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Full text of "The BrickBuilder (1907)"

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THE PROFESSIONAL LIBRARY OF 

CHARLES PETER WEEKS 

ARCHITECT OF THE CAPITOL EXTENSION BUILDINGS 

HAS BEEN PRESENTED TO THE CALIFORNIA STATE 

LIBRARY BY HIS WIDOW. 

THIS VOLUME IS A PART OF THAT COLLECTION. 



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California State Library 



CALIFORNIA 

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CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY 
SACRAMENTO 

This book is due on the date stamped below. 

Books may be renewed if not requested by other 
borrowers. 

Failure to return books promptly may result in 
withdrawal of borrowing privileges. 





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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVI 



JANUARY 1907 



Number i 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 
85 Water Street ....... Boston, Massachusetts 



Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



Copyright, 1906, by Rogers & Manson 



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Subscriptions payable in advance 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Terra Cotta 

Brick .... 



PAGE 
II 
II 

II and III 
III 



Brick Enameled 
Clay Chemicals 
Fireproofing 
Roofing Tile 



page 

III and IV 

IV 

IV 

IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



CONTENTS 



From Work by 



CARRERE & HASTINGS; FERRY & CLAS; HEINS & La FARGE; LORD & HEWLETT; MANN & 
MacNEILLE; McKIM, MEAD & WHITE; HOBART A. WALKER; WALKER & MORRIS; 

WINSLOW & BIGELOW. 



LETTERPRESS 



FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY AND FORTIETH ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE 

OF ARCHITECTS.— RE PORT 1 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION 4 

MODERN ENGLISH SUBURBAN HOUSES 8 

A TERRA COTTA LUMBER, WITH PLASTER FINISH, HOUSE 12 

[NTERIOR OF A VAN AND STORAGE WAREHOUSE Illustration!, 14 

STORES AND WAREHOUSE FOR UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, PHILADELPHIA Illustration 15 

POLICE STATION, ROCHESTER, N. Y Illustration 15 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 16 




** 



PORTAL OF THE (1REAT MOSOUE AT VERAMIN, PERSIA. 



124372 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




3^J 



DEVOTED -TO -THE • INTERESTS 
ARCHITECTVRE- IN • MATERIALS • OF- CL 



JANUARY 1907 



Fiftieth Anniversary and Fortieth Annual Convention 
of the American Institute of Architects. 



THE Convention of the American Institute of Archi- 
tects, held at Washington, January 7, 8 and 9, will 
be remembered by all who had the good fortune to be 
present as an occasion of great interest and of vital im- 
portance to the profession and to the Institute. 

The sessions were held in the assembly hall of the 
New Willard Hotel. The attendance was a generous 
one, there being ninety-nine accredited delegates from 
the various chapters besides an unusual number of 
members of the Institute and architects who came in un- 
official capacities. It was a representative gathering of 
the best elements in the profession from all of our large 
cities and many of our small ones. It is as one tries to 
gauge the influence and power of such a gathering that a 
just appreciation can be made of the extent to which 
architecture has grown as a profession administering 
public affairs. Mere figures are no measure of capacity, 
but they can show the extent of influence. Looking care- 
fully over the list of delegates, there were at least six 
architects present who represented an aggregate volume 
of business amounting probably to over $130,000,000, 
while the total amount of the interests which are com- 
mitted to the direct care of the men who composed this 
meeting might easily run up to $250,000,000 or $300,- 
000,000. Quite aside from a question of artistic achieve- 
ment, trust of this sort implies, with all the responsi- 
bility, a degree of power and influence such as the pro- 
fession could not have hoped for at the time the Institute 
was founded fifty years ago. And the fact that men bur- 
dened with such weighty concerns can find the time to at- 
tend a convention of this sou, and will take an active and 
interested part therein, speaks more for the vitality of the 
profession and gives more assurance of future prosperity 
and growth than perhaps any other one material fact. 

But it was by no means the material side of successful 
business careers which stood forth most prominently in 
the convention. The professional and artistic spirit 
dominated in all the discussions, in all the reports and at 
all the meetings, and the high ethical standard for which 
the Institute has been striving these many years was made 
manifest in nearly every act of the convention. This was 
emphasized at the very beginning by the Hon. Henry B. F. 
MacFarland, President of the Board of Commissioners of 



the District of Columbia, who, in his opening address of 
welcome to the convention, spoke of the great public 
service which has been rendered by the Institute to the 
country and to his city in the attempt to make Washing- 
ton what it seemed so likely to soon become, the most 
beautiful city in the world. 

The morning session of the 7th was occupied with 
reports, of the officers, of the Board of Directors, and a 
summary of reports from chapters. Then followed the 
report of the Committee on Education, presented by 
Ralph Adams Cram, a report which was listened to with 
the utmost interest and which showed in a remarkable 
degree how the different members of the committee, start- 
ing, apparently, with irreconcilable views on the matter 
of procedure in architectural education, had finally agreed 
unanimously on a course of study which would meet the 
requirements at once of the extreme academician and the 
most pronounced idealist. In other words, the report fitly 
brought out the fact that there is a. tangible, easily dem- 
onstrated, broad basis from which to start an architec- 
tural student, even if his ultimate aims in work and 
thought may vary from any recognized canon. We print 
this paper in full elsewhere in this issue. It deserves to 
be read and reread and pondered upon by everyone who is 
interested in theproperpreparation which can be given to 
those who are to take up the burden of architecture, and 
at the same time it is full of thought for those who 
are in active practice, for an architect never ceases 
to be a student until he ceases to grow, and the prin- 
ciples of education which this report has laid down apply 
just as truly to the man in the daily rush of intense 
professional affairs as to the student beginning his course 
at college. 

Another paper of equally vital import was that of the 
Committee on Applied Arts and Sciences presented by 
Irving K. Pond of Chicago. So long as architecture 
is at once a science and an art there will be a certain 
amount of perplexing conflict between the applied arts 
and the mother art, and there will always be, also, de- 
cided differences of opinion as to how these allied arts 
can be brought into harmony with the master mind. Mr. 
Pond's report was extremely interesting in every respect, 
and surely no one is better qualified to discuss such a sub- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



ject than one who stands, as he unquestionably does, 
among the foremost of the earnest, enthusiastic and 
idealistic architects who have done so much toward giv- 
ing real life and vitality to the architecture of Chicago; 
and yet we feel that in certain respects the report does 
not do full justice to the state of the arts throughout the 
country as a whole, and would be more properly a state- 
ment of conditions as they exist in the middle west. 
When he speaks of the "intense apathy of the general 
public toward art " it would seem as if he were overlook- 
ing the public movement which has brought forth the 
Washington of to-day, which is re-building so much of 
New York in a thoroughly worthy way, which has mani- 
fested itself so enthusiastically in civic improvements at 
Philadelphia, Boston, Cleveland. Pittsburgh, even in 
Chicago and San Francisco. We can not feel that the 
public is apathetic toward art. On the contrary, there 
seems to be every indication that men of education are 
keenly alive to it and that the apathy arises perhaps quite 
as much from the unwillingness of the architect to meet 
the public demand. Again, when the report makes the 
statement that " once art was lived, now it is taught," 
that " schools do not seem to have justified themselves, 
while they do seem in no small measure to justify the 
proverb, ' when schools come in, art goes out,' " we feel 
that the conditions so described are local rather than gen- 
eral. In discussing privately this very report an architect, 
who has won a more than national fame for the artistic 
character of his work, claimed that just the opposite was 
true, that never before have architects been so able to 
live their work, to be in thorough harmony with the best 
elements of it; never before has it been so possible to im- 
press one's individuality and personality upon one's work 
as right now in this twentieth century. Admitted the 
conditions are not always ideal, admitted all the material- 
ism which is so rampant, there still remains a saving 
remnant of artists and public who live their art, who feel 
it just as truly as in the days of Michael Angelo or Giotto. 
Mr. Pond truly says that the so-called arts and crafts 
movement has not yet entered the stage in which it can 
be of much or any assistance to the architects, and he pith- 
ily characterizes the requirements for growth by saying 
that "a broader education, a wider sympathy, a deeper 
knowledge of the realities of life, a developed love of 
beauty in the mind of the race and a passionate zeal to 
express it, will reunite the sundered relation of intimacy 
which once existed between creator, interpreter and 
laity; that is, architect, craftsman and public." Every- 
thing the report contains would meet the hearty assent of 
every thinking architect, except that we cannot believe 
the existing conditions are quite as unsatisfactory as they 
are therein stated. 

The report of the Committee on the Securing of Funds 
for the Purchase of the Octagon was presented by 
Cass Gilbert. This property was acquired by the Insti- 
tute five or six years ago at an expense of about thirty 
thousand dollars. At the beginning of the current year 
the total amount of outstanding indebtedness was some- 
thing under six thousand dollars. It was felt that this 
debt ought to be wiped out entirely and Mr. Gilbert, 
aided by a special committee appointed on the spot, after 
his report, succeeded in so arousing the enthusiasm, as 
well as the generosity, of the delegates present that 



within a few minutes an amount of money was subscribed 
more than sufficient to take care of all the obligations. 
In reporting a second time to the convention on this sub- 
ject, Mr. Gilbert wisely did not state the exact sum so 
secured, and offered the recommendation that the surplus 
should go towards an endowment fund. The suggestion 
was accepted with applause by the convention and a spe- 
cial committee appointed to take steps towards the secur- 
ing of such an endowment as would enable the Octagon 
House to be fully self-supporting and would also enable 
it for the future to make such additions to the building as 
would be required to adequately house the Institute con- 
ventions. Also, the Directors of the Institute were urged 
to devise some method of legal procedure by which it 
would be impossible at any time in the future to load the 
property with any mortgage or obligation, keeping it 
thus for all time free and clear. The Institute cannot 
be too warmly congratulated upon this move. Consid- 
ered simply as a real estate investment the Octagon 
House was a wise purchase and has already advanced 
considerably in value, while being, as it is, one of the in- 
teresting architectural structures of the city, it is emi- 
nently fitting that the Institute should own it and pre- 
serve it. 

The other reports included a valuable study of the ques- 
tion of competitions, presented by Robert D. Andrews, 
which was referred hack to the committee for further 
study, a comprehensive report on Schools of Architecture 
by H. Langford Warren, and a very admirable report 
from the Committee on the Relation of Architects to the 
Contracting System, presented by Cass Gilbert in a 
manner which met the hearty approval of all the dele- 
gates for its fearless and outspoken handling of a ques- 
tion which in large cjties has at times assumed pretty 
serious proportions, namely, the relative functions of the 
large contracting companies representing enormous cap- 
ital, and the architects who are sometimes called in to de- 
sign buildings after these firms have secured contracts 
for the erection. This is a condition which cannot be 
ignored and which vitally affects the public architecture 
of our larger cities, especially New York. The troubles 
inherent therein will doubtless in time work themselves 
out in a satisfactory manner, but if all our architects 
would take the firm, self-respecting and highly-profes- 
sional attitude which this report suggests, the troubles 
would right themselves very speedily. 

There were reports of other committees presented, 
many of which held over until the next day. On Tues- 
day, also, the elections took place, resulting in conferring 
the honor of Fellow upon Messrs. Wra. S. Post, Henry 
Bacon, John Russell Pope, James P. Jamieson, Allen B. 
Pond and C. A. Martin, and the election of officers for the 
ensuing year as follows: President, Frank Miles Day; 
tst vice-president, Wm. B. Mundie; 2d vice-president, 
R. Clipston Sturgis; secretary and treasurer, Glenn 
Brown; directors, Walter Cook, Edgar V. Seeler, J. L. 
Mauran, for three years respectively; auditor, Robert 
Stead. An amendment of the by-laws was also adopted, 
which, in its essence, provides that members of chapters 
shall consist only of those who are either full members 
of the Institute or are eligible for membership therein. 

The evening session of Tuesday was held at the Cor- 
coran Art Gallery, which was open for the occasion and 



TH'E BRICKBUILDER 



which took the form of a social function, beginning with 
a reception by the Director of the Gallery, the officers of 
the Institute and ladies, followed by the official presenta- 
tion of the gold medal of the Institute to Sir Aston Webb, 
the distinguished English architect. The main floor of 
the Gallery was thronged with visitors and their guests. 
A low platform had been built at the base of the stairway 
leading to second story. On this were grouped the of- 
ficers of the Institute, with v Sir Aston Webb and the 
British charge' d'affaires, Mr. Howard. Mr. Day, the 
President of the Institute, was extremely felicitous in his 
presentation remarks, reviewing the notable works of ar- 
chitecture which had been produced by Sir Aston Webb, 
and bringing into prominence the relations existing be- 
tween the members of the profession in this country and 
in England, the similarity of aims and methods and the 
close intimacy which has resulted partly from the be- 
stowal of the medal of the Royal Institute twice to distin- 
guished American architects, to Richard M. Hunt years ago 
and to Charles F. McKim more recently. Sir Aston Webb, 
in replying, could not but weave his remarks about the 
impressions he had received of American architecture and 
architects. It is not often that the Institute has been 
permitted to listen to criticism of our national work from 
the lips of so distinguished a foreigner. We are so in- 
clined to deprecate some of our national achievements, 
we so often speak slightingly of the skyscraper and our 
modern commercial attempts, that when a man like Sir 
Aston praises these as being distinctively American and 
sees in them a large measure of hope for the future, com- 
paring them, as he did, to the relatively tall buildings of 
Europe and drawing before his auditors a picture of the 
future, when lower New York shall be built throughout 
with tall structures, and then can say that the streets as 
they will be then will recall the narrow streets and inter- 
cepted sky lines of the northern Italian towns, where the 
proportion between width of street and height of build- 
ings is, in many cases, even less than similar proportions 
in New York, it is not strange that such remarks would 
seem almost over courteous to an American audience. But 
Sir Aston was perfectly sincere in what he said, and took 
occasion to remind his auditors thereof, and the general 
feeling running through all his remarks was that we had 
nothing to fear from our current architecture as mani- 
fested in the tall buildings, but rather that they are so 
distinctive, that there is so much -'mlity and true life in 
them, that they constitute a phase of our national archi- 
tecture which appeals to an educated foreigner as being 
most peculiarly American and full of promise for the 
future. Sir Aston's acceptance of the medal and the 
honor it implied was graceful in the extreme. The In- 
stitute honored itself in honoring him, and this medal, 
the first of its kind which the Institute has ever pre- 
sented, has surely been rightly bestowed. No more dis- 
tinguished representative foreigner could have been 
chosen for this honor. Mr. Howard spoke in very well- 
chosen terms as representing the British government, and 
he read a telegram just received from King Edward con- 
gratulating Sir Aston and the Institute upon the award of 
the medal. Sir Aston Webb also announced the receipt 
of a telegrom stating that the Royal Institute of British 
Architects had elected to Corresponding Membership 
Mr. Day, Mr. Post and Mr. Gilbert. 



Wednesday afternoon was devoted to a special pro- 
gramme commemorative of the fiftieth anniversary of the 
founding of the Institute. The address of welcome by 
Mr. Day was followed by presentation of greetings and 
addresses from the principal architectural societies and in- 
stitutions of learning throughout the world. Mr. Peabody 
read a very interesting paper on the founders of the Insti- 
tute who became its presidents, Mr. Upjohn, Mr. Walter 
and Mr. Hunt. There was also a paper by Mr. Stone on 
the early history of the Institute. At four o'clock in the 
afternoon, at the Octagon, a tablet in honor of the 
founders of the Institute was unveiled by Mr. Peabody, 
who took occasion to allude very felicitously to the fact 
that the Octagon was now free of debt and could properly 
be consecrated to its use. At the same time there was 
exhibited in the Octagon a comprehensive collection of 
reproductions of the work of Sir Aston Webb. 

Wednesday evening was the culmination of the con- 
vention in the shape of a dinner held in the banquet hall 
of the New Willard and attended by some two hundred 
and fifty delegates and invited guests, the ladies of the 
convention occupying the balcony at the conclusion of 
the banquet. This dinner took on essentially the aspect 
of a social affair. The health of the President and of the 
King was proposed in appropriate words by Mr. Day and 
was drunk by the whole company standing. Secretary 
Root responded in very pleasing terms to the toast of 
"The Ladies." Sir Aston Webb responded for the 
Royal Institute of British Architects. The other speak- 
ers included Senator Lodge of Massachusetts, Mr. Owen 
Wister, Mr. F. Hopkinson Smith, Speaker Cannon and 
Mr. George B. Post. The fact that definite topics were 
assigned to each of these speakers did not seriously 
hamper them in presenting very entertaining, if not 
illuminating, discourse to the convention, and they were 
listened to with the keenest interest by the delegates. 
Among the distinguished guests seated at the head of 
the table were Secretary Taft, Representative McCall, 
bishop Satterlee, Thomas Nelson Page, the British charge - 
d'affaires, Mr. Howard, and many other notable and dis- 
tinguished men prominent in art and diplomatic circles. 
The President of the United States sent a letter of re- 
grets and the King of England telegraphed his congratu- 
lations. There was not a dull moment during the even- 
ing and everyone seemed to be satisfied with the conclud- 
ing exercises of the fortieth convention. 

There are three features of this convention which call 
for special note. First, its high artistic and professional 
standard as represented by the reports of its committees; 
second, the social element which was made so prominent ; 
and third, what might be termed the spectacular side of 
its appeal to the public. 

It is so easy for a convention of this sort to drift into 
mere routine, to absorb itself in the kind of discussion 
which lacks a national flavor and could better be fought 
out in local circles, that the artistic element so strongly 
predominating in so many of the reports was appreciated 
with gratitude by the delegates. Almost without excep- 
tion the reports are worthy of being printed and circu- 
lated publicly, something which could not have been said 
about the reports presented in many of the previous con- 
ventions. It seemed as if, by common consent, the com- 
mittees had felt that this was not a time for practical, 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



uninteresting details, or considerations of local or per- 
sonal affairs, but that the occasion called for a breadth of 
treatment and an artistic preference which should char- 
acterize the spirit of the Institute. 

At no previous convention was the social element so 
pronounced. There was a far larger attendance of ladies 
than was expected and they were very much in evidence, 
not merely at the presentation of the medal and the 
dinner, but also at a number of the sessions of the Insti- 
tute. The meeting at the Octagon on the occasion of 
the unveiling of the tablet and the reception at the Art 
Gallery were both made an occasion for what would be 
termed brilliant social gatherings. The Institute is 
essentially cosmopolitan in its character and that the 
social element should be so prominent was to be expected. 
The atmosphere of Washington encourages such mani- 
festations, and it is our conviction that the Institute is 
decidedly the gainer by the increasing attentions which 
have been given to the amenities in the past few years. 
The architects who founded the Institute in 1857 would 
feel hopelessly out of place in a convention such as has 
just been held, but the change which has come over the 
country during the past fifty years has naturally resulted 
in accenting the social element of these conventions. 
Future meetings of the sort will hardly be less pro- 
nounced in this respect, and the undoubted tendency will 
be to make each succeeding convention more truly a 
function. Whether or not this is wise remains to be seen. 
It is certainly enjoyable, and the architect, in his daily 
busy practice, gets none too much of the social element. 

The value to the profession of the spectacular element 
which of late years has been brought into the Institute 
meetings is also in our judgment beyond question. A 
dinner such as the one which closed the convention is in 
a sense playing to the gallery, but in this case the gallery 
was composed of the prominent men who rule the coun- 
try, who are the chief employers of architects, in whose 
hands are entrusted the direction of public affairs, who 
provide the funds for public buildings. So long as the 
architect burrows in silence in his office, just so long is he 



kept out of his share in public life and to that extent is 
his value curtailed as a designer of public buildings. The 
profession needs to be known and known well by the men 
who direct the political destinies of the country. That is 
one of the strong reasons for holding the conventions for 
succeeding years at Washington and the justification for 
the lavish display in money and in eloquence which ac- 
companied the banquet. If the architects are to be really 
leaders they must take their place in the procession and 
must contribute their share to the public life of the na- 
tion's capitol. It would be far pleasanter for many of the 
delegates to go off to a quiet companionable convention, 
with never a thought for the ladies or the public officials, 
and eat their little dinners and discuss their pet artistic 
hobbies with each other, but that is not the function of 
the Institute as we conceive it. The Institute has a 
national function and its self-respect demands a certain 
keeping up with the public standards, and we therefore 
heartily approve of the spectacular features which brought 
the convention to a close. It was not simply eating an 
expensive dinner and listening to the chance words of the 
political leaders of the nation, but it was truly the assert- 
ing of the right of the profession to a share in the direc- 
tion of the world's affairs; it was claiming an equality 
for leaders of art with the leaders in politics, literature 
and religion. It was putting the stamp of progress on 
the work and the growth of the Institute. 

An appreciative tribute should be given to the presid- 
ing officer of the convention, for the admirable way in 
which every meeting was managed and for the tactful, 
courteous and dignified manner in which he presided. 
The fact that everything went off smoothly, that there 
were no unpleasant features to be remembered in con- 
nection with any of the meetings, and that all of the pro- 
gramme was carried through substantially on time, is 
ascribable in no small measure to Mr. Day, and by his 
bearing, his well-chosen words and his demonstrative ex- 
ecutive ability he has shown himself peculiarly fitted to 
direct the affairs of the Institute and to represent it in 
the eyes of its invited guests. 



Report of Committee on Architectural Education. 



THE problem of architectural education is so impor- 
tant, so far reaching, and marked by such intricate 
ramifications, that we have been able hardly to do more 
than state the case, leaving to the committee of next 
year the more detailed study and the formulating of 
clearer inferences and conclusions. 

It is an interesting fact and worthy of record, that 
this committee, made up of superficially diverse types, 
has found itself absolutely unanimous even in matters 
of detail. After some months of individual study, 
the chairman asked each member of the committee 
to embody his conclusions and recommendations in 
the form of a tentative report. Such reports were 
received from Mr. Carrere, Mr. Kendall, Mr. Sturgis 
and Mr. Trowbridge. These were examined at a meet- 
ing of the committee and, with the report of the chair- 
man, were found to be identical in spirit and in matter. 



It would seem, therefore, that under the appearance 
of diversity, there is a body of profound and unanimous 
conviction that argues well of the architectural pro- 
fession in America. 

In order to establish a basis of judgment, we fixed 
first of all upon working definitions of architecture and of 
an architect. 

Architecture we defined as a Fine Art with three 
aspects: as a manifestation of pure beauty, as an endur- 
ing and trustworthy language that voices the existing 
best in civilization, and as an exact science through its 
structural relationships. 

An architect we defined as one ranking in the class of 
men of culture, learning and refinement, differentiated 
from the others of his class solely by his function as a 
creator of pure beauty, as an exponent through material 
forms of the best secular, intellectual and religious civil- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



ization of his time, and as an organizer and director of 
manifold and varied industries and activities. 

From these assumptions, it follows necessarily that 
the object of architectural education must be the breed- 
ing of gentlemen of culture, learning, and broad sympa- 
thies, who understand the dignity and the significance of 
art both as beauty and as language, who are perfectly 
proficient in the technique of the art they follow, and 
who can inspire, organize and direct widely different 
classes of men. 

Such was our view of the general situation and our 
unanimous conviction as to the essential nature of any 
sound system of architectural education. Examining the 
various agencies in America in this light, and that we 
might see how nearly they approached, severally and in 
mass, to the principles indicated above, we found them 
to consist in two forms, viz., the elementary, i. e., the 
" architectural classes " connected with public instruction 
and philanthropic societies, and the "Correspondence 
Schools," and the Academic, i. e., the regular schools of 
architecture; the voluntary combinations under the con- 
trol of certain groups of architects, such as the independ- 
ent ateliers, and the concours of the Beaux Arts Society, 
and the American Academy in Rome. 

The elementary systems we have been compelled to 
disregard for the time being, but we believe they demand 
the closest scrutiny, for while they may give a certain 
plausible dexterity to boys ambitious of becoming archi- 
tectural draughtsmen, they cannot be considered as 
systems of education, since their methods are superficial 
and rudimentary, the taste they inculcate frequently 
questionable, while they do nothing towards creating the 
basis of broad, general culture which is absolutely and 
primarily essential. Furthermore, we believe that these 
elementary systems may, and in some cases, do, accom- 
plish serious harm through inducing boys temperamen- 
tally unfitted for one of the most noble and exacting pro- 
fessions to throw themselves into an impossible career 
through misrepresentations to the effect that " architec- 
tural drafting " is only a trade, to be acquired as easily 
and by the same methods as stenography. We believe 
the Committee on Architectural Education may be of 
great assistance to the elementary schools, and indirectly 
to the architectural profession by volunteering its 
friendly services in an advisory capacity, and we com- 
mend both this, and the close study of the systems them- 
selves, to our successors in this Committee. 

The Academic agencies may be divided again into 
two categories: one made up of those which aim to give 
a complete and final education, viz., the regular Schools 
of Architecture supplemented by the Roman Academy; 
the other of those whose object is to develop, through a 
special insistence laid on certain points, necessary ele- 
ments in the equipment of an architect which students 
and draughtsmen have been unable to acquire satisfac- 
torily through their collegiate or practical experience, 
viz., the ateliers, the Club classes, and the concours of the 
Beaux Arts Society. 

Now it is evident to us that none of the systems 
named above, is in itself, and independent of all other 
agencies, able to produce the combination of general cul- 
ture, good taste, instinct for beauty and executive ability 
which make up the ideal architect. The architectural 



schools should, by their general training, do much 
towards the creation of broad and inclusive culture : they 
must ground their students in the history of art and civil- 
ization and the correspondence between these two things ; 
they will give him his fundamental knowledge of the 
essential elements of architecture as an art; they must 
enable him to lay the broad foundation on which he is to 
erect his superstructure of professional capacity, but the 
crucial point, the devolopment of good taste and the 
instant sense of beauty, they cannot touch through the 
scholastic agencies now marshalled to this end. We are 
unanimously of the opinion that this passion for beauty 
and this instinctive good taste may be inculcated, if at 
all, not through the methods of scientific pedagogy, but 
by the close personal relations and the keen enthusiasm 
that arise through the association of a group of students 
with a practicing architect, chosen by the free will of the 
student because of admiration for, and sympathy with, 
his principles, his personality and his achievements. 

With the advantages of the atelier system comes a cor- 
responding danger, that of a feudal following of one 
strong personality and an unconscious exaggeration of 
his peculiar theories and methods. This danger is 
counteracted by the system of general competitions be- 
tween the students in the several schools and ateliers, 
where each man, as representing each system or impulse, 
finds himself on a field of battle where individualism is 
put to the test and stands or falls by just so far forth as 
it has acquired universality. 

This combination of the atelier and the concours is, to 
a large degree, the method introduced and followed by 
the Beaux Arts Society, and we believe it essential in 
any scheme of architectural education ; but so long as the 
atelier system is purely voluntary, and so long as the 
concours are conducted by a group of men without official 
status, and bound together by the traditions of one par- 
ticular system and nationality of training, there is always 
the danger of an unwholesome predominance of one set 
of ideas, to the unintentional exclusion of others of equal 
value but of different origin. Such competitions con- 
ducted exclusively by advocates of Gothic or of Art Nou- 
veau might conceivably defeat their own just ends. 

Believing, therefore, that these two features of the 
atelier and the general competition are essential elements 
in any complete scheme of architectural education, and 
that to have their fullest effect they should become a part 
of the curriculum of every architectural school, we urge 
on the several schools the wisdom of action to this end, 
and on the Education Committee of next year considera- 
tion of the question how a scheme of general competitions 
similar to those now conducted by the Beaux Arts So- 
ciety, but official and universal, may be brought into 
existence. 

In scrutinizing the several schools to ascertain in how 
far each seemed to be working towards the development 
of the typical gentleman of general culture with special 
architectural ability, and acting on an unanimous opinion 
that design can best be taught, at least in its higher 
aspects, only through the personal influence of practicing 
architects, while the instinct for beauty may be best 
developed by personal contact with those who already 
possess this instinct and the power to communicate it, 
we took the ground that the work of the schools should 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



uninteresting details, or considerations of local or per- 
sonal affairs, but that the occasion called for a breadth of 
treatment and an artistic preference which should char- 
acterize the spirit of the Institute. 

At no previous convention was the social element so 
pronounced. There was a far larger attendance of ladies 
than was expected and they were very much in evidence, 
not merely at the presentation of the medal and the 
dinner, but also at a number of the sessions of the Insti- 
tute. The meeting at the Octagon on the occasion of 
the unveiling of the tablet and the reception at the Art 
Gallery were both made an occasion for what would be 
termed brilliant social gatherings. The Institute is 
essentially cosmopolitan in its character and that the 
social element should be so prominent was to be expected. 
The atmosphere of Washington encourages such mani- 
festations, and it is our conviction that the Institute is 
decidedly the gainer by the increasing attentions which 
have been given to the amenities in the past few years. 
The architects who founded the Institute in 1857 would 
feel hopelessly out of place in a convention such as has 
just been held, but the change which has come over the 
country during the past fifty years has naturally resulted 
in accenting the social element of these conventions. 
Future meetings of the sort will hardly be less pro- 
nounced in this respect, and the undoubted tendency will 
be to make each succeeding convention more truly a 
function. Whether or not this is wise remains to be seen. 
It is certainly enjoyable, and the architect, in his daily 
busy practice, gets none too much of the social element. 

The value to the profession of the spectacular element 
which of late years has been brought into the Institute 
meetings is also in our judgment beyond question. A 
dinner such as the one which closed the convention is in 
a sense playing to the gallery, but in this case the gallery 
was composed of the prominent men who rule the coun- 
try, who are the chief employers of architects, in whose 
hands are entrusted the direction of public affairs, who 
provide the funds for public buildings. So long as the 
architect burrows in silence in his office, just so long is he 



kept out of his share in public life and to that extent is 
his value curtailed as a designer of public buildings. The 
profession needs to be known and known well by the men 
who direct the political destinies of the country. That is 
one of the strong reasons for holding the conventions for 
succeeding years at Washington and the justification for 
the lavish display in money and in eloquence which ac- 
companied the banquet. If the architects are to be really 
leaders they must take their place in the procession and 
must contribute their share to the public life of the na- 
tion's capitol. It would be far pleasanter for many of the 
delegates to go off to a quiet companionable convention, 
with never a thought for the ladies or the public officials, 
and eat their little dinners and discuss their pet artistic 
hobbies with each other, but that is not the function of 
the Institute as we conceive it. The Institute has a 
national function and its self-respect demands a certain 
keeping up with the public standards, and we therefore 
heartily approve of the spectacular features which brought 
the convention to a close. It was not simply eating an 
expensive dinner and listening to the chance words of the 
political leaders of the nation, but it was truly the assert- 
ing of the right of the profession to a share in the direc- 
tion of the world's affairs; it was claiming an equality 
for leaders of art with the leaders in politics, literature 
and religion. It was putting the stamp of progress on 
the work and the growth of the Institute. 

An appreciative tribute should be given to the presid- 
ing officer of the convention, for the admirable way in 
which every meeting was managed and for the tactful, 
courteous and dignified manner in which he presided. 
The fact that everything went off smoothly, that there 
were no unpleasant features to be remembered in con- 
nection with any of the meetings, and that all of the pro- 
gramme was carried through substantially on time, is 
ascribable in no small measure to Mr. Day, and by his 
bearing, his well-chosen words and his demonstrative ex- 
ecutive ability he has shown himself peculiarly fitted to 
direct the affairs of the Institute and to represent it in 
the eyes of its invited guests. 



Report of Committee on Architectural Education. 



THE problem of architectural education is so impor- 
tant, so far reaching, and marked by such intricate 
ramifications, that we have been able hardly to do more 
than state the case, leaving to the committee of next 
year the more detailed study and the formulating of 
clearer inferences and conclusions. 

It is an interesting fact and worthy of record, that 
this committee, made up of superficially diverse types, 
has found itself absolutely unanimous even in matters 
of detail. After some months of individual study, 
the chairman asked each member of the committee 
to embody his conclusions and recommendations in 
the form of a tentative report. Such reports were 
received from Mr. Carrere, Mr. Kendall, Mr. Sturgis 
and Mr. Trowbridge. These were examined at a meet- 
ing of the committee and, with the report of the chair- 
man, were found to be identical in spirit and in matter. 



It would seem, therefore, that under the appearance 
of diversity, there is a body of profound and unanimous 
conviction that argues well of the architectural pro- 
fession in America. 

In order to establish a basis of judgment, we fixed 
first of all upon working definitions of architecture and of 
an architect. 

Architecture we defined as a Fine Art with three 
aspects: as a manifestation of pure beauty, as an endur- 
ing and trustworthy language that voices the existing 
best in civilization, and as an exact science through its 
structural relationships. 

An architect we defined as one ranking in the class of 
men of culture, learning and refinement, differentiated 
from the others of his class solely by his function as a 
creator of pure beauty, as an exponent through material 
forms of the best secular, intellectual and religious civil- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



ization of his time, and as an organizer and director of 
manifold and varied industries and activities. 

From these assumptions, it follows necessarily that 
the object of architectural education must be the breed- 
ing of gentlemen of culture, learning, and broad sympa- 
thies, who understand the dignity and the significance of 
art both as beauty and as language, who are perfectly 
proficient in the technique of the art they follow, and 
who can inspire, organize and direct widely different 
classes of men. 

Such was our view of the general situation and our 
unanimous conviction as to the essential nature of any 
sound system of architectural education. Examining the 
various agencies in America in this light, and that we 
might see how nearly they approached, severally and in 
mass, to the principles indicated above, we found them 
to consist in two forms, viz., the elementary, i. e., the 
" architectural classes " connected with public instruction 
and philanthropic societies, and the "Correspondence 
Schools," and the Academic, i. e., the regular schools of 
architecture ; the voluntary combinations under the con- 
trol of certain groups of architects, such as the independ- 
ent ateliers, and the concours of the Beaux Arts Society, 
and the American Academy in Rome. 

The elementary systems we have been compelled to 
disregard for the time being, but we believe they demand 
the closest scrutiny, for while they may give a certain 
plausible dexterity to boys ambitious of becoming archi- 
tectural draughtsmen, they cannot be considered as 
systems of education, since their methods are superficial 
and rudimentary, the taste they inculcate frequently 
questionable, while they do nothing towards creating the 
basis of broad, general culture which is absolutely and 
primarily essential. Furthermore, we believe that these 
elementary systems may, and in some cases, do, accom- 
plish serious harm through inducing boys temperamen- 
tally unfitted for one of the most noble and exacting pro- 
fessions to throw themselves into an impossible career 
through misrepresentations to the effect that " architec- 
tural drafting " is only a trade, to be acquired as easily 
and by the same methods as stenography. We believe 
the Committee on Architectural Education may be of 
great assistance to the elementary schools, and indirectly 
to the architectural profession by volunteering its 
friendly services in an advisory capacity, and we com- 
mend both this, and the close study of the systems them- 
selves, to our successors in this Committee. 

The Academic agencies may be divided again into 
two categories: one made up of those which aim to give 
a complete and final education, viz., the regular Schools 
of Architecture supplemented by the Roman Academy; 
the other of those whose object is to develop, through a 
special insistence laid on certain points, necessary ele- 
ments in the equipment of an architect which students 
and draughtsmen have been unable to acquire satisfac- 
torily through their collegiate or practical experience, 
viz., the ateliers, the Club classes, and the concours of the 
Beaux Arts Society. 

Now it is evident to us that none of the systems 
named above, is in itself, and independent of all other 
agencies, able to produce the combination of general cul- 
ture, good taste, instinct for beauty and executive ability 
which make up the ideal architect. The architectural 



schools should, by their general training, do much 
towards the creation of broad and inclusive culture: they 
must ground their students in the history of art and civil- 
ization and the correspondence between these two tilings ; 
they will give him his fundamental knowledge of the 
essential elements of architecture as an art; they must 
enable him to lay the broad foundation on which he is to 
erect his superstructure of professional capacity, but the 
crucial point, the development of good taste and the 
instant sense of beauty, they cannot touch through the 
scholastic agencies now marshalled to this end. We are 
unanimously of the opinion that this passion for beauty 
and this instinctive good taste may be inculcated, if at 
all, not through the methods of scientific pedagogy, but 
by the close personal relations and the keen enthusiasm 
that arise through the association of a group of students 
with a practicing architect, chosen by the free will of the 
student because of admiration for, and sympathy with, 
his principles, his personality and his achievements. 

With the advantages of the atelier system comes a cor- 
responding danger, that of a feudal following of one 
strong personality and an unconscious exaggeration of 
his peculiar theories and methods. This danger is 
counteracted by the system of general competitions be- 
tween the students in the several schools and ateliers, 
where each man, as representing each system or impulse, 
finds himself on a field of battle where individualism is 
put to the test and stands or falls by just so far forth as 
it has acquired universality. 

This combination of the atelier and the concours is, to 
a large degree, the method introduced and followed by 
the Beaux Arts Society, and we believe it essential in 
any scheme of architectural education ; but so long as the 
atelier system is purely voluntary, and so long as the 
concours are conducted by a group of men without official 
status, and bound together by the traditions of one par- 
ticular system and nationality of training, there is always 
the danger of an unwholesome predominance of one set 
of ideas, to the unintentional exclusion of others of equal 
value but of different origin. Such competitions con- 
ducted exclusively by advocates of Gothic or of Art Nou- 
veau might conceivably defeat their own just ends. 

Believing, therefore, that these two features of the 
atelier and the general competition are essential elements 
in any complete scheme of architectural education, and 
that to have their fullest effect they should become a part 
of the curriculum of every architectural school, we urge 
on the several schools the wisdom of action to this end, 
and on the Education Committee of next year considera- 
tion of the question how a scheme of general competitions 
similar to those now conducted by the Beaux Arts So- 
ciety, but official and universal, may be brought into 
existence. 

In scrutinizing the several schools to ascertain in how 
far each seemed to be working towards the development 
of the typical gentleman of general culture with special 
architectural ability, and acting on an unanimous opinion 
that design can best be taught, at least in its higher 
aspects, only through the personal influence of practicing 
architects, while the instinct for beauty may be best 
developed by personal contact with those who already 
possess this instinct and the power to communicate it, 
we took the ground that the work of the schools should 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



be considered primarily as a means towards the develop- 
ment of a man of general culture, and as an agency for 
establishing sound and basic principles of art, which, 
through intimate contact with architects themselves, 
should be developed to their highest estate. 

Working on this basis, and using for purposes of 
general comparison the tables printed by the Committee 
on Education of the Architectural League, we found sur- 
prising variations as between six of the principal schools 
of the United States. Mathematics varied from 6.5 
points at Harvard to 12 at Technology and Columbia; 
building construction from 5 at Harvard to 10.5 at the 
University of Illinois; languages from 7 at Columbia to 
20 at Pennsylvania and the Institute of Technology; art 
theory and history from 7 at the University of Illinois to 
18.5 at Columbia; freehand drawing and rendering from 
5 at Illinois to 11 at Cornell; and design from r 3 . f > at 
Technology to 32 at Cornell. 

While the tables referred to should be used only as a 
basis for the most general deductions, we are convinced 
that they show indisputably that our schools are weakest 
in providing what we have called general culture. For ex- 
ample, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology stands 
alone in giving more than two points to general history, 
and here the points number only four, while mathematics 
is credited with 12, science 9, and languages 20, the latter 
branch of education ranking 50 per cent higher than even 
design itself. We desire, therefore, to urge on many of 
our architectural schools consideration of the question, 
whether they may not advisably diminish the stress now 
laid on purely technical education and strengthen that 
placed on all that tends towards general culture ; and on 
those schools, where, in the tables of the League the 
points credited to esthetics fall below 30, consideration 
of the possibility of strengthening themselves in this 
particular direction. 

So far as education in design is concerned, we found 
that the atelier system had been accepted in its entirety 
only by Columbia, while Harvard had introduced a modi- 
fication that was working well, and seemed to us very 
significant. Participation in the concours of the Beaux 
Arts Society was authorized by the University of Penn- 
sylvania, Syracuse, Cornell, Washington University, St. 
Louis and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

There is every reason to be encouraged by the present 
system of architectural study at Columbia, which has 
been recently reorganized on thorough-going "Univer- 
sity" lines. Here the course is not divided arbitrarily 
into years, but into grades, and in each the student must 
acquire a given number of credits before passing to the 
next higher. Students are required to carry on their 
work in design in some one of the ateliers or studios offi- 
cially recognized by the University. A choice of two 
courses is offered, one for the Bachelors degree, the other 
for a Certificate in Architecture, the requirements for the 
former being more severe, while in the latter a course in 
structural design is offered in place of mathematics and 
engineering. Graduates of this school may pursue their 
studies in advanced design and research in foreign schools 
of architecture: the program consists in one major and 
two minor subjects: the first is one of design, and through 
an arrangement with France, is pursued in an atelier con- 
nected with the School of Fine Arts. One of the minor 



subjects implies travel or library work, the other is in the 
line of general culture, the courses at the Sorbonne being 
available by arrangement. 

It seems to us that the question has been taken up at 
Columbia with the broadest view and is being worked out 
logically and with every prospect of admirable results. 

There are two points at Harvard that seem to us par- 
ticular^ noteworthy; the broad and lucid manner in 
which the theory and history of art are being taught, and 
the recent adoption of a modified atelier scheme. Four 
architects of established reputation set, in succession, 
problems in advanced design; each criticizes the working 
out, at more or less frequent intervals during the space 
of a month, and in the end renders judgment. This 
seems to us a step in the right direction, though by no 
means to take the place of the true atelier system. It is, 
however, an indication of one way in which architectural 
schools that, unlike Harvard, are at a distance from the 
large cities, may acquire something of the indispensable 
element of personal influence on the part of practicing 
architects. 

In nr investigation of the subject, many questions 
have suggested themselves as worthy of serious considera- 
tion. We do not feel that our data justify us in making 
a specific report on these matters, but we name them and 
commend their consideration to our successors in this 
committee. 

They are as follows: 

What do the schools teach as to the expressive 
function of art in general and architecture in particular, 
i. r., as to art as an index of civilization, standing high 
or low in exact relationship to the civilization that 
brought it into being? 

What is the attitude of the several schools towards the 
various styles, /. e., do they all, or any of them, teach 
that there are one or more styles which are sound and 
logical, while there are others which may or may not be 
interesting from an archa-ological standpoint only: If so, 
what? 

What is taught as to the relationship between con- 
struction and function on the one hand, and design and 
decoration on the other, i. e., is this relationship clearly 
brought out in the case of Classical, Byzantine, Roman- 
esque, Gothic, Renaissance and modern architecture, or 
is it ignored, each style being considered as an abstract 
thing, regardless of its aspect as a manifestation of the 
close community that must obtain between function, con- 
struction, design and decoration? 

What are the criteria of judgment of design in the 
several schools ; do they vary, and if so, to what degree? 

How much attention is given to the question of pres- 
entation in each school? And is there, apparently, an 
undue amount of time and labor given to this in certain 
schools, an inadequate amount of time and labor in 
others? 

In view of the fact that the practice of architecture is 
rapidly becoming so specialized that it is apparently nec- 
essary that a student should decide at the outset as to 
whether he should follow the esthetic or the structural 
line of work, is it not desirable that the schools should 
divide their courses in such a way that a student might 
elect which one he would follow, artistic or structural, 
there being, in the case of the former, a maximum of 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



esthetic instruction and a definite minimum of structural 
education; in the latter a maximum of structural educa- 
tion, a definite minimum of that which is in its nature 
esthetic. 

To give a general resume of our conclusions, we re- 
port as follows : 

The object of all education is to make more effective 
units. For this, the fundamental equipment is that 
knowledge of the language, literature and history of his 
own country as will enable one intelligently to take ad- 
vantage of opportunities; and such knowledge of the 
literature and history and art of other countries as shall 
give a broad general knowledge of what civilization is. 
The possession of this knowledge is what is meant by 
cultivation. 

When a man adopts a special branch of industry and 
thus limits his useful effectiveness to a distinct field, 
special training and knowledge are required in addition to 
general cultivation, which nevertheless remains the 
fundamental essential. 

Schools of architecture are established for the pur- 
pose, first, of insuring the pupil in the possession of 
general cultivation ; second, to give him a thorough 
technical equipment in the history and literature of 
architecture and in the laws that have been established by 
precedent; this, to make him familiar with present con- 
ditions and practice. In no one of these fields is his 
study completed in the school; he is simply started in 
the right way. In general cultivation and in a knowl- 
edge of the history of architecture it is essential that the 
student should be fully equipped, while his acquaintance 
with methods and practice may be, and indeed will be, 
largely acquired later. 

It is on the first two then, cultivation and the theory 
of design, that attention should be centered. Admirable 
as our schools are, it can do no harm to emphasize the 
point that they are training men to be intelligent archi- 
tects, not skilled draughtsmen, and that manual dexterity 
is dearly bought if it is at the expense of intellectual 
equipment. Skill can readily be acquired with practice; 
nothing in practice quite takes the place of sound school 
training. 

The schools should give the student a thorough 
grounding in the great architectural precedents and their 
application, and an intelligent understanding of them so 
that he may know why they became established and to 
what extent they meet modern requirements. 

Of prime importance are the classic orders, not for 
what they are in themselves, but because they are the 
terms, the language, in which a very large part of our 
architectural heritage is expressed. With a thorough 
knowledge of the orders and their application in Greece 
and Rome, one is in a position to understand the varied 
expression of the Renaissance in Italy, in France, in 
England, in Spain and in her American possessions, and 
here in the United States. 

Almost if not quite equally important is the knowl- 
edge of Christian architecture; the whole development 
that followed on the fall of the Roman empire, and 
which, through Syrian, Byzantine, Southern Romansque 
and Norman finally culminated in the wondertul architec- 
tural monuments of the Middle Ages. The one is the 
history of a great intellectural and sensuous movement, 



the other of a great spiritual movement. In both is the 
sense of beauty very marked, in both is construction 
recognized as the basis of all good architecture. 

The knowledge of these things is fundamental for the 
education of the architect; ability to apply the knowledge 
is essential for practice. The student may learn how to 
apply his knowledge in the school, even though the real 
application of it comes later. It is in teaching the stu- 
dent how to apply his knowledge that the architect can be 
of real use to the teacher. The man in constant active 
practice, to whom the school is but an occasional occupa- 
tion, brings to his work a spirit, an enthusiam, a point of 
view, which are essential for the development of the 
critical faculty. 

We believe that the more important work of the 
school, general cultivation, and the theory of design, 
which can best be taught by the trained teacher, should 
be supplemented on the less important side, the practice 
of design, by the active assistance and cooperation of the 
architect. 

If this is to be done in the most effective way unity 
both of aim and of action is desirable for the principal 
schools of architecture, so that those in charge, who are 
necessarily most familiar with the work, themselves may 
determine on the best methods. 

This unification we are almost inclined to consider the 
crux of the whole matter. Important as they are, 
methods must be secondary to impulses. At present, 
it seems to us, not only does the idea of general culture 
as the indispensible basis, fail of its due recognition — 
the general tendency being towards the development of 
the specialist, or savant, rather than of the well rounded 
and cultured personality with a special equipment for 
architectural expression — but architectural education in 
the United States tends towards an undue individualism 
and centralization on the part of the several schools. 
Educationally, the architectural profession seems to be 
in about the position of the thirteen Colonies before the 
adoption of the Constitution — even before the ratifica- 
tion of trie Articles of Confederation. 

We believe that on the whole, Architecture is being 
taught in America with a broader view, and in certain 
respects more effectively than in any other country. 
Through coordination, a unification of standards, and 
cooperation, we believe that in a few years the education 
offered in this country might be looked upon as final, 
except for the absolutely necessary element of study and 
cultivation through travel and research amongst the inim- 
itable monuments of the pagan and Christian past. We 
object to considering our own schools merely as feeders 
for the Schools of Fine Arts in Paris, and we look forward 
to the time when a great Post Graduate course shall be 
possible in America through a great central School of 
Fine Arts in Washington. To make this possible, we 
must first of all achieve a certain amount of coordination, 
unification, and cooperation between all our now some- 
what aggressively independent schools, and we believe 
that the first step in this direction would be the accep- 
tance by all of the principle of general competitions, and 
the establishing of an official, central, and representative 
body that should put this principle into practice. 

RALPH ADAMS CRAM, 

( hair man. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Modern English Suburban Houses. II. 

IT is the fashion now in architectural circles to regard 
Ruskin as a perverted critic. The fervor of media- - 
valism has spent itself, and no high priest of it in archi- 
tecture could gain such an ascendency as Ruskin 
achieved. Our outlook has changed, every-day practi- 
calities have asserted themselves; and there has been a 
hue and cry for better education. So other teachers 
have taken Ruskin's place. No one, however, ever wrote 
more forcibly about architecture than Ruskin. One calls 
to mind a score of vehemencies of his which strike 



towns not only well-built houses but well-designed 
houses; and the general trend is towards improvement. 

With villas built in rows, semi-detached, perhaps, 
but with a minimum of space between each block, the 
architect finds himself confronted with some problems 
which are awkward to solve. In such cases the frontage 
is small and the first difficulty arises out of the hall. It 
is generally recognized now, that to make the hall a sort 
of narrow passageway is a mistake, and, while there is 
not enough room at disposal to allocate any large portion 
to it, some fair-sized space must be allowed if the house 
is to be satisfactory. Then there is the question of 




HOUSE, at LEICESTER. Ernest W. Gimson, Architect. 



straight home, and [there is one bearing on my present 
subject which may here be cited. " Those pitiful con- 
cretions of lime and clay which spring up, in mildewed 
forwardness, out of the kneaded fields about our capitals 
— those thin, tottering, found ationless shells of splin- 
tered wood and imitated stone — those gloomy rows of 
formalized minuteness, alike without difference and with- 
out fellowship." Now that is as true to-day about Eng- 
lish suburbs as when Ruskin wrote it, but it is not the 
whole truth, for, as we endeavored to show in a former 
article, there are to be found in the outskirts of our 



aspect and light. This is governed of course by jthe 
directions in which the roads run. In any case, sunlight 
must be able to penetrate the living-rooms and bedrooms 
at some hour of the day; a requirement, however, which 
is not always possible, by reason of the fact that adjoin- 
ing houses block the way. 

Another matter for careful consideration is the plac- 
ing of the house on the site. Within recent years there 
has been a change in regard to this. It used to be the 
practice to dump the house in the center of the site and 
have a piece of garden on either side, but as in most 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 





/ 




ROAD FRONT. 




GARDEN FRONT. 

HOUSE AT YORK. Walter H. Brierley, Architect. 



IO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




HOUSE AT BIRMINGHAM. W. R. Lethaby, Architect. 




• v f i il f Jf n : i 



M , \ V ' t \\ j^|i 




1111a 







HOI SK AT BIRMINGHAM. Bateman «: Bateman, Architects. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



1 1 



cases the site was narrow and 
not very long, the result was 
that the garden at the front 
was more or less wasted 
while the remainder of it at 
the back was too small to be 
of any real use. Now the 
house is brought forward 
more, and while being set 
back a reasonable distance 
from the road — enough to 
gain privacy — there is left 
at the back a piece of 
ground of useful size. Some 
suburban houses treated in 
this way were shown in the 
first article. The houses il- 
lustrated on these pages, 
however, it will be seen, are 
of a more extensive char- 
acter. They are the best and 
biggest examples of subur- 
ban houses, and in many 
instances they have been 



built for private owners instead of as speculations of 
an estate company. 

It often happens that colonies of such houses will spring 
up in some secluded place on the fringe of a town. 
Four Oaks, near Bir- 
mingham, is an in- 
stance of this. There 
are dozens of well- 
designed houses to be 
found at Four Oaks. 
We show three, all by 
architectsof note. Mr. 
Lethaby is in the fore- 
front of English archi- 
tects ; his work is schol- 
arly always, but quite 
free from any taint of 
the schools. He has 
not designed such a 
great number of 
houses, but there is 
freshness about each ; 
his house at Four Oaks 
shows this. Mr. Bid- 
lake is another archi- 
tect whose work is al- 
ways interesting, and 
very equal, too — 
which is more than 
can be said of some 
architects. Mr. Bid- 
lake is known best for 
his church work, but 
he is great in house 
design also, and the 
several houses at Four 
Oaks for which he was 
responsible bear tes- 
timony to this. Of 



similar calibre is J. L. Ball. 
We illustrate a portion of a 
house by him at Edgbaston, 
Birmingham, excellent in 
every detail. None of these 
men have what might be 
called big practices; they are, 
indeed, outside the societies 
even ; they do not parade 
themselves; but their merit 
is well recognized in the pro- 
fession (albeit Mr. Lethaby 
has become almost a virtu- 
oso). AVe would not infer 
that a big practice necessa- 
rily means mediocrity in the 
work produced ; on the con- 
trary, one might truthfully 
adopt the old adage that 
"practice makes perfect." 
Bateman & Bateman offer an 
example. They are archi- 
house at Birmingham. tects in Birmingham with an 

T. L. Ball, Architect. .• • r, ,,,.„ 

J » extensive practice in house 

work, but all of it is good, and some of it is of first-rate 
character. Take the house at Four Oaks, here illus- 
trated. „This is clearly the work of a very able architect; 
and other similar instances might be cited. English 

domestic architecture, 





TWO HOUSES AT LEICESTER. 

Kverard & Pick, Architects. 



indeed, has some very 
talented exponents, 
as witness again the 
superlatively clever 
houses of Mr. Gimson 
and Mr. Brierley, 
shown among the il- 
lustrations accom- 
panying this article. 
There is nothing of 
the stock design about 
these houses; they are 
stamped with brilliant 
individuality, and 
they exhibit a most 
notable ability. It is 
not to be supposed that 
houses of such char- 
acter will be found all 
about the country; 
they are clearly ex- 
ceptional, the work of 
architects of the front 
rank; but there is no 
doubt that in suburban 
districts the houses 
that are now being 
built are very often 
of a good type, quiet 
and refined, and one 
can only hope that 
the standard thus set 
up will be followed 
by rank and file. 



12 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



A Terra Cotta Lumber, with Plaster Finish House. 

FOR MR. MATTHEW SULLIVAN, OF MAGINNIS, WALSH & SULLIVAN, ARCHITECTS. 

is one of 



L 



MR. SULLIVAN'S house at Canton, Mass 
the many examples now- 
coming into existence of a 
dwelling built entirely of terra 
cotta blocks. In selecting 
this material the owner was 
influenced chiefly by consid- 
erations of cost and durabil- 
ity, it being obvious that the 
use of blocks so little larger 
in size than ordinary bricks 
would raise no obstacles to be 
overcome in the architectural 
design and general appearance 
of the house. The walls once 
covered with an ample coat of 
cement, the picturesque sur- 
face due to their peculiar con- 
struction is permanently hid, 
and they appear like those of 
many another cement-coated 
house, whose structure is of 
brick or wood. But the terra 
cotta blocks have other advan- 
tages. They form a fireproof 
wall, and when the cells are 
laid in horizonal courses there 
is a positive air space within 
the wall. This renders the 
house damp-proof and makes xbok Pi ATE.*-"3f 
it possible to easily keep it Joist b£ar.img^_ 
warm in winter. The weight 
per foot of such a wall is 
approximately ninety pounds. 
The blocks were espe- 
cially designed for use in this 
house. By means of a pro- 




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jection on the upper surface and a corresponding groove 

below, a lock bond is ob- 
tained, and the dimension of 
the block is such that there 
is a perfect tie through the 
wall. Lintels over openings 
are formed by three blocks 
held together and supported 
by two three-fourth inch steel 
channels grouted in cement, 
which virtually forms a rein- 
forced cement lintel. 

The illustrations show the 
house during construction and 
when completed. It was be- 
gun about the middle of July 
and was ready for occupancy 
December first of the same 
year. The 2,800 feet of terra 
cotta blocks it contains were 
laid up by two masons in five 
weeks' time. 

The cost of the house com- 
pleted is about the same as it 
would have been in its par- 
ticular locality if built of wood 
and painted. The cost of 
maintenance, however, will be 
much less, not to mention the 
item of insurance. And it is 
to be observed that all these 
practical advantages are ob- 
tained without any sacrifice of 
beauty or sign of effort in 
venturing the use of a com- 
paratively new building ma- 
terial. 



XIXVAcTIQTT 





SECOND- FLOW 



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THE STRENGTH 

SOME tests were recently made to crushing per square 
foot, of three brick piers, each 1 2 inches square and 
8 feet long, the first laid up in mortar composed of 
one part Portland cement and two parts sand and allowed 
to set seven days; the second, of bricks laid in pure 
Portland cement allowed to set seven days; and the 
third, of bricks in Portland cement allowed to set four- 
teen days. The first pier withstood about 250 tons, the 
second over 325, and the third practically over 400 tons 



OF BRICK PIERS. 

per square foot. Of course the piers were exceptional 
ones, laid up with extraordinary care and all the 
conditions of test and resistance were ideal ; but in the 
face of such experiments it w r ould seem as if ordinary 
brickwork laid up in an ordinary manner in good 
Portland cement mortar ought easily to be trusted 
with at least 25 tons per square foot, or about the 
same stress per foot as is considered wise upon sand- 
stone. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 









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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 

THE BANK BUILDING COMPETITION. 
AWARD OF PRIZES. 

THE jury for the Bank Building Competition awarded 
First Prize ($500) to George A. Licht, New York 
city; Second Prize ($200) to H. C. Pittman and Henry 
H Braun, New York city; Third prize ($100) to Homer 
Kiessling, Boston; and Mention to the following: Claud 
W. Beelman, Detroit; Fred Y. Murphy, Paris; Eugene 
Ward, Jr., New York; W. Cornell Appleton, Newton, 
Mass; W. A. Paine, Columbus, Ohio; W. B. Olmsted, 
Washington, D. C. 

The Competition was judged in New York city, Jan- 
uary 19, by Messrs. Donn Barber, Henry F. Hornbostel, 
John Mead Howells and Philip Sawyer. 



BUILDING OPERATIONS FOR 1906 AND 1905. 

OFFICIAL reports from some fifty leading cities 
throughout the United States, received by The 
American Contractor ; New York, and tabulated, showing 
the building transactions of the past year as compared 
with those of 1905, are very interesting. The results will 
prove in the nature of a surprise to many people and do 




FIKF.PLACE FACED WITH FAIENCE TILES 
REPEATING LANDSCAPE DESIGN 

Made by Rookwood Pottery Company. 

much towards reassuring those who had come to look 
upon our remarkable building prosperity, as a thing of the 
past, and prepared themselves for a substantial decline 
during the present year. The total building transactions 
in the cities tabulated, for the year 1906, were $591,283,- 
571, a gain of $13,077,622 over those of 1905, which stood 
78,205,949. Figured on a percentage basis, this 
amounts to a gain of something more than two per cent. 
This result is all the more gratifying because it was 
not anticipated except by those that had kept a close tab 
on the building operations of the various cities, and few 
of that class, before formulating and figuring the reports, 
expected a balance on the credit side of the building 
ledger. The result clearly demonstrates that the build- 
ing movement is still with us, and that undiminished. 




TOWER, MORRIS HIGH SCHOOL, NEW YORK. 

C. B. J. Snyder, Architect. 

Terra Cotta by New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company. 

There have been losses, it is true, but they are widely 
distributed, and evidently depend upon local conditions, 
which argue little or nothing against future prospects. 
The loss in New York, where the operations of 1905 were 
exceptionally large, amounted to nearly 25 millions, yet 
this was offset with more than 13 millions in addition in 
other cities. 
The fol- 
lowing fig- 
ures show 
the percent- 
age of gain 
over 1905 ; 
Buffalo, 1 7 ; 
Chicago, 13 ; 
Cleveland, 
32; Chatta- 
nooga, 7 7 ; 
Dallas, 1 3 ; 
Denver, 9 ; 
Detroit, 27 ; 
Duluth, 66; 
Grand Rap- 
i d s , 16; 
Louisville, 
14 ; Los An- 
geles, 1 s ; 
Minneapo- DOME OF THE convent, glenn ridde, pa. 

,.,■»» K. F. Durand, Architect. 

lis, 6; Mem- 

. ' Covered with eight-inch Conosera Craduated Tile 
pnis, 22; made by The Ludowici-Celadon Company. 




THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



'7 



Nashville, n; New Orleans, 
8; Philadelphia, 17; St. Louis, 
27; Seattle, 77; Toledo, 52; 
Tacoraa, 58. The losses of 
leading cities are shown in the 
following figures: Indianapo- 
lis, 23; Kansas City, 13; Mil- 
waukee, 9 ; Mobile, 4 ; New 
York, 9 ; Pittsburg, 9 ; Provi- 
dence, 15; Rochester, 8; Syr- 
acuse, 31; Topeka, 10. 




THE ARCHITECTURAL ue 

GROWTH OF NEW YORK. 

NEW buildings of New 
York City which are either abou 



rAIL NORMAL LATIN SCHOOL, BOSTON, 
Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 
Atlantic Terra CottaCo., Makers. 




DETAIL BY F. C. BONSACK, ARCHITECT 
Winkle Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

chitectural beauty. To substantiate 
this claim, he mentions the following: 
The new Custom House, by Cass 
Gilbert, cost, more than $5,000,000. 
The new hall of Records, by Horgan 
& Slattery, cost $6,500,000. The new 
Public Library, by Carrere & Hast- 
ings, cost $5,000,000. The sixty-five 
Carnegie Branch Libraries, cost $5,- 
000,000. The new Bellevue Hospital 
Group, McKim, Mead & White, archi- 
tects, cost $8,500,000. The new Post 
Office Building, cost over $6,000,000. 
The new Health Department Build- 
ing, cost $3,000,000. The group of 
buildings for the College of the City 
of New York, George B. Post and 



t starting or near- 
i n g comple- 
tion would, ac- 
cording to a 
writer in one 
of the popular 
m aga z i nes, 
make a city of 
no mean pro- 
portions, and 
one of the 
greatest of ar- 



more of magni 
of new school- 
houses. 

Another 
city could be 
made up of the 
minor build- 
ings and less 
expensive res- 
idences which 
are taking 
s h a n e in 



The Hotel Knickerbocker, 
Livingston & Trowbridge, 
architects, cost $5,000,000. 

Apartment houses galore, 
a series of public bath houses 
and recreation piers, enor- 
mous bridges spanning East 
River, several new museums, 
large railway terminals, sky- 
scrapers, the tallest of which 
will be the Singer Building, 
forty-one stories, cost $5,000,- 
000. 

In addition to these, sev- 
eral new theaters, a score or 
ficent residences, and $14,000,000 worth 



MASS. 



DESIGN IN PEDIMENT FOR A BOAT CLUB. 

Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 

Excelsior Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 




DETAIL BY F. B. & L. L. LONG, ARCHITECTS. 
Northwestern Terra Cotta Makers. 

Columbia University, costing several 
millions. The Cathedral of St. John 
the Divine, Heins & La Farge, archi- 
tects, which, when completed, will 
cost $15,000,000. New Madison 
Square Church, McKim, Mead & 
White, architects, cost $1,000,000. 
New St. Thomas Church, Cram, Good- 
hue & Ferguson, architects, cost $1,- 
000,000. The Hotel Plaza, H. J. Har- 
denburg, architect, cost $5,000,000. 



vS o n , archi- 
tects, cost $5,- 
000,000. New 
Dormitories, 
Science Build- 
ings and St. 
Paul's Chapel, 



mosaic is now 
manufactured 
with the ut- 
most ease at 
remark ably 
low prices and 
with great 





DETAIL BY E. L. TILTON, ARCHITECT. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

swarms in and about Greater New 
York. 



MOSAIC. 

THE absence of color in our street 
architecture is a constant source 
of regret to those who love the pictur- 
esque element which color can so 
easily supply. So far as we can recall 
there are no buildings in this country 
in which an attempt has been made 
to combine terra cotta and glass 
mosaic, and yet the combination has 
been worked out in some cases with 
great success in North Italian work 
and there is no good reason why it 
should not be acceptable here. Glass 





DETAIL BY NEW JERSEY TERRA COTTA CO. 

variety of tones and effects. The con- 
trast between the delicate, refined 
effect of the glass, with its brilliant 
colorings and cobweb-like detail, and 
the firm, bold texture of terra cotta, 
is one which is always fascinating to 
the artist. 



REPRODUCTION OF PAR'lHENON FRIEZE 
BY HARTFORD FAIENCE CO. 



IN GENERAL 
The exterior of the new Columbia 
Chapel illustrated in T HE Brick- 



IS 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




HOUSE AT CINCINNATI. 

Robert Sharp, Architect. 

Roofed with American Tile. Made by Cincinnati Roofing Tile 

and Terra Cotta Co. 



builder for December was built up of Harvard bricks 
which were furnished by Carter, Black & Ayers, i Mad- 
ison Avenue, New York. Some 200,000 were required 
for the work. Sayre & Fisher Company furnished the 
old gold brick used in the interior. 

A. W. Rudolph and C. W. Bates, architects, have 
formed a copartnership, offices, Central Trust Building, 
Altoona, Pa. Manufacturers' samples and catalogues 
solicited. 

The Harbison-Walker Refractories Company, Pitts- 
burg, manufacturers of front brick, have opened a branch 
office at 1223 St. James Building, New York City. Mr. 
C. J. Henderson will have the management. 

The "Garage" was the subject for a competition 
which was recently held by the T Square Club of 
Philadelphia. 





HEINZ COMPANY PLANT AT GRAND RAPIDS. 

Built of " Ironclay " Brick. 

F. II. McDonald, Agent. 

Note Sign made with Sunken Brick. 



THE NEW 
BOSTON BUILD- 
ING LAW. 

THERE has just 
been reported 
to the legislature a 
draft for an entirely 
new building law for 
the city of Boston. 
This law has been 
prepared by a special 
commission appoint- 

, , ,, . DETAIL BY SAMUEL SASS, ARCHITECT. 

ed by the mayor, in- ' 

J J South Ambuv Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

eluding representa- 
tives from the Society of Architects, Master Builders' 
Association, Real Estate Exchange, the Building Depart- 
ment and the Law Department. Under this proposed 
law the allowed stresses upon brickwork are as follows, 
in tons per square foot : 

(1) For first-class work, of hard-burned bricks, and 
including piers in which the height does not exceed six 
times the least dimension, laid in: 

(a) One part Portland cement, three parts sand, by volume, dry - 18 

(b) One part Rosendale cement, two parts sand, by volume, dry - 15 

(c) One part Rosendale cement, one part lime and six parts sand, 

by volume, dry! - - - - - - - - 12 

(d; Lime mortar, one part lime, six parts sand, by volume, dry - 8 

(2) For brick piers of hard-burned bricks, in which 
the height is from six to twelve times the least dimen- 
sion: 

Mortar (a) - - ... - 16 

Mortar (b) ..-.-....,3 

Mortar (c) --------- 10 

Mortar (d) ......... 7 

(3) For brickwork made of "light-hard " bricks, the 
stresses shall not exceed two-thirds of the stresses for 
like work of hard-burned bricks. 

The entire silence of nearly all of our building laws as 
regards any limitations of strength for terra cotta fire- 
proofing, and the care with which such provisions are 
elaborated regarding concrete, would seem to indicate a 
feeling of confidence that terra cotta in its actual use is 
perfectly equal to all the demands put upon it. 

WANTED — A competent architectural superintendent for gen- 
eral work, one capable of draughting during spare time. Also 
wanted a competent architectural draughtsman. Especially good 
opening for any one seeking a mild and equable climate. Write, 
stating experience and salary, to Hebbard & Gill, Architects, San 
Diego, Cal. 

Architectural draughtsman desires position in Boston or vicinity; 
preferably in small office doing a good class of work. Has had 
several years' experience with architects and builders. References 
and specimens of pen and color rendering furnished. Salary $35 per 
week. Address Pen and Brush, care THE BRICKBUILDER. 

WANTED — Good all-around architectural draughtsman. State 
experience and salary desired. Address R. Maurice Trimble, Fergu- 
son Building, Pittsburg, Pa. 

WANTED — Correspondence with a young architectural 
draughtsman who is well up on church design and familiar with 
English Gothic. Address M. O. Pillsbuiy, Fond du Lac, Wis. 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

The Graduate School of Applied Science 
and The Lawrence Scientific School 

offer graduate and undergraduate courses in Civil, Mechanical, Electrical. Mining and 
Metallurgical Engineering. Architecture, Landscape Architecture. Forestry, Physics, 
Chemistry, Biology and Ceology. 
For further information, address \V. C. S \ B I N E, 14 University Hall, Cambridge, Mass. 



THE 

VOL. 16, NO. 1. 



BRICKBUILDER 



PLATE 1. 




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THE BR ICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 1. PLATE 2. 




a t » 'i;r :i , i n„ l »Lm/ : , ij,,,,,,: : ,:i 



::: „ . ,',. .; , :, , „;. l .r 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 1. PLATE 3. 





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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 1. PLATE 4. 




..A\AlN.rLOO£.PLAN. 



PLANS, CARNEGIE BRANCH LIBRARY, COLLEGE POINT. N. Y. 
Heins & LaFarge, Architects. 




CARNEGIE BRANCH LIBRARY, MARCY AVENUE. BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
Walker & Morris, Architects. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 1. PLATE 5. 




CARNEGIE BRANCH LIBRARY, ELMHURST, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
Lord & Hewlett, Architects. 




CARNEGIE BRANCH LIBRARY, LEROY STREET, NEW YORK 
Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 1. PLATE 6. 








CARNEGIE BRANCH LIBRARY. FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
Lord & Hewlett, Architects. 






THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 1. PLATE 7. 




CARNEGIE BRANCH LIBRARY, COLLEGE POINT, NEW YORK. 
Heins & LaFarge, Architects. 




CARNEGIE BRANCH LIBRARY. MARCY AVENUE, BROOKLYN. 
Walker & Morris, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 1. PLATE 8. 








DETAIL, RICHMOND BOROUGH . HALL. ST. GEORGE, STATEN ISLAND, N. Y. 

Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 1. 



PLATE 9. 




RICHMOND BOROUGH HALL. ST. GEORGE, STATEN ISLAND. N. Y. 
Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 1. PLATE 10. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. 16, NO. 1. 



PLATE 11. 




THE RATHSKELLER. 

RESTAURANT, MILWAUKEE, WIS. 
Ferry & Clas, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

V ° L - ' 6 ' N °- '• PLATE 12. 




PARISH HOUSE, ROSLYN. LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 

McKim. Meade & white Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 1. PLATE , 3 



if 




queenb.bopoogh.poblic.llbrary. 
. Elmh orst. Branch. 

.Elmhwrst, Lo^Q.]31AND,N.Y. 
.Loud & H &wlett. Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 1. 



PLATE 14. 




PLANS, 

HOUSE. CLINTON AVENUE 

BROOKLYN. 

Hobart A. Walker, Architect. 




PLANS, HOUSE, WOODLAWN AVENUE. CHICAGO. 
Mann & MacNeille, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 1. PLATE 15. 



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jYPICAL.rLOOB.PLAN.OP.PODNITODIES 




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C -ApMIAfI5TRATICW 

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PLANS, 

MASSACHUSETTS SCHOOL AND 

HOME FOR CRIPPLED AND 

DEFORMED CHILDREN, 

CLINTON, MASS: 

WlNSLOW & BlGELOW, ARCHITECTS. 




nBST.n.OOH.PLA". 

PLANS OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 1. PLATE 16 . 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVI 



FEBRUARY 1907 



Number 2 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 
85 Water Street ....... Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1906, by Rogers & Manbon 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and Canada ........... $5-°° 1" ' 

Single numbers 5° cenli 

To countries in the Postal Union ■ • 56. 00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Terra Cotta 

Brick .... 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: 



PAGE 




11 


Brick Enameled 


II 


Clay Chemicals 


I and III 


Fireproofing 


III 


Roofing Tile 



PAGE 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



CONTENTS 



From Work by 



ADAMS & WARREN; ANDREWS, JAOUES & RANTOUL; CHAPMAN & FRAZER; ELLICOTT & 

EMMART; ERNEST FLAGG; FROST & GRANGER; LORD & HEWLETT; PRICE 

& deSIBOUR; JAMES GAMBLE ROGERS; C. HOWARD WALKER. 



LETTERPRESS 



NORTH MYMMS, HERTFORDSHIRE, ENGLAND 

EDITORIALS 

SYNAGOGUE ARCHITECTURE 

MODERN ENGLISH BRICKBUILDING 

A VILLAGE COURTHOUSE. Article IV 

A VILLAGE COTTAGE. Article III 

THE BANK BUILDING COMPETITION. -THE SUCCESSFUL COMPETITORS. 
EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 



Frontispiece 
19 



Arnold II'. Brunttt > 

Mil hael Bunney 

Edwara 
. Gilbet 1 Hindi ■ 



25 
10 

a 




»<<<<<<*<<<<<<<<<<<W<V«<4<<<<<<«<<««<«<«^>>>>>>» 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




VOL. 16 



DEVOTED-TO THE-lNTEREJTJ-OE-ARCHITECmE-lN MATERIALJOF-CLAY- 



FEBRUARY 1907 



jl^<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<^<<<<<<»>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>»»»»B2g 



J" 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

THE name which was chosen for this magazine many 
years ago, and which it has borne courageously ever 
since, has been assumed by some to indicate a certain 
limitation of scope and absence of artistic possibilities. 
One of the best illustrations of the fitness of our name, 
however, as applied to a journal devoted to architecture 
and the fine arts, is afforded by two churches which were 
illustrated in our last issue. Here were two prominent 
public buildings, the one in the very heart of Manhattan, 
the home of one of the wealthiest congregations of the 
city; the other the spiritual center of a great university, 
and in both these structures the artistic element predomi- 
nates, and the design in each is treated in a monumental 
manner. Each problem in the abstract would, at first 
thought, naturally suggest the employment of stone or 
marble, whereas in each a deliberate choice was made of 
burned clay. The result certainly justifies the choice, and 
the artistic results are fully equal to any work which has 
been done within the last year. Terra cotta and burned 
clay were not here chosen because they were cheap, easily 
applied, or could be produced in a hurry. They were 
selected to give an expression to a definite idea in archi- 
tecture, and though the treatment in each case was 
different, and the conception of each was as varied as the 
talents of the architects which produced them, the result 
in each was a masterpiece of a nature which could not 
have been wrought out in quite the same way or with 
quite the same success on the same lines in any other 
material. Burned clay has certainly justified itself here, 
and The Brickbuildek has a legitimate pride in present- 
ing work of this nature, work which is peculiarly within 
its own province. 



THE DESIGNING OF MONUMENTS. 

IN a recent editorial we alluded to the change which 
has come about of late years in the designing of com- 
memorative monuments, by which the architectural ele- 
ment has assumed its proper predominance. As the 
selection of an architect or sculptor for these monuments 
is usually made through a competition, it has been sug- 
gested that in order to secure the best results there ought 
really to be two competitions, the first simply among 
architects, to secure a scheme, and a general architectural 
composition, the architect then being employed in the 
usual capacity to carry out the monument. After that, 
models of the accepted design at a proper scale should be 
placed at the disposal of the sculptors who are invited to 



take part in the second competition, each sculptor study- 
ing his group directly from the model and adapting it to 
the general scheme and to the specific design. In this 
way the difficulty will be avoided, which is so often en- 
countered now, of having a design which is architecturally 
uninteresting accepted because it is coupled with sculp- 
ture of a very high order, or vice versa. Furthermore, 
the present custom of treating the sculptor as a contractor 
and agreeing with him for the delivery of a monument 
complete in all its parts for a specified sum, leaving him 
to work out all the financial problems, to make his profit 
or loss on the portions of the work which he does not 
execute with his own hands, this placing him in the 
humiliating position of seeming to save money in carry- 
ing out the work at the expense of the artistic results, 
will be entirely avoided, and the artist and the architect 
will both be free to study as they should, and will be em- 
ployed in a self-respecting and professional manner. 



STRENGTH OF BRICKWORK. 

IN our last number we noted the proposed change in 
the building law of Boston, by which greater unit 
stresses were to be allowed on brickwork. Since then 
the Commission having the preparation of this law in 
charge, after careful consideration, has increased still 
further the allowable load per foot, so that if this statute 
goes into effect, as seems quite likely at this time, the 
^cognized safe resistance of properly constructed brick 
piers will be officially set at twenty tons per square foot, 
an increase of thirty-three per cent over what has been 
allowed in the past. 

All the tests with which we are familiar have, for 
years, shown that under the best conditions brickwork is 
far stronger than the existing laws would seem to indi- 
cate. We have repeatedly known piers to be loaded as 
high as twenty-five tons per square foot with every indi- 
cation of safety, and judging by all the tests which have 
been made, an ultimate strength of eighty tons per 
square foot is a very conservative estimate for ultimate 
strength. The factor of safety in masonry constructions 
exposed only to quiescent loads can be very much less 
than is considered necessary for frame structures or 
columns, and as the moment of elasticity in masonry is 
very close to the ultimate resistance, a stress of twenty 
tons per square foot would probably be perfectly safe for 
a pier which would crush at forty tons per foot. It 
would be very poor brick indeed that would not stand 
far more than this. 



20 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Synagogue Architecture. I. 

BY ARNOLD W. BRUNNEK. 

IT is generally stated that there is no Jewish archi- 
tecture. 
Guadet, in his "Elements et Theorie de t Architecture " 

says that "it was to have been expected that the Israel- 
ites, with a region older than Christianity, would have 
produced an architecture with a history, but they did 
not. Accordingly, the synagogue to-day, the direct 
descendant of the Temple, is to us a modern problem not 
materially different from that of the contemporary 
churches." 

The reason for this lies in the history of the Jewish 
people. That there were expressions of art in ancient 
Judea and aspirations for beauty and a fine sense of form 
is not to be doubted. The use of colors and their com- 
binations was understood, and embroidery, engraving 
on metals and other ornamental work were extensively 
practiced. We know, not alone from the scriptures and 
from the detailed description of the Temple in Josephus, 
but from the results of actual explorations made in 
Palestine, that the beginnings of Jewish art were vigor- 
ous and promising. The state of Judea, however, was 
not allowed to pursue the arts of peace for any consider- 
able period of time, and the dispersion of the Jews was 
necessarily fatal to any continuance or development of 
native art. 




HANOVER 

Of all the buildings of Judea that remain for our ex- 
amination to-day, the most important is the base, or 
foundation, of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem. The 
ruined portion of this great fortified wall fills us with 
admiration. It is a wonderful piece of masonry, com- 
posed of colossal stones which are carefully tooled and 
treated with chisel draughts around all the joints and 
beds. 

The stones are laid perfectly true, without mortar. 
The remains of the great arch that connected the Temple 
with the palace are to be seen, and we find that ancient 
Judaic architecture employed not only the arch, but 



vaults, moldings and sculptured decorations, and there 
are many other evidences of advanced architectural skill. 
The Temple has interested many archeologists, and 
numerous curious restorations have been made of it and 
its accessories. The most notable one is shown in the 
careful and brilliant drawings made by George S. Perrot 
and Charles Chipiez; but one instinctively feels that their 




FLORENCE 



imagination has been allowed too much freedom and 
that these admirable restorations, while inspiring in the 
extreme, can hardly be considered as historic documents, 
nor do they indicate a sufficient degree of accuracy upon 
which to base an architectural style. The restoration 
attempted by Mr. Fergusson is more erratic and much less 
convincing, and can hardly be taken seriously. 

Among the remains of the early synagogues that we 
know, those in Galilee, described by the Palestine Ex- 
ploration Society, are the best preserved, but they give 
us only scant information. However, there are many 
details of ornamentation and construction that are most 
suggestive. The so-called Great Synagogue at Kifr 
Birim presents, perhaps, the best indication of the early 
style of architecture employed for these structures. The 
building is rectangular, and on its western end there is a 
porch supported by columns. We find three doorways 
on its main facade, framed by heavily molded archi- 
traves, the croissettes of which are much exaggerated. 
The central door is surmounted by a richly ornamented 
round arch enclosing a carved panel. In this and in 
other buildings of the period we may see numerous 
examples of triglyphs and metopes and columns with 
either Doric or an early form of Ionic capitals. The 
moldings are often decorated and are generally round 
and full, and arches and cornices and panels are heavily 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



21 





INTERIOR OF SYNAGOGUE, PADUA. 



INTERIOR, SHOWING ARK, PADUA. 





INTERIOR OF SYNAGOGUE, PARIS. 



INTERIOR OF SYNAGOGUE, PARIS. 



24 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



carved. We must be impressed by the characteristic 
and distinctive treatment of sculptured palms, garlands, 
discs, grapes suspended from knotted cords, olive and 
vine leaves all cut with a crispness suggesting Byzantine 
work of the fifth or sixth centuries. 

Viollet-Le-Duc, in his "Discourses on Architecture,' 
contends that early Jewish art provided inspiration for 
the Greeks, whom he believes borrowed many details 
from these primitive buildings. 

While there is an absence of any representations of 
men or animals in the sculptured decoration, we discover 
among the remains of synagogues and tombs many 
treatments, such as pediments with moldings, dentils, 
ornamented metopes and others, that so clearly indicate 
the early Greek art that they may not be overlooked, and 
all of which lends color to this theorv. 




INTERIOR OF SYNAGOGUE (NOW CHURCH), TOLEDO, SPAIN 

Josephus describes minutely the porticos of the 
Temple with its columns from which hung tapestry of 
various colors, embroidered with purple flowers, modeled 
clusters of grapes, and other indications of decoration, so 
that we must recognize that the beginnings of an archi- 
tectural style were well advanced. 

Upon examining the ruined remains that exist to- 
day, it is evident that whether this art inspired the 
Greeks, or was inspired by the Greeks, itwasserious and 
important, and if circumstances had allowed it to de- 
velop, it would have probably continued on much the 
same lines as the art of Greece. 

There were many laws governing synagogue architec- 
ture, but they were generally disregarded. The site of 
the building was to be, whenever possible, near the sea- 
shore or by a running stream. The structure itself, or 



some part of it, was to be higher than the surrounding 
buildings, and there were Talmudic regulations determin- 
ing the number of windows, size and position of doors 
and other matters. These regulations, however, were 
apparently treated with indifference, but the main tradi- 
tions were invariably followed. The door of the syna- 
gogue faced the west ; the ark was at the eastern end ; 
the desk, from which the law was read, was approxi- 
mately in the center of the building; the space on either 
side contained benches for the men, and a gallery was 
constructed for the exclusive use of women. This plan 
taken as a basis was developed and improved, but there 
was no deviation from the main idea. The building was 
always rectangular, with or without columns. There 
was no transept, the plan of the basilica being invariably 
adopted. The ark at the eastern end was erected on a 
platform reached by steps and the perpetual lamp was 
suspended in front of it. 

The exterior of the majority of the ancient synagogues 
possessed very little architectural interest and what we 
call interior decoration hardly existed. Sculpture and 
painting were not encouraged and representations of the 
human form were strictly forbidden, but a certain amount 
of symbolism was allowed and plant forms, the grape, 
olive and lily, for instance, were used as embellishments, 
and the ancient heraldic Lion of Judah appeared fre- 
quently. The interlacing triangles, a form whose origin 
is uncertain and not readily explained, became accepted 
as a Jewish symbol and was employed in many ways and 
in various materials. The ark was occasionally con- 
structed of rich material, and gold and silver lamps of 
beautiful workmanship hung at the sides. 

Beginning with these simple requirements, the syna- 
gogue developed, and as congregations became more 
wealthy the buildings became larger and more important, 
entrance halls and vestibules were added, and the stair- 
ways designed in a more dignified fashion. Increase in 
size demanded rows of columns to support the roof, but in 
every case the form of the basilica was retained. The 
ark, which was once a simple niche in the wall, or a more 
or less ornamental receptacle to contain the scrolls of the 
law, grew larger and received more decorative treat- 
ment until it became the main architectural feature of the 
interior and was often ornamented with columns or pi- 
lasters, covered with a canopy and surrounded by balus- 
trades and approached by steps. Additional rooms were 
added at the back of the building for the elders of the 
congregation, and for the general administration of the 
synagogue affairs. 

Considerable space in or adjoining the building was 
provided for schools and for the various charitable works 
undertaken by the congregation. 

There are but few examples of mediaeval synagogues 
now existing and none more important than the interest- 
ing little buildings in Worms and Prague, which date 
from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. 

A comparatively small number have survived from 
the sixteeth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and 
those that have escaped destruction are not, as a rule, re- 
markable for size or distinction. During the last fifty 
years numerous synagogues of great beauty, and some of 
undoubted architectural merit, have been built, and they 
present all varieties of style and construction. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 



25 



The general architectural treatment of the synagogue 
buildings throughout Europe, with the exception of those 
designed in the Moorish style, to which I will refer later, 
depended entirely upon the locality in which they were 
built. The prevailing architectural style of the country 
was adopted; in Russia it was Russian, in Italy it was 
Italian, in Spain it was Moorish. In Germany and other 
parts of Europe there are synagogues built in the Gothic 
style, with interiors containing fine examples of vault- 
ing. 

We find in England synagogues strongly indicating 
the influence of Sir Christopher Wren. Even in China 
the Jewish synagogue in Kai Fang Foo was a piece of 
Chinese work, and the little one in Nagasaki is undoubt- 
edly Japanese. 

A perfect instance of the tendency of the synagogue 
to follow the dominant style of architecture of the coun- 
try in which it was built is found in the case of the one 
built in Newport, R. I., in 1762. This was at one time 
the only synagogue in America. It was designed by 
Peter Harrison, an architect of excellent reputation, who 
had been a pupil of Sir John Van Brugh. He also de- 
signed the Redwood Library and the City Hall in New- 
port, both excellent examples of early Colonial architec- 
ture. The little synagogue was evidently planned with 
great care and all the requirements of Jewish law were 
carefully embodied in it; that is to say, the building was 
rectangular, there was a gallery for the women ap- 
proached by a special staircase. The Ark, the Reading 
Desk, arrangement of seats all followed traditions, and 
the building, while perfectly adapted to the purpose of 
Jewish worship, was designed in Mr. Harrison's usual 
style, and he produced a most charming Colonial build- 
ing. 

In the days when the Jews were a power in Spain 
their synagogues were designed by Moorish architects in 
the only style with which they were familiar and were 
naturally Moorish buildings. Since the expulsion of the 
Jews from Spain many synagogues have been built 
throughout Europe with Moorish detail, as it was evi- 
dently believed that the Moorish style was appropriate, 
and was, at least, "Oriental " in expression. The build- 
ings were never really Moorish, for the style is not a 
flexible one and cannot readily be adapted to the condi- 
tions imposed in church or synagogue buildings. The 
plan was impossible and the interior courts of the Alham- 
bra, which was the favorite model, could not well serve 
for the purpose. The mosque was equally unsuitable, so 
Moorish detail alone was employed and ornamental fea- 
tures and motifs from the Alhambra, or the Alcazar at Se- 
ville, or the mosque at Cordova, were engrafted on build- 
ings in a haphazard way. 

Domes, minarets and other characteristics of Ma- 
hometan architecture were by degrees considered essential 
adjuncts of the Synagogue. This seems to be an entire 
misunderstanding. Nothing could represent the Jewish 
religion or its form of worship less than a Mosque. It 
seems highly illogical to single out one epoch, long and 
important though it was, in the history of the Hebrews, 
when searching for a characteristic style for Jewish places 
of worship, when their residence in England, Holland or 
Italy might have served a similar purpose with more sat- 
isfactory results. 



Modern English Brickbuilding. 

BY MICHAEL BUNNEV. 

THE reestablishment of material on its right basis as 
a factor of good building lias long ago been 
acknowledged by every attentive observer of architec- 
tural development as one of the most far reaching of the 
results brought about by the Gothic revival and the craft 
movement that succeeded it. 

Asa means of architectural expression every building 
material, with the exception, perhaps, of stone, seems to 
have gone through a period of treatment which at one time 
or another not only forced an abandonment of traditional 
usage but even imposed a stigma of unworthiness which 
prejudice was slow to take off. So long as Palladianism 
and the strict ideals of the Classic Revival maintained 
their hold upon architectural taste, stone, as a material in- 
dispensable to the carrying out of those ideals, contrived 
to keep the traditional and masonic methods by which it 
had always been handled; but the very conditions which 
preserved the stone tradition were active in suppressing 
every vestige of this quality in the so-called baser ma- 
terials. 

The coming of cast iron, some of it admirable in its 
way, destroyed the fine school of wrought iron which 
Jean Tijou and Huntingdon Shaw had brought to such 
perfection; lead was slowly relegated to the melting pot 
of the sanitary plumber and lost all its delightful possi- 
bilities as a decorative medium, and woodwork became 
thin and wiry, good oak and deal giving place to polish 
and veneers. 

In the case of brickwork insult was added to injury 
when, in order to get into their work what they were 
pleased to call dignity, the early nineteenth century archi- 
tects turned to stucco as a cheap counterfeit for stone, and 
gave the final blow to what remained of a singularly fine 
tradition. Then a needy exchequer, casting about for 
fresh sources of taxation, imposed duties upon bricks, and 
had, as a consequence, to specify a maximum size; this 
had the immediate effect of standardizing all brickwork, 
of course, without relation to what was the most suitable 
size for good architectural effect. Unfortunately, the 
new standard size was made of larger dimensions than 
those of the common bricks in use at the best periods; 
under the pressure of the tax, therefore, the small brick 
was dropped and brickwork lost a great measure of the 
charm which the better proportioned brick had given it. 

For all practical purposes this standard size, which is 
8^ x 4X x 2 V\i an d rises four courses in 12 inches, is 
still in force, whereas the older bricks often rose five 
courses in 12 inches, a common size being S 1 .. x 4 x 2V 

Mistaken zeal in the effort to obtain rigid uniformity 
of color and texture under each and every circumstance 
still further aided in the degradation. 

It was under the powerful spell which the revival 
exerted upon all artists that Philip Webb, \V. Eden Xes- 
field and Richard Norman Shaw, freeing themselves from 
the architectural vagaries of their forerunners, at one 
step restored material to its proper place as an element in 
design and brought back the treatment of the commonest 
of British building materials into such sound traditional 
lines that brickwork has ever since steadily developed in 
architectural quality. 



24 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



carved. We must be impressed by the characteristic 
and distinctive treatment of sculptured palms, garlands, 
discs, grapes suspended from knotted cords, olive and 
vine leaves all cut with a crispness suggesting Byzantine 
work of the fifth or sixth centuries. 

Yiollet-Le-Duc, in his "Discourses on Architecture,' 
contends that early Jewish art provided inspiration for 
the Greeks, whom he believes borrowed many details 
from these primitive buildings. 

While there is an absence of any representations of 
men or animals in the sculptured decoration, we discover 
among the remains of synagogues and tombs many 
treatments, such as pediments with moldings, dentils, 
ornamented metopes and others, that so clearly indicate 
the early Greek art that they may not be overlooked, and 
all of which lends color to this theory. 




INTERIOR OF SYNAGOGUE (NOW CHURCH), TOLEDO, SPAIN 

Josephus describes minutely the porticos of the 
Temple with its columns from which hung tapestry of 
various colors, embroidered with purple flowers, modeled 
clusters of grapes, and other indications of decoration, so 
that we must recognize that the beginnings of an archi- 
tectural style were well advanced. 

Upon examining the ruined remains that exist to- 
day, it is evident that whether this art inspired the 
Greeks, or was inspired by the Greeks, it was serious and 
important, and if circumstances had allowed it to de- 
velop, it would have probably continued on much the 
same lines as the art of Greece. 

There were many laws governing synagogue architec- 
ture, but they were generally disregarded. The site of 
the building was to be, whenever possible, near the sea- 
shore or by a running stream. The structure itself, or 



some part of it, was to be higher than the surrounding 
buildings, and there were Talmudic regulations determin- 
ing the number of windows, size and position of doors 
and other matters. These regulations, however, were 
apparently treated with indifference, but the main tradi- 
tions were invariably followed. The door of the syna- 
gogue faced the west ; the ark was at the eastern end ; 
the desk, from which the law was read, was approxi- 
mately in the center of the building; the space on either 
side contained benches for the men, and a gallery was 
constructed for the exclusive use of women. This plan 
taken as a basis was developed and improved, but there 
was no deviation from the main idea. The building was 
always rectangular, with or without columns. There 
was no transept, the plan of the basilica being invariably 
adopted. The ark at the eastern end was erected on a 
platform reached by steps and the perpetual lamp was 
suspended in front of it. 

The exterior of the majority of the ancient synagogues 
possessed very little architectural interest and what we 
call interior decoration hardly existed. Sculpture and 
painting were not encouraged and representations of the 
human form were strictly forbidden, but a certain amount 
of symbolism was allowed and plant forms, the grape, 
olive and lily, for instance, were used as embellishments, 
and the ancient heraldic Lion of Judah appeared fre- 
quently. The interlacing triangles, a form whose origin 
is uncertain and not readily explained, became accepted 
as a Jewish symbol and was employed in many ways and 
in various materials. The ark was occasionally con- 
structed of rich material, and gold and silver lamps of 
beautiful workmanship hung at the sides. 

Beginning with these simple requirements, the syna- 
gogue developed, and as congregations became more 
wealthy the buildings became larger and more important, 
entrance halls and vestibules were added, and the stair- 
ways designed in a more dignified fashion. Increase in 
size demanded rows of columns to support the roof, but in 
every case the form of the basilica was retained. The 
ark, which was once a simple niche in the wall, or a more 
or less ornamental receptacle to contain the scrolls of the 
law, grew larger and received more decorative treat- 
ment until it became the main architectural feature of the 
interior and was often ornamented with columns or pi- 
lasters, covered with a canopy and surrounded by balus- 
trades and approached by steps. Additional rooms were 
added at the back of the building for the elders of the 
congregation, and for the general administration of the 
synagogue affairs. 

Considerable space in or adjoining the building was 
provided for schools and for the various charitable works 
undertaken by the congregation. 

There are but few examples of medkeval synagogues 
now existing and none more important than the interest- 
ing little buildings in Worms and Prague, which date 
from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. 

A comparatively small number have survived from 
the sixteeth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and 
those that have escaped destruction are not, as a rule, re- 
markable for size or distinction During the last fifty 
years numerous synagogues of great beauty, and some of 
undoubted architectural merit, have been built, and they 
present all varieties of style and construction. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



25 



The general architectural treatment of the synagogue 
buildings throughout Europe, with the exception of those 
designed in the Moorish style, to which I will refer later, 
depended entirely upon the locality in which they were 
built. The prevailing architectural style of the country 
was adopted ; in Russia it was Russian, in Italy it was 
Italian, in Spain it was Moorish. In Germany and other 
parts of Europe there are synagogues built in the Gothic 
style, with interiors containing fine examples of vault- 
ing. 

We find in England synagogues strongly indicating 
the influence of Sir Christopher Wren. Even in China 
the Jewish synagogue in Kai Fang Foo was a piece of 
Chinese work, and the little one in Nagasaki is undoubt- 
edly Japanese. 

A perfect instance of the tendency of the synagogue 
to follow the dominant style of architecture of the coun- 
try in which it was built is found in the case of the one 
built in Newport, R. I., in 1762. This was at one time 
the only synagogue in America. It was designed by 
Peter Harrison, an architect of excellent reputation, who 
had been a pupil of Sir John Van Brugh. He also de- 
signed the Redwood Library and the City Hall in New- 
port, both excellent examples of early Colonial architec- 
ture. The little synagogue was evidently planned with 
great care and all the requirements of Jewish law were 
carefully embodied in it; that is to say, the building was 
rectangular, there was a gallery for the women ap- 
proached by a special staircase. The Ark, the Reading 
Desk, arrangement of seats all followed traditions, and 
the building, while perfectly adapted to the purpose of 
Jewish worship, was designed in Mr. Harrison's usual 
style, and he produced a most charming Colonial build- 
ing. 

In the days when the Jews were a power in Spain 
their synagogues were designed by Moorish architects in 
the only style with which they were familiar and were 
naturally Moorish buildings. Since the expulsion of the 
Jews from Spain many synagogues have been built 
throughout Europe with Moorish detail, as it was evi- 
dently believed that the Moorish style was appropriate, 
and was, at least, "Oriental " in expression. The build- 
ings were never really Moorish, for the style is not a 
flexible one and cannot readily be adapted to the condi- 
tions imposed in church or synagogue buildings. The 
plan was impossible and the interior courts of the Alham- 
bra, which was the favorite model, could not well serve 
for the purpose. The mosque was equally unsuitable, so 
Moorish detail alone was employed and ornamental fea- 
tures and motifs from the Alhambra, or the Alcazar at Se- 
ville, or the mosque at Cordova, were engrafted on build- 
ings in a haphazard way. 

Domes, minarets and other characteristics of Ma- 
hometan architecture were by degrees considered essential 
adjuncts of the Synagogue. This seems to be an entire 
misunderstanding. Nothing could represent the Jewish 
religion or its form of worship less than a Mosque. It 
seems highly illogical to single out one epoch, long and 
important though it was, in the history of the Hebrews, 
when searching for a characteristic style for Jewish places 
of worship, when their residence in England, Holland or 
Italy might have served a similar purpose with more sat- 
isfactory results. 



Modern English Brickbuilding. 



BY MICllAl- 1. BUNNE) . 

THE reestablishment of" material on its right basis as 
a factor of good building has long ago been 
acknowledged by every attentive observer of architec- 
tural development as one of the most far reaching of the 
results brought about by the Gothic revival and the craft 
movement that succeeded it. 

As a means of architectural expression every building 
material, with the exception, perhaps, of stone, seems to 
have gone through a period of treatment which at one time 
or another not only forced an abandonment of traditional 
usage but even imposed a stigma of unworthiness which 
prejudice was slow to take oil. So long as Palladianism 
and the strict ideals of the Classic Revival maintained 
their hold upon architectural taste, stone, as a material in- 
dispensable to the carrying out of those ideals, contrived 
to keep the traditional and masonic methods by which it 
had always been handled; but the very conditions which 
preserved the stone tradition were active in suppressing 
every vestige of this quality in the so-called baser ma- 
terials. 

The coming of cast iron, some of it admirable in its 
way, destroyed the fine school of wrought iron which 
Jean Tijou and Huntingdon Shaw had brought to such 
perfection ; lead was slowly relegated to the melting pot 
of the sanitary plumber and lost all its delightful possi- 
bilities as a decorative medium, and woodwork became 
thin and wiry, good oak and deal giving place to polish 
and veneers. 

In the case of brickwork insult was added to injury 
when, in order to get into their work what they were 
pleased to call dignity, the early nineteenth century archi- 
tects turned to stucco as a cheap counterfeit for stone, and 
gave the final blow to what remained of a singularly fine 
tradition. Then a needy exchequer, casting about for 
fresh sources of taxation, imposed duties upon bricks, and 
had, as a consequence, to specify a maximum size; this 
had the immediate effect of standardizing all brickwork, 
of course, without relation to what was the most suitable 
size for good architectural effect. Unfortunately, the 
new standard size was made of larger dimensions than 
those of the common bricks in use at the best periods; 
under the pressure of the tax, therefore, the small brick 
was dropped and brickwork lost a great measure of the 
charm which the better proportioned brick had given it. 

For all practical purposes this standard size, which is 
8% x 4/i x 2 H> an d rises four courses in 12 inches, is 
still in force, whereas the older bricks often rose five 
courses in 12 inches, a common size being S ' _• x 4 x . 

Mistaken zeal in the effort to obtain rigid uniformity 
of color and texture under each and every circumstance 
still further aided in the degradation. 

It was under the powerful spell which the revival 
exerted upon all artists that Philip Webb, W. Eden Xes- 
field and Richard Norman Shaw, freeing themselves from 
the architectural vagaries of their forerunners, at one 
step restored material to its proper place as an element in 
design and brought back the treatment of the commonest 
of British building materials into such sound traditional 
lines that brickwork has ever since steadily developed in 
architectural quality. 



26 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



27 




FRITHWOOU HOUSE, MIDDLESEX. 
Mervyn Macartney, Architect. 



28 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



In a broad sense this development works itself out 
along: two lines — the first is an almost direct carry- 
ing on from that point to which 
brickbuilding had arrived in the 
eighteenth century before eclecti- 
cism had stifled every kind of ar- 
chitectural evolution. This 
Georgian brick architecture de- 
pended for its aesthetic effect less 
upon design, though that quality 
was never entirely absent, than 
upon the excellent manner in 
which material was used ; in short, 
this was architecture with style 
about it, but style in its best and 
broadest acceptation, reasonable, 
reserved and orderly yet without 
a trace of affectation. 

If these qualities could be as- 
sociated with the way in which 
materials were used at that time 
they can be still more aptly de- 
scriptive of the brickwork ex- 
ecuted then. One can therefore 
view with satisfaction a generation 
of architects who will devote them- 
selvesto following upthis tradition 
even to the verge of copyism. One 
hundred and fifty years is a long 
void to bridge with success in 
matters architectural, yet not the 
least interesting of modern Eng- 
lish domestic work, both in town 
and country, is based on a careful 
study and adaptation of the older 
brickwork. 

Its aptitude, even nowadays, 
to the somewhat limited oppor- 
tunities of town work is remark- 
able, as is evidenced by many 
London examples both old and 
new. On cramped sites demand- 
ing large, regular and repeating 
window openings, it is obviously 
best to eschew elaborate archi- 
tecture and let the effect come 
from simple arrangements and 
from the proper use of ma- 
terials. As a case in point, 
take the two new houses in 
Westminster, built by Horace 
Field for two members of Parlia- 
ment, and part of that great 
street improvement that has 
been going on in the neighbor- 
hood for some years. As these 
houses were to stand among 
just such old work as has been 
described above, it was clearly 
the right thing to assimilate 

them as much as possible with their surroundings. 
The bricks used for the main walling are of a warm 




THE GRANGE, HAMPSTEAD. 




HOUSES IN GREAT 
Horace Field 




HOUSE AT CROYDON, SURREY 



gray color varying very much in shade, and their 
texture is sandy and irregular, they thus come nearer 
to the present tone of the old 
London stock bricks than is pos- 
sible with the commoner yellow 
bricks. 

Compared with the bricks used 
by Mr. Champneys over twenty 
years ago at St. Bride's Vicarage, 
hard pressed red bricks of great 
uniformity of appearance, these 
Westminster bricks show how 
great has been the advance 
towards a more reasonable means 
of obtaining effect by variety 
and judicious selection of ma- 
terial. 

Apart, of course, from the fact 
of it being a fine specimen of 
the brickwork of the eighties, St. 
Bride's Vicarage is interesting 
because in it rubbed brickwork 
seems to have reached its 
apotheosis. This material, which 
with molded bricks was lavishly 
used for dressings and cornices, 
about the Cromwellian period, 
was revived by Norman Shaw at 
Lowther Lodge, Kensington, and 
frequently used elsewhere 
amongst his earlier works. 

The little house at Croydon, 
with its extremely simple scheme, 
and, in a greater degree, Turner 
Powell's charming house at East 
Grinstead, bear witness to the 
a laptability of traditional treat- 
ment to detached houses in suburb 
or countryside. 

Thanks to the enterprise of 
some far-seeing municipal author- 
ities, who have carried out ex- 
cellent brickwork in their 
housing scheme, even what 
may no.vadays be truly called 
"vernacular" architecture 
seems to be influenced by the 
movement at work where more 
expensive houses are con- 
cerned. When this building 
work, which springs from the re- 
quirements of the small house- 
holder, the man who does not 
employ an architect but lives in 
a ready made villa, — shall have 
come fully under the new in- 
fluence, it will be possible to 
claim a high place for English 
domestic work, second only to 
that occupied by the seven- 
teenth century buildings, when good design was spon- 
taneous and seemed to permeate all that was done. 



COLLEGE STREET. 
, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



29 



A Village Courthouse. 

ARTICLE IV. 

BY EDWARD A. CRANE. 

PICTURE an old New England town with its wide 
main street sheltered by elms of many years' growth 
and its old common dating back to the days of the colony 
when the town was founded. This town, or perhaps we 
should say city, for it has now had that title for many 
years, although its general air is that of a country village, 
is the seat of a small but prosperous county. For genera- 
tions the courts have been held and the general county 
business has been transacted in the old brick building 



three distinct groups: First, a courtroom of about twelve 
hundred square feet, with small anterooms for the judge 
and counsel, with private stairs leading from a separate 
rear entrance. It is suggested that this occupy a separate 
pavilion in the rear, the height of courtroom being car- 
ried up so as to form a small balcony on the second floor. 
The balance of the entrance story should be given to the 
second group, which should include on one side a room 
for the grand jury, about six hundred square feet, with 
anterooms, etc., and on the other side apartments for 
witnesses, prisoners and the district attorney. There 
should be an ample lobby on the first floor, with two 
flights of stairs leading up to the front portion of the 
second story, which should be given up to the probate 













" ' v . 



' 



V, 

an 






.•<■' 



Kim 



Willi 







/w 



A VILLAGE COURTHOUSE. 
Edward A. Crane, Architect. 



facing on the common, but the inconvenient, dark and 
limited quarters have long been the subject of severe 
criticism, and, after much agitation on the part of the 
daily local paper, the county commissioners have decided 
that the necessary steps should be taken to erect a new 
and more commodious building. As this can only be 
done by borrowing the money in the name of the county 
it is necessary to obtain authority from the state legisla- 
ture for such action, and while these steps are being 
taken the commissioners have authorized the preparation 
of preliminary sketches with a view to advising them- 
selves as to the arrangement and character of building 
that will be most suitable for their needs. 

The requirements, as prepared by the commissioners, 
read: "The courthouse is to provide accommodation for 



court, including a courtroom about six hundred square 
feet and registry of deeds about eight hundred square feet 
and offices for the registrar and clerks and a small waiting 
room. On this floor there should be a public lavatory." 
The general arrangement suggested does not seem to 
be a desirable one, for the reason that the registry of 
deeds and other county offices are constantly used by the 
public and should be placed in the most convenient and 
accessible locations, while the courts, which from their 
nature demand quiet and are in addition used only at 
stated intervals, should be SO placed that those who visit 
the building for other than court business will not be 
required to pass in front of the courtrooms. It seems, 
therefore, extremely desirable to place the courtrooms 
and their accessories upon the second floor and the regis- 



3° 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



try of deeds, etc., on the first floor, and an endeavor to 
persuade the county commissioners of the desirability of 
this suggestion will be made. 

Entirely aside from this question as to what seems to 
be the proper arrangement of a courthouse of this char- 
acter is that of the architectural treatment, and the plans 
should be so arranged that the exterior will frankly 
express the purpose of the building, and with that in view 
the principal court has been placed in the pavilion on the 
front in the second floor. The very character of this room 
and its windows gives the idea of a small courthouse, the 
plan and elevation accuse each other frankly, which should 
be the case, but this would not be possible if the principal 
court were placed at the rear of the building on the first 
floor as suggested. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



In solving the problem it has been borne in mind that, 
as stated by the commissioners, the money available is 
limited, and while it is proposed that the building shall 
be constructed of fireproof material throughout, every 
economy consistent with constructing a building of suit- 
able design will be practised. The exterior will be of 
dark red brick laid with English cross bond, with trim- 
mings of light-coJored terra cotta. Considering the 
limited amount available, the building has been kept as 
compact as possible, and in the plan this has received 
special consideration. The principal corridors, while 
monumental in character, are not extravagant or waste- 
ful, and at the same time are so arranged that they con- 
nect directly with all the important rooms on both the first 
and second floors. 



The Village Cottage. III. 

BY GILBERT HINDERMVEH 

IT seems that the character and expression of this work- 
are at once determined by "Village " and "Cottage." 
A village calls for quiet harmony; cottage demands sim- 
plicity, restraint, directness and economy: therefore the 
plot, the house, the garden and the stable are designed 
on this basis. 

The conditions governing the present problem are 
pleasantly lacking in many of the difficulties frequently 
encountered. The lot is large and a fair shape, two hun- 
dred and fifty by three hundred feet; nothing mars or 
prevents the best exposure ; there are no awkward grades 
to be handled and no natural features, such as rocks, trees 
or streams, to hamper freedom in the composition. 

Because the length of a lot is of more use than great 
breadth, the present plot has been selected with its long 
axis running nearly north and south. This permits the 
house to be placed parallel to the road, as a partial screen 
to the garden, which, it is believed, should be entirely 
isolated from the public highway. Neither this nor the 
living-rooms of the house should look to the road for 
entertainment. A length of three hundred feet permits 
the house to stand well back from the road, yet leaves 
ample space for gardens, walks, a stable and other coun- 
trv house accessories on the remainder. 

Next in importance is to make the most of the south- 
ern exposure. When it is remembered that the warm 
winds in winter and the cool breezes in summer come 
mostly from that quarter the reason is obvious. The 
next step is to shelter or screen the plot from the cold 
north and northeast. It will be seen from the plan that 
the placing of the house and stable helps to do this, and 
that the rows of trees, presumably maples, elms, or 
horse-chestnuts, along the front and one side, play an 
important part as a wind-break. 

Having determined the exposure and indicated 
roughly the position of the big parts of the design, it 
will be well to select or bear in mind some architectural 
style or some character of design to which all the parts 
of the scheme shall conform. While it would be interest- 
ing to consider our lot located in a part of the country 
where unusual or picturesque conditions prevail, as, for 
instance, southern California, where the perpetually 
blooming patio gladdens the eye, great overhanging 
eaves cast cool, deep shadows, and tiles lend color and 
quality to roofs, still, it is felt that average conditions in 
a temperate climate will prove of more general interest. 
This is, therefore, a village in one of the Middle States, 
where snow would check the blooming ardor of the patio 
and make the tile roof ridiculous. One may claim that 
the American country house has achieved a style of its 
own, or that one need look no further than the colonial 
examples of either northern or southern type for beauti- 
ful precedent. Admitting both, it is still believed that 
the older civilization of England has evolved types of 
the dwelling house possessing a charm which belongs to 
neither of the others. Tbey were evolved, too, under 
social conditions, methods of living and climatic influ- 
ences similar to our own — and, therefore, serve especially 
well as a guide to the solution of our own problems which 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



3i 



are so nearly akin. This is the type upon which the 
present design is based. 

In mass the house is long and low; long, because that 
means the best exposure for the most rooms, and low be- 
cause long, horizontal lines harmonize better with a flat site 
and impart a greater degree of charm. Notice the per- 
sistent way in which the house turns toward the south; 
dining-room, living-room and library all have the sunny 
exposure and look toward the garden. It is also to be 
observed that the house is turned a little east of south, in 
order that it may have the benefit of the morning sun. 
The bedrooms above are also all on the south, and noth- 
ing is left for the northern exposure but halls, stairs and 
unimportant rooms. 

The size of the house is often a difficult matter to 
determine. The probable cost usually reduces the size to 
a minimum consistent with necessities. The average 
client, especially if that client be a woman, sometimes 



the same thing in area; so three rooms have been shown 
of the minimum size for comfort. There is also a second 
bathroom which serves the three bedrooms in common. 
It seems but reasonable to suppose that a family of this 
size will have use for a guest-room. The " spare-room " 
has therefore been provided. Across the north side of 
the house has been placed a serving-room, the staircase, 
a bath, a linen closet and the servant's stair. The ser- 
vant may be placed on the third floor, which should also 
be used for storage and a play-room for the small children. 

The area of the second floor being determined, we find 
that it results below in a dining-room, a long living-room 
eighteen by thirty-six feet; a library opening from 
it, with a den at the back. This may seem a generous 
arrangement, perhaps, but it will be none too much when 
the children have begun to receive guests separately. 

The stair is placed in a hall by itself, a part of this 
being utilized as a vestibule. The entrance door is pur- 




Wtf&tfm-. 









=r&- : ~A& •L^E£"~ -- " '""- r iT | *. '*"' IE ill' 1 ,. VIS -*'■ "-"■" rjs 



promises to be quite satisfied with three rooms on the first 
floor; but above, there must be four, five, or even six bed- 
rooms, each with "a good, deep closet"; at least two 
baths — and one is lucky not to have a sewing-room, a 
linen closet and a "loggia over the porch" numbered 
among the absolute necessities of the second floor. All 
this is quite possible, but its accomplishment always 
astounds the client by the size of the first floor. Experi- 
ence having proved it the wisest plan to determine the 
second floor so soon as the general shape of the house is 
settled roughly, let us begin that way. The requirements 
are for a man and wife, three children and one servant. 
"A man and wife" — that means usually one large 
room with probably a dressing-room adjoining, or some- 
times two small rooms are preferred. In either case a 
bathroom and ample closets must form part of the suite. 
" Three children " — this implies either a room for each 
— they will require it later — or else that one room for 
two must be as big as two single rooms, which comes to 



posely off center, permitting that "looking through the 
house," so dear to the average home builder, although a 
hall does.not run through from front to rear. The living- 
room opens upon the terrace with three long, French case- 
ment windows. The library and dining-room may have 
similar openings at the side. Access to the stair may be 
had directly from any of the three rooms. Thedining-room 
is placed to receive the morning sun. A pantry separates 
the kitchen from the front entrance, and forms a con- 
venient passage for the maid to the front door. The 
northeast, or least desirable corner of the bouse, contains 
the kitchen and back porch. It seems an error to shut 
off air and sunshine from the living-room by a porch, and 
this is therefore placed on the southwest corner. An 
open paved terrace takes its place between the wings. 

Passing into the garden, we find a broad walk across 
the entire front; next comes the formal garden -or 
flowerbeds — divided by narrow walks which would look 
well paved with flat, irregular stones. At the other side 



32 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




of the beds a long walk 
borders them and termi- 
nates at the stable. To the 
south of the stable is placed 
the kitchen garden, ad- 
jacent to the main drive 
from the street to the 
stable. 

Instead of dividing the 
lot into nearly equal parts 
with a walk centering on 
the house, it is felt that 
greater interest is derived 
by placing it at the side 
and centering it upon 
some special feature. The 
dining-room has therefore 
been made to open upon 
a platform from which we 
descend by a few broad 
steps to a lily pond shaded 
by tall shrubbery. Be- 
yond this we find a long, 
straight path, covered by 
a simple arbor, offering a 
view of the tennis court 
on one side and the orchard 
on the other. This path 
terminates in an arbor 
sheltered by a tall hedge 
at the limits of the lot. 

With an ample lot upon 
which to work, the temp- 
tation is to multiply fea- 
tures of interest or to 

amplify and elaborate those which are used. But re- 
straint is a valuable quality, and care must be taken not 
to overwhelm a simple house by a garden too imposing. 
Having concentrated the interest in the most important 
area, it seems but wise to allow the remainder to take care 
of itself — or left to be planted with groups of trees for 
later picturesque development. 

For the materials of the buildings, red bricks, rough 
in texture, laid Flemish or English bond, with a wide joint 







* 




in white mortar, would be 
quite appropriate and look 
extremely well. In place 
of stone, terra cotta used 
in short lengths offers an 
economical substitute. 
Chimney tops of this ma- 
terial may be made into 
rich and interesting fea- 
tures without undue ex- 
pense. All this.of course, 
unless local traditions or 
methods had already de- 
termined a style of build- 
ing and a method of using 
materials which would 
make those suggested 
lacking in harmony with 
the neighboring buildings. 
In this problem sim- 
plicity must be the abso- 
lute rule. The endeavor 
must be to provide for 
comfort but to resolutely 
avoid and discard every- 
thing in mass and detail 
which tends toward luxury 
or mere ornamentation. 

Perhaps it may be ob- 
jected that the limitations 
of a " cottage " have been 
overstepped. With the 
modern ways of living, 
however, it is doubtful if 
a family of this size could 
be satisfied with less, except by radical concessions, 
which, shown upon a drawing, would be difficult to 
understand and lead to adverse criticism. These ar- 
rangements are individual It is hoped, however, that, 
bearing in mind always this matter of simplicity and us- 
ing proper economy in the matter of interior finish, the 
solution indicated here may be happily suggestive for 
those whose building aspirations are necessarily limited 
to the scale of a village cottage. 




HOUSE, NEWPORT, R. I. Hibbard & Gill, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



33 



The Bank Building Competition. 

THE SUCCESSFUL COMPETITORS. 

GEORGE A. LICHT, who was awarded the 
First Prize of $500, re- 
ceived his early architectural 
training in the Atelier Freed- 
lander, New York City; won 
the Paris Prize, or Beaux Arts 
Society Scholarship, which 
entitled the holder to two years' 
study and travel abroad ; passed 
the examination in architecture 
at the Ecole des Beaux Arts with 
the highest mark ; entered the 
Atelier of J. L. Pascal; was 
admitted to the first class at 
the Ecole through the special 
arrangement made with the 




H. C. P1TTMAN. 

French Government by the 
Beaux Arts Society, by which 
the winner of the Paris Prize 
entered directly into the School 
and the first class; took the 
Prix d'Emulation offered by 
the Government for the great- 
est number of values taken 
during the year ; won the Grand 
Medaille offered by the Socie'te' 
Centrale des Architects Fran- 
caise for the greatest number 
of values in projects rendered 
in three years; won the Gold 
Medal of the Architectural 
League for last year; has 
traveled through Italy and 
studied at Rome. He is now 




in the office of J. H. Freedlander, New York 

City. 

H. C. Pittman and Henry H. Braun were 

awarded the Second Prize of $200. They are at 
present practicing architects 
in New York City. Mr. Pitt- 
man received his architectural 
training in the offices of Mel- 
vin H. Hapgood of Hartford, 
L. C. Holden, Clarence True 
and A. J. Manning of New 
York City. Mr. Braun re- 
ceived his architectural train- 
ing in the offices of Adler & 
Sullivan, Chicago, Henry Ives 
Cobb and George B. Post of 
New York City. 

Calvin Kiessling, who was 
awarded the Third Prize of 



GEORGE A. LICHT. 




HOMER KIESSLING. 





HENRY H. BKAUN. 

$100, received his early train- 
ing in the better known offices of 
Boston. He is at present in the 
office of Guy Lowell, Boston. 
Claude W. Beelman, who 
was awarded First Mention, 
received his early training in 
various offices in the cities of 
Toledo, Philadelphia, Cleve- 
land and Columbus. In 1906 
he was awarded the Harvard 
Scholarship, given by the Archi- 
tectural League of America. 
He has also been successful 
in several smaller competi- 
tions. At the present time 
he is employed in the office 
of Albert Kahn, Detroit, Mich. 



CLAUDE W. BEELMAN. 



34 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



THEY DO THINGS DIFFERENTLY. 

ANEW Masonic Temple, to cost fifty or sixty thou- 
sand dollars, is to be erected at once in Flint, 
Michigan, and the building committee, represented by 
the judge of a circuit court and the superintendent of a 
school for the deaf, graciously announces that competi- 
tive sketches from architects will be received. The size 
of the lot is casually mentioned and there is an intima- 
tion of a few special rooms which might be desirable, the 
notice closing with a mandate that the building is to be 
"of the finest brick obtainable." This is so manifestly 
within the scope of The Brickbuilder that we would 
seem to be justified in speaking of it, but somehow we 
doubt if the eminent judge and the superintendent of the 
deaf school will receive many replies to the alluring 




HOUSE AT CHICAGO. 

W. C. Zimmerman, Architect 

Roofed with eight-inch Conosera Tile, Ludowici-Celadon Co., Makers. 

advertisement. There are two mysteries connected with 
modern architecture. ( hie is the imbecility displayed by 
the average business man when placed on a building com- 
mittee in assuming that all he need do is to whistle and 
architects generally will tumble over themselves to 
capture his two-cent job. The other is the far greater 
imbecility of many of the architects in rising to such a 
bait, early, often, and on all occasions. We believe the 
architects themselves are to blame for the miscellaneous 
open competition evil, and perhaps after all we can 
hardly blame the committeeman when he receives such 
unquestioned evidence that there are plenty of men call- 
ing themselves architects who are ready to scrap for a 
morsel. 

Unfortunately, in the eyes of the average business 
man, every architect is a good one if he wants to be, and 
only as the public is educated to know better by the 
architects themselves does the competition evil grow less 
acute. The public appreciates architecture but does not 























■ ■■ 


jfp ■ 


1 


Efi±±±±?±±5 i 


^^^^2i^2^B^H 



ENGINE HOUSE, ST. LOUIS. 

James A. Smith, Building Commissioner. 

fully appreciate architects. This is a distinction which 
has to be borne in mind and is often forgotten by 
members of the profession. 

The average builder is like the average citizen in 
thinking the average architect is like himself, open to any 
material advancement within his powers and with ideals 
not too keenly acute to resist a possible growth in bank 
account. Should the high ideals, the keen, sensitive 
temperament which go to make up a successful architect, 
be of necessity factors in the character of only the few ? 
The many who respond so eagerly to vague notices of 
possible competitions are the ones who place themselves 
most in evidence, and by whom, unfortunately, the 
profession is often judged. Happily, there is the saving 
remnant of men who lift architecture into the realm of 
the fine arts. 




OFFICE OF MINNEAPOLIS GAS LIGHT CO. 

F. B. & L. L. Long, Architects. 

Brick made by Columbus Brick & Terra Cotta Co. Terra CoUa 

by Winkle Terra Cotta Co. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



NEW BOOKS. 



A History of Architecture. By 
Russell Sturgis,A.M., Ph.D. Volume 
I. — Antiquity. New York: The 
Baker & Taylor Co. 

The history of architecture would be 
wholly a record and examination of the 
monuments, or of a certain selected 
number of them, if men had been less 
wasteful of their inheritance. A little 
patience, a little consideration, a little 
sense of what makes up permanent 
value as compared with trivial changes 
of fashion, and much of the building of 
former ages would have been]found to 
fit the requirements of a new age, and 
a frightful waste'of the world's wealth would have been 
spared. 

Of all the buildings treated 
in this first volume the Pantheon 
alone is still in use for purposes 
akin to those for which it was 
built. A few memorial build- 
ings, also, are nearly intact. 




35 



for many years a close student of the 
buildings which can be found erect and 
in use, which can be measured and 
photographed, and which allow the 
draughtsman to make sections and the 
curious constructor to study methods. 



DETAIL BY ATLANTIC 




l U ai Mmm iii i .ii.i u . m iiii 

CAPITAL BY N. LE BRUN 4: SON, 

ARCHITECTS. 
New York Architectural Terra Cotta] 
Co., Makers. 

Most of the structures dealt 

with are in hopeless ruin. Very , 

many of them are known only 

by slight traces, and only since 

the accumulated rubbish of 

ages or the silt of rivers has 

been removed by the explorers of very recent years 

Under these conditions, only in part can 
such a volume as this be thought a history 
" from the monuments. " In part it must needs 
be a history of the opinions as to the monu- 
ments, of many succeedingexplorersand critical 
students. It is the business of a student of 
art and not of other men to write a history 
"from the monuments"; but in face of the 
problems connected with these half ruined or 
wholly destroyed buildings there must be 
sought the help of the reader of inscriptions, 
the decipherer of hieroglyphs and arrowhead 
characters, the student of comparative chronol- 
ogy, the practised and judicious reader of the 
books left us from antiquity, the curious 
searcher among vestiges of bygone beliefs and 
superstitions. 

Those are the conditions under which the 
present work is prepared. The author has been 




IN GENERAL. 
The Annual Convention of theArchi- 
tectural League of America will be 
held in Washington, April 22, 23 and 24. 

Mr. Wm. II. Goodyear, Curator of 
Fine Arts in the Brooklyn Museum, has 
been elected an Honorary Member of 
the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in 
Milan, in recognition of the contributions to Media val 

Architectural research in Italy, 
which have been made by the 
Brooklyn Museum. 

Milwaukee is to have a new 
Auditorium Building, to cost 
half a million dollars. A coin- 




HOUSE AT WASHINGTON, D. C 
Wood, Donn & Demin^, Architects. 
Showing Edwin Bennett's Roof Tile. 



DETAIL BY SOUTH AMBOY TERRA 
COTTA CO. 

petition is to be held for the 
selection of an architect. For 
further particulars, address 
William George Bruce, 45 Uni- 
versity Building, Milwaukee, 
Wis. 







DETAIL BY PRICE & MC- 
LANAHAN, ARCHITECTS. 

Conklinj*- Arm strong Terra 
Cotta Co., Makers. 



The Massachusetts School 
and Home for Crippled and Deformed Children, Winslow 
& Bigelow, architects, illustrated in The Brick- 
builder for January, will be located at Canton, 
Mass., and not Clinton, as stated. 

The Church Street Terminal Station of the 
Hudson and Manhattan Railroad will be the 
largest and heaviest building in New York City. 
The structural steel necessary to hold up the 
structure will weigh over 24,000 tons, and the 
building when completed will have a theoretical 
living and dead load of 200,000 tons. 16, 300,000 
bricks will be required to build this structure 
above the curb line, enough, if placed end to 
end, to reach over 2,000 miles, or from New 
York to Salt Lake City. More than 4,500 tons 
of architectural terra cotta will be used in the 
exterior of the building. 

The New York office of Fiske & Company, 
of which Barker Fiske is manager, has been 



36 



THE BRICKUILDER. 




AN ALL ENAMEL TERRA COTTA FRONT, 
PITTSBURG. 
C. M. Bartberger, Architect. 
Northwestern Terra Cotta ('<>., Makers. 



awarded the 
contract to sup- 
ply the front 
brick on the 
large new 
Power House 
for the Hudson 
Power Com- 
pany at Jersey 
City. The brick 
selected is the 
Williams Grove 
Cream Buff. 

John (i . 
Siener, archi- 
tect, 76 Thomp- 
son Street, 
Buffalo, N. Y., 
desires manu- 
facturers' 
samples and 
catalogues. 

F. D. Van 
Volkenburg and 
William ( )ppen- 
hamer, archi- 
tects, have 
formed a co- 
partnership, 
with offices in 
the Telegraph 
Building, Kala- 
mazoo, Mich., 
Manufacturers' 
catalogues 
solicited. 



The firm of 
Peters, Burns & 
Pretzinger of Dayton, ( >hio, have dissolved partnership. 
Albert Pretzinger has opened an office for the practice 
of architecture in the Reibold Building, Dayton, and 
solicits manufacturers' samples and catalogues. 

The Excelsior Terra Cotta Company supplied the 
terra cotta employed in the Police Station at Rochester, 
N. V., Bragdon & Hillman, architects, illustrated in The 
Brickbuilder for January. 




The American 
Enameled Brick 
and Tile Company, 
in order to meet 
the increasing de- 
mand for en- 
ameled brick, have 
added three large 
new kilns to their 
plant, which will 
give them a capac- 
ity of about 6,000- 
000 bricks per year. 
Although the de- 
mand for the brick 
made by this com- 
pany was enor- 
mous during the 
past year, they 
have been able, by 
good manage- 
ment, to make deliveries promptly at thetime agreed upon. 
It is an undeniable fact that builders too frequently fail to 
give sufficient information to manufacturers as tothedate 
when material will be wanted. This always puts the bur- 
den on to the manufacturer, and all too frequently he is held 
responsible for the lack of foresight on the part of others. 




MAT CH.AZE TILE IN FLAT COLORS. 
Made by Rookwood Pottery Co. 




DETAIL BY NEW JERSEY TERRA COTTA CO. 

The building transactions of January, 1907, compared 
with those of January, 1906, show that the aggregate 
volume of building is less than in the corresponding 
month of last year, but the losses are so widely distributed 
and so inter- 
spersed with gains 
in many cities as 
to indicate that the 
building move- 
ment is simply fol- 
lowing the fixed 
and imperative 
rule of supply and 
demand. Some 
cities appear to 
have met all press- 
ing demands, 
while others are 
still placing liberal 
contracts for build- 
ings. 




TILE PAVEMENT. 
Made by Grueby Faience Co 



DETAIL BY GILLESPIE S CARREL, ARCHITECTS. 
Brick Terra Cotta & Tile Co., Makers. 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

The Graduate School of Applied Science 
and The Lawrence Scientific School 

offer graduate and undergraduate courses in Civil, Mechanical. Electrical. Mining and 
Metallurgical Engineering. Architecture, Landscape Architecture. Forestry, Physics, 
Chemistry, Biology and Oeology. 

For further information, address W. I . SABINE, 14 University Hall. Cambridge. Mass.. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 2. PLATE 17. 




HOUSE AT ROCKFORD, ILL. 
Frost & Grangfr Architf~t<5 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 2. PLATE 18. 



Second -Otoby • -Pian 




PLANS 



HOUSE AT 



ROCKFORD, 



ILLINOIS 



•■• 




riG5TOTOBY<-PLAN 



y \ d 




FROST 



& 



GRANGER. 



ARCHITECTS 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 2. PLATE 19. 




HOUSE AT CHICAGO. 

James Gamble Rogers, architect. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

V0L.;i6. NO. 2. PLATE 20. 




HOUSE AT CHICAGO. 
James Gamble Rogers Architfct. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 2. PLATE 21. 





posrjlooa. 



■Scow^ooa 



HOUSE AT BROOKLINE, MASS.. 
Chapman & Frazer, architects. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 2. PLATE 22. 




/**=*= 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




HOUSE AT LONGWOOD, 
BROOKLINE. MASS. 

CHAPMAN & FRAZER, 
ARCHITECTS. 






THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 2. PLATE 23. 




SUPERINTENDENT'S HOUSE, U. S. NAVAL ACADEMY, ANNAPOLIS, MD 

Ernest Flagg. Architect. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 2. PLATE 24. 




HOUSE AT LENOX. MASS.. 
Adams & Warren, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 2. PLATE 25_ 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 2. PLATE 26. 





r«* 







HOUSE, ROLAND PARK, BALTIMORE, MD. 
Ellicott & Emmart, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



VOL. 16, NO. 2. 



PLATE 27. 





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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 2. 



PLATE 28. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 2. pLATE 29 _ 




JOHN ESTHER 
MEMORIAL GAL- 
LERY, ABBOT 
ACADEMY, AN- 
DOVER, MASS. 



ANDREWS, 

JAQUES & 

RANTOUL, 

ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



VOL. 16, NO. 2. 



PLATE 30. 



k[ 




ART G A U L E. R. V 






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5ECTIO/S THR-O BVIL.D1/HG 




riB5T-fLOOI2-Pl.AN 



JOHN ESTHER MEMORIAL GALLERY, ABBOT ACADEMY, ANDOVER, MASS. 
Andrews, Jaques & Rantoul, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 2. 



PLATE 31. 





vSTOCEr 

21 X £9.e 



T1425T • 5TOBY • -Pi AH 



• OecondOtogY'-P: 



BEACON UNIVERSALIST CHURCH, BROOKLINLv MASS 
C. Howard Walker Architect. 







THE BERKELEY PUBLIC LIBRARY, BERKELEY, CAL. 
John Galen Howard, Architect. 



THE BRICK8UILDIR, 

NOVEMBER, 

1905. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

VOL. 16, NO. 2. 



PLATE 32. 





.Fi est. Floor. Plan. 



— ' .Nyack.National.Bank. 
.Nyack, N.Y. 



:4^n .Locp & Hewlett. Archt.3.. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVI 



MARCH 1907 



Number 3 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 



85 Water Street 
Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, ,892. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and Canada 
Single numbers .... 
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ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Terta Cotta 

Brick . 



II 

II 

II and III 

III 



Brick Enameled . 
Clay Chemicals . 
Fireproofing 
Roofing Tile 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



PAGE 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

C. H. BLACKALL; A. W. BRUNNER; CARRERE & HASTINGS; H. J. HARDENBER(iH ; CLARENCE 
H. JOHNSTON; NOLAND & BASKERVILLE; PALMER & HORNBOSTKL: |<>H\ 

KEVAN PEEBLES; TIETK, & LICE. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAOl 

BURTON AGNES HALL, YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND Frontispiece 

SYNAGOGUE ARCHITECTURE. (Concluded) Irnold If. Brum 

A NEW ATTEMPT IN HOUSE ARCHITECTURE ,- 

TERRA COTTA BLOCK WALLS FOR DWELLINGS J0 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY -, 



Ir«««««««««^^<j^^j^^^<v«v<^<^««<-»»»»»»vv>»vw»»»»») 




THE BRICKBVILDER 



I 




Synagogue Architecture. -(Concluded) 



BY ARNOLD W. BRUNNER. 



IN selecting a style to-day, I believe firmly that we 
should either go back to the early Judean architecture 
or follow the general custom that prevailed in building 
synagogues since the dispersion of the Jews, and con- 
form to the style that is in vogue in the land in which the 
synagogue is erected. 

As far as one may see, the style of the early Judean 
buildings, if it had been allowed to progress and develop, 
might not unreasonably have become to-day what we may 
call modern classic architecture, the type which is being 
used very generally for churches in America and else- 
where. 

I shall not offer an opinion upon the appropriateness 
of the Gothic or the classic styles for the modern church. 
Both have their strong advocates and both are exten- 
sively employed. Gothic, however, is unquestionably 
from the history and its expression not suited to the syna- 
gogue, while the classic style is eminently adapted to this 
purpose. 

Some years ago, when what was known as the "Richard- 
son Romanesque " was apparently becoming the expres- 
sion of American ecclesiastical architecture, it seemed 
that in a slightly modified form it would be appropriate 




".-■.- ._.-«■ mssm 



. - — • 



for the synagogue. When I built the Temple Beth El in 
New York I so believed. After Richardson's death, when 
his methods were not successfully continued by his fol- 




TEMPLE BETH EL, DETROIT. 
Albert Kahn, Architect. 



TEMPLE ADATH ISRAEL, BOSTON. 
C. H. Blackall, Architect. 

lowers and imitators, the Romanesque practically disap- 
peared and the choice for ecclesiastical buildings now, 
broadly speaking, lies between the two great styles — 
Gothic and classic. I am unhesitatingly of the opinion 
that the latter is the one that is fit and proper for the syn- 
agogue in America. With the sanction of antiquity it 
perpetuates the best traditions of Jewish art and takes up 
the thread, which was broken by circumstances, of a 
vigorous and once healthy style. By classic it is not in- 
tended to mean only the pure Greek and Roman architec- 
ture, as used in Greece and Rome and their colonies, but 
to include the Renaissance in its various forms of devel- 
opment as opposed to what Rosengarten calls the 
" Pointed Style." 

Recently several synagogues have been designed with 
much skill and cleverness which not only do not declare 
their purpose but entirely conceal it. The architects, 
however capable as they may be, are evidently not famil 
iar with Jewish methods of worship or they could not 
possibly wish to house modern Jewish congregations in 
buildings whose architectural treatment indicates the 
cult of Mohammed or the mysteries of Isis. The Temple 
in Jerusalem was not a synagogue and the various courts, 
the " Holy of Holies," the sacrifices and numerous cere- 
monies belonged to the Temple only. They ended with 
the Temple and never had place in the synagogues, 



38 



T II E H R I C K H U I L I) E R . 






which were, and are, only 
places for instruction and 
prayer. 

The service is extremely 
simple, and in the orthodox 
congregations consists only 
of readings from the scrip- 
tures, prayer, singing by a 
choir and occasionally a ser- 
mon. In the modern or " re- 
formed " congregations the 
sermon is invariably a part 
of the service and the music 
of the organ is added. For 
worship of this sort a build- 
ing designed in the Moorish 
or Egyptian style, or one that 
indicates something myste- 
rious or unusual or "Oriental," is most obviously inap- 
propriate. The very simplicity of the service indicates 
that simplicity combined with dignity should be the 
dominant note in the design of the building, which, if 
it means anything, should indicate the purpose for which 
it is built, not an imaginary condition of esoteric Eastern 
worship. 

The desire to secure what is vaguely known as an 
'• ( iriental " feeling in design may well be understood, 




MEMORIAL SYNAGOGUE, PHILADELPHIA. 
Arnold W. Brunner, Architect. 



but if to secure this elusive 
quality such anachronisms as 
symbols and indications of 
the idolatry of the Egyptians 
or the creed of Mohammed 
are the result, it is better to 
abandon the Eastern touch 
entirely. Besides, as I have 
pointed out, there is nothing 
essentially < >riental in the 
modern form of Jewish wor- 
ship, the one for which our 
architects are called upon to 
provide buildings. The art 
of Judea had not sufficiently 
progressed for us to adopt it 
as a working basis on which 
to design larger buildings 
to-day, and that is the only Eastern art appropriate 
or even logically possible. The history of the Jewish 
people is well known, and Bibles are given away and are 
to be had for the asking, so it appears that if a little 
thought and research are given to the subject there will 
be no more unfortunate anachronisms perpetuated in fu- 
ture synagogues. 

The responsibilites assumed by a building committee 
when undertaking the direction of a Jewish house of 




CROSS SECTION, TEMPLE M1SHKAN ISRAEL, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 
Arnold W. Brunuer, Architect. 



T H E B R I C K B U I L I) E R . 



39 




worship are most grave, and 
their serious duties should be 
fully realized at the outset of 
the work. 

The building which they 
are to call into existence will 
represent those worshipping 
in it, but to the general, un- 
thinking public it is apt to be 
accepted as an indication of 
the entire Jewish religion. As 
the "apparel oft proclaims 
the man, "so the church always 
proclaims the congregation. 
The mute eloquence of the 
great monuments of the world 
is universally recognized, but 
the voices of the lesser ones, 
too, are unmistakable and full 
of meaning. The synagogue, 
both in its facade and its plan, 
should state the truth, the 
simplicity of the creed and the 
dignity of the service that it 
is built to perpetuate. 

To accomplish this, severity 



ARK IN SYNAGOGUE SIIEARITH ISRAEL, NEW YORK. 



Brunner & Tryon, 




MAIN FLOOR FLAN. 
TEMPLE SHEAR1TH ISRAEL, NEW YORK. 



Architects. 

and simplicity of design, har- 
mony of proportion, proper 
and worthy materials are all 
equally essential. The neces- 
sity of excellent design need 
not be insisted upon, but the 
importance of dignified ma- 
terial to produce a dignified 
result is not always recog- 
nized. Nothing can be more 
disturbing in a place of wor- 
ship than the feeling of a lack 
of permanence and stability, 
which imitations and tawdry 
decorations and flimsy ma- 
terials produce. 

( >rnament. when used, must 
be well studied and fit its posi- 
tion. "Ornamented construc- 
tion, not constructed orna- 
ment," an old architectural 
truism, is here especially to 
be insisted upon. Color, the 
great harmonizing factor of an 
interior, must be rich and 
quiet, and the entire scheme 



4o 



T HE B R I C K H VI L I) H R 



should be in accord and one 
part of the design blend per- 
fectly with another. 

A well-proportioned interior 
constructed of noble materials, 
almost without decoration, will 
produce an effect of grandeur 
and become a permanent monu- 
ment of beauty and devotion 
which no amount of decoration 
or trivial design can secure. 
Stateliness without ostentation 
should be the aim of the archi- 
tect who can well take his in- 
spiration from the great cathe- 
drals with their stone piers and 
columns supporting the vaulted 
roofs. The success of the build- 
ings acknowledged to be the 
greatest in the world is in no 
way conditional upon carving or ornamentation, and de- 
pends almost entirely upon the proportion of the parts 
and the dignity of the material of which they are built. 
It has been well said that the " secret of great art is great 
repose." 

There is but little symbolism permitted in synagogue 
building. The Star of David, the Lion of Judah, the lily, 
pomegranate, etc., almost exhaust the list. 

The tables of 
the law, carved 
in marble, are in- 
variably placed 
over the ark, 
which generally 
has a Hebrew 
inscription on a 
panel over its 
doors. In the 
interesting col- 
lection of objects 
of Jewish art in 
the Muse'e Cluny 
in Paris one finds 
few distinctively 
Jewish forms, 
symbols or orna- 
ments. If it were 
not for the 
legends and in- 
scriptions on 
them, many of 
these objects, 
charming in 
themselves, could 
not be distin- 
guished from 
others of the 
same period in 
general use, and 
have intrinsically 
no Jewish char- 

MAIN FLOOR PLAN. J . 

TEMPLE FOR K. K. BENE ISRAEL, CINCINNATI. aCteriStlCS. 

Tietig&Lee, Architects. Hebrew in- 




TEMPLE SHEARITH ISRAEL AHAVIS ACHIN, CINCINNATI, O. 




scriptions] are sparingly em- 
ployed, but they ! lend -u them- 
selves admirably to ornamental 
purposes, the script being very 
decorative in its character. It 
can be used to fill panels or be 
incorporated in ornament in 
many ways, and in the absence 
of other Jewish symbols, will 
assist the designer to secure 
the atmosphere of the syna- 
gogue in a perfectly legitimate 
manner. 

Stained glass windows are 
most desirable; representations 
of the human figure have never 
been encouraged. The glass, 
like the rest of the interior, 
must imperatively be con- 
sidered a part of the general 
scheme, and to secure the best results the architect who 
designs the building should always be consulted when 
memorial windows, tablets, lamps, etc., are added in the 
future, otherwise the original scheme may be sadly dis- 
turbed. 

Generally 
speaking, the 
problem that con- 
fronts the archi- 
tect who would de- 
sign a synagogue 
to-day is very sim- 
ilar to that pre- 
sented to the de- 
signer of the 
average Protes- 
tant church. The 
main requirements 
of housing and 
seating the con- 
gregation, the 
facilities for in- 
gress and egress, 
the light, ventil- 
ation, the neces- 
sary acoustic 
qualities, are the 
same. There are 
variations in plan 
which depend on 
whether the con- 
gregation is 
" Orthodox " or 
" Reformed," as 
the two broad 
divisions of the 
church are called. 
From the ar- 
chitect's point of 
view the difference 

,. , . MAIN FLOOR PLAN. 

consistsentirelv in 

' TEMPLE FOR SHEARITH ISRAEL AHAVIS 

the position of the achin, Cincinnati. 

reading desk and Tietig & Lee, Architects. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



4> 






| 

I'll"' ' -J g-'-. 















. Aft ^jgjfc J, 

■ ^^ 



i&iZiZJL ■•' , 





WEST FRONT, TEMPLE BETH EL, NEW YORK. 



MAIN ENTRANCE, TEMPLE BETH EL, NEW YORK. 



Brunner & Tryon, Architects 

the arrangemetn of the seats. If the traditional method 
is used the reading desk is placed approximately in the 
center of the main floor on a 



raised platform approached 
by steps, and contains seats 
for at least three or four 
people besides the minister, 
who stands at the desk. 
The desk itself is large 
enough for one of the scrolls 
of the law to be placed on it. 
These scrolls are the Five 
Books of Moses, engrossed 
on parchment and rolled on 
two sticks and protected by 
an ornamental cover. A 
desk three feet by four feet 
is ample to contain one suf- 
ficently unrolled for reading 
and more ample dimensions 
are usual. Being the central 
feature of the building it is 
customary to treat the plat- 
form containing the desk 
with balustrades, bronze 
lamps, carved panels, or 
other ornamental devices to 
emphasize or to beautify it. 
The position of the ark is at 
the end of the building fur- 
thest from the main entrance, 
and it is also elevated and 
approached by steps, and in 




ARK IN TEMPLE BETH EL, NEW YORK. 



orthodox synagogues so situated that the worshippers 
when facing it look towards the east, but reformed con- 
gregations do not insist upon 
this. An open space is thus 
left between the ark and the 
reading desk, which is always 
unoccupied, the only scats 
being placed parallel to the 
walls and back of the desk. 
When the lesson of the day 
is to be read, the minister 
leaves the central platform, 
goes to the ark, which he 
opens, takes out a scroll (of 
which there are generally 
several) and returns to the 
desk, the scroll is then 
opened and placed on the 
desk, a portion is read and 
the scroll is replaced. This 
impressive service necessi- 
tates an arrangement in 
which comparatively few 
seats are possible in even a 
large building. Accordingly, 
in reformed congregations, 
the reading desk is placed 
directly in front of the ark, 
the platform being somewhat 

enlarged to accommodate it, 
and the pulpit is either in 
front of the reading desk or 
at one side. This plan is 



42 



THE BRICKliUILDER 




SYNAGOGUE, LA SALLE AVENUE, CHICAGO. 

S. S. Beraan, Architect. 

now becoming general and nearly always adopted. It has 
the advantage of consolidating the service without ma- 
terially changing it, and allows the entire floor space to be 
devoted to seats which are arranged like pews in a church, 
sometimes straight and parallel to the ark, or sometimes 
curved. The most satisfactory results are obtained by 
curved lines of pews with the floor rising gently toward 
the back rows. In orthodox congregations the sexes are 
divided and the galleries entirely used for seats for 
women, but in the majority of congregations to-day this 
distinction is no longer made, the men and women sitting 

together in 
pews, so that 
the existence of 
galleries de- 
pends upon the 
number of sit- 
ting required. 

Ample 
means of in- 
gress and egress 
must be pro- 
vided but the 
arrangement of 
stairs and vesti- 
bules is a ques- 
tion of indi- 
vidual choice. 
A large vesti- 
bule in the 
center, with 
smaller ones at 
the ends, offers 
the advantage 
of permitting 
entrance 
through two 
doors, thus 
making an air 
lock and keep- 
ing out the 
noise of the 
street, the 




center doors being 
only used for exit. 
If the building is 
very long, exits 
should be placed 
at both ends. 
There should be 
rooms either side 
of the platform for 
the minister and 
the choir, and it is 
preferable to reach 
them by a separate 
entrance. The 
organ is some- 
times placed above 
the ark or on the 
gallery opposite to 
it, or arranged to 
fill the spaces on 
either side in ac- 
cordance with the 
general design of 
the interior. 

Rooms for the choir are needed, and it is most desir- 
able to provide a place for the singers where their voices 
may be heard but where they will not be visible to the 
congregation. The solemnity and impressiveness of the 
service are much enhanced when the choir is not seen. 

The practical requirements of the ark are few. It is 
virtually a bookcase containing the scrolls of the law, 
and as these are parchment rolls they are placed verti- 
cally on little shelves, the space required depending upon 
the number of scrolls owned by the congregation. 

The doors of the ark may be hinged, but the best 
arrangement is to make them slide on rollers so that they 
may be readily opened. They are sometimes covered by 
a curtain and in any case they should be of dignified 




PLAN, TEMPLE BETH EL, NEW YORK. 




PLAN, TEMPLE BETH EL, DETROIT. 



SYNAGOGUE AT RICHMOND, VA. 
N'oland & Baskerville, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



43 




ARK IN TEMPLE ISRAEL, HARLEM, NEW YORK. 

design and rich in material. vSeven-branched candle- 
sticks are appropriate at the sides or in front of the ark, 
and besides the perpetual light, memorial lamps are often 
hung in numbers and are extremely decorative. 

The reading desk is sometimes used as a pulpit, but 
in modern synagogues a separate pulpit, from which the 




sermon is preached, is generally erected. There is no 
recognized position for it, the favorite one beiny im- 
mediately in front of the reading desk, or it may be 
placed on one side and at such a height as to enable the 
speaker to be easily seen and heard by the entire con- 
gregation. 

Sabbath schools in connection with synagogues are 
always considered a matter of great importance, and a 
large proportion of floor space is required for them. A 
special building, if conditions allow it, is always advis- 
able, but sliding screens and other methods of making 
the school temporarily a part of the main building are 
never successful. 

In crowded cities the Sabbath School is generally 
placed in the basement, the main auditorium floor being 




MAIN FLOOR PLAN. 
TEMPLE ISRAEL, HARLEM, NEW YORK. 

Arnold W. Brunner, Architect. 



UPPER GALLERY. 
TEMPLE ISRAEL, HARLEM, NEW YORK. 

sufficiently raised to allow sufficient light to enter the 
windows of the schoolrooms. 

There must be a general well-lighted assembly-room, 
numerous classrooms, teachers' rooms, retiring rooms. 
etc., and a minister's study and a room for the trustees or 
elders of the congregation are always necessary. 

The setting of the synagogue is of paramount impor- 
tance. Like any other building it needs an appropriate 
position, and if crowded in the middle of a block it loses 
its dignity and importance. Whenever possible there 
should be some space around it, and if it can be set back 
from the street so that a little grass and a lew Glowers 
and trees are allowed to grow and a railing provided to 
separate it from the sidewalk, the general effect will be 
worth the small cost of the ground required for this pur- 
pose. 



44 



THE HRICK IU* 1 LDER 



As a rule an attempt is made to erect a building on a 
site that is too small for it, and while in cities it is a nat- 
ural temptation on account of the cost of property, both 
the practical and artistic results suffer greatly from this 
economy. 




SYNAGOGUE, 70TU STREET AND CENTRAL PARK, 

WEST, NEW YORK. 

Arnold W. Brunner, Architect. 

In New York the high value of desirable lots has 
cramped the design of the majority of the synagogues. 
Vestibules and stairs are seldom sufficiently generous. 
Sunday school rooms are habitually placed in the base- 
ment instead of housing the school in a separate struc- 
ture, and frequently the courts at the sides are not large 
enough to insure good light and ventilation. The inte- 
riors also gave evidence of the same desire to economize, 
and the aisles and spaces in front and at the rear of the 
seats are reduced to their smallest dimension. Even the 
pews are sometimes placed too near each other for com- 
fort. 

Many of the best exterior indicate the lack of ground, 
and facades are flattened, approaches are dwarfed, en- 
trances too small and steps too steep. The beauty and 
impressiveness of a synagogue depend largely upon 
proper approaches, and the fitness of the building for its 
position is a most important consideration. 



THE FATIGUE OF CONCRETE. 

IN a paper on " The Fatigue of Concrete," published in 
the Proceedings of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers, Mr. J. S. Van Ornumsays: 

"The adhesive strength of concrete to steel, low in 
value at best, is undoubtedly severely tried by repeated 
application and relief of load, and the consequent succes- 
sive production and relief of the various internal stresses 
which tax so severely this essential and vital factor of 
reinforced-concrete design and construction. Passing 
without comment the acknowledged fact that scale or thick 
rust will seriously impair the adhesion, it may be said 
that numerous critical examinations plainly indicate that 
any rust on the metal (while completely absorbed by the 



concrete and so effectively preventing further corrosion) 
did materially lessen the normal adhesive power of the 
concrete ; the bond was often found lacking opposite the 
rust discolorations on the concrete, while remaining firm 
on each side where rust had been entirely absent; and, 
where the adhesive bond was destroyed in the middle 
portion of the beam, this destruction habitually termi- 
nated in a discolored section, apparently indicating the 
encountering of an increased adhesive resistance at the 
cleaner portions of the steel. 

"Another fact that has escaped deserved attention is 
the probability that a material excess of water used in mix- 
ing the concrete apparently lessens its adhesive power. 
It is realized that a moderately wet mixture is desirable, in 
order to prevent voids in the concrete as ordinarily placed, 
and especially to secure sufficient plasticity to insure a 




INTERIOR OF SYNAGOGUE, 70III STREET AND CENTRAL 
PARK, WEST, NEW YORK. 

I kinj; toward Ark. 

complete filling of the space around and below the net- 
work of reinforcing steel ; but there seems to be a real 
danger that the reaction against dry concrete is being 
carried too far. An excessively wet concrete not only 
contains numerous globules of water, which, when 
absorbed, leave the concrete porous, but these, also, 
especially weaken the adhesion of the concrete to the 
steel, because there is a tendency for such water globules 
to seek the surface of the reinforcement, particularly on 
the under side. The weakening of the bond from this 
cause was evident in certain beams in which the adhesion 
was noticeably weak, the water cavities being apparent at 
the bottom and sides of the steel bars." 



THE BRICKBUILD E R . 

A New Attempt in House Architecture. 



45 



THOvSE whose fate it has been to attend innumerable 
meetings of architectural societies, and to go through 
papers and addresses of all kinds, will know that there is 
quite a collection of old stock subjects which crop up at 
regular intervals; like the moon, they have their periods; 
and so it happens that we must be bored by prosy presi- 
dents turning over the dry bones of architecture, or by 
those wholly estimable people who say the most irre- 
proachable things and perpetrate the most villainous 
architecture. Do we not recall those well-worn subjects 
which are the last refuge of the afflicted? — "The rela- 
tion of Architecture to Sculpture," "The Architect- 
Craftsman," " Color in Architecture," and all the rest of 
these dear familiar friends. But it is this very subject of 
color in architecture which bears on the matter in hand. 
Some writers and lecturers have displayed a wonderful 
diligence in hunting up all records of color architecture, 
from the barbaric splendor of the Mycenaens to the latest 
fashion in sanitary distemper. It is not often, however, 
that we see any actual attempt to carry out in practice 
the schemes which are indicated in such glowing terms. 
Times without number we have heard proclaimed the 
merits of glazed material for city buildings, its cleanli- 
ness, its possibilities in overcoming blackening and de- 
cay and the bright notes of color which it can give to the 
common dullness of our thoroughfares. But beyond the 
use of glazed tiles for fire grates, as a lining for bath- 
rooms and lavatories, or in dairies and butchers' shops, 
with now and then some piecemeal application to door- 
ways or passages, there is little to record. Out of the 
category of zealous advocates who do nothing, however, 
must be taken Halsey Ricardo. Among English archi- 
tects no one has been more persistent in his claims for 
glazed work and color schemes, and Mr. Ricardo's par- 
ticular merit is that he has had the courage of his con- 
victions and the ability to carry his ideas into effect. 
His greatest achievement is the house which has just 
been completed for a wealthy client, Mr. Debenham, at 8 
Addison Gardens, in the West End of London. It is quite 
an amazing work, and is made all the more prominent by 
being surrounded by houses of the most uninspiring char- 
acter — dull London houses of the seventies, with stuc- 
coed porches and window trimmings made spick and 
span with paint at intervals, in harsh contrast to walls 
begrimed with the smoke and dirt of the metropolis. In 
such a setting is this wonderful new house, like a great 
gem amidst a heap of bricks. 

The plan of the house does not call for any detailed 
description, as the accompanying illustration shows it 
clearly ; besides, this house does not concern us so much 
for its plan as for its treatment with glazed work 
throughout ; in passing, however, it may be noted what 
a very large hall is provided in the house, running up 
through the first floor and forming the center around 
which all the rooms are grouped; attention is also 
directed to the " pavilion, " connected by a covered way 
with the dining-room ; this is really an open air breakfast 
room and, facing southeast, its position is peculiarly 
appropriate; moreover, this side of the house fronts on a 
large garden that runs back to the wooded boundary of 



Holland Park; the garden scheme, in fact, is a very im- 
portant feature; at the front of the house there is a 
Dutch garden, at the side is a squash court, the roof of 
which forms a terrace, and at the back of the house are 
lawns for croquet and tennis, with a large garden, 
beautifully laid out and embellished with a fountain. 

On referring to the illustrations, it will be seen that 
the exterior of the house is treated with a series of wall 
arcades, above which comes a richly-modeled cornice. 
and, over this, an attic story. 

It is first necessary to describe the color scheme, and 
here let it be noted that illustrations are sadly deficient 
in this respect, though the photographs were taken on 
specially- prepared color plates in order to secure as cor- 
rect a rendering as possible. 

The " frame " of the exterior, so to speak, is built up 
of blocks of Doulton's Carrara ware of a pleasing creamy- 
white color, with bands of a soft green tint above the 
arcading. The material has a glass surface; not highly 
glazed, however, but with a comparatively dull surface. 
and of good texture. The filling of this "frame" is of 
glazed bricks. First, for a few feet above ground, 
purple-gray Staffordshire bricks are used — semi-vitrified 
bricks, well suited to their position. Then, for the 
ground-floor story the filling is of glazed green bricks of 
a rich hue, not uniform in color, but varying quite con- 
siderably, and so gaining an effect which would be 
impossible with bricks of one uniform tint. Above these 
on the first floor, the filling is of glazed bricks of a lively 
blue tint — -also of differing shades, as elsewhere 
throughout the house; while on the attic story the filling 
is of glazed bricks of a peacock blue color. Completing 
the whole scheme is the roof with its green Spanish tiles, 
while at either corner rises a bold chimney " framed " 
with Carrara ware and filled in between with peacock 
blue glazed bricks as used for the attic story. 

The effect of this scheme is most brilliant, yet not in 
the least gaudy; it is clearly the work of a man possess- 
ing a keen sense of color, and the ability to handle it suc- 
cessfully. 

But this house is notable not only as a treatment of 
glazed material on the exterior; the same treatment is 
extended throughout the interior, with the addition in 
parts of some magnificent De Morgan tile patterns and 
peacock designs in blue and green. Over the vestibule 
door, for example, is one of these peacock panels, while 
the view of the pavilion or open-air breakfast-room 
shows the tile pattern that runs along the wall of the 
covered way to the dining-room. 

The large hall in the center of the house is a most 
striking example of the use of gla/.ed tiles for interior 
decoration and finish. Extending from skirting to cor- 
nice, these tiles are of varying tints of blue, and, in con- 
junction with the marble work, constitute a lovely scheme 
of color. (The illustration of the hall shows the wall 
whitewashed above the cornice; this is only a temporary 
arrangement, as the space will ultimately be covered with 
mosaic. ) 

A similar treatment of blue gla/.ed tiles is seen on the 
staircase and corridor walls; in the dining and drawing- 



4 6 



T HE B R I C K B IM I. I) K R 




THE BRICKBUILDER 




4 8 



T HE BRICKHU1LDER 




THE PAVILION OR OI'EN-AIR BREAKFAST ROOM. 




THE HALL. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



49 



rooms, too, we find tiles used 
in conjunction with the marble 
mantelpieces. 

Throughout the house it is 
apparent that every detail has 
been evolved with the greatest 
care. There is not an atom of 
that feeling which is commonly 
associated with the trade firm 
imported to carry out a special 
design. In this case the archi- 
tect has first worked out his 
general treatment, and having 
set up his standard has gone 
forth to achieve it; he has ex- 
perienced no little difficulty in 
his task, for makers of such 
things as tileshavebeenspoiled 
by the craving for uniformity 
and " faultlessness "of surface, 
and it is not easy to get those 
varying shades of the kiln 
which, when used discreetly, 
can produce such entrancing 
results. Mr. Ricardo has not 
been able to pick up his mate- 
rial from the stock patterns of 
theshowroom ; onthecontrary, 

there has been a diligent search and experiment, 
orous selection and throwing out of what was not 




THE VESTIBULE. 

a vig- 

quite 



desired; everything has been 
obtained in exact accordance 
with the architect's scheme, 
and the result is eloquent. The 
color of the glazed brickwork 
is in itself a delight to the eve, 
while the total tone-value of 
the house is as pleasing as it is 
uncommon. 

This, then, is the house 
where Mr. Ricardo has carried 
out his ideas with such striking 
success. He has had ample 
means at his disposal in fact, 
the house, when complete , will 
have cost more than $250,000 
— and, as enhancing the effect 
of the rooms, mention must be 
madeof Mr. Gimson's modeled 
plasterwork on the ceilings 
and Mr. Prior's stained glass. 
The house strikes quite a 
new note in domestic work. 
and is sure to be copied as an 
example of the great possibil- 
ities which glazed materials 
offer, not as subsidiary or as 
embellishments to ordinary 

materials, but as constituting the entire treatment of 

a house, both internal and external. 




GROUND FLOOR PLAN. 



5o 



T II E H R I CKBU ILD E R 



Terra Cotta Block Walls for Dwellings 




/,V'^«- 






WE have received some suggestions from Architect 
Frederick G. Corser, of Minneapolis, concerning 
the use of hollow terra cotta blocks for building the walls 
of dwellings, which evidence progressive thought on lines 
of application of good material to sensible and desirable 
structural functions. Mr. Corser's argument is, that while 
many clients are willing to spend money on the architec- 
tural detail and interior trim of their houses, they do not 
give the same considerations to structural needs. 

In seeking for a rational solution of a vexing problem, 
Mr. Corser has been using hollow terra cotta blocks for 
the wall construction, and finishing the exterior surface 
with roughcast plastering, substantially as illustrated in 
his detail (Fig. i), which has merits over the boarded 
frame covered with plastering. 

While such use of terra cotta 
blocks is not new, it is a de- 
sirable one; especially for mod- 
erate-cost houses, and may well 
be used in dwellings of con- 
siderably above the average 
cost, unless the client desires 
and is willing to pay the cost 
of brick or stone. 

Standard make of terra 
cotta blocks have a coefficient 
of strength quite sufficient for 
buildings of moderate stresses; 
and when such blocks are filled 
solid with good concrete they 
make for a wall about as strong 
as solid brick or stone work. 
Masons can build such walls 
and make a good job of it if ex- 
ercising the same care in laying 
and bonding as they would for 
brick or stone work. If the 
blocks are not too porous the 
surfaces will take and hold the 
exterior plastering, which will 
become a solid part of the wall, 
— if the facing is of good Port- 
land cement. But if the blocks "uiufnuif 
are too porous they will suck too 

much water from the fresh plastering, affect its intimate 
adhesion and make it brittle when set; so it is best to use 
in such cases a semi-dense terra cotta product. 

This scheme of walling has the advantage of hol- 
low spaces within the walls which make a house warmer 
in winter and cooler in summer, and less liable to re- 
tain dampness than a more solid wall of brick or stone, 
for the cellular wall readily takes in the internal heat of 
the house during the winter months, and when the cells 
have absorbed their full of heat they will retain it and af.- 
ford protection against excessive changes of external 
temperature, more so than that of wood frame construc- 
tion, and also with the external and interior plaster- 
ing done directly upon the walling, give an extra solid- 
ity and protection against fire and vermin. 





J~^-i LP! 



The standard shapes of terra cotta blocks are well 
adapted to this system of walling, and special shapes 
can be easily made to fit designs of door and window 
treatment ; and for dwellings of more than moderate cost 
the architectural detail can be of finished clay products, 
which are much more desirable and more to be depended 
upon than other materials. 

Our chief criticism of the accompanying detail is that 
the wall had best be built solid with terra cotta blocks; 
/'. c, laying the blocks back to back without interspaces 
between them. The extra air space (as per detail) is of 
no material advantage, presents some objections from* a 
practical point, in respect to having the work level, plumb 
and true. An eight-inch wall with thorough bonding 
and blocks set back to back would be as strong as the 

twelve-inch wall shown, and 
would cost considerably less 
to lay up, for the needful care 
desirable to erect such walls 
in good shape would not be 
so much. Such compact build- 
ing would afford more stable 
support for floors and roof bear- 
ings. 

The laying of the blocks 
with the cells horizontal is 
a good scheme for it allows 
better beds and joints of 
mortar than a vertical setting. 
— has the advantage of con- 
fining the retained air in small 
chunks, and relatively even 
distribution. The matter of 
strength either way would be 
of no material difference. 

The detail shows too much 
air space in back of the con- 
crete sill; the woodwork of the 
window frames is likely to 
shrink some, allowing mois- 
ture to gather and affect the 
inside finish, — this space 
should be well filled and 
grouted with mortar; also the 
side boxing and sashes should be so detailed as not to 
necessitate the plowing out of the back of the outside 
casing for allowance for weights to run. If the cincture 
is made (we are of the opinion that the majority of car- 
penters will skip it) it adds an item of cost which is 
needless. 

This method of wall building and external finish has 
one material advantage — for the owner — provided the 
exterior plastering is thoroughly well done — in that it 
saves the cost of painting and repainting. The gen- 
eral idea of design, because of its more solid and dig- 
nified character, would lead the architect to eschew the 
too common trivialities of wooJ detail and staff embellish- 
ments (?) which more often fret and disfigure than add 
beauty to an otherwise well-studied design. 



£>echoo thru Jamb 

DET/UUi for ir HOLIpW 
W/^LL or PoRoV5 TGBlPCnS 
PWVTEREP BoTH 51 DD 

4»8biq:kwa -ir- >"3' 

1 



KIG. I. 



THE BRICKBUILDKR. 



5 > 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 

NEW PLAN FOR THE IMPROVEMENT 
OF BOSTON. 

SOME two years ago the Boston Society of Architects 
began the collection and coordination of the various 
schemes which from time to time had been presented 
and discussed by the public, looking towards the improve- 
ment of the city. Boston is not in the foremost line in 
respect to its general arrangement. The city was origi- 
nally built in a most irregular manner, with absolutely 
no consideration to growth, thoroughfares or placing of 
public buildings. Possibly that is the very charm of the 
city; certainly we should be very sorry to see it lose its 
distinctive air, and one who is familiar with its tortuous 
streets and by-ways is very apt to consider them a con- 
venience rather than otherwise. At the same time it is 
surprising how many ways have presented themselves in 
which the city could be reasonably improved, and the 
Society of Architects has just presented a report cover- 
ing the work which it has investigated. This is a kind 
of public service which nobody could do so well as a body 
of trained and educated architects. It is a service which 
includes factors as wide apart as sites for a city hall and 
docks for steamship traffic, which takes into account 
intercommunicating lines of boulevard around the out- 



side of the city as well as subway stations in the heart of 
the most congested portion. The report is only tenta- 
tive but it has already an much general approval 
and interest that a bill has been favorably reported to 
the legislature providing for the appointment of a tech- 
nical commission, which shall exhaustively study and 
report upon this matter. It is to be hoped that the 
Society will be largely represented on this commission, 
and such will undoubtedly be the case, but the average 
politician, and the public generally, might very easily 
forget how thoroughly work of this kind is in line with 
an architect's bent and training. It is along such lines, 
in fact, that the differences between the point of view of 
the architect and the engineer or the architect and the 
landscape designer make themselves most manifest. 
The architect's training leads him to study mass first and 
detail only as an incident. In both the other profes- 
sions the tendency is to consider mass as an aggregate 
of details, each of which is of vital importance. In con- 
sidering municipal improvements the detail is, after all, 
of the least importance, and the general scheme is what 
has to be most carefully adjusted. One of the schemes 
reported by the Society provides for a huge system of 
docks in Dorchester Bay, involving an expenditure of 
something like forty million dollars. We imagine our 
engineering friendswould possibly be somewhat surprised 
to know that the extensive dock improvements in Copen- 
hagen, which rank among the most successful of their kind 
in Europe, were planned and carried out under the imme- 
diate direction of an architect, and while possibly the 




HOUSE AT DES MOINES, IOWA. 

Liebbe, Nourse & Rasmussen, Architects. 

Built of Standard Gray Brick made by Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Company 



52 



THE B R I C K H LI I L D E K . 



details of construction 
would be essentially 
engineering, the gen- 
eral planning of im- 
provements of this 
sort is such as would 
call for an architectural 
mind. 

This report of the 
Society was printed 
with the cooperation, 
as to expense, of sev- 
eral of the other prom- 
inent business and 
civicorganizations, but 
the credit for the whole 

is due to the Society, and it has certainly performed 
a public service in an admirable way- 



5j 


? gnm 


_ 


K 

1& mi. 






HmBBj ^^^9HH 







HOUSE AT KYK, N. V. 
Grosvenor Atterbury, Architect. Roofed with Ludowici-Celadon Tile. 



THE SPIRIT OF ARCHITEC- 
TURE. 



I 



N Mr. Walker's article in The 



referred to "the economies of condi- 
tions, the predilections and prejudices 
of patrons, and the enervation that 
insidiously creeps in upon all artists, 
because of the deadly slowness of 
realization compelled by the lapse of 
time in the process of building." 
These are conditions which constantly 
beset the architect in his daily prac- 
tice. Their untoward influences are 
not limited to those who win the great 
opportunities but they are just as 
potent factors in the growth of the 
humblest practitioner. The tendency 
to lower one's ideals, to be content 





really such by instinct 
would feel that the op- 
portunities afforded in 
an academic life for 
study and introspec- 
tive culture would go 
far to offset the finan- 
cial limitations. The 
same is true of archi- 
tecture to a certain 
extent. There are a 
few in the profession 
who have large oppor- 
tunities. But after 
all, most men who 
really love their pro- 
fession, who give themselves unreservedly to it, who 
build their life blood, as it were, into 
their work, must be content with no 
more than a fair average competence. 
There have been but few architects 
in this age who, while wielding great 
powers and reaping large monetary 
returns, have been able to mold their 
work, their best aspirations and their 
clients' wishes together in such a 
manner as Mr. Walker describes. 
Many have done this on a small scale. 
Only genius can do it on a large one. 



DETAIL BY D. H. BUKNIIAM A CO., ARCHI- 
TECTS. 

Northwestern Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



SUBWAY DECORATION. 

THIS journal has for years urged 
that the walls of subway stations 
should be treated in some other man- 
ner than as mere engineering sur- 
faces. When the first subway was 
built in Boston, economy was a para- 
mount con- 



DETAIL BY MCCORMICK & FRENCH, 
ARCHITECTS. 



with second best 
to compromise 
with seemingly 
irreconcilable 
practical condi- 
tions, is respon- 
sible for more 
bad architecture, 
for more slow de- 
cay of innate 
ability, than we 
would sometimes 
be willing to ad- 
mit. A promi- 
nent educator 
was recently dis- 
cussing the ques- 
tion of the sal- 
aries of the pro- 
fessors in our 
universities, and 
he spoke of the 
fact that most 



Brick, Terra Cotta and Tile Company, Makers, teachers who are 



sideration, 

fwas the problem was a new one, 
^and the commission having it 
in charge proceeded very cau- 
tiously. The example of the 
New York subway, however, 
showed beyond a doubt that if 
a reasonable attempt was made 
to decorate the walls of the 
stations the public would not 
only feel an interest but would 
approve. When the second 
installment of subways was 
started in Boston, the designs 
of stations followed the same 
lines as in the older work, but 
it is encouraging at least to 
know that now, largely through 
the efforts of the railway com- 
pany which is to lease and op- 
erate the subway, some serious 
study is being given to the dec- 
oration of the wall surfaces. 
The work has been entrusted 
to one of the best architects of 






DETAIL BY FRANK S. LOWE, 
ARCHITECT. 

South Amboy Terra Cotta 
Company, Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



3 J 




«~ i — -•rf*' ! 



FRIEZE FUK A BATH ROOM. 
Made by Rookwood Pottery Company. 

the city and studies are being made embodying combi- 
nations of bronze and tiling which promise very well. 
There has been a good deal learned in the past as to 
what will stand and what will go to pieces along such 
lines and as to how best to apply the material to the con- 
structions, and even if the present attempts do not lead 
to the very best results they will at least be in the right 
direction and prepare the way for the future. It is in- 
evitable that all our large cities will in time be equipped 
with systems of underground communication. It is the 







vy/v 






DETAIL BY D. H. BUKNHAM & CO., AKCH11 EC 1 S. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

only logical solution of the metropolitan transit problem 
and has been worked out pretty carefully and satisfac- 
torily as an engineering problem. It only remains for 
the architects to so finish the engineering work that 
what is now tolerated as a practical necessity shall be- 
come an artistic addition to the public functions. 



WATERPROOFING WITH CEMENT. 

IT is often assumed that a solid concrete wall, if con- 
structed in proper manner, would be practically imper- 
vious to moisture. As a matter of fact, it is almost im- 





AN AMERICAN " S " TILE ROOF. 
Made by Cincinnati Roofing Tile and Terra Cotta Company. 



HARTJE BUILDING, PITTSBURGH. 
Charles Bickel, Architect. 
Entire front of cream white glazed Terra Cotta. Made by the Ex- 
celsior Terra Cotta Company. Now operated as a Subsidiary 
Company of the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

possible to make any concrete wall tight unless some 
special provisions are made for waterproofing. In the 
region around Boston the common practice in water- 
proofing cellars and walls is to make a seal of tarred 
paper set in hot tar and held in position, either against 
the walls or on the floor, by 
a top layer two or more inches 
thick of cement. If done with 
proper care, this will give most 
excellent results, but it is a 
clumsy expedient, taking up a 
good deal of space, and the in- 
ner layer of concrete is an ex- 
pensive protection, besides not 
being perfectly sure of holding 
its place. Various attempts 
have been made to devise some 
material which could be in- 
corporated with the cement to 
render the concrete more im- 
pervious to water. Soap and 
alum have been regarded as a 




DETAIL BV IMHANAI'Ul.lS 
TF.RKA COTTA COMPANY . 



54 



T II E B R I C K H I' I L DE R . 



waterproof solution and have been used for that pur- 
pose with varying success. Better results have been 
obtained by incorporating with the concrete a substance 
in a powdered form which seems to more completely fill 
the pores. There are several such powders on the mar- 
ket, of which a fair example is that manufactured under 
the name of Medusa Waterproofing, which has been used 
in many cases with excellent success. Unless precautions 
of this kind are taken, a concrete wall is hardly more im- 
pervious to water than a wall of good hard burned brick- 
laid up in Portland cement mortar. 



class. They must besides have proved themselves dur- 
ing these school years to have been earnest students and 
of first-rate ability. The competition will begin April 12 



IX GENERAL 




The examinations for the Rotch Traveling Scholar- 
ship will be held in Boston beginning April 15. Anyone 
who has been employed during two years in professional 
work in the Massachusetts office of an architect resident 
in the state is eligible for the competition. Preliminary 
examinations are held in History of Architecture, Con 
struction, French and Drawing from 
the Cast. Graduates from a regu- 
larly accredited architectural school 
may present their diplomas in lieu 
of these examinations. Those who 
are successful in the preliminary ex- 
aminations will be admitted to the 
final competition in Design upon 
which the award will be made. The 
successful candidate receives $1,000 
per year for two years to be expended 
in study and travel abroad. Further 
details can be obtained upon appli- 
cation to Mr. C. H. Blackall, Secre- 
tary, 20 Beacon Street, Boston. 

The Department of Architecture 
of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology is to hold a competition 
to award a traveling scholarship of 
twelve hundred dollars. The award 
is to be made solely on the basis of 
distinguished merit, as it is felt that 
the prize would thus possess a greater 
value for the advancement of archi- 
tecture than if restricted to benefit 
only the regular or the needy student. 
Candidates, therefore, will be received from both reg- 
^. u 1 a r and 

special s t u 



533 3 3 3 m 




BROOKS BUILDING, GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 

W. G. & 1". si. Robinson, Architects 

Built of "Ironclay" ISrick. 

F. H. Mcdonald, Agent. 



DETAIL BY GEORGE F. PELHAM, ARCHITECT. 
New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

with the sketch en loge, and end May 18, and all the work 
up* hi it must be done in the Department. The winner 
of the scholarship is expected to sail for Europe by Sep- 
tember 1, 1907, and to remain abroad a complete year 
unless otherwise authorized. He will 
travel and study under a programme 
prepared in consultation with the De- 
partment of Architecture and the 
Faculty. 



Hollow tile was first used in this 
country in the Vancolears Flats, New 
York city, erected about thirty years 
ago. It was the first tile of that style 
made in the United States. The ex- 
periment was successful, and in 1877 
there were 100,000 tons of hollow 
tile fireproofing material sold in the 
United States. To-day the output 
exceeds 2,500,000 tons a year, a plant 
at Perth Amboy alone having a capac- 
ity of 20,000 tons a month. 

Marshall S. Mahurin, formerly of 
Wing & Mahurin, architects, Fort 
Wayne, Ind., has entered into part- 
nership with Guy M. Mahurin who 
have opened offices under the firm 
name of Mahurin & Mahurin in Swin- 
ney Block, Fort Wayne, Ind. Cata- 
logues and samples solicited. 



w 



'"&&**& 



<&■■ ' 




DETAIL BY SIMONSON & PIKTSCH, ARCHITECTS 
O. W. Ketcham Terra Cotta Works, Makers. 



dents, but 
they must 
have passed 
«w two consecu- 

_^^\^3 tive years in 
the Depart- 
ment within 
the last three 
years, and at 
least one of 
the years 
must have 
been in the 
graduate 



WANTED — An Architectural Draughtsman capable of prepar- 
ing working drawings for large buildings. Address W. E. RUSS, 
1300 Conover Building, Dayton, Ohio. 

WANTED— A competent Architectural Draughtsman, also a 
good Superintendent for an office located in Seattle. Permanent 
positions to right men. Address " Seattle," care of THE BUICK- 
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FOR RENT — An Architect with an attractive office on Fifth 
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HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

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For further information, address W. C SABINE, 14 University Hall, Cambridge, Mass. 



Til E BR 1 C K BU I L DE R. 

VOL. 16. NO. 3. PLATE 33. 




T H E B R I C K B U I 

VOL. 16, NO. 3. 



L DE R . 

PLATE 34. 







THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16. NO. 3. PLATE 35. 




SIDE ELEVATION. 



— - _HLtt 







A 



isfi 



LONGITUDINAL SECTION. 

RODEF SHOLEM SYNAGOGUE, PITTSBURGH, PA. 
Palmer & Hornbostel, architects. 



T H E 

VOL. 16, NO. 3. 



BRICK BUILDER 



PLATE 36. 





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VOL. 16. NO. 3. PLATE 37. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 3. PLATE 38. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 3. PLATE 39. 




THE BRICKBU I L DE R 

VOL. 16. NO. 3. 



PLATE 42. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 3. P LATE 40 - 




NEW YORK CLUB, WEST FORTIETH STREET. NEW YORK. 

H. J. HARDENBERGH, ARCHITECT 



THE BRICKBU I LDER 

VOL. 16, NO. 3. 



PLATE 41. 




THE BRICKBUILI)K R 

VOL. 16, NO. 3. 



PLATE 43. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



VOL. 16, NO. 3. 



PLATE 44. 




SYNAGOGUE AT RICHMOND, VA. Noland & BASKERviLLt, Architects. 




SYNAGOGUE AT NORFOLK. VA. John Kevan Peebles. Architect. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 

VOL. 16, NO. 3. 



PLATE 45. 




LONCITUDINAL. OrCTION 

SYNAGOGUE AT RICHMOND. VA. 

NOLAND & BASKERVILLE, ARCHITECT 



THE BRICK BUILDER 

VOL. 16, NO. 3. 



PLATE 46. 




T H E H R I C K BUILD E R 

VOL. 16, NO. 3. 



PLATE 47. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 3. PLATE 48. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVI 



APRIL 1907 



Number 4 



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CONTENTS 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

CRAM, GOODHUE & FERGUSON; JOHN A. FOX; PHILIP B. HOWARD; McKIM, MEAD & 

WHITE; H. M. STEPHENSON; SIDNEY STRATTON ; STURGIS & BARTON. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGR 

MOYNS PARK, THE FRONT, ESSEX, ENGLAND Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS 



SANATORIA FOR CONSUMPTIVES 

STRENGTH OF BRICK AND BRICK PIERS 

A GROUP OF MODERN ENGLISH HOUSES 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 



1 
62 

66 




\r*u<<<i<<uu<<<<<<<i<ii<i<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<i»»»»»»>)»»^^^^ 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




VOL. 16 



k 



DEVOTED-TOTHE-INTERE5TJ-OF-ARCHITECTVHE-INMATERIALJ-Or-CLAY- 



'APRIL 1907 



; <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<'>>>>>»>>>>y>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>}>>}>}}}>}>>>>>^ 




The Final Report on the San Francisco Fire. 



THE disaster at San Francisco of a year ago has been 
exploited so exhaustively in the technical journals 
that it seems hardly worth while to take up space with 
new statements regarding the fire, earthquake, or the re- 
sults of either or both combined, but the final report 
published in the proceedings of the American Society of 
Civil Engineers is in some respects of so extraordinary a 
nature that we can not refrain from certain comments 
thereon. The statement is made that all the evidence 
from the recent shock favors reinforced concrete; but 
this is directly offset by the added statement that " the 
steel frame offers the best solution of the problem." If 
a steel frame is better than one of reinforced concrete for 
the building as a whole, the question of floor construction 
resolves itself simply into a matter of fireproofing, and 
later on the emphatic statement is made that "concrete 
floors generally had hung ceilings and ivhere thus pro- 
tected were uninjured. Where exposed, the concrete was 
in most cases destroyed, as in the Sloan, Rialto and 
Aronson buildings and the Crocker warehouse. The 
concrete in these cases was dry and while in many cases 
hard, it was virtually destroyed. " We fail to see why, 
under such circumstances, the report is not virtually a 
condemnation of concrete as a fireproof material, after a 
general condemnation of it for reinforced work; and 
though the report cites instances where the terra cotta 
failed to maintain itself intact, the explanation always 
follows that it was of a hard, dense type, quite brittle 
when exposed to heat, but that even then the terra cotta 
answered its purpose as " the steel frames were the least 
injured of any part of the various structures." 

With one part of the report we are thoroughly in ac- 
cord. "A logical deduction from the statement that all 
materials were destroyed is the conclusion that all struc- 
tural parts of a building, of whatever material con- 
structed, must be protected by another material which 
will be a more or less complete loss in a fire. This 
applies to a steel frame, to floors of any type and to roofs. 
It is impossible to protect some parts such as fronts, par- 
titions aud other parts directly exposed. The floors and 
frame constitute the structural parts, failure of which 
means destruction of the building. All such should be 
fireproofed. This remark applies with equal force to 
buildings with reinforced-concrete columns, girders, 
beams and floors. As integral structural parts they 



should be fireproofed as well as similar members of a 
steel-frame structure, for concrete is destroyed by fir, 
nearly as quickly as steel." 

Accepting this statement, we can hardly agree with 
the deduction made by the Society that terra cotta is the 
least valuable of all the materials that are used for fire- 
proofing. In a conflagration where everything goes to 
pieces, even when built with care, which was certainly 
not always the case in San Francisco, where the terra 
cotta used was not of the grade which is considered the 
best for fire protection, and where every form of column 
and beam protection is first rudely shattered by earth- 
quake shocks, and then in its loosened condition exposed 
to the most destructive influence of a conflagration, the 
wonder is not that concrete and terra cotta both suffered, 
but that anything was left to tell the tale. 

We cannot read a description of the results of the 
fire, even as presented by this report of the Society of 
Civil Engineers, without a conviction which seems to be 
supported by the fact that concrete in most cases was 
shattered beyond repair and almost totally destroyed by 
fire, leaving, in many cases, the columns entirely bare ; 
while terra cotta, because of its very elasticity, suffered 
less initial damage and was finally able to resist the fire 
more completely. It would be manifestly abortive to 
establish any comparison between the poorest terra cotta 
and the best concrete, and yet that seems to be the atti- 
tude which is taken by many of the investigators who 
have studied San Francisco. In no other one city has 
concrete been used so extensively and with so free a hand, 
and in the light of Mr. Stewart's figures, which we print 
elsewhere, we can feel drawn to only one conclusion : any 
material would be wrecked by combined earthquake and 
fire; and, when dependence is placed entirely upon an 
unprotected constructive material, the building is sure 
to fail throughout, so that the proper construction would 
seem to be a well designed and thoroughly braced steel 
frame protected by and filled in between with the material 
which suffers least by the direct action of lire, aud that 
material is unquestionably burnt clay in some of its 
various forms. The report emphasizes this when it states 
further that "for columns, the fireproofing that will 
stand up best is red brick set in Portland cement 
mortar." Terra cot la. when properly constructed and 
applied, will resist more heat than red brick. 



56 



T H E H RICK B UILDER 



Sanatoria for Consumptives. 



AT a meeting of The Architectural Association, held 
recently in London, Mr. Edwin T. Hall, a raemberi 
who had made a very thorough study of sanatoria for 
comsumptives in England and on the Continent, sub- 
mitted a paper upon that subject which was illustrated 




FIG. I. SANATORIUM, ALBERTSBERG, GERMANY. 

by a large number of plans, of which those given in this 
issue are a representative selection. 

It was pointed out that Germany had given first at- 
tention to the provision of such buildings, anrf, as a re- 
sult, hospitals and sanatoria were to be found all over the 
German Empire. 

Before proceeding to deal in detail with the plans il- 
lustrated, Mr. Hall made some preliminary remarks in 
regard to sites and types of buildings. In practically 
all the cases which he illustrated the sites selected had 
open prospects (broadly speaking toward the south), with 
shelter from the north, and with extensive areas for exer- 
cise : in other words, dry sites at bracing altitudes, as- 
pects with the maximum of sunlight for patients' rooms, 
protection from chilling winds and sleet, and open-air 
living, were regarded as essentials for the reinvigoration 
of the invalid, while broad prospects were mentally stim- 
ulating, widening the interests in life and inculcating hope 
in the future. Pine woods as a screen were much appre- 
ciated for their exhilarating resinous aroma, and the 
sandy soil on which they thrived was considered the best 
on which a sanatorium could be situated. 

Evolution of Tvpes. — The earliest sanatoria were 
ordinary houses. Given the essential requisites of loca- 
tion, all that was sought was a place in which patients 
could sleep: disciplinary treatment was relied upon for 
the rest. A reputation for the cure being once estab- 
lished, buildings became larger as demands for accom- 



modation increased, and many houses grew into hotels. 
Gradually the development of the sanatorium has led 
to a type with a corridor on the north and rooms on one 
side only. 

Another branch of development has been the aggre- 
gation of small houses, first by the natural process of the 
acquisition of adjacent buildings, and later by a deliber- 
ate scheme of constructing small houses on the village 
principle, with central administrative buildings. 

A third type is the large hospital with wide verandas 
on the south side of wards, where the open-air treatment 
is practiced by placing couches on the verandas, and on 
these the patients are reclined for eight or ten hours a 
day. Another ramification of the same idea, even with 
buildings specially erected as sanatoria, has been the con- 
struction of wha; in Germany are called, liegehallen, or 
reclining halls. These are generally one, but sometimes 
two-storied verandas enclosed on three sides, and open 
to the south ; sometimes attached to, but often entirely 
separated from, the building proper. They are very 
general in Germany. Most of these buildings on the 
Continent are of three or more stories in height, as 
though the military idea of a barrack were the motive of 
the design adopted, and as experience taught the man- 
agers that the patient must come out of his nightly dom- 
icile, and could not be going constantly up and down 
stairs, provision had to be, and was, made for his resting 
during the day in shelters in the open air. 

Hospitals are necessary for any advanced stages of 
consumption, but sanatoria are more particularly intended 




i Q 5 o ip zo so y> so t o fat ,9 :Ht511??'^- 

FIG. 2. EDMUNDSTHAL SANATORIUM, HAMBURG. 

for, and are more successful with, early-stage cases of 
pulmonary tuberculosis. While, therefore, a hospital of 
three or four stories might be justified where sites were 
limited or concentration was considered imperative, sana- 
toria were better of one or two stories with verandas 
on the ground floor, and with such a type Mr. Hall 
considered liegehallen to be unnecessary. 

He believed, too, that the medical view is gradually 



T H E B R 1 C K M U I L I) E R 



57 



coming to regard the treatment of keeping these patients 
lying down for many hours at a time as prejudicial to any- 
permanent recovery and conducive to idle habits, and is 
in favor of regular and regulated exercise and employ- 
ment, as in every way — physically and morally — better 
for the patient, and as educating him to become a more 
useful member of the community. 
The results obtained on these lines 
in the Brompton Hospital Sana- 
torium at Frimley, England, are 
most satisfactory. 

From the sanitary building 



permanent sanatorium, but the two cannot be fairly com- 
pared. It would be as reasonable to compare the cost of 
a soldier's camp of tents or huts with that of a depot bar- 
rack — the one is temporary, the other permanent. 

The wood hut is primitive, and although medical skill 
may in any given individual case produce as good results 
in the one institution as in the 
other, the essential difference re- 
mains so far as buildings are con- 
cerned. 

Essential Details. — Two es- 
sential details in design are 




FIG. 3. SANATORIUM, FALKENSTEIN, NEAR FRANKFORT. 



point|»of view, Mr. Hall said the long central corridor 
with rooms on both sides was not to be commended for 
patients, and even with one corridor sanitarians recom- 
mended that there should be ample windows in the outer 
wall of the corridor, with corresponding openings in the 
walls of the rooms, so that air might blow right through. 
Merits of Buildings of One and Two Stories. — Of 
the relative merits of one and two-storied buildings this 
much may be said : the one-story is the easier and better 
for patients ; the two-storied, in a large institution, gives 
better concentration for the staff. The former in a 



(1) that all windows or other openings shall be carried 
up to the ceiling, so that all parts of the rooms and corri- 
dors may be scoured with fresh air; (2) sanitary appara- 
tus should be external to the building. 

It is considered that, with such provision, a minimum 
of 1,000 cubic feet for a single-bed ward was sufficient, 
and 9 feet to 10 feet ample height in such wards. Single- 
bed wards should be the rule, but two and three-bed 
wards were useful. In a hospital where all kinds of cases 
were taken the case was different, and in these, wards of 
eight to twenty beds were found. 




FIG. 4. SANATORIUM, RUPPERTSHAIN, NEAR KONIGSTEIN, GERMANY. 



permanent building is the more expensive when founda- 
tions, roofs and sanitary apparatus are taken into ac- 
count. 

Cottage and Chalet Types. — There are many advo- 
cates of the cottage type of sanatoria as tending to greater 
classification, but that is an argument only of weight 
where other than first-stage cases are dealt with. The 
cottage has its advantages for paying patients, because 
greater privacy can thus be secured. 

Much is heard, too, of the chalet type, or wood hut for 
a single patient, and its trifling cost as compared with a 



Floors should not be laid direct on the ground, but 
should have a ventilated space beneath. 

In rooms where windows are practically always open, 
no ventilating flues are necessary. 

Varieties of Plan. — In the designs exhibited there 
were great varieties of plan. Some buildings were 
straight; some T-shaped; some crescents; some like an 
inverted U, the center straight, the arms opened out at 
angles from about no°to 160 ; some cruciform. For 
moderate-sized sanatoria, say under fifty beds, preference 
should be given to the open U plan. Care should be taken 



5« 



T HE BRICKBUI L D E R . 




r C3GCrdQC3 

S o. 




FIG. 5. BLOCK PLAN, 

OSTERASENS SANATORIUM, SWEDEN. 



not to put too large a 
number of patients 
in one block or pa- 
vilion, because of 
the danger from a 
large fire. If the 
building were more 
than one story in 
height, there should 
be, as far as practi- 
cable, no way by 
which the vitiated 
air of the lower 
story might ascend 
to the upper one. 
Mr. Hall then proceeded to describe the various sana- 
toria which he had examined. 

GERMAN SANATORIA. 



Beelitz, near Berlin. — A large scheme, consisting of 
twenty main buildings and many smaller ones. The main 
pavilions are two-storied, E-shaped and patients' rooms 
mostly face south. Present accommodation, 308 patients. 

Belsig, near Berlin. — Along two-storied building 
with axis east and west, the center being recessed, the 
whole forming an interesting and picturesque group. 
Accommodation, 125 patients. 

Badenweiler. — Four-storied, and on plan an in- 
verted T, the base, with east and west axis, containing the 
patients' bedrooms, and the perpendicular block contain- 
ing the public rooms, etc. 

Mkschede. — Again a four-storied building with other 
rooms in the roof. On plan it is a crescent with 
southern aspect. Accommodation, 114 patients. 

Alberstsberg. — A large building with a main cor- 
ridor running east and west, with pavilions at right 
angles, those on the south side forming single wards of 
ten beds, each lighted on three sides, with liegehallen 
between them (Fig. 1). Those on the north side face 
east and west respectively, and contain on one floor six 
wards of three beds each, and one at the northeast of six 
beds. The public rooms are in the center, the dining- 
room connecting the main building to another parallel 
block at the rear. Accommodation, 121 patients. 

Edmundsthal. — The main building for men (Fig. 2) 
is roughly H -shaped, the front block having two end 
pavilions, with windows on three sides, for twenty beds 
each, connected by a corridor having a liegehalle on 
its south side. A large central dining hall connects this 
block to a parallel one at the rear, in which are four-bed 
wards with their own balconies. There are other 
pavilions for women and children. 

Schreibershaw. — Again a lofty building, the rooms 
in the center being in single 
file, those in the side blocks 
being in double file with a 
central corridor. 

Melsungen. — Another 
lofty block, forming a very 
flat crescent, with center 
liegehalle on the upper floor 
andlargedininghallbehind. 



Falkenstein, near Frankfurt. — Four stories high. 
The nucleus of this sanatorium was a large private 
house, and its kitchens and offices are in the basement. 
Its plan (Fig. 3) has the public rooms in the center, with 
an east and west axis, and two wings with axis south- 
south-east and south-south-west. It will be seen that 
there is a central corridor with some bedrooms facing 
west, north-west and east-north-east. Accommodation, 
120 paying patients of either sex, with seventy single 
and twenty-five two-bed rooms. 

Ruppertshain, near Konigstein. — Three stories in 
height, the main building crescent on plan (Fig. 4). It 
contains one hundred and twenty-two patients' beds, all 



innn 



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PORTION OF GROUND FLOOR PLAN 
OF OSTERASENS SANATORIUM. 




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FIG. 



'Af£T/f£S 

facing towards south — ninety beds for men, thirty-two 
for women. There are six six-bed wards, seventeen four- 
bed and eighteen one-bed wards, all in single file south 
of a well-ventilated corridor. Its annex has further ac- 
commodation. 

The Yolksheilstatte Krailing, near Planegg, Ba- 
varia. — -Accommodation, 120 patients. This sanatorium 
has a central block with east and west axis and two 
wings with east-south-east and south-south-west axis. 
There are thirteen single-bed wards, fourteen of two 
beds, six of three beds, two of four beds, six of five beds, 
and two of six beds, but more beds are occasionally used 
to accommodate the maximum number. Well planned. 
Harlaching, near Munich. A large hospital for 
2 1 2 patients. There are six wards of twenty 
beds, six of twelve, and some with single 
beds. It is E shaped on plan, with the axis 
of the main block east and west, the arms 
north and south. In the main block, the 
long wards are lighted from north and south, 
but the south side is shaded by balconies or 
liegehallen of solid masonry, 12 feet wide. 
This hospital is not exclu- 
sively for consumption. 

It will be noted in most 
of these German sanatoria 
that the sanitary arrange- 
ments are most imperfect. 
Frequently, water-closets 
are in the heart of the build- 
ing, in some cases three 




6. FIRST floor plan, sanatorium, 

HALAHULTS KRONOPARK, SWEDEN. 



THE BRICKBUII.DKK 



59 



being in on^e room, lighted 
and ventilated by only one 
window, and having a door 
of access to the main passage. 
Sinks and lavatories are as 
badly placed. 

SWISS SANATORIA. 

There are many sanato- 
ria in Switzerland, but only 
that of Schatzalke is not- 
able — a long parallelogram 
of four stories, with a central 
corridor from end to end. 
The principal floor is largely 
appropriated to the public 
rooms. 

SWEDISH SANATORIA. 

Stockholm. — A large 
consumption hospital, de- 
signed ultimately to consist 
of 1 8 blocks of buildings, con- 
taining in all twelve hundred and forty-eight beds. There 
are three principal buildings, containing three hundred 
and eighty-four beds in each, in groups of eight to a ward. 
All wards are in single file, the corridor behind being 
wide and well ventilated. There are three stair-cases 
and there is a cloak-room on the ground floor, a very 
useful accessory. In another building there are forty 
beds, in wards of two beds each. Two summer pavilions 
have twenty-eight beds in each. 

Osterasens (Fig. 5). — This sanatorium consists 
of one group of buildings, containing one hundred and 
four patients' beds. In the center is the administra- 
tion, connected by four bifurcating arms to four parallel 
pavilions of one story each, containing two six-bed, two 
four-bed, two two-bed, and two one-bed wards. The 
defect of this 
plan was that 
the rear blocks 
looked on to the 
back of the front 
ones. 

H alahults 
Kronopark 
(Fig. 6). -It 
contains on 
three floors one 
hundred and 
two patients' 
beds, with a 
central admin- 
istration, hav- 
ing its axis 
north and south, 
and two wings 
facing south- 
east and south- 
west — one for 
men, the other 
for women. 
There are eight- 
een four-bed 




K1G. 7. A SWEDISH FIFTY-BED SANATORIUM. 




FIG, 8. SANATORIUM, ORANJE-NASSAUS, HOLLAND. 



wards, the others being for 
two beds and one bed each. 
In addition to this main 
building, there are seven 
others, including two sum- 
mer pavilions grouped 
around the first and largest. 
Design for a Fifty-Bed 
Pavilion (Fig. 7). — This 
has a central block, with axis 
east and west, and patients' 
rooms in wings having their 
axes east-south-east and 
west-south-west, a type cor- 
responding to that of Plan- 
egg, v\ ith liegi hallen beyond 
the wings. This has eight 
four-bed wards, eight two 
-bed, and two one-bed wards. 
dutch sanatoria. 
( )ranje-Nassaus Oobd. — 
A semi-circle on plan (Fig. 
8), with rooms in single file and liegehallen at intervals, 
forming a part of the design. It provides accommoda- 
tion for patients on two stories, the wards facing south, 
east and west. There are excellent public rooms, the 
dining-room having window's on all sides. 

Hoog-Laren. — A sanatorium for the city of Am- 
sterdam. The bunding (of which the ground and first 
floors are shown in Figs. 9 and 10) is straight with a 
central corridor. The ground floor contains the admin- 
istration and the patients' recreation rooms. The first 
floor contains eight single-bed wards, two four-bed wards, 
two six-bed wards, and two isolation wards of single beds 
opening on to a central balcony. The dining saloon and 
offices are at the rear, and a corridor connects the 
two blocks. 

FRENCH SANATORIA. 



Angicourt (Oise) (Fig 
11). — This sanatorium is in 
three hundred and twenty 
acres of grounds, and when 
completed will have three 
hundred and twenty-eight 
beds in two patients' blocks. 
It will be seen that it differs 
in plan from any of the 
others. It is, from a hy- 
gienic point of view, admir- 
able in arrangement. Some 
of the administrative build- 
ings lie on an axis north and 

p south. To the 

p- -i right and left, 
— -| :~..1 near the north- 
jjgj .. * _ J era end, are two 
others, w h i 1 e 
right and left of 
the southern 
end are the de- 
tached patients 
buildings. Each 



6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



of these has a base 
west, and wings 
south-east and 
Each block con- 
and sixty-four 
of eight beds, 
twelve of three 
een of two beds, 
floor a galerie de 
lent of the C.erman 
tends all around 
sides of the enclos- 




with axis east and 
with axes south- 
south - south - west, 
tains one hundred 
beds in four wards 
twelveof fivebeds, 
beds, and eight- 
( )n the ground 
aire, the equiva- 
liegehallen, ex- 
the southern three 
ing building. A 



Hospital, for the 
the poor. It is 
central block, hav- 
and west, contain- 
trative offices, 
twelve beds for 
special attention, 
radial pavilions, 
twenty-two pa- 
Hall said that so 
aware, this is the 
such a type. Every 



jr Wf^ 





free treatment of 
two-storied, with a 
ing its axis east 
ing the adminis- 
public rooms, and 
patients requiring 
and there are four 
containing each 
tients' beds. Mr. 
far as he was 
only sanatorium of 
ward has a clear 



Ground-Floor Plan. 
IMG. 9. GROUND FLOOR PLAN. 

SANATORIUM, HOOG-LAKEN, AMSTERDAM 



HG. IO. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



glass corridor connects the building to the dining hall. 

Hauteville (Ain). — A sanatorium for the city of 
Lyons. It is on a site having an altitude of three thou- 
sand feet, and contains one hundred and ten beds in 
three blocks of buildings (two stories high, with a base- 
ment), disposed on an arc of a circle open to the south- 
west. The wards are of one, 
two and three beds each. 
The baths, laundry, disin- 
fector, kitchens and dining- 
rooms are in the basement 
a scheme which is consid- 
ered to be open to grave 
objection. 

Montigny - en - Ostrev- 
ent (Nord). — Designed by 
Professor Calmotte, of the 
Pasteur Institute. It is of 
the cottage type, consist- 
ing of a series of pavilions 
or houses, each for two 
families, one of whose 
members is suffering from 
tuberculosis. Another block 
is for contagious cases, and 
there are laboratories, etc. 

ENGLISH SANATORIA. 

In England there are 
three sanatoria of one hun- 
dred beds each, which Mr. 
Hall mentioned in chrono- 
logical order. 

" IIeatherside," Prim- 
ley, Surrey (Fig. 12.) — 
This belongs to and was 
built (from designs by Mr. 
Hall) at the cost of the 
Brompton Consumption 




SANATORIUM, ANGICOURT, FRANCE. 



A. Administration; <",, Wash House; AG, Reservoir; AI, Drying 
Ground; AB, Doctor's House; AC, Stable; I, Mortuary; L, Workshop; 
C, Kitchen; AP, Engine House; R, Dining Hall; M, Patients' Building 
(164 Beds); E, Staff; AD, Fountain; AH, Water Tank ; AK, Porter; 
AH, Septic Tanks. 



and undisturbed view of the open country, all being in 
single file, facing south, south-south-east, or south-south- 
west, with corridors on the northern side, and windows 
in walls and partitions for through currents of air. 

The wards are forty-eight of one bed, eight of two 
beds, and twelve of three beds. The sanitary apparatus 

is all in detached towers. 
To the north of the patients' 
building are grouped the ad 
ministrative buildings and 
recreation hall, and it has 
been sought to give all these 
the maximum of sunlight 
and air. 



Northwood (Middle- 
sex). — This provides for 
one hundred and fourteen 
patients, fifty-seven of each 
sex, and there are ten beds 
in most of the wards, but 
there are twelve single-bed 
wards. Its plan of the main 
building has a small base, 
having east and west axis, 
for offices, and two wings 
two stories high, east-south- 
east and west - south - west 
with a wide paved terrace 
on the south. The admin- 
istration is to the north. 

TheKing's Sanatorium, 
Midhurst. — This contains 
one hundred single-bed 
wards in one large build- 
ing, three stories in height 
in the center, and two 
stories in the wings. All 
the rooms are in single file 



THE BRICK'BUILDER 



61 



facing south, south-southeast, and south-south-west, 
with corridors to the north of them. The dining-hall, 

connected by a corridor, is __„. t> 

to the north, and the ad- .--''',.- ^ *\ 

ministration and staff homes / 
are in the west wing of this 
same block, the kitchen, etc., 
forming the east wing. 

Pinewood Sanatorium, 
near Wokingham. — De- 
signed for paying patients. 
It has a central administra- 
tive block and two detached 
two-storied wings, each con- 
taining thirty-two single-bed 
wards in single file, facing 
south-south-east and south- 
south-west. The dining- 
rooms, offices, nurses' and 
servants' quarters are to the 
north. 

INFIRMARY WARDS. 

Mr. Hall showed plans of 
the consumption wards and 
provision for open-air treat- 
ment on the roofs of four pa- 
vilions designed by him as 
part of the Camberwell In- 
firmary, where the medical 
results obtained with con- 
sumptive patients are most 
satisfactory. 

COST. 

Cost of the various sanatoria had not been dealt with 
because a comparison between the several European 
countries was almost impossible, the rates of wages and 
prices of material differing very largely. A cubic basis 
of cost was illusory because mani- 
festly rooms of large cube were 
cheaper per foot than those of small- 
er dimensions. The cost per bed 
was that usually adopted, and this 
had varied according to the type of 
design, the scope of the institution, 
the locality, etc., but for high-class 
permanent sanatoria the cost 
ranged from $1,75° . to $3>°°° P er 
bed, and even to over $5,000. 

It was objected thaf the^cost of 
all these institutions did not meet 




FIG. 12. 





thejwant^of sanatoria to be constructed all over 
the country for the million — in the literal sense 
— and it had been said that architects had yet to 
solve the problem of a design that could be carried 
out for complete institutions 
of varied size .to suit local 
wants, at a cost that should 
commend itself to the guard- 
ians of the public purse. 
Huts, on the one hand, were 
cheap enough, but very tem- 
porary, and the maintenance 
was considerable; they had 
also special fire risks in 
wooded districts. At t he 
other extremity was the 
solid building. 

Mr. Hall said he had 
been giving a great deal of 
thought to the solving of the 
problem, and this has even- 
tuated in the designs which 
he showed. The enclosing 
material, including that of 
floors, is non-combustible and 
impervious to rain and ver- 
min. It is made in dry slabs 
of standard size, which are 
practically universal in appli- 
cation for the unit. A san- 
atorium on these lines, com- 
plete with all essential ad- 
ministrative buildings to suit 
any required number of beds, with drains, fittings to 
kitchen and laundry, and water storage, could be erected 
on a suitable and reasonably accessible site at a cost of 
about $425 to $525 per bed, depending on its size. As 
examples of what may be done, the plan (Fig. 13) 

shows a sanatorium 
of sixteen beds with 
its appropriate ad- 
ministration to cost 
/ about $8,400, and 
/ / one of thirty-two 
/ / beds to cost about 
$15,850. 



GROUND FLOOR PLAN, FRIMI.KY SANATORIUM 
Edwin T. Hall, Architect. 



This paper was firsl 

published in The Build- 
ers' Journal and Architec- 
tural Engineer, I.ixidon. 



A Pestevctiom 

i> FINISHING ROOM 

C Vvft&H HOVSfc 

J> IAB.PER <S STORES 

1: SERVANT'S PlNlHG ROOM 

V 5ieva«t*3 J>ep Rooms 

G .5ATH ROOMS 

H Cohsvlting Room 




1 Waiting Room 
J 5ERvftNTb *EP RoiM 
K MVR5E& BEP ROOMS 
L PINING £.' RKfetATIOH ROOM 

M .Doctor's »ed Room 
H Poctor'5 51TTIMG Room 
O /ivRStb Com mom Room 
P Matbon.S J>io Room 



FIG. 13. DESIGN FOR A STANDARDIZED EXPANDING SANATORIUM. 
Costing about $425 to $525 per Bed. Edwin T. Hall, Architect. 



62 



T HE URICKBUILDER 



Strength of Brick and Brick Piers. 



-:•:- 



THE results of tests of brick and brick piers, which I 
have the honor to present, are selected from those 
which have been made in the testing laboratory at the 
Watertown, Mass., Arsenal. 

In this laboratory various kinds of constructive mate- 
rials are tested, the results of which are published annu- 
ally by the Ordnance Department, U. S. Army, in reports 
entitled " Tests of Metals and Other Materials for Indus- 
trial Purposes " Congressional documents for public dis- 
tribution. Twenty-five volumes have thus far been pub- 
lished. 

From these reports and from current tests, which will 
appear in subsequent volumes, certain results have been 
brought together, results which are thought to be repre- 
sentative of their respective kinds of material, as quali- 
fied by the explanatory remarks relating to them. 

Bricks are possessed of those physical properties which 
are common to other materials of construction. That is, 
they have strength to sustain loads, elastic properties 
whereby their dimensions are slightly changed during the 
period of loading, springing back to their original shapes, 
or nearly so, when the loads are removed, they expand 
and contract with changes of temperature, and it appears 
that their volumes are slightly affected when saturated 
with water, swelling minutely but perceptibly when wet. 

Properties inherent in individual bricks are reproduced 
in piers constructed therefrom, modified, however, by the 
properties of the mortar in which the bricks are laid, and 
mortars vary according to their composition and age. In 
general, the properties of constructive materials are found 
to present many variable elements, some of which are 
under control, and some are not. 

Passing at once to the subject of individual brick, 
values for the coefficient of expansion by heat have been 
observed over a range from .0000020 to .0000074 per unit 
of length per degree Fahrenheit. An ordinary value 
would be in the vicinity of 30 to 40 ten-millionths, that 
is, somewhat less than steel, which has a value of a little 
above .0000060. 

In making these determinations, the bricks were 
heated in water baths, basing the value of the coefficients 
upon the contractions displayed in passing from the bath 
of boiling water to one at about freezing temperature. 
It was necessary to use the measurements taken on falling 
temperatures, to eliminate the effect of the swelling of the 
bricks due to absorption of water. 

The bricks usually swelled and were longer on the 
gauged lengths when in water at $$ degrees Fahrenheit 
than originally, when dry and in the air at 68 degrees. 
Moreover, after having been through the hot-water bath 
and returned to the cold one, their lengths were found 
still further increased. 

When a brick saturated with water is frozen, it ex- 
pands, due to the action of the water within. The amount 
of such expansion, in going from 33 degrees Fahrenheit 
down to, say, 25 degrees, measured on a length of six 
inches, has been found to range from a few ten-thou- 
sandths of an inch to above one-half a hundredth of an 



♦Paper presented at the Twenty-first Annual Convention of the 
National Brick Manufacturers' Association, at St Louis, Mo., Febru- 
ary 7, 1907, by James E. Howard. 



inch. Not infrequently, freezing a brick saturated with 
water is attended with a permanent increase in its length. 

The elastic properties of brick have been observed, 
measuring the compressibility of the material as loads are 
applied, and determining the permanent sets when such 
have been acquired. Light-hard and salmon brick are 
most compressible — hard-burnt and vitrified brick are 
least compressible. 

The moduli of elasticity, deducting the permanent 
sets in computing these values, range from less than 
1,000,000 to a maximum of 10,000,000 pounds per square 
inch. Permanent sets, when they occur, are usually 
of small magnitude. From this it follows that the curves 
of compressibility are nearly straight lines ; that is, in 
individual cases the amount of compression of a brick is 
nearly proportional to the load which is placed upon it. 

The compression of the brick, in the direction in which 
the load is applied, is accompanied by an expansion in a 
lateral direction, which, as well as the direct compression, 
is a measurable quantity. The usual ratio of lateral ex- 
pansion to longitudinal compression falls between the 
limits of i-5th and i-ioth. 

Density of structure is shown by the amount of water 
which a brick will absorb. Usually the absorption is re- 
ported in percentage by weight. A better method seems 
to be, to judge of the voids by the volume of water ab- 
sorbed. Water enters a porous brick very promptly, less 
rapidly in the harder ones, but complete saturation is not 
accomplished even at the end of a week's immersion. 
Additional water is absorbed by exposure in a bath of hot 
water. 

The compressive strength of brick extends over a wide 
range in values. The weight per cubic foot of the ma- 
terial, its density of structure, modulus of elasticity and 
compressive strength are mutually dependent features, 
and all are influenced more or less by the conditions of 
manufacture. The records of tests on compressive 
strength are numerous and generally available to all. 
"Reports of Tests of Metals," 1894, and following years, 
contain many such results. Nearly 500 state, territorial 
and other libraries are designated depositories for Con- 
gressional documents, where these volumes may be ex- 
amined by those who do not have them personally. 

The accompanying diagrams have been prepared to 
illustrate features connected with the properties of brick, 
brick piers and other materials of construction. 

(No. 1.) The rate of absorption of some dry-pressed 
and mud brick, which were burned side by side in a down- 
draught kiln, is here shown. 

The mud bricks are shown by full lines, the dry- 
pressed by dotted ones. These samples were weighed at 
frequent intervals during the early stages of immersion. 
It appears that a considerable part of the water even- 
tually absorbed entered some of the samples during the 
first fifteen seconds of immersion. After this time ab- 
sorption went on slowly. The upper horizontal lines 
indicate the amounts which were absorbed at the expira- 
tion of a week's time. The lesser amounts of water 
absorbed by the bricks from the top of the kiln over those 
farther down will be noted. 

(No. 2.) On this diagram are shown the stress-strain 
curves of the samples of the preceding diagram. The 
greatest degree of rigidity is displayed by those from the 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



top of the kiln, becoming more compressible as they are 
taken from the lower parts. The order in which these 
curves are plotted is the same as in the preceding dia- 



RATE Or ABSORPTION 
BRICK TROM DIFTERENT PARTS Or KILN, 



63 



376,000 pounds on a surface 2.45 inches by 3.99 inches in 
cross-section dimensions. 

(No. 5.) The laboratory records were gone over, and 



STBCNCTH Or ORICK 
TROM DirrDRCNT PARTS Or KILN. 



GO 
20 
10 



• 



t^L 




10 10 

ABSORPTION BY HEICHT - PER CENT 
TOP I/O 2/3 



10 



10 

BOTTOM 
MUD BRICK, TULL LINES - DRY PRESSED > DOTTED LINES 



»- u 

X • 



1/3 



2/3 



CN 



NO. I. 

gram, with reference to their position in the kiln. It 
will be noticed that the mud bricks from the bottom of 
the kiln displayed as much compressibility under a load 
of 4,000 pounds as the corresponding 
bricks from the top displayed under 
twice the load. 

(No. 3. ) The variation in com- 
pressive strength is equally pro- 
nounced, according to position in the 
kiln, as shown by this diagram. The 5 
weights per cubic foot of the material | ° 
are entered along the lower edge of ° £ 
the diagram. The highest strength S2 
corresponds with the greatest weight. 
This is characteristic, also, of other 
materials of construction, high resist- 
ance and high density of structure 
being found in the same samples. 

(No. 4.) The properties of a re- 
markable brick are shown on this dia- 
gram. So phenomenal was its com- 
pressive strength that it is fully deserving of a special 
diagram of its own. To St. Louis belongs the honor of 
producing this brick, which far exceeded in strength any 

BRICK TROM DIITERENT PARTS Or KILN 
STRESS-STRAIN CURVES 



VITRIPIED BRICK - ST. LOUIS. HO 



COMP.STRENCTH 38,446 LBS. PER SQ.IN. 
HOD. Or E. 8,510.000 • • 

HEICHT PER CU.TT. 145.4 LBS. 

ABSORPTION BY HEICHT .21 PER CENT 
• • BY VOLUME .5 PER CENT 




.05 

COMPRESSION 



u G.OOO 



























/ 


/ 










/ 




J 


> 


s , 








u 




L 


/ 




^>' 






V 




r 




/ ^ 
/ > 


s* 



HUD BRICK. TULL LINES — DRY PRESSED. OPEN LINES 

NO. 3. 

from them were selected the results which appear on 
Diagram No. 5. These tests represent the highest of 
their respective classes. They are what have been at- 
tained, and are presented as stand- 
ards of excellence. The granite, of 
51,990 pounds per square inch com- 
pressive strength, came from a quarry 
in Asheville, N. C. Ordinary gran- 
ites range from 20,000 to 30,000 
pounds per square inch. The cement 
rock represents the stone from which 
a natural cement is obtained from the 
state of New York. The brick, of 
38,446 pounds strength, has just been 
described. Ordinary values for hard- 
burnt brick range from 12,000 to 
25,000 pounds per square inch. 

Portland cement, set under pres- 
sure, attained the maximum strength 
\- yet observed in this material. This 

sample was exposed to an initial pres- 
sure of 14,000 pounds per square inch while setting. 
The strength given on the diagram was displayed by the 
cement at the age of fifty-seven days. The strength of 

SOME HICH COMPRESSIVE STRnNCTIIS IN CONSTRUCTIVE MATERIALS. 

1™ 

5" o gw g 



.10 10 -10 O ••" 
COMPRESSION - PER CENT 

MUD .BRICK. TULL LINES - DRY PRESSED . DOTTED LINES 

NO. 2. 

brick heretofore tested at Watertown Arsenal. This 
sample was tested on end, and reached a total load of 






1 n 



a 

I I 



NO. 



ordinary Portland cement, tested neat, ranges from 
6,000 to 9, 260 pounds per square inch. 



64 



T H E H R I C K BUILD E R . 



The strength of the white-oak stick seems low, taken 
in comparison with the strength of the long-leaf pine and 
the Douglas-fir wood. In small pieces, white oak has 



STEEL. CAST IRON. BRICK. AND CCMDNT. 
STRESS— STRAIN CURVES 



in different kinds of mortar. Brick from three yards 
are represented, the amount of fuel used being 425 
cords, 300 cords and 200 cords, respectively, per million 

BRICK PIERS 
g STRDNCTH Or. UNDER DIITERENT CONDITIONS 








































. 


f 








5-' 




, 


5f*«- 








£4 
1 


c3r 






V&Vw 


/V? ,( 


j$& 


0^ 












■4 




^ 






-.0 


















xfi 


f* 


•j_«r\ BBlj 


•*■ i 


^■'■m 











NEST CAHBRIDCE 
42S CORDS 



EAST BROOKTIELD 
300 CORDS 



MECHANICSVILLE' 
200 CORDS 



II 



COMPRESSION 



.05' 
PER CENT 



t- z 

1 u 

U X 



< u 
2; u 



z a 
u z 
s: -< 



NO. 6. 



shown a compressive strength of 9,000 pounds per square 
inch. The figures here given refer to a post of com- 



ROCHESTER. 
N.H. 
HARD 



mercial size. 

(No. 6) The stress-strain curves 
of several representative materials 
are shown on this diagram. Steel 
and cast-iron are here plotted for 
reference purposes. A paving-brick 
from Topeka, Kansas, occupies a £ 
position next to the cast-iron and 5 g 
steel. Then follow the curves of £ 5 
neat Portland cement, a brick from w 

' S3 

Lazearville, West Virginia, then a 
brick from Minneapolis, Minn., and 
the curve of a cement mortar of one 
part Portland cement and three parts 
sand, and at the lower part of the - | 
diagram appears the curve of a fire- 5 _ 
brick from Ashby, Alabama. This z 

diagram shows the range in com- 
pressibility which may be met with ordinarily, 
number of curves might be extended, but other grades 
of material would occupy places between the curves of 
the paving-brick and the fire-brick. 

BRICK PIERS 
STRESS-STRAIN CURVES 



4.000 



BRICK PIERS - HATER STRUCK BRICK 



I 



The 




.05 

COMPRESSION - PER CENT 

NO. 9. 

(No. 7) The strength of brick piers will now be 
referred to. Diagram No. 7 shows the results with 
piers made of hard, and light-hard sand-struck brick laid 



EPPINC.N.H. 
LT.HARD 



8 



HARD BHICK.TULL LINES. — LICHT HARD. OPEN LINCS z ° 
NO. 7. 

brick. One grade only was received from the yard 
where the smallest quantity of fuel was used, which was 
classified as hard. 

The range in strength from the 
hardest brick, laid in neat cement, 
to the weakest light-hard brick, laid 
in lime mortar, is seen to be very 
great. In respect to the compressi- 
bility of the piers under loads, the 
difference is greater than shown by 
their ultimate strengths. It is de- 
sirable to use neat cement or a strong 
mortar in laying hard brick, in order 
to attain maximum strength and 
rigidity. Rigidity is regarded as an 
important factor in construction as 
£ well as strength. 

_ § £ Lime mortar should not be used, 

S o J when either of the considerations 
just mentioned are essential. 
Two values are shown for two of the piers. The 
brick from these yards were panelled on one side, and 
the higher strength in each of these piers belongs to du- 

SOME STRONC BRICK PICBS 
___ LAID IN NCAT CCNHNT 



4.218 

z 

" 4.000- 



a a 



NO. IO. 



Q Q O 



plicates in which the panels were filled with neat cement 
before laying. 

(No. 8) Some piers made of water-struck brick appear 



THE BRICKBU I I.DKR. 



65 



on Diagram No. 8. One firm furnished the hard, another 
the light-hard brick. The influence of the mortar on the 
ultimate strength of the pier is again well shown. It 
seems a wasteful effort to use a weak mortar in which to 
lay a pier of hard, strong brick. 

(No. 9) The curves of compressibility of some piers 
are shown in this diagram. An earlier stress-strain dia- 
gram (No. 6) showed corresponding results on individual 
bricks and other materials. On the present diagram the 
most rigid condition pertained to the pier made of dry- 
pressed brick, laid in neat ce- 
ment. A pier of re-pressed 
mud brick appears next in the 
order of relative rigidity, then Si000 
a hard sand-struck brick pier 

laid in less rich mortar than 

4 . 000 

used for the re-pressed brick, i 
and most compressible of the ° 

. „ ,. "3,000 

group is the pier of light-hard £ 
brick which was laid in lime « 
mortar. The characteristics J 2 ' °° 
of these piers depend chiefly | 
upon the quality of the mortar ° ' ' 00 ° 
employed. 

From this exhibit it may 
be seen how unfavorable is 
the action in a wall, the face 
of which may be laid with 
one class of work, while the backing is of another. 

(No. 10) In order to illustrate the strength which 
may readily be attained in brick pier construction, the 
results of some strong piers have been brought together 
on the diagram now presented. The four piers repre- 
sented on the right of the diagram are taken from earlier 
tests, the results of which are among the published 
records of the laboratory. The other six represent piers 
built and tested just prior to the time of this convention. 
These later ones were intended to be strong piers, a re- 
sult which was realized in the tests. They were about 



BRICK PIER, CEMENT MORTAR AND WOODEN COLUMNS 
STRESS- STRAIN CURVES 



COMPRESSION 



8 feet in height each, nominally 12 inches square; they 
had hollow cores, and the bricks were laid on edge in neat 
cement. 

The ages of the piers are entered along the lower 
edge of the diagram. One pier, the youngest of the 
series, was tested the day it was laid. The test began 
about one hour after the last brick was in place, and was 
finished three hours later, or when the pier was four 
hours old. It developed a compressive strength of 
2, 100 pounds per square inch. The mortar had not 

hardened, and unusual com- 
pressibility was of course dis- 
played. The total load on 
the pier reached 118 tons, a 
load far in excess of any 
which could be expected to be 
placed upon it in constructive 
work, at so early an age. 

Horizontal lines represent 
pounds per square inch on the 
left of the diagram, and, on 
the right side, tons per square 
foot. One pier reached a 
strength of 360 tons per square 
foot, another exceeded this 
load. The allowable load pre- 
no. 11. scribed by the building laws 

of some cities is understood 
to range from 15 to 30 tons per square foot, which seems 
a very low limit in the presence of piers possessing the 
ultimate strength these displayed. 

(No. 11) The stress-strain curves of one brick pier, 
two mortar columns and two wooden posts are shown on 
Diagram No. 11. These curves stand for strong ex- 
amples of their respective kinds. These illustrations and 
others which have gone before were selected, in many of 
the cases, to indicate what seems best in constructive 
materials: examples which could safely be followed 
where strong and safe construction is needed. 




STEEL: 

r "PHK constructors of vault doors have been very loth 
JL to admit that it is possible to burn a way through a 
ponderous steel vault door. We notice, however, that in 
connection with the wrecking of some of the partially 
destroyed buildings in San Francisco use has been made 
of the electric arc to cut up the structural members, and 
the statement appears that it was found cheaper to do 
this work by electricity, actually burning or melting the 
steel away, than to use either a hack saw or drill. It is 
quite possible that electricity may be very extensively 
used for this purpose at times. Indeed, when the final 
history of the San Francisco fire is written, it is probable 
that as many lessons may be learned from the processes 
of removal of the steel frame buildings as was taught by 
the fire itself in their partial destruction. We cannot 
forget that the steel frame is but little more than twenty 
years old. We do not yet know all its possibilities. The 
man who in '84 would have dared to predict that 
there would be erected at the corner of Liberty Street 



and Broadway a building for office purposes taller than 
the Washington Monument and outstripping any other 
structure, past or present, would have been laughed at 
as the vaguest dreamer. Those were the days when we 
thought the height of a building was limited by elevator 
capacity, that an elevator could run safely only at the rate 
of three hundred and fifty feet a minute, and as one ele- 
vator was needed for at least every twenty-five thousand 
square feet of office space, therefore, by a perfectly simple 
arithmetical problem it could be demonstrated that a 
building of over twelve or fifteen stories would of neces- 
sity be occupied in the first floor entirely by elevators. 
Now, with modern methods, elevators which can travel 
a thousand feet a minute, or more, and with our knowl- 
edge of steel and how to use it, there is no known 
limit to the height of a building. And if we were 
to judge by the speculative statements of Mr. H. G. 
Wells, who writes so convincingly about the future, 
buildings more than a thousand feet high are less of a 
day dream than the Singer Building would have been 
twenty years ago. 



66 



THE BRICKBUI L D E R 



A Group of Modern English Houses. 

MICHAEL BUNNEY 

WHILE efforts are being made on every hand to 
bring the standard of modern brickwork up to the 
level of the old as regards traditional methods of hand- 
ling the material and by improved attention to texture 
and its value as a factor in design, architects are also 
availing themselves more and more of other means by 
which to infuse distinctive qualities into their work. Of 
these means, perhaps the most far-reaching in its effects 
is the revival of the use of the small special-made brick. 
In a former paper on the subject of modern English 
brickwork, the causes of the decline in the use of small 
bricks were dealt with, and no further demonstration of 




MISSION HOUSE, WESTMINSTER. 
Kdwin L. Lutyens, Architect. 

the value, from an architectural standpoint, of the size of 
bricks when correctly gauged to the circumstances of 
each case is required than that afforded by numberless 
brick buildings still standing that date their erection 
before the standardization of brick dimensions became 
necessary. It will be well, however, briefly to enumerate 
the advantages that the use of small sized brick does 
under certain conditions confer upon a building. 

In the first place, the small bricks entail a greater 
number of courses to any given height than is the case 
when those of the standard size are used, and this in the 
same measure will increase the number of joints; now 
this addition to the sum total of visible mortar joints 
produces a very palpable effect, mitigating to a large 
degree the predominating color of the wall surface, that 




HOUSE AT EALING. 
W. A. Pite and R. S. Balfour, Architects. 

is to say, the color of the bricks themselves. When the 
mortar joint also is of a generous dimension, say three- 
eighths of an inch in thickness, the resultant is a breaking 
up of the surface both as regards color and texture that 
is satisfactory from every point of view. 

Nothing will bear this out more convincingly than a 
comparison between the brickwork of the Mission House 
at Westminster, carried 'out by Mr. Lutyens, and most of 
the modern brickwork where standard sized bricks and a 
thin joint have been employed. The dullness of modern 
brickwork of the ordinary type is almost entirely the out- 
come of that uniformity of surface and consequent loss 
of quality which a thin joint brings about. 

In the Mission House mentioned, as well as at some 
other buildings in London, Mr. Lutyens has used a brick 
measuring about 6 1 - x 3 x i3| inches and imported from 
Holland. The bricks are made of a particularly plastic 
clay which is burnt very hard and twists and warps a 
little in the burning; the surface has a very coarse grain. 
These qualities would, no doubt, be accounted imper- 
fections by the devotee of accurate bricklaying and a so- 
called perfect surface, but they are the qualities that 
make all the difference between a dull and an interesting 
wall surface and impart a character wholly absent from 




THE VICARAGE, EALING. 

W. A. Pite and R. S. Balfour, Architects. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



67 




HOUSE AT HAPPISBURGH. 

Detmar Blow, Architect. 

uniform work. The mistaken idea that unless a brick is 
square and true it is a bad one to lay, dies hard — pro- 
vided the mortar is good, there is no reason whatever 
why a thick bed of it should not be used in which to lay 
a twisted brick properly and, in addition, obtain a wide 
joint on the surface. 

Very often, too, when buildings are not of a large 
size, the small brick will be found to be much more in 
scale and an aid to correct proportion when the walls are 
cut up with openings or other features. 

Some architects are showing an inclination to go back 
to what might be termed "locality " work ; that is to say, 







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SIBERTSWOLD. 
Balfour & Turner, Architects. 

they have seized upon certain characteristics peculiar to 
the brickwork of localities in which they happened to be 
building, as a rule expanding and developing these local 
hall-marks with good results. As these local varieties 
are much less numerous and definite in the brick produc- 
ing districts than where stone is the principal building 
material, it will suffice to deal with two of them. 

East Anglia is essentially a brick country and here, 
owing to easy access to continental examples, themselves 
mostly of brick, and the consequent fostering of a taste 
for continental methods, a brickwork tradition grew up, 
based on a foundation half English and half Dutch, re- 
maining, nevertheless, purely local. 

These Flemish-looking gables with their gusseted 
parapets and quaint intermixture of brick with flints and 
other materials find admirable exponents now in Detmar 



Blow and E. S. Prior who have both revived this interest- 
ing variety of work in their well-known houses at Hap- 
pisburgh and Kelling. 

Down in the South, in the forest counties, there is an- 
other variety of brickwork, not, perhaps, quite so local as 
that of the east coast, but still sufficiently characteristic 
and confined to a more or less well-defined district. The 
local feature of this work is the use that is made in it of 
the vitrified ends of the bricks for pattern work and 
dressings. These black and shiny "headers" are pro- 
duced accidentally by the wood fire in the kilns coming 




GREAT HOUSE COURT, FROM THE DRIVE. 
E. Turner Powell, Architect. 

into contact with a clay charged with a proportion of sand 
sufficient to impart a dull glaze to the surface of the brick. 
In a haphazard and incidental fashion these vitrified 
ends have always appeared in South country work, but 
recently a more extended use has been made of the possi- 
bilities they possess for decorative arrangements and for 
enduwing the wall surface with quality and richness. 




ST. ETHELBURGEK, BALING. 
W. \. 1'ite and R. S. Balfour, Architects. 



68 



T H E B RICK BU I LDE R. 



In London, Thackeray Turner has carried out many 
small brick buildings on broad and simple lines, depend- 
ent mostly on the excellent selection and handling of the 
material. He has also made a free use in a somewhat 
new way of the old English "rubber" brick ; leaving 
the usual and older method of utilizing this soft brick for 
cut and molded work, he has adopted it as a facing 
brick rubbed on its exposed side and set in a fine putty 
joint, thus securing a broad, smooth surface full of good 
and, even in London, permanent color, to contrast with 
the rougher and dirtier texture of the common brick. 




t 



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in mini i 






HOUSE NEAR MANCHESTER. 
Edgar Wood, Architect. 

In the suburbs of most of the big provincial towns 
good brick architecture is springing up, the most suc- 
cessful buildings, as a rule, being those in which local 
materials and tradition are faithfully adhered to. Even 
the uncouth and ugly Lancashire brick has yielded good 
results at Edgar Wood's hands in some of his new works 
in the outskirts of Manchester, for he has been content 
to keep his brickwork rough and clumsy in its execution 




iIIj! II II Tf 



HOUSE AT EDGEBASTON, BIRMINGHAM. 
Cossins & Peacock, Architects. 

instead of trying to get a fine and even surface with a 
brick that lacks these qualities and in addition is but 
poor in color. 

The failures in brickwork design are brought about 
most often by the attempt to produce effects, which only 
the very finest kind of brick can properly achieve, with 
a material varying far more than even stone in all the 
essential qualities of color, texture and adaptability. 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



PERCENTAGE OF FIRE LOSS 

MR. F. J. T. STEWART, Secretary of the Commit- 
tee of the National Fire Protection Association 
which compiled the report on the Baltimore conflagration, 
and a member of the staff of the Continental Insurance 
Company of New York, has worked out a very interest- 
ing and instructive table showing the percentages of cost 
for the various parts of a fireproof structure, prepared 
from data furnished by architects and builders in the 
principal cities. A first-class building exposed to a con- 
flagration will be heavily damaged in all items of eon- 




BUILDING FOR THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD, BALTIMORE 
Parker & Thomas, Architects. 

struction except the foundations and steel. These two 
items will be approximately twenty percent of value, and 
to this may be added about ten per cent for other sal- 
vage, chiefly on mason work, so that the maximum prob- 
able damage to a first-class steel frame building would 
not exceed seventy per cent. This is a large element of 
loss but Mr. Stewart's conclusions show beyond question 
that even with such large damage the fireproof buildings 
are really all that will save cities from repeated disas- 
trous conflagrations. 



PHILANTHROPISTS AND THE BUILDING 

LAWS. 

r "PHERE is no more disinterested and public-spirited 
J. group of men and women than the philanthropists 
who so ardently give their thought and services in our 
large cities to the bettering of the condition of the poor. 
There is also no class which can so easily confuse the 
issues and impose unnecessary restrictions upon building 



THE BRICKBUILDKR 



69 



operations. It is safe to say, however, that if the chari- 
table societies were to frame our tenement house laws, 
there would be no more tenement houses built, for the 
cost would be prohibitive, and our tenement house popula- 
tion would, of necessity, be forced to cities where build- 
ing laws do not exist. It is by no means a misfortune 
to a city to have a large tenement house district. The 
bone and sinew of our large cities are not afforded by the 
wealthy or the middle classes, but by the artisans, the 
laborers and the poor who do the hard , necessary work 
with their own hands, and who are obliged to live in ir- 
expensive quarters. Consequently any regulation which 
hinders the economical housing of this class, which im- 
poses unnecessary constructive burdens upon them 
should be looked upon as ill advised legislation. 



LICENSING ARCHITECTS. 

SEVERAL states now require an architect to take out 
a license to practice. So far as we have had occasion 
to compare notes with architects in the states in which 
architecture is so regulated, we find a fairly even concen- 
sus of opinion that no real good has come by licensing the 
profession, and we have yet to find a cogent reason why 





MARKET TOWER, BROOKLYN. 
W. B. Tubby & Bro., Architects. 

the system should be extended to other states. The 
theory that it protects the properly qualified architects is 
hardly substantiated by facts. The best architects do not 
need the protection, and, apparently, the others get no 
more protection against scalliwags than is afforded in 
other states. It is one of those measures which is di- 
rected against a fancied condition, and remedies this con- 
dition in an imaginary way, and this is really about all 
that can be said in its favor. We cannot see that the 
standard of professional practice is materially higher in 
one state than another, and licensing seems to us merely 
an added burden imposed upon the practice of archi- 
tecture. 



CRESCENT ATHLETIC CLUB, BROOKLYN. 

Frank Freeman, Architect. 

All four sides built up of light gray brick, made by Sayre & Fisher Co. 



IMITATION ARCHITECTURE. 

LONGFELLOW has a very apt ((notation in which he 
refers to "architecture existing in itself and not in 
seeming a something it is not." If the poet could view 
our architecture of to-day as we sometimes see it he 
might have to recast his characterization, especially in 
view of the way in which concrete is being used. We 
have no fault to find with the material; it is flexible, 
readily adaptable to all sorts of emergencies, and when 
properly used and properly applied is a valuable aid to 
the constructor, but we have yet to see any really satis- 
factory treatment of concrete as concrete from an artistic- 
standpoint. If one doesn't care how badly it looks, how 
much it catches the dirt, how much it may he streaked or 
variegated in tone, or how unevenly its surface may craze, 
there will be little worry coming on this subject, but no 



7° 



THE BRI C K BUILD E K 



architect can feel quite 
happy with the appear- 
ance of any structure, 
however utilitarian, which 
presents the outward as- 
pect of even the best of 
our concrete work. It ex- 
ists in seeming what it is 
not, or else it exists as an 
unsightly, blotchy, thor- 
oughly undesirable ap- 
pearing wall surface, with 
which the only possible 
thing to be done is to 
cover it with a charitable 
coating of paint and for- 
get that it has an indi- 
viduality of its own. In 
our large cities limestone 
and sandstone will dis- 
color, but they are immac- 
ulate compared with con- 
crete, except when the lat- 
ter material deliberately 
starts out to imitate 
something else. The Har- 
vard Stadium is an exam- 
ple of concrete work at its 
best. Attempts were 
made to finish the surface 
with hammering, with a 
wash of cement, with 
troweling and with no 
treatment at all, leaving 
the imprint of the mold 
boards on every surface. 
We rather prefer the latter, 
but it at least does not masq 




ANSONIA APARTMENT, HUOADWAV, NEW YORK. 

Paul A. Duboy, Architect. 

Terra Cotta furnished by New York Architectural Terra Cotta Co 



It is frankly constructive, 
uerade as imitation. 



Beach, California. Also 
results of brick and clay 
products in San Francisco 
in fire and earthquake, 
with concise descriptions 
and short technical ex- 
tracts by the leading archi- 
tects and engineers. The 
printing of this publica- 
tion was prompted by the 
claims that were made by 
the cement interests 
against brick and tile. 

It is allowed that this 
work is put forth by par- 
tisans, but even so, we be- 
lie ve that they ha ve spoken 
the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, and are 
wholly justified by the 
facts in presenting the case 
in the manner in which 
they have. The Associ- 
ation is made up of men 
who have business inter- 
ests to protect, but in do- 
ing so they have presented 
data which will have a 
value to any unbiased 
mind. The Architects and 
Builders of this country 
will welcome, we believe, 
anything which will en- 
lighten them upon the con- 
duct of building materials 
in the San Francisco ca- 
lamity. This work does it, and does it well. 

The enormous cost of compiling this work has made 
it necessary for the Association to charge §1.00 per copy. 



AX INTERESTING AND VALUABLE TRADE 
PUBLICATION. 

BURNT Clay Products in Fire and Earthquake " is 
the title of an unusually interesting and valuable 
work which has been issued by the Brick Construction 
Association of Los 
Angeles, Cal. It con- 
sists of ninety-six 
pages and cover, con- 
taining eighty-three 
half-tones, showing 
the effect of fire and 
earthquake on con- 
crete, reinforced and 
plain, the defects of 
concrete in general, 
hollow cement block 
collapses, frame build- 
ing collapses, and col- 
lapse and official re- 
port of the Hotel Bix- 
by d i s a s't e r, Long 




HOUSE AT TACOMA, WASH. 

Russell & Babcock, Architects. 
Roofed withLudowici-Celadon Tiles. 



IX GENERAL. 

Hobart A. Walker and Elliott W. Hazzard have 
formed a co-partnership for the practice of Architecture. 
Offices, 437 Fifth Avenue, Xew York, N. Y. 

Charles A. Gunn, 
Architect, has opened 
an office in the Union 
Bank Building, Pitts- 
burg. Manufacturers' 
catalogues and sam- 
ples desired. 

The Architectural 
League of America 
held its annual Con- 
vention at Washing- 
ton, D. C, April 22, 
23 and 24. A report 
of this Convention will 
be published in The 
Brickbuilder for May. 



T H E BR IC K BU I L I) ER. 



The American Enameled 
Brick and Tile Company will 
supply 200,000 of their brick 
for use in the exterior of a 
b u i 1-d i n g at Youngstown, 
Ohio, of which John Stam- 
burgh is the architect. 

The Brooklyn Chapter of 
the American Institute of 
Architects will hold its 
Seventh Annual Exhibition 
at the Pouch Gallery, Clinton 
Avenue, from May 6 to May 
1 8 inclusive. Exhibits of 
drawings, photographs, sculp- 
ture and objects of industrial 
art are desired from -all 
interested. 




NEW BOOKS. 



DETAIL BY ROOT & SIEMENS, ARCHITECTS. 
Northwestern Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



The Architect's Directory and Specification Index 
for 1907. New York: William T. Comstock. One 
8vo vol., red cloth. Price, $3.00. 

Containing a complete list of the architects in the 

United States and Canada. Classified by states and towns, 

indicating those who are mem- 
bers of the American Institute 

of Architects; also the names 

of the officers and locations 

of the different architectural 

associations in the United 

States and Canada. Prepared 

with the greatest care to 

secure accuracy both in names 

and locations. 

Rumford Fireplaces and How They Are Made. By 
G. Curtis Gillespie, M. E. Arch. Containing Benja- 
min, Count Rumford's Essay on " Proper Fireplace 
Construction." New York: William T. Comstock. 

Price, 
$2.00. 

A plea for a 
more general 
consideration of 
the form and 
proportion of a 
very much ne- 
glected feature 
of our homes and 
buildings; with 
nearly two hun- 
dred illustra- 
tions, including 
the original 
Rumford draw- 
ings, diagrams 
for fireplace 
construct ion, 
and numerous 
ancient and 
modern mantels 




DETAIL BY FRANK S. LOWE, ARCHITECT. 
South Amboy Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 




DETAIL FOR NORMAL SCHOOL CROUP, 
BOSTON. 

Peabody & Stearns, Coolidge & Carlsen and 

Maginnis, Walsh & Sullivan, 

Associate Architects. 



71 

and fireplaces, one hundred 
andiron designs and other de- 
tails and fixtures, together 
with preface and explanatory 
notes. 

Modern PLUMBING I L 1. U S 
tratki). Xew York: Wil- 
liam T. Comstock. One 
large 8vo vol. ; cloth ; 
pp. 392. Price, S4.00. 

This work is an eminently 
practical work representing 
the best modern practice in 
plumbing and water supply. 
Naturally, the questions of 
drainage and sewerage occupy 
first place. ( >n these ques- 
tions the author has followed 
the requirements of the City 
of Xew York and other im- 
portant cities, as well as the 
requirements of the United 

States, in all matters of drainage and sanitation. 

A special feature of the work is the liberal scale 

drawings, which cover almost every imaginable condition 

likely to come before the plumber, architect or sanitary 

engineer. 

In treating city work the sewerage occupies first 
place, but in dealing with 
country work the author has 
entered quite fully into the 
question of water supply. 
Here, also, the question of 
sewage disposal has been 
treated at considerable length, 
showing the various systems 
that have proved acceptable 
under varying conditions. 

Glossary of Terms in English Architecture. By 
Thomas Dinham Atkinson. Xew York: William T. 
Comstock. Price, $1.50. 

This little 
book is lim- 
ited to the 
historical as- 
pect of archi- 
tecture, and 
only deals in- 
cidentally 
with words 
used in art 
and art crit- 
icism and in 
building. But 
at the same 
time m a n y 
technical 
terms are to 
be found, 
and construc- 
tional terms 
in particular ; 
for construe- 







DETAIL FOR A HOSPITAL, PHILADELPHIA 
Herman Miller. Architect. 

Conkling-Armstrong T< rra Cotta Co . Makers. 



T II E BRICKBUILD E K 



tion lies at the 
very root of the 
matter. 

Many terms 
used in (ireek 
and Roman 
architecture are 
included be- 
cause they are 
necessary to a 
proper under- 
standing of 
R e na i ssance 
architecture 
and church 
building'. For 
this reason the 
general princi- 
ple has been to 
include those 
terms w h i cjh 
have a direct 
bearing on Eng- 
lish architec- 
ture, whether 

they deal with decorative forms or with the planning of 

buildings. 




cent. The percentage of gain in other leading cities is 
shown by the following figures: Allegheny, 96; Birming- 
ham, 112; Buffalo, 45; Cleveland, 51; Detroit, 80; Har- 
risburg, 9; Hartford, 21; Indianapolis, 149; Minneap- 



DETAIL BY ROBERT ALLEN COOK, 

ARCHITECT. 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



BUILDING OPERATIONS FOR MARCH. 

REPORTS from fifty-five leading cities of the coun- 
try officially reported to The American Contractor 
New York, and tabulated, show a gratifying and widely 
distributed building activity for March. In the cities re- 
ported thirty-one show a gain as compared with the cor- 
responding month of 1906, while twenty-one indicate a 
loss. In the aggregate the loss amounts to 3 per cent. 
This is decidedly encouraging 
when compared with the show- 
ing made in the preceding month, 
when the total loss, as compared 
with March, 1906, was 20 per 
cent. The greatest loss reported 
is in Xew York. Manhattan lost 
$4,952,621 and the Bronx $1,790,- 
535, while Brooklyn made a gain 
of $1,414,637, making a total loss 
for Greater New York of $5,328,- 
519, or over three millions more 
than the total loss of the fifty- 
two cities. The loss in New 
York is clearly chargeable to 
previous large building opera- 
tions and the stringency of the 
money market which makes it 
difficult to place large building 
loans, Taking this into account 
4l(jR^Jlt the showing is excellent, a 

marked improvement over the 
preceding month. Chicago, the 
city next on the list from the 
standpoint of volume of busi- 
ness, reports a gain of 33 per 





I'll. ASTER BY BAHES ! 
YOUNG, ARCHITECTS. 
Winkle Terra Cotta Co., 



DETAIL BY GEORGE K. PELHAM, ARCHITECT. 
New Jersey Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

olis, 38; Memphis, 25; Mobile, 225; Paterson, 57: 
Rochester, 31; St. Louis, 53; St. Paul, 30; Scranton, 50; 
Seattle, 107; Syracuse, 60: Salt Lake City. 316; Topeka, 
15,?; Washington, 23. The following figures show per- 
centages of losses: Cincinnati, 4; Denver, 18; Duluth, 
62; Grand Rapids. 9; Kansas City, 18; Louisville, 32 ; 
Los Angeles, 41 ; Milwaukee, 1 ; Newark, 32; New York, 
23 ; < hnaha, 23 , Philadelphia, 3 1 ; Pittsburg, 5 ; Spokane, 8 : 
Toledo, 5 1 ; Tacoma, 20 

When the Trinity 
Annex and Realty Build- 
ing was opened, May 1 . a 
stupendous example of 
skyscraper construction 
was brought to a 
close. From the time 
the first steel columns 
were set, September 15 
last, to the day when the 
builders turned over the 
finished structures to 
the owners, is only 
seven months. In that 
period 9, 000 tons of steel 
from Pittsburg, 1,000,- 
000 bricks from New 
Jersey and Albany. 
1,000,000 square feet of 
hollow tile from Raritan, 
300,000 cubic feet of 
stone from the quarries 
of Xew England, have 
been assembled and set 

in place in the two twenty-one story skyscrapers on the 
corner of Thames Street and Broadway, New York. 

WANTED_San Francisco and the whole West is in need 
of first-class Architectural men !! We are able to place you with 
reliable firms and invite correspondence. 

Our Bulletin for 2 cent stamp. 

THE SAN FRANCISCO ARCH. & ENG. AGENCY 

1330 Eddy Street, San Francisco. Cal. 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

The Graduate School of Applied Science 
and The Lawrence Scientific School 

offer graduate and undergraduate courses in Civil, Mechanical, Electrical. Mining and 
Metallurgical Engineering, Architecture, Landscape Architecture, Forestry, Physics, 
Chemistry, Biology and ('.eulogy. 

Kor further information, address \V. ( . S \ BINE, 14 University Hall, Cambridge, Mass. 




DETAIL BY L. C. HOLDEN, 

ARCHITECT. 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Co.. Makers. 



THE BRICKBUIL D E R 

VOL. 16, NO. 4. 



PLATE 49. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 4. PLATE 50. 




MENS HOSPITAL, STATE HOSPITAL, TEWKSBURY, MASS 
John A. Fox, Architect. 




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THE BRICK BU I L DER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 4. PLATE 51. 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




6 O" -Jo. s « 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



MEN'S ASYLUM, STATE HOSPITAL, TEWKSBURY, MASS. 
John A. Fox, Architect. 



T HE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 16, NO. 4. PLATE 52. 






Dormitory- 




Dormitory 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




4 3. » 8 



i*-7 ■> M 



• !■<> 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



WOMEN'S ASYLUM, STATE HOSPITAL, TEWKSBURY, MASS. 
John A. Fox, Architect. 



T H E BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 4. PLATE 53. 




MEN'S ASYLUM, STATE HOSPITAL. TEWKSBURY, MASS. 




WOMEN'S ASYLUM, STATE HOSPITAL, TEWKSBURY, MASS. 
John A. Fox, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 4. PLATE 54. 




HOUSE FOR LEWIS STUYVESANT CHANLER, ESQ., TUXEDO PARK, N. Y. 

Sturgis & Barton, architects. 




o rifi/T TLOOB PLAH 



o yecoHP tioob. plan- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 4. PLATE 55. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 4. PLATE 56. 




LIBRARY AT NASHUA, N. H, 
Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 4. PLATE 57. 




THE COLONY CLUB, MADISON AVENUE, NEW YOHK. 
McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



T II E BRICKBUILD E R. 

VOL. 16, NO. 4. PLATE 58. 




HOUSE FOR C. OLIVER ISELIN, ESQ., NEW ROCHELLli, N. Y. 
Sidney Stratton, Architect. 




T H E B R I CK H U ILD E R. 

VOL. 16. NO. 4. PLATE 59. 




HOUSE FOR S. T. HUTCHINSON, ESQ., 
DEDHAM, MASS. 

PHILIP B. HOWARD, ARCHITECT. 




•fjBST.1 

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• 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 4. p LATE 60 . 




HOUSE FOR H. A. GOWING, ESQ., 
BROOKLINE, MASS. 

PHILIP B. HOWARD, ARCHITECT. 




FieoT- Tloob°P 



THE BRICKBUILD E R. 

VOL. 16, NO. 4. PLATE 61. 





THE HENRY C. NEVINS HOME FOR THE AGED AND INCURABLE, METHUEN, MASS. 

Harris M. Stephenson, Architect. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 4. PLATE 62. 




HOSPITAL FOR CONSUMPTIVES, 
STATE HOSPITAL, TEWKSBURY, MASS. 

JOHN A. FOX, ARCHITECT. 




THE BRICKBU1LDKR. 

VOL. 16, NO. 4. PLATE 63> 




v^rrcoND Tiooq Plan ° 



THE HENRY C. NEVINS HOME FOR THE AGED AND INCURABLE, METHUEN. M 

Harris M. Stephenson, Architect. 




THE BRICK K U I L I) E R . 

VOL. 16. NO. 4. PLATE 64 



DCCON D • TLOOD • PI AM 




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JVOEMLNT = PLAN 



FLOOR PLANS. 

THE COLONY CLUB, 

MADISON AVENUE, 

NEW YORK. 

McKIM, MEAD & WHITE, 
ARCHITECTS. 



T'lBST • TLOOB ° PL AM' 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVI 



MAY 1907 



Number 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street ....... Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



L'ht, 1907, by Rogers .V Manson 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and Canada ........... 55-°° P er y car 

Single numbers 5° ccnM 

To countries in the Postal Union • • $6.00 per ycar 

Subscriptions payablk in advance 
For sale bv all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Tena Cotta 

Brick .... 



PAGE 

II 
II 

II and III 
III 



Brick Enameled . 
Clay Chemicals 
Fireproofing 
Roofing Tile 



PAGE 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



CONTENTS 



From Work by 



RAYMOND F. ALMIRALL; COPE & STEWARDSON; ERNEST FLAGG; WILLIAM B. ITTNER: 
PEABODY & STEARNS; STOUGHTON & STOUGHTON. 



LETTERPRESS 

THE GATEHOUSE AT CHARLCOTE, WARWICKSHIRE, ENGLAND Frontii 



71 



EDITORIALS 

THE NEW HOTEL TRAYMi IRE, ATLANTIC CITY 

CONVENTION OF THE ARCHITECTURAL LI. AMERICA. REPO 

WORK OF SUPERVISING ARCHITECT TAYLOR 

THE MONTANA CLUB, HELENA, MONT 

HORTICULTURAL BUILDING, AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, AMHERST, MASS 
ELECTRICAL LABORATORY, UNION CoLLi:'.l. 5< HENECTADY, NEW V()1<K 

RAILWAY STATION, PLYMOUTH, MASS 

RAILWAY STATION", CLEVELAND, OHIO 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY. 









'»>»»»»»'>»» 



^>m^v^v^ » »»»»T ! 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



fi !<«<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< (<<<<<<<««<<« <<.>>>>>>>>>>>>>>^^ 



American Architecture. 



'"TT^HE marvelous progress which this country has 
X made in the arts and sciences within the past gen- 
eration is very aptly emphasized by the point of view 
which has been taken within the year by some of the 
distinguished foreigners who have visited our shores and 
have seen fit to comment upon the appearance of our 
cities. Within six months we have been inspected and 
passed upon by two eminent architects. Sir Aston Webb, 
at the beginning of the year, visited our principal cities 
and spoke most approvingly of what he found, treating 
our architecture, not as the promising work of a hopeful 
younger cousin, but as the serious, vigorous achievement 
of a race which is inheriting all the traditions which 
count for the most in European architecture, and is mak- 
ing them very rapidly into a vernacular which expresses 
American aspirations. Mr. Ernst E. von Ihne was one of 
the guests at the opening of the Carnegie Institute at 
Pittsburg, and, as the court architect to the German 
Emperor, is certainly well qualified to judge of our devel- 
opment. In his published utterances, from which we 
quote, he has evinced an enthusiasm for the American 
work and an appreciation of what American architects 
are striving to accomplish, which speaks more than mere 
words for the international reputation which our work 
has so rapidly acquired. He says: 

" You are at work meeting conditions. That is the 
thing that architects have always to do. No nation can 
achieve a national architecture whose artists say : ' Let us 
build in the Gothic style,' or ' No, let us build in Roman- 
esque ; that is better.' A country has simply to begin 
and build ; it will start with what style it believes best 
suited to its particular problems, but it will just develop 
as it appreciates its needs. I have my idea as^to what 
historic style is best suited to be the foundation of your 
architecture, but you may find another to be the best 
one. That doesn't matter. The point I make now is 
that you in America are earnestly striving to meet the 
particular problems of buildings fitted for dwellings, 
business houses, and public halls in America,- problems 
different in many respects from any hitherto attacked by 
architects, — and you are meeting these problems with a 
surprising degree of success, considering how brief has 
been the time during which you have been at it. 

" New York is most impressive in the daring and uii- 
trammeled spirit in which it is thrusting up its gigantic 
fabrics into the air. Consider, whoever before under- 
took to erect what is almost a city under a single roof on 
such a plot of ground as that on which stands that Flat- 



iron Building? And how brilliantly you have dealt with 
a similar problem in the Times Building. 

" You do right, precisely right, to treat these tall build- 
ings frankly as towers. That is exactly what they are. 
Already you have the campanile of Giotto standing in the 
most conspicuous point along your thoroughfare, and, 1 
believe, other great towers reproduced in other parts of 
the city. 

" Your problem has been to make the most of every 
inch of land. The concentration of the people in the city 
has brought conditions from which architects of former 
years have been free. 

"Until within the last few years architecture has had 
no chance. The nineteenth century was one of war and 
of disturbed social and political conditions and of general 
poverty. All the arts suffered, and especially did those 
which require large outlay suffer. Not only were no 
great buildings erected, but men forgot how to build, 
and when we began again it was in ignorance and forget- 
fulness. The result was the horrible warnings which 
exist on every side. If only the tradition of good build- 
ing had been remembered we should have been spared 
all that. 

" Now that we are prosperous again and minded to 
build, we shall do well if we go back to the eighteenth 
century and begin again where architects left off. Win- 
begin at the beginning? Why puzzle again over the 
problems which earlier centuries have definitely settled? 
I consider that there are certain tilings pretty well de- 
termined in architecture. The sixteenth century defi- 
nitely discarded Gothic as a style for domestic or commer- 
cial architecture. . Conditions of life have altered since 
the days when Gothic was properly employed, and it is 
mere slavish imitation to build in it now. I do not speak 
of ecclesiastical architecture. Religion is essentially un- 
changing, and its aspirations express themselves in forms 
permanent and stretching from age to age. But domes- 
tic life is not to-day what it was in the middle ages, and 
commercial life in its modern sense is a new thing in the 
world. 

" My belief is that the world was right in agreeing, as 
it did, that the classic form was the one whirl) might 
best be progressively adapted to the needs of modern life. 
In the eighteenth century it had reached the highest 
developmen., for its purpose, of the classical style. My 
feeling is that we are wise in going back to that point, 
not to rest in its achievement, but to progress from it, 
having in mind always the necessity of studying our 
particular problem and in dealing with it freely and 
creatively, yet with intelligence informed of the history 
of past architectural endeavor." 



74 



T H E H K I CK BU I L I) E R 



The New Hotel Traymore, 

Atlantic Citv. 
/ 

BY J. FLETCHER STREET. 

PERHAPS nowhere along the coast can be found a 
resort which, in recent years, has more conspicuously 
figured in the erection of new, handsome and spacious 
hotels than has Atlantic City. 

These new hotels adequately meet the requirements 
of well-regulated service and accommodations as exem- 
plified in the best inland structures, and possess charac- 
teristics both in their arrangements and style which re- 
late strictly to the lo- 
cality in which they 
belong. 

The most recent of 
these, the Traymore, 
occupies a peculiar 
position of promi- 
nence. Being situ- 
ated at a bend in the 
boardwalk prome- 
nade, it holds the dis- 
tinct advantage in the 
uninterrupted v i e w 
obtained along this 
thoroughfare in both 
directions. 

As to the style, one 
must admit that no 
school of architecture 
has ever included it in 
its curriculum, yet one 
confesses its power of 
inspiring liberal and 
practical ideas and 
that the architects 
have conceived an ap- 
propriate architectural 
scheme which is both 
consistent and inter- 
esting. Certainly the 
design has been 
evolved through the 
comprehension of the 
underlying principles 
of the problem without 
adherence to tradition 
or the guidance of 
precedent. 

The building presents an unusual combination of ef- 
fective lines and proportions. Though somewhat severe 
in its general aspect, it possesses a certain repose which 
at once impresses the beholder. However, the work, as 
it stands, composes but a small unit of the completed 
structure; immediately at the rear of this portion is the 
principal mass of the building which, when completed, 
will comprise the main features of the entire design. 

In the selection of architectural terra cotta as the fin- 
ished wall surface of the structure, it was necessary to so 
design the concrete parts as to afford curtain wall sup- 
ports for this material at each floor independently. By 




THE NEW HOTEL TRAYMORE, ATLANTIC CITY, N. f. 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 
Price & McLanahan, Architects. 



referring to sketch it will be seen how this was accom- 
plished, at the same time allowing proper cover for col- 
umns and an excellent finish at beams under floor level. 
This permitted all the terra cotta to be put in place with- 
out any complicated and ingenious system of iron ties and 
clamps to hold it in its right position. Another structural 
point which may be mentioned is the manner in which 
the terra cotta balcony rails at the eighth-floor level are 
supported. By building a heavy, galvanized iron pipe 
into the concrete construction at the time of erection, 
staunch standards were provided. Along the railing, 
under the uppermost course of the terra cotta, bars of 
iron were extended and made secure to these posts. The 

courses below this 
point were inter- 
locked and secured to 
the concrete floor slab 
by dowels. 

Examining the de- 
sign in detail one's at- 
tention is directed first 
to the base of the 
building with its pon- 
derous and somewhat 
plain masses of brick 
masonry. This is con- 
structed of a red, vit- 
rified shale brick laid 
up in English cross- 
bond with molded 
arches and corners. 
The stone facings oc- 
curring at the open- 
ings, and more promi- 
nently in the sill and 
base courses, are of 
" Kettle River Sand- 
stone, " a very pleasing 
material of a deep 
salmon shade, which 
harmonizes admirably 
with the warm tones 
of the brickwork and 
terracotta. This stone 
is seen to much greater 
advantage in the south 
and side porches of 
the hotel, where heavy 
columns of the same 
material occur in al- 
ternate courses with 
the brick piers. The design of the caps indicates some 
characteristic detail work. The porches extending around 
the three exposed sides of the hotel are particularly 
valuable in affording outdoor lounging space and op- 
portunities for exercise in inclement weather. Above 
these porches, from the first to the eighth floor, extends 
an uninterrupted surface of light-colored terra-cotta. 
In order that every guest may enjoy a view of the sea, 
the bedrooms at the sides are ^iven widely projecting 
bays. 

The architects have helped the resultant effect of 
these otherwise severely plain facades by the rustication 



EXTERIOR WALLS OF 



T HE B R I C K B U I L I) E R. 



75 



of the terra cotta in alternate courses of nine and sixteen 
inches, which lends an excellent, yet simple, treatment of 
light and shade. 

A feature of much prominence is the extended bal- 
cony at the eighth floor level, entirely surrounding the 
hotel. The adoption of this as the crowning member of 



this point is given note by projecting bands of color in 
matt glazed finish. There can be no doubt that a posi- 
tive color treatment of this nature is destined to create 
an epoch in the manufacture of clay products. Already 
architects are awakening to the importance of the 
color values gained thereby. Surely there is no other 



3 Hand Kd'tl 




-Hot-iiootdl Bur 



SECTION -AT- WALL' 




-Coppw Wirei 3crtz*&o- 



-SECTION -THRO -EALCONY- KAIL' 



the walls is undoubtedly more reasonable than the con- 
ventional cornice of classical styles with its abundance 
of intricate detail, which always appears to be painfully 
out of place, if not out of sight, in structures above the 
usual height. Natu- 
rally, at so great an ele- 
vation the balcony rail 
should be sufficiently 
high to guarantee the 
sensation of safety. 
Accomplishing this in 
the usual way, the view 
obtained generally nar- j : 
rows down to a liberal 
expanse of sky and 
space. In order to af- 
ford the opportunity of 
observing details im- 
mediately below, there 
has been provided a 
protective rail of iron 
above the low rail of 
terra cotta. 

The terra cotta at p j_ ^ w - o im- 




material which can compete in the production of like 

effects. 

The color scheme finds a culmination in the low, fiat 

dome of red tile. Against the sides of the octagonal 

walls of the dome are 
returned the vaulted 
roofs of the balcony. 
These are happily re- 
lieved on their under 
surfaces by geometric 
designs of tile with 
descriptive borders. 
' >ne must see these sof- 
fits illuminated with re- 
flected light at night to 
realize their importance 
and the satisfactory re- 
sults obtained through 
the use of these mate 
rials. 

The design of the 
interior is largely char- 
acterized by simplicity 
■F l_o o K.i - and possesses certain 



T" Y P » o A j_ 



7 6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




TILE DECORATION IN SOFFITS OF THE ARCHES AT BASE OF DOMF. 



merits not common to 
seashore hotels. The 
basement, which has 
not yet received its 
treatment, will be re- 
served principally for 
amusements. Here 
will be placed billiard 
and pool tables, bowl- 
ing alleys and shuffle 
boards, or whatever 
else the exigencies of 
its purpose shall de- 
mand. 

The entire e x - 
change floor in this 
new portion is de- 
voted to the lounging 
room. This, however, 
covers but aboiit one- 
fifth of the area to be 
finally allotted to this 
purpose. Notwith- 
standing the fact that 
the room is surrounded 
on three sides by broad 
porches, excellent 
lighting is afforded by 
the abundance of glass 
area obtained. The 
floor is of colored ce- 
ramic laid in geometric design. The entire scheme of 
illumination is interesting because of the omission of 
fixtures, each light being a unit of the decorative features 
of the plaster. 

The bedroom floors partake of the usual hotel arrange- 
ments. Each bedroom has its private bath which is ven- 
tilated by means of air ducts leading through the entire 
height of the stories. For the base to the rooms a mat- 
glazed tile with sani- 
tary cove has been 
adopted. The corri- 
dors between these 
sleeping rooms have 
terrazzo borders with 
base of the same 
material. 

In the design of 
the Reading Room on 
the eighth floor, the 
architects have given 
a lavish treatment of 
ornamental plaster. 
Feeling the impor- 
tance of grasping the 
opportunities which 
are here presented, 
they have made use 
of the eight structural 
columns which run 
up as supports to the 
dome by connecting 
them above their caps 



by a series of ellipti- 
cal arches which con- 
fine an inner and 
lower dome. The 
walls at the sides are 
pierced with circular 
windows of leaded 
glass, which in their 
treatment, depict the 
evolution of book 
making in four char- 
acteristic phases. 

Leading back from 
this room, there is a 
low, vaulted corridor 
Hanked on both sides 
by broad conserva- 
tories. 

This completed 
portion of the struc- 
ture will represent an 
expenditure averag- 
ing twenty-five cents 
per cubic foot. No 
expense has been 
spared to provide all 
its appointments first- 
class in character. 



T 




CATHEDRAL BUILDING. 
1 1 E visitor to New York is familiar with all that has 
so far taken shape of the Cathedral of St. John the 
Divine. It has been growing at a snail's pace for nearly 
twenty years and is yet so little advanced that it is im- 
possible to form any conception of what the ultimate 
building will be. During practically the same period, 
the Roman Catholic Westminster Cathedral in London 

has been designed, 
carried out, com- 
pleted and occupied. 
We like to associate 
hustle and prompt- 
ness with American 
architecture, and we 
are prone to con- 
sider our European 
cousins as wholly 
out of the race when 
it comes to speed, 
but in the matter of 
cathedral building we 
make a pretty poor 
showing, and that, 
too, in the wealthiest 
city of this country, 
where money has been 
poured out by the 
million for enterprises 
of far less public in- 
terest than the Cathe- 
dral of St. John. 



COLONNADE AT FIRST FLOOR LEVEL. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



77 



Annual Convention of the Architec- 
tural League of America. 

THE eighth annual convention of the Architectural 
League of America, held in Washington, D. C, 
April 22, 23 and 24, was an occasion to be remembered 
by every one who had the good fortune to be present. 

While the number of delegates was smaller this year 
than usual, the area of territory represented was quite 
considerable, delegates being present from San Francisco, 
Toronto, Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, St. Louis, Pitts- 
burg, Philadelphia, etc. 

The programme arranged by the Washington Archi- 
tectural Club, who acted as hosts, was both interesting 
and instructive, and reflected great credit on the resources 
of that organization. 

The delegates assembled in the Red Room of the New 
Willard on Monday morning where 
they were welcomed by Commissioner 
Macfarland. 

The rest of the morning was devoted 
to the transaction of general business. 
Adin B. Lacey of Philadelphia was 
elected speaker and S. C. Gladwin of 
Cleveland, secretary. 

The report of the Executive Board 
was the most important subject con- 
sidered at this session, as it contained 
a number of recommendations having 
considerable bearing on the future de- 
velopment of the League. 

The recommendations were as fol- 
lows: 

''First, That permanent head- 
quarters be established. 

"Second, That a permanent secre- 
tary be elected. 

" Third, That the Committees on 
Foreign Traveling Scholarships, the 
Annual and the University Fellowships 
be made permanent in order that the 
work may be continuous. 

" In this connection we suggest that 
at this convention six members be appointed, two to 
serve one year, two to serve two years and two to serve 
three years, and that thereafter two should be elected at 
each convention. 

" Fourth, That the Minutes of the meetings of the 
Executive Board be immediately transmitted to each of 
the clubs in order that they may be conversant with the 
work contemplated or performed. 

" Fifth, That the membership of the League be 
changed from Society to Individual. 

"Sixth, That interchangeable membership be estab- 
lished, in order that a member residing in one city 
and being a member of the League may upon his 
removal to another city become ipso facto a member 
of the League in the latter city." 

At noon the delegates were entertained at luncheon 
by the Washington Architectural Club and the afternoon 
was spent in visiting Mount Vernon. This was a par- 
ticularly delightful trip, the fresh delicate tints of the 




J. P. HYNES, PRESIDENT 

ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE OF 

AMERICA. 



spring foliage being at their best. The trip down the 
Potomac, even without Mount Vernon, so steeped in the 
poetry of by-gone days, as an objective, is well worth 
the time and trouble, as the river between Washington 
and Mount Vernon is a wide, noble stream. 

The most important subject discussed on the second 
day was the report of the Committee on Education, by 
Prof. Xewton A. Wells, of the University of Illinois. 
After reading his report Professor Wells introduced the 
following resolutions: 

"(1) Resolved, That the sentiment of this body 
commends the present manual training movement in our 
system of education as being favorable to a better under- 
standing on the part of the public of the Arts of Design. 
" (2) That we commend that movement in architec- 
tural education which looks toward elevating schools of 
architecture to the rank of graduate schools. 

"(3) That we commend the atelier movement as 
a worthy adjunct in school training. 
"(4) That we commend as eligi- 
bility to club membership a general 
educational qualification not lower than 
graduation from high school, or its 
equivalent." 

After considerable discussion, in 
which it was evident that the League 
was unanimous in endorsing the edu- 
cational requirement for membership, 
the raising of the standards of educa- 
tion in the Architectural Schools, and 
in commending the educational work 
of the Society of Beaux Arts Archi- 
tects, the resolutions were adopted. 

After luncheon the delegates were 
received by I 'resident Roosevelt in the 
East Room of the White House. The 
President told the delegates that he 
took a peculiar interest in the profes- 
sion which they represented, and that 
he was heartily in sympathy with the 
development of Washington along 
harmonious lines, and would do what he 
could to aid in making Washington 
one of the most beautiful cities in the 
country. After the reception by the President of the 
United States the delegates were conducted in automo- 
biles to the Capitol, the Congressional Library, the new 
Union Station, and other buildings in course of erection. 
Later in the afternoon the League attended a recep- 
tion tendered them by Mr. Chas. M. Foulke, President of 
the National Society of the Pine Arts, and had an oppor- 
tunity of seeing Mr. Foulke's beautiful tapestries and 
listening to his graphic descriptions of the stories they 
embodied. 

Mr. Foulke is said, by those capable of judging, to 
have one of the most remarkable collections of tapestries 
in the United States. 

In the evening Glenn Brown lectured on the Artistic- 
Development of Washington, in the Red Room of the 
Xew Willard Hotel. The lecture was illustrated by 
stereopticon, and was much appreciated. 

The principal business of the third and final session 
of the Convention was the consideration of the report "I 



78 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



the special committee appointed to discuss the Standing 
Committee's reports, and to elect a president for the 
ensuing year. 

The report of the Special Committee was as follows: 

"(i) That an individual membership be added to 
the League, and for this purpose a special committee be 
appointed by the Chairman of this Convention which 
shall report to the Executive Board within three months, 
and the Executive Board shall report to the individual 
societies during October, 1907. On the majority of the 
active members consenting to the amendment, the Ex- 
ecutive Board shall proceed forthwith to the establish- 
ment of the individual membership, subject to the ratifi- 
cation of this at the next convention. 

"(2) That the Executive Board be empowered by 
this Convention to establish permanent headquarters in 
Washington, and appoint an assistant secretary, pro- 
vided that such may be done within the revenues of the 
League. 

"(3) That the Executive Board endeavor to have 
the clubs who are active members forming this League, 
alter their constitutions to permit of the interchange of 
memberships; the question of a uniform minimum non- 
resident fee to be satisfactorily adjusted. 

"(4) That Section 32 of Article VIII be struck out 
and replaced, the amended reading of the section to be 
as follows : 

" The standing committees of the League shall each 
consist of three members, to be appointed by the Speaker 
at each Convention, one to serve for one year, one for two 
years and one for three years ; and after the expiration 
of the one-year term one member shall be appointed by 
the chairman of each convention to serve three years. 
The member of the committee holding the senior ap- 
pointment shall be chairman. The standing committees 
of the League shall be as follows: Publicity and Promo- 
tion, Education, Traveling Scholarships, Architectural 
Annual, and University Scholarships. 

"(5) That the incoming Executive Board be recom- 
mended to send copies of the minutes of its meetings to 
the secretary of each club which is an active member of 
the League. 

"(6) That the League continue to publish the Archi- 
tectural Annual. 

"(7) That the traveling scholarship be held only 
when the revenues of the League warrant the necessary 
expenditure. 

"(8) That the European Tour Committee be con- 
tinued." 

After considerable discussion as to the advisability 
of securing a permanent secretary and the practicability 
of fixing uniform, reasonable, non-residence membership 
dues for the various clubs constituting the League, the 
report was adopted. 

The invitation of the Detroit Architectural Club to 
hold the Convention in Detroit in June of next year 
was accepted. The invitation of the Detroit Club was 
seconded by the Mayor of Detroit, the Detroit Chapter 
of the American Institute of Architects and other organ- 
izations. 

The Convention then proceeded to elect the new 
president. The balloting resulted unanimously in favor 
of J. P. Hynes of Toronto. 



The following standing committees were then elected : 

Publicity and Promotion: Jesse N. Watson of 
St. Louis, three years. (Senior member.) Alfred S. 
Alschuler of Chicago, two years. (Senior next year.) 
Alex. M. Adams of Philadelphia, one year. (Junior 
member. ) 

Education: Prof. Newton A. Wells of Urbana, 111. 
(Senior member.) H. V. Von Hoist of Chicago, two 
years. Frederick M. Mann of St. Louis (Washington 
University), one year. 

Traveling Scholarships: Prof. Percy Ash of George 
Washington University, Washington, three years. 
Albert G. Skeel of Cleveland, two years. S. C. Gladwin 
of Cleveland, one year. 

Architectural Annual: Edmund H. Poggi of Phila- 
delphia, three years. Chas. Mason Remey of Washing- 
ton, two years. N. Max Dunning of Chicago, one year. 

University Fellowships: Prof. Emil Lorch of the 
University of Michigan and the Detroit Club, for three 
years. August G. Headman of .San Francisco, two years. 
Charles T. Ingham of Pittsburg, one year. 

Special Committee on Individual Membership: E. 
Helfensteller, Jr., Wm. B. Ittner, John C. Stephens, 
all of St. Louis. 

Special Committee on European Tour: Prof. N. A. 
Wells of Urbana, 111. 

The convention, after extending a vote of thanks to 
the speaker and secretary and to the Washington Archi- 
tectural Club, adjourned. 

After the adjournment the delegates were given a re- 
ception by the Washington Chapter of the American In- 
stitute of Architects at the Octagon. Glenn Brown 
explained the interesting features of this delightful old 
building to the visitors. 

After leaving the Octagon the delegates were taken 
in automobiles through the residential section of the city, 
visiting, among other places, Tudor Place in (Georgetown. 
This historic mansion was designed by Thornton, who 
was also the architect of the Octagon, and the members 
of the League had the opportunity of comparing the 
actual building with Thornton's sketches which adorn 
the wall of Mr. Brown's office in the Octagon. 

The convention was brought to a close with a banquet 
at the New Willard, one of the most attractive banquets 
ever held by the League and a fitting close to the Con- 
vention. The Red Room looked unusually attractive 
with the great table which was beautifully decorated with 
early blossoms, round which the members of the League 
and their guests were seated. Waddy B. Wood acted as 
toastmaster. Speeches were made by Commissioner 
H. L. West, who spoke at some length on the beautifica- 
tion of Washington; by Thomas Nelson Page, who spoke 
on Thomas Jefferson; by Representative Richard Bar- 
tholdt of Missouri, Chairman Committee on Buildings 
and Grounds; James Knox Taylor, Supervising Archi- 
tect; Cass (Gilbert; Lloyd Warren, President of the 
Society of Beaux Arts Architects; J. H. Moser, Pres- 
ident of the Washington Water Color Society; (Glenn 
Brown, Secretary of the American Institute of Archi- 
tects; J. P. Hynes, the newly elected President of the 
League; W. D. Windom, President of the Washington 
Architectural Club; Franklin W. Smith of Washington: 
E. J. Russell; N. Max Dunning and Prof. Percy Ash. 



TH E BR IC K Ml' I I. I) ER 



79 



Work of Supervising Architect Taylor. 

A REVIEW of the work done by James Knox Tay- 
lor, Supervising Architect of the United States 
Treasury Department, discloses in the designing and 
planning of the vast number of government buildings 
erected during his incumbency a splendid success in 
keeping abreast with the spirit of the times. Not only 
is this fact evidenced in the large or monumental types 



i/.ing the types of small buildings designed by Mr. 
Taylor. Excellent effect is obtained by breaking the 
outline with side wings and a rear pavilion, and by carry- 
ing the parapet level of. the pavilion above that of the 
wings and in turn subordinating the height of all these 
.to that of the front pavilion, which is made the salient 
feature in design and treated with pleasing refinement. 

In working out the scheme of this building, Mr. Tay- 
lor has produced an impressive and nicely balanced struc- 




POST OFFICE AND CUSTOM HOUSE, MUSKEGON, MICH. 



of structures, but in the smaller buildings also, which 
show that he has not departed in a single instance into dis- 
regard of this spirit which demands the best always in small 
as well as in large things. It 
is the purpose of this article — 
and will be that of others suc- 
ceeding it — to illustrate a 
number of these smaller types 
of buildings which, by reason 
of their modest size and mod- 
erate cost, have come into local 
prominence only. 

The buildings which have 
been selected to serve the pur- 
pose in hand have been erected 
at a cost not exceeding $100,- 
ooo each. 

The plan of the United 
States Federal Building, 
erected at Muskegon, Mich., 
shows a radical departure 
from the customary unbroken 
rectangular form character- 




FIRST FLOOK PLAN, POST OFFICE AND CUSTOM HOUSE, 
MUSKEGON, MICH. 



ture, designed in the modern Renaissance style of archi- 
tecture, and well adapted to meet the requirements of both 
the postal and customs services for which it is intended. 

Rising from a widely project- 
ing base of gray granite, the 
superstructure is faced to the 
entablature and parapet lines, 
with light gray bricks laid in 
Flemish bond. For entabla- 
tures, parapets, quoins, key- 
stones, door and window trims 
and all ornamental members, 
limestone is employed. 

The building is one hun- 
dred feet in extreme width by 
sixty-live in greatest depth 
and cost, exclusive of steam 
heating and furniture equip- 
ment! $<><;, ooo. It is of fire- 
proof floor construction, hard 
wood standing finish in office 
rooms and lobbies with marble 
floors in latter. 



8o 



TH E HRICKIU'II.D E R 



The United States Government Building at Cham- 
paign, 111., was erected to meet the requirements of the 
postal service solely. It is ninety-five feet in length by 
fifty-five feet in width, and cost, exclusive of heating 
apparatus, furniture equipment and purchase of site, 
$60,000. This building is designed in the modern Re- 
naissance style of architecture, with a well-sustained 
Italian motif, presenting an interesting type of the use of 



good type of the " much in little " buildings designed by 
Mr. Taylor. 

The requirements to be met in planning for the needs 
of two branches of government work, — the postal and 
customs services — demanded by reason of the limited 
volume of business in each branch, essentially a one- 
story and basement structure of comparatively modest 
proportions and moderate cost. In size the building is 




POST OFFICE, CHAMPAIGN, ILL. 



clay products in combination, and demonstrating forcibly 
the perfect adaptability of terra cotta to structural and 
ornamental purposes. A feature deserving more than 
mere cursory notice is introduced by breaking the front 
facade with a shallow pavilion constructed entirely of 
light-colored terra cotta, which makes a well-defined yet 
unobtrusive contrast with the 
adjacent red brick facings, and 
gives a pleasing prominence to 
the pavilion. Light terra cotta 
is also used for quoins, win- 
dow trims, entablature, balus- 
trade, a 1 1 ornamental e 1 e- 
ments, the first-story sill 
course, and facings below 
same including the water 
table. 

The superstructure rises 
from a white granite base, 
and is faced with dark red 
brick laid in Flemish bond. 

The building is of fireproof 
construction throughout and heated by steam. Hard 
wood is used for finish in office rooms and the lobby, 
which has marble floors in addition to the hard wood finish. 

The United States Post Office and Custom House 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN, POST OFFICE, CHAMPAIGN, ILL. 



sixty feet long by fifty feet wide, effectively designed in 
the modern classic style with a strong Colonial feeling, 
and is a good example of the use of the simpler forms 
characteristic of that style. The superstructure is faced 
with dark red brick laid in Flemish bond rising above a 
water table and base of white granite and surmounted by 

limestone cornice and balus- 
trade, screening a low pitched 
roof. Limestone is also used 
for quoins, keystone vous- 
soirs, archivolt and imposts 
of the arch over the main 
entrance and for the terminals 
and keystones of arches over 
the window openings. In the 
absence of projecting features, 
avoidance of an undesirable 
plainness of unbroken wall 
surfaces is obtained by recess- 
ing the window openings, and 
a touch of ornateness is secured 
by the introduction of carved 
voussoirs and keystone over the main entrance and fret- 
work in the cornice. 

The building is fireproof throughout, heated by low 
pressure steam, and cost, exclusive of furniture equip- 



erected at Traverse City, Mich., serves as a specially ment, heating apparatus and expenditure for site, forty 



THE BR ICKBU I LDER. 



Si 



thousand dollars. Hard wood is used for standing finish 
in all offices and lobbies and the latter have marble floors 
in addition to the wood finish. 

In designing the United States Post Office building at 
Sterling, 111., Mr. Taylor has used the modern Roman 
Doric style of architecture and has secured excellent re- 



ment, $45,000. It is of partial fireproof construction, — 
this form being confined to the first floor, — is heated by 
low pressure steam and finished in hard wood. 

An excellent type of a United States court 
house, post office and custom house, erected at a 
cost of less than §100,000, is presented in the gov- 




POST OFFICE AND CUSTOM HOUSE, TRAVERSE CITY, MICH. 



suits in his handling of this simple yet graceful style. 
Plainness of outline is nicely avoided by the employment 
of pilasters and recessed win- 
dow openings and by making 
ornamental features in the 
treatment of the front and side 
doorways. 

Starting from a base of 
limestone, the superstructure 
is faced up to and including 
the first story window sill 
course with light terra cotta. 
Above the sill course and ex- 
tending to the entablature, the 
facings are of light red brick 
laid in Flemish bond with 
diaper work effectively pro- 
duced by the introduction of 
dark red headers. 

Light terra cotta is also 
used for imposts, keystones, 
pilaster caps and also for the 
ornamental work of the door- 
ways. 

The building is seventy 
feet in length by fifty in width, 
and cost, exclusive of heating 
apparatus and furniture equip- 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN, POST OFFICE AND CUSTOM HOUSE, 
TRAVERSE CITY, MICH. 



ernment building erected at Elizabeth City, N. C. 
In designing this building Mr. Taylor has selected a 
style of architectureadmirably 
suited to southern latitudes, 
and has produced a nicely 
proportioned and imposing 
structure, thoroughly adapted 
to the requirements of the ju- 
dicial, postal and customs 
branches of the govenment 
service, (iood effect is ob- 
tained by the introduction of 
shallow pavilions on the ends 
of the front and rear facades 
and by the use of harmoni- 
ously contrasting constructive 
materials. 

Gray granite is employed 
for facings up to the first 
floor line; above that level, 
and extending to and includ- 
ing the second story window- 
sill course, the facings arc of 
Bedford stone ; for the remain- 
der of the superstructure the 
facings are of light colored 
brick laid in Flemish bond. 
Bedford stone is also used for 



82 



THE URICKBUILDER 




POST OFFICE, COURT HOUSE AND CUSTOM HOUSE, ELIZABETH CITY, N. C. 





SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



(KLI/ABETH CITY.) 



THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

POST OFFICE, COURT HOUSE AND CUSTOM HOUSE, 

ELIZABETH CITY, N. C. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN, POST OFFICE, STERLING, ILL. 



T HE BRICKBUILD E R 



83 




POST OFFICE AT STERLING, ILL. 



pediments, keystones, window trimmings and other orna- 
mental elements. Hard wood is used for standing fin- 
ish in all principal rooms in each story and the lobbies 
and corridors have marble floors. 



The building is ninety-eight feet in length by fifty- 
five feet in width, of fireproof construction throughout 
and heated by steam ; its cost, exclusive of furniture, 
heating and lighting equipment, was ,x<;i),ooo. 



VARIATIONS IN BRICK AND STONE. 

OUR attention was called a short time since to the 
remains of what had once been a house dating from 
the Colonial period. The chimneys had been built sup- 
posedly of very excellent brick and their remains had 
been lying exposed to the weather throughout the whole 
winter and were now in such condition that hardly a 
single piece of burnt clay was intact. The query was 
raised, why brick should disintegrate, and that brought out 
the very commonly heard statement that our questioner 
assumed all bricks were alike and that almost any brick 
is fit to use in a building if laid i*p properly. It is never 
safe to assume that brick is enduring and suitable for 
building operations unless we know its composition. 
The most potent factor which must be guarded against 
is the presence of salts of magnesia. It is only a ques- 
tion of time when brick in which these salts are present 
in any appreciable quantity will be badly influenced by 
the weather, and we have seen brick which, when fresh 
from the kiln, gave every mechanical evidence of being 
of best quality, so shattered and disintegrated by the 
combined effect of moisture, frost, and the chemical 
action of the magnesia, that a knife could be thrust 
straight into the heart of the brick with very little 
effort. Fortunately, there is so much good clay in 



this country and so many thoroughly reliable brick 
manufacturers that there is really no excuse for bad 
brick ever being used, but any brick is not neces- 
sarily, therefore, good brick, and care and intelligent 
discretion must be used in the employment of this 
material as it should be used in connection with any 
building medium. 

There is a common conception that granite is one of 
the most enduring stones, but it certainly is not so in 
our climate, and as a matter of fact most granites would 
be outlived by thoroughly first quality hard burned 
brick. A pure syenite, free from iron or mica, con- 
stitutes the most enduring of the granites. A granite 
quarry may have good stone in some portions of the 
deposit and be utterly worthless in others, and as a 
general rule it is not safe to use a granite unless the 
architect knows absolutely its composition and the part 
of the quarry from which it is taken. 

Sandstones, which were formerly SO much used in the 
East, are really the poorest building material in the 
market. The cementing material in sandstone has a 
very slight value, and it is probably the poorest material 
extensively used, as far as resisting the action of frost is 
concerned, while the presence of iron constitutes an 
almost fatal defect. It may be said also that very little 
sandstone is free from iron, 



84 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




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THE MONTANA CLUB, HELENA, MONT. 
Cass Gilbert, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




HORTICULTURAL BUILDING, MASSACHUSETTS AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, AMHERST, MASS. 

W. R. B. Willcox, Architect. 




ELECTRICAL LABORATORY, UNION COLLEGE, SCHENECTADY, N. Y. 
Ludlow & Valentine, Architects. 



86 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




RAILWAY STATION, PLYMOUTH, MASS. 
Shepley, Kutan & Coolidge, Architects. 




RAILWAY STATION, EUCLID AVENUE, CLEVELAND. 
I). H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 



I 



THE BRICKBUILDRR 



87 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



THE PATRICK HENRY SCHOOL, ST. LOUIS. 

(See plates 72, 73, 74 ) 

THE problem presented in this school building is 
somewhat different from the usual one, for the 
reason that the site is long and narrow, surrounded by 
streets on three sides, the remaining side fronting an 
alley, which is likely to be built up with warehouse or 
other tall buildings. This necessitated the adopting of a 
plan placing the classrooms on the street fronts, where 
the light can never be interrupted or the air space en- 
croached upon ; the corridor occupying the less desirable 
location along the alley. 

The building contains twenty-one classrooms, a kin- 
dergarten, principal's office and supply room, the equiv- 
alent of twenty-four classrooms. 










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LAW BUILDING, OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, COLUMBUS. 

*W. Stillman, Architect. 

Roofed with 10-inch Conosera Tile made by Ludowici-Celadon Company. Built of 
speckled buff brick made by Columbus Brick & Terra Cotta Company. 



The basement provides large playrooms, rooms for 
physical culture for boys and girls, with shower baths 
and lockers. These rooms being arranged with reference 
to their probable use during the school vacation. The 
basement also contains the general toilets and rooms for 
the heating and ventilating system. 

Where the average cubical contents of the school 
buildings recently erected in St. Louis has been about 
935,000 cubic feet, this building, on account of the 
excess corridor space and enlarged basement story, con- 
tains about 1,200,000 cubic feet. The contract prices at 
which the work was let were: 



THE 41ST PRECINCT POLICE STATION, MOSH- 
OLU PARKWAY, THE BRONX, NEW YORK. 

(See plates 75, 76, 77) 

THE house is fifty by eighty feet, built of 
dark red brick of two shades and tex- 
tures, laid in patterns, with wide, deep joints, 
trimmed with gray stone and terra cotta. The 
great eaves are supported by wooden brackets, 
painted green ; and the roof covering of cobalt 
blue glazed Spanish tiles. 

The lower story of the tower is a vaulted 
porch under which the patrol wagon stops to 
discharge its prisoners, who are taken into the 
Muster Room by this entrance, apart from the 
public. The clock has three terra cotta faces 
with gilt figures and pointers, covered by pent 
roofs of blue tiles. 

The interior arrangement is simple. A large 
Muster Room, with bells and speaking tubes 
connecting all parts of the building with ser- 
geant's desk, occupies the front part of the 
first story. From it open the captain's suite 



General work 

Plumbing 

Heating and ventilating 



5161,357.13 

9, 230.00 

20,678.00 

5191,265.13 




PUBLIC LIBRARY, GOSHEN, 1ND. 

Roofed with American "S" tile, made by Cincinnati Roofing Tile 

& Terra Cotta Company. 



88 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



of offices, bedroom and bath, 

the detectives' office, the men's 

sitting-room, and the men's and 

women's prisons, of eight and 

four steel cells respectively, the 

latter connected with the ma- 
tron's room. 

The second and third stories 

contain six section rooms for 

fourteen patrolmen each, with 

individual lockers, and seven 

rooms for sergeants, detectives 

and roundsmen, two in a room. 

On these floors the lavatories 

occupy the tower rooms, the upper story of the tower 

being used for ventilation. 

The stable is a separate building, with stalls for four- 
teen horses, a wagon room and feed loft, a harness room 

with individual lockers, a bicycle room and store closet. 

The patrol wag- 
on drives into 
the rear of the 
wagon room 
and stands, 
without the ne- 
cessity of turn- 
ing around, in 
readiness to go 
out again at the 
front. A novel 
feature is the 
morgue, at- 
tached to the 
stable, but en- 
tered from out- 
doors, of great 
use in certain 
emergencies of 
crime or acci- 
dent. 




DETAIL BY INDIANAPOLIS TERRA COTTA COMPANY 



v v > v > 







MEDALLION OF. EZRA CORNELL, STATE 
AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, ITHACA, N. Y. 
Made by Brick Terra Cotta & Tile Company. 



THE FIREPROOFING OF 

CONCRETE. 

Extract from paper read before The En- 
gineers' Club of Philadelphia, by William 
Copeland Furber, C. E. 

THE fireproofing of concrete 
structures is one that deserves 
as much study as the fireproofing of 
iron structures. The advocates of 
reinforced concrete construction do 
themselves no credit, and do their 
material a great deal of harm, by 
claiming that concrete is a fireproof 
material. The simplest tests which 
can be made by a school boy will 
prove that cement after setting can- 
not resist fire without detriment, and 
the point of absolute structural dis- 
integration is determined solely by 
the length of time it is kept in contact 




with the fire. A few briquets, 
the kitchen range and a bucket 
of water, will prove this in a 
most practical and satisfying 
way and remove any lingering 
doubt one may have on the 
subject. Chemically, this con- 
clusion can be justified by re- 
calling that in the setting of ce- 
ment from ten to twenty-five 
per cent is crystallized into the 
new mixture and remains there, 
not in the form of dampness — 
for the material can be perfectly 
dry— 'but as a chemical compound of the mass, and 
knowing this, it can also be shown that this combina- 
tion can be broken up and separated again by heat, which 
brings the cement back to somewhat the original form it 
had before being mixed with water. All this being proven 
or admitted, it 
is next in order 
to find a method 
to protect the 
concrete from 
reaching high 
tempera t u r es, 
and our experi- 
ence in fire- 
proofing iron 
work will help 
us in this direc- 
tion. Porous 
fire-clay blocks 
are useful as a 
slow conductor 
of heat, and 
they will also 
withstand high 
temperatures 
without changing their chemical composition, and, in 
addition, their porous nature gives them the ability to 
resist sudden changes of temperature without frac- 
ture. By protecting the structural 
parts of the construction with this 
material, it is possible to construct 
a building of great fire-resisting 
capacity at a cost considerably less 
than structural steel fireproofed 
with the same material. 

The porous terra cotta manufac- 
turers have provided a material 
which can be easily laid with the 
centering and which unites with the 
concrete, forming a monolithic 
structure with a protecting surface 
of porous fire-clay terra cotta. 




DETAIL BY SEYMOUR AND PAUL DAVIS, 

ARCHITECTS. 

New York Architectural Terra Cotta 
Company, Makers. 



)M 



BUILDING OPERATIONS 
FOR APRIL. 



DETAIL FOR MEDICO CHIRURGICAL 

HOSPITAL, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Herman Miller, Architect. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



, B 



UILDING statistics from fifty- 
four leading cities throughout 
the country officially reported to 
The American Contractor, New York, 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



89 




MEDALLIONS FOR ST. AMBROSE CHURCH, BROOKLYN. George H. Streeton, Architect. 
Atlantic Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



and tabulated, show a gradual increase, as the season 
progresses, over similar reports for the same month in 
1906, showing a widely distributed building activity for 
April. In the aggregate the gain, as compared with 
April, 1906, is a trifle over 
5 percent. Twenty-six cities 
show gains ranging from 6 
to 199 per cent, and twenty- 
eight show a loss varying 
from 2 to 77 per cent. 
Greater New York is rapidly 
recovering her wonted build- 
ing activity ; while falling 
behind during the past few 
months, the figures for April 
show a gain of 17 per cent 
over April of the previous 
year. The percentage of 
gain in other cities is shown 
by the following figures: 
Baltimore, 6 ; Bridgeport, 99 ; 
Denver, 7 ; Harrisburg, 44 ; 
Louisville, 35; Milwaukee, 
46; Minneapolis, 28; Mem- 
phis, 6; Mobile, 42; Newark, 
63 ; Philadelphia, 69 ; Pater- 
son, 74; Portland, 199; San 
Antonio, 78; vScranton, 28; 
Spokane, 16; Syracuse, 52; 

Tacoma, 48; Worcester, 50. The principal losses fall on 
the following named cities: Atlanta, 20; Birmingham, 
27; Chicago, 56; Evansville, 35; Fall River, 77; Grand 
Rapids, 22; Indianapolis, 20; Kansas City, 20; Los 
Angeles, 27; Nashville, 28; New Haven, 25; New 
Orleans, 26; Pittsburg, 67; St. Louis, 42; Seattle, 31; 
Wilkesbarre, 34; Winnipeg, 45. Many of the latter can 
afford this loss and still show a great building activity as 

compared with 
several years ago. 




BRANCH OF COMMERCIAL TRUST AND SAVINGS BANK, 

NEW ORLEANS. 

Frank P. Gravely Co., Architect. 
Built of white terra cotta, made by Northwestern Terra Cotta Co. 



Otto Faelten, who has been studying in the Boston office 
of Parker & Thomas. The programme for the compe- 
tition in design called for " A Chief Synagogue for New 
York City," and was worked out very interestingly by 

all the competitors. A judg- 
ment was made by a jury con- 
sisting of Messrs. Howard 
Van Doren Shaw, Thomas 
Hastings and Harold Van 
Buren Magonigle. The sec- 
ond prize offered by the Bos- 
ton vSociety of Architects was 
awarded to Horace G. Simp- 
son, of the office of Putnam & 
Cox. The Scholarship has 
been in operation now for 
twenty-fouryears. Mr. Fael- 
ten, the present winner, was 
not born at the time the 
Scholarship was endowed by 
the Rotch heirs, and he con- 
sequently forms the begin- 
ning of the second generation 
of prize holders. This con- 
stitutes, in many respects, 
the highest architectural 
prize within the reach of the 
younger men, and without an 
exception the twenty-three 
men who have held it in the past have made a good record 
for themselves and have brought credit to their training 
and to the Scholarship. 



COMPETI- 
TION FOR A 
FAIENCE 
MANTEL. 




DETAIL BY FRANK S. LOWE, ARCHITECT. 
Made by South Amboy Terra Cotta Company. 



ROTCH TRAV- 

ELINGSCHOL- 

ARSHIP. 

TH E award 
of the Rotch 
Traveling Schol- 
arship has been 
made this year to 



T 



( HE Hart- 
ford Fai- 
ence Company 
held recently 
among the 
Ateliers of the 
Society of 
Beaux Arts a 
com petition 
for a faience 



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DETAIL BY HENRY BAKCHLIN, ARCHITECT. 
Made by New Jersey Terra Cotta Company. 



90 



THE HRICKBUI LD1-; R 



mantel, offering $200 in cash 
prizes. Members of Ateliers 
in the cities of New York, 
Philadelphia, Washington, St. 
Louis, Pittsburg, San Fran- 
cisco, Minneapolis, St. Paul 
and Kansas City competed. 
The judges were C. Grant 
LaFarge, Benjamin W. Morris 
and J. Munroe Hewlett. 



IN GENERAL. 

Carrere & Hastings an- 
nounce the removal of their 
offices to the Brunswick Build- 
ing, 225 Fifth Avenue, New 
York. 

The New York Architec- 
tural Terra Cotta Company an- 
nounce the removal of their 
offices to the Brunswick Build 
ing, 225 Fifth Avenue, New 
York. 

The architectural terra 
cotta used in the Automobile 
Club of America, Ernest 
Flagg, architect, was fur- 
nished by The Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

The terra cotta used in the new Hotel Traymore, 
Atlantic City, illustrated in this issue, was made by the 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company. 

Albert Kahn is the architect for the new building to 
be erected at Youngstown, Ohio, which will use 200,000 
enameled bricks, to be supplied by the American Enam- 
eled Brick & Tile Co., and not John Stamburg, as stated 
in our April number. These bricks will be mottled, sim- 
ilar to those used in the Frick Building, Pittsburg. 




TERRA COTTA WINDOW, SYNAGOUUE, WASHINGTON, D 
Louis Levi, Architect. 
'). W. Ketcham Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 




MURRAY BUILDING, GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 

W. G. & F. S Robinson, Architects. 

it of " IroiK-luy " Brick. 



JAMESTOWN EXPOSI- 
TION. 

THE Jamestown Exposi- 
tion was formally opened 
this month by President 
Roosevelt, and the magazines 
and papers have been filled 
with very interesting accounts 
of the ceremonies and of the 
exposition itself. As is so 
often the case, however, no 
mention at all is made in the 
popular publications of the 
architects, Parker & Thomas, 
who have contributed their 
best efforts to make the ex- 
position an architectural suc- 
cess. Their work really con- 
stitutes a departure in ex- 
position building. The struc- 
tures designed by them have 
an appearance of solidity and 
permanence which is quite 
removed from the essentially 
transient character of most 
of the expositions which have 
preceded this, and the build- 
ings appear to be grouped and arranged in a sequence to 
an extent which has not been followed so extensively 
since the Columbian Exposition, and full credit ought to 
be given to these architects for the high character of 
their work. 



c. 




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PUBLIC SCHOOL, NO. 1 9. YONKERS, N. Y. 

C. C. Chapman. Architect. 

Built of brick made by Kreischer Brick Manufacturing Company. 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

The Graduate School of Applied Science 
and The Lawrence Scientific School 

offer graduate and undergraduate courses in Civil, Mechanical, Electrical. Mining and 
Metallurgical Engineering. Architecture, Landscape Architecture, Forestry, Physics, 
Chemistry, Biology and Geology. 

For further information, address W. C SABIN E, 14 I diversity Hall, Cambridge, Mass. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 5. PLATE 65. 




AUTOMOBILE CLUB OF AMERICA, 247-259 WEST 54TH STREET, NEW YORK. 

Ernest Flagg, architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 5. PLATE 66. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 5. PLATE 68. 



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DETAILS OF FRONT. 

AUTOMOBILE CLUB OF AMERICA, 247-259 WEST 54TH STREET, NEW YORK. 

Ernest Flagg, Architect. 



THE BR I CK BU I L DE R. 

VOL. 16, NO. 5. PLATE 69. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 5. PLATE 70. 





THE BRJC KBU ILDE R. 

VOL. 16, NO. 5. p LATE 71 . 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 5. PLATE 72. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 5. PLATE ?3> 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 5. PLATE 74. 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 




BASEMENT PLAN 

PATRICK HENRY SCHOOL, ST. LOUIS. MO. 

William B. ittner. Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 5. PLATE 75. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. 16. NO. 5. 



PLATE 76. 




rH,.^- ' 



DETAIL OF FRONT. 

FORTY-FIRST PRECINCT POLICE STATION, NEW YORK. 

Stoughton & Stoughton, Architects. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 5. PLATE 77. 



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OtCOND • TlOOR 'PLftN 



-PftitMENT • PLftM 



SIDE ELEVATION AND FLOOR PLANS. 
CARNEGIE LIBRARY, PACIFIC BRANCH, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Raymond F. Almirall. Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 5. PLATE 79. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 5. PLATE 





HOUSE FOB MRS. E. H. G. SLATER, NEWPORT, R. I. 
Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVI 



JUNE 1907 



Number 6 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 
85 Water Street ....... Boston, Massachusetts 



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PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



CONTENTS 



From Work by 



PHILLIP B. HOWARD; McKIM, MEAD & WHITE; PARK & KENDALL; SHAW & HUNNE- 

WELL; SHEPLEY, RUTAN & COOLIDGE. 

LETTERPRESS 



WESTWOOD PARK, THE PORCH 



WORCESTERSHIRE, ENGLAND Frontispiece 



FIRE INSURANCE COMPANIES 

THE ST. LOUIS PUBLIC LIBRARY C( >MPETITION 

WILLIAM Le. BARON JENNEY 

SUGGESTIONS FOR ARCHITECTURAL STUDY IN SOUTHERN PRANCE 

CERAMIC TILES AND THEIR USE 

THE USE OF TERRA COTTA BLOCKS FOR WALLS OF HOUSES 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 



C. Howard I 



9' 

01 
93 

94 
103 
106 

'■•■' 







\ru<<<<i<w<<<«i<i<iiii<<<W<<<<<<<<«<<<<W^>>»>>>m^ 



THE BRICKBVILDER 





VOL. 16 



DEVOTEDTO THE-INTEfOLf-OE-ARCHITECTVRE-lN MATERIAL JOE CLAY- 



JUNE 1907 



^w<<^<<^<^<^<<<<<<<<^^tt^:<<^^^^<^^«>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>v>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 



X 




F]RE INvSURANCE COMPANIES. 

THE fire insurance report of the state of New York 
for 1906 presents some very interesting figures, 
which show how insurance companies and insurance rates 
have been affected by the remarkable series of disastrous 
fires which have visited several of our largest cities dur- 
ing the past few years. The margins on underwriting 
up to the beginning of 1906 have been for many years ex- 
tremely small, and the San Francisco disaster wiped out 
all profit, not only for 1907, but for several years to come. 
Indeed, some companies have lost in this single fire an 
amount equal to all the profits of the past generation, and 
a few companies have been entirely ruined by the losses 
they were called upon to pay. It would be interesting to 
speculate upon whether or not the country, as a whole, 
would today be better off if there had never been any 
risks underwritten. It is, undoubtedly, a fact, that the 
ease with which insurance can be obtained, the actually 
low rates charged therefor on a fairly well-constructed 
building, and the reasonable surety that the loss will be 
adjusted liberally in case of fire, have led to a degree of 
carelessness in the construction no less than in the main- 
tenance of buildings, which has resulted in a greatly in- 
creased fire damage. The profits in the insurance busi- 
ness are not large. The report just mentioned makes it 
clear by figures that the masterful manner in which the 
finances of the companies have been handled has made it 
possible to pay dividends on the capital stock, whereas 
otherwise the companies would have been short some 
millions of dollars For instance, in the year 1906, the 
receipts from interest were $12,233,112, while dividends 
on capital were only $7, 134, 785. It is almost axiomatic 
that the insured really pay all losses in the long run, and 
nothing but the marvelous prosperity of our country has 
enabled it to stand the terrific drain of our outrageous fire 
losses year by year. The companies now doing business 
in New York state number something like 160. Since 
1859, 35 foreign companies have retired from this country, 
while 151 New York stock companies, 30 mutuals and 
230 other state stock companies have been compelled to 
go out of business, making 446 corporations, all of which 
have been driven from the field by the crushing condi- 
tions which have for the most part beset fire insurance 
during all of its history in this country. If even half the 
fire losses and all the other losses entailed upon these 446 
corporations could have been expended in improving our 
structural or our business conditions, the country would 
be in a state almost Utopian. 

Insurance and insurance losses are a dead tax on the 
community with almost no redeeming feature. 



THE ST. LOUIS PUBLIC LIBRARY 
COMPETITION. 

THE conditions in the programme of the St. Louis 
Library competition represent, to a considerable 
extent at least, the competition ideas of the group of men 
who were invited to compete. The competing firms 
were: Barnett, Haynes & Barnett ; Carrere & Hastings; 
Frames & Young; Cass Gilbert ; William B. Ittner; Theo- 
dore C. Link; Mauran, Russell & Garden; Palmer & 
Hornbostel ; Albert R. Ross. 

The St. Louis Library Board, in which was vested the 
authority to appoint an architect for the proposed new 
building, iscomposed of broad-minded men of affairs whose 
unanimous desire was to procure for the Public Library 
the most fitting and serviceable building possible within 
the available means. The question as to whether a com- 
petition or the direct appointment of an architect was the 
surest means to accomplish this end was hardly open for 
consideration on, account of the public nature of the 
building. In determining the kind of competition the 
necessity of attracting the best attainable talent was fully 
recognized, while circumstances seemed also to require 
that an opportunity to compete be left open to all St. 
Louis architects. It appeared to the writer, who acted 
in an advisory capacity in the conduct of the competi- 
tion, that a double competition would most satisfactorily 
meet these conditions. By means of a short, open com- 
petition a certain number of men might be selected, and 
to this group the same number of picked men might be 
added by direct invitation and a final paid competition 
be held under an amplified programme. Various delays, 
however, prevented this plan being followed. Nothing 
seemed to remain but to make the competition a mixed 
one, though this form seems to the writer to be the most 
objectionable of all, on account of the financial handicap 
placed upon one class of competitors; the paid competi- 
tor is in a better position to command assistants, and 
the unpaid, to have equal chances of success, must go cor- 
respondingly deeper into his pocket. If competitions 
are to be purely tests of ability, it would seem fairer, if 
there is to be a handicap, to place it in favor of the class 
of the struggling unknown rather than in favor of the 
supposedly opulent arrive. 

The Library Board selected and invited the list of 
paid competitors, and proposed conditions of competition 
were discussed with them at considerable length. Oppo- 
sition to the mixed form of competition at once became 
evident, but the reasons given for such opposition were 
curiously divergent; one, at least, left it to be inferred 
that unprofessional conduct would be charged under the 



92 



THE HRICKBUILDER 



competition rules of the A. I. A. for entering mixed or 
open competitions; another said he could not compete 
with certain brethren whom he professionolly disliked, 
hence he must know who were to be his opponents, and he 
could not thus enter either a mixed or open competition; 
mixed and open competitions were opposed by another 
on "general principles," not, however, because his 
chances of success were thereby lessened ; the fourth 
more frankly said that he was opposed to all except 
limited competitions, because in others, on account of the 
large number usually competing, his chances for success 
were lessened to such an extent that they were not worth 
while from a business point of view. The form of com- 
petition finally decided upon was one limited to nine in- 
vited architects who were each paid the sum of one thou- 
sand dollars. 

There was a general idea among the competitors that 
the three, or even two, months usually given to making 
drawings, render competitions unnecessarily expensive. 
The view held was that every purpose of the competi- 
tion is served when the general scheme is determined 
upon and presented at a small scale. To study each of 
* the designs in competition to a finality is waste in every 
case but that of the winner. A short period of concen- 
trated effort was considered by some to act as a valuable 
stimulus to the esprit du corps of the office, while a long 
dragging competition results only in the demoralization 
of the office staff. One month was considered, on the 
whole, to be a sufficient time to give to the drawings in 
the present instance. 

In view of the short period decided upon, a prelimi- 
nary programme was issued about ten days before the 
final one, and hence, before the actual beginning of work 
on the drawings. This contained general information re- 
garding the competition and the problem to be solved, 
also a plan of the proposed site and an announcement of 
the date when the final programme would be placed in the 
hands of the competitors and the date when the drawings 
would be due. The purpose of the preliminary pro- 
gramme was to give a certain time for a general considera- 
tion of the problem and for making necessary preparations 
in the office for the work involved. 

The jury was composed of three architects, chosen by 
the ballots of the competitors, and two appointees of the 
Library Board. The architects chosen were Messrs. 
Walter Cook, Frank Miles Day and Philip Sawyer. The 
Board appointed Mr. E. H. Anderson, State Librarian 
of New York, as an expert librarian, and Mr. John F. 
Lee the chairman of the Building Committee. The 
recognition of the place of the librarian on a jury to 
judge library plans was not only just, and his services 
exceedingly valuable, but this one instance will un- 
doubtedly do much to bring about a better understanding 
of the architect's point of view by the professional libra- 
rian. Mr. Anderson expressed himself as impressed and 
educated by the thoroughness of the architects on the 
jury in their examination into the detailed arrangements 
of the plans from the standpoint of serviceability for 
library administration and for library work. The ap- 
pointment of the chairman of the Building Committee to 
membership on the jury was also eminently satisfactory. 

The final decision of the competition rested with the 
Board. It was the opinion of the members who were 



lawyers that a public body vested with the authority to 
select an architect cannot delegate that power to another 
body such, for instance, as an architectural jury. In 
cases like the one under consideration, where the vested 
body is composed of fair-minded and honorable men, the 
right of final decision reduces itself practically to a mere 
technicality; the probability of a disagreement with its 
jury of experts would certainly seem slight. In this com- 
petition the programme provided, in case of a disagree- 
ment, that the questions at issue should be referred back 
to the Jury, and (at the suggestion of one of the com- 
petitors) if the Board did not finally agree with the Jury, 
the author of the design placed first by the J ury should 
be paid in full for services rendered, the sum of five 
thousand dollars being agreed upon by a majority of the 
competitors as sufficient < )n the question of such com- 
pensation there were one or two dissenting votes and the 
point raised seems worthy of very careful consideration. 
Granting that there are cases where the final decision 
must rest with a vested body, should not the moral re- 
sponsibility of disagreeing with a chosen jury of experts be 
allowed to exercise its full weight? Particularly in cases 
where dishonest intentions and influences may be ram- 
pant does this possibility for complete discharge of the 
architect selected by the jury offer an easy channel for 
the appointment of a predetermined favorite, and thus 
render competition in such a case nothing but a farce to 
hide a political game and to stop the mouths of the 
injured architectural profession and the public generally. 
Despite the discussion of this point by the invited archi- 
tects and their anxiety to safeguard the interests of the 
profession by establishing a proper precedent in the case 
in hand, where every wish of the profession regarding 
competitions was most courteously entertained, it will be 
interesting to record that the report of the Jury was 
adopted in full, practically without discussion. 

The general requirements and the schedule of rooms 
were made as complete and as explicit as possible, but 
at the same time, elastic to the fullest degree, in order 
to give the widest scope to the designer. Following this 
idea, the only mandatory requirements to the programme 
were the number, scale (all at 1-16 inch), and presenta- 
tion of the drawings, and the cubical volume of the 
design. 

The five first designs, as placed by the Jury in their 
order of merit, were: Cass Gilbert, Win. B. Ittner, Car- 
rere & Hastings, Albert R. Ross and Barnes & Young. 



THE INFLUENCE OF PUBLISHED DESIGNS. 

THE designs which are worked over the most and 
which receive the most careful study are not always 
the most inspiring or of the most value to others than 
their authors. Indeed, the educational function of the 
published designs which have appeered in the architec- 
tural papers illustrating structures which never saw the 
light, which sometimes even never hoped to be realized, 
is a very important one. Sometimes a man's best work 
is put into ideal sketches and there are minds so consti- 
tuted that only when they are entirely free from the 
necessity of considering practical restrictions can they 
really create. One has only to recall the work of Piranesi 
in the early Renaissance; or of Otto Rieth, or Blondel 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



93 



to-day; or, in our own generation, the work of such ideal- 
ists as Mr. Kirby, to arouse a delightful train of 
memories of designs which were pure figments of imagi- 
nation, but which have always exerted a powerful in- 
fluence upon those who have studied them. Again, in 
many of the competitions, the designs which were not 
premiated left a lasting imprint on contemporary art. 
Carrere & Hastings' design for the Cathedral of St. John 
the Divine is an instance in point, and we cannot soon 
forget, also, the delightfully imaginative work with which 
Mr. Bertram Goodhue has at times embroidered his ideal 
compositions. And coming yet closer home, we believe 
that the series of village edifices, the Bank, the Town 
Hall, the Village Block, etc., which we have published 
from time to time, have been of real value to many of 
our readers in stimulating the imagination and awaken- 
ing a desire for a higher esthetic quality in work of that 
nature. We cannot forget that we are living in the 
midst of an exceedingly busy, 
bustling period, when art is 
very often a question of catch-as- 
catch-can, and working drawings 
simply must be done on time 
though all the canons of taste be 
rudely jarred. Consequently it 
is a delight sometimes, in look- 
ing back over the pages of an 
architectural publication, to come 
across the ideal compositions of 
an artist, to see how he has 
worked over and coaxed up his 
bit of imagination into a con- 
crete form. Gustave Dore, wildly 
erratic as he always was, has 
given us some charming imag- 
inative architecture in a few of 
his sketches. Of course Alma 
Tadema is sui generis. Few 
architects can do real architec- 
ture as well as he can paint the 
imaginary and paint it often en- 
tirely out of his head. So we 
encourage the publication of 
architects' designs which are not 

to be executed, which are not merely studies, believing 
that this kind of work shows the real flavor of the crea- 
tor's taste, and helps to cultivate the imagination and 
real art of architecture. 




WILLIAM LE BARON JENNEV 



WILLIAM LE BARON JENNEY. 

WILLIAM Le BARON JENNEY, who died at 
his home in Los Angeles, Cal., June 15, was born 
in Fairhaven, Mass., September 25, 1832, and graduated 
from the Scientific School at Cambridge, Mass., in 1853, 
and from the Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures 
at Paris, in 1856. In 1858 he again visited France, and 
spent a year and a half in study, then returned to enter 
the Civil War, was appointed captain additional aide-de- 
camp and assigned to engineer duty at Cairo, 111., and 
served in that capacity on the staff of General Grant 
from Cairo to Corinth, was transferred at General Sher- 
man's request to his command and put in charge of 



engineer works at Memphis, was chief engineer 15th 
Army Corps at Vicksburg, and resigned May, 1866, and in 
1868 went to Chicago and began his professional career. 
His first important works were Grace Episcopal Church, 
the Portland Block and the Mason Building. In 1883 he 
was commissioned to design the office building for the 
Home Life Insurance Company of New York, with in- 
structions that the plans above the second story should 
have the maximum number of small well-lighted offices, 
which the committee understood would require small 
piers, smaller than in the usual masonry construction. 
Mr. Jenney evolved from his engineering knowledge a 
system of the use of iron columns, upon which each story 
was supported independently, which solved all difficul- 
ties in regard to expansion and contraction, strength, 
etc., and occupied minimum floor space, the design of 
construction resembling, in many respects, iron bridges 
on end, side by side. This was the first occasion when 

Bessemer steel beams were used, 
and this building of the Home 
Life Insurance Company has 
been considered as the initial and 
parent building of the steel con- 
struction method. In recogni- 
tion of this fact the Bessemer 
Steamship Company, in Febru- 
ary, 1897, named one of the ves- 
sels constructed for them after 
Mr. Jenney, "in appreciation of 
his distinguished services in 
connection with the invention 
and introduction of lofty skel- 
eton construction for buildings. " 
Mr. jenney also developed in 
the Home Life Building, to a 
hitherto unconceived degree, 
the equipment of a modern of- 
fice building, such as rapid ele- 
vators, fireproof construction 
and bracing, well-lighted cor- 
ridors, lights between rooms 
and corridors, electric plant, of- 
fice vaults, thorough system of 
plumbing, and well-appointed 
toilets, all of which appointments are now common to all 
good office buildings, but were first used by Mr. Jenney 
in that building. His interest and knowledge of work 
of this type procured him the appointment as architect, 
with his partner, Mr. Mundie, for the following buildings 
in Chicago:— The Fair, Siegel-Cooper Building, Associa- 
tion Building, New York Life Building, Trade Building, 
Fort Dearborn Building, Chicago National Bank and the 
Union League Club. He was architect for the Horti- 
cultural Building at the Chicago Exposition. The last 
work in which he was actually interested was the Illinois- 
Vicksburg Memorial, a monument constructed by Illinois 
on the Vicksburg battlefield. In the spring of 1905 Mr. 
Jenney retired from active business, and made his per- 
manent residence in Los Angeles. Among the archi- 
tects and engineers who had early training with Mr. 
Jenney are the following: D. H. Burnham, William 
Holab'ird, Martin Roche, D. E. Ward, A. H. Granger, 
Howard Shaw, J. M. Ewen, L. E. Ritter. 



94 



THE BR ICK BU I L I) H K . 



Suggestions for Architectural Study 
in Southern France. 

BY FREDERICK REED. 

L 'AMOUR de la Patrie " — this has always been 
the true sentiment of the French peasantry. We 
find it during the Middle Ages when men of pure instincts 
possessed ideas of justice far superior to the practices of 
the time. We see it to-day in the sturdy middle class 
that till the soil. Three-fourths of the French popula- 
tion are rural. The people own their homes, and there- 
fore constitute the backbone of the nation. These peas- 
ants feel a genuine love for their country, and espe- 
cially for their own province. They are justly proud 
of their monuments and institutions, and well informed 
about their architecture. Our admiration increases when 
we see for ourselves how diligent and industrious the 
Frenchmen are in spite of their devotion to sentiment. 
Responsibility matters little, while politeness and hospi- 
tality are natural instincts. Their love for peace and 
tranquility under a strong government has made of them 




REMNANT OF A FEUDAL AND ECCLESIASTIC AI. PAST AT 
MONT-MAJOR. 

the foundation upon which has always rested the salva- 
tion of their country. 

In the south of France the manners and customs arc 
characteristic of the people, who are wholly unlike their 
northern countrymen ; and it is this individuality which 
affords us such rich variety for architectural study. It 
is, however, impossible to enter into all the peculiarities 
of each province. This article merely aims to outline 
the wealth of architecture in the various provinces of 
southern France and show the reader where and how to 
investigate with as little trouble and expense as possible. 
We will consider the departments of Auvergne, Bur- 
gundia, Aquitania and Provence. 

Auvergne is a volcanic region bordering Paris on the 
south. It is a home for monumental buildings of warm 
colors toning from reddish and grayish browns to cream. 
Notre-Dame du Port at Clermont-Ferrand and the cathe- 
drals at Brioude, Issoire, Nevers and LePuy are Roman- 
esque structures worthy of mention in this regard. 
Noticeable, also, is the large scale of colored mosaic 
work where huge blocks of freestone take the place of 
modern tessera.'. There is a strong tendency to make 
the roofs of tinted tile, and the tone values mentioned 




ENTRANCE TO ANCIENT FORT AT AVIGNON. 

above are rendered all the more brilliant with the addi- 
tional use of ceramic glaze. Many towns like Benissons- 
Dieu and Moulins enrich the external walls of their 
buildings by using all the colors possible in the brick. 
At Montferraml are found charming bits of Renaissance, 
while interesting houses in the same style are scattered 
throughout the province, like Hotels Lallement and 
Cujas at Bourges and Palais de Justice at Xevers. 
This mountainous region furnishes splendid examples 
of medieval fortifications in the ruined castles of Buron, 
Bourbon l'Archambault, Tournvel, Polignac near LePuy, 
and countless others. Porte du Croux at Nevers is an 
interesting relic of the fourteenth century fortifications. 
An architectural wonder is the church of St. Michel- 
d'Aiguilhe at LePuy. The facade is a masterpiece of 
Romanesque architecture, admired all the more when we 
think of the engineering skill necessary to place this 
building on the top of a conical rock some (wo hundred 
and eighty feet high. La Chaise-Dieu also possesses a 
unique mountain structure in the celebrated Benedictine 
abbey, which ranks among the greatest mediaeval mon- 
asteries, and contains some magnificent Flemish tapes- 
tries and beautiful stalls. The cathedral at Moulins has 
some very interesting chapels around the choir, while the 
abbey at Souvigny is unsurpassingly beautiful in tracer- 
ies, tombs and screen work. For a splendid study of 
domestic Oothic we have the house of Jacques Cceur at 
lie urges. 

To enjoy thoroughly the province of Auvergne one 
should tour part of it on foot. Bourges, Nevers, Moulins, 
Clermont, Issoire, Brioude and LePuy are within tramp- 




THE RAMPARTS AT AVIGNON. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



95 




?Vtf 



- « , ^ ^ v ( 




>?&. .»'■ 



ieipit^l 



THE CITE OF CARCASSONNE. 



ing distance of each other, while many little towns which 
come between furnish the attractive and picturesque 
views so seldom seen. The costumes and manners of 
the people lend much charm to their quaint homes, 
roofed in red tile, gigantic slabs, or thatch. One can 
enjoy the provincial inns, for the beds are clean and the 
cuisine always reliable. It is advisable to carry such 
toilet articles as soap, comb and brush. Meals and 
lodging amount to the same here as throughout 
southern France. A room usually costs from thirty to 
fifty cents, while the breakfast, which consists of coffee, 
chocolate, or tea with bread, is twenty cents. The other 
meals are each from fifty to seventy cents. Hotel bills 
should be paid early, for if left until train time there may 
be many extras which you are forced to pay in your haste 
to depart. Naturally this always spoils what otherwise 
might prove to be an ideal day. If starting in the early 
morning, have the account made out the night before. 
It is generally best to patronize hotels frequented by 
" Voyageurs de Commerce," or commercial travelers. 
Unless hampered with baggage, inquire as to location of 
hotel, for it may be within a few minutes' walk from the 
station. 

The province of Burgundia, which occupies most of 
the territory lying east of the Rhone, has no distinct type 
of architecture. Southern France, Normandy and Ger- 
many each exerted considerable influence in the architec- 



tural development of this province. Many of her'more 
important monuments, like Cluny, have passed away, 
still we find this department one of the most instructive. 
In the mountain churches of the Hautes Alpes we find a 
simple and effective style that well repays the time spent 
in studying it. The sixth century crypt of St. Laurent 
at Grenoble is especially notable with its fifteen columns 
of Parian marble. Near by is St. Bernard, furnishing 
the purest example of Romanesque sculpture and archi- 
tecture in this district. One should notice especially the 
arcaded belfries, similar to the bell towers of Italy. The 
church at Donat has a square tower of admirable propor- 
tions, while St. Martin d'Ainay has two towers which 
show how decorative these arcaded structures can be. 
Charliere, the old Benedictine abbey, has a charming 
eleventh century church porch; St. Lazarre at Avillon has 
two remarkably rich portals; St. Mammes at Langres il- 
lustrates the harmonious use of the circular and the 
pointed arch. The cathedral at Besancon has two apses, 
and Embrun has a fine Romanesque tower. The Eglise 
de Brou at Bourg is one of the most celebrated Gothic 
edifices in France. It is rich in tombs, stalls and glass, 
furnishing us with a wonderful collection of fifteenth and 
sixteenth century art. The cathedral at Autun is the 
best example of transitional architecture in France, while 
Notre-Dame at Dijon is typical of the Burgundian-Gothic 
style. This province contains many examples of domes- 




THE RAMPARTS AT AIGUES MORTES 



9 6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




CHURCH OF ST. MICHEL AT LE PUY. 

tic architecture. Dijon possesses some handsome man- 
sions as well as the most important Neo-classic building 
in France in the Hotel Vogue". At Besancon the Hotel 
de Ville and l'alais de Justice of sixteenth century have 
pleasing facades with a skillful arrangement of fenestra- 
tion. Lyons abounds in interesting buildings like the 
Mane'canterie with its inlaid work of the eleventh cen- 
tury, the Hotel de Ville, and Bourse du Change. At 
Valence are the Maison des Tetes richly sculptured and 
the Maison Dupre Latour. Within walking distance of 
Valence is the old fortress chateau of Crussol. Grenoble 
has a very graceful design in the Musee, and near by is 
the Grande Chartreuse, a Carthusian monastery of the 
eleventh century. The museums of Burgundia merit 
considerable study. Lyons has a collection of antiquities 
equalled only by its Mediaeval and Renaissance Art. 




A ROMAN AMPHITHEATER AT N1MES. 

Next in importance is the Musee at Dijon with the mag- 
nificent tombs of Philippe le Hardie and Jean sans Peur. 
Besancon and Valence have very important collections of 
Roman art, sculpture and painting, while Grenoble has 
one of the best provincial museums in France. 

The season for traveling in Burgundia depends upon 
the itinerary. The Alpine districts need the summer, 
while the other parts are better in spring or fall. 
Churches are open the whole day except from noon un- 
til 2 p. M., while the Musc'es are free to the public on 
Sundays and often on Thursdays from ten in the morn- 
ing until four in the afternoon. In order to sketch, pho- 
tograph or make measured drawings, one should be 
equipped with a passport and other showy documents. 
A letter from some university, with the seal and plenty 



of ribbon, is very effective. The passport is necessary 
also for registered mail and often prevents delay and in- 
convenience. One should have a camera, for, while 
there are many beautiful and artistic post cards, yet they 
do not always satisfy our individual tastes. To go with- 
out a camera means many regrets for the future. Take 
plenty of films and be very careful who develops them. 
A developing machine gives more satisfaction and enables 
one to have perfect freedom as to time and results. 

The pride of Aquitania lies in the unique collection 
of Romanesque churches. The eastern trade via Peri- 
gueux established a masonic influence that gave to this 
province a domical style, which led later to the adoption 
of the pointed arch. The interiors are mostly in one vast 
span with walls, massive and pierced with chapels. 
Poitiers is the home of churches, possessing eight charm - 




ROMAN THEATER AT ORANGE. 

ing edifices, five of which form a unique series of Roman- 
esque types. Notre-Dame-la-Grande, one of the five 
mentioned above, is the richest and best example, rival- 
ing the Cathedral of Angouleme in the elaboration of de- 
tail. Similar to the Cathedral at Angouleme and Notre 
Dame at Poitiers is St. Front at Perigueux, the best pre- 
served example of the domical style and the "only 
perfect Greek cross church with cupolas." Other Ro- 
manesque-Byzantine churches worthy of mention are at 
Sou iliac, Toulouse, Moissac and Cahors. 

St. Caprais at Agen furnishes the transition from the 
barrel vaulting and domed roofs to the Gothic vaulting. 
St. Andre at Bordeaux is one of the finest Gothic build- 
ings in southern France. The cathedral at Auch is 
characteristic of the southern Gothic and possesses the 
most celebrated Gothic stalls in Europe, while the 




ROMAN ROAD LEADING TO LES HAUX. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



97 




old Cathedral at 
St. Bertrand- 
d e - Cominges 
has superb ex- 
amples of Ren- 
aissance work 
in the rich and 
beautifully 
carved rood 
loft, choir 
screen, stalls 
and high altar. 
La Rochelle has 
several interest- 
ing towers, two 
of which flank 
the dock, giving 



AMPHITHEATER AT N1MES. 

us an unusual Gothic treatment for 
the harbor. 

Aquitania abounds in famous 
castles and chateaux. At the castle 
of Oiron may be seen some splendid 
enameled plaques and fine marble 
mausoleums. The chateau at La 
Rochefoucauld has a magnificent 
staircase and arcacled galleries, while 
the castle of Pau and the chateau 
at Ne'rac, Cadillac and countless other 
picturesque castles lend an air of 
nobility to this province. Besides 
the castles and chateaux the Hotels 
de Ville are monuments of consid- 
erable importance, and merit our 
attention. A few of the most prom- 
inent may be found at Angouleme, Poitiers, La Rochelle 
and St. Antonin. 

One should notice especially the practical features of 
building in the southern part of Aquitania. Having no 
local stone they used brick, from which are built the large 
and imposing edifices in and around the region of Tou- 
louse. Among the best examples are the Pont de Bor- 
deaux, one of the most remarkable bridges in the world, 
the church at Albi, built entirely of brick, S. Sernin, one 
of the finest Romanesque churches in existence, and the 
convent of the Jacobins at Toulouse, famous as the most 
beautiful use of the brick style of mediaeval building. 

To appreciate fully what influence the Romans exerted 
over Aquitania we must not neglect the museums, which 
are found in every town. Curious and interesting capi- 
tals are found in the Muse'es at Toulouse and Bordeaux, 
showing the remarkable elegance of the carving and of 




the subjects selected. Limoges has a choice collection of 
ceramics, mainly of porcelain and faience. At Bayonne 
the sacristy contains some well-preserved sculptures of 
the thirteenth century, while Perigueux, Poitiers and 
Angouleme are filled with beautiful fragments of Roman 
art. 

In Aquitania it is more necessary to know French than 
in any of the other provinces. In many of the places 
English is not spoken, which is not the case in other parts 
more frequented by travelers. And it does not take 
long to discover that it takes some little knowledge to 
ask a question intelligently and a great deal more to 
understand the answer. One should master as much 
French as possible, for the more he knows the less he 
will suffer from the extortions of porters, cabmen and 
clerks. An excellent way to prepare one's self is to use 
the phonographic course of one of the correspondence 
schools. Take with you a pocket 
dictionary for daily use. Enter into 
■conversation with your fellow trav- 
elers, that is, if you ride third class, 
which is strongly recommended. 
You may have to put up with some 
inconveniences, but it is very profit- 
able financially, besides being an 
excellent means of knowing the 
people and learning the language. 
Carry an Indicateur des Chemins de 
Fer, published weekly, and when- 
ever possible purchase circular 
tickets, which saves from twenty to 
forty per cent. Tickets are usually 
purchased before entering the wait- 
ing-room. Never fail to have plenty 
of loose cash on hand, and watch 



MONTE CARLO. ALONG THE RIVIERA. 



your change, 
especially what 
you receive 
after buying 
tickets. When 
stopping at 
towns for the 
day only, you 
can check hand 
luggage at sta- 
tion for two 
cents. There 
are no refresh- 
ment rooms ex- 
cept at principal 
stations, so it is 
often advisable 




CATHEDRAL AT NEVERS. 



9 8 



THE B RICK B II I L I) E R 




to take food 
with you. The 
buffets have 
satis factory 
lunches already 
prepared in 
boxes or bas- 
kets, which one 
can purchase 
for a nominal 
S u in . W hen 
traveling by 
diligences get 
position as soon 
as possible as 
most places are 
booked ahead. 
Have a clear 
undcrstan diner 



IO.MB AT ST. KK.MV. 

in all business transactions as to 
expense, thereby preventing many 
an embarrassing situation with cab- 
men and hotel proprietors. 

I'nder the head of Provence it 
will be convenient to treat the two 
departments of Provence and 
Languedoc together. This division 
is the oldest, and lies to the south, 
bordering the Mediterranean. As 
early as 154 1?. C. the Grecian colony 
at Marseilles invited the assistance 
of the Romans. As a result all 
Gaul became a Roman colony, civ- 
ilization spread throughout Prov- 
ence, the classic element dominated the Rhone val- 
ley, and the glories of the Roman architecture speak to 
us through their monumental ruins. The one almost 
perfect Roman temple in the world, and undoubtedly 
the finest specimen of the pseudo-peripteral, is found in 
the " Maison Carre'e " at Nimes. Its beauty of propor 
tion and elegance of detail rank it among the finest 
monuments of classic architecture. Nimes furnishes, 
also, the Temple of Diana, exceptionally beautiful in 
its details; Tour Magne, an imposing octagonal ruin; 
and Pont du Gard, forceful in the simplicity of its bold 
design. At Orange the durability and grandeur of 
Roman skill have been tested in the Theater and Tri- 
umphal Arch. The Theater shows the extent and com- 
plications of the arrangement necessary for that time. 
The Mausolee at St. Remy, with remarkable bas-reliefs of 
classic victories over barbarian hordes, and the Arc de 
Triomphe close by are two most important monuments 
of the ancient glanum of the Romans. Aries, like 
Nimes, has her amphitheater well preserved, and the 




ancient cemetery, Les Aliscamps, contains many Roman 
tombs. The bridge at Chamas has at each end a trium- 
phal arch of considerable charm and interest. And so 
we might go on indefinitely, for cities like Frejus, An- 
tibes, Carpentras, Vaison and Cavaillon all possess their 
arches, tombs, temples, theaters, towers and aqueducts. 
In short, one cannot find Roman art more skillfully exe- 
cuted or better preserved than in the south of France. 

In Provence and Languedoc we find the most elabo- 
rate of all Romanesque work. This part of France suf- 
fering least from the barbarian invasions and enriching 
her art by Roman absorption, developed a Romanesque 
style that surpassed all others in dignity and refinement. 
We find all churches have a charming individuality, 
making this region especially fascinating as well as in- 
structive. The purity of the classic detail and refine- 
ment of style have given the Roman features an increased 
value. The little chapel of St. Croix at Mont Majour is 
the oldest example and shows the influence of the Byzan- 
tine architecture. The style starts 
with the purity at Avignon, contin- 
ues through the transitional period 
from debased Roman to the genuine 
native form at Aries and beautiful 
details at Aix, Paredes and Taras- 
con, and culminates in the unsur- 
passed decoration of St. Gilles. 

Barbarian invasions forced upon 
the people the feudal system. Church 
and state proving inadequate, the 
French peasantry were compelled to 
seek the protection of the wealthy 
landowners Striking proof of the 
power given to feudal lords are the 
ruins of Polignac near LePuy, castle 



TRIUMPHAL ARCH AT - ORANGE. 



of King Rene 
at Tarascon, 
Mont Majour 
near Aries, and 
Les Baux. At 
Narbonne and 
1 5 e /. i e r s a r e 
Episcopal pal- 
aces strongly 
fortified. The 
churches also 
furnish many 
exam]) les f 
bat 1 1 e m en t e d 
walls, strong 
towers, and 
small windows. 
In the cathedral 
at Agde, elev- 
enth century, 




HOTEL DE VOGUE AT DIJON. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



99 




THE ANCIENT ROMAN BURYING GROUND AT ARLES. 

are the most ancient machicoulis known, presenting an 
aspect of wonderful strength and utility. The thirteenth 
century built some magnificent churches strongly forti- 
fied with frowning ramparts and tourelles capped with 
machicoulis. The most important of this century are 
the cathedrals at Lodeve, Montpellier, St. Just of 
Narbonne, Notre-Dame of Rodez, and St. Nazaire of 
Beziers. St. Cecile at Albi, thirteenth century, is the 
greatest fortified church of feudalistic times. Its win- 




ROMAN AQUEDUCT AT PONT DU GARD. 

seldom seen at such a large scale. Some critics go 
so far as to claim that the uniformity of its twenty 
towers and ten gates gives it rank above Carcassonne 
and Avignon. As for the truth of the last state- 
ment we will let the student judge for himself, as 
Carcassonne is one of the most fascinating places in 
all Europe. This town or "Cite" existed during 
the Roman period. Ruled and fortified in turn by 
Romans, Visigoths, Moors, and Viollet-le-Duc, it has 





DETAIL OK MONUMENT OF GIRONDONS AT BODREAUX. 



THE MAISON CARKcE AT NlMES. 



dows are mere elongated slits. It is impossible to show 
the steps from the use of wood to the crenelated stone 
galleries, but a little study in this direction will 
materially assist in classifying all military architecture 
as to its time in history. 

The Crusades have left to us one of the charms of 
Provence and Languedoc, — Aigues Mortes, — a uniform 
picturesqueness of embattled walls and towers of strength 



always remained the most formidable fortification in 
European history. Unlike Aigues Mortes, there are 
only two entrances to the citadel, while fifty round towers 
dominate the enceinte of more than sixteen hundred 
yards. Surely one cannot afford to leave France with 
that pathetic wail of the broken-hearted Frenchman, "/< 
n'ai iamais vu Carcassonne." 

The Gothic and Renaissance styles have a few ex- 





GARDEN OF THE FOUNTAIN AT NtMES. 



ST. NAGUIRE AT CARCASSONNE. 



IOO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





A STATION AT MONACO. 



A TYPICAL TOWN IN PROVINCE OF AUVERGNK. 



amples of considerable merit 
in these provinces. The Ro- 
manesque churches adopted 
Gothic features. In St. Na- 
zaire at Carcassonne we have 
the masterpiece of Gothic 
delicacy found in southern 
France. At Narbonne we have 
a lofty Gothic, and at Albi a 
unique fortified Gothic. The 
Jardin de la Fontaine at 
Nimes is very elaborate and 
affords a fine promenade. The 
garden has been planned in 
modern taste and built over 
the ancient foundations. Hotel 
de Ville at Beziers, Palais de 
Longchamp and the Bourse 
at Marseilles, and Hotel Cril- 
lon at Avignon, are the only 
remaining Renaissance build- 
ings worthy of mention. As 
for modern skill, there is no 
part of France that furnishes 
a better example than the 
towns along the Riviera. The 
irregular and hilly contour 
skirting the Mediterranean has 
been handled with feats of 
engineering, remarkable for 
artistic beauty as well as for 
power to meet successfully every 




A QUAINT VILLAGE IN AUVEHGNE. 



condition in a sani- 



tary and practical manner. 
Huge vine-covered arches and 
buttresses rise perpendicularly 
from fifty to one hundred feet, 
supporting artistic homes 
and gardens that overlook 
the sea. Carried above these 
are other terraces and be- 
yond still others, until the 
sides of the mountain fur- 
nish one beautiful panora- 
ma of clean-cut masonry en- 
riched with running vines 
and charming gardens of ex- 
otic trees and plants. At 
Monte Carlo the Casino, 
built by Gamier in 1878, 
furnishes the central feat- 
ure of the principality of 
Monaco. ( )ne sees here noth- 
ing more than a miniature 
world's fair, possessing every 
attraction for the pleasure 
lover of all nations. 

The traveler, especially if 
he be an architectural student, 
or one at least interested in 
architecture, should make it 
a point to visit all cloisters 
and museums in Provence and 
Languedoc, for in them he 
will find some of the best works of ancient and me- 





HOTEL LALLEMONT, AT BOUIIGES. 



PALACE OF JACoUES C<EUR AT HOURGES. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 



101 




diasval art. In 
the cloisters we 
have the most 
beautiful monu- 
ments of the 
Middle Ages. 
Here the clois- 
ters need no 
traceries, and 
the open ar- 
cades, with sin- 
gle or double 
columns, are 
charming with 
their elaborate 
carving of cap- 
itals. At Elne 
and Aries we 
have richly- 
sculptured 
work. Aix and 
Cavaillon have 
preserved some 
delightful clois- 



DETAIL OK 



CATHEDRAL 
NEVERS. 



TOWER AT 



ters of the twelfth century, while St. 
Just of Narbonne furnishes the most 
attractive one of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries. The museums at 
Avignon, Aries, Nimes, Aix, Nar- 
bonne and Marseilles are rich in sculp- 
ture of all ages. As a usual thing, 
all museums are free on Sundays 
from noon up to four o'clock in the 
afternoon. On weekdays it is neces- 
sary to pay a slight fee. 

To enjoy the art of any locality 
one should know the people them- 
selves and their general surround- 
ings. It is advisable to take as many 
rambles as possible. For example : 
make your headquarters at Aries, a 
city famed for its street of tombs and 
visions of fair women. Take an 

early start, walk through the vineland noticing the 
perfected state of their irrigating facilities; then, as the 
morning opens up, visit that beautiful remnant of a 
feudal and ecclesiastical past, Mont-Major. Another 
morning take the train to St. Remy, and after viewing 
those monuments, which are among the most important 
of the Roman ruins, start for Les Baux. It is some dis- 
tance, but the walk along those old Roman roads up over 
the mountains will more than repay the effort. Then 
enter on foot that city of desolation and decay and you 
will appreciate the picturesqueness of its external aspect 
and the wealth of those great feudal proprietors. An- 
other charming walk is along the Riviera. All these and 
more, too, can be enjoyed by the cyclists A cycle per- 
mit should be obtained from the customs agent. Join 




PALACE OF LONGCHAMP AT MARSEILLES. 



the " Touring Club de France " and purchase their book- 
let, "Annuaire," containing complete list of hotels, re- 
pairers, etc. They also publish itineraries which are 
very helpful. 

The hotels in Provence all set a good table, and. by 
patronizing one of the more reasonable, you escape the 
English-speaking people and are forced to learn the 
native language. If one travels third class and does not 
live at first-class hotels, he can cover all expenses, includ- 
ing tips, on three dollars a day. It is best to have your 
money in express checks or use a letter of credit. The 
Credit Lyonnais has banks in nearly every city and 
town throughout France and is very reliable. Take 
plenty of sketching material and have sufficient clothing 
when you leave Paris to last until you return again. 
And above all things, provide mosquito netting. 

No country in the world has produced so many thor- 
oughly developed styles of architecture as southern 
France. It is the richest field open to the modern stu- 
dent. Eastern architecture is seen through the Greek 
influence in Provence and Aquitania, and also in the plan 
and construction of the Byzantine churches. Outside of 
Rome one cannot find such a rich variety of Roman 
architecture. The Latin architecture of Italy furnishes 
no better work than the early and 
later domed churches of southern 
France. In the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries France led in the noblest 
and richest of Romanesque archi- 
tecture. The twelfth century Gothic 
emanated from the south of France, 
while that of the fifteenth century 
possesses more interest and value 
than any other in Europe. Moors, 
Saracens and others affected more or 
less the provincial styles, and we can 
almost cover Spanish architecture 
before we cross the Pyrenees. Be- 
cause the objects worthy of architec- 
tural study are so numerous and so 
varied in character, and because the 
finest examples of a diversity of 
styles are to be found here in a com- 
paratively limited area — an obvious 
advantage to the average traveler 
who may wish to economize both 
time and expense — the writer feels 
abundantly justified in recom- 




DETAIL OF SCREEN IN ST. ETIF. 



AT IiOURGES. 



IOO 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 





A STATION AT MONACO. 



A TYPICAL TOWN IN PROVINCE OF AUVERGNK. 



amples of considerable merit 
in these provinces. The Ro- 
manesque churches adopted 
(lothic features. In St. Na- 
zaire at Carcassonne we have 
the masterpiece of Gothic 
delicacy found in southern 
France. At Narbonne we have 
a lofty Gothic, and at Albi a 
unique fortified Gothic. The 
Jardin de la Fontaine at 
Nimes is very elaborate and 
affords a fine promenade. The 
garden has been planned in 
modern taste and built over 
the ancient foundations. Hotel 
de Ville at Beziers, Palais de 
Longchamp and the Bourse 
at Marseilles, and Hotel Cril- 
lon at Avignon, are the only 
remaining Renaissance build- 
ings worthy of mention. As 
for modern skill, there is no 
part of France that furnishes 
a better example than the 
towns along the Riviera. The 
irregular and hilly contour 
skirting the Mediterranean has 
been handled with feats of 
engineering, remarkable for 
artistic beauty as well as for 
power to meet successfully every condition in a sani- 




A QUAINT VILLAGE IN AUVERGNE. 



will find some of the 



tary and practical manner. 
Huge vine-covered arches and 
buttresses rise perpendicularly 
from fifty to one hundred feet, 
supporting artistic homes 
and gardens that overlook 
the sea. Carried above these 
are other terraces and be- 
yond still others, until the 
sides of the mountain fur- 
nish one beautiful panora- 
ma of clean-cut masonry en- 
riched with running vines 
and charming gardens of ex- 
otic trees and plants. At 
Monte Carlo the Casino, 
built by Gamier in 1878, 
furnishes the central feat- 
ure of the principality of 
Monaco. ( >ne sees here noth- 
ing more than a miniature 
world's fair, possessing every 
attraction for the pleasure 
lover of all nations. 

The traveler, especially if 
he be an architectural student, 
or one at least interested in 
architecture, should make it 
a point to visit all cloisters 
and museums in Provence and 
Languedoc, for in them he 
best works of ancient and me- 





HOTEL LALLEMONT, AT BOUHGES. 



PALACE OF JACQUES COIUR AT BOURGES. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



101 




diaeval art. In 
the cloisters we 
have the most 
beautiful monu- 
ments of the 
Middle Ages. 
Here the clois- 
ters need no 
traceries, and 
the open ar- 
cades, with sin- 
gle or double 
columns, are 
charming with 
their elaborate 
carving of cap- 
itals. At Elne 
and Aries we 
have richly 
sculptured 
work. Aix and 
Cavaillon have 
preserved some 
delightful clois- 



DETAIL OF CATHEDRAL TOWER AT 
NEVERS. 

ters of the twelfth century, while St. 
Just of Narbonne furnishes the most 
attractive one of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries. The museums at 
Avignon, Aries, Nimes, Aix, Nar- 
bonne and Marseilles are rich in sculp- 
ture of all ages. As a usual thing, 
all museums are free on Sundays 
from noon up to four o'clock in the 
afternoon. On weekdays it is neces- 
sary to pay a slight fee. 

To enjoy the art of any locality 
one should know the people them- 
selves and their general surround- 
ings. It is advisable to take as many 
rambles as possible. For example : 
make your headquarters at Aries, a 
city famed for its street of tombs and 
visions of fair women. Take an 
early start, walk through the vineland noticing the 
perfected state of their irrigating facilities; then, as the 
morning opens up, visit that beautiful remnant of a 
feudal and ecclesiastical past, Mont-Major. Another 
morning take the train to St. Remy, and after viewing 
those monuments, which are among the most important 
of the Roman ruins, start for Les Baux. It is some dis- 
tance, but the walk along those old Roman roads up over 
the mountains will more than repay the effort. Then 
enter on foot that city of desolation and decay and you 
will appreciate the picturesqueness of its external aspect 
and the wealth of those great feudal proprietors. An- 
other charming walk is along the Riviera. All these and 
more, too, can be enjoyed by the cyclists A cycle per- 
mit should be obtained from the customs agent. Join 




PALACE OF LONGCHAMP AT MARSEILLES. 



the " Touring Club de France " and purchase their book- 
let, "Annuaire," containing complete list of hotels, re- 
pairers, etc. They also publish itineraries which are 
very helpful. 

The hotels in Provence all set a good table, and. by 
patronizing one of the more reasonable, you escape the 
English-speaking people and are forced to learn the 
native language. If one travels third class and does not 
live at first-class hotels, he can coverall expenses, includ- 
ing tips, on three dollars a day. It is best to have your 
money in express checks or use a letter of credit. The 
Crddit Lyonnais has banks in nearly every city and 
town throughout France and is very reliable. Take 
plenty of sketching material and have sufficient clothing 
when you leave Paris to last until you return again. 
And above all things, provide mosquito netting. 

No country in the world has produced so many thor- 
oughly developed styles of architecture as southern 
France. It is the richest field open to the modern stu- 
dent. Eastern architecture is seen through the Greek 
influence in Provence and Aquitania, and also in the plan 
and construction of the Byzantine churches. Outside of 
Rome one cannot find such a rich variety of Roman 
architecture. The Latin architecture of Italy furnishes 
no better work than the early and 
later domed churches of southern 
France. In the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries France led in the noblest 
and richest of Romanesque archi- 
tecture. The twelfth century Gothic 
emanated from the south of France, 
while that of the fifteenth century 
possesses more interest and value 
than any other in Europe. Moors, 
Saracens and others affected more or 
less the provincial styles, and we can 
almost cover Spanish architecture 
before we cross the Pyrenees. Be- 
cause the objects worthy of architec- 
tural study are so numerous and so 
varied in character, and because the 
finest examples of a diversity of 
styles are to be found here in a com- 
paratively limited area — an obvious 
advantage to the average traveler 
who may wish to economize both 
time and expense the writer feels 
abundantly justified in recom- 




DETAIL OF SCREEN IN ST. ETIKNNK CATHEDRAL AT HOIJRGES. 



102 



THE BR] C K B UILDER 



mending most strongly the architecture of southern 
France. 

The following itineraries are given as a help in ar- 
ranging trips through southern France. 
From Spain to Paris via Barcelona. Eighteen days. 



l'erpignan 
Narbonne 
Carcassonne 
Aigues Mortes 
St. Gilles 
Aries 
Tarascon 
St. Kemy 
I .es Baux 



1 Day 



Avignon 

Orange 

N imes 

I .ePuy 

< lermont Ferrand 

Nevers 

Kourges 

Paris 



2 Days 



From Spain to Paris via Bordeaux. ( )ne month. 



Angiers 


2 


Marseilles 


2 


Nantes 


1 


Aix 


1 


Poitiers 


•2\ " 


Avignon 


3 


Angouli ine 


1 


Orange 


1 


Perigueux 


1 


Valence 


i 


Bordeaux 


21 •' 


1 Irenoble 


S 


Agen 


1 II 


Vienne 


i 


Auch 


' " 


l.yon 


1! 


Toulouse 


2 


St. Ktienne 


i 


Albi 


1 


LePuy 


H 


Carcassonne 


2 


Clermont Ferrand 


l 


l'erpignan 


1 


Hourges 


l 


Narbonne 


1 


Nevers 


i 


He/iers 


i 


Autun 


i 


Agde 


i 


Dijon 


li 


Lodi-ve 


1 


Aval Ion 


i 


Montpellier 


1 


A uxerre 


s 


Aigues Mortes 


1 


Paris 








Bayonne 


i Day 


I.es Baux 




i 


Hordeaux 


1\ " 


Nimes 




2 _ 


Angouleme 


i ii 

9 


Avignon 




2 


Limoges 


i •• 


< > range 




1 


Perigueux 


1 " 


Marseilles 




1 


Agen 


• " 


Aix 




1 


Toulouse 


1' " 


i rrenoble 




M 


Albi 


i 


Lyon 




lj 


Carcassonne 


1 ' " 


St. Ktienne 




1 


Narbonne 


i 


LePuy 




U 


Beziers 


, ■■ 


Clermont F 


errand 


1 


Agde 


i 


Moulins 




1 
2 


Aigues Mortes 


i 


Nevers 




1 


St. Oilles 


i »• 


Dijon 




1 


Aries 


3 " 


A uxerre 




1 

2 


Tarascon 


', " 


Paris 






St. Rtiniy 


i 









! D;l y 



From Paris to Italy. Fifteen Days. 



Dijon 


1 


Day 


Aix 


Bourges 


1 


" 


Marseilles 


Lyon 


1 


" 


Toulon 


( rrenoble 


1 


" 


Hyeres 


Valence 


i 


" 


Frej us 


( )range 


1 


" 


Nice 


Avignon 


1 


" 


Monaco 


Nimes 


n 


" 


Genoa 


Aries 


3 


" 





Paris and return. Twenty-two days. 



Paris and return. Two months. 



Day 



Paris 










Orleans 


1 


Day 


Aries 


4 


Tours 


l 1 


" 


Marseilles 


1 


Poitiers 


P. 


" 


Avignon 


1 


Limoges 




" 


Orange 




Perigueux 


1 


" 


LePuy 


I 


Hordeaux 


2 


" 


Clermont Ferrand 




Toulouse 


1 1 


" 


Nevers 




Carcassonne 


1' 


" 


Bourges 


1 


Nimes 


2 


" 


Paris-' 





Days 



Paris 












Orleans 


P. 


Days 


N imes 


■J 


I >ajs 


Tours and Env. 


5 


" 


Tarascon 


1 


•• 


Samur 


1 


" 


Aries and Env. 


63 


" 



Fn-i/eker. 

Barker. 

Bross.irti. 

Bumptu. 

Choity. 

Cox. 

Cook. 

Daly. 

Daniel. 

Desjardins. 

Duclaux. 

Fergussen. 

Fletcher. 

Gibson. 

C.ouUl. 

Gras. 
Gttitot. 

Hale. 
If alia in 
//me. 

Hunnewell. 

James. 

Joanne. 

Johnson. 

[.a met/. 

Lent her ie. 

I.ouvier. 

Lynch. 

MacGibbon. 

Mtltoun. 

Murray. 

I'erret. 

Fetit. 

Reguenet. 

Revoil. 

A'ose. 

Fouyer et Dm; el. 

Sea rritt. 

Sauvageat. 

Sterne. 

Stevenson. 

Sturgis. 

Fainc. 

I incent. 

Viollet-le-Duc. 



Wooit. 
Wright. 



Reference Books. 

Handbook on Southern France, Southeastern France 

and Southwestern France. 
'• Wanderings by Southern Waters." 
' Geographie Pittoresque et Monumentale." 
' Holidays Among the Glories of France." 
• llistoire de l'Architecture." 
" The Crusades." 
" < >ld Provence." 

" Motifs Historiques D'Architecture." 
•' Monographie Du Palais du Commerce du Lyon." 
'• Monographie de l'Hotel de Yille de Lyon." 

The Fields of France." 
" Ancient and Mediaeval Architecture." 
" History of Architecture. 
' Among French Inns." 
■ In Troubadour Land," and " Deserts of Southern 

France." 
" Les Rouges du Midi." 
' History of France." 
" Nice and Her Neighbors." 
'The Middle Ages." 
Handbooks on Southeastern France and Southwestern 

France. 
" Historical Monuments of France." 
" A Little Tour of Fiance." 
" Les Pyrenees." 
" Along French Byways." 

■■ Churches and Castles of Mediaeval France." 
" La Grece et l'Orient en Provence." 
" I. a Prefecture du Rhone." 
" French Life in Town and Country." 
" The Architecture of Provence and the Riviera." 
" Cathedrals of Southern France." 
Handbook on France. 
" Le Pays Basque." 
" Architectural Studies in France." 
" Petits Edifices Historiques." 2 Vols. 
" Architecture Romane du Midi de la F"rance." 3 Vols. 
" Cathedrals and Cloisters of South of France." 
" L'Art Architecture en France." 
" Three Men in a Motor Car." 
" Palais, Hfttels et Maisons de France." 
" Sentimental Journey." 

" Inland Voyages " and "Travels with a Donkey." 
" Dictionary of Architecture and Building." 
"Traveling in Southern France." 
" In the Shadow of the Pyrenees." 
" Kntretiens sur l'Architecture," " Dictionnaire rai 
sonne de l'Architecture," and " La Cite de Car 
1 assonne." 
" In the Valley of the Rhone." 
" France Illustrated." 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



103 



Ceramic Tiles and their Use. 

BY C. HOWARD WALKER. 

r "PHE use of tile for floors and walls is at present in a 
X stage of initial development in American building. 

Tentative attempts have been made here and there to 
produce so-called novel results, and a very considerable 
amount of work, imitative of old and acknowledged 
achievements of the past, is apparent, but there is not yet a 
thorough perception of the possibilities of tiles that lies in- 
herent in their individual character. The factors of imper- 
ishability, of permanency and of cleanliness, of depth of 
tone and of color, are recognized, but the abundant meth- 
ods of individual expression have been often neglected. 

Tiles are ceramic and can run the entire gamut of 
clay products, glazed or unglazed, from the mere baked 
earth to the finest of porcelain. They are backgrounds 
for relief ornament, and for painting, and as such may be- 
come great little works of art. But they must be con- 
sidered as corelative, as cooperative, producing effects 
by multiplication of units, not by the superlative beauty 
of any one unit. Naturally an occasional tile of exquisite 
glaze or iridescent lustre, of exceptional modelling or of 
fine drawing, can be made the center of a surrounding 
area, which serves merely to enhance the splendor of this 
focus, but in most cases the object desired is general 
effect, not specific isolation, and for success in obtaining 
general effect there is necessary a very definite knowl- 
edge of the means for its production and of the material 
employed. Generally speaking, unglazed tiles are used 
either as surfaces of plain color, with perhaps an occa- 
sional accent of one or more other colors, or they become a 
rather coarse mosaic. Such surfaces are negative foils 
or backgrounds, unaggressive and admirable when ser- 
vice is desired, but otherwise have merely the beauty of 
agreeable tone and color, and create a contrast for objects 
associated with them. For this reason unglazed tiles are 
admirable for floors and for walls, dadoes, etc. When of 
one color throughout, texture is of great importance, 
and can be obtained by variety in the shapes of the 
tiles, and by the use of combinations of geometric 
forms, squares, triangles, hexagons and octagons, etc. 

The existent stock of vitreous and semi-vitreous tile 
obtainable (apart from special patterns made to order or 
exceptionally high-priced examples) is of shapes bounded 
by straight lines, which are usually cut to angles of 
forty-five and sixty degrees. These are the tiles made 
by the dust pressed process, and have their lines and sur- 
faces clean cut, straight and true. Of the semi-vitreous 
tile there are sixty-two different units in each, of seven 
colors: buff, salmon, light gray, dark gray, red, chocolate 
and black, making four hundred and thirty-four different 
units. The shapes are squares of seven full sizes and of 
their halves on the diagonal. Fourteen different shapes 
of rectangular oblongs, three octagons and their halves, 
quarters and eighths; three hexagons and their halves, on 
both long and short axes; three elongated hexagons and 
their halves; one pentagon and three equilaterial tri- 
angles and their halves. 

Of the vitreous tile (or porcelain tile) there are 
twenty-eight units in eight colors: white, silver gray, 
celadon, green, blue green, light blue, dark blue and 
pink, making one hundred and seventy-six different 



units consisting of five squares and their halves on the 
diagonal ; five rectangular oblongs, one octagon, two 
hexagons and their halves on both long and short axes; 
three equilateral triangles and their halves. 

It is evident that there is no lack of possibilities of com- 
bination of these tiles in geometric straight line patterns, 
and a great variety of designs has already been used, but 
in many cases with unsatisfactory effects. Tile surfaces for 
either walls or floors need to be of one general color or tone, 
as any combinations in different colors of units as large as 
the tile units are spotty in effect. The only exceptions 
are to be found in the Moorish tile patterns, which are of 
porcelain tile, and which are in most cases star patterns 
in color, surrounded by ribbon tile of white. But these 
patterns require strong polychromatic treatment in the 
other details of the room, otherwise they are too pro- 
nounced. Fields of tile, therefore, are usually dependent 
for their effect upon the texture produced by the pattern 
hs shown by the joints, and the introduction of contrasts 
should occur only at occasional intervals in some small 
detail, the intervals between these contrasts being 
entirely dependent upon the scale of the room. In bor- 
ders, however, contrasts are desirable. A border to a 
floor is usually darker than the field, as a dark field with 
a light border gives the impression that the floor has 
, sunk in the center; while a dark border and light field 
corrects any such effect of depression. But the contrasts 
in borders should not be merely spotty differences of 
value, but sUould be so planned that either a general 
tone is maintained or the direction of the border indi- 
cated. The texture of the joints in a border is of value 
in its effect, but such texture should contrast strongly 
with the texture of the field, borders in one color, with 
pattern indicated by joints, only being applicable to 
fields of much simpler pattern. A complicated field 
requires tone or color contrast in the border. Tile pat- 
terns, like stained glass windows, are of a variety of mosaic ; 
i. e., they are mosaic of large units instead of small 
tesserae. If the leaded windows of the cathedrals and 
the tile dadoes of the Moorish palaces be studied, they 
will be found to have a common factor in their treat- 
ment; i. c, that of surrounding centers of interest by 
small borders of a lighter tone than the focus unit. 
These small, delicate borders make a pattern in them- 
selves, and often interlock and knot into centers. 

The attempt to recreate this principle in modern tile 
patterns has been overlooked. Plain surfaces of tile 
depend entirely upon their size for quality of texture, 
and nothing is more usual than to find the entire char- 
acter of a wall coarsened and made commonplace by the 
tile being too large and out of scale with the room and 
surface on which it is placed. And as apparent scale 
decreases with the number of sides of a polygon, the 
danger of coarse texture in a wall surface is greater in 
the use of square tile than with any other. For the 
same reason, alternation of color in a geometric pattern 
is to be avoided, as it at least doubles the scale, and with 
such large units as tiles does not produce a tone but a 
series of spots. A spotty wall surface is to be especially 
avoided with tile, so that *if contrasting color is used, it 
should be either in very small units or in units so isolated 
that they are overwhelmed by the general background. 
Unglazed tile can of course have modelled surfaces, which 



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PLATE I. BORDERS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



105 



merely deepen the tone by shadows, and the introduction 
of such units as occasional foci often adds interest to the 
whole surface, but even in this case, comparatively incon- 
spicuous as are their modelled tile, it is not well to alter- 
nate them with plain tile, on account of coarseness of scale. 

Tiles are veneers, not structural factors, and unlike 
mosaics, should be treated as such. The line of demar- 
cation between glazed tile and structural faience should 
be very definite. Considering tile as a mosaic of large 
factors, effects can be obtained by variation in the color 
and width of the joints between the tile. It has been so 
long the habit to consider that tiles must fit accurately 
together, that any breadth of joint is considered poor 
workmanship, and while this is true, if the variation in 
joints is accidental, it is by no means the case when the 
intention is evident, and as the joints form a mesh over 
the surface, and cover only a small portion of the general 
area, they admit of all sorts of differences of width, 
producing a pattern of their own without materially 
affecting the scale. 

In all tile design there should be one strongly domi- 
nant background color and tone, and the remaining colors 
and tones should not differ greatly from the background. 
Excepting under some circumstances small spots and fine 
lines only are necessary in semi-vitreous tiles. If white 
is used as a background to the field, neutral tones and 
one color only should be used, black occurring only in 
small spots and fine lines. If grays are used for back- 
grounds, red or chocolate, or white, should be in small 
quantities. Salmon is only agreeable when used with 
white; buff should not be used in large proportions with 
red, as the result is an effect of orange. Buff and white 
are, however, successful. In vitreous tiles the colors are 
more intense, and consequently more difficult, to arrange. 
Plain surfaces in all the colors excepting pink are attract- 
ive, both in walls and floors. Pink is. a tint, a diluted 
rose red, and is mawkish, excepting in fine lines and small 
spots in large surfaces of white and silver gray. All in- 
tense colors combine well with white. In tile work, 
more than in other decorative work, it is advisable to 
adopt a definite scheme of color, either neutral or of cool 
tones or of warm tones, and avoid an introduction of 
complementary colors, as the subdivisions are large, 
prevent the complementaries from neutralizing each 
other, and the effect of their use is that of conflict and 
opposition and not of harmony. In borders, stronger 
contrasts may be used than in fields, but the contrasting 
colors should be separated by borders of lighter tone 
value than either of the colors. Parallel line borders of 
narrow tiles, each color separated from the next by a fine 
white or "light line, are very effective. Wall patterns 
should be either all-over patterns with plain base and a 
top border, or divided into vertical panels by borders. 
Horizontal panels and zones are seldom successful in 
tiles. The same or similar fields and borders may be 
used upon walls as upon floors, either in absolute har- 
mony with, or in contrast to the floor. But patterns 
based on circles are seldom adapted to wall surfaces, as 
they disturb the vertical appearance of the wall when 
seen in perspective. It is manifest, also, that the designs 
upon a floor can be much larger in scale of plan than upon 
the walls, for the wall surface of tile is a veneer which 
would seem unstable if made of too large pieces, while the 
floor surface, resting upon support, never seems unstable. 



In the accompanying illustrations, Plates 1 and 2 are 
designs for borders and fields. While these designs are 
by no means original in their general character, being 
simple geometric repeats, they are made from the tiles 
already existent in stock, and they have one intention in 
common, that is, the patterns are decorative from the 
lines of the joints even if no contrasts occur in the color 
or tone of the tiles. Also there is more variety in the 
widths of the long tile and in the scale of adjacent pieces 
than is usually to be found in tile patterns. ( )f the 
borders, Nos. 1 to 9 are variants of the herring- bone 
pattern, 10 to 12 of the elongated hexagon, 13 to 15 of 
the zigzag, 16 to 24 of chain patterns, etc. Each and all 
of these can be increased in apparent scale by the use of 
two tones and colors, but the introduction of three tones 
or colors would in most cases confuse the pattern. It is 
not unusual to find borders which are excessive in width 
and over-detailed in comparison to the fields they enclose. 
Any border is merely a separation, a frame, and requires 
strength rather than elaboration. In all tile work special 
care is necessary to avoid too large a scale of unit and of 
repeat in the pattern. 

Plate No. z contains fields or all-over patterns which 
may be used on walls or floors. Nos. 1 to 3, 6, 17, 18, 21 
and 23 produce striped fields with a strong effect of 
direction. Nos. 10 and 17, this latter based on penta- 
gons, are complicated and somewhat confused in char- 
acter, but would serve in small areas as foils for simpler 
adjacent patterns. None of these fields have as various 
contrasts as the borders, as variation in fields is not a 
virtue. No more complicated patterns in fields need 
ever be used, and there are an infinite number of 
simpler patterns which may be adopted. Contrasts of 
tone or color in fields should be either in small isolated 
spots at considerable distance apart or very equally dis- 
tributed over the field in units of similar areas. For ex- 
ample, Nos. 2 and 9 are better fitted for contrasts of color 
or tone than are the others. 

Tile work, apart from the shape and patterns of the 
tile, is very apt to be faulty in design from too violent 
contrasts between the borders and the fields. Contrasts 
which would not be considered between stiles and rails 
and panels in woodwork are constantly recurring in 
tiled walls. And borders strong enough to hold sheets 
of marble are placed around fields which are already in- 
corporated with the wall and are capable of sustaining 
themselves. Broad borders with strong contrasts appear 
to be too heavy. Very narrow borders appear to be too 
thin. The natural conclusion seems to be that it is un- 
wise to use violent contrasts of any kind. 

Tiles may be used successfully upon arched or 
vaulted ceilings but upon flat ceilings give an effect of 
insecurity. The ceiling units and patterns should be 
even smaller than those upon the walls. The sequence 
of scale in tile design being as follows: Largest units and 
patterns upon floors, smallest upon ceilings, the walls to 
have smaller patterns than floors and larger than ceilings. 

On vaulted surfaces the borders will naturally follow 
the intersecting lines of the vaults, but will be much 
narrower than floor or wall borders. Heavy centers in 
ceiling panels are to be avoided in tile, though such 
centers may be used around pendent light fixtures, etc. 
Decoration of angles and panels is more applicable to 
ceiling panels than to wall or floor panels. 



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PLATE II. FIELDvS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



107 



The Use of Terra 
Walls of 



Cotta Blocks 
Houses. 



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Editor of The Brickbuildek : 

Dear Sir, — The presentation in The Brickbuildek 
for March of a method of building plastered house walls 
of "porous" terra cotta forms, when a sketch detail of 
the method was shown and editorial comment substituted 
for the description accompanying the detail, was not 
such as to do justice to the material. If you will 
kindly publish the description as originally submitted it 
will, although as "sketchy" as the detail, surely give 
those interested a better chance to judge of the merits 
of the construction. 

Given a house wall that is strong enough, looks well 
enough, and successfully stands 
off fire and storm, the designer 
will not feel called upon to grout 
it like a supporting pier. He 
wants a slow conductor and poor 
absorber of heat, and if he could 
build such walls of some glassy 
stuff puffed up like pumice and 
leave them strong enough, he 
would know that they would be 
a hundred times better to live 
with than if of a like thickness 
of cast iron. 

To make walls more cellular, 
while retaining good bond, to 
thicken them without adding 
weight, is to gain strength be- 
cause we add base and warmth 
as we divide the material. 

The detail and description 
were prepared to show that a 
material, meeting at small cost 
the requirements of better 
house walls, is at hand in many 
localities. 

My original description as 
submitted to you is as follows : 

In designing houses one oc- |'iHu.fiiiii<f 
casionally has the good fortune 

to be not restricted as to finish, to be left free to choose 
between wall materials of moderate cost. Being so 
favored, after settling questions of strength to his sat- 
isfaction he will naturally select incombustible materials 
of good heat insulating qualities, if they may be had 
within the means at his command. 

The rapid increase in prices of structural lumber is 
adding greatly to the quest for cheap and good walls of 
masonry. This is in part accountable for the uncount- 
able variety of concrete building blocks flooding the 
markets here and there. 

But very few of these come within hailing distance of 
the requirements of a good wall, while, if decently made, 
they cannot in many localities compete in cost with hol- 
low terra cotta forms. Of these both hard and porous 
goods have their advocates for various purposes. 

In our town excellent fireproofing of the latter sort is 
made, the peculiar qualities of which so appealed to me, 
as suited for outer walls of houses, that I made selections 
from the floor and partition forms in use, and have for some 
time built with wall sections about as shown by sketch. 
The manufacturer was good enough to modify two of his 




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regular forms so as to make the vertical webs relatively 
thicker, but no special forms were required, hollow bricks 
being used about windows, for beam-filling, or running 
to any desired level not reached by the eight-inch courses. 
As applied, the outer plastering and "roughcast" 
have not failed in what was expected of them, nor do 
they show any etching by the elements. 

When in the late '80s or early '90s tests of hollow tile 
floor spans showed some of the advantages coming from 
padding the clay mixture with a considerable percentage 
of sawdust, etc., to be burnt out in the kilns, it is not 
likely that the superiority of these "porous" goods as 
heat-savers was taken into account. But the cellular 
structure of these goods, due to the process of manu- 
facture, doubtless brings them nearer to wood in heat- 
saving properties than any other available material in 
masonry. 

In addition to this cellular quality of the materials, it 
will be seen that the wall is so designed as to divide into 

four walls, separated by three 
spaces, except as the bonding 
webs of alternate tiles extend 
through. These occupy about 
one-eighth of the wall space 
the studs of the " balloon 
frame " fill a larger part, while 
heat need travel less than one- 
half as far to pass through the 
wood wall. 

Again, wall materials absorb 
heat roughly in proportion to 
their weight. This tile wall 
weighs about one-half as much 
as a brick wall of like thickness 
or as some of the better con- 
crete block walls. 

The horizontal arrangement 
of the spaces not only appeals 
to a builder as giving good 
bond, but it prevents the pecul- 
iar circulation of air currents 
in the vertical flues formed by 
setting the tiles on end, a move- 
ment often potent in loss of heat 
by convectivity. While hori- 
zontal setting relieves some of 
the tile material of the function 
it increases the weakest part, 
larger area than that of the 
vertical webs of the tiles. Of these, if we neglect the 
outer in the calculation, we find the inner three meeting 
all the requirements of building codes with more than 
half their strength to spare. 

Only workmen used to setting floor fireproofing are 
employed on these walls, they are so much more certain 
than brick-layers to fill end joints. Not that this seri- 
ously affects strength, but it is desirable to have the 
spaces well separated in the interest of economy of fuel. 
The designer may get several kinds of comfort from 
these plastered walls. He is less tempted to folly in or- 
nament and "features" than with other materials; he 
may be as free with measurements and proportions as 
with walls of common bricks, and he can see his way in 

cost. , 

A house now on my boards, with some forty-nve Hun- 
dred square feet of outer wall, will cost about thirty cents 
per foot for the tiling in the wall with the outer plastering 
and "roughcast." Equally plain "balloon frame " with 
"clapboard " siding and painting would cost some twenty 
cents per square foot ready for inside plastering. Insur- 
ance, repainting, etc., remain to be reckoned with, even 
if the designer have sufficient strength of character to cut 
out the frivolities to which the wood construction and 
finish are so apt to lead. 

Ooing more into detail, it will be noted that all special 



of vertical support, 
the mortar joint, to a 



io8 



THE BRICKBUILDEk 



forms have been avoided, only the large floor block R, 
8 in. by n in. by 18 in., and the partition block A, 8 in. 
by 4 in. by 18 in., being used, hollow bricks doing the 
rest. Openings wider than three feet six inches are 
usually spanned with the help of iron, which will of 
course be needed where unusual floor loads come over 
openings. 

When gas or electric lights are needed on these walls 
it is better to separate the bonding course and place pipe, 
and conduit as sketched than to channel the wall after 
laying. 

Coming to questions of strength, after giving the wall 
good thickness and exceptionally good bond, we find that 
a floor with joists as shown will have at least twenty-four 
square inches to the running foot of the bearing material, 
the joists having bearing surfaces much to be preferred 
to that furnished by the 
vertical construction. With 
rooms no more than twenty 
feet in width, two floors 
with the weight of the 
inner half of the wall will 
not load the material of the 
inner tile more than eighty 
pounds to the square inch 

— the roof weight going 
naturally to the outer side 
of the wall. 

Experiences with outer 
plastering on this material 
may be of value. Porous 
terra cotta in these parts is 
commonly held to be guilty 
of much " saltpetering " or 
efflorescing when plastered, 

— a charge possibly trace- 
able to extensive use of a 
certain clay deposit much 
given to efflorescing whether 
made into porous goods or 
bricks, — possibly to a belief 
that the burning of sawdust 
in the clay leaves more soluble matter in the porous goods 
than in bricks from the same clays. Without disputing 
this theory it may be said that a long experience has failed 
to find plastering on damp walls of any kind that escaped 
efflorescing when the walls dried ; while plastering on 
porous terra cotta walls, partitions or ceilings that were 
dry at the time has always been free from the trouble. 
In such cases the sprinkling of walls by the plasterer to 
secure his "suction " does not count. 

Every one suffers annoyance, and owners at times 
great distress, from the efflorescing of new walls in the 
direction in which they dry out. When this deposit is on 
face brick, say, it soon disappears, unless walls are 
allowed to be continually wet from want of proper cop- 
ings, cornices, drips, etc.. — that is another story. If, 
however, exterior cement plastering is to finish the walls, 
do not look with too much complacency for final uni- 
formity of color if the plastering is done on wet walls. 

The porous blocks of a house built some five years 
since, the walls being of about the sections shown, were 
much wet by rains before and during construction. The 
season being far spent, outer plastering had to be done 
shortly, so that much of the water of construction re- 




AW(x\Z PLAH5. N/ULIM6 B19CKVEtc 



mained in the wall and, as a matter of course, evaporated 
through the cement coating, carrying with it the inevi- 
table substances in solution to lodge at the surface. The 
cement of the plaster was a marl variety of medium dark 
color with a knack of retaining, when dry, more or less of 
the olive tint so common to mortars of Portland cement. 
Parts of the exterior were plastered on metal lathing with 
wood support, and here the work dried evenly with the 
olive gray color, seemingly as permanent as the color of 
a quarry stone ; but where plastered on the damp terra 
cotta blocks the peculiar color of the cement was changed 
unevenly to lighter grays, which, in turn, are permanent, 
not being removed by the atmosphere as is the common 
efflorescence of masonry walls. 

It so happened that on the south wall noticeably finer 
gravel had been used for parts of the "roughcast,' 1 

bringing manifest regret to 
the owner, learning which, 
the contractor, the wall be- 
ing by this time thoroughly 
dry, dashed on another coat 
of the proper texture. This 
last dried in all respects like 
the work on the metal laths, 
nor is any fault to be found 
with the adhesion or weath- 
ering of this second coat of 
" roughcast." 

In fact, both the work on 
the damp walls and that 
last mentioned appear to-day 
to be actually sound, show- 
ing no trace of yielding to the 
elements. But these walls 
where not protected by broad 
cornices have, in all cases, 
good copings, belt courses 
and sills, all made to drip free 
from the wall surfaces. 

Certain outlying terrace 
walls, however, were built 
with less care of " wire-cut " 
bricks, plastered sides and top, the intended copings 
being omitted. These have come to grief. Whether 
terra cotta blocks with no better treatment would have 
stood better is left to conjecture. 

Some of the liquid coatings now on the market of 
the thick asphaltic sort, to be applied on the outside of 
the blocks, would be added insurance against wind and 
wet — if one could be certain that such a film between block 
and plaster would not prevent the best adhesion of the 
two. As it is, a good coat of neat cement and fine 
gravel, applied "slap-dash," appears to make a much 
better outer skin than can be made with the trowel. 

In accounting for the low cost of these walls, it is to 
be remembered that but half as much clay is burned and 
hauled to the building as for a brick wall of like volume; 
that in laying one block B and two blocks A, the mason 
accomplishes as much as with thirty-five to forty bricks, 
using perhaps one-fourth the mortar, and that no special 
forms have to be prepared or laid. Appropriate forms 
of denser clay goods may in some places be found cheaper, 
but hardly as warm. 

Frederic G. Corser. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



109 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SCHOOL- 
HOUSE DEPARTMENT, CITY OF 
BOSTON. 

THE Fifth Annual Report of the Board of School- 
house Commissioners for the City of Boston fur- 
nishes some pretty serious food for reflection. The com- 
missioners call attention to the severe limitations placed 
upon the powers of the Board by the lack of permanent 
provision for new buildings. While nearly all of our 
large cities are providing every year, regularly and liber- 
ally, for new school buildings necessary to meet the grow- 
ing demands of the population and to replace the build- 
ings which are out of date, in Boston the 
funds for new buildings are available only 
as special loans are authorized by the leg- 
islature. There never has been a time 
when the Board could look ahead twelve 
months and know what funds would be 
at its disposal, and at present there is no 
provision for the future. The work of 
the Board is actually seriously hampered, 
as it is impossible for them to plan their 
work in advance. This is a condition 
greatly to be regretted, and the contrasts 
between the excellent accommodations of- 
fered by the newer buildings and the in- 
sufficiency of school accommodations in the 
more crowded districts is very disappoint- 
ing to those who appreciate the necessity 
for extending the public school system. 

The report gives a number of very ad- 
mirable general deductions as to the vari- 
ous types of plan which have been adopted 
for the different schools, comparing these 
types with what have been followed in 
New York, Chicago and St. Louis. The school com- 
mittee, which has the direction of the teaching work in 
the schools, as distinct from the school commission, has 

obliterated a 
somewhat imag- 
inary line be- 
tween primary 
and grammar 
children, and this 
action will affect 
the work of the 
Board, especially 
as it tends in the 
direction of put- 
ting a larger 
number of chil- 
dren into the el- 
ementary schools 
of low grade and 

DETAIL BY WIDMANN, WALSH & BOISSELER, fe 

architects. reducing the 

Winkle Terra Cotta Co., Makers. numberof grades 











DETAIL BY ATI. 
COTTA 




PANEL, TREE DESIGN, REPEATING. IN COLORED MAT GLAZE. 
Made by The Rookwood Pottery Co. 

that are in the central district schools where the children 
have the additional advantages of equipment for manual 
training and cooking, and of an assembly hall. It is 
expected that the growth in the future will be along the 
lines of a large number of medium size schools of from 
ten to twenty rooms rather than in the direction of from 
thirty rooms to over. This is a sharp contrast to the 
attempts which have been made in New York to relieve 
congestion and reduce ground expenses by carrying 
schoolhouses up several stories. Most of 
the Boston schoolhouses are three stories 
and under in height. 

All buildings erected by the Board are 
now required to be of fireproof construc- 
tion throughout. The cost is limited by 
allowing from 30,000 to 35,000 cubic feet 
per classroom for the lower elementary 
schools, and allowing a sliding scale of 
cubic feet per classroom for the higher 
elementary schools, the cost per cubic foot 
averaging about twenty-two cents. For 
high schools the allowance runs from 66,- 
000 to 82,000 cubic feet per class of forty, 
and the cost averages about twenty-four 
cents per cubic foot. The Board notes 
that soft foundations requiring tiling, 
waterproofing, reinforced concrete, or any 
other unusual expense below grade will 
add in the neighborhood of two cents per 
cubic foot to the building. 

The appendix of the report contains a 
very admirable description of the typical 
school buildings in New York, Chicago and St. Louis 
which is fully illustrated. There is also a very interest- 
ing report on technical and industrial education in Eng- 
land, and the whole report is fully illustrated with plans 
and photographs of work executed during the past year. 



ANTIC TFHRA 
CO. 



THE FRESCOES OF THE CONGRESSIONAL 
LIBRARY. 

THE mural decorations of the Congressional Library, 
Washington, constitute one of the most interesting 
examples of interior work which this country possesses, 
and it is therefore a source of great disappointment to 
find that some of these beautiful paintings seem to be 
slowly disappearing. Anyone who has visited the Library 
of late years must have noticed the ceiling work in the 
north corridor of the ground floor. These decorations 
were painted by Edward Simmons and are among the 
most interesting in the building. Some of the small 
ceiling pieces have faded out so they can hardly be deter- 
mined, and the tones of all the paintings are more or less 



I IO 



THE BR ICK BU ILDHR 




UETAII 



BRANCH OF COMMERCIAL TRUST AND SAVINGS BANK, NEW 

ORLEANS. 

Frank 1". Gravely Co., Architects. 

Built of White Terra Cotta. Made by Northwestern Terra Cotta Co. 

discolored and unpleasant. The corresponding paintings 
in the south corridor also have suffered quite perceptibly 
as well as the ceiling paintings in the rotunda of the print 
room in the second floor. There 
is no means of knowing just 
what should cause this deterio- 
ration. The paintings are all, 
we believe, upon canvas, 
mounted with white lead upon 
the plaster work, and it would 
seem as if anything in the na- 
ture of the plastering itself 
would hardly be able to attack, 
through the white lead mount- 
ing, the canvas and the paint 
itself. It will be an artistic 

calamity for the country if these magnificent paintings are 
to be ruined. We are very apt to think of oil paintings as 
being permanent to the last degree, but as a matter of 
fact it is to be remembered that the process of mixing 
colors with oil to form a pigment dates only from the 
time of the Renaissance, and it is by no means certain 
how long oil paintings will last on the walls. On the 
whole, it is rather doubtful if two generations hence 
many of our mural decorations will be in place, if we may 
judge by what is happening in Washington. Thus far 
there has been no form of mural decorations devised 
which possesses anything like the permanence of glass 
mosaic or encaustic tile. The mosaics of St. Mark's and 
of St. Sophia have stood now for upwards of fourteen 
hundred years with apparently not a particle of loss in 
intensity or in tone. The glazed terra cottas from Baby- 
lon and the Euphrates Valley have lasted even longer, 
some of them dating back nearly three thousand years. 




structures. This tendency to turn the Murray Hill and 
Tenderloin sections into a district of offices is called, by 
some real estate men, " the march of the skyscrapers." 

Until a very short time ago a business concern that 
needed a suite of general offices rarely thought of going 
north of City Hall Park in search of the proper place. 
It is different now. The Metropolitan Life Insurance 
Company has one of the largest office buildings in the 
world in Twenty-Third Street; at Fifth Avenue and 
Twenty-Sixth Street the Brunswick Building has been 
opened to tenants, and there are many other office struc- 
tures recently finished, or about to be. 

Latest, and perhaps the most distinctive, is the Mono- 
lith, in Twenty-Fourth Street. As its name indicates, it 
is built of concrete. It is only about thirty yards from 
the corner where, it is said, more people pass in a day 
than anywhere else in the world, — the corner where 
Broadway and Sixth Avenue and Thirty-Fourth Street 
come together. The Waldorf-Astoria Hotel is in the 
same block, and the principal shops and theaters are 
almost within a stone's throw. 

The way in which the floors and partitions of this 
concrete building are constructed of hollow terra cotta 
blocks insures absolute safety from fire. The Monolith 
is an illustration of the theory upon which nearly all 
engineers are now agreed that concrete is a structural 
material which, like steel, has to have supplementary 

protection in the way of fire- 
proofing. This fact was es- 
tablished by the San Francisco 
fire. 



AX UNBURNABLE CITY 

"S 



SOUTH AMBOY TERRA COTTA CO. 



"THE MARCH OF THE SKYSCRAPER." 

S( ) crowded with tall buildings has the lower end of 
Manhattan Island become that the uptown district is 
beginning to be dotted with great steel and stone office 



OME day we shall see an 
unburnable city," said a 
prominent fire insurance under- 
writer of New York, comment- 
ing upon the low rate upon 
lofty office buildings. 

This authority mentioned a 
building in the Wall Street district which carries the 
lowest rate possible under the schedules of the New 
York Fire Insurance Exchange. It is the Caledonian, 
in Pine .Street, and its net rate is only five cents per 
hundred dollars. The building has a cast iron frame, 
the members of which are protected by porous terra cotta 
and brick. It is 
twelve stories 
high. 

A ten-story 
building in Broad 
Street, not far 
from the New 
York Stock Ex- 
change, has to pay 
twice as much, or 
a net rate of ten 
cents per hundred 
dollars, though it 
is two stories 
lower than the 
Caledonian. Its M „ . . ..^ , _ , _ 

New York Architectural terra Cotta Co., 
metal frame is not Makers. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



1 1 1 



protected by either 
terra cotta or brick, 
and that causes the 
difference in the 
rate. An official 
of the Fire Insur- 
ance Exchange 



says: 

" I should esti- 
mate that fireproof 
protection, that is 
terra cotta or brick, 
means a difference 
of fully twenty-five 
per cent in the net 
rate of insurance 
on steel and iron 
buildings. Five 
cents is the lowest 
rate allowed in New 
York. More and 
more modern build- 
ings put up nowa- 
days approach that 
minimum. Unquestionably this city is becoming safer 
from fire every day through the erection of buildings of 
protected iron and steel." 

Another example of a very low rate due to modern 
fireproofing methods is the Trinity Building, No. in 
Broadway. Its great height, twenty-one stories, which 
would ordinarily mean very costly insurance, is counter- 
balanced by the character of construction, and the rate 
is only twelve cents per hundred dollars. Architects and 
engineers are considering as never before the isolation 
of each floor from the others, the limiting of areas, the 
utmost possible elimination of well holes, and the enclos- 
ing of stairways. 




Chicago : Do- 



mestic Engi- 
n e e r i n g . 
!>2-oo. 



Price, 



DETAIL BY ATLANTIC TERKA COTTA CO. 



NEW BOOK, 

Sanitation in the Modern Home. 




DETAIL BY CONKLING-ARMSTRONG 
COTTA CO. 



A suggestive guide 
to the architect 
and house own- 
er in designing 
and building a 
residence pro- 
viding a health- 
ful, comfortable 
and convenient 
home. Edited 
by John K. Al- 
len, Member 
American So- 
ciety Inspectors 
of Plumbing 
and Sanitary 
Engineers, As- 
sociate Member 
American Soci- 
ety Heating and 
Ventilating En- 
gineers, Editor 
of " Domestic 
Engineering." 




DETAIL BY AMERICAN TERRA COTTA CO. 
Louis Sullivan, Architect. 



IN GENERAL. 

Lyman A. 
Ford, Lewis 
Stewart and Les- 
lie Allen Oliver 
announce that 
they have formed 
a co-partnership 
for the practice 
of architecture 
under the firm 
name of Ford, 
Stewart & Oliver, 
with offices at 37 
West 31st Street, 
New York. 

G. A. Wright, 
George A. Rush- 
forth and B. J. S. 
Cahill, architects, 

San Francisco, have removed their offices to 571 Cali- 
fornia Street. 

Kable & Kable, architects and engineers, have opened 
an office in the Buchanan Building, Portland, Oregon. 
Manufacturers' catalogues and samples desired. 

George Albre'e Freeman and Francis George Hassel- 
man, architects, announce the removal of their offices 
from 566 Fifth Avenue to the new Castles Building, 
39-41 West 38th Street, New York. 

The students of the School of Architecture of Columbia 
University have presented to the University a portrait 
of Prof. A. D. F. Hamlin, the work of J. Redding Kelly. 

The Architectural Bowling League, composed of 
draughtsm e n 
from nine of the 
leading archi- 
tectural firms 
of New York, 
held their first 
annual dinner 
on June 4, at 
the Hotel St. 
Denis. The first 
prize, won in 
the contests of 
the past season, 
was awarded to 
the team repre- 
senting the of- 
fice of Carrere 
& Hastings. 

At this din- 
ner a sugges- 
tion was made 
that the detail by Atlantic terra cotta co. 




I 12 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



draughtsmen of New York organize a club for social 
and professional purposes. The suggestion was received 
wich great favor. A Draughtsman's Club in New York 
is something which has long been needed, and it is sure 
to be a great success in all respects from the very 
beginning. 

The terra cotta used in the Nottingham Apartments, 
Snelling & Potter, architects, illustrated in this issue, 
was furnished by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

The Hartford Faience Company, New York office 
1 123 Broadway, have issued a very attractive little pam- 
phlet, which deals with Embellishments for Concrete 
Buildings. The embellishments suggested are faience 
tiles, and among them replicas of the work by the Delia 
Robbias. 



^ *t£P£ 




DETAIL BV GEORGE K. PELHAM, ARCHITECT. 
New Jersey Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

Carter, Black & Ayers, of New York, will supply 
front brick for the following new buildings: forty-story 
Singer Building, New York, Ernest Flagg architect; new 
building for the Pathological Department and Male 
Dormitory, new Bellevue Hospital, New York, McKim, 
Mead & White, architects; Training School for Women 
Nurses at new Bellevue Hospital, Parish & Schroeder, 
architects. "Harvard" brick will be used in the ex- 
teriors of these buildings, while very many light bricks 
will be used in the interiors. 

Textor & Aftel, architects, have opened an office in 
the Spitzer Building, Toledo, Ohio, and will be glad to 
receive manufacturers' catalogues. 

The architectural terra cotta for the following new 
buildings will be supplied by the South Amboy Terra 
Cotta Company : The MacMellen Building, 64 Fifth 



14 * MBflpMTTSg y ■■■ 




1 i: ^;>. J& 


•^v* ^^ 


^^^^*ik?v-rfT»2^^^^ ^^^^/ l '™H 




DETAIL BY THE ATLANTIC TERRA COTTA CO. 



BRANCH OF COMMERCIAL GER.MANIA TRUST AND SAVINGS 
BANK, NEW ORLEANS. 

Kathbune E. DeBuys, Architect. Roofed with Ludowici- 
Celadon Tile. 



Avenue, New York, C. H. Cladwell, architect; Bank 
Building, Elizabeth, N. J., Oakley & Son, architects; 
Parish House, New York City, Hoppin, Koen & Hunt- 
ington, architects; a residence at Lenox, Mass., by the 
same architects; an office building for the Fruit Auction 
Company of New York City, Prank Cornell, architect. 

Hi: ADOUARTERS OF THE ARCHITECTURAL 
LEAGUE OF AMERICA. 

AT the Executive Board meeting of the Architectural 
League of America, held in Toronto on June 19, the 
permanent headquarters of the League were established 
at 729 Fifteenth Street, N. W., Washington, D. C, and 
II. S. McAllister, the ex-Secretary of the Washington 
Architectural Club and now Vice-President of the same, 
was appointed permanent Secretary of the League. The 
Executive wishes to announce that all communications 
with the League may henceforth be directed to Mr. 
McAllister at the above address. 

The George Washington University 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 
V1V1SION OF ARCHITECTURE 

< Mlers a four-year technical course leading to the degree of Bachelor of 
Science in Architecture, and a three year special course for architectural 
draughtsmen. I''or catalogues, application blanks and further informa- 
tion, address The Registrar. 

SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

The Four Year Course. Full professional training with an option in Architectural 
rioeering leading to the degree of P.. S. in Architecture. Advanced standing 
i> uttered to college graduates or the two degrees of A . H. and B. S. in Architecture 
can be taken in ->i\ 

The Graduate Year affords Opportunity tor advanced work in design and other sub- 
id ta of the course leading to the degree uf M . S. in Architecture- 

The Two Year .Special Course. For qualified draughtsmen. < > if ers advanced technical 
training with a Certificate of Proficiency. 

For Hull Information address Dr. \, H. Pen ni man, Dean. College Hall, University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

A Limited Number of the illustrated " Review '* of the School of Architecture, for 
1907] can be supplied to those who will enclose -4 cents in stamps with their 
applications. Address for the " Review," I'rofessor Warren P. Laird. College 
Hall, as above 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

The Graduate School of Applied Science 
and The Lawrence Scientific School 

offer graduate and undergraduate courses in Civil, Mechanical, Electrical, Mining and 
Metallurgical Engineering, Architecture, Landscape Architecture, Forestry, Physics, 
Chemistry, Biology and Geology. 

For further information, address W. C. SAP.INE, 14 University Hall, Cambridge, Mass 



THE BRICKBUILDKR. 

VOL. 16. NO. 6. PLATE 81. 




ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, McLEAN ASYLUM, WAVERLEY, MASS. 

SHEPLEY, RUTAN & COOLIDGE, ARCHITECTS. 




DORMITORY BUILDING, McLEAN ASYLUM, WAVERLEY MASS. 
Phillip B. Howard, architect 



THE BRICKBUILD E R. 

VOL. 16. NO. 6. PLATE 82. 



L J 



SECOND TLOOK PLAN 







r 




n 



M 



ijymi: 



THIRD FLOOR PLAN 




-T 



JITTIXG W*\ 



.1 

I 



■Ik U B 

"EEC! 



-fCCO/ND PLOR PLAN 




FIR-fT FL^oR PLAN 



PLANS, ADMINISTRATION BUIL 



, DORMITORY BUILDING. 



MCLEAN ASYLUM, WAVERLEY, MASS. 

SHEPLEY, RyTAN & COOLIDGE, ARCHITECTS. 



Mclean asylum, waverley, mass. 

Phillip B. Howard, Architect. 



T H E BRICK B UILDER 

VOL. 16, NO. 6. PLATE 83. 




DORMITORY BUILDING (PROCTOR HOUSE), McLEAN ASYLUM. WAVERLEY, MASS. 

Shaw & hunnewell. architects. 




DORMITORY BUILDING (BELKNAP HOUSE), McLEAN ASYLUM, 
WAVERLEY, MASS. 

SHEPLEY, RUTAN & COOLIDGE, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 6. PLATE 84. 








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X 

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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 6. PLATE 85. 





DORMITORY BUILDING (BOWDITCH HOUSL\ McLEAN ASYLUM, WAVERLEY, MASS. 

Shaw & Hunnewell, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 6. PLATE 86. 



| , ffl - 



I. 




OPERATING! ^3- I 

fTrrmi-' m,, I 



Ft — rr i — I r 

COLE JT0RA5E , I 



•BAJEMErAtT-PLAyN 




AMUSEMENT HALL AND KITCHEN BUILDING, McLEA.N ASYLUM, WAVERLEY, MASS. 

SHEPLEY. RUTAN & COOLIDGE, ARCHITECTS. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 6. PLATE 87. 




run 



NURSES' HOME FOR WOMEN, INSANE HOSPITAL, MEDFIELD, MASS. 

Park & Kendall, Architects. 




FIR.JT FLOOR.- PLAN- 

NURSES' HOME FOR MEN. INSANE HOSPITAL, MEDFIELD, MASS. 

Park & Kendall, Architects. 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 6. PLATE 90. 




~t*JT#- 







THE CLUE HOUSE, WAR COLLEGE AND ENGINEER POST, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



VOL. 16. NO. 6. 



PLATE 91. 





OFFICERS' HOUSES, WAR COLLEGE AND ENGINEER POST. WASHINGTON. D. C. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 6. PLATE 92. 








WAREHOUSE. 

WAR COLLEGE AND ENGINEER POST, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

VOL. 16. NO. 6. 



PLATE 93. 




3C/M-E OF FEET 



Last Lnd Ulelvation 



WAR COLLEGE, WAR COLLEGE AND ENGINEER POST, WASHINGTON. D. C 

McKim, Mead & White, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 6. PLATE 94. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

OFFICERS' HOUSES 




:;• o 





. u 

°- o 

LU 

s PQ 

< 3 

to >-l 

o 



PLANS. WAR COLLEGE GROUP, WAR COLLEGE AND ENGINEER POST, WASHINGTON, D. C 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

VOL. 16, NO. 6. 



\ . 

PLATE 95. 




--'-* « ■ - 



— . — : 




BUILDING FOR DISTURBED MALES, INSANE HOSPITAL, MEDFIELD, MASS. 

SHEPLEY, RUTAN & COOLIDGE, ARCHITECTS. 




NURSES' HOME FOR WOMEN, INSANE HOSPITAL, MEDFIELD, MASS. 

Park & Kendall, Architects. 




NURSES' HOME 



VI EN. INSANE HOSPITAL, MEDFIELD, MASS. 
Park & Kendall, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILD E R . 

VOL. 16, NO. 6. p LATE 96 




TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 





FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

(THE ARCHITECTS OF THE BUILDING HAVE THEIR OFFICFS 

ON THE FIRST FLOOR). 



THE NOTTINGHAM 



APARTMENTS, KAST 30TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY 

SNELLING & POTTCN, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVI 



JULY 1907 



Number 7 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 
85 Water Street ....... Boston, Massachusetts 



Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



Copyright, 1907, by Rogers & Manson 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and Canada . $5-°° P er y ear 

Single numbers 5° «nts 

To countries in the Postal Union * 6 -°° P er y ear 

Subscriptions payable in advance 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



Agencies — Clay Products . . . . ■ • • • *' 

Architectural Faience . . . . ■ • • • • " 

" Ter.a Cotta II and III 

Brick m 



Brick Enameled Ill and IV 

Clay Chemicals . . . . . . • • • ■ IV 

Fireproofing ......... IV 

Roofing Tile ........ IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



CONTENTS 



From Work by 



FIELD & MEDARY; R. C. HEATH; J. LOVELL LITTLE, Jr.; SUNDERLAND BROS. 

HORACE TRUMBAUER; WHITFIELD & KING. 

LETTERPRESS 



ENTRANCE FRONT, BLICKLING HALL. NORFOLK, ENGLAND Frontispiece 

A FINAL REPORT ON THE SAN FRANCISCO FIRE "3 

ENGLISH BRICKWORK DETAILS 

ARRANGEMENT OF PHOTOGRAPHS, AND MAGAZINE PLATES '2' 

CERAMIC TILES AND THEIR USE C - H " mar ' i Walker 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 



130 




ENTRANCE FRONT, BLICKLING HALL, NORFOLK, ENGLAND. 




THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOL 16 NO 7 DEVOTEDTOTHE ' 1NTERE3TJ ' OF ' ARCHIT ^^ 1111 Y 1907 




ft !<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<^<<<<<<«>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>^y^^>>>>>>>>T>TO& 



T. 



J" 




A Final Report on the San 
Francisco Fire. 

FINAL reports on the San Francisco disaster seem to 
be something like Patti's farewells, but the latest 
which has come out is so important in its conclusions, 
and emanates from such recognized authorities, that it is 
deserving of more than passing notice. It takes the 
form of combined reports just submitted to the United 
States Geological Survey by Professor Frank Soule, Dean 
of the College of Civil Engineerng in the University of 
California; Captain John Stephen Sewell, Engineer 
Corps, U. S. A. ; and Richard L. Humphrey, expert in 
charge of the Structural Materials Division of the 
Technologic Branch of the Geological Survey, and Sec- 
retary of the National Advisory Board on Fuels and 
Structural Materials. 

These experts studied the condition of the buildings 
in San Francisco following the earthquake of April 18, 
1906, and the fire which ensued. Their conclusions, 
from which we quote fully, do not count as news, for they 
are in many respects exactly what would have been 
anticipated; and, indeed, one striking fact about the 
lessons of the San Francisco fire is that they could nearly 
all have been safely predicted before the earthquake and 
fire took place. In other words, constructors and archi- 
tects have for years known perfectly well how to thor- 
oughly fireproof a building. There was no lack of good 
knowledge or good intent, it was chiefly a question of 
striking an average between the desired returns on 
investment and the bare necessity which compelled 
certain recognition of fireproofing expedients. Captain 
Sewell claims that commercial standards of fireproofing 
are dangerously inadequate, and. that the Boston and the 
San Francisco fires, as well as many others fires and fire 
tests, have proven conclusively that commercial methods 
of fireproofing are inadequate to stand any real tests. 
None of these experts for a moment say that it is impos- 
sible to give absolute protection; they each recognize 
that that protection seldom is given, notwithstanding 
that architects, engineers and constructors know per- 
fectly well what to do. 

" The damage inflicted upon San Francisco from the 
direct and immediate effect of the earthquake was rela- 
tively small, being estimated at from three to ten per cent 
only of the total loss; but the subsequent and indirect 
effect was to paralyze the water supply and its distribut- 
ing system, start a great conflagration, render impossible 
its extinguishment with the means at hand, cause the 
death of at least 500 human beings, burn approximately 



$500,000,000 worth of property, render houseless, home- 
less and miserable 200,000 people, and inflict remoter 
damages to business, commerce and labor, only to be 
estimated in the future. When we can see plainly, as 
we may, looking backward, that nearly all of this destruc- 
tion and suffering might have been prevented by 
wise foresight and provision, we feel that we must 
send a warning to all the cities of the world. Any 
city that disregards this warning will be guilty of a 
great crime." 

In the face of such facts, and no one questions them, 
there must be a pretty strong motive behind such delib- 
erate disregard of the plain, straightforward lessons which 
every great fire in the last twenty-five years has taught 
us. It is a question of dollars and cents purely and 
simply, complicated, however, with the fact that insur- 
ance companies are so willing to underwrite almost any 
kind of risks. If an investor is told that for a certain 
outlay his building can be made absolutely fireproof, 
even against a conflagration, but that in order to secure 
such results his finished columns must be very large, his 
windows must be glazed with double wire glass, and 
most of them have protected shutters; that his building 
must be protected throughout with ample sprinklers and 
hose systems; that all his vertical openings must be 
stopped at each story or placed in continuous vertical. 
wells, cut off from the rest of the building by fireproof 
enclosures, and that all these special precautions, which 
give him absolute security, will make his building less 
likely to rent than his neighbor's, who disregards all 
these special precautions, and will give him a return on 
his capital of only about two and three-quarter per cent, 
where his neighbor, who builds according to so-called 
"commercial" methods of fireproofing, will make four to 
four and one-half per cent, while paying really but little 
more insurance than is assessed upon the better building, 
under such circumstances it is small wonder that we have 
conflagration after conflagration, and that our so-called 
fireproof buildings seldom stand tests. It is really a 
question whether we can afford to use the extreme pre- 
caution. We must strike a mean between what is the 
very best, considered from the fireproofing standpoint, 
and the construction which will give the maximum 
accommodation to the tenant, the greatest facility for 
business, with the barest minimum of fire protection, and 
then take our chances on a conflagration. In fact, it is 
to be doubted whether it is really worth while to con- 
struct our buildings for such disasters as the San Fran- 
cisco or the Baltimore fire. Rather should we limit our 
fireproofing to protection against the local disasters 
which affect only a few buildings at a time, and against 



ii4 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



which the ordinary "commercial methods" have again 
and again proven to be sufficient. We cannot build our 
commercial buildings like dungeons nor fill our first floor 
space with huge encased columns, as Professor Soule 
would recommend, and the striking lesson of the San 
Francisco and the Baltimore fires seems to us to be, not 
that so many of our fireproof buildings go down in a 
conflagration, but that under modern conditions of busi- 
ness and traffic we cannot afford to construct a building 
to stand any more than a local fire. Of course these were 
not the conclusions reached by the commission making 
the report which we are considering. They were looking 
at it with the abstract idea of absolute resistance and 
they conceived some definite requirements, as follows: 

" (a) Roofs, roof appurtenances and skylights should 
be given ample protection against fires from without. 
(b) A great excess of fire hose and apparatus beyond 
ordinary needs should be available, (c) A strong bond 
for fireproofing tiling, etc., both for girder and column 
protection, is essential, (d) Protection for front windows, 
as well as for side and rear ones, is of vital importance. 
[e) Good protection for steel frames and steel roof trusses 
in attics or the exposed or unusual places should be pro- 
vided. (/) Liberal use should be made of fire retardent 
in windows and door transoms, {g) Wise and liberal use 
of concrete and reinforced concrete for girder and column 
fireproofing has proved its saving quality. (//) Interior 
fire protection and prevention by wells, pumps, sprin- 
klers and water tanks vastly lessen fire-risk." 

The report also takes up the very delicate question of 
the relative merits of terra cotta and concrete. 

"The results at Baltimore and San Francisco did not, 
by any means, indicate that either hollow tile or concrete 
is altogether a failure or altogether a success. Both fires 
indicated very clearly that commercial methods of apply- 
ing both materials are inadequate ; both also indicated 
very clearly that successful results can be attained with 
both materials. 

Captain Sewell says: "A conflagration never yields 
comparative results, but from such results as are avail- 
able, I think there is no question that the best fire-resist- 
ing material available at the present time is the right 
kind of burned clay. By the right kind of burned clay 
is meant a good, tough, refractory clay, almost as refrac- 
tory as fire clay, made into proper shapes and properly 
burned. Some commercial hollow tile work is made of 
good material, but, as a rule, that is the only good thing 
that can be said about it. As for concrete, there can be 
no question that good clinker concrete, made of well- 
burned clinkers, Portland cement and sand is a very effi- 
cient fire-resisting material. It is better than anything 
else except the better types of burned clay products, but 
the form in which cinder concrete is commercially ap- 
plied is, on the whole, no better than the flimsy hollow 
tile work with which it competes; in fact, it is not cer- 
tain that it may not be worse. 

" If a hollow tile floor, for instance, loses its lower 
webs, the damage is very apparent, yet in the majority 
of cases, the floor remains true and capable of carrying 
considerable loads. Very often a cinder concrete floor 
which is even more seriously damaged remains true, for 
the reason that the fire which damaged it also removed 
its superimposed load before the damage was fully 



accomplished. This property of concrete, of maintaining 
a good face in spite of very real and very serious damage, 
is likely to lead the layman into very dangerous conclu- 
sions. Consequently, this property of concrete construc- 
tion may lead to equally dangerous practice. Inasmuch 
as concrete is inevitably damaged, to a greater or less 
extent, by the application of a high temperature, it would 
seem that, in all cases where reinforced concrete floor 
construction is used, a furred ceiling below it should be 
absolutely required." 

Lest it should be thought that San Francisco was 
specially faulty in its construction, Mr. Humphrey makes 
some pertinent recommendations: 

"The lessons taught by the great calamities such as 
have befallen San Francisco, Baltimore and other cities 
are not regarded. It is quite probable that the new San 
Francisco will, to a large extent, be a duplicate of the 
former city in previous defects of construction. The de- 
fects of construction which are so strongly condemned by 
reason of their failure are no worse than those generally 
practiced throughout the United States. The same de- 
fects are common, and it is evident that the same results 
would follow an earthquake of equal intensity in another 
part of the country." 

He, at the same time, however, recognizes what the 
local conditions led to. "The causes of the failures in 
San Francisco may be summarized as follows: First, dis- 
honest design and construction, especially as regards 
municipal, county and state institutions. Second, an ef- 
fort on the part of those qualified to design, and advise 
on building construction to meet the owners' demands 
and erect structures for the least possible cost, which 
tends to a departure from the principals of correct design; 
the result is a structure that will carry ordinary loads, 
but that fails when subjected to unusual conditions." 

We cannot, however, refrain from repeating that all 
our conflagrations have shown the inability of a building 
which was constructed in what is classed as the approved 
commercial manner to withstand a severe conflagration 
unless the building were so heavily protected that it be- 
came unsuitable for its commercial purpose. There is 
another point, too, which is emphasized in every fire. If 
all our buildings were fireproofed, even only enough to re- 
sist a relatively slight local fire, a big conflagration would 
be almost an impossibility. The danger and the menace 
to our fireproof constructions arise from the cheaper work 
which constitutes the bulk of the buildings in nearly all 
the down-town portions of our large cities. We surely 
cannot afford to build our isolated fireproof structures to 
bear all the constructive sins of the second and third 
class work which surrounds them, and we are not likely 
to have a fireproof city until second and third class 
buildings are not allowed, and something more nearly ap- 
proaching a general fire-resisting construction is adopted 
everywhere. " The importance and value of real protec- 
tion will be appreciated when it is stated that a third- 
class building with a complete fire prevention plant in the 
nature of fire doors, wire glass partitions, sprinklers, etc., 
is insured for less than a first-class building not so 
equipped." In other words, fireproof construction, so- 
called, has been shown again and again to be efficient, 
provided isolated examples are not called upon to bear 
the burden of the constructive sins of a whole city. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



"5 



English Brickwork Detail. 

BRICKWORK detail is a refinement which appeals par- 
ticularly to the cultured eye of the architect, and it 
is surprising that not more of it is seen on the average 
house of to-day, especially as such embellishment can be 
carried out at comparatively small cost; for example, in 
the suburban villa it would be far preferable if some de- 
sign in brickwork, corbelled out, were adopted in place of 
the usual stone capitals, with their coarse carvings, on 
either side of the entrance porch. It requires, however, 
considerable fecundity of invention to design fresh brick- 
work detail, and that, perhaps, is one of the reasons 

why it is not more extensively 
introduced. The numerous ex- 
amples of Northern Italy par- 
ticularly show the possibilities 
of most beautiful treatment ; 
the Netherlands, too, are equally 
suggestive. There is first the 
variation of surface obtainable 
by the use of bricks of differing 
color, forming a wall of diversi- 
fied effect, instead of one of 
mechanical sameness ; there is 
also surface pattern, or diaper, 
as exemplified in many of the 
old buildings at Cambridge — 
on John's College and Jesus Col- 
lege especially. Then there are 
cornices and strings, herring- 
bone patterns, copings with 
bricks laid diagonally, and a 
multitude of other treatments 
possible with brickwork. A good 
deal of such work is to be seen 
on old English buildings, and the 
accompanying illustrations are 
suggestive of the possibilities. 
In tracing the early history 
of brickwork in England, it will be found that the use of 
it was almost exclusively confined to the eastern, midland 
and southern counties. It was to the eastern counties — 
Norfolk and Suffolk — that the Flemings came, bringing 
with them men skilled in the use of brick; indeed, 
Reginald Blomfield points out, in his history of the 
Renaissance in England, the 
facts that it was in Norfolk 
and Suffolk that brickwork 
was first used again since the 
Roman occupation ; that these 
were the counties which re- 
ceived the earliest Flemish 
settlements ; and that the dates 
of these settlements and of 
the reintroduction of brick- 
work almost coincide make it 
probable that we owe the re- 
vived use of brickwork to the 
Flemish immigrants, and that, 
at first, the bricks themselves 
were imported from the 
Netherlands. The earliest in- 




GATE PIER. 
Inigo Jones, Architect. 




CHIMNEYS, HAMPTON COUKT. 




CORNICE AND WALL OF CREMATORIUM. 
Ernest George & Yeates, Architects. 



stance of the use of 
brickwork in England 
since the Roman occu 
pation is said to be 
Little Wenham Hall, in 
Suffolk, supposed to 
have been built about 
1260. Theraf ter its use 
became more, and more 
extended, and by the 
middle of the sixteenth 
century, brickwork was 
fairly established in 
England. Throughout 
the reign of Henry VIII 
brickwork was freely 
employed, not only for 
plain building, but for 
ornamental work. 
Molded panels, tracery 
and cusping were ex- 
ecuted in brickwork and 
terra cotta; but from 
the middle of the six- 
teenth to the middle of 
the seventeenth cen- 
tury its use for orna- 
mental purposes ap- 
pears to have been 

practically abandoned. It does not seem to have 
occurred to English builders to employ it for molded 
strings, pilasters, cornices and other details till the 
middle of the seventeenth century. About that time 
rubbed brickwork with very fine joints came into vogue. 
Wren introduced this phase in the early part of the reign 
of Charles II, and he appears to have been much disposed 
towards such work. 

Associated with the modern revival are such names 
as Norman Shaw and Philip Webb, Nesfield and Butter- 
field. It was those men who rejuvenated English domes- 
tic architecture and broke down the ideas about brick 
being an inferior material, so that to-day we see it used 
extensively for all classes of buildings. The late J. F. 
Bentley was a great builder in brick, and there is, per- 
haps, no architect of modern times who has displayed a 
greater ability in the design of brickwork detail, as wit- 
ness Westminster Cathedral 
(the bricks throughout this 
great building are thinner 
than the usual type, being two 
inches instead of three 
inches): the herring-bone pat- 
tern would seem to have been 
a favorite of his, it having 
been largely adopted on West- 
minster Cathedral. 

Another piece of good 
modem brickwork detail is 
that shown on the school at 
Birmingham by Buckland & 
Haywood Farmer. The wall, 
it will be noted, is crowned 
by a very ingeniously-de- 



n6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




LOGGIA AND BALCONY. 
K. Weir Schultz, Architect. 



signed coping in special-made 
brick, and the whole design is 
eloquent of the same freshness 
of treatment, the lead down 
pipes, with their modeled heads, 
completing a scheme of much 
interest. 

Ernest George has been a 
great designer in brick. For 
inspiration he has drawn on 
Continental work. A recent ex- 
ample of his is the crematorium 
in North London. The wall 
surface is treated with a series 
of recessed panels with small 
arches turned over them at the 
top in brick and tile, above 
which is a cornice very cleverly 
designed and most refined in 
effect. 

Many other architects who 
have a happy facility in their 
use of brickwork might be cited; 
for instance, Mr. Lutyens and 
H. Percy Adams, works by both 
of whom have been given in 

former issues of The Brickbuii.uer. Mr. Schultz, too, 
is a fertile designer in brick (two photographs of detail 
of a house at Swaffham, in Suffolk, are here given as 
illustrations of his work), while Ernest Newton and 
others of the same school will be remembered in the 
same connection, though they do not especially concern 
themselves with brickwork detailing, relying chiefly for 
their effect on the main design and walling, as in 
Georgian work. 

Perhaps the most striking uses of brickwork are to 
be found in the chimneys that adorn many of the old 
mansions, and many of the new ones, too. They are the 
least appreciated and the most characteristic features of 
modern houses; in fact, they may be taken as a very 
good gauge of the whole design, for if the chimneys are 
well proportioned one may be fairly certain that the rest 
of the work is of equal merit, and by contra, a badly 




CARVED BRICK GABLE. 



designed chimney is the mark of an inefficient architect. 
The public has no idea that such is the case, regarding 
chimney stacks as things that have to be, just as drains 
have to be, but calling for no particular notice. The 
reason for this is not far to seek. The majority of chim- 
neys are feeble efforts architecturally, and more often 
than not in towns the owner of the property quickly 
crowns them with gaunt "tallboys," or zinc pots to in- 
duce more draught in the flue; these hideous zinc pots 
being often extended into pipes and carried, four or five 
abreast, right up the face of adjoining property in order 
to secure a sufficient draught. It may be that the archi- 
tect was to blame in the first instance for not having 
done his work properly, making his chimneys too stunted, 
because there appears to be just as much uncertainty in 
regard to this matter as there is in regard to acoustics; 
on the other hand, the builder or the building owner fre- 
quently has a mania for these pots, and introduces them 
on every occasion, as the easiest and cheapest means of 
improving a defect, quite irrespective^ of their unsightli- 
ness. The skyline of a building is a most difficult mat- 
ter for the architect's consideration, and chimneys are a 
great feature in the case; they may either make or mar 
a design. 

The chimney is, of course, a late development in 
house design. In England chimney stacks did not come 
into common use before the reign of Henry the Eighth. 
First there was the open fire in the center of the " hall," 
the smoke from which found its way up into the roof, 
and escaped through louvres. Then came the flue in 
the wall — one very large flue accommodating half the 
household around the fire at its base. Examples of such 
flues are to be seen in scores of mansions and castles. 
It was found, however, that such a single great opening 




PORTION OF WEST FRONT, WF.STMINSTER CATHEDRAL. 
J. F. Bentley, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



U7 




GARDEN WALL. 
R. Weir Schnltz, Architect. 

had many disadvantages, by reason of 
insufficient draught up and too much 
draught down ; hence, smaller flues were 
introduced, either carried up directly into 
a single chimney stack or gathered into 
a group. At Eton College a great number 
of single chimney stacks are to be seen; 
they occur just where the flue happened 
to be, no attempt being made to bring 
them from the edge when they came at 
the front of the elevation. From the 
accompanying illustrations it will be seen 
that these chimneys are very beautiful 
examples of brickwork design. The many 
ways in which they are treated is par- 
ticularly noticeable. Sometimes the brick 
is honey-combed, sometimes a diagonal 
pattern is formed over the face, or a series 
of spirals, lozenges and other figures. 
There has been some question raised as 
to how the work was executed, whether 
it was molded in the plastic state or 
worked when finished. A suggestion has 
been made that the chimney was built up completely in 
clay, then molded into the desired pattern, and the mass 
afterwards cut up into bricks and burnt. To the writer 
it seems, however, that no such process was followed, 
but rather that the bricks were built up in the usual way 
and then cut into shape with some sort of chisel or axe. 
But in whatever way the work was done, it is particularly 
beautiful. These chimneys at Eton date about 1600 
(though they have been restored in parts). They are 
built of bricks about two inches thick and are corbelled 
out at the top, with projecting points around. Most of 
them are octagonal on plan. 

At Hampton Court some of the finest specimens of 
brick chimneys in the kingdom are to be found. They 
are most varied in treatment, not only spirals and other 
simple patterns being worked on them, but intricate 
interlacing diamond shapes, and all manner of detail. 
They are carried out in red brickwork. Counting in the 
modern way, the cost of such chimneys, worked as they 
were worked, would be very great, but money was of no 




CHIMNEYS, ETON COLLEGE. 



account in the building of Hampton Court Palace, and it 
seems likely that the workman who fashioned the chim- 
neys had a perfectly free hand for his invention. 

Other old examples shown among the accompanying 
illustrations are those at Seddlescombeand Cranbrook, in 
Kent. Both are of ordinary red brickwork with wide 
mortar joints — the former a sturdy type, showing what 
effective use can be made by alternate recessing and cor- 
belling, and the latter a stack of three flues grouped 
together in a very effective manner. As another type, 
but of later date (Wren period), is the big chimney at 
Chelsea Hospital, with its refined stone molding at the 
top. All the main chimneys of Chelsea Hospital are 
treated in this style, and there is a feeling of strength 
and solidity about them in keeping with the rest of the 
building; they are in proportion to the whole, not meager 
offshoots that distract the eye and disturb the skyline. 

Coming to modern times, there is here shown the 
chimney by Nesfield on the lodge at Kew Gardens. 
Nesfield was one of that band of zealous workers who 
-^ 1 came after the Gothic Revival had ex- 
hausted itself of extravagances, and 
among the most interesting specimens 
of his work are the lodges which he 
built at Regent's Park and Kew Gardens. 
It will be seen that this chimney at Kew 
is most carefully proportioned, and the 
treatment of it in a series of panels 
divided by molded brick ribs is very well 
chosen, while the Royal Arms inset on 
the face give that added charm which 
heraldry, well placed, always has. Special 
note should also be taken of the cap of 
this chimney. 

As representative of Norman Shaw's 
work, there is given a view of one of the 
chimneys on New Scotland Yard. It is 
thoroughly characteristic of him, with its 
stone bands and the panel at the base, 
and it has a predominant feeling of 
strength, the corners being brought out 
as slight pilasters carrying the cornice. 




UPPER PART OF SCHOOL AT K1RMINGHAM. 

Buckland <£ Haywood-Farmer, Architects. 



1 18 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





CHIMNEY BY \V. EDEN NESFIELD, ARCHITECT. 



CHIMNEY ON CHELSEA HOSPITAL 





CHIMNEY ON NEW SCOTLAND YARD, LONDON. 

Xurmaii Shaw, Architect. 



TOP OF CHIMNEY SHAFT, ELECTRICITY PLANT, LONDON. 
C. Stanley Peach, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



119 





CHIMNEYS BY E. L. LUTYENS, ARCHITECT. 



OLD CHIMNEY AT CRANBROOK, KENT. 





CHIMNEYS, HAMPTON COURT. 



CHIMNEYS, ETON COLLEGE. 



120 



THE BRICK BUILDER 




OLD CHIMNEY AT SEDDLESCOMBE, KENT. 

Of the remaining- examples shown, that of E. L. 
Lutyens speaks for itself as a clever design ( Mr. Lut yens 
being especially well known as a most brilliant architect 
in brick), while Stanley Peach's chimney at North 
London calls for notice as an attempt by an architect of 
ability to give some architectural quality to the stack 
of an electricity generating station ; the work being carried 
out in common brick, with terra cotta blocks and strings 
in blue brick. 




CHIMNEYS (SIXTEENTH CENTURY), HAMPTON COURT PALACE. 

Thus it will be seen that there are many possibilities 
for architectural treatment of the brick chimney, not 
only on buildings of the domestic class, but also on busi 



ness and trade buildings. The architect recognizes this, 
and it is to be wished that with an improving taste the 
public, too, will learn to appreciate the qualities of 
good brickwork detail. 

MR JOHN BELCHER, A.R.A. 

THIS year's recipient of the Royal Gold Medal, insti- 
tuted by Uueen Victoria for the promotion of archi- 
tecture, is Mr. John Belcher, A.R.A., who is second to 
none in his profession in appreciating the value of the col- 
laboration of the painter and the sculptor with the archi- 
tect's work. Sent as a boy to France to study and sketch, 
with special regard to the Renaissance School, Mr. Belcher 
none the less evinced an early tendency towards a phase 
of Gothic architecture. He soon, however, returned to 
the principles inculcated by his father, with whom he 
worked first as a pupil and then as a partner. In the 
words of the President of the R.I.B.A., in presenting 
Mr. Belcher with the Gold Medal last month, it is pecu- 
liarly fitting that one who has so greatly distinguished 
himself in English Renaissance in these later days should 
have erected his greatest works in the city where the ear- 
liest masterpieces of that style are found. Mr. Belcher 
was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1900. 
As President of the R.I.B. A. last year he took the chair 
at the meetings of the International Congress of Archi- 
tects held in July. lie has made some valuable contribu- 
tions to the literature of his profession, his most recent 
work being " Essentials in Architecture." 

WIND PRESSURE. 

MR. STANTON and Mr. Bairstovv have made some 
experiments at the National Physical Laboratory 
which bring out a new and practically very valuable fact, 
— namely, that pressure is not the same on large surfaces 
as on small experimental models. If, for example, a 
given wind velocity is brought to bear on a square foot of 
surface it will be 18 per cent less per square foot than if 
it were directed on 100 square feet of surface. It was 
demonstrated, too, that this relation is constant for flat 
forms, however complicated. A builder or engineer who 
knows that a structure may be exposed to a wind of 
eighty miles per hour and that the pressure per square 
foot as determined by model in, say, x pounds, should 
allow for his larger construction 20 per cent extra. The 
reason for this seems to be the more thoroughly reduced 
pressure on the lee side of a larger area. — London Tele- 
graph. 

ITALIAN TERRACOTTA. 

CLAN' during a long period was not only used for the 
purpose of solid construction in Italy, but also 
molded into forms so exquisite as to take its place as a 
material of high value and dignity in art. So rich is 
Lombardy in early works of terra cotta as to be fitly 
called by Hope the " great country of brick." Among 
the most ancient remains of the kind are the crypts of 
the church of Lenno, on the lake of Como. There sundry 
relics are still extant of colossal statues in terra cotta of 
a close-grained and tough consistency, all of which are 
considered to belong to the constructions of Christianity. 
The use of terra cotta followed the fortunes of successive 
schools of art in Italy. Both in sacred and secular archi- 
tecture it enables us to trace the development of taste. 
Exchange. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



12 I 



Arrangement of Photographs and 
Magazine Plates. 

THE following methods of filing loose magazine 
plates, photographs, scraps of illustrated and loose 
sheets of various articles or information are adopted in 
several of the Philadelphia offices and elsewhere. The 
vertical filing system advocated by Mr. Albert Kelsey 
consists of deep drawers of height equal to the sheets to 
be filed. These sheets are filed parallel to the face of the 
drawer in folders which are held in place with the guide 
cards by a rod running through the center of the depth 
of the drawer. 

Mr. Kelsey's system is described by him as follows: 

"The filing of photographs, magazine plates and such 
architectural clippings as are usually kept in bulky scrap- 
books, compactly together in one group, where they may 
be classified in a great variety of ways and indexed and 
cross-indexed so as to be easily found (no matter how 
varied the classification), is solved by the use of the Ver- 
tical Filing vSystem, — the system so generally now in 
use for the filing of commercial papers in all large busi- 
ness concerns. 

"It is true you must have cabinets with unusually 
wide drawers, and these are not made by all the manu- 
facturers of modern office furniture, though there are 
some companies that carry them in stock, as well as the 
folders and guide cards with which they are equipped. 

" Unfortunately, the unusual weight of the different 
units making up a loose leaf architectural library makes 
it necessary to have a somewhat stronger equipment for 
this purpose than that used merely for the filing of ordi- 
nary commercial papers. 

" The guide cards, numbered in multiples of ten to 
separate this number of folders (and which, by the way, 
has been found by business men to be the easiest system 
of sub-division), must be made of heavier cardboard, and 
must have a tongue through which the rod at the bottom 
of the drawer passes, reinforced by a broad, flat ring or 
eyelet, since the entire strain of the flopping backwards 
and forwards of the loose folders when the drawers are 
opened and shut comes at ;his point. 

"Another point different from the mere filing of 
letters is in the thickness of the matter to be filed, which 
fills the folders very rapidly, and if the folders are allowed 
to become overcrowded the system loses much of its flex- 
ibility, and the interior of the drawers then loses its neat 
and businesslike appearance. Therefore care should be 
taken in advance to separate the different classifications 
by a sufficiently large number of empty folders, to allow 
for the expansion without crowding. 

"If architectural plates only are under consideration, 
twenty to thirty to the folder, according to the weight of 
the paper, is as many as should be used. On the other 
hand, if thin, unmounted photographs, or thick mounted 
photographs and miscellaneous pages from a scrapbook, 
are to be mixed in with magazine plates, then fifteen or 
twenty to the folder would be about the -proper basis of 
calculation; but if, on the other hand, only mounted 
photographs, each on cards heavy enough to stand by 
themselves, are to be filed alone in one drawer, then the 
folders may be done away with entirely, and ten photo- 



graphs, each consecutively numbered at the top like the 
ten folders between all guide cards in the other drawers, 
makes the simplest arrangement, though twice as many 
may be filed, provided they are numbered in half numbers, 
so that the last ones in each group will come out consec- 
utively with the numbering of the first ones in the next 
group. 

" The reason forgiving a number to each photograph 
rather than one number for all of the ten, or all of the 
twenty, according to the group in which they go, is to 
make it possible to find an individual photograph by con- 
sulting the card index without having to look through 
every photograph in the group. 

" It is done also in order that when those photographs 
which are in use are gathered up from the drafting tables 
they may be put back where they belong without it being 
necessary to consider the title of each subject, which 
would then make it necessary to consult the card index 
and thereby consume an unnecessary amount of time. 
When each one has its number, any office boy, by knowing 
merely how to count, can put every one back in its place 
without having to exercise a not always precise archi- 
tectural judgment. On the other hand, it is only when 
a new subject is filed for the first time that it has to be 
given a name, and this is done once and for all by the 
architect himself. 

"Clippings may be placed loose in large red envelopes, 
or may be mounted on cards, which is the safer way, but 
in either case the filing process is as described above. If 
red envelopes are used the guide cards should then be 
blue or gray, or some entirely different color, so that 
their unbroken sequence, at regular intervals the length 
of each drawer, shall be instantly apparent. 

"The question of classifying is entirely a personal 
matter. It differs with the nature of a man's practice as 
much as with the taste of the architect. 

" If, for instance, a man has a specialty, — schools or 
any other type of building, — he will naturally inaugu- 
rate his system by allotting groups of folders to large, 
small city, country, private and public schools. He may 
be a student also of some firm's work, — a firm that sel- 
dom has schools to do. He will then arrange a series of 
folders, say from ninety to one hundred, for the work of 
Ogee Gargoyle, subdividing it for public buildings, cot- 
tages, interiors, gardens, etc. Now let us suppose a 
school building by Mr. Gargoyle should appear among 
the plates in a current magazine which he particularly 
admires for its Gargoylesque detail rather than for iis 
solution of the school's function. What does he do? 
Naturally he files it under Ogee Gargoyle, under public- 
buildings, and by way of locating it individually, he 
makes a note of it in the card index under schools as well 
as on another card under its architect's name. ( )r, again, 
he may keep a large card the size of one of the plates in 
the first folder containing schoolhouses, on which he will 
record the whereabouts of other schoolhouse illustrations. 
or any data he may some day want to incorporate in one 
of his own schoolhouse designs. 

"This system has been in operation in my office now 
for four years and has given great satisfaction. It is 
dust proof, elastic, compacl and orderly, any boy can 
attend to it. I believe it to be the best method of filing 
a loose leaf architectural library. I use it, moreover, for 



122 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



filing advertising pamphlets and for special numbers of 
the architectural magazines, which I consider too valu- 
able to be torn apart ; also, in another cabinet of the same 
kind, my office correspondence is kept. In this one go 
all letters, record sheets, superintendents' reports, etc., 
and before long all of my specifications are to be made 
of a smaller size, in flexible imitation leather binders, to 
fit these drawers. 

"A last word on filing plates. We all have favorite 
subjects which we especially like to refer to, and most 
of us have a way of secreting such illustrations for 
future reference and for our own personal use. These 
accumulate in a desk drawer, on a particular shelf or in 
a special portfolio, or at least, it is our intention that 
they should. In reality, they accumulate for a month or 
so in one of these places, then in another, and so on 
until the first, second or third 'hidings' are forgotten, 
and the plates thus set aside for special frequent 
reference, if ever wanted, are given up for lost. Now 
all this may be obviated by using the vertical filing 
system, by keeping the first ten, or the first twenty, 
folders in front of one particular drawer especially for 
' The Boss's Favorites.' I might ramble along at much 
greater length in an attempt to prove that the vertical 
filing system is the only system, but will close by assur- 
ing the reader that he can prove it for himself if he will 
adopt it and enforce this rule, viz., that every plate, 
photograph, card or clipping not actually in use must be 
filed as soon as taken from the magazine or the package 
it comes in. An inquiry might be made as to the proper 
time to file new magazine plates, to which I reply, 
it is a matter for the individual to decide and is covered 
largely by the foregoing rule. Yes, you will say, but 
how about the illustrated articles you have not had time 
to read, and how about the half-page illustrations mixed 
in with the text ? My reply is to keep the magazines 
intact for six months, and each publication in separate 
piles, on your library shelves, and then dismember 
them, make your selection and file simultaneously. By 
that time you will have found valuable text accompany- 
ing many an illustration which you will want to 
keep, and which should be clamped to the full-page 
plates it refers to with small paper fasteners, and all be 
filed under a single number. Thus anything flat, thick 
or thin, singly or in groups, may be stored away where 
it can readily be found when wanted." 

In Wilson Eyre's office the magazines and other 
material for future classification are stacked for six 
months, at the end of which time Mr. Eyre personally 
sorts them, cutting out desirable material, which is 
classified under the following heading: 

Country Houses, English, large and small. 

City Houses, English, large and small. 

Country Houses, American, large and small. 

City Houses, American, large and small. 

Public Buildings. Dormers. Iron Work. 

Libraries. Entrances Details. 

Churches. Windows. Own Work. 

Interiors. Stairways. 

These scraps are kept temporarily in large envelopes 

and later reassorted and the best taken out and put into 

well bound scrapbooks. The tendency of this method 

is to gradually eliminate, the first sorting throwing out 



all worthless material, the second creating a series of 
bound volumes containing only the best material which 
can go on the library shelves — and form part of the 
bound volume library. 

In the office of Frank Miles Day & Brother much the 
same method is pursued, excepting that a card index 
is provided for each subject, and photographs of foreign 
work are all mounted on the same size card and filed 
away. These are generally indexed by the card system 
as to subject and name of building. 

In Messrs. Day's office the scrapbooks are still main- 
tained, but in addition to these are cases of shallow 
drawers, which hold large envelopes the size of the 
architectural plates, in which the different subjects are 
filed away. These envelopes have some advantage over 
the scrapbook, inasmuch as the individual scraps can 
be reassorted at any time, and in studying at the draft- 
ing table, two or three or more sheets of scraps are not 
in the way, as is often the case with a bulky scrapbook 
On the other hand, there is danger of loss of plates, or 
of putting back plates in wrong places by the careless- 
ness of draughtsmen. 

For "own work," the scrapbook is advantageous, as 
it is always ready for the inspection of a client. 

In the office of Cope & Stewardson the scrapbook 
system has been abandoned for the envelope system 
with card index. Even with this, the material accu- 
mulates faster than it seems possible to dispose of it. 

It is necessary for the designer to personally select 
the good and cull the bad, and this is left until he is not 
otherwise busy. It is perhaps best to put material aside 
for a month after it is received, then to sort it, again to put 
it aside for a few weeks and resort, saving only the best. 
There is so much worthless material extant that it will 
be found advisable to throw away duplicates and the 
larger part of the remainder. The discarded material 
may be turned over to the draughtsmen, for them to 
form nucleus of personal individual libraries. 

The magazine plate is taking the place of the photo- 
graph, and these plates are not only very much cheaper, 
costing not one-twentieth of the silver print, but they 
are on good paper which does not curl, and the material 
can be packed away in a much more compact form. 

The tendency of the envelope and vertical file systems 
is to create a working library of loose plates, easily 
replaced, substituted, added to, or deducted from, which 
is largely for the use of the draughting table, and in 
which the loss of individual units, or general wear and 
tear can be readily made good. This library does not get 
to become a part of the bound volume library, and is the 
natural outcome of the ease and economy of collecting ex- 
amples which results from the use of reproductions by 
processes, rather than of photographs and valuable litho- 
graphs, engravings and mezzotints, which have intrinsic 
value in themselves apart from what they represent, 
and, which naturally create the bound volume library. 

It is a good idea for an architect who has much mate- 
rial published to keep a book, and in it note the magazine 
and time in which each piece of his work was published. 
Then when he wants to send a copy of any particular 
subject to a client, he can write for additional copies of 
the magazine, or if these are exhausted, have photo- 
graphs made from the original negatives. 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



123 



In the office of Heins & LaFarge, New York, the pho- 
tographs, which number some thousands, are mounted 
on muslin, and are in cloth covered pasteboard box 
drawers with locker fronts and lifting tops. These 
drawers are placed in pigeon holes, each of which 
holds four drawers, one over the other. On the front 
of each is a metal frame holding a removable card on 
which is indexed the contents of the drawer. The pho- 
tographs have numbers on the back corresponding to the 
number of the drawer. The classification is chronologi- 
cal and also by style and subject. The obvious possi- 
bility of loss of individual photographs seems to be 
overcome by the large size and individual character of 
the mounts. 

This system is quite as adaptable to plates as to pho- 
tographs, and presents but one objection to a mass of 
various material, i. e., there is not as good an opportunity 
for the insertion of guide cards as in the vertical system, 
and the card on the face of each drawer is obviously too 
small to contain all the information and subdivisions of 
the material within the drawer. 

In the office of Smith, Wetherell & Gage, Des Moines, 
Iowa, there is used a variation of the vertical filing sys- 
tem, in that two drawers (or separate sets of drawers) 
are used, one for classes of buildings, the other for 
styles, the groups in each being separated by heavy board 
guide cards. In one drawer is the classification for types, 
i. c, Art Museums, Banks, Clubhouse, Depots, Eleva- 
tors, Residences, etc. In the other, classification is for 



style, and any building in a distinct style is placed in this 
drawer. Each plate is marked with a rubber stamp, 
giving owner, date, class, architect, style and number. 
Indexing is by card catalogue with cross reference to 
class and style, and the cards give careful description of 
the plates. 

The card index can be prepared so as to give the en- 
tire classification of any particular plate if so desired, so 
that it can be minutely described, giving the "style " or 
"class," as the case may be, name of architect, etc., and 
also stating if good, or indifferent, good detail, good for 
windows, cornice, proportions, entrance, etc. 

The date and number blank of the stamp is rarely used, 
as it involves unnecessary labor in labeling the plates. 

This system can be easily adjusted to any architect's 
individual taste in the classification of the plates, and the 
use of the rubber stamp enables one to so label the plates 
as to easily replace them in the proper compartment. At 
the same time one can easily find plates representing a 
certain class of building desired. The system seems to 
be merely a simplified form of the vertical filing system 
advocated by Mr. Kelsey. 

There is a system used in libraries for photographs 
which could be adapted to architects' use. It is that of a 
closed cabinet of sufficient depth to receive plates on edge, 
on the back of which are hinged clips to receive mounts 
vertically which can then be opened like the pages of a 
book. Such a system, however, should not be used for 
scraps, unless they are pasted on mounts. 




MEDIAEVAL CASTLE AT SERMIONK, LAKE GARDA, ITALY. 



I2 4 



THE BR I C K IUJ I L DER. 



Ceramic Tiles and their Use. 

BY C. HOWARD WALKER. 

AVERY excellent method of obtaining variety, both 
in floors and in walls, is that of dividing surfaces 
into panels with borders and treating the enclosed fields 
with different allover patterns, and while this method 
has been repeatedly adopted with marbles and witli 
glazed tile it has seldom been adopted with unglazed 
tile of one or two tones or colors. Floors of tile, like 
mosaics, should be formed of separated areas in order to 
avoid long cracks or opening of joints across the field, and, 
in fact, to give opportunity for adjustment of the surface 
at the boundaries of the areas, and the method of segre- 
gating certain definite portions, large or small, by indi- 
vidual minor borders is one well worth consideration. 
The mosaic floors of tessera? of Rome, of the Byzantine 
period and of the Renaissance were divided by marble 
strips or borders into areas every ten or fifteen feet. 
Another development of the same idea is to be found in 
the Cosmati work in Rome and elsewhere, in which these 
secondary borders around portions of the field become of 
very considerable importance and have each its own 
design. The marble mosaic floors in San Marco in 
Venice are an admirable example of subdivision which 
could be adapted to tile, as are also the floors of St- 
Lorenzo and of St. Maria in Cosmedin in Rome. In 
many cases the pattern of these floors, and similar pat- 
terns which occur upon the walls, are based upon circles 
as well as upon polygons. It is naturally difficult to 
obtain tiles with curved outlines, but if the unnecessary 
attention to closeness of joints is waived, short and nar- 
row oblong tiles can be placed upon large circles and 
create approximately circular forms, which will, however, 
be necessarily of large scale. The areas around which 
these borders are carried may vary in the designs of their 
fields, but as the borders are the important feature of the 
general design the patterns of the fields should be very 
simple. There is little to be gained by strong contrasts 
of color in tile patterns, the units being so large in scale 
that they do not blend in effect, and remain spotty even 
at a very considerable distance. The exception to this 
general statement is to be found in the borders made up 
of parallel lines of narrow long tiles, in which case, as the 
effect is that of lines and not of spots, strong contrasts 
are admissible and often advisable. The joints actually 
indicate the pattern and should be definite, forming a net- 
work of lines over the field or border. This may be 
obtained either by increased size of the joint, or by set- 
ting the tiles in dark cement, or by both. The effect is 
much superior to that produced by contrasts of adjacent 
tiles of different colors. In carrying straight tiles around 
curved forms and in making patterns in which the sides 
of adjacent tiles do not exactly coincide, the spaces left 
may be arranged to increase the effect of the pattern and 
be filled with cement. An infinite number of decorative 
designs can be made from geometric tiles in this way; in 
fact, almost any archaic or simple design in any style 
may be adapted to tile, when it is recognized that it is 
not the surfaces of the tiles which are their principle 
feature but the patterns in which they are laid, as indi- 
cated by the joint. In floors the introduction of terra 
cotta or of faience, with the tiles as borders or as centers, 



gives further opportunity for interesting treatment, and 
corresponds with the horders of marble and the centers 
of porphyry associated with the marble floor mosaics of 
the Christian basilicas in Rome. Modelled tiles are as 
ineffective if uncontrasted with large surfaces of plain 
tile as is any ornament which has no adjacent contrasts, 
and such tiles are best used, if at all, as occasional foci. 
Kxterior tile patterns, placed at some distance from the 
point of view, require stronger contrasts and larger joints, 
and can successfully be treated in relief and in different 
planes. This is so obvious that further consideration of 
it is unnecessary. 

From the mere natural geometric shapes of tiles, in 
squares, triangles and other regular polygons, the pat- 
terns tend toward geometric ornament if the tiles are 
fitted together, hut there is a large field for experiment 
by using the tile units as elements of a mosaic and forming 
designs with them, the interstices of which will be filled 
with small rectangular or triangular tile. Very little of this 
type of work has been done, and its possibilities are infinite. 
The tile shapes would consist of a series of long rec- 
tangles of various widths from which to build up borders 
and stems, a few sections of circular rings with which to 
build up larger curves and to turn corners, and a simple 
series of leaf shapes, cordate, lanceolate and oblate. An 
infinite variety of patterns derived from natural forms 
can be assembled from very few factors, and to the per- 
sistent recurrence of geometric tile patterns would be 
added a wealth of contrasting designs. It is probable 
that these designs would be better fitted to exterior work 
than to interiors, as they would be, by the size of the units, 
at a disadvantage compared to marble or glass mosaic 
near the eye, and correspondingly effective at a distance. 
The experiment has been tried in Sweden and in Ger- 
many, but only with partial success, as the patterns were 
displayed in strong contrasts of color and tone with the 
ground, while as a matter of fact, the difference in size of 
the pieces and in the texture of the joints is nearly suf- 
ficiently adequate to define the design, and but slight 
contrasts of color or tone are necessary. Modelled forms 
are not advisable in this work, but a series of tile with 
concave surfaces would be extremely effective. It is a 
matter for regret that there are next to no concave tiles 
to be obtained, though there are a number of convex ones 
tised. A convex tile exerts an apparent strain on the tile 
surface, and seems too heavy and thick for the surround- 
ing tiles, but the concave tile affords delightful opportuni- 
ties for delicate light and shade. There was to be found, 
at one time, a number of tiles with the impression of deli- 
cate ferns and foliage either expressed or raised upon 
their surface. These are ineffective in mass, require 
close examination, and though occasionally charming 
as unique pieces, are incapable of association with 
more rigorous forms. If stamped patterns are to occur 
on unglazed tiles their purpose is merely to reduce the 
scale of general texture, and the more nearly they ap- 
proach the scheme of simple geometric repeat the more 
successful is the result. In no case should the joint of 
tile work be accentuated by the modelling on the tiles, 
whether by a depression or a dike, for in placing the 
tiles together the effect is doubled, and the tiles become 
isolated units, no longer factors of a general surface. If, 
therefore, depressions or dikes are made upon a tile they 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



125 




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PLATE III. FLOORS AND WALLS. 



126 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




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PLATE IV. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



127 



should run across the joints, and thereby serve as motives 
which unite the tiles and do not separate them. This is 
in accordance with the desire to treat tiles as correlated 
factors of a surface. The few fundamental facts in 
regard to unglazed tiles, before glazes and color and 
paintings are considered, are these: 

First, that with the exception of individual unique 
specimens, tiles are units for the purpose of veneering, 
of covering a surface with a comparatively thin covering, 
and they should frankly acknowledge that purpose, and 
should therefore submerge the identity of the unit in 
the general effect of the whole; should unite' the units by 
a general plan of combination, by surface design, if such 
exists, that passes from one tile to the next by avoidance 
of any modelling or projection that appears too heavy for 
the thickness of the tile covering, and especially by a 
careful consideration of the scale of the subdivision of 
the surface, whether by joint pattern or by surface pat- 
tern in relation to the character and position of the wall, 
realizing that in interiors, tile wall surfaces have a coarser 
texture than any other used. 

In considering glazed tiles without painted pattern, 
all the remarks relating to unglazed apply equally well, 
and the elements of quality of glaze, reflecting power 
of surface, and of color require additional comment. 
Broadly speaking, glazed tiles can be divided into those 
with dead glazes and with lustrous glazes. In the former 
case brilliancy of color is sacrificed for general effect of 
surface ; in the latter, general effect for brilliancy of 
color. A lustrous glaze has the same effect upon the 
color of the tile that varnishing has upon the colors of a 
picture; it gives depth to the dark tones and brilliancy 
to the middle and light tones, and to all color, but it has 
also the disadvantage of any polished surface, i. e., it 
reflects everything else in the room and thereby loses 
solidity and at times disturbs the contemplation of any 
object placed near it. Large surfaces of lustrous tiles 
make an instantaneous impression. All sorts of acci- 
dental high lights become evident on them and they 
have a peculiar capacity for reflecting high lights to an 
indefinite extent. For this reason it is well to use lus- 
trous tiles either in small quantities, as in mantel facings, 
or as foci, or as expressing an extent of superlative clean- 
liness, or on rooms which are comparatively without fur- 
niture. Lustrous tiles in bathrooms, toilet and kitchens 
are excellent. Assuming that for most wall surfaces 
tiles with dead glaze are the most desirable, the color 
quality of the glaze is greatly influenced by the body of 
the tile, the lighter colored body better adapted to light 
and bright tile, while a deep red body gives depth and 
richness. The tiles should have each a uniform glaze, 
any attempt at variation of glaze in a single tile being 
an affectation which is apt to result disastrously for the 
general effect Variation of wall color surface can and 
should be gained by the use of tiles of varying tones and 
colors. In this respect it is interesting to note the de- 
velopment of tile designs in Spain. The Mohammedan 
tile surfaces in the Alhambra are tile Mosaics built up 
of tiles of different shapes and colors separated from 



each other by small borders of white ribbon tiles. Many 
of the designs are based on the so-called Solomon's star 
pattern, but in every case each tile has its integral color. 
The separating ribbon tiles are always white, and the 
star patterns are built up with a center cut to a six or 
eight pointed star, and the development is produced by 
the use of long tiles with end miters and double miters. 
There are naturally, in addition to this, the usual regular 
polygons, triangles, hexagons, octagons and, in a few 
rare cases, pentagons. The patterns are identical with 
the marquetry patterns in the doors and the bronze pat- 
terns in the Mosque doors in Constantinople and else- 
where. With these simple factors are built up over forty 
designs, which are amongst the most effective wall sur- 
face designs in existence. The colors are few — a dull 
Indian yellow, a green of various degrees of depth, a 
dull half-toned blue and a deep purplish maroon at 
times becoming black. The tiles are small, not over four 
inches in their largest dimension, and often one-half an 
inch in the smallest, and are fitted carefully. After the 
fall of Granada, in 1492, these patterns were stamped by 
the Spanish tile makers on square tiles, the colors being 
painted into the forms, but as these colors ran over the 
intervening ribbon forms, despite the fact that the edges 
of these were raised, the clean-cut effect of the Moorish 
mosaic wall surface became bleared, and later, under 
Pedro the Cruel, another type of square embossed tile, 
introducing Gothic detail, and with circular forms, took 
the place of the earlier tile. These became the famous 
Spanish Azulejos with which the walls of the Casa de 
Pilatos at Seville are covered. With all their splendor, 
with the addition of lustrous metallic glazes and irrides- 
cence, these tiles lack the refinement of the Moorish mo- 
saic tile. The factors of the Moorish combinations by no 
means exhausted the possibilities of mosaic tile designs. 

The Moorish tiles were, in most cases, devoid of parts 
of circles and of ellipses; they had few curved forms and 
no shapes based on leaf forms. There is still, therefore, 
the possibility of a series of most effective tile mosaics, 
for both interior and exterior work, designed from com- 
binations of tiles of various shapes. 

Plates III and IV indicate a few of the numberless 
possibilities of tile design, using only the factors al- 
ready existent of straight line geometric units. 

Plate III, Nos. 1 to 6, are floor designs of areas divided 
by borders. Any of the borders already shown in Plate I 
and the fields in Plate II can be used in designs of 
this character. No. 4 shows curved borders made of 
small straight tile. No. 5 has large pieces of faience 
substituted for tile patterns in the panels. Nos. 7 to 9 
are dado patterns. Nos. 10 and 11 are base or frieze 
patterns. Plate IV is of wall or frieze patterns, showing 
the indication of large pattern by the use of tile of 
two tones or of two colors. Contrasts should not be 
violent in designs of this type. If circles and parts 
of circles, ovals and leaf-shaped tiles are added, these 
patterns become still more interesting by the conse- 
quent introduction and contrasts of curved and straight 
lines. 



I2J 



THE BRICKHUILDER. 







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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



129 




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MARKET STREET FRONT VIEW FROM TERMINAL PLATFORM 

MARKET STREET TERMINAL STATION, PHILADELPHIA RAPID TRANSIT CO. 




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DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE, MARKET STREET TERMINAL STATION, PHILADELPHIA RAPID 1PANSH CO. 

R. C. Heath, Architect 



130 



THE BR ICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



THE FALLACY OF THE AVERAGE. 

WE had occasion some time since to look through 
the reports of a number of tests which had been 
made to determine the tensile strength of cement. From 
these tests certain empyrical formulas were worked out 
adopting as constants the average resistance. Out of six 
experiments made with neat cement two of the briquettes 
broke away below the average, in one case falling to one 
hundred pounds below the average. On tests of one to 
three mortar half of the experiments gave resistances be- 
low the average, one case being twenty-two per cent less 
than the average. This arouses a natural query. Sup- 
pose out of six actual concrete beams, proportioned on 
the assumption of the constants determined by these ex- 
periments, that there had been as much variation from 
the average as was shown by the tests; could that con- 
struction fairly have been called safe ? Those who re- 
member the days before Professor Lanza's epoch-making 
experiments with full-sized, hard pine beams, will recall 
how our notions of the strength of wood were based upon 
experiments with pieces of selected timber one inch 
square, one inch deep and one foot long, which were care- 
fully broken in two by an applied load at the center, and 
from the observed results of such academic experiments 




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AN ENAMEL FINISH TERRA COTTA "SKYSCRAPER" BEING 

GIVEN ITS ANNUAL BATH. THERE ARE ABOUT 200,000 

SQUARE FEET OF EXTERIOR SURFACE WHICH IS WASHED 

EVERY SPRING AT A COST OF $1,000. 

THE RAILWAY EXCHANGE BUILDING, CHICAGO. 

D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 

Terra Cotta by Northwestern Terra Cotta Co. 




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UNITED STATES EXPRESS BUILDING, TRINITY PLACE, NEW 

YORK. 

Clinton & Russell, Architects. 

Exterior of White Terra Cotta, made by New York Architectural 

Terra Cotta Co. 

we proportioned our wooden floors. It is small wonder 
that in the light of Professor Lanza's minimums we now 
find steel almost as cheap as wood at its minimum 
strength. The fact is, that to take the average of a num- 
ber of experiments and assume that as a safe guide in 
actual construction is extremely risky, unless we can be 
sure that the material when finally constructed in the 
building will in every case be up to at least the average 
grade, a condition which rarely obtains; consequently 
prudence would seem to dictate that it is not safe to take 
the average strength, but rather in determining constants 
for building construction, they should be derived from a 
fair minimum. 



UTOPIA. 



WHO will say that imagination has departed from 
the speculative builder ? A most interesting 
scheme is now being worked out in one of our large cities. 
It is proposed, in all seriousness, to construct an island in 
an arm of the sea partly enclosed by the city, to be trav- 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



131 



ersed by a bridge 
connecting each 
way to the main 
land, the whole 
island to be roofed 
over, streets and 
houses and all, 
heated in winter 
time, partially 
shaded in sum- 
mer, so that there 
will be no more 
snow and ice and 
no more scorching 
sunbeams, but a 
delicious sub-trop- 
ical hothouse at- 




EXECUTED IN POLYCHROME GLAZED TERRA COTTA BY ATLANTIC TERRA COTTA CO. 

Herts & Tallant, Architects. 



mosphere will be maintained all through the year, the 
island being of small extent, covered with the most 
exclusive apartments, a single street occupying the 
center of the length, with a church at one end, a small 
theater at the other, and with the houses having one 
front towards the principal street and another front look- 
ing out over the water. And this Utopian ideal was con- 
ceived by a hard-headed builder with the assistance of an 
enterprising newspaper reporter ! 



stations which has been the 
ception in the past. 



railway stations. 
The Transit Com- 
mission of Boston 
are devising means 
to line their sta- 
tions throughout 
with enameled 
tiles and terra cot- 
tas. There are 
plenty of me- 
diums at hand, and 
there is no good 
excuse for con- 
tinuing the kind 
of unfinished cel- 
lar construction 
for our subway 
rule rather than the ex- 



T 



SUBWAY CONSTRUCTION. 

WE are in an era of subway construction. A great 
deal has been done well in New York, some of it 
has been done fairly well elsewhere and a great deal more 
of it has been done in various cities without any regard 
to architectural effect or with any consideration for any- 
thing except strength and 
free access for the public in 
and out. A vast system of 
subways is proposed for Chi- 
cago, other cities will un- 
doubtedly follow, and it is the 
logical and natural means of 
rapid communication for all 
of our large cities. There is 
no reason, however, why a 
structure entirely under- 
ground should not be built as 
thoroughly and in as orderly 
a manner, and with as much 
regard for appear- 
ance, as a structure 
entirely exposed in 
the open air. Such 
has not been the case 
in the past in this 
country, and we have 
yet a great deal to 
learn from France and 
Germany in this par- 
ticular. Our subway 
stations below ground 
ought to be no less 
serious in their treat- 
ment than our upper 




THE WILLIAM H. 



WIND STRAINS. 

HERE has been at various times a great deal of dis- 
cussion among engineers as to the role which is 
played by the forces of the wind acting against a framed 
structure. The problem is quite indeterminate, as far as 
regards actual experiments. There were some valuable 
data collected at the time of the very short-lived tornado 
in St. Lonis a few years ago which wrecked a surprisingly 
small number of buildings, and which established veloc- 
ities from which were deduced certain pressures per pound 
supposed to be exerted by the wind. And yet in this 
very tornado it was observed that the effect of the wind 
was not to blow the glass in, but to break it by forcing 

outward. If this is the case, 
why is it fair to assume a 
great wind pressure against 
the outside of a building ? 
Again, in lesser degree, a 
great deal has been written 
about the wind pressure on 
the Flatiron Building in New 
York, and that structure was, 
in fact, designed for a wind 
stress of something like thirty 
pounds per square foot, if we 
are correctly informed, and 
yet it is doubtful if there 
is a single plate-glass 
window in the build- 
ing that would for a 
moment stand a load 
of thirty pounds over 
every foot of its area. 
It is to be hoped that 
experiments may be 
made ere long on a 
large scale which may 
either definitely settle 
the actual amount of 
stress resulting from 
certain wind veloci- 
ties, or will, as we 



HUNT FENCE AND GATEWAY, HIRAM (SETTLEMENT) 
HOUSE, CLEVELAND. 
Charles S. Schneider, Architect. 



!3 2 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



M 


pi 



think, more likely set at rest 
forever the apprehension that 
the wind would possibly blow 
at the same time over any 
great area of a building with 
a uniform pressure; or, in 
other words, prove that the 
necessity for providing against 
wind strains in a modern build- 
ing is so extremely slight that 
it can be disregarded in first- 
class constructions. 



Western Railway Company 
as well. Tiles have been 
used in the exterior walls of 
these buildings in combina- 
tion with the brick, which 
are laid with red stretchers 
and black headers. 



CHICAGO'S NEW COURT 

HOUSE TO HAVE ONE 
FLOOR OF VAULTS. 



o ! 



DETAIL BY SOUTH AMBOY 
TERRA COTTA CO. 



NE of the twelve floors 
in the new Cook County 
Court House, Holabird & 
Roche, Architects, will be de- 
voted entirely to vaults which 
are to hold the valuable docu- 
ments and records. These 
vaults will all be enclosed with 

tiles of double the ordinary thickness. The windows 

at this story are provided with metal frames and wire 

glass. Every column in the 

building is covered with two 

inches of porous hollow terra 

cotta, bound by copper wire. 

All pipes are set outside the 

column protection, and are 

themselves protected against 

fire by another covering of 

three-inch hollow tile. The 

partitions and floors are made 

of this same fireproofing ma- 
terial. 




DETAIL BY HOLABIRD A 
ROCHE, ARCHITECTS. 

American Terra Cotta Co. 

Makers. 



BUILDINGS FOR THE 

PHILADELPHIA RAPID 

TRANSIT COMPANY. 




(SEE PLATE FORMS.) 

THE sub-stations are really 
small power houses at which the alternating 
current generated at the main station is converted 
to direct current, from which it is distributed. The 
Terminal Station is the western terminus of the Market 
Street Elevated Passenger Railway Company. The 

building is acom- 
bination station 
and will be used 
not only by the 
Philadelphia 
Rapid Transit 
Company, but by 
the Philadelphia 
and Westchester 
Traction Com- 

DETAIL BY RUHE & LANGE, ARCHITECTS. P an y> ana - the 
Ketcham Terra Cotta Works, Makers. Philadelphia and 



A SMALL BUSINESS BLOCK, CHICAGO 

Louis Sullivan, Architect. 




BUILDING OPE RA- 
TIONS FOR JUNE. 

OFFICIAL building re- 
ports from some fifty 
of the leading cities of the 
country, received by the 
Aiinrica)i Contractor, New 
York, and tabulated, show 
in the aggregate value of 
building permits granted in 
June, 1907, as compared with 
those for the corresponding 
month of last year, very 
nearly equal, the losses 
slightly predominating. Some cities show astonishing 
gains and others equally remarkable losses. This is 
largely due to the issuance of large single permits during 
June, 1906. For the most part, the construction business 

of the country is moving for- 
ward in an orderly, conserva- 
tive and highly satisfactory 
manner, the total reported 
loss being a very small frac- 
tion of one per cent. When 
the immense amount of build- 
ing done last year is taken 
into account, this must be 
regarded as indicating that 
our present large operations 
are quite normal and may 
well be expected to continue, 
since the freely predicted re- 
action has not materialized. 
The following figures show 
the percentage of gains in 
leading cities: Birmingham, 
68 ; Bridgeport, 76; Chicago, 9; 
Chattanooga, 214; Denver, 7; Detroit, 58; Evansville, 
57 ; Harris- 
burg, 41 ; In- 
dianapolis, 
124; Louis- 
ville, 17; 
Minneapolis, 
45; Nash- 
ville, 37; 
Omaha, 1 8 ; 
Pittsburg, 
1 1 ; Spokane, 
442 ; Salt Lake 
City, 667; To- 
pe k a, 167; 

Tacoma, 104; detail by eames & young, architects 
Washington, Winkle Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



133 



13. Losses are indi- 
cated by the following 
figures: Buffalo, 34; 
Cleveland, 16; Dal- 
las, 33; Duluth, 39; 
Grand Rapids, 36; 
Hartford, 9; Kansas 
City, 46 ; Los Angeles, 
36 ; Milwaukee, 47 ; 
Mobile, 73; New Ha- 
ven, 39; Newark, 10; 
Greater New York, 9 ; 
Philadelphia, n; St. 
Louis, 33 ; St. Paul, 
29; Syracuse, 34; To- 
ledo, 9. A gain of 9 
per cent in Chicago 
and a loss of only 9 
per cent in New York 
shows the great regularity 




HOUSE AT JACKSONVILLE, FLA. 

11. H. Waterman, Architect. 
Roofed with Red Vitrified Spanish Mission Tile. Cincinnati Roofing Tile Terra 

Cotta Co., Makers. 

of building operations. 



IN GENERAL. 



Albert Kelsey and Paul P. Cret have been adjudged 
winners in the competition for the new 
buildings of the International Bureau of 
American Republics, to be erected in 
Washington. Three cash prizes were 
also awarded. The first, $3,000, was won 
by Edward Pearce Casey and Arthur Dil- 
lon, associated, of New York; second 
prize, $2,000, John Russell Pope, New 
York; third prize, $1,000, Peter de Gel- 
leke, Jr., and William T. L. Anderson, 
associated, New York. 

The Pittsburg Architectural Club will 
hold its fourth annual exhibition in the 
Art Galleries of the Carnegie Institute 
during the month of November, 1907. 

At the opening of the session of 1907- 
1908 there will be offered in the College 
of Technology, Tulane University of 
Louisiana, New Orleans, a course in ar- 
chitecture, extending, like other regular 
courses, through four years, and leading to a collegiate 
degree. 

John J. Earley entertained 
the Washington Architectural 
Club at a "smoker" in his 
new studio on the evening of 
July 10. 

George W. Hellmuth and 
Louis C. Spiering, architects, 
have formed a co-partnership 
under the firm name of Hell- 
muth & Spiering; offices 502 

Equitable Building, St. Louis, 
Mo. 

Charles G. Badgley, archi- 
tect, has removed his office 
from Fairmount, W. Va., to 
Seattle, Wash. 




L. A. H. Koeth, 
architect, Wilming- 
ton, N. C, has taken 
a suite of offices in the 
Southern Building. 
Manufacturers' sam- 
ples and catalogues de- 
sired. 

Enameled brick 
made by the Ameri- 
can Enameled Brick 
and Tile Company 
will be used exten- 
sively in twelve new 
schoolhouse build- 
ings, which are being 
erected in and about 
New York City; in 
two large buildings for the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Company ; in six new packing houses being erected for 
Armour & Co. and Swift & Co. ; for the exteriors of 
two buildings at Pittsburg; in the Geographical Lab- 
oratory at Washington; in the Cadets' Quarters at An- 
napolis ; two private garages at Greenwich, 
Conn. ; the new court house at Port- 
land, Me.; the new Hippodrome at Cleve- 
land, Ohio; exterior of an office building 
at Youngstown, Ohio; exterior of an office 
building at Detroit, Mich. ; an office build- 
ing at Woonsocket, R. I. ; First National 
Bank building, Bridgeport, Conn. ; and 
St. Raphael Hospital at New Haven, 
Conn. 



DETAIL BY HERMAN MILLER, AR- 
CHITECT. 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Co., 
, Makers. 




M. E. CHURCH, MONTCLAIR, N. J 
Van Vleck & Goldsmith, Architects. 
Roofed with Ludowici-Celadon Tile. 



LIBRARIANS AND ARCHITECTS. 

S( ) habitual has it become for librarians, 
in discussing library buildings and 
plans, to make wholesale criticisms of ar- 
chitects, and to assume towards them an at- 
titude of superior wisdom, that it is said, 
on the authority of one of the leading ar- 
chitectural firms of this city.that architects 
are coming to feel a grievance against the 
library profession, and are somewhat loath to enter com- 
petitions for library buildings. 
Commenting on this situation, 
a librarian, who has perhaps 
had as much to do with archi- 
tects and building plans as 
any in this country, recently 
expressed to the writer the 
opinion that the attitude thus 
assumed by librarians was 
based chiefly on ignorance 
and narrowness, and was 
likely to do both the library 
and architectural profession a 
real injury. What ground 
there is for this feeling on 
the part of librarians, he said, 
is found in the defects of a 
few conspicuous buildings, 



M4 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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DETAIL BY BARNETT, HAYNES & BARNETT, ARCHITECTS. 
St. Louis Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

built at a time when the full demands to be made by the 
public upon the buildings were realized neither by libra- 
rians nor architects. Of late years, he said, architects 
have been studying with great care and minuteness the 
economic and practical demands of library buildings, and, 
as a whole, are now far in advance, even in these matters, 
of the average librarian. From an experience gained on 
many building committees, by some of which buildings 
costing millions have been planned, he has come to the 
conclusion that the librarian, even in his own field of 
library economy, has much to learn from the professional 
architect. — .V. )'. Evening Post. 



YSLETA CHURCH BURNS. 

THE oldest church edifice in the United States was de- 
stroyed by fire the other day. The ruins of adobe 
and stone are to be removed, under the direction of the 
Catholic Church authorities, and a thorough search made 
for hidden treasure, which, according to legends that have 
been handed down for generations, lies buried beneath 
the floor of the building. The records go to prove that 
Ysleta, Tex., is older than St. Augustine, Fla. In the 
records of the great cathedral of Madrid, Spain, is found 




the report of Marcus de Niza, a French monk, who says 
that he left the City of Mexico and made his way north, 
finally crossing the stream that is now known as the 
Rio Grande. He says that he followed the road that 
he left for his mule to take. Part of this manuscript is 
written with the blood of a deer for ink, and his own 
forefinger nail for a pen. He says that in 1537, across 
the Rio Grande, he found the village known as Ysleta, 
occupied by the Pueblo Indians, whose traditions all point 
to their having been of the ancient Aztec race, or to a 
people of even more remote origin. Franciscan mission- 




APARTMENT AT YONKERS, N. Y. 

Thomas D. Malcolm, Owner and Builder. Built of Speckled White 
Brick. Made by Kreischer Brick Mfg. Co. 



SPANDREL OVER ENTRANCE, OPERA 
HOUSE, DU BOIS, PA. 

Frank Orner, Architect. Carter, Black & 
Ayers, New York, Makers. 



aries arrived at Ysleta four or five years later, and the 
mission church which was destroyed by fire a few days 
ago was erected. It was completed about 1550. In 
many respects it was the most unique mission building in 
the Southwest. Owing to the fact that it was remotely 
situated it was seldom visited by tourists, and little has 
ever been written about it. It was a very large structure, 
and was built with the idea of serving as a fortress in case 
of attack by Indians, as well as for worshiping purposes. 
The walls were four feet and six inches thick. It was 
the boast of the worshipers that the candles which 
burned at its altar had shed their light continuously for 
more than 350 years. It was one of these candles that 
caused the destruction of the church. — Boston Transcript. 

"Academy Architecture" 

AND 

Architectural Review of London 

VOLUME 31 JUST PUBLISHED. 

Contains 140 pages and 4 color plates of interesting Knglish 
Houses, Churches and Public Buildings. 

"Price, $1.75, postpaid. 

2") back volumes in stock. 
Send orders to 

M. A. VINSON, 205 Caxton Building. Cleveland, Ohio. 
Agent for United States and Canada. 

Prospectus free. 

The George Washington University 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 
DIVISION Of ARCHITECTURE 

< Mlers a four-year technical course leading to the degree of Bachelor of 
Science in Architecture, and a three year special course for architectural 
draughtsmen. For catalogues, application blanks and further informa- 
tion, address The Registrar. 

SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

The Pour Year Course. Full professional training with an option in Architectural 
Engineering leading to the degree of U. S. in Architecture. Advanced standing 
is offered to college graduates ur the two degrees of A. B. and B. S. in Architecture 
can he t.iken in six years. 

The Graduate Year affords opportunity for advanced work in design and other sub- 
jects of the course Leading t<< the degree <<f M. S. in Architecture* 

The Two Year Special Course. Fur qualified draughtsmen. Offers advanced technical 
training with a Certificate of Proficiency. 

For Full Information address !>r. J. H. Pcuniman, Dean. College Hall, University of 
Pennsylvania. Philadelphia. 

A Limited Number of the illustrated " Review M of the School of Architecture, for 
1907, can be supplied tn those whu will enclose 21 cents in stamps with their 
applications. Address for the *■ Review," Professor Warren P. Laird, College 
Hall, as above. 



THE BRICKBUILUER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 7. PLATE 97. 




FRANKFORD AVENUE STATION. PHILADELPHIA RAPID TRANSIT OO. 




SUBSTATION, MARKET. AND ALLISON STREETS, PHILADELPHIA RAPID TRANSIT CO. 

R. C. Heath, architect.- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 7. PLATE 




SUBSTATION, WOODLAND AVENUE AND 58TH STREET, PHILADELPHIA RAPID TRANSIT CO. 




SUBSTATION, LANCASTER AVENUE AND 52D STREET, PHILADELPHIA RAPID TRANSIT CO. 

R. C. HEATH, ARCHITECT. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 7. PLATE 99. 




... 



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y^esT-. wj> z»*?/vt?/©^r^i*r^//V'Tn»«-/wyAWW/t?j*f — *'.*».- 



DETAIL OF MAIN GABLE. MARKET STREET TERMINAL STATION.' 




L^ 




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1 



PLAN, MARKET STREET TERMINAL STATION, PHILADELPHIA RAPID TRANSIT CO. 

R. C. Heath, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 7. PLATE 100. 




DETAILS OF FRONT ELEVATION, OFFICE FOR MOTORMEN AND CONDUCTORS. 



^ ^ 





PLAN,' OFFICE FOR MOTORMEN AND CONDUCTORS, 
FRANKFORD AVENUE STATION> 



^u,.l-<=h -&o. tI -.<. -r 



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SUBSTATION, MARKET AND ALLISON STREETS. PHILADELPHIA RAPID TRANSIT CO. 

R, C. HEATH, ARCHITECT. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 7. PLATE 101. 





TUFTS COLLEGE LIBRARY, MEDFORD, MASS. 
Whitfield & King, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 7. PLATE 102. 





ggggj 5ECTION 

THROUGH PORTICO 
T0R1GHT0FENTKANCE 



TUFTS COLLEGE LIBRARY, MEDFORD, MASS. 
Whitfield &. King, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 7. PLATE 103. 






•FIR5T- FLOOR- 



• • • 

SCCOrtD FtOOR- 



TUFTS COLLEGE LIBRARY, MEDFORD, MASS. 
Whitfield & King, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 7. PLATE 104. 





TJ 



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l^MCk. • "TER-liBCt 






LOOR.' I°UK 



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3 ECONb • FLbOR.- PL^S W 



HOUSE AT CHESTNUT HILL, MASS. 
J. lovell Little, Jr., architect. 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 7. PLATE 105. 




HOUSE AT CHESTNUT HILL. MASS. 
J. Lovell Little, Jr., Architect. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 7. PLATE 106 _ 





HOUSE AT CHESTNUT HILL, PA. 
Horace Trumbauer, architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16. NO. 7. p LATE 107 . 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 7. pLAT£ , 08 _ 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 7. 



PLATE 109. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 

VOL. 16, NO. 7. PLATE 110. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 7. PLATE ln 




DETAIL OF CENTRAL MOTIF, MAIN FACADF ■ 

SPRING GARDEN BRANCH, FREE LIBRARY OF PHILADELPHIA 

Field & Medary, Architects. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 7. PLATE 112. 





DETAIL OF LOWER PORTION 

York & Sawyer, Architects 



OP' HEPUBLIUAN CLUB, NEW YOHK CITY 



THE BRICKBUILDER 
MAY, 
1904. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVI 



AUGUST 1907 



Number <S 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street ....... Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



Copyright, 1907, hy Rogers it Manson 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and Canada ...... 55-°° P cr }' rjr 

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For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Teria Cotta 

Brick .... 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



pack 

II 

II 

II and III 

III 



Brick Enameled 
Clay Chemicals 
Fireproofing 
Roofing Tile 



PAGE 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



CONTENTS 



From Work by 



BUTLER & RODMAN; CARRERE & HASTINGS; HELMLE & HUBERTY; ROBERT D. 

KOHN; BENJAMIN WISTAR MORRIS; PEABODY & STEARNS; HORACE 

TRUMBAUER; WALKER & MORRIS; WARREN & WETMORE. 



LETTERPRESS 

PACK 

HATFIELD HOUSE, THE CLOCK TURRET, HERTFOR 1>SH I KK. ENGLAND Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS 

NEW SHOP FRONTS. I Edv > in 2 

THE USE OF ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA IN THE WEST STREET BUILDING NEW YORK, 

( harla I . II a/ 1 1 n 1 11 

WHAT $7,500 WILL DO IN BUILDING A FIREPROOF HOUSE • barren 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY. ... 




HATFIELD HOUSE, THE CLOCK TURRET, HERTFORDSHIRE, ENGLAND. 




THE BRICKBVILDER 





VOL. 16 



DEVOTEDTO THE-1NTERE3UOF-ARCHITECTVRE-1N MATERlALf-Or-CLAT- 



AUGUST 1907 



;!<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<{<«<<«<<<<<«««««»»»»»»»»»»»»»>»»»»»»»»»»»3ia 5 




THE ETHICS OF ADVERTISING. 

TH E profession of architecture is peculiar in that before 
the architect can effectivelydemonstrate his capacity 
he must find some kindly client who will pay all the bills 
for the experiment. Nor do the difficulties of the situation 
cease when the architect has acquired a fairly settled 
practice, for the search for the client must ever continue, 
the necessity for new opportunities is ever present, and 
the architect who hides his light under a bushel has only 
himself to thank if he lives and dies unknown and untried. 
His light must be set on a hill or there is no architectural 
opportunity for him. In the middle ages the architect 
was a mere upper mechanic possessed of a certain 
experience and cleverness in laying out work. To-day he 
must be a leader and known of all men, and the problem 
of how to get work involves some fine questions of ethics 
which are not necessarily elucidated by a course of college 
training. The architect, like every other man in business, 
must advertise directly or indirectly, one way or another, 
for surely architecture should be no less businesslike for 
being a fine art. 



IT has been assumed that there are only four ways for 
an architect to acquire a practice: to ally himself with 
a speculative builder; to employ runners or agents to 
deliberately drum up work; to take part in competitions, 
earnestly and often; or to identify himself with the com- 
munity, grow up with it, allowing years for a gradual 
growth. The first two methods mean a degree of self- 
abasement and self-effacement which absolutely prohibits 
any genuine architectural development, and are unethical 
i-n that they lead to artistic falsehood, to placing money 
above art, and to almost inevitable business dishonesty. 
Besides, such means are rarely successful in building up a 
practice, and those who have profited most by them would 
be the first to condemn them. Competitions as a means 
of building up a steady business remind one of Dr. 
Johnson's simile of a dog walking on his hind legs, 'tis 
never done well ; we only wonder that it should be tried 
at all. 



THERE remains, then, the fourth way; to grow up 
with his community. The rate of growth will be de- 
termined almost entirely by his innate ability and by the 
extent to which he can rightly place himself before his fel- 
low men. Assuming that the architect has real ability, ap- 
preciates the artistic possibilities of the profession, and 



has taken it as both vocation and avocation, there should 
be little uncertainty as to his course or doubt of the out- 
come. He may join clubs, and thereby form business 
friendships; he may win friends through politics or 
religion ; he may join architectural societies or contribute 
to the journals, but these factors are really of value only 
as they serve to make him a part of the life about him, 
and fit him to become a leader of men, for only as such 
can he acquire the kind of greatness which leads to 
abundant success. The architect must advertise, he 
must be known. People must appreciate what he stands 
for and what he can do; but the mere placing a card in a 
large journal or making speculative alliances does not 
mean architectural opportunities. Architecture to-day 
comes pretty near being the index of civilization, and to 
grasp the larger opportunities the architect simply must 
be a leader. There may be some mute, inglorious 
Miltons pegging away in the lower ranks of the profes- 
sion, unsuspected by those about them, but it is a pretty 
safe general statement that the great architectual prizes 
of the past few years have gone to men who were not 
only architecturally fitted to handle them, but were also 
men who had made themselves leaders, who had devel- 
oped what we term executive ability, and who were 
honored by the community at large. 



TO acquire this leadership, this recognition as an archi- 
tect, is not possible to all; many are called but few 
are chosen, but every one who is really in earnest can at 
least raise his average. He can make himself known not 
merely by his buildings but also by his attitude on the 
public questions which are so closely related to architec- 
ture. He can come out from the cloistered life so dear 
to many an artist, be a mixer in the affairs of his fellow 
men, and try to place himself always in line with what 
is. best and most beautiful. He can have the courage of 
his artistic conviction, and show in his life the pride of his 
profession, and if in time he is not a leader among men, 
a molder of thought and destiny and a weaver of the imper- 
ishable records of civilization in the shape of noble public 
buildings, it is no fault but his own. The public is looking 
for leaders, -- it asks but to be led, and so long as thearchi- 
tect takes the position to which his profession entitles him, 
doing his level best because he loves it rather than for 
money, and gives his best thought and effort to the com- 
munity which is so ready to reward him, just so long is 
he advertising himself in the best and truest manner, and 
in just such a degree will his progress be swift and sure. 



136 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



New Shop Fronts. I. 

BY EDWIN TROWBRIDGE. 

ONE of the chief difficulties in designing buildings 
devoted to trade is the manifest incapacity of glass 
to carry weight. In all shopping districts, the first story, 
and often the second story, is devoted to displaying the 
objects for sale, and becomes, in fact, exactly what its 
name indicates, the show window. The desire is natu- 
rally to gain as much space as possible, well within the 
range of vision of the passer-by, in which to make an at- 
tractive assembling of merchandise. Every pier or 
column and even the necessary window frames are be- 
grudged, as they diminish the area of window space. 
The building above may be monumental, massive, of 
stone or of brick and terra cotta ; in fact, composed of tons 
of building material, all of which has no visible means of 
support, unless it be by a few meager columns, and the 
result has been far from satisfactary. 

The strength of iron is now so well known, that masses 
which in the early part of the nineteenth century would 
have seemed apparently too heavy for their supports, are 
now accepted without hesitancy, the mental attitude as 
to what is apparently strong and safe structure having 
become readjusted to changed conditions, not alone 
amongst the architects, but also amongst the general 
public. For a considerable length of time attempts have 
been made by placing heavy piers at longer intervals 
than formerly was done and spanning from pier to pier 
either by a flat arch or by a girder of obviously great 
strength, to create a first-story motive that manifestly 
could carry the load of the stories above, but this treat- 
ment was necessarily so large in scale that it was out of 
harmony with the rest of the building, and usually inhar- 
monious with the objects in the show windows, which 
were in most cases comparatively small and often delicate 
in character. Especially was this the case in the retail 
shopping district, where millinery, dress goods and all 
sorts of fantastic confections required a setting which was 
less brutal than the heavy pier and lintel. Also there 
was little opportunity for individuality or for variety in 
the single sheet of plate glass between two uprights of 
stone; and the very raison (fitre of the show window is 
to advertise, and to advertise with ingenuity, with a 
certain element of the spectacular, with riclame. Not 
only must the show windows be capable of displaying 
goods liberally and well, but they must do it with char- 
acter, with distinction and, above all, with unique quality. 
The first attempts to bring the details of this great 
glass panel at the base of a building into scale with its 
contents was in the subdivision of the glass. Mullions 
and transoms are introduced, at times without further 
detail, elsewhere with very considerable effect of molding 
and carving, etc., upon these secondary features, and it 
becomes more and more apparent that the framing of the 
show window justifies a type and variety of detail which 
is separate from that of the building itself, and is to a 
certain extent isolated and sufficient unto itself and is to 
receive attention for its individual virtues. In fact, the 
show window is to be considered as sui generis. It 
has its antitype, in a sense, in the individual details 
around cathedral portals, which, while harmonizing in 
their light and shade with the great structural features 



of the building, are still complete in themselves, and deco- 
rate as well as adorn. 

At the moment that the show window is considered 
as a decorative frame to its contents it begins to have 
character and interest, for, after all, trade architecture 
is exposition architecture, and has in it the necessity for 
fantasy and for spectacular effect. Up to that time it is 
merely a utilitarian opening adapted to a use. The 
earlier show windows have the glass not only subdivided 
by mullions and transoms, but also by leading, and as 
leading is thin and poor, if the pieces of glass are large, 
and as it interrupts the spectator's view of the objects 
displayed, if they are small, the leaded glass was in 
most cases placed above the transoms where it would not 
interfere with the view. Yet such a disposition seemed 
a waste of good window space, decorative it might be 
in a sense, but not of sufficient advertising character. 
Attempts were made for gaiety by gilding the lead, but 
this distracted the attention from the wares, and the 
space above the transoms began to be utilized by the 
erection of shelves and even of little galleries, upon 
which the contents of the stores were displayed. 

The continually increasing enrichment of the show 
window in its panel between the piers, its individual 
treatment and its evidently applied quality, that is, the 
effect which it produces of not being a structural part of 
the building, has tended to divert the attention of the 
observer from the base of the building as a base, and 
cause a feeling that after all the facade may be supported 
behind the window and that this is simply an affiche 
upon its face; and, as a matter of fact, this is often the 
case. It does not necessarily diminish the effect of sta- 
bility in a wall, if landscapes are painted at its base, or if 
posters are displayed upon it, and in the case of the show 
window, the glass and its divisions, the enrichments of 
the jambs and mullions and transoms, and the objects 
in the window itself, become merely decorative planes, 
behind which it is quite conceivable that there may lurk 
strong supports to carry the superposed facade. In fact, 
it is no longer a void. It has become a separate entirety 
on the face of the building. It is interesting to note this 
fact, for it is exactly the result desired by the occupants. 
They care little, or not at all, for the general effect of the 
building, excepting in so far as it is distinguished in ap- 
pearance. Their desire is to make an attractive and 
unique exposition of their wares, and the building itself 
as it increases in height is more and more courting distant 
observation, not near at hand and intimate inquiry. 
But in order that both the building and the show win- 
dow shall have their individual character and their 
relative importance, the show window must be enriched, 
detailed and personal. 

No. i has a well arranged and inviting entrance below 
the level of the street. The upper portion has become 
the more important part of the design. There is little 
effort to subdivide the glass surfaces, simple transom 
and mullions, the latter, in the form of pilasters, being 
the only motives used. The moldings are delicate and 
refined in character. 

No. 2 has an entrance level with sidewalk ; the second 
story is the important feature, and muntins only divide 
the glass. The window lintel is loaded at its center by 
a panel, and the effect is one of weakness. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



137 





NO. I. FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 



NO. 2. FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 




NO. 3. FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 



NO. 4. CHESTNUT STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 





NO. 5. FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 



NO. 6. WALNUT STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 



THE BR ICKBUILDER 





NO. 7. CHESTNUT STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 



NO. 8. WALNUT STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 





NO. 9. CHESTNUT STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 



NO. 10. CHESTNUT STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 





NO. II. WALNUT STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 



NO. 12. FIFTH VVENUE, NEW YORK. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



139 



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THEODORE A ". K0h1 sT^ 



NO. 13. TREMONT STREET, BOSTON. 



NO. 14. KIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 





NO. 15. FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 



NO. 16. FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 



140 



THE BRICKBUILDKR 



In No. 3 the window is framed very much in the 
manner in which a picture would be framed. 'Phis 
motive could be successful if well treated ; in this case 
the frame for the second story window is too broad and 
out of scale with the first story detail. 

No. 4 has the glass leaded above the transom, and 
has taken full advantage of the recessed doorway. It is 
of interest only as representing a type. 

No. 5 has its windows advanced in bays. The second 
story is the important feature, the first story being below 
the level of the sidewalk. There is but little interest in 
the design. The facade at the left, which has a third 
story show window divided by mullions and transoms, 
produces a better sense of gradation in the general design 
than does the one at the right, in which the scale changes 
abruptly from the second to the third story. 

No. 6 has well considered subdivisions of glass and 
has adopted a hood over the door and another in the 
form of a slightly projecting tiled roof over the entire 
window. The hoods and the curved lines at the tops of 
the sashes, and the corbels, give an impression of con- 
sidered detail, which of itself is interesting. 

No. 7 is well arranged in its proportions and detail 
within and including the frame of the opening, but has 
a heavy frieze and excessive cornice of poor detail. 

No. 8 has individuality, — the frame projection and 
heavy shadow of the string course under the bay, with 
the strong brackets like beam ends supporting the bay, 
give opportunity for the treatment of the window alone 
by itself without regard to the facade above. This has 
been done, and while the detail appears coarse, the idea 
has character. Many of the shop windows of oriental 
streets and bazaars, and of the mediaeval facades which 
remain in small French and Italian towns, have this 
quality. They are low, broad and intimate in character; 
they seem to court investigation, and either in the shut- 
ters or over the transoms are to be found interesting 
pieces of detail. Indian architecture also is full of sug- 
gestive schemes for shop fronts and show windows, espe- 
cially in relation to advancing and retreating planes. As 
far as grilles are concerned, it is very easy to overdo the 
amount of importance given to them. There is nothing 
more puerile than the perpetual introduction of turned 
balusters used as screens, or than an over-abundance of 
grill work, whether of metal or of wood, but the occa- 
sional introduction of either as an ornamental detail is 
often most successful. 

Both No. 9 and No. io have an arched motive above 
the transom, the tympana being filled with leaded glass. 
No. io has the lighter and more delicate treatment, but 
is unfortunate in having no colonnette to support the 
lintel below the spring of the third arch. It would have 
sacrificed but little window space to have inserted a sup- 
port at this point, and would have materially improved 
the design. In No. 9 the constructive motive is satisfac- 
tory, but the detail of the arches is somewhat heavy for 
the lintel. 

In this design, also, curved glass is used in the vesti- 
bule recess. Curved glass reflects light like a polished 
cylinder, and is objectionable in a show window, as it 
distorts objects within, and by its reflections prevents 



them from being seen excepting close at hand. In No. 
10 the show window has been advanced beyond the face 
of the wall above, and therefore is disassociated from it, 
as far as effect of support is concerned, and as a matter 
of fact the effect is produced of the wall of the building 
being supported behind the show window, and inde- 
pendently of it, which is an advantage. 

No. 11, a shop front and show window associated 
with a simple brick front, is excellent in detail and effect. 
The cornice not only acts as a strong lintel ample to sup- 
port the facade, but it projects with corbels, which assist in 
apparently supporting the balcony. The doorway is ad- 
equately detailed and interesting, the modillions being 
perhaps a trifle heavy, and the window has its own suffi- 
cient trim. The subdivision of the glass over the tran- 
som is in the style and in harmony with the other detail, 
and evidently this shop front has improved rather than 
detracted from the original building. 

In No. 12 the transom has become a hood supported 
on carved brackets, the transom lights forming a second 
story above this hood. Compare this with No. 6 and 
note the gradual transition between the show window 
and the face of the building, instead of the abrupt change 
in No. 6, in which the hood is above the transom lights. 
The entrance in No. 12 is accented by a low arch form- 
ing a central axial motive, and the vestibule is closed at 
night by an ornamental gate. 

No. 13 is two-storied, the lintel over the main opening 
being assisted by a low arch with small thin spandrels, 
the transom lights are filled with prisms, and the mar- 
quise is on the transom line over the central entrance 
only. This also is a rectangular marquise, supported by 
chains, but full advantage t is taken of the effect gained 
by pendants. The corbel course and balustrade over the 
show window opening form a successful transition be- 
tween this opening and the architectural motives above. 
The face of the glass in the show windows is in a plane 
with the face of the columns above, but it would be still 
better if it was in advance of that plane. 

No. 14 is individual in having two entrances with a 
central show window between, all within an arched open- 
ing. The marquise on the transom line advances more 
over the show window than over the recessed entrances, 
thus not only protecting the window, but forming an 
axial feature. It lacks grace, however, and while in scale 
with the architecture seems heavy on its outer edge. 

No. 15 is, as far as the entrances, show windows and 
transoms are concerned, substantially the same as No. 
14. The marquise advances, however, in an elliptical 
plan, extending across the entire opening, is supported by 
ornamental chains and gives a graceful line and shadow. 
It is also lightened in appearance by the pendants on its 
edges. These two examples deserve comparison: the 
first, No. 14, gets its scale by its detail, not by its plan; 
the second, No. 15, gets its scale by the simplicity of its 
plan, and its detail is diminished in size. 

No. 16 is a still better example of the possibilities of a 
simple elliptical marquise. It is admirable in scale and 
detail, is accented at its center, and has a rich and suc- 
cessful associate in the subdivisions of the transom. 
This whole design has distinction. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



141 



The Use of Architectural Terra Cotta 

in the West Street Building, 

New York. 

BY CHARLES P. WARREN. 

'"jPHE architect of the West Street Building is one 
JL of the few who seems to have realized that archi- 
tectural terra cotta is not imitation stone and that it 
should not be used as such; that it is an entirely different 
material, having peculiar properties of its own, and 
should be treated in a wholly different way. The eleva- 
tion shows unmistakably that this has been done. What 
could be more unlike stone than the treatment of the 
upper portion? On the twentieth story, for instance, 
just under the crowning member, what may appear to be 
at first glance a row of Gothic cusps carved in high relief 
from the background is, in reality, a series of round 
arches with a pendent flowered ornament on the soffit. 
As shown in the section on the detail, the whole is pro- 
jected in front of the plane of the wall. The arches 
spring from drops, or pendants, which are hung by rods 
passing through them and fastened to an angle which is 
cantilevered out from the frame. Wherever possible the 
decoration, as in the canopies over the piers between the 
sixteenth-story windows, and over the caps of the 
columns in the nineteenth story, is suspended, or hung, 
from the wall and not projected or cut out as in stone. 
Moreover, the belt courses and moldings are made with 
great overhangs and are deeply undercut, and the 
flowered decoration is in very high relief. 

Obviously such treatment is not suitable to stone, not 
only because the great expense involved would be beyond 
consideration in a commercial building, but also because 
the pendants and drops would soon, from the effects of 
the weather, become dislodged and fall off, and, after a 
few years of weathering, the entire facade wovdd have 
its ornament trimmed off nearly back to the plane of the 
wall. Here, indeed, is a novel, highly interesting and 
very successful use of a misused material. 

In order to still further emphasize the fact that this 

is not an imitation stone 
facade, any construct- 
ive use of the material 
has been carefully 
avoided. The steel 
columns are not mas- 
queraded as stone piers, 
nor are the beams and 
girders hidden behind 
stone arches and lintels. 
Everything is done to 
draw attention to the 
fact that the outside is 
a mere veneer, or cov- 
ering, and has no struc- 
tural function what- 
ever. Instead of at- 
tempting to suggest a 
Gothic clustered pier 

CAPS OF COLUMNS AT NINETEENTH f ° r the twelve-Story 

'story. wall divisions between 








WEST STREET BUILDING, NEW YORK. 
Cass Gilbert, Architect. 

the coupled windows, which would have required deeper 
reveals and many undercut moldings, the wall surface is 
nearly plain, the play of light and shadow being pro- 
duced by reeding. Even in the rows of arches previously 
referred to, there are no corbels, or brackets, built out 
from the wall to give them even a semblance of support. 
They are frankly suspended from above. 

The ornament, moreover, has been designed for this 
particular building. It is not a modification or adapta- 
tion of Gothic ornament, — as a matter of fact there is 
scarcely anything Gothic about the entire facade, — but is 
the result of studies of the effects of light and shade 
made on the models. Contrary to the usual custom, full 
size detail drawings of the ornament were not made. 
Half-size details, however, were made, and from these 
the clay models. On the models, the moldings and 
ornaments were studied, high lights were made here, 
deep shadows there, as they seemed to be required. The 
result is that the whole work has the impress of the in- 
dividuality of the designer. Witness the tourelles 
terminating the corner piers. Could anything be more 
graceful, charming and delightful, and more suited to the 
purpose, than these, but they are not Gothic, nor is it 
easy to classify them with any of the well-known styles. 



142 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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146 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



What $7,500 will do in Building a 
Fireproof House. 

BY ALEX. WARREN. 

WHILE riding through the country the other day in 
the auto with some friends, we had occasion to cut 
through a small side street, and found there a strikingly 
different house from anything I had seen in many a day. 
It was of the French chateau type, but of very simple 
design, as the owner was a man of moderate income 
and did not wish to incur much expense. It was built 



in this room, in fact in several other rooms in the main 
part of the house in the first floor, were plastered between 
rough beams with one coat of rough finish plaster, tinted 
to the shades as required to match the finish of the room. 
The red brick mantel, with its wrought iron crane, added 
to the charm of the room, especially as the brick were 
selected to imitate the very old bricks, the same 
as found in some of the oldest houses, with rounded 
edges and very much discolored. This living-room had 
four very large French windows in it, two of them going 
out into the terrace at the side of the house, the other 
two overlooking the front and rear. Between the living- 
room and the reception room was a small hall finished 








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HOUSE FOR DR. G. E. HALL, NEWTON, MASS. 
H. W. Morton, Architect. 



so as to require the least possible care and expendi- 
ture in repairs in the future, so the architect had chosen 
the hollow terra cotta block type of construction, which 
gave a wall about eight inches thick, plastered on the out- 
side with Portland cement mortar, very roughcast, and 
flush with the trimming stone on the buildings. The in- 
side plaster was put directly on to the blocks, so that 
there was not the least chance for mice, etc., to com- 
municate to the upper part of the house. 

< )n entering the house, — by invitation of the owner, 
Dr. Hall, — from the terrace, we went into the living-room, 
which was paneled four or five feet high with oak wain- 
scotting and plastered above and papered. The ceiling 



the same as the living-room, with a coat closet and a door 
to the vestibule on one side and the stairs to the upper 
story on the other side Dr. Hall said that the reason it 
was so small was that he considered it unnecessary to have 
a large hall when he had such a reception room and a 
large living-room. The reception room was finished in 
wood lattice, stained green, over lilac design wall paper, 
in panels, with trellis effect, all round the room and on 
the ceiling. 

The dining-room was of natural oak finish, with the 
same style ceiling as in the living-room, and with a simple 
board dado about two feet high. The china closet, 
kitchen, kitchen closets and what was called the cold 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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closet, also the rear hall, had a floor made of square clay 
tiles, chosen for variegation and color effects and laid with 
a very small joint. ( >ne reason for this was that there 
was no cellar under this part of the house, and therefore 
it was laid on a bed concrete, which made it warm in 
winter and cool in summer, and at the same time per- 
fectly sanitary, lasting and fireproof. 

The recess in which the stove was set was covered 
over with a galvanized iron hood leading to a vent 
register in the back to keep the odors from broiling, etc., 




BED BOOM 




billiard room or divided into two bedrooms. All the 
rafters of the roof were shown, and between these a fill- 
ing of rough plaster had been used. I noticed that the 
construction was very light, that is, of very small sized 
timbers, and was told that this had been used for two 
reasons: One to save in expense and the other that it 
was all that was necessary, as the roof was so steep and 
high that it was practically a vertical load. Each rafter 
was trussed at the upper part of the room, and a niche at 
the opposite end of the room to the stairs had a delight- 




SEI OND FLOOR PLAN. 



THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 



from getting into the main part of the house. The cold 
closet back of the kitchen, and separated by a kitchen 
closet, held the refrigerator on one side and a screen 
closet on the other side, and so designed those the window 
in winter could be opened, thus saving the expense 
of ice. The walls of this cold closet, as well as those of 
the entire first story of the house, were of the eight-inch 
terra cotta tile of a special design, and so made as to 
have no through joints in which water might work, either 
vertically or horizontally. 

< >ne pleasing thing was a blind door between the 
reception room 

and the rear n 

hall, so made 
that when the 
lattice work in 
the reception 
room was put 
on the joint 
was absolutely 
hidden, and as 
no hardware 
of any kind 
showed in the 
room the door 
was perfectly A i 
secreted. 

The second 
story was filled 
with good sized, 
cool, well lighted bedrooms with large closets wherever 
possible. The linen closet was fitted with drop shelves 
and drawers, and the wood was of red cedar so it could 
be used for storage of winter goods in the summer time 
to protect from the moths. The bathroom had the 
regular fixtures and a large tub fitted with a ring shower, 
also a wood floor and a tile dado to about five feet in 
height. ( )n the third story was a most interesting room 
which was used for a play room at the present time for 
the children, but so designed as to be easily made into a 




i-rrepiftjc J- 




ful large fireplace of red brick, which made the room very 
interesting. All the woodwork had been stained brown 
and the plastering tinted slightly off of the white so as 
not to have too sharp a contrast. The roof of the main 
house and kitchen part was covered with variegated red 
and green slate laid in wavy lines of different sizes and 
thicknesses, and was different from anything I had seen 
in a long time. 

On going down to the first floor again we went 
through the living-room and out of the garden entrance 
across the service driveway to the flower garden, which 

was enclosed 
in a high trel- 
lis of simple 
design and 
painted white, 
and over which 
were growing 
crimson ram- 
biers. Inside 
this trellis was 
a beautiful 
Italian garden, 
with its seats 
and paths, and 
in the center 
a sundial. At 
one end of the 
garden was the 
lily pool of ce- 
ment, with a large rockery at the back of it in which 
were hardy ferns and vines. Seats at each end of 
the pool added to the delightfulness. Beyond the 
Sower garden and at the rear of the place was the 
vegetable garden. 

A small garage of the same type of construction as the 
house had been built in one corner, with space in the 
upper part for a man to live in, and back of the garage a 
large hen yard and a greenhouse. The stable and green- 
house were heated from the same source. 



en nt urr tii wbv Mi ah mi 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



149 



Editorial Comment and Selected 
Miscellany 



disregarded, as 
is instanced by 
the very inter- 
esting work Mr. 



MAKING LONDON BETTER FOR 
THE POOR. 

SOME thirty years ago the work of 
improving the housing condition 
of the poor in our great cities was be- 
gun on a large and systematic basis as 
a result of the bequests of George 
Peabody. Unfortunately, this work in 
England, almost ffom its inception, was 
placed in the hands of a board whose sole idea 
seemed to be that the buildings should be 
well constructed and well planned, but that 
the element of good looks was cpjite beyond 
their province, and that a model tenement 
house could not be model if it were good 
looking. In studying the results which have 
been accomplished in London, one cannot but 
be impressed with the extent to which the 
architectural opportunities have been ig- 
nored. The English architects are, we be- 
lieve, to blame for this condition of affairs. 
The very poor are not the kind of tenants to 
whom one would wish to trust the most artis- 
tic buildings, but an educational force of 
great value is ignored when these tenement 
houses are built with no consideration as to 
beauty. The object of such structures is not 
to provide simply for the physical wants of 
the inmates, but also to actually improve 
their condition, to brighten their prospects, 
and to make them more desirable and more 
aspiring citizens, awakening in them that 
ambition so essential if a people is to really 
progress. To house them in ugly barracks 
is a crime, and the helpless multitude which 
live in these homes will surely reflect a cer- 
tain portion of this ugliness. Fortunately, 
the conditions have not been altogether 
similar in this country. We have some 
pretty bad tenement house districts, and we 
do not boast of our slums, but in the few instances where 
organized efforts have been made to properly house the 
very poor, the element of beauty has been by no means 







DETAIL WEST STREET BUILDING, NEW YORK. 

Cass Gilbert, Architect. 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

Atterbury, Mr. Flagg and others have been 
doing in New York and elsewhere. Any 
commission to study the housing of the poor 
ought to include as a majority of its mem- 
bers, architects who understand the true 
possibilities of building, and who would at 
least try to make these tenement houses 
beautiful as well as hygienic. Aside from 
these considerations is the one of return on 
the capital invested and in this connection 
it may be said that refinement in design 
does not necessarily call for expensive 
elaboration. 









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SCHOOLS IN CITY PARKS. 

PRESIDENT CHARLES W. ELIOT in 
the Outlook has advocated a scheme, 
first proposed, we understand, by J. R. 
Coolidge, Jr., the t Koston architect, to re- 
lieve the congested down-town school dis- 
tricts and give the children better accom- 
modation in more helpful surroundings. 
The idea is that the city should utilize the 
outlying parks as sites for school buildings 
to which the children from the slum districts could be 
brought by the elevated trains in the morning, and 
returned at the close of the sessions, the city super- 
vising them in transit, and providing them with lunch 
and suitable opportunities for recreation. The problem 
of providing school facilities in the congested tenement 
house districts is a serious one both on account of the 
high cost of the land and the difficulty of obtaining ade- 
quate and satisfactory sanitary surroundings. New York 
has, in some cases, tried to solve the problem by build- 
ing tall structures with elevator service and providing 
roof gardens in which the children could obtain recreation. 
It is argued, however, with a good deal of truth, that 
Mr. Coolidge's scheme is far better. The land would 
cost the city nothing, the buildings would not constitute 
serious encroachment upon the larger parks, and the 
saving in first cost would more than offset the added 



•5o 



THE BRICKBUJLDER 




ill! ft aaaa! gJjSS 

liiiiiiifiE aiiaiiiiiuni 
■Huiiiiil laniiiiuufi. 

miui ii " " 

SlKjiiiS« : l^ 




SECURITY BANK BUILDING. 

Long & Long, Architects. 

Paced from ground up on three sides with satin finish enameled 

brick. Made by Tiffany Enameled Brick Co. 

expense of car fares, supervision and lunches, while the 
benefit to the children themselves from being out in the 
fresh air away from the slums of the city would, from a 
physical standpoint, be highly desirable. It is also doubt- 
ful if the fatigue of the travel on the cars to and fro 
would be as much physical discomfort as climbing long 
flights of stairs and remaining in the crowded down-town 
districts. At the time the children would be using the cars 
for transit, the bulk of the travel would be in the opposite 
direction, and they could consequently be easily accom- 
modated by the roads. This is a project which deserves 
very careful consideration, and there is hardly any doubt 
of the benefit it would be to the children, or of the relief 
it would afford to the congested tenement house districts. 





bonding course, 
except where 
walls are faced 
with face brick, 
in which case in 
every eight 
course at least 
every other 
brick shall be a 
full header. No 
diagonal header 
ties shall be 
used. 

The diag- 
onal header 
bond which has 

been used for so many years to tie face work into the back- 
ing has never been satisfactory nor have we ever felt very 
much confidence in any of the metal ties which have 
been advocated for this purpose. It will be remembered 
that the brick facing of some of the buildings in the Balti- 
more fire, notably the Continental Building, was entirely 
peeled away from the backing, notwithstanding the pres- 
ence of the metal ties of the standard spacing. The 
Flemish bond has been considered as giving the 
most thorough bond. The Boston statute permits a 
variate from this, but of course does not prohibit ad- 
ditional bonding if desired. There is a form of bond, to 
which reference has lately been made, which is used quite 



DETAIL BY NKW YORK ARCHITECTURAL 
TERRA COTTA CO. 




COMMERCIAL NATIONAL HANK BUILDING, CHICAGO. 

1). H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 

"Milford Granite" Colored Terra Cotta above third story. 

North-Western Terra Cotta Co , Makers. 

Fireproofed by The National Fireproofiug Co. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



'5i 




membered, however, that no 
bond is of very much value 
unless the bricks are thor- 
oughly bedded in good 
mortar. 



PUBLIC BATH HOUSE, ST. LOUIS. 

James A. Smith, Architect. 

Terra Cotta made by St. Louis Terra Cotta Co. 



commonly in engineering work in the East Indies, called 
the Habri bond. In this construction each course is 
laid in the same manner and consists of two rows of 
stretchers alternating with one row of headers across the 
thickness of the wall. 
In the next course 
above the bricks are 
laid in exactly the 
same manner but set- 
ting over toward one 
face of the wall a 
quarterbrick, so as to 
break joints, the face 
brick thus requiring to 
be clipped. This bond 
is not specially good 
for thin walls, but for 
heavy masonry con- 
structions makes a 
very strong construc- 
tion and knits the 
whole thoroughly to- 
gether when properly built. It seems better than the 
Flemish bond, and is far better than any Flemish bond 
which is not carried clear through the wall. It must be re- 




DETAIL BY SOUTH AMBOY 
TERRA COTTA CO. 




HOUSE AT PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Alden & Harlow, Architects. 
Roofed with Ludowici-Celadon Tiles 



BUILDING OPERA- 
TIONS FOR JULY. 

TH E long prevailing pros- 
perity in building 
operations continues with 
little abatement, practically 
none if Greater New York 
be eliminated from the calcu- 
lations. Official reports from 
fifty-five leading building 
centers collected by The 
American Contractor, New 
York, and tabulated, shows 
a loss in twenty-six cities and 
a gain in twenty-nine as com- 
pared with July, 1906. The 

losses are comparatively light from a monetary standpoint, 
with the exception of New York city, which brings down 
the total decrease to 1 1 per cent. This decline must be 

chiefly ascribed to the 
enormous operations 
of recent years and the 
consequent supply of 
new buildings. The 
following figures show 
the percentage of gain 
in some of the cities: 
Chicago, 10; Cleve- 
land, 21 ; Chattanooga, 
276; Dallas, 44; Den- 
ver, 21 ; Detroit, 48; 
Duluth, 28; Milwau- 
kee, 40; Mobile, 37; 
Nashville, 15; New 
Haven, 12; Omaha, 
2 2 ; Paterson, 1 10. 
Losses are as follows : 
Baltimore, 39 ; Birmingham, 60 ; Buffalo, 1 7 ; Harrisburg, 
7; Hartford, 42 ; Indianapolis, 16; Kansas City, 17; Louis- 
ville, 78; Los Angeles, 26; Minneapolis, 37 ; New Orleans, 




BARRACKS AT FORT ONTARIO, OSWEGO, N. Y. 
Built of dark red brick made by Jewellville Pressed & Paving Brick Co. 



152 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



31 : New York, 23 ; Philadelphia, 7 ; Pittsburg, 43 ; Pueblo, 
39; St. Louis. 7: San Francisco, 28; Syracuse, 33; Salt 
Lake City, 33 ; Topeka, 24. The total loss as compared 
with July, 1906, is 11 per cent. The gains and losses 
are widely distributed and show a response to demands 
for new buildings. 



IN GENERAL. 



The entrance of the Weld Roatclub, illustrated in the 
plate form of this issue, is richly ornamented with terra 
cotta, and the boat pediment above the entrance is also 
of terra cotta, all being the work of the Atlantic Terra 
Cotta Co. 

The "Hermitage," Robert D. Kohn, architect, illus- 
trated in the Plate Form of this issue, was built of brick 
furnished by the New York office of Fiske & Company. 

Harbison-Walker Refractories Company furnished the 
brick used in the West Street Building, Cass Gilbert, 
architect, illustrated in a special article in this issue. 

The main entrance to the Metropolitan Building, St. 
Louis, Mauran, Russell & Garden, 
architects, will be treated in Faience, 
made by the Hartford Faience Co. 

The Hydraulic-Press Brick Co. of 
St. Louis, will furnish 1,250,000 gray 
impervious brick for the New Palace 
Hotel, San Francisco, Trowbridge & 
Livingston, architects. 

Terra cotta will be supplied by the 
Indianapolis Terra Cotta Co. for the 
following new buildings: — Two school 
houses, Charleston, W. Ya., Martin - 
dale & Rigg, architects ; Warren Co. 



NEW- 
IK » IKS. 

A CADE M Y 

Architecture: 
(Am. Ed., Vol. 
XXXI— 1907). 
Edited by 
Alex. Koch, 
Architect, con- 
taining : I. — 
A Selection of 
the most 
prominent Ar- 
ch i t e c t ural 
Drawings 
hung at the 
Exhibitions of 
the Royal Ac- 
ademy, Lon- 
don, and the 
Royal G 1 a s - 
gow Institute 






DETAIL BY HENRY BAECHLIN, ARCHITECT. 
New Jersey Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



DETAIL, WEST STREET IIUILDING, NEW YORK. 
Atlantic Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



of the Fine Arts, Glasgow. II. — 
Sculptures. III. — American Archi- 
tecture. IV. — A Review of interest- 
ing architectural subjects carried out 
or designed during the last few years 
in England and Abroad. Price 
§1.75, postpaid. Agent for United 
States and Canada, M. A. Vinson, 
205 Caxton Bldg., Cleveland. Ohio. 



DETAIL, WEST STREET BUILDING, NEW VORK. 
Atlantic Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



Courthouse, 
Williamsport, 
Ind., J. W. 
Royer, archi- 
tect; Y. M. C. 
.\ . Iluilding, 
B>loomington, 
111., Arthur L. 
Pillsbury, archi- 
tect; Churchill 
Iluilding, Burl- 
ington, 111., H.I. 
Goddard, archi- 
t e c t ; High 
School Iluild- 
ing, M i 1 roy, 
Ind., W.Walter 
Skilling, archi- 
tect. Some of 
the work will be 
executed in col- 
or and glazes. 



WANTED— In an architect's office located in a city in Mexico, a 
first class draughtswoman who is competent in design and construc- 
tion. A good permanent position. Address Mexico, care of THE 
BRICKBUILDER. 

An architect of designing and artistic ability, experienced, espe- 
cially in public buildings, desires to associate himself with a practis- 
ing architect in a large and progressive city. Address " Architect," 
care of THE BRICKBUILDER. 

The George Washington University 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 
DIVISION OF ARCHITECTURE 

Offers a four-year technical course leading to the degree of Bachelor of 
Science in Architecture, and a three-year special course for architectural 
draughtsmen. For catalogues, application blanks and further informa- 
tion, address The Registrar. 

SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

The Four Year Course. Kull professional training with an option in Architectural 
Kngineering leading to the degree of B. S. in Architecture. Advanced standing 
is offered to college graduates or the two degrees of A. 1'.. and B. S. in Architecture 
can be taken in six years. 

The Graduate Year affords opportunity for advanced work in design and other sub- 
jects of the course leading to the degree of M. S. in Archilecture. 

The Two Year Special Course. For qualified draughtsmen. Offers advanced technical 
training with a Certificate of Proficiency. 

For Full Information address Dr. J. H. Pen'niman, Dean. College Hall, University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

A Limited Number of the illustrated " Review ** of the School of Architecture, for 
1907, can be supplied to those who will enclose ii4 cents in stamps with their 
applications. Address for the '* Review," Professor Warren P. Laird. College 
Hall, as above. 



TH E B R I C K B U I L DE R . 

VOL. 16. NO. 8. PLATE 113. 








* l» 



«* 



STABLE. 139 WEST FIFTY-FIFTH STREET. NEW YORK. 
Warren & wetmore, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16. NO. 8. PLATE 114. 




THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 16. NO. 8. PLATE 115. 





THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 8. PLATE 116. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 8. PLATE 117. 





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riRJT M_ 00 R PLAN 
WELD BOATHOUSE, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 
Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 



VOL. 16, NO. 8. 



PLATE 118. 




d ECOND • flpoR.- PLAN ■ 



WELD BOATHOUSE, CAMBRIDGE, MASS 
Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 8. PLATE 119. 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSE AT TARRYTOWN, N Y 
Peabooy & Stearns, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 8. PLATE 120. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 
HOUSE AT TABRYTOWN. N. Y 
Peabooy & Stearns, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 8. p LATE 12 i. 





• FIRST FLOOR • 

HOUSE FOR JOSEPH G. SPURR, ESQ., NKWAHK. N J. 
Benjamin Wistar Morris, Architect. 



VERANDA 



I 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

VOL. 16, NO. 8. PLATE 122. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 8. PLATE 123. 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



THIRD FLOOR PLAN 




HOUSE AND STABLE, 

AT 

PENLLYN, PA. 

HORACE TRUMBAUER, 

ARCHITECT. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



I 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 8. p LATE 124 . 




MADISON AVENUE BAPTIST CHURCH PARISH HOUSE. NEW YORK. 

Butler & Rodman, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 8. PLATE 125. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 




3 



READING ROOW 



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VOL. 16, NO. 8. 



PLATE 126. 




15 3" 

riRST rxooR 



THE "HERMITAGE" HOTEL. SEVENTH AVENUE, NEAR FORTY-SECOND STREET 

NEW YORK. Robert D. Kohn, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 8. PLATE 127. 




FROM THE FIELD. 



. A r>l D ftVENUE 




r ^ 



PLAN OF FIP^ST FLOOR 

Mt.t»Lt .ft MuBtRTV 



■pATa-AUE. ftHOUND 



ATHLETIC BUILDING, PROSPECT PARK, BROOKLYN. 

HELMLE & HUBERTY, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 8. p LA TE 128. 



"* 




FRONT ENTRANCE, CONEY ISLAND AVENUE. 




ATHLETIC BUILDING, PROSPECT PARK, BROOKLYN 

HELMLE & HUBERTY, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVI SEPTEMBER 1907 Number 9 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 
85 Water Street ....... Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March it, 1892. Copyright, 1907, by Rogers & Manson 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and Canada ........■•■ p5-°° P'' r ?''■" 

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For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Terra Cotta 

Brick .... 



PACK 

Ill and IV 

IV 

IV 

IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



PAGE 




11 


Brick Enameled 


11 


Clay Chemicals 


11 and III 


Fireproofing 


III 


Roofing Tile 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

GROSVENOR ATTERBURY; BABB, COOK & WILLARD; PHILIP B. HOWARD; LORD & 

HEWLETT; PHILLIPS, ROGERS & WOODYATT; FRITZ SCHUMACHER; 

WHITFIELD & KING; W. CARBYS ZIMMERMAN. 



LETTERPRESS 



PACK 



RAGDALE OLD HALL, LEICESTERSHIRE, ENGLAND Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS '53 

THE GROUP PLAN. III. HOSPITALS <n Git hens 154 

NEW SHOP FRONTS. II Edwin 1 

INEXPENSIVE HOUSES OF FIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION 163 

THE PHIPPS MODEL TENEMENT HOUSES |6 S 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 




- 
< 

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a; 
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■w«<<<<<<<»<<<<<<<<<<^<<<<^^<^<^<<<v^<<<</<<.>>>>>>v»»»v»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»w>»»»»»ii 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




YOL. 16 



DEVOTEDTO THE-INTERE3IfOf -ARCHITECTVRE-IN MATERIAU-OFCLAY- 



SEPTEMBER 1907 




5 v «v««<«i'«r<<r^< < <««:-rc?«:^^^ ) 



X 




A SUMMER HOTEL AS AN INVESTMENT. 

THE fact that so many summer hotels mysteriously 
catch fire and are destroyed at the end of a dull 
season is not necessarily an evidence of attempt on the 
part of the owners to beat the underwriters. A dull 
season means small profits, deferred hopes, disappointed 
prospects and resulting lack of interest in the property, 
which leads to carelessness such as might easily allow a 
bad fire to be started without malicious intent. It is cer- 
tainly a fact, however, that, whether intentionally or 
otherwise, the life of the average summer hotel is quite 
short and is usually terminated by conflagration. It is 
also a fact that these structures are not always very good 
investments, and it is our conviction that the cause for 
their repaying so poorly the capital invested is not far to 
seek. They are generally poorly designed, wretchedly 
arranged, and built with no consideration for even 
retarding the spread of ordinary fires, and the experi- 
ence of a number of well-built hotels seems to show that 
if these structures were better built, if their architecture 
was less open to reproach, and if they combined in their 
construction at least a slight degree of resistance to 
ordinary fires, they would prove better investments for 
several reasons. They would live longer on account of 
the reduction of fire risk ; they would keep in better 
order with a less bill of repairs because of better and 
more thorough construction ; and above all, they would 
appeal to the public more strongly and in direct propor- 
tion to the excellence of the architectural design. 



and consequently are not willing to consider these struc- 
tures as investments, but rather as speculations, notwith- 
standing the frequent and costly object lessons which 
every favorite country resort can show. 



A WELL-BUILT, well planned and good looking hotel 
in a fair location, and run in a good manner, will at- 
tract far more patronage than a cheap fire trap in the most 
advantageous site that could be found. And there are 
plenty of instances of well designed and well constructed 
hotels tucked away in poor locations which have owed a 
very considerable share of their publicity and success to 
the catchy pictures of the architect's designs which have 
been published in the advertisements of the house. 
In other words, the experience in this line is much 
the same as with the large city hotels; the best ones pay 
the most. The commercial value of good looks, the 
advertising value of thorough construction can be dem- 
onstrated in country hotels quite as effectively as in any 
other class of buildings. The great trouble usually is 
that the promoters are looking to a very few years of 
quick profits to enable them to recoup the whole outlay, 



THE problem is one of the most fascinating which is 
known to the architect. In proportion as the country 
develops we can hope for more permanence in these 
summer resorts. We can remember the days when the 
style of the Fort William Henry at Lake George repre- 
sented everything that was best in a summer hotel. We 
would not be satisfied with such shoddy magnificence 
now, but we have yet a good deal to hope for. It is 
only of quite recent years that our large city hotels have 
been well designed and well built, and if the country 
hotels were to be considered as investments rather than 
speculations, and more emphasis given to a worthy archi- 
tectural treatment, to fire resisting, and in many cases to 
fireproof construction, we believe that such struc- 
tures would command the following of the public, and 
would prove, in the long run, to be thoroughly good 
investments, even though the returns in a single pros- 
perous year would not be relatively as great as are now 
won by some of the shoddy seaside fabrics. 



THE cost of a summer hotel which would be reason- 
ably fireproof would not be so great as to be in any 
sense prohibitive for any structure of one hundred rooms 
and upward. The building itself could be built with ma- 
sonry constructed walls and fireproof floors at an expense 
of something like eight cents a cubic foot. The cost of 
an ordinary wooden structure, in many cases, runs up 
over ten cents a cubic foot, and the cost of the finished 
work, if carried out in what would be fairly called fire- 
proof construction, would probably not be more than 
five per cent above the cost of a completed wooden 
structure. The average successful country hotel, when 
constructed of wood, will earn fifteen to twenty per 
cent on the investment in a good year, but its life is 
short, and after it has been up a few years it generally 
looks shabby and ceases to draw. On the other hand, a 
fireproof structure could be counted on to earn ten per 
cent for an indefinite period and keep its fresh appear- 
ance for many years. So that as an investment, even 
at slightly greater outlay, it would be much preferable. 
There have been a few cases of such hotels which have 
been built in various parts of the country, and they have 
almost always brought success when well designed. 



154 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 



The Group Plan. 

HOSPITALS. 



III. 



BY ALFRED MORTON GITHENS. 

(Articles I and II were published in The Brickbuilder for July 

and September, 1906.) 

ARCHITECTURAL expression of the hospital seems 
to have extended through the entire range of {es- 
thetic possibilities from the lowliest to the most monu- 
mental. Archa-ologists find that certain Egyptian temples 
were used chiefly as hospitals ; at the other extreme were 
the temporary structures of sixty years ago, resulting 
from Florence Nightingale's much-quoted advice that 
buildings for the treatment of the sick be of such mate- 
rial that they might be burned every ten or twelve years 
and new ones constructed. Asepsis and Antisepsis have 
done away with this theory and the ideal modern hospital 
is a permanent group of buildings thoroughly well lighted, 
ventilated and easily cleansed. Variety of arrangement 
seems unlimited. Combination after combination of 
wards and pavilions has been tried and still each new plan 
differs from its predecessors. Burdett has attempted 
this classification, now widely accepted as a standard : 
Pavilion Hospitals, Block Hospitals and Corridor Hospi- 
tals; but since certain groups are not distinctly any of 
these, he whimsically adds a Heap-of-Buildings Hospital. 
The first example of the pavilion class in America, and 
one of the very best of its type, is the Johns-Hopkins 
Hospital in Baltimore, planned thirty years ago under 
the direction of Dr. Billings. Former hospitals had been 



RVTHOLOGY 



Laundry 




Amphitheatre 



PAYING -MEN PAYIMG-VtWCN 

JOHNS-HOPKINS HOSPITAL, BALTIMORE, MARYLAND. 
(As originally planned.) 

of the block or corridor type with wards closely connected 
and in many cases having administration and service in 
the same building. Dr. Billings attempted complete iso- 
lation of wards, each in a pavilion having passages con- 
necting its basement with other wards and with the first 
floor of the general administration and service. 



Such arrangement is, of course, possible only where 
land is not closely restricted. It is to-day the most gen- 
erally approved type for country or suburban hospitals, 
as evidenced recently by the programme of the Municipal 
Hospital for the District of Columbia. Mr. Day's suc- 
cessful design is a development of this system. The 
Freedmen's Hospital at Washington, on a smaller scale, 
is another example. The Western Pennsylvania Hospital, 
the Newport, Burbank and Long Island hospitals are 
still others. In some cases two wards are superimposed, 
a great disadvantage with old-time wooden floor con- 
struction, but permissible, though not desirable, now. 

The ward is the key to the pavilion plan, a room 
running north and south with windows on both sides and 
beds between the windows. At the south end is a glazed 




MUNICIPAL HOSPITAL FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

(Successful competitive design accepted by Board of Directors. 1 

Frank Miles Day & Brother, Architects. 

sun-room or solarium ; at the north, where the general 
passage joins it, are the services. Such a ward allows of 
the best light and natural ventilation, but it has been 
severely criticized as draughty, and so arranged that 
every patient is directly facing the light, half the day the 
full sunlight. The octagon wards of Johns-Hopkins 
partly meet this disadvantage. Sunlight has been proven 
a strong germ destroyer, and it has been agreed that out- 
side walls should be exposed to it as much~as possible. 
In most of these hospitals the short north wall is the only 
one not so exposed, but the north light is, in some cases, 
utilized for examination rooms and in others the connect- 
ing corridor protects the wall from dampness. 

Dr. Worcester and Mr. Atkinson in their book on 
" Small Hospitals," sum up four requirements for the 
buildings: " First, to secure a large amount of sunlight 
for each one ; second, to impede as little as possible the 
circulation of air in and around the buildings; third, to 
provide for a future enlargement of the hospital ; fourth, 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



i55 



Surgical Acv^moTCATton Payimg 



Stablt: & DCAD M0U5E 



POWCE, MOU3C 



NURSES MonE 



1 I , 



KlTCHEM & 




Jwi FtoRtrt Oun T^CCM 



Sun FbBCM Sun Fwtw 



freedmen's hospital, Washington, d. c. 

Bruce Price and de Sibour and John Russell Pope, Architects 




NEWPORT HOSPITAL, NEWPORT, R. I. 
William Atkinson, Architect. 



ADAMrrlSTRATION 



HuP* E ' 



AAedical F»\vil(on5 




Service 



WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA HOSPITAL, PITTSBURG. 
Wm Ross Proctor, Architect. 



r-AHCE- 




OPTPATInG ETC. 




AlVHNIMPATICN 



To GcnefAL STAIRtfAV 



^ 



BURBANK. HOSPITAL, FITCHBURG, MASS. 
Kendall, Taylor & Stevens, Architects. 





Waed 



Waep 



Waed 




LONG island HOSPITAL, BOSTON. 
Ivdmuml M. Wheelwright, Architect. 



i56 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



5EEV1CE ANB 



APttlNnTEAl ion 




HOSPITAL for CONSUMPTIVES, STATE ALMSHOUSE, TEWKSBURV, 

MASS. 
John A. Fox, Architect 



Wado 



WflDD 




ESQUISSE, ECOLE DES BEAUX ARTS: A HOSPITAL FOR CHIL- 
DREN ON ["HE SHORES OF THE MEDITERRANEAN. 



/ «* 



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ISOLATlOrl V/ARDi 




[EXAtflMATICN 



PRIX labarre: a hospital on a hillside. 

II Prost, Architect. 




GRAND HOSPITAL OF HAMBURG. 



ADMINISTRATION AND CONSULTATION. 
HOSPITAL BOUCICAULT, PARIS. 
Legros, Pere et Fils, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDKK 



•57 




to promote convenience and 
economy of administration. " 

Mr. Atkinson later published 
a theory that hospital buildings 
should be placed with corners to 
the points of the compass so that \ 
all walls should have sunshine 
during part of the day. An ex- 
ample of this is the Hospital for 
Consumptives at Tewksbury, so 
planned as to give each ward free 
outlook, — a great gain, for the 
more cheerful the prospect, the 

better the spirits of the patienfc and therefore the more 
rapid the recovery. The French lay great stress on this. 
Their more recent hospitals 
attempt nothing monumental. 
They insist that these build- 
ings must be cheerful to look 
at, "■coquet," "ct aspect riant." 

Interesting, though per- 
haps sadly unpractical, since its dis- 
tances are so great that service would 
be difficult, is M. Prost's successful pro- 
ject in the Concours Labarre. The site 
is supposed to be a hillside and the 
wards are so arranged that each has an 
unobstructed view. Another project — for a hospital for 
children at the seaside — is more compact, but illustrates 
this principle. The diagonal corridors overcome the 
steep grade of the hillside. 




HOSPITAL ST. DENIS, FRANCE 




HOSPITAL TENON, PARIS 



+*+ 



Ward 






Cottage;? 



Hoop Me- n 



■ Emj> 



A(.m- 



Uitehe 



Hosp Wom«o. 

m employees 



Y* 



Ward 



W4rd 

JL 

VCV traces -for 
Convalescents. 
Engines 

GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANK, WASHINGTON, I). C. 

(As constructed ) 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects. 



of the connected pavilion plan. 
When its corridors are glazed, 
though appearing on the archi- 
tect's drawings in the smallest 
points of black, they arc in reality 
as obstructive as passages of 
stone. 

I^^m^M / Another development is the 

yS St. Denis Hospital, and, less dis- 

s^ tinctly ,the Tenon and Houcicault 

in Paris, where the wards are in 
pairs, end to end, so permitting a 
free current of air between the 
pairs. The last named is one of the most recent of French hos- 
pitals, a radical departure in the omission of the central 

chapel and the H c6td des 
homines" and the ".cote des 
f entities." It preserves the 
symmetry and carefully 
studied balance typical of 
French hospitals. 
Generally, in American groups, 
there has been no systematic scheme 
or the architect's plans have been 
ignored as the construction proceeded, 
- witness the Hospital for the Insane 
at Washington, — or the administration 
and other buildings at the front are studied as symmetrical 
compositions, and in the arrangement of the wards abso- 
lute symmetry is sacrificed to utility, just as in English 
country houses the entrance front and fore-court are sym- 




STATE HOSPITAL KiiR CHRONIC INSANE, WERNERSVILLE, PA. 

(As planned and accepted by the Board of Directors.) 
Rankin ,v Kellogg, Architects, 



As has been said, circulation of air about the buildings 
is important, — so important that it has been the guiding 
principle in another type of plan. For the General Hos- 
pital at Hamburg, with its Staff of resident physicians, 
this was considered paramount to ease of communication. 
The pavilions are separate, in rows, each row "breaking 
joint " with the row below so that the ends of each are 
lighted. With no galleries above ground there are no 
pockets for dust-whirls or stagnant air, sometimes a fault 



metrical and the kitchen and garden front are not. This 
is exemplified in the Hospital for the District of Columbia, 
a successful principle it seems, for, maintaining dignity 
where it is needed, it permits a certain liberty in 
arranging the working parts with the greatest technical 
efficiency, and allows, from time to time, additions and 
alterations that would sadly disfigure a hard-and-fast 
composition, as recent additions have destroyed the 
admirable plan for the Insane Asylum at Wernersville. 



■58 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



New Shop Fronts. II. 

BY EDWIN TROWBRIDGE. 

A GREAT sheet of plate glass alone is merely a void 
in the building, and such a void must have an integral 
relation with the whole. Strong columns and piers at 
proper intercolumnation must occur as they do in the 
Tiffany Huilding in New York. If this parti pris is taken, 
the building must count first, the show window second. 
But if, on the other hand, the show window is the 
important factor, it must live up to the part and become 
so intrinsically a decorative and interesting detail of the 
building, that it is considered as an exterior embellish- 
ment. This leads up to the next development of the 
window, that is, its advance in front of the party line of 
the wall above. Probably this occurred entirely from 
desire to gain window depth and from no aesthetic reason, 
but it is only another example of the constantly amicable 
relations of utility and art, if both are sane. Under the 
rulings of building laws and of lot restrictions, it is not 
always possible to advance the shop window into what is 
practically a bay, but when the possibility occurs, the 
result may be admirable. Even if the effect is apparent 
and not real, that is, when the center of the window is in a 
line with the ashlar and the sides recede so that the piers 
have deep jambs, there is a great gain in apparent sta- 
bility. Also, the variations of window plane assist the 
decorative effect and suggest detail, and the perspective 




WEST 4IST STREET, NEW YORK. 



of the street becomes more interesting. It is possible to 
itemize and select shop fronts as they are approached, not 
merely when they are opposite. 

Any traveler, especially if he also have the ability to 
sketch, will appreciate the picturesqueness and charm of 
the varying angles of bays and of small shop fronts in the 
smaller English and German towns, which are almost 
entirely produced by the variations of advancing and 




FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 



retreating small forms. Just this variety is appearing on 
our highways. A photograph or sketch looking along the 
first stories from the sidewalk of the usual street, for 
instance the Rue de Richelieu in Paris, does not begin to 
have the interest that is already occurring in Fifth 
Avenue, New York, that interest being produced largely 
by the character of the shop fronts. And as the show 
windows increase in interest it is noticeable that the 
puerile, and in most cases ugly, advance agents of the 
stores, those cases of frames set out from the buildings, 
are disappearing. They have become obstacles in the 
way of the observer, and are no longer either necessary 
or advisable. This brings us to another factor which is 
already recognized, that of the protection of those who 
look in at the windows. When the window was merely 
an opening in the wall, the drip from melting snow, or 
from rain, fell in long lines just outside the window, the 
sun beat in, and awnings had to be lowered or shades 
drawn. 

Now has come the marquise, at first over the doorway, 
later over the entire front. The marquise is a very 
decorative feature. It is light, graceful, has the charm 
of the subtle lines of metal and of contrast of material 
and color. It is naturally placed low, otherwise its object 
of protection and of shade would be lost. It appears on 
the transom line, and it can flare like a fan, be pendant 
like a canopy, be semi-domed like a roof. It is filled 
with translucent glass, and has a decorative border like 
an edge of lace. It carries with it all sorts of possibilities 
in the way of secondary detail, can be supported on deli- 
cately wrought brackets, or hung by ornamental chains, 
can have pendants, or flaunt staffs with bannerettes. It 
is above everything, gay, light, brilliant, exactly the type 
of detail to give individual character to a show window. 
And it is independent, has little or no allegiance to the 
building, being as obviously distinct from it as an awning. 
The marquise is, without doubt, one of the most decorative 
and interesting details which the modern show window 
has adopted, and its infinite variety and delightful possi- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



"59 





31 i 





i6o 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



*--. I,, j ' =TTT *-^- 




•B\1NT1NGS« 




" Y4 


1 P 






L 






NO. 23. FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 



NO. 24. FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 





NO. 25. WALNUT STREET, PHILADELPHIA. x 



NU. 26. CHESTNUT STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 





N11. 27. FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 



NO. 28. FIFTH AVENUE, NEW FORK. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



161 



bilities go far to make attractive an otherwise ordinary 
first story. 

The entrance of the store is important, and the device 
of recessing the door is frequently adopted. By this means 
not only a certain sense of invitation to enter is gained, 
but also side windows are obtained on either side of the 
entrance. By splaying the entrance, the effect of gi-eater 
breadth is at once apparent. There also occurs the oppor- 
tunity for arched treatment over the door and for special 
treatment of the marquise at this point, either by 
advancing or by heightening this feature. A vestibule 
is formed which often has its own gates, which are closed 
at night and which can be made very attractive and orna- 
mental. The half story above the transom, which is 
necessarily low studded, has its light increased by glass 
prisms, or by Luxfer lights, which also can be made 
decorative. Finally, the whole shop front with its show 
arranged windows can be advancing and retreating with 
planes, with bays, and recesses which give great play of 
light and shade and opportunity for ingenious arrange- 
ment of decorative surfaces. Such windows, while often| 
bizarre, have a character in 
keeping with the sale of bric- 
a-brac and other confections 
which at first thought seem . 
fantastic and perhaps puerile, 
but nevertheless can be made 
to have distinct individual 
merit, and if considered 
merely as decorative and not 
as necessarily fundamental 
parts of the structure of the 
building appear not only 
justifiable, but excellent. 

Certainly the general air 
of enterprise, and of gaiety 
of a city street gains by 
these show windows when 
they are well designed. At 
night, the association of elec- 
tric lights well grouped, and 
with the light thrown back 
into the windows by reflect- 
ors permits further ingenious design, the possibilties of 
which have been thus only occasionally considered. As 
to color, most of the frames of the show windows are in 
metal, and are therefore dark in tone. Occasionally they 
are painted light to conform to the general trims of the 
building. But this is not always advisable, as they are 
individual and not structural parts of the building. In 
certain cases, the level of the first story has been dropped 
below that of the sidewalk. Only the necessity of gaining 
height would justify this. These windows are at a dis- 
advantage, as passers-by are less likely to step down to 
such a window than they are to linger beside one on the' 
level with the street. But granted the necessity at times, 
the solution of the problem has been very well done. 

In No. 17 there is a distinct and successful effort to 
keep the openings well controlled by the structure and 
at the same time to obtain variety ; in fact, these windows 
are integral parts of the design, not associated parts. 

No. 18 is two storied with a very broad recessed ves- 
tibule, of which the lintel is brought slightly in advance of 



i 




the windows. The second story is divided by transoms 
and has low arched window heads, which could well have 
been omitted, as they do not harmonize with the arch of 
the whole opening. 

No. 19 is an architectural colonnade enclosing two 
stories, with the possibility of the building being, at a 
later date, increased by additional stories in height. The 
features are transom lights in both stories filled with 
prisms, and a recessed central arched vestibule, the de- 
tail in all the show window trims, etc., being kept smaller 
than in the architectural features. The effect is excel- 
lent. 

No. 20 begins with an unfortunate initial arrangement 
of doors and show windows, which are as far as possible 
brought together and into accord by the richness of the 
marquise. The transom lights are divided in the same 
manner as those of No. 16, and the design appears to 
have been made by the same architect. The edge of the 
marquise is particularly good, — light, graceful and with 
style. It seems as if it would have been as well to omit 
the central cartouche in this example, as it does not indi- 
cate an axis, for the window 
space behind it has none. 

No. 21 is the next shop 
front to No. 20, on Fifth 
Avenue, and has the same 
general character, the mar- 
quise, however, having an 
interesting plan of curves 
which is very graceful. The 
glass lambrequin pendants 
are especially attractive, and 
are made materially lighter 
by their spacing and by the 
introduction of an alternate 
motive between the pen- 
dants. In this case the axial 
cartouche is justifiable, as it 
centers on the show window 
behind. In all of these exam- 
ples the angles of the show 
windows are simple corner 
trims or strips and make no 
attempt to express support; in fact, in some cases the 
glass is either lapped or beveled at the angles and fastened 
with clamps. This is quite in accord with the purpose of 
the window and with the desire already explained to have 
the windows designed independently of their architectural 
frame and with smaller detail. 

No. 22 has the advantage of a broad facade, but the 
disadvantage of heavy piers coming down on a very long 
lintel. It is an admirable example of a design which, if 
examined, has no adequate supports for the wall above, 
and yet which gives no impression of unstability. This 
effect is gained in several ways. First, the opening is 
strongly framed, the frame accented, and the lintel broad 
and supplemented by a projecting belt course above. 
Second, the frame is kept on the face line of the bays in 
front of the line of the piers. Third, the mullioned divi- 
sions of the transom story are broad and doubled at inter- 
vals and appear to assist in supporting the lintel. Fourth, 
the plane of the plate glass of the show window is in 
front of the transom light plane, and, finally, there is a 



CHESTNUT STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 



162 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



series of sashes separating the show windows from the 
store, and much subdivided on a line with the transom 
plane. In no case, excepting in the slight show window 
frame, is a supporting factor carried to the ground, and 
yet as each plane in which these members are is in 
advance of the next supporting member above, the struc- 
tural question is not raised excepting by a mental effort. 
The mind does not attempt to penetrate the plane, 
although that plane is transparent. This is an extremely 
interesting and successful 
example. Its detail also is 
good, the frieze alone of the 
small marquise over the door 
being somewhat heavy. 

Nos. 22 and 24 give ex- 
amples of comparatively 
simple windows in one or two 
planes with simple marquise. 
No. 24 has the windows ad- 
vanced, the transom lights 
leaded both in the main 
opening and the windows, 
and a marquise, with rec- 
tangular lines throughout, 
bracketed and hung by 
chains. The effect is some- 
what rigid and stiff. 

In No. 23 the pilasters 
and entablatures are strong 
and adequate, the light color 
of the pilaster assisting 
materially in the effect of 
vigor. The transom has some- 
what too definitea projection. 

No. 25 has a rectangular 
marquise on the transom line 
suspended by chains and wtih 
a delicate ckeneau of Greek 

palmettes and with glass lambrequin pendants around its 
edge. The transom lights are hidden by this marquise. 
The shop front is two storied, a basement story below the 
street, and the story with the principal window reached 
by a flight of six steps with wrought iron posts and rail. 
These posts and rail give an opportunity for decorative 
detail which could be still further developed. 

No. 26 shows an effort to recess the central portion 
not only for the door, but in the space above in the tran- 
som story. Apparently this was recognized as of poor 
proportions and a small marquise of no particular value 




NO. 30. BOYLSTON STREET, BOSTON. 



was crowded into this space to establish continuation of 
the transom line; also in this case the curved glass coupe 
windows are used. The example is only interesting as 
indicating a type of treatment. 

No. 27 has the marquise on the transom line, but as the 
transom story or gallery is very low, and the windows 
undetailed there seems to be no reason why this mar- 
quise should have been put in this place, — -the space 
above seems compressed. The panel in the architectural 

trims is crude, large in scale, 
and seems very insecure. 

No 28 is excellent of its 
type; there is no transom, 
the elliptical marquise is deli- 
cate and well designed, and 
the show window is effective. 
The individual factor in this 
design is the doming of the 
marquise, which by its ribs 
produces a sense of attractive 
curves. 

No. 29 is of the same type 
as No. 29, without the mar- 
quise, and with a little more 
-attention to detail. 

No. 30 is interesting as an 
example of gain in space in 
a very narrow frontage by 
splaying the vestibule, the 
effect of splay being adopted 
over the lintel. This is 
original but not convincing. 
In most cases these show 
windows have been inserted 
in old buildings, and have 
therefore been hampered by 
previous requirements, and 
when they have been made 
the most successful they have been treated as details of 
a single opening, which opening has been strongly 
framed and linteled. Wherever the show window has 
been designed, at the time when the building was de- 
signed, architectural supports have been incorporated in 
the first story, leaving ample space for the windows 
between them. Such windows and first stories are those 
of the Gorham and Tiffany Buildings in New York, and 
naturally these are of an ideal character. But of the 
examples shown in these articles, Nos. 11, 21, 22 and 
23, deserve especial commendation. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



^3 



Inexpensive Houses of Fireproof Con- 
struction. 

r "PHAT the cost of a fireproof house built entirely of 
_L hollow tile is reasonable has been demonstrated in 
two buildings recently put up in Briarcliff Manor, a sub- 
urb of New York. Designs were prepared for an eleven- 
room house, also a small post-office with an apartment on 
the second floor, both of the familiar wooden frame type. 
Bids for their construction of wood were considered high, 
and alternate bids using concrete walls and wooden floors 
were asked for. As these second bids were even higher 
than the first, it was decided to use hollow tile through- 

THESE DEAA\S SEAR ON 
GAftLE WALLS AAlD PARTITIONS 



1*2 FLOATED CEANE^T 
FIA1I5H 



between, all covered with alayer of cement, in which nailing 
strips for securing the wood top floor are embedded. 

Great ingenuity is used in this floor construction, for 
where a reenforced beam bears upon the side walls, a 
hollow tile block is omitted from the wall and the con- 
crete of the beam is tamped in to fill the space com- 
pletely. This gives an excellent tie between the beams 
and walls and also increases the bearing area of the beams 
upon the walls materially. 

A large section of floor was tested with a dead load of 
150 lbs. per sq. ft. The deflection was almost nothing, 
although both floor and supporting 

walls were ^v-iv^ loaded to about two and 



CONCRETE 
GUTTER 




DETAILS FLOOR^° ROOF COASTRUCTI O/M 



out, to do the work by day labor 
instead of contract, and pay the 

builder ten per cent as his commission. 

The actual cost (including builder's ten per cent) of 

these buildings, also bids on their construction using 

wood or concrete, are as follows: 

House 



$6,000 



Post Office 
$7,000 



6,600 
6,500 



,900 
6,500 



Wood 

Concrete Walls and 
Wooden Floors 
Hollow Tile 

The illustrations show clearly the construction and 
arrangement of the house. Its exterior is finished in 
stucco with pebbled surface, a treatment which harmonizes 
exceedingly, well with its simple and massive outlines. 

The outside walls are 8 in. x 12 in. blocks 6 in. thick, 
and the partitions are of the same size blocks 3 in. thick. 
Floors and roof are of the combination type, 4 in. x 6 in. 
reenforced concrete beams with twelve hollow tile blocks 



one-half times what they would be called upon to bear 
in service. 

The stairs are built up of hollow tile blocks. Each 
tread is composed of several blocks, held together by 
steel rods embedded in concrete within the cavities of the 
blocks. Treads of this form are readily made by simply 
piling the blocks on end one above another, placing the 
rods through them and pouring the cavities full of con- 
crete. Lintels over the doors and windows may be 
quickly and cheaply made in the same way. 

Windows and door frames are secured in place by 
screwing 2-inch log screws into them and allowing 
the screws to project into the blocks of the partitions or 
walls. As the blocks are laid up, concrete or cement can 
be filled in to completely surround the screws and thereby 
anchor them to the wall. 

Conduits for electric wires are embedded in the cement 
floor covering, and carried in the vertical walls through 
the cavities in the tiles. 



164 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 





COTTAGE, BRIARCLTFF MANOR, N. Y. 



OFFICE, BRIARCLIFF MANOR, N. V. 







cm 


EAT 


RO 


OF 









SECOND FLOOR PLAN OF COTTAGE. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN oK POST OFFICE. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN OF COTTAGE. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN OF POST OFFICE. 



INEXPENSIVE HOUSES OF FIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION. 

Robert W. Gardner, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



'65 



Necessary soil and vent pipes for the plumbing are 
brought up exposed through the butler's pantry, and 
some of the piping for the bathrooms is exposed upon 
the ceiling of the butler's pantry. This might have readily 



-WOOD FLOOR 




-6x12*12 MOLLOW TILE. ,'. 



.FLOOR TILE 

-CONCRETE. 



-REINFORCED 

CONCRETE BEAAS. 
^"R0D5 ■ TWISTED. 



I2"x|2 TILE COLUMN, 
'FILLED WITH CONCRETE, 
A.MD REINFORCED. 




5""C0<NCRETE FLOOR 



/ \ 

\ 




REIAJFORCED CONCRETE ibEAtt . 
J^p^^'HIGH CAR60<N RODS. 




<S.*I2*I2 TERRA COTTA TILES. 



PORCH 

COA1STR.UCTIOA1 . 



fe^\ 



-COMCRETE. 



been obviated by substi- 
tuting a single steel beam 
for several of the concrete 
beams, and springing a 
flat, hollow tile arch be- 
tween the beams. The 14- 
foot span could have been 
easily carried by 8-inch 
beams spaced about eight 
centersand anchored in the 
walls in a manner similar 
to that used for the con- 
crete beams. In order to 
provide ample wall support for the steel beams the blocks 
in the walls or partitions below their points of support 
could be entirely filled with concrete, forming a column 
to the foundations. 



&RADE.T 



X 



The Phipps .Model Tenement 
Houses. 

r ~PHE site upon which this first group of buildings is 
JL erected is a plot situated on the north side of East 
31st Street, near First Avenue, New York City, and the 
relative number of two-room, three-room and four-room 
tenements, as well as certain other features desired by 
the trustees, and as far as possible carried out in the 
design of the buildings, were largely determined by the 
character of the population and the tenements found in 
the surrounding neighborhood. 

The plot has a frontage on the street of one hundred 
and eighty feet, with a depth of ninety-eight feet nine 
inches, and the general scheme of the building is that of 
three similar units, each with sixty feet frontage, six 
stories and basement in height, and enclosing two en- 
trance courts opening through archways to the street. 

The four hundred and twenty-seven rentable rooms 
contained in the entire building of three imits are ar- 
ranged in one hundred and forty-two suites, containing 
from two to five rooms, the larger apartments being 
placed on the street front and corners, and the smaller 
suites, opening on the courts and yards of the 
building. 

( )f the one Imndred and forty-two apartments, forty- 
three are two-room suites with toilet and shower; sixty- 
three three-room suites with toilet and shower; twelve 
are four-room suites with toilet and tub baths ; sixteen are 
four-room suites with toilet and shower; and eight 
are five-room suites with toilet and tub baths. The per- 
centage of the various suites is as follows: thirty per 
cent, two rooms; forty-four per cent, three rooms; 
twenty per cent, four rooms, and six per cent, five 
rooms. 

All the tenements are supplied with steam heat, hot 
and cold water and gas ; and every suite has a toilet with 
either a shower or tub bath, and is equipped with a gas 
range, two wash tubs, a kitchen sink, closets and 
dressers. 

In connection with the accompanying plans and illus- 
trations, it may be of interest to note the following re- 
spects in which the first of the Phipps Houses differ 
from most of the existing model tenements in New 
York, and will, therefore, be more or less experi- 
mental: 

1. The doing away with all closed interior courts, 
such as are found in almost all tenements previously 
erected, by their connection through an archway to the 
street. 

2. The attempt to use this space, usually devoted to 
purposes of light and ventilation only, both as entrance 
courts and as social centers; in place of the street curb, 
particularly for children; and, secondarily, as a means 
of popularizing the rear tenements by giving them an 
outlook more nearly like those in the more fashionable 
front portion of the building, and giving both of these 
social hemispheres an equally attractive access. 

3. An effort to avoid in both court and exterior 
treatment, as far as possible, the barrack-like effect. 
ordinarily the result of a great number of apartments 
arranged economically in one large building. 



1 66 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



4. The sacrifice of a considerable amount of rentable 
space for the sake of a more than usual degree of privacy 
of living in all apartments by the insertion of private vesti- 
bules and hallways wherever required, so as to avoid the 
necessity of entering any room by passing through a 
bedroom or even through a so-called parlor, which latter 
is ordinarily the case, even in " model " tenements. 

5. To the same end, the insertion of the simple 
shower in combination with the toilets in every apart- 
ment where baths are not otherwise provided — even in 
the two-room suites, for example — so as to do away 
entirely with all public conveniences of this sort, hereto- 
fore habitually put in groups in the basement or on some 
of the lower floors, and the subject of much abuse, not 
to say hygienically dangerous.* These showers consist 
of a spray nozzle, supplied with hot and cold water, set 
directly in the side wall about five feet six inches above 
the Moor, pointing down at an angle of about forty-five 
degrees, so as to strike a person of average height on the 
shoulders. This permits their use by women without 
wetting the hair ; and striking the wall at a downward 
angle, the splash is considerably reduced. 

6. A considerable increase in the amount of window 
surface in the majority of rooms, particularly in the 
living rooms, in which a central double hung window is 
flanked on either side by a narrower casement for use in 
summer. These casements, when open, give the entire 
benefit of the window opening instead of one-half, as in 
the case of the ordinary weighted window. 

7. The provision of wide exterior sills outside of 
such windows, with low iron rails, as a place for the 
setting of plants, and as a useful shelf for objects desired 
to be kept cool in winter. 

8. The use of one-half of the roof as a roof garden and 
the provision of two permanent pavilions with solid roofs, 
for the purposes of protection, both day and night, — where 
tenants may sleep in the oppressive heat of summer. 

9. The tapping of the ordinary vent flues required 
for the gas ranges at the ceiling in each living room, for 
the purpose of giving at least a compulsory minimum 
amount of ventilation for the living room, each room 
having its own separate flue. 

10. The installation of electric conduit, with a view 
to the use of electricity for lighting purposes, whenever 
its cost shall be equivalent to that of gas, and a suitable 
type of "demand meter" found, — that is, a meter 
arranged to give automatically a certain amount of 
electricity, when a coin is dropped into the slot, — with 
the possibility, in such an event, of doing away with 
leakage and odors, and the very great vitiation of air 
in rooms illuminated by gas. 

11. The arrangement of rooms and suites so that 
80 per cent of all the apartments in the building have 
through draughts between courts, yards or streets, and 
the avoidance of all small shafts, recesses or re-entrant 
angles in the plan of the building. 

12. The provision of a kindergarten, or play-room, 
accessible from the street, as well as from the tenement, 
for the use of the tenants or kindergarten associations 
desiring to conduct their work in the building. 

*The cost of this simple contrivance was about $16, in addition to 
which a certain amount of additional waterproofing of the floor was 
encessary. 



Mr. Phipps in his letter to the men whom he asked to 
constitute his original board of trustees, says: 

" I propose to organize a society for the purpose of 
building tenement houses in the city of New York, prefer- 
ably in the borough of Manhattan, if it can be done advan- 
tageously, but if land be found too high, or if building 
conditions are such as to threaten undue cost of construc- 
tion or unreasonable delay, then in the other boroughs of 
the city or elsewhere. 

" I propose to give one million dollars for this pur- 
pose. I expect the tenements to be so planned as to earn 
about four per cent on their cost, after allowing a proper 
amount for their maintenance and repairs. I intend to 
have the earnings accumulate and to be used from time 
in erecting more tenements, 

'* My wish is that the rooms should not be rented at a 
price below the market rate. I do not wish to discourage 
individual investors from building tenements on a purely 
business basis. To do so might check building opera- 
tions, raise rents, and, in the end, prove injurious to the 
working people whom I wish to aid and who must rely in 
so large a measure on building for purely business rea- 
sons to provide them with homes." 

Thus, under the provisions of Mr. Phipps' donation, 
each building erected has the reproductive power charac- 
teristic of a living organism, and becomes, within a short 
period of years, the father of a new generation of model 
tenements. 

Starting with three buildings, which we may assume 
to represent the original investment of the one million dol- 
lars donated by Mr. Phipps, giving a total housing capac- 
ity of some two thousand people, the Phipps Houses, 
if their cumulative earnings be devoted continuously to 
the acquirement of new land and buildings, will, in the 
days of our grandchildren, very probably number a round 
hundred buildings, housing no less than sixty thousand 
souls, and covering, if grouped together, some fifty aver- 
age New York city squares. 

Although this is clearly the policy intended, to avoid 
certain obvious dangers and as a general precaution, it is 
not made obligatory upon the trustees who are actually 
given the power to distribute the income among benevo- 
lent and charitable institutions. 

While the model tenement problem in New York is, 
under present laws and conditions, probably near the 
crystallization point with respect to economy and efficiency 
of plan, their being in this respect surprisingly little 
margin for improvement, its solution in the matter of 
construction and decoration is undoubtedly far from being 
reached. While in the last analysis of such a problem 
these two elements should doubtless be synonymous and 
result in a building that will produce a decorative effect 
through ornamental construction, without constructed 
ornament, the model tenements erected so far have almost 
universally failed to express externally the " home " idea, 
which seems such a vital element in any proper definition 
of a model tenement. In the matter of interior arrange- 
ment, and practical conveniences, it is much more nearly 
realized, but its architectural expression is, as a rule, 
institutional, if not barrack-like and hopelessly dreary. 

And it is more than a question of the influence of the 
aesthetic, which we are so apt to assume as an attribute of 
education and wealth and not of nature, recognizing it in 
its artificial and less healthy phases where we ignore its 
cravings and deny its gratification in the masses in whom 
its potency for good is really greatest and most extensive. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



167 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 

ARCHITECTS' NAMES. 

IN every daily paper there are reports of social 
gatherings, civic functions or public events, in con- 
nection with which will be published the names of 
officials, committeemen or even just plain citizens, the 
newspapers seeming to delight in associating some 
names with a news item whether it be a runaway match, 
a reunion of the Smith family, or the launching of a motor 
boat. But when it comes to the matter of a work of art, 
to a notice of a public building, to a description of some 
architectural or artistic success, it seems as if our daily 
press is determined to wholly avoid the use of certain 
names and ignore, as completely as possible, the archi- 
tect, the builder and those who are really responsible for 
the work. Indeed, it seems almost as if the more pro- 
nounced the architectural success, the less willing are 
the papers to associate it with any name Entertain- 
ment committees, reception 
committees, committees of 
ladies, even sextons' names, 
appear to have a legitimate 
and welcome place, but the 
architect who may have 
worked for months and pro- 
duced a genuine addition to 
civic beauty and to munici- 
pal art, is conspicuous by his 
absence. Occasionally, we 
find an editor who is frank 
enough to say that he does 
not propose to advertise the 
architect. The unfairness 

of it all does not seem to appeal to any of our daily 
papers. But even aside from a question of whether it is 
or it is not advertisement, the papers are equally blind 
to the fact that the name of an architect and builder, 
associated with the building is a matter of genuine inter- 
est to a great many people. Where there are a dozen 
who would watch for the name of the chairman of the 




DETAIL BY WINKLE TERRA COTTA CO. 




DETAIL BY SOUTH AMBOY TERRA COTTA CO. 




HOUSE AT MT. VERNON, N. J. 
Van VIeck & Goldsmith, Architects. 
Roofed with "Old Mission" Tile, made by Ludowici-Celadon 



Co 



building com- 
mittee, or the 
ladies who are 
to furnish flow- 
ers for the 
event, there 
would be a hun- 
dred who would 
have a direct 
personal inter- 
est in knowing 
w h o is the 
builder or who 
is the architect; 
and as a matter 

of news for the public, leaving aside entirely the architect 
and his feelings, it ought to be an accepted fact that in 
any printed description of a building, the name of the 
architect and builder is of more importance than any 
other one single item. 

There is a deeper reason, however, why the name of 
the creator of a piece of architecture should be made 

public in connection with 
every reference to a building. 
Architecture is too closely 
connected to the life and the 
growth of civilization to be 
disregarded, and the extent 
of public appreciation of good 
architecture is, after all, a 
pretty precise index of the 
measure of civilization and 
culture. A disregard of the 
personal element in our archi- 
tecture implies a lack of ap- 
preciation of what archi- 
tecture really is, a "_ lack of 
interest in architecture as a creation, and an unwilling- 
ness to recognize the force of individual effort in the 
development of our national growth. To that extent the 
action of our newspapers, though often unthinking, 
though generally arising from mere neglect or oversight 
on the part of uninformed reporters, rather than from 
any deliberate intent to slight, indicates a lack in our 
public sentiment and appreciation, which 
ought to be remedied. The public has a 
right to know who is responsible for these 
buildings. The architect has a right to have 
his creations recognized and known as such, 
and if they are wrong or bad he should receive 
in his own name the onus and the blame, just 
as when they are right, he should receive the 
credit and the praise. 

The remedy is in the hands of the people 
themselves. The newspapers are not run as 
opportunities for spite against artists or archi- 
tects, but to meet the demands of the people, 
and if the readers of the daily press would 
take the trouble to write to the papers when 
the name of an architect does not accompany 
that of the building, and ask for it as a matter 
of public interest, a sentiment would soon be 
manifested that would tend very greatly to 



1 68 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




rn^m toihct 



HENGERER HUILDING, BUFFALO. 

Porter & Son, Architects. 

Kntire exterior from second floor up of Gray Dull Glaze Terra Cotta. 

Made by Atlantic Terra Cotta Co. 



the raising of the standard of appreciation. It is not 
a matter of advertisement, nor merely a matter of indi- 
vidual justice, but it is a question of the public being 
able to interest itself intelligently and discriminatingly 
in the work of those who are writing, in stone and clay, 
the history of the land. 



business portion of the city and reaching out 
toward the suburbs. At the North Union 
Station a work of considerable magnitude has 
been under consideration for some time, in- 
volving the construction of a large elevated 
station, a long viaduct reaching towards the 
west through the streets and a causeway on 
the down stream slope of the Charles River 
I )am connecting Boston and Cambridge. In 
the designing of these elevated structures the 
Railway Company has taken a stand which is 
deserving of great praise. It was desired 
not merely to mitigate the appearance of 
these structures but to make them worthy 
additions to the architectural interest of the 
city, and the Railway Company, with the ad- 
vice of the Boston Society of Architects, ap- 
pointed five of the leading architects of the 
city to act as an advisory board to consult 
with the Railway Company's experts on mat- 
ters relating to art and architecture. So far 
as we know this is the first instance in this 
country of a public service corporation de- 
liberately seeking the advice and cooperation 
of a society of architects in an endeavor to 
improve the architectural appearance of its 
structures. There have been numerous cases 
where individual architects have been employed to design 
a portion or the whole of a system, but they have not been 



AN ADVISORY HOARD OF ARCHITECTS. 



T 



'HE street railway system of the city of Boston is 
tinder the control of a single corporation known as 
the Boston Elevated Railway Company, which leases the 
subways and, in addition to its surface lines, has built and 
operated a number of elevated structures circling the 





HOUSE AT WARREN, PA. 

E. A. Phillips, Architect. 

Roofed with Green Glaze Tile. 

Made by Cincinnati Roofing Tile & Terra Cotta Co. 



HOUSE AT WASHINGTON, D. C. 

A P. Clarke Jr., Architect. 

Roofed with Bennett's Roofing Tiles. 

iii a position to give unbiased or free advise, their criti- 
cisms have always been regarded from an engineering 
rather than from an architectural standpoint, and it is 
one of the artistic disgraces of our country that railroad 
structures as a whole have been of such an inferior char- 
acter. It is not too early yet to say what will be the 
results in Boston. The causeway across the Charles has 
been given an architectural turn in its appearance, a 
dignity of composition which quite removes it from a 
mere utilitarian engineering structure and there have 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



169 





st. clare's church, west 3 6th street, new york. 

N Serracino, Architect. 



been some ideas put in execution with the ordinary ele- 
vated street construction which are very interesting and 
are a decided advance over the awkward framed struc- 
tures which one visually sees and associates with an ele- 
vated railway. It is not probable that the results 
obtained in Boston will be as satisfying as those which 
are found in Paris and Berlin. Even our most public 
spirited corporations are not yet prepared to pay for good 

looks at the rate which 
seems to obtain so 
easily abroad, but 
where there is so much 
room for improve- 
ment, even a little ad- 
vance is a decided 
gain, and Boston is 
certainly leading the 
procession in its at- 
tempts to make an ele- 
vated structure endur- 
able. 




DETAIL RY KEES & COLBURN, 

ARCHITECTS. 

American Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



BUILDING 

OPERATIONS FOR 

AUGUST. 

A GREAT volume 
of building and 
construction is still 



going on throughout the United States. Official re- 
ports, from some fifty representative building centers, to 
the American Contractor, New York, tabulated, show a 
gain in twenty-two cities, varying from 1 to 463 per cent, 
and 28 cities show a 
loss from 1 to 74 per 
cent as compared with 
August of the past 
year. 1906 being a 
record breaker in the 
field of building con- 
struction, the statistics 
of the past month 
make an excellent 
showing. Leaving out 
Greater New York, 
which shows a loss of 
21 per cent, the aver- 
age loss would be 
about 3 per cent. 



IN GENERAL. 

J. Harleston Par- 
ker and Douglas H. 
Thomas, Jr., who 
have practised archi- 
tecture under the firm 
name of Parker & 




DETAIL BY HALE & ROGERS, 

ARCHITECTS. 

New York Architectural Terra Cotta 

Co., Makers. 



170 



THE BRICK BUILDER 




DETAILS BY GILLESPIE & CARRKL, ARCHITECTS. 
Brick, Terra Cotta & Tile Co., Makers. 

Thomas, and Arthur Wallace Rice of Peters & Rice, all 
of Boston, have formed a co-partnership under the firm 
name of Parker, Thomas & Rice, offices no State Street, 
Boston. 

John Parkinson & Edwin Bergstrom, architects, of 
Los Angeles, Cal., announce the removal of their office 
to 1035 Security Building. 

Architect M. I. Kast of Harrisburg, Pa., has opened a 
branch office in the Kohler Building, Hagerstown. Md., 
which will be in charge of A. J. Klinkhart. 

Architect Edward G. II enrich has opened an office in the 



Mutual Life Building, 
facturers' catalogues 
Professor X. C. 
ment of Architecture, 
Institute, Auburn, 
turers' catalogues and 



Buffalo. X. V. Manu- 
and samples desired. 
Curtis of the Depart- 
Alabama Polytechnic 
Ala., desires manufac- 
samples. 




DETAIL BY GEORGE F. PELHAM, ARCHI'l I 
New Jersey Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

Eli Benedict, architect, will conduct the class in Ar- 
chitectural Drawing in the night school of theY. M. C". A., 
23d Street, Xew York, during the coming season. Mr. 
Benedict's Atelier Class will be continued at Lincoln 
Scpuare Arcade, 1947 Broadway, Xew York. 

Pittsburg Architectural Club will hold its Annual 
Exhibition in the Carnegie Institute Galleries from 




November 9 to December 1 . 
For full particulars apply to 
Richard Kiehnel, 902 Publi- 
cation Building, Pittsburg. 

An Exhibition of the 
Arts and Crafts will be held 
in the Galleries of the Na- 
tional Arts Club and the 
Studios of the National So- 
ciety of Craftsmen, New 
York, from November 19 
to December 1 1. 

The Architectural 
League of America will 
hold a competition, open to 
members of the organiza- 
tions comprising the 
League, for a cover design 
to be used in the Architec- 
tural Annual. One prize of 
fifty dollars and three 
honorable mentions will be 
given. The competition 
closes October 1 5. For par- 
ticulars apply to Edmund H. 
Poggi, 529 Real Estate Trust 
Building, Philadelphia. 

The Washington Archi- 
tectural Club recently gave 
an " Inspection Tour by 
Automobile," of the princi- 
pal public buildings in 
course of construction. 
Some fifty odd members 
participated. The cost per 
person was seventy-five 
cents. 




MUNICIPAL Cork I l.ril.DING, 

CHICAGO. 

Jenney, Mundie & Jensen, 

Architects. 

Front of White Enameled Terra 

Cotta. Made by Northwestern 

Terra Cotta Co. 



DETAIL BY WILLIAM STEELE & SONS, ARCHITECTS. 
ConklinK-Armstrong Terra Cotta Co , Makers. 



COMPETITION FOR PLANS FOR THE CAPITOL OF 
PORTO RICO. 

San Juan, Porto Rico. 
By Act of the Legislative Assembly of Porto Rico, dated March 
14, 1907, the Commissioner of the Interior is authorized to 
announce a competition for a building to be known as the " Capitol 
of Porto Rico," the cost of such building not to exceed $300,000.00. 

Architects who wish to enter this competition must signify their 
intention in writing, to the Commissioner of the Interior, on or 
before November I, 1907. Drawings will be received from no 
others. 

The competitive designs must be received on or before February 
1, 1908. 

Copies of the program, embracing terms of the competition, will be 
mailed upon request. 

L. H. GRAHAME, 

Commissioner of the Interior, 

San Juan, P. R. 

WANTED — In an architect's office located in a city in Mexico, a 
first class draughtswoman who is competent in design and construc- 
tion. A good permanent position. Address Mexico, care of THE 
BRICKBUILDER. 



WANTED — Partner, by a well established Chicago architect with 
a growing practice. 

Address, with details, " Chicago," care THE BRICKBUILDER. 

DETAILER WANTED— An office doing a good class of work, 
and located in a popular winter resort of the South, wants a man for 
details and general office work. 

Address, c x 30, care THE BRICKBUILDER. 



THE BR1CKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 9. PLATE 129. 




PHIPPS HOUSES, TENEMENT NUMBER 1, EAST 31ST STREET, NEW YORK, N. Y\ 

Grosvenor Atterbury, architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 9. PLATE 130. 




THE ROOF GARDEN. 



i I * jlT'IP 




A VIEW OF ONE OF THE COURTS. 

PHIPPS HOUSES, TENEMENT NUMBER 1, EAST 31ST STREET, NEW YORK. N. Y. 

Grosvenor Atterbury, Architect. 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 9. PLATE 131. 







DETAIL OF FRONT ELEVATION. 

PHIPPS HOUSES, TENEMENT NUMBER 1, EAST 31ST STREET, NEW YORK. N. Y. 

GaOSVENOR ATTERBURY, ARCHITECT. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 9. PLATE 132. 




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CELLAR- PLA/M 



PHIPPS HOUSES, TENEMENT NUMBER 1, EAST 31ST STREET, NEW YORK. N. Y. 

Grosvenor Atterbury, architect 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16. NO. 9. PLATE 133. 



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PHIPPS HOUSES, TENEMENT NUMBER 1, EAST 31ST STREET, NEW YORK N. Y. 

Grosvenor atterbury, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16. NO. 9. PLATE 134. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 9. PLATE 135. 




THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 9. PLATE 136. 





F1E5T FLOOR PLAN 

SCALE «-^— ■■ ■ '■■'..Jn*. m-mt 

HOUSE AT GLEN COVE LONG ISLAND N. Y. 
Babb, Cook & Willard, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 9. PLATE 137 . 





5ECOND FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSE AT GLEN COVE, LONG ISLAND. N. Y. 
Babb, Cook & Willard, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 9. PLATE 138i 





==d -k=mam li 



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HOUSE at ipswich; mass. 
Philip B. Howard, Architect. Charles E. Patch, Associate. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 9. PLATE 139. 





SECOND F^LOOK 



HOLISM AT IPSWICH, MA: 
Philip B. Howard, Architect. Charles E. Patch, associate. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 9. PLATE 140. 





StCO/MD 5TORY- 




HOUSE AT EVANSTON, ILL. 

PHILLIPS, ROGERS & WOODYATT. 
ARCHITECTS. 



BA5EA\EAT 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 9. PLATE 141. 









HOUSE AT 71 ASTON STREET, CHICAGO, ILL. 
W. Carbys Zimmerman, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 9. PLATE 142. 





THIRTY-NINTH. PRECINCT POLICE STATION, MT. VERNON, NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Whitfield & King, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 9. PLATE 143. 




■ S ECOA'D STORY 




THIRD STORY 




fIRST STORY 



HIRTY-NINTH PRECINCT POLICE STATION, MT. VERNON, NEW YORK. N. Y. 

Whitfield & King, Architects. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 

VOL. 16, NO. 9. PLATE 144 _ 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVI OCTOBER 1907 Number 10 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street ....... Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1907, by Rogers & Manson 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and Canada ........... $500 per year 

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To countries in the Postal Union $6.00 per year 

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For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



PAGE 

II 



Agencies — Clay Products ....... 

Architectural Faience . . . . . • • ■ " 

" Tena Cotta II and III 

Brick m 



PAGS 

Brick Enameled Ill and IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fireproofing ......... IV 

Roofing Tile . IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

CHARLES E. BIRGE; PHILIP B. HOWARD; PRICE & McLANAHAN; HOWARD VAN D. 

SHAW; ROBERT C. SPENCER, JR. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAOI 

BRERETON HALL, THE PRINCIPAL FRONT, CHESHIRE, ENGLAND Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS ' 7 ' 

THE DESIGNING OF A COURTHOUSE J. B. Noel Wyatt 172 

ARRANGEMENT OF PHOTOGRAPHS AND MAGAZINE PLATES 175 

HOUSE AT SEWICKLEY, PA A Men 6° Harlow, Architects, Illustration* 177 

HOUSE AT SEWICKLEY. PA A Iden &> Harlow, Architects, Illustrations 178 

HOUSE AT PRINCETON, N. J tV. E. & F. S. Stone, Architects, Illustrations i 7v 

HOUSE AT CYNWYD, PA FieU fir 1 Medary, An hitects, //lustration* 180 

HOUSE AT GERMANTOWN, PA George T. Pearson, Architect, Illustrations 18. 

HOUSE AT SYRACUSE, N. V A. L. Broekway, Architect, Illustration* .82 

HOUSE AT NEEDHAM, MASS Philip B. Ho chitect, Illustrations 183 

DESIGN FOR A SUBURBAN HOUSE Edgar Guy, Architect, Illustrations 184 

THE GROUP PLAN. IV. Hospitals (Continued) 4t/red Morton Githens 185 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY i«7 

PROGRAMME FOR "THE BRICKBUILDER" ANNUAL COMPETITION 19a 




THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOL. 16 



DEVOTED-TO •THE-INTEREJTJ-OF-ARCHITECTVRE-IN MATERIALS OF- CLAY- 



OCTOBER 1907 




■ w«««««««««««««««<««.(««««^«.»»»»»>»»»»»»^»>»»»»»»»»»»»wa 



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The Theater Competition. 

IT has been the practice of' The Brickhuilder for a 
number of years to offer money prizes of considerable 
amount for the best designs in architectural terra cotta, 
submitted in competition in accordance with a definite 
programme. The subject selected this year, as will be 
seen by the announcement elsewhere in this issue, is a 
theater, and we believe it will be of more than mere 
passing interest to the contestants, being of value to our 
subscribers and to the architectural profession generally. 
Unless one has followed somewhat closely the doings 
in the theater world it is easy to lose sight of the extent 
to which the theater has come to the front as an architec- 
tural problem within the past few years. The large 
combinations of capital and talent have been able to 
offer opportunities to the architect in this direction, such 
as came but seldom in the past, when individuals owned 
isolated theaters and leased them to traveling companies. 
Moreover, in many respects the theater is one of the 
most fascinating problems which can be offered to the 
architect, and in its solution there is involved a great 
deal more than the mere question of an intelligent use of 
ornament and a pleasing composition in design. Theater 
building has, to a considerable extent, been confined to 
specialists, but there is nothing insurmountably difficult 
in the solution of the problem as it usually offers itself, 
and the probabilities are that each year the general 
practitioner will be more likely to include a theater in the 
scope of his work. We believe, therefore, that in this 
competition, while primarily intended to call out designs 
for the employment, in a beautiful and appropriate 
manner, of architectural terra cotta, there will also be 
presented, as a result of the labors of the many men to 
whom the competition will prove attractive, a mass of 
documents which will be pretty sure te be of tangible 
value to the architect who may be called upon to con- 
struct an actual theater. Also, the value of a competi- 
tion of this sort is far reaching in its effects, and the 
draughtsman who gives serious study to it will influence 
his fellows in the office, and not unlikely his employers 
will be stimulated by the enthusiam which we anticipate 
for this competition, and which was so marked in the 
competitions of previous years. 

There are some points not specifically mentioned in 
the printed programme which we venture to suggest for 
the consideration of the competitors. The Paris ( )pera 
House was the creation of a genius. It was a monu- 
mental treatment of a grand, majestic problem, and the 



design was so emphatically theatrical in every respect 
that Garnier's influence is hardly less strong to-day than 
it was thirty years ago when the Opera was opened. 
Consequently, the young man who starts in to consider 
a theater as an abstract problem is very apt to take as 
his parti the general motif of the Paris Opera House, 
with its strong accusation on the outside of the three 
principal divisions in plan, foyer, salle and stage, — 
forgetting that the Paris example was purposely carried 
to an extreme, that the dome, which is supposed to mark 
the salle, is really occupied by a carpenter shop, and that 
such lavish disregard for cubic contents would be simply 
ruinous in anything but the most liberally endowed 
state institution. The American theater has developed a 
sensible, straightforward and perfectly logical treatment, 
which needs only the adornment of appropriate and legiti. 
mate design to make it just as correct as the Paris type, 
without straining after accusations of the plan. 

Next the contestants should really think more than 
they draw. The number of times when an architect, 
especially a clever one, lets his pencil run away with his 
wits is unfortunately larger than some would care to 
admit. Do not try for magnificence at the expense of 
straightforward common sense. Do not dispose the 
seats in the galleries in a long horseshoe so that specta- 
tors see more of each other than they do of the actors. 
That is not the American way, nor is it common sense. 
Bear in mind that the first requisite of a good auditorium 
is good sight lines. If the foundation is not good no 
amount of elaborate architecture will make it even 
passable, and where the practical requirements can be 
conceived in almost any way, as in this case, there 
should be no excuse for lack ot thought or irrational 
treatment introduced merely for effect. And do not 
pitch the stage floor nor waste any time in piling up 
the imaginary windlasses, coulisses, traps, etc., above 
and about the stage, such as are so dear to the heart of 
the Beaux Arts boy. 

We hope to call forth designs which will be essentially 
American in their feeling because following the lines of 
American practice in practical requirements. And if the 
young men who take part want a little practical illustra- 
tion of how the problem is well solved along the lines 
which commend themselves to our practice let them 
study the best of our recently built American theaters. 
None of these are perfect, all of them have had difficul- 
ties in the way which required that some artistic con- 
sideration had to be sacrificed, but in all of these the real 
problems have been met and solved in a usable manner. 



172 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Designing of a Courthouse. 

BY J. B. NOEL WYATT. 

FIREPROOFING. — The absolute necessity that a 
courthouse should be built of some system of fire- 
proof construction as nearly perfect as possible admits of 
no question, recognizing the vast importance of the 
public records and other contents of such a building, and 
the calamity resulting to a community in case of its 
destruction. The fact, therefore, that a courthouse 
should be as absolutely fireproof as scientific knowledge 
can make it may be admitted without further discussion. 
Site.— As in the case of all buildings for whatever 
purpose, the proper designing and arrangement of a 
courthouse must necessarily depend largely upon the 
conditions and surroundings of the proposed site. If the 
building is for a small community, in a city, for example, 
of the second or third class as regards population, and in 
a location of somewhat suburban character, — such as an 
open site insuring freedom from disturbance, from out- 
side noise, and perhaps permitting features of parking 
and foliage, — it is evident that the problem must be 
treated on different lines from those to be followed, if 
the elements of a great metropolis afe to be taken into 
consideration. The limitations of a single article for the 
treatment of this subject require that we regard the 
problem only from the latter aspect, viz., a complete 
courthouse building in a large city, in which case it 
would, for convenience, necessarily be located near the 
business center, with only such isolation for the purposes 
of light, quiet and fire protection, as may be obtained in 
the limited widths of surrounding streets or plazas, 
thronged with a city's traffic. 

Another important factor of the site, which essen- 
tially modifies both internal and external arrangement, 
is the grade. If this is sufficiently great through either 
main axis to admit of a basement story throughout any 
large portion of the area, of a satisfactory height and 
capacity for light, there are several departments of a 
courthouse building which would necessarily be dis- 
posed of in such a basement story rather than elsewhere. 
Furthermore, as it not infrequently happens that a 
good site is too crowded to admit of one building of 
sufficient area to accommodate all the various necessary 
departments under one roof, there are certain depart- 
ments which it is natural to suggest should be dis- 
posed of in separate buildings, adjacent to, or near by, a 
point we may note further in dealing more with the 
details of the separate departments. 

Architectural Style. — Before dwelling upon the 
all important point of interior arrangement, we may 
consider, in a general way, the question of the appro- 
priate architectural style for a courthouse. The iron- 
bound rule or dogma, fixing exactly the style proper for 
any one building or class of buildings, has probably 
never been formulated, nor ever will be. Recognizing, 
however, that the administration of law, justice and 
equity is one of the most serious, important and dignified 
phases of life in a community, it is safe to suggest that 
its expression in architectural forms should be that of 
solidity, repose and order, to a greater degree than for 
any other building, except, perhaps, the prison and tomb, 



and for this expression the adoption of some of the forms 
of the so-called classic style is almost obligatory, ranging 
from the extreme severity of the Egyptian, on the one 
hand, to the lighter elegance of the Renaissance on the 
other, centering where conditions permit, in the sim- 
plicity and dignity of the Greek. Notwithstanding the 
difficulties in which we at once involve ourselves, when 
we endeavor to impose a classic and monumental treat- 
ment upon the varied complications and littlenesses of 
modern requirements, the problem must be met as best 
we can, for there seems no other fitting solution, and it 
has been done with more or less success, more than 
once, with many incongruities and inconsistencies 
frankly acknowledged and accepted. 

A conspicuous exception to this statement as to archi- 
tectural style may be found in the noteworthy court- 
house in Pittsburg, which, while entirely free from any 
classic restraint, will probably always retain its prestige 
as one of the most successful buildings in America, in its 
individual style, and will always receive that approval 
which the exceptional talent and ability of its great archi- 
tect forces us to give to all his work. 

Although there are noteworthy and important court 
and law buildings erected in the Gothic style, in lo- 
calities where that style is apparently held as a sine qua 
non for all purposes, it is difficult to see, both from the 
point of design and of practical utility, how Gothic forms 
can be appropriately adjusted to meet in the best way 
the requirements of a great court of justice of the twen- 
tieth century, and as a matter of sentiment such forms, 
while suggesting a great religious feeling and movement, 
do not recall an epoch where the administration of justice 
was altogether in accord with the ideas guiding it in our 
own later days. 

One architectural feature, although not infrequently 
made a part of modern courthouse buildings, scarcely 
seems called for or appropriaie, viz., the tower, for while 
there may be rare occasions when a tower may be deemed 
desirable for some especially practical purpose, or to en- 
hance the value of a commanding site, this would prob- 
ably occur only in connection with a small building and 
a rather suburban location, and would with difficulty be 
made to accord with the style we have suggested as best 
fitting a great metropolitan city, tending to detract from 
its dignity and repose. 

Material. — The question of material is an elastic 
one, considered in conformity with our methods of con- 
struction as merely an external covering for the fireproof 
frame, and varying from the granites and marbles, 
through the various lime and sand stones, to brick and 
terra cotta. 

Interior Arrangement. — While it is obviously im- 
possible to suggest any one general scheme of floor plan 
or other interior arrangement adaptable to varying local- 
ities and conditions, there are certain desirable and unde- 
sirable features to be considered in all cases. Light, 
ventilation and freedom from noise are important ques- 
tions. The methods of ventilation are so closely con- 
nected with those of heating that they cannot well be 
treated apart, and together they are especially to be stud- 
ied for successful results in every individual instance 
only by an expert, the problems to be solved in case of a 
courthouse not differing essentially from those of many 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



'73 



other large public buildings offering similar condition s~ 
and we need not dwell further upon them here. An im- 
portant point, however, to which careful attention should 
be given, is the elimination, as far as possible, of all vi- 
bration and noise in the court rooms from any power 
plant located within the building. 

It is hardly necessary to say that all parts of the 
building should be as thoroughly lighted as possible, in- 
cluding corridors, offices, smaller rooms, toilets, store- 
rooms, etc., etc., and for all court rooms it is important 
for the windows to be on two opposite sides, reaching 
nearly to the ceiling, and with square-headed rather than 
round-headed openings where feasible; and in order to 
avoid a city's dust and noise in a court room, particularly 
during the months when some windows must be open, a 
most desirable arrangement is to have, embraced within 
the building, one or more ample interior court spaces, 
into which the windows of at least one side of the princi- 
pal courtrooms shall open. 

Court Rooms. — In the planning of the interior, the 
proper approach to, and distribution of, and arrangement 
of the chief court rooms and their dependencies, must 
receive the first consideration. The number and charac- 
ter of the court rooms required will probably vary in 
some degree in different states and localities, but they 
may be broadly classed as the criminal courts and those 
for other purposes such as common pleas, circuit, orphans, 
superior, etc., etc., with one room distinctly varying from 
the others, of smaller dimensions, but marked by a 
treatment of greater dignity and elegance, both in plan 
and detail, for the use of the supreme bench. Among 
the necessary dependencies or annexes to all court rooms 
there must be provided for each the judge's private room, 
communicating with the court room near the bench, to 
have also, whenever possible, outside exit to the public 
corridor, and to be furnished with proper toilet rooms. 
For all courts there must be also adequate clerks' rooms, 
communicating with the public corridor; one or two jury 
rooms (for courts requiring juries), and rooms for both 
male and female witnesses, all to have proper toilets. 
Provision is to be made for the comfort of the jury 
when kept over night, and a matron's room be placed 
near the female witness room in connection with the 
criminal court. It is important that the jury rooms, also, 
shall have private access from the court rooms, without 
the necessity of the jury passing through the main cor- 
ridors, or coming in contact with the public in the court 
room itself. 

The criminal courts require special attention to other 
details also, on account of the importance and popular 
interest attached to their proceedings, generally greater 
than to those of other courts, consequently their areas 
should be larger, and their location and approaches more 
prominent. In fact, they should be treated as the most 
important points of the building and should open from 
the main vestibules, or corridors, with two entrances, 
giving opportunity for speedily clearing and closing them 
when necessary, and ample space without, where the 
crowd which gathers about them may be properly taken 
care of in an orderly manner. By far the most important 
feature, however, to be considered in connection with 
the criminal courts, is the proper provision made for the 
reception and care of the prisoners. Whether brought 



from jails or lockups situated within the building itself, 
or in vans from a jail outside, their introduction into the 
court room must be accomplished with as little publicity 
as possible, and never through the main entrances or 
corridors where the public congregate. In direct com- 
munication with each criminal court room, having 
entrance thereto in the rear, near the prisoners' "bar," 
either by private corridor or stairway (if a different floor 
is utilized for the purpose), should be arranged separate 
and carefully guarded "lockups" for male and female 
prisoners, well lighted and ventilated, with smooth 
cement floors and walls of glazed material of light color, 
each provided with a toilet room, and all protected from 
the gaze of the people from either within or without the 
building. If the prisoners are to come from outside they 
should be brought in closed vans, which should only dis- 
charge their occupants at interior court spaces, from 
which the public are rigidly excluded, and directly at 
the entrance to the lockups, where the prisoners are kept 
until called for in the court itself, where they are taken 
by the private rear entrance, and immediately returned 
to the lockups when their presence is no longer needed, 
the vans meanwhile waiting in the court spaces to take 
them back to the jail on the final adjournment of the 
court. 

It is to be noted that the areas required in the building 
for the necessary dependencies of each important court 
room, such as the clerks' departments, and rooms for 
records and storage, in addition to those already men- 
tioned for juries, witnesses, etc., etc, will be found gen- 
erally to be much greater than the area of each respective 
court room itself, the varying spaces required for these 
several departments depending largely upon the character 
of the respective courts to which they belong. The 
only means by which these may be properly provided, 
of sufficient areas, is by a thorough and careful study 
of ihe problem by those familiar with the uses the 
rooms will be put to, and a clear and accurate state- 
ment of the figures in the programme of instructions 
given to the architects. It is evident that this must 
be true also for a very large part of all the details of a 
building of this class, and while the various arrangements 
and features noted in this article are deemed important 
and desirable, it is obvious that tliere may be conditions 
attached to many problems where they would not be 
feasible, and a quite different solution necessary. As 
stated above, the discussion of our subject is limited to 
the conditions probably prevailing in designing buildings 
of the first class in large cities; but it is also obvious that 
the statements in regard to solving the problems, and the 
various features enumerated as belonging to such build- 
ings, are in many cases equally applicable to smaller 
buildings in other localities, and it should be here further 
stated that while the features herein dwelt upon as essen- 
tial have been incorporated in many of the larger court- 
houses erected within the last ten or twenty years 
throughout the country, more or less successfully, the 
facts and opinions are largely taken from the results to 
be noted, both as to points desirable or otherwise, in the 
design of the courthouse in Baltimore, completed a few 
years ago, with which the writer was closely connected.* 

•The plans of the courthouse at Baltimore, Wyatt .<• Koltlog, 

architects, will be illustrated in connection with another article on 
courthouses. — BDI1 <>ks. 



i74 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Before leaving the subject of the court rooms them- 
selves, it should be noted that such of their interior de- 
tails as the position and arrangement of the judge's 
bench, the jury seats, the prisoners' bar, the witness stand, 
the lawyers' tables, etc., etc., may be regarded rather 
as adjustable matters of furniture which may greatly 
vary with circumstances. One point, however, is impor- 
tant, namely, that the bench should not be placed facing 
a wall in which there are windows, nor should there be 
windows immediately behind it, and while skylights may 
be admitted to increase the lighting and ventilation, 
without serious objection, they should never be depended 
upon solely for this purpose. 

Records. — The department for records will require 
a larger area than any other, not even excepting the 
largest criminal court, comprising, first, a large storage 
space, where the records should be disposed of in fire- 
proof stacks, systematically arranged and readily acces- 
sible. A large recording room must be near by, with 
one also for a cashier and several for clerks ; proper 
cloak and toilet rooms must be included, and this whole 
department, which may be fittingly located on an upper 
floor, must, in that case, communicate by book lift 
with the room to be placed directly beneath it on the 
ground floor for the reception of deeds and other docu- 
ments. 

Police, License, Sheriff. — In addition to the court 
rooms, three separate departments are generally to be 
provided for in a building of this class, namely, those for 
the police, for the sheriff, and for licenses, and these are 
the ones that, for practical purposes, would be more con- 
veniently found on the lower floor or in the basement, 
or, where limitations of space require, might even be 
located in a separate building. In either case, the re- 
quirements for each department are about as follows : 
For the police, a Board meeting room with commis- 
sioner's private room ; a witness room and two "lock- 
ups " ; secretary's office and clerk's room, and one or two 
additional rooms for sundries and toilets where abso- 
lutely necessary. The sheriff requires two or three 
rooms of ample size for himself and clerks, with one or 
two for prisoners, while for licenses there is only needed 
one large room with a smaller clerk's room attached. In 
addition to these there must naturally be provided an 
office, with some small dependencies, for the superin- 
tendent, and at convenient points through the buildings 
public toilet rooms, for both men and women, easily 
accessible but not conspicuously located, to which most 
careful attention should be given in regard to all hy- 
gienic arrangements and neatness. A possible disposi- 
tion of these suggests itself in mezzanine floors opening 
from the landings of staircases, and above the smaller 
rooms of the floor below, where the entire ceiling height 
of the court rooms is not needed ; the remaining space 
of the mezzanines to be disposed of as convenient storage 
rooms or for sundry like purposes. 

The desirability of having a restaurant located within 
a courthouse building is questionable. While in some 
cases doubtless a matter of convenience for the mid- 
day meal of the large number of officials of different 
grades in such a building, if no restaurants are to be 
found near by, the complicated details involved in 
the proper maintenance of such a feature, and the un- 



avoidable objections that arise in connection with it, 
would lead one to decide that it was, on the whole, not 
advisable. 

Bar Library. — There remains one other department 
to be considered, which, while not an essential feature in 
a great courthouse, is an important, and for many 
reasons a very desirable one to have incorporated within 
the building itself, namely, the bar library. The books 
and other property appertaining to this institution may 
or may not belong to the city, and hence may either be 
placed within some municipal building, or be housed 
elsewhere. It is, however, evidently far more accessible 
and convenient for the actual use of those who most need 
it to have this library as a conspicuous part of the 
courthouse, and to it should be accorded ample space, 
as free from noise as possible, well lighted and venti- 
lated, and capable of being treated in a dignified and 
monumental manner, with possibilities for appropriate 
decoration. There should be included in this depart- 
ment at least one large room or hall, containing the 
proper cases and stacks for the books, carefully arranged 
in alcoves, or other form of grouping, well lighted and 
accessible, with several smaller rooms or studies for 
private work, and the department must be connected by 
speaking tubes or telephones, and book-lifts with all floors 
on which court rooms are located. Also for the conven- 
ience of those who will constantly seek it from outside, it 
must be readily accessible by special entrance, remaining 
open in the evening. 

Interior Wall Surfaces. — Few buildings require 
more careful consideration as to the treatment of interior 
wall surfaces, for durability and cleanliness, than a court- 
house, bearing in mind the severe wear and tear it is 
continuously subjected to from the careless, irresponsible 
public that daily throng its corridors and court rooms. 
That all floors should be laid in some form of tiling, 
" terrazzo," or other composition, is therefore obligatory, 
for sanitary reasons as well as for fire protection, and 
that as little plaster wall surface as possible, with its 
liability to defacement and dirt, should form part of the 
construction is also important. That the ceilings alone 
should be of plaster is not seriously objectionable, and 
even has some advantages, if they are not encumbered 
with forms of molding or relief, affording surfaces for 
dust accumulation. It is therefore desirable that all 
public corridors, and rooms of medium height, eight or 
ten feet, should have polished marble or tile wainscoting 
from floor to ceiling. While other and more important 
rooms of greater height of ceiling and monumental pro- 
portions should have the marble or tile wainscot of such 
height as to place the plaster surface above it beyond 
ordinary reach of such contact as would in any way deface 
it, leaving it, with the ceiling, to be treated in such color 
scheme or other forms of decoration as may be decided 
upon, either for immediate application, or deferred for 
greater elaboration at some future time, the color scheme 
of the marble to be considered in relation to the general 
decoration of the respective rooms, and to be designed to 
avoid, as far as possible, dust accumulation where it 
cannot be readily removed. These suggestions do not 
necessarily exclude entirely a judicious use of some 
wood wainscoting and paneling, of oak or mahogany, at 
appropriate points where it may be regarded, in an other- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



175 



wise fireproof building, rather as features of furniture 
than as part of construction. 

Decoration. — Finally, when we come to the question 
of fitting treatment for the plaster walls surfaces, 
although this may be deemed a matter of mere decora- 
tion, it is nevertheless one of some importance in the 
successful completion of the building, as a mural decora- 
tion in a courthouse, fitting in subject and skillful in 
execution, may contribute largely not only to its beauty, 
but also to its generally satisfactory results, while a 
detail of this kind, inappropriate and unskillful, would 
be a very undesirable feature. We do not dwell here on 
decoration consisting chiefly of a color scheme. Such 
must be treated by what appears to the eye, and written 
discussion is inadequate. We refer to mural painting 
and mosaics where "subject" and figures are part of 
the composition. For the large public halls and cor- 
ridors it is not difficult to find subjects — historical, 
symbolical or allegorical— which, when treated with that 
conventionality recognized as proper for wall surfaces, 
and made to harmonize with the architectural lines and 
surrounding color scheme, may become valuable factors 
in the education of both mind and eye. For the interior 



of the court rooms themselves, the choice of a fitting 
subject for an artistic decoration, which the eye will 
continually rest upon, is more difficult, if the aim is, 
as it should be, to make this in some way accord with 
the special function or use of the particular room, or at 
least, not to conflict with it. From this point of view 
one might almost claim that the walls of the court rooms 
should only be treated in schemes of color, omitting all 
pictorial subject. It is hardly necessary to assert that 
all mural decoration for such a building, at whatever 
point located, should be entrusted only to the most 
skillful artists of the highest rank. The courthouse 
at Baltimore has been fortunate to have upon its 
walls decorations of great beauty and interest by such 
men as John LaFarge, Edwin Blashfield and C. V. 
Turner. 

It does not need this brief description to show what 
should be an accepted fact, that a great courthouse is 
not merely a building designed solely for the purpose of 
having courts of justice and equity, etc., etc., but that it 
becomes a great municipal monument, which stands in 
the community as the examplar of all that is best in law 
and order, dignity and beauty. 



Arrangement of Photographs and Magazine Plates 



Editors of The Brickbuieder. 

Dear Sirs, — Having adopted the so-called " Decimal 
Classification" in arranging photographs and the numer- 
ous plates of current architectural magazines, I was very 
much interested in the articles recently published in The 
Brickbuilder, describing the methods in vogue in the 
offices of architects in Boston, Philadelphia, New York 
and elsewhere. I was somewhat surprised that the 
"Decimal Classification," now so widely adopted in 
libraries of the United States, because of its simplicity, 
its practical utility and economy, has not found a place, 
at least, in some architects' offices. The system has 
every merit that has been ascribed to any of the methods 
already described. It is " dustproof, elastic, compact 
and orderly, anybody can attend to it," as Mr. Kelsey 
says of his loose-leaf filing system that he has adopted. 
It is, at the same time, inexpensive, is easily understood, 
easily remembered and readily used, can be expanded 
without limit and without confusion ; it lends itself to 
minute and close classification, features most essential to 
an easy, proper and practical classification of these 
numerous plates. 

The Decimal System of Classification divides the field 
of knowledge into nine main classes, numbered by the 
digits 1 to 9. Cyclopa;dias, dictionaries, etc., so general 
in character as to belong to none of these classes, are 
marked o and form a tenth class ; for example : Class 1 
is a library of Philosophy ; Class 7 is a library of Art ; 
Class 9 of History, etc. These special classes are then 
considered independently and each one is separated again 
into nine special divisions of the main subject, numbered 
from 1 to 9, as were the classes, general works, belonging 
to no division having o in place of the division number. 



Thus, 72 is the second division (Architecture) of the 
seventh class, Art. A third division is then made by 
separating each of these divisions into ten sections, num- 
bered in the same way, with o and the nine digits, and 
this decimal division is repeated, till it secures as many 
subsections as may be needed to any topic. Thus, 725 is 
the fifth section (Public Buildings) of the second division 
(Architecture) of the seventh class (Art). 

This number giving class, division, section, subsec- 
tion, if any, is called the classification or the class num- 
ber, and is applied to every photograph, plate or sheet. 
All Public Buildings are numbered 725 ; all Ecclesiastical 
and Religious Buildings, 726 ; Educational and Scientific 
Buildings, 727; Residences, 728. 

To illustrate how minutely the subsections enable one 
to classify the sheets in an orderly and permanent man- 
ner, two or three examples will suffice. Thus, division 
725, Public Buildings, includes the following sections : 

725.1 Administrative. Governmental. 

725.2 Business and Commercial. 

725.3 Transportation and Storage. 

725.4 Manufactories. 

725.5 Hospitals and Asylums. 

725.6 Prisons. 

725.7 Refreshments. Baths. Parks. 

725.8 Recreation. 

725.9 Other Public Buildings. 

The sub-sections of section 725.2, Business and Com 
mercial Buildings, are : 

725.21 Stores (Wholesale and Retail). 

725.22 Mixed Stores, offices and Apartment Build- 

ings. 

725.23 Office Buildings Telegraph and Insurance. 



176 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



725.24 Banks — Safe Deposit and Savings. 

725.25 Exchanges — Board of Trades. 

725.26 Markets. 

725.27 Cattle Markets. Stock Yards. 

725.28 Abattoirs. 

725.29 Other Business Buildings. 

The division 726, Ecclesiastical and Religious Build- 
ings, has these sections : 

726.1 Temples. 

726.2 Mosques. 

726.3 Synagogues. 

726.4 Chapels. 

726.5 Churches. 

726.6 Cathedrals. 

726.7 Monasteries, Abbeys. 

726.8 Mortuary — Tombs, Vaults. 

726.9 Y. M. C. A., etc. 

Again, the sub-sections of every division can be sub- 
divided as minutely as one desires. 728, Residences, has 
a subdivision, 728.3, City Houses. This is divided as 
follows : 

728.31 Between party walls. Stone. 

728.32 Between party walls. Brick. 

728.33 Between party walls. Partly wood. 

728.34 Semi-detached, including end houses in city 

blocks. Stone. 

728.35 Semi-detached, including end houses in city 

blocks. Brick. 

728.36 Semi-detached, including end houses in city 

blocks. Partly wood. 

728.37 Detached. Stone. 

728.38 Detached. Brick. 

728.39 Detached. Partly wood. 

By placing these numbers on each plate at the upper 
edge, it is labelled permanently, can be removed from 
the portfolio, vertical file or shelf, and readily and quickly 
replaced. There can be no derangement or confusion. 
If one desires to arrange some of the plates d*r photo- 
graphs under style, there are sections: 

722 Ancient and Oriental Architecture. 

723 Mediaeval Architecture (Christian and Moham- 

medan). 

724 Modern Architecture. 

These again have sub-sections enabling one to classify 
buildings in every known style. Not only are buildings 
in general classified in this way, but every detail also ; 
thus, under section 729 are included Architectural De- 
sign and Decorations. A subdivision of this section is 
729.9, Architectural Accessories and Fixed Furniture, 
and this is divided as follows: 

729.91 Altars. Organs. 

729.92 Pulpits. Tribunes. 

729.93 Dais. Thrones. 

729.94 Buffets 

729.95 Mantels. Overmantels. 

729.96 Screens. Rood screens. Reredos. 

729.97 Chairs. 

729.98 Interiors. 

729.99 Tables. 

This decimal system has been found so accurate and 
comprehensive, and yet so simple and satisfying, that I 
have at times been prompted to urge upon the publishers 
of architectural periodicals to adopt this system and 



enable all subscribers to classify the plates uniformly 
and scientifically. In order to do this all that would be 
necessary would be to print, in large type, on the upper 
right or left hand corner of the plate, the permanent 
number designating the sheet; as, for example: — 725.11, 
Capitols; 725.24, Banks; 725.31, Railway Passenger 
Stations; 725.47, Mills; 725.52, Hospitals for the Insane; 
725.62, Jails; 725.76, Buildings for Parks; 725.85, 
Gymnasiums; 729.91, Exhibition Halls; 726.3, Syna- 
gogues; 727.3, Colleges; 727.8, Libraries; 728.1, Tene- 
ment Houses; 728-4, Club Houses; 728.8, Country Seats; 
728.94, Stables; 729.36, Towers; 729.38, Doors and 
Windows; 729.8, Stained Glass; 729.91, Altars; 729.95, 
Mantels, and so forth. Each publisher would be required 
t» adopt the same Relative Subject Index, that is, an 
index containing in a single alphabet all the subjects 
named in the complete Table of the Decimal Architec- 
tural Classification. This could be issued in pamphlet 
form, and be sold for a nominal sum to each subscriber 
by the publisher, possibly in accordance with an agree- 
ment with the publishers of the Dewey Decimal Classifi- 
cation. I am confident that the usefulness of each 
periodical would be greatly increased, for it would enable 
every subscriber to classify all plates as they came to 
hand in a uniform and economical manner and with great 
ease and expedition. The publishers, it seems to me, 
too, would also be enabled to classify their plates in their 
offices and thus also be benefited by it, — in fact, the 
yearly index of illustrations could take the form of the 
Decimal Classification. 

E.MIL GlNSBURdER, 

130 Fulton Street, New York City. 



THE DEWEY DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION. 

THE Engineering Experiment Station of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois has just published Bulletin No. 13, 
"An Extension of the Dewey Decimal Classification 
applied to Architecture and Building." This greatly ex- 
tended classification has been in use in a more comprehen- 
sive form in the Department of Architecture for many 
years, but it has never before been published. It forms 
a supplement to the extended classification applied to the 
branches of engineering previously issued in Bulletin 
No. 9. 

It is preceded by a very brief explanation of the 
exceedingly valuable system invented and introduced by 
Dr. Melvil Dewey for the classification of books and 
literary materials, but which has since been found to be 
the best known method for arranging all tangible things 
and ideas. For the convenience of persons not fully 
conversant with the system, and for finding the proper 
numbers quickly, a relative index of subjects has been 
added. In its present form it is believed that this bulle- 
tin will prove useful to architects, engineers and con- 
structors in classifying books, pamphlets, articles in 
periodicals, data and all other material relating to archi- 
tecture and construction. 

Copies may be secured upon application to the Direc- 
tor of the Engineering Experiment Station, Urbana, 
Illinois. 



THE BRICKBU ILD ER. 



177 




1 7 8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




TIE5T fLooB Plan 



HOUSE FOR A. L. LOWRY, ESQ., SEWICKLEY, FA. 
Alden & Harlow, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



'79 




Second. Flood. Plan. 



(4) U) 

HOUSE AT PRINCETON, N. J. W. E. & F. S. Stone, Architects. 



i8o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





I I I I I l MM 
PlAfl or nU9T 1XOOR 



HOUSE AT CYNWYD, PA. Field & Medary, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



181 




HOUSE AT (1ERMANTOWN, PA. Savery, Scheetz & Savery, Architects. 




HOUSE AT GERMANTOWN, PA. George T. Pearson, Architect. 



1 82 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



« * *i 




HOUSE AT SYRACUSE, N. Y. A. L. Brockway, Architect. 



THE BR ICKBUILDER 



183 




FRONT ELEVATION. 



HOUSE FOR 

REDINGTON FISKE, ESQ., 

NEEDHAM, MASS. 




Philip B Howard, 
Architect. 



REAR ELEVATION. 





FlBST fLOOC PL AH 



1 84 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





FLONT EL EVAT1 ON 



v5 I D E. EL EVATI O N 



... 

B 

sISSi 




PLOT 



- E C T [ O N 




riH5T FLOOR. 



PLAN 



3ECO.ND noon 



P L_A N 



DESIGN FOR A SUBURBAN HOUSE. 
Edgar Guy, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



185 



Th 



e Group 

HOSPITALS - 



Plan. IV. 

- (Continued.) 



BY ALFRED MORTON GITHENS. 




fte n> Ir/arxL 



ST. 



LUKES HOSPITAL, 
Ernest Flagg, 



The foregoing principles and plans are adapted to 
institutions where resident physicians do the chief work, 
generally suburban or 

, . , Fu+ort Ward Mu"e» Chapel 

country hospitals. 
The city hospital pre- 
sents two new ele- 
ments. Since the 
most important work 
is done by visiting 
physicians, often with 
such large private 
practices that their 
time is limited, rapid 
communication is es- 
sential. Land is valu- 
able and restricted, 
making it necessary to superimpose the wards instead of 
placing them side by side, therefore natural ventilation 
from the exterior cannot be relied upon, and a forced 
system is employed, by which fresh air is driven into each 
ward near the ceiling and vitiated air exhausted through 
openings near the floor. Windows supply light only and 
theoretically are kept 
closed. Modern floor 
construction is imper- 
meable, so there is no 
communication of air 
between stories. This 
has made practicable 
a partial return to the 
old hospital plan. The 
Massachusetts General 
Hospital is a typical 
instance. "Certain 
wards," to quote Mr. 

Wheelwright, "instead of being considered quite unsuit- 
able, as they were twenty-five years ago, are now satis- 
factory and are to be regarded as excellent for the classes 
of patients for which they are used. To modernize 
them it was only necessary to remove the toilet and 
other service rooms to exterior towers." 

In St. Luke's and 
St. Margaret's hospi- 
tals, Mr. Flagg has 
concentrated the stairs 
and elevators in the 
administration build- 
ing, and has attempted 
an absolute separation 
of the wards by short 
open passages, each 
passage "furnished 
with a low covered 
way not high enough 
to interfere too much 
with the cross circula- 
tion of air. The cov- 
ered way is roofed and 



Hu^aea 



Fi/tvre War A 



e 



Women-, Ward. 



NEW YORK. 
Architect. 



FuK/rc Wari 



LfJ- 






~T.:::r 


m 




[.... J 


^ 




L...J 


*p 





Y/AED5 ADN1IN1STEATIOH 

Ot.Lwes' Hospital 



SECTIONAL DIAGRAMS COMPARING CIRCULATION OF ST. 
AND MT. SINAI HOSPITALS. 



■101 ST JTEEET 




■100TH 5TEEET 



CAJ.- ADMINISTRATION MEDICAL 

SINAI HOSPITAL, NEW YORK CUV. 
Arnold W. Brunner, Architect. 



glazed and fitted with a contrivance which automatically 
opens a sash on its leeward side. . . . By this arrange- 
ment there is no possibility of the circulation of air from 
one pavilion to another, and as the ward pavilions contain 
no staircases, or shafts of any kind, it is impossible for air 
to circulate from one ward to another above or below it." 
The wards occupy the southern half of the square 

pavilions, the beds 
against the exterior 
walls, so that the pa- 
tients do not face the 
windows as in the 
usual pavilion hospi- 
tal, and yet there is 
sunlight all through 
the day. 

The wards of the 
Mt. Sinai Hospital are 
arranged in the same 
way, but the means of 
communication are on 
a different principle. The air cut-off has been given up as 
better in theory than in practice and more conducive to 
draughts than to ventilation. Each ward-pavilion has 
its staircase and elevator, so that the visiting physician 
can quickly pass from ward to ward without returning to 
the administration building, communication with which is 

only by the first floor. 
In plan St. Luke's 
is noteworthy, be 
cause, though the 
buildings are compact 
and connected, each 
has the light on all 
sides, an arrangement 
suggesting the black 
squares on a checker- 
board. The corners 
of the Mt. Sinai Hos- 
pital follow the same 
principle. This arrangement has not been found neces- 
sary in the Harlem Hospital. The wards here are of a 
different type, resembling those of a pavilion hospital. 
The circular wards of Mr. Haight's New York Cancer 
Hospital are interesting. Fresh air is introduced be- 
tween the beds, around the circumference of the circle, 

and vitiated air drawn 
out through a vent- 
shaft in the center of 
the room. 

Perhaps the great- 
est of all modern hos- 
pitals will be the new 
Bellevue. It is to pro- 
vide for twenty-eight 
hundred beds and 
nearly five thousand 
persons, easily the 
largest in the world. 
It is designed "in the 
grand manner," fol- 
lowing the old princi- 
ple that the municipal 



OTAIES 


AND UFT 




















=f^ 










[ 












_J. : 













WABD3 ADMINI5TBH. 

MT. OINAI HOOPITAL 



ISOLATINC PATHOLOGICAL- 



1 86 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



East Rivee TTzorrr age: 



Wards 



Warps 




Ea\p. & Out Patiemts 



Figst Avenue 



BELLEVUE HOSPITAL, NEW YORK CITY. 
McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



Power- Houst 




t,ENOX AtfCNOfc 
HARLEM HOSPITAL, HEW YORK CITY. 
J. H. Freedlander, Architect. 




Thames Embankment? 
**Nr ST. Thomas HOSPITAL, LO 



loo™ StQETI 




rivatt fVh'er. Ji 



Map 



ItWien. 




"livifiU* 



ST. MARGARET'S HOSPITAL, PITTSBURG, PA. 

Ernest Flagg, Arcnitect. 



los- STCEtr 
NEW YORK CANCER HOSPITAL, NEW YORK CITY. 
Charles C. Haight, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



187 



X o 



hospital should be one 
of the great monuments 
of a city, as the Green- 
wich Hospital is in Lon- 
don. Its arrangement 
is well worth study, diagram showing juxtaposition 
both practically and of buildings in plan with all 
aesthetically. Covering sides well lighted. 

three city blocks it over- 
looks the East River, and the wards are so placed that 
they have the advantage of the outlook, as the wards of 
St. Thomas's Hospital overlook the Thames. Though 
modern in arrangement and equipment, it has the char- 
acter of a plan by Wren or Vanbrugh, an example of a 
true pyramidal composition with a central dome sur- 
rounded by four smaller domes and flanked by lower 
pavilions at the corners. 

History is making fast. Sixty years, and wooden 
sheds replace the city monuments; sixty more, and the 
wheel is completely turned. A theory arises and is up- 
set by the next until the circle of falling books is com- 
pleted, and the first knocks over the last. True, but 
only partially, for many elements are introduced that 
make such reversal possible — perhaps a progression in 
circles that brings to mind a curious diagram showing 
how a theory starts direct to its conclusion, but is de- 
flected and returns on itself only to start anew a little in 
advance of the place it left. 



FIRE BARRIER ACROSS NEW YORK, FROM 

RIVER TO RIVER, WILL STOP ANY 

CONFLAGRATION. 

ACROSS the lower end of New York City the greatest 
fire wall in history is nearing completion. It will 
effectually cut off the financial district of the Metropolis 
from the rest of the city in case of a conflagration. 

Almost two blocks thick and hundreds of feet in 
height, this great unburnable barrier, roughly following 
the line of Liberty Street, is formed by a chain of sky 
scrapers composed mostly of steel and hollow blocks of 
Jersey clay which have each been heated to a temperature 
of 2,000 degrees in the process of manufacture, and in 
their finished state as porous terra cotta are absolutely 
not burnable. 

Beginning at the North River, the Central Building, 
of twelve stories, and the West Street Building, of twenty- 
three stories, form the west end of the wall. Between 
Washington and Greenwich streets is a break, but it is 
more than counterbalanced by the Hudson Terminal 
Building between Greenwich and Church streets, and the 
Singer Building, the highest in the world, the City In- 
vesting and the Trinity Buildings, between Church Street 
and Broadway. 

Crossing Broadway the fireproof wall is continued by 
the Broadway-Maiden Lane Building, the Jewelers Build- 
ing and the Provident Savings Life Building. East of 
Nassau Street are the Mutual Life Insurance Building, 
the Continental Building, Royal Insurance Building, 
Bishop Building, International Building and the Tontine- 
Tabor Building, forming an almost unbroken line to 
Water Street of structures as nearly fireproof as human 
art can build. 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 

PROSCRIPTIVE BUILDING REGULATIONS. 

THE new building law for the City of Boston went 
into effect on the first of August. This law was 
drawn up by a special commission appointed by the 
Mayor, and an attempt was deliberately made to lessen 




faience decoration in panels, dining-room, hotel sinton, 

cincinnati. 

Frank M. Andrews, Architect. 

Executed by Rookwood Pottery Company, from design by 

John Dee Wareham. 

the burdens which the law in past years had imposed 
upon those who improve real estate for residential pur- 
poses. Some of the philanthropic and charitable organ- 
izations, however, in what we believe to be a mistaken 
idea to ameliorate the condition of the poor, succeeded in 





perforated tile for front of window seat. 

Willard T. Sears, Architect. 
Executed in yellow and green faience by Hartford Faience Co. 



1 88 



THE BRICKBU ILDE R . 



imposing upon the commis- 
sion's report a series of regu- 
lations regarding tenement 
house construction which, 
though modified somewhat 
through the efforts of the 
commission, were, at the same 
time, quite exacting and con- 
tained conditions for light and 
air, yards, courts, exposure, 
etc., which, while unquestion- 
ably good of themselves, have 

served simply to defeat the very project which the 
philanthropists had in view. During the two months 
and a half since the law went into effect there were 




DETAIL BY HALE & 

New York Architectural 



hedge the construction of low- 
priced dwellings with so many 
restrictions that they cannot 
be built at all. Restrictions 
now in force in New York, 
Cleveland and Chicago are 
even more severe, in our judg- 
ment, than those which have 
been imposed upon Boston, 
and it is only the marvelous 
material development of these 
cities, the absolute necessity 
of housing the poor in the very heart of the city, and the 
impossibility for tenement dwellers to go to the sub- 
urbs that has called into being so many new tenement 



ROGERS, ARCHITECTS. 
Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 




HOUSE AT CHICAGO, ILL. 
W. C. Zimmerman, Architect. Built of Roman Gray Brick, made by the Hydraulic-Press Brick C< 



filed with the building commissioner just three applica- 
tions for the construction of tenement houses, whereas, 
ordinarily, in the same period 
there would undoubtedly have 
been at least thirty. This falling 
off is not due to any great ex- 
tent to the condition of the 
market, but it is ascribed almost 
wholly to the undue severity of 
the new law. We must have 
tenement houses, though we may 
not all want to dwell in them. 
The general well-being of the 
community must be considered, 
but it is an economic mistake to N ew jersey Terra 



houses under these restrictive acts. In Boston the 
tenement houses will not be built and the poor will be 
crowded worse than ever into the 
existing structures, or forced 
into the suburbs. We do not 
specially deprecate the latter 
condition, but we do feel that 
IhjJflV^ tlie ' aw should prescribe a mini- 

mum rather than a maximum of 
restrictive conditions and should 
be devised to encourage the 
proper housing of the very poor 
under conditions which will allow 
a fair return on the capital in- 

Cotta Co., Makers. vested. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



189 













MAIN WAITING ROOM, PASSENGER STATION, PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD, ALLEGHENY, PA. 
^Price & McLanahan, Architects. Walls treated with Colored Faience, made by (irueby Faience Co. 



^THE HIGHEST BUILDING. 

THE Singer Building in lower Broadway is rapidly 
approaching completion. It will be the tallest 
building in the world, numbering forty-seven stories. 
Its designer, Ernest Flagg, built the original Singer 
Building a number of years ago at a time when the sky- 
scraper movement was in full swing in New York. Mr. 
Flagg then strongly opposed the construction of excess- 
ively tall buildings, and the Singer Company allowed 
him to put up the structure which still stands at the 

height of only a 
few stories, as 
buildings go in 
New York. 
Whether he has 
experienced a 



In 

It 

1. 


T 








RLvv 




Kr^ 





change of mind, or has been convinced that the sky 
scraper is a modern necessity, the fact remains that 
right in the midst of his original Singer Building he has 
carried up this tallest of the tall structures, going every- 
one a little bit better, and speaking the last word to date 
for height in New York. The design of this building is 
familiar to our readers. It is certainly a very striking 
addition to the really picturesque outline of lower New 
York, Hopkinson Smith to the contrary notwithstanding. 



THE 
SKY SCRAPER. 

THE New York 
Post publishes a 
very interesting com- 
munication from Calvin 
Tomkins in regard to 






A ^M 1 




II 


HJ 1 


[ ^J 


sjl\ 



DETAIL BY RUHE & LANGE, ARCHITECTS. 
Ketcham Terra Cotta Works, Makers. 



DETAIL BY LONG & LONG, ARCHITECTS. 
American Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



DETAIL BY SOUTH AMBOY TERRA 
COTTA CO. 



190 



T H E r _B RICKBUILDER 




DETAIL BV CONKLING-ARMSTRONG 
TERRA COTTA CO. 



the sky-scraper problem, 
in which the writer urges 
that the sky scraper 
should not be considered 
as an abnormal excres- 
cence on the city's 
growth, an evidence of 
personal greed and dis- 
regard for one's neigh- 
bors, for it is an eco- 
nomic necessity, it has 
made possible the trans- 
action of business along 
modern lines, and any 
attempt to restrict it as 
to dimensions or to force 
its development in any 
other lines except such 
as naturally result from 
business conditions, is sure to bring economic difficulties 
which would more than outweigh any .-esthetic objections 
which could be raised against it. Admitting the undesir- 
ability of encroachments upon light and air, he advocates 
the scheme proposed 
and repeatedly urged 
by Mr. Carrere that 
above a certain height 
a building should be 
set back on the pyram- 
idal idea and that 
the development of 
the city should follow 
the block unit instead 
of the lot unit. We 
have suffered, on the 
whole, more from too 
much law than from 
too little, and if our 
building laws could be 
gone through rigidly 
and everything ex- 
cluded which is not 
absolutely essential, 
the development o f 
our large cities would 
undoubtedly take on a 
no less satisfactory 
form than is now ap- 
parent. The applica- 
tion of the structural 
possibilities of steel, 
the modern fireproof- 
ing methods of pro- 
tecting steel, have 
come as practical 
necessities rather than 
because of legal en- 
actment, and it is these 
factors which have 
made the sky scraper 
possible and have 
brought this tremen- 
dous factor into our 
modern business life. 




PUBLIC SCHOOL, BERNARDSVI I.LE, 
H. J. Hardenberg, Architect 



N. J. 




CENTRAL 



OF NEW COOK COUNTY 



.TION OF RANDOLPH .STREET FRONT 

COURTHOUSE, CHICAGO. 

H(jlabird & Roche, Architects. 

Filling between the granite columns is of bronze-colored terra cotta. All the material 

above the main architrave is terra cotta which perfectly resembles the stone below it 



Roofed with Shingle Tile, made by Ludowici-Celadon Company. 



IN GENERAL. 

Columbia University will offer at night, during the year 
1 907- 1 908, twenty evening courses specially adapted to 
the needs of technical and professional workers. This 

includes work in Ap- 
plied Mechanics, Ar- 
chitecture, Electricity, 
Fine Arts, Industrial 
Chemistry, Mathe- 
matics, and Surveying 
and Structures. The 
work begins on Oc- 
tober 2.S, and continues 
for twenty-five weeks. 
A full description of 
the courses is con- 
tained in the An- 
nouncement of Exten- 
sion Teaching, which 
may be obtained on 
application to the Di- 
rector of Extension 
Teaching, Columbia 
University, New 
York. 



The Annual, the 
official organ of the 
Architectural League 
of America, will be 
ready for distribution 
December 15. The 
committee having the 
work in charge have 
endeavored to make 
it the best number yet 
issued. Architects 
and League members 
of prominence have 
contributed articles. 
For further informa- 
tion address Edward 
H. Poggie, 529 Real 
Estate Trust Building, 
Philadelphia. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



191 







THE PACKARD GARAGE, BROADWAY AND 6lST STREET, NEW YORK. 
Albert Kahn, Architect. Entire exterior^of white matt glazed terra cotta, made by Atlantic Terra Cotta Co. 



Members and ex-members of the Sketch Club of New 
York are requested to send their names and present 
addresses to Edgar A. Josslyn, Secretary, 3 West 29th 
Street, New York city, who wishes to communicate with 
them on a matter of special interest. 

MacDonald & Applegarth, architects, have opened 
new offices in the Call Building, San Francisco, and will 
be glad to receive manufacturers' samples. 

The American Enameled Brick and Tile Company 
report the following new contracts: — 100,000 mottled 
brick for the Keenan Building, Pittsburg, Pa., Thomas 
Hanna, architect ; 25,000 mottled brick for the front of 
the Morris-Lynch Building, Uniontown, Pa., Andrew P. 
Cooper, architect ; 125,000 seconds for the Engine and 
Boiler Rooms of the new Manomet Mills at New Bedford, 
Mass., C. H. Makepiece, architect, 500,000 brick for the 
Welsh Building, San Francisco, Cal. ; 125,000 brick for 
Public School, Flushing, N. Y. ; 60,000 brick for Public 
School at Richmond, L. I., 25,000 brick for Delbert 
Block, fSan Francisco, Cal. 



FIFTH AVENUE LOFTS— Fine north light. One block from 
Madison Square, New York. Corner building. Address, Room 70, 
2 Wall St. Telephone, 927 Rector. 

WANTED — First-class draughtsman seeks position in architect's 
office for sake of experience. Englishman, well educated, 28 years 
old ; neat and accurate. Moderate salary. Location unimportant. 
Address Saxon, care THE BRICKBUILDER. 

WANTED — In an architect's office located in a city in Mexico, a 
first class draughtswoman who is competent in design and construc- 
tion. A good permanent position. Address Mexico, care of THE 
BRICKBUILDER. 

COMPETITION FOR PLANS FOR THE CAPITOL OF 
PORTO RICO. 

San Juan, Porto Rico. 
By Act of the Legislative Assembly of Porto Rico, dated March 
14, 1907, the Commissioner of the Interior is authorized to 
announce a competition for a building to be known as the "Capitol 
of Porto Rico," the cost of such building not to exceed $300,000.00. 

Architects who wish to enter this competition must signify their 
intention in writing, to the Commissioner of the Interior, on or 
before November 1, 1907. Drawings will be received from no 
others. 

The competitive designs must be received on or before February 
1, 1908. 

Copies of the program, embracing terms of the competition, will be 
mailed upon request. 

L. H. GRAHAME, 
Commissioner of the Interior, San Juan, P. R. 



192 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




Competition for a Theater Building 



First Prize, $500 Second Prize, $200 Third Prize, $100 

COMPETITION CLOSES JANUARY 15, 1908 



T 



PROGRAMME. 

HE problem is a Theater Building. The location may be assumed in any city or large town of the United States. The site is at the 
corner of two streets of equal importance. The lot is perfectly level, has a frontage on one street of 100 feet and a depth on the other 
street of 150 feet to a 15-foot alley at the rear. 

The following is offered by way of suggestion : 

Depth of stage, 35 feet to curtain line. Projection of stage beyond curtain line, 3 feet, Proscenium opening not less than 36 feet 
wide, and not over 40 feet high. Width may be increased and height may be decreased to suit design. Auditorium to seat about 1,200 and 
to have but one balcony. 

The sight lines should be so laid out in plan that everv seat shall command an unobstructed view of at least three-fourths of the depth 
of the stage, measured on a center line. The lines of the balcony should be sufficiently raised so that each seat on the floor shall have an 
unobstructed view to a height of 20 feet on the curtain line. 

On the first floor, in addition to the auditorium, provision should be made for the foyer, lobby, ladies' retiring suite, coat room, ticket 
office and manager's office opening therefrom, and such other features as may seem desirable to the designer. 

On the balcony floor there should be a foyer, which may be treated in a monumental manner if desired, also lavatories for men and 
women, and such other features as may seem desirable to the designer. 

It is assumed that a smoking-room and lavatories will be provided in the basement, but plan of this need not be shown. Details of 
stage arrangement and dressing-rooms may also be omitted. 

There should be separate exits and stairways at least 5 feet wide on each side of the balcony, which exits may lead into the foyer of the 
first story. 

There must be an exterior balcony of terra cotta, or loggia, with access thereto from the balcony level. This should be treated as a 
feature of the design, and may be carried all around the building if desired. 

It is not the intention that the exterior should be treated in the style of the Paris Opera House, nor that the design should be out of 
reason with the commercial requirements of an ordinary theater. The portion devoted to the stage should be carried up to a height of not 
less than SO feet above the street ; otherwise the height need be governed only by sight lines and by questions of design. It is not necessary 
to consider daylight illumination for the interior, and openings in the outside wall need be considered only as means of egress. 

The exterior of the building and the lobby are to be designed entirely in Architectural Terra Cotta, employing colored terra cotta in 
at least portions of the walls. The color scheme is to be indicated either by a key or a series of notes printed on the same sheet with front 
elevation and plans at a size which will permit of two-thirds reduction. 

The following points will be considered in judging the designs ! 

A. Frank and logical expression of the prescribed material. 

B. Rational and logical treatment of the exterior. 

C. Excellence of plan. 

In awarding the prizes the intelligence shown in the constructive use of terra cotta and the development or modification of style, by 
reason of the material, will be taken largely into consideration. 

It must be borne in mind that one of the chief objects of this competition is to encourage the study of the use of Architectural Terra 
Cotta. There is no limitation of cost, but the designs must be suitable for the character of the building and for the material in which it is 
to be executed. 

The details should indicate in a general manner the jointing of the terra cotta and the sizes of the blocks. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED. 

On one sheet at the top, the shorter elevation, drawn at a scale of 8 feet to the inch. At the]bottom, the first and balcony floor plans 
drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch, and the color key or notes between the elevation and plans. 

On a second sheet at the top, the longitudinal section, drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch ; immediately below, the longer eleva- 
tion, drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch, and below that, half-inch scale details of the most interesting features of the design. 

The size of the sheet (there are to be but two) shall be exactly 22 inches by 30 inches. Strong border lines are to be drawn on both 
sheets, one inch from edges, giving a space inside the border lines 20 inches by 28 inches. The sheets are not to be mounted. 

All drawings are to be in black ink without wash or color, except that the walls on the plans and in the sections may be blacked-in or 
cross-hatched. 

Graphic scales to be on all drawings. 

Every set of drawings is to be signed by a nom de plume or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the 
nam de flume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat at the office of THE BRICKBUILDER, 85 Water Street, Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or 
before January 15, 1908. 

Drawings submitted in this Competition must be at owner's risk from the time they are sent until returned, although reasonable care 
will be exercised in their handling and keeping. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER, and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or all of 
the others. Those who wish their drawings returned may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names ten cents 
in stamps. 

The designs will be judged by three well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of $500. 
For the design placed second a prize of $200. 
For the design placed third a prize of 100. 

We are enabled to offer prizes of the above-mentioned amounts largely through the liberality of the terra cotta manufacturers who are 
epresented in the advertising columns of THE BRICKBUILDER. 
This competition is open to every one. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 10. PLATE 145. 




PASSENGER STATION FOR PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD, ALLEGHENY, PA. 

Price & McLanahan, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 10. PLATE 146. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 10. PLATE 147. 



H 



rkshi'w) 





Plan G-H 




PlAN C-D 




Plan X-7 Look.iNq Up 







DETAIL OF TOWER. 

PASSENGER STATION FOR PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD, ALLEGHENY, PA. 
Price & McLanahan. Architects. 



THE BRICKBU I L D ER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 10. PLATE U 




5ECO/ND fLOOR 

CONCOURSE 





&E/NERAL WAITI/NGr ROO/A 





FIR5T Floor- 



passenger STATION FOR PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD, ALLEGHENY, PA. 

Price & McLanahan, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 10. PLATE 152. 




MAIN ENTRANCE. 

DETAILS OF HOUSE FOR LEVERETT THOMPSON, ESQ., LAKE FOREST, ILL 

Howard Van D. Shaw. Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 10. PLATE 149 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 10. PLATE 150. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 10. PLATE 151. 




HOUSE FOR LEVERETT THOMPSON, ESQ., LAKE FOREST, ILL. 

Howard Van D. Shaw, Architect. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 10. PLATE 154. 





5CEVICf -*V*!BJ3- 



;l f 



HOUSE FOR A. A. SPRAGUE, ESQ., LAKE FOREST, ILL. 
Howard Van D. Shaw, Architect. 



THE BRICKBU I L DER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 10. PLATE 155. 




PORCH 



FIRST noon 



HOUSE AT GLENCOE, ILL. 
Robert C. Spencer Jr., Architect. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 10. PLATE 156. 




3EQ0ND FLOOR 



HOUSE AT GLENCOE, ILL. 
Robert C. Spencer, Jr., Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

VOL. 16, NO. 10. PLATE 153. 




■ 



Mill MMIIillll'll 




DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE. 

HOUSE FOR A. A. SPRAGUE, ESQ., LAKE FOREST, ILL. 
Howard Van D. Shaw, Architect. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 10. PLATE 157. 




HOUSE AT MIDDLETOWN, R I. 
Charles E. Birge, Architect. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 10. PLATE 158. 





SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 

PLANS OF HOUSE. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 

PLANS OF STABLE. 



HOUSE AND STABLE AT MIDDLETOWN, R. I. 
Charles E. Birge, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 10. PLATE 159 




/«K>» . V 







FIRST FLOOR 



HOUSE FOR WILLIAM DE FORD BIGELOW, ESQ., COHASSET, MASS. 

Philip B. Howard Architect. 



THE BRICKB U I LDER. 

VOL. 16. NO. 10. PLATE 160. 




5^D 7 



1 



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SECOND FLOOR 



HOUSE FOR WILLIAM DE FORD BIGELOW, ESQ., COHASSET, MASS. 

Philip B Howard, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVI 



NOVEMBER 1907 



Number 



1 1 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 
85 Water Street ....... Boston, Massachusetts 

Lntered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1907, by Rogers & Manson 

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ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Terra Cotta 

Brick .... 



PAt.n 

II 

II 

. II and III 

III 



PAGE 

Brick Enameled ......... Ill and IV 

Clay Chemicals . . . . . . . . . . IV 

Fireproofing ......... IV 

Roofing Tile . ........ IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



CONTENTS 



From Work by 



ERNEST FLAGG; HISS & WEEKES; THEO. C. LINK; PALMER & HORNBOSTEL; 

REED & STEM. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGH 

COBHAM HALL, THE NORTH FRONT, KENT, ENGLAND Frontispiece 



EDITORIALS 



THE NEW AUDITORIUM AT ST. PAUL 

FIREPROOF COUNTRY HOUSE AT LOS ANGELES, CAL 

HOUSE FOR SCHENLEY FARMS CO., PITTSBURG, PA ... Mac C lure & Spahr: Architects, Illustrations 

HOUSE FOR SCHENLEY FARMS CO, PITTSBURG, PA MacClure & Spahr, Architects, Illustrations 

HOU.SE FOR JOHN WALKER, ESQ., SEWICKLEY. PA MacClure £r= Spahr, Architects, Illustrations 

ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS. — REPORT 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 

PROGRAMME FOR "THE BRICKBUILDER" ANNUAL COMPETITION 



193 

194 
'99 
20J 
204 
205 
206 
209 
214 



194 



THE BRICKBUILDKR. 



The New Auditorium at St. Paul. 

( Fur additional illustrations see plates 167, 168 and 169.) 

IN the design of the Auditorium, built by the city of 
St. Paul, Minn., the architects were required to solve 
the problem of making the building serve a three-fold 
purpose. 

First, that of a building suitable for large gatherings, 
such as national conventions or for exhibition purposes, 
horse shows and circuses, similar to those given in the 
Madison Square Garden, New York. 

Second, a building suitable for the staging of grand 
opera performances, with a seating capacity equal to the 
Metropolitan Opera House, New York. 

Third, a building suitable for large, spectacular stage 
performances, similar to those given in the Hippodrome, 
New York. 

It was also necessary to keep within definite limits of 
expenditure, so as to make the building a reasonably 
paying investment. 

Heretofore, in the larger Western cities, buildings 
have been erected intended to partially fulfill these same 
requirements; the results being obtained, however, in an 
extremely crude manner by the arrangement of steel 
partitions used in sub-dividing the large hall into such 
areas as were required, the problem of providing the nec- 
essary attendant facilities and caring for an attractive 
architectural effect, and the acoustics of these smaller 
halls being neglected. 

The general plan of the Auditorium, which covers a 
site 181 feet by 301 feet, is based on the use of an arena 
125 feet by 200 feet, surrounded by boxes. The archi- 
tects have devised a system of pivoted boxes, enabling a 
portion of this space to be formed into a fan-shaped plan, 
which, by the addition of a movable proscenium arch, 
creates a theater, complete in every detail. Illustration 
A is a view of the arena being transformed into a theater 
with that portion of the floor occupied by the parquet in 
place. 

Illustration B is a view of the theater with the pivoted 
boxes shifted into position and the proscenium arch 
dropped into place. 

The portion of the arena floor which is used for the 
theater is provided with movable supports required for 
the stage floor; the ceiling immediately over this por- 
tion of the floor being provided with all facilities 
necessary for the gridiron loft used for the handling 
of scenery and accessories. 

When used for a theater, the total seating capacity is 
thirty-two hundred, each seat having an unobstructed 
view of the stage. The roof and ceiling are carried 
entirely by through-span trusses, avoiding the use of 
columns cutting through the balconies. The stage pro- 
vided is considered the largest in this country. During 
the recent visit of Secretary of War Taft, it was used for 



a banquet at which were seated simultaneously, over 
two thousand people. Through driveways are provided 
to enable the scenery to be carried directly into the 
building with trucks, insuring economical and quick 
handling. The boxes back of the stage are provided 
with collapsible wash stands and other necessary facili- 
ties to enable them to be converted into stage dressing 
rooms. 

The theater was used last spring by the Conried 
Opera Company, which played to the largest audiences in 
the history of the Northwest, and all of the requirements 
of the stage manager, including successful acoustics, were 
fully met. 

When used for exhibition purposes, the parquet seat- 
ing is floored over, thus providing a rectangular arena 
surrounded by boxes, and provided with ample circulat- 
ing *pace, which is secured by a system of arcades, 
entirely encircling the arena boxes. The boxes and 
accompanying galleries provide a total seating space for 
six thousand. When used for convention purposes the 
arena is provided with seats giving a total capacity for 
ten thousand people. 

A large banquet room is provided under the main 
balcony, with all necessary service facilities. 

The main street entrance is devoted to ticket lobbies 
and stairs to the various balcony levels. The building is 
amply provided with exits which are secured on both 
sides of the building in an ingenious manner by the use 
of a cellular wall construction, with a six-foot clear space 
between the outside and inside walls. These twin walls 
take the weight of the roof trusses, at the same time fur- 
nishing an absolutely fireproof space in which are located 
the various emergency exit stairs. In this connection it 
may be of interest to note that the roof trusses are said 
to be the largest single span trusses of this type used in 
this country for similar purposes. 

The facade of the building is executed entirely in 
brick and terra cotta. In style, the architects have 
followed the modern Italian Renaissance as far as the 
limited expenditure would permit, color being intro- 
duced by the use of simple ornaments worked out with 
Moravian tile in dark greens and purples. 

To sum up, the building is so arranged that it is pos- 
sible to furnish in the way of amusements, anything 
from amateur theatricals, to grand opera, and from a 
horse show to a national convention, all necessary con- 
veniences and facilities being provided for any of these 
functions. It is also possible to change it for use from 
one to the other purpose in an hour's time. 

The total cost of the building was §460,000.00. Con- 
sidering the maximum seating capacity of ten thousand, 
and the flexibility of the building to several uses, instead 
of proving a burden to the city, as has been the case in 
most all similar enterprises, financial success would seem 
assured. The architects were Reed & Stem of St. Paul 
and New York. 



Monumental Railway Terminals. — In the matter 
of monumental architecture applied to railway terminals, 
the large projects now under way bid fair to raise this 
country to the highest rank. The new Union Station in 
Washington was put into operation by the admittance of 
trains of the Baltimore & Ohio this month. Soon two 



other enormous stations will assume definite shape before 
the eyes of New Yorkers. The quiet acquisition by the 
Pennsylvania company of a vast tract in Chicago will en- 
sure to that city a station whose size and importance 
justify the belief that it will be monumental in character 
and a credit not only to Chicago but to the country. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



'95 










C/3 



5 « 

O -o 



x 



196 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




A. ARENA BEING TRANSFORMED INTO THEATER, SHOWING PARQUET IN PLACE. 

THE AUDITORIUM, ST. PAUL, MINN. 

Reed & Stem, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



197 







ARENA liOXES. SHOWING PIVOTED SECTION. 

THE AUDITORIUM, ST. PAUL, MINN. 

Reed & Stem. Architects. 



198 



THE BRICKBUILDE'R 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



199 



Fireproof Country 
House. 

BUILT OF TERRA-COTTA BLOCKS 
WITH CEMENT FINISH. 

HOME OF EDWIN BERGSTROM, 
ARCHITECT, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



'"T^HE property on which 
X the house stands — some 
two acres — is bounded by 
three streets, and located on 
a hill sufficiently high to 
give a commanding view 
from the first-story windows 
of the entire surrounding 
country. The north view 
is of the Sierra Madre 
Mountains, to the west lie 
the .Santa Monica Hills and 
the Pacific Ocean, to the 
south and east, the city of 
Los Angeles, with the Is- 
land of Catalina in the dis- 
tance. These views deter- 
mined the location of the 
principal rooms, and com- 
mand of the magnificent 
sweep of country made the 
roof garden desirable. 

The main idea was to 
obtain a house particularly 
adapted to the California 
climate, with its sudden 
variations between the hot 
mid-day and the cool nights,* 
also, a house that would be 
cool during the summer and 
warm during the rainy sea- 
son. For these reasons, terra- 
cotta tile construction with a 
finish of cement was deter- 
mined upon. This insured 
a fireproof, vermin-proof 
and sound-proof house, and 
one which the architect be- 
ieves will stand any shock 
that a building can be ex- 
pected to stand. 

The walls, floors, roof, 
and the structural parts 
throughout are tile and 
cement, the only woodwork 
used being in the trim and 
floor surfaces. The cornice 

and r oof projections are 

carried out in the natural 




M{ 






bncre-fce. Footing. 



DZ.TAILJ" or COA/TR-UCTIO/f w 
Rxj"IDE/^fGE TOIL 

Loj" A^gelej; Cal 
JOH/I ?Ag.K\SUQrt &. EDWJ/! BeRGJTRO/v*. 

Ak.c-hite.cjtj: 



colors of the red tile and 
redwood. 

The exterior walls, from 
footings to roof, are built of 
two thicknesses of six-inch 
tile, resting on concrete foot- 
ings. The interior walls 
and partitions are of four 
and six inch tile. All tile 
walls have galvanized wire 
fabric in the horizontal 
joints. The floors and roof 
. are constructed according 
to the Johnson Tension Sys- 
tem. The lintels over all 
openings, both interior and 
exterior, are of reenforced 
concrete. The exterior is 
plastered with a first coat 
of cement applied directly 
on the tile, and a second 
coat of waterproof plaster 
with fine stippled surface. 
The roof and piazzas on the 
second floor were first fin- 
ished with cement, and then 
covered with Malthoid, mak- 
ing them thoroughly water- 
tight. 

The interior plaster was 
applied directly to the tile. 
The roof, of Mission tiles, 
is supported on redwood 
brackets and timbers, and 
forms an awning which 
protects the second story 
windows from the direct 
rays of the sun during the 
middle of the day. No 
steel is used for construc- 
tion except as a tension ma- 
terial. 

The principal chambers 
of the house have fireplaces, 
and open upon piazzas 
planned to serve as open- 
air sleeping rooms. 

The house is heated by 
hot air forced into the rooms 
by rotary fans, and this sys- 
tem is so arranged that the 
furnace is disconnected dur- 
ing hot weather, and the 
fans blow cool air into the 
rooms. 

Clay tiles have been used 
liberally for wainscoting the 
floors in the billiard room, 
bathrooms, kitchen and ser- 
vice rooms. 



200 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




HOUSE FOR KDWIN BERGSTROM, ESQ., LOS ANGELES, CAL. 
John Parkinson and Edwin Bergstrom, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



20 1 




SE&B9HHHHHHfiflnaHBBI3«aB 



SOUTH FRONT. 




WEST FRONT. 



HOUSE FOR EDWIN BERGSTROM, ESQ., LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

John Parkinson and Edwin Bergstrom, Architects. 



202 



THE BRICKBUILDER 







IB fi.B ■ 




A HOUSE BEING CONSTRUCTED OF TERRA-COTTA BLOCKS. 
THE RESIDENCE OF EDWIN BERGSTROM, ESQ. 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. 
John Parkinson and Edwin Bergstrom, Architects. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



J03 







FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSE FOR SCHENLEY FARMS COMPANY, PITTSBURG, PA. 
MacClure & Spahr, Architects 



204 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 





FIRST 
FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSE FOR 

SCHENLEY FARMS 

COMPANY, 

PITTSBURG, PA. 

MacCi. URE & Sl'AHR, 

Architects. 




■b 



iJ 



SECOND 
F^OOR PLAN 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



205 




HOUSE FOR JOHN WALKER, ESQ., 

SE WICKLEY, PA. 

MacClure & S p a h r , Architects. 




porch 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



2 06 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Annual Convention of the American 
Institute of Architects. — Report. 

THE forty-first convention of the American Institute 
of Architects was held at Chicago, on November 
i8, 19 and 20. 

It was significant that the convention was held suffi- 
ciently near the geographical center of the states to 
allow of the meeting of representatives of both the East 
and West, as well as the North and South. 

Speechmakers may come and speeches may go, 
but human nature remains much the same, and archi- 
tects are, after all, human — and usually good fellows. 
Whether intentionally or only incidentally, it is toward 
the promotion of goodfellowship and an acquaintance 
among architects throughout the country that these 
conventions can perform their best service. The 
Easterner, more self-sufficient and reserved, finds himself 
set next to the breezy and higher vitalized Westerner. 
The conventionality of the one is somewhat shattered, 
and in the other, its disregard is somewhat tempered. 
They exchange refinement and breadth of outlook, and 
it is indeed a narrow and hopeless individuality that may 
not find something to respect in all his associates. 

The conventions of the Institute are, in some years, 
fated to produce important changes in the growth of the 
profession, while on other occasions they might pass 
almost disregarded, if not unrecorded. It so happens 
that those in attendance upon this gathering may leave 
with a feeling that, this year at least, much has been 
accomplished. Among the many in attendance, it was 
noticeable too, that the younger element in the profes- 
sion appeared more to predominate than in the conven- 
tions of some few previous years. Whether or not this 
made for progress is perhaps aside from the issue ; it is 
certain that the able chairmanship of the more important 
committees having in hand the material to be presented 
at these meetings, taken together with the more than 
efficient and satisfactory manner of the presiding officer, 
Mr. Day, enabled the accomplishment of a great deal of 
work. 

NEW MEMBERS ELECTED. 

The formal exercises opening the Convention took 
place in Fullerton Hall on Monday evening, Nov. 18. 
The address of welcome to the city was delivered by 
Edward Y. Brundage, representing His Honor the Mayor 
of Chicago. This was followed by addresses by the 
President of the Institute and President Charles L. 
Hutchinson of the Art Institute of Chicago. Then fol- 
lowed the election of three new honorary members : 
Messrs. Henri-Paul Nenot, Paris; Otto Wagner, Vienna, 
and Ernst von Ihne, Berlin; two corresponding mem- 
bers : Messrs. Henry Wilson and Lorado Taft ; also seven 
Fellows of the Institute: Claude F. Bragdon, Cyrus 
L. Eidlitz, Herbert D. Hale, Benjamin S. Hubbell, 
H. Van Buren Magonigle, Howard Van I). Shaw and 
Albert Kelsey. 

IMPROVING THE OCTAGON. 

At the morning session of the second day, Secretary 
Glenn Brown's report on the House and Library proved 



exceptionally satisfactory, inasmuch as the members 
were officially notified for the first time that the Octagon 
in Washington was now fully paid for, and that consid- 
erable progress had been made towards its furnishing, 
while a scheme for the further development of the prop- 
erty was also presented for the consideration of the mem- 
bers. This scheme indicated the remodeling of the old 
stable buildings situated at the back margin of the lot, 
and their extension into two halls for exhibitions, with 




1ESTION l"R THE DEVELOPMENT <>i I HI. OCTAGON. 
Glenn Brown and Bradford Brown, Architects. 

an auditorium in the center for meetings. This group 
of buildings being then connected with the old house by 
colonnades placed in front of each of the side brick-bound- 
ing walls of the estate, a most attractive and sympathetic 
carrying out of the Colonial character of the old building. 

ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION. 

Ralph Adams Cram, Chairman of the Committee of 
Education, reported that steps had been taken by this 
committee for the institution of interscholastic competi- 
tions, and that a committee had already been formed, in- 
cluding the members of his own committee and the pro- 
fessors of architecture at Cornell, Technology, Pennsyl- 
vania, Harvard and Columbia. He emphasized the fact 
that the architect was not a man who could depend upon 
a narrow education in one specialized line, but must be 
oroad and cultured. He also advocated the adoption of 
the "atelier system " for the study of architecture. In 
accomplishment he was able to state that Cornell had al- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



207 



ready adopted in full, and Pennsylvania and Harvard 
in part, the ideals that his committee had been further- 
ing, while a general progress in all the colleges toward 
their adoption could be recorded. 

This committee strongly recommended that the period 
given to the study of architecture in the various colleges 
be extended, even advocating that it include seven years, 
of which time the first year be given to preparation, the 
next two years to general schooling, next giving perhaps 
three years to advanced study, and ending with one or 
two years of travel or study in Paris and other parts of 
Europe. The Committee also advocated that a memorial 
be addressed to the Army and Navy Departments, em- 
phasizing the value of instituting courses in architecture 
and art at West Point and at Annapolis, inasmuch as — 
especially in the case of army graduates — the execution, 
superintendence and carrying on of extensive building 
operations for the Government is a frequent experience 
in the after life of the army officer. 

STANDARD CONTRACTS AND SPECIFICATIONS. 

Grosvenor Atterbury reported, as Chairman of the 
Committee on Contracts and Specifications, progress 
toward the definition of a standard document that was 
then in the hands of the printers, preliminary to its 
dissemination among the various Chapters of the Insti- 
tute for a criticism from each, in the hopes that by this 
means they would be enabled to make it of value 
throughout the country. This had not been accom- 
plished in time to offer any more tangible report at this 
Convention, but as soon as the material had assumed 
a definite form, it was to be sent to all the various 
members of the Institute. 

DISCUSSION OF CONCRETE. 

Because of the fact that the present Convention ex- 
pected to have come before it papers largely given to 
the consideration of concrete, Irving K. Pond chose to 
devote most of his report, as Chairman of Committee on 
Applied Arts and Sciences, to an extremely unconven- 
tional and drastic series of statements as to the province 
and possibilities latent in this material. He claimed 
that the architect should be a sculptor and should study 
nature to rid himself of the bounds of convention that 
are too likely to restrict his outlook and the progressive 
value of his product. New architecture requires new 
forms and new materials, and commercialism, as the 
impetus of modern art, should properly express itself in 
forms and products that might often be rightly con- 
sidered by themselves, inartistic. In connection with 
concrete, he urged the importance of faience, terra cotta 
and brick, for their decorative value, as ornament in 
detracting from " the brutality of concrete." 

COMPETITIONS. 

R. Clipston Sturgis gave the findings of his commit- 
tee on the subject of Competitions, classifying them 
under three separate headings: First, limited competi- 
tions, for which all the competitors were to receive 
adequate remuneration for their work; second, open 
competitions, with prizes aggregating a sum of not less 
than five times the cost of preparing a set of drawings ; 
and third, competitions having both open and limited 



features. The Committee recognize that it is impos- 
sible to prevent competitions, and that their best en- 
deavors should be towards their standardization and 
regulation. They, in furtherance of this" purpose, ad- 
vocate that members of the Institute should, in all cases, 
be engaged to draw up the rules governing the submis- 
sion of drawings and the selection of the premiated 
designs. 

MUNICIPAL IMPROVEMENTS. 

The report of the Committee on Municipal Improve- 
ments, T. M. Clark, Chairman, stated that a general 
progress was to be noted throughout the country, 
although there was no especially notable examples to be 
brought before the Institute for its consideration. 
Various cities, including Buffalo, Pittsburg, Washing- 
ton, Cleveland, Boston, New York City and Chicago 
were mentioned as having, during the past year, made 
more or less definite steps toward the eventual securing 
of municipal improvements of greater or less extent, and 
attention was called to the fact that during this present 
gathering, plans by D. H. Burnham, for the develop- 
ment of the North and South connections, and the 
Boulevard System on the Lake Front of Chicago, were 
on exhibition in the Art Institute. In the case of 
two cities, — Berkeley, Cal., and Portland, Me., — the 
Committee had assisted local architects in preventing 
mistakes that might otherwise have been made by local 
authorities in a too hasty adoption of civic improvement 
plans. 

ENDOWMENT FUND. 

Cass Gilbert's report on the Endowment Fund recom- 
mended the continuing of the Committee, in order to 
bring up the matter more definitely at a time when they 
could expect to obtain a more successful result than had 
been possible during the last year. 

INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS. 

WilliamS. Eames reported that the next International 
Congress of Architects would be held at Vienna, during 
May of 1908, and wished to be authorized to invite the 
architects of the world to have their next meeting at 
some place in America, in 19 10. 

METRIC SYSTEM DISCARDED. 

The Committee on the Metric System, through their 
Chairman, L. De Coppet Berg, advocated that the metric 
system in its entirety having proved unfeasible, should be 
abolished and the subject dropped. He made the sugges- 
tion that the present foot unit be divided into tenths in- 
stead of twelfths, which would merely necessitate the 
substitution of the engineering scale for that of the car- 
penter and architect, and mentioned incidentally that the 
foot measurement in use by England, America and Russia, 
and their dependencies and colonies was, as a matter of 
fact, already a standard for a considerable portion of the 
civilized world. 

SIGNING OF BUILDINGS. 

The Committee on the .Signing of Building and the 
Use of Institute Initials recommended that the signing of 
buildings be not compulsory, but that members of the 
Institute should place their signature on their best build- 
ings, and that individual members should use the initials 



208 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



of the Institute when their name appeared professionally, 
as is the custom in England with members of the Royal 
Institute of British Architects, so increasing the impor- 
tance of their profession and its standing. 

SCHEDULE OF CHARGES. 

The Committee on Schedule Charges, of which Edgar 
V. Seeler is Chairman, had to deal with what proved to 
be a most important issue of the meetings, and undoubt- 
edly the exceptionally clear report and analysis furnished 
by this committee went far toward clearing the way for 
the almost unanimous acceptance of the very important 
changes in the scale of prices that were later adopted. 

STANDARD CODE OF BUILDING LAWS. 

The Committee on Building Laws reported progress 
on a standard code that they hoped would prove available 
for various cities throughout the country, but realizing 
that they could not themselves hope to have such a code 
generally adopted without the assistance of others inter- 
ested in building, it was suggested that a committee to 
be composed of three members of the Institute of Archi- 
tects, three members of the National Board of Fire Un- 
derwriters and three members of the National Associa- 
tion of Builders be empowered to gather the necessary 
material and perform the necessary work relative to the 
final definition of a building code suitable for such general 
adoption. 

REGISTRATION OF ARCHITECTS. 

William B. Ittner reported, as Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Registration of Architects, advising that the 
examination and registration of architects could not best 
be instituted by the profession, but would preferably 
come as a general demand from outside its ranks, so 
avoiding any suspicion or trace of trade unionism, which 
the general public is only too likely to impute to the In- 
stitute. He explained that in Illinois, which had the 
best law, the initiative had actually been taken by a trade 
union desiring protection, immediate cause of which 
action had been the failure of a building causing the 
death of several of their members. He advised that the 
Institute first obtain the influence of the building trades 
and employers, and should not themselves appear in the 
matter, merely furnishing what information they might 
be requested to provide. In Illinois the law has been in 
force about three years, and the state already has upon 
its rolls about seven hundred licensed architects, there 
being perhaps two-thirds of that number who were in 
practice at the time the law was passed, and so obtained 
certificates without examination. Outside of Illinois, 
New Jersey and California are the only other states that 
have any similar act upon their records. In the Province 
of Quebec in Canada, registration is compulsory, and in 
Great Britain the Royal Institute of British Architects is 
the only body having authority to sanction the practice 
of architecture. 

Tuesday evening, in Fullerton Hall, Dr. Allerton S. 
Cushman read a most carefully prepared paper dealing 
with the corrosion of steel and the possibilities of its 
prevention. His conclusions were that steel must either 
be protected by some solution for surfacing that could be 
easily applied, or that its preparation by the mills should 



be improved to a point where the absolutely even distri- 
bution of the various component parts should be such 
that no electrical action could be superinduced within 
itself, and consequently the process of corrosion or rust- 
ing could not be started. 

At the AVednesday morning session a resolution was 
offered by Mr. Carrere, inviting Mr. McKim to under- 
take the work in connection with the improvement of the 
( )ctagon at Washington. A resolution for the formation 
of a " Press Committee," or Committee on Publicity, was 
also passed, the details being left to the Board of 
Directors. 

A. O. Elzner read a paper on the Artistic Treatment 
of Reenforced Concrete, illustrated by slides of various 
buildings executed in this material, of which, it must be 
confessed, the greater majority were more representa- 
tive of brick as a material than of concrete. 

Resolutions were passed tending toward the forma- 
tion of a nominating committee to contain at least one 
member representing each Chapter of the Institute, the 
details being left to the judgment of the Board of 
Directors. A resolution advocating that the Govern- 
ment pay the long deferred claim of Messrs. Smith- 
meyer and Peltz, in connection with the work they had 
performed on the Library of Congress, was passed 
unanimously. 

architects' charges increased. 

The real business of the day was concerned with the 
discussion that was to be expected in connection with 
the changes in the schedule of charges. After much 
discussion and the consideration of many separate 
motions and amendments, the paragraphs given below 
were finally adopted by the Convention, although the 
matter of their wording was still left in the hands of the 
committee that had presented them. The final vote 
accepted these amendments by 69 to nothing. 

PROPOSED REVISION OF THE SCHEDULE OF PRACTICE AND 

CHARGES AS PRINTED AND SUBMITTED BY THE 

INSTITUTE'S COMMITTEE. 

The American Institute of Architects as a professional 
body, recognizing that the value of an architect's ser- 
vices varies with his experience, ability, and the locality 
and character of the work upon which he is employed, 
does not establish a rate or compensation binding upon 
its members; but it is the deliberate judgment of the 
Institute that for full professional services, adequately 
rendered, an architect should receive as reasonable 
remuneration therefor, at least the compensation men- 
tioned in the following schedule of charges, and that 
any variation from the schedule corresponding to a 
difference in quality and amount of the services ren- 
dered may properly be left to individual members or 
Chapters of the Institute. 

The architects' professional services consist of the 
necessary preliminary conferences and studies, working 
drawings, specifications, large scale and full-sized detail 
drawings, and in the general direction and supervision 
of the work, for which, except as hereinafter mentioned, 
the minimum charge, based upon the total cost of the 
work, is as follows: — 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



209 



On the first $10,000 of cost, or any part thereof — 10% 
" " second 10,000 " " " " " " 7 " 

" " next 30,000 " " " " " " 6 " 

" any balance of cost, 5 " 

When an operation is conducted under more than one 
contract, a special fee is charged in addition to the 
above schedule. For landscape architecture, furniture, 
monuments, decorative and cabinet work and altera- 
tions to existing buildings, the minimum charge is 10 
per cent. In many instances this is not remunerative, 
and it is usual and proper to charge a separate fee in 
excess thereof. 

The foregoing expresses the general sense of the 
new schedule and it was in this form that it was ap- 
proved by the Convention. The motion of approval 
was accompanied by a clause remanding the entire text 
back to the Committee for final revision and the making 
of verbal corrections. An amendment in regard to the 
small residence, expressly providing for the charging of 
larger fees in that class of work, was also to be incor- 
porated, its exact wording being left to the judgment of 
the Committee. 

One of the incidents of the day was in connection 
with a resolution brought before the meeting by Mr. 
Cram and advocated by Mr. Carrere for the institution 
of a new grade of membership, to be known as Hon- 
orary President, this grade to be limited to perhaps 
three members. In spite of objections raised by Mr. 
Burnham of Chicago and Mr. Deane of California, the 
matter was favorably considered and referred to the 
Board of Directors for final action. 

Resolutions in regard to the death during the past 
year of Augustus St. Gaudens, George L. Heins, of 
Heins & La Farge of New York City, and George F. 
Bodley of London, Eng., were passed unanimously. 
Resolutions of approval of the efforts of the Free Art 
League to remove the tariff on works of art were passed, 
and along with resolutions of thanks tendered to the Art 
Institute, to the Illinois Chapter, and to the various com- 
mittees, for their kindness, hospitality and efficiency, 
the business sessions were brought to a close by the 
reading of C. Howard Walker's paper on " The Artistic 
Expression of Steel and Concrete. " Action was then 
taken toward making this paper and the papers of 
Messrs. Pond and Elzner on the same subject, avail- 
able for circulation to the various Chapters throughout 
the country, with the slides necessary to illustrate them. 

The officers elected for the new year are as follows : 
President, Cass Gilbert; first vice-president, John M. 
Donaldson; second vice-president, William A. Boring; 
secretary and treasurer, Glenn Brown ; directors, Frank 
Miles Day, R. Clipston Sturgis and George Cary; audi- 
tor, James G. Hill. 

The retiring president received various expressions 
that could but imperfectly indicate the esteem and recogni- 
tion that the Institute would fain have rendered him for 
his exceptional services during his term of office just ended. 

The business sessions being concluded, the Conven- 
tion ended with a banquet given at the Art Institute on 
Wednesday night. The speakers were Dwight Heald 
Perkins, Robert W. Hunt, Judge Chas. N. Goodnow and 
the Rt. Rev. C. P. Anderson of Chicago, Prof. Percy H. 
Nobbs of McGill University, Montreal, Frank D. Millet, 
New York. 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 




DETAIL EXECUTED BY NEW YORK ARCHI- 
TECTURAL TERRA COTTA CO. 



The Work of St. Gaudens. — An exhibition of the 
work of the late Augustus St. Gaudens is to be held in 
New York in the near future. The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, in cooperation with Mrs. St. Gaudens, will assemble 
in the large sculpture hall of the Museum casts and pho- 
tographs of casts of the sculptor's work. 

Louis Sullivan Selected. — The shores of the Dela- 
ware River in 
the vicinity of 
Philadelph i a 
have, in times 
past, witnessed 
the changeful 
fortunes of va- 
rious summer 
pleasure parks. 
Even with fre- 
quent steam- 
boat service 

from the neighboring city, inaccessibility, added to poor 
management, has been the cause of decline and ultimate 
abandonment in every case save one. Now comes a new 
project to convert Petty's Island into a summer park, 
which shall be modern in every sense of the word. It 
lies far up the river opposite Cramp's Shipyard, and by 
reason of its area and water surrounding, possesses large 
possibilities. It is stated that Louis H. Sullivan of Chi- 
cago has been selected by the promoters to embellish the 
property architecturally and in all details. 

Improvement of Atlantic City. — Whatever over- 
statement may have been made by the public press 
regarding Atlantic City's plan for the city beautiful, 
which assumed added interest from 
the fact that Carrere & Hastings were 
to produce it, this much, at least, 
seems now assured, — that the ocean 
front will be redeemed and preserved 
against the encroachment of unsightly 
piers. All space from the inner side 
of the boardwalk oceanward is now to 
be acquired by the city. Ugly and 
temporary structures obstructing the 
view of the ocean will be removed. 
Income from the present piers will 
provide a sinking fund, which will 
effect their removal. The beach front 
thus freed will be beautified by a mag- 
nificent esplanade, supported by a sea- 
wall and adorned with shelters and 
music pavilions, free to the public. 

Beautifying Philadelphia. — 
Mayor Reyburn, the head of the po- 
litical machine which still dominates 
Philadelphia, has declared himself for 
the beautifying of the city. The park- 
way, which, it will be remembered, 




detail by 

a. e. westover, 

architect. 

Conkling- Armstrong 

Terra Cotta Co., 

Makers. 



2IO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




DETAIL BY OWEN MCGLYNN, ARCHITECT. 
South Ambov Terra Cotta Co , Makers. 



is to extend 
from the City 
Hall to Fair- 
mount Park, is 
under construc- 
tion for half its 
length, as thus 
far authorized; 
but the mayor 
assures progres- 
sive citizens 
that they shall see it completed during his term; that 
the great art gallery proposed to surmount an acropolis- 
like hill at one terminus will soon be a reality, and tha 
outlying parks and the improvement of the Schuylkil 
River shores, improvements for which the better ele- 
ment of the city has long labored, will be substantially 
furthered by his administration. 

A New Capital for Oklahoma. -- Steps have been 
taken to realize the group plan of public buildings in 
cities, notably Cleveland, but it is the opportunity of 
Oklahoma to consider a similar plan in locating the pub- 
lic buildings of a state. The matter is now being agi- 
tated. Champions of the united plan of public buildings, 
linked into a whole by means of avenues and gardens, 
emphasize the advantages of absolute permanency with 
relation to surroundings, convenience of maintenence 
and administration and a consequent saving of $5,000,000 
to the taxpayers of the state. Champions of separated 
buildings value the sort of pap which may be thrown to 
various sections of the state by locating a public building 
therein, and they argue that a division of its property in- 
creases the influences of the state government. Those 





DETAIL OF UPPER PART OF COLUMBUS SAVINGS AND Ikrsr CO 

BUILDING, COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

Frank L. Packard, Architect. 

Fire-flashed Terra Cotta by Northwestern Terra Cctta Co 



ENTRANCE TO SPAULDING BUILDING, BUFFALO, 

McCreary, Wood and Bradney, Architects. 
Executed in Terra Cotta by Atlantic Terra Cotta Co. 

who live in cities favor, as a rule, the ideal city plan of 
construction, by which it is proposed to condemn two or 
three townships within fifty miles of the exact geograph- 
ical center of the state, for a commission to have control 
of this land, locating there to best advantage the govern- 
mental city. As the law requires that the capital shall 
remain at Guthrie until 1913, there is ample time for the 
consideration and perfecting of this interesting scheme. 

Pkogress in the Washington Plan. — As the time 
for the convening of the Sixtieth Congress approaches, 
those interested in the beautifying of Washington may 
wonder what is being done or will be done toward this 
end. That forces are steadily at work maintaining the 
vision of the new city before the eyes of statesmen and 
others is shown by the following expressions of opinion 
by representa- ^^^^ 

tives on the pro- 
ject of condemn- 
ing property 
south of Pennsyl- 
vania Avenue: 

Representative 
I.eCage Pratt: 
' ' I am in 
hearty sympathy 
with the pro- 
posed improve- 
ments of the 

squares on the detail by mckim, mead & white, 

south side of architects. 

Pennsylvania Brick, Terra Cotta & Tile Co., Makers. 




T H E^jB RICKBUILDER. 



21 i 



Avenue. . . . Why one of 
the greatest, grandest and 
most historic avenues in the 
world should be so long neg- 
lected has been a matter 
of serious quandary with 
me. . . . To anticipate the 
future needs of our National 
capital, and to do now those 
things which will insure a 
proper preparedness for 
future governmental re- 
quirements, to say nothing 
about the advisability and 
wisdom of increasing, to 
the fullest extent possible, 
its attractiveness, is a 
present duty and should be 
performed without hesita- 
tion. Let the worn-out and 
ragged fringe to the ma- 
jestic avenue be stripped 
off, and in its place put on 
a bordering as beautiful as 
the highest in architectural 
and landscape arts can sup- 
ply." 

Representative Edward L. Hamilton of Michigan: 
"In my judgment that part of the city south of Penn- 
sylvania Avenue is a standing argument in favor of im- 
provement. The clearing away of present buildings, 
and the erection of such government buildings as may 
hereafter be required, upon properly prepared sites, 
would do more to improve 
Washington than any other 
thing I can now think of." 





DETAIL BY KEES & COLBURN. 
American Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



Representative J. F. C. 
Talbot of Maryland: "I have 
been for years, and am now, in 
favor of the Government pur- 
chasing the squares on the 

south side of Pennsylvania Avenue and fronting on that 
thoroughfare, and erecting on the tract such department 
buildings as may be needed in the future; or, if it should 
be deemed best for the beautification of the capital to do 
so, use the tract for additional park purposes." 

Representative William Richardson of Alabama: "I 
believe that Washington ought to be made the most 
beautiful and attractive capital of any of the nations of 
the world. I favor the con- 
demnation of the property 
fronting on the south side 
of Pennsylvania Avenue for 
the erection of government 
buildings. I believe that if 
this plan is adopted it will 
not only add more than any- 
thing else to the beauty of 
the city, but that it will 
facilitate the transaction of 
public business. ... I am an 
advocate for whatever plan 
or scheme looks to the beau- 
tifying of the city. I rec- 
ognize this to be a patriotic 
duty." 

Representative M. E. 
Driscoll, New York : " It was 
a great mistake that in the 
original location and con- 
struction of administrative 
buildings they were not lo- 
cated close together instead 




DETAIL BY INDIANOPOLIS TERRA COTTA CO. 




HOUSE AT CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

Werner & Adkins, Architects. 

Roofed with American "S" Tile made by Cincinnati Roofing 

Tile and Terra Cotta Co. 



WINDOW DECORATION OF TERRA COTTA. 
Executed by Winkle Terra Cotta Co. 

of being scattered all over the city, as they now are. It 
may be as well to commence the concentration of those 
buildings now, and the property south of the avenue is 
most available for that purpose." 

Representative William B. McKinley of Illinois: "It 
ought to be the most attractive capital in the world, and 

my judgment is that whatever 
action Congress takes ought to 
be along the lines of some in- 
telligent, comprehensive plan, 
one that will add, not only to 
the beauty of the city, but will 
be in the interest of business 
economy for the government. 
I hope Congress will give this 
very careful consideration and that the citizens of Wash- 
ington will awaken to the importance of more thorough 
cooperation with the authorities in formulating some 
business-like plan for the beautification of the city. 

Location of the Grant Monument. — The fate of 
the Mall at Washington designed by the Park Commis- 
sion to be a noble vista from the Capitol to the mon- 
ument is another matter. 
Persistent self-seeking or 
ignorant influences threaten 
the realization of this superb 
ornament to the city. Cer- 
tain members of Congress 
and certain local newspapers 
deliberately oppose the good 
results promised by the plan 
elaborated by experts a few 
years ago, and which was so 
admirable as to excite the 
enthusiasm of the country. 
This opposition is now fo- 
cused on the location of the 
Grant Monument and even 
suggests a delay in razing 
the old Pennsylvania Rail- 
road terminal by leasing it 
to the District militia. The 
Washington Chapter of the 



2 12 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 




Built of N< 



APARTMENT, CHICAGO. 
Henry L Newhouse, Architect. 
i in I >ark Brick, made by Hydraulic-Press Brick Co. 



American Institute of Architects emphatically denounces 
interference with the Park Commissioners' plan, or any 
move relating to what exists or is to exist on or near the 
Mall which will delay the realization of that plan, and it 
calls upon the architects and the 
press of the country at large to 
exert a steady influence for the 
realization of the beautiful city as 
Washington, Jefferson and L'En- 
fant saw it, and as Messrs. McKim 
and Burnham have recently por- 
trayed it. 

FlREPROOFING THE PENNSYL- 

vania Terminal. — The new ter- 
minal station in New York City 
for the Pennsylvania Railroad, 
through which it is estimated four 
hundred thousand people will pass 
daily, will be protected from fire 
by porous terra cotta in the form of hollow blocks, 
contracts for which have just been closed. The ma- 
terial will be used to cover the gigantic steel frame of 
the building, and for the partitions and roof, as well as 
for lining the outside walls. If all the blocks used in 
this work should be built into a wall ten feet high, it 
would stretch a distance of twelve miles. 




DETAIL BY GEORGE F. PELHAM, ARCHITECT. 

New Jersey Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



The principal buildings of the Harlem Hospital were 
designed by Horgan & Slattery, architects, and not by J. 
H. Freedlander, as stated in Mr. Githen's article, treating 
of the Block Plan, published in The Brickbuilder for 
October. 

In The Brickbuilder for October there was illustrated 
the central portion of Randolph Street Front of the New 
Cook County Courthouse, Chicago. The interesting fea- 
ture of this work is that the filling between the granite 
column? is of bronze colored terra cotta, the spandrels 
being so carefully jointed that the entire filling looks like 
one piece af oxidized bronze. The cornice, also of terra 
cotta, is interesting, from the fact that it exactly resem- 
bles the natural granite and was made to match the stone 
below. This will undoubtedly be a revelation to those 
people of Chicago who have studied the building at close 
range. The work was executed by the Northwestern 
Terra Cotta Company. 

The commission on revision of the building code 
in New York City has unanimously agreed upon a 
provision that after January i next no new building 
for hotel or office use be permitted to rise above two 
hundred and fifty feet. 

The fourth exhibition of the 
Pittsburg Architectural Club, 
comprising current European and 
American architecture and the 
allied arts, opened in the galleries 
of the Carnegie Institute, on Fri- 
day, November 15, and will con- 
tinue through Thursday, Decem- 
ber 9. The Fine Arts Committee 
of the Institute has granted the 
entire third floor, including seven 
spacious galleries, to the Club, for 
the period from November 8 to 
December 9, but delay in receipt 
of the foreign exhibits prevented the Club opening at 
the appointed date. The collection presented by the 
Club is claimed to be the most broadly representative 



IN GENERAL. 



At the annual meeting of the Brooklyn Chapter, 
A. I. A., officers were elected for the ensuing year as fol- 
lows: — President, Henry Clay Carrell ; Vice-Presio'ent, 
Charles T. Mott; Surveyor, Alexander Mackintosh; 
Treasurer, Henry Fouchaux; Secretary, Walter E. Par- 
fitt; Corresponding Secretary, Walter L. Cassin. 

James Ford Clapp, Rotch Travelling Scholar, 1902- 1904, 
announces that he is now established for the practice of 
architecture at 20 Beacon Street, Boston. His work will 
be done in association with C. H. Blackall, architect. 

Coleman S. Mills and Walter M. Van Kirk, architects, 
have formed a copartnership under the firm name of 
Mills & Van Kirk, offices Harrison Building, Philadelphia. 




STATE ARMORY a I SYRACUSE, N. V. 
George L. Ileitis, Architect. 
Built of " Shawnee." Norman, Iron Spot, Brick, made by 
Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Co. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 



213 



one ever shown in America. About fifteen hundred 
exhibits have been received. They represent the cur- 
rent or recent work of many eminent architects in 
America, France, Germany, England, Austria and Hol- 
land. 



NEW BOOKS. 



Air Currents and the Laws of Ventilation. — Lectures 
on the Physics of the Ventilation of Buildings, de- 
livered in the University of Cambridge in the Lent 
term, 1903, by W. N. Shaw, Sc. D., F. R. S. Hono- 
rary Fellow of Emmanuel College, Director of the 
Meteorological Office. At the University Press, 
Cambridge, England. New York: G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. 

Cyclopedia of Architecture, Carpentry and Build- 
ing. A general reference work covering the field of 
the building industry and its allied arts and trades. 
Prepared by a staff of practical experts of the highest 
professional standing. Ten volumes. Illustrated 
with over 3,000 engravings and about 400 special 
plates. Red half-morocco, gilt 
stamped, marbled edges. In- 
dexed. List of plates. Pub- 
lished by the American School 
of Correspondence, Chicago, 111. 
List price, $60.00. Introductory 
price, $19.80. 

The work has many unique fea- 
tures. It ranges from the masonry 
wall or steel frame to carpentry and 
interior decoration, from the plumb- 
ing and draining to heating and ven- 
tilation, from the foundation to the 
roof and cornice, from the drawing 
of the plans to the awarding of^the 

contract and the acceptance of the 

, ., * . . , hospital for horses, s 

completed structure. It is a practical T . „ .., 

r r James A. Smith, 

work for practical men. It has been Terra Cotta made by st. 1 





r. louis fire dept 

Architect. 
<ouis Terra Cotta Co 




HOUSE AT CHICAGO, ILL. 

E. A. Mayo, Architect. 

Roofed with 8-inch Conosera Tile, made by Ludowici-Celadon Co 



HOUSE ATj WASHINGTON, D. C 

Wood, Donn & Deming, Architects. 
Roofed with Tile made by Edwin Bennett's Roofing Tile Works. 

the endeavor to secure men of wide 
practical experience to prepare the 
various chapters and treat each sub- 
ject from the standpoint of what the 
man "on the job" wants to know. 
It covers the entire field pertaining 
to building, and in addition has a 
great deal of material on the artis- 
tic side of the building profession. 
In each volume there is a frontis- 
piece which is a reproduction of a 
rendering in colors. These render- 
ings were selected by a jury of ar- 
chitects, and combine good examples 
in design with good examples in 
rendering. There are also a large 
number of designs of moderate- 
priced houses reproduced in order to bring to the at- 
tention of carpenters and builders in the smaller towns 
the work of architects who are leaders in their pro- 
fession. The practical problems in construction have 
been selected under the direction of W. T. Rutan, of 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, and represent what he 
considers as covering some of the most important 
every-day office problems. At the end of Vol. X is 
a list of the architects and their work that is repro- 
duced. The books are intended to serve not only 
draftsmen, carpenters and men interested in the build- 
ing profession, but also prospective builders, giving 
such people the benefit of a large number of attract- 
ive designs and much information that ordinarily the 
house-builder acquires only at a great deal of expense 
to himself. 



FIFTH AVENUE LOFTS — Fine north light. One block from 
Madison Square, New York. Corner building. Address, Room 70, 
2 Wall St. Telephone, 927 Rector. 



WANTED — An Englishman aged 24, with five years' experi- 
ence as draughtsman in England, three in London with F. R. I. B. A., 
wishes to make engagement with architect practising in the States 
at a salary of $40.00 per month first year, and $50.00 per month for 
the remaining term. Address " Englishman," care of THE BRICK- 
BUILDER. 



214 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




Competition for a Theater Building 



First Prize, $500 Second Prize, $200 Third Prize, $100 

COMPETITION CLOSES JANUARY 15, 1908 



T 



PROGRAMME. 

HE problem is a Theater Building. The location may be assumed in any city or large town of the United States. The site is at the 
corner of two streets of equal importance. The lot is perfectly level, has a frontageon one street of 100 feet and a depth on the other 
street of 150 feet to a 15-foot alley at the rear. 

The following is offered by way of suggestion : 

Depth of stage, 35 feet to curtain line. Projection of stage beyond curtain line, 3 feet, Proscenium opening not less than 36 feet 
wide, and not over 40 feet high. Width may be increased and height" may be decreased to suit design. Auditorium to seat about 1 ,200 and 
to have but one balcony. 

The sight lines should be so laid out in plan that every seat shall command an unobstructed view of at least three-fourths of the depth 
of the stage, measured on a center line. The lines of the balcony should be sufficiently raised so that each seat on the floor shall have an 
unobstructed view to a height of 20 feet on the curtain line. 

On the first floor, in addition to the auditorium, provision should be made for the foyer, lobby, ladies' retiring suite, coat room, ticket 
office and manager's office opening therefrom, and such other features as may seem desirable to the designer. 

On the balcony floor there should be a foyer, which may be treated in a monumental manner if desired, also lavatories for men and 
women, and such other features as may seem desirable to the designer. 

It is assumed that a smoking-room and lavatories will be provided in the basement, but plan of this need not be shown. Details of 
stage arrangement and dressing-rooms may also be omitted. 

There should be separate exits and stairways at least 5 feet wide on each side of the balcony, which exits may lead into the foyer of the 
first story. 

There must be an exterior balcony of terra cotta, or loggia, with access thereto from the balcony level. This should be treated as a 
feature of the design, and may be carried all around the building if desired. 

It is not the intention that the exterior should be t K eated in the style of the Paris Opera House, nor that the design should be out of 
reason with the commercial requirements of an ordinary theater. The portion devoted to the stage should be carried up to a height of not 
less than SO feet above the street; otherwise the height need be governed only bv sight lines and by questions of design. It is not necessary 
to consider daylight illumination for the interior, and openings in the outside wall need be considered only as means of egress. 

The exterior of the building and the lobby are to be designed entirely in Architectural Terra Cotta, employing colored terra cotta in 
at least portions of the walls. The color scheme is to be indicated either by a key or a series of notes printed on the same sheet with front 
elevation and plans at a size which will permit of two-thirds reduction. 

The following points will be considered in judging the designs : 

A. Frank and logical expression of the prescribed material. 

B. Rational and logical treatment of the exterior. 

C. Excellence of plan. 

In awarding the prizes the intelligence shown in the constructive use of terra cotta and the development or modification of style, by 
reason of the material, will be taken largely into consideration. 

It must be borne in mind that one of the chief objects of this competition is to encourage the study of the use of Architectural Terra 
Cotta. There is no limitation of cost, but the designs must be suitable for the character of the building and for the material in which it is 
to be executed. 

The details should indicate in a general manner the jointing of the terra cotta and the sizes of the blocks. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED. 

On one sheet "at the top, the shorter elevation, drawn at a scale of 8 feet to the inch. At the'bottom, the first and balcony floor plans 
drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch, and the color key or notes between the elevation and plans. 

On a second sheet at the top, the longitudinal section, drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch ; immediatelv below, the longer eleva- 
tion, drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch, and below that, half-inch scale details of the most interesting features of the design. 

The size of the sheet (there are to be but two) shall be exactly 22 inches by 30 inches. Strong border lines are to be drawn on both 
sheets, one inch from edges, giving a space inside the border lines 20 inches by 28 inches. The sheets are not to be mounted 

All drawings are to be in black ink without wash or color, except that the walls on the plans and in the sections mav be blacked-in or 
cross-hatched. 

Graphic scales to be on all drawings. 

Every set of drawings is to be signed by a nom de plume or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the 
nom de flume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered fiat at the office of THE BRICKBUILDER, S5 Water Street, Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or 
before January 15, 190S. 

Drawings submitted in this Competition must be at owner's risk from the time they are sent until returned, although reasonable care 
will be exercised in their handling and keeping. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER, and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or all of 
the others. Those who wish their drawings returned may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names ten cents 
in stamps. 

The designs will be judged by three well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first In this competition there will be given a prize of $500. 
For the design placed second a prize of $200. 
For the design placed third a prize of 100. 

^ e , ai : e e " able , d t0 .°- ffer pr , izes of th i above-mentioned amounts largely through the liberality of the terra cotta manufacturers who are 
epresented in the advertising columns of THE BRICKBUILDER. 
This competition is open to every one. 






ti 



1 



1 



I 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 11. PLATE 161. 




RODEF SHOLEM SYNAGOGUE, PITTSBURG, PA. 

Palmer &. Hornbostel, architects. 

elevation, details and plan illustrateo in the brickbuilder for march, 1907. 



THE BR ICKBU I L DER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 11. PLATE 162 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 11. PLATE 163. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 11. PLATE 164. 




BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 

PLANS. 

MARGARET MORRISON CARNEGIE TECHNICAL SCHOOL FOR WOMEN, PITTSBURG. PA 

Palmer & Hornbostel. architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 11 PLATE 165. 





HOUSE AND STABLE AT SEWICKLEY, PA 

HISS & WEEKES, ARCHITECTS FOR HOUSE. HOPKINS & BURNETT, ARCHITECTS FOR STABLE. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 11. PLATE 166 





■="$* 




l ".,rv Ti ~,tw 



HOUSE AT SEWICKLEY, PA 
Hiss & Weekes, Architects 



DORTZ COCmCPC 

■ ■ as 



riasr rLOOR Plan 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 

VOL. 16, NO. 11. PLATE 167. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 11. PLATE 168. 




FIFTH STREET FACADE. 

THL AUDITORIUM. ST PAUL, MINN 
Reed & Stem, architects. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 11. PLATE 169. 







THE BRICKB U I LDER. 

VOL. 16. NO. 11. PLATE 170. 




WEST SIDE FRONT. 




THE GARDEN FRONT. 

HOUSE FOR OSCAR JOHNSON, ESQ., PORTLAND PLACE, ST LOUIS. 

Theo C. Link, architect. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 11. PLATE 171. 




LAKE AVENUE FRONT. 




MAIN FRONT FROM NORTHWEST. 

HOUSE FOR OSCAR JOHNSON. ESQ., PORTLAND PLACE, ST. LOUIS. 

Theo. C. Link, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 11. PLATE 172. 




THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 11. PLATE 173 . 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



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CHEMICAL LABORATORY 



\. RCCITAT/ON 
ROOM 



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PHYSICAL LABORATORY 



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THIRD FLOOR PLAN 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



PLANS 

PRIVATE SCHOOL, POMFRET CONN 
Ernest Flagg, Architect. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 




5EC0ND FLOOR PLAN 



PLANS. 

SMALL HOSPITAL CONNECTED WITH PRIVATE SCHOOL, POMFRET CONN. 

Ernest Flagg, Architect. 



THE BR ICKBU ILDE R. 

VOL. 16, NO. 11. PLATE 174. 




PRIVATE SCHOOL, POMFRET, CONN 
Ernest Flagg, Architect. 




SMALL HOSPITAL CONNECTED WITH PRIVATE SCHOOL AT POMFRET. CONN. 

Ernest Flagg, Architect 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVI 



DECEMBER 1907 



Number i 2 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 



85 Water Street ------ 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



Boston, Massachusetts 

Copyright, 1907, by Rogers & Manson 



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ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Terra Cotta 

Brick .... 



PAGE 
II 
II 

JI and III 
III 



PAGE 

Brick Enameled ......... Ill and IV 

Clay Chemicals . . . . . . . . . . IV 

Fireproofing . . . . . . . . . . IV 

Roofing Tile .... IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



CONTENTS 



From Work by 



GROSVENOR ATTERBURY ; CARRERE & HASTINGS ; COPE & STEWARDSON ; CRAM, GOOD- 
HUE & FERGUSON ; FRANK MILES DAY & BROTHER ; PEABODY & STEARNS. 



LETTERPRESS 

PACl 

BRAMSHILL, TERRACE FRONT, HAMPSHIRE, ENGLAND Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS 2I 5 

THE AMERICAN THEATER — I Clarence H. Blackall 216 

THE GROUP PLAN — V. UNIVERSITIES, COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS Alfred Morion Githens 219 

BRICKWORK DETAILS — I Halsey Wainwright Parker 226 

HOUSE AT ARDMORE, PA Horace Wells Sellers, Architect, Illustration 231 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 232 




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THE OUTLOOK. 

THIS is the time when a study of the conditions 
likely to affect building during the next season 
may often be made with advantage, and inferences 
drawn from this study as to the prospects of architects 
and builders for the year. It may be said at once that 
the outlook, so far as architects are concerned, seems to 
us decidedly favorable. No one needs to be told that 
speculators in stocks on margin have suffered during the 
last three months through a sudden loss of confidence in 
banking institutions; but this movement, although it 
has affected the community in general through the 
increase in the rates of interest, has not been accom- 
panied by any material disturbance of mercantile or 
industrial conditions, and does not seem likely to have 
such a result. As compared with the disasters of four- 
teen or fifteen years ago, when two-thirds of the railway 
mileage of the country was operated by receivers, under 
insolvency proceedings; when crops in portions of the 
West had failed for several successive years, and small 
armies of unemployed roamed about the country under 
the leadership of crazy demagogues, the present agita- 
tion can hardly be anything but short-lived. 

When it passes away there will be, we think, a notable 
increase in building operations throughout the country. 
It is well known that stock-market prosperity usually 
has an unfavorable effect on building. "You can't get 
any one to do any building now," a New York merchant 
once said to us at a time of great speculative activity, 
" every one is in Wall Street buying stocks." Naturally, 
when railroad stocks are paying 8 per cent on their 
cost, the humble 4 per cent of a conservative real estate 
investment ceases to seem attractive; but when the 
ratio of railway and industrial earnings falls to 3 or 4 per 
cent, real estate investments, with their solidity, their 
assured income, and their practical certainty of appre- 
ciation in value, begin to renew their charms. At the 
present time savings banks and trust companies, attracted 
by the high rates of interest on railway notes and bonds, 
and wishing to keep their investments in a form in which 
the money will be quickly available in case of sudden de- 
mand, are not inclined to lend money on mortgage, even at 
high interest, and this has, for a year or two, done much to 
check the building with borrowed money which furnishes 
architects with a considerable portion of their employ- 
ment. With the return to normal conditions which is cer- 
tainly before us, aided, probably, by disgust for Wall 



Street methods and by the great volume of money which 
is being accumulated and will soon seek investment, there 
is every reason to believe that real estate mortgages, at 
moderate rates, will soon regain favor ; and hundreds of 
well-considered projects for hotels, theaters, concert halls, 
apartment houses and mercantile buildings, which have 
been held in suspense on account of the difficulty of 
financing them, will be carried out. 

In general the country is now very much under- 
built. Apart from the superior attractions of other 
investments, the public has for several years believed 
that the cost of building, and particularly of labor, was 
unreasonably high ; and multitudes of people have aban- 
doned or postponed building operations on that account. 
The result of these influences has been that new build- 
ings are everywhere needed. Dwelling-house rents in 
most of our cities have risen greatly, and houses are with 
difficulty found, even at the advanced prices. The de- 
mand for handsome and modern stores also almost every- 
where exceeds the supply ; church building, which had 
almost ceased for some years, is now in process of rapid 
revival ; while clubhouses, theaters and other places of 
amusement are urgently called for. Meanwhile prices of 
materials and labor seem decidedly to be on their way 
downward. Portland cement, it is understood, will be re- 
duced in price next month ; lead, copper and zinc, and 
materials made from them, are at the lowest price for a 
long time ; iron is somewhat lower, and lumber, although 
we face the speedy extinction of our forests, is lower than 
it was a few months ago. It is not likely that the drop 
will be very great, and a slow recovery in prices is rather to 
be looked for ; but, on the whole, the year 1908 promises 
to be, so far as cost of material is concerned, particularly 
favorable for building. In regard to labor, while union 
wage-schedules are generally reduced only after loud 
screams on the part of the walking delegates, it is well 
known that, in the building trades, at least, the official 
schedules are maintained principally for exhibition to 
public functionaries who have contracts to give out, actual 
current wages being often on a very different basis. Just 
now, with thousands of skilled workmen walking the 
streets, the principle that the most advantageous scale of 
wages is that which brings the largest total annual in- 
come, by securing employment as nearly constant as pos- 
sible, is particularly applicable ; and if building mechan- 
ics will keep it in mind, the next year may see them and 
their families more comfortable and happy than they 
have been for many seasons. 



2l6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The American Theater. — I. 

HY CLARENCE H. BLACKALL. 

THE American theater presents a problem in design 
and arrangement which is unique, in that it has 
grown out of business conditions, almost uninfluenced 
by sentiment or matters of pure art, and has attained 
its growth through an almost total disregard of what 
might be called academic or theatrical traditions. It has 
been influenced only slightly by the social or govern- 
mental features which have had such marked influence in 
the development of theaters abroad. We never have had 
anything approaching a government playhouse. Few 
theaters have ever been in any sense endowed, only 
rarely is the theater owned by those who are most 
interested in the management of the plays which are 



find acceptance abroad, but foreign influences have never 
been able to offset, to any marked extent, the stern prac- 
tical requirements as they are viewed by our stage man- 
agements. Consequently we have in the theater a 
distinctly American development, and anyone familiar 
with usage here and abroad would have no trouble to 
distinguish at a glance the theaters of purely American 
plan, even though our systems have been, in a few iso- 
lated cases, adapted for use in European cities. 

The most striking difference between the European 
and the American theater is in the disposition of the por- 
tions occupied by the public. It has been said that we 
take our pleasures very seriously. This is certainly man- 
ifested in our theaters. The principal thing is the show, 
and so long as the public is accommodated in a well- 
heated, well-ventilated hall, with every seat giving a 




SIDK VIEW OF AUDITORIUM AND STACK. 
THE GREEK THEATER, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 
John Galen Howard, Architect. 



produced, and up to a very few years ago business con- 
siderations were so paramount that anything like an 
artistic development was perforce relegated to an in- 
ferior position. 

With a few striking exceptions none of our older 
theaters were designed by architects who could lay any 
claim to eminence in their profession. Theater build- 
ing was until quite recently a specialty of practitioners 
who had grown up from stage carpenters and scene 
painters, who were thoroughly posted in the practical 
details of stage equipment and management, but with 
whom the question of taste and a well-ordered archi- 
tectural design was of secondary importance. In con- 
sequence the American theater is peculiar in many 
respects, as to arrangement, management, stage setting 
and the accommodation of the public. Attempts have 
often been made, especially in more recent years, to adapt 
bodily in American work the plan and arrangement which 



good view of the stage, it matters little whether there is 
any opportunity for social display or whether the audi- 
ence can see itself. Consequently the horseshoe plan, 
which is well-nigh universal abroad, and which permits 
the audience to have an excellent view of itself and gen- 
erally only a fair view of the stage, has never found favor 
here. Also, the use of loges and boxes, which is the rule 
in the principal theaters of Europe, has always proved a 
failure with us, though it has been repeatedly tried. Our 
audiences go to the theater to see the play, and anything 
which lessens the commercial value of the auditorium as 
a means of accommodating the people in the best manner 
finds scant consideration and is usually cut out from our 
plans. Only in rare instances does the public approve of 
rows of boxes, and then only for the presentation of 
grand opera. 

Another point of difference between our theaters and 
those abroad is in the accommodation of the audiences 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



217 



between the acts. A European opera house will empty 
itself almost entirely between the acts, the audience 
flocking to the promenades and foyers. In our theaters 
ladies rarely leave their seats during the performance, 
and only a slight proportion of the men make use of the 
foyers. These two considerations of themselves make a 
profound difference in the plans of our theaters as com- 
pared with what obtains abroad. 

But although our theaters have so much individuality 
in their design and arrangement, it would not be quite 
correct to say that they are not tied in any way to forms 
or traditions across the water. The theater is as old as 
humanity, and in all ages and with all people there have 
been what corresponds with theatrical performances. In 



Indeed, it has been said that open-air theaters have seldom 
been built as such. 

Strictly speaking, there are no theaters in this country 
which present an academic plan, and, indeed, from a 
purely architectural standpoint, few of our theaters can 
offer a plan which is of any special interest except in so 
far as they hit the exact business conditions. As we 
have no government subsidies for our theaters — and the 
theater must pay in order to live — a theater which does 
not return a good interest on the money invested, 
promptly closes its doors. The arrangement of corri- 
dors, the focussing of points of interest, the alignment 
of axes, which are so marked in the plans of the best of 
the European theaters and are so dear to the heart of the 




AN OPEN AIR THEATER IMPROVISED WITHIN THE HARVARD STADIUM FOR THE PRODUCTION OF A GREEK PLAY. 



essence the problem consists of rows of seats arranged in 
front of a raised platform upon which the actors can show 
themselves, and in its broad lines the problem is a per- 
fectly simple one now, just as it was in the days of the 
old Greek theater. The open-air theater, which has been 
built at Berkeley on the grounds of the University of 
California, follows very closely the lines of the old Greek 
theater and has been most charmingly worked out in de- 
tail by John Galen Howard, the architect. A great deal 
of interest has also been displayed in open-airplays, such 
as have been given by the Ben Greet companies, but 
these have really not affected at all the planning of our 
theaters. They are exceptional types and used for special 
purposes and have rarely been commercial successes. 



academically trained architect, are conspicuous by their 
absence in our work. It may be stated as a general 
proposition that no theater can pay which costs, with the 
land, over one million dollars, and but few theaters out- 
side of New York ever pay if the cost runs over six 
hundred thousand. Consequently it is very rare to find 
a theater which is a building by itself. It is usually an 
annex of an office building or a hotel, or is tucked in 
away behind commercial structures so that the load 
which the theater must carry in order to earn interest on 
its cost is helped out by stores and offices. Also, our 
building laws have borne more heavily upon theaters 
than upon any other class of construction. The 
tendency, moreover, is each year to make the legal 



2l8 



THE BR ICK BU I LDER. 



conditions more exacting, until now it requires careful 
financing and the utmost attention to economical details, 
to construct a theater which shall prove a paying invest- 
ment. Of course there are sometimes conjunctions of 
an extremely successful play and clever management 
which earn fabulous sums and make it possible to main- 
tain theaters costing a good deal over a million, but they 
are the exception, and in the long run, year after year, a 
theater cannot be depended on to earn for the owner of 
the property over thirty- five thousand dollars a year 
net. 

The ownership of theaters has changed a great deal 
within the last ten years. Formerly, individual owner- 
ship was the rule, and the owners of theaters simply 
rented their houses to traveling companies or main- 
tained stock companies of their own. That condition is 
almost entirely changed with the advent of the syndicate 
control. Nearly all the theaters of the country are now 
operated by one of three or four syndicates owning 
their own plays, managing their own companies, and in 
many cases, owning or leasing complete chains of 
theaters all around the country. When the first com- 
prehensive theatrical syndicate was brought to public 
notice by Klaw & Erlanger of New York, there was a 
general apprehension expressed that the result of such 
amalgamation of interests would be the stifling of art, 
the throttling of aesthetic development, and that the 
theater as an artistic function in the community was 
seriously threatened. Certainly nothing of this sort has 
taken place as far as relates to the fine arts and archi- 
tecture. On the contrary, the system of syndicate 
control has been, on the whole, a decided advantage. It 
has served to standardize the requirements, to systema- 
tize the construction of stage, and to give opporttinities 
for architectural display such as were impossible in the 
old days when limited capital and inexperienced archi- 
tects were set to the task of building a theater. The 
problems involved, it will be seen in the course of 
this series of articles, are neither complicated nor un- 
known. They have been worked out so absolutely 
from the business standpoint that theater conditions 
to-day are essentially the same from Portland, Me., to 
Los Angeles, or from St. Paul to New Orleans, and the 
American type which we shall endeavor to illustrate 
is a perfectly distinct, coherent and well-established 
development. 

Exact information regarding the methods and the 
desires of the theatrical syndicates is not easy to obtain, 
and more difficult still to predict, as conditions change 
from year to year; but roughly speaking there are now 
operating in this country four groups of syndicates. 
First, the trust, which is especially designated as the 
theatrical syndicate, operating from New York through 
Messrs. Klaw & Erlanger, controlling the majority of the 
desirable theaters in New York City and throughout the 
country, and sending out what are known as combina- 
tion companies or stars associated with a high class of 
talent, including also musical comedies; in fact, the 
cream of the attractions which appeal most strongly to 
the public and which draw large audiences. The thea- 
ters which are especially adapted to such purposes are 
somewhat loosely, but not altogether incorrectly, termed 
combination houses, and are generally similar in approxi- 



mate size and arrangement. The New Amsterdam in 
New York the Colonial in Boston and the Illinois in 
Chicago are illustrations of this type. Second, there is 
a large and influential syndicate controlling the majority 
of the so-called vaudeville houses. This syndicate owns 
or operates chains of theaters throughout the country, 
makes its bookings from New York for terms of one or 
two years in advance, and practically controls the lead- 
ing attractions. The theaters through which it operates 
are usually somewhat smaller than those of the first 
group, and the requirements of stage are less extensive 
than for the combination houses. The Keith theaters 
are the best representations of this type. Third, there 
is a syndicate which apparently has a monopoly of the so- 
called burlesque attractions. The theaters, of which 
there are many in the aggregate, are usually old. The 
plays do not appeal to a very high class of audience, and 
only rarely are there any features about the architectural 
arrangement of burlesque houses which are worth noting 
in this connection. As far as arrangements are concerned 
the requirements of the stage would be the same as for a 
vaudeville house. 

There is a fourth group of theaters, of which there 
are only a very few as compared with the great number 
of the others. These are the smaller theaters intended 
for light drama, comedies, etc., or what would be termed 
in stage parlance, the legitimate. Daly's in New York, 
though an older theater, is a very good illustration of 
this type. The stage can be very much smaller than 
for a combination house, and the extent of the wings, 
flies, etc., reduced to an even greater degree; and on 
the other hand the combination in the foyers, coat rooms 
and generally in the front of the house would be more 
than would be needed for a vaudeville house. These 
theaters are generally operated independently of any 
syndicate. Mr. Belasco's theaters, though occasionally 
affiliated with one of the syndicates, are to be included 
in this category. 

There is yet another class of theaters of the hippo- 
drome type, represented by the New York Hippodrome, 
a new development which has come within a few years, 
and which, in some respects, is revolutionary in its ar- 
rangements. 

All these types have peculiarities of their own, but 
the essential differences are in the sizes of the stage 
and the methods of business control. They will not 
be treated separately in this connection, as the same 
general conditions of planning and construction apply 
to each, except that the hippodrome type will be de- 
scribed by itself. 

In analyzing and describing the subject we will take 
up the different divisions of the theater, considering 
them first from the purely practical standpoint. 

Such a thing as an opera house in the European sense 
is hardly found at all in America. It was the fashion a 
few years ago to style every ambitious theater in a small 
county town a "Grand Opera House," but the name 
meant absolutely nothing, and even the Metropolitan in 
New York follows practically the same lines that will be 
considered in designing a theater. Consequently no 
distinction of type will be made in this article. 

Considerations of design in connection with theater 
construction will be treated as a separate chapter. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



219 



Th< 



le Group Plan. — V. 

UNIVERSITIES, COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS. 

BY ALFRED MORTON GITHENS. 

THERE is no distinct type of American college, uni- 
versity or school. Whereas the French have con- 
fined themselves to a Lycee type, more or less elaborated, 
and the English follow the Oxford and Cambridge tradi- 
tions, in America we have not only followed both of these, 
but, proceeding further, have attempted far more preten- 
tious and monumental architecture. The French seem 
to consider the College as unfit subject for extreme glori- 
fication, that the higher architectural forms belong rather 
to the Fine Arts, palaces and churches. We Americans 
are architectural libertines and have 
no restraining traditions; therefore 
such grandiose schemes as were pro- 
posed for the University of California 
caused no aesthetic outcry. 

The first college group in this 
country seems to have been the 
University of Virginia. Thomas 
Jefferson, in his democratic way, 
ignored college precedent and took 
his inspiration, perhaps, from the 
domes and colonnades of Sir Chris- 
topher Wren's Hospital at Green- 
wich. Instead of the conventional 
chapel, he placed the library in the 
commanding position and ap- 
proached it through long porticos in 
front of the dormitories and lecture 
rooms. The recent addition of three 
academic buildings at the lower end 
of the campus in no way detracts 
from the original scheme, although 
they make of it a closed composition ; 
and logically so, since it is the center 
of a life of its own, and communica- 
tion with the life without is not so 
constant as to require important en- 
trances; a singularly interesting ex- 
pression of an architectural problem. 
Grand entrances are usually insisted 
upon, but why should they be? Any 
country college is a community 
of its own; the less communication 
with the outside world the more college spirit is fostered. 

This "self-contained plan," if we may call it that, 
is shown again in the successful competitive drawings 
for the New York Juvenile Asylum, a type, moreover, of 
the unsymmetrical composition on two axes, with the 
athletic field at the crossing, the major axis projected by 
the telescoping lines of cottages leading to the chapel 
and the lesser prolonged across the lake, up the slope, to 
the conservatory and girl's school. The entrances are 
at the corners of the athletic field. 

In the War College at Washington, a central approach 
is fitting, as there is constant communication between 
this group of buildings and the city. Again the long 



ArtSTEM-AMAVtHUE 



proposed Canton Christian College and the finally 
adopted plan for the New University of California. 

A " Campus " of some sort seems the natural center 
for an American Scholastic group, but the long campus, 
the avenue, is by no means predominant among them, 
The Johns Hopkins group is arranged as an unsymmet- 
rical composition on two axes, but the campus is there. 
A variant is seen in the imaginary American School at 
Paris, where the art museum separates the entrance 
court from the long campus proper; this becomes an 
athletic field, though it is unpractical because surround- 
ing grand stands are impossible. Benard did not realize 
this necessity, so his arrangement of the California 
athletic field has been completely changed. 

The campus reappears in the Sweet Briar Institute, 
here treated as a series of terraced gardens. The 
Lawrenceville School exemplifies 
the campus pure and simple, with 
separate buildings arranged irregu- 
larly around it. That of the Leland 
Stanford University has been so sub- 
divided that its character has been 
completely lost. 

Most of the best-known American 
universities have been in towns or 
cities, and intersected to such an ex- 
tent by streets that a unity of com- 
position has been impossible. Such 
was proved by the competition for 
the George Washington University 
at Washington. Columbia and Bar- 
nard colleges are fortunate in having 
a more ample area, though even here 
a campus is impossible. Each of 
these was designed as a whole, and 
possesses, therefore, complete unity 
of composition. Less fortunate were 
the other great Eastern universities. 
These have grown up haphazard ; 
each building was placed where it 
seemed most convenient or would 
best be seen; buildings by different 
architects were erected of different 
scale and character and of incongru- 
ous styles. Admirable as the sep- 
arate buildings often are, there is no 
unity of effect in the ensemble, no 
group plan. A museum suggesting 
the early architecture of Lombardy, 
placed close to a gymnasium of Tudor English, or a 
Louis XVI dining hall, facing the tower of a dormitory 
in severest perpendicular Gothic are anomalies often 
seen in these old institutions. 

These Tudor buildings show the introduction of a new 
element in American college architecture, an element 
steadily gaining in favor, an adoption of the English 
collegiate tradition of Oxford and Cambridge. It might 
be interesting to examine a typical English college and 
inquire into the principles that governed its arrangement. 
The campus is distinctly an American feature; the 
English college is built around square courts or quad- 
rangles, sometimes arcaded like cloisters. The quiet, do- 
formal court or avenue occurs, and still again in the mestic architecture of the chambers, or dormitories as we 




COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK. 

George B. Post & Sons, Architects. 

Plan as built ; on the curved edge of a hill 

overlooking the city. 



220 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




NEW YORK JUVENILE ASYLUM. 

York & Sawyer, Architects. 

Successful competitive plan. Characteristics of the Avenue and the 

Unsymmetrical Composition on two axes. 



-K.E/- 
K.' ROTUNDA. 
D RtFCCTORY. 
M.-MLCHANICA.L LABORATORY 
A- ACADEMIC • ^ILD'NQ 
P- PMTJICAU- LABORATORY 
X X -SITES Tax. PE.O- 




PLAN Cr-THC-UNMXmYQTVIKfllNlA 




UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA. 

Thomas Jefferson; McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 

Plan as at present except that the outer ranges of 

dormitories are not built. A Closed Avenue. 



WAR COLLEGE, WASHINGTON. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 

On a mole projecting into the Potomac River. A Closed Avenue. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



22 I 








CANTON CHRISTIAN COLLEGE, CHINA. 
Stoughton & Stoughton, Architects. 
Composed about a Closed Avenue; buildings one room deep with surround- 
ing porches for protection against a tropical sun ; longer axis of each, east 
and west to take advantage of the prevailing south wind. Principal ap- 
proaches are by boat from the canals and river, hence the importance of the 
water gate. 



AMERICAN COLLEGE, 
MADOURA, INDIA. 
Stoughton & Stoughton, Architects. 
The College Hall had already been 
built and so became an element in the 
entrance to the Avenue. 







□ 




CENTRAL GROUP, NEW YORK UNIVERSITY. 
McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



HOME FOR DISABLED VOLUNTEER SOLDIERS, 

JEFFERSON CITY, TENN. 

J. H. Freedlander, Architect. 

The more important buildings composed as a Line or an Open Avenue 

the others not essential to the composition. 



222 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




SWEET BRIAR INSTITUTE. 

Cram, Cioodhue & Ferguson, Architects. 

A formal treatment of irregular and hilly ground, combining several types of composition. 



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LELAND STANFORD, JUNIOR, UNIVERSITY. 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects. 



MANSFIELD COLLEGE, OXFORD. 
Basil Champncys. Architect. 
An Open Court with buildings in juxtaposition accord- 
ing to English collegiate tradition. 




GENERAL THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, NEW YORK. 
Charles C. Haight, Architect. 
An Op,n Court facing south for warmth and sunlight ; juxtaposition and con- 
trasted height and character of the building as in English tradition. 



- 




BARNARD COLLEGE, NEW YORK. 

Charles A. Rich, Architect. 

Proposed development as an Opon Court facing 

the Hudson, and two Closed Courts, connected 

through open arcades in the separating blocks. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



223 




PRELIMINARY SKETCH FOR DORMITORIES, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 

A direct, adaptation of the English (Juadrangle ; contrast of height and character of enclosing buildings 




AN AMERICAN SCHOOL AT PARIS, PRIX DE ROME, 1901. 

Hulst, Architect. 

The Museum and Director's residence preponderating, there is no 

resemblance to the usual French type of buildings for instruction. 




WIDENER MEMORIAL SCHOOL. 

Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 

Characteristics of the Pyramidal Composition. 







.A 1 -?'! 




NEW COLLEGE, OXFORD. 

As originally constructed, a typical English 

Mediaeval College. 



224 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




JOHNS-HOPKINS UNIVERSITY. 

Parker & Thomas, Architects. 

Successful competitive plan. Incorporating old 

Mansion " Homewood " by introducing a diagonal 

axis in the Unsymmetrical Composition on two 




LAWRENCKVILLE SCHOOL 
Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 





COLLEGE OF ST. c.ERMAIN-EN- 

LAYE, CHARET. 

A typical " Lyete" plan. 




VANDERHILT QUADRANGLE, YALE UNIVERSITY. 

Charles C. Haight, Architect. 
Four-story dormitory buildings dominated by a high entrance tower. 



A^n..v5*.->*" on 
SCHOOL FOR THE BLIND, 
OVERBROOK, PA. 
Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 
Following the tradition of the Ital- 
ian or Spanish - Cloistered Monas- 
teries. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



225 



call them, accentuates the dignity of the semi-public 
buildings dispersed among them and lends picturesque 
variety to the skyline. 

In a paper read before the Royal Institute of British 
Architects, Mr. Basil Champneys described the mediaeval 
English college as a "grouping into one, two or more 
quadrangles of rather low buildings (in the original col- 
leges they are never more than two floors and an attic), 
from which the special and more important features, the 
chapel, the hall and the library stand out as salient fea- 
tures. The lodgings of the president, warden, principal, 
master, or whatever he may happen to be called, were 
usually included in the general grouping, and are seldom 
distinctive features of the older colleges. It was usual 
to mark the main entrance (often, too, the side en- 
trances or entrances to a further quadrangle ) by towers, — 
a reminiscence, no doubt, of defensive architecture." 
Depreciating the modern tendency to make the cham- 
bers three stories in height, he says: " Of course where 
ground is limited, a new factor is introduced ; but in col- 
lege buildings this is rarely the case, and there is seldom 
any valid excuse for departing from the old type. In 
fact,the old system of college planning, in my opinion, 
still holds its own and needs but 
few modifications to bring it up 
to date." 

He describes a mediaeval col- 
lege and selects New College at 
Oxford, "which in its ancient 
form showed a complete design 
carried out at one time. In order 
to realize William of Wyckham's 
idea, it is necessary to remove 
in imagination, certain later addi- 
tions. . . . The chief of these is 
that of a story to the main quad- 
rangle. This raises the buildings 
to the same level as the gateway 
tower, which originally sur- 
mounted them, and also decreases 

the predominance of the chapel and hall. William of 
Wyckham was a great churchman, and his intention was 
to make the chapel the chief feature of his main quad- 
rangle. The great height and scale still preserve its 
relative importance, though its predominance over the 
residential portion of the quadrangle is considerably 
reduced by the added story. The dining hall is built 
in continuation of the chapel, and originally the two 
were under a continuous roof. . . . The floor of the din- 
ing hall is raised several feet above the ground, while 
the chapel floor is on the ground level, so that the in- 
ternal height of the hall, though lofty, is greatly less 
than that of the chapel. The approach to the hall is by 
a staircase opening from the main quadrangle, under a 
tower rising considerably above the hall and chapel. ..." 

Another writer, speaking of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, describes the "quiet simplicity of the low 
ranges of college rooms which make up two of its sides, 
and which modestly permit the greater heights of the 
gates of the chapel and of the hall to assert themselves." 

Here there is war between the two styles — Classic and 
Gothic. Designed on totally different principles, Classic 
or Monumental seeks the greatest single effect, and as 




UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, NEW YORK. 

Allen & Collens, Architects. 

Successful competitive plan. Classic balance combined 

with quadrangles and juxtaposed buildings of a Gothic 

plan; 121st Street acknowledged as an axis. 



a rule, the] simpler the composition the more suc- 
cessful. Axes are determined, compositions balanced 
around them. Opposed to this is the Gothic or Pictur- 
esque. In the latter, variety rather than simplicity is 
sought; masses and sky-lines are irregular, seemingly 
haphazard, though in reality their harmony is studied, 
but each court is considered by itself and the communi- 
cations between them are irregular. Surprise is sought 
rather than classic calm and logic; in short, a natural, as 
opposed to a scholarly, plan. Mediaeval architects re- 
served their symmetry as a precious quality of their 
grandest building, the great cathedral interiors. 

It has been claimed that the irregularity of Gothic 
structures is entirely due to their having been built at 
different periods; but New College was all constructed at 
one time and is asymmetrical. Again, in the Palais de 
Justice at Rouen, though the plan is more or less bal- 
anced, the builder saw to it that the gables and roof lines 
should be otherwise. 

Perhaps the first group in America following Gothic 
tradition was the old Columbia College, destroyed to make 
way for the New York Central Railroad. The General 
Theological Seminary followed it, and again we see its 
spirit in the Vanderbilt Quadran- 
gle at Yale. Mr. Haight seems to 
have been the first to introduce the 
Gothic collegiate style in this coun- 
try. Now it has a strong foothold. 
It won a signal victory over 
the Classic in the competition for 
the Washington University at St. 
Louis, and again for the Military 
Academy at West Point. The 
same style was required in the 
competition for the Union Theo- 
logical Seminary, though the con- 
ditions imposed in that case pre- 
cluded anything in the true spirit 
of the old Gothic. The College of 
the City of New York is another 
instance. The new dormitories of the University of 
Pennsylvania give a notable example of the variety in 
sky-line due to the contrasted height of the entrance 
towers, refectory and chapel with the lower chambers. 
Each school of architecture has its strong adherents 
and strong opponents. Neither camp can see any good in 
the other and the bitter war goes on. So far, compromises 
have proved hopelessly inferior to a complete expression 
of either school. Other styles have been tried, such as 
the Monastic Italian or Spanish, as found in the Blind 
School at Overbrook, Philadelphia, or the Mission style 
of the Leland Stanford University; but it seems doubtful 
that these will have an influence on future work. After 
all, they are but subdued forms of the Classic. 

There is a quality in the English scholastic architec- 
ture that endears it to the men who see it daily. The 
students feel it; though ignorant of its nature, they 
speak of it in a way they seldom do of Classic. Yet 
there is something shocking to an architect in making a 
totally irregular plan, and if designed otherwise, the 
Gothic so used is hard and cold to the last degree. 
Can these warring elements be reconciled and the best 
of each retained ? Most difficult, it seems, the old com- 
mand, " Cherchez la write!" 



22( 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Brickwork Details. — I. 

BY HALSEV WAINWRIGHT PARKER. 

THE ornamental possibilities of brickwork are in its 
texture, the pattern of its bond and the shadows 
which it produces. 

The texture is produced by the surface of the brick 
and by the contrasts of the bricks and their joints. The 
patterns are necessarily texture patterns, relieved by 
occasional or repeated grouped units of special design. 
The shadows are necessarily either of 'slight depth, for 
the possible projection of brick courses is not great, or 
the repeated shadows of individual bricks. The capa- 
city of brickwork to create ornamental forms, unless the 
bricks are molded, is somewhat limited, but the limi- 
tations create a series of individual designs, thoroughly 
expressive of the material, and which foster invention 
and ingenuity. For this reason if for no other, a study 
of ornamental brickwork deserves careful consideration, 
and is productive of a thoroughly characteristic and 
individual class of design. The usual brick is approxi- 
mately a multiple of two in its dimensions, that it, it is 
2x4x6. Its exposed surfaces, therefore, are rectangles 
2 x 4, 2 x 8 and 4 x 8, and its patterns are made up of 
these rectangles. Roman bricks of less thickness and 
greater length merely elongate the 
patterns and introduce a more marked 
stratification, and used with ordinary 
brick create valuable contrasts. 
Bricks of different tones or colors, or 
with glazes, supply more vehement 
contrast and make possible patterns 
of larger repeats, and therefore, larger 
scale. But surface brickwork may be 
considered as a mosaic based upon 
the crossing of horizontal and vertical 
lines, the units of the mosaic being of 
somewhat large scale. The patterns 
resultant from such a system of 
mosaic are rudimentary geometric 
patterns, similar to those woven fab- 
rics of broad strands, and there is 





ITALIAN PATTERN OF P.KICK. 




TOP ON A SMALL CAMPANILE, SIENA. 



A WINDOW AT MONZA. 

scarcely a woven pattern based upon 
rectangles which may not be easily 
translated into surface brickwork. 
The variety of these patterns is in- 
finite, from the simplest chequers, 
through striped and zoned patterns, 
and frets, herringbone patterns and 
parapet patterns, labyrinth patterns, 
rectangular interlaces to more com- 
plex forms of which the perimeters 
are expressed in stepped lines. 

Diagonal and even curved lines 
may be expressed in steps, and the 
multiplicity of patterns may be 
greatly increased by the simple 
method of beveling the end of some 
of the bricks. It is surprising that so 
little advantage has been taken of the possibilities of sur- 
face pattern designs, probably from the fact that brick 
masons are taught merely the usual bonds, and that be- 
cause of this reason it costs more to lay up patterns in 
brick than it does to produce repeated ornament by other 
methods. The bonds are those of stretchers with joints 
broken in each course and with courses of headers every 
sixth or seventh course, or alternate courses of headers 
and stretchers, or the Flemish bond of alternate headers 
and stretchers in each course, or the ordinary stretcher 
course alternated with the Flemish course, or the Flemish 
course alternated with headers. 

Each gives a different texture. The texture is also 
varied by the widths of the joints, as is also the color of 
the wall. If the vertical joint is made wider than the 
horizontal the effect is spotty and not agreeable, but 
with the horizontal made wider than the vertical a 
marked stratification of the wall is secured, giving an 
impression of greater stability. Variation may be ob- 
tained by courses of brick set on edge either as headers 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



227 



or stretchers or in Flemish bond, and by the introduction 
of courses of other brick, such as Roman brick, where 
desired. The object of such expedients is not only to 
produce variation in the wall but to create scale in the 
building. Similar results can be obtained by varying the 
widths of joints in different courses, and by coloring 
the mortar in different courses or in the vertical joints. 
It is important, however, to lay stress upon the horizon- 
tal stratification of the brickwork rather than upon the 
short and broken vertical joints. It is not unusual to 
produce the effects of quoins and of trims around open- 
ings by changing the tone and color of the mortar at 
those points, though this is apt to coarsen the quality of 
the fagade. 

PROJECTING PLAIN COURSES. 

The projection of courses 
of brick or of individual brick 
to vary the textures of walls 
is an expedient which has 
been used since the time of 
the Romans. The so-called 
House of Crescencius, near 
the Temple of Vesta, in 
Rome, is an extremely in- 
teresting example, as are 
buildings in Saragossa and 
elsewhere in Spain. The oc- 
casional use of a projecting 
header repeated at regular 
intervals is characteristic of 
certain types of Spanish 
brickwork, but is seldom 
pleasing. Projecting courses 
giving shadow stratifications 
and forming belt courses are 
of great value in creating 
bands which tend to lower 
the apparent height of walls 
and establish stability, and 





WINDOW FROM BANCA DI SAN GEORGIO, GENOA 




A WINDOW AT LUCCA. 



also to increase 
scale. Recessed 
courses are not as 
satisfactory, as they 
apparently weaken 
the wall. Raking 
out the horizontal 
joints affords long 
horizontal lines of 
shadow which en- 
rich the tone of the 
wall, and great 
variety may be ob- 
tained by the va- 
rious widths and 
depths to which 
joints may be sunk 
and in coloring the 
mortar. The pro- 
jecting courses can 
be carried around 
panels forming 
panel moldings, and 



ITALIAN PATTERN OF BRICK. 

stepped series of such courses 
around panels produce vigor- 
ous shadows. Projecting 
heading courses can not only 
project farther from the wall 
than stretchers, but appear to 
be stronger, so that in project- 
ing bands of three courses or 
more, it is better to have 
the outside courses headers 
rather than stretchers. 

HERRINGBONE OR ZIGZAG 
COURSES. 

Projecting zigzag courses 
give the effect of a crude rope 
molding and usually need to 
be associated with a straight 
course, at least upon their 
upper edge, otherwise they 
appear weak. 

DENTILLED COURSES. 

These courses, which con- 
sist of alternations of wall 
surface and projections at 
regular intervals, are practically small corbel courses and 
should not be too large in scale. They gain in richness 
by recessing between the projections, by stepping the 
projections both on front and on sides, and by the intro- 
duction of bricks laid diagonally on the wall. Corbels of 
large size constructed of brick lose the quality of brick- 
work, which is 
that of broad, 
plain surfaces 
ornamented by 
the shadows of 
small forms 
grouped into 
patterns. 

DIAGONAL 
COURSES. 



These courses 
of brick laid di- 
agonally on the 
walls, either re- 
cessed or pro- 
jecting, produce ITALIAN PATTERN OF BRICK. 




228 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE CARVEL HOUSE, ANNAPOLIS, MD. 

Walls laid all headers except at quoins. Brick ground in flat arches. 

shadows lighter in tone and of more delicate scale than 
where the projecting bricks are paneled with, or at right 
angles to, the plan of the wall. In most cases they are 
best with a projecting straight course above them which 
cast triangular shadows between the diagonal projections. 
They assist simple bands and borders by giving lines of 
darker tone than the wall and lighter than the projections, 
and thus afford a valuable half tone. They may, of course, 
be varied by the introductions of straight recesses or pro- 
jections and by various amounts of projection in the diag- 
onal bricks. If repeated in successive courses over each 
other, each brick laid over the one below, they form ver- 
tical V-cut flutes ; if alternated, they form a rich texture 
pattern. 

PANELING IN BRICKWORK. 

Panels in brickwork, as in woodwork, are indicative 
of thin walls, curtain walls framed, and the faces of the 
panels are best somewhat back of the face of the pilasters, 




THE HARWOOD HOUSE, ANNAPOLIS, MD. 

Flemish Bond with half headers at quoins. Mortar colored in belt 

course. 

piers, stiles or rails which contain them. If the brick 
borders are recessed back of the piers and the panel face 
brought forward, the effect is crude and heavy. If the 
borders project and the face of the pier and panel are the 
same, the borders seem applied and not an- integral part 
of the structure. All the variations of projecting or of 
recessed courses can be used as frames around panels 
successfully. Extremely rich friezes can be made with 
double and treble recessed panels. Each recessing, how- 
ever, of brickwork should be slight, seldom over two 
inches. 

Brickwork at corners of more than a right angle (un- 
less the bricks are ground), and the corners of octagonal 
or of hexagonal piers or of splayed surfaces will not be 
completely filled by the ends of the bricks, and a series 
of alternating shadows will appear on the line of the 
angle defining the angle by a darker tone. This is 
often very effective in appearance. Similar spaces of 
shadow may be obtained upon surface work by broaden- 




^j| 



DIAPER PATTERN, SIMPLEST OF BRICK DESIGN. 




DIAPER PATTERN FORMED BY DIFFERENT TONES OK COLORS. 



T'H E BRICKBUILDER 



229 



ing and recessing the verti- 
cal joints, but this can easily 
be overdone, producing an 
effect of weakness and dis- 
integration of the wall and 
should be confined to curtain 
walls or to panels. 

BRICK ARCHES. 

Brick arches are of several 
varieties, i. e. , the full cen- 
tered arch, the segmental 
arch, and the so-called flat 
arch or constructed lintel. 
The ornamental effect of the 
full centered brick arch is 
gained either by successive 
rings of brick or by the di- 
vergence of the joints, or by 
both. It is obvious that an 
arch of small radius cannot 
have broad arch surface with- 
out one of three things hap- 
pening. Either the bricks 
must be ground, or the arch 
be built of rings in which 
the radiating joints break 
joints in the successive 
courses, or the radiating 
joints must be much broader 

at the extravolt than at the intravolt. The limit of face 
width in which the radiating joints are continuous in 
a four-foot opening is about two stretchers or sixteen 
inches; in larger spans it is somewhat more. But brick 
arches are much more effective with long radial joints 
than with short, and therefore, unless the bricks are 




THE BRYCE HOUS 
Walls laid 



ground, broad arches are 
laid up in successive arch 
rings, divided from each 
other by change of surface 
planes or by rows of headers. 
Successive arches receding 
in plan, one within another, 
create vigorous and rich 
shadows around the open- 
ing. Both the outer and 
inner edges of brick arches 
can be ornamented, the outer 
edge by projection, the inner 
by alternation of light and 
shade. The main label mold- 
ings can be treated with any 
of the designs used for nar- 
row belt courses, but the out- 
side edge should be firm and 
strong. The tympana of 
arches are especially adapted 
for elaborate patterns. The 
patterns which can be used 
upon the faces of arches are 
few, as the surfaces arje 
limited in area, but simple 
checkers, zigzags and 
stepped patterns may easily 
be evolved, and the soffites 
of large arches offer an op- 
portunity for various types of paneling or coffwring in 
brick, as well as for striped patterns. The contrasts ob- 
tained by alternate voussoirs of different brick assists in 
the scale of the work when large forms are desired. The 
segmental arch is merely a portion of a full arch of large 
radius and can receive the same treatment as the full 



E, ANNAPOLIS, MD. 
all headers. 




THE PATRICK HENRY SCHOOL, ST. LOUIS. 
William B. Ittner, Architect. 



?3o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



centered arch, 
but the flat arch 
requires an un- 
disturbed face, 
as it is never too 
strong in effect, 
and is best when 
the bricks are 
ground. The 
introduction of 
brick projecting 
^WP^j±rJD±djri.-:'jpPT^ ~!£1j±^3±£x skewbacks and 
J *^ J" ^- r-'-il' keystones is to 

be deplored, for 
they coarsen 
the effect of the arches and are structurally unnecessary. 
Admirable effects in brickwork can be obtained by the 
introduction of discharging arches in the surfaces of 
the walls, as is manifest in a number of the facades in 
Bologna. In several cases in Spain the walls are covered 
with a large scale pattern of successive discharging 
arches producing a very effective surface. 

Pointed arches require cutting of the brick at the 
apex of the arch. Very beautiful pointed arches are to 





!""'-'.' £r*'.-.." : ■■mSF - ••t21'. , ." , JL i, !I?": !■■■ EaSSSi 



""""^"""•j^'A" '_" '_'.'.'_' ■* i J"_'"l^'*^ V^'~ ^*^* "*CT *^" ' ' ".*"'_' '«»'^»«»»*~~"* l »^^ 5" 



urn \ ^3W^sSgSSgSSggijl^^gi 







. .-T-.na 




IHI. MUSEUM, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 
Cope & Stewardson, Frank Miles Day & Brother and Wilson Eyre, 

Associate Architects. 

Double stretchers joined with red inortar. Other joints very wide, 

and of coarse buff mortar. 

be found in Italian brickwork at Siena, Pavia, Milan, 
Bologna, Fano, Pesaro and elsewhere. 



ST. JUDE S CHURCH, BROOKLYN. 

Lord & Hewlett, Architects. 

A very interesting composition. 



Bruton Parish Church, the oldest church in point 
of continuous use of the Anglican communion in the 
United States, is a brick structure, and the most impos- 
ing edifice in the old town of Williamsburg, Virginia. 
The triennial convention of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in the United States, in session in Richmond 
in October, was an occasion for turning over the pages of 
history. From the old country from which the founders 
of the church 
came, a Bible 
was presented 
by King Ed- 
ward, and Pres- 
ident Roosevelt 
gave the church 
a lecturn. At 
the ceremonies 
attending the 
acceptance of 
these gifts a 
bronze bas-re- 
lief in memory 
of Robert Hunt, 
minister of the 
Jamestown Col- 
ony in 1607, was BRICKWORK IN THE COLONY CLUB, NEW YORK 
exposed to view McKim, Mead & White, Architects, 

for the first time. Walls laid all headers. 



MMJimiti*iii 
* «■>« Maine 




m#m*mm* 



■am .niMMHi 

■HvamwaMfeii 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



231 




232 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



PRECEDENT AND PRACTICE. 

IN measuring the architectural achievements of this 
country and comparing them with the work accom- 
plished in foreign countries, it is very easy to overlook 
one fact. Though the United States is still classed as 
architecturally a new country, the problems with which 
we have here had to deal are no newer to us than they are 
to the Englishman, the Frenchman or the German. 
Indeed, just in proportion as this country has offered a 
freer field, and one less hampered by tradition, have the 
new problems here been met earlier, been solved in a 
more practical manner and been more quickly crystallized 
in definite planes than has been the case abroad. Espe- 
cially is this noticeable in England, where there is at 
present considerable building along the lines of commer- 
cial architecture, and the way in which the problems are 
being handled shows how new and unsolved they appear 
to the English architect. The conditions, both practical 
and artistic, involved in the design and construction of 
almost any kind of commercial structure, or even a pub- 
lic building, such as a library, town hall or theater, are 
essentially new to the world in that they have been so 
profoundly modified within a generation, by the intro- 
duction of electricity, steel, etc., as to be almost funda- 
mentally different from anything which the English 
architect had before to guide him. They are working 





STABLE, 139JWEST 52D STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 
Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 



STABLES,^ 24S WEST 47TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 
Bruce Price, Architect. 



out solutions with little but academic traditions as a 
guide. We have already worked out many of them with 
almost no traditions, but with plenty of hard practical 
experience, and so far we have rather the best results. 
The place to study an office building, a bank, a library 
or a hotel, is in the United States, where they have been 
brought to the highest pitch of practical efficiency, com- 
bined with a measure of artistic success which surely is 
fully as appropriate as the kind of art one usually finds 
associated with such structures abroad. While the 
absence here of tradition, other than what we find in 
our architectural books, has left our designs often crude 
and ungrammatical, the very traditions which are so 
prized by our English cousins have been a handicap to 
the kind of practical growth and fitness which are essen- 
tial to ideal solutions. Besides, some problems, such as 
the office building, for instance, were worked out here to 
an exact finish long ago, whereas in England they are 
still in the stage of experiment. 

There is also a difference in treatment of mere design 
which has counted for a good deal. Academically consid- 
ered, a big building calls for big parts and big detail. But 
it would be so manifestly absurd to make the detail on a 
forty-story building eight times as large as the detail of 
a five-story building, that we, in this country, gave it up 
long ago and agreed on scale rather than dimension, and 
also accepted the paradox, that, in order to look in scale, 
to seem right, the size of detail in relation to size of 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



2 33 



building must vary inversely as the height, and that the 
more stories there are the smaller the detail can be, since 
it counts less as detail, and can only be appreciated when 
examined close to, under which condition smallness of 
parts is desirable. This fact seems to be little understood 
by either the English or the French architects, and this 
accounts for the repeated artistic failures of large com- 
mercial buildings abroad even when designed by archi- 
tects whose ability in other lines is unquestioned. The 
new problems are old to us, but to them they are almost 
wholly unsolved. 



r "PHE opening of the largest railway terminus in the 
JL country cannot but have an important effect on 
the physiognomy of the city witnessing it. At the 
national Capital there will be a less speedy shifting in 
scenes and corresponding change in real estate values 
than elsewhere. The new Union Station thus far has 
given little sign that it will radically change its imme- 
diate section of the city, for this section has already been 
a center of passenger traffic served by the old Baltimore 
& Ohio Station. One certain effect of the improvement, 

however, will 
be a change in 
the avenues 
leading from 
the station to 
the present 
business cen- 
ter of the city. 
A general 
northward and 
westward 
movement is 
noted by a rise 
of real estate 
values in 
Washington, 
and this will 
be followed by 
building im- 
provements. 
There are 
those who pre- 
dict that G and 
H streets, 
west of Sev- 
enth, and also 
portions of 
Massachusetts 
and New York 
avenues, will, 
in the near 
future, be 
turned into 
active bus i- 
ness thorough- 
fares. The 
neighborhood 
of Sixth and 
Pennsylvania 
avenues, 
where the 





STABLE, I44 EAST 40TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 
Donn Barber, Architect. 

Pennsylvania Railroad Station formerly was, and where 
famous old hotels still remain, has little to fear by a loss 
of prestige. The Metropolitan and National hotels were 
doing a flourishing business before a railroad entering 
Washington at that point was ever dreamed of. Nor 
can the neighborhood suffer, lying midway, as it does, 
between the Capitol and the White House, upon one of 
the finest avenues in the country, which avenue is sure to 
witness radical improvements within the next decade. 



MUCH vehement speech and column-writing is being 
expended at Washington in protest against changes 
in the Mall. "An entering wedge toward the imitation 
of Versailles, ... to reproduce the barren dreams of a 
decadent king," one of the local newspapers calls a first 
step toward remaking the Mall in conformity with the 




STABLE, 213 WEST 58TH STREET, NEW YORK 

CITY. 

York & Sawyer, Architects. 



INTERIOR STABLE, 2I3 WEST 58TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 

York & Sawyer, Architects. 

Guastavino Tile Ceiling. 



2 34 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Park Commission's plan for the improvement of Wash- 
ington. However unsympathetic the average American 
may be with Versailles, however decadent its master, 
the only question at issue is, was his Versailles beautiful 
and is it so to-day ? For our own part we have never 
heard a negative answer to this. That the essential 
character of Versailles' beauty is appropriate to Washing- 
ton is conceded by those who know architecture, who 
have studied the beauty of cities and who know the 
French and American localities. With the acceptance of 
the Park Commission s plans, doubts upon the vital part 
of it, the Mall improvement, must remain settled. 



OPPOSITION to the Mall improvement now is 
stirred by the fact that some historic trees must be 
sacrificed, and there is great appreciation expressed for 
the work of F. L. Olmsted who laid out the west 
terraces of the Capitol in 1872. If Mr. Olmsted were 
living to-day, doubtless he would be the first to recom- 
mend the removal of certain trees necessary to a great 
permanent improvement. Historic sentiment should 
not thwart the realization of a Washington that all 
visitors will admire and future generations will love. 
The wise woodman spares the tree only if its place is not 
needed for something better. 



THAT so important a thoroughfare, extending south- 
ward from Grand Central Station and comprising 
Park Avenue and Fourth Avenue, New York, should 






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RAILWAY STATION, SIOUX CITY, IOWA. 
Roofed with French A Tile made by Ludowici-Celadon Co. 

have been so little improved by building operations on a 
large scale is a curious eddy in the current of building 
activity in New York. The presence of the Subway 
stations and the improvement of the New York Central 
Terminus are now apparently producing a change. A 
new office building is nearby at Park Avenue and 41st 
Street, and but a few weeks ago it was reported that 
Alfred G. Vanderbilt's architects had filed plans for a 
twenty-one story office building to occupy the entire 
block on Park Avenue, between 33d and 34th streets. It 
is to be in the Italian Renaissance style, and facades are 
to be brick trimmed with limestone, for the first six 
stories, and terra cotta and brick above. The first floor 
is to contain stores, the next four floors will consist 
of lofts and the remainder of the building of offices. 



FAIENCE DECORATION IN PANELS, DINING-ROOM, HOTEL 
SINTON, CINCINNATI. 

Frank M. Andrews, Architect. 
Executed by Rookwood Pottery Company, from design by John Dee 

Wan-ham. 



Silk used to deflect Sound. — The acoustic diffi- 
culties of Dr. Parkhurst's church in New York, de- 
signed by the late Stanford White, have led to a novel 
experiment. From the center of the dome a ring has 
been suspended, and from this a net of silk has been 
drawn, extending to the surrounding cornice. The 
object of this is to prevent the sound waves from 
rising into the dome and there dissipating themselves, 
a tendency with which every acoustic problem has 
primarily to deal. 
Wire has often 
been tried, but 
there is danger 
in its resonance. 
The silk web, 
or "buffer of 
sound," as it has 
been termed in 
the Madison 
Square Church, 
is being watched 
with interest, and 
there is much 
speculation as to 
its remedial ef- 
fect. DETAIL BY NEW JERSEY TERRA COTTA CO. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



2 35 






Mr. Carnegie blesses 
Springfield. — Andrew Car- 
negie has donated $50,000 to 
the City Library Association of 
Springfield, Mass., for the es- 
tablishment of branch libraries. 
This gift follows closely upon 
the $175,000 received from the 
same donor for a new central 
library building to replace the 
present structure on State 
Street. 

An Architectural Treas- 
ure to be saved. — The beauti- 
ful old brick building known as 
the " Philipse Manor " now in 
use as the City Hall of Yonkers, 
New York, is likely to be pre- 
served for posterity by the 
anonymous gift of $50,000. 
Provision is _nade for The 
American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society to 
have custody of the building. The old hall dates from 
1682, and it is the most interesting architectural relic of 
the Hudson Valley. It was the seat of Frederick Philipse, 
Lord of the Manor of Philipseborough (now Yonkers), 
one of the five great English manors which succeeded 
the Dutch patroonships on the Hudson River after the 
conquest in 1665. During the English regime it was the 




detail by south amboy 
terra cot! a co. 





LOWER STORIES, HOME CLUB, NEW YORK CITY. 

Tracy & Swartwout, Architects. 

Built of brick made by Sayre & Fisher Co. 

center of important social and political influences, and it 
is believed that Washington once paid court to the 
daughter of the house, Mary Philipse. 

Fire Losses. — The estimated loss by fire in the United 
States and Canada during July was $18,240,150.00. Dur- 
ing the seven months ending with that time the total loss 
increased 27}^ per cent over the corresponding period of 
1905, reaching a total of $135,000,000.00, notwithstand- 
ing the fact that there was no serious conflagration dur- 
ing the first part of this year. Not all our contrivances 
for fireproof construction, for the handling of conflagra- 
tion, for the diminution of 
the fire risk, have seemed to 
effect any reduction in fire 
loss, for the total loss has in- 
creased in a much larger pro- 
portion than the increase in 
the valuation of property. 
And this disastrous condi- 
tion will be perpetuated just 
as long as individual greed 
is allowed to build as it 
pleases without regard to its 
neighbor, and until the time 
comes when fireproof con- 
struction shall be applied rig- 
idly to whole sections rather 
than to isolated buildings. 



CRESCENT ATHLETIC CLUB, BROOKLYN. 

Frank Freeman, Architect. 

Architectural Terra Cotta made by Atlantic Terra Cotta Co. 



IN GENERAL. 

The following named 
architectural firms are now in 
competition for the new Post 
Office Building for New York 




DETAIL BY NEWHALL & 

BLEVINS. 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra 

Cotta Co., Makers. 



236 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




GARGOYLE EXECUTED IN FAIENCE 
BY HARTFORD FAIENCE CO. 



City: Carrere & Has- 
tings ; Cass Gilbert ; 
Heins & LaFarge; 
McKim, Mead & 
White; Kenneth 
Murchison; Geo. B. 
Post & Sons; Whit- 
field & King. The 
judges are Messrs. 
Henry F. Hornbostel, 
Frank Miles Day, Ed- 
mund M. Wheelwright 
and James Knox Tay- 
lor. The competition 
closes March 25. 



Ernest Farnum Lewis of Providence, R. I., is the 
winner of the first Traveling Scholarship in Architec- 
ture given by the American Institute of Architects. 
The Scholarship was founded this year and will be 
awarded annually. The competition is open to the 
graduates of all the architectural schools of the country. 
The winner of the competition is allowed $1,000 per 
year for three years, which time is to be spent at the 
American Academy in Rome, and in European travel. 
Mr. Lewis was graduated from the architectural depart- 
ment of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology last 
spring. He is twenty-four years of age. 

The Architectural League of New York will hold its 
twenty-third annual exhibition in the building of the 
American Fine Arts Society, 215 West 57th Street, from 
February 2 to 22 inclusive. The last day for the 
reception of exhibits is January 17. The annual 
dinner of the League will be held on Friday evening, 
January 31, at 7 o'clock. Exhibits will be discharged 
February 24. 

The Syllabus, just issued by the Washington Archi- 
tectural Club, is interesting as denoting an unusual 
amount of activity on the part of the members, individ- 
ually and collectively. The annual report shows a large 
gain in membership, with an increasing interest in the 
work of the Club on the part of the members. 

The Architectural League of America has established 
an Individual Membership for persons who are not mem- 
bers of the various clubs of the League, but who are in- 
terested in the study and promotion of architecture and 




APARTMENTS, PRAIRIE AVENUE, CHICAGO. 

William H. Pruyn, Jr., & Co., Architects. 

Built of Brazil Gray Brick made by Hydraulic-Press Brick Co. 



the allied arts and professions. Such persons shall be 
entitled to membership in the League with all the privi- 
leges pertaining thereto, except voting at the annual 
convention. They may participate in all conventions 
with the privilege of the floor. They are also eligible to 
compete for the Traveling Scholarship offered by the 
League, for Fellowships offered by several Universities, 
and shall receive The Annual, the official organ published 
and edited by the League, at the club rate of one dollar 
The annual dues are two dollars. Further information 
and applications for membership can be secured by com- 
municating with H. S. McAllister, Permanent Secre- 
tary, 729 15th Street, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

The Committee on competitions and Awards of 
the Architectural League of New York proposes as 
the subject for the League competitions for the year 
i907-i()o8An Out-of-Door Swimming Pool and Pavilion. 
The three annual prizes offered by the League, to- 
gether with a Special Prize, will this year be awarded for 
designs sub- 
mitted under 
one and the 
same pro- 
gramme. This 
year's problem 
will thus not 
only present an 
opportunity for 
the work of 
architects, 
sculptors and 
mural painters 
who may choose 
to compete in- 
dividually by 
submitting 
sketches re- 
spectively for 
the architec- 
tural, sculptural 
or mural por- 
tions of the pro- 
gramme, but 

will, it is hoped, induce the submission of complete 
schemes in which an architect, a sculptor and a mural 
painter will collaborate in competition for the Special 
Prize ($300) offered this year for the best solution by 
such a combined effort. 

The architectural terra cotta used in the synagogue 
and the Margaret Morrison Technical School for Women, 
both located in Pittsburg, and the work of Palmer & 
Hornbostel, was executed by the Atlantic Terra Cotta 
Company. These buildings were illustrated in The 
Brickbuilder for November, 

Harry L. Dazey has opened an office in the Wilson 
Building, Dallas, Texas. Manufacturers' catalogues and 
samples desired. 

G. A. Edelsvard and E. W. Sankey, architects, have 
formed a copartnership for the practice of architecture. 
Offices, Peoples' Savings Bank Building, Seattle, Wash. 




DETAIL BY H. C. KOCH & SON, ARCHITECTS. 
Northwestern Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



Ml 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16. NO. 12. PLATE 175. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 12. PLATE 176. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 12. PLATE 177. 




FROM THE ENTRANCE AVENUE. 




FROM THE RECREATION GROUNDS. 

THE MISSES ELY SCHOOL, GREENWICH. CONN. 
Carrere & Hastings, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 12. PLATE 178 




STREET FACADE. 




TERRACE FACADE. 

ST GEORGE. STATEN ISLAND. BRANCH OF NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY. 

Carrere & Hastings, Architects 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 12. PLATE 179. 



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UPPER PART OF 
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ST. GEORGE, STATEN ISLAND. BRANCH OF NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY. 

Carrere & Hastings, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

VOL. 16, NO. 12. PLATE 180. 




GENERAL VIEW OF PORTION NOW COMPLETED. 
BLOCK PLAN SHOWN ON PAGE 222. 




ACADEMIC BUILDING. 

SWEET BRIAR INSTITUTE, SWEET BRIAR, VA. 
Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 12. PLATE 181. 




A PAVILION AT CORNER OF TERRACE. 








linn liiiiniiiiiii 






REFECTORY BUILDING. 

SWEET BRIAR INSTITUTE, SWEET BRIAR, VA. 
Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 12. PLATE 182. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 12. PLATE 183. 







ENTRANCE FRONT. 




PERGOLA AT END OF GARDEN. 

HOUSE AT RIDGEFIELD, CONN. 

GROSVENOR ATTERBURY, ARCHITECT. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 12. PLATE 184. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. 16, NO. 12. 



PLATE 185. 



Mgxjsel-at-Ehdgefield ■ Conn. 




SECOND FLOOR. PLAN. 



GROSVENOR- AttERBURY. KAlAv 

Architect 

ZO WtST -43 = ST. n.V. 



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MOUSE. AT- J2IDGEFIELD , CONN . 



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FIJ2ST FLOOR PLAN 



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GROSVENOR AtTERBURY FA1A. 

Architect. 

20 WEST 43^5 ST At.V. 



HOUSE AT RIDGEFIELD, CONN. 
Grosvenor Atterbury, architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 12. PLATE 186. 





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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 12. PLATE 187. 




WALL ENCLOSING STABLE COURT. 




STABLE FOR DAVID K CATLIN, ESQ.. ST LOUIS. MO 
Cope & Stewardson, architects 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 12. PLATE 






SECOND FIPOR PLAN 



FIRST FL°°R P1AN 



HOUSE FOR DAVID K. CATLIN, ESQ., ST LOUIS, MO. 
Cope & Stewaroson, architects 



Mi 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 12. PLATE \i 





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THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 12. PLATE 190. 




HOUSE FOR JACOB E. HEYL. ESQ. WYNNEWOOD. PA 

Frank Miles Day & Brother, Architects. 




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