from the physical well-being of the 
populace which these parks minister to there is the large 
question of aesthetic cultivation and growth in civic spirit 
which is fostered by a well-ordered, well-designed and 
well-kept park system. President Eliot delivered the prin- 
cipal address before the association, and it is especially fit- 
ting that he should do so, both as a representative Boston 
citizen and also because of the dee]) interest which he took 
through his son, the late Charles Fliot.in developing some 
of the most beautiful park systems in our country. 



THE BRICKRUILDER 



'57 



The Business Side of an Architect's 
Office. III. 

BY D. EVERETT \\ All). 

SEVERAL large contractors in New York have their 
own draughting rooms where a dozen or more 
draughtsmen are at work, not making shop drawings, but 
redrawing architects' details. The details which come 
from many architects' offices are so inaccurate, incom- 
plete and impracticable that they win very disrespectful 
remarks from contractors and make necessary the main- 
tenance of draughting rooms as above remarked. From 
this it is an easy step for influential contractors to offer 
to furnish to owners the entire architectural service. 
Such offers will be listened to if owners know too many 
instances like one in which an inexperienced architect 
with a "social pull" designed a heavy warehouse; the 
steel work in his building was re-designed in a way to 
effect a saving of $50,000. When the artist comes to 
believe that construction or disagreeable "engineering" 
is not an essential part of his art, then will architecture 
be emasculated, and architects may seek employment 
under contractors and engineers. If this digression may 
be pardoned, to emphasize the importance of the archi- 
tect being thoroughly trained and fully informed in prac- 
tical construction, some remarks concerning drawings 
and specifications may be made in continuation of those 
in the May issue. 

Guarantees. — If a contractor is to be put under a 
guarantee enforceable in law some discretion must be 
granted to him by the specifications; at the same time it 
must be kept in mind that guarantees in general are 
unreliable and architects are not safe in trusting too 
much to them. After trying to make a contract binding, 
however, one might have serious cause to regret it if he 
specified for example a "granolithic" or " kosmocrete " 
walk with a five-year guarantee. The exact constitution 
of the concrete should be given in detail; it may be made 
richer but not poorer, and the top finish may be thicker 
but not thinner than specified. 

A heating contractor may be required to stand behind 
his work if he has had the option of increasing the amount 
of radiation or increasing the size of the fan; but not so 
if he has been allowed no discretion in the design of his 
installation. 

Inspection. — Specifications should be very explicit 
and rigid in requiring inspection and tests of materials. 
Some of the best-known offices include in their specifica- 
tions very full descriptions of requirements for cements. 
and then follow them up by making some of the simpler 
tests in their own offices or by employing experts. Frank 
Miles Day & Bro. have tin's provision: "Tests shall be 
made by chemists named by the architects and paid by 
the contractors, upon the approval of the hills by the 
architects. The following allowances shall be made and 
shall be paid for all cement tested, whether accepted or 
rejected. If in barrels, six cents per barrel for all lots of 
300 barrels or more and nine cents per barrel for all lots 
of 200 barrels or less ..." etc. 

INSURANCE. -In the matter of insurance the last- 
named architects, who have a most carefully written 



"General Conditions" of some six or eight pages, spe- 
cify as follows: 

" I\m RANCE. Each contractor shall insure his work 
while in his charge against damage or destruction l>v the 
elements, and for any loss of the contractor the owner 
will not. under any circumstances, he accountable; but 
when payments shall have been made, the owner will 
protect himself by insurance to cover the interest which 
he has acquired in the building." 

Detaii Drawings, Cope & Stewardson and some 
other offices have reduced the inconvenience of full size 
detail drawings to a minimum by using sheets of bond pa- 
per 27 inches by 40 inches, with a blank title printed in one 
corner. These sheets stand rubbing and hard usage and 
give good prints from lead pencil lines. Surprisingly few 
full-size-details actually need to be larger than 27 inches 
by 40 inches, and such can be folded to the standard size. 

Ordering Blue Prints. — The order book illustrated 
(Fig. 1) is made of alternate yellow and thin white leaves. 
Carbon paper and pencil are used to write the order in 



Office of 



D, Everett Waid, Architect, 

166 FIFTH AVE., NEW YORK. 



Archts Order N 



0. 315 



Ordrr for Prints to S a</cus<&uc*~ Date y/-^ 190-2. 


BLDC NO 


SHEET NO 


COPIES '< KINO 


ON 


SIZE 


SO. FT 


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i 



N. B. -BILLS MUST SHOW ORDER NO AND BLDC NO WITH EACH HEM 

FIG. I. FORM FOR USE IN ORDERING I'M I PRINTS. 

duplicate, and the use of " building " or "commission" 
numbers makes the writing of an order a simple opera 

tion. The perforated yellow leaf is torn out and sent 
with the tracings. By means of a table of sizes, the area 
of any drawing can be read at a glance and the order 
made complete. The bills at the end of the month are 
quickly checked over with the order book. 

Issue A\n Riii mm oi Drawings. The illustration 
(Fig. 2) shows a hook which has proved to he simple and 
satisfactory for recording the issue or receipt of drawings, 
or in fact anything which goes from the office or comes 
into it, even to samples of hardware. Bach entry has an 
"issue number" written by hand or with a numbering 
machine. Printed receipts bear corresponding numbers 

(see Fig. i in the May BrK KB1 n ink), and each drawing is 
marked with the respective issue number. If one draw- 
ing is issued more than once it will bear corresponding 
issue numbers which, by reference to the book, show to 
whom that identical drawing went. When a drawing is 

brought hack the issue number locates the place in the 
book where the credit should be given and the date ot 
return is entered instantly. A receipt is sent for evei 
drawing received and one is required for every one sent. 
The signed receipts are filed in a box or tray m order of 
the issue numbers, and can be found quickly when it is 



IvS 



T II E HRICKHUILD E R 



desired to convince a contractor that he really did have a 
certain drawing. When a receipt arrives a check mark 
is made opposite the book record. If any receipt fails to 
come, a duplicate receipt is forwarded, with request for 

information if the drawing has not reached its destina- 
tion. This book, strongly bound in cloth, lies always on 
the office counter and entries are made in ink by the 
office boy just when the issue occurs. There are no 
transcriptions or memoranda to be posted afterward. It 
is quick work to run one's eye down the columns to find 
a given name or a given drawing in answer to either 
of two frequent typical questions, namely, "What con- 
tractors have had sheet No. 4," of a certain building, or 
•• Has sheet No. 17 been sent to Brown and Smith'" 

This issue book has proved so satisfactory in use that 
the writer has been disposed to congratulate himself on 
the issue numbering scheme. But he is not the less 
pleased to find that (.'ope & Stewardson also originated 
the same device and that they are equally well satisfied 
with its use. In the issue book shown in the illustration 
(Fig. 2) it is intended to run the series to 9999, th'- limit 
of a four-figure numbering machine, and then begin over 
again. 



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FIG. 2. \ PAGE FROM THE " ISS1 I. Ml M >K. " 

While enumerating matters incidental to the prepara 
tion Of drawings and specifications, note may be made ol 
a good habit to establish in an office in order to record 
the things which should be recorded but which escape the 
correspondence. This is referred to in the office as the 

" Memo-Record." An admirable method of preserv- 
ing memoranda has been developed in Mr. George I!. Post's 
office. A thin flat blank book about letter size is used, 



one for each building. If a client calls, the fact, with 
date, is noted in this book, together with memoranda of 
any instructions which he gave. Rough sketches, scraps 
of paper bearing telephone messages, or notes made out- 
side the office arc pasted into this little book. The man- 
ager of the office reads over these memoranda, dictates 
such letters as they suggest, and sends the book by an 
office boy for the inspection and instruction of all con- 
cerned, and the draughtsman, the engineer and the 
superintendent read them over and each signs his initials 
opposite each entry in which he is interested, as evidence 
that he has received his instructions. This excellent 
idea is doubtless used in some form in every office. 
Instead of a book we m ly tear off a leaf from a yellow 
pad, as needed (it is well to buy yellow pads, letter size, 
too, by the gross and have them everywhere, ready for 
use on the draughting tables, where they may be used 
for calculations, etc.), give it date and building number, 
and it finds its place in the file, and the boy can pin 
the sheets together as they accumulate in the file. A 
pad is lying on the reception room table, and after the 
client's departure the date, etc., is stamped at the top of 
the pencil memoranda and the record is preserved with- 
out transcription. When one has returned from meeting 
a building committee his rough notes may be filed just 
as he made them or he may dictate a fuller account to 
the stenographer, who typewrites the record on the same 
yellow pad paper. 

A useful memorandum book to be kept by the office 
boy is a record of every caller (save solicitors who fail to 
obtain interviews). A blank book is ruled off in columns 
with headings at top of page, thus: 



X \ M 1 


Called Departed 


ASKB l> FOI< 


S \u 


M rs Tuxedo . 


2. (1 1 


.;• 3° 


Mr. S. 


Mr. A. 



This memorandum book, which takes an inappreciable 
part of the office boy's time, has been found incidentally 
useful in convincing clients of the justice of charges for 
consultation, — clients who had no realization of the num- 
ber of their calls and the hours of the architect's time 
occupied by them. 

Taking Bids. — For convenience in tabulating bids 
and getting a list of possible deductions from the esti- 
mate as per specification, a form of tender is often written 
and bound with the specifications. 

Some architects take sub-bids, even when work is to be 
let to a general contractor. Prank Miles Day & Bro, fol- 
low two methods. In some cases they send lists of ac- 
ceptable sub-contractors to all the invited general con- 
tractors and no other subcontractors arc considered. In 
other cases, and this method they prefer, they take all 
the sub-bids and give out only the lowest bids to the 
genera] contractors. In the event that revised estimates 
have to betaken, no one besides the architects knows who 
the lowest bidders were on the first competition. This 
method involves painstaking labor, but Mr. Day con- 
siders that they are well rewarded in securing execution 
of work by reliable sub-contractors. 

Extras. — The most fruitful causes of discord between' 
client and architect are extras. Not because of their 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



•59 



amount, which may be trivial, does the trouble arise, but 
because they were unexpected, or incurred without per- 
mission. If an extra is necessary because of some over- 
sight of the architect he should be frank with the owner 
or else pay the cost from his own pocket on the spot. I le 
should not " scpieeze " the contractor as is too often done, 
and he should put behind him as satanic the temptation 
to trade off for the extra some deduction which can he 
easily made; frequently the latter thing is advisable, hut 
it is dishonest if done without the owner's knowledge. 

The same question of ethics comes up in connection 
with changes in kind of materials or manufacture. It is 
a good policy, when practicable, to give the contractor the 
choice between two kinds. But when the specifications 
do not permit such option, the architect cannot be tin. 



annoyance even of signing orders. The form or order 
illustrated in Fig. ,? has been found satisfactory with two 
exceptions, it is too much labor to write the same order 

over three times, and mure space is needed for describ- 
ing the work required. Alden & Harlow have over- 
come these objections admirably by using a form which 
is printed <>n thin strong paper and is folded accurately so 
that l>v the insertion of carbon sheets three copies are 
written at once. If they are made two thirds the si/, 
a letter head, eaeli order folded once will be the right size 

fur the contract folder and the document lib'. The order 

blanks may be printed with copying ink. and letter press 

copies are taken, so that a record is kept in the office even 
when the three copies arc out for signature. Having the 
press copy, only brief entries need be made on the stubs, 




FIG. V ORDERS FOR EXTRAS, DEDUCTIONS VND CHANGES. 



careful about allowinga change. He should always make 
such authorization in writing and should not forget to ob- 
tain the owner's approval. Cases have occurred in which 
an owner required his architect to pay for a difference in 
cost between the thing specified and the thing used. 

Printed forms arc desirable which can be used for 
extras, or deductions, or changes involving no difference 
in expense. It is well to make them in triplicate, and one 
should be sent to the owner for his information even if 
the circumstances are such that the architect is authorized 
to order extras and does not wi h the owner to suffer the 



thus minimizing labor and chance of error. The orders 

should State extension of time, if any is to be allowed. 
The printed matter shown on the backs of these orders 
makesthem useful for original contracts. In other words, 
for minor works each of these order forms constitutes a 
complete specification and contra 

R. \\\ Gibson uses a printed form which serves first 
as a request lor an estimate, then as a bid. and finally, 
when signed by owner and architect, it goes to the 
tractor as an order for extra work. At the bottom of the 
order is printed the following: "No work will be err- 



i6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



tified as Extra Work beyond contract unless an order on 
this form has been given. The application for an esti- 
mate is in no case to be considered as an order for the 
work." 



Extras and deductions 



TiuLu S 



I ISO 



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.. c£6Wf<&^- # f: * 

//il'dAmce<<nt<f'lf.~l/. 

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CERTIFICATES ISSUED 



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FIG. 4. THE CONTRACT mi DER, USED INSTEAD OF \ 

CONTRACT BOOK. CONTRACTS \M> ORDERS 

ARE KEPI IN THE FOLDERS. 

Contract Record. The "Contract Folder," or 

jacket, shown in the illustration (Fig. .(I takes the place of 

a 1 k, and has the advantage of elasticity. One folder 

is used for each contract. When general contracts are 
let, one may be used also for each sub-contract. Copies 
of contracts, orders and accepted estimates are kept to- 
gether in the respective folders. The bunch of folders 
having to do with one building is secured with a rubber 
band and placed in special drawers or pigeon-holes or a 
regular document file. This method of keeping contract 
accounts, one of the most satisfactory features in the 
office, has been in use for some years. The first archi- 
tect to use it. I believe, was II. K. Ilolsman of Chicago. 
lie originated a convenient little device by which the 
folders are self indexing. In whatever order they happen 
to be one can pick out instantly the particular folder 
wanted by means of the black spot on the edge, which is 
opposite the corresponding name in view in the list of 
contracts on the top folder. 



ONE of the greatest engineering achievements which 
the world has ever witnessed has just been com- 
pleted in so quiet and unostentatious a manner that only 
those who have been following it closely are aware of its 
termination. The dam, or barrage, which has been built 
across the Nile at Assuan is now ready to begin its work 
of imponding the waters of the Nile, and the good which 
will undoubtedly result from this magnificent piece of 
engineering will go a long ways towards offsetting the 
misery which the South Arican war has caused to hu- 
manity. The administrative genius of the Anglo-Saxon 
race has never been more brilliantly demonstrated than 
by the results of the British occupation of Egypt, and 
though there is still a political fiction of Egypt being a 
dependent of Constantinople, it is to all intents and pur- 
poses as much a British province as India 01 Xew Zea- 
land, and the British have certainly proven their right t<> 
it by making even the desert to bloom like a garden. 



The "Settlement House." II. 

BY ALLEN I'.. POND. 

THE Chicago Commons, opened in May, 1894, in 
scanty quarters in West Erie Street, in the fall of 
that same year established its lares and penates in a sadly 
dilapidated but roomy old mansion at No. 140 North Union 
Street. To this old brick mansion, fallen on evil times, 
there had previously been added a ramshackle wooden ex- 
tension of barracks-like character. Here for seven years 
the Chicago Commons carried on a work conforming 
closely in methods and range to the settlement norm. 
In the early summer of ujoi the Commons moved into 
its new building, plans and photographs of which are re- 
produced in these articles. To these new quarters, with 
more comfort for the residents and with greatly increased 
facilities for work, the Commons has transplanted its for- 
mer activities unchanged in spirit. Hut the terms of the 
leasehold of the new premises prescribe that in any build- 
in- to be erected thereon, there shall be provided an audi- 
ence room suitable for religious worship, and that reli- 
gious services, under the auspices of an organized church, 
shall be held therein once on each Sabbath and once on 
one other day of each week. This has resulted in placing 
the Chicago Commons in the hybrid class of which men- 
tion was made in considering the range of activities ger- 
mane to the settlement idea. The reason for the digres- 
sion into this piece of otherwise irrelevant history is found 
in its immediate consequence in materially complicating 
the planning of the building. 

The lot is rectangular, having a north frontage of sev- 
enty-six feet on Crand Avenue and a west frontage of one 
hundred and seventeen feet on Morgan Street. The build- 
ing could not be of fire-proof construction for financial 
reasons; and in a building not of fire-proof construction. 
the municipal ordinances pro vide that an auditorium seat- 
ing more than five hundred persons shall be on tile first 
floor. The problem of planning required taking into ac- 
count, among other things, the following desiderata: The 
auditorium, by virtue of its independent use for distinc- 
tively church purposes, should have its own well-marked 
appropriate entrance: and, for a safeguard from tire or 
panic, a subordinate exit and entrance. Other suitably 
disposed rooms should be available for Sunday-school 
purposes. The auditorium during much the larger part 
of the week wotdd be merely an adjunct of the settlement 
equipment, and should be detachable, but yet not wholly 
detached, from the remainder of the building. There 
should be also a separate residential entrance to a part of 
the building, which should have, if attainable, markedly 
the aspect of a home, to the end that this less formal ap- 
proach, and the treatment of the first-story rooms giving 
directly on it, may offset the somewhat institutional aspect 
likely to inhere in the auditorium entrance. For the rest, 
it is desirable to give the men of the neighborhood free- 
dom from constraint in access to their clubrooms; to per- 
mit large classes to go to and from the gymnasium with 
the minimum disturbance of groups occupied in pursuits 
needing quiet; and, generally speaking, to keep the other 
activities as closely allied to the home life and spirit as is 
practicable without a degree of noise or confusion th:i,t 
would defeat the purposes sought. In the solution of the 



T UK BRICKBUILD E R . 



161 



problem it was found that, after providing the required 
seating capacity in the auditorium, the smallness of the 
ground area would leave scam space for the first story of 
the residential part. The further demand was made that 
from this scant residue be provided one room of consid- 
erable dimensions, that could be shut off on occasion for 
use of some special group of people. When these require- 
ments had been met, and the inexorable vestibules, stair 
cases, elevator well and office had claimed their share, 
greatly less space remained than was desired in order to 
give within the home entrance that appearance of open- 
ness and flexibility so desirable in imparting an air of hos- 
pitality. To this extent the solution is not successful in 
the degree sought. 

The plans as finally determined on give the following 
dispositions of space: In the Grand Avenue wing are 
basement and five stories; in the Morgan Street wing, 
owing: to height of auditorium and evmnasium, are ba 



toilet rooms; in fifth story, three rooms for women in resi 
dence, with bath and toilet room. In the Morgan Street 
wing, in the basement are clubrooms for men and boys, 

fire-proof boiler and coal room, and laundry in one-story 
lean-to; in first story is the auditorium; in the second 
Story are two class or club rooms and the kindergarten 
with its own cloak and toilet rooms; in the third story 
are, in north half, women's clubrooms with kitchen 
(across hall I. and, on the side- hall, two chambers and bath 
for men in residence, and, in south half, manual training, 
lockers and showers; in fifth story arc, in north half, five 
bedrooms for men in residence, with bath room, and in 
south half, the gymnasium. In the second story of Mor- 
gan Street wing, which is also used for Sunday-school 
purposes, is one room (northeast corner) devoted in part 

to kindergarten uses and in part to Storage of Sunday- 
school and sewing school apparatus. Access to the gym- 
nasium is had only by stairs from the locker room, to 




ffl 









Tc 










i CE CET- CD 









FRONT EI IA \ I io\. " CHICAGO C< »MM( INS. ' 



ment and but four stories. In the Grand Avenue (or resi- 
dential) wing are an electric elevator and residents' stair- 
case from basement to fifth floor; in same wing, contiguous 
to the Morgan Street (or auditorium) wing, is a public 
staircase from basement to third floor, accessible in base- 
ment and first stories from outside public entrances and 
from the residents' wing, in second and third stories com- 
municating only with Morgan Street wing; at extreme 
south of Morgan Street wing is a staircase from auxiliary 
street entrance to third floor, accessible from first, second 
and third stories. 

In the Crand Avenue wing, in the basement arc cook- 
ing-school, cold storage, general toilet rooms tor men and 
for women, elevator machinery; in the first story arc 
reception room, drawing room and office; in the second 
story are residents' parlor, dining and serving rooms and 
kitchen; in third story, for the ■•warden "or head resi- 
dent (a married man with family), a Hat containing par- 
lor, library, three bedrooms and bath room: in fourth 
story, seven rooms for women in residence, with bath and 



which access is commonly had by tin- south auxiliary 
stairs, but which may be reached from the main public 
stairs via the women's club corridor. I'sual access to 
kindergarten and (temporary) manual training classes is 
also by south stairs, with possible access via main public 

stairs. The office, although subordinated, is readily ac 

cessihle from either the residential reception hall or from 
the hall of main public staircase, t" both of which it is 
immediately contiguous. 

Among the defects in the present equipment arc: inad- 
equate facilities in gymnasium locker and shower rooms; 
apparatus room for gymnasium; inadequate space for 
manual-training work; unsuitable rooms for men's club; 
inadequate laundry facilities. After the present building 

was well under way, the Commons Association secured by 
purchase a narrow strip of land twenty feet by one hun- 
dred and sixl ' adjoining the present building on 

tlu- south. In a building to be built thereon it is pro- 
posed to plan- : on ground floor I front) a bowling alley and 
corridor; in first store (front) a clubroom at level of 



I 62 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



auditorium stage and capable of being opened into audi- 
torium full width of stage; in second and third stories 
(front) men's and boys' clubs with toilet rooms; in fourth 
story (front) gymnasium apparatus room opening into 
present gymnasium by wire doors and panels; in base- 
ment and first story (rear) a laundry; in rear above first 
story, apartments for men in residence. This will set 
free the entire south half of Morgan Street fourth floor 
for locker and shower rooms (see plan), theentire Morgan 



IGNORANCE or carelessness is responsible for much 
destruction of art terra-cotta when the latter is being 
put into buildings. If the sculptor has carved a panel in 
tough granite and it is being put into place, it is almost 
wrapped in wadding during the process, and is carefully 
guarded until the building is being cleaned down. We 
do not often sec this great care exercised over terra-cotta 
work. It is no uncommon thing to see small projecting 
pieces in an elaborate ornament broken off before the 






THIRO FLOOR PLAN 



FOURTH FLOOR PLAN 



rlFTH FLOOR PLAN 





WitMENT PLAN 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 

PL VNS, "CHII VG0 CI i\l\lo\s. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



Street basement (except boiler room) for manual training, 
the present temporary laundry for its intended purpose 
machinery and engineer's workshop, and will give increased 
accommodations for women in residence in Grand Avenue 
wing. The plant thus completed will be fairly adecpiate 
for carrying on those activities that are in America al- 
ready recognized as closely germane to the ideal of set- 
tlement life and work. 



building is finished. Minor ornament is often sculptured 
in freestone, such as Bath or Portland, after the roof of 
the building is on and the face is being cleared. As this 
is impossible with terra-cotta the latter should be specially 
guarded. We make these observations, as only a few 
days since we saw some very good terra-cotta work being 
patched up. Such a procedure does credit neither to the, 
maker nor to the architect. — The British Brickbuilder. 



THE BRICKIUJII.DKK 



i6' 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE. 




( iin \< ,n COMMONS, CHK AC( >. ill 
Pond <V Pond, Architects. 



164 



T HE BKICKHUILDKR 





1 

§§j 


' 1 


w?rT 




WOMAN S CLUBROOMS. 



MEN S CH BROOM. 





k [NDERGARTEN DETA1 1 . 



KINDERGARTEN Room. 





NKIOHhokllool) I'AKI OR. 



WARDEN S I'AUI.ok AM) S I 1 |)V. 





A I I U To K I I'M. 



RESIDENTS DINING Room. 
INTERIORS, "CHICAGO COMMONS." 



T H E H R I C K H U I I. I) E R . 



t6 5 



Architectural and Building Practice 
in Great Britain. 

BY OUR SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE. 

WHAT is the finest sight in the world ? A corona- 
tion. What do people talk most about ? A coro- 
nation." So wrote Horace Walpole in his foolish house 
at Strawberry Hill in 1761, that specimen of gingerbread 
Gothic with pie-crust battlements. But the divine gos- 
siper's words had a bitter meaning, for, speaking of 
George the Third's coronation, he adds: "A trial of a 
peer, though by no means so sumptuous, is a preferable 
sight, for the latter is interesting. At a coronation one- 
sees the peer- 
age as exalted 
as they like to 
be, and at a trial 
as much hum- 
bled as a ple- 
beian wishes 
them." Those 
may have been 
Walpole's senti- 
ments — and he 
was a wag with 
the best of them 
— but they are 
certainly not 
those of the 
British public 
to-day, and no 
greater grief at 
the postpone- 




eminent professor, Lanteri. This scheme, for which 
the London County Council voted /'750, was perhaps 
the best of its kind carried out in this country for many 
years. Of the many other schemes there is no necessity 
t" speak, though one proposal is perhaps worth noting 
that for lighting up St. Paul's Cathedral at night by 
arranging fifty or eighty searchlights in the surrounding 
buildings. 

It is opportune to mention that among the corona- 
tion honors was Mr. William Emerson's, now Sir William 
Emerson, the retiring president of the Royal Institute of 

British Architects. There are other architects who have 
done more for architecture, but it is certainly gratifying 
to see the profession thus recognized. There are now two 
" Sirs " among the architects, the other being Sir Thomas 

1 >rew, an Irish- 
man. 

Since t h c 

publication <>f 

my last letter 
in 'I'm Brk k- 

I'. I II D ER t ll e 

Royal Academy 
exhibition has 
o ]) e n e d a n d 
closed. The 
arch itectu ral 
room contained 
no great design, 

)Ut the domes- 
tic work was, as 
a whole, very 
satisfactory, its 
general feeling 
being one of 



GROUND PLAN. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

HOI 1 \i KENILWORTH, WARWICKSHIRE, ENG1 VND. 
Buckland & Haywood Farmer, Architects. 



ment of King Edward's coronation was felt than among 
the "plebeians." 

On art and architecture in London the preparations 
for the great event have had little effect. The majority 
of the schemes of decoration were garish, in some cases 
bulky, but not effective. Westminster Bridge, however, 
must be counted an exception, for there a very notable 
scheme was carried out by the students of the Royal Col 
lege of Art Modeling School under the direction of their 



simplicity and thoroughness. Among the ordinary run 
of people, plainness, /. , ., 11011 ornamentat ion, is synony- 
mous with ugliness, and consequently when they Si 
piece of unadorned brickwork, however good it may be, 
it displeases them and they hanker after frippei 
Rut to the man with a love of the genuine there can be 

no such disparagement, and it is gratifying to set- that 
English architects are producing a type of country house 

which, while in every way conforming to modem require- 



1 66 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



ments, is thoroughly quiet withal. On the outskirts of 
our towns we sec the speculative builder's brick boxes 
with slate lids defacing the fair fields; houses proper 
they are not fit to be called, for they are neither good to 
live in nor to look at. They are built at the very lowest 
possible cost, and yet one finds them all bespattered 



Among the Academy exhibits there were manv ex- 
amples of this. To enumerate them would, however, be 
of little interest to American readers, which is the reason 
why I have generalized and not particularized. 

In my last letter I referred at some length to the 
bricklaying question and its relation to trade unionism. 





GROUND PLAN. 

with paltry carved 
door and window 
heads, with inane fin- 
ials on the roof and 
foolish panels in the 
walls, all useless and 
worse than useless ad- 
ditions to the expense. 
And even among those 
" most desirable resi- 
dences " of villadom, 
w here the middle class 
live, the taste is no 
better. To ascribe the 
blame is neither a sure 
nor a productive occu- 
pation, for each person 
considers himself in 
the right,and fashion 
suggests fashion; but 
there can surely be no 
better guide than fit- 
ness. A good brick, 
for instance, should be 
sound and of a pleas- 
ing texture and color. 
Allow it to remain and 
it will be satisfactory; 
but tinker witli it, 
paint it or scratch it, 
with the idea of im- 
proving its appear- 
ance, and it loses its 
charm immediate] v. 
It is the same through- 
out the whole of archi- 
tecture. Truth and fit- 
ness are essential to lasting beauty. So that, looked at 
from this standpoint, it is satisfactory to see the better do- 
mestic architecture now produced in this country leaving 
those false mimicries of palaces and mansions and substi- 
tuting a simpler, more homely and truer basis of design. 



m ii si \ r EDGB VST< in. ENGL \\!>. 




- 






HOUSES \l CHELSEA, LONDON, s. w . 
Balfour & Turner, Arc-hit' 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

I may now put a new 
question, which has 
been answered by a 
town councilor of 
Taunton. It is: " How 
many bricks can be 
laid per day per mas- 
ter builder? " This 
councilor is building 
some houses on the 
Somersetshire coast, 
and at six o'clock one 
morning he started 
to lay one thousand 
bricks, having a friend 
to carry materials and 

so to represent the un- 
skilled laborer. The 
two men took an hour 
for breakfast anil had 
another fifteen min- 
utes at eleven o'clock 
for a hasty lunch. The 
last brick was laid at 
a quarter past two, 
so that the work was 
finished in seven 
hours. I do not say 
the councilor's day was 
a better one than the 
average British brick- 
layer's with his four 
hundred bricks. I only 
institute a comparison. 
Two important 
schemes have recently 
had renewed attention 
given to them — the first that of the competition for 
the buildings at the Strand end of the new street now 
being formed from Holborn, the second that of the 
Liverpool Cathedral (this on account of the sending in of 
designs). As to the former there is no more to say than 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



167 




GARDEN FRONT. 




HOUSE \ B IS rON, 1 MG1 \M>. 

Buckland & Haywoo litects 



1 68 



THE BRICKBUILDKK 



that the Council's competition was a fiasco and resulted 
in nothing more than eight architects receiving ^250 
each for submitting designs. As to Liverpool Cathedral, 
Mr. Shaw and Mr. Bodley, the two architects appointed 
by the committee, after much harassing, to act as profes- 





*€ IB 





NEW POLICE S I \ DON, I ONDON. 
J. Dixon Butler. Architect. 

sional advisers, are busy with the portfolios and sets of 
designs sent in. There are one hundred and two sets, sev- 
enteen from abroad and eighty-five from Great Britain. 
From amongst them a selection will be made of three, 
and the authors will be requested to submit designs for 
the cathedral itself and will be paid for their work what- 
ever happens. The purchase price of the site (St. James's 
Mount) has been fixed at £ '10,000. 

In London building operations are being extensively 
carried out. The new offices for the Prudential Assur- 
ance Company are being completed according to Mr. 
Alfred Waterhouse's designs, in red terra-cotta, and close 
try the immense block of the Birkbeck Bank has been 
finished, a monstrous structure in glazed tile work; the 
color is pleasing, but the decoration is more adapted to 
a wedding cake. In the vStrand the new front of the 
Cecil Hotel has been built in brick and stone, but this 
is also devoid of merit. Outside London the new schools 
at Horsham have been opened for the Bluecoat boys, — a 
tine work by Mr. Aston Webb, A. R. A., and Mr. E. In- 
gress Bell. It is perhaps interesting to note that in the 
construction of these schools the following quantities of 
materials have been used: 20,000,000 bricks, 1,500,000 
tiles, 31,000 tons of sand, 5,000 tons of cement, 15,000 
tons of shingle, 5,000 tons of coke breeze, 21,000 yards 
of wood-block flooring (equivalent to five acres) and 
100,000 cubic feet of Bath, Portland and York stone, in 
addition to which there are forty miles of hot-water pipes 
and ninety-eight miles of electric wires. 

The British Fire Prevention Committee have contin- 
ued their tests and have latterly devoted attention to jar- 
rah and karri woods. Two tests of doors of these woods 
have been carried out by them. The first was with i.' 4 - 
inch doors having solid panels, and the result of an hour's 
fire was the burning of holes through the joints and rails 
ot both. In the second test 2-inch four-panel doors were 
tried. At the end of the hour the jarrah door was still 



standing, though the slamming stile was burnt through 
in two places, much bulged and the joints open, but the 
door and frame of the karri were practically destroyed. 
Another test was with a jarrah floor. At the end of two 
hours then 1 were numerous holes in it, and the post, beams 
and joists were reduced in size and charred to a depth of 
-, inch. As Mr. Max Clarke observes, there is a great 
difference of opinion among experts as to whether fire- 
resisting construction should be really ' * fire-resisting " or 
" slow-burning "; and it is to this task, among others, that 
the committee devotes itself. 

A new process for the production of facing bricks 
has been adopted at Peterborough by which they can be 
turned out nearly as easily as the common Fletton brick, 
thus increasing their value from fifteen shillings (about 
four dollars) to thirty five shillings and up to forty-five 
shillings per thousand. Under the old system yards 
making facing bricks could never be sure of the quantity 
which would come from the kiln tit for outside work, the 
average perhaps being only fifty per cent; but by the new 
process it is claimed that ninety-nine per cent can be 
turned out in any yard where the clay will burn red in- 
side. The importance of the invention will be appreci- 
ated when it is stated that the output of the Fletton 
brick fields last year was about 500,000,000 bricks, of 
which 400,000,000 were used in London and district, 




BATTERSEA BRIDGE DWELLINGS, LONDON. 

where the brick is preferred to the old Kent stock. For 
the new War Office in Whitehall 25,000,000 Fletton bricks 
have been ordered for inside work. 

In conclusion I may briefly refer to the accompanying 
illustrations. The new police station by Mr. J. Dixon 
Butler, F. R. I. B. A., is in Cannon Row, just opposite 
Mr. Norman Shaw's " New Scotland Yard," with which 
building it harmonizes, similar materials (red brick and 
Portland stone) being used in both. It is the largest sta- 
tion in the Metropolitan Police District. 

The houses off the Chelsea embankment by Messrs. 
Balfour & Turner, it will be noticed, are treated exceed- 
ingly plainly, though boldly. The heavy cornice with 
stout corbels adds greatly to the design. At first sight 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



169 



one might not suppose the Battersea Bridge buildings to 
be working-class tenements. They are, however, similar 
to those on the Millbank estate and the Boundary Street 
area in the East End of London, and certainly reflect great 
credit on the Architect's Department of the Council. 

Mr. Buckland's houses in brick and rough-cast speak 




POWER STATION, "FERRY WORKS." 

for themselves, and the plans show the accommodation 
provided. The house at Edgbaston, Birmingham, was 
built for the architect himself, and its roof is covered 
with brindled tiles. It is a comfortable abode in winter, 



large lights high up in the walls, and the battered piers 
express the constructive needs of the walls, which give 
lateral support to a large area of light-glazed roofing 
supported on cast-iron stanchions, and also support gird- 
ers on which the traveling cranes run. The battered piers 
also enabled the footings to be reduced, as they spread 
the weight. The nature of the ground was such that it 
was necessary to keep the foundations near the surface. 
The bottom of the concrete foundations is less than two 
feet from the surface under the walls and only four feet 
under the tower. The latter is attached to the power sta- 
tion and contains hydraulic accumulators giving a pres- 
sure of two tons to the square inch. The centers of the 
large piers are tilled with concrete up to tin level of the 
plinth course. The building is faced with purple brindled 
bricks made from the lire-clay measures occurring locally 
in coal mines. The whole of the door jambs, strings and 
copings are made from the same clay burnt hard and hav- 
ing a vitrified surface. 



REPORTS have appeared in the papers concerning a 
machine which has been devised by some ingen- 
ious mechanic in Canada which will lay brick at the rate 
of four to six hundred per hour and is worked by two 
men and a boy. The machine even accommodates itself 
with a slight lessening of speed to corners and openings. 
It claims to be adapted to any kind of work where plain 
walls are required without too much break in the surf; 
If the machine can be depended upon to properly bond 
the work and to thoroughly fill all the joints with mortar 
it might be a great relief to the mind of the architect and 
superintendent, but we remain somewhat skeptical of its 
value for anything except the commonest kind of work, 
and even there would question whether it could seriously 
compete with the kind of labor which is usually employed 
for such work. 

It is, however, an interesting attempt. We now manu- 
facture our bricks by machinery, handle them mechan- 





"IT T 71 



FERRV WORKS Al QUEENSFERRY, FLINTSHIRE. 
Bulkeley Creswell, An hitei I 



as all the flues are on the inside walls and thus help to 
keep it warm. 

The "Ferry Works" at Quccnsferry, Flintshire, were 
designed by Mr. Bulkeley Creswell and have been laid out 
for the manufacture of Xielausse water-tube boilers. The 
form of the building was indicated by the necessity for 



ii ally from the machine to the dry house, from the dry 
house to the kiln, from the kiln to the boat or ear, and 
the bricklaying machine is another step in the SubstitU 
tion for hand labor. We do not fancy, however, that brick - 
1 i's as a trade will need to yet be specially alarmed by 

the appearance of the alleged bricklaying machine. 



170 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



Fire-proofing. 



THE DESIGNING OF BUILDINGS WITH 

REFERENCE TO [NSURANCE 

REQUIREMENTS. 

TI 1 E recent action of the Massachusetts Institute nf 
Technology in establishing a department of in- 
surance engineering is the first attempt which lias been 
made toward establishing on a rational basis the essen- 
tial requirements for fire-proof construction and all that 
pertains thereto in fire prevention and retardation. 

One reason perhaps for the general lack of knowledge 
and the incredulity with which many of the tests which 
have been made have been received, is due to the fact 
that they were made by or under the auspices of the 
parties interested and oftentimes moreover with little 
attempt at getting at the fundamental facts underlying 
the method of the manufacture of the materials tested. 

The honest seeker for information as to the best way 
of designing a building with due regard for economy and 
non-combustibility or fire-resisting qualities, is in some 
respects greatly at a loss as to how to advise his client to 
spend his money to the best advantage. 

< >n the one hand the insurance companies have framed 
a schedule of rates and penalties which has been written 
no doubt with the idea of keeping themselves safe at 
any cost, and it is reasonable to suppose that in framing 
their schedules they were acting on the best information 
obtainable, and that in general these ratings were in- 
tended to be fair and proper; but in the domain of insur- 
ance schedules and rating there is an immense amount of 
information yet to he obtained on the behavior of non- 
combustible and fire-resisting materials under the action 
of fire, and this service of obtaining such information 
bids fair t<> be well performed under the impartial action 
of an institution devoted to the ascertainment of fact 
ami the elimination of error. 

And if this work is carried on under the care of men 
of experience, it will prove of great benefit to the public, 
the insurance companies and the architects. 

Under such auspices the determination of facts ordi- 
narily not otherwise ascertainable can be undertaken and 
the result published with the certainty of having respect- 
ful attention paid to them. 

It seems like a work of supererogation to detail here 
the enormous losses by fire which almost every daily 
paper chronicles, and the scant attention paid to these 
evidences of waste by the readers shows how imper- 
fectly the public realizes the facts underlying the causes 
of this waste. 

If it were possible to apply the communistic idea to the 
matter of fire waste, then each man could realize that 
the waste of the substance of the community was also 
the waste of his substance as one of the parties of the 
community, but where each man regards his property as 
his own, and his neighbor's as a thing apart, it is im- 
possible to make him take any other than a shortsighted, 
selfish view of the situation. 

With increasing knowledge of the possibilities of fire 
prevention made possible and public by an institution of 
learning and reputation, it is to be hoped that the rising 



generation may find the problem of fire prevention not 
such a hard one as it is now supposed to be, because ig- 
norance will have given way to knowledge and prejudice 

to reason. 

It is through the insurance companies, however, that 
the first signs of the new education will become appar- 
ent, and through them the owners of buildings will be 
brought t<> treat with respect the new order of ratings 
made possible through increased knowledge, when the 
present arbitrary methods of classification and penalties 
arising largely from the results of unanalyzed practical 
experience shall have been brushed aside with the passing 
of the old order of things. 

If an unprejudiced observer will carefully study the 
universal schedule or in fact any other schedule of rates, 
he will begin to wonder why the schedules on many items 
were made; for if a method of construction is inferior or 
bad and the method of construction is at the same time 
a vital one. he will wonder why the building is insurable 
at all. Take for illustration the open elevator well. A 
record of a great number of fires in buildings which 
reached destructive proportions could be traced to this 
vital defect ; yet the insurance companies merely add a 
charge of ten cents perSioo for these vertical flues and 
tire spreaders, and after this is done the building is sup- 
posed and admitted by reason thereof to be as good a 
risk as a building with enclosed shafts. It takes but little 
consideration to see that such a method of classification 
as this lowers the standard of the whole schedule and 
makes it difficult to make logical men regard it seriouslv. 
If a thing is bad it is bad, and merely adding a handicap 
docs not raise it to the level of a good thing. 

If life insurance companies treated their risks in the 
same way fire insurance companies do, a man with an in- 
curable disease likely to terminate his life at any time 
under certain conditions, such as an incurable consump- 
tion, would be regarded as quite as good a risk as a 
thoroughly sound man, upon the payment of a largerpre- 
mium than a sound man would be required to pay. If 
the tire insurance schedule is viewed in the same light as 
the life insurance schedule, the method of rating fire 
risks is seen to be not only totally illogical but also un- 
fair to its patrons. A life insurance company doing 
business on the same principles would soon be regarded 
with distrust; and if by good luck it escaped failure, the 
number of bad risks on its books would retard its growth 
if the facts regarding its condition were known. Yet 
the fire insurance companies will insure any risk, and 
when the inevitable loss results sooner or later, reimburse 
themselves by raising the premium on the unburnt 
property. 

If the insurance schedules wen- properly and in- 
telligently made up, and made so that their charges 
commanded tin- respect <>f the thinking part of the com- 
munity, it would not be long before owners in self-pro- 
tection would insist upon their architects observing the 
requirements of the schedules; for after all if a thing 
has to be done in a certain way or a certain construction 
followed out it is the designer's business to so treat it 
that it will not be an eyesore, but rather as a utility 
treated with due recognition as a utility and at -the same 
time treated with some regard to architectural fitness. 

A second illustration may be drawn from the rating 



THE H R ICK BU I L I) E R . 



171 



on open stairways — the schedule charge is live cents per 
$100. The open stairway is not quite so serious a de- 
fect from a fire-retarding standpoint as the open eleva- 
tor shaft, yet it is serious enough t<> warrant a more 
prohibitive charge than the schedule imposes. And it 
is hardly reasonable to say that by adding the charge of 
five cents the building is then as good as one with en- 
closed stairways, and as good a risk from the tire insur- 
ance standpoint. 

The spreading of fire from floor to floor of any build- 
ing can be prevented only by making the floors without 
openings or enclosing the necessary openings l>v lire 
proof division walls. Stairways can be enclosed as readily 
as elevator shafts if their design is studied out with care, 
and the necessity of such treatment is admitted. 

Some of the newest department stores in New York 
City show that where this necessity is recognized, means 
can be found not only to meet this necessity but to meet 
it without sacrificing any aesthetic requirement. 

The treatment of an enclosed stairway is not by any 
means a difficult problem or one that even an ordinary 
designer should make objection to. " Wire glass," a fire- 
resisting medium, can be made in plate glass with a highly 
polished surface, and with the wire encased in it lends itself 
to a decorative treatment. Metal-covered doors can be 
treated with due regard to their emergency function and 
yet be made not unattractive. Metal frames for support- 
ing the hollow tile filling and the wire plate glass, prop- 
erly covered with fire-proof material, can he treated with- 
out difficulty. 

The whole matter of meeting the insurance schedules 
resolves itself into, first, making the schedules reasonable 
and logical, making bad construction and bad planning 
uninsurable, and second, making the recognition of such 
reasonable schedules part of the specification for the de- 
sign of a building. Under this very reasonable require- 
ment losses by fire would soon be reduced to a minimum 
and good design would become the rule, to the benefit 
of all concerned. 

If such a state of affairs can be brought about through 
universities taking up the study of insurance engineer- 
ing, much good must result to the community. And if 
a word of warning must be uttered, it is that the study 
shall be pursued on a broad basis not simply with the 
one idea of making a building non-combustible without re- 
gard to any other consideration, but with the clear under- 
standing that many things have to be dealt with to meel 
the requirements of various businesses, and if the studie 
are to prove of value all this must be borne in mind. 




Selected Miscellany. 

X< >TES FRi »M NEW YORK. 

A STRANGER in New York would doubtless be im- 
pressed and surprised at the unusual activity in 
building operations which is apparent on every hand, and 
which is truly remarkable, especially during the hot sum- 




OKI All. V,\ 1 kill GR \l . \Kl 111 I K( 1 . 

Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

mer months and at a time when building materials are 
high and building is an expensive luxury. I cannot re- 
call any summer when there has been so much activ- 
ity in the down-town district. The new Hanover Bank 




DETAIL l'.\ GEORGE KRAMER THOMPSON, IRCHITEI 1. 
New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, Maki 

building, corner of Nassau and Pine streets, is nearing 
completion and is a handsome structure, towering above 
most of its neighbors. The Chamber of Commerce is 

almost completed, and the Custom House is slowly but 




s.MAIJ. CRICK COTTAGES, NASHVILLE, II nn. 
Robert Sharp, Architect. 



DETAII B\ MEAD1 t GARFIELD, \K'i HITEI I >. 
Atlantii rerra 1 otta Company, Maki 

surely showing itself above ground. There are several 

office buildings under way on Broadway and the neigh- 
boring streets. 

The city is terribly cut up at present by the Ugly ex- 
cavations for the subway, but the work is progressing 



172 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




favorably, and we can 
feel sure that the city 
will not suffer artis- 
tically by reason of 
this work, in fact 
there are certain im- 
provements which 
will naturally de- 
velop. The City 1 [all 
Park, which will be 
the terminal of the 
subway. will be 
cleared of all unne- 
cessary buildings and 
made a better park 
t h a n a t pre sen t . 
The old Hall of Rec- 
ords is now being re- 
moved, for which we 
should be thankful. 
There has been some 
opposition to this 
from some peoplewho 
have an absurd idea 
that there is some- 
thing about the looks 
and associations of the building which warrants its preser- 
vation. Its present appearance is entirely uninteresting 
and it dates from one of the worst periods of American 
architecture. By its removal a splendid view will be 
obtained of the new Hall of Records on Chambers Street, 
a splendid monument to the memory of the late John R. 
Thomas. Fortunately, also, there is a good chance that 
another fatal ob- 
struction will be re- ( 

moved, viz., the train 
shed at the bridge 
terminus. The sta- 
tion of the Manhattan 
elevated road will re- 
main, but it will m-t 
be conspicuous. 

Mr. John M. Car- 
rere has purchased 
the plot at No. 101 
East Sixty-fifth 
Street and will erect 
thereon a five-story 
brick and stone apart- 
ment house, for which 
he is now preparing 
plans. McKim,Mead 
& White have been 
selected architects 
for the new buildings 
connected with the 
army department at 
West Point. A wiser 
appointment could 
not have been made, 
and all true lovers of 
American architec- 
tural development 



should rejoice. Sure- 
ly if we want real 
American architec- 
ture anywhere we 
want it in our govern- 
ment buildings. 



ST. CHARLES HOTEL, NEW ORLEANS, I \. 
1 is Sully. Archil 

Brick manufactured by Hydraulic-Press Brick Company. 




HANK AT MOLINE, ILL. 

Harry \V. Jones. Architect. 

Built of Terra-Cotta made by Winkle Terra-Cotta Company. 



MORTAR JOINTS. 

AVERY simple 
device for very 
greatly increasing the 
effectiveness of plain 
brickwork consists in 
raking out the mor- 
tar from the joints to 
a depth of half or 
three quarters of an 
inch below the sur- 
face of the brick, the 
mortar in the joint 
being afterward 
pointed with a spe- 
cial tool which bevels 
the joint slightly so 
as to throw the water 
slightly from each brick course. Work laid in this man- 
ner simulates to a certain extent the effect of the old 
brickwork which has stood for generations and from which 
the mortar has dropped out. The mere imitation of the 
old work of itself is not necessarily an advantage, but by 
accentuating the joints, especially if the joints are laid 
pretty full, the surface of the wall is broken up in such 

manner that it is im- 
possible for it to have 
a monotonous ap- 
pearance, each brick 
casting a sharp, well- 
defined shadow. 
Such a method of 
course would be im- 
practicable for a pub- 
lic building or any 
large structure, but 
it lends itself very 
successfully to a pic- 
turesque treatment, 
and especially when 
tin- bricks are laid 
with the Flemish 
bond is the effect 
very satisfactory. 
The average mason 
is apt to make his 
joints too thin and to 
bring the pointing 
out beyond the face 
of the brick or at 
least make a' broad 
tuck joint which loses 
itself with the face 
of the brick and is ' 
apt to be character- 



THE B R I C K IU T I L D 1 -. R 




less. In the early 

days of the use of 
pressed brick in this 
country it was quite 
the custom, and is 
still, for that matter, 
iii some cities, to 
paint the entire sur- 
face of the brick wall 
with red paint match- 
ing the color of the 
brick and afterward 
line off the joints in 
black paint. This 
was about as repre- 
hensible a practice from an artistic standpoint as could 
be imagined, but where smoothness and a monotonously 
even appearance were desired such 
procedure was quite to be ex- 
pected. There is no handsomer 
surface considered as a wall tex- 
ture than well-laid brickwork, and 
especially if the joints are accen- 
tuated in the manner just de- 
scribed the surface can be a delight 
to any one who appreciates artistic- 
effects. 



Jarvis Hunt, 



HOUSE \ l 
Architect. 




173 

and forms part of a 
general landscape 

garden, the tint of 
the terra-cotta should 
harmonize with the 
general su rrou tid- 
ings, and it will he 
fou 11 d for warm t h 
and \ arying effects of 
light and shade that 
bull' terra-cotta is 
more suitable for 
that pti rpose t ban 
either red or white 
stone. There is no 
occasion for formal moldings several hundreds of yards 
in length. A master molding will, of course, find a 
natural place in a scheme, but it should be broken up 
here and there by little hays slightly elevated above the 
general level of the run of moldings, or by the insertion 
of entablatures of floral patterns, which should not he 
duplicated. — The British Brickbuilder. 



I \KI GENE \ \. \\ Is. 
Roofed with Ludowici Roofing Tile. 



IX GENERAL, 
Felt & Heim, architects, 51 Ballinger 
Joseph. Mo., have dissolved partnership. 

continue the business 
same address. 



Building, St. 

.II. Felt will 

it the 



TERRA-COTTj 

AND 
LANDSCAPE 
GARDENIX(i. 



PVE 
JLL kn 



DETAIL BY 
E. J. LENNOX, ARCHI- 
TECT. 

Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta 

Company, Makers. 



VERYBODY 

nows of the 
effective use of 
terra-cotta statues 
and statuettes in 
landscape garden- 
ing, but few are 
aware of a further 
aid to the architec- 
tural beauties of a 
house in the shape 
of terra-cotta bor- 
derings in advan- 
tageous positions. 
We do not mean a 
mere plain edging such as may he pro 
duced by short tiles. These latter hold 
their own entirely in that particular field. 
But wc refer to deep-molded borders 
which stand a foot or so above the surface of the path 
level. For garden terraces and the like these moldings 
have been much employed, but they are chiefly, if not 
always, of cement or stone. These Latter are altogether 
too cold, and the cement certainly does not possess that 
same finished appearance that well-made terra-cotta docs, 
neither does it harmonize with the lawn or flower plots 
which it skirts. We are strongly in favor of terra-cotta 
for the purpose, and the color of that material must, of 
course, harmonize with the building near by. When the 
bordering is away from the principal house, however. 




The San Francisco Arelii 
tectural Club, which was 
organized in September, hjoi, 



DETAIJ BY I l< W< Is I . ELLINGWOOU, 

AKl III I M I . 

White Brick and l rra Cotta Company, Makers 



with fifteen charter mem- 
bers, has now a member- 
ship of thirty-six. The 

rs an- : .\.( ). Johnson. 

president : E. < i. Holies, 
president ; < reorge 
Wagner, secretary; II. '1 
Corwin, treasurer. 

Edward K. Digga >\ 
Co., Washington, D. C, 




DKTAIl \w 
i PRICE, IRCHITKC1 

Conkllng-Armstroni I 

Coi ia Compan ; 



i74 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




ST. MAI. Arm CHURCH, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

II. I). Dagit, Art-hit. Ct. 

Built of "Ironclay" Brick made by Columbus Face Brick Company. 

ii. W. Ketcham, Philadelphia Agent. 



chitect; and 
these in New 
York City: 
V. M. C. A. 
Buildi n g . 
West Twen- 
ty-third 
Street, Par- 
rish&Schroe- 
der, archi- 
tects; i in - 
•proved flats. 
West Sixty- 
s e c o 11 (1 
Street, How- 
ells* Stokes. 
arch itects ; 
a in b u lance 
building, 
Flower Hos- 
pital, George 

E. Teets, architect; warehouse. Nos. 84 and 85 South 
Street, G. Curtis Gillespie, architect; two apartment 
houses, West One Hundred and Eighteenth Street, 
Harde & Short, architects; apartment house, West Fifty- 
first Street, Charles B. J. Meyers, architect; apartment 
house. Seventeenth Street, near Irving Place, Sass & 
Sraallheiser, architects; apartment house, Stuyvesant 
Street, George F. Pelham, architect. They have recently 
completed large improvements and additions to their 
plant, which is located at Perth Amboy, X. J. 

Hlue Ridge enameled brick will be used in the fol- 
lowing new work : Power house, Niagara Falls, X. V. ; 




DETAIL BY W. ALBERT SWASEY, akcmiii.i I. 
St. Louis Terra-Cotta Company. Makers 



have removed their offices from 
Thirteenth Street. X. W. 



216 G Street to 



16 



The Pioneer Fire-proofing- Company of Chicago have 
closed contracts for the following new work: Tribune 
Building and Trude Office Building, Chicago, and the 
Burton Boulevard Bridge, Kansas City. 

The Xew Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, New York 
City, have furnished the architectural terra-cotta for the 
following new buildings: Brewery and ice house, New- 
port Xews, \'a.. C. I*'. Terney, architect ; residence, Wash- 
ington, I). C, Waddy P. Wood, architect; hotel at Atlan- 
tic City, X. (., A. W. Barnes, architect; Nelson, Morris 
X Co.'s warehouse, Philadelphia, E. J. Allsebrooke, ar- 





DETAIL BY PARRISH .V SCHROEDER, VRCHITEI I >. 

New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, .Makers. 



HANOVER NATIONAL HANK BUILDING, NASSAU STREET, 

NEW YORK CITY. 

Fire-proofed by the National ("Raman") Fire-proofing Company. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



'75 




FRIENDSHIP SCHOOL, ALLEGHENY, PA. 

C. M. Bamberger, Architect. 
Brick manufactured by Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta C< 

addition to Metropolitan Life Insurance Building, New 
York City, N. LeBrnn & Son, architects; Widner Memo- 
rial Home, Philadelphia, Pa., Horace Trumbauer, archi- 
tect; King Ed- 
ward's Hotel, 
Toronto, Can- 
ada, E . J . 
Lenox, archi- 
tect ; resi- 
dence, James 
A. Burden, 
Jr., New York 
City, Warren 
& Wetmore, 
a r chit e c t s ; 
residence, J. 
S. Peters, Is- 
lip, Long Is- 
land, Harney & 
Prudy, archi- 
tects ; ^overn- 
ment build- 
i n g s , X e w 
L o n d o n , 
Conn. ; resi- 
dence, S. Car- 
diner Cassatt, 
Philadelphia, 
C. M. Sutton, 
architect; residence, Col. H. A. DuPont, Winterthur, 
Del., Perot & Bissell, architects; residence at Glen Cove, 
Long Island, McKim, Mead & White, architects. 




DETAIL in' GEORGE H. STREETON, 

ARCHITECT. 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 




DETAIL BY E. C. * G. <'. GARDNER, ARCHITECTS. 

Standard Terra-Cotta Works. Makers. 

During July the Perth Am boy Terra-Cotta Company 
closed the following new contracts : Gateway for George 
J. Gould, Lakewood, X. J., Bruce Price, architect ; eight- 



een houses for Clarke estate, West Se\ 
enty-fourth Street. New York, N. V"., 
Percy Griffin, architect: office build- 
ing, Eleventh Street and University 
Place. New York, X. Y.. Goldwin Star- 
rett, architect; new Lyceum Theatre, 
Forty-fifth and Forty-sixth streets, 
east of Broadway, New York, X. Y., 

Herts & Tallent, architects; hotel. 
northwest corner Seventieth Street and 
Amsterdam Avenue, New York, N.Y., 
IP B. Milliken, architect; American 

Insurance Company office building, 
Park Street. Newark, X. J., Cass Gil- 
bert, architect : St. Joseph's School. 
Convent Station. X. ].. George W. 
Bowers & Son. architects; Public Library, Middleboro, 
Mass.. F. X. \<cc(], architect; Tennis and Racquet Club, 



mpany 




si ORE 1:1 ILDING, ST. PAUL, MINN. 
Mark Pitzpatrick, Archit' 
Front of Buff Semi-Bright Glazed Brick made by Tiffany Enameled 
Brick Company. 

Boston, Parker & Thomas, architects; Carnegie Library, 
Perth Amboy, X. J.. Howard Greenley, architect. 




kil.HMi' 



i i , I i< i\, i ORDH \m, NEW VORK u 

Hogan & Slattery, Architects. 
Brick made by Kreischer Brick Company. 



176 



THE B R I C K B UII.DER 



E N GIN E E R I X G BRIC K W ORK. 

WE have recently been inspecting some new speci- 
mens of engineering brickwork in connection 
with bridge building. The particular wall, which we 
may describe as a type of several others on the same 
large contract, is about twenty feet in height and seven 
feet in thickness. This is how it was built: A founda- 
tion about eight feet in depth of good concrete was first 
put in; upon this the wall rose. The outside vertical 
faces were faced with brindles and the interior filled up 
with common red bricks. So far, so good. But the thick- 
ness of the reds was a little less than that of the brindles, 
consequently in the absence of sufficient infilling concrete 
there will always be internal strains and stresses of no 



1 n 

at 

! 


4B 


*"> 



DAIRY, Hoi sK FOR V. \\ . VANDERBILT, ESQ., 

HYDE PARK, N. V. 

Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 

Finished with Blue Ridge Enameled IJriek. 

ordinary character as long as the wall lasts. If these cir- 
cumstances do not lead to the facing bricks being cracked 
or forced outwards it will be a marvel. Again, there is 
considerable difficulty in preserving the regular courses 
of the bricks in this wall, owing to the fact that one half 
of the wall has to be built before the other half and the 
latter half has to be joined to the former. There would 
of course be no difficulty in joining the two halves to- 
gether if the thickness of the red were the same as that 
of the brindles. As it is, the wall has to be much thicker 
than would be the case were the bonding perfectly true. 
( >n the score of using more bricks than need be for simple 
building construction the clay worker cannot complain; 
but it is unfair to him to point out, as the engineer will 
probably do later on, that his bricks are not strong enough 
for general engineering purposes. Everybody knows that 
the coefficient of expansion of steel is not the same as 
that of bricks, no matter of what kind. Engineers are so 
well aware of this fact that they have for years past al- 
lowed for the movement of the girders, as the latter are 
affected more rapidly by extremes of change in tempera- 
ture than are bricks. When that movement is not com- 
pensated for in some way the brickwork or stonework on 
which the girders are placed occasionally shows si_^ns of 
bulging, but more frequently becomes cracked. The 
British Brickbuilder. 




PI BLIC school, MADISONVILLE, OHIO. 

Samuel Hannaford & Sons. Architects. 

Roofed witli American S. Tile. 



ROMAN MASONRY 



ARCHITECTS have often wondered why Roman ma- 
sonry has stood so well. Of course only the most 
durable remains, the jerry-built houses, if there were any 
in Roman times, having long since disappeared. Some 
light has recently been thrown on the problem by inves- 
tigations carried on with some ancient Roman mortar 
from the palace of Constantine in Trier. The mortar is 
of an ordinary description ; the sand employed consists of 
partly rounded and sharp flint and chert fragments. The 
proportion of these latter is about two to one of lime. 
The chief interest in the investigations, however, lies in 
the circumstance that they have shown it is in the high- 




I I \ RTMEN rS, M W -i ORK CITY. 

Brick made by Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Company. 

est degree probable that some saccharine material was 
mixed with the mortar; and following experience gained 
in India and Siam it is found that a little sugar certainly 
adds to the durability of mortar and is a good thing'all 
round. /'//<' British Brickbuilder. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

SEPTEMBER, 

i 902. 




MARKET HOUSE AT BLES A DELFT, HOLLAND. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISH! D MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass. , Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada . . . . . . . $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 
For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 





PAGE 


Agencies. — Clay Products 


. . 11 


Architectural Faience 


. . . II 


" Terra-Cotta 


. 11 and III 


Brick 


. . Ill 



Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 

PAGE 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Enameled . . . .Ill and IV Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



FIRES IN FIRE-PROOF BUILDINGS. 

TEN or fifteen years ago a fire-proof building was a 
novelty. To-day it is an accepted fact and it is 
no longer a question as to what method of construction 
shall be adopted for a commercial building. Aside from 
the statutes which prescribe that buildings above a cer- 
tain height shall be of fire-proof construction, business 
prudence calls for this and for nothing else in first-class 
buildings of to-day. It was long ago discovered, how 
ever, that a fire-proof building did not imply immunity 
from fires, and hardly a week passes that we do not sec- 
reports in the papers of a fire in a fire-proof building. 
Contradictory as this may sound it is perfectly logical. 
Scientific construction has been developed to such a cer- 
tainty that we can absolutely protect the structure of 
any building from material damage by even an excessive 
conflagration, under normal conditions, but while we 
continue to use wood in finish and fill our offices or sti 
with highly combustible material, we must expect con- 
tinual fires which will consume the contents. Rarely, 
however, does a fire in a fire-proof building extend be- 
yond the room in which it starts, and only in such ex- 
treme hazard as is typified by the Home Buildings in 
Pittsburg is there any liability of structural dam 
We are therefore perfectly safe in claiming that fire 



proof construction is to-day an exact science, that the 
application of brick and terra-cotta has been perfected 
to a point which insures absolute protection, and that if 
fires continue in our fire-proof buildings it is in no sense 

because we do not know how to thoroughly protect them. 
It is unfortunately still cheaper in some cases to pay in- 
surance than it is to use the precautions which we know 
will protect, but, given an owner who is willing to pay 

the bills and an architect who understands his business, 
there is not the slightest difficulty in so building that 
every chance of fire shall be eliminated. 



A POSSIBLE FUNCTION OF THE ARCHITEC 
TURAL LEAGUE. 

WHEN the Architectural League of New York was 
founded in [880 its membership was limited to 
those who were directly connected with the practice of ar- 
chitecture. In fact it was originally started simply as a 
draughtsmen's club, but it did not succeed on this basis and 
after a somewhat spasmodic existence of several years it 
was reorganized in its present shape, its membership in- 
cluding not only architects as such, but all those who are 
interested in the allied arts. The Architectural League 
of America is an association primarily of the architec- 
tural clubs. We believe we are right, however, in say- 
ing that with the single exception of the Architectural 
League of Xew York all of the bodies which compose the 
national League are strictly architectural in their char- 
acter. The present president of the League is a deco- 
rator, being elected as a member of the New York 
League. It is a question whether the national League 
would not wisely follow the example set years ago ol 
the Xew York League and include in its membership the 
societies of artists which are so numerous throughout 
the country and which when brought into membership 
with the League could be so valuable an addition to its 
Strength and influence. We have always felt that the 
Architectural League of America stood for far more than 
a mere association of draughtsmen or young architects, 
and the experience of the Xew York society has certainly 
proven that cooperation between the allied arts is to be 
desired in every respect. And we venture as a sue.. 
tion that if the constitution of the national League is. or 
could be amended so as to he. Sufficiently elastic to admit 
the art societies to its membership its field of usefulness 
and its essentially national character could be greatly en- 
larged to the benefit alike of the art societies, who, we 
believe, would be very glad to come into its ranks, and 
also greatly to the advantage of the architects from whom 
its ranks are now drawn. 



1 7 8 



THE H R I C K B U I L D E R 



The Settlement House. III. 

BY ALLEN B. POND. 

HULL HOUSE, whose career as a settlement began 
in September, [889, amicably disputes with the 
College Settlement at No. 95 Rivington Street, New York, 

the claim of being the first social settlement in the United 
States. In the year [856 there was erected at No. 335 
South Ilalsted Street a home for one Charles J. Hull. 
The builder and owner was a successful man in the yet 
new West, and the house was spacious for that day and 
excellently built. In addition to the drawing-room, li- 



casingS being some 12 inches wide by 8 inches dee]) and 
elaborately built up of rope and other moldings. 

Then the house stood proudly alone, flanked by the 
almost unbroken prairie. In the fall of [889, when Jane 
Addams and Ellen Gates Starr quietly established their 
home in the second story of the house, dingy, forlorn and 
prematurely old, the first story was used as the office of 
a furniture factory a wooden shell that crowded up 
against the rear of the mansion; and the second story, 
drenched by the rains that poured through innumerable 
holes in the neglected tin roof, had long been the home 
of shifting and shiftless tenants. The meadows and prai- 




DKTAII. ()!•' COl'KT ox HALSTED STREET, HULL HOUSE. 



brary, dining-room and the other usual apartments of a 
northern house of the period, there was an octagonal office 
in a one-story wing to the south, opening from the library 
and on to the veranda. The material was a purplish-red 
brick, in texture and color not unlike the common brick 
of Sayre & Fisher. On three sides of the house were 
broad verandas; a low-gabled roof covered the high attic 
surmounting the second story, and the wide eaves were 
carried by heavily molded brackets. Indeed, after the 
mode of the time, columns, lintels, casings and cornices 
were all heavily molded ; the interior door and window 



rie had been swallowed up in a wilderness of brick and 
lumber; close against the house on the north stood a 
shabby frame shed which housed an undertaking estab- 
lishment; on the south were toppling and decayed frame 
buildings used by dealers in coal, hay and feed and sec- 
ond-hand bottles, with upper floors given over to tene- 
ments. The unhappy mansion, setting a little back from 
the highway, still preserved a conspicuous individuality; 
and though its builder had long been dead and the heirs 
of his estate had fled to a more congenial neighborhood, 
the old house was still known to the neighborhood as 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



179 




HAI.STKl) AND I'nT.K STREET FRONTS. 




EWING \M> 11 \ 
111 1 1 HOUSE, Min u.<». 



I'l.nrl & Pond, 



i So 



THE BRICKBUILDER 







% ... .^ 7 

APARTMENTS ■ 1 




g - 

1 IW NURSERY 1 

R 8R0 JTORY 

1 NhKft - 1 


■ A JTO0IE5 Of P 

■ APARTMENTS ■ 

i 1 
1 UOMEN WITH II 

1 
COUHT | 




EJ Of 
.J^l APART* ^—=^^^=^M 


<4 JANE ti-UB | 
B COOPERATIVE CLUP TOR WORDING 

1 C-lSLi. 



•• Hull's House." Its new second-story tenants during the 
winter acquired the use of the old drawing-room occupy- 
ing the north half of the first-story front : in the following 
spring secured the lease of the entire house ; and, dropping 
into the speech of the neighborhood, fell to referring to 
their home as "Hull House." And in time this name 
became an accepted and irrevocable part of the "good 
will " of the premises, even to the extent that on the con- 
tinent of Europe it has taken on a generic significance; 
and "a Hull House" is. in sociologically inclined quarters, 
t h e n n der- 

stood designa- *^' y 

tion of social 
enterprises of 
a similar type. 

A year and 
a half after its 
fun ii (1 a t ion, 
1 1 nil H ouse, 
feeling the 
need of more 
room than the 
old house af- 
forded, ven- 
tured, on the 
strength of a 
four years' 
lease, to erect 
its first build- 
ing "Butler 
Gallery " a 
two-stor y 
struct u r e 
cheaply built 
o f c o m m o a 
brick, with un- 
paved, partial- 
ly excavated 
b a s e in cut. 
Here in the 
first story, now 
the lesser lec- 
ture room and 
on occasion 
the supple- 
mentary draw- 
ing-room, was 
at the outset a 
branch sta- 
tionofthepub- 
lic library ; and 

in the second story, now given up to chambers of men 
in residence, were two "galleries" for loan exhibitions 
of pictures and for use of clubs in the interim. 

Its next enterprise, in 1893, on the strength of a seven 
years' lease, was the first coffeehouse and gymnasium, — 
a two-story brick building which during the year 1901 
was moved, raised, remodeled and converted into a three- 
story building facing north on Polk Street, just across the 
alley to the west of Hull House. This new Gymnasium 
building is put to various uses. On the first floor are: 
in front, the labor museum to illustrate and in the 
mind of the worker integrate the various industrial pro- 




I5T STORY SHO0J AND TEXTiLI 
ZN& JTOftV LOCftCOi BATnl 
ORO 3TORV GYMNASIUM 






— 




3 HALSTCD 5T. 
PLAN, 111 I.I, 



cesses from the raw material to the manufactured article 
through crude early hand processes to modern power 
machinery: back of this, the cooking school — used also 
by dressmaking classes; in the south end. the shops for 
classes in mechanical drawing, wood and metal working 
and pottery molding. On the second floor are the 
studio for classes in drawing and modeling, the book- 
bindery, the physical director's room and the locker and 
shower rooms. On the third floor are gymnasium and 
boxing rooms. In the partial fourth story are gymna- 
sium gallery, 
supple 111 e n - 
tary studio 
and casting 
r o o m a n d 
storeroom. 
T h a t s a m e 
year, [893, the 
first boiler 
house w a s 
built and 
steam heat re- 
placed the fu I'- 
ll a c e s until 
then in use. 
Shortly there- 
after a dynamo 
was installed 
for generating 
current for 
i ncandcsccnt 
lighting. This 
year, 1902, the 
boiler house 
a n d h e a t i n g 
and lighting 
plant, out- 
grown, are to 
give place to 
the plant indi- 
cated on the 
block plan. 
The boiler and 
engine rooms 
are to be in a 
semi-detached 
building a 
basement and 
half story 
high, whence 
are to be fur- 
nished heat and hot water for the entire group of build- 
ings, including the proposed Crane Tenement, and where 
will be located also a central garbage crematory in which 
garbage will lie utilized as fuel for heating water for the 
plumbing system. High pressure steam will be employed 
for production of electricity, for operating blower and for 
cooking; the heating will be by low pressure and exhaust 
steam, the return circulation being facilitated by vacuum 
pump. 

In 1895 a third story was placed on Hull House itself 
to provide additional chambers for women in residence'; 
and both before and since that time the old mansion has 



THE BRICKIUIILDKR. 



iSi 




1 . 






1 




I 









AUDITOR H'M. 



RESIDEN Is DIMM, R{ io\l. 





GYMNASIUM. 



I HE COf I E E lioi SE. 












, V ' -^! vLB^a 


*< 1 4H 



LABOR MUSEUM. 



INTERIORS HULL HOUSE 



MHU'S. 



[82 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



been subjected to much remodeling. The old dining- 
room has become the residents' library; where the old 
kitchen, laundry and back staircase were is now the resi- 
dents' dining-room, some 3] feet long and served via a 
small pantry from the coffee-house kitchen; the partition 
between the old drawing-room and the somewhat narrow 
front stair hall has been almost wholly cut away so that 
the old drawing-room now forms merely part of a large 
reception hall, the front end of which is a thoroughfare to 
the Auditorium and Children's House. The old house in 
its present form affords: or its first door, reception hall, 
parlor, library, office, residents' dining-room; and on its 
second and third floors, fourteen bedrooms and four bath 
rooms, besides a trunk room and linen and housemaids' 
closets. 

In [895 the Children's House was built at the north- 
east corner of the block, in contact with Hull House 
only at its southwest corner and without direct access 
from Hull House. Here, on the first floor arc two boys' 
clubrooms; on the second floor the creche with its two 
bedrooms, dining-room, kitchen, toilet room and " sun- 
shine porch" guarded by wire netting; on the third floor 
the kindergarten with its toilet rooms and balcony; on 
the fourth, three rooms used for children's music classes. 
The following year a third story was put on the "Butler 
Gallery" for men in residence; and now, as remodeled, 
there are provided on the second and third floors of 
the Butler Building eight rooms for men with requisite 
bath and toilet rooms. 

< >ne of the earliest enterprises fostered by Hull House 
was the founding of the working girls' cooperative home 
which was organized and incorporated under the name 
of the "Jane Club." This club, whose purpose was 
to show that working girls could have a home of their 
own conducted at scarcely greater expense than the 
poorest boarding house entailed, was launched in six 
flats opening on a common staircase in a three-story 
building on Ewing Street not far from Hull House. In 
[898, the Jane Club, having demonstrated its ability to 
sustain itself in quarters ill suited to its needs, was pro- 
vided with a building specially designed for its uses and 
erected on land bought for the purpose under the aus- 
pices of friends of Hull House. The Jane Club build- 
ing faces Ewing Street, just across the alley west of Hull 
House, and is separated from the Gymnasium building by 
a public alley parallel with Ewing Street and running 
west from the alley back of Hull House. In the base- 
ment and three stories are: laundry, trunk room, kitchen, 
serving-room, dining-room, drawing-room, library and 
bedrooms for thirty girls, twenty single and four 
double rooms, -with ample bath and toilet facilities. 

In [895 Hull I louse secured a twenty-five years' lease 
of the premises having a frontage of 118 feet on Hal- 
sted .Street and extending westward some [62 feet on 
Polk Street, it seemed warrantable to build more sub- 
stantially thereafter than on the short leases ruling hith- 
erto. There was urgent need of an auditorium to relieve 
the constant demand on the gymnasium room to do double 
duty: the coffee house no longer met the needs of the 
patrons; and in 1899 a fire-proof building was erected 
north of Hull House and west of the Children's House 
and in contact with each. The main entrance is from 
Polk .Street, but by a vestibule in its southeast corner an 



exit and secondary entrance were provided for the Audi- 
torium building through the Children's House vestibule, 
and an opening at this point to the old drawing-room af- 
forded the first under-roof connection between Hull House 
and the Children's House. The Auditorium, with a view 
to its frequent use for amateur theatricals, was equipped 
with a stage having movable scenery and contiguous 
dressing-rooms. In the gallery, at the end opposite the 
stage, space is arranged for future installation of a pipe 
organ. The walls of both coffee room and Auditorium 
are faced on interior with a dull-red pressed brick; the 
ceiling of the coffee room is formed by the actual tile 
arches that support the second floor, and these tiles, 
washed and treated to a single coat of boiled oil, rang- 
ing in color from a light whitish buff to a deep sienna, 
make a very effective and architectural ceiling, demon- 
strating the possibilities of the material now universally 
hidden by plaster. 

In the fall of 1900 Hull House acquired a fifty years' 
lease of the ground already under lease until 1920 and of 
the remainder of the block bounded by Ilalstcd, Polk and 
Ewing and the first alley to the west of Halsted and of 
forty feet on Polk west of this alley. The terms of the 
lease required the opening of this west alley and necessi- 
tated the moving of the Gymnasium to which reference 
has already been made. In the fall of 1901 Hull House 
began the erection of a building on the south end of the 
block for the purpose of providing through rentals an in- 
come to be applied toward the maintenance of the House. 
On the first floor at the north end of the Halsted Street 
wing are three rooms (conversation, billiard and reading), 
with coat room, shower and toilet rooms for use of the 
neighborhood " Men's Club," which had had quarters in 
the first Gymnasium building. The remainder of the 
building is given to flats for housekeeping and to bach- 
elors' apartments. These latter open through a fire door 
to the second story of the Butler Building and are intended 
to supplement the space given to men residents, though 
their use is not restricted to actual residents of Hull 
Mouse. The outcome of the occupancy of these flats, 
completed this spring, will have a certain social interest, 
as the tenants literally come from all ranks of society 
above the very poorest, and the settlement theoryof '"so- 
cial unification " will be put to an extreme practical test. 

The Jane Club and the Hull House Association apart- 
ment building are, literally speaking, no part of Hull 
House, the "social settlement," though they are part of 
the Hull House group of buildings and owe their exist- 
ence to the creative inspiration of I lull House. This year 
it is expected that there will be added to the group yet 
another building which will sustain to Hull House much 
such relation as does the Jane Club. Plans are now under 
way for the Crane Tenement, to be erected next west of the 
Jane Club on a piece of land having a south frontage of 
100 feet on Ewing, a depth of 104 feet to the alley and 
bounded on the west by another alley. This building, in 
quadrangular form, will have basement and four stories 
on the north and basement and three stories on the south, 
east and west. It will contain on the first floor front a 
playroom for older children, on the second floor front 
a creche, on the third floor front a kindergarten. The 
creche will be more than double the size of the Hull 
House creche, and the kindergarten some twenty per cent 



T H E BRIC K B U I L I) E R 



[83 



larger; and on the completion of this new building the 
creche and kindergarten in the Children's House will be 
discontinued and the space devoted to children's clubs 
and classes. In addition to these special features the 
Crane Tenement will contain twenty-six Hats (three of 
them capable at need of subdivision into six) which it 
is proposed to rent to the poorest families that can pax- 
rent at all. In the tenement, as in the Hull House 
apartment building, there are no light wells, and each 
stair hall, living room, bedroom and bath room opens 
directly on to the outer air; the central court in the 
tenement will be 50 x 55 feet. The entire group thus has 
a frontage of one block (226 feet 4 inches) on Halsted 
Street, of 122 feet 9 inches on Polk and Ewing back to 
the first alley, of 126 feet 
6 inches additional on 
Ewing from the first to 
the second alley, and of 
40 feet additional on Polk 
west of the first alley. 

This rapid survey of 
the origins and history of 
the several buildings that 
comprise the Hull House 
group will have made it 
clear that the plant as a 
whole cannot lay claim to 
being a closely knit, highly 
developed organism. And 
this, I take it, is one of 
the reasonable tests of a 
building — that when it 
must necessarily be made 
up of parts having special 
functions but still inter- 
related and severally in- 
terdependent, this inter- 
relation, as in a closely 
knit organism, shall be 
achieved in a most direct 
and natural way, so that 
the functioning of the 
partsandof the whole shall 
be in a logical process and 
without waste. Judged by 
this test a building must 
be held to be successful 
in proportion as its uses 
How easily and without 

cross currents through their destined channels, so that it 
shall seem to the close observer that the ends sought were 
clearly foreseen and that the meansof meeting them wen- 
evolved as a whole and not patched together on strag- 
gling afterthoughts. In short, when we study a building 
from the standpoint of plan considered as the crystalliza- 
tion of uses, its logic must convince us by its directness, 
its Simplicity, its clarity. If this standard is severe it is 
nevertheless a wholesome thing for architecture. And 
if when applying it we recall our own experience with 
instances of problems whose inherent difficulties were 
aided and abetted by the idiosyncrasies of owners or 
committees, it should be possible for us to judge a build- 
ing rigorously and yet without expressing condemnation 




DETAIL ON HALSTED STREET, HULL HOUSE. 



of the architect, whose warrantable plea of confession and 
avoidance may not have reached our ear. Judged by this 
test Hull House is plainly rather an aggregation of par- 
tially related units than a logical organism. It is, how- 
ever, only fair that this rigor of judgment shall be some- 
what abated for a building or group of buildings that has 
grown by a long series of wholly unforeseeable accretions 
to an original accidental unit. 

Architecture is, morever, many-sided and appeals not 
only to dispassionate reason, but to sentiments that can 
with difficulty be rationalized. Continually in the Old 
World we chance upon some building that cannot stand 
a critical analysis from the view point of clarity of plan, 
that bears the marks of changes and additions wrought 

by successive generations 
of users, but whose hetero- 
geneous whole has an in- 
disputable homogeneity 
that defies logic and tri- 
umphs over cross currents 
and contradictions; each 
set of occupants, intent 
on their own immediate 
need or whim, has changed 

the USeSOf parts, has added 
other parts, working with 
diverse materials and in 
divergent styles; and 
through it all the building 
has somehow preserved a 
certain unity and individ- 
uality of its own. We arc 
accustomed to finding this 
sort of subtile process 
taking place in buildings 
evolved during a consid- 
erable period of time. Asa 
matter of fact Hull House 
in the period of twelve 
years has gone through 

just such an evolution as 
these I "Id World buildings 
have in as manv genera- 
tions. Neither the faith 
nor the fantasy of its 
founders anticipated so 
diverse and so great a 
growth. Therefore the 

successive steps in build- 
ing did not logically look forward to or prepare the way 
for those that followed. But there is a certain homoge 
neity, almost an individuality, to tin- group; and it is said 
to have something of charm to the public and of interest 
to the architect by reason of the handling of materials. 
Although Hull House, in the range of its activit 
covers a far wider field than inheres 111 the settlement 
idea as first conceived, the spirit and methods of Hull 
House are distinctively those of the social settlement; 
and, when adding to its buildings, it has measurably sue 
in t]t<\ in avoiding an institutional and formal asp 

The comment naturally suggests itself that, in tin- 
case of each of the three settlements whose plans have 
been considered in detail, there were peculiar local Condi- 



[84 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



tions that affected the result. Each was a solution in a 
way of its own problem; but docs any of them approach 
closely to a satisfactory ideal solution of the general 
problem of social settlement planning? Hull House, 
starting in an old mansion, lacking prescience of its 
future and limited at first by short land tenure and 
cramped ground area, was without organic systematiza- 
tion in its growth. The Commons problem is compli- 
cated by the injection of the necessity of providing for 
the requirements of the church society on an already 
insufficient ground area. Even at the Northwestern, 
although the problem is simplified from the fact that the 
work holds quite closely to the usual settlement type, the 
ground area was too small and the available funds for 
building quite inadequate. Suppose that there is pre- 



whose members sought by distance and thick walls 
wholly to detach themselves from the world. There is 
another sort of monastic establishment, great mission- 
ary settlements whose members, in addition to their re- 
ligious functions, were students, teachers and craftsmen. 
The members of these communities did for the Europe 
that was being evolved out of the chaos of war and bar- 
barism that followed the "wandering of the nations" 
an inestimable service — preaching the sacredncss of hu- 
man life, teaching letters and fostering literature ami 
ideas, and, not least, teaching by example the dignity 
of labor. Great Britain was dotted with these missionary 
settlements, bulwarks against barbarism, forerunners of 
civilization. They also believed and taught the efficacy 
of creeds and formulae; and to them the thought of a 





FlRlT FLOOR PLAN 

ii < PLANS, STUDY POB DAVID SWING SETTLEMENT. 



JtCOND FLOOVPLAt-t 



sented the problem of planning and designing a build- 
ing for a settlement, and that, within reasonable limits 
and short of extravagance, land and money are avail- 
able, is there any sort of scheme that seems peculiarly 
fit' Before attempting to answer this query, it may be 
interesting to make the further inquiry whether the social 
settlement, admittedly unique among modern philan- 
thropic enterprises, is wholly without parallel in the past. 
A backward glance will at once suggest, it seems to 
me, a striking analogy between the social settlement and 
the distinctively missionary monastic foundations of the 
Christian church. 1 say " missionary " monasteries, be- 
cause the settlement plainly bears no resemblance what- 
ever to those anchorite or ascetic monastic communities 



future life was an omnipresent and all-potent factor in 
the present life. 

A change has come over the spirit of the western 
world ; less and less weight is given to creeds; and it is 
tacitly admitted that our business in this world is with 
this life in its larger meaning, and that when we get to 
another world it will be time enough to deal with ques- 
tions of a future life. We find that at the very core of 
our civilization, in the great cities that are the nerve cen- 
ters of the commercial and industrial life that we boast, 
masses of men and women and children are in a condi- 
tion of mental and moral and physical deprivation com- 
pared with which the militant barbarism of the pre-feudal 
and feudal ages seems almost benign. The social settle- 



THE BR ICK BU I L I) I-; k 



185 



ment in our unevangelical, scientific, industrial age is the 
legitimate sociological successor of the evangelizing and 
teaching and working monastic establishment of the 
earlier and middle Christian centuries. The monastic 
quadrangle, with its combination of refectories, assem- 
bly rooms, libraries, shops and individual bedrooms, is 
the analogue of the settlement building to-day. Long 
before the thought of this 
analogy had been suggested 
to me, when as yet no Chi- 
cago settlement had essayed 
a building built for its own 
uses, our firm was called upon 
to make tentativesketchesfor 
two settlements, and in both 
instances. without knowl- 
edge of existing models, 
had settled down on the 
quadrangular form. Neither 
project was carried out. The 
earliest was for a settle- 
ment soon thereafter inaugu- 
rated in a shabby old dwell- 
ing; but when, some years 
later, it made a beginning of 




STREET FRONT, 



conceived it to be a part of the settlement idea that those 
who founded a settlement should transplant in their new- 
location the exact mode of life that they had been lead- 
in- and should share this as well as themselves with their 
neighbors. They were university men; and. in conso- 
nance with this theory. Toynbee Hall was patterned on 
the quadrangular schemeof an English college. Whether, 

had the Toynbee men not 

been English university men, 
they would still have hit on 
the quadrangular type, is a 
wholly speculative question. 
They would indeed have 

lacked the particular reason 

that did decide them to use- 
it ; but as Englishmen they 
were familiar with monastic 
and college quadrangles, and 
the peculiar appropriateness 
of the scheme would be quite 
as likely to have occurred 
to then) as it did to us who. 

knowing nothing at that time 
of the plan of Toynbee Hall 
and never having lived in a 





'•"'■"■•' »-...-, i. j... 



VIEW IN QUADRANGLE. V IEW IN Ql VDRANGLK. 

STUDY FOR DAVID SWING SETTLEMENT. 



building for itself, the work fell into other hands. The 
other — the proposed David Swing memorial settlement 

— was abandoned entirely. The rough studies for this 
latter scheme are reproduced with these articles. I in- 
cline strongly to the opinion that the quadrangular type 
is peculiarly adapted, — perhaps, given space and money, 
best adapted to express the settlement spirit in a plan 
wherein the differentiation of functions can be achieved 
without loss of organic coherence. In the quadrangle, 
livableness and homelikeness are readily made to coexist 
with the sheltering of the necessary formal functions. 
It is curious to note in this connection that Toynbee Hall 

— the first settlement to be founded and perhaps the only 
one that made its original debut in quarters built ex- 
pressly for it — is a quadrangle, although for quite other 
reasons than the ones that led our firm to hit on the quad- 
rangular type. In the case of Toynbee Hall the found* 



college quadrangle, still came by a logical process to tin- 
same result. 

(' "\< i i inn.) 



rll ERE have been many attempts to discover and put 
upon the market a substitute for our ordinary 
white glazed or enamelled wall tiles, but so far with very 
little success. Class, cork, enamelled zinc plates, stamped 
Steel, and paper specially treated have all made their ap- 
pearance, but there is nothing yet put forth that on the 
whole answers successfully so many conditions as the 
common glazed terra cotta or tile which has been in use 
for so many centuries. No material can be expected to 

meet absolutely all conditions, and nothing is perf( 

but a glazed tile sui I ,,es nearer to pel 

tion than anything with which we are at present familiar. 



i 86 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



Recent Interesting Brickwork in 
Buffalo. 

APARTMENT BUILDINGS AM) CLUBHOUSES. 

BY ll, \ SSES G. ORR. 

APARTMENT houses in Buffalo are like churches in 
Brooklyn, to be found on nearly every corner and 
in the middle of the block as well. There are, of course, 
good, bad and indifferent, the bad largely predominating, 

as they no doubt do in all cities. Until recently Buffalo 
was a city without apartment buildings, but some one 
thought the town metropolitan enough to support an 

apartment house, when, lo and behold ! the multitude 
rose and did likewise, some with better results than 
others, however. 



The Algonquin, designed by F. H. Loverm, shows a 
pleasing effect in rough brick, a dark wash brick in base- 
ment story and a lighter brick of good texture above. 

Some very pleasing brickwork of good texture and 
satisfactory color combination is shown in the interiors 
of the annex to the Markeen, from designs by Ksenwein 
& Johnson. The interior brickwork is fully as pleasing 
as that outside, and is as interesting as it is original. 

A simple little building planned by George W. Graves 
is the Windsor. It will be noticed that the corners of this 
building seem amply strong, and thereby hangs a tale. 
When this building was being built, the famous Fargo 
mansion was razed and the owner saw on the bargain 
counter, at a price which simply could not be resisted, a 
number of beautifully cut quoins. An older architect 
would not have permitted them to be used. 




THE MELTON manor. 
W. I.. Schmolle, Architect. 



One of the earlier buildings, the Lenox, planned by 
Loverin & YVhelan, developed happily. Built on one of 

the finest residence streets, North Street, near Delaware 
Avenue, it naturally disturbed the peace of mind of near- 
by residents. But they took the matter philosophically 
and now have little to complain of. 

The Colonial, by James A. Johnson, is one of our 
Delaware Avenue apartments, and is an interesting ex- 
ample of the style after which it is named. A dark 
brown wash brick with dark joints in first story and red 
brick with white joints above, together with the white 
marble trimmings, make a pleasing combination. 

A charming little building on Delaware Avenue is the 
Morev, designed by H. Osgood Holland, who endeavored 
to disfigure the street as little as possible by giving his de- 
sign the appearance of a residence as nearly as might be. 



The Touraine, Buffalo's newest apartment building, is 
a simple but pleasing design by Esenwein & Johnson. 
Unfortunately for photographing buildings in summer, 
Buffalo has an overabundance of trees, but the view from 
Johnson Park shows what the view from Delaware Ave- 
nue does not. 

A homelike little building in buff brick is the St. 
Croix from plans by John S. Rowe. The wall surfaces 
in this building are broken up very satisfactorily. 

The Irving, a small building behind the trees, is from 
plans by H. G. Larzelere, and is built of light buff brick, 
white joints and buff terra-eotta trim. 

Some very satisfactory brickwork is shown in the La 
Salle, planned by F. H. Loverin, a light buff brick with 
lighter trimmings making a combination of excellent 
color value. 



THE BRICKHl'II.D E R 



187 





THE ALGONQUIN. 
F. H. Loverin, Architect. 

Another example, from the plans of John S. Rowe, is 
the Roanoke, in which two shades of buff brick were used 
with pleasing results. 



1 II I MOREY. 
II Osgood Holland, Architect. 



The Melton Manor, from plans by W. I.. Schmolle, 
occupies an entire block and presents a very pleasing 

front. Built with a buff brick, light joint and buff trim. 




THE LA SALLE. 
F. H. Loverin, Architect. 



The Hudson, a pompous little building by F. II. Lov- 
erin, has some clever brickwork. 





I III', 1 i\ in 1 . 
Metzger & Greenfield, Architects. 



depending upon the lights and shadows from the various 

projections and recesses for its variety of tone. 




I UK HUDSON. 
F. H. Loverin, Architect. 



I HR WINDSOR. 
ives. Arc I 



1 88 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




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190 



THE BRICKBUILUER 



An example of pattern 
brickwork is the Tindle, by 
Metzger & Greenfield. Gold- 
en-brown shades were used 
with good e IT e e t e x c e p t 
where plain wall was desired. 
The mixing of shades was 
left to the bricklayers, in this 
case with fatal effect. 

( )f the clubhouses in Buf- 
falo, all the better class are 
built of brick. 

The Saturn Club, de- 
signed by Marling & Bur- 
dett, is an excellent demon- 
stration of the fact that the 
manner in which a brick is 
used has more to do with the 
successful appearance of a 






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till"llili«k 




Mlllllll ll 




OTTOWEGA CLUB. \ 
Green & Wicks, Architects. 



A simple and dignified 
building is the Twentieth 
Century Club, from designs 
by Green & Wicks. A pink 
brick with some variety of 
shade, neutral joints and 
light buff stone and terra- 
cotta trimmings make a 
pleasing color combination. 

The Gymnasium and Na- 
tatorium of the Buffalo Club. 

designed by Green & Wicks, 
is a satisfactory job of brick- 
work. A red brick with va- 
riation enough to avoid mo- 
notony, laid up in white 
mortar, and the second story 
filled in with stucco, makes a 
very pleasing combination. 





BUFFALO CLUB, GYMNASIUM AND NATATORIUM. 
Green & Wicks, Architects. 



TWENTIETH CENTURY CLUB. 
Green & Wicks. Architects. 





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SATURN CLUB. 
Marling &■ Burdett, Architects. 



MAIN ENTRANCE, SATURN CLUB. 



building than the quality of the brick. Common brick 
were used in this building with admirable effect. The 
detail of main entrance shows this clearly. 



The Ottowega Club, a splendidly designed building, 
with just brick enough to admit of its associating with 
brick buildings, is from the plans of Green & Wicks. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



101 



The Business Side of an 
Office. IV. 

BY 1). EVERETT w AID. 



Architect's 



SUPERINTENDENrS REPORT ON BUILDING 



BLDG NO. 



A. J. MANNING, Architect. 

..-I ilih S,*nur Nr» \ork 



Contracts. — Many architects, and a few of the promi- 
nent ones, use the "Uniform Contract." But a majority 
of the well-known firms have their own special forms. 
some of them objecting to the " Uniform " on account 
of features that it either does or does not contain. 

It is well to have contracts made out in triplicate, a 
copy each for owner, contractor and architect, attaching 
to the office copy the bid and memoranda showing how 
the contract sum was arrived at. The specifications and 
the drawings also should be identified by the signatures 
of the contractor. A set of blue prints as being less sus- 
ceptible of alteration is set aside for the signed office 
copy. The tracings are thus left free for subsequent 
revision and new prints if desired, each revision being 
shown by a date on the drawing. If desired, notations 
may be made in ink on the signed set to call attention 
to changes, but care should be taken to date and in- 
itial each correction. This prevents any question as to 
whether a change was made before or after the original 
contract was let or whether it was included in any subse- 
quent order. 

It is well to have the client's attorney in consultation in 
letting contracts, particularly if any provisions are to be 
made outside the usual. Insurance against accident and 
the elements should be provided, the contractor being 
made responsible for the former and the owner for the 
latter. Dates should be stated in the contract for the 
completion of various stages of the work, for its moral 
effect as well as to give a basis on which to forfeit a con- 
tract if proper progress is not made. Very frequently 



Weather conditions 
I 
Number ol nun at work 



Work l< m 



Materials delivered since last report 



a anu'd on, the work now 



W 



that will be required two weeks 



Mechanics wanted on the work 



Mechanics th.it will In- needed two weeks from this in . 



II work is delayed or will be delayed (or want of materials, derails. 01 
what, and include any remarks not covered by ab 



Superintendent, Clci!. 
(ORIGINAL SIZE, 13X8 INC 
II,,. i. \ FORM I ok SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORTS. 



BottBO.lor - 

lira. Qao. B. Vo: ♦, 3r.. No - i0 - 



sr fountHwon of lit t 
pt,h of ateut ito flat. 



v;„ )., ink Hot. 1901. 1:1 



cat- te e»liar. atirt ■ '""« ■"■ •«■ "" 

»bir« ;b.« H»T8»C«l »»0 ■ lLo.7 li&'iJ iW4a« 



HCiillOi' iterating for foueaavioe of If. bou.e hat boo. eot.ttota 

aae bit taianctc te a ««P - 

1 MSOU I0RI- Xo fork at pr.l.nt 0, o.toldo tilt. Wot 0«tU., »"X 

f! truk oiot la eolltr on .1.0 of inch.. biota, ^ alio, tpo.0 for 

4 i o,.b Y.it.r to bo rut oo.o te O.llor. a«r. rl.j bo. oa.t ..t 

2* 5_in etllar Is tb( 

tt1ff Mir >l PM»'i tMi. Mit of .or* area at per la.t roport. 
W4i\ Cujootor 1. M f ,i. t for .tirrup ire., for U..U, third fleer to... 
1 4,4 , or ta.ot Verb te ad.va.eo it mi par. of bout. Mr., door. 
boaii 1« ruekoo k»n ■>»*« i "' looporarllj tb.re ttrfl.r li 

te bo. totaa to allot ante lauorto bo rur etl toeoHtr. 
~fcjUTIiiO " t»0 Urea Rtebortteo t £0*0.01 I»rnae0i otot* hat. •« 

" va.lliero4 at bilUitr tie ef abler tiro »« ••' »P »« P-«e». 

|p. B. POST. 1 sq.. Architect. 



f 




A TYPICAL REPORT .'•> AN ARCHITEI fS SUPERINTENDED 



the contract stipulates thai certain pay- 
ments shall be made when the building 

reaches certain stages of completion, 

but on the whole perhaps the besl pro 
vision in this matter is as follows: 

•• Payments shall be made only upon 
the certificate of the architects as fol- 
lows: 85 per cent of the value of labor 
done and materials delivered or of mate- 
rials delivered and built in as estimated 
by the architects at reasonable intervals." 

Delays may be avoided and the con 

tractor encouraged to order materials 

well in advance by making payments 
on materials delivered .and before ei 
tion, but care should be taken that all 
such materials are definitely listed in 

the contractor's application for certifi- 
cate, otherwise there may be difficulty 

in establishing ownership and prevent 
ing removal of materials by Bubcon 
tractors in the event, for instance, of the 
failure of the contractor. Legal advice 
should be had on such points. 

In order to bind a contractor to fullill 
his agreement the following provision 



192 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




TO 

tk»1 wit ,1 



IS NOT ACCORDING TO CONTRACT 



i (u 7 t a 1 

'"■' the tnb seotior 

oirer cogea, r.uar torensa -' , " ••- • ^ rron, 
have liokk 1 «d <\r.t: 'as toned a* 

the t n« the giiarrt on hronK6 cats i" ciw 
pleted. 

IAK9-BM 

VXj«*^_»_ tyoO>««»*- <S-<r-»-,«_ 



JA! 






FEB 7. 

- 









vc: 



P 



is frequent- 
ly written 
into the con- 
tract: '-The 
contractor 
agrees to 
give a bond 
acceptable 
to the owner 
b i n d i n g 
himself in 
the sum of 
( usual 1 y a 
third of the 
contract 
price) to ful- 
f i 1 1 the 
ter m s of 
this c o n - 
tract and 
complete 
the< ) 

work free of 
all liens." 

E X K c 1 • - 
T I () N OF 

Work. — In 
large offices 
the supervision of construction is attended to by super- 
intendents who do nothing else. It is not safe to leave 
this duty to the man who made 
the drawings for a given build- 
ing, as he may be unfit by tem- 
perament or experience to su- 
perintend. < )n the other hand, 
it is a policy mutually benefi- 
cial to allow to the draughtsman 
a share of the oversight of the 
execution of work. He should 
try to get the mechanic's point 
of view at every opportunity. 
. An occasional visit to the works, 
too, by the one who made the 
drawings will reveal errors or 
deviations which escaped the 
eye of even the skilled but busy 
regular superintendent, who 
may have a lot of buildings in 

hand at once. Some of the most successful offices have 
not only regular superintendents, but others, McKim, 



FIG. 3. SAMPLE OF INSTRUCTIONS To 

architect's SUPERINTENDENT RE- 
GARDING DEFECTIVE WORK. 



Mead & White, for in- 
stance, allow joi n t 
oversight by the regu- 
lar outside man and 
the draughtsman who 
had charge of the 
drawings of the par- 
ticular piece of work. 

R. H. Robertson 
has the execution of 
his work looked after 
by regular superin- 
tendents, who keep in 
touch of course with 
the office. He has 
found that it is de- 
m oralizin g for 
draughtsmen to at- 
tempt to do both office 
work and outside 
superintending. 

Superintendents' 
Reports. — Superin- 
tendents' reports may 
be kept in a manner 
exactly similar to the 
"Memo Record" (pre- 
viously described) 
rough pencil note rec- 
ords of progress of a 



«.. &8 



WORK slip 



IUJ&iA -?Hafopttc. 7&&uPul 



K 



u^ 



L 



(crwt\ 



L/ST ON OACK 



Z 0/ 



J 



ESTIMATE SU 



Vto 



Contract or oho 



^ 



^27 0/ 
' 5 /3 01 



(ORIGINAL SIZE, 5X3 INCHES.) 

5. WORK SLIP. LIST OF CONTRACTORS 
INVITED TO BID MAY BE WRITTEN 
ON HACK OF CARD. 



• v «< PRUOFNTIAL BUILDING 

GEO B POST. f WORK SLIP No.17 'V 



OctfM 

ItntMiM, 



^a vw - 



-\ Vlitt ! ETTE8 
J * ■>■ 



H 




1 rfc±ut+*- ^7a*~*~M' St^ .t '..C. 









t..t„ 






■ r» 



fcpttad 



-■ 




\fr£j£2Lu* 



building or more elaborate and 
formal reports, as one prefers. 
In one large New York office 
these reports are watched very 
carefully. An "N. C. " is 
stamped opposite every para- 
graph which records any work 
Not according to ( ontract, and 
those " N. C.'s " are never lost 
sight of until subsequent re- 
ports show that defective work 
was made good and how. 

The writer uses a rubber- 
stamp heading on the afore- 
said yellow-pad paper for super- 
intendents' reports. Some 



£ 



Certificate No SL7 Date JuAW / iso/ Building No °sf 

Qo&tv (3 'H^vCfc " (S^fy. 

Address ~?V /t^K^W 0>/~ "Jt. ~lf. 

f»at ~7%cc&cu£, 7tkfa4*s . " 
/z^*c ~&<*ttjs(AeA7(-' 'fc^'tif—- '■** 

<*»« IN FUU.OF CONTRACT FOR T^CCUWVC^ ' " X*Sm^k 



T.EO TO A PAVMENTOF 



\ TERMS OF CONT 



THa 



/ /fa/ 



-? fo,- 



CONTRACT AMOUNT 


STATEMENT. 

s 


//So 
7S 








DEDUCTIONS 
NET TOTAL 
FORMER CERTIFICATES 
THIS CERTIFICATE 
TOTAL TO DATE 


/ Z 00 


/-Zoo 



(ORIGINAL SIZE, 8X3?i INCHES.) 
FIG. (>. A CERTIFICATE. 



(ORIGINAL SIZE, 8X3'i INCHES. > 

7. REVERSE SIDE OF CERTIFICATE SHOWN IN I'm 

THE FIRST FIVE LINKS OF THE STATEMENT ARK 

USUALLY LEFT BLANK EXCEPT IN 

THE FINAL CER II IK A IK. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



[93 



EXPENSE RECORD C 



?.)?,< 



& 

., /S 

« X.K 

., <?'/ 

- * 

,. zt> 

. /« 



FIG. 



^/Q&HQA., 



6 ■' S 
3-17 

J / o 

J.030 
7/9 



Jos 
J66 



S (3 

4 1 a 
-Z 3 . 




*3-?77 ^3/? ^"7^ 

(ORIGINAL SIZE, 5X3 INCHES. 
8. EXPENSE RECORD CARD. 
RULED ALIKE. 



1938& 



BOTH SIDES 



architects have quite elaborate printed forms. An excel- 
lent simple printed form which serves at once as instruc- 
tion to an unskilled superintendent and a reminder 
to an experienced man is that used by A. [. Manning. 
(See Fig. 1.) 

The writer would insert two lines in this form as 
follows : 

" Work not according to contract " 

"Defective work formerly reported made good and 
how •• 

Many of the most successful architects at- 
tend personally to the supervision of con- 
tractors' work. But by whomsoever done 
it is most important to keep a written account 
of every visit or inspection of work in prog- 
ress, — a "diary" some call it, — let us say 
" superintendence record." 

Work Slips. — "Work slips" are a con- 
venient device in a large office, or in a small 
office where one person has many duties to 
carry. If an owner decides during the erec- 
tion of his building that he would like a 
marquise over an entrance he writes his archi- 
tect, or perhaps calls and informs him ver- 
bally, as was doubtless the case in the instance 
illustrated (Fig. 4). This is a slip photo- 
graphed in Mr. Post's office. From the office 
record of the client's call as evidenced by the 
"Origin, Memo Record 4 and 12 Nov. 01" 
(there were two calls, it seems), the slip was 
started and became at once a means of follow- 
ing up the piece of work and a history of what 
was done. As each step in the office was 
accomplished, "Drawings made," "Draw- 
ings submitted," "Drawings approved," 
etc., the fact was noted, and when finally 
"Contract awarded " was reached the active 
usefulness of that particular slip was ended 
and it was filed away. In a large office one 
clerk may give a large part of his time to a 
stack of these work slips. In a moderate- 
sized office the writer has found the same idea 
useful (see Fig. 5, which is a form printed on 
3x5 cards). I have a small tray of these 
cards on my desk grouped behind pencil- 
labeled guide cards, one for each of the build- 
ings in hand. One card is made out for each 



original contract to be let on each building, as well as 
any changes, extra work, etc., which may come Up dur- 
ing construction. One has thus under his finger for 
instant reference a list of the contractors selected to bid 

on each work, and a memorandum which will prevent 
embarrassment from a drawing not being made at the 

proper time or bids not being invited or any part of the 
work being forgotten. 

CER1 nn vi ES. I have a large Collection of certificate 
blanks which are very similar, naturally, in matter but 
range in size from very diminutive slips to 8 x 10 inches. 
The form illustrated (Figs. 6 and 7) is an average and is a 
size, 3 ; 4 x 8 inches, convenient for mailing as well as for 
filing in the owner's document file or contract folder. 
.Stub records may be brief, simply certificate number, 
building number, date, amount and contractor's name. 
A letterpress copy of every certificate should be kept, 
and it is made clearer for reference if the blank is printed 
in copying ink; many architects, by the way, arc having 
various forms printed in aniline for this purpose. 

Cass Gilbert has printed at the bottom of" his certifi- 
cates the following: 

This certificate, whether issued as final 01 «, is an opinion 

only, and is in no sense a guarantee on the pan of the Architect. It 
isnot to be interpreted as an acceptance of anj work or material which 



Toy *>/£ Ttsat/G-/' /?o/ 


■■■/ O -// 0/ 


■ 75 


■ 

0° 7 •/•>"/ " vy : 

*>-? 3 /6. 0? /(, 01 

6 3° ■' 3/.6o 

SZ // f*y J? /S 22 so f/./5 


'■<••</ i// III ''tlfVHAMf 


c? "S Ttuaa.^, 


IZ3 ■/***■ 7 7 4 ii-.i«//t.et 


iio-cl^U7 7 7 7 V \3f .'Jo-" 


9 


V 


• i 




7ua*(-ft en • ■■■■"■_,- 


Xf~, 




K 


Pit- 








Z/S 




/If a*? ( tO ' Jt /t/a*w< ■ 


?H*yi 


iojjn^g, 7 






O'/," 


(,07- 7 

/ 7 '/ 1 ft 





Sf ./*t 6.™ 



(ORIGINAL 



FIG. 9. IIMI I \i;d- Willi SUMMARY 01 0N1 wilks i\\ ROLL, 0V1 
'I I Ml- l- RECORDED IN swn FORM, PRINTED on kid i \kds. 



194 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



CASH SLIP 

,...y 2 



Ch»«CC TO O 






385 

7* 



WANTCO W\ 



5>- 



... <9&^ 



cash sup _. 386 



7n 



- M 



,£&4A 



(ORIGINAL SIZE, 5X3 INCHES EACH.) 
FIG. IO. VOUCHER C \KI>s. 

is defective, or which is not in accordance with the contract, and in 
making payment under it the Owner reserves the righl to hold the 
Contractor strictly responsible for defective work or material, or for 
any violation of the contract. 



The receipt of the amount of $ , in accordanci 

with the above certificate, is hereby acknowledged, and the work and 
material furnished by the undersigned is hereby guaranteed to be the 
best of its kind and strictly in accordance with the contract. 

. . Contractor, 

Frank Miles Day & Bro. print on their certificates : 

NOTICE AS TO INSURANCE 
On making tliis payment the Owner should assure himself that his 
interests are protected by insurant • sufficient to cover his liability in 
the increased amount resulting from this payment. 

They have also a perforated attached form which is 
torn <>tT and mailed to an owner as soon as a certificate 

is issued, thus: 

No 

Phi ladelphia, 

Mr ... 

Deak Sir: 

We have this day issued to 



a certificate of payment on account of 
ork on your 



We call your attention to the insurance clause of your contract 
and to the notice as to insurance upon the certificate. 

Yours truly. 

Expense Record. — An architect is a professional 
man and does not do business strictly on a commercial 
basis. He is always striving toward an ideal and insists 
on making a drawing over and over as often as he pleases, 
even if it costs twice his fee. At the same time it is 
nothing more than simple good business to keep tab in a 
genera] way on expenses. 

If it is found that one class of work cannot be done 



satisfactorily on an office cost of less than 5 per cent, it 
might be considered time to raise the fee for that particu- 
lar work to 7 '_■ or to per cent. 

The "Expense Record" card shown in Fig. 8 as- 
sumes that every expenditure in an architect's office 
comes under one of four divisions : 1. " Draughting," 
salaries and all expenses incident to preparation of draw- 
ings which can be charged to a particular building, even 
a telegram or a frame for a perspective ; 2. " Superin- 
tendence," - including salaries and car fares in connec- 



■cS. 



L**sn<u*si^ 



Uajl^ocxacCl^ 



116 



AOOfttSS 

CLASS 
BEGAN 
SALARY 
INCREASE 

ResiaNeo 

REASON 



/0* <v/ 



Jtt*f&ut\ Hit ant, <rWtu/r 
t.'ff *3o°Z 






.< *• 1 i n^A 



REQUISITION SLIP 

Pic««r nut to mi 


0HAVOMTMA4 NO. *J / 


/ #13 


Mi/iiAvotn^ 


/ -i^vtA 


JUimA^ 




""" <$.<§#. 



' CALL AT 



O'CLOCK. OATt 



' 










■nm 



(.ORIGINAL SIZE, 5X3 INCHES EACH.! 
I'h,. r i . MISCE1 l. Wt.ot s FORMS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



195 








I 



RECEIVED 



r„r 



■ 






'*"] 







s-V 



X* 



0/ 

177 



Returned ,.,-.,,; /—. ^.c^ 



W ^ /&#. 




FIG. 12. HISTORY OK SHOP DRAW- 
INGS SUBMITTED FOR ARCHI- 
TECT'S APPROVAL. 



tion with the execu- 
tion of work ; 3. 
" Disbursements, " 

salary of clerk of 
works, fees to ex- 
perts and other ex- 
penditures charged 
to owner at exact 
cost without profit 
to the architect ; 4. 
' 'Office, " — rent, 
supplies, salaries of 
office force, etc. It 
is well to include in 
this item also a sum 
as an allowance for 
one's own salary. 

By t a k i n g t h e 
"Office Expense" 
for a whole average 
year and finding 
what ratio it bears 
to " Draughting " 
pins " Superintend- 
ence " a close ap- 
proximation can be 
determined of the 
portion of office ex- 
pense chargeable to 
any given building. 
vSome architects fig- 
ure this at 50 per- 
cent, others 60 per 
cent. If, then, the record card for one building shows 
the cost of the first two items to foot np §1,000, add 
60 per cent say, and $1,600 plus disbursements repre- 
sents a fairly accurate statement of actual cost for the 
architectural service on that building. 

Time Cards. — Time cards or sheets in use by archi- 
tects are of all sorts and sizes. Some have none at all or 
very abbreviated ones, while others have both time sheets 
and time books, and add to the clerical labor by transcrib- 
ing from both and carrying a ledger account with each 
draughtsman besides. 

The time cards shown (Fig. 9) are given to the junior 
draughtsman, who distributes and collects the cards late 
every afternoon. Each draughtsman records his time, 
and notes under the hoars charged to each building the 
work on which he is engaged. The bookkeeper adds 
the rate and figures the amount on each and makes up 
the summaries of the week's pay roll. The bunch of 
cards for each week, with a paper band about it, is dated 
and dropped into a card index drawer. This method re- 
quires the least amount of clerical labor, as nothing is 
transcribed save the summaries, and combined with the 
"Expense Record" cards makes it easy to tell at any 
time just what the office cost is on any particular build- 
ing. If one happens to have a piece of work on a salary 
(or honorarium) and disbursement basis (exposition build- 
ings for example), separate time cards arc kept for that 
piece of work and made in duplicate, one card for each 
man, and receipted by each and sent as vouchers to the 
owner. These time cards, too, are convenient in that 



various partnership arrangements on different buildings 
in one office can be kept account of easily and without 
Ci mfusion. 

Offici A' coi \i>. The accounts should be kept in 

a systematic way but as simply as possible to require 
the least possible amount of clerical labor. The Ste 
nographcr should be free to give more time to specifi- 
cations and correspondence than to bookkeeping. Some 

offices have a double-entry system of bookkeeping as 
formidable as that of a mercantile concern. The essen- 
tial books an-, however, a cash book (also a cash-drawer 
book), a ledger and a bank-check book. Every expen- 
diture and every receipt should show on the stubs of the 
bank-check book and be compared once a week with 
the cash-book balance, and once a month comparison 
should be made with the pass book balanced by the 
bank. When a payment is made by check the stub 
shows for what and to what account it should be charged. 
For example, when the month's blue-print bill is paid 
notation is made on the check stub : 

Building No. 88 blue prints, s^.oo 

Building No. 529 blue prints, \ 1 1 

Total, $25. 1 t 

From the stub entry is then made in the cash book. 
The voucher cards shown (Fig. 1 o ) are useful in a 
large business in enabling the head of the office to keep 

easily au courant. Whenever a payment is made from 
the cash drawer a card is placed on his desk, and at his 
convenience then or afterward he initials each to show 
that he was cognizant of the transaction. An important 
use for these voucher cards is in connection with a branch 
office. A card is made out for every expenditure and 
receipt, and once a week a bunch is sent along with the 
pay-roll cards to the main office together with a brief 
statement like this : 



Balance on hand last report, 
Received as per voucher. 



Total, 

Paid out, payroll week ending Aug. 30,1(130.00 

as per vouchers, 7,v°° 



Balance on hand, 



S7S4.00 
550.00 

Si. 1 54.00 



203.OO 

1.00 



In the ledger, aside from the account opened witli 
each client, there appears a " Personal Account" 
Showing cash advanced lor use in the business or 
amounts paid out for private use. " 1'rolit Account." 

" Expense Office, " "Expense Disbursement," "Expense 

Superintendence." "Expense Draughting," "Account 

Receivable Commission." "Account Receivable 
I lisbursements. " 

The last two accounts named are credited whenever 
bills are rendered to clients, and the client's account is 

lited when the bill is paid. A trial balance la 
simple matter in an architect's small ledger) should be 
taken once a month or once a quarter at most. 



196 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Selected Miscellany. 

THE following is the contents of a circular letter 
which has been sent out under date of September 
i), ii)02. by the Architectural League of America, and 
will have an interest no doubt for many who will not re- 
ceive the letter. 

The Committee on Circuit Exhibition begs to have the 
cooperation of your club in making the coming exhibition 
of the circuit a success. Fortunately, by the cooperation 

of the Architectural League of New York, it will be pos- 
sible to have as one of the features of the exhibition a 
representative collection of photographs of foreign church 
buildings. 

In the last few years the Architectural League of New 
Y<irk has been actively engaged on the subject of munici- 
pal art. and lias been the leader of a number of confer- 
ences on this important question. Much of the informa- 




nt I \n B1 I HARLES I. BERG, ARCHITECT. 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 




Ill'; I Ml l:\ A. C. LYONS, ARCH1 1 lo 1 . 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

lion in reference to the planning of cities which has 
resulted in the replanning of Washington and other im- 
portant projects of a similar nature was discussed in a 
preliminary way at the rooms of the Architectural League 
of New York. At various times the question of parks, 
transit, bridges, tunnels, public buildings and the rear- 
rangement of streets has been taken up. 




DETAIL BY W. ALBERT SWASEY, ARCHITECT. 
St. Louis Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

This year a special committee has been appointed to 
take up the question of semi-public buildings, and the 
subject of church architecture will lie given particular 
attention. 

The committee is pleased to state that in answer to 
numerous letters the replies received show that the ques- 
tion of better architecture and the methods of obtaining 
it is agitating Europe. Replies have been received from 
many prominent dignitaries and officials, notably His 
Eminence Cardinal Richards of Paris and His Grace the 
Archbishop of Bordeaux. 

A communication has been instituted with societies 
having the betterment of church architecture in view. 
These societies have the benefit of the influence of the 
important personages affiliated with them. Thus in the 
movement we find the names of Comte Guy de Larouche- 
foucault, president of the Society for the Betterment of 
Ecclesiastical Buildings; Prince A. d'Arenberg, member 
of the Institute and a representative of the Artistic So- 
ciety of Amateurs, both societies of France; His Grace 
the Archbishop of Munich, of the Ecclesiastical Society 



of Germany; and the Archbishop of Glasgow, of the 
Church Craft Society in England. And as well there are 
to be found the names of many prominent artists, as for 
example: Paul Dubois, director of the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts; Charles Lehmaire; Albert Maignan, secretary of 
the Society of French Artists; and G. Rubrich Robert. 
architect-in-chief of Historic Monuments. 

In the many letters received from these and other in- 
dividuals the importance of improved methods of archi- 
tectural education is dwelt upon, and the committee of 
the Architectural League of America hopes by making 
this branch of architecture a feature of the coming circuit 
exhibition it will secure the interest and cooperation of 
each city in which this scries of photographs is exhibited. 
Already photographs have been promised of the new 
Westminster Cathedral. Notre Dame de la Carde, the 
Great Basilica at Lyons, the Sacre - Coeur of Paris and 
many others. And it hopes to secure, through the co- 
operation of each club, representative photographs of 
what is now being done in the United States. 

The importance of this question cannot be overes- 
timated, and the subject has been taken up most earnestly 

by the Architectural League of New York. On the com- 
mittee having this work in charge is Mr. George L. 

Heins, New York State Architect. 

The results of the efforts of this committee will be 
exhibited in the rooms of the Architectural League of 
New York at a conference of all those interested. 

No better statement as to the importance of this ques- 
tion can be given than the one made by Mgr. Paulinier. 
Archbishop of Besancpn, in his circular letter in which 
he says that the neglect of the study of architecture has 
exposed the precious heirlooms of the past to a double 
peril: they are either lost by a lack of appreciation and 




DETAIL UN GEORGE II. STREETON, ARCHITECT. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDKR 




RAILWAY S I ATION, 
W. S. Kaufman 
Built of Hydraulic-Press Brick, k<>, 



allowed to be dissi- 
pated, or they are 
destroyed by so- 
called restoration. 
To show the inertia 
existing in Europe at 
the present time he 
states that from eight 
hundred custodians 
communicated with 
but two really intel- 
ligent replies were 
received. 

It is the hope of 
your committee that 
you will attempt to 
make this exhibition 
of church buildings 
representative of the work in America. 

This can be accomplished by collecting from the work 
of those in your club and immediate vicinity such photo- 
graphs as will be representative of what is being done in 
that section of the country. It is suggested by the com- 
mittee that the best method of doing this would be for 
your club to appoint one competent representative with 
power, and that he secure the necessary photographs and 
see that they are forwarded to the committee in New York 
on or before October 20. 

It is of course understood that while it is the desire 
of the committee to have as complete an exhibition of 
church architecture as possible, 
it is not the intention of the 
committee to restrict the circuit 
exhibition to this specialty. 
Photographs, therefore, or any 
work selected by the representa- 
tive of each club will be included 
in the regular exhibition. 

The size of photographs 
should not be over two feet in 
the greatest dimension. 

Photographs should be for- 
warded to William Laurel Harris, 
care of the Architectural League 
of New York, 215 West Fifty- 
seventh Street, New York. 



RICHMOND, IM>. 
Architect 

.idoii K 



fing Tile 

ing and Estimating Woodwork Generally. 



■ ( )7 

illustrations and de 
scriptive matter are 
clear, simple, definite 

and easily Under 
stood. 

The work is di- 
vided into lour parts, 
namely : 

Carpenter's Ge 
in e try ; T i in her 
Framing and Car- 
pentry ; Joinery and 
Joiners' Work ; and 
lastly. Rules and 
Tallies for Mcasur 





A NEW TERRA YITR.1'. TILE. 

rHE Hartford Faience Company have put upon the 
market a terra-vitne tile which is new because "l 
its thickness, or rather its thinness, it being only hall 
an inch thick, the usual thickness for such tile being 
three quarters of an inch. This not onlymakes the price 
of the tile less, but considerable is saved in freighl 

Charges. They are prepared to 

execute promptly any orders for 

special si/es, but carry a stock 
of size 6 x ;, inches in ten colors 
— seven in the gloss and t li i < 
the dull finish. Caps and bases 
to match these tile, for wainscot 
work, arc also carried in stock. 



DETAIL BY FRANKLIN BAYLIES, AKi HITEl I 
standard [trr-il iii Works Makers 



DETAIL BY Mi KIM, MEAD .\ « HI1 E, 

ARCHITECTS, 
New York Architectural Ten.; 
Company, Makers. 



BOOK REVIEW. 

MODERN CAR- 

P E X T R Y A X I) 
JOINERY. A Prac- 
tical Manual. By Fred 
T. Hodgson. Freder 
ick J. Drake X Co., 
Chicago. 

The book is copi- 
ously illustrated with 
diagrams and figures 
showing the solution of 
many intricate prob- 
lems in geometry, root' 
ing, carpentry, joinery 
and stair work. The 



There is a nice distim 
tion about a burnt clay tile 
which carries its own recom 
mendation, and their in- 
creased use by architects gen- 
erally is a matter which is 
gratifying to all concerned. 



IN GENERAL 

The house in lirooklinc, 
Mass., illustrated in the hall 
tone plate form of our An 
gUSl number was by William 

Whitney Lewis, archifc 
Boston. 




1 • 1 1 \ 1 1 B\ [AMES II. H 1NDRIM, 

A Rl 1 1 1 I I 1 I 

Conkling-ArmKl 1 ■ • n w; 1 • 
Cotnpan ■. . Mai 



198 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Celadon Roofing Tile — Charles Bacon, Boston agent 

will be used on the following new work : Lodge at 

Bunker Hill, Boston, A. H. Vinal, architect ; (rate House, 

Waterbury, Conn., I). W. Cole, city engineer; three 




COURT OF AN APARTMENT, CHICAGO, SHOWING USE OF WHITE 

ENGLISH SIZE ENAMEL BRICK OF SECOND QUALITY 

INSTEAD OF COMMON BRICK WHITEWASHED. 

buildings for Mr. Larz Anderson, Brookline, Mass., Fox & 
Gale, architects ; Library, Grand Rapids, Mich., Shcpley, 
Kutan & Coolidge, architects ; group of hospital build- 
ings, Washington, I). C, Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, ar- 
chitects. The last named will require nearly twenty-five 
hundred squares of tile. 

Charles Bacon, Boston agent, reports the following 
new contracts for Sayre & Fisher Company brick : Carney 
Building, Boston. Ilartwell. Richardson & Driver, archi- 





DETAIL BY A.MoS W. BARNES, ARCHITECT. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

tects ; Old Colony Trust Building, Boston, Shepley, Ru- 
tan & Coolidge, architects ; Foster Building, Boston, 
Winslow & Bigelow, architects ; Mercantile Building, 
Cambridge, Mass., 1. A. Schweinfurth, architect. 



ASPHALT. 

THE term asphalt is used improperly to designate a 
variety of substances ranging from a coal tar com- 
pound so soft that on a warm day it is easily punctured 
by an umbrella stick, to a material so hard that it appears 
to have all the wearing qualities of granite. Properly 
speaking, asphalt is a product obtained by crushing a 




DETAIL BY LOUIS CURTISS, ARCHITECT. 

Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



SUBWAY, SOUTH TERMINAL STATION, BOSTON. 

Shepley, Kutan & Coolidge, Architects. 

Lined with American Enamel Brick and Tile Company's Brick. 

species of limestone which is very strongly impregnated 
with mineral oil and mixing it with a natural pitch which 
is collected in the remarkable asphalt lake of the island of 
Trinidad opposite the mouth of the Orinoco. An oil is 
added for a flux, the whole is melted together and then 
mixed with a certain proportion of sand. Next to thor- 
oughly hard-burned paving brick, asphalt is probably one 
of the best materials for covering sidewalks and roadways 
which we have. A comparison, however, of even the 
best of asphalt and the paving brick shows that the former 
is not only far more expensive but is more difficult to lay 
properly, and is not so durable, while paving brick for 
public highways is practically the only material which 
can be satisfactorily patched after beino- cut into. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

OCTOBER, 

1902. 




DORMERS OF AN ANCIENT MARKET HOUSE, HAARLEM, HOLLAND. 



v» J v v . 



TT" 



m vol. ii |[ 

£i NO. 10 i ; i 



tfiif 



THE 



llltl I» 



U I0d2 



BRICKBVILDERL^ 



OB 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

ROGERS & MANSON, 

85 Water Street, Boston. Mass. . . P. O. B :•: -2S2. 

Entered at the Boston, Mais., F 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, EV THE BRICKBL'ILDE - 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United Scans and 
Canada ........ 



5 ." : " --' 

5 " : : ' - - 





PAGE 


Agencies. — Clay Products 


. . . 11 


Architectural Faience 


. . . II 


" Terra-Cora 


. 11 and ::: 


Brick . .... 


. . . in 


" Enamei&i 


. Ill and IV 



S:r. £ \t immiJuh ........ 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... 

- ascriptions pa" :e. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and f »*"<** Trade supy Se d by 

: C.rr.zLr.-. a-; .: : i-iS.-i.ii 



ADVERTISING. 

: rtisers are classified and arranged in the following or! 

PAGI 

Cements IV 

C.;;. Cr.e-. ■_■ . . IV 

F -"--:-. :--.z n 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

.\-,-iriii—.i7.-.\ -■ ... :<t -.r -.-.-'. .'. : : -t: .-zi; r. 



T T 'E received a call the other day from a young man 
\ \ seeking a situation as a draughtsman, who an- 
nounced as one of his strong qualifications for the posi- 
tion that he was a graduate of the Mechanic Arts High 
School. We have the greatest respect for the hich 

has been accomplished by the high schools of this descrip- 
tion which have sprung up so numerously in our la- 
cities within recent years. They are to be encouraged in 
every respect and the men they turn out are usually a 
credit to the instituti which they graduate, but to 

assume that such schools are. intended to turn out archi- 
tects is. in our opinion, to entirely misunderstand the aim 
of such establishments. In all of these we believe a cer- 
tain amount of architecture is taught in more or less de- 
tail, and quite rightly, but the curriculum is, or at least 
should be, planned with the idea of making educated, in- 
telligent mechanics rather than arch it-, ts The pat': 
study of the builder and the architect overlap at times 
and each has need of some port the train 

cially devised for the other, but it is not being fair t<» our 
young men to let them imagine that the training they 
can obtain in the Mechanic Arts Set >uld 

properly fit them for the practice of architecture, ni 
it is supplemented by a course of study at one of the 
ular architectural schools. Architecture is an extremely 
fascinating profession and the architect occupies a | 
tion which might strongly attract a young man who 
his own way to make in this world. We frequently find 



such whose air. than their pock 

undertaking to follow the e 
schools and hoping, having graduated tru 
into the >n through the r f the tl- 

ma: e feel that it 

such young men that they should be pi.. the 

unlikelihood of their achieving any mea> 
architecture without architectural training at a . 
architectural school. The w 

but the time has gone by when mere ambition and 
ness to work can lift one to an hon sil a in the 

profession unle- jcomplished by a t' and 

fundamental training. The Mechar 
are not for architects. We believe a young man 
waste his time g ng 1 these sc' .tared to at- 

tendance at one of the archite pjes, and the 

practicing architect who ever tter 

young men who are an: 
years has absorbed so much of h 
ing but a kindness when he paints in the 
the absolute nece - architectural school trail 



THE country is certainly to be p dated u] 

the move which has been made 
adequately equip and furnish the Presic 
The work has been most thoroughly designed by Me Kim. 
Me :id it is being carried out in a way which 

insures its being lasting in its character. ent 

lives in the White House only during hi- 
and apparently never before has a President felt 
personal interest in the building to have it put in proper 
order. The dignity lires that th 

shouid have a suitable official resider. 

ae. The c: hich McKim, Mead & W 

are making, wh:' 

leave thi 
Wh bed. It 

that the pr<. t entrance of th- 

nallv intend* 
the bona 

towards the Monument 
and the 

onditiona somewhat, but th- 
in a nv 
rangement It is inter 
the legend of the White Ho 
manor house near Dublin b 
Mr. McKim, we hav>. 

the White 
from the 



200 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Crematorium. 

BY JOHN \\ . CASE, R. S. 

THE design for a crematory which is here illustrated 
is intended to be an example of the (esthetic use 
of scientific building construction, in forms peculiar to 
metal and burnt clay, freed from archaeological influence. 
The building material throughout is incombustible; the 
framework of metal covered with burnt clay fire-proof- 
ing; the walls, ceiling and floors finished in tile, marble 
or cement, affording no lodgment for germs and permit- 
ting frequent cleansing. The exterior of this crema- 
torium consists of glazed burnt clay products, colored 
delft blue and white. 

In plan the design contemplates an advance on pres- 
ent methods of incineration, for the building is planned 
for a process which will reduce the body to a sanitary 
condition for earth burial at a maximum time of thirty 
minutes. The hearse drives into the basement of the 
building, the body is removed and placed in the receiving 
room connected with a pharmacy and a room for autopsy. 
Delicate electrical tests are here made to detect suspended 
animation. The body is then placed in a vault awaiting 
the time of incineration, or the relatives and pallbearers 
attending in the waiting-room proceed with the body to 
the chapel where the friends of the deceased are assem- 
bled. Here the body is placed in the upper part of the 
incinerator in full view of those assembled in the chapel. 
The incinerator is then closed, so that the actual process 
of incineration is not seen. During the funeral service 
the incineration is completed, and at its close the re- 
mains, enclosed in a small metal receptacle, are removed 
from the incinerator in full view of the chapel so there 
can he no question as to the identity of the ashes, which 
are at once placed in the columbarium or committed to 
the earth in the beautiful grounds surrounding the crem- 
atory, thus obviating the doubtful practice of removing 
the ashes of the deceased to a private dwelling. As this 
crematory is designed to prepare the body for a sanitary 
earth burial in place of the horrible earth burial as now 
practiced, it is not necessary that the calcareous parts be 
reduced to a powder. The body thus returns to nature 
whence it came, and the crematory becomes a temple 
dedicated to eternal life. 

The development of cremation is not due to senti- 
ment, but is the result of necessity. The practice of 
burying the dead is a relic of barbarism. Placing the 
body in the ground to undergo the re venting process of 
decomposition is an indignity to the dead and a source of 
deadly contamination to the living. That the cemeteries 
are breeding places of disease was recognized in Europe 
about 1800. The danger of burying the dead was realized 
and the necessity of cremation became apparent. ( >ne of 
the earliest crematories in Europe was built at Milan, 
Italy, in 1 S 7 4 . Now nearly every important town in 
Italy has a crematory. The first modern crematory in 
Germany was built at Dresden in 1 s 7 4 . In Paris the 
crematory at Pere la Chaise was built in 1887. The 
first crematory in the United States was built at Wash- 
ington, Pa., in 1876. In 1900 there were 24 crematories 
in the United States. From 1S76 to [883 25 cremations 
took place in the United States. In the year 1900 2,414 
cremations took place in the United States. These 



figures show a large percentage of increase, but it is sur- 
prising that the increase is not larger. The reasons are 
simple. Few people realize the horrors of earth burial 
and few understand but vaguely the process of cremation. 
The custom of earth burial has been established for 
hundreds of years. People hesitate to change the cus- 
tom of earth burial and dread to take active means which 
change the form of the dear departed, although a most 
horrible change takes place from earth burial. If resur- 
rection of the body is to take place in the exact likeness 
of its earthly form, still resurrection is a miracle, whether 
from dust of the earth or ashes of cremation. 

Modern cremation dates from about 1870, but crema- 
tion has been practiced by all races of people from the 
most ancient times. The Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, 
Chinese and other nations of antiquity practiced crema- 
tion by means of the funeral pyre, a primitive and bar- 
barous method, which was alternated according to the 
belief of the ruling class from cremation to earth burial or 
embalming. In Greece the origin of cremation was due 
probably to the custom of burning the dead on the field 
of battle. 

In both cremation and earth burial the process is one 
of burning: in the earth slow, repulsive, dangerous ; in 
cremation, quick, scientific, sanitary. In cremation the 
intense heat causes oxygen to unite with the carbonaceous 
elements of the body: the resulting carbonic acid gas, 
ammonia and water are driven out into the air. In the re- 
tort are the ashes, pure oxide of lime. Thus the elements 
of which man is made are quickly and decently returned to 
the source from which they came, clean and pure. The 
water ascends to the clouds, while the ammonia and car- 
bonic acid return to the soil to nourish the plant. The 
lime remains to be returned to the earth. 

It hardly seems possible that earth burial can con- 
tinue, but the love of the cemetery, the hallowed spot, 
occupies the mind and glosses over its real character. It 
is the family burial place, with its green mounds shaded 
by drooping boughs casting shadows across the gray 
stones inscribed with revered names. Religion, poetry 
and custom hallow for us this quiet resting place, em- 
blem of eternal repose. Many a man has turned back to 
a better life, animated with hope and high resolve after 
such a visit. But if the mind's eye should penetrate 
beneath the flower-strewn sod to the festering mass be- 
low, what a revolting contrast would result! Let us keep 
this sacred, hallowed spot, but let us dispel its pestilen- 
tial horrors and make it a worthy place of eternal rest by 
placing there the pure and wholesome ashes after puri- 
fying the body with the cleansing fires of cremation. 

The method of cremation must be improved, the time 
shortened. Before cremation becomes a universal custom 
several of its present conditions will undoubtedly be 
modified. Although the time required for complete in- 
cineration has been reduced from four hours at the 
Washington crematory, the first one built in America, to 
one and one half hours, the time required by a modern 
incinerator, the time is still excessive, but with the per- 
fection of new systems the time will probably lie reduced 
to an outside limit of thirty minutes. It does not seem 
necessary to reduce the mineral parts, the bones, to a 
powder. 

Earth burial should accompany and supplement ere- 



T H E BRICK HI' I I. D E R 



20I 




2 02 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



mation. The practice of placing the ashes in urns to be 
taken to the dwelling of the relatives or to be placed in a 
specially constructed building, the eolumbariun, is sub- 
jecting these remains to the possibility of indignities, due 
to the vicissitudes of fortune, the change of the dwelling 
place with its consequent confusion. The columbarium 
itself may outlast several generations, but cannot be per- 
manent, and ultimately the ashes will return to the earth, 
where indeed they belong. How much more fitting it 
seems to lay the ashes at once in the earth, with appro- 
priate ceremony, where they may resume their functions 
in nature's system. 

The idea of burning, the annihilation by fire, is an ex- 
tremely repugnant and painful one, which should be re- 
placed by the idea of chemical change. The words incin- 
erator and incineration are not so vividly suggestive of 
flames, but still embody the idea of burning. Crematory 
and cremation are words sufficiently abstract. Some 
new process of chemical dissolution may furnish better 
terms to characterize the process, as, for instance, vapori- 
zation. 

In nearly all modern crematories the body is lowered 
through the floor of the chapel in which the services are 
held to the incinerating chamber below. Although a 
glass plate in the incinerator allows the process to be 
seen by a few persons, still there is the possibility of a 
doubt in the minds of the persons who remain in the 
chapel as to the identity of the ashes. The incinerator 
should be placed in the chapel itself where all present 
may see the body placed in the incinerator and the ashes 
removed therefrom, although the actual change of form 
of the body should not be seen. 

DATA. 

The modern crematory furnace requires about six 
hours of heating to generate sufficient heat for the incin- 
erator, between two thousand and three thousand degrees 
Fahrenheit. The time required to incinerate the body 
varies according to the weight, from forty-five minutes 
t<> one and one half hours. The amount of fuel varies in 
the different kinds of furnaces. The Davis furnace at 
Lancaster, Pa., requires for an incineration two hundred 
and fifty pounds of coke and two hundred and fifty 
pounds of anthracite coal. The remains of incineration, 
which consist of pure oxide of lime, calcined bones, weigh 
from four to six pounds. The average charge for an in- 
cineration in America is twenty-five dollars. At Pere la 
Chaise, Paris, the actual cost of an incineration, after the 
furnace is heated, is sixty to eighty cents. 

SYSTEMS OF INCINERATION. 

The European systems of incineration are more ex- 
pensive in construction than the American. The princi- 
pal ones are the Gorini and the Yenini. The (iorini sys- 
tem uses an artificial bath of lava in which the body is 
consumed. The resulting ashes are lighter than the lava 
and float on the top. The Yenini system is used at the 
Buffalo, X. V., crematorium. The time required to heat 
the furnace to twenty- five hundred degrees Fahrenheit is 
one and one quarter hours. The body is consumed in 
about one hour. The fuel required, one half cord of wood. 
The process consists of two operations — the generation 
of gas and the cremation. The gas generator, A, located 
in the basement, is a fire pot four feet high and two feet 



wide. Air for combustion is admitted at the bottom, 
where the small fire distills the wood above. These gases 
pass to the rear end of the incinerating chamber, B, where 
they meet heated air from another chamber and are 
ignited at the point of union by an auxiliary flame. The 
Bunsen flame thus made is projected across the incinerat- 
ing chamber, thence by the flue F it passes to a chimney 
and is again burned by an auxiliary Bunsen burner in 
the flue and in the chimney. In this system the flames 
come in direct contact with the body wrapped in an alum 
cloth. The Schneider system used at Cypress Lawn 
Cemetery, San Francisco, and at Hamburg, Germany, is 
similar to the Yenini. 

At Mt. Auburn, Cambridge, oil is used for fuel. It is 
blown in a fine mist into the chamber, where it burns 
readily, the heat being intensified by the addition of air 
under a pressure of eighteen ounces. A temperature of 
three thousand degiees Fahrenheit is obtained. To in- 
sure the complete combustion of all the gases from the 
body they are forced into a second chamber where the 
burning is duplicated. The power to force in the air and 
oil is obtained from an electric motor in a subcellar forty 
feet from the incinerator, so that no noise of active opera- 
tion may be heard. 

The Davis system is used at Lancaster, Pa. The fur- 
nace is constructed of fire brick. Outside dimensions, 
io'_- x (>'_• feet. Cost of furnace, ,Si,2oo to $1,500. The 
flames do not come in contact with the body. The 
chimney projects but a few feet above the roof. Com- 
bustion is complete. No injurious gases are given off. 

In all these systems the time required to incinerate an 
adult is about one hour and a half, which is too long by 
half. The body, too, is almost invariably lowered from 
the chapel to the incinerating room, where the process 
can be seen by few. 

The discovery of liquid air gave promise of better 
results. Liquid air is to be used as a means of obtaining 
liquid oxygen, which, injected into the electric furnace, 
greatly increases the intensity of the furnace. As liquid 
air vaporizes, the nitrogen and other gases evaporate 
first, leaving the oxygen to be brought into the incinerat- 
ing process. Combustion under these conditions would 
be very rapid. 

REQUIREMENTS or THE INCINERATOR. 

There are several important considerations in regard 
to the construction of a furnace. It must be built 
economically and also must operate economically. The 
walls should be built to retain the heat, that no loss may 
be sustained by radiation. They must also sustain the 
great strain of alternate heating and cooling without dis- 
location. The furnace should be aide to incinerate 
several bodies at the same time, keeping the ashes sepa- 
rate and allowing for their removal, so the furnace may 
be operated continuously, for the initial heating requires 
most of the heat. After the furnace is heated, but little 
fuel is required for the incineration itself. Combustion 
must be complete so that no poisonous gases or smoke 
may escape into the atmosphere. The incinerator should 
be located in a chapel so that all present may see the 
body placed in the incinerator and the ashes removed, 
that no doubt may arise as to the identity of the remains. 
The actual disintegration of the body should not be seen. 



THE BR ICK B (' I I, I) ER . 



'03 




THE GARDNER EARL MEMORIAL CHAPEL AND CREMATORH M. 
TROY, N. V. 

A sheet soaked in alum water will retain its shape until 
disintegration is complete. 

TYPES OF CREMATORIES. 

There are several types of crematorium plans. The 
Buffalo crematory is a church plan. The preparation 
room, B, is located at one side of the chancel, C, and the 
incinerating- room, D, at the other side of the chancel. 
The body is placed on a car, G, is rolled into the chancel. 
where the service is said, and then rolled on into the 
incinerating room. The congregation are seated in the 
body of the chapel, A. The building is 70 x 60 feet, 
built of stone, picturesque roofing. It is a stock com- 
pany, capitalization $15,000. 

In both the Milwaukee crematory and the crematory 
recently finished at Montreal, a conservatory for plants 
is one of the main features. At Milwaukee there are 
two conservatories, one at each end of the chapel, so 
arranged as to form part of the chapel by moving a 
glazed partition. At Montreal the conservatory is the 
principal part of the design. It is built of steel and glass. 




82 \ .(i feet. It is used as a waiting-room and con- 
nected to the crematory by an antechamber. 

The New York crematory is surmounted by a dome 
which admits light and also serves as a columbarium. 

The first and second stories open into one another and 
are encircled by a gallery. 

In the crematories at San Francisco, cement and tiles 
have been extensively used. The floors are cement 
covered with rubber matting: the walls are covered with 
gla/.ed tiles, which form a good substitute where the 
more expensive construction cannot be umcI A crema- 
tory for contagious disease is built in connection with the 
San Francisco crematory but entirely separated by a 
brick wall. The floors, walls and ceilings are of cement. 
The columbarium built in connection with the San Fran- 
cisco crematory is in plan a Greek cross, the ends of the 
arm connected by two concentric circular walls. The C< ill 




IN 1 I. kloK 



I] ill VPEL LOOKING -01 1 11 1 ROM CHANCEL, 

GARDNER EARL CREMATORIUM. 



RECEPTION ROOM SHOWING INTERIOR Ol RETORT, 
GARDNER BARL CREMATORIUM. 



StTUCtion is of steel and cement, the walls completely in- 
dented with niches for urns, reached by stairs and 
galleries. 

The St. Louis columbarium has the receptacles 
urns along the walls. A marble wainscot five feet high 
is divided three feet above the floor by a horizontal slab, 
vertical divisions three feet apart, from compartments 
within which are small vaults. The largest ones at the 
bottom lease for ninety-nine years for $100 t" $15 ; the 
ones above, $45 to $60. Stairs and galleries giv< 
to similar smaller compartments surfaced with oxidi 
bronze. These lease from $25 to $40. The basement is 

fitted with japanned metal shelves which lease for - 
Kl Q\ IREMENTS Ol 1 HI CRBMA1 o|;\ PI \\ 

An auditorium or chapel where the funeral oration or 
religions services may take place, capable of seating three 
hundred to five hundred people: with organ, choir seats, 
altar, robing rooms, etc 

Incinerator located in the chapel, when- it can be 
and connected with apparatus and fuel rooms below 

Waiting-rooms connected with chapel and with toilet 
rooms. 

Vaults where the body may lie kept awaiting the time 
of incineration. 

Receiving room connected with pharmacy and pro 

vided with delicate apparatus for detecting suspended 

animation and administering restorat 



!04 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Dissecting room where autopsies may be conducted to 
discover poisoning cases, etc. 

Office for registration, payment of fees, etc. 

Power plant, at a distance that no noise may be heard, 
to furnish power for heat, light, forced draught, etc. 

'Idle system of construction should be fire-proof, at 
least in all parts of the building in immediate connection 




A. AUDITORIUM 

B. PREPARATION ROOM 

C. CHANCEL 

D. INCINERATING ROOM 

E. FURNACE 

F. FIRE ROOM 

G. CINERARY CAR 



GROUND PLAN, BUFFALO CREMATORIUM. 

with the furnace, and it should be sanitary, allowing no 
lodgment for disease germs, and admitting frequent and 
convenient cleansing and disinfecting. The ceilings, 
walls and floors should be marble, tile or cement; the 
tloors should be covered with rubber tiling to prevent 
noise. All operations should be noiseless, signals being 
used to obviate talking by the operator. 

Space should be allowed for additional incinerators 
due to increased demand. 

In connection with the receiving room a courtyard or 
enclosed part of the building might be arranged into 
which the hearse enters before removing the body, thus 
securing privacy and protection from the weather. 



FIRST TLOOIt 




A. GAS GENERATOR 

B. INCINERATING CHAMBER 



II KNACK OF THE Bl FFAL0 CREMAT0RI1 M, VENIN1 SYSTEM. 

The body, properly prepared at the house, should be 
free from further handling, subject, however, to the tests 

for suspended animation. No preparation of the body 
could take place until the physician's certificate of cause 



of death had been procured. If incineration is not to 
take place immediately, the body so soon as received 
should be placet! in a strong vault where it may remain 
in absolute security. The responsibility of the under- 
taker ceases when the body is received in the cremato- 
rium, which must be in charge of a thoroughly efficient 
officer. 

The architectural form of the crematory must express 
the character of cremation, not in gloom, not in repel- 
lent somberness, but with hope and confidence in a new 
and higher life. 

Sorrow at parting with the physical form of the loved 
ones is to be replaced with consolation of the spirit freed 
from its physical infirmities. The crematory cannot be a 
mere burning place; it must be a sacred temple dedicated 
to the eternal resurrection, scientific or theological, still 
one in essence. 




COKUKVfcTOKT 






AMDRtVTTAlOft 
Aft(HlT£Cl 

AOWTKCAL 



PLAN, CREMATORIUM, MOUNT ROYAL CEMETERY, 
TORON l l >. can VDA. 

Such a building cannot be placed brutally on an open 
street subject to the vicissitudes of every passing acci- 
dent. Embowered in its sacred enclosure, approached by 
a dignified and monumental way through lawns where 
repose the ashes of former generations, its noble and 
beautiful walls enriched with tablets commemorative of 
the illustrious dead, the crematorium becomes a hallowed 
place incentive of great and noble aspirations and an 
emblem of the life eternal. 

1:11:1. ii IGRAPHY. 

For a very complete account of cremation see Dr. Hugo 
Erichsen's " Cremation of the Dead." Detroit: Haynes 
& Co. For a description of crematories, statistics and 
bibliography see "A Quarter Century of Cremation in 
North America," by John Storer Cobb. Boston: Knight 
& Millet. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



205 



The Interesting Tile Work of 
" Dreamwold." 

FIREPLACE tile are usually one of three varieties, 
unglazed, bright glazed or those having a dull glaze 
on surface. Of these the unglazed tiles have generally 
the same material throughout. Among these may be 
included the brick facings and tiles made in the shape of 
bricks. The bright tiles would include plain tiles and 
those having a pattern stamped from an iron die and 
baked to a biscuit. The glaze or surface to either of 
these varieties would be applied afterwards and the entire 
tile baked until surface material is fused to the under tile. 

There is, however, no reason why this modeling 
should not be done by hand and the quality of the work- 
manship bettered, but the question of glaze is another 
matter, for the hard glassy surface rarely seems to fit 
into the home, but to stand out bright and staring in- 
stead of remaining in the plane of the fireplace. 

In the dull glazed tile these objections are removed 
and the surface of the facing seems to form a part of the 
adjacent walls and to rest within its fireplace framing as 
though perfectly contented. Such a tile with its dull sur- 
face resembling the pile of a velvet with all its deep tones, 
in mossy green, warm gold, deep or cool blues, grays and 
purples, has been for several years used extensively in 
the better class of work, but in Dreamwold, the farm of 
Thomas W. Lawson, Esq., at Scituate, Mass., the archi- 
tects have tried to get away from this conventional treat- 
ment. 

For the dining-room fireplace an excellent model was 
made by the sculptor, Russell G. Crook, and then most 
wonderfully glazed by the manufacturer. A word as to 
the design of the room that contains this facing may be 
in order. The walls are paneled to the ceiling and have 
a color resembling sandalwood. On these panels are 
painted conventionalized bunches of grapes, ears of corn 
and other farm products. The chandelier is a huge 
pumpkin, and the breakfast alcove chandelier and also 
the wall brackets are made up of pumpkin blossoms and 
leaves in their natural colors. To harmonize with this 
the fireplace facing starts on each side with a huge 
golden pumpkin on a very dark blue background. ( >n this 
background the vine wanders over the top with its green 
leaves and bright yellow blossoms and even flows out 
on to the hearth with a few leaves that seem to keep the 
pumpkin just where it was intended to be. By means of 
these dull tones the fireplace, although singing in the 
highest tones of yellow and green, still remains a fire- 
place, facing on the same plane as the wall paneling and 
embracing the two huge bears by Crook that form the 
andirons. 

Particular mention is perhaps due to this facing be- 
cause it marks a new era in tile work, the introduction 
of hand-molded and hand-decorated work in high relief, 
in what has up to this time been occupied by the plain 
tiles or a highly glazed machine product. 

The facing of the living-room fireplace shows a grape- 
vine in relief on a light gray-blue background with pur- 
ple grapes and green leaves, while two small bunnies 
are playfully introduced near the floor. 

In the library and other rooms of the house a different 
phase of tile work is introduced which can be best com- 



pared to the fapanese cloisonne" ware, which is made <>n a 
copper background with little rides or cloisonne's of cop- 
per separating the different parts of the design. Into 

these various spaces formed by the cloisonnes is poured 
the enamel, and these lines keep the various colors each in 
their separate compartments and form a golden line be- 
tween them. The manufacturers have taken this idea 
and have applied cloisonnes of the tile material to the 

biscuit tile. In between these lines all painted in flat 
tones are the color's that form the pictures. The effect of 

the heavy lines is must interesting, and in some ways 
they resemble the strong outline of a I hirer print. 

Inst in front of the first pair of oxen shown in the 
library fireplace can be seen live different planes of Land- 
scape and these all stay in their proper relations to each 
other, and despite these planes the facing is a purely 
mural decoration which stays on the wall like a Puvis dc 
Chavannes. 

The fireplace having the design of a tree on the left- 
hand side, with the river winding back of it. is by Vesper 
George and shows a wonderful distance from the imme- 
diate foreground to the dee]) purple mountains with the 

cloudy sky beyond. Another of Vesper George.'s designs 
is the one representing the spinner and the nurse. An 
other is a half-burnt candle in a green candlestick on .1 

gray-green background, and still others represent hay- 
cocks and apple trees. 

( )ne of the most interesting features of the house is 
the tile decoration of the bath rooms and the conserva- 
tory that arc tiled up about four feet high with specially 
designed cappings. Oneof these designs represents a line 
of turtles walking on the golden sands of a tropical des 
ert, while over them hangs rather primitive leaf work in 
green. Another bath room has a line of galleons Si 
rated by tiles whose only decoration is formed by a few 
gulls living over the conventional water, in a lighter tone 
of blue than the blue of the background of the ships. 
One of the most effective patterns is formed by three 

separate tiles which make an interchangeable pattern ..1 

water lilies so that the flowers themselves can be put at 
the most interesting points on tin- wall and the filling 
formed by the plain green lily leaves on a -ray-blue 
water which lorms the wall tile. Another bath room 
shows the tub]) in alternating purple and yellow blossoms, 
with the leaves and background in two shades of gri 
still another has a more or less Persian ornament in pur- 
ple, yellow and green; while the owner's own bath room 
is a never ending procession of horses, as a suggestion 
of Dreamwold's hundreds of horses, on a light blue back 
ground, with the walls and floor of a green tile. 

Floors of .all these bath rooms are in the same tile as 
the walls except that they are very much larger and that 
the conservatory has a gray floor tile without gla 

The tile work in the bathrooms is not more expensive 

than the best quality of white tile and is far more beauti- 
ful. The designs for thi re all made especially for 
the place, and as these were in repeating patterns with few 
variations the cost was not excessive. The mantel fa 
cings vary in cost a great deal and it is impossible to give 
any schedule, but it may be safely said that they arc not 
too expensive for the better class of hoi; 

This entire work was executed by the Grueby Faience 
Company. Coolidge & Carlson were the architei 



206 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




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DETAILS OF TILE work IN BATH ROOMS, FARMHOUSE FOR THOMAS W. LAWSON, ESQ., SCITUATE, MASS. 

Coolidge & Carlson, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUII.l) E R . 



207 





OM. 
MANTELS IN FARMHOUSE FOB MOMAS W. I ITUATK, 

Coolidge .v Carlson, A 



•OS 



THE BRICK BUILDER 







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THE BRICKBUILDER 



»o9 




MANTEL IN CHAMBER. 




'.G-ROOM. 
MANTELS IN FARMHOUSE VOS rHOMAS W. LAWSON, I ITUATE, 

i. Archil- 



2IO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Interesting Brickwork in Buffalo. 

MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, INSTITUTIONS. MER 
CANTILE BUILDINGS AND CHURCHES. 

BY ULYSSES G. ORR. 

r T , HE larger buildings of Buffalo arc almost entirely of 
_L brick, there being but one or two of stone in each of 
the various classes and but few of all terra-cotta. Brick 
seems to be the building material preeminent. It is used 
in the smallest as well as in the largest buildings; none are 
too good for this material, none too poor. It is the build- 
ing material of the aristocrat as well as the plebeian, and 
no wonder : brick can be obtained of any desired color 




FIDELITY TRUST COMPANY S BUILDING. 
Green & Wicks, Architei 

and of any texture, from the rough, multicolored wash 
brick through the various grades of pavers to the smooth, 
close-grained, even-toned brick, or it may be had enameled 
in any color, with a " wash its own face " surface admirable 
for some purposes. Buffalo has them all, and a pleasing 
variety they make. 

The newest important municipal building in Buffalo is 
the Lafayette High School, from designs by Fscmvein & 
Johnson. The detail of main entrance shows the charac- 
ter of the brickwork admirably. A golden-brown Roman 
brick, with brownstone and terra-cotta trim, was used. 

Some clever brickwork is shown in the Public Bath, 
from plans by Lansing & Beierl. The Morgue, by the 
same architects, is a combination of brown sandstone and 
red brick, and would have been much more attractive had 
the same design been carried out entirely in brick. 

The building for Chemical No. 5, planned by E. A. 
Kent, is a simple and satisfactory example of brickwork 
in which a standard red brick and red mortar joint were 
used. 

The casino and boathouse at Delaware Park is from 
plans by < Ireen & Wicks and is laid up in very light cream 
brick, which, with the red tile roof, has a very pretty set- 
ting in the green foliage. 



The institutions of Buffalo are almost entirely of brick, 
and many of them are decidedly interesting. 

St. Vincent's Female ( >rphan Asylum, from plans by 
Green & Wicks, shows some beautiful brickwork. A 
standard-shape brick of good texture was laid up in white 
mortar, with stucco work in the attic story, producing 
most satisfactory results, as may be seen clearly in the 
detail views. 

The right wing of the Buffalo General Hospital, from 
plans by George Cary, shows some interesting brickwork 
in a light buff brick, and gives promise of a very interest- 
ing building on the completion of the other wings. 

The Buffalo Public Library, designed by Cyrus Eid- 
litz, is a highly satisfactory job of brickwork done in 
brick of standard shape. 

The Grosvenor Free Library is also in brick and is 
from plans by R. A. Waite. 

The Buffalo Catholic Institute, designed by Metzger 
& Greenfield, shows some satisfactory brickwork in a 
light mottled, warm buff brick. 

Some very interesting brickwork is shown in Buffalo's 
medical college, the University of Buffalo and its branches, 
the Gratwick Laboratory and the Dental School, all from 
plans by George Cary. A chocolate-colored wash brick of 
beautiful texture was used in the main building, shown 
nicely in the detail of main entrance, and pavers, with 
plenty of variety of tone, were used in the Laboratory 
and Dental School. 

Onlyafewof the mercantile buildings can lie included 
in this article, space not permitting of a fuller representa- 
tion, and the larger buildings have been omitted as being 
hardly suitable for reproduction at the small scale neces- 
sary. 

< toe of the newest of these buildings is the Fidelity 
Trust Company's building, not yet completed, from de- 




MAIN ENTRANCE, LAFAYETTE HIGH SCHOOL. 
Bsenweio i: Johnson, Architects. 

signs by Green & Wicks. A red brick of good color laid 
up in Flemish bond in white mortar makes a simple 
wall surface of excellent texture. 

The Chapin building, designed by E. A. Kent, shows 
some interesting brickwork in a light buff Roman brick. 

The Palace Arcade, designed by Green & Wicks for 
Mr. George B. Mathews, is an interesting example of 
light golden Roman brick with plenty of variation. 



THE BRICKBUII.DKR. 



2 I I 




PUBLIC BATH. Lansing & Beierl, Architects. 




MORI .11. Lai 





iUFFALO general hospital. George Gary, Architect. 



UNIVERSITY hi Bl ii \in. George Cary, Architect. 





welcome hall. Green & Wicks, Architects. 



BUFFALO CATHOLK INSTITUTE, M. ' •:' r & G 





CASINO ANT 



,k. Green & Wicks, An P \ 

BRICK WO HK IN BUFFALO, N. Y 



, in . Green & Wicks, An 



2 I 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




AMERICAN EXPRESS COMPANY'S BUILDING 

E. II. Kendall. Architect. 



CHEMICAL NO. 5. 

E. A. Kent, Architect. 



MILLER STABLES. 
Lansing & Beier], Architects. 





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til \I'|N BUILDING. 
E. A. Kent. Architect. 



DETAIL, J. N. ADAM BUILDING 
Green & Wicks. Architects. 



GRATWICK LABORATORY, UNIVERSITY OF 
BUFFALO. George Cary, Architect. 




MAIN ENTRANCE, UNIVERSITY OF 

Architect. 



DENTAL SCHOOL, UNIVERSITY OF 

BUFFALO. George Cary. Architect. 

BRICKWORK IN BUFFALO. N. Y 



GLENN\ BUILDING. 
Green & Wicks. Architects. 



THE |B*R ICKBUILDER 



213 





J it 

■I a If I! 



ST. VINCENT S FEMALK ORPHAN ASYLUM. 
Green & Wicks, Architects. 



DETAIL, CHAPEL, ST. VINCENT S. 
Green & Wicks, Architects. 





MAIN ENTRANCE, ST. VINCENT'S. Green & Wicks, Architects. 



BUFFALO PUP.LIC LIBRARY. Cyrus Kidlitz, Architect. 





GROSVENOR FREE LIBRARY. R. A. Waite, Architect. 



FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH. R. A. Wallace, Architect. 







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CHURCH OF THE MESSIAH. Green & Wicks, Arcliitects. FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. C. 1). Swan, Architect. 

BRICKWORK IN BUFFALO, N. Y. 



2I 4 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The American Express Company's building is an ex- 
cellent example of brickwork of good character, from 
plans by E. II. Kendall. 

An interesting combination of golden Roman brick 
and white glazed terra-cotta is shown in the detail of the 
|. N. Adam building, designed by Green & Wicks. 

The Miller stables, from plans by Lansing & Beierl, is 
an interesting example of red brickwork. 

More of Buffalo's churches an- of stone than any other 
class of buildings. The later ones, however, are of brick. 

The Church of the Messiah, from plans by Green & 
Wicks, shows some beautiful brickwork in light golden 
shades. Roman brick of good color and excellent variety 
of tone having been used. 

One of the modern ideas in church architecture is 
shown in the spireless hirst baptist Church, in which a 
pleasing light golden Roman brick of excellent texture 
and good variety of tone was used. 



Fire-proofing. 




CHURCH ok THE DIVINE HUMANITY. 

He is, in truth, a dull man who never takes time to 
smile, and a good laugh is excellent medicine. So the 
Church of the Divine Humanity is offered, with due apol- 
ogies to the architect, whosoever he may be, to furnish 
good and sufficient provocation for at least a smile. When 
this church was being built a description, most carefully 
and laboriously prepared, was published in the local pa- 
pers, and an extract is now quoted on the principle that 
when one runs across a good thing it should be passed 
along. 

"The building is constructed with a skeleton frame- 
work of built-up timbers formed and interlocked in such 
a manner as to make it exceedingly strong. It is com- 
posed of dry scantlings and plankings dressed to uniform 
size and doweled together with wire nails. This frame is 
covered with matched plankings, dressed, forming the 
interior wall finish. This is covered externally with 
damp-proof felting and faced with an epidermis of 
pressed-brick work anchored to this wood framing, . . . 
and is considered a better non-conducting jacket than the 
ordinary stone or brick wall." 



The Johnson System of Floor 
Construction. 

BY I'l I EK B. « loin . 

THE progress of economic tire-proof floor construction 
has of late years taken the direction of an endeavor 
to do away with I beams as far as possible. The modern 
fire-proof building consists of an exterior wall of any 
approved material and construction, and an interior car- 
ried on the requisite number of steel posts. It is divided 
into rectangles by these posts which stand at their corner 
intersections. These interior posts stand at distances 
apart in both directions which arc the result of a just 
compromise between the exigencies of the plan and the 
method to be employed in the floor construction. Up 
to this point the construction of fire-proof buildings is 
practically uniform because interior dividing brick walls 
have been practically abolished. 

In determining what system of floor construction to 
employ a departure may now be made in at least three 
directions. The time-honored system of girders in one 
direction, to take the whole weight of the floors, crossed 
by I beams in the opposite to support fillings between 
them, is generally used. In this the beams also carry the 
whole weight of the floors, while the lire-proof fillingcar- 
rics mainly the weight between the I beams, though act- 
ing as a stiffener in both directions. This system admits 
of long bearings for girders ami wide spaces between 
them spanned by the I beams which range up to about 
twenty-four feet. It is the most extensive of the sys- 
tems now used. 

Another system admits all the girders and I beams, 
and introduces struts from column to column in both 
directions, which are not subjected to transverse strains 
but act both in tension and compression according to cir- 
cumstances. The remainder of the floor construction 
consists of a laminated domical arch of slight elevation, 
made of hard tiles, the thrust and weight of which arc 
carried directly to the steel posts. This is known as the 
Guastavino or timbrel construction, and has already been 
described in The BRICKBUILDER (see issues of April, May, 
September and October, iyoi). It has been used for 
floor subdivisions up to 19 x 25 feet. 

A third method retains the steel girders and seeks to 
do away with the I beams entirely, only retaining small 
I beam struts between the columns in opposite directions 
to the girders, for maintaining the rigidity of the steel 
skeleton. This method has been the occasion for a vast 
amount of experimentation during recent years. The 
possibility of doing away with the expensive I beams 
entirely and still preserving the Hat ceilings has been too 
great a prize to escape the observation of inventors, and 
grievous have been the blasted hopes of some who have 
failed in the attempt to solve the problem. It is the ob- 
ject of this article to give some account of one of the 
solutions of it. which is also the most recent and prac- 
ticable. 

After an experience of twenty years in doing every 
kind of tire-proof work with burned clay, Mr. E. V. John- 
son of Chicago became convinced of the practicability of 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



215 



doing away with much of the steel that had previously 
been used in floor construction, even though he had seen 
many others fail in the attempt. It was purely a question 
of economics with him. If he could build as good a floor 
without I beams as with them he would be satisfied ; other- 
wise he would still advocate the old methods. For no one 
disputes that the floor constructions with I beams spaced 
from four to eight feet and filled with flat hollow tile 
arches of porous or semi-porous burned clay are still the 
standard constructions for fire-proof buildings of all 
kinds. Side construction flat arches had been safely 



qal meialfflEFTc 



It was about four years ago, when Mr. Johnson con- 
ceived the idea that the resistance to compression of 
hard-burned tiles and Portland cement concrete could be 
united in a nearly homogeneous body, that he com- 
menced his experiments. If he could succeed in this he 
would have an advantage over all cement constructions 
by saving a large amount of weight at the neutral axis 
by the amount of the hollow spaces within the tiles. He 
also decided to make the floor practically monolithic by 
using the concrete in such a way that every tile would be 
surrounded by it, thus making a decided advance by not 



77?efa/ ce/7mg 




Cm.™ sectional rieiv showing .-s/zsnended mef al ceihnt?. 



f//e corer/nq. 

1 _^ .Z^SJ'l^JliS^F °f team. 

Cross secf/onal rie/y j/boisjna o/rder mrpr/na 




neam support. 



me -proof ° Construction 

' - -for — 

* « « f/ooK-, - roots - crr /mos-etc.. 




JOHNSON SYSTEM OF FIRE PROOF CONSTRUCTION. 



built up to spans of ten feet. Then came the experi- 
mentation with end construction tiles which dates from 
the Denver tests of 1890. These flat arches developed 
such an amount of superfluous strength, as compared 
with the transverse strength of the I beams with which 
they were used, that attention was directed to develop- 
ing this into systems of floor construction which would 
admit of such great spans that the arches could be turned 
around and built from girder to girder provided then- 
distances apart were within practicable limits. Several 
inventors were at work at it ten years ago. Not only 
had the enormous strength of hard-burned tile to resist 
compression been discovered, but concrete made of the 
highest grades of Portland cement was in favor with 
some inventors, who used various forms of steel for the 
tensile member. 



relying wholly upon the cement joints between the cuds 
of the tiles to resist all of the compression. He found 
by tests that the contact between the side of a tile and 
good cement would resist more than an end joint be- 
tween the narrow edges of the tiles. Besides, he was 
able to lay all the tiles breaking joints, which had QOl 
been found to be practicable with end pressure Hat 
arches. The result was that he abandoned all idea of 
the flat arch with skew backs and substituted for it a 
monolithic plate of the hardest material that could be 
made, capable of the greatest compression at the top, 
reenforced with tension members of steel placed be- 
neath the tiles, and bedded in concrete which became 
attached to the underside of the hollow tiles. This sys- 
tem called into use the hardest kind of tiles, to which 
no objection could lie made on account of brittleness 



2 l6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





■ C~T~ B ' r .<- 



FIG. I. TEST OF JOHNSON SYSTEM OF FLOOR CONSTRUC- 
TION AT AKRON, OHIO. JULY, [898. 

because they are covered at top and bottom with thick 

beds of cement. 

His first experiments were made at Chicago in the 
spring of [898, and were carried out on a larger scale in 

July of that year at the factory of II. 1!. Camp at Greens- 
town, ( )hio. 

He built an experimental section of floor at Akron, 
Ohio, in May, 1898. It had a clear span of jo feet, 
which was uniformly loaded with 500 pounds per su- 
perficial foot. As a result he received the contract for 
all the floors in the Hamilton office building in that city. 
The first public test of this invention was made on the 
site of the Hamilton Building in July, 1898. (Fig. 1.) 
Work on the building was commenced March 15, [899, 
under the direction of Mead & Garfield, architects. Cleve- 
land, Ohio. The architects, under the advice of a well- 
known engineer, declined at first to take any responsibil- 
ity for the work, but it is to the credit of Mr. Christy, 
president of the Hamilton Building Company, to say that 
he had faith in it. and the work was carried on to comple- 
tion. Of the Hoors in this building the architects say: 
"The fire-proof floors in the Hamilton Building at Akron 
have given perfect satisfaction in everyrespect. Theaver- 
age span between bearings is 17 feet (1 inches, and in sev- 
eral cases spans of [9 feet in the clear were built. This 
work was finished during the summer of [900, and upon 
recent inspection of the work we find the ceilings in per- 
fect condition, no cracks or deflections of any kind baving 
appeared. These floors were severely tested during the 
erection of the work, and we have no hesitancy in recom- 
mending the system as first class in every particular." 

The general interior construction of the Hamilton 
Building is with 15-inch I beam girders 17 feet 7 inches 
apart carried on cast-iron columns tied in the opposite 
direction with 5-inch I beam struts. The floors were 
built story by story as fast as the walls went up, the 
floor of each story being laid before the walls of the suc- 
ceeding story were built. The tiles used were 9 inches 
deep. First the girders were covered as to their bottom 
flanges with shoe tiles, on which were laid a course of hard 
bricks. The floor construction rested on the ledges thus 
formed and the exterior walls, but not on projecting ledges 
on the brick walls. The edges of the floors were built 
into the walls as each successive story was built. 



First smooth board centerings were built up from 
below, and these were covered with oiled paper. On this 
was laid loosely two thicknesses of galvanized high carbon 
steel fabric, each made up of longitudinal strands of No. 
7 steel four inches from centers, tied together diagonally 
with No. 14 wire. This provided one Xo. 7 steel rod for 
every two inches. Then a bed of a full inch of rich Port- 
land cement concrete was laid over the fabric, burying' it 
from sight, and the 9-inch tiles were set in courses one 
inch apart, each breaking joints with the next course. 
The ends of tiles had buttered joints and were set close. 
Next the spaces between tiles were grouted with rich 
cement, which was spread over the tiles to a thickness of 
one inch. < >n removal of the centering, after leaving the 
work a few days to set, and taking off the oiled paper, the 
ceiling exhibits a smooth cement surface which can be 
finished with one coat of plaster. All the fabric had mean- 
while disappeared from sight, the cement having passed 
around and under it. The tire-proof construction was cov- 
ered on top with 2-inch floor strips and deafening and 
double-thick hard-wood flooring. 

After giving the work time to harden, each section of 
the floor was tested. An iron roller weighing 2,290 pounds 
was used. It was 4 feet in diameter and measured 14 
inches on the face. This was rolled over all the floors 
longitudinally and transversely. (Fig. 2.) 




110. 2. ROLLER USED IN TESTING FLOORS OF HAMILTON 

BUILDING, AKRON, OHIO, BEFORE TILES WERE 

COVERED WITH CONCRETE. 

The above description of the first building in which 
this floor system u as used will suffice for all that suc- 
ceeded it. 

In 1901 the Pioneer Fire-proofing Company of Chicago, 
acting under Mr. Johnson's patents, built all the floors of 
the Otis apartment building at Woodlawn and Lake ave- 
nues, Chicago, the same being 17 feet 6 inches span. The 
roofs of the United States government building at Chi- 
cago are now being built in the same manner. 

The largest piece of work on this principle, that has 
been executed is in the Xew Gayosho Hotel at Memphis, 
Tenn., designed by M. E. Bell; formerly Supervising- 
Architect of the Treasury Department, which was built 
to replace one destroyed by fire in 1901. Mr. Bell says 
of it: "The floors were adopted subject to a test of 200 
pounds per square foot, on spans of 17 feet. Since their 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



2 17 



construction they have proved to be all that was claimed 
for them, and we are more than satisfied with their 
strength and perfect fire-proof qualities." 

A public test of the Johnson floor construction was 
made at Minneapolis, August 7, 8 and 9, 1901, under 
the direction of Prof. W. R. Hoag, C. E., of the Univer- 
sity of Minnesota, James G. Houghton, Inspector of 
Buildings at Minneapolis, and Harry W. Jones, architect. 




FIG. 3. PUBLIC TEST OF JOHNSON FLOOR CONSTRUCTION 
MADE AT MINNEAPOLIS, AUG. 7-9, I9OI, AS RE- 
PORTED BY PROF. W. R. HOAG. 

(See Fig. 3.) A section of floor was built which accord- 
ing to the reports made by Mr. Hoag was 16 feet square 
independent of the supports, which were dwarf walls 
built of 12-inch hollow tiles. The floor was supported on 
all four sides, and overhung the supports 4 feet on two 
sides. It was built like a plate on top of the walls with- 
out abutments. The temporary platform and oiled paper 
having been laid, a half inch of Portland cement mortar 
was spread. Three eighths inch steel rods were laid 3 
inches apart and a half inch of cement mortar spread over 
them. One course of steel fabric as heretofore described 
was laid over this with the heavy wires in the direction 
of the steel rods, and another crosswise. On this were 
set courses of 8 x 1 2 inch hollow tiles on edge J inch 
apart, with butt joints in each course, and afterwards 
grouted and plastered over with a thin coat of Alpha 
Portland cement four to one. The floor was about 13 
inches thick. With a distributed load of sand bags equal 
to 378 pounds per superficial foot, which it required two 
davs to place, the deflection was t :\ of an inch. On the 
third day the load was increased to 750 pounds per super- 
ficial foot and the total deflection was £| of an inch. The 
test was not continued beyond this point and a photo- 
graph shown in the illustration Fig. 3 was taken. No 
evidence of failure was seen. The conclusion of Mr. 
Hoag's report is as follows: 

"The test has proved conclusively that as an engi- 
neering structure it is a scientific assembling of material 
which secures at once great strength and remarkable 
rigidity, and under this length and depth of span will 
safely hold 150 pounds per square foot and give a factor 
of safety of five. As to how much more this system 
will sustain, or how much lighter it may be made and 
yet safely carry this load, will require further experi- 
ments to determine." 



It will be observed that in the above test the floor 
was supported on all sides and one course of wire fabric 
was bedded transversely. 

On the 10th and 11th of November, 1901, a test was 
made by James G. Houghton, Commissioner of Buildings 
of Minneapolis, of a section of floor i<> x 16 feet in the 
clear built alongside of that last described. In this floor 
the straining members consisted of ^6-inch steel rods and 
one course of steel wire fabric imbedded in 1^' inches of 
Alpha Portland cement mortar, and similar tiles, 8 x 
12 inches in dimension, were laid on their flat sides. 
Then three inches of Portland cement concrete was laid 
over the whole, forming the main compressive member. 
This concrete was made of four of cinders, three of sand 
and one of cement. The following extract is from the 
signed report of Mr. Houghton: 

"The load was applied gradually in the shape of bags 
filled with sand weighing 115 pounds each piled up in 
separate piles of six with a space of 6 inches between 
same, sixteen of these piles to the floor surface, making 
ninety-six bags per tier. Seventeen tiers in height were 
placed on the floor, giving a total load of 187,680 pounds, 
or 733 pounds per square foot. 

RESULT. 

"The effect of the load as gradually applied resulted 
as follows: 



350 pounds 
733 pounds 



Deflection 



yk inch scant 
% inch full " 




_1 




SJiimjMW '''Hijmg LUU!* 

111 

in ^ ^ 



FIG. 4. TEST .MADE AT MINNEAPOLIS, NOV. I O, 1901, 
BY JAMES G. HOUGHTON, 

Fig. 4 is from a photograph taken after the load of 733 
pounds per superficial foot had been applied. 

Floors similar to the last described are now being 
built in the Methodist Episcopal Deaconesses' Hospital 
and Home at Minneapolis, where I have seen the work in 
progress. In these floors 8 x 12 x [8 inch long tiles are 
used in the rooms, which are 18 feet wide, and 6x 12 x 
18 inch long tiles are used in the corridors, W here they rest 
on I beams crossing the same. They do not touch the 
corridor walls, a space being left Oil each side for the 
heating and ventilating Hues. Two courses of steel fabric 
in one direction and no rods are used; in the rooms the 
floors rest on the brick walls, and no beams are used. 
Edwin 1'. Overmire of Minneapolis is the architect. 



2l8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Selected Miscellany. 

BABY LONIAN FA I E NC E. 

VI S I l'< >RS to the Museum of the Louvre are familiar 
with the extraordinarily interesting collection of 
enameled or glazed wall tiles from Nineveh. Khorsabad 
and other Babylonish cities. There has recently come 
news of the discovery on the site of what is assumed to be 
the Babylonian palace of Nebuchadnezzar, of a quantity 
of encaustic tiling which in fineness of glazing and color- 
ing seems almost perfect. While the other materials en- 
tering into the construction of this palace have crumbled 
into dust, the bricks and burnt clay products alone appear 




JEFFERSON BANK, NEWPORT NEWS, VA. 
P. T. Marye, Architect. 
Entire Front of Terra-Cotta, executed by Perth Ambpy 
Terra-Cotta Compa 

to have survived their centuries of burial, and in many 
cases their colors and even the surface of the enamel is 
as fresh as much of our modern work which is less than a 
vear old. It was the beautiful, velvety surface of these 
old enamels which first suggested the idea of our modern 
dead -finish faience. 







DETAIL BY JOSEPH EVANS SPERRV, VI 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta ( ompa 



A PECULIAR AND INTERESTING TEST OF 
BURNT CLAY FIRE-PROOFIN^ 
To i m Editor The Brickbuildeb ■ 

In experimenting lately to find whetL ^oi >us hol- 
low brick could not be utilized for heating purposes, in 
view of the prohibitive cost of coal at present, I found 
that a porous hollow brick of Haverstraw • be (8 ■ 
:'.i inches) would absorb in a few .;> mds enough ' 
sene oil to give out when ignited a bright flame ai 
great heat lasting about thirty minutes. U'h^.i the flame 
had exhausted itself I plunged the brick into a pail of 
water to cool, and, soaking it again in the oil for a few 
minutes, was able to relight it and continue the process 




Built 



RAILWAY STATION, MARION, INK. 

W. S. Kaufman. Architect, 
if Hydraulic-Press Brick. Roofed with American S Tile. 



indefinitely without the slightest injury to the brick 
barring blackening of its surface. 

Taking an old cylinder stove, I placed one of the 
bricks inside of it standing on end, and lighting it, soon 
had the stove red hot. By having a relay of these bricks 
at hand, one could secure a continuous tire at a very slight 
cost. 

While tests of fire-proofing material again seem to be 
the order of the day, surely the above should demonstrate 
that porous terra-cotta is indestructible by ordinary 
means, being able to withstand unharmed the alternate 
application of great heat and cold. 

Yours truly, 

A. Mi ii ik. 

New York City. Oct. 10, 1902. 




DETAIL BY WINSLOW \ BIGELOW, ARCHITECTS. 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



IX GENERAL. 

Everett & Mead were the architects 
of the original Runkle School Building, 
illustrated in the plate form, of" Tin 
Brickbuildek for September. Peabody 
& Stearns were the architects of the 
new buildings A and B. 

D. Everett Waid has been com- 
missioned supervising and consulting 
architect to the Bond and Mortgage 



\ 



\ 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



2 19 




DETAIL BY CHARLES EDWARDS, ARCHITECT. 
iv York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

Divi&xv u .».Lciopol:taii Life Insurance Company of 

New York City, 

The Akron Star-Brand Cement, made by the Union 
Cemeat Company of Buffalo, has been manufac- 





DETAIL BY K. IS. & L. I.. LONG, ARCHITECTS. 
Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

Among the contracts recently booked by Fiske & Co., 
Boston, are the following: For rough-textured red brick: 
Long Island City High School, Long Island City, N. Y., 
C. B. J. Snyder, architect; Public School No. 141, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y.; Public School No. 188, New York City, N. 
Y. ; several blocks of apartment houses, Brookline, Mass., 
Benjamin Fox, architect; mercantile building, Waterbury, 




OTTAUQUECHEE SAVINGS BANK, WOODSTOCK, VT. 

William W. Clay, Architect 

The columns are 28 feet long, made in three pieces in the full round. Executed in a dull enamel finish. 

Work bv the American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company. 



tured tor more than sixty years. It is not only very 
strong, but is also very adhesive and clings with great te- 
nacity to any material with 
which it comes in contact, and 
when it once gets hard it never 
softens or disintegrates, as 
some cements do, but it con- 
tinues to increase in strength 
and hardness until it becomes 
like a very hard stone. It is 
very uniform in quality and 
can be relied upon every 
time to do good work. 



Conn., Curtis & 
tured red brick : 



Johnson, 
parochia 




DETAIL BY EDWIN 0. PRESTON, ARCHITEt I 

New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



architects. For smooth-tex- 

residence. Mission Church, 
Boston, |. 1'". Untersee, archi- 
tect; blocks of ten apartment 
houses, Dorchester, Mass.. 
George W. Johnston, archi- 
tect. For gray brick : Public 
Library, Shrewsbury, Mass., 
Barker & Nourse, architects: 
old South Building, Boston, 
A. II. Bowditch, architect ; 
Woman's Club, Boston, C. 
II. Blackall, architect ; India 



220 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




DETAIL BY HERTS & TALLANT, ARCHITECTS. 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

Building, Boston, Peabody & Stearns, architects; Beacon 
Building, Boston, Goodwin & Siter, architects. For buff 
and mottled bricks: Summer Hospital for Children, 
Boston, Charles Brigham, architect; Westfield Hospital, 
Westfield, Mass.. Gardner & Gardner, architects; Clapp 
Memorial Building, East Weymouth, Mass., J. Sumner 
Fowler, architect; Hartwell Building, Waltham, Mass.. 
Hartwell, Richardson & Driver, architects; Normal 
School Dormitory. Westfield. Mass.. Gardner & Gardner, 
architects; Cam]) Building, Waterburv. Conn., Griggs 





-^KtV^; 





w.- ^>v </ 'te* 
^ A & ( / { 




DETAILS BY GEORGE II. STREETON, ARCHITEl I. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

& Hunt, architects; warehouse, Boston Wharf Company. 
South Boston, M. D. Safford, architect. 



uuwi '"05 Hi 11 1 
Missouri Tonsr Building. 



1 


«*^^^ 


1 1 




11 




ENTRANCE, BY I. oris SULLIVAN, ARCHITECT. 
Terra-Cotta Work by the Winkle Terra-Cotta Company. 



\\ ENAMEL BRICK FRONT, WHEELING, W. VA., 

Gresey cS.- Farris, Architects 

Brick of Cream Satin Finish, Columns of Special Radius 

Brick. Tiffany inamivd 1-n.k C mi.ain. Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

NOVEMBER, 

1902. 




p 



w 

05 
CO 



X 









. • ■ ■'.. I' » 



VOL II 
NO. II 



B*fc8>3* 



THE 

BRICKBVILDER 



hW& 



NOV. |j 

if* 
M 



h r. b. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada . . . . . . . . S5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 
For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 



Agencies. — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Terra-Cotta 

Brick 

" Enameled 



PAGE PACE 

II Cements IV 

. . II Clay Chemicals IV 

11 and III Fire-proofing IV 

Ill Machinery IV 

. . . .Ill and IV Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



PROFESSOR A. D. F. HAMLIN contributes to the 
" School of Mines Quarterly " of Columbia Univer- 
sity a very interesting discussion of the much-mooted 
construction of the dome of the Pantheon, Rome. It has 
been assumed, chiefly on the authority of Piranesi and 
Viollet-le-Duc, that the construction consisted of a series 
of arched ribs connected by relieving arches, the interme- 
diate spaces being filled solid with concrete. The fact 
that the caissons which appear on the inner surface of the 
dome do not seem to in any wise agree with the assumed 
system of construction has been one of the enigmas not 
easy of solution. Professor Hamlin's conclusion is cpiite 
a striking one, namely, that the dome as constructed in 
the time of Hadrian was internally a smooth vault and 
that at some time subsequent to its completion, very 
probably in the time of Septimius Severus, the existing 
panels were hewn out of the brickwork and the present 
surface coat of stucco applied thereto. This is a very in- 
teresting conclusion and seems to go further towards ac- 
cording the conflicting facts than any other theory pro- 
posed, but its final demonstration would be impossible 
unless the entire inner surface of the dome could be 
stripped and the masonry examined in minute detail. In 
many respects this is the most interesting example of 
masonry construction in the world. Viollet-le- Due's hy- 
pothetical solution of the problem was an extremely in- 
genious one and was thoroughly in accord with Roman 
traditions and with the construction as observed in other 
similar monuments, and if the dome were to be repro- 



duced in modern times it is doubtful if any improvement 
could be made upon Viollet-le-Duc's scheme. But un- 
fortunately it does not fit the exact conditions, and Pro- 
fessor Hamlin's investigations, which were conducted 
both on the spot and by comparison with other investiga- 
tions of the monument, constitute a very important addi- 
tion to our literature upon the Roman vault construction. 



ABOUT one hundred tenement houses six stories in 
height are now being built according to the pin- 
visions of the new tenement-house law, in New York City, 
at a total cost of $4,104,000. Nearly all of these houses 
will be about 40 x 100 feet on lots 50 x 100 feet. Only a 
few tenement houses are being erected on lots having a 
twenty-five foot frontage. For a time it looked as if op- 
erators in this class of buildings had shut up shop, says a 
contemporary. In the last few months, however, trading 
in tenement-house properties has been vigorous. This 
fact, together with the vast sum of money the operators 
have decided to invest in the building of model tenement 
houses, is taken as proof positive that there is no longer 
any doubt that the modern tenement house can be made 
to pay as well as the old type of building. 



AT a special meeting of the Philadelphia chapter of 
the American Institute of Architects called to take 
action upon the death of Mr. Walter Cope the following 

resolutions were adopted : 

Resolved, That in the overwhelming sadness which the death oi "in 
friend and associate, Walter Cope-, lias cast ah. ml us we Still rejoice in 
the beauty of his life and his labors, which lea\ e behind the 111 so precious 
a memory and so Stimulating an example. Deeply skilled in his art, 

there were brought to him from far and near problems "i ever increas- 
ing difficulty and importance. He bore joyously the burden of these 
many tasks and stood before us steadfast in the discharge ol duty, un- 
tiring in the pursuit of excellence and beauty, firm in upholding a noble 
standard of conduct. And yet it is not his work as an architect, dis- 
tinguished as it is by volume and quality, thai leaves with his compan- 
ions the deepest impression oi him, but rather his constant sincerity, his 
limpid truthfulness, his spontaneity and frankness, his joy in art, his 
splendid scorn of wrong. 

Resolved, That in the death of Walter Cope the an- hi tec is of America 
have lost one of the ablest o) 1 heir numbi r, and that we, lbs immediate 

associates, mourn him, not alone as a fellow artist . but as a friend tried 
in many ways and true in all 

These resolutions will surely find an echo in tin- hearts 
of all the numerous friends Mr. Cope has left behind him. 
It is seldom that a career has been so uniformly success- 
ful, not merely in the purely architectural sense, but also 
in the finer qualities of personal character. His practice 
was individual to a marked degree, and he possessed the 
rare balance of mind between the artistic temperamenl and 
the severely practical bent which enabled him to give to 
his architecture the stamp of the very highest character. 



!22 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Decoration of the Ceppo Hospital 
at Pistoia. 

I'.\ \I.l. \\ M \ki.T AM). 

THE Ceppo Hospital at Pistoia was founded as early 
as [218, and for several centuries was controlled by 
AugUStinian brothers of the society known as Santa Maria 
del Ceppo, or St. Mary of the tree trunk. In the closing 
years of the fifteenth century the city of Pistoia suffered 
much from fire and plague, also from political dissen- 
sions. The Ceppo Hospital suffered with the rest, until 
in the early years of the sixteenth century its adminis- 
tration passed into the hands of the Florentines and Frate 
Leonardo liuonafede was placed in charge. Buonafede 
was wealth} - and a patron of art. As abbot of the mon- 
astery at Badia Tedalda he had donated to that church 
three altarpieces of Robbia ware, and again at Galatrona 




CEPPO HOSPITAL, PISTOIA. 

he had presented the church with a baptismal font and 
other objects made by Giovanni della Robbia. Buona- 
fede was appointed by Leo X in 1522 the administrator of 
the Hospital of S. Maria Nuova at Florence and of the 
Ceppo at Pistoia. In Florence the hospitals of the Inno- 
centi and of .San Paolo were provided with loggie the 
spandrels of whose arches were decorated with medallions 
by Andrea della Robbia. It was therefore natural that 
his first work for Pistoia should have been to order for 
the Ceppo Hospital a loggia decorated with glazed terra- 
cotta. It is probable, therefore, that the loggia of the 
Ceppo Hospital does not antedate T522, and it must have 
been built by 1525, as this date is found on one of the 
medallions which decorate it. This date, however, does 
not imply that the decorations were all in place at that 
time. In fact the archives of the hospital indicate that 
payments were made to Giovanni della Robbia from 1525 
to 1529. The amounts and purports of these payments. 




MEDALLION OF THE ANNUNCIATION, r,\ GIOVANNI 
I'll 1 \ ROBBIA. 

Milanesi informs us, were recorded in a book which is 
now lost; hence Giovanni's share in the decoration of 
this hospital must be determined by the characteristics of 
the work itself. 

Do the records throw any further light on this sub- 
ject ? We might think of connecting the name of Bene- 
detto Buglioni with these decorations. He had already 
been employed in the decoration of the Ceppo Hospital. 
At least we assume that Milanesi. in a note to Yasari's 
account of Luca della Robbia, derived from some docu- 
mentary source the information that Benedetto Buglioni 
made in 1510 a "Nostra Donna" for the facade of the 
hospital. Possibly this is the lunette, representing the 
Coronation of the Virgin, above the door of the hospital 
chapel. He also made in 1315. to celebrate the arrival 




GIVING DRINK TO THE THIRSTY, BV KII.II'I'o PALADINI. 

of Leo X, figures of Charity and Hope, and we note that 
these figures occur also in the Pistoia frieze. But Bene- 
detto Buglioni died March 7, 1521, a year before Buona- 
fede planned a loggia for the Ceppo Hospital. His pupil 

and successor, Santi Buglioni, lived as late as 156X. and 
the records of S. Maria Nuova imply that he was also 
employed (at what date-) at Pistoia. How far he may 
have been concerned in the decorations of the Ceppo 
Hospital does not appear. The records therefore, so far 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



22 



as published, leave the question of authorship an unset- 
tled problem. Hence we find the Ceppo frieze variously 
ascribed to Luca and Andrea della Robbia (P. Contrucci 
and G. Pellegrini), to Agostino della Robbia (the libro 
d'oro of the hospital), to Giovanni della Robbia (Bode, 
Marcel Reymond), to Giovanni and his brothers (Mur- 
ray), to Giovanni aided by his sons or by Santi Buglioni 
(Cavacalluci and Molinier). 

What have the decorations themselves to say in re- 
gard to their origin ? If we take more than a casual 
glance at these striking and most effective decorations, 
we cannot fail to perceive in them the handiwork of three 
different artists. The medallions are evidently the work 
of a single mind. They form in themselves a complete 
scheme of decoration. Here are medallions of the An- 
nunciation, Visitation and the Assumption, in honor of 
the patroness, Santa Maria del Ceppo; a medallion with 
the Medici arms, in honor of the family through which 



that of the medallions, and its color scheme, notably the 
yellows, quite different. The medallions are completely 
glazed, whereas the frieze suggests a style of later period, 
since the faces and hands, and in one panel the entire fig- 
ures, are unglazed. The medallions are conventional in 
spirit and feeble in execution. The frieze is vigorous, 
well composed, in general well modeled, realistic and full 
of pathos. The contrast in fact between frieze and me- 
dallions is so striking that we are surprised to find writers 
still attributing the entire decorations to the same author. 
Having satisfied ourselves that the frieze is not a 
work by Giovanni della Robbia, let us consider it by 
itself and in its relation to other monuments. If we ex- 
amine the frieze with reference to its style we cannot fail 
to notice that the last relief to our right is to be distin- 
guished from all the rest. Not only are the figures un- 
glazed, but the composition is more crowded, and the prin- 
cipal figure of the other panels is here changed. The 




CF.PI'O HOSIMTAI., 1'ISTOIA. 



the hospital derived security and prosperity; a medallion 
containing the arms of the hospital ; and at either end 
half medallions making together the arms of Pistoia. 
This is a scheme such as Leonardo Buonafede might 
well have planned for the decoration of the loggia. It 
may be noted that these medallions are completely glazed, 
and that both in modeling and in color they are very 
different from the frieze above them. We do not have far 
to go to discover their authorship. In the Museo Nazionale 
of Florence there is a large altarpiece of the Nativity, 
signed by Giovanni della Robbia in 1521, and in the Via 
Nazionale is his masterpiece, the Tabernacolo delle Fonti- 
cine, executed in 1522. In the Pistoia medallions, a few 
years later, Giovanni reproduces the same Virgin, the same 
angel, the same details of ornament. Even without the 
suggestion afforded by the documents, we could not fail 
to recognize in these medallions most characteristic ex- 
amples of the workmanship of Giovanni della Robbia. 
The style of the frieze is by no means the same as 



authorship of this panel is known by documentary evi- 
dence. Contrucci publishes {Monumento Robbiano nella 
Loggia dello Spedale di Pistoia, p. 87, note 1) from the 
archives of the hospital, records of payments made to 
Maestro Filippo di Lorenzo Paladini from May 1 |, [584, 
to August 2, 1586, for making various figures, the final 
entry defining the purpose, viz., for the completion of 
the frieze of the loggia. During this period, [584 1586, 
Bartolomeo Montechiari was in charge of the hospital, and 
it may be that he is portrayed here as the central figure. 
Filippo Paladini was a Florentine painter, noted, accord- 
ing to Lanzi, for his graceful figures and excellent color- 
ing. His panel, however, lacks the clearness and dramatic 
force of the others, from which it differs also in technical 
execution. So far as the question of authorship is con- 
cerned, we have reached this conclusion: to Giovanni 
della Robbia may be ascribed the medallions, and to Fi- 
lippo Paladini one panel of the frieze. 

The remainder of the frieze is the work of a realistic 



224 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



sculptor by no means blind to decorative effect. The 
general design is evident. Over each opening of the 
loggia is represented one of the Seven Deeds of Mercy. 
These are divided from each 
other by narrow upright 
panels representing figures 
of Virtues. At the extreme 
ends of the frieze, instead of 
Virtues we find this inscrip- 
tion, half at one end, half at 
the other: Beati tnundo corde 
quoniam ipsi deunt videbunt. 
MDLXXXV. Whether this 
date be that of the original 
frieze or only of its com- 
pletion by Paladini we can- 
not now determine. The sub- 
jects represented succeed 
each other in the following 
order: On the short side of 
the loggia, near the church. 

we find a fine panel on which is represented the Clothing 
the Naked. At the corner is a sphinx hearing the arms 
of the hospital. On the facade of the loggia we find, 
reading from left to right, Receiving Strangers (Pru- 
dence), Visiting the Sick (Faith), Visiting the Prisoners 
(Charity), Burying the Dead (Hope), Feeding the Hun- 
gry (Justice), diving Drink to the Thirsty. 

It is unnecessary that we should describe these in de- 
tail. It is evident that the sculptor understood the value 
of varying his compositions, his relief, his coloring, and 
that he had a deep realization of human life and charac- 
ter. Some of these figures are doubtless portraits of well- 
known persons. The monk who is the principal figure in 
five of the panels may well he Leonardo Buonafede, donor 
of the loggia. He was a Carthusian monk and here wears 
the Carthusian robe and dark cowl. In a funerary relief 
by Francesco da San Gallo at the Certosa, Buonafede is 




CLOTHING THE NAKED. 




figured in one panel as a Pilgrim and in another as a 
Prisoner, and St. John the Baptist is evidently the Stran- 
ger whose feet are being washed by the charitable Buona- 
fede. But who is the central 
figure clad in blue in the 
panel of the Strangers, and 
who is the distinguished fig- 
ure at the front of those who 
are about to bury the dead? 
These are questions which 
some day may be answered. 
'fhe sculptor of this frieze, 
whoever he may have been, 
seems to have received some 
of his inspiration at least 
from Florentine sources, 
'fhe first figure to the left. 
now headless, in the Clothing 
of the Naked, was evidently 
made by some one who had 
seen and admired Michelan- 
gelo's David (1503), and the costume of the nuns, in the 
same panel, is said by Contrucei to be that worn in the 
Hospital of S. Maria Nuova, adopted by the nuns of 
the Ceppo Hospital in 1540. 

A broad survey of the works of the Robbia school still 
leaves the authorship of the frieze an unsettled problem. 
Luca, Andrea and Giovanni della Robbia are not to be 
thought of in this connection. Could its author have been 
one of Giovanni's brothers' Certainly not Fra Ambrogio, 
author of a miserable Nativity at S. Spirito, Siena; cer- 
tainly not Luca, the younger, author of a signed Madonna 
in the Vatican; certainly not Fra Mattia, author of a large 
altarpieee at Monte Cassiano. Was it Girolamo, who went 
to Prance, where he decorated the Chateau de Madrid for 
Francois 1 ? Unfortunately nothing is left of his works 
which we can apply as a test to this question. Could it 
have been either Benedetto or Santi Buglioni? A few 
monuments, more or less analogous to the I'istoia frieze, 




DETAIL FROM VISITING THE PRISONERS. 



DETAIL FROM BURYING THE DEAD. 



represented as bishop of Cortona wearing a miter, but 
we cannot fail to recognize that he has the same features 
as those of the monk of the Ceppo frieze. The priest 
with a nimbus in the Visiting the Prisoners may be the 
sainted Pistoian bishop, Beato Andrea Franchi, who did 
much to relieve his people in time of distress. Christ is 



remain which may be attributed with more or less secu- 
rity to these sculptors. But on the whole it may be said 
that neither Benedetto nor Santi Buglioni has elsewhere 
shown anything like the power exhibited in this frieze. 
Hence for the present the authorship of the frieze re- 
mains for us an unsolved problem. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



225 




SPOTLESvS TOWN is 
brand new. But unlike 
Carnegietown, furnaces are 
but the means of life, not 
the objects to which life is 
sacrificed. 

It is traversed by Will- 
iam Penn Road, which, 
while within the corporate 
limits, is an up-to-date, 
symmetrical, tree-lined city 
street, paved with vitrified 
brick, drained with the lat- 
est type of sewer, and 
tunneled with the most ac- 
cessible man-run for the 
installation of pipes and 
wires. It is sprinkled by 
day, flushed by night, and 
yet, notwithstanding its 
fierce electric lights and 
rapid traffic, it remains an 
organic part of the old dry, 
dusty turnpike. 

The "pike" is very old. 
It takes its way across the 
fertile fields of York and 
Lancaster counties, whose 
inhabitants still perpetuate 
ancient rivalries by em- 
blematic use of the red and 
white roses of the royal 
families after which their 
lands were long ago named. 

The settled, substantial 
character of the country and 
a hundred unmistakable 
signs like the elsewhere 
obsolete tollgate, link the 
present to that strange twi- 
light time filled with fantas- 




I'l.AN OK CIVIC CENTER. 



tic shapes of imagination 
and pious enthusiasm, to 
which belongs the Ephrata 
Monastery with its gowned 
and hooded Protestants, the 
nuns and monks employed 
about monastic duties and 
occupations, while the 
brothers harnessed to the 
plow proved their earnest- 
ness upon the rugged earth. 

This same primitive 
spirit appears in the "reli- 
gious character of the set- 
tlements of the Dunkards, 
the Mennonites, or "Manis- 
ten," as they are often called 
in Pennsylvania, and the 
Moravians. And notwith- 
standing the English names 
of the counties, the descend- 
ants of these early sectaries 
remain as a preponderating 
German element, particu- 
larly in the older settle- 
ments and in the less ac- 
cessible regions. But their 
influence is now less reli- 
gious than moral. With all 
the old earnestness of their 
race they have become the 
richest and most powerful 
class in the agricultural 
community, at once con- 
servative and progressive, 
accepting the advantages of 
modern invention, but al- 
ways insisting that it shall 
not be at the expense of 
accustomed ideals of life. 

So although Spotless 



PROGRAMME. 

The problem indicated by the following programme is a town hall 
such as would be requisite in a village of five or six thousand 
inhabitants. 

It is supposed to stand on the public square of the town, which 
square is quite closely built up with such buildings as would naturally 
be found in a locality of this kind. If there are any differences in grade, 
the town hall is supposi 'I ' I Upy the highest portion of the land. 

The contributors in this series represent different sections of the 
country, and each design will indicate not only in the matter of arrange- 
ment of plan but also in point of architectural style, the sort of thing 



thai would be particularly appropriate for the section "f the countrj 

in which the building is to be located. 

In the matter of accommodations and of the sizes and disposition 
of the rooms, each contributor uses his own judgment, following out 
the idea indicated above by preparing designs particularly fitted loi 
the various Sections of the United States. 

The cost of thi building, exclusive of furnishings, should not exceed 

... This sum, while perhaps large, is purposely made so with the 
idea of laying stress on the necessity "I having a building of some rich- 
ness to represent the town in its corporate capacity. 

The idea is simply to suggest an appropriate treatment Ol .1 prob- 
lem that frequently occurs for solution. 



226 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Town is not old, it is largely the outcome of a people that 
has taken time to think. 

Instead of a haphazard agglomeration of grimy 
dwellings strewn along an arid waste of railway embank- 
ments, dominated by belching steel works, it is an orderly 
community and a pleasant place to live in, for here smoke 
consumers and skillful stoking are made matters of pub- 
lic concern. In fact the whole environment suggests self- 
reliance and a proud American spirit where manhood is 
at a premium 
and "pauper- 
izing philan- 
thropies" are 
unknown. 

A closely 
built u p 
square, ap- 
proached by 
broad, tree- 
lined streets, 
forms the 
civic centre, 
the treatment 
of which is 
the subject of 
our project. 

In the pro- 
gramme the 
editor has 
once more 
shown his dis- 
cernment and 
judgment by 
making ac- 
tual condi- 
tions the real 
impulse back 
of each town 
hall design, 
a n d m ore- 
over by invit- 
ing designers 
from widely 
separated lo- 
calities to 
solve the 
same prob- 
lem with ref- 
e r e n c e to 
their o w n 
local condi- 
tions and re- 
quirements, 

an admirable opportunity for contrast and comparison is 
effected. 

In the second of the series Mr. Garden felt strongly 
the Latin influence of Spain and France, and in conse- 
quence his town hall takes on a southern aspect, as the 
logical character of a building designed as a type appro- 
priate in the southern states. 

In ours. Pennsylvania history and English and German 
out-of-door habits are taken into account, and the thought 
suggested in the programme of an assemblv hall to be 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



used for theatrical and social entertainments is made a 
keynote to the scheme. This is a happy thought, for 
within a month at Columbia, Pa., the second largest town 
in Lancaster County, the advantages of public ownership 
of a playhouse were conclusively demonstrated. Theirs 
is leased, season by season. This year the manager of- 
fended the decency of the community by billing the town 
with objectionable posters. A protest was raised, with 
the result that a special meeting of the town council or- 
dered the ad- 
vertisements 
d o w n and 
closed the 
( >pera I louse. 
The social 
life of the 
community is 
to be served 
first, the gov- 
e r n m e n t a 1 
needs being 
epiite subor- 
dinate to it. 

With this 
in view it was 
d e e m e d of 
importance 
to consider 
the town hall 
as only a part 
of a social 
center which 
as a whole 
exercises a 
daily influ- 
ence over the 
population. 
And this was 
r i g h t, for 
civic pride 
attaches it- 
self firmly to 
F rankli n 
Common, a 
great open 
green for out- 
door recrea- 
tion where 
the ban d 
plays, and 
w h ere t h e 
militia drills 
under the eye 

of friends and fellow townsmen. It is a great open 
Space unprotected by forbidding fences, where the boys 
play ball and where '•keep off the grass" signs are 
unknown. It is a sort of civic country club, whose 
shaded benches afford resting and meeting places for 
the people. And so jealously is it guarded that the 
suggestion to place the town hall Upon it raised a 
storm of protest, leaving no doubt as to the people's 
amour profire, and in consequence, as a conciliatory move, 
it was decided to even enlarge the appearance of the com- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



227 



mon by acquiring the property on the opposite side of 
Penn Road. Thus by continuing the double rows of trees 
across this thoroughfare an integral effect was obtained 
which, moreover, insured a suitable background for the 
building itself. 

The site rises a few feet, its ramped approach showing 
how a simple building may be set off and given added 
dignity by skillful grading. Here stands the only statue, 
directly in front of the town hall and reflected in the lily 
pool beneath. It is a bronze figure of the public-spirited 
ironmaster and founder for whom the engirdling park 
system of the town is named. 

On approaching, driving or afoot, an appearance of 
perfect orderliness and symmetry is everywhere to be 
seen. Even the low shrubs, the flowers and aquatic plants 
within the wing walls and curb of the basin are studied 
to enhance the architectural effect, and the trees border- 
ing the service road at the rear, as already pointed out, 



which extremes of luxury and squalor are nowhere to be 
found. 

Immigration to the great cities receives but few re- 
cruits from Spotless Town, and those who go often return, 
amazed to find how much more it means to them than 
the metropolis; how much more each inhabitant is en- 
titled to for a minimum tax rate; and how much more 
healthful it is as a place of residence. 

The true sense of proportion which dictated that the 
town hall should be an all-around benefit by giving im- 
portance to its social function, precluded a subordinate 
entrance to the assembly hall. The triple arches form 
one main entrance for both departments, though they arc 
independent, each occupying a separate floor. 

The character of the building is reminiscently colo- 
nial but distinctly modern, wood being largely replaced 
by white terra-cotta, shingles by tiles, and floor joists by 
Guastavino arches. Materials of clay are used nearly ex- 




TOWN HALL AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING FOR A SMALL CITY IN PENNSYLVANIA. BY ALBERT KELSEY. 



frame in the picture, excluding a view of the private 
properties beyond. 

The light-standards with their bulletin boards and 
other street fixtures axe of a uniform special design, and 
each, according to its function, is placed at the proper 
interval with great precision. ( )verhead construction of 
all kinds is prohibited on the public domain, and hence 
the tree-lined lawns are unobstructed. 

The deep-seated optimism of the people made it a 
comparatively easy matter for the founder to take ad- 
vantage of a period of unusual prosperity to command 
the interest and cooperation of the citizens in his efforts 
to make a model city of the town; but unfortunately 
space does not permit a description of all the problems 
solved nor even a list of the conveniences, embellish- 
ments and amusement features which have been made 
permanent additions to the city system. Suffice it that 
through him the people came to know the new order of 
things whereby all, from the richest to the poorest, 
are brought within a real community of interests in 



clusivcly, and in the decorative treatment faience as beau- 
tiful as Luca della Robbia's majolica is freely used to re- 
call the history of the high road, and Moravian tiles of 
special design record local tradition, while rich glazes re- 
vive emblems and make the county arms familiar to all. 
Mural paintings depict the steel industry upon which the 
life of the town depends, and a more powerful and sym- 
pathetic allegory would be hard to find. 

Within and without there is nothing superfluous, 
nothing without reason and meaning, and as the building 
proudly faces the common — not the plaza, nor the 
esplanade, nor the garden, but merely the common - 
it looks its part and nothing more. 

Character is the great thing in lite, in art, in city 
making. Character rules in everything. It is qoI the 
result of a whim nor the product of spurious imitation. 
Character epitomizes conditions, and those of the democ- 
racy of Spotless Town arc worthy of profound study, 
notwithstanding this imperfect characterization of them 
in a design for its town hall. 



2 2 S 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Interesting Brick Architecture in 
Pittsburg, Pa. Domestic. 

TUP lower part of Pittsburg is shut in on two sides by 
thf Allegheny and the Monongahela rivers, which 
meet at "The Point" to form the Ohio. Now the lower 

part of the business section, in early times this district was 
the residence section. Growth was possible in but one 
direction, and owing to the lack of transportation facilities 
a great expansion even in this direction was impracticable. 
Swept by the tire of 1845, in rebuilding the houses were 
largely of the city-front type, and many of them show 
the influence of the Greek revival which was so popular 
at that time, simple brick fronts with but little elabora- 
tion and that usually around the entrance. Many of them 
have, too, beautiful examples of iron railings and balconies. 

Smoke and dirt had always operated to discourage 
anything but the simplest exteriors, but in [886 the intro- 
duction of natural gas as a fuel cleared the air for better 
things; business was encroaching more and more here, 
street cars were opening up districts heretofore almost 
inaccessible, and there was a general exodus to these 
newer districts. But the reaction from the crowded con- 
dition of the older town has been permanent, and to-day 
in new work we have hardly an example of the city front. 
Incidentally we have hardly an example of the modern 
French school. 

Pittsburg is a city of hills and of many splendid views, 
too often, it is true, cut off in the distance by a cloud of 
smoke, but the immediate vicinity of its homes has been 
neglected and only recently have the services of the land- 
scape architect been sought; 







ia*i«M 




__ j*k 



1 II 1 LDRF N S PL \YII< M SE VND '.\ M N ASM M . 
Aider) & Harlow, Art-lni 

The accompanying illustrations have been chosen to 
show some of the more recent work here. 

The house at Sewickley, Proctor, Wass c\- Tufts, archi- 
tects, is particularly successful, the long ridge being very 
effective and the proportions between the wood and 
plaster good, though the appearance would probably have 
been improved had the plaster been rougher and kept 
back slightly from the face of the wood. The bricks are 
laid with joints deeply raked out and window frames 
set Bush with the outside of the wall ; the fact that the de- 
sign of the chimneys is varied adds a small note of interest. 

The house at Sewickley by Alden & Harlow is a 
simple, vigorous treatment of a colonial plan, in which the 
fineness of detail of colonial work has been avoided, and 
an interesting feature made of the large chimney at the 
end. The brick is laid in English bond. 



The house at .St. James Street and Fifth Avenue, 
McClure & Spahr, architects, is built with gray brick, the 
woodwork stained dark brown. There is a simple brick 
cornice and several bands of brick on edge, which, how- 
ever, are almost lost, the brick and mortar bein^ of the 
same color. 

In the house near Sewickley by Rutan & Russell the 
brickwork is laid in Flemish bond. 

The house at 5050 Forbes Street is built on the top of 
a hill, and in order to make a driveway it was necessary to 
build the terrace in front, which cuts off, in the view, so 
much of the first story and overpowers the entire house. 




HOUSE. MOKF.WOOD PLACE. 
Rutan & Russell. Architi 

Had an open balustrade been used in place of the brick 
wall, the effect would probably have been better. 

The house at 4902 Forbes Street is on another hill and 
also difficult to show in a photograph. It is built of dark 
brown brick and red sandstone. The brick porches and 
terrace wall have a vigorous air, and the round tile valleys 
give the roof a broad, simple effect which cannot be ob- 
tained when metal valleys are used. Alden & Harlow 
were the architects. 

The house at Colonial Way and Ellsworth Avenue, 
George S. Orth & Bros., architects, is one of two similar 
houses on opposite corners. Both are built of gray brick 
and light stone. The stone portico does not tie in well 
with the house, due largely to the lack of pilasters, but 
the general effect of the two houses is good. 

The house at 542(1 Fifth Avenue and the posts and 
wall at the entrance are built of light buff brick and terra- 
cotta of about the same color. 

The residence on Morewood Place by Rutan & Russell 
is built <>f rough redbrick and black headers laid in Flem- 
ish bond ; the stonework is light gray; The house suf- 
fers from the lack of foliage around it. 

A plavhouse. gymnasium and bowline, alley from the 
office of Alden & Harlow is here illustrated. The low 
tile roof, the chimney at the end, and the bowling alleys 
with the roof cut off at the end, give it an informal air 
which the problem seems to demand. 

The house at Richland Road and Penn Avenue, Pea- 
body & Stearns, architects, is built of dark gray brick, 
the woodwork stained dark brown. The detail of the 
bargeboards is interesting and in excellent scale; the in- 
spiration for the work in the gables has been found in the 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



229 




house AT SEWICKLEV, pa. Proctor, Wasa & Tufts, Architects 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 




House, 7 1 s Bidwell Ave. Peabody >V Stearns, Arc) 




House. Richland Road and Penn Ave. I . Steams. Architects. 



1 1 







House. 54_>6 Fifth Ave. Alden ft Harlow. Architects 





Rear of House. 5050 Forbes St. Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 




House at Dnquesne. Alden ft Harlow, Architects. 




House, Colonial Way and Ellsworth Ave. Geo. S. Orth & Bros. , Architects. Entrance to 5426 Fifth Ave. Alden ft Harlow. Architects. 

BRII KWORK IN PITTSB1 RG, P \. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



231 




house, highland AND WELLESLE1 AVENUES, PITTSBURG, PA. am.m & Harlow, Architects. 



232 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



eld half-timbered work, but the background is here filled 
in with wood and the beams left in high projection. 

The large chimney on the front of the house at Du- 
quesne forms an interesting feature. The brick terrace 
wall gives a strong base to the building, and the slight use 
of half-timber work adds interest. Alden & Harlow were 
the architects. 




HOUSE, ST. JAMES STREET AND FIFTH AVENUE. 
McClure & Spahr, Architects. 

The large residence at the corner of Highland and 
Wellesley avenues is built of dark red brick and light 
stone. The two-Story portico on front is marble, but 
does not seem to tie in well with the rest of the house, and 
the central gable of the front seems too small. 

Another house on Penn Avenue by Alden & Harlow 
is built of dark red brick laid in Flemish bond, with light 
terra-cotta quoins, caps and cornice. The treatment of 
the large chimneys shows what may be done with what 
are usually regarded as necessary evils. Round valleys 
have been used in the tile roof. 




HOI SE, PENN AVENUE. 
Alden & Harlow, Architects. 

The house at 651 Morewood Avenue, by Peabody & 
Stearns, with the two large gables on front and the dormer 

between, is generally successful, though the detail around 
the windows seems too fine. Doubling the slate every 
fifth course adds interest to the roof, and the hood over 
the front entrance and the porch on the side are in good 
scale and interesting in detail. 



Fire-proof Grain Storage Buildings. 

THE evolution from the farmer's barn and the loft 
filled with fat sacks of grain to the modern eleva- 
tor with its storage capacity of 1,000,000 bushels or more 
and its wonder-working machinery has for a long time 
been considered one of the marvels of tin.- latter part of 
the nineteenth century, but during this time the Study 
of one of the most important elements involved in the 
handling and storage of our most important production 
has been going on with slight interruption. Up to [865 
the modern grain elevator had been developed almost to 
the condition in which we sec it to-day in all the large 
grain-handling marts. It is a structure of wood, some- 




FIG. I. LONGITUDINAL SECTION OK FIRST BRICK GRAIN 
ELEVATOR, BUILT AT BUFFALO, N. v., 1869. 

times enclosed in a brick wall or covered with sheet 
metal, having a long narrow cupola, so called, on top 
which contains the machinery for handling grain, which 
is held in deep square bins. These are made with solid 
walls of wood six inches thick, built by nailing 2 x 6 
scantlings one on top of another and breaking joints at 
the corners and intersections. They form a nest, like 
pigeon holes set on end. These bins are generally Set on 




lio. 2. DETAIL OK KIN CONSTRUCTION of FIRST liKICk 
ORAIN ELEVATOR, BUILT AT BUFFALO, N. V., 1869. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



233 



very heavy clustered wooden posts, rarely on iron ones, 
and require very massive foundations. Railroad tracks 
are laid between the posts, and at one end of each ele- 
vator is the boiler and power house with its high brick 
smokestack. 

Such a structure is one of the most combustible and 
dangerous inventions from the point of view of fire risks 
ever conceived by man, and there are those who have 
claimed for the last thirty years that it is not capable of 
improvement from that or any other point of view except 
in small detail, such as mechanical operation. 

In 7865 the late George H. Johnson was and had been 
for many years the draughtsman of the Architectural Iron 
Works of New York, founded by D. D. Badger, though he 
was educated as an architect in England. In the course 
of his duties he had frequent 
occasion to visit Chicago to 
supervise the erection of some 
of the largest "cast-iron fronts" 
ever put up. His attention 
was thus called to the opera- 
tion of the Chicago grain ele- 
vators, then the largest in the 
United States, and their dan- 
gers as fire risks. At that time 
iron, being incombustible, was 
regarded as a fire-proof material 
and was the main dependence 
for the supposed fire-proof 
qualities of buildings erected 
by this company. His studies 
in fire-proofing commenced 
with grain elevators, and his 
determination to improve their 
construction was the main bent 
of his mind for twenty years 
thereafter and almost to the 
day of his death. It was during 
this time also that he made 
many of the early inventions 
and applications of burnt clay 
to fire-resisting constructions 
which were the bases of most 
of the valuable methods in use 
at the present time. 

Believing at first that iron 
was the main basis of fire- 
resisting construction, he deter- 
mined to get some one to erect an iron elevator in an 
eastern city, where the wooden constructions of the 
middle West were considered to be dangerous to con- 
tiguous properties in closely built cities. In fact there- 
were no grain elevators in the seaboard cities, and grain 
which was handled scientifically and economically in the 
interior was handled very awkwardly and expensively at 
the East in lofts of buildings, while it was generally 
placed in sacks for transport abroad. 

The result of Mr. Johnson's exertions was to make 
a long story short — that in 1865 two iron elevators were 
built from his plans, — one at Brooklyn, N. Y., for the 
United States Warehouse Company, and the other at 
Philadelphia for the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. 
In the large volume on Iron Architecture published by 




FIG. .$. CROSS SECTION OF ELEVATOR FOR WEST SHORE 
RAILROAD, WEEHAWKEN, N. J. BUILT or' STEEL EN- 
CLOSED WITH BRICK WALLS AROUND MAIN 
STRUCTURE AND HOLLOW TILES AROUND 
CUPOLA. ROOFS OF HOOK TILE. 



the New York Architectural Iron Company in 1865 are 
an elevation and two detail drawings of these elevators. 
One of the details shows in section the foundation built 
with counter arches in both directions ; the cast-iron col- 
umns, tied together in two directions with iron rods ; 
the brick groined arches supporting and forming the 
bottoms of the bins, where they take the form of hop- 
pers ; and the boiler-iron cylindrical bins. The exte- 
rior walls of these buildings were rectangular; but in one 
respect they were novel, and may be said to have been 
steps leading to modern skeleton construction. They 
consisted of a framework of cast-iron uprights, in the 
form of pilasters with horizontal cornice members, all 
bolted together, forming panels of about 15 x 15 feet, 
which were filled in with twelve-inch brick walls. The 

whole looked like five-story 
buildings without windows. 
The Brooklyn building was 107 
feet wide and 125 feet long, and 
was surmounted by an iron 
roof and lantern skylight cov- 
ering the conveying machinery. 
No wood was used in the con- 
struction. The Architectural 
Iron Works in their published 
description make the confident 
claim that the "entire struc- 
ture is absolutely fire-proof and 
indestnictible. Besides these 
advantages, the grain is secured 
from the ravages of animals 
and insects and also protected 
from heating by arrangements 
made for its drying and venti- 
lation." 

The erection of these eleva- 
tors created a storm that was 
unexpected. Every other ele- 
vator interest in the country 
decried them, and it was as- 
serted that the grain would 
heat and become useless. This 
deterred shippers for a long 
time from sending consign- 
ments to them and they did a 
poor business for several years. 
Hut ultimately they proved to 
be not detrimental to the grain, 
and the "iron elevators" have been successful ever since. 
But the two here mentioned are all that were built of 
that kind. Mr. Johnson's inventions soon after their 
erection took the direction of clay systems, when he had 
become convinced that clay was to be the future material 
for fire-proof constructions. lie therefore proceeded to 
invent a grain storage house to he entirely built of brick, 
and bent his energies towards having one built. All. 1 
several years of effort the Tifft Iron Works of Buffalo 
became interested, and as a result the famous I'lympton 
elevator in that city was erected in 1869. From an old 
circular arc reproduced a vertical section of the building 

and a detail drawing of one of t he tanks. (FigS. 1 and 2.) 
This elevator has no exterior wall above the ground 
story, the exposed exterior of the tanks forming a cor- 



234 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



rugated surface. In addition to the brick tanks the in- 
terstices between them, formed by four quarter circles 
reversed, were used as tanks, so that the house could 
be rilled solid. On the detail (Fig. -') the bricks arc- 
shown with knobs on the bottom and recesses on the top; 
but I am informed that standard common bricks were 
used. The walls are ten inches thick, being of two 




FIG. 4. GREAT EASTERN ELEVATOR TANKS, MINNEAPOLIS. 
SEEN FROM INSIDE DURING CONSTRUCTION. 

courses of brick with a two-inch space between. At in- 
tervals of eighteen courses they are rcenforced with 
cast-iron bond plates which are bolted together horizon- 
tally. Each course of bond plates is bolted to the next 
course of plates both above and below with vertical iron 
rods in the air spaces around each circle distant from 
each other about twenty inches. 

This building has stood until the present time and is 
only to be removed to make changes in the right of way 
of the New York Central Railroad. Standing for thirty- 
two years, it has been the only grain elevator that could 
have been called fire-proof up to the last two years. Not- 
withstanding its great cost it has been a paying invest- 
ment on account of the great sums that have been saved 
in reduction of insurance, not only on itself, but on the 
enormous quantity of -rain that has been stored in it 
during these years. 

Mr. Johnson did not accomplish anything more in fire- 
proofing grain elevators until he moved to Chicago in [872 
and was engaged in organizing a fire-proofing business 
for the use of hollow tiles. In that year he built the 
cupola of Vincent, Nelson lV- Co.'s wooden elevator at 
Archer Avenue and South Branch with hollow tiles. 
This is the first elevator in which hollow tiles were ever 
used for their fire-proof qualities. lie also built the first 
hollow-tile floor arches at Chicago in the Equitable Build- 
ing. He died at Chicago in 1X79. 

Hollow tiles were not used again for covering the ex- 
teriors of elevators of the wooden-bin construction until 
itSyo, when Elevator A of the New York Central & Hud- 
son River Railroad Company, designed by J. T. Moulton 
& Son of Chicago, was built at Sixtieth Street and Hud- 
son River, New York City. The first story of this build- 
ing is enclosed with brick walls. Above this story all of 
the bins and the cupola are covered with salt-glazed hol- 
low tiles. When built it was the largest example of the 
use of salt-glazed hollow tiles for fire-proofing the exte- 
rior of a building. 

A remarkable example of elevator construction is now 



being erected at YVeehawken, X. J., for the West Shore 
Railroad Company. It is an elevator structure of 2,000,- 
000 bushels' capacity which is being erected entirely of 
steel. A cross section from the drawings for this elevator 
is here given. (Fig. ,}.) The bins arc of steel and rectan- 
gular. For fire-proofing purposes it is protected on the out- 
side with enclosing brick walls up to the eaves of the roof. 
The roof over the bins and cupola is built with book tiles 
laid between T irons, and the cupola is enclosed with a 
wall of eight-inch hollow fire-clay tiles. These will be 
coated with cement plastering on the outside. It was de- 
signed by George M. Moulton & Co. of Chicago. 

Circular steel tanks for the storage of -rain were 
erected at buffalo in [895 and have been extensively used 
since then, not only at Buffalo, but at South Chicago 
and in a few instances at Minneapolis. They have been 
favored by reduced rates of insurance over that charged 
for elevators of wooden construction, the rate for which is 
from 2' j to ;/_. percent, according to methods of cover- 
ing on the exterior and external exposure. 

It is the main purpose of this article to describe the 
evolution from the Plympton brick elevator designed by 
George 11. Johnson, of a practicable system of grain stor- 
age designed by his son. Ernest Y. Johnson, with the 
collaboration of James L. Record, an elevator architect 
of Minneapolis, which it can be truthfully said is fire- 
proofs and has been in use for the past two years only. 
This is the opinion of those who have heretofore looked 
to policies of insurance quite as much as to the -rain it- 
self for security against loss, — the s^reat banks of the 




111,. 5. OKEAT EASTERN ELEVATOR TANKS, MINNEAPOLIS. 

Northwest, whose largest investments are advances on 
certificates of grain in storage. As far as known the 
hollow-tile -rain tanks now to be described do not carry 
any insurance. 

In 1898 Ernest Y. Johnson commenced experimenting 
on a system of grain tanks to be built of hollow burned 
clay building tiles, following the method adopted by his 
father for brick bins. In that year he took out a patent 
for building square tanks of the shape always employed 
in wooden elevators. Hut he soon abandoned the idea 
and took up the study of round tanks. In 1899 he de- 
termined to build an experimental tank, and in December 
of that year, with the assistance of James L. Record of 
Minneapolis and Horace B. Camp of Akron, Ohio, he 
built a single tank on the -rounds of the <>sborne-Mc- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



235 



Millen Elevator Company at Minneapolis, and presented 
it to that company to use for demonstration. This tank 
was 20 feet in diameter and 60 feet high, which gave it 
a capacity of 20,000 bushels. It was erected in extremely 




6. 



ST. ANTHONY ELEVATOR COMPANY S 
TANKS, MINNEAPOLIS. 



cold weather and was allowed to stand only thirty days 
before it was filled. It was built of 3 x 13 inch book 
tiles, 12 inches long, in two courses, with one inch of 
grout between, which made the wall 7 inches thick. The 
tension was taken up by steel bands varying in section 
from 2 x fa inch to 2 x ?s inch, and between them were 
7x1 }4 inch solid tiles used as binders. 

This tank was filled with grain and has been used 
ever since. Most elaborate apparatus was set up by 
Messrs. Johnson and Record to determine all the strains 
to which this tank could be subjected, especially the 
pressure of the grain at various points and the effects of 
its action when filling and discharging. Fire tests were 
also made on a section set up for that purpose. 

Everything being satisfactory to the inventors, the 
Barnett & Record Company of Minneapolis assumed all 
the responsibilities of contractors, fully guaranteeing these 
tanks, and in less than a year from the date of the first 
test were erecting four tanks of great size for Nichols & 
Taylor's Great Eastern Elevator at Minneapolis. These 




FIG. 8. TANKS OF THE NORTH STAR MALTING 
COMPANY, MINNEAPOLIS. 

tanks are forty-six feet in internal diameter and eighty- 
five feet high, with a capacity of 100,000 bushels each 
five times as large as the experimental tank. The weight 
of the grain carried in each of them is 2,800 tons. They 



were built with a single wall of six-inch hollow tiles, 
lined with two-inch split furring tiles on the inside. A 
course of 6 x 12 x 12 inch tiles with four cells in each 
was alternated with a course of 4 x 6 inch tiles made in 
the form of a continuous trough. These were set on 
their backs. In these troughs steel tension bars are set 
on edge, three near the bottom of tank and two in the 
upper part, laid in loose, breaking joints like the tiles, 
and buried in Portland cement grout. The trough being 
filled solid with cement, the next course of 6 x 12 inch 
tiles is set on edge, then trough tiles and steel bars, and 
so on to the top. There are of course other details con- 
nected with the work. Usually there is a stone water- 
table at the bottom of each tank and a molded tile cor- 
nice at the top. 

Two illustrations will show how the work was done 
on the Great Eastern tanks. Figure 4 shows the work 
in progress on the last two tanks at the end of the row, 
and Figure 5 shows the tanks in their present condition 
since they have been painted. Comparison can be made 
with the size of freight cars which are nearer to the spec- 
tator. The machinery building is not shown in the picture 
except by part of the connecting bridge. In this case 
the endless belt for filling passes through the upper part 
of the tanks, and there is no cupola. The grain is with- 
drawn by a similar belt underground, which is connected 
with pits into which the grain is discharged. 




FIG. 7. TANKS OK NORTH STAR MALTING COMPANY, 
MINNEAPOLIS. IN PROCESS OF CONSTRUCTION. 

Mr. Johnson's idea of lining the tanks with furring 
tiles was never repeated, and all that have been built 
since that last described are covered with two-inch hollow 
salt-glazed furring tile on the outside, which are secured 
during the progress of the work to the tank wall with 
galvanized steel anchors. These give protection from 
exterior fires to the wall which constitutes the actual con 
struction, and if damaged in any way can he replaced. 
They are also an additional protection from the rays of 
the sun to which all the tanks are subjected. 

In the years njoo and 1901 this system of tanks was 
erected by the Harnett & Record Company for three 
plants at .Minneapolis, and one each at Appleton, Wis.; 
Rosedale, Kan.; Milwaukee and Detroit. They were: 
for the St. Anthony Elevator Company at Minneapolis, 
twelve tanks 50 feet internal diameter and 90 feet high 
each; for the North Star Malting Company, Minneapolis, 
eighteen tanks 22 feet internal diameter and So feel 
high each; for the Victoria Elevator Company, Minne- 
apolis, two tanks 50 feet internal diameter and 90 feet 



236 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



high each; for the Wisconsin Malting and Grain Com- 
pany, Applet' m. Wis., nine tanks 22 feet internal diam- 
eter and So feet high; for the St. Louis & San Francisco 
Railroad Company at Rosedale, Kan., two tanks 46 feet 
internal diameter and 86 feet high, and two tanks 50 feet 
internal diameter and 68 feet high; lor the I'abst Brew- 
ing Company, Milwaukee, fourteen tanks 14 feet internal 
diameter and 70 feet high: and for the David Stotts Mill- 
ing Company, Detroit, four tanks 14 feet internal diame- 
ter and 70 feet high. The following have been erected 
during the present year or are under construction: for 



North Star Malting Company are shown in process of 

construction, and Figure S is a view of the tops of the 
same with the structural steel of the superstructure for 
distributing the grain in position. The roofs of the tanks 
are formed with X irons supported by steel trusses hav- 
ing their bearing on the tile walls. Between the X irons 
2x12x17'- inch hollow book tiles are set in cement, 
and a composition roof covers the whole as a weather- 
ing. The superstructure is enclosed with hollow tile and 
rooted in the same manner. In the North Star plant the 
interstices between the tanks are also used for storage 




1 ■' 1 < i 



9. PLANS OF TANK STORAGE SYSTEM FOR THE NORTHWESTERN YEAST COMPANY, 

CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION. 



SHOWING MKTIIOI) OF 



the St. Anthony Elevator Company, Minneapolis, four 

tanks 50 feet internal diameter and 90 feet high; for the 
St. Louis & San Francisco Railroad Company at Rosedale, 
Kan., three tanks 46 feet internal diameter and 85 feet 
high; for Bernard Stern & Son, Milwaukee, nine tanks 
19 feet internal diameter and 85 feet high; and for the 
Canadian Northern Railroad Company, Port Arthur, Can- 
ada, a cluster of eighty tanks 22 feet internal diameter 
and 80 feet high. 

An illustration is given in Figure <> of the St. Anthony 
tanks Hearing completion. In Figure 7 the tanks of the 



purposes, and for this purpose they are all tied together. 
This system is used where the circular tanks have an in- 
ternal diameter of twenty-two feet. The tanks of forty- 
six to fifty feet internal diameter are built isolated, with 
passages around and between them. 

The first of these lire-proof tank elevators to be 
erected in Chicago has just been' commenced. Figure 9 is 
an illustration of its construction and method of opera- 
tion taken from the preliminary design. It is for the 
Northwestern Yeast Company, on North Ashland Ave- 
nue, lames L. Record of Minneapolis is the architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



237 



Selected Miscellany. 



ST. PAUL'S, LONDON. 

THE authorities in charge of the cathedral of St. Paul 
seem to be thoroughly alarmed as to the condition 
of the structure and have obtained expert advice as to 
what can be done. It was reported that an expenditure 
of something like three hundred thousand dollars would 
be required to make the edifice secure. The fall of the 
Venice campanile seems to have been a very forcible ob- 
ject lesson to custodians of prominent buildings through- 
out the world, and whatever danger may threaten the 
London cathedral it is hoped it may be averted in season 
to prevent any serious calamity. The strengthening of a 
large building of this sort so as to make it safe beyond 
peradventure is by no means an impossibility. The con- 
struction of the dome of St. Paul's is exceedingly daring 
and at the time it was built it was far in advance of any 
theoretical knowledge possessed either by Sir Christopher 
Wren or his contemporaries. Judging from the reports 
which reach us, the weakness lies rather in the founda- 
tions than in the dome itself, but any settlement of the 
former would doubtless be very disastrous to the latter. 
The west porch, which was at one time reported to be in 
danger of collapse, is not a very heavy structure and 
there ought to be very little difficulty in making it abso- 
lutely secure. The construction of a tunnel in the imme- 
diate vicinity of one of our modern first-class office build- 
ings would probably not be attended with any hazard to 
cither the tunnel or the building, for the reason that al- 
though the loads in a modern office building are enormous 
and far beyond anything to which the architects of the 
past were accustomed, they are so easily concentrated or 
distributed that they never need unduly load the subsoil. 
In the case of St. Paul's, however, too much reliance 
appears to have been placed upon a soft subsoil, and the 





V. S. POST OFFICE, ANNAPOLIS, MLl. 
James Knox Taylor, Architect. 

building of tunnels in the vicinity has drained this area 
so thoroughly that it is feared the soil can no longer with- 
stand the unit stress upon the foundations. 



LIBRARY AT ALBANY, N. V. 

Marcus T. Reynolds, Architect. 
Brick furnished by Pfotenhauer & Nesbit. New York I 



FIRES IN HIGH BUILDINGS. 

THE Mills Building, 35 Wall Street, New York City, 
is a fire-proof building erected some twenty years 
ago, which has had recently an experience in the immu- 
nity from fire loss secured by terra-cotta construction. 1 1 
is being added to by three additional stories, and during 
the construction a temporary wooden roof and house 
were erected for protection, extending nearly the width of 
the building, and utilized l>y 
the contractors for storage. 

The iron beams and gird- 
ers for the addition were in 
place and the terra-cotta ma- 
terial for the floors had just 
been set on Saturday, Octo- 
ber 25, the temporary wood 
centers being still in position 
to allow the cement time for 
setting, when on the follow- 
ing evening, Sunday, Octo- 
ber 26, a fire broke out in 
the temporary structure re- 
ferred to — the cause not 
ascertainable and fed by 
the quantity of lumber and 
other inflammable material 
in the structure and centers, 
burned fiercely for several 
hours, three fire alarms being 
sounded. 

Despite the intense heat, 
the mass of water thrown 
against the ceiling and floor, 
the efforts of the firemen 
using their axes and hooks to 
tear down the wood centers, 
a surprisingly small amount 
of damage was inflicted on executed in terra * 

, BY CONKLING-ARMSTRONG 

the arches, and that was |m , ,,,,, v COMpANY| 

easily repaired. Bruce Price, Architect, 




2 3 S 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



REMOVAL OF A BOSTON CORRESPONDENCE 
SCHOOL TO CHICAGO. 

THE American School of Correspondence of Boston, 
believing that correspondence instruction in tech- 
nical subjects can he made more efficient and helpful be- 
yond what has heretofore been accomplished, has made 
an arrangement with the management of the Armour 




DETAIL KV ROOT & SEIMKNS, ARCHITECTS. 
St. Louis Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

Institute of Technology whereby the professors and in- 
structors of engineering of the faculty of the Armour 

Institute will constitute a board of instruction, revision 
and examination for the American School of Correspond- 
ence. In accordance with this arrangement the Ameri- 
can School of Correspondence has removed to Chicago 
t<> commodious quarters, 3321 Armour Avenue, adjoining 
the main building of the Armour Institute of Technol- 
ogy. The work satisfactorily done by correspondence 
students according to this new management will be ac- 
cepted and credited at the Armour Institute of Technol- 
ogy when students desire to complete their course by 
actual residence there. The management of the Armour 
Institute of Technology cooperates to conduct this educa- 
tional enterprise by correspondence in the hope of bring- 
ing to wage earners of all ages the results of the most 
complete resident school laboratory work. The change 
will in no way affect the individuality of the American 
School, but is made with the idea of harmonizing corre- 
spondence instruction with resident instruction, thus in- 
suring correspondence school students a high standard of 
instruction. The advantages offered students unable to 
attend a resident school are evident, and the plan shows 
in the most striking manner the wonderful advance in 



3tna 




.« - 




■■■3 iz~ mw.\ . — . 


U.\\ 1 h 1 



the educational possibilities of the people in recent years. 
Young men who are unable to give up four years to ob- 
tain a technical education can, by first taking a corre- 
spondence course, reduce the time required for obtaining 
a complete course and a resident school degree. The 
Step marks a new era in the educational possibilities of 
mechanics, and will be watched with great interest by 
all thinking people. 



NEW METHODS IX BRICKMAKING. 

THE Fiske Brick Company has recently completed its 
new plant at hover, X. II., in which will be manu- 
factured hard-burned common red building brick. The 
success of this enterprise, which seems to be assured, 
marks a new epoch in the briekmaking industry of the 
country. Hand labor, which in the ordinary brickyard 




ENGINE Room, EDISON ELECTRIC POWER HOUSE, NEW YORK CITY. 

Lined with Enamel Brick furnished by the American Enameled 
Brick and Tile Company. 



BUSINESS BLOCK, KANSAS CITY, Mo. 

Louis Curtis. Architect. 

Veneered with American-size White Enamel Brick made by 

Hydraulic-Press Brick Company. 

constitutes about one half the entire cost of manufac- 
ture, is here almost entirely eliminated, the bricks being 
handled through nearly the entire process in large masses 
by electrically driven machinery under control of one op- 
erative, the bricks being touched by hand but once until 
they are delivered in the storage house as finished product. 

Mr. ]. B. Parker Fiske, son of Mr. George M. Fiske 
1 Fiske Brick Company, Boston), is the inventor and pa- 
tentee of the devices used. He is a graduate of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and was formerly 
connected with the Westinghouse Electric Company of 
Pittsburg. 

Probably no series of inventions which have had to 
do with the clay-working industry have attracted such 
widespread attention as have these, and the great saviOg 
which is made in the cost of manufacturing common 
brick by this process will undoubtedly largely increase 
the use of that material. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



239 






THE I.KA.MY HOME, Ml. AlkS, PHILADELPHIA, PA, 
stewardson, Architects 



!40 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





HillBlvivl 

H II ll» 




COMMERCIAL TRUST COMPANY BUILDING, JERSEY CITY, N. J. 

Brick furnished by The Kreischer Brick Manufacturing Company 

Terra-Cotta by the Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company. 

George 15. Post, Architect. 



SUNDRY ITEMS OF INTEREST. 

John T. Comes, architect, has opened an office at 341 
Sixtli Avenue, Pittsburg, and would be glad to receive 

manufacturers' cata- 
logues. 

The Class Commit- 
tee of the Boston Ar- 
chitectural Club has 
arranged for two class- 
es during the present 
season ( 1902—3), one in 
Planning' and one in 
Construct ion. A 
chargeof $7.50 is made 
to each member wish- 
ing to join the class in 
Planning, and §5 to 
those who join the 
class in Construction. 

The Ingalls Build- 
ing, Cincinnati, which 
will be some fifteen or 
sixteen stories high, 
Elzner & Anderson, 
architects, will have 

two of its facades built 
DETAIL BY APPLETON P. CLARK, IK., 

(Vrchitei almost entirely of a 

Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. Satin-fillish, gTailite- 




shade, English-size enameled brick, which will be fur- 
nished by the Tiffany Enameled Brick Company of 
Chicago, 

The Cincinnati Roofing Tile and Terra-Cotta Com- 
pany, manufacturers of the American S Rooting Tile, 
have just issued an interesting catalogue illustrating 
and describing the tile which they make and also giving 
much valuable information concerning the use of tile on 
roofs. The manufacturers of this tile have been engaged 
in the roofing business for many years, being one of the 




HOI SE, MT. HOLLY, N. J. 

T. II. Prior & Sons, Architects. 
Built of Iron-Clay Brick, made by Columbus Face Brick Company. 

largest concerns of the country in that line of work, con- 
sequently their suggestion as to how tile should be laid 
will have more than the usual interest and value. 

The large new Astor Hotel, Broadway, New York 
City, Clinton & Russell, architects, will have about 250,- 
000 repressed red brick in its front walls and 400,000 light 
buff brick in the courts, same being supplied by the Sayre 
& Fisher Company. 

One hundred thousand light gray bricks, furnished by 
the Sayre & Fisher Company, were used in the facings of 
the Flatiron Building, New York City, D. II. Burnham 
eV Co., archi- 
tects. 



Three hun- 
dred thousand 
1 i g h t g r ay 
front brick, 
500,000 buff 
brick and a 
large quantity 
of light and 
brown enam- 
eled brick will 
be used in the 
n e w p o w e r 
house for the 
Underground 
Rapid Transit 
Road, X e w 
York City. 
These bricks 




DETAIL MY LUDLOW .\ VALENTINE, ARCHITECTS. 

New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 

Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



241 



will be furnished by the Sayre & Fisher Company. This 
is said to be the largest power house in the world. 

The American Enameled Brick and Tile Company will 
furnish enameled brick for the Charles Schwab house. 
Riverside Drive, New York City, Maurice Hebert, archi- 
tect ; also for the National Savings Bank and New York 
State Bank, Albany, N. Y., for linings of walls in storage 
room and basement; Race Street Pumping Station, Phila- 
delphia; extension to Harrisburg Railroad depot; and the 
Busy Bee Candy Kitchen Company, Columbus, O. The 
smallest of these contracts is for 25,000 brick, and others 
run up to 200,000. 

They have also 
supplied the United 
Engineering and 
Contracting Com- 
pany with about 
175,000 enameled 
bricks which were 
used in both the New 
York and Brooklyn 
terminals of the new 
East River Bridge. 

Among the new 
contracts now being 
served by the Sayre 
& Fisher Company 
are the following: 
Blair Building, New 
York City, Carrere 
& Hastings, archi- 
tects, white semi- 
glazed brick for inte- 
rior work; white 
front and white en- 
ameled brick for the 
Yanderbilt houses, 
Fifth Avenue, New 
York City, Hunt & 
Hunt, architects; 
white semi-glazed 
brick for the courts 
and white enameled 
brick for the base- 
ments of the new 
Mutual Life Build- 
ing, New York City, 
Carrere & Hastings, 
architects; white en- 
ameled brick for the 
basement and vaults 
of the new R. H. 





INFIRMARY' AT 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 
VASSAR COLLEGE, POUGHKEEPSIE, 
York & Sawyer, Architects. 




GUASTAVINO CORRUGATED GLAZED TILE CEILING, 
MINNESOTA STATE CAPITOL, ST. RAIL. 
Cass Gilbert, Architect. 



Macy Building, New 
York City; 150,000 
white brick for the 
interior and sides 
and 150,000 white en- 
ameled for basement 
and vaults of the new 
Stock Exchange 
Building, New York 
City, George B. Post, 
architect. 

The A 1 1 a n t i c 
Terra-Cotta Com- 
pany reports that it 
is now executing 
work on the follow- 
ing contracts: The 
Battery Place Build- 
ing, Battery Place, 
New York City, H. J. 
Harclenberg, archi- 
tect; Kuhn-Loeb & 
Co. Building, Will- 
iam and Pine Streets, 
New York City, 
James B. Baker, ar- 
chitect; Antelope 
House, Bronx Park, 
New York City, 
Heins & LaFarge, 
a r chitects; Ci t y 
Club Building, West 
Forty-fourth Street, 
New York City, Lord 
& Hewlett, archi- 
tects; Metropolitan 
Life Insurance Com- 

v -. v pany Building, Cleve- 

land, < >hio, Meade & 
( larficld, architects ; 

Building, Washington Street, Boston, 
Bowditch, architect; Bcllcvuc-Strat- 

Street, Philadelphia, Pa., G. W. 



TYMPANUM EXECUTED IN TERRA (Oil A BV EX( I.I. Sink 

TERRA COTTA COMPANY. 

J. Mills Piatt, Arehitect. 



Old South Office 
Mass., Arthur H 
ford Hotel, Broad 
& W. I). Hewitt, architects; Home Savings Bank Build- 
ing, Massachusetts Avenue, Washington, I >. C, A. P. 
Clark, Jr., architect; Carnegie Library, Huntington, 
W. \'a., J. I!. Stewart, architect; Lyceum Building, 
Pittsburg, Pa., John T. Comes, architect; residence 
for John A. Yates, Fs<j., Detroit, Mich., Kastlcr & 
Hunter, architects. 



242 



THE BRICK BUILDER 




DETAIL BY PEABODY & STEARNS, ARCHITECTS, 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, Makers 

Among the recent contracts awarded to the Tiffany 

Enameled Brick Company are those for the First National 
Hank Building, Chicago, and the Land, Title and Trust 
Building, Philadelphia, D. II. Burnham & Co., Chicago, 
being architects for both buildings, besides the following : 
The Lake Shore and Rock Island depot, Chicago, Frost 
& ('.ranger, architects; the Commonwealth Electric 
Lower House, Chicago, Shepley. Rutan & Coolidge. 
architects: MeKinlcy Lark Bath House. Chicago; fire 
engine house No. 62, New York City, Alexander Stevens, 
architect: fire engine house No. 9, New York City, Alex- 
ander Stevens, architect ; eastern pumping station, Cincin- 
nati Water Works. California. Ohio; Grand Trunk depot. 




DETAIL in WATSON, HUCKLE ,v CO., ARCHITECTS. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company. Makers. 

Flint, Mich., Spear & Rohns, architects: dynamo room. 
Leslie E. Leeley Company. Dwight, 111., Julian Barnes, 
architect; Y. M. C. A. swimming pool, Terre Haute, 
Intl. : Boylston Building, Boston, Clinton |. Warren, archi- 
tect; addition to the Trude Building, Chicago, fenney & 
Mundie, architects ; addition to the Tribune Building, Chi- 
cago, Holabird & Roche, architects; city hospital power 
house, St. Louis. Mo.. C. F. Longfellow, architect. 

Charles Lacon, Boston representative for Sayre & 

Fisher Company, reports the following new contracts for 
their brick: residence. Commonwealth Avenue. Boston, 




DETAIL B1 HOLABIRD a ROCHE AND SANGUINET 
\SS0CIATE ARCHITECTS. 
Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Makers, 



,\ S I A A I S. 



Peabody & Stearns, architects; State Mutual Building, 
Boston, Andrews. Jaques & Rantoul, architects; bank 
building, Leominster, Mass., Hartwell, Richardson & 
I )river, architects. 



AN OLD FIRM WITH A NEW NAME. 

The Columbus Face Brick Company of Columbus, 
Ohio, has changed its name to that of The Ironclav 
Iirick Company, this latter name having always been the 
trade-mark title for its product. There will be no 
change in the personnel of the company or the product. 
except that the latter will lie largely increased because of 
greatly increased facilities. 



WANTED. — A Draughtsman of experience ind 

ll DGMENT, \l PRESEN1 HEAD DESIGNER FOR ONE OF IllK 
LEADING FIRMS OF ARCHITECTS IN CHICAGO, DESIRES \N 
OPENING \> \ JUNIOR PARTNER Willi an ESTABLISHED 

architect. a ddress 

"Draughtsman," 

Care ok The Brickbuilder. 

PERSPECTIVE DRAWING 

— I TAUGHT by correspondence. 

The American School of Correspondence 

cill'ers thorough ill struct inn in MECHANICAL DRAW- 
ING, DESCRIPTIVE GEi IETRY, ISOMETRII \ N 1 • rl' K- 
i\l DRAWING VND SHEET-METAL WORK. 

Courses prepared by professors "i the foremost 
architectural schoi 1 

Instruction is also onered in Architecture, 
irinsi. Mechanical, Electrical, Locomotive and Marine 
Engineering, Heating, Ventilation and Plumb- 
ing, Textile Manufacturing, Telephony and Telegraphy. 

Instruction Under Members of the Faculty of Armour Institute of Technology. 

As the instruction is according to, -the standards and o 

tile Armour Institute of Technology, all work satisfactorily passed 
will receive credit toward entrance work should the student enter the 
n gular classes of the Armour Institute. 

ilogue describing courses, methods and terms on request. 




AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CORRESPONDENCE 
\i Armoi k In-mii m of Technology - - Chii igo, i 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

DECEMBER, 

1902. 




DETAIL OF HOUSE AT BRUGES, BELGIUM. 






PAGE 


Agencies. — Clay Products 


. . 11 


Architectural Faience 


. . II 


" Terra-Cotta 


II and III 


Brick 


. . Ill 


" Enameled 


III and IV 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANvSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada ........ $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 
For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 

PAGE 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



THE thirty-sixth annual convention of the American 
Institute of Architects was held at Washington, 
D. C, December 11, 12 and 13. It was, we believe, the 
largest in point of attendance that has ever been held. 
The chapters were very fully represented, and when it is 
remembered that these conventions are entirely delegate 
bodies, the number of delegates being proportioned to 
the membership of the various chapters, it will be seen 
that the attendance of something over one hundred indi- 
cates a very gratifying growth on the part of the various 
chapters. At one stage of the convention an amendment 
to the by-laws was introduced providing that all mem- 
bers of the Institute at a convention, whether delegates 
or not, should have a right to vote in the election of offi- 
cers. This amendment, however, was voted down by a 
very decided majority, and it was manifestly the feeling 
of many of the architects that the delegate system dur- 
ing the two years in which it has been in operation has 
proven in every way a complete success. 

Of strictly routine business there was not a great deal 
of importance transacted at the convention. The report 
of the Board of Directors provoked a certain amount of 
discussion relative to the expediency or even the possi- 
bility of admitting graduates of certain colleges to can- 
didacy for associate membership without their being 
obliged to pass the prescribed examination, and, inciden- 
tally, the discussion which followed this proposal brought 
out the fact that the number of architectural schools 



throughout the country has increased enormously during 
the past few years. There is hardly a college of any im- 
portance now which does not strive to include a certain 
amount of architectural instruction in its fine arts courses. 
There are, however, only a comparatively few schools 
which are sufficiently serious in their work to earn an 
exemption of their graduates from the entrance exami- 
nation to the Institute, and we believe the special com- 
mittee to whom the directors' report was referred acted 
wisely in declining to make any specific recommenda- 
tions, leaving the matter rather in the hands of the 
board, who are already empowered to make selection of 
such colleges for this purpose as in their judgment shall 
seem fit. 



THE convention very appropriately took notice of the 
death of Senator MacMillan by passing a resolution 
introduced by Mr. Peabody expressing the Institute's ap- 
preciation of the services Senator MacMillan has rendered 
to the cause of good architecture in general and the im- 
provement of Washington in particular. If the projected 
improvements are ever completed their realization will 
be due to Senator MacMillan more than to any other one 
individual, for without his appreciative and persistent 
work in Congress the appointment of the commission 
which took up the matter would have been impossible. 

Only one amendment to the by-laws was passed at 
the convention, providing that members of the Institute 
shall be members of the nearest chapter in the district 
wherein they reside. This amendment rather unexpect- 
edly encountered practically no opposition. It will read- 
ily be admitted that there are some chapters of the Insti- 
tute which have done very little work and in which the 
members seem to have so little interest in the welfare of 
the profession as a whole that membership therein offers 
relatively few advantages, but as one of the officers of 
the Institute very rightly put it, when a chapter is dead 
in that sense it is a duty as well as the privilege of the 
live architects to take up its cause and revive the lagging 
interest, rather than to draw away and claim membership 
in the Institute without accepting the obligations towards 
the local chapter. 

The Institute elected to honorary membership Mr. 
Samuel A. B. Abbott, who was chairman of the board of 
trustees of the Boston Public Library during the period 
in which that building was built, and who since then lias 
been the director of the American Academy at Rome; 
also Mr. Emile Vaudremer, the noted French architect; 
and Mr. Andrew Carnegie, the election of the latter be- 
ing justified by the incentive which his gifts have aroused 
in the designing of public libraries. 

It will be remembered that a short time since the 



244 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



American Institute purchased the so-called Octagon 
House, a beautiful mansion dating from the latter part 
of the eighteenth century, the intention being to use this 
as headquarters for the Institute. As the Institute is by 
no means a wealthy body, a subscription was taken dur- 
ing the convention to provide for the first payment on 
the sale, and fifteen thousand dollars was subscribed at 
once, with the promise of more to follow. The commit- 
tee which had this matter in charge announced their in- 
tention to secure an endowment fund of a quarter of a 
million to provide for both the care of the ( )ctagon House, 
its furnishing, and the erection of suitable accommoda- 
tions for holding conventions. 



interesting paper by Mr. Albert Kelsey illustrating what 
other cities in various parts of the world have accom- 
plished along the same lines. 



THE papers presented and the discussions which fol- 
lowed them verynaturallycentered to a large degree 
around the plans for the improvement of Washington 
and the report of the commission through whose agency 
these plans were prepared. F. L. Olmsted, Jr., read a 
very interesting paper detailing the work which was done 
by the commission, and I). H. Burnham, the chairman, 
in a very pleasing manner described how the commission 
went to work, how the problem was studied from every 
point of view, and also spoke of what had been the actual 
practical outcome. In a landscape sense nothing has yet 
been achieved, but the removal of the tracks crossing the 
mall and the building of the new station to the north of 
the Capitol have already been determined upon, the build- 
ing for the Department of Justice in the square opposite 
the Capitol corresponding to the Congressional Library 
is now an assured fact, and the building for the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture has been located and plans accepted. 
All of these follow directly in lines of the recommenda- 
tions of the commission, and whatever is done in the 
future will undoubtedly be along these same lines. 
The report is so comprehensive and seems to meet the 
needs of the problem so thoroughly that so far we have 
heard practically no adverse criticism. The improve- 
ments of the Anacostia are well under way, also following 
the general lines of the commission's report, and the 
White House improvements can certainly be termed to 
be thoroughly in harmony with the recommendations of 
the commission. Also the Lincoln and the Grant monu- 
ments, while not actually under way, are being studied 
and prepared for, and the National Museum, though not 
carried out in the scale of finish which was contemplated 
by the commission, follows the general lines marked out 
by them. It will therefore be seen at once that, taking 
into view the inertia of a body like the United States 
Congress and the magnitude of the interests involved, 
really a great deal has been accomplished already as a 
direct result of the work of this commission. The Insti- 
tute before the close of its convention passed a resolution 
unanimously requesting Congress to approve the recom- 
mendations of the commission as a whole, and it is cer- 
tainly to be hoped that no attempt will be made to mate- 
rially alter the scheme which has been so thoroughly 
studied and laid out. 

Following directly upon the lines of thought sug- 
gested by Mr. Burnham came a most admirable paper by 
Mr. W. B. de las Casas, the chairman of the Boston Met- 
ropolitan Park Commission, describing and illustrating 
what has been accomplished in Boston, and also an equally 



A PA PER was read by Captain John Stephens Sewell, 
Engineer Corps, United States Army, on the Re- 
lations of the Architect and the Engineer. This paper 
might with more reason have been styled "An Exposition 
of the Alleged Fact that an Architect Does not Know His 
i >wn Business." The cool assumption that a public build- 
ing can be well constructed only when under the auto- 
cratic control of an army engineer who shall have full 
power to make contracts and disbursements, while the 
architect shall be nothing but an adviser, is one which 
we can afford to pardon, having in mind the youth of the 
speaker and his evident lack of experience. No one will 
question for a moment that an army engineer when in- 
trusted with the care of a large building operation has 
almost invariably done well, chiefly because there have 
been so few cases in which such appointment was neces- 
sary that none but the best men have been selected. But 
to claim that an architect is really incapable by reason of 
his training and profession of attending to the practical 
and business details of even a large structure simply im- 
plies dense ignorance on the part of the speaker. Cap- 
tain Sewell was reminded later in the convention of one 
architect who has handled in the past year a business 
running up to over thirty million dollars, quite as eco- 
nomically directed as the best of the government build- 
ings, and with a coherency of purpose and intent quite 
equal to what was accomplished in that monument to 
the army engineer, the Congressional Library. But elo- 
quently as this latter building speaks in praise of the en- 
gineer, it fairly howls with its lack of architectural and 
artistic harmony, and that is invariably the result when 
a work of art is bound hand and foot and turned over to 
the merciless direction of an engineer. We want the en- 
gineers' help, their advice and their keen efficiency, but 
architecture is far more than engineering, as Captain 
Sewell would speedily find if he came out from the offi- 
cialism of the United States Army. 

The Chicago chapter, through Mr. Mundy, presented 
an extremely interesting account of the work which it 
has accomplished in the way of lectures on architecture 
delivered by members of the chapter to the mechanic 
apprentices. This work was supplemented by lectures 
on construction given by members of the Master Build- 
ers' Association, with a result that though the time spent 
each year is not large, in four years an apprentice will 
have received the equivalent of one entire year's archi- 
tectural instruction. This has brought about a most en- 
couraging feeling between the architects and the mechan- 
ics and goes a long way towards offsetting the baleful 
influence of some of the walking delegates. Anything 
which brings the craftsman and the designer more closely 
in touch is surely to be welcomed, and Chicago seems to 
have gone a long way towards breaking down the isola- 
tion between the two. 

The convention closed after deciding upon Cleveland 
as the place for the next convention and electing Mr. 
Charles F. McKim president, Mr. Alfred Stone of Provi- 
dence vice-president, and Mr. Glenn Brown secretary 
and treasurer. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



2 45 



The Planning of Apartment Houses. 

BY WALTER H. KILHAM. 

THE increasing cosmopolitanism of our people and 
their growing tendency to a form of life less purely- 
local in character and influenced to a greater extent by 
continental customs is marked in a most distinct manner 
by the growth and development of apartment house con- 
struction during the last ten years. Forced partly by the 



idea is so far developed that the necessary cooking and 
laundering for the occupants of the building is done in 
common either in or outside of the building, in which 
case a large dining-room is essential, while in the other 
case the apartments constitute a series of domiciles com- 
plete with kitchens and all the necessaries for complete 
housekeeping; the benefits of the communal idea in this 
case being chiefly the possibility of living in the central 
part of the city, in a house frequently luxurious beyond 
the purse of the private owner, and free from the cares 



Bale o n 




14 tl> 

Sqfco n y 



Balcony. 

i "' i : 




I ft J-l B It I x I B V\M *" - .h .J * 4 

— * 1 '* r H t i I I *_J v-[ T!r— e ■ ■ rli l£jT 






Main C or ridor. 



FA N V, r FA 



JTi>i± a h 



Main Corridor. 
FA, 

I sT p r ' 




TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 
THE "ANSONIA," NEW YORK. 



enormous price of land in the vicinity of the centers oi 
large cities, partly by the increasing cost of all the neces- 
saries and luxuries of life, as well as the annoyance and 
difficulty of securing competent service, our American 
families have been compelled to abandon their natural 
preference for private and individual abodes and enter 
upon what is probably an early phase of the cooperative 
living which will very possibly be one of the principal 
developments of the twentieth century. The buildings 
devoted to this cooperative living may be generally di- 
vided into two classes, in one of which the cooperative 



connected with heating, cleaning hallways, clearing snow 
and many minor duties which devolve upon the independ- 
ent householder. 

In this housing of several distinct family units under 
one roof several things immediately become essential, 

First. Complete separation of each group from the 
others. The hall door must become a complete barrier, 
giving no hint of the life behind. Walls and floor be- 
tween apartments must be deafened where practicable, 
and the windows of one apartment should on no account 
overlook or give on the windows of another. 



246 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Second. Each suite must have as cheerful and sunny Fifth. The construction must be solid and rtre-re- 

an aspect as is possible, with all the light and air that it sisting, with means of egress safe in case of tire. 




TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 
ink " M \ IESTIC," NEW \ ORK. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 
THE "MANSFIELD," NEW VOKK. 



can possibly £jet. To se- 
cure to each suite its fail- 
proportion of sun is one 
of the hardest tasks of 
the architect. The writer 
recalls an instance of a 
suite of eight or nine 
rooms in a lar^c and hand- 
some apartment house 
renting for $1,500 per 
year, only one room of 
which had any opening on 
the exterior air. 

Third. In housekeep- 
ing apartments the kitch- 
en and service portions 
must be effectively sepa- 
rated from the living 
portions. Ways of ac- 
complishing this will be 
discussed farther on. 

Fourth. Those rooms 
destined for the essential- 
ly private life of the family 
chambers and bath 
rooms — must be secluded. 



.SY.iv//. After all the 
above has been arranged 
regard must be had for 
exterior appearance. In 
particular the entrance 
must be as attractive as 
possible to satisfy the 
amour propre of the ten- 
ants. An experienced 
real-estate man remarked 
the other day: " Put your 
money into the entrances 
and bath rooms, and the 
suites will rent every 
time." All the money that 
can be spared should be 
lavished about the main 
doorway and corridor, for 
the American, in spite of 
frequent denials, dearly 
loves display and delights 
in a showy exterior. 

Seventh. The part de- 
voted to administration 
must be convenient and 
well designed. The boiler 




1 in 



THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 
" MANSFIELD," NEW V 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



247 



room must be large and convenient; there must be ample 
room for stocking up with large supplies of coal ; if there 
is a restaurant in the building the arrangement of the 
kitchen and dining-room must be carefully studied. The 
valuable land placed at the disposal of the architect must 
be utilized in such a way as to ensure to the owner the 
largest possible return upon his investment. 

In the preparation of these articles the writer is under 
obligations to the managements of the various buildings 
mentioned, to Messrs. Marsh, Miller & Co. and Messrs. 
Slawson & Hobbs of New York, and to the architects who 
have kindly loaned their plans and given him valuable in- 
formation. 

NON-HOUSEKEEPING APARTMENTS. 

First in importance among apartment buildings is the 
great city apartment hotel, covering a block of ground, 



and frequently poorly ventilated kitchens, and they be- 
come disseminated through the buildings, growing more 
pronounced each year as they are absorbed by the walls 
and floors. Large collections of private servants are 
moreover difficult to manage, particularly when employed 
by different families. 

For these and other reasons the largest apartment 
houses are generally devoted merely to living suites, 
with common dining-rooms for all the lodgers. 

One of the most complete apartment houses ever built 
is now nearing completion on Broadway, New York, be- 
tween Seventy-third and Seventy-fourth streets. Some 
idea of the size of the " Ansonia," as it is called, may be 
gained from the statement that the seventeen stories 
above ground contain no less than twenty-five hundred 
rooms. Reference to the very well studied plan will show 
the ingenious yet simple arrangement of the rooms. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



TIM-. " \|, \ ll'KAR, 



STREET, NEW YORK. 



with light on all sides and shel- 
tering hundreds or even thou- 
sands of persons. 

For various reasons suites 
planned for complete house- 
keeping are rarely constructed in such large aggregations. 
The latent antipathy felt by each family unit for every 
other becomes accentuated when all the details of the life 
of a hundred families are carried on in close proximity to 
each other, and disputes or animosities between tenants 
are likely to ensue to the great annoyance and loss of the 
owner. Moreover, the odors from cooking, which are 
easily removed when produced in one room, arc much 
more difficult of removal when produced in a series of small 



EAST FOKTV-EIOII I II 



TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 



There are no tortuous passages. Two 
long and straight corridors ten feet in 
width, running to daylight at the ends 
and connected by a cross corridor at 
the center, give access to all the chambers. The cross 
corridor is approached by the six public elevators 
and an ample staircase, all of which are placed against 
the outside light, giving at once a cheerful impres 
sion of the building and ensuring good ventilation 
of the halls. A dark elevator shaft is usually unavoid- 
able, but when possible it is much better to place the 
elevators where they will get outside light. The 
"Ansonia," YV. 10. I). Stokes, owner and architect, 



!4 8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





TYPICAL FLOOR P. 
HOLLAND," NEW \ ilKK. 



BACHELOR APARTMENTS, FORTY-SIXTH STREET AND SIXTH 

AVENUE, NEW V)KK, "THE HOLLAND." 

Israels & Harder. Architects. 



constitutes an exception in the 
larger class of buildings. The 

suites vary from bachelor 
suites of one room and bath 
up to housekeeping suites of 
fourteen rooms, three baths 
and four toilets. Subdivision 
of the larger suites is accom- 
plished by a secondary corri- 
dor running parallel to the 
main corridor and giving ac- 
cess to the various rooms. 
Along the corridor wall are 
placed wardrobes, arranged 
alternately for shelving and 
for hanging clothes. The de- 
vice of a foyer is used to 
break the too sudden entrance 
from the hall to the parlors. 
This foyer, as it is called, 
consists of a room, in many 
cases circular in plan, from 
which the dining-rooms, par- 
lors and libraries are entered. 
This room, from the fact of 
having no outside light, is 
somewhat gloomy by day, but 

in the evening this defect is obviated. Fireplaces are 
provided and the walls are handsomely decorated. The 
kitchens of the housekeeping suites are effectively sepa- 
rated from the living portions. Each kitchen contains 
a ventilated gas or electric range, with porcelain sink 
and porcelain washtub. Steam clothes dryers are pro- 
vided in the basement for the tenants' use. In the pan- 
tries are refrigerating compartments with appliances for 
freezing artificial ice upon the 
spot. Servants' chambers and 
servants' bath rooms form 
parts of the suites. Each 
suite is supplied with warm 
fresh air in winter and cold 
air in summer, in addition to 
tlic heat supplied by radiators 
in the window seats. Doors 
are of mahogany throughout, 
with cut-glass knobs and 
French hardware. Several of 
the suites have private eleva- 
tors. Filtered iced and hot 
water is supplied to each suite. 
A partial enumeration of 
the conveniences planned for 
the tenants of this building 
will serve to show the require- 
ments of modern apartment 
house planning. When fin- 
ished the basement will con- 
tain a swimming pool one 
hundred and six feet in 
length, Turkish baths, stor- 
age, repair and charging room 
for automobiles, — a lift being 
provided to take them from 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 
HOLLAND," NEW Vokk. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



249 



the street to the basement, — a grocery depart- 
ment, including a butchery, bakery and milk 
depot where housekeeping tenants can obtain 
supplies, barber shop, manicuring parlors, 
safe deposit vaults, cold storage room for 
furs, another for beer, etc., laundry, kitchens, 
etc., for the public dining-rooms, electric 
lighting and refrigerating plants, as well as 
the usual batteries of pumps and boilers. 
Sixteen elevators are operated. From the 
manager's office pnuematic tubes run to each 
serving room, and in it various dials record 
humidity and temperature of air, steam pres- 
sures, etc. 

On the seventeenth floor is a conserva- 
tory dining-room, to which express food lifts 
run at a speed of five hundred feet per 
minute. 

It will be noted that in spite of the large 
area at the disposal of the architect he has 
not availed himself of the interior court idea, 
but has instead deeply indented the facades 
with courts open to the street, which from 
their ample size admit light and air to the 
very center of the building. We think it is 
doubtful if the continental idea of a large 
central court ever becomes popularized in 
America. Where the central court is em- 
ployed some suites must necessarily give up 
their view of the street and confine themselves 
to an outlook only on the court. In France, 
through centuries of training, the people are 
accustomed to dwelling in courtyards, just as 
they are accustomed to dining bareheaded 
on the sidewalks in January, but the usual 
American matron prefers a view of the 
boulevard, be it ever so narrow. Moreover, 
the enormous height of our buildings converts 
the most ample courtyard into a species of 





TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. THE "ESSEX," NEW YORK. 



THE " KSSKX," MADISON AVENUE AND 5 f ) 1ft STREB I. NEW YORK. 

Howard. Cauldwell & Morgan, Architects 

well, dark and sunless, while for circulation of air the court 
open at one side is immeasurably superior to one enclosed 
on all four sides 

An interesting parallel to the plan of the "Ansonia" is 
afforded by that of the " Majestic," built a few years ago and 
likewise planned upon the open court system. An inspection 
of the plan reveals a very unusual amount of light in the 
rooms. Every room and bath opens directly to the outside 
air, without the use of any light wells whatever, The corri- 
dors, however, have corners which require artificial light. 
features of the planning of the " Majestic " are the bowling 
alleys, ballroom, card rooms, and the roof garden and conserva- 
tory with vaudeville Stage at an elevation of three hunded feet 
above the sea level. The "Dakota," directly opposite, has 
the interior court. 

It is of course impossible to recommend anything ap- 
proaching a standard plan for apartment houses. The problem 

varies with each opportunity. Size and shape of the lot, the 
points of the compass, the position of the adjoining buildings, 



250 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 
1 HE "SI. HUBKH I ," NEW VORK. 




BASEMENT PLAN. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



all combine to affect the situation, and the successful 
architect is he who seizes upon the strategic points of 
the plot and turns s eem ing obstacles to his client's ad- 
vantage. 

Turning to apartment buildings of lesser size we find 
a type of plan suited for an inside fifty-foot lot well rep- 
resented by such houses as the "Mansfield," Renwick, 
Aspinwall & Owen, architects, and the "McViekar," 
Liebau & Xash, architects, of which plans are annexed. 
With some variations this plan will be found frequently 
repeated in New York. The suites are mostly of two 
rooms and bath, and the elevators and stairways are 
placed back at the center of the building and are well 
lighted by the courts which give the building its dumb- 
bell-like shape. It will be noted that none of the rooms 
give on air shafts, but all open on good-sized open courts 
or else the front and rear. 

One of the best of the higher class of apartment 
houses in New York is the "Essex" at the corner of 
Madison Avenue and Fifty-sixth Street, designed by 
Howard, Cauldwell & Morgan. Its plan is a good 
example of the development of the possibilities of 
a corner lot. The rooms are of ample size, averaging 
fifteen by twenty feet, with bath rooms about ten feet by 
ten feet. Each floor contains nine rooms and five bath 
rooms, served by two elevators. The equipment of the 
"Essex" is of the most elaborate description, and the 



decorations are in remarkably good taste. The handsome 
facades are built of Harvard brick and light stone. 

The "Holland," Israels & Harder, architects, is an 
example of the use of a thirty-ti ve-foot lot with narrow 
courts on each side. The stairways, elevator and bath 
rooms all get outside air and light. 

The "St. Hubert" is a building of considerably 
plainer construction, but yet well planned and lighted. 
The lot is some sixty feet front, and the dumb-bell plan 
is tised, with the result as usual that the corridors and 
elevators are Hooded with light, and the resulting im- 
pression is most agreeable. The first floor is particularly 
pleasing in its cosey and homelike effect. 

In the city of Boston a house has lately been built 
which combines with the attractions of a non-housekeep- 
ing suite the advantage of a small pantry, or "kitchen- 
ette," containing cupboards, sink, ice-box, etc., where 
light lunches or supplies may be prepared. These pan- 
tries with the bathrooms are lighted from wells. This 
arrangement has proved popular and the house has rented 
well. 

Trinity Court in Boston, Ball & Dabney, architects, is 
a good example of the enclosed court idea successfully 
used, and is free from the objection that some of the Suites 
have an outlook only on the court. In Trinity Court all 
the suites extend clear across the wings, so that a cross 
draught is possible and an exterior outlook can be had. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



25 1 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 




FIFTH FLOOR PLAN. 
TRIM l n COURT," iids'I ON. 






252 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





v^ 


H 



PORTION OF TYPICAL FLOOR. 
"MASSACHUSETTS CHAMBERS," BOSTON. 



This very desirable feature is obtained by an ingenious 
arrangement of halls and stairways having separate en- 
trances on the court, which is handsomely laid out and 
treated as a garden. The various divisions of the house 
are named after Presidents of the I nited States. The 
suites are mostly of two and three rooms and baths. 



number of well-arranged studios. The picturesque fa- 
cades and court elevations in the English style form 
one of the most Striking architectural compositions in 
Boston. 

The alcove bedroom system is well illustrated in the 
portion of the floor plan of the Massachusetts Chambers, 
now in process of construction in Boston from plans by 
Clinton J. Warren, architect. This arrangement com- 
bines great renting power with the utmost simplicity in 
construction and framing. The regular widths of the 
rooms permit equal spacing of the girders and beams 
and allow interchangeability of pieces, a great help to 
rapid construction. Rooms of this character can gener- 
ally be rented in any large city as fast as they can be 
built. The arrangement is such that any number of 
rooms can be coupled together to form a suite of any 
size. 

The Westminster Chambers in Boston, designed by 
II. A. Cregier. architect, utilize the somewhat dark in- 
terior portions of the plan as reception rooms, similar 
to the foyers in the "Ansonia." The bath rooms are 
almost entirely placed on the air shafts, reserving the ex- 
terior light for living rooms. Better air and outlook are 




TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 
WESTMINSTER CHAMBERS, BOSTON. 



though there are several variations. This arrangement 
has proved very popular and the house has been success- 
ful. The basement contains kitchens, laundry, storage, 
bowling alleys and bicycle rooms, besides the necessary 
space for boilers and machinery. The building accommo- 
dates a private school, and in the upper story there are a 



assured by a large number of bay windows. For some 
reason the indented court idea, as applied to the plans of 
the "Ansonia" and "Majestic," has never been popu- 
larized in Boston, although a number of buildings have 
been built of sufficient size to permit it. 
( To be continual. ) 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



253 



Interesting Brick Architecture in 
Pittsburg, Pa. 

PUBLIC AND COMMERCIAL. 

BRICK and terra-cotta naturally commend themselves 
for building materials in a city where smoke and 
dirt soon cover with a uniform coating of black every- 
thing that will catch and absorb them. Formerly popu- 
lar opinion seems to have decreed that stone was the 
only suitable building material for work of a public or 
commercial nature, and the use of brick and terra-cotta 
was generally confined to domestic work and a few of the 
smaller buildings of a public character, but that their ad- 




CHAPEL, MX. ALOYSIUS ACADEMY, CRESSON, PA. 
Alden & Harlow, Architects. 

vantages and beauties are being more and more appre- 
ciated is evident from the increased use in the newest 
office buildings, churches, etc. 

Brickwork has in Pittsburg too often meant small, 
thin joints, the old, or rather the new, blind bond, and 
colored mortar, and those who have no means of knowing 
the beauties of a good brick, well laid, can hardly be ex- 
pected to appreciate them. 

One of our oldest and most interesting buildings, St. 
Paul's Roman Catholic Cathedral, is a brick structure. 
The detail, especially around the transepts, is very quaint 
and interesting. 

The illustration of the Carron Street Baptist Church 
and that of the chapel and rectory of SS. Peter and Paul 
show two interesting buildings in entirely different styles. 
Beezer Bros, were the architects of both. The inspiration 
for the Church of St. John the Baptist, also from the office 
of Beezer Bros., has been sought in the old brickwork 
of Lombardy. Some polychromatic effect has been at- 
tempted by the uses of alternate bands of light and dark- 
brick. The interior has been treated in a straightfor- 
ward, structural way, by the use of a high brick dado 
with a plain wall surface above and an open timbered roof, 
while the piers which support the clerestory arches are of 
alternate bands of brick and stone. 

The Carnegie Institute has a number of branch library 



buildings throughout the city, all of which have been 
built from a very similar floor plan. 

Interest has been added to the brickwork of the Hazel- 
wood Building by the use of header courses and the in- 
troduction of the brick and stone panel in the pediment 
over the main entrance. The Carnegie Library at <>ak- 
mont is another interesting treatment of a small brick 
and terra-cotta building. Alden & Harlow were the archi- 
tects of these buildings. 

The view of the Mount Washington Branch Library 
shows a simple, straightforward building where the brick 
has been laid in English bond, and bands of brick pat- 
terns and header courses introduced. 

The Allegheny United Presbyterian .Seminary, from 
the office of Struthers & Hannah, is built of dark brown 
Roman brick and red terra-cotta. 

The Wilkinsburg Presbyterian Church, an interesting 
suburban building, is built of dark brown brick and terra- 
cotta. The stone foundations under the windows of the 
front and side gables seem rather unfortunate. The 
materials used in the North Presbyterian Church. Alle- 
gheny, are a light brown Roman brick and terra-cotta 
trimmings of about the same color. Vrydaugh & Wolfe 
were the architects of both these churches. 

The Western Pennsylvania Institute for the Deaf and 
Dumb is built of red brick laid in white mortar and 
white terra-cotta. Header courses have been introduced 
at the top line of each quoin. Alden & Harlow were the 
architects. 

The Chartiers Trust Company Building at McKee's 
Rocks is an interesting brick structure, from the office of 




WILKINSBURG PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 
Vrydaugh & Wolfe, Architects. 

Rutan & Russell. The materials arc a dark brown brick 
and gray terra-cotta. 

The Phipps Botanical School, a building with an 
English feeling, built of light brown brick and sand- 
stone, is also from the office of Rutan & Russell. 

The location of the Pennsylvania National Bank Build- 
ing has offered the opportunity for an unusual treatment 
of a building very suitable for a small suburban bank. 

Beezer Pros, were the architects. 



2 54 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Commercial National Bank is in general a very 
successful building of light buff brick and terra-cotta. 
The terra-cotta is particularly well modeled and interest- 
ing in detail. Alden & Harlow were the architects. 

In the new Union Station for the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road Company, D. H. Burn ham, the architect, has had to 



interior is particularly successful. The main waiting- 
room and the vestibules of the station are good examples 
of the uses of glazed colored terra-cotta, but, unfortu- 
nately, good views could not be obtained of them. 

The broad simple wall surface of the chapel for the 
Mount Aloysius Academy at Cresson, Pa., with the brick 





ST. PAUL S R. C. L'AiUKHKAl . 



CARRON STREET BAPTIST CHURCH, PITTSBURG. 
Beezer Bros., Architects 





CHURCH OF ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST. Beezer Bins . Architects. 



handle the difficult problem of designing a railway station 
and a high office building, either one of which is difficult 
enough in itself. Distinctly the most successful portion 
is the cub stand at the main entrance; built almost en- 
tirely of terra-cotta, the detail is interesting, while the 



laid in Flemish bond, is very effective. Alden & Har- 
low were the architects. 

The East Liberty Market House, from the office of 
Peabodv & Stearns, is built of light buff brick and white 
terra-cotta. 



THE BRICKKUILDER 



255 




MARKET HOUSE, PITTSBURG, PA. Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 




IN I F.klOK OF CAM STAND. 




CAB 



si \ni>, PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD SI vii<>\. PITTSB1 RG, PA. I). II. Burnham & Co., Arch 



256 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 



257 




WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA INSTITUTE FOR THE DEAF 
AND DUMB. 



names of several architects from whom lie was to get 
terms, that this particular one was the first he had inter- 
viewed, and that it would be a pity for him to neglect so 
excellent an opportunity for him to rise in the world. 
But our architect still failed to appreciate the largeness 
of the opportunity and dismissed the representative with 
the statement that he, the architect, had always received 
his employment directly from the owners of the property 
and could not feel that he was either self-respecting 
or was true to his principles if he should undertake to 
act as an architect while really simply an employee of 
the builder. The profits from building operations when 
properly conducted are large. It is quite natural, there- 
fore, that an enterprising capitalist should imagine that 
he could organize a construction business on much the 
same plan that he would organize a railroad or a trust 




THE NORTH PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, ALLEGHENY, PA. 



THE ARCHITECT AND THE BUILDER. 

A SHORT time since a prominent Boston architect 
was approached by an individual who announced 
himself as a representative of a great building com- 
pany about to be organized in Boston for the purpose 
of undertaking a general building and promotion busi- 
ness and who wished to know under what terms the 
said architect would associate himself witli the company 
as their chief designer, announcing at the same time that 
they would have the entire selection of the architect for 
their buildings and that they did not propose to let the 
choice go out from their office, but rather to appropriate 
everything that was in it. Our architect friend very 
naturally replied that he had not yet got so far as that 
and was not prepared to either consider or make any 
offer of any sort whatever. The representative politely 
suggested that the architect was making a mistake, that 
this was a rare opportunity, that he had been given the 



Vrydaugfc & Wolfe, Architects 




\iiii,HK\\ UNITED PRESBYTERIAN SEMINARY. 
Struthers ft Hannah, Architects 



2 58 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



company. There are a few men in this country able to 
manage large building operations. We say a few, and 
by that we mean not more than three at the most. There 
are, however, plenty of imitators who will strive to do 
what has been done so well by men like Norcross or 
Fuller, and who will succeed most illusively while times 
are good and buildings are being demanded faster than 
they can be constructed. But to argue that such a con- 
cern can endure through hard times is to he Strangely 
blind to the actual conditions of building operations. It 
is also often assumed that the profits of an architect on a 
large building are something tremendous and that the 
architect's five per cent can be turned into the coffers of 
the adventurous builder. But in such an operation as 




COMMERCIAL NATIONAL HANK, PITTSBURG, PA. 
Alden & Harlow, Architects. 

this the owner, the man who pays the hills, the one who 
has to suffer for shortcomings of the builder and omis- 
sions of the architect, disappears entirely as a factor, and 
while promotion companies just at present seem to have 
abundant capital, the real money must in the long run 
come from the owners of property rather than from the 
exploiters, and so long as an owner wants a building 
built it is fair to assume that he will want some one to 
look after his interest who is in his own pay rather than 
in that of the builder. The large building companies 
have stimulated the practice of architecture. They have 
been an incitive to the architect to know more thoroughly 
what he has to do, and have in many cases taught him 
how to do his work properly. The best of these com- 
panies have been decidedly influences for good architec- 
ture, structurally and commercially, but there is not the 
slightest reason to suppose that the future will see any 
subdivision of the work essentially different from that 
which exists at present. 




PENNSYLVANIA NA 1 IONAL BANK, PITTSBURG, PA. 
Beezer Bros., A rein: 

\ T T I1 EN a brick is selected for its color it is desirable, 
V V of course, that it should retain its color in the 
work either unchanged or else only softened by age 
and exposure, says a writer in a contemporary. Dark- 
colored bricks can in general stand some stains without 
detracting much from the appearance of the work, but 
light bricks which have turned green or greenish yellow 
and then a dirty gray, or which are so porous that dust 
and soot literally wash into them at every rain, soon 
present an appearance of faded finery which is far from 
pleasing, regardless of any excellence in the design and 
original color scheme. 

With the exception of long time tests, the best guide 
to the selection of a bright-colored brick which will not 
change seems to be the degree to which the brick is 
burned. The more nearly vitrified the brick the more 
permanent is its color likely to be. 

Fire-flashed bricks of all shades seem to be quite 
permanent, which is probably due to the fact that the 
face in this case is practically vitrified. However, even 
vitrification may not always be a sure preventive of dis- 
coloration : though the writer has never seen a vitrified 
brick change color himself, he is informed that such 
cases are on record and well authenticated. < >n the other 
hand, many bricks which are not vitrified are very per- 
manent in their coloring. 



■>■■.■ i . . A v&mmm £ 



nm 







CHAPEL AM) RECTORY, CHURCH SS. PETER AND PAUL, 
Beezer Bros., Architects. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



259 



Fire-proofing. 



Corrosion of Steel Frames of 
Buildings. 

WE give below a synopsis of report No. 4, issued by 
the Insurance Engineering Experiment Station, 
Boston, September, 1902, taking the salient features 
thereof for ready reference. It will, we believe, furnish 
food for serious thought on the part of the architect. 

"The constantly increasing use of steel as a struc- 
tural member in modern buildings has led to many ques- 
tions as to the permanency of the steel as sometimes used 
for this purpose. The examinations of buildings ten to 
fifteen years old when, during alterations, the steel frame- 
work has been exposed to view, reveal all stages and 
conditions of disintegration of the steel. So great has 
been the corrosion even in this short time in some cases 
that a note of alarm has been sounded by some engineers 
most familiar with the subject. When a steel plate y 2 
inch in thickness loses more than y% inch in five years 
there arises a question as to the ability of the structure 
to last more than twenty-five years." 

With this note of warning, the report goes on to de- 
scribe the results of different experiments made to ascer- 
tain the effect on steel of various mixtures of concrete, 
as also of neat Portland cement. The concretes consisted 
of Alpha or Lehigh Portland cement, a sharp, clean sand 
and a hard, clean broken stone, the larger part being 
fragments of flint and trap rock ; also cinders from the 
sugar refinery or Boston & Albany locomotives. The 
steel was scoured, then pickled in hot dilute sulphuric 
acid and finally dipped into hot milk of lime. When cold, 
the lime was removed with a wire brush, leaving the steel 
clean and bright. 

The report then goes on to say : 

" It has been held by several engineers that the mere 
alkaline nature of Portland cement was a sufficient guar- 
antee of its protecting steel from rusting. There is, of 
course, good chemical reasoning for this. . . . This would 
seem to settle the matter once and for all were it not a 
fact that steel bedded in concrete has corroded very 
rapidly while other steel in a different concrete of the 
same kind of cement stands without change for ten years 
or more." 

This apparent discrepancy between the action of neat 
Portland cement and concretes of different mixtures sug- 
gests the effort to discover why concrete is apparently 
unreliable and what causes corrosion in some cases, and 
here the report furnishes evidence: 

"An examination of several cases where expanded 
metal had been imbedded in concrete showed plainly that 
wherever the steel was exposed through cracking rusting 
began, even though the cracks were very fine. . . . The 
specimens which were mixed of neat cement can be dis- 
missed without discussion, for the protection was per- 
fect; the steel was as bright as when put in. ... Of the 
remaining specimens, hardly one had escaped serious cor- 
rosion ; the location of the rust spot was invariably coin- 
cident with either a void in the concrete or a badly 
rusted cinder. In the more porous mixtures the steel 
was spotted with alternate bright and badly rusted areas, 
each clearly defined. In both the solid and the porous 
cinder concretes many rust spots were found, except 
where the concrete had been mixed very wet, in which 
case the watery cement had coated nearly the whole of 
the steel like a paint and protected it." 



This would seem to demonstrate beyond peradven- 
ture that neat Portland cement is an infallible prevent- 
ive of rust, and the following conclusions are drawn 
from the examination of several hundred briquettes: 

"Neat Portland cement, even in thin layers, is an 
effective preventive of rusting. 

"Concretes to be effective in preventing rust must be 
dense and without voids or cracks, and should be mixed 
quite wet where applied to the metal," and that "it is of 
the utmost importance that the steel be clean when 
bedded in concrete. " 

In actual work it is seldom practicable to make sure 
that the last proviso is carried out, and it would be phys- 
ically impossible in a building to clean all the structural 
steel as thoroughly as was done for the tests at the ex- 
periment station, but it is quite desirable to make the 
attempt to cleanse the surface of the metal as far as prac- 
ticable, and it is surely worth while, in the light of the 
conclusions arrived at in these tests, for the architect to 
rigidly reject all steel which comes to the building in a 
dirty or rusty condition. Taking into account also the 
fact that under some conditions steel rusts quite rapidly, 
it naturally follows that any system of construction which 
admits of a reduction in the amount of steel required in 
a building is very deserving of study. 

There have been several systems placed upon the 
market lately which propose the use of terra-cotta as a 
fire-proofing material combined with cement as a protec- 
tive for the steel, and some of these systems have been 
used successfully with spans as high as twenty-five feet 
in the clear, as was the case at one of the Buffalo Ex- 
position buildings (the "Herculean" system). In fact 
the limits of the spans possible in such constructions 
have not been reached, and when it is remembered that 
thorough protection is furnished the steel by the cement 
coating, while the effect of heat is guarded against by an 
amount of porous terra-cotta never less than two inches 
thick, these constructions, all of which are perfectly 
practicable, certainly offer possibilities of which the ar- 
chitect ought to be quick to avail himself. It must be 
remembered, however, that cement, like charity, can 
cover a multitude of constructive sins and that unless 
the surface of the steel is properly prepared and the 
cement of the best quality the amount of resulting pro- 
tection wotdd still remain quite problematic. 



IX many partitions doors are necessary, and if the fram- 
ing around them is properly made, with fire-proofed 
iron frames substantially fastened to the floor and ceiling, 
it will probably be the best arrangement that can be de- 
vised; but after this is provided lor, the doors and the 
architraves, or "trim," and the -lass therein, and the 
transoms with their glass, call for particular attention. 
The not uncommon practice of putting sash in parti- 
tions to transmit light through to halls or rooms without 
direct light of course seriously weakens the partition as a 
fire-resisting medium, and where this cannot be avoided 
the sash should be metal or non-combustible wood, with 
frames of the same material glazed with wire glass. It 
must be observed, however, that in most instances inside 
rooms which have to be lighted indirectly through other 
rooms are evidence of poor planning which mi^ht have 
been avoided by a more intelligent study of the conditions. 



2 6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Selected Miscellany. 



THE A. I. A. CONVENTION, WASHINGTON, 
DECEMBER n, .2 AND t 3 . 

WITH an attendance of about one hundred delegates 
representing its twenty odd chapters, the thirty- 
sixth annual convention of the American Institute of 
Architects opened on December 11, at Washington, 
D. C, President McKim in the chair. Welcomed by 
Colonel John Middle, I*. S. A.. Engineer Commissioner of 
the District of Columbia, addressed by Captain John S. 
Sewcll of the U. S. Engineer Corps, and with a night 
session at the Congressional Library to inspect the mod- 
els, plans and photographs of the proposed plan for the 
development and improvement of the national capital, 
it was evident that the subject of city-making had been 



Law ( >lmsted, Jr., and Charles Moor, while the same move- 
ment was reen forced by a paper entitled "The Organiza- 




« III ki II AT BERLIN, ONT. 



Eden Smitb, Architect 



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chosen to dominate 
the deliberation of 
the convention, in 
order to assist in 
formulating that 
public sentiment 
which should lead to 
favorable legislation 
for the remodeling 
of the city of Wash- 
ington. 

In his annual ad- 
dress Mr. McKim 
congratulated the In- 
stitute upon its large 
attendance and upon 
the acquisition of the 
Octagon, which it 
had been decided to 
purchase for $^0,000. 
Papers on the im- 
provement of the city 
of Washington were 
read by Daniel H. 
Burn ham. Frederick 




HOUSES, TORONTO, ONT. Eden Smith, Architect. 




IPARTMENT, THE CARLTON, BOSTON, M AS> 
A. H. Bowditch, Architect. 



tion for Municipal 
Improvements" by 
W. B. de las Casas, 
and another by < >wen 
Fleming, read by 
Edgar V. Seeler, en- 
titled • • I m p r o v e - 
incuts in London." 

England. Albert 

Kelsey of Philadel- 
phia discussed the 
development of the 
city from every pos- 
sible point of view. 
The lantern slides 
with which he illus- 
trated his lecture 
were made from pic- 
tures taken in every 
city of the world, and 
illustrated the best 
ideas of municipal 
improvement along 
true architectural 
lines. During the 



. 



THE BR I CK BU I L I) K R 



261 







262 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




21 FEET LONG, 7 FEET HIGH, 
in TAIL BY w. ll. DUNN, ARCHITECT. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

course of his remarks he said that what the people of 
the United States want is new and real architecture 
along original lines. When the American architects were 
called upon to design a building and its approaches and 
were given free rein, they invariably selected a style or 




STORE BUILDING BUILT OF A LIGHT GRANITE SHADE 

ENAMELED BRICK MADE BY TIFFANY 

ENAMELED BRICK COMPANY. 

type that has survived from the time of some great, 
licentious and luxury-loving monarch of Europe. The 
taxpayer is not going to stand for such things. 

Modern ideas arc what are needed in American archi- 
tecture, he declared, and if these were properly presented 
and worked out the acceptance of them by the people who 
pay the freight cannot be doubted. He asked that mod- 
ern themes be seized upon and worked out in the prepara- 
tion of new designs. He showed on his screen a picture 





CHURCH AT CALADONIA, « I>. 
Peter Brust, Architect. 

of the famous frieze around the Palais de ['Industrie at 
Paris. This, lie said, was the development of a humani- 
tarian idea. It was proper that the architect of to-day 
should look to some of the things of to-day to secure ideas 
for the modern building. Turning from the friezes of 
the great Paris building, Mr. Kelsey showed a picture of 




TELEPHONE EXCHANGE, CINCINNATI, oHIo. 
George w. Rapp <X: Son, Architects. 

Roofed with American S Tile. 

the interior of an operating room in one of the modern 
hospitals. This, he said, was an unlimited field for tise 
in the development of ideas. He said that the pictures 
that artists refuse to work up are modern happenings and 

everyday occurrences which arc replete with color and in- 
spiration. 




PANEL, EXECUTED BY NEW JERSEY TERRA-COTTA COMPANY. 



DETAIL BY BRUCE PRICE, ARCHITECT. 
Whitv Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



263 




RAILWAY STATION ON NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD. 

Reed & Stern, Architects. 

Roofed with Ludowici Rooting Tile. 

The competition drawings for the new Municipal 
Building for the District of Columbia were on exhibi- 
tion. A visit to the White House was the pleasantest 
feature of the convention, the nearly finished interior 
evoking general admiration for its purity of design, 
simplicity and real American character. 

Mr. McKim was quite properly reelected 
president of the Institute, and his work on 
the executive mansion adds perhaps the best 
achievement to his long list of triumphs. 
The next convention will be held in Cleve- 
land. 

IN GENERAL. 

Will Christen, architect, has opened an 
office at 116 West Oklahoma Avenue, 
Guthrie, Okla., and will be glad to receive 
manufacturers' catalogues and samples. 

The drawings submitted in the compe- 
tition for the design of a decorative vase, 
cash prizes for which were offered by the 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Com- 
pany to the members of the Chicago Ar- 
chitectural Club, will be illustrated in The Brick- 
builder. 

On the evening of December S Thomas J. Morgan, 
Esq., attorney at law, addressed the Chicago Architec- 
tural Club on "The Economic Position Held by the 
Architectural Profession. " 

The members of the Chicago Architectural Club are 



the largest 
country. 



deeply interested in the revision of the 
building ordinance of that city, and took an 
active part in a meeting recently held in 
the city council chamber for the purpose 
of discussing the matter. 

The Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company 
was recently awarded the contract for sup- 
plying the architectural tcrra-cotta for a 
large hotel which is soon to be erected on 
the Pacific coast. It is estimated that nearly 
$300,000 worth of this material will he re- 
quired in the work. This is undoubtedly 
tcrra-cotta contract ever awarded in this 



The Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company during 1902 was 
awarded four contracts for supplying architectural terra- 




HATH HOI'SK, 



r \. 



KIRKBRIDES ASYLUM, PHILADELPHIA, 

Addison Hutton, Architect. 

Interior finished with Blue Ridge Enameled Brick. Exterior of Brick made by Co 

lumbiis Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 0. W. Ketcham, Philadelphia Agi at 



cotta, which were of unusual size and importance. They 
were as follows: Flatiron building, New \<>vk City, D. 
H. Burnham & 
Co., architects; 
Old South Build- 
ing, Boston, Ar- 
thur H. Bowditch, 
architect ; Belle- 




WYMAN SCHOOL, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

B. w. lttner, Archil 

Brick made by 1 lydraulic-I'ress Brick Company. 




PANI l i:s Hi» \KI) ST( H. I .'. \k< III I !•( I . 
Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



264 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



vue-Stratford Hotel, Philadelphia, G. W. &W. D. Hewitt. 
architects; Belvidere Motel, Baltimore, Parker & Thomas, 

architects. 

The heavy fall of snow throughout the country during 

the month has emphasized the absolute necessity of pro- 
tecting the public from snow slides from pitched roofs. 
There is but one known device which is effective, and 




1)1. I All, BY BRUCE PRK 1 . IRI 111 rECT. 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

that is so simple and inexpensive that it would seem as 
though it ought never to be dispensed with on either a 
new or an old roof. We refer to the snow guard which 
is manufactured by the Folsom Snow Guard Company of 
Roslindale, Mass. This particular guard has been upon 
the market for years, and is specified and respecified by 
the leading architects of the country. It does what the 
manufacturers claim it will do, with never an instance of 
failure. 

In the new Hanover Bank Building, New York City, 
James B. Baker, architect, 450,000 granite shade brick 
will be used; in the New York Chamber of Commerce 
Building, New York City, just completed, James B. 
1 laker, architect, a large quantity of white front and 
white enameled brick were used; in the new Corn Ex- 
change Bank, New York City, Robertson & Potter, archi- 





DETAIL BY CONKLING ARMSTRONG 1KKKA COTTA COMPANY, 

tects, a large quantity of white semi-glazed brick was 
used; in the new Astor Hotel. New York City, Trow- 
bridge & Livingston, architects. 500,000 light gray brick 
will be used in the courts; in the new Hotel Belmont. 
.Yew York City. Warren & Wetmore. architects, a large 




DETAIL l:\ II. J. HARDENBERGH, ARCHITEI I. 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

quantity of gray front brick will be used; in the new 
Phipps mansion. New York City, Trowbridge & Living- 
ston, architects, a large quantity of white enameled and 
white semi-glazed brick will be used: and in the United 
States Army Building at West Point, Mck'im, Mead & 
White, architects, a large quantity of front brick, specially 
made to match the granite, will be used. All these bricks 
were, or will be supplied by the Sayre & Fisher Company. 

PERSPECTIYE DRAWING 

TAUGHT BY CORKKSPnX 1 iKN'CE. 

The American School of Correspondence 
offers thorough instruction in MECHANICAL DRAW - 
ING, DESCRIPTIV1 GEOMETRY, ISOMETRII AND PER- 
SPECTIVE DRAWING AND SHEET-METAL Wc.KK. 

Courses prepared by professors of the foremost 
architectural S' hoof. 

Instruction is also offered in Architecture. 
Mechanical, Electrical, Locomotive and Marine 
Engineering, Heating, Ventilation and Plumb- 
ing, Textile Manufacturing, Telephony and Telegraphy. 

Instruction Under Members of the Faculty of Armour Institute of Technology. 

As the instruction is according to the standards and methods ■■I' 
the Armour Institute of Technology, all work satisfactorily passed 
will receive credit toward entrance work should the student enter the 
regular classes of the Armour Institute. ' 

Catalogue describing courses, methods and terms on request. 




ISain Building, A 



DETAIL BY PARK & HOWE, ARCHITECTS. 

Standard Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



AMERICAN SCHOOL of CORRESPONDENCE 

\i Armoi k Institute ok Technology - - Chic* 



The Old Brick Architecture of 
Holland and Belgium 



DID you ever notice a little touch of art which shows itself in 
the way they lay their brick bond as differing from the Eng- 
lish ? Both use most generally the so-called English bond, — 
continuous rows, first of stretchers, then of headers. The English 
lay these rows all alike, but the Dutch break joint with the stretcher 
rows, thus keeping the same structural strength, but varying the lines 
of the vertical joints and giving regular diagonal lines which are very 
pleasing. It adds just that touch of art which we find all through 
Dutch work when compared with English of a similar period. Where 
Tudor work is coarse (picturesque and strong, it is true), the Dutch 
is refined and executed with the skill of an artist, and even where 
the Dutch run into vagaries, they are such as artists use, and one 
can well pardon a little frivolity in art to a people who have had so 
much stern reality in their daily lives. 

"Then one is struck by the fact that they never try to do with 
brick what it is unsuited for — they never try to conceal joints and 
make their walls look smooth and unbroken, like a surface of cement, 
and they never attempt any ornament which is not a legitimate con- 
structive use of brick; but they make the most of every opportunity 
which the material affords to a skilled workman." 




7. 

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DETAIL OF HOUSE AT BRI GJ BELGIUM 




F AC A UK OF THE PALACE OF THE FRANC, BRUGES. BELGIUM. 




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A HOUSE ON THh: LEFT BANK OF THE HIVER MEUSE, LIl'v LGIUM. 




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TOWER, CHURCH OF NOTRE DAME. ANTWERP BELGIUM. 




TOWER, CHURCH OF NOTRE DAME. ANTWERP. BELGIUM. 



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HOU:- LOUVAIN. BELGIUM. 



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HALL AT TEHMONUE, BELGIUM. 



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HOSPITAL SAINT JEAN. HOORN. HOLLAND. 




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DORMERS OF AN ANCIENT MARKET HOUSE, HAARLEM, HOLLAND. 



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A.IL, HOUSE AT NIMEGUE HOLLAND. 



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FACADE AT NIMEGUE, HOLLAND. 



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TOWN GATE AT ENKHUYZEN, HOLLAND. 



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MARKET HOUSE AT BLES A DELFT, HOLLAND. 



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CHATEAU D'OYDONCK, BACHTE, MARI A-LEERNE, HOLLAND. 



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NORTH TRANSEPT. CHURCH OF SAINT MARIE MADELEINE. GOES. HOLLAND. 



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HOUSE FOR HON. LEVI P. MORTON, FIFTH AVENUli, MliW YORK. N. Y. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

JANUARY, 

1 902. 




HOUSE LOC IN A BOS'I'ON 

John A. Fox, Architect. 



THE BRICHBUILDER, 

JANUARY, 

1902. 




HOUSii AT CEDARHURST, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
Barney & Chapman, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

JANUARY, 

1 902. 




HOUSK, BAY STATE ROAD, BOSTON, MASS. 
Peters & Rice, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

JANUARY, 

1902. 




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MEMORIAL HOSPITAL AND SANITORIUM, MONTAGUE CITY. MASS. 
plans illustrated in the brickbuilder tor june, 1900, plates 44 ani 
Wilson Eyre, Jr., Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

MARCH, 

' B02. 







SETTLEMENT HOUSE FOR FIFTH AVENUE BAPTIST GHUKCH, IOTH AVENUE 

AND 50TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 

York & Sawyer, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
APRIL, 
1 902. 




HOUSE 1630 LOCUST STREET, PHILADELPHIA, PA, 
Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
APRIL, 
1902. 




HOUSK FOR HON. WAYNE MACVEAGH, WASHINGTON, D. G. 
Appleton P. Clark, Jr., Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
APRIL, 
1S02. 




HOUSE 23 WEST 52ND STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 
C. H. P. Gilbert, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
APRIL, 
1902. 





HOUSE FOR PRIMATES, RRONX PARK. NEW YORK CITY 
Heins & La Farge, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
APRIL, 
1 902. 




STORE AND APARTMENT BUILDING. 11TH STREET PHILADE HA. 

HAZLEHURST & HUCKEL, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
APRIL, 
1902. 




HOUSE, 5 EAST 63RD STREET, NEW n 

Heins & La Farge, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
MAY, 
1902. 



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Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILOER, 
MAY, 
1902. 




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HOUSE. BAY STATE ROAD, BOSTON. MASS. 
Little &, Browne, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
MAY, 
1 902. 




BLOCK PLAN. 

DESIGN FOR MUNICIPAL HOSPITAL FOR THE DISTRICT OK COLUMBIA. AT WASHINGTON. 

Shepley, Rutam & Coolidge, Architects. 



THE 8RICKBUILDER, 
JUNE, 
1902. 




EAHL HALL, Y. M. C. A.. COLUMBIA COLLEGE, NEW YORK. 
McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
JUNE, 
1902. 




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BLOCK PLAN. GATEWAY ANC 



LEG] \l>. 



BUILDING NOT SHOWN ON PLATE. 



Oeneral Hospital : A, Administration Building ; B, Receiving Ward [ C, Ward Buildings : I>. I domestic Building ; i . I llnlcal Building; P. Superintendent ' Hou - , G, Patho- 
logical Building ; H, Chapel ; I , Power House ; K, Nurses Mouse ; L, Ambulance Stable I Oni erec ' orrldors : N . I wo story Covered * orrldors : O, Klevato 

Hospital : H, Administration Building J Q, Nurses" House ; R, Ward Buildings ; S ( 1 domestic Service Building. Tuberculosis 1 lospital : I , Large Ward Building ; U, Small Ward Build- 
ing i V, Uncovered Connected Corridors ; W, Bridges. 

DESIGN FOR MUNICIPAL HOSPITAL FOP THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, AT WASHINGTON. 



Herbert D. Hale, Architect. 



iRICKBUILDER, 
JUNE, 
1902. 



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SURGEONS' HOUSE. 




HOSPITAL BUILDING. 

IMMIGRANT STATION FOR THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, ELLIS ISLAND, NEW YORK HARBOR. 

Boring & Tilton, Architects 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
JULY, 
1 902. 



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NEW HAVEN SAVINGS BANK, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 
Brite & Bacon, Architects. 



THE BRiCKBUILDER, 
JULY, 
1902. 



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LIBRARY, WESTON. MASS 
Fox, Jenney & Gale, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

AUGUST, 

1902. 



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SHEPLEY, RUTAN & COOLIDGE, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

AUGUST, 

1902. 



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NAVAL BRANCH, Y. M. C A. BUILDING, BROOKLYN, N. Y 
Parish & Schroeder, Architects 



THE bRICKBUILDER, 

SEPTEMBER, 

1902. 



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CHURCH OF THE BLESSED SACRAMENT, PROVIDENCE, R. I 
Heins & La Farge, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

OCTOBER, 

1 902. 




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HOUSE AT MIDDLETOWN, R. I 

WlNSLOW & BlGELOW, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBU1LDER, 

OCTOBER, 

1902. 




THE LEAMY HOME, MT. AIRY, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

NOVEMBER, 

1902. 





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HOUSE, 5050 FORBES STREET, PITTSBURG, PA. Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 




HOUSE AT SEWICKLEY, PA. Ald€n & Harlow, Architects. 




HOUSE AT SEWICKLEY, PA. Rutam & kussell, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

NOVEMBER, 

1002. 



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HOUSE, MOREWOOD PLACE, PITTSBURG, PA. 
Rutan & Russell, Architects. 




HOUSE, 4902 FORBES STREET, PITTSBURG, PA. 
Alden & Harlow, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

NOVEMBER, 

1 902. 




MAIN ENTRANCE. 

CASE MEMORIAL LIBRARY. AUBURN. N. Y. 
Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

DECEMBER, 

1802. 




PHIPPS HALL OF BOTANY, SCHENLEY PARK, PITTSBURG, PA. 
Rutan & Russell, Architects. 




CHARTIERS TRUST COMPANY'S BUILDING, McKEE'S ROCKS, PA. 
Rutan & Russell, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

DECEMBER, 

1902. 



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HOUSE FOR ANDREW CARNEGIE ESQ., NINETIETH STREET AND FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORKI CITY 

Babb, Cook & Willard, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

DECEMBER, 

1902. 



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GYMNASIUM AT LAWRENCEVILLE, N. J. 
Peabody & Stearns, Archite' 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

DECEMBER, 

1802. 



THE BRI()K 

VOL. 11. NO. 1. 






I L D E R . 

PLATES 4 and 5. 





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THE BR I (| 

VOL. II. NO. 1. 



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I L D E R . 

PLATES 3 and 6. 





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THE BR 

VOL. II. NO. 1. 




ELEVATION. 



HOUSE LOCATE! 



J I L D E R . 

PLATES 2 and 7. 




CON SUBURB. 

T. 



T II E I! R IC K B U I L DE R. 

VOL. 11. NO. 2. PLATE 12. 




FICE AT JANESVILLE, WIS. 
James Knox Taylor, Architect. 



THE BRICK B U [LD E R. 

VOL. 11. NO. 2. PLATE 13. 



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VOL. 1!. NO. 2. PLATE 11. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 11. NO. 2. PLATE 14. 




T II E B RICKBUILD E R . 

VOL. II. NO. 2. PLATE 10. 




FIRST FLOOR. 
NEW CITY HALL. 
Cope & S T T Ecrs. 



T H K BR I C K B U 1 L DE R. 

VOL. 11. NO. 2. PLATE 15. 




DETAIL OF FRONT ELEVATION, ICLvMANL'l IN<; PLANT PHILADELPHIA 

Frank Miles Day & Brother, Archits: 



THE B R 1C < 



VOL. 11. NO. 2. 



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PLATES 9 and 16. 




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THE BRICJC 

VOL. 11. NO. 3. 




LDER. 

PLATES 17 and 24. 




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VOL. 11. NO. 3. 





LDER. 

PLATES 18 "and 23. 



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THE BRICK MULDER. 

VOL. 11. NO. 3. PLATE 19. 




ELeVATIOfl 




PLAN, TYPICAL WARD BUILDING. 
FIRST HONORABLE MENTION. 

COMPETITIVE DESIGN OF MUNICIPAL HOSPITAL FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, AT WASHINGTON. 

Chase & Ames and Leon E. Dessez, Associate Architects. 



THE BR1CKBUILDER. 

VOL. 11. NO. 3. PLATE 22. 




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VOL. 11. NO. 3. 




LDER. 

PLATES 20 and 21. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 11. NO. 4. PLATE 25. 





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.NS. STORE AND APARTMENT BUILDING, ELEVENTH STREET, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

HAZLEHURST & HUCKEL, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 11. NO. 4. PLATE 32. 




I 

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PLANS, SETTLEMENT HOUSE FOR FIFTH AVENUE BAPTIST CHURCH, NEW YORK CITY. 

York & Sawyer, Architects. 



THE BRIC 

VOL. 11. NO. 4. 



8a 3 

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f 1 1 1 1 * « 





ACCEP 

PLANS. COMPETITIVE DESIGN FOR 

Theo- C. L 



U ILDER. 

PLATES 26 and 31. 




ESIGN. 

LUKE'S HOSPITAL. ST. LOUIS. MO. 

ARCHITECT. 



THE BRIC 



VOL. 11. NO. 4. 




BLOCK PLAN. 



Legend 



A. : ADMlNlSTRATiON. 

K-. Service Ward 
K,: Receiving Ward. 
.M. : Aedical Wards . 

3 : .Surgical Wards- 
P >. Private: Wards- 

(D : Chapel . 



I : 


Mortuary 


11 : 


^TAbLE". 


IE : 


S/^iRN . 


W : 


Pagodas. 


y : 


VMbR-HLLA 6EATS 


"M : 


Porte: COCHE-KET 


¥E . 


Visitor, 5 Entr,- 


sum 


; F^!RTERR.E-£>- 



Matched Blocks show the extent 
op initial improvements. 




■nt'iil! 






ACCEPTED 

COMPETITIVE DESIGN FOR ST L 

Theo' C 



t 



MU ILDER. 

PLATES 27 and 30. 




Smdewalk- 



5 [^llHiiilllJIIIllIIiWillillliilliilllllliiiilijiliillJIIiijIjjillij/ 




tip 



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ii>vii!iiTli!iHRmifi>ytfirii/ipirf f )MHTiir!|ifiYm# 



E'S HOSPITAL. ST. LOUIS, MO. 

HITECT. 



THE BRIC 

VOL. II. NO. 4. 





{|IU ILDER. 

PLATES 28 and 29. 





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THE BRICI 

VOL. 11. NO. 5. 




ACCEPTED DESIGN FOR MUNICIPAL HOSPITAL F 

Frank Miles Day 



GUILDER 



PLATES 33 and 40. 




PLAN OF THIED -FLOOK- ■ 




PL/MS OF 5ECONI> FLOOR. ■ 




PLAN • OP FTF.-ST - FLC3DR ■ 




3 



•PLAN OF BASEMHirr 

THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA AT WASHINGTON. 
ROTher, Architects. 



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THE BRIC 

VOL. 11. NO. 5. 












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PLATES 34 and 39. 




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VOL. 11. NO. 5. 



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VOL. II. NO. 5. PLATE 36. 




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HOUSE. NO. 5 EAST SIXTY-THIRD STREET. NEW YORK CITY 
Heins & La Farge, Architec 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 11. NO. 5. PLATE 37. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. II. NO. 6. PLATE 41. 




FRCNT ELEVATION. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 
NURSES' HOUSE. 




DESIGN FOR MUNICIPAL HOSPITAL FOB TH 

HERBERT D. H 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 11. NO. 6. PLATE 48. 




PLAN Or 5LCOND FLOOR 




PLAN Or MEZZANINE FLOOR 




PLAN OF FIRST FLOOR. 
PATHOLOGICAL BUILDING. 

ISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, AT WASHINGTON. 
Architect. 




FIRST FLOOR, SURGICAL BUILDING. 




PLAN, WARD BUILDING. 




m ^ f N^F ^-SLtf 



^-4 



ELEVATION, WARD BUILDING. 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 11. NO. 6. PLATE 42. 




AM BUL«*f t 'HTTIMC t 

BASEMENT. 





THIRD FLOOR. 



« .A 



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FIRST FLOOR. 



. ADMINISTRATION EUH 



SECOND FLOOR. 

DESIGN FOR MUNICIPAL HOSPITAL FOR 

Herbert 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 11. NO. 6. PLATE 47. 




SECOND AND THIRD FLOORS. 




BASEMI III 

, NURSES' HOUSE. 



E DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. AT WASHINGTON 




LARGE OPERATING ROOM 
TRANSVERSE StCTKV* 



















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THE BRICKBUILDEK. 

VOL. 11. NO. 6. PLATE 43. 



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LARGE OPERATING ROOM 
LOAIGITVDINAL SECTIO/S 



TIOAI 




TRAN5VER5E. SECTION 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

PATHOLOGICAL BUILDING. 

IGN FOR MUNICIPAL HOSPITAL FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, AT WASHINGTON 

SHEPLEY, RUTAN & COOLIDGE, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 11. NO. 6. PLATE 46. 




LONGITVDINAL SECTION 









CLINICAL BUILDING. 

DESIGN FOR MUNICIPAL HOSPITAL FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUM I WASHINGTON. 



THE BRIC 

VOL. 11. NO. 6. 








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BUILDER. 

PLATES 44 and 45. 



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VOL. II. NO. 7. PLATE 49. 






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VOL. 11. NO 7. PLATE 56. 




THE BRI 

VOL. 11. NO. 7. 




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PLATES 50 and 55. 




THE B R I Cl 

VOL. 11. NO. 7. 








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VOL. 11. NO. 7. 








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ELEVATION, DIPHTHERIA HOSPITAI 




ON BUILDING. 

., BROOKLINLv MASS. 

'LIDGE, ARCHITEC 






[BUILDER. 

PLATES 59 and 62. 








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FIRST FLOOR PLAN, DIPHTHERIA HOSPITAL. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN, SCARLET FEVER HOSPITAL. 



EPITAL BROOKLIN! 



THE BRI C 

VOL. 11. NO. 8. 



iOFtj 




BUILDER. 

PLATES 58 and 63. 







THE BRI 

VOL. 11. NO. 8. 



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PLATES 57 and 64. 




PLAN. 



VjSTON, MASS 
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THE BR Hi 

VOL. 11. NO. 9. 



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BUILDER. 

PLATES 68 and 69. 




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THE B R I 

VOL. 11. NO. 9. 



W=d 






DETAIL, FRONT ELEVATION, BUILDING A. 




RUNKLE SCHOO 
Peabody & ! 




DETAIL, MAIN ENTRANCE, BUILDING A. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. 11. NO. 9. 




PLATE 66. 



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FLOOR PLANS, BUILDING B. 

RUNKLE SCHOOL, BROOKLINE, MASS. 

Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 



THE BRICKBU I I.DKR. 

VOL. 11. NO. 9. PLATE 71. 




PLANS, NAVAL BRANCH, Y. M. C. A BUIL N. Y. 

-JL ' ■ ■ ■ . i . ■■ . . , L i ■ rc 



-nvA\ jo 33VJ 




: B U I L D E R . 

PLATES 65 and 72. 




THE BRI 

VOL. 11. NO. 10. 




•°'i& ~J'f :7r ~l "'** $' '^ ' 



CBU I LDER. 

PLATES 76 and 77. 





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VOL. II. NO. 10. 




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VOL. 11. NO. 10. PLATE 74. 





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FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

HOUSE AT ALLENHURST, N. J. 
George K. Thompson, Architect. 












THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 11. NO. 10. PLATE 79. 




CHURCH FOR FI1 I UNITARIAN SOCIETY. I liOSTON. M' 

Walter Atherton, Architect 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 11. NO. 10. PLATE 73. 



I&l i 




•DEAWN t>Y,<S»i« . 



ONE.-rtALF ELEVAT/ON OF FPONT CABLE 



i tNE- 



FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, FRANKLIN, PA. 
Beezer Brothers, Architects. 



THE BRI CKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 11. NO. 10. PLATE 80. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 11. NO. 1 I. PLATE 84. 




LONGITUDINAL SECTION. 




FRONT ELEVATION. 

H HOUSE FOR THE CITY OF BOSTON. 
Herbert d. Hale, architect. 



THE BR I CKBU I L 1) K K 



VOL. 11. NO. 11. 



PLATE 85. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

H HOUSE FOR THE CITY OF BOSTON 
Herbert D Hale, architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 11. NO. 11. PLATE 83. 



^f ?r ite 




• } I ' .' r I p • »»4-l W . !J . 




vNS, THE LEAMY HOME. MT. AIRY, PHILADELPHIA, 
Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. II. NO. 11. p LATE 86- 




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VOL. 11. NO. 11. 





SECONO FLOOR 




FIRST FLOO 



:bu ilder. 

PLATES 82 and 87. 




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THE B R I C* 

VOL. II. NO. 11. 











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RUTAN & RU 










ARCH 



THE BRICK 

VOL. 11. NO. 12. 




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CASE .MEMORIAL I 
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PLATES 92 and 93. 




ION AND PLAN. 

[JiRARY, AUBURN. N. Y. 
H "ings, Architects. 



THE BRICK)' 

VOL. 11. NO. 12. 








a 



UILDER. 

PLATES 91 and 94. 





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THE BRICK 

VOL. 11. NO. 12. 





FIRST FLOOR I 



DETAILS. 




GYMNASIUM FOR LAWRENCEVILLE C- 

Peabody & Stear i 




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THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 11. NO. 12. PLATE 89. 




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VOL. 11. NO. 12. PLATE 96. 



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