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Full text of "The BrickBuilder (1908)"









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THE PROFESSIONAL LIBRARY OF 

CHARLES PETER WEEKS 

ARCHITECT OF THE CAPITOL EXTENSION BUILDINGS 

HAS BEEN PRESENTED TO THE CALIFORNIA STATE 

LIBRARY BY HIS WIDOW. 

THIS VOLUME IS A PART OF THAT COLLECTION. 










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California Slate Library 




CALIFORNIA 

State Library 



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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/brickbuild17unse 



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THE 



BRICKBVILDER 




OBAN Hi 




ARCHDBCVRAL 

MONTHIY 




^....■-■^■■■-, 



ED BY ROGERS & MANSON 
WATER STREET BOSTON N. 



THE BRICKBUILDER-INDEX. 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Architect. 



KuiUling and Location. 



\. V. 



10, 



Conn. 



143' 



Adams, William House, Woodmere, L. I. 

Aiken, William Martin Bath House, New York 

Almirall, Raymond F Fordham Hospital, New York 

Andrews, Jacques & Rantoul Armory, Haverhill, Mass 

Atterbury, Grosvenor House, Locust Valley. L. I., N. Y 

Bacon, Henry , Eclectic Society Building, Middletown, 

Bacon| Henry Bank, New Rochelle, N. Y 

Bell, A. S House, Irvington on- Hudson, N. Y.. . 

Boring, William A House, Mamaroneck, X. Y 

Boring, William A \partment, New York 

Boring, William A St. Agatha School. New York 

Bosworth & I lolden Church House, New York 

Bragdon, Claude Church. Rochester. N. Y 

Brainerd & Leeds Schoolhouse, Maiden, Mass 

Brunner, Arnold W Bath House, New York 

Day, Frank Miles & Brother House. Wynnewood, Pa 

Delano & Aldrich House, Mount Kisco, N. Y 

Eyre, Wilson House, Chestnut Hill, Pa 

Frost & Granger House, Washington, D. C 

Haight, C. C Armory. New York 

Hale, Herbert D Bath House, Boston 

Hering, Oswald C House, Lexington, Mass 

Herts cc Tallant Gaiety Theater, New York 

Herts & Tallant Academy of Music, Brooklyn 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 

Howard, Philip B House, Dover, Mass 

Howard & Dudley House, Concord, Mass 

Keen, Charles Barton House, Wilmington, Del 

Keen, Charles Barton House, Wilmington, Del 

Keen, Charles Barton House, Overbrook, Pa 

Kelsey cc Cret International Bureau of American Republics 

Kiessling, Calvin Y. M. C. A., I )avenport, Iowa 

Kilham & Hopkins Schoolhouse, Marblehead, Mass 

LeBrun, N. & Sons Building for Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., New York 

Little & Browne House, Prides Crossing, Mass 

Longfellow. A. W Town Hall, Lancaster, Mass 

Lord & Hewlett Armory, Brooklyn . . 

Lowe, F. F. and Robert S. Peabody, 

Associated Power Station, Boston 

Lowell, Guy Stevens Memorial Library, No. Andover, Mass 

Lowell, Guy Club House, Andover, Mass 

MacClure & Spahr University Club, Pittsburg 

Maginnis, Walsh & Sullivan Bath House, Boston 

Mauran, Russell & Garden Racquet Club, St. Louis 

Mauran, Russell & Garden Church, St. Louis 147, 

Murphy & Hindle St. Ann's (R. C.) Church, Cranston, R. I 

Page, George Bispham Post Office, Allentown, Pa 

Page & Frothingham House, Lexington, Mass 

Parker, Thomas & Rice House, North Easton, Mass 

Parker, Thomas & Rice Tarratine Club, Bangor, Me 

Peabody iv Stearns Electrical Engineering Building, Worcester, Mass 

Peabody & Stearns, Maginnis, 

Walsh & Sullivan, Coolidge & 

Carlson, Associated Normal and Latin School Group, Boston 35, 

Peabody <!v. Stearns House, New Haven, Conn 

Perkins, Charles Bruen Vincent Memorial Hospital 

Perkins & Hamilton Park Department Building, Chicago 

Pilcher, Thomas & Tachau Armory, Brooklyn 

Pond cm Pond Post Office, Kankakee, 111 

Pope, John Russell House, Washington, D. C 

Rantoul, William G House and Stable, Beverly Farms, Mass 

Renwick, Aspinwall & Owen .... Bath House, New York 

Revels & Hallenbeck Hall of Natural History, Syracuse, N. Y 

Revels & Hallenbeck Hall of Chemistry, Syracuse, N. Y 

Revels & Hallenbeck Library, Syracuse, N. -Y. ... 4 _ ...... 

Rogers, James Gamble House, Cincinnati."', .;. j.*.«. :.-<.'.. '.:.:':. ,•..-. „•*"•, .*.'; 

Sauer, Andrew J Synagogue, PhiladelpKia".'.". .*.'.*. . .'. '. .*.*: '. . :.''.' 

Shaw, Howard Van D Building for Ginn #. Co.,.Chioago ... k 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge House and Stab/e.'.ija^'c. Geneva, ^Vis. .••. ; .-/- % . { .!•: 

Shepley, Rutan cc Coolidge House, Brookline,'Mass'. '. .' .'.' '. '.:'.'.. .'.". '. ." . .*. '. .'.''. 

Spencer & Towers House and Stable, Lake Forest, 111 

Sperry, Joseph Evans Bank, Alexandria, Va 

Spiering, Louis C Artists' Guild, St. Louis 

Streeton, George H St. Ambrose ( R. C.) Church, Brooklyn 

Sturgis, R. Clipston Franklin Union, Boston 

Sullivan, Louis H National Farmers Bank, Owatonna, Minn 

Taylor, G. Wood Nayasset Club, Springfield, Mass 

Thain & Thain Apartment, New York 

Trumbauer, Horace Racquet Club. Philadelphia 



Plate No. 


Month. 


17 


February 


51 


April 


74, 75- 76. 77 


June 


114 


August 


1 1, 12, 13, 14 


January 


1 33 


November 


•S3 


I >ecember 


56 


April 


54, 55 


April 


82,83 


June 


130. '3 1 , U- 


November 


78, 79, 80, 81 


June 


144, 145, 146 


1 >ecember 


43. 44 


March 


5 1 


April 


4 


January 


58 


April 


J 54 


December 


18, 19 


February 


«i3 


August 


5° 


April 


9 6 . 97 


July 


119 


October 


126, 127, 128 


October 


99 


July 


99 


July 


23 


February 


24 


February 


92 


July 


117, 118 


October 


62, 63, 64 


May 


7', 72 


May 


7° 


May 


93' 94- 95 


July 


IS 1 ! '5 2 


December 


110, III, 112 


August 


73 


June 


5, 6, 7, 8 


January 


5- ! 5, l6 


January 


2 5 


February 


J3 8 , 139 


November 


141, 142 


November 


148, 149, 150 


December 


101 


August 


104 


August 


87, 88 


July 


1, 2. 3 


January 


49 


April 


28, 29, 30 


February 


36, 40, 41, 42 


March 


100 


July 


47. 48 


April 


108, 109 


August 


102, 103 


August 


105, 106, 107 


August 


37. 38, 39 


March 


89, 90 


July 


140 


November 


59, 6o 


May 


59, 6o 


May 


61 


May 


57 


Aprd 


2 0, 21, 2 2 


February 


85,86 


June 


5 2 » 53 


April 


'55 


December 


65, 66, 67 


May 


26 


February 


!34. 135 


November 


31. 32, 33,34 


March 


'36, 137 


November 


115, 116 


October 


27 


February 


84 


June 


68, 69 


May 



12437' 5 



Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER-INDEX. 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS— Continued. 

Building and Location. 



Winslow & Bigelow House, Dover, Mass 

Wood, Donn & Deming Car Barns, Washington, D. C. 

Wood, Donn & Deming House, Washington, D. C 

Wyatt & Nolting House, Roland Park, Md 



Plate No. 

9 1 

45. 46 

156 

98 



Monti). 

July 

April 

1 )ecember 

July 



FRONTISPIECES.— FULL-PAGE HALFTONE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Building and Location. 

Royal Palace, Frederiksborg, Denmark 

Town Hall, Lubeck, Germany 

South Transept, Church of St. Stephan, Tangermunde, 

Germany 

South Portal, Church of St. Stephan, Tangermunde, 

Germany 

West Front, Cistercian Monastery, Chorin, Germany. . . 



Month. 

January 

February 

March 



April 
May 



Building and Location. Month. 

The Castle, Marienburg, Prussia June 

Town Hall, From the Court, Lubeck, Germany July 

Apses, Cistercian Monastery, Chorin, Germany August 

Church of St. Gereon, Cologne, Germany September 

East End, Church of St. Gereon, Cologne, Germany. . . . October 

The Franciscan Monastery of The Trinity, Dantsic, Ger. November 

Church of St. Catharine, Brandenburg, Germany December 



MISCELLANEOUS ILLUSTRATIONS IN LETTER-PRESS. 

This list does not include illustrations made in connection with articles nor those of terra cotta details. 



Title and Location. 



Academic Building, Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md 

Administration Building, Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md 

Agricultural School, St. Paul, Minn 

Apartment, The Lorraine, Norfolk, Va 

Apartment, The Cordova, Washington, D. C 

Apartment, The Robertson, Cincinnati 

Barn, Hamilton, Mass 

Boat House and Refectory, Garfield Park, Chicago 

Boat House and Refectory, Douglas Park, Chicago 

Boat House and Refectory, Garfield Park, Chicago 

Chapel, Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md 

Chocolate Factory, Milton, Mass 

Church, St. Aloysius, Jersey City 

Church, Christian Scientist, South Bend, Ind 

City Hall, South Bend, Ind 

City Houses, a Group of Forty-three, New York City 

Confectioner's Shop, Interior, Boston 

Document Building for The Edison Company, Boston 

Dome, Interior, Worcester County Institution for Savings, Worcester, Mass. 

Dome, Interior, Westmoreland County Courthouse, Greensburg, Pa 

Elgin Watch Works, Elgin, 111 

Farmhouse, Bedford, Mass 

Fireplace 

Fountain, Palm Room, Statler Hotel, Buffalo, N. Y 

Garage, Cincinnati 

Hospital, Administration Building, St. Louis 

Hotel, The Oliver, South Bend, Ind 

House, Cincinnati 

House, Cincinnati , 

House, Cleveland 

House, Columbus, Ohio 

House, Denver 

House, Fort Thomas, Ky 

House, Ithaca, N. Y 

House, Reno, Nev 

House, Washington, D. C 

House, Winchester, Mass 

House, of Terra Cotta Blocks 

House, of Terra Cotta Blocks, Padanaram, Mass 

House, of Terra Cotta Blocks 

Infirmary, The Touro, New Orleans, La 

Library, Grand Rapids, Mich 

Mantel 

Municipal Building, Washington, D. C 

National Museum, The Fireproof Construction, Washington, D. C... 

Office Building, The Mentor, Chicago 

Office Building, Entrance to Metropolitan, St. Louis 

Office Building, The Sellwood, Duluth, Minn 

Office Building, The Tribune, Chicago 

tffice Building, The Grinnell, Detroit 

Dffice Building, For Detroit Gas Co., Detroit 

)ffice Building, The Hudson Terminals, New York 

Dffice Building, For City Investing Co., New York 

Office Building, Detroit 



Architect. 

Ernest Flagg 

Ernest Flagg 

Clarence H. Johnson. . 
Ferguson & Calrow . . . 
Wood, Donn & Deming 



Philip B. Howard . 
W. C. Zimmerman . . 
W. C. Zimmerman . . 
W. C. Zimmerman . . 

Ernest Flagg 

Winslow & Bigelow 
Charles Edwards. . . 
S. S. Beman 



A. B. LeBoutillier 

Winslow & Bigelow .... 

Winslow & Bigelow 

William Kauffman 

Patton, Miller & Abbott 
Philip B. Howard 



Esenwein & Johnson 

S. Hannaford & Sons 

James A. Smith 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge 
James Gilmore . . . , 



Harlen E. Shimmin . . 

Julian & Julian 

Sterner & Williamson . 



George O. Totten , 
Allan E. Boone. . . 



Philip B. Howard. . . . 
Squires & Wynkoop . . 
Favrot & Livaudais . . 
Williamson & Crow.. 
Carpenter & Crocker. 
Cope & Stewardson . . 



Howard Van I). Shaw 

Mauran, Russell & Garden, 
William \. Hunt 



Albert Kahn 

. John Scott & Co.. . . 

Clinton & Russell. . 
, Francis H. Kimball. 

Albert Kahn 



Page. 


Month. 


43 


February 


IOO 


May 


221 


September 


20 


January 


22 


January 


64 


March 


6l 


March 


129 


(une 


l S3 


July 


i73 


August 


43 


February 


284 


December 


6S 


March 


263 


November 


63 


March 


87-210 


September 


241 


October 


284 


December 


62 


March 


62 


March 


243 


October 


61 


March 


262 


November 


85 


April 


'5 1 


July 


66 


March 


44 


February 


22 


January 


108 


May 


13° 


June 


i 76 


August 


22 


January 


64 


March 


108 


May 


2 43 


October 


64 


March 


148 


July 


■5 2 


July 


'75 


August 


261 


November 


220 


September 


44 


February 


242 


October 


>52 


July 


240 


October 


l 9 


January 


87 


April 


87 


April 


106 


May 


106 


May 


'75 


August 


219 


September 


262 


November 


265 


November 



THE BRICKBUILDER-INDEX. 

MISCELLANEOUS ILLUSTRATIONS IN LETTER-PRESS - Continued. 



- 



Title and Location. 






Architect. 



Opera House, Pittsburg, Pa MacClure & Spahr 

Parish House and Sunday School Building, Buffalo, N. V Thomas W. Harris 

Pavilion for Live Stock, Indianapolis, Ind Rubush & Hunter 

Police Station, St. Louis James A. Smith 

Railway Station, Newbury, Ohio 

Railway Station, Washington, D. C D. H. Burnham & Co. . 

Schoolhouse, South Bend, Ind George W. Selby 

Shelter, Lakeshore Playground, Chicago Perkins & Hamilton . . 

Society Building, I. O. O. F., Buffalo 

Store Building, Monticello Arcade, Norfolk, Va Neff & Thompson .... 

Store Building, The 1 >ean, South Bend, Ind George W. Selby 

Store Building, The Driscoll, Boston Peabody & Stearns 

Store Front, Cincinnati, Ohio Frank M. Andrews 

Store and Loft Building, Boston Bowditch & Stratton . 

Store and Loft Building, Boston Wheelwright & Haven . . 

Store and Loft Building, Chicago Richard Schmidt 

Store and Loft Building, Pittsburg Charles Bickel 

Synagogue, Columbus, Ohio Jacob S. Goldsmith 

Terra Cotta Hollow Tile Construction, Examples of 

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn Clarence H. Johnson 

War College, Map Room, Washington, D. C McKim, Mead & White 

Window Seat Willard T. Sears 



''age. 

44 

I 10 

220 
108 
I0 7 
172 

'73 

»3° 

2 1 

174 
28S 

86 
218 
218 
21S 
221 

66 

83-84 
128 
107 
•5 1 



Month. 

February 

May 

September 

May 

May 

August 

April 

August 

June 

January 

August 

December 

April 

September 

September 

September 

September 

March 

April 

June 

May 

Hy 



,' 



ARTICLES. 



Academy of Music, Brooklyn By Herts & Tallant 

Apartment House, A Modern I'aris . . .By George B. Ford 

Apartment Houses, Development and Financing of 

, . By F. Harris Janes 

Architectural Books, On the Buying of . . By L. A. Warren 
Architectural League of America, Report of Annual Convention 
Architectural Study in Western France, Suggestions for . . . 

By Frederick Reed 

Armories for the Organized Militia I, By Lieut.-Col. J. Mollis Wells 
Armories for the Organized Militia II 

By Lieut.-Col. J. Hollis Well- 
Armories for the Organized Militia III 

By Lieut.-Col. J. Hollis Wells 

Bath, The Public I By Werner & Windolph 

Bath, The Public II By Werner & Windolph 

Bath, The Public III By Werner & Windolph 

Bath, The Public IV By Werner & Windolph 

Bath, The Public V By Werner & Windolph 

Brickwork Details II ... . By Halsey Wainwright Parker 
Brickwork Details III. . . . By Halsey Wainwright Parker 

Brickwork in East Anglia 169 

Bungalow, An Interesting By W. II. Ansell 

Church, Second Baptist, St. Louis 285 

Church, The Denominational I ... By C. Howard Walker 

Courthouse Planning By Thomas M. Kellogg 

Dalecross Grange and Other Houses ... By Michael Bunney 
Department Store Plan .... By John Lawrence Mauran 
English Brickbuilders, The Work of H. R. and B. N. Poulter . 

By R. Randal Phillips 15 



f?e. 


Month. 


2T? 


October 


101 


May- 


276 


December 


S4 


March 


214 


September 


279 


December 


120 


June 


'39 


July 


•ss 


August 


^7 


February 


SO 


March 


70 


April 


92 


May 


"5 


June 


8 


January 


33 


February 


169 


August 


59 


March 


28 s 


December 


267 


December 


24S 


November 


97 


May 


252 


November 



January- 



Page. 
English Brickbuilders, The Work of R. Weir Schultz .... 

By R. Randal Phillips 256 

Fireproof Building Which Was Fireproof 60 

•' Homewood," A Famous Colonial Mansion of Maryland ... 55 

Hospital, The Contagious By Edward F. Stevens 183 

New York City Houses, A Series of Illustrations .... 187-210 
Photographs and Magazine Plates, Arrangement of 

By Sidney F. Kimball 

Railway Station, A Village . . . .By William Leslie Welton 

Sanatoria for Consumptives By T. MacLaren 

Sanatoria for Consumptives .... By Scopes & Feu'stmann 
Standard Architectural Books for Offices and Public Libraries, A 

List By Edward R. Smith 

Standard Architectural Books for Offices and Public Libraries, A 

list By Edward R. Smith 

Standard Architectural Books for Offices and Public Libraries, A 

List By Edward R. Smith 

Swimming Pool, A Third Floor 96 

Theater, The American II By Clarence H. Blackall 

Theater, The American III. . . . By Clarence H. Blackall 
Theater, The American IV .... By Clarence H. Blackall 
Theater, The American V .... By Clarence H. Blackall 
Theater, The American VI .... By Clarence H. Blackall 
Theater, The American VII . . . . By Clarence H. Blackall 
Theater, The American VIII . . . By Clarence II. Blackall 
Theater, The American IX ... . By Clarence H. Blackall 
Theater, The American X . . . . By Clarence II. Blackall 
Theater, The American XI . . . , By Clarence H. Blackall 
Theater Building Competition . . The Successful Competitors 



79 
104 

«77 
223 

149 

167 



Month. 

November 

March 

March 

September 

September 

April 

May 

September 

October 

July 

August 



2I S 
96 


September 
May- 


2 

2 3 
46 


January 

February 

March 


67 
89 


April 
May 


in 


June 


'33 
■63 
185 

2 i- 


July 

August 

September 

1 'ctober 


40 


February 



EDITORIALS AND MISCELLANY. 



Page. Month. 

Apartment House, Park Avenue and Sixty-first Street, New York 129 June 
Apartment House, Madison Avenue and East Fifty-fifth Street, 

New York 130 June 

Architects vs. Contractors and Dealers 62 March 

Artists' Guild, St. Louis 264 November 

Beautiful Boston, A More 262 November 

Bills Before the Massachusetts State Legislature, Two Important 1 January- 
Boulevard for Paris, New 138 July- 
Building Opportunities in Cuba 64 March 

California Law of Interest to Architects 20 January 

Church, St. Ambrose, Brooklyn 66 March 

Clays and Burnt Clay Building Materials to be Tested by the 

• Government 260 November 

Competition for the Western University of Pennsylvania ... 19 January 
Competition for the Springfield Massachusetts Municipal Building 

Group 173 August 

Cost of Building in 1908 150 July 

Dome, Westmoreland County Courthouse 66- March 

Drury Lane Theater, London. Destroyed by Fire 130 June 

Edison's Cast House 63 March 

Elevator Travel in New York City 8 January- 
Fire at Chelsea, Mass 85 April 

Fire at Pottatown, Pa., and Collinwood, Ohio 85 April 

Fires in the United States and Canada 106 May 

Fireproofing the National Museum, Washington 241 October 

Great Dailies are Lending a Hand 218 September 

Guastavino, Rafael 40 February- 
Herculean Arch am! Phoenix Wall Blocks 86 April 

High Pressure Water Mains \".-w York City 151 July 



Page. Month. 

Hollow Block Walls and Veneer of Bricks 131 June 

Hospital Building Competition 239 October 

L'Enfant's Plan of Washington 106 August 

Lighting for Libraries, New 263 November 

Limit to the Skyscraper. Is There One ? 152 July 

Madison Square Garden 263 November 

McComb, John, Jr., and New York City Hall 39 February 

Monotony of American Streets 172 August 

" Open Shelf " Craze for Libraries 152 July 

Park Building, Chicago, Two New Ones 174 August 

Parker Building Fire 20 January- 
Parker Building Fire 41 February 

Polychromatic Exterior Glaze Decoration 128 June 

Restricting Skyscrapers 241 October 

Schoolhouse Fire at Cleveland 60 March 

Sing Sing Prison Competition, Findings of Board of Award . . 172 August 

Sing Sing Prison, New York 213 September 

Skeleton Skyscraper in New York, The First 172 August 

Stadium at London 173 August 

State Legislature to Aid the Transaction of Real Estate Business 

in New York City and State 150 July 

Terra Cotta Tile Blocks for Walls of House 85 April 

Theater Competition, Prize Winners 19 January 

Tiles of Pearl and Cement 8 January 

Toll of Carelessness 129 June 

Tribune Building, Chicago, Tested by Fire 106 May 

Washington Property, Purchase of by the National Govern- 
ment 21 January- 
Wood Still Principal Material Used in Building Construction . . 262 November 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVII 



JANUARY 1908 



Number i 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 
85 Water Street ... Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1908, by ROGERS & MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba . . .... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers .................... 50 cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ............. $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union ............... . $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order,: 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Terra Cotta 

Brick .... 



PAGE 
II 
II 

II and III 
III 



page 
Brick Enameled . . . . . . . . .Ill and IV 

Brick Waterproofing ......... IV 

Fireproofing . . . . . . . . . . IV 

Roofing Tile .... IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



CONTENTS 



From Work by 



GROSVENOR ATTERBURY; FRANK MILES DAY & BROTHER; GUY LOWELL; PARKER, 

THOMAS & RICE. 



LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

ROYAL PALACE, FREDERIKSBORG, DENMARK... Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS ' 

THE AMERICAN THEATER— II Clarence H. Blackall 2 

BRICKWORK DETAILS — II Ifalsey Wainwright Parker 

DETAILS, HOUSE AT LOCUST VALLEY, L. I Grosvenor Atteriury, Architect. Illustration 13 

INTERIORS, HOUSE AT LOCUST VALLEY, L I Grosvenor Atteriury, Architect. Illustration \\ 

SOME ENGLISH BRICKBUILDERS. THE WORK OF H. R AND B. A. POULTER R. Randal Phillips 15 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 19 




IH<<<<<<<<^<^^<<v^/v</<</<<<<<<<v<</<^<<<<<<<»>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>yy^a 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




L.YOL. 17 



DEVOTEDTO THE-1NTERE3TJ-OF-ARCHITECTVHE-1N MATERIAU-OECLAY- 



JANUARY 1908: 




t i<<<<<<<<<<<<<<</<<<<</<<<<<<^<<«<<<<<<<<<<<^««>>>>>>>>>>>v>>>>>>>>v>>>>>>>>>>»»»»»»?yrff7?] a 
■ i 




TWO bills of great importance to the future of build- 
ing in Massachusetts are now before the State Leg- 
islature. One of these, presented in the name of the 
Boston Real Estate Exchange, provides that mortgages 
placed on real property during the progress of improve- 
ments on the property, for the purpose of providing funds 
to pay for such improvements, shall have precedence over 
mechanics' liens connected with the improvements. We 
may say that it is our own belief that the special privi- 
leges granted to mechanics by the lien laws are not only 
unconstitutional and contrary to the spirit of free govern- 
ment, but that they form a direct and powerful encour- 
agement to shiftlessness and improvidence on the part of 
workingmen, as well as an unfailing support to the swin- 
dling builders who flourish under them. Apart from the 
larger view of them, however, they act, in practice, to 
prevent investment in building, for the reason that no one, 
unless he is paid an extravagant rate of interest to com- 
pensate him- for this risk, will lend money to finance 
building operations, with the prospect that mechanics' 
liens, perhaps to the full amount of his loan, may at any 
time, without notice, be inserted, so to speak, between 
his mortgage note and the security for it. If it were not 
for this liability to loss of the principal through unex- 
pected mechanics' liens, mortgage loans for improvement 
would be a very favorite form of investment, and multi- 
tudes of building projects would be carried through at 
moderate rates of interest which cannot now be financed 
or, if at all, only at extortionate interest rates. 

Another bill, not at all connected with that of the 
Real Estate Exchange, yet forming a valuable com- 
plement to it, provides that Massachusetts savings banks 
shall, after the passage of the Act, keep at all times at 
least sixty per cent of their deposits invested in first 
mortgages on real estate, such mortgages not to exceed 
in amount, in any individual case, sixty per cent of the 
assessed value of the mortgaged property. This is cer- 
tainly a conservative measure, and should be heartily en- 
dorsed by those who have seen savings banks elsewhere 
brought to grief within the last few months by invest- 
ments in personal property. The objection which will 
be made to it is, that as it is slow work to realize cash in 
case of need from mortgages, the savings banks, to fortify 
themselves against a sudden run upon their resources, 
should have the privilege of changing their investments 
in their discretion from real estate mortgages to stocks 
and bonds, which are more readily turned into cash. 
There is, of course, a good deal of justice in this view, 
but in practice it is the source of much hardship to own- 



ers of^ mortgaged real estate, who find themselves, in 
times of sudden panic, like those we have just passed 
through, very generally compelled to raise money at a 
ruinous sacrifice, or lose their investment entirely, as the 
result of a sudden change of policy on the part of the 
savings banks in regard to mortgage loans falling due. 
It is hardly necessary to say that the liability to this 
does much to discourage building operations, which, like 
all other business operations, must be carried on largely 
with borrowed money, the only difference being that 
in the judicious improvement of real estate, the money 
invested is safer than in any other mercantile transac- 
tion, although the goods produced with its help are less 
quickly salable than in other industries. The savings 
bank committees, recognizing both these points, yet 
fearing to be called upon at any moment for an amount 
of cash which cannot be quickly realized from fore- 
closures, are, under the present laws, compelled to con- 
vert their mortgage securities into those more promptly 
marketable, at the worst possible time for those to 
whom they have lent their money. It seems to us that 
this difficulty, which is a very serious one for building 
interests, might be met with great advantage, both to 
the savings banks and the owners of real estate, by an 
extension of the emergency currency idea now so much 
talked of as a relief for national banks. In general, the 
plan for national banks is to have them deposit securities 
with the Treasury Department, and receive, as a loan upon 
them, currency to seventy-five per cent or so of their par 
value, which can be used for paying their depositors' 
checks. The various schemes differ as to what sort of 
securities shall be accepted, and the rate of interest 
which the banks shall pay for the accommodation; but 
in the case of savings banks both these details can 
easily be settled. As no security could be better than 
first mortgages on real estate, not exceeding in amount 
sixty per cent of the assessed valuation, a State Treas- 
urer, or, possibly, some bank of reserve, under state 
authority, would find it very simple to receive such 
mortgages from the savings banks as security, and issue 
upon them emergency currency to the amount of three- 
quarters of their face value, at a rate of interest which 
the savings banks, who would be collecting interest all 
the time on the mortgages themselves, could pay with- 
out any loss, and which would be sufficiently remunera- 
tive to the bank of reserve, or to the state treasury; at 
the same time that any possible run on a savings bank 
so conservatively managed as this bill requires would 
be amply provided for. 



THE BRICKBUILDHR. 



The American Theater. — II. 

THE PLAN. 

BV CLARENCE H. ULACKALL. 

OF theaters erected in the early years of the 19th 
century there is little that can be said. The public 
sentiment of the country as a whole was decidedly 
hostile to theatrical representations of any sort. The 
talent available was beneath criticism as a whole, and 
the country was too poor to think of building any monu- 
ments. Furthermore, the 
remarkable Millerite move- 
ment which spread over the 
country in the late forties re- 
sulted in the obliteration of 
what few reputable theaters 
existed, the best of them be- 
ing turned into churches, and 
the others remodeled for busi- 
ness purposes or destroyed. 
There was a good theater in 
Boston at that time, portions 
of which were converted into 
the original Tremont Temple. 
There was also a Tremont 
Theater close by, the last ves- 
tiges of which were destroyed 
by the fire in the so-called 
Studio Building within the 
past year, the theater having 
been debased to a storeroom 
for carpets. 

The year 1850, or there- 
abouts, witnessed the con- 
struction of the Boston The- 
ater, an edifice which was so 
well planned that to-day it 
holds its own with the more 
modern structures and is con- 
sidered, and quite rightly, one 
of the best. 

The Academy of Music in 
Xew York and the Academy 
at Philadelphia were also 
built in the years just before 
the Civil War, and inciden- 
tally it is of interest to note 
that these three theaters we're 

government at the crowning period of the reign of Napo- 
leon III decided to build a new opera house, a commission 
of experts was formed to study the problem in all coun- 
tries. This commission, in its report to the government, 
called special attention to three American theaters — the 
Boston Theater, or ( )pera de Boston, as they called it, tbe 
Academy of Music at New York and the Academy at Phil- 
adelphia, all of which were cited as excellent models to be 
considered. When Gamier was finally commissioned to 
design the Paris Opera, his chief innovation, in fact, 
almost the only departure from the convention of 
precedent lines was in the relation between the exterior 
well and favorably known abroad. When the French 




WASHINGTON iTttlXT 



PLAN OF ORCHESTRA FLOOR, BOSTON THEATER. 



of the building and the plan. The mere audience room 
and its relation to the stage was designed exactly along 
the lines which had been followed for so long in Europe 
and which had been applied, with but slight modifica- 
tions, in the three American theaters mentioned, 
but Gamier was the first modern architect to strongly 
emphasize the exterior treatment of the plan. The 
Paris Opera shows a long colonnaded loggia, corre- 
sponding to the entrance approaches, beyond this, a 
slightly higher glass dome corresponding to the salle, 
and a high pediment behind the whole and dominating 
the design, marking the stage. It has been considered 

that his solution was final. 
European theaters have very 
generally accepted it as 
such, and the majority of 
opera houses and theaters de- 
signed abroad have shown a 
striving after the tripartite 
arrangement of the exterior. 
As a matter of fact, two-thirds 
of < iarnier's exterior is utterly 
false to the plan. The motive 
of the facade does not corre- 
spond at all to his approaches, 
the dome over the salle lights 
in a most extravagant man- 
ner a scene painter's dock in- 
stead of the hall itself, and the 
relative proportions of the 
body of the house and the 
upper part of the stage are 
out of all keeping with prac- 
tical requirements. Every 
architect who has been abroad 
has been profoundly im- 
pressed by Gamier s work, but 
the impression has never been 
sufficiently permanent to per- 
mit of translation to this 
country, and although in each 
of the three early theaters 
mentioned the lines of the 
audience room are similar to 
those of European theaters, 
such lines did not find con- 
tinued favor here, and we 
have yet to see an American 
theater that in any way re- 
sembles in its scheme of 
treatment the arbitrary divisional scheme of Mr. Gar- 
nier. 

The problem, as it usually presents itself to an archi- 
tect to-day, is to pack the greatest number of seats into 
the least possible space and omit everything in the way of 
approaches and lobbies which the law does not absolutely 
insist upon. Willis K. Polk, some years ago,, made a 
very clever design for a theater, which adapted in a very 
happy manner the motive of the Paris Opera House, 
but so far as we are aware this was not carried out. 
Most of our theaters are adjuncts of a commercial block, 
often a part of it; and when they are separate buildings, 
as in the case of the Majestic at Boston, the Illinois at 



t^L 



EL 



PLAN Ol ORCUI. VVRA I LOOP 
BOSTON jrni.ATRL 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Chicago or the Garrick Theater in New York, the space 
allowed the architect for approaches, stairs, etc., is so 
inadequate that it is extremely difficult to treat the plan 
in anything like an academic manner or to, in fact, make 
any plan as such at all. Consequently the principles of 
America theater planning are but few. The shape of 
the auditorium is unfortunately fixed, in most instances, 
by the available dimensions of the lot. The subject of 
sight lines will be discussed in a separate chapter. The 
front of the stage in plan is in 
most theaters now carried 
straight across, the apron, or 
portion projecting beyond the 
curtain line, being from three 
to five feet deep at the most. 
An orchestra is nearly always 
provided for even though the 
theater is intended for the giv- 
ing of plays in which music 
has no part, the so-called 
" incidental music " being one 
of the artistic inflictions on 
our drama. 

The space for the orchestra 
is generally planned with the 
assumption that there would 
not be more than two rows 
of musicians measured out 
from the line of the apron, 
and consequently a depth at 
the center of six feet and a 
half to the edge of the orches- 
tra space is a minimum. The 
chairs of the orchestra or par- 
quet are best arranged in arcs 
of circles, centering on a point 
forty or fifty feet to the rear 
of the curtain line, and in 
actual practice it is a good 
scheme to keep the center of 
all seatings inside of the build- 
ing so that the line can be 
struck from a center without 
offsets. The width of the 
rows is fixed by law ^in' New 
York City at two feet eight 
inches. This gives comfort- 
able spacing and is really 
enough for every kind of thea- 
ter. In a very few instances 
this space has been increased 
to three feet, and of course, in 
theaters where there is ex- 
pected to be a good deal of 

going out between the acts, and especially in the cheaper 
theaters where refreshments are served during the play 
to spectators, the width should be not less than three 
feet from back to back of seats. 

Theater seats, or opera chairs, as they are specifically 
termed, are made in varying widths from eighteen to 
twenty-seven inches. In good practice, however, no 
seats should be put in of less than twenty inches, and the 
bulk of the seats should be twenty-ones or twenty-twos. 




DESIGN FOR A THEATER. 
By Willis K. Polk, Architect 



In laying out the seats the various widths are used to fill 
out the rows to bring the aisles even. The number of 
seats in a single row is governed partly by custom and 
partly by law. The Boston law does not allow any group- 
ing which necessitates a spectator to pass by more than 
six chairs in getting out from his place. This means that 
the greatest spacing between aisles may not exceed thir- 
teen seats. This is not law in all cities, but represents a 
very good practice which should be considered. Some 

cities prohibit any row of seats 
with a dead end, that is to 
say, there must be aisles at 
each end of each row. This 
also is excellent practice even 
where it is not law. 

The floor of the parquet is 
dished or sloped toward the 
stage, as will be explained 
later in connection with the 
sight lines. Where the pitch 
is slight, not exceeding one 
and a half inches to the foot, 
the floor can be made contin- 
uous; otherwise it is built up 
in platforms, the aisles, how- 
ever, being preferably sloped, 
even for grades as sharp as 
one in five, as steps should 
always be avoided in aisles and 
passages where possible. 

The arrangement of the 
aisles in a theater can have a 
good deal to do with the suc- 
cess of a house. They should 
be so disposed that, as far as 
possible, the actors on the 
stage would never be looking 
the length of an aisle, but 
would always have before 
them a sea of faces. For this 
reason it is never well to have 
a center aisle, but rather a 
central row of seats, and, for 
the same reason, it is better 
that the aisles should be 
curved rather than straight in 
plan. Occasionally, in a very 
wide house, it is desirable to 
carry certain aisles down only 
part way to the stage, as, if 
they are all extended, there 
would be hardly anything left 
of the first few rows. It is not 
a desirable arrangement, how- 
ever, to plan any aisle with a dead end, on account of the 
confusion which is pretty sure to arise in connection with 
the ushering. 

The planning of proscenium boxes is a difficult task. 
Seldom are they of any practical value at all. Though 
they are nominally the highest-priced seats in the theater, 
the boxes are more often given away by the management 
than sold, as they are really the poorest seats in the house. 
If the boxes are brought out in line so that the occupants 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



5 



thereof get a really good view of the stage, there is neces- 
sarily a sacrifice of seating space on the floor of the 
orchestra. For theaters where light dramas or comedies 
are played, where most of the stage action is toward the 
front and near the center, boxes have a very legitimate 
use and can be swung back quite far on either side in 
plan. But for a combination house, where the action 
takes place all over the stage, it is impossible to hope 
that the boxes will be much more than architectural orna- 
ments, and as such they are 
best treated. The most com- 
mon arrangement is to con- 
sider the boxes as part of the 
stage setting, carrying the 
finish around the curtain open- 
ing out to the front of the 
line of boxes as a proscenium 
and treating it as a huge frame 
for the setting of the stage. 
By this treatment the orna- 
mentation is concentrated 
about the stage opening, and 
the balance of the house can 
be treated in a very simple 
manner. This scheme is ex- 
emplified by the Colonial 
Theater in Boston, which can 
serve as representing the type. 
On the other hand, the Ma- 
jestic Theater in Boston shows 
a very successful attempt to 
treat the auditorium as a 
whole and the proscenium as 
a part of the auditorium rather 
than as a mere framing for the 
stage. The line of the boxes 
and the curtain opening are 
carried clear out to the back 
of the gallery, and the audi- 
torium is treated like a huge 
megaphone architecturally de- 
signed and embellished. In 
the Auditorium Theater of 
Chicago a somewhat similar 
treatment was carried out very 
successfully for a theater 
which is one of the largest in 
the country. It would seem 
as if the scheme of treating 
the auditorium as a unit and 
tying the auditorium and the 
curtain opening together were 
the proper one, but as a matter 

of fact in most of our theaters the boxes and the general 
proscenium treatment are considered as simply forming 
a frame for the stage setting. 

The boxes are usually arranged in three tiers, one 
above the other, and in not less than two rows, measuring 
out from the curtain. Each box is usually assumed to 
accommodate five chairs, and additional box space is often 
secured by the continuation of the lines of the balcony 
and gallery on the sides to the proscenium, as was very 
cleverly worked out in the Castle Square Theater, Bos- 




plan of orchestra floor, colonial theater, boston. 
C. H. Blackall, Architect. 



ton, the outside boxes nearer the gallery or balcony being 
usually termed loges. The introduction of such loges 
serves very often to break in the most pleasing manner 
the hard lines of the balcony and gallery fronts and offer 
very convenient architectural opportunities to the de- 
signer. 

Where the space permits it is quite usual to build the 
boxes rather shallow, with a small anteroom behind each, 
the boxes being reached from a corridor at the rear in 

which is a staircase connecting 
the different levels. Some 
managers, however, have 
found that small boxes seating 
not more than five each are 
not profitable. In the Al- 
hambra Theater at Harlem, 
New York, as originally built, 
there were double rows of 
boxes on each side, preceded 
by small anterooms and with 
solid partitions between them. 
Subsequently each tier was 
thrown into a single box, the 
partitions taken away, all of 
the anterooms dispensed with, 
and the whole space on each 
level thrown into what was 
termed an omnibus box, seat- 
ing some twenty or thirty 
people. It was found under 
those conditions quite easy to 
sell the seats at a price a trifle 
higher than the ordinary or- 
chestra chairs, whereas in the 
boxes as they were before it 
was not always easy even to 
give the seats away. In esti- 
mating the seating capacity of 
the house, however, it is well 
not to take much account of 
box possibilities. In the New 
Amsterdam Theater, New 
York, the boxes were reduced 
to the lowest possible mini- 
mum and treated in a delight- 
fully quiet architectural man- 
ner, the lower boxes being 
omitted entirely, thereby per- 
mitting a solid base to the 
proscenium, with a greatly 
enhanced architectural effect. 
In order to improve the 
sight lines of the boxes, the 
box nearest the stage in each tier is dropped slightly. 
This difference of floor level between the two rows is 
very hard to treat successfully. In some theaters it is 
masked by making the railing on the same level through- 
out towards the center of the house, the stepping up 
being behind the rail, as in the Colonial Theater. In the 
New Amsterdam the difference in level is frankly accused 
in the design, the two boxes being quite distinct in their 
treatment, while the box in the Colonial has the appear- 
ance of a single compartment, but is really divided into 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



two portions by a low railing which can be removed when 
it is desired to throw the whole space into one box. Of 
course the wider treatment is an easier one and gives a 
little more liberty in the renting of seats. 

The arrangement of the boxes in the Majestic Theater, 
Boston, is a modification of the box scheme. The seats 
are spaced facing the stage, the floors of the successive 
rows are stepped up, and as this theater is quite a narrow 
one, the boxes command a fairly good view of the stage. 
A still different treatment was adopted in the Bowdoin 
Square Theater, Boston, in which there are two boxes in 
the lower level and what is termed a loge above, arranged 
in successive steps like a balcony, the steps all facing 
toward the center of the stage and each accommodating 
three or more seats. It is very difficult to treat a prosce- 
nium of this sort in a successful architectural manner, 
and it is only one of the many attempts which have been 
made to render boxes of some financial value. It cannot 
be said to be very successful otherwise. 

The " standee " is a feature of the American 
theater and has to be recognized as such. The so-called 
standing-up space is found in nearly all our theaters in 
one form or other, although the letter of the laws in 
many of our cities prohibits any persons from standing 
in any aisle or passageway about the theater. The 
usual custom is to allow a space not less than six feet 
wide behind the rearmost row of seats, separating the 
seats from the stand-up space by a solid rail four feet 
six inches high, covered with plush, upon which the 
" standees " can rest their elbows without deranging the 
hats of the audience. In the New Amsterdam Theater 
the foyer and the standing-up space are treated as one, 
but more commonly the foyer is separated entirely from 




PROSCENIUM BOXES AND LOGF, BOWDOIN SQUARE THEATER, 

BOSTON. 

C. H. Blackall, Architect. 




PLAN OF BALCONY FLOOR, COLONIAL THEATER, BOSTON. 



the auditorium, both by custom and by law, by a solid 
wall. 

Many theaters have been planned with what is called 
an orchestra circle, consisting of rows of seats towards 
the rear of the house, arranged on a different radius 
from the main seats of the orchestra, these rear seats 
being carried clear around the sides and often raised 
slightly above the level of the rest of the floor. This 
is exemplified in the Madison Square Garden Theater, 
New York. It is a device which is purely superfhious, 
introducing a confusing element into the plan, and is 
entirely uneconomical of space, as the rows of seats 
at different radii always come together awkwardly. 
The seats in the orchestra circle are usually sold for less 
than the seats nearer the stage, but in practice it is better 
to have all the seats on the floor struck from the same 
radius and the price can then be adjusted according to 
the attraction which is at the house, with less inconven- 
ience to the spectators and to the management. 

In stage parlance . the word "gallery" is used to 
designate the uppermost tier, the word " balcony " being 
applied to the first tier above the orchestra and to inter- 
mediate tiers, if there are more than three levels in the 
house. The usual custom is to have only an orchestra, a 
balcony and a gallery. In the European houses it is 
almost the rule to plan the balcony in a horseshoe shape 
so that the spectators at the sides of the house are 
always looking at each other and often looking away 
from the stage. Such a plan was adopted in the Boston 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





PROSCENIUM BOXES, NEW AMSTERDAM THEA'lkR, NEW YUkk. 
Herts & Tallant, Architects. 



PROSCENIUM BOXES, MAJESTIC THEATER, BOSTON. 
John M. Wood and John Galen Howard, Architects. 




PROSCENIUM, COLONIAL THEATER, BOSTON. 



THE BRICK BU ILDER. 




PROSCENIUM BOXES, CASTLE SQUARE THEATER, BOSTON. 

Theater and in many of our early constructions, but is 
seldom met with to-day. The extreme is shown in the 
Studebaker Theater in Chicago, where the seats of the 
balcony and gallery are parallel with a certain line. The 
more common arrangement, however, is to plan the 
balcony on a curve centering a little back of the curtain 
line, and the gallery on a curve centering about opposite 
the center line of the boxes. Of course these centers are 
modified very greatly by the sight lines and by other 
conditions. 



ON the sixty-six hundred elevators that pierce New 
York's six billion dollars' worth of realty the vertical 
passengertraffic is now greater than the horizontal railway 
traffic, declares an official in the Building Department 
who has "figured it out." That the elevator travel ex- 
ceeds that of the surface, elevated and subway lines com- 
bined is, at first view, amazing; but the statement is 
plausible when it is known that the number of passengers 
taken up and down in one day by the elevators of the Park 
Row Building alone is greater, by actual count, than the 
average number of passengers carried in a day on the 
entire street car system of Nashville, Tenn. In the new 
Metropolitan Building there will be a straight lift of one- 
ninth of a mile. 



AVERY pretty product has just been put on the 
market in France in the shape of tiles for wall-lin- 
ings, composed of bits of mother-of-pearl, embedded in a 
hard cement, very much like Keene's cement. The 
cement may be either white or colored. Apparently the 
tiles are made by mixing bits of shell, in the natural con- 
dition, with the cement, which is then cast into the shape 
of the tiles and polished on one side, after the ordinary 
manner of polishing marble. By this process the dull 
outer covering of the bits of shell is removed, and each 
piece appears in beautifully varied and iridescent colors. 
This " mother-of-pearl mosaic, " as the manufacturer calls 
it, is by no means expensive. With duty and freight 
added the cost here would be not far from that of ordi- 
nary Italian marble wall-lining, while for certain pur- 
poses it would be far more sparkling and beautiful. 



Brickwork Details. — II. 

BY HALSEY WAINWRIGHT PARKER. 

IT is a natural consequence of admiration for work 
done in the past that it should form the inspiration 
for modern work and that examples of treatment of 
brickwork in North Italy, Spain, Germany and Eng- 
land, during the periods when brick was used in prefer- 
ence to stone, should form antecedents for similar 
factors in recent buildings. 

Not only is this the case because of the intrinsic 
beauty of the details themselves, but also because in 




TELEPHONE BUILDING, ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
J. Foster Warner, Architect. 

most cases ornamentation on brick is based upon con- 
struction in brick, and there is naturally strong resem- 
blance between details of identical structure notwith- 
standing efforts to create individuality in design. There 
is, therefore, less justification in a criticism of modern 
work as being an imitation or a plagiarism in brickwork 
than in most structural detail. Take, for example, the 
Telephone Building, Rochester. It is an excellent 
facade of a small building, in which utilitarian condi- 
tions force variety of openings and make absolute 




THE MUSEUM, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

Cope & Stewardson, Frank Miles Day & Brother and Wilson Eyre, 

Associate Architects. 



1 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



symmetry impossible. Dissymmetrical balance has, 
however, been admirably obtained, and has added a 
charm to the whole which resembles the frank, direct 
recognition of various factors which is present in mediae- 
val work before the advent of the schools. 

In obtaining this balance different details are used 




THE MUSEUM, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

Cope & Stewardson, Frank Miles Day & Brother and Wilson 

Eyre, Associate Architects. 

around the openings and elsewhere, many of which are 
reminiscent of the brickwork of Bologna. The termina- 
tions at the ends of the cornice are (jhibelline Parapet 
motives, — the cornice is suggested by that of one of the 
palaces, — and in the first story the different arch treat- 
ments, each thoroughly characteristic of the character of 
the opening, have antecedents — especially the pointed 
arch with tympanum and segmental arch below, which is 
a motive frequently used in Siena. Yet these are not 
plagiarisms, they are the natural development of brick 
structure, and the choice of the arch detail as defining 



mmmmmrmmmmmmmm 

uswiism 



jj 



F P W F 



4<4 




the character of each 
opening is excellent. 
The main entrance is 
dignified more than the 
window openings of the 
same width by a double 
arch, and the opening 
for teams is made en- 
tirely different from the 
others in its arch treat- 
ment, which, while suf- 
ficiently important, has 
less delicate detail. The 
enrichment of detail 
toward the top of the 
facade is also well con- 
sidered, and the whole 

design, while detailed with reminiscent factors, has 
marked individuality. 

The Museum, Philadelphia, is interesting from the 
effect gained by simple means, — especially in the patterns 
in the tympana of the arch and in the wall base. The 




DETAIL, WALL OF MADISON SQUARE 

CHURCH, NEW YORK. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 




DETAIL, CASINO BUILDING, BROOKLYN. 
Boring & Tilton, Architects. 



ST. JUDE S CHURCH, BROOKLYN. 
Lord & Hewlett, Architects. 

principal entrance of the same buildings has most care- 
fully studied decorative bands of brick design, many of 
which are original. 

The contrast of designs based on horizontal and 
vertical lines and those with diagonal lines is well 
considered. 

St. Jude's Church is of a bolder type, the tympanum 
pattern and the cornice being especially interesting. 



IO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



y- 1 "' "••--■'- 




Bill 




Sever Hall, Cambridge, Mass. h. H. Richardson, Architect. 



Sever Hall has brick associated with molded brick and 
terra cotta, and the brickwork is distinctly better and in 
better scale than the ornamental terra cotta. The corner 
rolls and vertical diagonal courses are well contrasted, and 
this building, which was a noted one of its time, could 
with advantage have had the ornamental terra cotta 
eliminated, as is indicated by the bow window in the 
same building. 

The Casino, Brooklyn, has 
an excellent treatment sug- 
gesting paneling on a flush 
surface, which appears to be 
entirely original. Recessed 
panels in brickwork are very 
apt to be crude in effect, and 
a border carried around a 
surface which has a different 
bond or texture pattern from 
that of the main wall is to be 
welcomed in design. The pat- 
tern within the panel in this 
case is obtained by the inser- 
tion of brick of slightly lighter 
tone, but it is the border which 
is especially ingenious. The 
cornice also has good con- 
trasts in its detail. This brick- 
work resembles the Spanish 
examples more than it does 
those of North Italy, the forms 
being in rather more robust 

scale and the repeats farther apart than in the Italian 
work. 

The central gable of the same building has adopted a 
distinctly Spanish motive of brick detail, i. e., that of 
projecting a single header in regular isolated repeats in 
the wall. It is difficult to imagine a reason for such a 




SEVER HALL, CAMBRIDGE, MASS 



treatment. The units are too far apart to produce tex- 
ture and too small to create salient detail. 

The effect is that of small shadow spots which tend to 
make the surface spotty without affording any increased 
interest in the design. This example has also an intro- 
duction of pieces of stone, as keystones, voussoirs, etc., 
which go far to detract from the dignity of its general 

mass. Contrasts of this char- 
acter are found in Dutch work 
and on some of the Georgian 
work in England, and, while 
giving certain piquancy to the 
design, are certainly out of 
scale with the texture of the 
brick surfaces. As has been 

a|..j|^ stated, brickwork is a mosaic 

with the horizontal joints 
dominant. Its scale is set out 
alone by the patterns used, but 
chiefly by the size of the units, 
and it is a manifest mistake to 
insert in a mosaic of small 
units a unit of much larger 
scale and of different tone 
without a gradual approach to 
that unit from the brick sur- 
face by intermediate detail. 
The sudden transition from 
brick texture to isolated stone 
keystones or voussoirs is 
staccato in its effect, especially 
if the contrast of tone or color in the large units still 
further accentuates its difference in scale. 

The chief criticism of this type of design is that the 
facade becomes uneasy from lack of general tone. The 
Loft Building, Philadelphia, is, on the contrary, kept in 
tone throughout, even the pattern in the frieze, which is 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



1 1 





BATH HOUSE, NEW YORK. 
Stoughton & Stoughton, Architects. 

large in scale, being kept in harmony with the finer forms 
of this terra cotta by a very nearly even tone and color. 
This frieze pattern, which is 
an interlocked parapet pat- 
tern, is very effective. The 
Store Building, Philadelphia, 
shows the treatment of the 
soffits in brickwork in this 
case. The pattern is that of 
the Byzantine guilloche of al- 
ternate large and small circles 
with broad borders. The 
scale of this pattern built in 
brick units is necessarily 
large, and therefore needs to 
ba strongly held upon either 
edge, and this design could 
be improved by stronger treat 
ment at both sides of the soffit 
pattern. 

The slightly coved surface 
of the face of the arch seems 
an affectation in brickwork. 
It necessitates a majority of 
headers in the arch surface 
which neutralizes the value of 
the radial lines and weakens 
the effect of the arch. The 
upper part of the same build- 
ing has interesting segmental 
arches over the grouped win- 
dows in which ornamental 
headers are associated with 
common brick, and the defini- 
tion is given by broad joints. 




ARCH OVER MAIN ENTRANCE, STORE BUILDING, PHILADELPHIA. 
Price & McLanahan, Architects. 




UPPER PART OF STORE BUILDING, PHILADELPHIA 
Price & McLanahan, Architects. 



WETZEL BUILDING, NEW YORK. 
Hill & Stout, Architects. 

The artistic value of brick surfaces is in their tone 
and color, and the texture produces tone, first by the 

joints, second by the surface 
of the individual bricks. Of 
these different factors, that 
of the individual brick sur- 
faces is often misappre- 
hended. There is frequently 
an impression that a brick 
with a fine, even surface and 
accurately struck edge will 
produce a finer wall than one 
of more uneven character. As 
a matter of fact this is not the 
case. In judging marble or 
glass mosaic, for instance, 
those which are built up of 
exact squares, and in which 
the joints have no irregular- 
ities, never have the life and 
character of the mosaics in 
which the pieces vary. The 
same is true of brick mosaic, 
and, as in this latter case, 
there can never be the variety 
of form that there is in marble 
or glass mosaic. It is well to 
take advantage of all possible 
irregularities which are not 
deliberate affectations. 

The brick, therefore, which 
have the more granular and 
rougher surfaces and edges, 
which, while moderately true 
are not absolutely accurate, 



12 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




ABELL BUILDING, BALTIMORE. 
Delano & Aldrich, Architects. 



give better texture for exterior work than 
the finer varieties. The finer brick can be 
used in the patterns to define the designs. 
The rougher brick are also more in harmony 
with the broader joint which expresses the 
character of the material and gives life to the 
surface. 

It is not many years ago that praise was 
given to brickwork in which it was difficult 
to insert a knife blade between the brick, but 
the appreciation by architects of the beauty 
of texture of foreign brickwork has changed 
the popular conception of good brickwork to 
some extent. The softening and neutralization of masses 
of red brick by broad white joints is now well under- 
stood. A brick surface in which the joints are a very 
appreciable area, and the introduction of delicate white 
outlines in a design, forming a network of white lines, 
which, at a distance, lightens the tone and color, reduc- 
ing a hot red to a softer and more delicate tint, near at 
hand, creates a lace-like pattern on the surface. 

The detail of the Madison Square Church, New York, 
indicates the advantage of the broad joint and the 
rougher brick in producing texture. The method of 
increasing texture effect by the introduction of a darker 
header in the Flemish bond is well shown in the Bath 
House, New York. This treatment can be easily over- 
done. The contrast of tone between headers and 
trimmers need not be great, as there is already consider- 
able contrast produced by the constant recurrence of the 
alternate sizes. 

In the Wetzel Building, New York, which is a definite 
reminiscence of Venetian work in marble translated 
into brick, headers only are used, the patterns being 
obtained by contrast of tone or of color, or both, in the 
brick. This treatment, like the preceding, 1 can be 



easily exaggerated. If contrast of color is shown, but 
slight contrast of tone is necessary. Usually dark joints 
are too set and rigid in their definitions if the brick is 
light in tone; it is well to keep a dark joint in similar 
tone to the brick but in different color from it. 

The detail of the Abell Building shows the use of the 
long or so-called Roman brick, which is always effective 
in arches, and produces a more finished appearance in 
wall surfaces than does the common brick. 

Sever Hall, again, has the American bond with a 
heading course every eighth course, but the stretchers 
are somewhat longer than the ordinary brick. The 
belt course is unusually effective. 

The value of brickwork is largely dependent upon 
the width of joint and color of the mortar used. Broadly 

stated, a brick 
of sm oo t h, 
even surface 
ought never 
to be laid in 
rough mortar 
and with wide 
joints; while 
one of rough 
texture is 
largely de- 
pendent upon 
wide joints 
and character 
of mortar for 
its best ef- 
fects. An un- 
intelligent use 
of color in 
mortar too fre- 
quently ruins 
a good piece 
of brickwork. 



CENTRAL GABLE, CASINO BUILDING, BROOKLYN 





UPPER PART OF LOFT BUILDING, PHILADELPHIA. 
Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 



13 














^K 


■^^"^^■Ksft-JIH 


£_ . ^ 




C5 i^rJI 




HKliv:" .--^yiiiySaB™*** 3 ^ ' ^^^_^^^^— 









DETAIL OF PERGOLA IN GARDEN. 



DETAIL OF BRICK WALLS AND SEATS IN GARDEN. 



DETA ILS 
HOUSE AT LOCUST VALLEY, LONG ISLAND, N. Y 

Grosvenor Atterbury, Architect. 





DETAIL OF BILLIARD ROOM GABLE AND NORTH 
ENTRANCE TO HALL. 



FIREPLACE IN LIVING-ROOM. 



M 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 




INTERIOR VIEW FROM MAIN TOWER HALL TOWARD LIVING ROOM. 




DINING-ROOM. 

HOUSE AT LOCUST VALLEY, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 

Grosvenor Atterbury, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



i-5 






Some English Brickbuilders. 

THE WORK OF H. R. AND B. A. POULTER, 
ARCHITECTS. 

BV R. RANDAL PHILLIPS. 

IT is often urged against an established architect that 
he works too much in one vein, with the consequence 
that there are no surprises for us, no new features to look 
for; we may appraise beforehand what we shall find, 
and, being able to do so, are 
to that extent deprived of in- 
terest in the work. In pur- 
suing this line of thought, 
however, we should always 
bear in mind the fact that an 
architect is very much the tool 
of circumstance, governed by 
practical necessities and by 
the claims of his client. 
Moreover, the present is 
essentially an age of competi- 
tion ; the architect has to fight 
his way to the front, and in 
that endeavor he discovers 
what, in his own particular 
sphere, is the most successful 
means. "Success" may 

have, of course, a variety of meaning. One calls to 
mind, for instance, the names of architects who certainly 
are "successful," but in the majority of cases that 
indicates work which has most influence on the general 
public; it is the line of least resistance; the architect 
has found that a certain thing "goes " and, accordingly, 
he repeats himself. If he were in a world where no 
such claims of subsistence 
existed as they do here, if he 
always had a free hand to 
produce what he wished, 
things might be otherwise ; 
but now, first and foremost, 
he has to earn a living, and 
we need to remember that 
when forming an estimate 
of his work. Besides, one 
particular treatment may be 
the perfect solution of the 
problem in hand, and, of 
necessity, every repetition of 
the problem calls forth the 
same treatment. An excel- 
lent example of this is af- 
forded by the work of some 
hospital architects. Care- 
fully studying the require- 
ments, they have found that 
a certain plan best fulfills 

the conditions, that a certain form of decoration or finish 
is most appreciated by the patients; and so, as every 
new hospital is demanded — the same requirements, the 
same restrictions, though in another district — they 
repeat themselves; and, viewed from that standpoint, 
nothing can be said against them. There is, however, a 
limit to such repetition, and in the work of some well- 




LODGE TO " HILL CREST, CAMBERLEY 




" WOODCOTE, CAMBERLEY 



known men that limit has been exceeded to such a 
degree that their buildings cease to be of interest. 
Especially is this the case with architects who have 
acquired so large a practice that the incentive to strive 
after new achievement is no longer present. They have 
found the way to financial success and no by-path 
attracts them. The quest is one of comfort, not of fresh 
conquests; with the result that they are likely to degen- 
erate into the type of " respectable " architect, who, as 

one writer puts it, goes im- 
pressively to church on Sun- 
day morning with his wife and 
his family and his silver- 
knobbed umbrella, returning, 
none the less impressively, to 
a terrific smell of cooking at 
one o'clock. 

For newer treatment we 
must look to the younger men, 
architects to be, or men 
already establishing them- 
selves and gaining attention 
by the vigor of their work. 
They have all the faults of 
youth; they are dominated by 
an enthusiasm which carries 
them to extremes, but, after 
all is said, their work has life in it — the life which the 
older men had before affluence and ease smothered their 
energies. It is to these younger men that the future of 
architecture belongs, and where no such youthful vitality 
and freshness exists we may be certain that the suc- 
ceeding generation will be barren of good architecture. 
In England to-day there is a growing body of young 

architects of ability. We see 
their work in the schools, 
and the comparison of it with 
the buildings daily erected 
in our midst gives hope for 
the future. These younger 
men are directed by the spirit 
of the time — efficiency. 
They apply themselves 
eagerly to the problem set 
down ; they study the best of 
the old work at home and 
abroad — not in the dilet- 
tante manner of a hundred 
years ago, when no gentle- 
men's education was com- 
plete without a dainty 
knowledge of Palladio, but 
with a zealous seeking after 
the essence of things. To 
them, also, the question of 
plan calls for whole-hearted 
study. We live no longer in a day when houses are built 
from the outside inwards, when the elevation is the first 
thing to be settled and the plan made to fit behind it as 
best it may, but rather when plan is becoming a veritable 
despot — making the outside of our buildings deficient in 
proportion and rambling in outline. That defect, how- 
ever, we must suffer for all the good associated with it. 



i6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE' BRICKBUILDER. 



i7 




FRONT DOOR, "LLANTWIT," FARNBOROUGH. 



"LLANTWIT," FARNBOROUGH. THE BRICKWORK HAS BEEN WHITENED. 



i8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




FIREPLACE, 



HOUSE AT WALLOWFIELD. 

Our younger men have the faults of their merits, and we 
must at least be thankful that such a body of men is 
leavening the art of architecture. 

As members of that younger band of architects, 
Messrs. H. R. and B. A. Poulter of Camberley, Surrey, 
call for mention. Their work is here shown from photo- 
graphs and drawings, which best explain and illustrate 
the aims of their authors. Almost entirely they are en- 
gaged in domestic work, car- 
ried out in good brickwork, 
red tiles and half timber in 
parts. The brickwork is 
frankly acknowledged, made 
to assert itself, varied in 
surface treatment, with vitri- 
fied headers here and there, 
and of diversified color as 
the kiln gives, in which con- 
nection it may be noted how 
modern commercial practice 
seeks after dead uniformity. 
Without going to the ex- 
tremes that lead some archi- 
tects to import into their 
houses woodwork, "rough 
from the saw," that conjures 

up some barbarian working with a pre-historic adze, tiles 
that look as though some refuse of the kiln had been 
sprinkled over them, and brickwork so coarse as to be 
wholly offensive, — without going to those extremes, we 
may well protest against that uniformity in bricks, tiles 
and woodwork which manufacturers consider perfection. 
There is a real charm about good brickwork with varia- 
tions of surface and color created in the kiln, about tile- 
work, which, instead of being overspread with one dead 
flawless glaze, has a play of tint and sheen. There is a 
growing recognition of this, and, as relative to the pres- 
ent subject, it is the aim of the younger body of archi- 
tects to foster that recognition. For want of color the 
accompanying illustrations cannot give the true effect of 
Messrs. Poulter's houses, and this reference must suffice. 
It will be seen that some of the houses are finished white, 
not white roughcast, but brickwork lime-whitened. 

In designing their buildings the first step is to collect 
the fads and fancies of the client, to visit the site and as- 
certain its possibilities, and then to gather the architec- 
tural suggestions from these. Messrs. Poulter are quite 
opposed to the ordinary idea of drawing a plan regardless 
of the position which the house is to occupy. They con- 
sider the house to be only part of an entire scheme, — like 
a tree in a landscape, and it is their endeavor, by posi- 




tion, form and color, to follow the natural surroundings. 
From the first they regard their building, not as a plane, 
but as a solid mass, to be viewed in perspective, and 
preferably modeled in plaster. The client, of course, 
not infrequently upsets the final result by insisting on 
some personal likes or dislikes, against the architects' 
advice. Messrs. Poulter have not been altogether free 
from this evil. They have met the type of person who 
comes with a fixed idea of a house, — three reception 
rooms, a hall, a skirting around the floor, a cornice around 
the wall: to be just like "so and so's," though the person 
in question is invariably unlike "so and so," in habit 
and taste; and he chooses land on which " so and so's " 
house could not possibly be built. Nevertheless, they 
have produced creditable work, even under those condi- 
tions. For a precise estimate of their work, the 
accompanying illustrations must be lef.t to speak 
for themselves, but the following notes in refer- 
ence to some of the houses may be given: 

"Llantwit," Farnborough. — This house is on 

the side of a hill, backed by 
dark trees. The brickwork 
is whitened. Local condi- 
tions (in the fall of the 
ground) made it desirable to 
have some of the reception 
rooms a floor below the main 
entrance. The fireplaces are 
a special feature of the in- 
terior. 

Col. Kirwan's House, 
Camberley. — This house is 
among light trees, so red 
bricks have been adopted, 
and as the house is well with- 
in the village, a free treat- 
ment of eighteenth-century 
English work was followed. 
The brickwork is broken up with tile bands and panels. 
" Woodcote," Camberley. —Except for a few building 
requirements, the architects had their own way to a large 
extent in the design of this house. They adopted a 
simple roof of steep pitch, hung with old tiles, the walls 
being roughcast and whitened because of the trees, so 
that only small portions of the brickwork are left showing. 



LLANTWIT. 




COLLINGWOOD PLACE, CAMBERLEY. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



19 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



THE THEATER BUILDING COMPETITION. 
AWARD OF PRIZES. 

THE Jury for the Theater Building Competition 
awarded First Prize (#500) to Russell Eason Hart, 
New York City; Second Prize ($200) to Charles Romer 
and Fredrick J. Feirer, associated, New York City; 
Third Prize ($100) to Walter Valerede Mari, Sacramento, 
Cal., and Mention to the following: Edward F. Maher 
and Hubert G. Ripley, associated, Boston; Joseph Mc- 
Guinniss and Maurice P. 
Meade, associated, Boston ; 
George Awsumb, Chicago; 
Israel Pierre Lord, Boston; 
Wilfred Arnold Paine, Co- 
lumbus, Ohio; J. T. Wrinkle 
and A. A. Blodgett, asso- 
ciated, Boston. 

The Competition was 
judged in New York City, 
January 25, by Messrs. John 
M. Carrere, Clarence H. 
Blackall, William Adams De- 
lano, Francke Huntington Bos- 
worth, Jr. 




DETAIL BY NEW YORK ARCHITECTURAL 
TERRA COTTA CO. 



COMPETITION TO 

SECURE A GROUP PLAN 

AND AN ARCHITECT 

FOR THE WESTERN 

UNIVERSITY OF 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

THE Western University 
of Pennsylvania, whose 

buildings are now scattered in 

the former city of Allegheny 

and Pittsburg, has acquired in 

the latter city a new site of 

about forty-three acres near 

Schenley Park and will at once 

begin thereon the construction 

of a group of buildings, in- 
tended ultimately to house all 

departments of instruction. 

This projecthas been placed in the hands of its Executive 

Committee by 
the Board of 
Trustees of the 
University. 

To secure a 
suitable plan 
scheme for this 
project, the 
University will 
hold a competi- 
tion among ar- 

DETAIL BY F. C. BONSACK, ARCHITECT. _ & 

Winkle Terra Cotta Co., Makers. chitects, under 




THE MENTOR BUILDING, CHICAGO. 

Howard Van D. Shaw, Architect. 

Glaze granite-color terra cotta above first story, made by 

Northwestern Terra Cotta Co. 




the terms of a 
programme pre- 
pared by Pro- 
fessor Warren 
P. Laird of the 
University of 
Pennsylvania. 
The prize of 
this competi- 
tion will be the 
commission to 
design and 
supervise the 
first building to 
be constructed, that for the department of the School of 

Mines, for which a fund of 
$175,000 is now available. 
And it is quite likely that 
the University will place in 
the architect's hands also cer- 
tain other buildings whose 
construction is hoped for 
at a comparatively early 
period. 

Furthermore, since it is 
important that the general 
plan scheme be carried into 
execution by its author, he 
would be the natural and 
logical selection, under the 
policy inaugurated, to super- 
vise the erection of future 
buildings. 

The competition will be 
open to all architects of whose 
professional standing and 
ability to execute large work 
the committee receives satis- 
factory evidence. Three ar- 
chitects from without Pitts- 
burg have been especially in 
vited and will be paid $1,000 
each for their services in sub- 
mitting designs, while to those 
other three who rank highest 
in merit will be awarded each 
a like fee. 

Any such payment due the 
architect awarded the com- 
petition will apply on account 
of his fee as architect of the building. 

The programme will be ready about February 15, and 
drawings will be called for about April 15. It is intended 
to simplify the work in every possible way, for it is ab- 
solutely essential that the actual construction of the first 
building be begun by June 1. To facilitate this, the 
general plan will be regarded as a preliminary study 
only, for whose subsequent restudy due provision will 
be made in the programme. The general plan must, 
however, determine the permanent location of the group 
comprising the building first to be constructed and com- 
petitive designs will comprise the preliminary study of 
this building. 



20 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Architects desiring to enter the competition are re- 
quested to write for the necessary application forms to 
Dr. S. B. Linhart, Secretary of the University, 802 
Home Trust Building, Pittsburg, Pa. 



w 




THE PARKER BUILDING FIRE. 

THE engineers and fire experts who have examined 
the Parker Building in New York, the scene of the 
latest fatal and big fire, have completed their report to 
the Fire and Building Departments and other organiza- 
tions. It appears that the building was of the numerous 
class called by courtesy "fireproof" or "non-combus- 
tible," but which offer little protection to their contents 
and are damageable all the way from 5 per cent to 90 per 
cent of their cost value, a 
class absolutely distinct from 
the really fireproof buildings 
of the first class. 

Its outer walls were of 
stone, brick and terra-cotta, 
its skeleton of cast-iron col- 
umns and steel beams and the 
floor filling of hollow tile. The 
steel beams were unprotected 
by tile in their most vulner- 
able parts, — the lower flanges. 
So were the girders unpro- 
tected ; the elevator shafts and 
stairways opened into every 
story; iron shutters of an in- 
ferior order protected only a 
few of the windows ; the water 
supply permitted the firemen 
to reach to only the fifth floor. 
The building was put up for 
light office purposes, but was 
occupied as a manufacturing 
plant and loaded with ma- 
chinery and filled with the 
most combustible of mate- 
rials; most of the partitions 
were built upon the wooden 
sleepers in the concrete filling 
of the floors. The fire vir- 
tually had to burn itself out unchecked. Yet it was 
not a total collapse, and much of its materials being in- 
combustible, it was essentially a fire of the contents, and 
it was kept within the building in which it originated. 

With the water 
pressure as it 
was, had that 
fire been in 
some of the old- 
fashioned, all- 
exposed steel 
and wooden- 
joisted build- 
ings, it would 
probably have 
been the begin- 
ning of another 

DETAIL BV HERMAN MILLEk, ARCHITECT. COlOSSal COnfla- 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Co., Makers. gration. 



DETAIL BY L. A. GOLDSTONE, ARCHITECT. 
New Jersey Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 




THE LORRAINE APA 

Ferguson & C 

Terra Cotta made by 




I T H - 

OUT 
wishing to 
question the 
wisdom of 
courts, it may 
be observed 
that the present 

state of the law in California has a certain interest for ar- 
chitects. It appears that, according to the Appellate 
Court of the State, the late Mayor Schmitz and his ad- 
viser, Mr. Ruef, while they were not, perhaps, acting 
in a praiseworthy manner when they went about of 
evenings to restaurants and collected large sums of 
money from the proprietors by threatening to revoke 

their licenses, were doing 
nothing legally wrong, for 
the reason that the Mayor was 
empowered by law to revoke 
liquor licenses, and he was 
not legally culpable in promis- 
ing to do, in certain ex- 
igencies, what he was legally 
entitled to do, according to 
his discretion. That the fail- 
ure to pay him a thousand 
dollars or so in cash would 
constitute an exigency in 
which he would use his dis- 
cretion to revoke the license 
of the person or firm con- 
cerned was, in the opinion of 
the Court, a matter of no 
legal moment to the public, 
at least, although it was of a 
certain importance to those 
who paid the money. Now, 
the way in which this decision 
affects architects is that, in 
California, architects are re- 
quired to obtain licenses to 
practise their profession, and 
are subject to heavy penalties 
if they engage in practice 
without them. These licenses 
are issued to architects by an Examining Board, which 
has the power to revoke them on grounds which it deems 
sufficient. Under the law as it stands at present in Cali- 
fornia, it appears to be quite unnecessary for the licensing 
board to inquire into any one else's opinion as to what 
constitutes sufficient ground for the revocation of a 
license; and, if it determines that failure or refusal of a 
licensed architect to pay over a thousand or two dollars 
whenever the pockets of the members of the Board are 
empty, or to provide for them a steady income by a 
percentage of his commissions, is suitable ground for 
revocation, no one can question or contradict their de- 
cision. It will easily be seen how valuable a "plum " 
such discretionary authority as this may be made in the 
hands of those who understand how to use it effectively; 
and architects in California, as well as in other states 
where similar principles prevail, may do well to provide 
in time for escaping the consequences of the application 
of them. 



RTMENT, NORFOLK, VA. 
alrow, Architects. 
Atlantic Terra Cotta Co. 




CLINTON HALL, CLINTON STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 

(FOR THE HOUSING OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS ON THE EAST SIDE.) 

Howells & Stokes, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

APRIL, 

1904. 




THE MERCHANTS CLUB, BALTIMORE, MD. 
Sperry, York & Sawyer, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILOER, 

NOVEMBER, 

1906. 



*mnuu! iiH 4 >*Mi ttr ^mf^ 








THE LAMBS' CLUB, NEW YORK CITY. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

SEPTEMBER, 

1906. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



2 I 




SENATOR HEYBURN failed to 
have a vote taken on his bill for 
the purchase by the Government 
of all land south of Pennsylvania 
Avenue in Washington and between 
the Botanic Garden and Fifteenth 
Street. It was objected that the 
land was swampy and that as the 
locality was not destined to rise in 
value, an act to acquire it was not 
therefore immediately necessary. 
The estimated $10,000,000 required 
in order to obtain it was probably 
the real obstacle reckoned with, es- 
pecially at a time when even Con- 
gress must be chary of outlay. 

Nevertheless, friends of the move- 
ment to beautify Washington will 
find encouragement in the fact that 
the Scott bill has passed the Senate. 
This bill provides for the purchase 
of a site southeast of the Treasury 
Department and for the erection of 
buildings for the Departments of 
State, Justice and Commerce and 
Labor on this property. The bill 
carries an appropriation of $3,000,000, and it provides 
for a commission composed of the Secretary of State, 
the Attorney General, the Secretary of Commerce 
and Labor and the Superintendent of the Capitol, 
which Commission shall report to Congress prelim- 
inary plans and an estimate of cost of one or two 
buildings. 

Still another new Federal building about to be author- 
ized is for the Patent Office. Bills providing for it have 
already been introduced in both the Senate and the 
House. They contain the items of $600,000 for the site 
and $5,000,000 for the building. 



DETAIL BY KEES & 
COLBURN, ARCHITECTS. 

American Terra CottaCo., 

Makers. 





CLOCK IN RATHSKELLER, SEELBACK HOTEL, LOUISVILLE. 

Frank M. Andrews, Architect. 

John l>. Wareham, Sculptor, 

The clock is seven feet long and four feet high. 

The whole is treated in quiet, low-toned mat glaze gray, gray green. 

soft brown and yellow faience made by Rookwood Co. The 

numerals and hands of the clock fit over the circle. 

FROM all directions come reports of important con- 
cessions on the part of building workmen in the 
matter of wages. Union officials, naturally, are the last 
to hear of these reductions; but as a matter of fact, con- 
tractors everywhere seem to be nearly overwhelmed with 
applications from good men for work at wages a long 
way below the union scale. In most cases the workmen 
accept the situation very sensibly. If, as there is reason 
to believe, a general reduction of wages will encourage 
building, so that they can find employment six days in 
the week throughout the year at a fair wage per day, they 
will be a great deal better off than they have been for 
many seasons past, with a nominally higher wage per 
day, and employment for only ten or twelve days out of 
every month. The only danger is that the schemers, who 
have both money and political influence to gain at the 
expense of workingmen, will, as they have done so many 
times before, seize the opportunity of reviving business 
to make a "demonstration" in their own interest, with 
the usual result of diverting capital into other channels, 
and depriving of employment those whom they pre- 
tend to represent. 



MONTICELLO ARCADE, NORFOLK, VA. 

Neff & Thompson, Architects. 

Exterior of white mat glaze, with background of green glaze, terra 

cotta made by Atlantic Terra Cotta Co. 



IN 
GENERAL. 

Maginn is, 
Walsh & Sulli- 
van, architects, 
Boston, have 
dissolved their 
copartnership. 
Charles I ) . 
Maginnis and 
Timothy Walsh 
have associated 
under the firm 
name of Ma- 
ginnis & Walsh, 
while Matthew 
Sullivan will 
conduct prac- 
tice under his 




CARTOUCHE BY VERNON REDDI1 
ARCHITECT. 
North Eastern Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 
Carter. Black & Ayers, Agents. 



22 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



own name. The offices of both new concerns are in 
the Colonial Building, Boston. 

C. D. Parnham, architect, Atlanta, Ga., has been 
admitted to the firm of Edwards & Walter, the new firm 
taking the name of Edwards, Walter & Parnham. 
Offices, Candler Building, Atlanta, Ga. 

William T. Warren and William Leslie Welton, 
formerly with McKim, Mead & White, have formed a 
partnership for the practice of architecture, with offices 
in the Title Guarantee Building, Birmingham, Ala. Mr. 
Warren is a native of Alabama and a graduate of the 
School of Architecture of Columbia University. Mr. 
Welton is a Rotch Traveling Scholarship man. 




HOUSE AT CINCINNATI. 

James Gilmore, Architect. 

Roofed with American "S" Tile made by Cincinnati Roofing Tile 

and Terra Cotta Co. 

At the January meeting of The Gargoyles, held at 
the Hof-Brau Haus, New York City, on the evening of 
January 21st, designs were submitted in competition for 
a club pin. 

Official reports from fifty-five leading cities of the 
United States, received by The American Contractor, 
New York, and tabulated, show that building transactions 
in the cities tabulated reached the enormous total of 
§580,492,196. As compared with the figures of 1906 — 
$667,032,499 — this means a loss of $86,540,303, or 13 
per cent. This loss, while widely distributed through- 
out the country, is chiefly chargeable to a few large 
cities. Thus, in round numbers, the loss in New York is 

forty-three mil- 
lions ; twenty- 
two millions in 
San Francisco ; 
eight millions 
in St. Louis and 
five millions in 
Los Angeles, a 
total of seventy- 
eight millions 
for the four 
cities. Chicago 
makes a com- 
paratively good 
showing, with a 

DETAIL BY TOWNSEND, STINLE & loSSOf leSS 

haskell, architects. than six mil- 

South Amboy Terra Cotta Co., Makers. lions. 





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CORDOVA FLATS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
Wood, Donn & Denting, Architects. 
Roofed with Edwin Bennett's Tile. 

NEW BOOKS. 
The Building Mechanics' Ready Reference. Stone 
and Brick Masons' Edition. By H. G. Richey, Su- 
perintendent of Construction, United States Public 
Buildings. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Price, 

In preparing this volume of "The Building Me- 
chanics' Ready Reference," it was the idea or intention 
of the author to give to the stone and brick mason trades 
a book that can readily be termed a ready reference ; 
something that will be of everyday use and will assist 
and enlighten the mason in the various branches of his 
trade. Tables of various kinds have been used profusely 




HOUSE AT DENVER, COL. 

Sterner & Williamson, Architects. 
Roofed with interlocking shingle tile made by Ludowici-Celadon Co. 

for use as reference and for quick computation, and all 
problems have been illustrated with cuts so the idea pre- 
sented can be quickly grasped and understood by the 
ordinary mechanic. No long or roundabout methods for 
laying out or doing work have been given, but everything 
has been presented as concise and explicit as possible, 
and at the same time the explanations and cuts are plain. 

WANTED — By a leading house, a young man (with architec- 
tural training preferred), as salesman for face brick and terra cotta in 
Boston and vicinity. Address, giving age, qualifications, etc., " Brick 
and Terra Cotta," care of " THE BRICKBUILDER." 

WANTED — A young architect of Boston, with the best Eastern 
training, a winner of competitions, would like to associate with a 
well-established architect of the West and Middle Southwest. In- 
quiries may be addressed to "Boston," care of "THE BRICK- 
BUILDER." 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 1. PLATE I. 




TOWARD THE ROAD. 



HOUSE AT 
NORTH EASTON, MASS. 

PARKER, THOMAS & RICE, 
ARCHITECTS. 




F I R. J - T ■ Fl_ O O R_ • P-l^/^Sj 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 1. PLATE 2. 







LOOKING ALONG THE LOGGIA. 

HOUSE AT NORTH EASTON. MASS. 
Parker, Thomas & Rice, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 1. PLATE 3. 




TOWAHD THE GARDEN. 



HOUSE AT 
NORTH EASTON, MASS. 

PARKER, THOMAS & RICE, 
ARCHITECTS. 




^eccajd • Floor.' P 



LAN 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 1. PLATE 4 




HOUSE FOR ROBERT HEYL, ESQ., WYNNEWOOD, PA. 
Frank Miles Day & Brother, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. 17, NO. 1. 



PLATE 5. 




^ 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

VOL. 17, NO. 1. PLATE 5. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 




BASEMENT PLAN. 

PLANS, STEVENS MEMORIAL LIBRARY; 
NORTH ANDOVER, MASS. 



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BASEMENT PLAN. 

PLANS. CLUB HOUSE. 
ANDOVER, MASS. 



Guy Lowell, Architect. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 1. PLATE 6. 




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THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 1. PLATE 7. 




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VOL. 17, NO. 1. PLATE 8. 










DETAIL OF MAIN FACADE 

STEVENS MEMORIAL LIBRARY, NORTH ANDOVER, MASS. 
Guy Lowell, Architect. 



THE BRICKB U ILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 1. PLATE 9. 




DETAIL OF COURT BALCONY FROM GARDEN. 

HOUSE AT LOCUST VALLEY, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
Grosvenqr Atterbury, ARCHITECT. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 1. PLATE ,o. 




GENERAL VIEW OF HOUSE FROM SOUTHWEST. 




GENERAL VIEW OF COURT AND GARDEN FROM SOUTH END OF GARDEN. 

HOUSE AT LOCUST VALLEY, LONG ISLAND. N. Y. 
Grosvenor Atterbury, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 1. p LA TE 11. 




DETAIL OF LIVING-ROOM GABLE AND PORCH FROM SOUTHWEST. 




DETAIL OF NORTHEAST WING SHOWING MAIN ROAD. 

HOUSE AT LOCUST VALLEY, LONG ISLAND. N. Y. 
Grosvenor Atterbury. Architect. 



>33 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 1. PLATE 12. 







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VOL. 17, NO. 1. PLATE 13. 



House, at Locust V\lley L. 1 , 




— Second Tlodb. Plan - 

O^OSVENOfc ATTEJ5BVRY.FA1A 

ARCHITECT.. 



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PLANS, HOUSE AT LOCUST VALLEY LONG ISLAND. N. Y 
Grosvenor Atterbury, ARCHITECT. 



THE BRIC'KBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 1. PLATE 14. 




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VOL. 17, NO. 1. PLATE 15. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVII FEBRUARY 1908 Number 2 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 
85 Water Street ... Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1908, by ROGERS & MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ....... $5.00 per year 

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For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



PAGE 

Agencies — Clay Products . . . . . . . . II 

Architectural Faience ......... II 

" Terra Cotta II and III 

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PAGE 

Brick Enameled Ill and IV 

Brick Waterproofing . . . . . . . • D 

Fireproofing .......... IV 

Roofing Tile ..... • IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

WILLIAM ADAMS; FROST & GRANGER; CHARLES BARTON KEEN; McCLURE & SPAHR; 
PEABODY & STEARNS; ANDREW J. SAUER; JOSEPH EVANS SPERRY; G. WOOD TAYLOR. 

LETTERPRESS 

PA'.R 

TOWN HALL, LUBECK, GERMANY Frontispiec 

THE AMERICAN THEATER- III Clartnct /A BlackaU 

THE PUBLIC BATH Harold W e rner and August P. Windolph 

BRICKWORK DETAILS-III ■ *»** »«»•»**' *'*» 

THE THEATER COMPETITION WINNERS 

RAFAEL GUASTAVINO 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 




TOWN HALL, LUBECK, GERMANY 




)[Wti<titi<^^<^<<<<<<ti^<«<<<<<<<^v<<<<<<<'>>>>>>^>>v>w>w»w>wvvw>>>>>^>>:»>>>>v>yy>>y^ 



THE BRICKBVILDER 





VOL. 17 NO. 2 



DEVOTEDTO THE-]NTERE5rJOF-ARCHITECTVR£-IN MATERIALiOFCLAY- 



FEBRUARY 1908 



C ehs »»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»: & 



s 




The American Theater — III 

FOYERS AND ANTEROOMS. 

BY CLARENCE H. BLACKALL. 



'"T^HE weak points in the American theater, the 
X features which are generally bad in plan, illogical 
in arrangement and slovenly in treatment, and which 
are always markedly inferior to what is found in the 
best work abroad are the foyers and approaches. From 
the manager's standpoint, 
any floor space in the front 
of the house not actually 
earning money is a waste of 
good opportunity, and it is 
doubtful if any theater pro- 
moter would ever surrender 
for foyers and lobbies a 
single square foot more than 
the law's minimum demand. 
Consequently, the good- 
natured American public 
submits to being crowded 
through insufficient door- 
ways, and down narrow 
stairways, so that the theater 
can earn more money on a 
lesser first cost. We simply 
do not know what really 
ample exits mean. Two typ- 
ical theaters from Europe 
will illustrate by contrast 
what we have not. The 
Schiller Theater at Charlot- 
tenburg, Berlin, gives nearly 
twice as much space to 
foyers, approaches and stairs 
as is given to the entire 
auditorium. In the Raimnnd 
Theater, Vienna, the ap- 
proaches are greater than 
the hall. In this country it 
is seldom that the approaches 
equal in aggregate fifty per 

cent of the area of the hall. But even aside from the 
scanty proportions of the foyers and other rooms in front 
of the house, only rarely do we make the best use of the 
spaces the laws compel the owners to allow. Commercial- 
ism again steps in and dexterity rather than skill is dis- 
played in complying with the legal requirements. And 
the building laws are not at all uniform. Boston pre- 
scribes that each division of the house, that is to say, the 




SCHILLER THEATER, CHARLOTTENKURG. 



orchestra, balcony and gallery, shall be preceded by a 
lobby or foyer of sufficient size to accommodate, stand- 
ing, all the persons for whom seating capacity is 
arranged in each respective section. No other city has 
so exacting a requirement as this in regard to lobbies, 

and it hasmade theater build- 
ing in Boston unnecessarily 
expensive and wasteful of 
space, without a real gain in 
either safety or accommoda- 
tion. New York requires no 
lobby at all. In a number 
of the most recent theaters 
built in that city, the only 
lobby space is that in front of 
the ticket office and the 
standing-up space behind the 
orchestra seats. In the New 
Amsterdam Theater this 
space is separated from the 
house only by a species of 
glazed partition, with mov- 
able sash. In the Stuy vesant 
and the Majestic theaters, 
the separation is by a glazed 
screen stopping several feet 
short of the ceiling. If we 
are to assume there is no 
real need for a lobby in the 
European sense, then it be- 
comes simply a question of 
safety in case of panic or 
fire; and when the standing- 
room opens directly on the 
street, as in the Stuyvesant, 
the New York plan is really 
safer than the Boston plan, as 
shown by the Colonial. On 
the other hand, the New 
York theaters are rarely provided with any foyer for 
balcony or gallery, and the stairs are carried up in open 
corners in such manner that no real separation is possible 
between the different levels. 

The Brooklyn Academy of Music is a remarkable 
exception, in that the plan shows a monumental treat- 
ment of the approaches. The building includes a large 
concert hall as well as a theater, and the large foyer on 



-4 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



the ground floor serves for both halls, while the ball 
room, on level of first balcony, can also be used as a 
foyer. In this building a bank of elevators is an im- 
portant feature, and the 
stairs and exits have been 
worked out by the archi- 
tects in a most able manner. 
This theater was not built 
by any theatrical syndicate 
nor as a mere investment, and 
its approaches could there- 
fore be planned in a more 
generous manner and with 
more thought for the public 
than is usually considered 
practicable. 

A foyer on the ground floor 
is in a sense a spectacular ne- 
cessity. The average Ameri- 
can audience does not go 
out, to any extent, between 
the acts, but it has come 
to be considered the proper 
scheme to elaborate the 
decoration and the arrange- 
ment of the main foyer, and 
to give it a festive char- 
acter, quite aside from that 
demanded by practical re 
quirements. There is not the 
same necessity for space and 
display in connection with 
the foyers for balcony and gallery, and they could with 
perfect safety be dispensed with, provided the exits and 
entrances are properly arranged. The foyer, then, from 
an architectural standpoint, becomes purely a matter of 
design. A width of eighteen feet, carried across the 
entire frontage of the auditorium is a minimum for a 
first-class theater. It is usually customary to so arrange 
the stairs and the approaches that all portions of the 
house, including the gallery, can be reached through the 
main foyer, so that on special occasions, when high prices 
are charged for gallery seats, the entire audience can come 






RAIMUNI) THEATER, 


VIENNA. 


\. 


Main Entrance. 


a. 


1st Tier Stairs. 


B. 


Main Vestibule. 


b. 


jd Tier Stairs. 


C. 


Hall. 


c. 


Service Stairs. 


I). 


Lobby, 1st Tier. 


P- 


Box Office. 


E. 


Lobby, 2d Tier. 


w. 


Bar. 


F. 


Green Room. 


V- 


Cloak Room. 


G. 


Stores. 


z. 


Lavatory. 



in through the main entrance, instead of the gallery 
ticket-holders being obliged to come in through the less 
prominent gallery entrance. This is accomplished usually 

by the connection between 
the main foyer and the gal- 
lery entrance itself, and is 
also accomplished by ex- 
tending the stairs of balcony 
up to the gallery, with either 
barriers or doors so that un- 
der ordinary circumstances 
no one can pass from the 
gallery to the balcony. 

The matter of stairs is a 
very vital one to any theater. 
They should never be less 
than five feet in width, and 
when more than six feet in 
width, should have a fixed 
rail down through the center 
of each run. The stairs 
should be in runs of not more 
than twelve steps and the 
platforms should all be built 
with rounded corners, so 
that in case of panic, no one 
can be squeezed up into an 
angle. Requirements as to 
stair capacity vary greatly. 
Boston's new law passed last 
year calls for an aggregate 
width, for inside stairway, 
of twenty inches for each one hundred people the theater 
can seat, besides a minimum of ten inches per one hun- 
dred people for the width of outside stairways or fire 
escapes, and this represents a fair average of what is 
believed to be good practice. But all stairs should be 
so arranged that in an emergency, each division of the 
house can be emptied independently, as far as the street, 
without interfering with or crossing any exit from 
another division. 

Stairs at the best, however, are objectionable. Some 
theaters have been planned in which the level of the 





West. 44" Street, 

GROUND FLOOR PLAN. 



■f+A-.ja 



STUYVESANT THEATER, NEW YORK. 



West, 44" Stro<-r 
FIRST BALCONY PLAN. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 



main entrance from the street 
was midway between the 
level of the balcony and the 
level of the orchestra, so 
that the ascent to the bal- 
cony required only a slight 
rise. This has not usually 
found favor, as the holders 
of orchestra seats, which are 
highest in price, object to 
going down. Several very 
clever attempts have been 
made to do away with stairs 
entirely, substituting there- 
for inclined ways. In the 
Los Angeles Opera House 
the main floor is dropped 
slightly below the street, but 
not sufficient to seem like a 
descent. A broad and easy 
ramp, of grade nowhere more than one in twelve, leads 
directly from the main foyer to the balcony. The 
theater is built on the side of a hill and, consequently, 
from the upper level there is an opportunity to gain 
direct access to the upper row of the gallery, from the 
rear. So that as a matter of fact, no one need walk up 
any steps to reach any portion of the house. The same 
problem was worked out in a more architectural manner 
and by the same architect, in the Nixon Theater in 
Pittsburg. In this arrangement, a wide ramp leads up 




STUYVESANT THEAT 
George Keister, 



from just inside the ticket 
door to a point on a level 
with the central tier of the 
gallery. A broad cross aisle 
connects the two entrances, 
and steps lead up and down 
the sides of the balcony, to 
reach the upper and lower 
levels. The grade of the in- 
cline is about one in twelve, 
and in practice it has been 
found to work very satisfac- 
torily. In this theater stairs 
are also provided, but the 
audience uses the ramp quite 
as much as the stairs. 

The other requirements 
in plan for the front of the 
house include a ladies' room, 
which is usually made a 
very ornamental feature of the theater, and elaborately 
decorated as an advertisement. In close proximity to 
this there should be an ample coat room not less than 
ten by fifteen feet, for a first-class theater, and also a 
ladies' lavatory. Occasionally this ladies' room and 
lavatory can be put into the basement or on the balcony 
level, but where space permits 
it is invariably in close proxity 
to the main foyer. 

The entrance vestibule for 



ER, NEW YORK. 
Architect. 




26 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





FIRST FLOOR PLAN (TAK.IN BELOW STAGE LEVEL). 



FIRST BALCONY PLAN. 



ACADEMY OF MUSIC, BROOKLYN. 
Herts & Tallant, Architects. 



ordinary theaters should be not less than fifteen feet 
wide, with ticket office about midway of the length, so 
as to allow of the formation of a line of ticket purchasers 
without interfering with entrance and exit. The ticket 
office is better not too large. Seven feet in width by 



twelve in length allows of two selling-windows and plenty 
of space for ticket racks. The usual custom is to arrange 
the tickets for the day's performance on a swinging- 
board in which are slots corresponding to the seats of 
each division of the house, each ticket occupying a slot 



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•fVXOH -TMlATat.- 



NIXON THEATER, PITTSBURG. 
B W. Marshal], Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



27 



by itself so that the ticket seller can tell at a glance what 
seats are available. Advance sales for future perform- 
ances are made from racks in which all the tickets of a 
given row are in a separate compartment by them- 
selves. It is usual to arrange a ticket office so that 
seats can be sold two weeks in advance, at any time. 

There should also be an office for the manager which 
can be reached from the main vestibule and also from 
the main foyer. Adjoining this there should be a small 
counting room in which the tickets can be counted up 
each night and the records kept of the performance. 

The smoking room and lavatory for men are usually 
placed in the basement. Rarely is there sufficient space 
on the ground floor to accommodate these. In the base- 




MAJESTIC THEATER, NEW YORK. 
J. H. Duncan, Architect. 



ment is also placed a room for the ushers, and there 
should be a room for the door-keeper, and a closet con- 
taining a large sink fed with hot, cold and ice water, 
for the use of the water boys. 

In arranging the approaches to the theater it is well 
to provide at least three sets of doors between the out- 
side air and the auditorium There should be two 
between the sidewalk and the vestibule. There should 
be a door between the vestibule and the foyer, at which 
point the tickets are collected, and there should be 
doors between the foyer and the orchestra. All these 
doors should be double swing, except the two outer 
sets, both of which should open out only, and all the doors 
should be fitted with checks and door bolts, to hold open. 



THE art of building is the strongest, proudest, most 
enduring, of the arts of man; it is the art which. is 
associated with all civic pride and sacred principle; with 
which men record their power, satisfy their enthusiasm, 
make sure their defence, define and make dear their 
habitation. — Ruskin. 



The Public Bath. 

BY HAROLD WERNER AND AUGUST P. WIKDOLPH. 

A PROPER appreciation of the fundamental princi- 
ples underlying the development of the public bath 
cannot be arrived at without at least a review in outline 
of its history, and its value and service to the people 
throughout the ages. The following discussion will 
include the development of the types of public baths with 
the various forms of bathing, some suggestions on 
planning, structural peculiarities, the extent of the facili- 
ties afforded, and will indicate in a measure the value, 
from a sanitary standpoint, to the community. 

The earliest records mention the River Baths of the 
(Ganges and Nile as a popular form of recreation and a 
means for cleanliness. While public bathing was 
fostered and encouraged by the people of the Peloponne- 
sus, the Romans in their gigantic institutions consider- 
ably perfected them, not only from a constructive but 
from a mechanical point as well. A pure and ample 
supply of water was always available through the 
agency of the enormous aqueducts carrying water across 
the Campagna, in some instances a distance of over fifty 
miles to the source of supply. 

In the third century, B. C. , we find a complete bathing 
establishment near the Circus Maximus in Rome, with 
approved form of water supply and wastes, with hot 
water tanks in sets to heat the water to varying degrees 
of temperature, with a consequent saving of heating 
units, similar in general principle to those in use to-day, 
— also provision for ventilation with air ducts to carry 
off the foul air, and a universal use of marbles, mosaics 
and other materials to make the interior as sanitary as 
possible. Only in mechanical devices do we show to-day 
any improvement. 

The sanitation was further improved by the liberal 
supply of water in the pool baths. In some cases the 
pools were more than two hundred feet long and con- 
tained several hundred thousand gallons of water. The 
largest interior pool bath (Municipal) in this country is 
not over one hundred and twenty-five feet in length and 
contains less than one hundred thousand gallons of 
water. 

The bath was considered not only as a form of 
exercise but as a means of cure. In the city of Rome 
there were over eight hundred bathing establishments, 
the capacity of a single bath house frequently exceed- 
ing three thousand persons at one time. We find princi- 
ples of sanitation carefully followed, medicines and 
drugs were discarded, and the bath served as a guarantee 
of the public health. 

The larger establishments, constructed under the 
reigns of Titus, Caracalla and Diocletian, no longer 
served purely as a means for bathing but as a form of 
recreation and pleasure. The use of anointing, massage, 
lounging and other rooms marked the decline, and it 
appears that the true purpose of the public bath had 
been forgotten. The bath had become simply an insti- 
tution to pander to the luxurious tastes of a decadent 
people, and for several centuries there was a period of 
inaction until the fifth century when the people of the 
peninsula, realizing that the bath in order to accomplish 
its purpose must serve merely as a place for bathing 



28 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



developed a simpler type of building, discarding many 
of the unnecessary features of the Diocletian type. The 
buildings in operation during the Middle Ages were 
mostly of a private nature devoted to medicinal pur- 
poses. It was not until the latter part of the eighteenth 



another development of this form of bathing and proved 
very popular, although later on came in for considerable 
criticism, owing to the room required, the great amount 
of water used, the difficulty of keeping the compartment 
and the tub clean, and the growing doubt of its efficiency 





F1RST FLOOR PLAN 



Men's First-Class Pool. 

Kntrance to Men's First-Class Pool Bath. 9. 

Entrance and office for Entertainments. 10. 

Men's Second Class Pool Bath. (O) 
Men's Entrance and Office, Second-Class Pool. (E) 

Laundry. (T) 

Office and Entrance to Laundry. (C) 



KENNINGTON ROAD BATHS, LONDON. 



SKCONI) FI.OOK PLAN. 



Ironing aud Mangling Room. (R) 

Women's Pool Bath. 11. 

Women's Tub Baths. 12. 

Offices. 13. 
Emergency Exits. 

Toilets. 14. 
Courts. 



Waiting Room. 

Spectators' Balcony. 

Board Room. 

Women's Second-Class Tubs and Waiting 

Room. 
Men's Second-Class Tubs and Waiting 

Rooms. 



century that a revival occurred in public bath building, 
— the stern demands of modern civilization caused its 
value to be again recognized. It matters not whether 
this was due to altruism, or a sudden awakening to 
the lamentable conditions of the masses, or, owing, on 
the other hand, to a selfish motive, that the lack of 
proper bathing facilities would eventually decrease 
the economic value of the poor classes ; suffice to 
know that the movement received firm support 
through both private and public means and appar- 
ently, at the present time, it is firmly established 
abroad as well as throughout this country. 

To Liverpool must be 
given the credit of having 
established the first modern 
public bath. The Corpora- 
tion established in that city, 
in 1794, a public swimming 
pool which from the start 
proved successful. This 
modest beginning was fol- 
lowed by another and larger 
type of river bath (the St. 
George Bath), since re- 
modeled and in use to-day 
and now known as the Pier- 
head Baths. While not of a 
strictly modern type these 
baths are still proving of 
great benefit to the com- 
munity. 

The tub bath in England, 
known as the slipper bath, is 




FIRST 
HAGGBRSTOH 



Public Laundry. 8. 

Ironing Room. !). 

Waiting Room to Laundry. 10. 

Entrance Corridor to Laundry. 11. 

Pool. 12. 

Office. 18, 
Men's Waiting Room. 



as a proper form of bath for an ample and complete 

cleansing of the body. 

The shower or spray baths were the next step, modeled 

after a simple form of workman's bath, established some 

years before in Shropshire, England, which in turn were 

patented after the German 
type. These primitive 
shower chambers were very 
large, being eight feet long, 
four feet wide, with a circular 
cast-iron pan set above the 
floor. Over the center of the 
pan a rose nozzle was placed 
which supplied hot and cold 
water, with a simple chain 
control to regulate the sup- 
ply. Occasionally the shower 
was placed in the same com- 
partment with the tub bath. 
While this primitive form of 
shower and spray has been 
greatly improved, the shower, 
the most practical of all 
forms of bathing, has not 
proved very popular in Eng- 
land except as an auxiliary 
to the tub bath, or pool. 
English ultra conservatism 
rigidly adhered to the warm 
and cold slipper tub bath, 
the vapor and hot air baths. 
The public wash house 
and laundry were incorpo- 



7 

r -czr 

FLOOR PLAN. 

BATHS, LONDON. 



Women's Waiting Room. 
Women's Tub Baths. 
Club Room. 
Area and Courts. 
Special Exit from Pool. 
Men's First Class Tub Baths 
and Office. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



29 



rated in the British bath house about 1850. Owing to 
the legislative enactment and consequent government 
support, with a revival of public interest, the building 
of these bathing establishments has steadily increased up 
to the present time. The last two decades have, how- 
ever, seen the greatest activity, and the majority of the 
English institutions of merit date from this period. 

The pool bath in its various forms has proved the 
most popular form of bathing in England, and while the 



continent, we find, as in the transportation service, two, 
and occasionally three, classes of patrons. First and sec- 
ond pool bath, first and second shower or vapor baths, 
first and second and even third class tub baths had to be 
provided for. The question of proper entrances and 
exits was of considerable importance. In one case the 
classes were grouped with an entrance in common or all 
near the same point, and in another with separate en- 
trances and offices. A modification of the latter scheme 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



First-Class Pool Bath. 

Entrance to First-Class Pool. 

Entrance for Entertainments. 

Coats. 

Women's Retiring Room. 

Men's Retiring Room. 

Office for First-Class Pool. 

Second-Class Pool. 

Superintendent's < Ufice, Second-Class Pool. 



TIBBERTON SQUARE BATHS, LONDON. 

10. Women's Pool. 

11. Office and Entrance, Women's Pool. 

12. Entrance to Laundry. 

13. Public Wash Room. 

14. Ironing and Mangling Room. 

15. Retiring Room. 
(L) Lodge. 

16. Spectators' Balcony to Pool. 

17. Women's Waiting Room. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



18. Men's Waiting Room. First-Class Tub 

Bath. 

19. Men's Waiting Room. Second-Class Tub 

Bath. 

20. Men's First-Class Tub Room. 

21. Men's Second Class Tub Room. 

22. Women's First-Class Tub Room. 

23. Woman's Second-Class Tub Room. 

24. Tub Room. Office. 





FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



First-Class Pool. 

Entrance to First-Class Pool. 

Second-Class Pool. 

Entrance to Second-Class Pool and Waiting Room. 

Club Room. 

Women's Entrance and Waiting Room. 

Women's First-Class Tub Room. 

Women's Second and Third-Class Tub Room. 

Entrance to Second-Class Men's Pool. 



OLD KENT ROAD BATHS, LONDON. 

10. Entrance to Public Laundry. 

11. Wash House. 

12. Ironing and Mangling Room. 

13. Office. 
(T) Toilets. 
(C) Courts. 
(E) Exits. 

14. Spectators' Balcony. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 

1">. Board Room. 

16. Waiting Rooms First-Class Tub Baths. 

17. Men's First-Class Tub Baths. 

18. Men's Second and Third-Class Waiting 

Room Tub Baths. 

19. Men's Second-Class Tub Baths. 

20. Men's Third-Class Tub Baths. 

21. Courts. 



authorities are somewhat divided as to its merits, almost 
every modern bath house is equipped with one or two 
pool baths. In order to better understand the diffi- 
culties of planning the buildings at this time, we must 
consider the various conditions as required by the 
Public Bath Act, and make due allowances for the 
general experimental and unsettled condition of the 
bath problem, particularly in regard to the proper form 
of bathing considered essential. 

Owing to the strong feeling of class distinction on the 



is now generally accepted in England as the correct one, 
i. e. , separating the entrances but with one controlling 
office for both waiting-rooms. The entrance to the laun- 
dry is generally separated and occasionally used also for 
the second-class baths. One of the typical baths of the 
earlier nineties is the London Hornsey Road Baths. The 
architect, A. H. Tiltman, has grouped around the quad- 
rangle the various departments of the establishment di- 
verging the different classes of bathers. 

The first-class plunge room is of the commonly ac- 



3° 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



cepted English type with dressing compartments off the 
runway to the pool. It is interesting to note that emer- 
gency exits have been provided to conform to the re- 
quirements of the building laws on Assembly Halls, for 
in the winter, when the attendance falls off, the plunge 
room is converted into a lecture hall and place for enter- 
tainment, and the balcony provides additional room for 
spectators. The modern plunge baths of the first class 



all classes form over fifty per cent of the total bathing 
capacity, and the large space required for this consider- 
ably decreases the efficiency of the establishment. A 
considerable item was the enormous amount of water re- 
quired for these baths, in one year exceeding an outlay 
of $6,000. It was eventually found necessary to use Ar- 
tesian wells and pumping, which has cut down this item 
of expense nearly fifty per cent. This question of wells 




&&&- 



E>TBANO; t«TOAfCt 



makob jtrixt 



GROUND rLOOR PLAN 




DASEMCNT FLaM 




j^J_I_L 



nnsr n.ooR pi_an 




SECOND rLOOR PLAN 



V j£J"'""y"H »,j 



<c^i± or nxi 
PLANS, CHELSEA PUBLIC BATHS, LONDON. 



Tumo n.oon plan 



are, as a rule, thus utilized throughout England. 

The second-class baths in the Hornsey Road Baths 
are most inconveniently placed at the extreme end of the 
building with the only access by means of long and irreg- 
ular corridors. The dressing compartments for the sec- 
ond-class pools are in a separate room, an arrangement 
which appears to be superior to the ordinarily accepted 
English arrangement. The tub baths or slipper baths of 



and pumping has not as yet received the attention it de- 
serves by the municipalities in this country. 

Of the same period of construction and similar in gen- 
eral type are the Kennington Road Baths, also on an 
irregular plot of ground. This establishment having a 
frontage on two streets allows better access and easier 
distribution for both classes of bathers than does the 
Hornsey Road Baths. The different departments are 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



^^ 




THE MAIN FACADE. 




THE SWIMMINO POOL. 
CHELSEA PUBLIC BATHS, LONDON. 



32 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



conveniently placed with the exception of the woman's 
second-class baths. The public laundry and wash house 
of these baths having an interior position with court and 
skylight openings, are also inconveniently placed. The 
plunge room is similar in its general arrangement to the 
Hornsey Road Baths and the dressing compartments off 
the runway to the second-class pool are open boxes similar 
to the general continental custom for second-class baths. 

The Tibberton Square Baths seem to offer the most 
practical and simple solution of the English bathing prob- 
lem at this period of development. The departments are 
easily accessible, the long corridors have been partly 
eliminated, the plunge rooms are conveniently placed and 
the laundry particularly so for light and air. Cross ven- 
tilation might have been obtained by extending the rear 
court, though sacrificing a small part of the laundry space 
for this purpose. The tub rooms are very properly placed 
on the second story, as this form of bath may be considered 
a luxurious feature of the establishment. The isolation 
protects this class of bathers from the disturbing noises of 
the plunge room, which are always objectionable when, 
these compartments are adjacent to the plunge room. 

In the latest period of bath development in England 
we find most of the facilities of the early nineties, with 
the addition of gymnasiums, club rooms, small libraries 
or reading rooms, and occasionally rooms for municipal 
purposes. The desire to provide facilities for the dif- 
ferent classes naturally produced a most elaborate and 
complicated structure. 

Tiltman suggested a remedy for this over-centraliza- 
tion, and his views are also of value for cities of the first 
class in this country. He said that the general public 
cannot be expected to go more than half a mile for their 
baths and laundry, and as the majority to be benefited 
are of the very poor classes, they are often repelled by 
these ornate and elaborate structures. He suggested a 
central establishment for any particular section of the 
city with a group of small unpretentious buildings as 
auxiliaries, placed at convenient and proper distances, 
depending upon the character and density of the popula- 
tion. The central establishment should serve as an 
administration building for the group, and should be 
prominently and conveniently located on the main thor- 
oughfare, and provided with baths of various forms, a 
public laundry and a bath laundry for all purposes. The 
small bath buildings were to be economically equipped 
with a small number of shower baths, or alternately pro- 
vided with tubs and showers. 

Tiltman's suggestions were not adopted by the muni- 
cipality, but the discussion resulted in a more simple and 
rational type of building, of which the Haggerston, Old 
Kent Roads and Chelsea Baths, recently completed, are 
good examples. 

The Hagerston Baths in the environs of London are 
particularly interesting as showing the introduction of 
separate shower compartments, though they still retain 
the use of the tub bath. A reaction had set in in regard 
to the extravagantly large English pool baths, as, for ex- 
ample, the Battersea Pool, which was 50 feet by 150 feet 
in water area and contained some 250,000 gallons of 
water, a volume which furthered the sanitation of the 
bath, though the expense of replenishing and heating the 
water was a considerable item. The difficulty of properly 



heating such a large volume of water was the reason that 
this and other English pools were not generally used for 
bathing purposes during the winter months, and so the 
true purpose of the institution was impaired. The water 
area of the Haggerston Pool is 35 feet by 100 feet, now 
accepted as the standard dimensions by the English 
authorities. The plan shows separate entrances provided 
for the sexes, with a superintendent's room in common. 
Separate waiting rooms are also provided for the tub 
bathers, with a small clubroom adjoining the first-class 
plunge. The dressing compartments and one or two 
shower compartments off the runway, and spectators' bal- 
cony illustrate the adherence to the early English type of 
plunge rooms. The access to the various departments of 
this bath is most direct. The laundry is properly placed 
on the first floor off the main street with an admirable 
arrangement of the washing, drying and mangling rooms. 
For simplicity this bath is exceptional among English 
examples. 

The Old Kent Road Baths show the advantage of a 
corner site with ample frontage, particularly for the effi- 
ciency of the numerous departments of the English es- 
tablishment. The first-class pool room, considering its 
winter purposes of entertainment, has been planned with 
its long side on Marlborough Road with an outside cor- 
ridor provided with the necessary emergency exits. The 
entrances to the first-class pool and to the first, second 
and third class tubs for both sexes are from the Kent 
Road. The entrances to the laundry and second-class 
pool are from Marlborough Road. In this bath the 
women's tubs are arranged on the first floor and the 
men's three classes of tubs on the second floor. For con- 
venience and ease of supervision, the first-floor plan is to 
be commended, but the second-floor arrangement shows 
a very inaccessible position of the men's second and third 
class tub rooms, resulting from the intention to control 
from the Kent Road in preference to the Marlborough 
Road entrance. Clubrooms are again in evidence and 
suggest recreation purposes rather than the strictly util- 
itarian. The shower bath is again conspicuously absent. 
The plunge room is used, as is customary in the winter, 
for lecture purposes. In addition it is provided with a 
movable stage and fireproof curtains and complete light- 
ing equipment for dramatic entertainment. 

The Chelsea Baths, completed in July, 1907, are sim- 
ple and economical in plan, still retaining provision for 
tub and pool bathing and public laundry purposes. Foot 
and needle baths as an auxiliary to the pool bath — a 
recent innovation from Germany — have been introduced 
into this institution. Hot air baths, the vapor or Turkish 
baths — another luxurious feature — have also been in- 
corporated. The facade is simple in character, expresses 
its purpose well and is one of the few successful English 
examples. 

In order to better understand what an important part 
the bath house has played in the social economy of Eng 
land, a comparison of expenditures for hospitals and 
baths in the early nineties is of value: — 

from 1890 1894, INCLUSIVE. 

Loans raised. Loans outstanding. 

Baths, wash houses, $2,994,941.00 $6,297,324.00 
Hospitals, 1,940,541.00 4,558,864.00 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



33 



While this proportion of appropriation for public 
baths to hospitals in England has not been attained on 
the continent or in America, the growing appreciation of 
the bath system as a prevention of disease is becoming 
more and more evident, and it is believed that public 
moneys can be put to no better use than that of bath 
sanitation. The curative value of the bath in its various- 
forms has long been recognized, but in its disciplinarian 
and strengthening qualities to the human race lies its 
value in the future. 

In our day it has been left to Japan to indicate to the 
so-called civilized nations, with their advanced medical 
propaganda, a method of applying sound principles of 
sanitation. In the late war no battle commenced with- 
out the preliminary bath. The results obtained, on con- 
sideration of aseptic principles, have been remarkable 
and inestimable. It may be that in the near future, 
owing to the efforts of Lasser in Germany, Vashar in 
England, Rohe and Baruch in America, who have blazed 
the way for a universal adoption of a perfect system of 
bath sanitation, — that buildings of this class erected for 
the prevention of disease may render unnecessary the 



construction of buildings for curative purposes the 
hospitals. 

We find that the principal development in English 
baths during the past century is in the ample swimming 
facilities provided, in the sanitation and perfection of 
their plunge rooms, and in the improvements of their 
public laundries and the various machines and appli- 
ances for these purposes. On the other hand we find an 
adherence to the antiquated inside corridor with the 
dressing rooms off runways to pool, meager shower- 
bath facilities, and, as a rule, complex interiors and over 
elaborated exteriors. This is owing, no doubt, not so much 
to defect in plan as to a result of providing too many facili- 
ties. An expensive exterior, in addition to luxurious in- 
terior appliances, represented a large outlay to the com- 
munity with no corresponding return, and it would appear 
that the development of the bath house in England was 
again in danger of overreaching itself, — the stern lesson 
of Roman decay seems to have been forgotten. Numerous 
protests for reform have encouraged the building of baths 
on more simple lines, but the complicated and elaborate 
English bath shows little dimunition in number. 



Brickwork Details III. 



BY HALSEY WAINWRIGHT PARKER. 



BRICK BALUSTRADES. — Balustrades built of 
brick are often of interesting design whether of suc- 
cessive piers, or piers with ornamental panels between, 
or thin walls with perforations. In the latter case they 
should either be placed at the top of a wall so as to be 
out of reach or set in cement supplemented by clamps, 
etc. The diaper patterns of brick walls make excellent 
balustrades if the centers of the chequers, etc., are 
omitted; and successive arches forming scale patterns 
also lend themselves to balustrade treatment. These 
scale patterns may be varied in many ways — for in- 
stance, the alternate rows can be different 
size if a straight course be placed between 
them, or patterns may be alternated be- 
tween the small arcades, or alternate large 
and small arches may be used. There is 
an example of scale pattern, arch above 
arch, in the interior of the mosque at Cor- 



scale, and the 
e ff ect of successive 
arch lines in per- 
spective is very 
rich and interest- 
ing. Skeleton 
walls of this char- 
acter can be made 
very effective. The 
reveals of brick 
balustrades, while 






EXAMPLE OF PERSIAN BRICKWORK. 



EXAMPLE OF PERSIAN BRICKWORK. 

dova — over the 
col.onnad,e of 
the numerous 
aisles. The 
wall over these 
colonnades is 
actually a brick 
lattice of large 



DETAIL OF FRENCH DOVE COTE. 

necessarily cf eight inches in thickness 
to secure stability, should not be greater 
than the widths of the openings be- 
tween the solids if any effect of light- 
ness is desired. The introduction of 
glazed brick in the balustrade is espe- 
cially effective, when the color is con- 
fined to the outside surfaces only, the reveals being left 
without glazes. The perforations at the tops of the 
pigeon houses in French manors are often excellent in 
detail. 

Brick Parapets. -The machicolations of fortified 
walls and towers are often of brick, consisting merely of 
openings cut down through the parapet wall to allow 
the defenders opportunity to repel attack while protected 



. 



34 



THE BRICKB U I L DER 




WINDOWS IN THE DUOMo, CREMA. 



by the masses of high wall between the openings. In 
Italy there were two marked terminations for these sec- 
tions of protecting the walls, each of which indicated the 
party to which the fortification belonged. The Guelphs, 
or followers of the popes, built square- 
topped crenellations, while those of 
the Ghibellines, or followers of the 
Emperor, were cleft or swallow-tailed 
in shape. Oriental parapets were 
usually stepped. 

The alternation of light and shade 
in these parapets make an interesting 
silhouette against the roofs and the 
sky and enrich an otherwise severe 
line, in much the same manner as a 
classic cheneau. There can be great 
variety in the detail, as elaborate 
traceries of brick patterns can be 
used. As these parapets have lost 
their original purpose and are now 
ornamental features only, there is no 
need for heavy masses of brickwork 
in their design, and while the alternate 





PROM THE PALAZZO BUONSIGNORI, 
SIENA. 



FROM THE PALAZZO GONKALONI ERI, 
CREMONA. 

masses are retained to 
obtain scale, within the 
profile perforations are 
possible. Focussed de- 
tail of glazed brick upon 
the axes of the units 
produce a rich crown 
motive to the cornice 
or to wall. 

Brick Tracery in 
Window Openings. — 
Brick tracery must 
necessarily be crude 
and is seldom satisfac- 



tory, as the multiplicity of joints indicates small co- 
hesion in slender forms, and large course forms are 
usually out of scale with the building. Tracery of 
molded brick is somewhat better than of ordinary brick, 
but is seldom successful. 

The skeletons of the tracery are of 
the simplest description, and the diffi- 
culty of securing the bricks together 
makes this work somewhat of an affec- 
tation, wood, stone and metal all being 
better fitted for the purpose. 

The windows of the Mohammedan 
towers of the Giralda in Seville, and 
of the Alminar in Cordova, as well as 
those of numerous Moorish buildings 
in Spain and in Northern Africa, are 
treated with extremely interesting, 
but in most cases unconstructional, 
brickwork. Molded and unmolded 
brick tiles and terra cotta are all as- 
sociated in these windows, and there 
is great latitude shown in the designs 
— which indicate the infinite possi- 
bilities of line and color in brickwork. 
Brick Copings. — Copings and 
sloping surfaces, such as the slopes of 
buttresses, 
etc., can be 
laid in two 



ways : first by using the brick 
in the same manners as tiles, 
making each successive course 
overlap the one below, 
the bricks being laid 
as inclined stretchers 
across the trend of the 
wall, or they can be laid 
as inclined headers, 
the heads sloping with 
the pitch of the coping, 
etc. Both should be 
set in cement, on ac- 
count of the exposed 




RUM THE CASTELLO, PAVIA. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



35 




DETAIL OF ENGLISH HOUSE. 



top joints, which 
are subject to 
weathering. 

Brick Crest- 
ings. — Brick 
crest ings upon 
ridges are un- 
usual, terra cotta, 
stone or metal 
being better 
adapted to the 
purpose, but occa- 
sionally a crude 
cresting appears, 
formed by pro- 
jecting alternate 
courses laid across 
each other, log- 
cabin fashion. 



land, France and 
Germany the 
chimneys are 
made very decora- 
tive in effect. As 
they are vertical 
motives, the treat- 
ment is usually 
either in long 
pilaster lines, or in 
long panels, and 
many of the best 
chimneys are built 
upon a plan in 
which the surfaces 
are diagonal to the 
face of the chim- 
ney. 



/ ■ 




1 . .flPWE 

m 




«"<l. * .rf<!SKBygt. '*m^&tf. — ^J 


ma 



AN ENGLISH HOUSE. 



Such crestings are very rare, and weather 
badly, and are practically worthless. 

Brick Columns. — Circular piers of bricks 
of large diameter are built merely to avoid 
corners, but columns of smaller diameter 
have a crude appearance, and are better 
made of other material. A small brick 
column seems in danger of disintegration 
because of the number of its joints. Verti- 
cal joints are not advisable in any columns, 
as they suggest weakness. Columns of 
special bricks with curved surfaces are but 
little better. Piers with polygonal plan, 
when built of brick, require considerable 
plan area before they appear sufficiently 
strong. 

There occur examples such as the buttresses 
of the Cathedral at Albi, in which the light 
and shade upon the columnar forms are ad- 
mirable in effect, but in this, as in other 
similar cases, the mass of brickwork is suffi- 
ciently large to make the joints unobtru- 
sive. 

Brick Chimneys. — The treatment of 
chimney tops above the roofs has been much 
neglected in American work, while in Eng- 




OLD ENGLISH EXAMPLE. 



There are especially fine examples of these chimneys 
to be found in English country-house archi- 
tecture, especially in the designs of Mr. 
Norman Shaw and Mr. Pearson. In the 
earlier work, the best of the chimney designs 
occur before the time of the Classic Revival, 
as the formality of the Classic forms was 
not in sympathy with the picturesqueness 
which is characteristic of brickwork. The 
detailed brick chimneys may therefore be 
sought in work done under the Tudors and 
the Stuarts. 

Stepped Gables — These are to be found 
in North Germany and in Holland, of the 
most picturesque forms, with silhouettes of 
combinations of straight steps and simple 
or compound curves, and frequently with 
perforations near their outer edges. The 
successive steps are often arcaded, and are 
also accented by the introduction of glazed 
or colored bricks, either as borders or as 
foci. 

Molded Brick — The moldings upon 
brick are usually simple single molds, such 
as plain chamfers, quarters and half rounds, 
cavettos and single cymas or ogees. Small 





detail, town hall, lubeck. 



EXAMPLE OK BRICK PANEL WORK, GERMANY. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




PICTURESQUE ENGLISH TYPE. 



fillets seldom occur, as 
they are likely to be 
broken indeliveringthe 
brick, and in the coarser 
clays used in brick 
making flaws would de- 
stroy sharp arrises. The 
fillets, therefore, are 
built of the unmolded 
brick, and are at least 
two inches broad, and 
this fact alone creates a 
large scale in the moldings of the molded brick as they 
are designed to be associated with ordinary brick. Also 
as edges easily broken are to be avoided, delicacy or 
sharpness of molding cannot be expected, and the 
curves are robust and are usually parts of circles. But 
from combinations of these simple forms, most inter- 
teresting details may be obtained. Molded 
brickwork develops naturally a similar set of 
combinations of moldings as those in stone- 
work — with the exception that soffits of great 
projection are impossible in brick. For this 
reason, the facial angles of groups of mold- 
ings in brick are usually greater than of 
similar groups in stone, and multiplicity of 
moldings compensates for lack of projection 
and consequent shadow. 

Cornices. — As it is impossible to obtain 
in brickwork heavily projecting cornice 
soffits, excepting when supported by 
corbels set near together, the brick 
cornices do not resemble classic cornices, 
excepting, perhaps, in having the same 
integral factors of bedmold, facia and 
corona. They are necessarily flatter 
than classic cornices, the facial angle of 
the cornice being greater than forty-five 
degrees. The bedmold becomes elaborate, 
being made up of corbel courses, often 
one above another, and the motives re- 
semble the cornices of military building 
more than they do those of the orders of 
architecture. The molded brick tend to greatly refine 
these cornices, and are used not only in the lines of the 

long moldings, but 
also in the stepped 
courses of the 
faces of the cor- 
bels. Many of the 
motives of stone 
Romanesque ar- 
chitecture, such as 
the broad paneled 
lintels, the corbel 
courses in which 
small arches are 
sprung from cor- 
bel to corbel, etc., 
can ble readily 
adapted in brick- 
entrance to studio building. work, and these 

Harold Van B. Magonigle, Architect. arcaded Corbel 



courses not only 
create vigorous 
shadows which 
could not other- 
wise be obtained 
in the material, 
but they can fol- 
low the rakes of 
pediments and 
gables, and, if on 
sufficiently small 
scale, may be 
carried around 
arches. Apart 
from the moldings 
of simple curves, 
the corner rolls on 
molded brick are 




DETAIL OF ENGLISH COTTAGE. 




AN ENGLISH 
CHIMN 



COTTAGE 

EY. 




DETAIL OF ENGLISH COTTAGE. 




of the most value in combinations. These 
are either simple roll moldings or roundels, 
or roll moldings with concave hollows on 
either side of the roll. They make admirable 
inside edges to arches, and if laid over each 
other in piers, produce delicate colonnettes. 
The quarter round hollows are best in balus- 
trades or in window traceries, or as foils to 
the convex moldings. The repetition of the 
same molding in successive bands, which 
is introduced in much modern brickwork, 
is apt to be monotonous and ineffective. In 
the brickwork of Northern Germany at Lune- 
borg and Lubeck, Wismar and Stralsund, 
square corners are carefully avoided around 
openings, a simple quarter round molded 
brick being used. The effect is to soften 
shadows, but it is rather coarse and large 
in scale. It does, however, produce a very 
typical brick architecture. 

Brick with dog tooth chamfers on their 
corners produce brilliant fringed edges in 
light and shade. The bricks with stamped 
patterns are actually a crude variety of 
ornamented terra cotta and are to be con- 
sidered as modeled ornament. They afford variety and 
contrast to the common brick, as do fragments of marble 
or glazed tile or metal 
set into the brickwork. 
Brick Vaulting. — 
The surface of brick 
vaulting may be con- 
sidered as the soffits of 
arches and capable of 
receiving similar pat- 
terns, excepting that it 
is not advisable to panel 
the surfaces, as heavi- 
ness of effect results. 
In groined vaulting the 
ribs of the vault must 
either be of ground 
brick or of brick espe- 
cially made for the pur- 
pose. Herringbone pat- mckim, mead & white, architects. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



37 




terns are especially 
effective in vaulting. 
Brick Paying.— 
Paving patterns can 
be very considerably 
freer in design than 
wall or soffit patterns, 
as the element of ap- 
parent structural 
strength is removed ; 
in fact, almost any mo- 
saic patterns can be 
made in brick pave- 
ments, and the scale of 
the pattern increases, 
as the brick can be laid 
on their sides without 
the necessity of 
headers to secure bond 
as in walls. Many of 
the patterns in the 
marble mosaic floors 
of St. Marks in Venice, 
the Christian basilicas 
in Rome and else- 




DETAIL OF DOME, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

CHAPEL. 

Howells & Stokes, Architects. 



DETAIL OF APSE, COLUMBIA 

UNIVERSITY CHAPEL. 

Howells & Stokes, Architects. 

where, offer suggestions for designs 
which could be effectively produced 
in brickwork. 

Tone in Brick. — As brickwork is 
a mosaic made up of definite regular 
units, the color or tone of each unit 
should be even throughout the sur- 
face of the unit, effects of change of 
tone being made by combinations, 
not by graded tone in the individual 
brick. 

The fire flashed brick, dark at one 
end and light at the other, tends to 




DETAIL OF SCHOOLHOUSE, ST. LOUIS. 
William B. Ittner, Architect. 



subtle when 
variations are 
slight. The 
cont r as t of 
black and 
white check- 
ered patterns 
is in most 
cases disagree- 
able, but the 
same patterns 
become agree- 
able in two 
tones which 
are but slight- 
ly different 
from each 
other. The in- 
troduction of 
bench brick in 
lines or spots 
should be very 

carefully studied, for dark courses need to be lighter than 
the shadows or the shadows are ineffective and valueless. 
Upon the other hand, the introduction of dark brick in 
the shadows, to intensify them, fre- 
quently gives brilliancy of defini- 
tion. Dark courses, therefore, are of 
value below projecting bands rather 
than above them, and dark brick are 
preferably placed between corbels 
rather than in the corbels. The 
alternation of dark and light brick 
in arches goes far to destroy the 
lines of the arch, though an oc- 
casional dark line dividing the arch 
into voussoirs gives scale to the sur- 
face. 

The primitive rule which Owen 
Jones states in his Grammar of Or- 
nament, i.e., that projecting surfaces 
should be of light tone and receding 




FIRE STATION AND AMUSEMENT HALL. 
Lord & Hewlett, Architects. 



disturb surface, 
texture and pattern, 
and has no intrinsic 
merit in itself. 

The usual pat- 
terns of brickwork 
are so simple that 
they can be de- 
ciphered when all 
the brick are of one 
tone and color, and 
a very slight differ- 
ence in tone or color 
makes them per- 
fectly definite. It 
follows that violent 
contrasts of color 
or tone are to be 
avoided, the effect 
being much more 



surfaces of dark 
tone, is especially 
applicable to 
brickwork. Open- 
ing and edges are 
best defined with 
light tones. 

Color. — The 
color of the brick 
is necessarily that 
of the clay, which 
ranges from light 
grays through the 
tones of dark gray 
to browns, and 
light straw colors 
to deep reds. The 
introduction of 
iron filings into 
the clay produces 




ENTRANCE TO FACTORY BUILDING. 
Pi i rid & Pond, Architects. 



33 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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ION OF PAVEMENTS 



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RED AND BLACK BRiC* 

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Red 'brick* tilt 
House. it» Florence 



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EXAMPLES OF ITALIAN PAVEMENT PATTERNS. 



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•PALAZZO FARNESE'ROME' 



THE BRICKBUILDKR 



39 




INTERIOR COURT TREATMENT. 
Wilkinson & Magonigle, Architects. 



mottled sur- 
faces. With so 
wide a gamut 
of color and 
tone great va- 
riety in effects 
produced by 
con t r asting 
brick of differ- 
ent clays is 
possible. Very 
little advan- 
tage has been 
taken of this opportunity. Such contrasts can easily be 
overdone, but in skillful hands should produce very agree- 
able results. In the buff brick there are many examples 
of hot yellows, strong orange tones, etc., which are dis- 
agreeable and aggressive in large masses, and in the 
mottled brick there is often 
aneffect of bituminous 
ooze which is to be avoided. 
As a matter of fact, the 
gray brick and red brick 
are best both in tone and 
color. 

Glazed Brick. — Glazed 
brick have either transparent 
or opaque glazes. If trans- 
parent, the glaze merely en- 
riches the color of the brick ; 
if opaque, the result is a 
faience which can be in any 
color. The glazes, if left 
brilliant, are disturbing in 
large surfaces because of the 
reflection of light, and in 
all such surfaces dull glazes 
should be used. The texture 
of the surface of glazed brick 
is of a totally different char- 
acter from that of unglazed 
brick, and this fact should 
be considered in associating 
the two together. The 
glazed product is a finer 
material and has the same 
comparative quality with 
the unglazed that silk has 

to wool. It should be used in small quantities as con- 
trast only: in fine lines, borders and centers of orna- 
ment. The interstices of the structure, such as span- 
drils, tympana and panels, offer opportunity for the 

introdu c t io n 
of glazed brick 
patterns. In 
North Germany 
green glazed 
brick are used 
effectively as 
trims around 
openings in red 
brick build - 

WIDE JOINT BOND. ingS. 



F 




DETAIL OF WAREHOUSE WALLS. 
Argyle E. Robinson, Architect. 




ATHLETIC CLUB, ROCHESTER, N. 
Bragdon & Hillman, Architects. 



ROM the re- 
cently dis- 
covered diary of 

Architect John 

McComb, Jr., it 

is apparent that 

when the New 

York City Hall 

was built the 

duties of the 

architect were as 

varied as they are 

to-day. In turn- 
ing the leaves of 

this old record a 

reader of the 

present generation sees a familiar aspect in the difficulties 

that beset the architect of a hundred years ago. "Cal- 
culations of expenses must 
accompany plans, " so ran the 
advertisement the building 
committee issued in order to 
obtain a design. And there 
was the usual vacillation on 
the part of the " City Fa- 
thers " concerning such rad- 
ical things as the length and 
depth of the building, and 
the kind of stone to be used. 
We see the architect 
spending half of his time at 
the building and half at the 
quarry; we see him urging 
the quarrymen to continue 
shipping the marble through 
the winter by sledges over 
the snow ; we see him engag- 
ing scaffolding poles ; and we 
imagine between the lines of 
his handwriting many other 
things he did which mixed 
feelings may have restrained 
him from recording. 

McComb's compensation 
for all he did was six dollars 
a day for every day he 




worked. Lemaire, the sculp- 
tor who carved the capitals, 
got four dollars a day. But there was other compensa- 
tion, even though they themselves were not to enjoy 
it. Little was it realized then that the building wrought 
was to be pronounced by architects a hundred years 
later the gem of 



the city. Thus 
it stands to-day, 
invulnerable, 
by virtue of 
its intrinsic 
beauty, against 
the attacks of 
innovators and 
scheming poli- 
ticians. 




l.oN<; STRETCH BR AND wihk [OINT. 



4° 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Theater Building Competition. 

THE SUCCESSFUL COMPETITORS. 

RUSSELL EASON HART, who was awarded the 
First Prize of $500, is at present connected with 
the office of C. B. J. Snyder, architect for the School 
Board, New York City, and at the same time he is taking 
a special course in architecture at Columbia University. 
His early training was received in the offices of Noland 



Charles Romer and Frederick J. Feirer, who were 
awarded the Second Prize of $200, are both stu- 
dents in the Atelier Hornbostel, New York City. 
Mr. Feirer received his early training in the offices 
of Palmer & Hornbostel, and Howard Greenley, New 
York City, while Mr. Romer received his in the 
offices of L. E. Jallade, Welch, Smith & Provot, Reed 
& Stem, R. S. Stephenson and A. N. Allen, all of New 
York City. 






RUSSELL EASON HART. 



FREDRICK J. FEIRER. 



CHARLES ROMER. 



& Baskerville, Richmond, Va. ; Cram, Goodhue & Fer- 
guson, H. Van Buren Magonigle, Carpenter & Blair, 
and in the Atelier of Frank E. Perkins, all of New York 
City. At present he is a student in the Hastings Ate- 
lier, under John V. Yan Pelt. 



Walter Yalere de Mari, who was awarded the Third 
Prize of $100, is at present located in San Francisco. 
His early training was received in the offices of War- 
ren & Wetmore, Palmer & Hornbostel and the Atelier 
Hornbostel, all of New York City. 



RAFAEL GUASTAVINO. 

RAFAEL GUASTAVINO, originator of the cohesive 
tile-construction which bears his name, died at his 
home in Asheville, N. C, February 2, 1908. He was 
born in Valencia, Spain, in 1842. Coming from a family 
of musicians, a portion of his early life 
was spent in the study of music. At seven- 
teen he entered the office of D. Jose' Nadal, 
an architect of Valencia, and from there he 
went to Barcelona, where he took the full 
University course, and afterwards entered 
the School of Architecture. 

Having embraced the profession of a 
builder as well as architect, as was then 
customary in Spain, he was largely engaged 
for many years in the erection of mills, 
factories, and other types of buildings, in 
which the necessity of fireproof construc- 
tion was evident, and while erecting these 
he had every opportunity to experiment 
with concrete and tile for floor and roof constructions. 
He was guided by the study of the architecture of the 
Byzantines and Persians, whose influence had been felt 
in Spain from the third to the fourteenth century. 




RAFAEL GUASTAVINO. 



At the time of the Centennial Exhibition at Philadel- 
phia, in 1876, a number of photographs of his work as 
an architect and inventor were exhibited in the Spanish 
government section; and having received a medal for 
these, he felt encouraged by that alone to visit this coun- 
try as soon as he could find it convenient to do so. This 
did not occur until 1881. 

His first work in this country was done 
in 1886 in a four-story private house on 
78th Street, New York, and later in the 
Arion Club, 59th Street, whose building 
committee accepted his proposition, when 
they ascertained that with his arches they 
could make a saving of over $5,000 in two 
floors alone, largely on account of the 
amount of iron that was omitted. 

With this experience and a series of 
experiments that he undertook in New 
York, he commenced the study of his art 
along scientific lines, and endeavored to 
adduce formulas based on constants, which 
for the first time in his experience he was able to 
obtain. 

Mr. Guastavino was appointed architect for the Span- 
ish Government Pavilion at the World's Fair, in 1893, at 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



4i 



Chicago, which was a replica of " La Lonja " at Barce- 
lona, Spain, which was built in 1492. 

At the invitation of the president of the American 
Institute of Architects, he read a paper before the In- 
ternational Congress of Architects, which was held at 
Chicago in 1893, on "Masonry Construction," which cre- 
ated a considerable amount of interest and discussion, 
and was considered one of the ablest papers presented. 
He was also appointed one of the international judges 
on a jury of awards for the Architectural exhibit in the 
Exposition. 

Perhaps no better estimate of the man could be given 
than that by William E. Blodgett, who for twenty years 
has been associated with Mr. Guastavino in his work. 
He says: 

"I distinctly remember my first meeting him some 
twenty years since, at the time he was starting on his 
first really large and interesting task in the line of con- 
struction which he originated and developed, the Boston 
Public Library. This building is still in some ways the 
best illustration of the possibilities of the timbrel vault 
construction, because of the diversity of its problems, 
the barrel arches, groined arches, and domes, all of them 
structural in their character, carrying the floor load, and 
also because of the fact that it was the first instance, in 
this country at least, of the use of that finished repressed 
and glazed tile development which latterly has become 
so largely a component part of the development of the 
system. 

"Contrary to the general impression as to the Span- 
ish character, I found him an extraordinarily alert and 
active man, both physically and mentally; in fact, I 
never met a quicker man in all my experience ; a very 
hard worker day and night himself, he demanded the 
same kind of service from those associated with him — 



always industrious and never idling. While these charac- 
teristics softened very slightly with the passing of the 
years, they obtained up to the time of his decease, and 
though recently he did not devote himself so exclusively 
to the business of the company with which his name is 
identified, he always maintained a supervisory oversight, 
and spent the remainder of his time, not in ease, but in 
other forms of activity, to which his very versatile mind 
easily lent itself. 

"Mr. Guastavino was an ardent lover of the truthful 
and the beautiful in the arts, and felt that his chosen 
profession of architecture was one of the noblest callings 
of man, and to it he gave all the wealth and energy of 
his resourceful nature." 

As the personality of Mr. Guastavino was so largely 
identified with the type of construction which he origi- 
nated, the inquiry naturally arises as to whether there 
are those left who can successfully carry on and develop 
the system with which his name has been so long asso- 
ciated. Some ten or a dozen years ago, the business was 
put into a corporate form, and his son, bearing the same 
name, has been vice-president and general superintend- 
ent of the company, having in charge the laying out 
and designing of the work and the superintending of the 
larger and more difficult problems, so practically the bur- 
den of this technical work has fallen on him during these 
years. He has stepped into his father's place as presi- 
dent of the company. Mr. Blodgett, who for the past 
twenty years has been the business man of the concern, 
and treasurer of the company, will still have charge of 
these affairs as before. With the company retaining the 
personnel which has been a part of the equipment for 
many years, so far as the execution of contracts and the 
interests of the profession are concerned, but little, if 
any, change will be noted. 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 






THE PARKER BUILDING FIRE. 

IN our last issue we made some brief comments on the 
burning of the Parker Building in New York. Even 
the most casual study of this structure 
is sufficient to convince one that it ought 
never to have been included among first- 
class buildings. The interior frame- 
work is composed entirely of round cast- 



cases the cast- 
ircn flanges sup- 
posed to hold 
the beams were 
broken entirely 
away. There 
was no girder 
covering used, 
the bottoms of 









DETAIL BY CLINTON & RUSSELL, ARCHITECTS. 
New Jersey Terra Cotta Co.. Makers. 



DETAIL BY F. S. BARNUM, ARCHl'lLCT. 
North Eastern Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



iron columns, the girders 

resting upon brackets 

and being bolted to cast 

flanges. Acon- 

DETAIL BY A. E. WESTOVER, ARCHITECT. si( J era b1 e sec . 
Conkling- Armstrong Terra Cotta Co., Makers. ^.^ ^ ^ ^^ 

in each story, including two lines of columns, was entirely 
destroyed and fell in a mass to the basement. In many 



the girders being Hush with the bottom 
of the terra-cotta arches and the plaster- 
ing was carried level across the tlanges 
of the girders without even metal lathing 
to hold it in plaoe. The girders being 
unprotected, many of them deflected by 
the heat. The pent house which occu- 
pied a large portion of the roof was constructed with light 
columns of steel angles only 2lx>lx| inches, unprotected. 
These failed at a very early stage in the fire, the whole 
house crashing to the main roof and thence breaking 
through, probably causing the initial failure of the interior 
lines of columns. Floor spans of six feet were constructed 
with semi-porous, side construction, hollow tile arches 
only eight inches deep. The fireproofing of the cast- 



42 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



iron columns consisted of a 
casing of two-inch porous terra 
cotta with apparently no tie 
except that afforded by the 
cement in the setting. 

It is a libel on fireproof 
construction to put this build- 
ing in the same category with 
hundreds of buildings all over 
the country which are built 
well and thoroughly, the steel 
work properly protected and 
the columns cased in such way 
that the covering will not peel 
off and drop on slight provo- 
cation. So far from this build- 
ing forming any example of 
the failure of terra cotta to 
properly do its work, it is 
really a most decisive proof 
that even when terra-cotta 
fireproofing is applied in an 
unworkmanlike manner, in 
insufficient quantity and of 
insufficient strength, it is yet 
able to afford a very large de- 
gree of protection. It would 
seem as if every precaution 
had been taken to make the 
construction poor rather than 
to make it good. The column 
casings were cut repeatedly 
by pipes for electricity, etc. ; 
the partitions were only three inches thick where they 
ought to have been at least four inches and were all cut 
to pieces with windows and wooden sash; the filling over 
the arches appears to have been of nothing but cinders 
and the wood flooring was blocked up on sleepers in such 
a manner that when the woodwork burned away heavy 
machinery, safes, etc., dropped down onto the arches, 
which were utterly unable, and never intended, 
to stand any such shock. The Parker Building 
is simply another illustration of the reckless 
way in which a speculative building can be 
carried up with a bare compliance with the law 
and yet be classed as fireproof. 



» 






^^^ " ~ rn ■ ■ -» ^^1 


t 



building may be expected as 
the season approaches, subject 
only to such restrictions as are 
presented each presidential 
year. 

Among the cities which 
scored an increase despite the 
financial panic are: Bridge- 
port, with a gain of 22 per 
cent; Denver, 9; Kansas City, 
16; Little Rock, 6; Omaha, 10; 
Paterson, 28; Reading, 32; 
Spokane, 10; Topeka, 91. 
Greater New York shows a 
decrease of $7,000,000, a loss 
of 50 per cent ; Philadelphia, 
61 ; Chicago, 21; St. Louis, 5 1 . 



IN GENERAL. 

The firm of Babb, Cook & 
Willard, architects, New York, 
has been dissolved by mutual 
consent. A new co-partner- 
ship has been formed under 
the name of Babb, Cook & 
Welch. The new firm will re- 
tain the same offices, 3 West 
29th Street. 



DOME OF POLICE HEADQUARTERS BUILDING, NEW YORK 

Hoppin, Koen & Huntingdon, Architects. 

Terra Cotta by New York Architectural Terra Cotta Co. 



BUILDING OPERATIONS FOR 
JANUARY. 

INFLUENCED by national financial disturb- 
ance, the most sensitive of all industrial 
undertakings, building and construction, has 
suffered a severe depression, as shown by 
official reports received by the American Con- 
tractor, New York, and tabulated. As fore- 
casted by the decline of stocks of every va- 
riety, the decrease in building operations as 
compared with January, 1907, was expected, 
and has materialized, to the extent of 44 per 
cent in the aggregate of 47 cities presented in 
the comparison. The indications for February 
are more favorable, — and a large volume of 



,7 ? 


1 




A 





DETAIL BY WALTER E. 
PARFITT, ARCHITECT. 

Made by South Amboy 
Terra Cotta Co. 



Murray A. White, formerly 
connected with the office of 
Holabird & Roche, Chicago, 
has formed a co-partnership with Burke & Horwood, 
architects, Toronto, Canada. The new firm name is 
Burke, Horwood & White. 

At the Annual Meeting of the Washington Chapter of 

the American Institute of Architects, held on January 

3, the following officers were elected for the year 1908: 

President, E. W. Donn, Jr. ; Vice-President, 

W. J. Marsh ; Treasurer, F. B. Pyle ; Secretary, 

Percy Ash. 

Harvard University offers to members of 
the Architectural League of America three 
scholarships in Architecture. These scholar- 
ships are divided into two classes: Class A. — 
One scholarship which is restricted to those 
who can pass the entrance examinations of 
Harvard College. Class B. — Two scholarships 
for special students for which there is no ex- 
amination, but a competition in architectural 
design to select the holders. Candidates for 
the above should notify the Chairman of the 
Committee on University Scholarships, Emil 
Lorch, Ann Arbor, Mich., by April 1 of their 
intention to take part in the competition. The 
Architectural League of America also has a 
foreign or traveling scholarship, for informa- 
tion regarding which apply to Professor Percy 
Ash, Chairman, Committee on Traveling 
Scholarship, George Washington University, 
Washington, D. C. 



THE BRICKBUILDKR. 



43 



The Eighth Inter- 
national Congress of 
Architects will be 
held in Vienna, May 
18 to 24, 1908. His 
Majesty, the Em- 
peror, has graciously 
consented to be 
Patron. The formal 
opening of the Con- 
gress will be in the 
Chamber of Ceremo- 
nies in the I. R. 
Palace. A very at- 
tractive programme 
for the entertain- 
ment of the dele- 
gates has been ar- 
ranged. The follow- 
ing named constitute 
the permanent 
American Commit- 
tee: William S. 
Eames, Chairman , 
George Oakley Tot 
ten, Jr., Secretary; 
Francis R. Allen, 
( ilenn Brown, George 
B. Post. Further in- 
formation may be ob- 
tained from Mr. Tot- 
ten, whose address is 
808 17th Street, 
Washington. 

The scope of the 
work which the 
Philadelphia Chapter 
of the American In- 
stitute of Architects 
has planned to do is 
a manifestation of 
the new spirit which 
seems to have seized 
the architectural pro- 
fession as a whole. 
The opportunities 
for doing a great 
deal of good in a 
community, which 
come to a body of 
this kind, seems to 
have been fully 
realized. The pro- 
gramme which has 
been laid out by the 
Philadelphia Chapter 
could be studied with 
profit by the other 
Chapters of the In- 
stitute. It is too long 
to permit of presen- 
tation here. No doubt 




CHAPEL, U. S. NAVAL ACADEMY, ANNAPOLIS, MI). 

Ernest Flagg. Architect. 

Dome of polychrome terra cotta; ribs and ornamentation in cream glaze; background 

of dome golden yellow. Made by Atlantic Terra Cotta Co. 




the Secretary, A mold 
II. Moses, 136 So. 4th 
St.. Philadelphia, 
would be glad to fur- 
nish copies. 

At the Convention 
of the National Brick 
Manufacturers' As- 
sociation, held this 
month at Columbus. 
Ohio, the proposition 
to establish a School 
in Bricklaying at the 
Winona Technical 
Institute, Indianapo- 
lis, received very 
hearty support from 
the members. Some 
forty scholarships 
were subscribed for 
by the Association. 
This school will be 
opened to boys from 
any part of America. 
TheCommittee of the 
Association having 
these scholarships in 
charge are: Hon. 
Anthony Ittner, St. 
Louis; J. M. Blair, 
Cincinnati; and 
George T. Dickover, 
Wilkesbarre. 



ACADEMIC BUILDING, U. S. NAVAL ACADEMY, ANNAPOLIS, MD. 

Ernest Flagg. Architect. 

Terra cotta used in connection with granite and made uniform with that material 

in color. Atlantic Terra Cotta Co., Manufacturers. 



NEW BOOKS 

Modern Baths and 
Bath Houses. By 
Wm.Paul Gerhard, 
C. E. 8vo, xvi + 311 
pages, 130 figures. 
Cloth. S3. 00 net. 
New York : John 
Wiley & Sons. 

Contents. — Pref- 
ace. Historical Notes 
on Bathing. The 
Purposes of Bathing. 
The Different Forms 
of Baths. The 
Modern Rain Bath. 
I louse and Tenement 
Baths. Public Bath 
Houses. People's 
Hat lis. Factory 
Baths School Baths. 
Baths for Military 
Barracks, Prisons 
and Jails. Hospital 
Bajths. Bjaths for 
( Clubhouses, Gymna- 
sia, Hotels and Bar- 



44 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




OPERA HOUSE, PITTSBURG. 

McClure & Spahr, Architects. 

Built of dull glaze cream white terra cotta. Made by Northwestern 

Terra Cotta Co. 

ber Shops. River and Sea Baths. Air and Sun Baths. 
Medical and Electric-Light Baths. The Water Supply 
and Plumbing of Bath Houses. Bibliography on Baths 
and Bathing. Appendix: Bathing in- 
Various Countries. The Dog Bath 
Alphabetical Index. 

Sanitation ok Public Buildings. By 

William Paul Gerhard, C. E. 121110, 

xi -(- 262 pages. Cloth, $1.50. New 

York: John Wiley & Sons. 

This book is intended to discuss 
some features of sanitation in Public 
Buildings, with special reference to 
drainage, water supply, lighting and 
ventilation. The volume is, in some 
sense, a continuation of the author's 
work, "Sanitary Engineering of Build- 
ings," which is devoted largely to the 
sanitary work of dwelling-houses, apartments and tene- 
ment-houses. 

Modern Pigments and Their Vehicles. Their Proper- 
ties and Uses considered, mainly from the Practical 



Side, and how 
to make Tints 
from Them. 
By Frederick 
Maire. New 
York : John 
Wiley & Sons. 

It is not 
within the scope 
of this little 
book to go into 
the detective 
business nor to 
make a specialty 
of exposing the 
tricks of trade. 
Its purpose is to 
give a brief and 
concise history 
of all valuable 
pigments useful 
in painting -the 
main sources of 
their derivation 



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entrance gate to estate at grand 
rapids, mich 

William W. Clarke. Architect 

Roofed with combination shingle tile made by 

Ludowici-Celadon Co. 



and supply; their properties and chief uses; their good 
qualities and their defects are pointed out, and incidentally 
there are presented the best methods of detecting adul- 
teration. 




ACKNOWLEDGMENT. 



T 



DETAIL BY ESENWEIN & JOHNSON, 
ARCHITECTS. 

Brick Terra Cotta and Tile Co., Makers. 



amples of brick bonding, made in 
connection with the article treating of 
Brickwork Details, were furnished by 
Fiske & Co., New York and Boston. 

The photographs from which the 
illustrations of the Naval Academy 
Buildings were made, were loaned by 
the Scientific American, New Vork. 

The illustrations of the Chelsea 
Public Baths were reproduced from 
the Architectural Review, London. 




POSITION WANTED by architectural draughtsman with 
special college training and ten years' office experience in designing 
and detail work in both the East and the West. Would like posi- 
tion where there is opportunity for advancement. Can furnish the 
best of references. Address "Indiana," In care of "THE 
BRICKBUILDER." 




THE OLIVER HOTEL, SOUTH BEND, IND. 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects. 

Built of 1 10 A light brick made by Hydraulic Press'Brick Co. 



BRANCH LIBRARY, GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 

Williamson & Crow, Architects. 

Built of " Iroticlay " Brick. F. II McDonald, Agent. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 2. PLATE 17. 




HOUSE AT WOODMERE LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
William Adams. Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 2. PLATE 18. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 2. PLATE 18. 




THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 2. PLATE 19 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 2. PLATE 19 




THE BRICKBUILDER 

VOL. 17, NO. 2. PLATE 20. 



^^^T ^ 





BETH ISRAEL. SYNAGOGUE, PHILADELPHIA. 
Andrew J. Sauer, architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 2. PLATE. 21. 




THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 2. PLATE 22. 




THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 2. PLATE 23. 




HOUSE AT WILMINGTON, DEL. 
Charles Barton Keen. Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 2. PLATE 24 





HOUSE AT WILMINGTON, DEL. 



CHARLES BARTON KEEN, 
ARCHITECT. 



E^ft^v 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 2. PLATE 25 . 




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UNIVERSITY CLUB, PITTSBURG, PA. 
MacClure & Spahr, Architects. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 2. PLATE 26. 




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VOL. 17, NO. 2. PLATE 27. 




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VOL. 17, NO. 2. PLATE 28 . 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



VOL. 17, NO. 2. 



PLATE 29. 




THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 2. PLATE 30. 





ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING BUILDING, POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE,. WORCESTER, MASS. 

Peab6dy' & Stearns, Architects. 



The Theater Building 
Competition 

Special Number 



of 



THE BRIGKBUILDER 



EXTRA EDITION 

TO 

VOLUME XVII, NO. 2. 



ROGERS & MANSON 

Publishers 

BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

Published monthly by ROGERS <®, MANSON, 85 Water Street, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Kntered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class M.iil Mailer, March ia ( if 
Copyright, 1908, by Rogers & M \- on 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba 

Single numbers 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union . 



$5 00 per year 

50 cents 

$5 5° per year 

$6.00 per year 



SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches 



Competition for a Theater Building 

FIRST PRIZE, $500 SECOND PRIZE, $200 THIRD PRIZE, $100 



T 



PROGRAM 

*HE problem is a Theater Building-. The location may be assumed in any city or large town of the United States. 
The site is at the corner of two streets of equal importance. The lot is perfectly level, has a frontage on one 
street of 100 feet and a depth on the other street of 150 feet to a 15-foot alley at the rear. 

The following is offered by way of suggestion : 

Depth of stage, 35 feet to curtain line. Projection of stage beyond curtain line, 3 feet. Proscenium opening not less 
than 36 feet wide, and not over 40 feet high. Width may be increased and height may be decreased to suit design. Audi- 
torium to seat about 1,200 and to have but one balcony. 

The sight lines should be so laid out in plan that every seat shall command an unobstructed view of at least three 
fourths of the depth of the stage, measured on a center line. The lines of the balcony should be sufficiently raised so that 
each seat on the floor shall have an unobstructed view to a height of 20 feet on the curtain line. 

On the first floor, in addition to the auditorium, provision should be made for the foyer, lobby, ladies' retiring suite, 
coat room, ticket office and manager's office opening therefrom, and such other features as may seem desirable to the 
designer. 

On the balcony floor there should be a foyer, which may be treated in a monumental manner if desired, also lavato - 
for men and women, and such other features as may seem desirable to the designer. 

It is assumed that a smoking-room and lavatories will be provided in the basement, but plan of this need not be shown. 
Details of stage arrangement and dressing-rooms may also be omitted. 

There should be separate exits and stairways at least 5 feet wide on each side of the balcony, which exits may lead 
into the foyer of the first story. 

There must be an exterior balcony of terra cotta, or loggia, with access thereto from the balcony level. This should 
be treated as a feature of the design, and may be carried all around the building if desired. 

It is not the intention that the design should be out of reason with the commercial requirements of an ordinary thea- 
ter. The portion devoted to the stage should be carried up to a height of not less than 80 feet above the street ; otherwise 
the height need be governed only by sight lines and by questions of design. It is not necessary to consider daylight 
illumination for the interior, and openings in the outside wall need be considered only as means of egress. 

The exterior of the building and the lobby are to be designed entirely in Architectural Terra Cotta, employing colored 
terra cotta in at least portions of the walls. The color scheme is to be indicated either by a key or a series of notes printed 
on the same sheet with front elevation and plans at a size which will permit of two thirds reduction. 

The following points will be considered in judging the designs : 

A. Frank and logical expression of the prescribed material. 

B. Rational and logical treatment of the exterior. 

C. Excellence of plan. 

In awarding the prizes the intelligence shown in the constructive use of terra cotta and the development or modifica- 
tion of style, by reason of the material, will be taken largely into consideration. 

There is no limitation of cost, but the designs must be suitable for- the character of the building and for the material 
in which it is to be executed. 

The details should indicate in a general manner the jointing of the terra cotta and the sizes of the blocks. 



DRAWINGS REQUIRED 



md 



On one sheet at the top, the shorter elevation, drawn at a scale of S feet to the inch. At the bottom, the first 
balcony floor plans drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch, and the color key or notes between the elevation and plans. 

On a second sheet at the top, the longitudinal section, drawn at a scale of 16 feel to the inch ; immediatel) below, tin- 
longer elevation, drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch, and below that half-inch scale details of the most interesting 
features of the design. . 

The size of the sheet (there are to be but two) shall be exactly I- inches by 30 inches. Strong border lines are to be 
drawn on both sheets, one inch from edges, giving a space inside the border lines 20 by is inches. The sheets are 

not to be mounted. ,, , . 

All drawings are to be in black ink without wash or color, except that the walls on the plans and in I ons may 

be blacked-in or cross-hatched. 

Graphic scales to be on all drawings. _ 

Every set of drawings is to be signed by a nom deplume or device, and accom ame is to be a sealed envelope 

with the nom de plume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The designs will be judged by three well-known members ol the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of $500. 

For the design placed second a prize of $200. 

For the design placed third a prize of $100. 






J^, 



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REPORT 



OF THE 



JURY OF AWARD 



THE Jury of Award recognizes the immense 
amount of work which has been expended 
by the contestants in this competition. 
Out of the two hundred or more designs submitted 
there was not a single one which did not show care- 
ful thought and endeavor to solve the problem 
primarily as a theater and give it an individual char- 
acter. The jury also cannot refrain from comment- 
ing upon the excellence of the draughtsmanship. 
Good drawing of itself does not count for a great 
deal in the decision of a competition of this sort, 
and yet it certainly has a value in an educational 
way, and the yearly progress which has been made 
in these competitions shows how fast the average of 
excellence is advancing among our draughtsmen. 

But with the great amount of thought expended 
upon the problem itself and the excellent draughts- 
manship displayed, it is a matter of regret to the 
jury that so few of the designs show a definite 
solution of the problem as a theater, and that in so 
many instances when the frank and logical expres- 
sion of prescribed material was indicated it was not 
accompanied by an equal excellence in plan. And 
in further accordance with the distinct conditions 
of the program, in awarding the prizes the jury 
tried to consider first the intelligence shown in the 
constructive use of terra cotta and the development 
or modification of style by reason of material. 

Terra cotta, permitting as it does of a light, 
delicate and highly decorative treatment, should be 
an especially suitable material for a theater. With 
it a texture can be given to a wall surface which 
might not be equally admissible in a building of a 
different character, and a playfulness in the treat- 
ment of detail would be permissible in the material 
and applicable for a theater to an extent which 
would hardly be possible with any other one prob- 
lem. On the other hand, it is not easy to deter- 
mine just what constitutes fitness in design for 
terra cotta details, but the jury feels that the three 
premiated designs have each in slightly different 
ways managed to present their detail sheets so as 
to show a character of detail that certainly sug- 
gests the use of terra cotta rather than any other 
one material. The same is true to a lesser extent 
of several of the designs which are mentioned, but 
the tendency to slip into stone work is manifest to 
quite a marked degree in nearly all the designs. 

As to plan, the jury feels that the competition is 
somewhat disappointing. It was hoped that some 



novel and interesting solution of the problem might 
be offered, that there might be something set forth 
which would be of value to the architect in a sug- 
gestive way at least, and that with all the bright 
young men working on this problem there would 
be sure to be some distinctly novel proposition. 
But the jury regrets to find that almost no depar- 
ture has been made from the orthodox conventional 
type and that none of the plans of themselves are 
such as would be likely to find their way into the 
utility heap of an architect's library. 

First Prize. This was placed first for its gen- 
eral excellence, for the essentially terra cotta effect 
of the design both in mass and as detail, and for 
the perfectly logical treatment of the exterior. 
This design could be taken for nothing but a 
theater, and it could be worked out successfully in 
nothing but terra cotta. The plan has utilized the 
possibilities of a foyer on the balcony level as sug- 
gested by the program, but it has made nothing of 
the exterior treatment on the side, which is rather 
to be regretted. 

We are inclined to question a little whether the 
Florentine Renaissance is after all the most 
adaptable style in detail for American terra cotta 
architecture, but accepting that as a parti it has 
certainly been very cleverly and successfully 
worked out on the detail sheet. In plan, the circu- 
lar promenade around the orchestra is a feature 
which is always acceptable, but the absence of 
side aisles is not a good arrangement. The loca- 
tion of the ladies' room and its adjoining toilets is 
quite inadvisable, being without any exterior light 
or air, and there is no good reason why it should 
not have been on the side street instead of being 
put way inside. Also, the manager's office is 
treated as if it were to be used in part for the sale 
of tickets, whereas the ticket selling department is 
always by itself in a much smaller room. It is 
on the whole, however, a good, workable theater, 
which might easily be developed into a well ap- 
pointed house, and the jury feels that on all three 
considerations this is fitly placed first, and it is 
especially commended for the beautiful manner in 
which it is worked out. It is one of the few de- 
signs submitted in which the treatment of terra 
cotta is logically carried throughout the interior. 

Sri ond Prize. The excellence of the composi- 
tion and the simplicity of plan is specially to be 
commended in this design. Also the sense of scale 



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is very carefully preserved and the side elevation 
is given an admirable treatment, though it needs 
further elaboration to be quite successful. The 
terra cotta character of the exterior is well pre- 
served in the elevation drawings but is not worked 
out so successfully in the detail. The plan is lack- 
ing in coat rooms, and the introduction of triple 
independent vestibules would necessitate separate 
ticket offices and prove an undesirable feature. 
The treatment of the stairs is very compact and 
logical. The introduction of the cross aisle near 
the stage end of the auditorium is not a desirable 
feature as it cuts the house in two and there seems 
no good reason why it should be done at all. The 
proscenium boxes are not in good proportion to the 
house and the plan and the section do not seem to 
quite agree. 

Third Prize. In this design the general effect 
of the outside shows unmistakably as terra cotta but 
not as unmistakably as a theater. The details are 
the most exquisite that were submitted and the 
draughtsmanship makes one appreciate how aston- 
ishingly the country has advanced of recent years. 
There seems to have been absolutely no restraint 
on the facility of the pen which elaborated the sheet 
of details, and the work as shown has the advantage 
of not only looking like terra cotta, but of being as 
well beautiful in itself. It is to be regretted from 
an artistic standpoint that the same skill was not 
expended on the sight lines of the section and the 
treatment of the main ceiling as was given to the 
extremely clever indication of the foyers and stairs. 
In plan every condition seems to have been on the 
whole very well met, with the possible exception of 
ladies' lavatories. The treatment of second story 
foyers is admirable, and this design is one of the 
few submitted which took advantage of the possi- 
bilities of loggias on the side. These are very well 
treated and the exits from the house in balcony and 
gallery are in every sense admirable and ample. 
The boxes of the proscenium are quite ignored, but 
there is no doubt of the author's ability to work 
this out as successfully as he has the front of the 
house. 

First Mention. The jury especially commends 
this design as an artistic stunt. It is exceedingly 
clever and well worked out, adapting to an exterior 
the suggestion of a proscenium motive and elabora- 
ting the detail in a wonderfully clever manner, but 
it was felt that this was essentially an exposition 
design rather than that for a permanent theater 
building. Furthermore, the enormous canopy sus- 
pended over the sidewalk from the top of the arch 
motif is indicated at a height so extreme as to be 
of no practical value, and is an unfortunate concep- 
tion. In plan, boxes are introduced which were 
not asked for and in the second floor the purpose 
is not apparent for the long apartments at each 



end communicating apparently with nothing of any 
particular interest. The draughtsmanship is very 
praiseworthy in this design. 

Second Mention. A well composed exterior. 
with good detail in many respects, and one of the 
few designs which took into account the inevitable 
electric sign which must be a feature of every 
theater. The boxes are poorly arranged, the 
stairs to balcony are unnecessarily twisted, and the 
introduction of the central skylight is uncalled for 
and a feature which had far better be eliminated 
entirely. 

Third Mention. An exceedingly clever scheme, 
introducing the decorative frieze of figure work 
most interestingly, but as a whole it lacks in charm 
and is unfortunate in mass. The purpose of the 
niches and figures in front of the foyer is not by 
any means apparent and the foyer is one of the few 
rooms about a theater which can appropriately be 
treated with large exterior windows, instead of 
which we have here a perfectly blank wall. In this 
design also the interior skylight is a practical 
mistake. 

Fourth Mention. The work of a man with 
ideas. A design thoroughly well presented and 
worked up, with exquisite draughtsmanship, and 
with the introduction into the plan of many of the 
academic tricks which enhance its points so effec- 
tively and bring out the treatment of axis and 
balance of parts in a perfectly legitimate manner. 
It is not, however, characteristically terra cotta, 
either in detail or mass, and the mass of the front 
portion of the building is unnecessarily low and not 
pleasing in general outline. This scheme has, how- 
ever, one merit in that it accepts the fact that the 
building is placed at the corner of two streets of 
equal importance and the side elevation is accord- 
ingly given a degree of study which is not found 
in any of the other designs. 

Fifth Mention. This deserves to be com- 
mended for the attempt to depart from the conven- 
tional treatment of the proscenium above the roof. 
It is a question how successful this would be, but it 
certainly is not hackneyed. The facade is well pro- 
portioned and the details clean and well worked out. 

Six ih Mention. This design is essentially terra 
cotta in its appearance but the scale is not well 
balanced and the introduction of the depressed 
marquise at the entrance introduces an unfortunate 
low scale at the entrances. The arrangement in plan 
of the ticket office lobby is not practical, nor are the 
stairs well arranged for the accommodation of the 
public. 

"John M. Carrere 
Clarence II. Bi \< kali 
William Adams I)i i wo 
France.! 1 1 , Bosw orth, Jr. 



Jury of Award* 



After the Prise and Mention Designs the others are not arranged in order of merit. 



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SUBMITTED BY RUSSELL EASON HART, NEW YORK. 



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SECOND PRIZE DESIGN. 
SUBMITTED BY CHARLES ROMER AND FREDRICK J. -FEIRER, NEW YORK. 

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SUBMITTED BY EDWARD P. MAHER AND HUBERT G. RIPLEY, BOSTON. 

12 



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FOURTH MENTION. 
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DETAILS BY ISRAEL PIERRE LORD. 



19 



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COMPETITION 



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39 




ST. AMBROSE R. C. (ill RCH, TOMPKINS AVE., BROOKLYN. 



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40 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVII MARCH 1908 Number 3 

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CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

BRAINERD & LEEDS; PEABODY & STEARNS, MAGINNIS, WALSH & SULLIVAN AND 
COOLIDGE & CARLSON, ASSOCIATED; JOHN RUSSELL POPE; GEORGE H. STREETON. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAI.P. 

SOUTH TRANSEPT, CHURCH OF ST. STKPHAN, TANGERMUNDE, GERMANY Frontispiece 

THE AMERICAN THEATER - IV Gtorttue If. Blackall 

THE PUBLIC BATH -II Harold Werner and August /'. Windolph 

"HOMEWOOD"-A FAMOUS COLONIAL MANSION OF MARYLAND 

AN INTERESTING BUNGALOW "' /A '"*' 7/ 



A FIREPROOF BUILDING WHICH WAS FIREPROOF 

ON THE BUYING OF ARCHITECTURAL BOOKS ' '• "'"'"'< 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 



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6o 




w«<^<<^<<<<<<<<<^<<<<<<<<<<<<^<<^^<<<<<<<.>>>>>>>>>>>>^>>>wwwvvv^>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>v>>>>>>>>>'j 



THE BRICKBVUDER 



VOL. 17 NO. 3 



DEVOTEDTO THE-INTERE5TJOF-ARCHITECTV&E-IN MATERIALf-OF-CLAY- 



MARCH 1905: 



>>»»»»} & 




The American Theater — IV. 



SIGHT LINES. 



BY CLARENCE H. BLACKALL 



THE essential condition, which rightly takes prece- 
dence over every other consideration in a modern 
theater, is that every spectator shall have an'/ inter- 
rupted view of what is being done upon the stage. 
There is no excuse for the neglect of this condition, 
and its importance can hardly be too strongly empha- 
sized, for if the sight lines are faulty, no amount of 
careful planning otherwise, or of architectural develop- 
ment or adornment, can make the theater any more than 
a partial success, which is equivalent to a failure. Bad 
acoustics can be tolerated in these days, when with most 
shows it really matters so little what is said on the 



20 25 SO 35 40 -t5 SO 



how variously it has been worked out, and how often it 
just fails of being a success. It has been the practice of 
the writer to work out the sight lines first on paper, 
then to have a 
scale model con- 
structed, including 
the curtain open- 
ing, the shape of 
the parquet, and 
the main construc- 
tive cantilevers or 
girders of the bal- 




FIG. I. TYPICAL PLAN. 

stage and imperfect # heating and ven- 
tilation can be remedied after a build- 
ing has been occupied, but the sight 
lines are fundamental. They are the 
very first factors which must be abso- 
lutely established in flie design of the 
auditorium, and once incorporated into 
the building, it becomes practically 
impossible to change them. It be- 
hooves the architect, therefore, to ex- 
ercise the utmost care in fixing them, 
to check them constantly on the draw- 
ings and during the progress of con- 
struction, and to be sure of his facts 
and of the results. The problem 
seems, after all, like an easy one, but 
one has only to compare a dozen or 
more recent theaters to appreciate 





fig. 3 



K.I.SKA THEATER. 



FIG. 2. COLONIAL THEATER, BOSTON. 

cony and gallery, the latter being 
made in tin or galvanized iron. With 
this constructive model the sight lines 
are thoroughly tested for every por- 
tion of the house, the framing being 
raised or depressed until just the right 
lines are assured. This model serves 
as a basis for grades on the shop draw- 
ings of the steel work, and can then 
be clothed in wax, clay or plaster, in 
studying the architectural design of 
the interior. And working in this 
manner it has often been found that 
the lines as developed on paper had to 
be materially modified. The sight 
lines are really the key to the whole- 
design. 



4 6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




First, in plan. 
Every seat must 
lie within limit- 
ing lines, touch- 
ing the jambs 
of the curtain 
opening and 
starting from a 
common center 
on the longi- 
tudinal axis of 
the hall. If the 
theater is to be 
used for light 
drama ortvaude- 
ville, this center 
should be at 



JCALL fao£] ■ - - 



FIG. 4. BOSTON THEATER. 

least 30 feet to the rear of the curtain 
line (Fig. 1); for the ordinary run of 
theaters, this center should be at least 
forty-five feet back of the curtain line 
(Fig. 2), while for grand opera or 
large, spectacular productions, the 
lines should be such that from the 
most extreme side seat a spectator 
can see at least one-half of the width 
of the rear of the stage (Fig 3). As 
these limiting lines must be .applied 
to each division of the house, it be- 
comes extremely difficult to plan for 
boxes on the sides with good sight, 
and only by sacrificing good seats on 
the parquet are good boxes possible. 
Box seats are, accordingly, usually the 
poorest in the house. 

It will at once be seen how much 
the efficient seating capacity of the 
house is modified by the width of the curtain opening. 
This width varies from a minimum of twenty-five feet 
for a vaudeville house to as much as seventy feet, as 
in the Boston Theater (Fig. 4), and is, at times, affected 
by the permissible depth of the auditorium and by 
the width to which the lines can fan out on each side. 
With sight lines which would be theoretically perfect 
the bounding lines should be parallel to the center line so 
that from the extreme side seat a spectator could see the 
whole depth of the stage the whole width of the curtain 
opening, but as scenery is invariably set drawing in 
towards the rear, and as most of the action is confined to 
the central quarter of the stage, such extreme lines are 
not necessary, though they have been followed in a few 
cases in this country, and are often found for the parquet 
seats only of the theaters in Europe. 




The only practical reason for arranging the seats in 
curves is to make it a trifle easier to look straight at the 
front center of the stage. They could perfectly well be 
put in straight rows parallel to the curtain, as was done 
quite successfully in the Studebaker Theatre, Chicago. 
An amphitheatrical arrangement of the seats is preferred, 
however, on account of its presenting a more compact ap- 
pearance, and seeming to give a more intimate sense of 
touch between the actor and the audience, a very desir 
able condition. This can be carried too far, however, as 
is usually the case with the European theaters, where the 
balcony and galleries are cut away back in the center and 
carried out on the sides in the familiar horseshoe shape, 
causing a considerable portion of the audience to face 
each other instead of the stage, and removing the best 
seats far from the stage. This arrangement has never 
found favor with us. The illustrations (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10) 
show some of the most successful bal- 
cony lines. The front of gallery is 
usually cut back more and struck with 
a lesser radius than the balcony, but 
in none of the recent theaters is the 
gallery center in advance of the cer- 
tain line, more generally being kept 
to the rear thereof, so as to give 
flatter curves. 

Second, in section. In the ancient 
amphitheaters the rise of the plat- 
forms was so sharp that each spectator 
could see entirely over the head of the 
one in front of him. This would be 
manifestly impractical in a modern 
hall, and even to so graduate the slope 
that each spectator would be able to 
have his eyes even above the level 
of the head in front of him would 
speedily bring the rise in the twenty 





L 























FIG. 5. KEITHS THEATER, BOSTON. 



to twenty-four 
rows of the average 
theater so high 
that galleries 
would be imprac- 
tical. A com- 
promise is there- 
fore made. jThe 
seats are seldom 
directly in front of 
each other in plan. 
In fact, the aisles 
are generally de- 
liberately planned 
so that the seats 
would be more or 




^? 



i. 



... . 



U 



t 



FIG. 6. ILLINOIS THEATER, CHICAGO. 



THE BR ICKBU I LI) E R. 



47 




FIG. 



7. Sl'UYVESANT 
NEW YORK. 



THEATER, 



less staggered. It is as- 
sumed that one can ordi- 
narily look between the 
heads of at least two 
rows in front of them. 
Since the theater hat has 
disappeared this assump- 
tion accords very well 
with the fact and indeed 
it is not at all unsafe to 
assume that one can see 
between the heads for 
three rows in front of 
him. Consequently, if 
the steppings are so ar- 
ranged that every fourth row is raised sufficiently to 
give a clear view over the top of the fourth man's head, 
the sight lines could be called good ones. It is also 
not enough to give merely a view of a person standing 
on the stage. In these days of dancing and stage effects, 
the feet of the actresses are quite prominent and ac- 
cordingly the sight lines are taken from the edge of 
the apron. The difference between the level of the apron 
and the level of the first row of seats is best taken at 
three feet. It is sometimes made six inches more, but 
three feet gives a better line, especially as the hood which 

covers the foot- 
lights rises to a 
height of about 
five inches 
above the level 
of the stage 
floor. The eye 
of a person 
seated is gen- 
erally about^ 
four feet above 
the floor. By 
laying out suc- 
cessive heights, 
as shown by the 
diagram (Fig. 
11), and draw- 
ing the sight 
lines, a curve is 
worked out 
which gives a 
rise for twenty 
rows of seats of six feet. To determine the sight lines 
for the balcony, a line is drawn from the eye of a person 
seated in the rearmost seat of the orchestra to a point on 
the curtain line twenty feet above the stage. No portion 
of the balcony soffit must project within this line. Twenty 
feet gives an uninterrupted view of a high set scene. 
Where space is very restricted, this height can be reduced 
to eighteen feet, but twenty is better. For the lines of 
the steppings of the balcony the same process can be fol- 
lowed as in the orchestra, but it has been found that a 
very close approximation would be to make the tangent 
to the edges of the risers center on a point four feet be- 
low the top of the stage at the center. Then to determine 
the soffit of the gallery a line is drawn from the eye of a 
person seated at the rearmost row of the balcony to a 




THEATER, 




FIG. 10. 



BALCONY, OPERA HOUSE, 
INDIANAPOLIS. 



point twenty feet above 
the stage at the rear, and 
all of the balcony soffit 
must fall outside of this 
line. Similarly a tangent 
for the edges of the gallery 
risers is drawn from the 
point four feet below the 
front of the stage. 

In this manner the lines 
are established for the bal- 
cony and gallery along the 
center line of the house. 
If the seats are in rows 
parallel to the curtain, 
each row can be made 
horizontal, but when the 
seats are on a curve in 
plan, the rows must pitch 

sidewise in order to preserve proper sight lines, the 
amount of pitch being determined by working out a 
section along the limiting side line of the plan. On 
this side line the rearmost row of seats can be kept 
at same level as on the center, but the front row must 
be dropped enough to give clear sight on the stage floor 
at the curtain line on the side of the curtain opening. 
This cuts down the height at curtain line visible from the 
extreme side seat under the balcony, which is usually un- 
avoidable, but which is in accordance with the usual prac- 
tice so long as this height is not reduced below twelve 
feet as against twenty feet on the center line. Hence it. 
will be seen that with balcony curve of short radius, the 
sight lines become difficult of arrangement, and with a 
horseshoe shape are impossible. European balconies 
generally have thoroughly bad side sight lines, and in the 
case of the Paris opera, one can not see the stage at all 
from the extreme seats of the side gallery. 

The diagrams 
(12, 13, 14, 15. l6 - 
17) will show the 
varying ways in 
which the sight 
lines have been 
worked out in sec- 
tion. 

Thedimensions 
figured on the il- 
lustrations are 
only approximate, 
being worked out 
from small scale 
drawings intended 
to give only 
general relations 
of parts. 

There are a few 
other things to 
consider in con- 
nection with sight 
lines. In the de- 
sire to accommo- 
date the greatest 
number of people 




fig. 9. 



BALI os V, COLONIAL I 111 



4 8 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



in the least space, and with the feeling- that because the 
gallery seats are cheaper than the orchestra therefore 
the gallery seats need not have as much consideration, 
many theaters have been planned with the gallery carried 
back so far and so high that the topmost row was 
considerably above the top of the curtain opening. 



JCALLlfactfri: ... ... 







FIG. II. TYPICAL SECTION. 

This is a thoroughly vicious arrangement and in no theater 
should any seats ever be carried as high even as the top of 
the proscenium opening. The curtain opening is generally 
made not over thirty- five feet. Consequently in a well- 
planned theater no seat in any part of the gallery should 
be more than thirty-five feet above the stage level and 
should be as much lower as the greed of the manager 
and the size of the lot will permit. 

It will be seen that the sight lines of a theater call for 
a very considerable degree of expert knowledge, as the 
different factors involved are so closely correlated that 
no one can be considered alone, and even a slight change 
in one necessitates change in all. 




FIG. 12. SECTION, COLONIAL THEATER, BOSTON. 

ACOUSTICS is the one baffling problem which has so 
far set at naught scientific research. There has been 
some most excellent work done by such investigators as 
Professor Sabine, of Harvard College, who has analyzed 
results most convincingly, and who has been able to 
reduce the results of his experiments to definite coeffi- 
cients and formula;, but when it comes to determining in 
advance what the acoustic properties of a given hall 
shall be, the only guide is experience, and even that is 
sadly unreliable from causes for which we are often 
wholly at loss to account. If there is to-day any work- 
able theory for determining acoustic properties of a hall 
of audience it has yet to be successfully applied in 
practice, and the most that we can do is to draw a few 
lessons from observed facts, and even these must be 
applied with fear and trembling if one departs at all 
from the beaten track of safe practice. Having found 
that one hall is excellent acoustically, the only sure way 



is to exactly copy that hall, line for line, and in every 
dimension, and even then sometimes an unexpected 
combination seems to set all our plans at naught. Sound 
is not propagated in straight lines nor in straight waves, 
but apparently in spherical undulations, which are so 
extremely tenuous as to be easily modified or deflected 
by slight obstacles. We have not yet reached even a 
satisfactory starting point for the theory. Professor 
Sabine's experiments appear to have been conducted 
with a view to diminish the residual effect of sound, 
to absorb the waves, rather than to intensify them. 
Other experimenters have hypothesized that beyond 
certain distances from a focal center, all surfaces of walls, 
etc., must be made absorbent, while surfaces near at 
hand should be reflective of sound. Rut in a theater 




SECTION, NIXON THEATER, PITTSBURG. 



there is no focus from which to reckon. Action, 
speech and music may start from any point of the stage 
and even at varying levels above the same, while there 
is the added complication that the music in the orchestra 
pit must be effective to both the audience on one side 
and the artists on the other. 

There are, however, a few things which we know by 
experience. Of recent years, there have been built a 
number of open-air auditoriums, which have been used 
quite extensively throughout the West, in connection 
with the various Chautauquan movements. These are 
simply huge wooden shelters on a circular or square 
plan, built without any sides, open to the air and with 
concentric rows of seats. In some cases, audiences as 




... 

FIG. 14. SECTION, ACADEMY OF MUSIC, BROOKLYN. 

high as four and five thousand have been accommodated 
under perfect acoustic conditions, and it has sometimes 
been found that a shelter of this sort, which is 
perfectly good while the sides are open to the air, 
becomes bad acoustically when the sides are closed in, 
quite irrespective of the material of closure. Again, it 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



49 



seems to be a fact that spoken and musical sounds will 
travel with less interference across a moving current of 
air than they will travel with the current. Consequently, 
when the fresh air is introduced, so as to ascend in verti- 
cal columns through the house, the effect of the ventila- 
tion, instead of carrying the sounds away from the 
audience, seems to be to render them more distinctly 
audible. In the writer's experience the most fertile 
cause of trouble in an auditorium seems to rise from in- 
equalities of temperature. The sound 
waves, passing from a warm through 
to a cold strata, seem more likely to. 



One hall will be very easy to speak in, and the smallest 
modulations of voice seem to reach each spectator, while 
in another, everything can be heard with perfect ease 




FIG. 15. SECTION, MAJESTIC THEATER, NEW YORK. 

be confused than when the temperature is maintained 
at an even degree throughout. Consequently, the ideal 
hall, on this assumption, would be one in which there are 
no outside walls directly exposed to the weather, but in 
which the auditorium is entirely surrounded by a larger 
building on all sides, so that there shall be no cold walls 
or ceilings. It has been noted also that an anditorium 
with a domed ceiling is quite apt to have bad acoustic 




FIG. 16. SECTION, MAJESTIC THEATER, BOSTON. 

properties ; that, on the other hand, a hall with a flat 
ceiling seldom gives any trouble. Against this, how- 
ever, is the fact that a plain ceiling unbroken by beams 
may affect unpleasantly the sound. The hall which has 
the reputation of being the best acoustically, in this 
country, is the Sanders Theater, of Harvard University, 
which has an open, Gothic, wooden ceiling and has the 
arrangement in plan of an amphitheater. Again, quite 
aside from the question of arrangement or absorption, 
there is the question of timbre, the quality of sound. 




JCALc l+mJi i nhw<i'n itW r 

fig. 17. section, keith's theater, boston. 

but the sounds are not soft or pleasing. The problem, 
in fact, is a wholly indeterminate one, and conclusions 
cannot be supported by logical reasoning, but only by a 
sense of measuring what has come out well in various 
halls, and trying tp^combine different features into what 
might be termed an ideal auditorium. In such an 
auditorium, measured by the writer's experience, there 
would be a carpet on the entire orchestra floor through- 
out. The floor of the orchestra pit, where the musicians 
sit, would be made hollow with a half-inch, thoroughly 
seasoned upper floor, furred off from the under floor like 
a sounding boardT The ceiling would be generally flat, 
but would be broken up a good deal by projecting 
beams. The walls on the other hand, would he kept 
quite plain beyond the proscenium front, broken, if at 
all, only by very shallow pilasters. The drapery about 
the boxes would be reduced to a minimum and there 
would be no drapery or carpeting in galleries, except the 
strip of carpeting down the aisles. Such an arrange- 
ment has repeatedly been used, coupled, of course, with 
uniformity of temperature and evenness of ventilation, 
and has always given excellent results. 

Various schemes have been devised to improve acous- 
tic properties and to insure special results. The mega- 
phone type, in which the lines of the plenum are carried 
out through the whole ceiling, as in the Majestic Theater, 
at Boston, or the Auditorium, in Chicago, was a perfect 
success in one instance and a doubtful result in the other, 
giving really too much sound and a little tendency to 
harshness. A certain architect made quite a reputation 
for himself by effectually stopping echo in a theater by 
the simple process of furring up the floor a few inches. 
But when he came to apply the same treatment to an- 
other house of slightly different disposition and plan his 
scheme was an utter failure. There are some cases of 
houses which when empty resound like a sounding box 
but which when filled with people and warmed are mel- 
low and pleasing in their acoustic properties. In fact, 
it may be generally stated that a hall which is even 
tolerable when empty is pretty sure to lie greatly im- 
proved, if not perfect., when warmed and filled, and the 
comforting thought in connection with the whole vexa- 
tious problem is that, after all, most halls of audience 
good acoustically and a very small percentage of t 
that are built are so bad that they cannot be used or that 
they bring discredit upon architect or owner. 



5o 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




SMALL BATH, HANNOVER. 
I. Men's Waiting Room. 2. Wo 
men's Waiting Room. 3. Office. 
4. Men's Shower Halls. 5. Women's 
Shower Halls. 6. Wash Room. 



The Public Bath — II. 

THE GERMAN TYPE. 

BY HAKOLD WERNER AND AUGUST P. WINDOLPH. 

WE find that there is established throughout Ger. 
many, even in the smallest towns, public baths 
with at least the shower facilities. The most notable 
improvements in the German baths have been made in 
the development of the shower bath, in pool bath con- 
struction, in the workmen's bath, and the technical 
excellence of the fittings. There is also an admirable 
system of compilation, which shows the attendance and 
cost of maintenance. 

The public laundry 
and wash house, which 
have always been a 
working feature in the 
English bath house, 
have of late years been 
practically discarded in 
Germany. The last 
public bath and wash 
house was constructed 
in Augsburg as far back 
as 1871 ; to-day we find 
the laundry in a special 
building. 

An early form of the small municipal bath is illus- 
trated from Hannover. 

Most of the early buildings were provided either with 
swimming facilities or with the tub bath, as in England, 
and it was not until 1880 that Lassar, a German author- 
ity, following the suggestion offered by Vasher for 
reform, recognized that the best means of 
bathing the people should be a bath com- 
bining extreme simplicity and economy. 
I le accordingly advised the sole use of the 
shower bath for the middle and working 
classes as the most practical of all. He 
further suggested the installation of a 
certain number of these bathing com- 
partments for the use of the workmen in industrial 
establishments, as well as in the mines. These baths 
have been known as the workmen's baths and have 
proved most successful throughout Germany, and they 
could be used with good results in this country, both in 
the mines and in large manufacturing plants. They 
are inexpensive in construction and simple in plan, 
consisting of the requisite number of shower compart- 
ments with dressing room provided with adjustable 
poles which can be raised to the ceiling, thoroughly 
isolating the articles of wearing apparel. Some of these 
workmen's baths are provided with disinfecting rooms, 
thus furnishing a bath for the clothing as well as for 
the bather. Some simple forms of workmen's baths 

are illustrated 
from the Krupp 
Gun Works at 
Essen. A few 
tubs have also 
been provided. 
The section 




WORKMEN'S HATH, BORSIGWERK. 
E. Entrance. S. Shower Rooms. 
D. Dressing Compartments. T. Tub 
Room. R. Retiring Rooms. W. 
Waiting Room. T. Toilets. 




HATH AT K 
Tub Rooms. 



shows the simplicity of 
the shower arrange- 
ments, the angle of 
spray and the floor sec- 
tion for drainage. 

A somewhat larger 
bath is illustrated from 
Borsigwerk. This build- 
ing has a capacity for 
bathing fifty workmen 
simultaneously. The 
showers are arranged 
in separate compartments with ample rooms for adminis- 
tration. 

Still another type of workmen's baths, for miners, pro- 
vides for bathing the men in common in a long bathing 
hall with a straight row of double showers, the young 
men having a separate room. Adjoining rooms provide 
for the hanging of the clothing. Offices, an emergency 
hospital and a morgue are also provided. 

The following general recommendations have been 
urged by the German authorities for workmen's baths, 
which it would appear are equally applicable to the larger 
type of baths: 

1. The greatest possible utility in the least 

possible space. 

2. Ease and convenience in cleansing the 

bath compartments. 
.;. Avoidance of all wood. 
4. Prevention of draught with the rational 
position of the shower nozzle (pref- 
erably at forty-five degrees). 
The success of the workmen's bath resulted in the 
adoption by the various municipalities of a type of small 
bath modeled on these lines. Their capa- 
city ranging from a dozen bathing units 
in the minor establishment to fifty or one 
hundred units in cities of the first class. 

The people's bath at St. Paul's, Ham- 
burg, is a type of the small city bath 
in Germany. There are four shower 
compartments for women and eight for 
men. The building is situated at the corner of two 
streets and has proved serviceable and economical in 
operation. 

A somewhat similar municipal bath for cities of the 
second class is illustrated in the public baths of Chemnitz. 
The plan shows the proper proportion of men and women 
shower compartments with the corridors against the ex- 
terior walls. 

The municipal bath at Mannheim has separate waiting 
rooms for the 

T--TTTT""! 




RUPP WORKS. 

2. Shower Rooms. 



mTiTITi'n 
klLLLIJzJCj 




BATH AT KRUPP WORKS. 
Tub Rooms. 2. Shower Room. ;. Toilets 



sexes with pro- 
visions for four- 
teen sho we r 
compartments, 
ten for men and 
four for women. 
The corridors 
are on the out 
side walls and 
numerous win- 
dows provide 






- TL*~ i 



m [hw 2 ,". ! ' 1 1 1 1 1 il 



C.EKMAN MINERS BATH. 

1. Workmen's Dressing Hall. 2. Woikmen's 
Shower Room. 3. Young Workmen's Showers. 
4. Office. 5. Morgue. 6. Sick Room. 
lamp Stations. 10. Oil Room. 11. Toilets. 
12. Entrance. 



TH E BRICKBUILD E R. 



5« 




people's bath, st. paul's 

HAMBURG. 

i. Office. 2. Waiting 
Rooms. 3. Women's Showers. 
4. Men's Showers. 



ample light and air. The plan 
is compact and is well adapted 
to the needs of a small city. 

The small bath at Munich 
shows the use of the octagonal 
plan with provisions for four 
showers for women and eight 
shower compartments for men. 
The City Bath at Mainz 
shows the entrance for the sexes 
properly separated. This plan 
with some modifications has 
been adopted by towns and 
small cities throughout Ger- 
many as well as in America. These small baths 
are also found in cities of the first class as illus- 
trated in the small city bath at Berlin, which pro- 
vides for tub bathing as well as showers. Provi- 
sion for the first and second classes is also made 
in each bathing hall. In the 
shower bathing halls the dress- 
ing compartments are separated 
from the showers, and the tub 
bathing halls are well lighted 
and ventilated. A small laundry 
and the boiler room are in the 
rear wing of the building. 

The public bath of the city 
of Ouedlinburg, with a popula- 






SMALL BAl'H, 

MUNICH. 
1. Waiting Room, tion approximating twenty-five Women's Showers. 



SMALL BATH, 

MANNHEIM. 

1. Men's Waiting 

Room. 2. Women's 

Waiting Room. 3. 

Men's Showers. 4. 



5. Office, 
ing Room. 



2. Office. 3. Wo thousand, shows the use of the 

men's Shower Hall, three forms of bathing. The 

4. Men's Shower sno wer baths are in the basement, the 

Hall. 5. Staircase to 

Boiler Room. 



pool and tub baths are on the first floor, 
and steam and hot air baths are on the 

second floor. The establishment also includes a laundry 

and superintendent's living quarters. 

The vapor, hot air, steam and Roman baths have 

lately been introduced into the larger establishments and 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



FIRST FLOOR. 

1. Entrance. 2. Office. 3. Wait- 
ing Room (women). \. Women's Tubs, 
First Class. 5. Women's Tubs, Second 
Class. 6. Waiting Room (men's). 
7. Men's Tubs, First Class. 8. Men's 
Tubs, Second Class. 9. Preliminary 
Cleansing Room for Adults. 10. Pre. 
liminary Cleansing Room for Children- 



sf.< OND I I.OOR PI. \N. 

BATH AT QUEDLINBURG. 

11. Tool. 12, 13. Upper 
Boiler and Engine Room. 1 1. 



Rooms for Hath Cloth 
|p FLOOR. 
Steam and Hot-Air 



2. Retiring Rooms. ,. Superintendent's 
Ouarters. 4. Toilets. 5. Balcony for 
Children. 



arc well illustrated in the public 
baths of Stuttgart, Munich, 
Frankfort and Hannover. 
These large baths mark the 
acme of modern bath construc- 
tion on the continent, and with 
their large double-story bathing 
halls and domed ceilings recall 
in a measure the early splendor 
of the Roman baths. As a rule 
they have been developed on 
an unsymmetrical plan with a 
picturesque treatment of the 
exterior — in their ornateness 
recalling the British 

baths. BATH CHEMNITZ. 

The bath at Stutt- 1. Entrance (women). 2 

.... (both sexes). t. Women's 

gart, completed in ... . ' J ,„ 

r Watting Room. 4. Women's 

1892, is provided With showers. 5. Women's Toilets. 
tWO pools. The WO- 6. Men's Waiting Room. 

men's plunge is on the '■ Entrance (men). Men's 

main street and con- Showers - 
veniently arranged to the entrance hall. Access 
to the men's plunge room is provided through an 
extremely long, groined corridor. It is difficult 
to understand why the men's pool, serving the 
principal bathing purpose of the institution, 
should be placed at the extreme rear of the plot, 

— particularly as there is no rear access provided, 

— necessitating a walk of some three hundred 
"'> feet from the entrance hall. Preliminary shower 

rooms are also provided for, with a second story 

of dressing compart- 
ments for the plunge 

room. The tub bath 

provides the auxiliary 

means of bathing on 

this floor, and the 

engine and power rooms 
and a few tubs for 
medicinal pur- 
poses are provided 
for in the base- 
ment of the main 
buildi-ng. The 
narrowness of the 

plot makes economical planning exceedingly diffi- 
cult, and the numerous long corridors and passages, 
though direct, are of little assistance in promoting 
easy communication and convenience of handling 
the bathers. 

The bath at Munich is another elaborate ex- 
ample of the modern German type. The large pool 
baths, the Roman bath, a circular room with provi- 
sions for cold and warm immersions with the ad 
joining steam, spray, vapor and rubbing rooms 
makes the plan complicated and the structure 
COStly. It is needless to say that a plan of this 
character is hardly adaptable for use in America 
for public purposes. Many of its sanitary features 
are adaptable for municipal purposes, although its 
general featui' more suggestions for the pri- 

vate, so-called Turkish and Russian baths. 




BATH AT MAIN/. 
1. Entrance .:. Women's Waiting 
Room. 3. Office and Wash Room. 
I. Men's Waiting Room. 5. Entrance. 



6. Women's Showei II. ill. 7. 
Shower 1 1 all. 



Men's 



Part of 

Toilets. 



Ilaths 



52 



THE BRICK BUILDER 




THE MULLER BATH, MUNICH. 

i. Entrance Hall. 2. Office. 3. Men's 
Waiting Room. 4. Women's Waiting Room. 
5. Men's Pool. 6. Preliminary Cleansing 
Room. 7. Tub Baths for Men. S. Women's 
Pool. 9. Retiring Rooms. 10. Steam, Hot-Air 
and Vapor Baths, and Women's Pool. 11. Re- 
freshments. 12. Tub Baths for Women. 



The city bath 
at Frankfort, 
completed in 
1896, is pro- 
vided with three 
pools. Separate 
waiting rooms 
are provided for 
the sexes, with 
adjoining re- 
freshment 
rooms. Corri- 
dors from these 
waiting-rooms 
lead to the re- 
spective pools 
and tub bathing 
halls. The plan 



in capacity, containing 
some 200,000 gallons of 
water, — the pool's 
depth varying from 
three feet to ten feet, 
its water area, forty-six 
feet in width by ninety- 
five feet in length. The 
women's plunge room 
has preliminary cleans- 
ing rooms in alcoves to 
the rear with eleven 
shower and foot baths. 
The Brauseraum is a 
square chamber with 



3 



HT 1 


-11 


r 


1- 1— L 
k . . . 


j 




BATH, BERLIN. 
1. Men's Waiting Room. 2. Office. 
3. Women's Waiting Room. .\. Men's 
Tub Baths. 5. Shower Rooms. 
6. Women's Tub Baths. 7. Power 
and Boiler Room. S. Laundry. 



is far more compact and economical than the 
Stuttgart Baths. The different classes of 
bathers for both sexes have quick and con- 
venient access to the various bathing halls and 
the arrangement for diverting the various 
classes of bathers is to be commended. 

The bath at Hannover, completed in 1905, 
illustrates the highest type of public bath de- 
velopment in Germany. This establishment, 
facing on two streets, with a plot of ample size, 
has a decided advantage for ease of adminis- 
tration. The arrangement of the courts pro- 
vides each wing with a liberal amount of light 
and air. The bathing halls and administration 
are in the main building, while the superintend- 
ent's living quarters are in a separate building 
on the rear street ; — the boiler and power- 
house is also isolated. The exterior is 
rather stiff and formal and is character- 
istic of the late German work. The ad- 
ministration wing is well expressed, 
though the ecclesiastical appearance of 
the bathing hall pavilions, while interest- 
ing and vigorous, has but little of the 
character of the municipal bath house. 

The plunge room is typical of the 
latest period of construction on the con- 
tinent. A large, two-story bathing hall 
has a cove ceiling with penetrations for 
clear story openings, affording ample light 
and air. The dressing compartments are 
in groups of three between the piers. 
Easy staircases on both ends give access 
to a second story of dressing-rooms. Ac- 
cess is afforded to the dressing-rooms from 
the main entrance by means of the ex- 
terior corridor, and from the dressing- 
rooms in turn to the preliminary cleans- 
ing shower room with accessory toilets. 
From the cleansing showers to the pool 
runway is but a few steps. The pre- 
liminary cleansing shower rooms are pro- 
vided with a series of wall showers, with 
additional foot basins, — a recent innova- 
tion. The first-class pool is very liberal 



shower alcoves on the corners, and two small pool baths 
at different temperatures are arranged in the apses. The 
sanitary appliances and appointments of this room are 
very elaborate and costly, and suggest the pri- 
vate bathing establishment. 

The second-class swimming pool, somewhat 
smaller in size and capacity, is not provided 
either with the outside runway or dressing 
compartments. The bather after entering from 
the street ascends the staircase to the second- 
story balcony where simple racks and hooks 
are provided for his wearing apparel. After 
undressing he descends the staircase to the 
preliminary cleansing wall-showers and then 
to the pool. 

The connecting wings on the first story arc 
I). Disinfecting mainly devoted to retiring compartments, tub- 
Waiting Room. roomSj refreshment and toilet rooms. The 
second floor, main wing, is entirely devoted 
to tub-bath purposes. It may be noted that 




PEOPLES BATH, ESTER- 
HAZY STREET, VIENNA. 

< >. ( iffice. 

Room. W. 

S. Superintendent's Ouar 

ters. T. Toilets. 




FIRST HOOR. » 

1. Men's First Pool. 2. Women's Pool. 
3. Main Hal! and Office. 4. Refreshments. 
5. Hair Dressing Room (women). 6. Retir- 
ing Rooms. 7. Shower Room. S. Spray 
Room. 9. Steam Bath. 10, 11. Hot Air 
Rooms. 12. Men's Second Pool. 13. Tub 
Rooms. 14. Bath Clothes. 15. Prelimi- 
nary Cleansing Rooms. T. Toilets. P. Power 



BATH AT HANNOVER. 
v House. S 



Superintendent's Living 
Quarters. 

SECOND FLOOR 
1 . Men's Pool, Balcony Lockers and Dressing 
Compartments. 2. Women's Pool, Balcony 
Lockers and Dressing Compartments. 3. Men's 
Second Pool, Balcony Lockers. R. Retiring 
Rooms. Superintendent's Ouarters. T, Tub 
Rooms. 



THE B R I CK B U I L D I • R 



53 




ROMAN BATH, MUNICH. 

this large space provides only twenty-eight bath- 
ing units, — so generous an allowance could hardly 
be commended from the standpoint of municipal 
economy. 

As in Germany and England, the first bathing insti- 
tution in Austria was a city river bath, on the Danube, 
at Vienna — some thirty years later than its German pro- 
totype and nearly a hundred years later than the old 
English bath on the Mersey. At the present time Vienna 
is equipped with several bathing institutions provided 
with showers similar to the Berlin baths. The Esterhazy 
Street People's Bath, Vienna, has the advantage of a 
corner location with numerous openings for light and 









M 




PRELIMINARY, CLEANSING ROOM, I'.ATH AT MUNICH. 

air. The waiting room, office, superintendent's quarters 
and a disinfecting room are on the first floor. The bath 
halls are arranged on the second and third floors, and 
the shower compartments and dressing rooms for men 
and boys are in separate halls. The advisability of 
placing the women's baths on the third floor and making 
them of equal capacity to the men's is to be ques- 
tioned. Allowing special provisions for youthful bathers 
is a practice prevalent to-day in Germany as well as 
Austria. 

The public baths of France and the comparatively 
few baths of Southern Europe have little to offer 
us either in design or construction, as in most cases 
they have followed English or German models, which 
have also served as a type for baths in the United 
States. 




men's pool, first class, bath AT MUNICH. 



WOMEN 9 pool, ha I M \i MUNICH. 



54 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




" III IIIIMII I | 






BATH AT MUNICH. 



BATH AT HANNOVER. 





MENS POOL, FIRST CLASS, BATH AT HANNOVER. 



MEN'S POOL, SECOND CLASS, BATH AT HANNOVER. 



On the Buying of Architectural Books. 



BY L. A. WARREN. 



THE American student abroad is apt to be forcibly 
impressed with the variety of good architectural 
publications there within easy reach of a moderately filled 
pocketbook, and if he is ambitious, and appreciates the 
value of books, he is very apt to bring back with 
him as large a working library as his means will 
stand. In the same way the draughtsmen in our Ameri- 
can offices are quite likely to begin the formation of a 
professional library while they are still mere beginners. 
While books are an absolute necessity for a successful 
architect, the immediate need for their possession by a 
student or a draughtsman is to be questioned. In these 
days of most excellent public libraries, when so many 
architects have excellent working collections of books in 
their offices, to which the draughtsmen have free access, 
there is not the slightest real necessity for a young man 
to encumber himself with architectural folios, and his 
money would be spent to far better advantage in sub- 
scribing freely to the American, English, French and 
c.erman architectural publications. Besides, a young 
man is usually in a formative state, he is not likely to 
find himself early, he does not know in which direction 
will lie his greatest opportunities, nor does he know the 
kind of books from which he can draw, nor even surely 



the architectural style which will be his ultimate ex- 
pression. The standard works he can always consult in 
a library. Others he does not yet need, nor know how 
to use. My advice to a young man would therefore be, 
to keep and study the files of at least four of the best 
architectural serials, to buy very sparingly of architectural 
photographs, and to limit his library to a thoroughly 
good edition of Vignola, and a copy in the original of 
(iuadet, if he can read French. Then when he is 
through with the preliminary stage, let him gradually 
accumulate his library as he feels the real need thereof, 
buying only works that can be of actual help in his busi- 
ness, and making them thoroughly his own. And the 
student abroad can well afford to neglect the opportunity 
to buy good boo*ks cheap, for he \vill not need them at first , 
and later on he may find himself loaded up with books 
which he does not want. A compact, small library, 
every volume of which meets a known want, every illus- 
tration catalogued and ticketed both mentally and by a 
proper card index, is a necessity to every architect who 
means to grow and who wants to make the most of him- 
self, but to be of the most value it must accumulate slowly 
as his practice grows, and must not be encumbered with 
the debris-of youthful, indiscriminate enthusiasm. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



55 



"Homewood" — A Famous Colonial Mansion of Maryland. 

"H 



OMEWOOD," surrounded by sixty acres of 
wooded land, and having one of the finest loca- 
tions in Baltimore, is considered the best example of 
Colonial architecture in Baltimore County. It was, how- 
ever, built much later than the Colonial period and was 
the last of the well-known brick Colonial houses of the 
South, which may account for its refinement. It is also 
the farthest north of any of the houses of this class. 



over which still remain parts of an old brklge. The 
entrance was from the York Road and through what is 
known as Madman's Lane; the estate now very 
much reduced in area — is entered from Charles 
Street Avenue, only a few hundred yards from the east 
front. 

A short driveway under tall trees leads to a flight 
of wide, marble steps, guarded on either side by a wrought 




"HOMEWOOD," BALTIMORE, MARYLAND. 



Colonial houses 
show a marked dif- 
ference in Mary- 
land and Virginia 
from those farther 
north, — in the 
North, they were 
built on small es- 
tates, while in the 
South they are on 
very large estates. 
It is a low, 
rambling building 
one hundred and 
forty feet long, 
with the principal 
front facing south- 
east and opening 
onto a large lawn 
which is terraced 
down to a brook, 



' l 

3?f i 



' 



Bmm. 



M ■ % 

'r-,7 




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— ~i 



£ 







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■ 



HOMEWOOD 



SCAi.r in rr-r 









iron balustrade, 
covered with 
honeysuckle. 
These steps lead 
to the marble 
pavement of the 
porch, which is the 
keynote of the de- 
sign. The wood 
columns are un- 
usually delicate 
and refined, as is 
the general detail 
of the porch and 
entrance, the 
pediment. richly 
ornamented in 
cast stucco, has no 
equal in any of the 
older houses, and 
the real charm of 



56 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



57 




: UXU- 5 llHl?lI B *Jll!JL f J^^'!»f ? ffj 



» *. J^y * *£.> * » ' ■ 




aujtjacj ? ? y f j j jx x 



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jtag-'. 



— ~ 










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i-.-l 





DETAILS OF " H0MEWO0D." 





58 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



" Homewood " lies in the liberal handling of unusual 
and refined detailr- In general, the design shows the 
influence of the Annapolis and James River houses. 
Here the designer breaks away from architectural tradi- 
tions, and influences a style of detail that is found gener- 
ally in old Baltimore houses, such as " Montebello," 
built only a few years after. 

The exterior walls are of small, red brick laid in 
Flemish bond with sills and stone courses of a light, soft 
stone. In the north and south connecting wings are 
most carefully built brick arches, over the Paladian 
windows, — the semi-circular arch springing from the 
flat arch, all having the same center and being self- 



rooms being on the ground floor. The chimney-pieces 
show quite the same refinement and free design as the 
exterior, and they are of a very marked difference in the 
various rooms. All the ornament throughout the entire 
house is cut in wood. Fine geometrical designs, bead- 
ing and fluting are freely and effectively employed. The 
visitor is much impressed with the finish and graining 
of the doors, which are pine, but generally taken for 
mahogany. 

" Homewood " was built in 1H03 by Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton, as a residence for his son, Charles Carroll, Jr., 
who, in 1800, had married Miss Harriet Chew of Phila- 
delphia. On the death of Charles Carroll, of " Home- 




THE STABLE, "HOMEWOOD. 



supporting. There still hangs at the left of the east 
entrance the cast-iron seal of the fire company of long ago. 

The entrance is through two sets of doors, the outer 
of glass and the inner of wood, opening into a large, 
square entrance hall, screened from the main corridor 
by a glass door and side lights with a leaded glass 
transom. 

A corridor extends through the length of the house 
from the kitchen to the chapel. In the corridor and 
entrance hall are wood arches, finely wrought by the 
skilled workmen of the time. An enclosed stairway 
leads from the garden entrance hall to the second story, 
where there are but four bedrooms, — most of the bed- 



wood," his son, Col. Charles Carroll, inherited the estate, 
and later, on the death of his grandfather, in 1832, Col. 
Carroll inherited Doughoragan Manor, in Howard 
County, where he made many alterations and took up 
his residence. On December 20, in 1839, " Homewood " 
was conveyed to Samuel Wyman, who made it his resi- 
dence during the remainder of his life. His son William 
inherited the property about 1877, and conveyed it to the 
Johns Hopkins University in February, 1902. The new 
buildings of the University are to be built around the 
present house and are to be in the same style. The old 
mansion is to be used for the residence of the president 
of the University. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



59 



An Interesting Bungalow. 

BY W. H. ANSELL. 

UNDOUBTEDLY the most successful bungalow is 
one that has been designed with a governing idea, a 
root motive, so that the purpose of the building is obvious- 
ly expressed in its planning. 

The illustrations show such 
an one. It was planned for a 
man of moderate wealth, who, 
whilst wishing to get away 
from the conventionalities and 
restrictions of city life, had 
the intention of "roughing it" 
in comparative comfort, and 
of keeping his bungalow well 
filled for a great part of the 
year with young and lively 
company. 

The whole of one end of 
the central part opens to the veranda, which has, on 
either side, deep, shady lounge bays. Meals will be often 
served in these bays, and to facilitate this a door com- 
municates from the kitchen to 
the veranda. 

The other end of the liv- 
ing-room has a small stairway 
leading to a minstrel's gallery, 
where the fiddlers play when 
the hall is cleared for the dance 
or the winter party. The sleep- 
ing arrangements are a fea- 
ture of the planning. From 
the entrance hall two bed- 
rooms are entered, in which 
the married visitors are usu- 
ally accommodated, and at 
either end of the veranda is a 
sleeping apartment, men's 
side and girls' side. 

Each of these apartmentsji 
is divided into three cabins 

by thin concrete partitions. One side of the cabins is 
fitted with two hanging bunks which can be unhooked 
and taken down. At the end of the bunks is a roomy 
wardrobe or cupboard fitted 
with shelves above and hang- 
ing space below. Opposite the 
bunks are hinged seats which 
fold flat against the wall when 
not in use. Outside the ward- 
robe are strong shelves where 
trunks and bags may be stored. 
The fitting of mirrors with 
convenient shelves for brushes 
completes the furnishing of 
men's side and girls'side which 
thus require no movable furni- 
ture whatever, but are ready 
at any time for guests. As 
each cabin is six feet wide and 
has its own door and window 
it can be made into a private 






ELEVATION 



=£= 



OUT HOUSC 




PLAN Or BUNGALOW 



room. To minimize the amount of service required, 
wash basins are fitted in a bay with high windows, and 
at the end of the compartment, approached through a 
cut-off lobby, is the sanitary adjunct which contains a 
shower bath. 

The outside walls are brick whitewashed, and as even 
so simple an operation as 
whitewashing is not always 
done in the best manner, save, 
perhaps, when the genius of a 
Tom Sawyer directs the pro- 
ceedings, it may be as well to 
specify how this was done. 
Unslaked lime was used, 
mixed in small quantities, 
and while the ebullition was 
going on a generous allowance 
of Russian tallow was stirred 
in, and the hot preparation 
applied immediately to the 
walls. Two coats of this made the exterior like a duck's 
back, so far as throwing off the water was concerned. 
The walls inside were plastered. The living-room 
depends for its effect on its 
shape, a Greek cross, its sim- 
ple, big-arched recesses over 
table and fireplace, and the 
air of mystery attendant on 
the minstrel's gallery over- 
head. The fire is open, with 
small brick hobs on which the 
log ends rest. The mantel- 
piece is formed with thin red 
bricks wide-jointed, and a 
shelf of the same thick red 
tiles with which the whole 
recess is paved. The wall 
above is divided into panels, 
which have tiles set edgewise 
in diamond and hexagonal 
shapes. On the center panel 
is hung a dull gleaming 
copper targe, in which the flickering candles are 
reflected. 

The side seatsof oak, left clean from the tool with ends 
shaped like old settles, have 
boxes under, in which many 
things are stored, from golf 
clubs to Wagnerian opera. 

The furniture of the liv- 
ing-room almost demands a 
special article to itself. With 
the exception of the grand 
piano it was made to the 
architect's designs by the vil- 
lage wheelwright, and some of 
the fine craftsmanship that 
one finds in the old farm 
wagons is also found here. 
In short, simplicity, but not 
dullness or monotony, has 
been the root motive, the 
governing idea of the whole. 



JL 



6o 



THE BRICKUILDER 



A Fireproof Building Which was 
Fireproof. 

THE Exchange Club, Boston, was erected a dozen or 
more years ago from the designs of Henry B. Ball, 
architect, and is occupied entirely as a dining club. It 
is of burnt clay fireproof construction throughout, the 
only wood appearing being limited chiefly to the trim 
and to the floors. There are dining-rooms on each story, 
all of them supplied from a central serving-room in each 
story, the serving- rooms of the various stories being con- 
nected by lines of dumb waiters. 

On the tenth of February fire broke out in the serving- 
room in the third story. This room 
has no outside light of any descrip- 
tion, being entirely surrounded by 
the dining-rooms and service cor- 
ridors. The fire had as much oppor- 
tunity to spread as would ever occur 
in a building of fireproof construc- 
tion. The pantry shelves and much 
of the fittings of the room were of 
wood, and of course the floors and 
door finish were likewise of the same 
material. The fire rapidly spread 
from the third story through each 
floor above, communicating by 
means of the dumb-waiter shaft. 
The enclosures of these shafts were 
of terra cotta, but in each story was 
an opening, with wooden doors, and 
the elevator cars and guides were of 
wood. The vertical opening was 
not fire stopped at any level. 

The interior of the serving-room 
on each story was almost entirely 

gutted. The fire department managed to keep the fire 
under very good control without using a great deal of 
water, most of the extinguishing being done by 
the use of chemicals. The fire spread out in the 
corridors adjoining the serving-rooms, destroyed wood 
finish and partly damaging the upper floors in places; 
though in no case did the fire spread so as to de- 
stroy the finish for a distance of more than fifteen or 
twenty feet beyond the serving-rooms. A great deal of 
damage was done by smoke, necessitating the entire re- 




THE EXCHANGE 
Photograph take 



finishing of the building throughout. All the doors to 
the dumb-waiter shaft were consumed, and the cars en- 
tirely disappeared. With their customary disregard of 
nice finish, the firemen did a good deal of damage by un- 
necessarily smashing doors and cutting away at finish. 
The total loss to the building, however, was only about 
twenty-five thousand dollars, and this loss was confined 
entirely to the finish, the structural damage being abso- 
lutely nothing. Since the fire, in making the repairs, 
the dumb-waiter shafts have been entirely closed. 

This affords an excellent illustration of the value of 
fireproof construction. Here were all the conditions 
favorable to a bad fire; the interior room, none too easy 
of access by the firemen, in a portion of the building 
where an incipient fire might easily 
be overlooked, with rather more than 
the ordinary amount of combustible 
material ready at hand for the flames. 
The fire while it lasted, and in the 
location where it started, was hot 
enough to do a good deal of damage ; 
and had this building been of second- 
class construction, and had the fire- 
proofing construction been any less 
thorough than it was, there would 
undoubtedly have been a very serious 
loss. It was the fireproof construc- 
tion that saved it, and the principal 
damage was to paint and plaster, by 
mere smoke and water. 

We have had a number of exam- 
ples within a short time of fireproof 
buildings which were not fireproof. 
The value of fireproofing methods 
has been brought severely into ques- 
tion, and their real efficiency has 
been questioned. It is, of course, 
impossible to fireproof the contents of any building, 
but the Exchange Club shows how a fire can be re- 
stricted to the rooms in which it starts or into the spaces 
immediately adjoining. No one would say that a 
dumb waiter should be equipped with wooden doors, 
but barring this one fault, which enabled the fire to 
spread rapidly through three stories, the Exchange Club 
fire abundantly demonstrated the value of fireproof con- 
struction when properly applied and understandingly 
employed. 



CLUB, BOSTON 
n after the fire. 



The Schoolhouse Fire at Cleveland. 

THE horror in the Collin wood School at Cleveland is 
being held up as a warning. But for whom? As 
in many other disasters there is danger that the warning 
will lose its effectiveness by its lack of a definite objective. 
The people have been warned repeatedly against improp- 
erly constructed schoolhouses, against defective means of 
exit, dangerous heating apparatus, lack of fire drill, over- 
crowding, etc. No further warning is needed on these 
points. What the public needs now is a lesson in the duty 
and responsibility in government, says the Boston Her- 
ald editorially. Some authority was responsible for the 
conditions which existed in that Cleveland schoolhouse. 
There was criminal neglect in the light of every-day 



knowledge of what constitute proper and safe conditions. 
That responsibility should be fixed and a proper penalty 
imposed upon the officials who neglected their duty. Ir" 
out of this disaster there can be read to public officials an 
emphatic lesson of duty and ademonstration of the penalty 
that justice demands for neglect, the warning of the 
holocaust may not be without its effect. There can be 
no excuse in these days, for schoolhouses with improper 
fire escapes, or with but a single commodious exit. 
There should be no toleration for schoolhouses with 
heating apparatus located directly under the main stair- 
way or with doors opening inward or with passageways 
so narrow as to invite congestion and panic. In these 
days of fireproof construction why should tinder boxes 
be used for the housing of school children? 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



61 




62 



T HE BR I C K B U I L DE R 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



ARCHITECTS might, perhaps, find advantage in 
concerted action to protect themselves against the 
practice, which is rapidly growing among contractors 
and dealers, of trying to hold them responsible for work 
done, or materials furnished, for their clients or for other 
contractors. Where a piece of work involves a number 
of small contracts it is not at all unusual for the architect 
to find that at least one-half the bills sent to him for ap- 
proval are made out against him personally, although it 
has been perfectly understood from the first that he was 
acting in behalf of a client whose name was known to all 
the parties concerned. In the great majority of cases 
the architect corrects or approves the bill, without notic- 
ing, perhaps, the name to which it is charged, or wishing 
to save the time and trouble required for sending it back 
to be made out to the proper person ; and it is paid in 
due course, together with the bills properly made out. 
Legally, this is safe enough, as many decisions of the 
courts have held that where an architect, known to be 
such, orders goods or work for a principal whose name 
he gives, or is ready to give if it is asked, the principal 
only, and not the architect, can be held liable for the 
price of the goods or work. Notwithstanding the legal 
aspect of the case, the practice in question is con- 
fessedly adopted by contractors, not through inadver- 
tence, as is sometimes pretended, but with the object 
of holding the architect in some way responsible for 
payment of the price of the goods or work. Even if he 
is not legally bound, he may not know his rights, and it 
is easier for contractors or dealers in materials to hold 
the threat of a lawsuit over him than to inquire for them- 
selves, as the courts have decided is their duty, into 





WORCESTER COUNTY INSTITUTION FOR SAVINGS, WORCESTER, MASS 

Winslow & Bigelow, Architects. 

View from Gallery, showing (iuastivino Dome. 



INTERIOR OF DOME, WESTMORELAND COUNTY COURTHOUSE, 

GREENSBURG, PA. 

• Built of Terra Cotta made by Northwestern Terra Cotta Co. 

William Kauffman, Architect 

the solvency of the real purchaser before they deliver 
the goods or do the work. Of late years this disposition 
to hold the architect as guarantor of contracts has 
increased to such an extent that an architect who 
endeavors to secure the best results for his clients by 
subdividing their contracts exposes himself to ruin. 
We hear a great deal from the smaller contractors of the 
bad results of erecting buildings by huge blanket 

contracts, and architects understand as well 

as anybody the disadvantages, artistic and 
practical, of doing so; but until the smaller 
contractors are willing to keep within their 
legal rights, and treat architects as the friends 
and advisers of both parties, and not as the 
guarantors of the agreements that their clients 
make through them, they must expect to fall 
into the position of subcontractors, which they 
dislike so much, and with so much reason. It 
is true that there are many contractors and 
dealers in materials who recpgnize and value 
the true position of architects in relation to 
themselves and the owners of buildings. It 
would be unjust to class them with the people 
who try to obtain over unguarded members 
of the profession a hold which may, they 
think, guarantee them against the conse- 
quences of their own business incapacity ; and 
the various associations of architects, local 
and otherwise, might do much to protect 
themselves, as well as to promote the in- 
terests of the contractors and dealers who are 
willing to treat them honorably, by keeping 
lists of those who charge goods or work to 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



63 




the architect, instead of to the 
client or contractor, in order that 
they may be avoided ; with, pos- 
sibly, a list of those who are will- 
ing- to promise that, in conformity 
with the law, if the architect, on 
request, gives the name of the 
client or contractor for whom the 
service is to be done, they may, 
after further inquiry, refuse to do 
it, notifying the architect at once 
of their action, but that they will 
look for payment solely to the 
client, or the contractor or his 
bondsmen, as the case may be, 
and never to the architect. 



EDISON'S CAST HOUSE. 



THE] 
con 



5RE will be a grain of 
comfort come to those archi- 
tects who feared that Mr. Edison, 
with his buy-a-mold-and-some- 
cement-and-build-your-owmhouse 
invention, would deprive them of 
what little comes their way now, 
— if what a correspendent in 
Cement and Engineering News 
states is correct. He says: 

"There appeared recently in 
your publication an article concerning the 'Edison Molded 
Concrete House,' stating that a two-story structure can 
be erected for a little over $1,000, that it can be cast 
in twelve hours (after mold is in place), that the mold 
can be removed in six days, that in another six days it 
will be ready for occupancy, that at the same time all 
interior and exterior ornaments, as well as the bath tub, 
mantels, stairs and partitions, will be cast, etc., etc. 



TERRA COTTA FIGURE 
FOR THEATER AT 

SCRANTON, PA. 

Conkl in g- Armstrong 

Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

A. E. Westover, Architect. 




WSBSk 



regEsfifiKil 




CITY HALL, SOUTH BEND, IND. 
Built of Hydraulic Press Brick. 



DETAIL OF BRICKWORK, MCLEAN HOUSE, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

John Russell Pope, Architect. 
The brick were furnished by the New York office of Fiske & Co. 

"Nobody would welcome such an invention more than 
the writer — but, being an expert in the artificial stone 
line, and especially in concrete, with an experience 
covering a period of over forty years, I state most em- 
phatically that it will be impossible to accomplish this. 

" I cannot go into all details here, but will mention a 
few reasons in support of my statements and warn the 
public not to be too hasty in accepting Mr. Edison's 
claims. 

"It is surprising that not more dissenting voices have 
been heard. Are there so few real experts in this line 
of business, or do they fear to come forth to dispute the 
opinion of so great a man as Mr. Edison ? To fill such a 
' House Mold ' it will be necessary to have a very thin 
mixture of cement, so thin that it will tlow freely. 
Thus, it will be seen that the aggregates will settle at 
the bottom, and the water, taking with it the fine parts 
of the cement, will come to the top and also ooze out of 
all joints (because no iron 
mold composed of so 
many parts is absolutely 
watertight). The scum, 
which always forms, will, 
of course, go to the top, 
into ornaments and espe- 
cially undercuts. The 
walls of the mold will 
neither absorb moisture 
nor air, therefore little air 
bubbles will form all over 
the smooth iron mold. 
Two aggregates will ob- 
struct many places, and 
large and small holes are 
the result. A great deal 
of mending and patching 
would have to be done, 
which may cost as much 

or more than the first cost 

FAIENCE PANEL EXE< I ihi BY 

of the building. Besides rookwooi. pottery co. 

this, SUCh a patched-up Frank M. Andrews, Architect. 




6 4 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 




house will not 
look good, 
even when 
done by ex- 
perts. 

"Next, it is 
impossible 
that this house 
will dry out in 
six days, nor 
even in thirty, 
and if the con- 
crete is not kept damp for a considerable time, say fifty 
to sixty days, the final setting will not take place 
properly, shrinkage and air cracks resulting. 

" In my opinion, it will take at least three months, 
after curing, before this house would be dry enough for 
occupancy. 

"How about floors, doors and windows? None of 



OFFICE OF GLIDDEN VARNISH CO., 

CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

Roofed with French A Tile made by Ludowici- 

Celadon Co. 



temporarily lo- 
cated in Ha- 
vana, writes as 
follows concern- 
ing the condi- 
tions, architec- 
turally, as he 
finds them 
there: "The 
high rental of 
buildings in 
Cuba, of which 
there is con- 
stant com- 
plaint, is due 
primarily to the fact that nearly all of the buildings 
are but one story in height. The owner of the property 
in order to get a proper revenue on his investment 
must charge exceedingly high rental for the single story. 




HOUSE AT WASHINGTON, D. C. 

George O. Totten, Architect. 

Roofed with Edwin Bennett's Roofing Tile. 




DETAILS EXECUTED IN TERRA COTTA FOR ST. CATHERINES R. C. CHURCH, SOMERVILLE, MASS., 

BY ATLANTIC TERRA COTTA CO. 

Maginnis & Walsh, Architects. 



them can be put in place before the concrete is dry, 
otherwise they will warp, especially the floors, to such 
an extent that they will have to be replaced. 

" Much more could be said in contradiction, but time 

and space for- 
bid it." 




HOUSE AT FORT THOMAS, KY. 

Gordon Sheppard, Architect. 

Roofed with American "S" Tile, made by 

Cincinnati Roofing Tile and Terra Cotta Co. 



BUILDING 

OPPORTU- 
NITIES IN 
CUBA. 

ACORRE- 
SPOND- 
E N T to 
The Brick- 
builder, now 



If there were one or more additional stories to the building 
rents would be less. I believe that the people who will 
go into this pro- 
ject of putting 
up some double 
apartment 
houses in Cuba 
will derive rich 
returns within 
a few years. 
The conditions 
of the country 
warrant im- 
provements in 
the building 
line; — real 
estate is in 
good shape. 




THE ROBERTSON APARTMENT, CINCINNATI, 

OHIO. 

Joseph Steinkamp & Brother, Architects. 

Built of Shawnee Brick, made by Ohio Mining 

and Manufacturing Co. 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



65 



New building construction is going 
on in every direction. Artisans and 
workmen of all kinds are fully em- 
ployed. The average house and com- 
mercial building of the Cuban is 
simple in detail, but numerous ad- 
ditions have been made since the 
original structures were put up, and 
piecing out has added to the intricate 
arrangement. The poorer classes 
are crowded together in the queer 
Cuban combination apartment 
houses. These light structures are 
constructed with a view to acquir- 
ing as much room as possible for a 
large number of people. The build- 
ing itself is usually a large oblong 
affair with quite a liberal size court 
in the center. On either side of this 
court are the several apartments. 
Often only one room is possessed by 
a family and frequently these fam- 
ilies have a large number of chil- 
dren. This crowded condition is to 
be deplored but cannot be avoided 
so long as better and more roomy 

apartments cannot be had at equal prices. As practically 
all of these structures are but one story there is not a 
very large number of people 
to the acre after all. Cuba 
is waiting for some one with 
enough enterprise to come 
here and put up roomy 
structures for the rich and 
for the poor which can be 
rented or sold at reasonable 
prices. Rents have doubled 
since the American occupa- 
tion, due to the fact that there is a greater demand for 
houses. As to building materials, the Cuban brick 
is not up to date in any respect but can be used if 
required. It is larger than the American type and 
cruder in every way. Nearly all of the brick build- 
ings are cemented over so that the appearance of 
the brick facing does not matter very much. Con- 
siderable lumber is imported 
from America, but prices 
necessarily rule high, due to 
the cost of transportation. 
Builders' hardware is another 
item which adds to the expense 
of building here. Skilled and 
unskilled workmen are to be 
had in plenty, and there are 
many native artisans. Wages 
average about even with those 
paid in America, if anything 
a little lower." 




CHURCH OF ST. ALOYSIUS, JERSEY CITY, N. J. 

Charles Edwards, Architect. 

The 200 tons of Architectural Terra Cotta used 

in this building were supplied by the New 

York Architectural Terra Cotta Co. 



ship will be held in Boston beginning 
April 13. Anyone who has been em- 
ployed during two years in profes- 
sional work in the Massachusetts 
office of an architect resident in the 
state is eligible for the competition. 
Preliminary examinations are held 
in History of Architecture, Con- 
struction, French, and Drawing from 
the Cast. Graduates from a regularly 
accredited architectural school may 
present their diplomas in lieu of 
these examinations. Those who are 
successful in the preliminary ex- 
aminations will be admitted to the 
final competition in Design upon 
which the award will be made. The 
successful candidate receives $1,000 
per year for two years, to be ex- 
pended in study and travel abroad. 
Further details may be obtained upon 
application to C. H. Blackall, Secre- 
tary, 20 Beacon Street, Boston. 



FOR 



W 1 




DETAIL FOR MARYLAND HOTEL, ST. LOUIS 

A. B. Groves, Architect. 

Winkle Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 




DETAIL BY R. H. 

HUNT, ARCHITECT. 

American Terra Cotta 

Co., Makers. 



ROTCH TRAVELING 
SCHOLARSHIP EXAMI- 
NATIONS. 
*HE examinations for the 
Rotch Traveling Scholar- 




T\ 



DETAIL HY NEW 
JERSEY TERRA 

COTTA CO. 

L. A. (ioldstone, 

Architect. 



BUILDING OPERATIONS 
FEBRUARY. 
HILE the building depression incident to the 
recent currency stringency, which shortened the 
supply of money for build- 
ing operations and also de- 
veloped a waiting policy, 
still continues, there is an 
improvement in some quar- 
ters, which contains much of 
encouragement. Official re- 
ports from some fifty cities 
received by Tht American 
Contractor, New York, and 
tabulated, show a total falling off of $$ per cent, or 
practically one-third, as compared with the oper- 
ations of February, 1907. The loss, amounting to 
about fourteen million dollars, is nearly accounted 
for in the decrease in New York and San Fran- 
cisco, amounting to more than twelve million 
dollars. Chicago holds up remarkably, showing 
a gain of 9 per cent, while the 
total value of permits issued is 
but little more than a million dol- 
lars less than those issued in 
Greater New York. 

Among the other cities showing 
gains are the following: Bridge- 
port, 39; Cincinnati, 29; Denver, 
18; Milwaukee, 87; Minneapolis, 
33; Omaha, 6; Philadelphia, 27; 
Paterson, 61; St. Louis, 9; Spo- 
kane, 149; Syracuse, 140; Salt 
Lake City, 63. The following 
figures show the percentage of 
loss in leading cities: Baltimore, 
26; Buffalo, 20; Columbus, 53; 
Davenport, 61 ; Dallas, 42; Detroit, 
61 ; Duluth,26; Grand Rapids, 53; 
Hartford, 63; Indianapolis, 4; 




DETAIL r.v 
J. W. ROYER, 
ARCH1 1 I 
Indianapolis 

Ten 

Makers. 



66 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



Kansas City, n; Louisville, 9 ; Los Angeles, 46; Mem- 
phis, 44; Mobile, 42; New York, 59; Pittsburg, 25; Ro- 
chester, 55; St. Paul, 52; San Francisco, 66; Seattle, 50; 
Toledo, 50; Washington, 11. 



at Rocky Hill, 
New Jersey. 



MAIN DOME, WESTMORELAND COUNTY 
COURTHOUSE. 

THIS dome is built of polychrome and gold enamel 
terra cotta, both inside and out. The outside, par- 
ticularly in sunlight, is of unusual richness in tone. The 
inside is one of the most perfect examples of terra cotta 
construction ever produced. The lines, colors and gild- 
ing are ideal in all respects. The dome is weatherproof 
and will not sweat. The outside shell of the dome is 
constructed of steel, covered with cement, which in turn 
is covered by the terra cotta. The inside is a natural 
dome, built of terra cotta blocks without skeleton. The 
spandrels, cornices and arches below the dome proper on 
the inside are also built of terra cotta. The courthouse, 
of which William Kauffman is architect, is located at 
(ireensburg, Pa. The terra cotta was executed by 
The Northwestern Terra Cotta Company. 




DETAIL BY SOUTH 
CO. E. G So 



ST. AMBROSE CHURCH, BROOKLYN 

GEORGE H. STREETON, ARCHITECT. 

THE terra cotta decorations on the 
front of this building are of a 
character in accordance with the high- 
est development of the use of this 
method of architectural treatment, both 
as to style and execution. The design 
has been carefully studied with the end 
in view of the adaptability of poly- 
chrome terra cotta for producing the 
desired architectural effects. The work 
has been kept mostly fiat as to projec- 
tions and relief, and the desired final results obtained 
by the rich colors of the terra cotta. Much of the orna- 
ment is very fine and rich and has been brought out by 
the use of three and sometimes four colors on a single 
piece. The figure panels (of which there are several), 
the ornamental corner pilasters and the main cornice 
are extremely rich in effect and are most successful as 
showing what can be accomplished by the proper em- 
ployment of polychrome terra cotta. This building is 
sure to prove a stimulus in the matter of creating an in- 
creasing 
demand 
for this 
kind of 
material. 
The 
terra 
cotta 
was 
made 
by the 
Atlantic 
Terra 
Cotta 
C o m - 

ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, CITY HOSPITAL, " ^ . 

ST. LOUIS. James A. Smith, Architect. their 

Terra Cotta by St. Louis Terra Cotta Co. plant 




NEW BOOK. 

Analysis of 
Mixed Paints, 

Color Pig- 
ments and 
Varnishes. 
By Clifford 
Dyer Holley, 
M. S., Ph. D., 
New York: 
John Wiley & 
Sons. 

Each method 

given in this 

work has been 

tested out in 

the author's 

laboratory and 

its working 

value thoroughly demonstrated. The various analyses 

given are believed to be representative of the composi- 
tion of the pigments they illustrate, and 
it is hoped that they will be of service 
in enabling the analyst to pass on paint 
products with fairness to both the 
manufacturer and the consumer. 



JEWISH TEMPLE, COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

Jacob S. Goldsmith, Architect. 

Built of " Ironclay " Brick. 



AMBOY TERRA COTTA 
uthey, Architect. 




IN GENERAL. 
W. R. B. Willcox. formerly of Bur- 
lington, Vt, and W. J. Say ward, until 
recently connected with the office of 
McKim, Mead & White, have formed a 
co-partnership for the practice of archi- 
tecture and located at Seattle, Wash. Their offices are 
in the Arcade Annex. 

J. F. Sheblessy, architect, formerly of Louisville, Ky., 
has formed a copartnership with S. E. I >esjardins, under 
the firm name of Desjardins & Sheblessy, offices, Fourth 
National Bank Building, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

The Four Year Course. Full professional training (with an option in 
Architectural Kngineering) leading to the degree of B. S. in 
Architecture. Advanced standing is offered to college graduates 
or the two degrees of A. B. and I!. S. in Architecture can be 
taken in six years. 

The (iraduate Year affords opportunity for advanced work in design 
and other subjects of the course leading to the degree of M. S., 
in Architecture. 

The Two Year Special Course. For qualified draughtsmen. Offers 
advanced technical training with a Certificate of Proficiency. 

For Full Information address Dr. J. H. Penniman, Dean of the College, 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

POSITION WANTED —Architect, 28, University graduate, ex- 
perienced in practical office work and superintendence, returning 
from foreign travel and study, wishes permanent engagement, with 
future prospects as superintendent of construction, practical busi- 
ness manager or representative with architect or construction com- 
pany. Address University Graduate, care THE BRICKBUILDER. 

POSITION WANTED by architectural draughtsman with 
special college training and ten years' office experience in designing 
and detail work in both the East and the West. Would like posi- 
tion where there is opportunity for advancement. Can furnish the, 
best of references. Address "Indiana," In care of "THE 
BRICKBUILDER." 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 3. PLATE 31. 



\ «, 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 3. PLATE 32. 




ST. AMBROSE R. C. CHURCH. TOMPKINS AVE.. BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
George H. Streeton, Architect. 













^ 



-V~\ 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 3. PLATE 33. 




FDO/1T ELEVATIO/1 



5ECTIO/1 THBOTEO/1T 
ELEVATION 



ST. AMBROSE R. C. CHURCH, TOMPKINS AVE., BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
George h. Streeton. Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 3. PLATE 34. 







■ .J^-i 




SIDE ELEVATION 
AND 

FIRST FLOOR PLAN, 

ST. AMBROSE R. C. CHURCH, 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

GEORGE H. STREETON 
ARCHITECT. 



PLAN OF ST AMBROSE R.-C-CHURCH 
BOEO OF BROOK IXN -NYC- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 3. PLATE 35. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 3. PLATE 36. 








T 




* " *' tcit Lati/j school 
First Floor Pl«/j 





mokkal. School. 
.Second- Fxqor Plan 




ba/cmmt Plan ■ 
model' jchool' 




Thikd T-l°°k, Pl/.a 



PLANS. NORMAL AND LATIN SCHOOL GROUP, BACK BAY FENS. BOSTON. 
Peabody & Stearns, Maginnis, Walsh & Sullivan, Coolidge & Carlson, Associated, Architects. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 3. PLATE 37. 




THE BRICKB U ILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 3. PLATE 38. 





HOUSE FOR JOHN R. McLEAN. ESQ., WASHINGTON. D. C. 
John Russell Pope, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 3 PLATE 39 




HOUSE FOR JOHN R. McLEAN, ESQ., WASHINGTON, D. C. 
John Russell Pope, Architect. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 3. PLATE 40. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 

VOL. 17, NO. 3. PLATE 41. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 3. PLATE 42 . 



LCEEl ! 










„^L=«^..^__ 


*1 


• ^Hn utri] mil i — 













NORMAL AND LATIN SCHOOL GROUP. BACK BAY FENS, BOSTON. 

PEABODY & STEARNS. MAGINNIS, WALSH & SULLIVAN, COOL.DGE & CARLSON, ASSOCIATED, ARCHITECTS 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 3. plate 43. 






THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 3. PLATE 44. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVII APRIL 1908 Number 4 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street ... Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1908, by ROGERS & MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ....... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers .................... 50 cents 

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To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union ............... . $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 

PAGE 



Agencies — Clay Products ........ II 

Architectural Faience . . . . . . . . . II 

" Terra Cotta II and III 

Brick . .... .... Ill 



PA'.r 

Brick Enameled Ill and IV 

Brick Waterproofing ......... IV 

Fireproofing .......... IV 

Roofing Tile ..... .... IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

WILLIAM MARTIN AIKEN AND ARNOLD W. BRUNNER, ASSOCIATED; A. S. BELL; WIL 

LIAM A. BORING; DELANO & ALDRICH; HERBERT I). HALE; PARKER, THOMAS & 

RICE; CHARLES BRUEN PERKINS; JAMES GAMBLE ROGERS; SHEPLEV, RUTAN 

& COOLIDGE; WOOD, DONN & DEMING. 



LETTERPRESS 

rAGi 

SOUTH PORTAL. CHURCH OF ST. STEPHAN, TANGERMCNDE, GERMANY Frontispiece 

THE AMERICAN THEATER — V Clarence //. Blackall 

THE PUBLIC BATH III Harold Werner and August P. Windolph 7" 

ARRANGEMENT OF PHOTOGRAPHS AND MAGAZINE PLATES Sidney F Kimball v> 

THE USE OF HOLLOW TILE TERRA COTTA BLOCKS lllustratiom 83,84 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 




SOUTH PORTAL, CHURCH OF ST. STEPHAN, TANGERMUNDE, GERMANY. 




iH<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<v<^<<^<<«<<<<<<v<^<^/<<.>>>>>>v>>>>>w>>>w>>>w>>>>>>>>>>yvv>v»vvvw>>>>>>>ai 



THE BRICKBVILDER 





VOL. 17 



4 



DEVOTEDTOTHE-INTERE3TJ-OF-AHCHITECTVRE-lNMATERlAL^OrCLAY- 



APRIL 1908 



_i 



x 




The American Theater- V. 

HEATING AND VENTILATION. 

BY CLARENCE H. BLACKALI. 



THERE are two theories accepted by engineers in 
regard to the heating and ventilating of a hall of 
audience. One starts with the assumption that the 
fresh air should be introduced into a hall either through 
the ceiling or on the side walls at a considerable height 
above the floor, this air, when cooling, becoming heavier 
and hence dropping to the floor level, whence it should 
be drawn off by exhaust ducts, either in the floor itself 
or in the base at the floor line. This theory further 
asserts that the air near the floor, always being colder 
than the air at a higher level, must necessarily be drawn 
out, in order to keep the lower part of the hall comfort- 
ably warm. The second theory starts on the assump- 
tion that the emanations from a crowd of people, from 
electric and gas lights, are always highly heated in rela- 
tion to the incoming air, and would, therefore, naturally 
ascend to the top of the ceiling, whence they should be 
drawn off at once, in order to preserve the purity of the 
air of the hall. In this system, it follows that the fresh 
air is introduced at the floor level, and the exhaust is 
entirely at the top. The first theory disregards the 
heated emanations from the human body, drawing these 
downward along with the fresh air, and thus compelling 
the spectator to breathe the mixture, in order to get any 
fresh air at all. The second system gets rid of the contam 
inated air at once, at the expense of carrying along with 
it a considerable amount of fresh air entering from 
below. 

The first solution is essentially academic ; the 
second is essentially practical. The best evidence in the 
world that the air in the top of the room is always the 
foulest is afforded by one's nose, and no amount of theory 
can disguise the fact that even under the best circum- 
stances, the air is apt to be worse in the gallery than on 
the ground floor. There is never any difficulty in heat- 
ing an audience room as far as mere temperature is con- 
cerned. The difficulty is always to get rid of impurities 
quickly and without causing drafts. By the overhead 
introduction system, if enough air is brought in, and the 
inlets are distributed sufficiently over the entire ceiling, 
the air of the entire hall can undoubtedly be changed 
completely so as to insure a suitable supply of fairly fresh 
air to every spectator, but this is accomplished at a large 
expense, with a loss of efficiency, and it is extremely 
difficult with this system to avoid drafts. There is a 
good example of this system in one of the most promi- 
nent halls in this country, the heating and ventilation of 



which was designed by and carried out under the supervi 
sion of one of the most eminent New York engineers. 
The air is taken in at the top of the hall, and drawn out 
through registers in the floor of the parquet, the motion 
of the air being forced by an inlet and an outlet fan. 
The installation was a very expensive one in first cost, 
and proved expensive in maintenance. From the very 
opening of the hall complaints were made of drafts. To 
remedy this, more than half the ceiling registers were 
closed, the speed of the fan was cut down one-half, and 
finally half of the plates of the inlet fan were removed, 
but even then there were found to be drafts and the 
ventilation was far from perfect. It is the belief of the 
writer, based upon the most careful examination of 
existing halls in this country and abroad, that the down- 
ward system of heating and ventilation is seldom wholly 
satisfactory and is often absolutely impractical when 
applied to a large hall, entailing unnecessary expense, 
and being most uncertain in operation. The other 
system has been almost invariably found to work satis- 
factorily under varying conditions, to give uniformity of 
temperature, with ample change of air, and to require 
little care when properly installed and automatically 
controlled. 

The building laws of several of our large cities pre- 
scribe a minimum supply per minute of twenty-five cubic 
feet of fresh air for each person accommodated in a hall 
of audience. For an overhead system this might be even 
insufficient, but for a properly arranged natural system, 
with supply below and exhaust above, this has been 
found in practice to be altogether too much. With a 
proper arrangement of the plant, ten cubic feet of air per 
person per minute is all that can safely be introduced 
into a hall and is sufficient to secure perfect heating and 
ventilation throughout. The writer has yet to find an in- 
stallation actually supplying much more than this. When 
provision has been made for a greater supply the 
quantity is almost invariably cut down very materially 
in daily use. Ten feet per minute per person is full 
enough if it really is distributed so as to be available for 
each person, while a hall might be wretchedly ventilated 
which had a supply equal to twenty-five or even fifty 
feet per minute, if that supply were simply allowed to 
enter at one point and go out at another, without ade- 
quate distribution. Furthermore, no plant can be made 
perfect on paper. Air does not always go where it is 
sent even with a fan behind it, and even the most intel- 



68 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



ligently devised system requires careful adjustment in 
operation, for the essential condition is uniformity of 
distribution, and anything like a by-pass of air currents 
or unequal velocities through the ducts is apt to make 
success impossible. 

For the purpose of illustrating more specifically the 
upward system of ventilation, the Colonial Theater, in 
Boston, will be taken as an example. The air is intro- 
duced from out of doors into a basement chamber. Local 
conditions are such that no filtering or straining of the 
air was considered advisable. Beyond this entrance 
chamber the air is carried either through a series of 
steam-heating pipes or around the same by suitable by- 
pass, to a fan chamber, whence the air is forced into the 
space under the main orchestra, the whole of which is 



ating the steam supply to the coils beyond the fan, and 
also operating the by-pass valves. It has been found 
most satisfactory to introduce this air at a temperature 
of between sixty-five and seventy degrees, or about the 
temperature desired in the hall itself. 

From the heating chamber, air escapes into the 
auditorium through openings in the floor connected to 
small chambers formed in the legs of the seats, each seat 
thus having a supply. This is a convenient way of 
masking the air inlets. Another practice is to carry a 
three-inch round pipe up under the center of the seat, 
capping it with a low, bell top, raised an inch or two 
above the floor. The results in either case are essen- 
tially the same. 

It is not enough, however, to introduce air to the 




HEATING AND VENTILATION, MAJESTIC THEATER, BOSTON. 



utilized as a distributing or plenum chamber. The air 
is introduced to this chamber through a single, large 
galvanized iron duct, but inside the wall the duct is split 
up into a number of smaller pipes so arranged that the 
air will surely be carried to all portions of the heating 
chamber under uniform pressure. A better practice 
would be to divide this space by brick partitions into 
not less than three sections, and better six, carrying 
separate air pipes to each section ; these pipes being 
regulated by dampers, so that uniform pressure will be 
maintained in each chamber. The object, of course, is 
to make sure that the air will not take a by-pass, but that 
the warm air issuing into the audience room will enter 
everywhere with equal velocity. 

The temperature of the air is controlled by thermo- 
stats placed in various portions of the auditorium, oper- 



floor of the orchestra. From the fan room, pipes are 
carried to the space under the floor of the balcony. The 
air thence escapes through perforations in the faces of 
each of the risers of the balcony steps. The flow of 
air is regulated by dampers in the basement. 

This constitutes the entire supply system for the 
auditorium. The total area of the supply ducts is pro- 
portioned on a rate of delivery through the outlets of not 
over five feet per second. For the exhaust, a row of 
outlets is arranged around the center of the ceiling, and 
also larger registers in the ceiling at each side and the 
center, over the rear of the gallery. All these openings 
connect directly into the air space immediately over the 
auditorium. To ventilate the pocket under the balcony, 
registers are introduced into the ceiling and exhaust 
pipes carried to the air space over the gallery. This 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



69 



air space in turn is divided into cross sections by the 
lines of steel girders, and these sections are all con- 
nected at one end to an exhaust chamber from which a 
fan draws air and delivers it to a discharge duct carried 
above the roof. 

The area of the exhaust registers in this case was 
made somewhat larger than the area of the inlets. It is 
believed that slightly better results could be obtained if 
the area of the outlet registers were smaller, by, say, five 
per cent, than the combined area of the inlets. It is well 
to maintain a slight plenum in an auditorium, thereby 
checking any tendency to drafts inward from the vestibule 
doors. Also in operation great care has to be taken to 
properly balance the speed of the two fans above and 
below, so that the draft of the up fan will be entirely 
from the heating chamber below, through the audito- 
rium, and not draw on the foyers and corridors. 

This system makes no provision for either washing or 
cooling the air, both of which are very desirable. At an 



throughout an entire auditorium at an even temperature 
not varying more than two degrees anywhere. 

Very often, however, the space under the parquet is 
claimed for dressing-rooms or storage. The second illus- 
tration shows the heating and ventilation recently in- 
stalled under such conditions. The radiation is propor- 
tioned on the basis of 1 foot of heating surface to 100 
cubic feet of space to be heated. Fresh air is introduced 
through twelve direct indirect radiators in side walls 
aggregating 5 2 ° square feet, and through two indirect 
stacks in main floor, one each side on line of the first box, 
each of 1,200 square feet. There are also 770 square feet 
of direct radiation. Such a system would be intolerable 
without the most thorough ventilation, especially as the 
audiences in this particular house are not of the highest 
type and may be allowed to smoke. In the ceiling over 
the standing-up space is a continuous exhaust register 
3 feet wide by 48 feet long. Over the center of the balcony 
are three registers, each 16 by 36 inches, and over the 




HEATING AND VENTILATION, COLONIAL THEATER, BOSTON. 



expense of less than two thousand dollars an air washer 
can be installed outside of the main fan, which would give 
very satisfactory results. The least expensive way to 
cool the air is to keep the receiving tank of the air washer 
partially filled with ice, thereby using ice water to wash 
and consequently to cool the incoming air. When the 
expense is not an item, a more sure way is to use a re- 
frigerating plant to pump cold brine through the pipes 
which are used in cold weather for the steam, but in the 
writer's practice the former method has been found the 
simplest and least expensive, while sufficiently effective. 
The cost of such cooling is approximately half the cost of 
heating the same quantity of air, or for an ordinary the- 
ater under ordinary conditions an average of ten dollars 
per performance. 

The system described has been followed in principle 
in most of our American theaters where the space under 
the auditorium could be spared for a plenum chamber. 

When properly handled and adjusted, thermostatically 
and otherwise, such a system can easily maintain the air 



back of the balcony pocket a continuous register 12 inches 
by 14 feet. In the main ceiling, over the gallery, is a 
continuous register, 18 inches wide by 40 feet long. All 
of these registers are connected to galvanized iron ducts 
and extended, separately as much as practicable, to a 1 io- 
inch exhaust fan above the roof. The steam supply is 
controlled thermostatically and the velocities of air in the 
exhaust regulated by adjustable dampers. 

It has been found in practice that two spots in an 
auditorium are apt to be cold : one, the orchestra pit at 
each end of the stage apron, and the other just in advance 
of the lines of the boxes on each side. Consequently, at 
each of these points it is well to put a certain amount of 
direct radiation. The same result has been accomplished 
by locating exhaust ducts near the floor to draw oft" the 
cold air. 

In the old days when electricity was unknown it was 
quite essential to have an enormous exhaust ventilator 
over the central chandelier and highly desirable to ar- 
range a special vent in connection with each gas jet. 



70 



THE BR ICKU ILDER 



But the introduction of electric light has, of course, 
changed all that. 

The stage itself is usually heated by lines of ij^-inch 
circulation pipes carried entirely around three sides 
of the stage as far as possible and starting not less than 
six feet above the stage level. The amount of this radi- 
ation is largely a matter of judgment and of exposure. 
The total surface, however, should be on a ratio of 
not less than i square foot to each 200 cubic feet of space 
over stage floor behind the curtain, and, in many cases, 
twice that quantity might be insufficient. A good rule is 
to pixt in all one can, and see that the mains and returns 
arelarge enough to double it. The scantily attired artists 
on the stage seldom complain of the heet. 

The ventilation of dressing rooms is accomplished in 
various ways. If, as is unfortunately often the case, the 
rooms have no outside light and air, a fresh supply of 
warmed air must be pumped to them and they must be 
connected to a system of forced exhausts. If they have 



outside windows, the forced supply can be dispensed 
with, in which case the exhaust must be ample and posi- 
tive. In any case the heating and ventilating of these 
rooms must operate independently of the auditorium, as 
the dressing-rooms are used a great deal when the house 
is unoccupied. 

The heating and ventilating of other portions of a 
theater do not present any peculiar problems, other than 
are involved in heating and ventilating ordinary rooms 
or apartments. There are, of course, many variations 
from the system herein described, and each theater pre- 
sents special problems which have to be studied and 
treated individually. The overhead system has never 
developed beyond the stage of interesting experiment. 
It can, of course, be made to work perfectly if space and 
first cost are not to be considered, but it requires such 
extreme care in planning, such discriminating exactness 
in adjustment, and piles up so large a coal bill in opera- 
tion, that few owners will knowingly accept it. 



The Public Bath III. 



THE AMERICAN TYPE. 



BY HAROLD WERNER AND AUGUST P. WINDOI.PH. 



F'ROM 1850, the date of the introduction of the public 
bath in this country, and almost to the close of the 
century, but little attention was given to the subject of 
bath sanitation. Our American municipalities were 
either indifferent, or at any rate did not deem it im- 
perative to establish a system of public baths. A few 
isolated buildings, of the river bath type, poor and crude 
imitations of European models, were in operation ; also 
some primitive buildings equipped with shower baths. 

To better appreciate the conditions at this time, some 
statistics taken in New York and Philadelphia are inter- 
esting. In the former city ninety-six per cent of the 
people of the tenement sections were entirely unprovided 
with bath facili- 
ties, and Philadel- 
phia showed 
eighty-two per 
cent unprovided 
for; in one section 
containing two 
hundred and fifty- 
five thousand 
people only three 
hundred people 
had proper bath- 
ing facilities. The 
cities of the second 
class and towns 
were but little 
better off. 

We have already 
noted that Eng- 
land had long be- 
fore this by legis- 
lative enactment, 
made it manda- 




SWIMMING POOL, BROKAW HALL, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY. 



tory to establish these buildings as an integral part of the 
modern social system. In the early nineties, in response 
to an awakening on the part of our American body politic, 
a movement resulted that may be described as a new social 
spirit, or civic renaissance. The state of New York, after 
considerable discussion, finally consented to give the bath 
movement legislative support, and to provide ways and 
means to furnish proper bathing facilities for the people. 
It is within the last decade that bath building has 
shown some systematic development. Each municipality 
heretofore approached and solved the problem after its 
own fashion, some following inapplicable foreign types, 
but generally, and with more unsatisfactory results, the 

direction of an in- 
competent board 
of local improve- 
ment. No partic- 
ular type has been 
agreed upon as 
being proper, even 
under similar local 
conditions. We 
find in the solving 
of this problem 
that lack of co- 
operation, which 
has been equally 
manifest in other 
matters of civic 
improvement in 
this country. This 
may be due, in a 
measure, to the 
complex character 
of our population, 
and to the size of 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



7* 



Plan or first Floor 




PUBLIC BATH, JOHN JAY PARK, NEW YORK. Stougbton & Stoughton, Architects. 




PUBLIC BATH, EAST ELEVENTH STREET, NEW YORK. Arnold W. Brunner, Architect 



7* 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 





u 1 — n — u i 






-d L 






" Tiiiiiin— r — 


ri 


i 


i '- » 

-H ! 



I I.OOR. 



PUBLIC BATH, DOVER STREET, BOSTON. 
Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 



a country as vast as ours which is in a state of rapid de- 
velopment, but above all to the lack of systematic records 
and comprehensive statistical information on the subject 
of baths. This last factor has been of great assistance to 
Germany in developing a system of baths properly pro- 
portioned to the needs of her people. Foreign cities of 
the first class are often equipped with small bath build- 
ings but in this country the size of the buildings indicates 
fairly accurately the size of the city. We have had the 
advantage of the experimenting on the part of foreign 
authorities and 
have profited by 
their mistakes, and 
while our bath sys- 
tem, even up to the 
present day, is in a 
very experimental 
and indeterminate 
shape, some of our 
individual build- 
ings are, as regards 
sanitation and fit- 
tings, equal to the 
European models 
and are often supe- 
rior in simplicity of 
plan and merit of 
construction. 

It is well to bear 
in mind, however, 
that we have not the 
difficulties of pro- 
viding facilities for 
various classes of 




SWIMMING POOL, PUBLIC BATH, WEST TWENTY-THIRD STRIET, NEW YORK. 



bathers, and the elimination of steam, hot air and vapor 
baths has further simplified the problem. The elaborate 
entrance halls, staircases and rooms devoted to various 
purposes other than bathing, play a comparatively small 
part in the municipal bath establishments in this country, 
the desideratum being to provide the largest proportion 
possible of units devoted solely to bath purposes. 

For convenience we may classify public baths into 
two main groups: the interior baths, including all that 
are enclosed, and which, as a rule, provide facilities for 
all year bathing, and a second group, including seashore 
and river baths and those open to the air. 

We find three distinct types of interior baths: first, 

those equipped with the shower ; second, those equipped 

with the pool; and third, a type combining the other two. 

The building equipped with the shower has up to the 

present time been 
the most favored by 
our municipalities. 
Its many advan- 
tages of economy, 
practicability and 
simplicity have ap- 
pealed to the au- 
thorities, and the 
majority of the 
cities of this country 
having public baths 
have, at least, one 
building of this 
type. 

We have seen 
that the small city 
bath equipped with 
showers has been 
greatly favored by 
the German and 
other continental 
authorities. In 
cities of the first 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



73 




74 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



class the capacity of these buildings rarely exceeds fifty 
units; the larger buildings invariably combine other 
forms of baths with the showers. In this country some of 
our largest institutions are equipped solely with shower 
baths, with a capacity varying from seventy-five to two 
hundred units. 

An excellent example of the modern shower type is 
the John Jay Park Public Bath of New York. The site 
is too near the river and the building being situated at 
the side and not in the heart of the district must be at a 
disadvantage in drawing its patronage ; in fact, many of 
the New York baths are unfortunately situated in this 
respect. The building adjoins the park, however, and 
has the advantage of light and air on three sides. The 
comparatively small waiting rooms and large bathing hall 
space, with a total bathing capacity of one hundred and 
two shower compartments, are in marked contrast to 
foreign buildings of similar capacity, and show the 
strictly utilitarian purposes of the building. It has no 





1 IKST FLOOR. BASEMENT. 

PUBLIC ISATH, CLEVELAND. 
E. H. Beier, Architect. 



BASEMENT. FIRST FLOOR. 

WALTERS PUBLIC BATH, BALTIMORE. 

provision for a laundry, in fact none of the baths of New 
York are so equipped, although the Rivington .Street 
Bath, the first municipal bath in New York, had installed 
a laundry which did not prove successful, and the allotted 
space has since been replaced by shower compartments. 
Some others of our cities have had indifferent results 
with the public laundry; on the other hand, in Baltimore, 
Buffalo, Cleveland and Boston, those baths which are 
equipped with laundries have had fairly successful re- 
sults. In analyzing this matter the success or failure of 
this public facility does not seem to be a question either 
of locality, character of the patronage, or administration, 
— the exact cause as yet remains undetermined. 

We do know that abroad, particularly in England, the 
laundry plays an important and successful part in bath 
economy: it is invariably prominently placed, well venti- 
lated, and its many advantages have appealed to the 
public. We find in this country the laundry relegated to 
the basement in a restricted space and often directly ad- 
joining the boiler room. 

The Dover Street Bath, Boston, is another example of 
the shower type. The shower halls are elevated some ten 
feet above the waiting-room level to provide necessary 
light and air for the laundry. Steam for this bath is 



THE BRICK BU ILDER. 



75 







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ATTENDANT 



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HALL ""» VAlTI/iS {™W 




First Fl°°R. Plaz-i 



BROOK LINK PUBLIC BATH, 



B R O O K L I N K , MASS 



F. JOSEI'lf UNTKRSEE, 



ARCHITECT. 



7 6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





LAV. 



PUBLIC BATH, PHILADELPHIA. 



furnished from a fire 
department building in 
the neighborhood, an 
arrangement which has 
effected a considerable 
saving to the munici- 
pality. 

The Buffalo Muni- 
cipal Bath, situated in a 
tenement district of the 
city, illustrates a some- 
what smaller city bath 
equipped with showers. 
A general waiting room 
J j l t mm-n- ^ or both sexes requires 

different times for bath- 
ing and considerably re- 
duces the efficiency of 
the building, as no more than half of the bathing hall 
capacity can be utilized at one time. 

The Walters Public Bath at Baltimore shows the 
shower halls properly proportioned at a ratio of three to 
one, but the waiting rooms are somewhat inconsiderately 
planned, allowing an equal area for both sexes. The 
building is equipped with a small public and private 
laundry in the basement. 

In a similar type of small city bath at Cleveland we 
find the waiting rooms of equal capacity and the shower 
halls very nearly so. A corner location has allowed a 
special entrance to the laundry in the basement. 

At the other end of the scale in respect to size, and as 
an example of the shower-bath type of large capacity, is 
the East 54th Street Public Bath, New York, now under 
construction. Two stories of shower halls and some 
showers in the gymnasium give a total of two hundred 
and eleven bath units, furnishing a workiug capacity of 
eight thousand baths a day. In order to facilitate the 
circulation of such a large number of bathers, it was con- 
sidered advisable to provide special exit halls. The 
ratio of the bathing hall capacity for the sexes is about 
two and one-half to one. In designing this building the 
architects considered it preferable to provide for one 
hundred and thirty shower bath units and to substitute a 
pool bath for the shower baths omitted. The authorities, 
however, did not consider the pool necessary at the time, 
but now have the matter under consideration. The rela- 
tive value of the pool and shower to the public bath build- 
ing will be discussed in another chapter. 

The second type of the interior bath, in which the 



pool alone serves the bathing purposes of the institution, 
is but rarely used in this country. The only instance 
where this system has been adopted throughout a large 
city is in Philadelphia, which has fifteen luiildings so 
equipped. The baths are not of a strictly modern type 
and are comparatively inexpensive buildings, in most 
cases without proper heating plants. 

The plan of the pool is modeled after the English 
type with the dressing compartments directly off the pool 
runway; adjoining the waiting room is a primitive form 
of a preliminary cleansing bath arranged in an alcove. 
The pools are fed from the Schuylkill River, which is 
an economical arrangement, but at certain seasons of the 
year, when the river holds considerable deposits in sus- 
pension, the pools are not particularly inviting, as the 
baths have no filters. In spite of these objections the 
baths have served their purposes well, as is amply proved 
by a yearly attendance of five million bathers. 

There are a few other isolated examples of the pool 
bath type which are similar in general plan and arrange- 
ment to the Philadelphia baths and call for no special 
comment. 

The third type, the combination of the pool and 
shower bath, is rapidly growing in favor in this country, 
and will, eventually, in the opinion of the writers, displace 
the other two forms, except in those instances where it is 
desirable to provide baths of very small capacity. 

( >ne of the earliest ex- 
amples of this type in this 
country is the Municipal 
Bath at Brookline, Mass. 
This building closely fol- 
lows foreign precedent and 
its similarity in general 
plan to the yuedlinburg 
Bath is very marked. The 
pool bath units as compared 
to the showers are propor- 
tionately much larger than 
in the German prototype, 
the pool bath providing 
more than eighty per cent 
of the capacity. 



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ORANGE STREET BATH, ALBANY, N. Y. 



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THE BRICK BUILDER 



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78 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



A general waiting-room gives access to the shower 
hall, the beginner's pool and the large pool. The plan 
of the plunge room also shows the use of the outside and 
inside gangways, the dressing compartments opening 
directly into both gangways. 
Such an arrangement allows 
the bathers to dispense with 
the form of the preliminary 
cleansing baths, and in the 
orderly town of Brookline this 
lack of control probably causes 
the superintendent no serious 
inconvenience, but, as a rule, 
this privilege would be abused 
and would certainly result in 
confusion. 

The Orange Street Bath at 
Albany, with a pool room of 
similar capacity, shows that 
this particular difficulty has 
been overcome. The bather 
must pass through the pre- 
liminary cleansing showers 
before entering the pool. The 
plunge room, however, has 
the disadvantage that we 
noted in the Stuttgart Bath — 
an isolated position at the 
extreme end of the plot. 
Another serious objection is 
the entrance corridor provid- 
ing access to both the plunge 
room and the shower halls . 

Another example of the 
pool and shower type, with a 
considerably larger capacity, 
is the Cabot Street Bath, Bos- 
ton (see plate 50), where bath- 
ing facilities are provided for 
on three floors. The general waiting room is directly off 
the street level, and a staircase leads to the plunge room 
below the level of the waiting room, another to the 
spectators' balcony above this level, a third to the 
shower hall in a mezzanine 
story and a fourth to the 
gymnasium above. 

While admitting that this 
arrangement has the advan- 
tage of a single point of con- 
trol from the main office, it 
certainly would not be suc- 
cessful during rush hours in 
the tenement sections of New 
York or other cities of the 
first class. The situation is 
further complicated by 
having one waiting room for 
both sexes, a difficulty which 
we have seen may be over- 
come by allotting special times for the sexes, but an ar- 
rangement that could scarcely be justified in a building 
with so large an equipment. 

We have seen, in the Albany, Brookline and Philadel- 




1 IRsT II.UUK PLAN 



PUBLIC BATH, CABOT STREET, BOSTON 
Herbert I). Hale, Architect. 




PUBLIC BATHS, BUFFALO, 



phia pool baths, the use of the dressing compartments 
directly off the pool gangway, following either the 
English or German principle. In this bath we have 
another arrangement, — the dressing compartments are 

provided for in a separate, 
dressing hall, the preliminary 
cleansing being arranged for 
in shower compartments at 
the entrance to the plunge 
room. 

This plan has a marked 
advantage in separating the 
dressing halls from the plunge 
room, particularly for the 
sanitation and washing down 
of the plunge room, but it re- 
quires additional supervision 
in controlling the bathers 
while in the dressing rooms. 
The ratio of the pool bath to 
shower units in this building 
is about the same as in the 
Albany and Brookline baths, 
namely, four to one. 

The East 23d Street Bath, 
New York (see plate 51), 
recently completed, has the 
advantage of a large plot, 
which allows all the bathing 
facilities on one floor. 

The excessive value of the 
land and cost of the building 
will require an enormous at- 
tendance to warrant such a 
large outlay from the stand- 
point of municipal economy. 
This bath is the only one in 
the country, so far as we 
know, where the shower units 
exceed the pool units. One hundred and fifty-five com- 
partments have been provided for shower purposes, but 
it seems likely that a considerable number of them must 
be used for preliminary cleansing purposes and dressing 

compartments for the pool. 
Access to the spectators' 
balcony in the plunge room 
is provided from a special 
entrance in the rear of the 
building. 

The West 60th Street 
Bath, New York, is still 
another variation of the 
third type. In this build- 
ing, as in the Cabot Street 
Bath, shower and pool facili- 
ties are provided for on 
separate floors, but the ar- 
rangement of the pool dif- 
fers considerably from the 
Cabot Street plan and the other baths that have been 
mentioned. 

In this building the dressing rooms are placed on the 
balcony in the plunge room, directly off the waiting 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



79 



room level. This arrangement separates the dressing 
rooms and runway from the pool runway below, and the 
bathers are under direct control at all times. 

Staircases lead from the balcony directly into the 
preliminary cleansing room below, which is separated 
from the plunge room by a necessary guard rail. This 
arrangement allows the undressing, preliminary cleans- 
ing and bathing to be supervised from any point of 



control in the plunge room. Special staircases in the 
waiting rooms lead to the second-story shower halls, 
which have a capacity slightly less than that of the 
pool. 

While these examples of the pool and shower bath 
may not in themselves express the last word in Interior 
Bath building, they at least show a progress which 
augurs well for the future. 



Arrangement of Photographs and Magazine Plates. 



BY SIDNEY F. KIMBALL. 



THE many systems for arranging photographs and 
magazine plates, which have been described in 
The Brickbuilder, all possess distinctive features of 
excellence, some of which, however, may seem mutually 
exclusive. There remains still another system which 
aims to combine many of these features, and may thus 
present some advantages over any yet suggested. 

In order that it may be better understood, perhaps it 
will be well, before outlining it, to review briefly the 
general principles which govern arrangements of this 
sort. The kind of system adopted, as Mr. Parker pointed 
out in The Brickbuilder for October, 1906, will depend 
upon the way in which one refers to one's plates. One 
may look either for a special example, such as the Riccardi 
Palace or the dome of St. Paul's; for any example of a 
special type, such as a post office or a theater; or for any 
example of some particular detail, such as a doorway, a 
balustrade, or a bronze lamp. The first two of these 
methods of reference are of primary importance; there- 
fore the plates themselves will be arranged to facilitate 
one, or if possible, both of them. The third method is 
secondary. Tts requirements may be satisfied either by 
a card catalog, in which the various interesting features 
of each plate are indexed, every one on a separate card, 
or possibly by Mr. Parker's plan for coloring the edges 
of the plates themselves. 

Of the two primary methods, the first is generally 
employed in referring to buildings of the past, because 
in their case one usually knows just which example one 
wishes. Photographs of these buildings, and the few 
magazine plates of them which appear, may be arranged 
either geographically or in some other simple way. Those 
belonging to the Department of Architecture at Harvard 
University, for instance, are first divided into groups 
according to their architectural style — Greek, Roman, 
Byzantine, and so forth; then those of each style are 
grouped by countries ; and finally those of each country 
are divided into towns, arranged alphabetically. The 
various buildings of a single town, however, are there 
not placed in any logical sequence, but haphazard in the 
order of their accession, so that with cities like Rome, 
Florence, or Paris, many plates must still be turned over 
before the desired building is found. It would seem 
that by placing the buildings of each town in alpha- 
betical order an improvement in this respect might be 
made. 



The second method of reference, for the purpose of 
finding any example of a special type of building, is the 
one most used with drawings and photographs of modern 
work, which serve as precedents for similar problems at 
the designing-table. The main bulk of these is made up 
of the magazine plates, tremendous in number, which 
are most often and perhaps most conveniently kept loose 
and unmounted in vertical files. The few photographs 
which deal with the same kind of subjects may be 
mounted on cards and placed with them. The obvious 
way to divide material of this character is into classes by 
type. If, however, these classes are arranged in the file 
alphabetically, there is the disadvantage that related 
heads will come far apart. Furthermore, it will be im- 
possible to carry out this system consistently: subheads 
will have to be made and a mixed system will result. 
Thus, for example, under Residences there must be sub- 
divisions into City, Suburban, and Country, at least. To 
place these subclasses, grading into one another as they 
do, in their separate places in the main alphabet, is hardly 
conceivable. They must be grouped in some way under 
the head of Residences. The same advantage could 
be gained by having other related heads side by side, 
as Academies, Colleges, and Technical Schools, all pre- 
senting architecturally much the same features, and 
each useful as a reference for the others. The logical 
outcome of • this condition is a complete arrangement 
by heads and subheads, placed in some systematic 
order. 

Such an arrangement already exists in the Dewey 
classification, advocated by Mr. Ginsburger in The Brick- 
builder for October, 1907 (q. v.), which presents many 
features highly worthy of adoption. Its decimal system 
of numbering the classes, which allows any one of them 
to be divided into ten smaller sections by adding another 
decimal place to the class-number, is especially valuable, 
as it makes possible unlimited expansion and interpola- 
tion. This classification, however, is one embracing all 
human knowledge, and unfortunately represents, in so 
far as it applies to magazine plates, the theoretical stand- 
point of a librarian rather than the practical one of an 
architect. Owing to limitations imposed by its general 
scheme, which left but four main heads available for 
classifying buildings, the author was forced at this point 
into a complete lack of coordination between the parts. 
There is surely less reason for grouping Commercial 



8o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Buildings and Manufactories under Public Buildings 
than there would be for placing Religious and espe- 
cially Educational Buildings there; the first two, like 
most of the subheads under Public Buildings, are really 
coordinate with the last two, which are made main 
heads. The only advantage to be gained by thus 
cramping the headings is that in this form they take 
their place in a universal scheme of knowledge, and 
stand in their proper relation to African Ethnology 
and Didactic Poetry, for instance — an advantage 
which the architect will readily sacrifice for any prac- 
tical gain in usefulness. The most logical thing for 
him to do is frankly to make as many main divisions as 
he needs. 

The following, shown by experience to be useful, have 
been adopted as the basis of the new classification here 
to be described, which, while preserving the numbering 
system and much of the matter of the Dewey classification, 
attempts to overcome its deficiencies. 

i. Administrative and Governmental Buildings. 

2. Monuments. 

3. Ecclesiastical and Religious Buildings. 

4. Educational and Scientific Buildings. 

5. Society Buildings 

6. Residential. 

7. Recreation and Amusement. 

8. Business and Commercial. 

9. Transportation and Storage. 
10. Manufactories. 

1 1 . Bridges. 

12. Other Buildings. 

The arrangement of these heads, while in some degree 
arbitrary, has been made so far as possible with a view 
to easy transition from each to the next through the 
subdivisions, as may be seen later. Thus, Parish 
Houses and Sunday-School Buildings, the last section 
under 3, comes next in the file to Day Schools, the first 
under 4. 

In the same way the residential clubs of 5 are followed 
by the apartment hotels of 6, related subjects being thus 
brought near together. 

In splitting up the main classes the endeavor has been 
to keep closely to the types of actual modern work, and 
to subdivide only when differences in architectural char- 
acter occur. In both these respects the Dewey classifica- 
tion is defective. To use an illustration furnished by 
Mr. Ginsburger himself, in the class of Ecclesiastical and 
Religious Buildings, the sections Temples, Mosques, and 
Monasteries are practically useless for modern work, 
while the section Y. M. C. A. would obviously, from an 
architect's standpoint, be much better placed with the 
clubs. The second fault, that of subdivisions architec- 
turally needless, though existing to some extent in the 
original Dewey classification, is exemplified still more by 
the expansion of it published by the Experiment Station 
of the University of Illinois, and described in the October 
issue of The Buickbuilder. Here, for instance, Alms- 
houses are subdivided into National, State, County, City, 
Town, Endowed, Subscription, etc., though architectur- 
ally forming a single unit. 

In the classification now proposed an effort has been 
made to minimize these defects, although doubtless many 
still remain. Some of these are inherent in the scheme 



of a decimal classification; for instance, the lack of exact 
coordination between certain of the heads. 1.55 Regis- 
tries of Deeds is not properly a sub-division of 1.5 Court 
Houses; but because there are no more main heads left 
here, it is placed under 1.5, the one to which it is most 
closely related. In spite of such imperfections, the 
classification has stood with absolute satisfaction the 
test of experience with several small collections, and is 
now being applied, so far without meeting any diffi- 
culties, to a collection of about ten thousand plates 
covering the greatest variety of subjects. In full it is as 
follows. : 

Administrative. Governmental. Etc. 

1 Capitols. I louses of Parliament. Legislative 
Buildings. 

2 Ministries of War, State, etc. Governmental 
Departments and Office Buildings. 

3 City and Town Halls. 

4 Custom Houses. Excise Offices. 

5 Court Houses. 

55 Registries of Deeds. Archive Buildings. 
6 ' Post Offices. 

63 Post Office and Custom House combined. 
66 Post < )ffice and Court House combined. 
69 Post Office, Custom House, and Court House 

combined. 

7 Engine Houses. Fire Alarm Stations. 

8 Military, Protective, and Corrective. 
Si I '.arracks, Military Post Buildings. 

82 Armories. (See also 7.3, Riding Halls ) 

83 Arsenals. 

85 Police Stations. 

86 Penitentiaries. Jails. 

87 Reformatories for Adults. 

88 Reform Schools. 

9 Hospitals. Asylums. 

91 Sick and Wounded. Incurables. Etc. 

92 Sanatoria. 

93 Insane. Feeble Minded. Inebriates. 

94 Blind. Deaf and Dumb. (.See also 4. 1 7, 
Day Schools for Defectives.) 

95 Almshouses. 

96 Aged. Convents, etc. 

97 Soldiers' Homes. 

98 Orphans. Children. Foundlings. 
Monuments. 

2. 1 Commemorative. 

2.2 Funerary. 
221 Monuments proper. 

2.22 Tombs. Mausoleums. 

2.23 Receiving Vaults. 

2.3 etc. (Numbers left blank or omitted may be 
filled as occasion arises.) 

Ecclesiastical and Religious. 

1 Chapels, small. 

2 Parish Churches. 

3 Cathedrals. 

4 Synagogues. 

5 Parish Houses. Sunday-School Buildings. 

E DUCATIONAL AND SCIENTIFIC. 

1 I >ay Schools. 

1 1 Kindergartens. 

12 Primary Schools. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



81 



4- 13 
4 14 

415 
4. 16 

4i7 



Grammar Schools. 

High vSchools. 

Normal Schools. 

Manual Training Schools. 

Schools for Defectives. (See also 1.94, 
Asylums for the Blind, Deaf and Dumb.) 
4. 2 Boarding Schools. 
43 Colleges. Universities. 

4.4 Professional and Technical Schools not con- 

nected with a University. 

4.41 Theology. 

4.42 Law. 

4.43 Medicine. 

4.44 Science, Engineering. 

4 45 Af t- 

4.46 Music. 

4.5 Independent Scientific Institutions. Labora- 

tories. Observatories. 
4 6 Scientific Museums. Menageries. • 
47 Art Museums. Galleries. 
Libraries. 

Learned Societies. (See also 5. 1 1 City Clubs 
non-residential.) 
Society Buildings. 
City Clubs. 

Non-residential. 
Societies.) 
Y. M. C. A. 
Residential. 

Y. M. C. A. 
Suburban Clubs. 
Y. M. C. A. 
Country Clubs. 
Residential. 
Hotels. Etc. 
City Hotels. 
Country Hotels. 
Restaurants. Cafe's 
Rathskellers. 
Apartments. Tenements. (See also 8.3 
Mixed Store, Office, and Apartment Build- 



4.8 
4.9 

5- 

5- 1 

5" 

S-"S 

5-i2 

5- I2 5 

5- 2 

5-25 

5-3 

6. 

6.1 

6. n 

6. 12 

6.15 

6.2 



(See also 4.9 Learned 



Saloons. Bars. 



6-3 
6.4 

6-5 
6.6 
6.7 

6-75 
6.8 
6.9 
6.91 

6.91 1 

6.91 2 
6.92 
6.921 
6.922 
6.923 
6.924 
6.925 

6.926 



ings.) 
Palaces and Palatial Private Houses. 



Em- 



bassies. Etc. (Detached.) 
City Houses in Block. (Anything with one 

party wall or more.) 
City Houses not in Block. 
Suburban Houses. Village Houses. 
Country Houses. 
Farm Houses. 
Cottages. Bungalows. 
Outbuildings. Dependencies. 
City. 

City Stables, private. 
Garages. 
Country. Farm Buildings. 
Gate and Porter's Lodges. 
Kitchens. Laundries. Dairies. Etc. 
Stables. Kennels. Etc. 
Carriage Houses. Garages. 
Barns. Granaries. Ice Houses. Silos. 

Etc. 
Conservatories. Greenhouses. 



7-4 

7-5 
7.6 

7-7 
7.8 

7-9 

8. 

8.1 

8.2 

8-3 



3 1 
3 2 
33 

34 
•4 
■41 

.42 

■5 

•55 
.6 



8. 



6.927 Windmills. Water Towers. 

7. Recreation and Amusement. 

7.1 Theaters. Opera Houses. 

7.2 Concert Halls. Lecture Halls. 

7.3 Rinks. Amphitheaters. Riding Halls and 

Schools. (See also 1.82, Armories.) 
Gymnasia. Turn Halls. Baseball Cages. 

(See also 5. 1 15, 5.125, and 5 25, Y. M. C. A.) 
Baths, swimming and otherwise. Locker 

Buildings. 
Buildings for watering places. Beach Bath 

Houses. 
Buildings for parks. 
Boat Houses. 
Stadiums. Others. 
Business and Commercial. 
Markets. 

Stores, Wholesale and Retail. 
Mixed Store, Office, and Apartment Build- 
ings. 

Stores and Offices. 

Stores and Flats. 

Offices and Flats. 

Including Hall. 
Office Buildings. 

Low. 

High, Steel Construction. 
Banks. Trust Companies. Safe Deposit 

Vaults. 
Bank and Office. 

Exchanges. Boards of Trade. Clearing- 
houses. 
Transportation and Storage. 

I Railway Passenger Stations. 

I I Way Stations. 

I I I City. 
1 12 Country. 

1 2 Terminal Stations. 

2 Street Railway Stations. 

21 Surface Stations. 

22 Elevated Stations. 

23 Subway Stations. 

3 Wharf and Dock Buildings. 

31 Ferry Houses. Buildings for passengers. 
Immigrant Stations. 

32 Dock Buildings for freight, etc. 

4 Railway Freight Houses. 

5 Warehouses — Bonded, Storage, etc. Cokl 
Storage. 

Grain Elevators. Coal and Ore Docks. 

Railway Roundhouses. Car Barns. Etc. 
Roundhouses. 
Car Barns. 

Signal Towers. Etc. 

Others. 
Factories. Etc. 

Mill-Construction Buildings, for whatever use. 

Power Stations. 

Abattoirs. 

Laundries. 
Bridges. 

Wood. 

Masonry (stone, brick, concrete, etc.). 



9 
9- 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9- 

9 
9- 
9- 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

1 1 

1 1 

1 1 



82 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



1 1.3 Steel and Iron. 
1 1. 3 1 Simple Truss. 

1 1.32 Cantilever. 

11.33 Arch. 

11.34 Suspension. 
12. Other Buildings. 

(To be subdivided to suit each individual 
collection.) 
The plates are sorted into these classes, the proper 
numbers being marked on the corner of each; and the 
groups of plates are arranged in the file in numerical 
order, between guide-cards bearing both the number and 
name of the class. When there are few plates in any 
class its guide-card may be omitted without disadvan- 
tage; when there are none, the whole division simply 
drops out of the file, yet as soon as any are acquired, it 
is ready to spring into existence. If the guide-cards used 
have their tabs at different points along their top edges, 
those with tabs at the left may be used to separate the 
main groups, those next to them to separate the first 
decimal subdivisions, and so on. With guides so ar- 
ranged any class may be found readily, even if its 
number is not known. If still more definite reference 
should be desired, an alphabetical index of all the classes 
might be made, so that their numbers could be found 
directly without searching in the table. This will 
ordinarily not be necessary, because even occasional 
use of the classification will make its main outlines 
familiar. 

Dividing the plates simply into classes, however, will 
not be enough. Even if the chief purpose of the arrange- 
ment is to bring together the different types, there will 
often be occasions when a definite, individual example 
will be wanted. Many of the classes will be so large that 
it can be found only after long search. Moreover, if the 
plates are to be card-indexed for details, not only must 
each one be immediately accessible, but also it must 
have, besides its class-number, an individual number, 
peculiar to itself alone. For both these reasons some 
further arrangement, within the classes, is necessary. 
Mr. Parker suggests in the November, 1906, issue, that 
the classes by type should be subdivided by locality, 
construction, etc., but does not give any method for 
this. 

The method adopted with this classification is, first, 
the arrangement of the buildings in each class alphabeti- 
cally by the names of the cities or towns in which they 
stand, and then the buildings in each town alphabetically 
by the names of their architects. To the class number of 
each plate are added the first two or three letters of the 
name of the town, and after a dash, those of the architect's 
name. Thus 1.83 Har — Smi would stand for an arsenal 
in Hartford by Smith, and 6. 7 Arl — Jon would stand for 
a country house in Arlington by Jones. If Jones had 
done two country houses there, they would be marked 
6.7 Arl — Jon — A, and 6.7 Arl — Jon — B, in order to 
give each some distinguishing sign for purposes of ref- 
erence. For the same reason the plates representing 
each example are divided into three groups: (1) plans, 
(2) elevations and sections, (3) photographs and perspec- 
tives, designated by /, e, and /, respectively ; and the 
plates of each group are numbered 1, 2, 3, and so on, in 



the order of their accession. The second photograph 
would be f 2, the third plan p 3, and so forth. If there 
should be a plan with either an elevation or a photograph 
on the same plate, it is 'put among the plans; if there is 
an elevation with a photograph also, it is put among the 
elevations. The last two marks are placed below a line 
drawn under the rest. Thus the completed number of 
the third photograph of the second country house in 



Arlington by Jones would be 



6.7 Arl — Jon — B 



The 



whole system, which at first glance must appear some- 
what cumbersome, is really very easy of application ; so 
that, after a small amount of practice, the numbers can 
be put on as rapidly as the plates can be classified. For 
instance, taking some plates at random from the Decem- 
ber Brickbuilder, it is evident that those of Mr. Atter- 
bury's house at Ridgefield, Pis. 182, 183, 184, and 185, 
will be marked 6.7 Rid — Att, over f 1, f 2, f 3, and p 
1, respectively; whereas that of Peabody & Stearns's 
High School at Whitinsville, PI. 186, will be marked 

— . A practical illustration of the utility of 
P " 
the system was recently given when an architect, being 
away in the country and desiring certain plates, was able 
to write home their numbers, making them up on the 
spot, and have the office boy pick them out. With 
any arbitrary numbering system, such as that proposed 
by Mr. Kelsey, such a thing would have been impos- 
sible. 

In one or two cases it has been thought desirable, for 
various reasons, to make slightly different arrangements 
within the classes. The sections for hospitals and 
asylums, colleges, and similar institutions are first 
divided, as usual, by the name of the city or town where 
they are, but institutions in the same place are then 
lettered serially A, B, C, etc., and their separate build- 
ings numbered 1, 2, 3, etc. In this way, confusion 
caused by multiplicity of names is avoided, and the 
division of institutional buildings in the same city is 
made on the institutional lines, not on the lines of archi- 
tectural authorship. The advantage of this is evident 
in a city like New York, where Columbia University and 
New York University (which, one largely, the other 
entirely, built by Mr. McKim, would otherwise be 
confused) are readily given the numbers 4.3 N — A and 
4.3 N — B. Again, in the case of ecclesiastical and 
religious buildings, a general division into Gothic and 
not-Gothic is first made, even before the subheads are 
put in. The parts are designated by g and c, and then 
divided as usual. A Gothic parish church would be 
3. g 2 ; a Gothic cathedral, 3. g 3 ; a cathedral in the 
Renaissance style, 3. c 3. Other minor rules and varia- 
tions might be described, but they will readily suggest 
themselves to the reader as he meets their problems 
individually. 

With the plates numbered and arranged according to 
the proposed system, all of the three methods of refer- 
ence are equally possible. Not only are all the examples 
of each type brought together, but also any special 
example is instantly available, and the whole collection 
may be card-indexed, so that reference is instant and 
sure. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



«3 




8 4 



THK BRICKBUIL D E R 




THE BRICK BUILDER 



85 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



THE fire at Chelsea, Mass., which began at about 
10.30 a. m., Sunday, April 12, and continued until 
midnight, destroying some ten million dollars' worth of 
property, furnishes little by way of suggestion in mat- 
ters pertaining to building construction which is not 
already pretty thoroughly known. 

This city, of some twenty-five thousand inhabitants, 
adjoins Boston on the north and has been ruled for along 
period by a succession of the ordinary type of politicians 
who have been wholly lacking in administrative capacity, 
with the result that intelligent and progressive municipal 
thought and action have become unknown quantities. 
The city was built up almost entirely of wood, with now 
and then a business block, schoolhouse and church of 
brick or stone, but these offered little resistance to the 
flames, which were driven before a forty- mile gale. Not 
a single building in the whole city was of fireproof con- 
struction, although 'tis worthy of note that the facade of 
the Odd Fellows Building, which was entirely of archi- 
tectural terra cotta, stands alone amid the ruins without 
having been appreciably damaged. Burning shingles 
were driven by the wind to the shingle or gravel and tar 
roofs of other buildings a mile or more distant, with the 



result that every building 
within the fire-swept area, 
which is about two and one- 
half miles long by one mile 
wide, is in ruins. But who 
thinks that Chelsea will be 
rebuilt without shingle and 
tar paper roofs, or with 
proper regard for safe con- 
struction? The insurance 
money which will come to 
the mortgage holders on 
many of these homes will 
be received with gratitude, 
and the owner with his 
small equity will be glad to 
find shelter under any sort 
of roof. Will the officials of 
the city of Chelsea demand 
of property owners a better 
type of construction? Will 
the city, in the rebuilding 
of its own, set an example 
worthy of emulation? Will the insurance companies 
who will stand two-thirds of the burden of this loss-by- 
fire-calamity take a hand in remedying existing evils? 
Let us see. 

What happened to Chelsea could, probably would, 
under similar conditions, happen to almost any other 
small city or town in the United States. 




DETAIL BY F. C BROWNE, 

ARCHITECT. 

NEW YORK ARCHITECTURAL 

TERRA COTTA CO., MAKERS. 




THE disastrous fires with loss of life at 
Pottstown, Pa., and Collinwood, Ohio, 
prove the necessity of greater vigilance with 
regard to buildings in which many persons 
gather in suburbs and small towns. Not only 
the construction but maintenance should be 
watched. If this is difficult of realization 
within the organizations of cities, how can it 
be attained over a large area sparsely dotted 
with small places? State inspection has been 
shown to be lax. The spectacle of an officer 
settling himself into a snug berth of inspect- 
orship does not suggest the vigilance neces- 
sary to cope with potential danger; and we 
are reminded of Governor Hughes's recently 
expressed dictum that the need to-day is not 
in new laws but of character in the men 
called upon to administer the law. Long be- 
fore political machinery can be attuned to its 
duty, we suspect that private enterprise as 
embodied in the insurance business will have 
organized its own method of inspection. The 
cost of this must be added to the premiums, 
but the result will be a safeguarding of life, 
also of the interests of stockholders in the 
insurance companies. 



FOUNTAIN IN PALM ROOM, STATLER HOTEL, BUFFALO, N. Y. 

Executed in Faience by Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

Esenwein & Johnson, Architects. 



THE USE OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW- 
TILE BLOCKS IN THE CONSTRIC- 
TION OF HOUSES. 
ON pages 83 and 84 of this issue there is 
presented a series of illustrations of 



86 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



houses which have been built of 
terra cotta hollow tile blocks. 
These examples of this type of 
construction are given with the 
sole object of indicating the de 
velopment of a new type of build- 
ing construction which is being 
adopted pretty generally by archi- 
tects throughout the country. At 
this stage in the development of 
the science of building it is im- 
portant that a type of construc- 
tion which is economical in all re- 
spects, and which lends itself 
easily to the demands of a free 
architectural treatment, and which 
is dependable in the matters of 
strength, weather and fireproof 
qualities, should receive the close 
scrutiny of those who are looked 
to to solve the prob- 
lem of rational build- 
ing. 

The illustrations 
are given merely to 
show the character 
of the work in which 
this construction is 
now being employed 
but there is no limit 
to the types of build- 
ings in which it may 
be used successfully, 
as the material lends 
itself easily to all 
forms in design and 
construction. It is 
unnecessary to here 
enter into the discus- 
sion of comparative 
costs, details of con- 
struction for walls 
and floors, strength 
of the hollow tile 
blocks, sizes, shapes, 
etc., for this is all given in detail in a very interesting 
treatise upon the subject which has recently been issued 
in booklet form by the National Fire-Proofing Company. 

A copy of this 
booklet may be had 
upon application to 
any of the offices of 
the company. It is 
a work which pre- 
sents in a most 
direct way all the 
data concerning this 
particular type of 
construction and we 
are glad to commend 

DETAIL BY WILLIAM E. MOWHRAV, ll t0 tnose °f Our 

architect. readers who are in- 

New Jersey Terra Cotta Co., Makers. terested. 





HERCULEAN- ARCH AND 
PHCENIX WALL BLOCKS. 

^"THE above is the title of 
i. another interesting treatise 
on the use of terra-cotta hollow 
tile blocks in floor and wall con- 
struction which has recently been 
issued by Henry Maurer & Son. 
The work is amply illustrated 
from drawings, showing wall, floor 
and partition construction and 
photographs of many buildings 
in which these systems have been 
employed. 

It is desirable that the walls 
of a house should be fireproof but 
it is imperative that they shall be 
damp proof, and the fact that hol- 
low tile blocks are being used so 
extensively to-day in the walls of 
houses and other 
buildings is evidence 
that they are fully 
meeting these de- 
mands. Hollow tile 
block construction is 
no fad, and its in- 
creased use warrants 
a close study of the 
systems which are 
being put forth by 
concerns which have 
held the respect of 
the building frater- 
nity for more than a 
generation. 



A STORE FRONT, CINCINNATI. 

Frank M. Andrews, Architect. 

Treated in colored faience, including a rich combination of red tones 

Work executed by Rookwood Pottery Company. 



ACKNOWLEDG- 
MENT. 
N the book en- 
titled " Fireproof 
Houses of Terra 
Cotta Hollow Tile 
and How to build 



I 




Them," recently issued by the National Fire-Proofing 
Company, there were illustrated two buildings with 
details of structural work, at Briarcliff, N. Y., by 
Robert W. Gardner, architect. Through an oversight 
Mr. Gardner's name was omitted in connection with 
the illustrations. The National Fire-Proofing Company 
wishes in this manner to make amends as far as pos- 
sible for their oversight. 



IN GENERAL. 
New York will 
build permanent 
state fair buildings 
at Syracuse at a 
cost approximat- 
ing a million and 
a half dollars. 




DETAIL BY CHAPI'ELLE & BOSWOR1 H, 

ARCHITECTS. 
South Amboy Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



«7 




ENTRANCE TO METROPOLITAN BUILDING, ST. LOUIS. 

Mauran, Russell & Garden, Architects. 

Treated in green, yellow and brown dull finish faience. 

Made by Hartford Faience Company. 

Richard Hooker and Howard K. Jones have been ad- 
mitted to the firm of Alden & Harlow, architects, Pitts- 
burg. 

The date of the next Convention of the Architectural 
League of America has been set for September 17, 18 
and 19 at Detroit, to be held under the auspices of the 
Detroit Architectural Club. 




SCHOOLHOUSF, SOUTH BEND, IND. 

George W. Selby, Architect. 

Built of Hydraulic-Press Brick. 

Architect Grosvenor Atterbury has been commissioned 
to design a building in Philadelphia for the Henry Phipps 
Institute for the Study, Treatment and Prevention of 
Tuberculosis. 

The Marist Brothers, a French Catholic order, is pre- 



paring to erect build- 
ings for a Catholic 
college on two hun- 
dred acres of land 
recently purchased 
near Lowell, Mass. 

The Board of Trus- 
tees of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois has ac- 
cepted plans for two 
new buildings. One 
is a physics labora- 
tory to cost about two 
hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars, the 
other, an extension of 
the natural history 
building, to cost 
about one hundred 
and fifty thousand KEY block, v. m. c. a. building, 
dollars. PATERSON, n. j. 

Brick Terra Cotta and Tile Co., Makers. 
The venerable 

Fifth Avenue Hotel is now closed to patrons. In quickly 
destroying the building, the celebrated old hostelry will 
at least be spared a period of melancholy senility. A 
" sky-scraper " office building is to be erected on the site. 

Messrs. McKirn, Mead & White have been selected 
as architects for the new New York Post Office Building, 
which is to be located near the new teiminal of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, for which they are also the archi- 
tects. 





iiiiifS^ 1 1! ■ 
if if iff* 




SELLWOOD BUILDING, DULUTH, MINN. 

William A. Hunt, Architect. 

Built of tlark gray standard brick, made by Columbus Brick and 

Terra Cotta Company. 



88 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




The first prize of $5,000 for the best set of plans sub- 
mitted for the proposed $300,000 Capitol building of 
San Juan, Porto Rico, has been awarded to Frank Edson 
Perkins, architect, formerly of Boston, but now of New 
York. Ritchie Abbott of New York received the second 
prize of $2,000 and H. L. Beadel of New York the third 
prize of $1,500. There were 135 competitors. 

On March 28, the Columbus Society of Architects 
was organized at Columbus, Ohio, with a charter mem- 
bership of forty-one practicing architects. The object 
of the society is for the advancement of interest in archi- 
tecture and the allied arts, the professional improvement 
of its members, and to bring into social relations those 
interested in these objects. President, A. M. Allen; 
Vice-President, C. A. Stribling; Secretary-Treasurer, 
Fred W. Elliott; Directors, Frank L. Packard, C. E. 
Richards, Edwin E. Pruitt, C. E. Bellows. 




I'UBLIC BATHS. CLEVELAND. 

E. H. Beier, Architect. 

Roofed with Ludowici-Celadon Tile. 

The terra cotta used in the Normal and Latin School 
Group, Boston, illustrated in The Brickbuilder for 
March, was supplied by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Co. 

Edward W. Robinson, vice-president of the Hartford 
Faience Co., has opened an office at 1125 Broadway, 
New York, and will take personal charge of the sales 
department of that Company. Mr. Robinson also rep- 
resents vSherwin & Cotton and Carter & Company of 
England, well-known manufacturers of high-grade wall 
and floor tiles. 

Carter, Black & Ayers of New York are introducing 
into the market a vitrified hollow building block. Be- 
ing salt-glazed they are exceptionally well adapted to 
withstand dampness and for foundation work. Both 
sides of the blocks are scored so that stucco when ap- 



plied holds firmly. These blocks are suitable for houses, 
garages, manufacturing buildings and the like. 

The New Jersey Terra Cotta Company is supplying the 
architectural terra cotta for the following new buildings: 
Apartment house, Park Avenue, New York, C. W. 
Buckham, architect ; apartment house, Riverside Drive, 
New York, H. C. Pelton, architect; apartment house, 
Madison Avenue, New York, W. E. Mowbray, architect; 
Seaman's Home, West Street, New York, Boring & Til- 
ton, architects; Soldiers' Home, Chelsea, Mass., Clough 

6 Wardner, architects; Town Hall, Skowhegan, Me., 
H. C. and J. H. Stevens, architects; Lincoln School, 
Orange, N. J., W. M. Tubby, architect. 

POSITION WANTED— Young man 22 years of age, five years' 
practical architectural experience, desires position as traveling rep- 
resentative, preferably in New England, for some article in the 
building line. Moderate salary. Address '' Salesman," care of 
THE BRICKBUILDER. 

POSITION WANTED —Architect, 28, University graduate, ex- 
perienced in practical office work and superintendence, returning 
from foreign travel and study, wishes permanent engagement, with 
future prospects as superintendent of construction, practical busi- 
ness manager or representative with architect or construction com- 
pany. Address "University Graduate," care THE BRICKBUILDER. 

SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

The Four Year Course. Full professional training (with an option in 

Architectural Engineering) leading to the degree of B. S. in 

2 Architecture. Advanced standing is ottered to college graduates 

or the two degrees of A. B. and B. S. in Architecture can be 

taken in six years. 

The Graduate Year affords opportunity for advanced work in design 
and other subjects of the course leading to the degree of M. S., 
in Architecture. 

The Two Year Special Course. For qualified draughtsmen, offers 
advanced technical training with a Certificate of Proficiency. 

For Full Information address Dr. J. II. Penniman, Dean of the College 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

KIDDER'S ARCHITECTS' and 
BUILDERS' POCKET-BOOK 

FIFTEENTH EDITION, REVISED 

The changes in this edition consist of the correction of all typo- 
graphical errors reported to the publishers, and the rewriting of Chap- 
ters XXIII and XXIV. This work has been done by Rudolph P. 
Miller. Professor Alvah H. Sabin has also brought the section on 
Paints and Varnishes up to date. 

16 mo, xix r 1703 pages, 1000 figures 

Morocco, $5-00 

NEW YORK . JOHN WILEY & SONS 

A VALUABLE REFERENCE BOOK 

"American Competitions,"1907 

1 The "Concours Pabltqac" of the V. S. I 

E. B. LACEY, Editor 

7 Competitions: 

Soldiers' Memorial, Allegheny County, Pa. . . 10 sets of Drawings, 24 Plates 
D L. & W. R R. Station, Scranton, Pa. 6 sets of Drawings, 18 Plates 

Union Theological Seminary, New York City . 6 sets of Drawings, 19 Plates 

State Educational Building. Albany, N. Y. . . 10 sets of Drawings, 33 Plates 
Bureau of American Republics' Bldg., Wash., D. C. g sets of Drawings, 35 Plates 
Connecticut State Library and Supreme Court Building, Hartford. Conn. 

4 sets of Drawings, 19 Plates 
Central Y. M. C. A., Philadelphia, Pa. . 4 sets of Drawings, 14 Plates 

Published by the 

T SQUARE CLUB, PHILADELPHIA 

Edition limited, 750 copiei. Price, substantially bound in buckram. 
$13.50; in portfolio, $1 1. 00. Cash with order. 

M. A. VINSON, gmV.Z.'"^ 



1012 Walnut St. 

PHILADELPHIA 



205-206 Caxton Bldg. 

CLEVELAND. O. 



THE BRICKB UILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 4. PLATE 45. 










«^ 





CAR BARNS FOR CAPITAL TRACTION COMPANY. WASHINGTON. D. C. 
Wood, Donn &. Deming, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 4. PLATE 4K 





CAR BARNS FOR CAPITAL TRACTION COMPANY. WASHINGTON, D C. 
Wood, Donn & Deming, architects 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 4. PLATE 47. 




THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 4. PLATE 48. 








• Sl'lON ) fc LOUR PI \S ■ 



THIRD FLOOR PLAN 

ttllU HUM M -feC 




RAStMfc.Nl TL AS 




KIR5T1-LUUH ri \\ ■ 

SCALE 



VINCENT MEMORIAL HOSPITAL. HEATH STREET, BOSTON 
Charles Bruen Perkins, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 4 PLATE 49. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 4. PLATE 50. 





'UBLIC BATHS. CABOT STREET. BOSTON. 
Herbert D. Hale, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 4. PLATE 51 




PUBLIC BATHS. EAST TWENTY-THIRD STREET. NEW YORK 

William Martin Aiken and Arnolo W. Brunner. Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 4. PLATE 52. 




X 



tV'' 




HOUSE FOR N. W. HARRIS, ESQ., LAKE GENEVA. WIS 

SHEPLEY, RUTAN & COOLIDGE, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 4. PLATE 53. 





First Txoo"rPlan 




^/econ d Ploot?. Plan 



STABLE AND PLANS OF HOUSE FOR N. W. HARRIS. ESQ., LAKE GENEVA, WIS 

Shepley, Rutan &. Coolioge, Architects. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 

VOL. 17, NO. 4. PLATE 54. 




HOUSE AT MAMARONECK, N. Y. 
William A Boring, Architect 







THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 4. p LATE 55. 




HOUSE AT 
MAMARONECK, N Y 
William A. Boring, 
Architect. 



• roKTrcocHcxa 



zdf 



neoTOTOizy-PLAAr 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 4. PLATE 56. 




HOUSE AT IHVINGTON-ON-HU 
A. S. Bell, Architect. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 4. PLATE 57. 




5&i**&*k 



HOUSE AT CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

James Gamble Rogers, Architect. 

(of hale & rogers.) 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 4. p LATE 58 




■ FIR5T riOOR. 



ECIMIO FLOOR- 




HOUSE AT MOUNT KISCO, N. Y. 
Delano & Alorich, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVII 



MAY 1908 



Number c 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street ... Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1908, by ROGERS & MANSON 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba 
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For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Terra Cotta 

Brick . 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



PACE 

II 

II 

II and III 

III 



PAGE 

Brick Enameled ......... Ill and IV 

Brick Waterproofing ......... IV 

Fireproofing .......... IV 

Roofing Tile .... IV 



Advertisements will he printed on cover pages only 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



CONTENTS 



From Work by 



CALVIN KIESSLING; KILHAM & HOPKINS; N. Le BRUN & SONS; REVELS & HALLENBECK: 

SPENCER & POWERS; HORACE TRUMBAUER. 



LETTERPRESS 

PAGB 

WEST FRONT, CISTERCIAN MONASTERY, CHORIN, GERMANY Frontispiece 

THE AMERICAN THEATER— VI Clarence H. Hlackall 89 

THE PUBLIC BATH IV Harold Werner and August P. Windolph 92 

DALECROSS GRANGE AND OTHER HOUSES Wt hael Bunney 97 

ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, NAVAL ACADEMY, ANNAPOLIS, MD Illustration 100 

A MODERN PARIS APARTMENT HOUSE George B. Ford 101 

A VILLAGE RAILWAY STATION William !.. Weltotl 104 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 106 




|H<<«<<<^<<<<<<<<^<<<<<<<{<<<<»{<<^<<<.(<<<<<<<«»»»»»»»W»>W»>V>^»»V>»»V»V>W>»»»»»7]I 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




VOL. 17 NO. 5 



DEVOTEDTOTHE-INTERE3TJ-Of-AR.CHITECTVRE-lNMATER!ALy-Or-CLAY- 



MAY 190S 




{.;.'•:•: t«»»»»»»»»»»v»»»»»»»»»»»»»»H | 



J- 



m 



The American Theater — VI. 

BALCONY CONSTRUCTION. 

BY CLARENCE H. BLACKALL. 



*"PHE constructive problems involved in the planning 
1 of a theater are such as are encountered in any 
modern fireproof building, with the exception of the fram- 
ing of the balcony and gallery and the forming of the 
stepping of the various floors to receive the seats. These 
factors call for special consideration on account of the 
necessity of avoiding any columns which could obstruct 
the view, as well as on account of the specific require- 
ments of fireproofing. 

Columns supporting a gallery or balcony do not of 
themselves constitute a serious obstruction to the view 
of the stage. Before the days of steel construction they 
were accepted as a matter of course, and even in such 



are even tolerated among the seats of the balcony. In 
some cases it is possible to omit columns in the balcony 
by suspending the gallery by rods dropped from the 
trusses or girders over the main ceiling, as has been done 
in some of the best of the New York theaters, but such 
an expedient is by no means satisfactory in appearance 
and is hardly justified by the resulting economy. The 
best way is to omit columns entirely. 

There is almost no limit to the amount of over- 
hang which can be constructed with properly designed 
cantilevers. Figure i shows one case where the over- 
hang was nearly 27 feet, the steel work averaging less 
than twenty-three pounds per square foot. In this case 
the cantilevers were only 7 feet on centers over the bear- 
ings, converging to nearly 3 feet at the end, and were 
connected by concentric lines of wooden floor beams 
which carried the flooring, the building not 
being of fireproof construction. 



I WOOD E-ISE.CL- 

WOOD PLATPOR-Pl 



We 5 



^AT* 



-» 5 « 



6' CAST IRON 



« 



FIG. 



recently constructed 
houses as the Grand 
Opera House in Cincin- 
nati, a double row of 
columns in the parquet 
is hardly noticed as an 
obstruction, but in most 
of the modern houses 
the entire absence of 
columns is considered 

an added virtue which is worth all it costs. The cost 
of a cantilever construction is, however, by no means 
excessive. The weight of such construction usually 
amounts to a minimum of about twenty pounds per square 
foot for cantilevers projecting not over 18 or 20 feet, 
resting on girders spanning not over 65 feet between the 
side walls. These weights include only the steel work, 
and as they increase very rapidly as the spans are in- 
creased, it becomes quite an object for study to reduce 
the overhangs of the balconies to the most strict mini- 
mum. Hence, while columns may be vigorously excluded 
from the body of the parquet, they are permissible at the 
rear of the seats on the line of the standing-up rail, and 






1 ^.LINE. 


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BALCONY CONSTRUCTION, AUDITORIUM, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. 



Figure 2 shows the typical construction in the Nixon 
Theater, Pittsburg, a fireproof structure. The cantilevers 
are spaced a considerable distance apart and are braced 
by connecting channels, while the risers for the steppings 
are formed with light latticed girders, built on a sweep 
and resting on the cantilevers. 

Figure 3 shows in detail the balcony construction of the 
Colonial Theater, Boston. The cantilever columns are on 
the line of the stand-up rail at the back of the rearmost row 
of seats of the orchestra. The columns are connected by a 
girder bent in plan following the radius of the stand-up rail. 
Bracketing out from this girder are the cantilevers, project- 
ing nearly 1 5 feet and ending with a double angle iron bent 



go 



T II E B RI CKIUT I LI)]- R 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



9' 



up to form the support for the rail. The cantilever on 
the rear of the girder is carried across to the wall of the 
foyer and thence across to the foyer ceiling, receiving its 
anchorage from the outer wall of the building. The col- 
umns of the gallery rest upon the balcony cantilevers, 
these columns in turn supporting the cantilevers of the 
gallery. To be strictly consistent, these balcony columns 
should be omitted and the cantilevers supported entirely 
by the two masonry walls, but these columns can be 
made quite small, four or five inches in diameter 
not really constitute a very serious 
interference with sight. The cross 
girder upon which the balcony canti- 
levers are built is not only curved in 
plan but it also pitches towards the 
stage each way and requires most care- 
ful designing and has to be braced for 
a side bending or twisting strain as well 
as for the transverse load. The 
cantilevers are spaced from 8 
to 12 feet apart and are con- 
nected by curved lattice work 
corresponding to the outlines 
of the balcony steps. A nail- 
ing strip is bolted to the top 

of each lattice, and a concrete tread and riser cast 
in place with steel reinforcement, the i^-inch upper 
floors being nailed to radial sleepers buried in the con- 
crete, while the riser is nailed to the floor boards above 
and below. The floor boards are made i% inch so as to 
allow for screwing the opera chairs in 
place. In each of the preceding cases 
the finished floors are of wood and 
columns are not entirely eliminated. 




fig. 3. 



CANTILEVER. 

WEb^" ANGLE i -Txlxj 




lines of reinforced concrete beams, which form the faces 
of the risers and are cast homogeneous with the rein- 
forced concrete platforms. Later, the exposed surfaces 
are skimmed with a granolithic finish. Rutty wall 
plugs are built into the platforms, into which are worked 
the screws holding the seats. In some of the aisles the 

surfaces are covered with 
linoleum, pasted directly to 
the concrete with fish glue 
cement, and where carpets 
are thought expedient, they 
are tacked to three-quarter 
inch beveled nailing strips 
built into the concrete. The 
steel work of this construc- 
tion weighs a trifle less than 
twenty pounds per square 
foot. 

A construction entirely 
of reinforced concrete may 
suggest itself as a possi- 
bility, but reinforced concrete 
cantilevers of such large 
dimensions would be clumsy 
and, of course, very heavy 
in proportion to their strength. In some small lecture 
halls and audience rooms the galleries or balconies have 
been formed with the Guastavino tile construction, turned 
between the cantilevers, upon which the steppings are 
built up in concrete, but so far as known, this con- 
struction has never been applied to a theater. 

The building laws of most cities prescribe provision 
for a live load on theater floors of one hundred and 
twenty-five pounds per square foot. In figuring the 
cantilevers, it must be remembered that at times all of 
the live load may be concentrated on the overhanging 
arm, producing thereby a large negative moment on the 
opposite side of the girder or wall, for which proper 
provision must be made. In the first instance illustrated 
herein (Fig. 1) the negative moment was as high as 



BALCONY CONSTRUCTION, COLONIAL 
THEATER, BOSTON. 




^ECT'ON on LINE A- A 



m •?_ 



12-iJ Sib MAH 



PLAN OF bALCONY 



FIG. 4. BALCONY CONSTRUCTION, NEW LYCEUM THEATER, BOSTON. 



Figure 4 shows the construction adopted in the new 
Lyceum Theater, Boston. There are no columns visible 
anywhere. The cantilevers are carried by heavy cross- 
girders spanning from wall to wall, or are bracketed out 
from the wall columns. The girders are all concealed in 
the spaces below the balcony and gallery, and the pro- 
jection of the cantilevers is reduced to a minimum. No 
wood of any sort is used in connection with this con- 
struction. The cantilevers are connected by concentric 



117,500 pounds. One hundred and twenty-five pounds 
per square foot is, however, way on the safe side. It is a 
physical impossibility to crowd people more closely than 
the seats themselves, — or at the rate of one person to 
about four square feet, equivalent to not over forty 
pounds per square foot. 

It is absolutely essential that when the balcony con- 
struction is assembled in place, the fronts of the canti- 
levers shall be exactly where they were planned for, 



9 2 



T II E B R I C K H U I L I)K R 



even the slightest variation sufficing to throw out the 
lines of the balcony front. Consequently it is a very 
nice operation to set these in position, and it is usually 
quite desirable to have the connections so planned that 
some adjustment can be made after the cantilevers are in 
place. In the construction of the Colonial Theater this 
was effected by setting the cantilevers on shores the 
exact heights required, and then putting on the splice 
plates for top chord over the girder by means of field 
rivets, the holes being drilled after the cantilever is set. 
A very simple device has been used by the writer on one 
occasion with good success. In this instance each 
cantilever rests directly upon a column carried down to 
the basement, the cantilevers being braced between 
themselves by light lattice struts. The foot of each 
column rests upon a broad, slotted plate, in which is 
inserted the cap of a jack screw. The columns support- 
ing the cantilevers are of cast iron six inches in diam- 
eter, leaving a four-inch hollow space. The jack screw 
rests upon a bed plate, and the screw is free to work up 
and down in the hollow space of the column. In setting 
the columns the foundation is prepared as nearly at the 
right level as possible, the lower plate set, the jack 
screw put on top of this, and the upper plate and the 
column put in position. When all the cantilevers are in 
place the jacks are screwed up or down, raising or 
depressing the overhang of the cantilevers until each is 
in its exact position. This can be done after the fire- 
proofing is in place, so that the adjustment includes the 



compensation for varying deflections. When the canti- 
levers are just right, the space between the upper and 
the under plates is filled solid with concrete, both the 
plates being made of a size proportioned to the load 
upon the concrete bed. The cost of this amounts 
to hardly more than fifteen or twenty dollars per 
column. 

It is one of the inherited traditions of our building 
laws that even though a theater may be constructed 
throughout on the most approved fireproof system, 
nevertheless a proscenium wall of brick is insisted upon. 
Its value is very largely sentimental. As far as actual 
protection is concerned, it could be omitted entirely and 
the same degree of safety obtained by the use of suitable 
fireproof partition work between the members of the 
steel skeleton. 

In a theater of a second-class or non-fireproof con- 
struction, however, the brick should be insisted upon for 
the proscenium wall and each opening therein should be 
most carefully guarded by fireproofed door or curtain. 
It goes without saying, that every theater should be fire- 
proof. There are, however, many theaters built in small 
towns which are of second-hand construction through- 
out, and in which the local conditions, it is claimed, do 
not permit the expense of a fireproof building. Such 
structures, of course, are restricted in the amount of 
overhangs and are obliged to introduce post and girder 
construction to an extent which can be obviated entirely 
by the use of steel. 



The Public Bath IV. 



OPEN AIR BATHS. 

BY HAROLD WERNER AND AUGUST P. WINDOLPH. 



OPEN air baths form a valuable auxiliary to the 
interior or all-year baths ; we find three types of 
them — the river, seashore and park. 

Although the river type was the earliest introduced 
in America, our municipalities have given, as a rule, but 
scant attention to this form of 
bathing, and the river bath of 
to-day shows but little im- 
provement over early experi- 
ments. 

The usual type consists of 
a platform placed upon floats, 
the pool being in the center 
of the platform, so constructed 
as to allow a free circulation 
of water. Grouped around the 
pool is a single row of simple 
dressing boxes, while the 
formality of the preliminary 
cleansing shower is not pro- 
vided for. 

For the past two decades New York City has kept in 
operation an extensive system of these river baths, but 
increased sewage and constant danger of contamination 
from this source has compelled the city authorities to 
condemn most of them. 




TYPICAL OPEN AIR POOL, CHICAGO PUBLIC BATHS 



Contamination of the water is a serious objection, and 
it has militated against this form of bath in many of 
our cities. In Paris the danger of contamination has 
been eliminated by disposing of the sewage in the Seine 
several miles below the city, while in Vienna the large 

city river bath sets back some 
distance from the river's edge, 
and the water is introduced 
into the pool by means of a 
canal and sluiceway, which in- 
sures its being sanitary. On 
the Danube, Rhine and other 
European rivers, we find va- 
rious devices for keeping the 
water clean; but until our 
cities solve the sewage dis- 
posal problem the river bath 
cannot play an important part 
in bath economy. 

Seashore baths are more 
sanitary, and if convenient to 
the municipality are of greater benefit to the community. 
There are several forms of the seashore type, — one, set- 
ting back from the ocean, receives the water through a 
canal, the same system of supply as used in some of the 
river baths. There are not many in this country and 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



93 




CASINO AND BATHING PAVILION tOR THE HOROUGH 
OF DEAL, NEW JERSEY. 

they do not compare in size to those abroad. A cele- 
brated European example is the Havre des Pas Bath on 
the Isle of Jersey. On this dangerous coast there has 
been much loss of life by drowning, and the municipality 
realized that its people must 
have a place to learn to swim, 
and, not having the means to 
provide interior bathing facili- 
ties, they constructed a shore 
bath in the solid rock, which 
is in many ways the most 
unique bath in the world. 

The pool was formed by 
blasting the rock to proper 
slopes, the interstices being 
filled in with concrete, which 
formed the side walls. The 
bottom was properly graded, 
allowing a shallow place for 
beginners and sufficient depth 
for diving. 

The pool is entirely en- 
closed by a series of dressing 
rooms and a large number of 
shower baths. The area of 

the pool is enormous, covering nearly three acres. Water 
is introduced by means of a sluiceway, which controls a 
tidal movement, frequently exceeding forty feet, and 
which allows flushing and refilling the entire basin at 
every tide. In the colder seasons this pool, or rather 
miniature lake, is used for boating purposes. 

We find other seashore baths on this island, similar in 
principle but considerably smaller, which have furthered 
the art of swimming and greatly reduced the loss of life. 

Across the Channel 
at Port Sunlight there 
is another bath of this 
type which sets back 
some distance from the 
ocean and is supplied 
with salt water by 
means of a large service 
main. The pool is el- 
liptical in shape, the in- 
tention being to allow 
the bather to swim con- 
tinuously without turn- 




SHERMAN PARK BATH, CHICAGO. 
i. Closed Gymnasium and Shower Bath. 2. Men's Open Air 
Gymnasium. 3. Swimming Pool 4. Dressing Compartments 
and Locker for Pool. 5. Children's Pool and Field. 6. Women's 
Open Air Gymnasium. 7. Play Ground. 



ing, as he is compelled to do in the ordinary rectangular 
pool. The dressing rooms enclose the basin and are 
provided with a single runway, the customary English 
arrangement. 

A few attempts have been made along the rocky 
coast of New England to provide baths of this character, 
but they are not municipal, and as a rule are small 
structures which call for no special comment. 

Occasionally we find shore baths with bathing and 
dressing facilities entirely enclosed as in the interior 
type. This is true of the Sutro Baths situated on the 
shores of the Pacific, which consist of no less than six 
pools, entirely enclosed with glass. A large spectators' 
balcony has been provided, with adjoining lounging and 
refreshment rooms. The pools are supplied with salt 
water by means of a service main, which extends several 
hundred yards into the ocean. While the pools are 
usually filled by the tidal movement, an auxiluary set of 
pumps supply tanks, which are used under certain 
tidal conditions. The water in the larger pool is kept 

at the normal sea tempera- 
ture, but the smaller pools are 
heated to varying degrees of 
temperature. The large pool 
is nearly five hundred feet 
long, and with the smaller 
ones contain a million gallons 
of water, with a total bathing 
capacity of two thousand 
units, comparing favorably in 
size to the largest of the early 
Roman institutions. 

Another example of the 
seashore bath, with the dress- 
ing and shower facilities en- 
closed, but with open sea bath 
ing, is the State Bath at 
Revere, Mass. The plan is 
simple and the building is 
well adapted to handling with, 
out confusion a large number 
of bathers at one time. The administration building is 
in the center, flanked by dressing-room yards, which are 
enclosed with brick walls. The dressing rooms have 
a rather novel arrangement, being planned in two tiers, 



£31111111 



61 



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3. Toilets. 
Corridor. 



PLAN OF RIVER BATH. 
Pool. 2. Waiting Rooms. 

4- 



Dressing Rooms and 




SUTRO BATHS, SAN FRANCISCO. 



94 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



- . , . 'J $<• 




■ ;- ♦■- 



OGDEN PARK HATH, CHICAGO. 
i. Closed Gymnasium and Shower Baths. 2. Swimming Pool. 3. Men's Open Air Gymnasium. 4. Women's Open Air Gymnasium. 

5. Children's Pool. 6. Field. 7. Lagoon. 




BOI/L EVA r*.D 




FIRST FLOOR I'l.AN. 



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rru. tftn 



ill liwM 



5 



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i:\SKMK\T PLAN. 

STATE HATH, REVERE HEACH, MASS. DAVIS SOUARE PARK BATH, CHICAGO. 

1. Waiting Room. 2. Women's Dressing Rooms. 3. Men's 1. Closed Gymnasium and Showers. ^. Swimming Pool. 5. Men's 

Dressing Rooms. 4. Yards. 5 Subway under Boulevard to Beach. Open Air Gymnasium. 4, Women's Open Air Gymnasium. 5. Children's 
6. Open Pavilions. T. Toilets. O. Otlices. Pool. 6. Field. 



THE BRICKIUIILDRR. 



95 



so that the passageways of the lower stories come 
between the backs of the dressing rooms of the second 
story. This leaves all the passageways clear to the sky, 
providing the necessary light and air for all of the dress- 
ing rooms. The right wing is exclusively for men and 
the left for women. The basement floor of the adminis- 
tration building contains, besides the main entrance hall 
and dressing rooms, toilets, storage rooms, an emergency 
hospital and the boiler room. The upper floor contains 
the administration rooms and a thoroughly equipped 
laundry for the care of bathing suits. The subways 
provide direct access, under the highway, to the beach. 
The general plan and arrangement could hardly be im- 
proved, but its facilities for the public could be increased 




MARK WHITE SQUARE PARK BATH, CHICAGO. 

i. Closed Gymnasium and Shower Baths. 2. Men's Open Air 
Gymnasium. 3. Swimming Pool. 4. Children's Pool. 5. Field. 
6. Women's Gymnasium. 7. Dressing Compartments. 8. Boiler 
and Power House. 9. Field. 



by utilizing at least part of the building for bathing pur- 
poses during the winter months. This is a criticism 
which may be applied to all seashore baths, with one or 
two exceptions. 

In the park baths we find part of the facilities avail- 
able during the winter months, and, as a rule, gymna- 
siums are combined with them. 

Boston has a few examples of this type and a few iso- 
lated ones are found in cities of the second and third 
class. It is in Chicago, however, that we find a complete 
system of park baths in operation, and, while strictly 
speaking they are of the open-air type, they suggest the 
interior baths, because, in addition to their provisions for 




STATE BATH, REVERE BEACH, MASS. 

bathing, they have an enclosed gymnasium as well a s 
lecture and reading rooms for use during the winter 
months. These baths are situated in the densely popu- 
lated sections of the city and their total yearly attendance 
is in excess of the interior baths. 

The Mark White Square Park Bath, Chicago, is an 
excellent example of this type. The enclosed gynnasium 
building, the men's open gymnasium and field, are on 
axis, flanked on the left by the men's swimming pool 
and on the right by the children's pool and women's 
open-air gymnasium. The main pool is of ample size, 
with graded depths, and the water is thoroughly sanitary, 
as the supply is taken from the city mains, and the pool 
is constantly being replenished. Two stories of dressing 
compartments are at the head of the pool and prelimi- 
nary cleansing shower baths have been provided for. The 
power plant is in the rear of the dressing wing. The 
gymnasium or field house has shower-bath facilities sup- 
plied with warm water for all-year bathing. A consid- 
erable part of the building is utilized for a lecture hall 
and reading rooms. 

The Davis Square Park Bath, Chicago, of about the 
same capacity as the one in White Square, offers similar 
facilities, although in this instance we find the main pool 
and gymnasium building on axis. 

The Sherman Park Bath, Chicago, covers a con- 
siderably larger plot than the other two mentioned. 
Here the dressing-room building nearly encloses the 




DOUGLAS PARK BATH, CHICAGO. 

l. Men's Swimming Tool. 2. Women's Swimming Pool. 3. Men's 
Dressing Room. j. Men's Waiting Room. 5. Women's Dressing 
Room. 6. Women's Waiting Room. 7. Open Air Gymnasium. 



9 6 



T H E B RICK l\V I I. I) K K 



pool and the sexes are separated by the intervening 
buildings. 

In the Ogden Park Bath, Chicago, the pool is enclosed 
on three sides, 
affording protec- 
tion to the bathers 
from the prevail- 
ing winds. In 
addition to the 
children's pool 
there is a larger 
natural pool which 
adjoins the park 
lagoon. 

The Douglas 
Park Municipal 
Bath, Chicago, 
differs from the 
usual type, the 
gymnasium, dress- 
ing and shower 
rooms being in one 
building, which 
encloses pool baths 
for both sexes. 
The pools are com- 
pletely surround- 
ed by the dressing rooms, the gangway being sepa- 
rated from the pool only by a guard rail. The prelim- 




SWIMMING POOL, WISSAHICKEN HEIGHTS CLUB, PHILADELPHIA. 



inary cleansing showers are at the head of the pools and 
are to be commended for their liberal size, — fifty-five by 
one hundred and twenty feet for the men's basin and 

fifty-five by sixty 
feet for the 
women's. The 
depths range from 
two feet six at 
the shallowest end 
to eight feet at 
the deepest. Some 
of the waste water 
from these pools 
is returned to the 
boilers and the 
balance emptied 
by gravity into 
the park lagoons. 
Chicago has 
operated this 
system of park 
baths for only a 
few years, but has 
amply proved that 
they are in con- 
junction with in- 
terior baths, a val- 
uable asset for all large cities, tending to the elevation of 
both the moral and physical well-being of the community. 



A Third-Floor Swimming Pool. 



TI I E swimming pool in the new building of the 
Racquet Club in Philadelphia is sustained above the 
beautiful central hall of the ground floor. This hall is 
square and is comprised within twelve vertical supports 
extending the height of the building. Its ceiling, which 
is of plaster and coved, is elaborately enriched with 
painted and relief ornament. Every precaution was nec- 
essary to protect this ceiling from possible injury which 
might be caused by the large body of water upheld 
above. 

The twelve structural columns already mentioned 
occur, one at each corner of the tank and two midway of 
each side. The four corner columns are tied together by 
plate girders 3 feet deep; and from two intermediate 
columns on each side to two corresponding columns oppo- 
site extend similar girders. Across these girders 15-inch 
I-beams are laid about 18 inches apart. Upon this foun- 
dation the steel tank was set. The tank is 35 feet square 
inside and contains about 7,962 cubic feet of water 4 feet 
6 inches deep at one end and 8 feet 6 inches at the other. 
When the tank is thus filled the weight of the contents is 
nearly 25 tons and the surface of the water is 7 1 .- inches 
below the terrazza floor surrounding the pool. 

The tank is lined and waterproofed as follows: Upon 
the steel bottom 3 inches of concrete was laid, then 
1 inch of asphalt mastic, then 3 inches of concrete upon 
which a floor of circular tiles ^ inches in diameter was 



laid in cement. On three walls of the tank including the 
shallow end 1 '_• inches of asphalt mastic was laid against 
the steel, then 4 inches of brick laid in the mastic, and 
on the brick 3 x 6-inch tiles were laid in cement. On the 
wall at the deep end the brick is 9 inches thick. The 
mastic was hot when the bricks were laid, and the front 
of each joint was filled with it, the back being left until 
a height of five courses was reached. Then the hot ma- 
terial was poured in behind and made to thoroughly fill 
'and seal the space. Five more courses were laid and 
similarly grouted, then five more and so on. At the top, 
the mastic was turned over the edge of the tank, 
under a marble coping 5 J -j inches high and con- 
tin ued over the entire area surrounding the pool, 
A layer of concrete covered with terrazza produced 
the finished floor and brought it up flush with the 
coping. 

The space between the bottom of the tank and the ceil- 
ing of the hall underneath is sufficiently high for a man 
to walk. The floor of this space is protected by means 
of a coat of concrete and one of asphalt mastic, and the 
chamber is ventilated through several openings provided 
at each side. Water is pumped into the pool from an 
artesian well bored for the express use of the building. 
The piping is also so arranged that the pool may be 
filled from the city water main. The pool is drained 
directly to the street sewer. 



THE B{RICKBUILDER 



97 



Dalecross Grange and Other Houses. 



Crotich and Butler, Architects. 

BY MICHAEL BUNNEY. 



LIKE most of the large English towns, with the not- 
able exception of London, Birmingham has the ad- 
vantage of possessing in its vicinity a tract of fine upland 
country within half an hour's rail journey of the central 
parts of the city and yet so little spoiled and so little in 
danger of being spoiled that it will provide for many 
years to come a playground and a dwelling place for 
those whose work lies in the grimy surroundings of this 
industrial center. 



has been carefully guarded by judicious laying out of the 
different estates already under development and the 
preservation as open spaces for all time of large tracts 
where the natural beauties are more particularly pro- 
nounced. 

Barnt Green and other parts nearest to the railway 
and most accessible to Birmingham have naturally be- 
come more peopled with houses than the remoter hills, 
but even here the estates are so large and the distances 




HOUSE IN PRITCHATTS ROAD, EDGBASTON. 



It is, of course, inevitable that such districts as the 
Lickey Hills should be more or less monopolized by the 
wealthier resident to the partial exclusion of those whose 
moral claim to a share is just as great, still there is com- 
pensation in this, that large houses, with their necessarily 
extensive grounds, do, to a great extent, prevent even 
that amount of crowding of the landscape which the pres- 
ence of smaller buildings must perforce bring about. The 
character, therefore, and the appearance of these semi- 
urban districts and, most important of all, their wood- 
lands are preserved unspoiled. The charm of the Lickey 
Hills is still the old forest growth, and a great deal of this 



between the buildings so carefully kept that the obtru- 
sion of bricks and mortar upon the lovely undulating 
woodlands is reduced to a minimum. It is in this dis- 
trict that Dalecross Grange is situated. 

Architects of country houses are lucky when they get 
fine natural surroundings amongst which to place their 
work, and doubly so when those surroundings give a key- 
note for any constructional method that can be adopted. 
Half the unsatisfactory work that one sees is the fruit of 
a perversity that ignores local characteristics of construc- 
tion. Even though a thorough adherence to half timber 
methods may be inadvisable now that the use of other 



98 



THE BRICKIU ILDHR 




GROUND PLAN, DALECROSS GRANGE, BARNT GREEN, WORCESTERSHIRE. 



materials has so much developed, it is surely better, in 
the forest counties of the West, to build, in some measure 
at least, after the traditional fashion of John Abel and 
the great carpenters of Hereford and Leominster. There 
is just enough of this half 
timber element in Dalecross 
Grange to carry on this tradi- 
tional sequence; the long, ver- 
tical timbers are typical, too, 
of West country work, though 
they are not, perhaps, either 
so pleasing in their architec- 
tural effect nor so sound from 
a constructional standpoint as 
is the shorter and more elabo- 
rate woodwork o^he South. 

Otherwise the house is es- 
sentially modern, but the two 
qualities have been skillfully 
blended so as to prevent any 
sense of antagonism. 

Within the house the tim- 
ber construction, in oak, is 
again the ruling motive, and 

all the decoration and furniture is arranged to work in 
with this. Most of the furniture is old English oak, 
some of the pieces are remarkably fine specimens, and 
the carved paneling over the fireplaces in the hall and 




PLAN OF HOUSF, DALECROSS GRANGE. 



dining-room is built up of old fragments worked in with 
the new. Those in the hall have biblical subjects sculp- 
tured in a quaint and simple way but with a great deal 
of character; they are probably of Dutch or German 

workmanship. Needless to 
say this old carving and the 
furniture add very much to 
the satisfactory effect pro- 
duced by these rooms, but even 
without these the general 
treatment would be success- 
ful. 

The garden is still growing, 
up, and, as is the case before 
maturity is reached, its condi- 
tion is now rather ragged. 
The site, which slopes rapidly 
towards the south, affords 
plenty of opportunity for ter- 
racing at different levels, and 
full advantage of this has been 
taken by the architects, while 
the axial lines of the layout 
have been well enforced. 
Nearer to Birmingham, Messrs. Crouch and Butler 
have recently completed two interesting houses. Vil- 
lette, at Berkswell, the smaller of the two, is notable for 
its whitewashed brickwork, a somewhat bold departure 





VILLETTE, BERKSWELL. 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



99 




D A L E C R O S S GRANGE, 
BARNT GREEN, WORCESTERSHIRE. 



THE ROSE GARDEN IN WINTER. 



IOO 



T HE H RICKBU1 L D E R. 



on a house of even this size, but the result in throwing 
up the charming center gable and chimney was well 
worth striving for by so simple a means. 

Much the spine kind of reasonable building is seen in 
the Edgbaston house with 
its clever grouping of gable, 
bay and chimney, the coarse 
Leicestershire bricks accord- 
ing well with the severe type 
of mullion and stonework 
generally. Inside the house 
is a treatment of construc- 
tional decoration in oak, 
similar to, though less ambi- 
tious than, that at Dalecross 
Grange. 

Limewhiting for external 
use on either brickwork, 
plaster or roughcast is pre- 
pared as follows : Pure and clean unslaked lime is mixed 
with clean water to a consistency of cream, and while hot 
is freely spread with a large brush, never more than one 
coat being laid on. 

This is the old and the simplest method of whiten- 
ing, but in towns, or in otherwise dirty atmospheres, it 
requires renewal each spring, if the work is to keep 
a really fresh appearance. 




c*o*CH <*- grniK- a*c«™ 



PLAN OF HOUSE, PRITCHATTS ROAD, EDGBASTON 



( >chres, pinks and Venetian reds were used as coloring 
pigments on many of the plastered cottages and farms in 
the south of England, and the presence of a pigment, of 
course, keeps the surface for some time from looking 

dingy. I have seen dark ochre- 
washed walls of twenty years' 
standing that still looked 
fairly fresh. 

In clean, country air it 
would be well for the first 
three years on a new building, 
to whiten every spring, after 
that probably every third year 
would be sufficient. 

The modern method of add- 
ing a small quantity of melted 
Russian tallow to the lime 
wash preserves the coat from 
tlaking, the first symptom of 
decay, and adds to its preservative quality as a covering 
to the material on which it is laid. The proportion is a 
pint of tallow to a bushel of lime. 

( )ld limewhiting, before renewal, should not be 
washed off, but merely brushed with a stiff brush to 
remove the flaked particles, — it is the thick, uneven 
surface of oft-renewed limewhiting which gives such a 
pleasing texture to the wall surface. 




ADMINISTRATION HUILDING, NAVAL ACADEMY, ANNAPOLIS, MD. 

Ernest Flagg, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



101 



A Modern Paris Apartment House. 



BY GEORGE B. FORD. 



NEW ideas, if reasonable, are worth our attention. 
New solutions of old problems deserve study. 
Good or bad, they are bound to have some suggestion for 
us. In this connection, certain of the recent buildings 
in France demand more than a passing glance. The 
French architect rarely has more than one building to 
construct at a time. Being thus free, his best thought 
and study go into that building. It is only natural, 
therefore, that he arrives at some interesting results. 

M. Deglane, well known as patron of an atelier and 
as architect of the Grand Palais, has just completed an 
apartment house in Paris, at the corner of the rue 
Grenelle and the rue St. Simon. This is in the very midst 
of the severely aristocratic Faubourg St. Germain, the 
quarter occupied by the exclusive families of the old 
French nobility. High walls and massive doors enclos- 
ing the forecourts, simple, dignified almost forbidding 
facades, narrow, somewhat winding streets, these char- 
acterize the neighborhood. Classic old friends from 
Cesar Daly greet you on every hand. A sense of well- 
being, of quiet and repose, 
stamp the region as one of true 
refinement. The financial con- 
dition of many of the younger 
branches of these old families 
does not permit of their oc- 
cupying their ancestral homes. 
They can afford only a moder- 
ate rent. Their taste and train- 
ing demand a certain restrained 
luxury of architectural treat- 
ment. Their social life de- 
mands that they remain in the 
neighborhood. 

Such was M. Deglane's 
problem ; to conform to these 
conditions; to fulfill these requirements, all on a lot 
75 by 45 with two apartments, each of six rooms, on 
on a floor. The apartments on any given floor, in 
accordance with an unwritten French law, have to be 
of nearly equal rental value. The plan has no especial 
interest for the American architect. Granting the 
habits of the French family life, it is well arranged. It 
is further unquestionably ingenious in its economical 
use of the space given. It is even quite exceptional, 
from the French standpoint, in having a bathroom with 
set tub in each suite, and even betters our practice, in 
that it has the water-closet separate from the bathroom. 
The toilets noted here serve as dressing-rooms. The 
numerous fireplaces are required by law. They at least 
give the Frenchman the entirely undemanded excuse for 
keeping his chamber windows closed tight all night, winter 
and summer. The stair entrance and vestibule come in 
the middle of the south side. Just to the right of the 
stairs are the concierge's rooms. The rest of the space 
on either side of the entrance is utilized, in the manner 
customary, even in some of the most expensive Paris 
apartment houses, by two small shops. 




ys'- 

PLAN OF TYPICAL FLOOR 



The chief interest for us, however, is in the exterior. 
An unwritten law demands that the ground floor shall 
be of stone, a good, hard, white limestone, as are also 
the sills and belt courses on the floors above. The rest 
of the stone is a warm buff limestone, lending itself well 
to carving, and harmonizing well with the red brickwork. 
This latter is laid Flemish bond in white mortar with 
well-raked joints. The brickwork on the top floor is laid 
in red mortar, which tends to unify the story, forming a 
sort of frieze about the top of the building. The wrought 
iron grilles and balcony rails are painted a green black. 
The lintels over the third-story windows are of terra 
cotta blocks, anchored in between the flanges of the I's. 

And when we turn to the general design we remark 
how frankly M. Deglane takes advantage of his corner 
lot. The great bow-window rising into a tower not 
only carries well on the exterior, but with its extra 
large windows gives most desirable rooms inside. Note 
the happy way in which he "has tied this tower into the 
quiet street facades by the secondary bow-windows on 

other side. How naturally and 
without strain the stone 
changes to brick. How well 
chosen and well spotted are 
the masses of ornament and 
color throughout, relieved as 
they are against the plain brick 
surface, between the bow-win- 
dows. The decoration, too, is 
most in keeping with the rest 
of the building, bold and strong 
where needed, or delicate where 
appropriate. In fact, all the 
details are characterized by a 
robust refinement which gives 
the building a dignity of its own. 
Many of the individual details are most carefully studied 
in themselves. Take the entrance door, for instance ; how 
easily and playfully the bay-window grows out of it with- 
out any feeling of weakness or lack of support. Remark 
especially, too, the ironwork; how harmonious it is, 
how light and free, how full of individuality, and how 
varied in motif clown to the main entrance door, which 
is unique and most striking in the absolute frankness of 
its plain, solid vertical and horizontal bars, relieved in 
just the right spots and just the right amount by the 
decorative flower motif in the panels, and the flowing 
spiral motif in the borders. This is the work of M. E. 
Robert, so well known in France for his artistic metal 
work. 

With all its care, it is interesting to note that this 
house cost no more than its neighbors, that is to say, the 
building cost about $70,000, which is at the rate of about 
$22 per square foot or 28 cents per cubic foot. The rents 
average in the neighborhood of 45 cents per square foot, 
which makes the rent of the average six-room apartment, 
between $640 and $700 per year, taxes on doors and 
windows extra at 50 cents apiece. 






102 



T H E B R ICKB U I L I.) E R 





THE BRICKBUILDER 



103 




DETAIL OF APARTMENT HOUSE, RUE CRENELLE AND KUE ST. SIMON, PARIS. 



io4 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



A Village Railway Station. 

BY WILLIAM LESLIE WELTON. 

IN the realm of hypothesis all things are possible. So 
now that " Brickbuilderville " is tired of using a 
neighboring way-station, and has decided to build one for 
itself, it becomes necessary to devise a conveniently 
planned building conforming to the general architectural 
lines already established. 

This imaginary village is, in reality, a suburb of a 
large city and some twenty miles distant, a charming 
community of three thousand people, in fact, a town in 
southern California, a sort of American Mentone, a smil- 
ing land with a luminous atmosphere. 

Ever since the day Father Junipero set out from 
Mexico to colonize California and teach Christianity to 
the Indians this favored country has prospered and been 
admired by eastern civilization. 

Our supposed town is at the base of the foothills of 
the Santa Ynez Mountains, where, on every hand, the 
landscape, from the first blush of morn to the golden 
pyres of sunset, seems about to smile with girlish joy. 
Long lines of swelling hills lead into the level and no- 
where is one line firmly followed, but the whole wavers 
and yet is beautiful. It is a country where the broad, 
long lines of the mountains melt into the sea, and then 
soar again to the sky; where every piece of dithyrambic 
landscape forms a varied picture, whereof the composition 
is due to subtle arrangement of lines always delicate, 
which somehow seem to have been determined in their 
beauty by the mountain system, as though they had all 
taken their time to choose their place and wear down into 
harmony and one symphonious whole. 

The arrangement of our -plan presupposes the utmost 
simplicity and directness in arrangement. Merely a large 
waiting-room with a retired alcove for both men and 
women at either side. Space is provided for baggage, 
plumbing, etc. The ticket office is accused opposite the 
main entrance, commanding the room within and the 
track without. Pergolas screen the unsightly tracks 
from the public approach toward the square, and at the 
same time add an interesting line to the facade, leading 
the eye up to the culminating feature of the design — the 
main entrance. Covered shelters at each side of the 
roadbed offer protection to commuters in stormy weather. 

So many "modern " railway stations are such impos- 
sible things, architecturally, that the public cannot be 
blamed for escaping to the track promenades in prefer- 
ence to remaining inside and be driven to a sepulchral 



end. The refined iniquity of the authors of these plans 
is, to say the least,, calculated to drive one to perdition. 
It may be parenthetically observed that the economy of 
the poor ( ?) railroad corporations is doubtless respon- 
sible. 

That type of plan which divides what might have been 
one fine large room of good proportions into two small 
sheathed boxes, facetiously termed, for the sake of 
courtesy, "ladies' and gents' waiting-rooms," is particu- 
larly to be condemned. These rooms, usually resplen- 
dent with "golden oak" woodwork are so ingeniously 
separated that a man might quite easily lose his wife in 
the shuttle, a condition generally, though not always, 
considered a disadvantage. The baggage room in this 
type of plan is usually relegated to a wart-like excrescence 
at one end of the building accessible only from the outside 
and forever in the way of passers-by. 

The building here illustrated is intended to be built 
of brick and terra cotta. The walls outside could be 
ornamented with a diaper pattern, crossed by horizontal 
lines forming octagonal spaces, with a terra cotta shell in 
the center, or otherwise accented by certain color ele- 
ments in the use of tile or Robbias. 

For the roof let us go to the good old examples in the 
Spanish churches of Mexico, the possibilities of which 
never seem to have been fully realized. Inside, this same 
roof becomes a fine barrel vault like the church of the 
Miracoli at Venice, except in our case tile instead of wood, 
carrying down to the floor, also of tile, laid herring bone. 
Certain spots of color at the impost line, above the doors, 
around the ticket office and clock, as well as the brick- 
lined fireplaces, might add much interest to the interior. 

If I may speak of the exterior without indulging in 
a discourse on architecture, for manifestly the subject of 
this article is a village railway station, I would offer, as a 
personal impression, that it is perhaps better to profit by 
the use of our legacy of architectural forms, as did 
Peruzzi in Italy and Gabriel in France, adapting them to 
modern conditions, than to make a vain show of sciolism 
by brushing aside the learning of three thousand years 
and grossly claim to have the only solution for good 
architecture. 

So right here in southern California there exist to-day 
traces of an unmistakable art left by the hand of Indian 
neophytes under Spanish guidance, an architectural 
inheritance of which America may well be proud, at once 
furnishing us a logical precedent for the character of our 
building in the preservation of the traditions of the 
country. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



105 










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A VILLAGE RAILWAY STATION. 
William L. Welton, Architect. 



io6 



T H E BR I C K BU I L DE R. 



Editorial Comment and 
Miscellany 



THE TRIBUNE BUILDING, CHICAGO, TESTED 

BY FIRE. 
'"■ I "HE fireproof qualities of the Tribune Building 
J. were demonstrated effectively early on the morn- 
ing of April 29, during a blaze, which originated from 
some unknown cause in one of the storage rooms on the 
eighteenth floor. 

"The rooms situated on the top floor of the structure, 
on the Dearborn Street side, were filled with records and 
other inflammable material. This burned rapidly, but 
the flames were confined to the three small apartments 
where they started. 

"It was the highest fire from the street level since 
the days of skyscrapers in Chicago. The flames were 
extinguished by water, forced through the standpipe of 
the building to the top floor by fire engines, and the 
pressure proved ample. 

"The fire gave positive evidence of the safety of 
towering buildings of modern construction. It showed 
that no matter where a fire occurs in such a building, it 
is impossible for it to spread to any extent. 

" The fire was just under the roof and the heat of the 
flames is indicated by the fact that the wire reinforced 
glass in the skylight melted in places, and in others 
became so soft that it dropped down in fantastic shapes. 
Also a ten-foot steam pipe which ran through the room 
in which the fire originated, although covered with 
asbestos, was totally destroyed. 

"In the section swept by the flames was a room 
used by the electrician and the carpenter of the Tri- 

bune Com- 
pany, and two 
rooms used for 
the records of 
the auditing de- 
partment of the 
newspaper, con- 
taining data for 
a number of 
years back. 
Many of these 
records were 
destroyed. 

"These three 
small rooms 
had glass win- 
dows set in 
their partitions 
of fire brick. 
This glass was 
destroyed t by 
the heat and 
permitted the 
flames to 
spread. Had 
there been no 

THE TRIBUNE BUILDING, CHICAGO. ° 

From photograph taken after the fire. fireproof par- 




t i t i o n s the 
flames would 
have been con- 
fined to one 
room, accord- 
ing to the fire- 
men. 

" The par- 
tition walls 
were left in- 
tact and the 
floors were un- 
injured. The 
flames did not 
spread outside 
the outer par- 
tition wall 
separating the 
storage rooms 
from the cor- 
ridor. The 
building was 
fireproof ed 
with terra 
cotta hollow 
tile." 

The fore- 
going descrip- 
tion of the fire 
was published 
in the Tribune 
— "'the party 
of the first 
part." 




GRINNKLL BUILDING, DETROIT. 

Albert Kahn, Architect. 

Entire front of full white glaze terra cotta, 

made by Atlantic Terra Cotta Co. 



FIRES occurred in fifty-eight public or private school 
buildings in the United States and Canada during 
the first three months of this year. The property loss 
was large. More important than that, the lives of thou- 
sands of school children were endangered. A tabulation 
by the Insurance Press fails to show the cause of the fire 
in each instance, but in the majority of cases, where the 
cause is stated, a defect in the flue, the" furnace, the wir- 
ing, or in some other detail of construction, is named as 
responsible. A list of six hundred and forty-five cities 
and towns in the United States is given in which com- 
munities, it is said, investigation has shown a lack of 
necessary precaution for the safety of school children. 
If there is one type of buildings which needs to be fire 
proofed it is the schoolhouse. The people may be de- 
pended upon to contribute the additional cost if the way 
is pointed out to them by those whose business it is to 
point the way in matters of this sort. 







DETAIL ON SCHOOL OF APPLIED DESIGN. 

Pell & Corbett, Architects. 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



107 



ALTHOUGH his 
skill finds great- 
est scope in perma- 
nent forms, the ar- 
chitect may devote 
himself with scarcely 
less success to tempo- 
rary structures such 
as civic decorations for 
street and other pa- 
geants. A matter of 
national interest is the 
embellishing of Penn- 
sylvania Avenue in 
Washington for the 
next inaugural parade. 
A competition for this 
has been instituted by 
the local chapter of the 
American Institute of 
Architects, the Wash- 
ington Architectural 
Club and The National 
Society of Fine Arts. 
Three prizes are to be 
given and the designs placed at the disposal of the in- 
augural committee on decoration. The route of the 
parade from the Capitol to Seventeenth Street is to be 
treated, and the designs are to include stands and other 
structural features. It is stipulated that the flag shall 
only be used where it can float freely as from a staff. In 
this connection it is interesting to refer to the decora- 
tions of Paris by eminent architects of France on the 
occasion of the marriage of 
Napoleon to Marie Louise. 




$25,000 for this work, 
and will make a fur- 
ther contribution to- 
ward the restoration 
of the building as a 
whole. This is philan- 
thropy which archi- 
tects, especially, will 
appreciate , — the 
spirit which preserves 
a thing of beauty to 
be studied and enjoyed 
by all. 



MAP ROOM, WAR COLLEGE, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 

Guastavino Tile Construction. 



IN GENERAL. 

The seventh annual 
exhibition of the 
Washington Architec- 
tural Club opened in 
the Corcoran Gallery 
of Art, May 8. 



THE Government appro- 
priation of $ 1 , 200, 000 for 
a deep waterway three hun- 
dred feet wide, from Newark- 
Bay up the Passaic River to 
the northern limits of Newark, 
is a forecast of important 
building schemes in this 
vicinity. Uredgings from the 
river are to be deposited over the adjoining meadows, 
and will aid in furnishing factory sites. A large sum has 
been voted by the people of Newark for the construction 
of public docks, and private enterprises of proportional 
scale are likely to follow. 




RAILWAY STATION, NEWBURG, OHIO. 

Roofed with Imperial Spanish Red Tile. 

Made by Ludowici-Celadon Co. 



Arthur G. Everett, 
of Everett & Mead, 
architects, Boston, has been appointed building commis- 
sioner for the city of Boston. 

Elmo C. Lowe and Horace C. Ingram have formed a 
copartnership for the practice of architecture, with offices 
in the Corn Exchange Bank Building, Chicago. 

R. Burnside Potter, having retired from the firm of 
Robertson & Potter, architects, 160 Fifth Avenue, New 

York, the business will be 
continued under the firm name 
of R. H. Robertson & Son. 

At the annual meeting of 
the Society of Columbia Uni- 
versity Architects, the follow- 
ing named were elected as 
officers for the ensuing year: 
president, Henry Snyder 
Kissam; first vice-president, 
I. N. Phelps Stokes; second 
vice-president, Stockton B. 
Colt; secretary, Will Walter Jackson ; recorder, F. Living- 
ston Pell; treasurer, H. G. Emery; governors, W. A. 
Delano, J. T. 
Werner. 



Tubby, Jr., D. Everett Waid, Harold C. 



MRS. RUSSELL SAGE is interesting 
restoring that masterpiece of Colonial 
architecture, the New York City Hall, to 
conform with the original plans 
for the building as drawn by John 
McComb, assisted by Lamaire. 
Already the Governor's Room 
has been restored, under the 
direction of McKim, Mead & 
White. Mrs. Sage donated 



herself in 




DETAIL BY J. WARNER ALLEN, ARCHITECT. 
South Amboy Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



The report is current that the Pennsylvania, the St. 
Paul & Chicago and Northwestern Railroads will build 
in Chicago, west of the Chicago River, a union passenger 
station, which will be the largest in the 
world, at a cost of about one hundred mil- 
lions of dollars. The other roads 
entering the city will also use this 
station. 

The Metropolitan Life In- 
surance Company has decided 
to have its tower on Madison 
Square, New York, built to a 



io8 



THE BRICKBUILDE R 




HOUSE AT CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

Built cif Shawnee Brick, made by Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Co. 

height of fifty stories, instead of forty-eight, as first 
planned. When completed, the summit of the tower will 



notable on account of their locations and the fact that 
they are likely to become dominating features of archi- 
tectural schemes later to be developed. The former 
hotel, designed by Marshall Mackenzie & Son is in the 
concave curve of the new, wide street of Aldwych ; the 
latter, by Norman Shaw, stands as a key for the recon- 
struction of the Regent Street Ouadrant. 

The discussion in the House, anent the housing of 
American embassadors abroad, provided some very en- 
tertaining reading in the otherwise prosaic C ongressional 
Record. And now that the bill has passed for the pur- 
chase of a mansion in Paris, it is to be hoped that em- 
bassies elsewhere will be straightway acquired. But 
why purchase them? American architects are the leaders 
of the world in planning domestic establishments and 
they should be given a chance to house Uncle Sam's 
large and scattered family. 

The Second Prize, §2,000, awarded in the Competition 




IRST DISTRICT POLICE COURT AND PATROL WACO 
ST. LOUIS, MO. 

James A. Smith, Architect. 
Terra Cotta by St. Louis Terra Cotta Co. 




be six hundred and ninety-three feet above the sidewalk, 
or eighty-one feet higher than the Singer Building. 

The restoration of normal financial conditions is 
bringing increasing capital into the mortgage market, 
where it may be had at fairly reasonable rates. In New 
York, five per cent is now accepted, and extensive build- 
ing improvements are again being projected, though on 
rather a more rational scale than in the recent past. 

The Press Club is to add another to the long list of 
clubhouses in New York City. Property recently pur- 
chased at the corner of Spruce and William streets will 
be improved by the erection of a twelve-story building, 
of which the lower four floors are to be rented as stores 
or offices, and the remainder devoted to a completely 
appointed home of the club. 

Two fine new hotels nearing completion in London 
are the "Waldorf" and the "Piccadilly." Both are 



for the Capitol Building of San Juan, Porto Rico, was won 
by Ritchie & Abbott of Boston, and not Ritchie Abbott 




HOUSE AT ITHACA, N. Y. 
William H. Miller, Architect. Built of " Ironclay " Brick. 



THE BRICKBU II.DK R, 



109 




DETAIL BY HALL & BAKER, ARCHITECTS. 
American Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



of New York, 
as stated in 
our April 
issue. Mr. 
Ritchie is 
connected 
with the office 
of Parker, 
Thomas & 
Rice, Boston, 
and Mr. Ab- 
bott is with 
Shepley, Ru- 
tan & Cool- 
idge. 



The architectural terra cotta used in the three new 
buildings for the Syracuse University, illustrated in this 
issue, was furnished by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Com- 
pany. 

The new Lotos Club Building, New York, Donn 
Barber, architect, promises to be unusually interesting as 
an example of texture and pattern work in brick. Fiske 
& Co. of New York will supply the face and ornamental 
brick for the building. 

The architectural terra cotta used in the Vincent 
Memorial Hospital, Boston; Tarratine Club, Bangor; 
Public Baths, East Twenty-third Street, New York, illus- 
trated in The Brickbutlder for April, was executed by 
the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

The Indianapolis Terra Cotta Company will furnish 
the architectural terra cotta for the following new build- 
ings: Elks Club, Terre Haute, Ind.; Martin Miller, 
architect; High School, Sharpesville, Ind., J. T. John- 





MAIN ENTRANCE, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, 

SEARS, ROEBUCK & CO. GROUP, CHICAGO. 

Nimmons & Fellows, Architects. 

Gray Terra Cotta executed by Northwestern Terra Cotta Co. 



DETAIL OF STORAGE BUILDING FOR METROPOLITAN LIFE 

INSURANCE CO., BRONXVILLE, N. Y. 

N. Le Brun & Sons, Architects. 

Terra Cotta by New York Architectural Terra Cotta Co. 

son & Co., architects; public school, Indianapolis, H. C. 
Brubaker & Co., architects; Y. W. C. A. Building, 
Indianapolis, D. A. Bohlen & Son, architects; Y. M. C. A. 
Building, Indianapolis, Foltz & Parker, architects. 

The increased use in this country of faience has put a 
demand upon the manufacturers for quality, which is 
being met by them in a most commendable spirit. Work 
which will meet the demands of the architect in the 
matter of colors, glazes and nicety of finish, and work 
which will withstand the ravages of time is recognized 
by the manufacturers as being paramount in the devel- 
opment of this business. The Doultons of England have 
long been famous for the excellence of their manufacture 
in this material, and it is announced by the Hartford 
Faience Company of Hartford, Conn., that they have se- 
cured the services of Francis G. Plant, who for a long 
time has had charge of the architectural faience work for 
Doulton & Co. Mr. Plant, who has had a large experi- 
ence in executing work under the direction of architects, 
will have entire charge of the architectural faience work 
for the Hartford Company. This company will begin at 
once the manu- 
facture of a new 
line of tiles for 
the decoration 
of buildings, 
and will also 
put on the mar- 
ket a new series 
of designs for 
mantel work, 
all of which will 
be executed 
under Mr. 

p. T > 1 • ORNAMENT OVER WINDOW. 

f lant s ciirec- widmann & Walsh, Architects. 

tion. Made by Winkle Terra Cotta Co. 




I IO 



THE BRICKBl'ILDER 




DETAIL BY ISRAELS & HARDER, ARCHITECTS. 
New Jersey Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

COMPETITION FOR THE MUNICIPAL BUILDING 
GROUP, SPRINGFIELD, MASS. 

THE Municipal Building Commission of Springfield, 
Mass., announce a competition for the proposed 
new Municipal Building Group, to comprise munici- 
pal offices, a large auditorium and a clock tower. The 
group is projected for a fine site facing the newly en- 




PARISH HOUSE AND SUNDAY SCHOOL BUILDING, BUFFALO. 

Thomas W. Harris, Architect. 

Built of Red Shale Brick, made by Jewettville Pressed and 

Paving Brick Co. 

larged public square which extends from the business 
center to the Connecticut River. 

The competition will be held under the direction of 
Professor Warren P. Laird, of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, and will consist of two parts; a preliminary, 
open to all qualified architects and a final confined to the 
authors of the two best designs in the preliminary, five 
especially invited architects, and all qualified Springfield 
architects. In the final competition will be awarded 
nine fees of four hundred dollars each; two to the 
Springfield architects submitting the best designs, and 
one to each of the other competitors, no competitive fee 
being paid to the architect awarded the prize. 

The following architects have accepted the Commis- 
sion's invitation to submit designs in the final part, viz. : 
Messrs. Cass Gilbert, Hale &: Rogers, Lord & Hewlett, 
Peabody & Stearns and Pell & Corbett. 

The conditions of the preliminary competition will be 
announced probably on Thursday, June 4, and drawings 
are to be delivered by noon of Saturday, June 27. 

The preliminary competition will call for very few 
and simple drawings at thirty-second scale, its purpose 



being to "try-out " the open field with the least possible 
outlay of time and expense to the competitor. 

The Commission desires the participation in the pre- 
liminary part of all architects of good professional 
standing and of experience in the actual execution of 
large work. Applications are to be made on blank forms, 
which may be secured by addressing the adviser at the 
I niversity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 



THE Board of School Inspectors of St. Paul has just 
purchased the sites for the location of four new 
high schools to be erected practically simultaneously, to 
take the place of the buildings now in use. The first 
building to be started is to be known as the New Me- 
chanic Arts High School, centrally located. The Board 
has established an open competition for the purpose of 
selecting an architect. The programmes of this compe- 
tition are now ready and will be submitted to any repu- 
table architect applying for the same. The first prize 
will be the commission to design and supervise the erec- 
tion of the building. Second and third prizes of four 
hundred and three hundred dollars respectively will be 
awarded to the next two architects whose designs shall 
be rated as second and third in order of merit. 

SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

The Four Year Course. Full professional training (with an option in 
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The Two Year Special Course. For qualified draughtsmen. Offers 
advanced technical training with a Certificate of Proficiency. 

For Full Information address Dr. J. II. Penniman, Dean of the College, 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

KIDDER'S ARCHITECTS' and 
BUILDERS' POCKET-BOOK 

FIFTEENTH EDITION, REVISED 

The changes in this edition consist of the correction of all typo- 
graphical errors reported to the publishers, and the rewriting of Chap- 
ters XXIII and XXIV. This work has been done by Rudolph P. 
Miller. Professor Alvah H. Sabin has also brought the section on 
Paints and Varnishes up to date. 

16 mo, xix ; 1703 pages, 1000 figures 

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NEW YORK : JOHN WILEY & SONS 

A VALUABLE REFERENCE BOOK 

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E. B. LACEY, Editor 
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Bureau of American Republics' Bldg., Wash., D. C 9 sets of Drawings, 35 Plates 
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4 sets of Drawings, 19 Plates 
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VOL. 17, NO. 5. PLATE 61. 




GENERAL LIBRARY (CARNEGIE), SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY, 

SYRACUSE, N. Y. 

REVELS & HALLENBECK, ARCHITECTS. 




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VOL. 17. NO. 5 



PLATE 65. 




GATE LODGE. 




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The American Theater VII 



SAFETY FROM FIRE. 

BY CLARENCE H. RLACKALI-. 



THE greatest source of danger in every theater fire 
has been not in the fire nor in the smoke but in 
the people themselves, who lose their heads and trample 
one another to death. Accordingly, the first considera- 
tion of safety is that the exits shall be of such arrange- 
ment and size that a panic-stricken crowd cannot go 
wrong. It is, of course, impossible to make any building 
panic proof, but there are certainly many things to avoid 
in the construction of an auditorium, and there are some 
constructions which should enter into the planning of 
every public hall. 

Most of our cities now require open courts or streets 
on each side of the auditorium of a theater. The re- 
quired width of these courts varies from six feet in Bos- 
ton to ten feet in Rochester, and it is everywhere 
required that they shall connect without interruption 
to a public thoroughfare. This is a regulation which 
sometimes seems like a hardship to the owner who is 
required to give up a large portion of the available 
width of his lot, but it is a very desirable provision and 
one that ought not to be slighted. We have not yet in 
this country come to the point of obliging every theater 
to be open to the streets on all sides, as is the case in 
most European cities, though that is by far the best 
arrangement. 

As has previously been stated in this series, Boston 
is one of the few cities in which the Building Law is 
exigent as regards lobbies. The theory is that in case 
of fire the audience should have a lobby of sufficient size 
to accommodate the entire audience standing. The real 
efficiency of this arrangement has never been put to a 
test. It is extremely doubtful if theaters that have 
large lobbies would be any safer than those which 
have no lobbies at all but have properly arranged exit 
corridors. On the other hand, there is no controverting 
the advantage of lobbies from the point of view of con- 
venience. They are never built in this country too 
large for that purpose, and they are often reduced in 
size to the vanishing point; but as a matter of mere 
safety, in case of a fire or panic, it is not conceivable 
that the audience will rush into the lobbies and stay 
there while the theater burns, and the real value of a 
lobby as part of a safety exit is measured by the capacity 
of the exits leading from this lobby to the street. The 
mere interposition of what might be termed an expansion 



joint into the line of exits would not make the danger 
materially less in case of panic. This principle should 
be borne in mind in planning exit corridors, especially 
those from the galleries. It is a good scheme to start 
with these of the maximum size which shall be deter- 
mined upon and to continue this size practically un- 
broken to the street. If expanded into lobbies, or if 
they have any marked projections, these passages might 
easily become danger spots for a panic-stricken crowd. 

Furthermore, when flights of stairs form a part of a 
line of exits, these stairs should be kept as nearly uni- 
form in rise and tread as possible. Any variation in 
one or the other is very apt to cause a crowd to stumble. 
Also, in such lines of exits all interior corners should be 
rounded out so that by no possibility could individuals 
be caught in an eddy and crushed. Some of these pre- 
cautions may seem unnecessary, but sad experiences have 
shown how unreasonable a crowd will be. 

Dependence should not be put upon so-called emer- 
gency exits. A crowd will go in the usual lines and 
cannot be depended upon to avail themselves of any exits 
not ordinarily in use. For this reason so-called exterior 
fire escapes are of little practical value in case of panic. 
While, of course, they are a great deal better than noth- 
ing, and may sometimes save lives in case of fire after 
the first rush, the right way is to make the regular exits 
ample, and have them used every time the theater is 
emptied, so that the public may become accustomed to 
such ways of egress. Exterior fire escapes suggest 
safety ; as a matter of fact, they are seldom constructed 
so as to be of use. In some cities it is required that 
such exterior exits shall be covered to protect them from 
snow and ice, and the rise and tread of the stairs is usu- 
ally prescribed by law; but they are, after all, unusual 
exits, and are generally steep and dangerous in appear- 
ance. The interior exit is really safer for fire and 
panic. 

Two lines of exit should not converge so as to create 
a congestion, and a flight of stairs should never end in a 
corridor serving as an exit from another section of the 
house unless the stairs end at a distance equal their own 
width from the cross corridor. Also, where space will 
permit, two separate stairways, each five or six feet wide, 
will serve to better purpose than a single stairway of 
the combined width of the two, and where it is absolutely 



I 12 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



necessary to have a single wide stairway any width over 
six feet should be provided with a strong center rail. 

Inside of the auditorium itself care should be taken 
that the exits from the balcony and gallery shall never 
be downward but up toward the rear, and there should 
never be steps down where two lines of exits converge. 
This was a condition which existed at the Iroquois 
Theater at the time of the fire, and which led to a great 
loss of lives by reason of the people stumbling and be- 
ing buried in heaps about a doorway. For similar rea- 
son vomitories are not desirable. There are many cases 
where they have been employed, but in the ideal theater 
all the exits would be out 
from the rear, and it is not 
possible to so construct 
vomitories that there 
could not be very serious 
congestion at the exits in 
case of a panic. 

The various theater fires 
which have so shocked the 
communities within the 
last few years have, not- 
withstanding their disas- 
trous results, demon- 
strated, without question, 
that from a structural 
standpoint a building can 
be made fireproof. The 
difficulty always is with 
the fittings and furnish- 
ings. They are of neces- 
sity more or less intlam- 
mable, and no satisfactory 
device has yet been worked 
out to fireproof fabrics 
without a sacrifice of their 
artistic value. But all the 
fabrics and wood finish in 
a modern fireproof theater 
would never bring death 
to an audience so long as 
the individuals kept their 
head. It is only when the 
exits are blocked by un- 
reasonable crowds that 
those behind are scorched 
by the flames from the 
draperies and wood- 
work. 

A theater fire usually starts on the stage, and every 
city has regulations requiring some form of fire curtain 
intended to confine the (lames and at least a part of the 
smoke to the stage. The much vaunted asbestos cur- 
tain is sometimes a snare and delusion by not working 
properly, or by working at the wrong time, but if in 
proper order and running easily in metal grooves, it will 
serve as a fairly efficient barrier against flames. Un- 
fortunately, when an asbestos curtain shuts down on a 
stage fire the conditions behind the curtain are made 
worse and the actors are lucky if they get out alive. As 
the stage hands are usually the first to discover the fire, 
and as exit is far easier for them than for the audience, 




FLOOR PLAN, WAGNER OI'KRA HOUSE. HEYREUTH. 

For Distinguished Strangers. — A. Boxes. H Lounge. C. Balcony. 
I). Anteroom. E. Staircase. 



K. Dressing-Room. L. Scene Store. M. Chorus, a. Entrance to Stalls. 
t). Entrance to Orchestra, c. Service Stairs, d. Entrance to Distinguished 
Strangers' Boxes. 



it is by no means sure that the fire curtain will close ex- 
cept by the parting of the fusible links which hold it 
open, for it is asking too much of ordinary human nature 
to expect that stage hands would always sacrifice them- 
selves to give a few moments respite to a panicky audi- 
ence. As a matter of fact, no asbestos curtain has ever 
been of much practical value except in the case of a 
slight conflagration on the stage. 

The asbestos curtain is very little used in Europe, its 
place being taken by a screen consisting of a steel frame- 
work covered with corrugated iron, the whole working 
in tight grooves and serving as a very efficient fire stop. 

Its value was demon- 
strated within a short 
time at the Drury Lane 
Theater in London, where 
a fire on the stage did a 
great deal of damage to 
that part of the house 
without spreading beyond 
the fire curtain. This 
form of construction is 
not required by law in 
this country and is seldom 
used, but it is far prefer- 
able to asbestos. 

Some cities require that 
a fireproof curtain shall be 
so marked plainly in 
letters visible to the entire 
audience and that it shall 
be closed before and after 
each performance. If the 
fireproof curtain were to 
be suddenly lowered dur- 
ing an act, the audience 
would be very apt to jump 
at the conclusion that 
there was danger from fire 
and a panic would ensue. 
There is no good reason 
why a fire curtain should 
not be treated like an or- 
dinary act drop, so far as 
appearance is concerned, 
and there does not seem 
to be anything gained by 
labeling it as a fireproof 
curtain. Of course, this 
fireproof curtain, whether 
of asbestos or steel, should in every case be automatic in 
its action, so a sudden rise in temperature over the stage 
will melt a fusible link and allow the curtain to descend. 
Very few American theaters are so arranged as to 
safely handle a panic-stricken crowd, and it is quite likely 
that commercial requirements will always be a bar to 
even a measure of success in this direction, but to illus- 
trate what might be, there is a very excellent illustration 
afforded by the theater which Richard Wagner built at 
Beyreuth, where he had plenty of room and where the 
mere construction was so cheap that he was free to give all 
the desired space to exits and accessories. The theater 
is without balconies or galleries, a single broad and deep 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



i'3 



orchestra rising with a regular grade from the stage 
front, and without aisles or columns or any obstruction. 
The platforms of the seats are wider than in our average 
theaters, and each row of seats constitutes an aisle contin- 
uous from one side of the building to the other, so that 
the time required to empty the theater is simply the 
time required for the people to step out of one row of 
seats. All these aisles lead to broad, easy foyers outside 
of the main auditorium, and it is hard to see how even 
the most panicky crowd could do itself very much dam- 
age in this theater as far as relates to the matter of 
exits. Of course there are many theaters abroad like the 
Paris Opera House in which the proportion between the 



Years 1791 i/ioe 


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1897-86 


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(Number of fires shown at left ) 

DIAGRAM SHOWING NUMBER OF THEATER FIRES ACCORDING 
TO DECADES FROM 1797-1897. 

exit corridors and the seating capacity of the several divi- 
sions of the house is so large that a crowd is dissipated al- 
most instantly it emerges from the few rows of seats 
served by any one aisle ; but we are never able to build 
our theaters on that liberal scale. 

It is usual to surround the curtain opening with some 
form of water curtain. This consists either of a perfo- 
rated pipe carried up the sides and across the head, through 
which a strong stream of water can be thrown if desired ; 
or, perhaps better yet, a fantail jet of large volume is 
placed midway of each jamb and overhead, so that when 
turned on these will throw a heavy spray across the en- 
tire opening. Then, of course, every theater stage ought 
to be thoroughly equipped with automatic sprinklers, 



with automatic fire alarms, and with a standpipe on each 
side with not less than fifty feet of hose ready for instant 
use at each level. The use of the English alarm valve on 
the sprinkler service is not desirable. The writer's ex- 
perience has been that it will frequently be set ringing 
by a slight water hammer and in several cases the start- 
ing of the gong through no cause except sudden opening 
or closing of a cock somewhere in the building has started 
an insipient panic which was not easy to quell. There is 
one device, however, that should be insisted upon in 
every theater, and that is some form of automatic sky- 
light above the rigging loft and controlled from the 
prompter's desk, so that in case of any sudden rise of 

Years 

1876 '71 '78 '79 '80 81 BZ "83 84 88 8« 8J '88 89 90 '91 '82 '99 '34 '9S '96 '91 









































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(Number of lives lost shown at left ) 
DIAGRAM SHOWING NUMBER OF LIVES LOST IN THEATER 
FIRES FROM 1876-1897. 

temperature the skylight will either open entirely by the 
top revolving or sliding out of place, or else dampers on 
the sides of a monitor will drop out so as to allow the 
smoke and flames to escape at once. In the case of the 
Iroquois Theater it has been stated that the automatic 
ventilators over the stage were nailed up tight, the flames 
consequently being driven out from the stage into the 
audience, causing considerable loss of life. Had these 
stage ventilators worked properly the course of the 
flames would have been upward, and, while the panic 
would probably have been quite as intense, the loss of 
life from fire would have been greatly reduced. The 
area of the openings in these skylights should be not less 
than one-tenth of the floor area of the stage. 



H4 



THE BRICK1HMLI) E R 



The lines which support the scenery over the stage 
are almost universally in this country of manila rope. 
As the ordinary stage fitting would include twenty or 
thirty miles of this rope and as all of the ropes are 
attached to wooden battens supporting the scenery, it 
will be appreciated at once that if wire rope could be 
substituted for the manila and all the battens made 
throughout of metal, the combustible contents of the 
stage would be limited to the cloth of the scenery itself. 
Furthermore, there is no good reason why the scenes 
themselves should not be constructed of iron. This use 
of wire rope and metallic frames for scenery is, however, 
something which has never yet been well worked out 
and would be practical only when the scenery is operated 
by power rather than by hand. 

Theater fires present some interesting statistics. 
One would naturally suppose that in the days before 
so-called fireproof construction, when gas was used ex- 
clusively about the stage, the fire hazard would be very 
great, but the risks seem to have increased faster than 
the number of theaters. At any rate, the advent of fire- 
proof construction has not materially lessened the loss 
of life. The two tables which are shown herewith are 
taken from Sachs' Book on "Modern Opera Houses and 
Theatres," and show that there has been a constant 
advance during the last century in the number of fires, 
while the loss of life, which was at a minimum about 



1880, has been steadily increasing. This simply shows 
that, notwithstanding all our attempts to have our thea- 
ters fireproof, we cannot make the audience feel suffi- 
cient confidence to avoid a panic. In the celebrated 
Ring Theater fire at Vienna the loss of life occurred 
before the performance had begun and when the theater 
was only partially filled. In the Iroquois fire most of 
the deaths could have been avoided if the exits had been 
in proper order and the audience had not become panic- 
stricken. If every theater were planned simply with a 
view of securing the very best results for safety to 
property and to persons the fire hazard would be 
greatly reduced. The architect is seldom allowed to 
provide the maximum accommodations in exits, and 
when he arranges his approaches in what he believes 
to be the best manner, if he puts in abundant lobbies, 
ample stairways and easy approaches, the chances are he 
would be considered extravagant and would not have the 
chance to design another theater, and as our theaters are 
controlled by private interests and must earn interest on 
the investment, we continue to put up each year build- 
ings which we know are not quite right. They come 
within the law, but none of our theater laws in this coun- 
try are at all drastic as regards provision for safety. The 
requirements are whittled down to the utmost minimum 
to start with, and seldom is a building erected in entire 
conformity even with these minimum requirements. 




THE ATHENEUM, NEW ORLEANS, LA. Stone Btothers, Architects. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



"5 



The Public Bath — V. 

PLAN AND CONSTRUCTION. 

BV HAROLD WERNER AND AUGUST P. WINDOLPH. 



THE ideal public bath building for American cities is 
essentially a modern problem and must be solved to 
satisfy exacting and varying conditions. Ancient types 
are not at all applicable, and while European models 
offer valuable suggestions for the various forms of bath- 
ing and for arrangement of the plant, they are not adapt- 
able as a whole for our purposes. 

The customary European practice of choosing a site 
of sufficient dimensions to furnish most of the bathing 
facilities on one floor is not desirable in this country, 
where compactness and facility of operation are essen- 
tials, because of the fact that our public funds do not per- 
mit a large initial expenditure for the acquisition of the 
site. Here baths are usually located in tenement sec- 
tions where property is held at a high figure, and they 
must therefore be economically planned. 



The site for the bath should be easily accessible and 
convenient to a public school ; should not be too near a 
river, particularly if river bathing be available, and, if 
possible, should be located on a corner, to allow for exits 
and entrances on two streets, thus separating the sexes. 
All of these conditions must be carefully weighed in 
selecting a site. An important matter is the disposition 
of baths at proper distances from each other, and in the 
most populous sections it would seem desirable to locate 
them not more than half a mile apart. A series of small 
buildings equipped with showers grouped around a 
larger central building, equipped with a pool as well as 
showers, would be an effective arrangement. This would 
differ from the English idea in that the minor establish- 
ments would be considerably smaller and the buildings 
more closely grouped. 





SHOWER COMPARTMENTS SHOWING PIPING. VALVES, PIPING AND WATER DRUMS. 

WEST SIXTIETH STREET BATH, NEW YORK. 



No public building offers so many difficulties in the 
matter of selection of site as the public bath. It obvi- 
ously should be located in the most densely populated 
section, but such a location does not necessarily imply its 
success, for the character of the population may change 
as well as the character of the buildings. Frequently 
tenement houses are replaced by commercial structures, 
or there may be an influx of some foreign element which 
refuses to patronize the institution, and thus handicapped 
the bath may prove a failure. On the other hand, some 
of the native-born population have an aversion to the 
public bath patronized by foreigners. One of the New 
York City baths is situated on the dividing line between 
colored and white populations, and the problem of keeping 
order and superintending the institution is for this rea- 
son a most difficult one. While the mission of the bath 
is to promote homegeneity, it can hardly be expected to 
solve the race question. If this bath had been placed 
either in the heart of the white or the colored section, its 
value to the community would have been greatly enhanced. 



The exterior should express the purpose of the build- 
ing, and while the architect may desire to design an 
impressive exterior, he must not forget that excess of 
ornamentation increases the initial cost, and that a pre- 
tentious facade repels the poor and defeats the true pur- 
poses of the building. The problem is in many ways 
similar to that of the hospital; fundamentally it must be 
treated from the standpoint of sanitation, as the mission 
of the bath is to elevate the standard of cleanliness and 
public health. 

The plan must above all be simple in general arrange- 
ment, providing liberal openings for light and air, as the 
best results are not obtained by use of artificial light or 
forced ventilation. The work of the institution is 
greatly facilitated if the corridors are made direct and in 
easy communication with the entrance halls. Ease of 
supervision is an important factor. All parts of the 
building should be accessible, so that if any part of 
the equipment is damaged it may be quickly located 
and repaired. There have been several cases where 



u6 



THE BRICKHUIL D E R 




sudden failure in some parts 
of improperly planned sys- 
tems have resulted in great 
damage to the building. 

To facilitate the circula- 
tion, and to provide for the 
continuous movement of 
large crowds in the summer 
season the waiting rooms 
should be planned of ample 
capacity but not to en- 
croach on the bathing hall 
space. A fair ratio would be 
about twenty-five per cent 
of the total ground floor 
plan, and in case the build- 
ing has a second story of 
showers this proportion of 
waiting-room space should 
be slightly increased. It is 
customary to give to the 
men's waiting room about 
two and a half times the 
space allotted to the women, 
this being the average rela- 
tive attendance of the sexes. 
The staircases should be 
so arranged in the waiting 
rooms as to avoid converg- 
ing lines of bathers and they 
should be of easy runs and 
ample width. The superin- 
tendent's office is generally 
placed between the men's 
and women's waiting rooms, and it should be in instant 
touch with every part of the building, either through 
speaking tube or telephone. Occasionally we find the 
superintendent's office provided with a separate staircase 
leading directly to the bathing halls above, and it is de- 
sirable to provide for direct communication with the 
boiler rooms below. 

In considering the form of bath to be used, what pro- 
portion of shower, tub and plunge units should be 
planned for in order to insure the best results, the prob- 
lem often becomes very complex. Before proceeding 
with the planning of the bathing halls and their equip- 
ment, it may be well to emphasize the most important 
factors which make for the ultimate success of the bath- 
ing hall — sanitation, economy, popularity. What form 
of bath best insures these results ? 

The tub bath has been objected to from the stand- 
point of sanitation, as it is the most difficult of all fix- 
tures to keep clean, and owing to the space required and 
the great amount of water consumed can no longer be 
seriously considered in bath equipment. The principal 
virtue of the shower bath is its sanitation, — its popular- 
ity and economy are in question. The form of angle 
valve in use to-day in shower compartments does not 
control the water consumption, and as the valves are 
under the bather's own control thay are frequently left 
open, causing considerable loss of water. There are 
sometimes bad cases of scalding in the compartments, 
and another objection is the difficulty of properly super- 



TYFICAL POOL AND CLEANSING 

ROOM FLAN. 
C. Preliminary Cleansing Room. 
P Pool. R. Runway. T. Toilets. 



vising a large number of bathers who crowd in the com- 
partments and thus destroy its principal virtue, the iso- 
lated bath. 

Any form of bath must be popular and the shower 
lacks popularity with the masses. Of all the baths the 
pool best combines sanitation, economy and popularity. 
Up to very recently the pool bath has not been truly 
sanitary, but there is no reason why, with proper devices, 
the pool may not be made absolutely safe. In England 
the authorities maintain that if the pool is sufficiently 
large and properly replenished it is an ideal form of bath. 

London has over sixty public baths equipped with 
pools, furnishing accommodations annually for millions 
of bathers, and the death rate has shown a considerable 
decrease in the last two decades, the time that most of 
these baths have been in operation. Just what part the 
pool is a factor in the general public health would be 
difficult to determine, but the consensus of English 
opinion is that a pool properly constructed should be in- 
corporated in every bath house. 

As to its economic value, the initial cost of the pool is 
less than any other form of bath, — furthermore, the water 
consumption, being under absolute control of the super- 
intendent, is much less than in other forms of bathing. 

It requires less supervision and also costs less to 
maintain, as the waste lines and fittings are considerably 
simplified. 

The popularity of the pool bath has never been ques- 
tioned. According to a table recently compiled in Eng- 
land, the attendance for one year in the various forms of 
bath is as follows : 







Pool. 


All 


other baths 


Birmingham, 




302,000 




1 26,000 


Coventry, 




57,000 




31,000 


Liverpool, 




540,000 




1 18,000 


London (Islir 


gton i, 


224. 000 




] 50,000 


Sal ford, 




154 000 




47,000 




In this country a 
recent test in a public 
bath showed a ratio of 
three pool bathers to 
one shower bather,but 
what is still more sig- 
nificant is the fact that 
on certain days, when 
the plunge bath was 
not in operation, the 
bath house was practi- 
cally without patrons. 

A most interesting 
and gratifying sight is 
to visit one of the 
London public baths 
on the day of a swim- 
ming competition, 
where the pick of the 
swimmers of rival dis- 
tricts and their nu- 
merous adherents, 
many of whom have 
also earnestly trained 
for these events, en- 
thusiastically cheer flan and section of shower com- 
their fellow swimmers partment, foreign bath. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



117 



in friendly competition. 
Such a facility cannot fail to 
promote manliness as well as 
to elevate the general health 
and moral tone of the com- 
munity. The pool will be a 
valuable auxiliary to modern 
public school education when 
the art of swimming is in- 
cluded in the curriculum. 

In proportioning the bath 
units it is evident that the 
pool should have the greatest 
number with the shower 
baths as auxiliary, in ratio 
of three to two, and on a basis 
of a hundred bath units the 
ratio would be as follows: 

Pool, 60 

Men's showers, 26 

Women's showers, 12 

Toilets, 2 

A building with this equipment could be adopted as 
a type for all cities of the first and second class. 

The pool room should be planned of liberal height, 
with window openings so arranged as to avoid condensa- 
tion and the much dreaded draught. The water area of 
the pool should be proportioned to the dressing room 
capacity, and the area of the pool should be sufficiently 
large to promote sanitation. It is customary to plan the 
length at least twice the width, preferably not over a 
hundred or less than sixty feet. 
The floor of the pool should 
be properly graded, having a 
shallow end for beginners and 
allowing a deep place for 
diving. 

There are three different 
forms of floor sections in use, 
as shown in the illustrations. 
The slope may be considered 
preferable for baths of or- 
dinary capacity, as it gives an 
unbroken surface and easy fall 
throughout. For the larger 
pools the broken floor section 
may be used. This is much 
favored in Germany, as it has 
the advantage of allowing a 
level floor for beginners, who 
invariably have a dread of a 
sloping floor no matter how 
gradual it may be. The depth 
of the pool is frequently over 
ten feet, to obviate all danger 
in diving, but this plan re- 
quires the heating of a large 
volume of water. 

It is desirable to arrange 
the shower baths in longitu- 
dinal lines for ease of super- 
vision as well as simplicity 
of piping, and it would be 




SHOWER HALL, WEST SIXTIETH STREET BATH, NEW YORK 



""si 



Mar 



-J-6 



e' Pitch 



nr 



Longitudinal Section 



TYPICAL SHOWER COMPARTMENTS, AMERICAN RATH 



well to allow some additional 
working space at the entrance 
of the shower bath halls, to 
permit an uninterrupted 
movement of the bathers at 
all times. While the shower 
halls are frequently worked 
to the limit of their capacity 
in the summer season, in 
winter the attendance falls 
off rapidly, and arrangements 
should accordingly be made 
to shut off a row of showers, 
a wing, or even an entire 
floor, should the lack of at- 
tendance warrant it. A col- 
lapsible compartment might 
be constructed which could 
be removed in the dull sea- 
son. This should, of course, 
be done without affecting the 
water-tight qualities of the 
floor. The surplus bathing hall space could then be used 
for assembly purposes. It has been noted that the Eng- 
lish use their plunge rooms for these purposes during the 
dull season. 

There is little to say of the tub rooms and toilets. 
If the former are considered necessary they should be 
inconspicuously placed. The general practice of placing 
the toilets directly in the bathing halls in an interior 
position is not desirable, as it is far better to depend 

on outside ventilation. 

The laundry is not as yet 
considered an integral part of 
the American public bath, but 
its real value will eventually 
be recognized. The working 
classes have an aversion to 
publicity in their domestic af- 
fairs and are reluctant to use 
the laundry, but if it is prop- 
erly planned with ample light 
and air, its advantages and 
conveniences become so ap- 
parent that this feeling of 
distrust is soon overcome. If 
the problem demands the plac- 
ing of the laundry in the base- 
ment, the work rooms should 
be high and the first tier of 
beams well elevated above the 
sidewalk, and it would be well 
to keep the patrons of the 
laundry from coming in con- 
tact with the bathers. The 
exact disposition of the wash- 
ing, drying and mangling ma- 
chines depends entirely on the 
type of machines used, but in 
any case it is well not to crowd 
the machines and to allow 
liberal working space. 

The engine and boiler 



2 Fi< 

r<» 



ishtj Brass Ftpe 
Holding Partttio 



ble 



■4-0 



Marble Scat 




Brajs Bracket 



Bronze Wirt 
Cr 1IU3 





I I I 

Bra jj Clothes 

Moo is 



Sheet Iron Door 
7-0 Htyh. 




I Ii 



THE BR I CKBU I LPER 



room is generally placed under the waiting rooms in 
our large municipal bath houses, — in a place too re- 
stricted, poorly lighted and with little means of direct 
ventilation. The foreign baths have proved far more 
liberal in their boiler and engine space. The severe 
demands made upon this part of the building, the multi- 
plicity of apparatus and pipes, require a liberal dis- 
tribution of the entire plant, and the architect should 
give the necessary time and attention to insure not only 
the accurate placing of the various apparatus but the ar- 
rangement of the various lines of piping and valves, as 
the ultimate success of the building depends on this. In 
the recently constructed baths in New York City, where 
space was restricted, it proved advisable to excavate 
under the sidewalk. This allowed additional source of 
light and air, which was further assisted by window 
openings on the rear courts. 

Ample room should be provided for the numerous 
lines of pipes, ducts and filters, also for the pump and 
other apparatus required. A break in a too compact 
space makes immediate repairs impossible, and often re- 
quires the taking down of 
a considerable part of the 
plant. A liberal factor of 
safety for overload should 
be provided, as the demands 
in certain seasons of the 
year are severe. 

A double set of pumps, 
engines and dynamos are an 
advantage, although one set 
is sufficient to run the plant 
under ordinary conditions . 

The coal bins should have 
sufficient storage for emer- 
gency purposes, and the 
boiler room should be'prop- 
erly isolated from the rest of 
the plant. The engineering 
force should be provided 
with locker rooms, a con- 
venient work room and adjoining toilets. Emergency 
ladders should be placed at accessible points. 

The writers have noticed that some of the public 
baths are not equipped with attendants' rooms; a room 
for this purpose should be arranged on every floor or 
wing of the building with proper locker and toilet accom- 
modations. 

Superintendent's living quarters is a much mooted 
question, — whether it is advisable to provide for the 
superintendent's quarters in bath buildings for cities of 
the first and second class in this country. About one- 
third of our institutions are so equipped. They should by 
all means be provided for. They may be placed in an 
upper story in order not to diminish the working capa- 
city of the bath, and the cost is more than compensated 
by the additional care and supervision which the building 
receives. If possible, the living quarters should be pro- 
vided with a direct outside entrance, affording at the same 
time immediate access from the hall to the various shower 
and bathing rooms of the building. The living quarters 
are generally disposed over the waiting rooms, or, in case 
of a second story of showers, above them. 






FLOOR SECTIONS FOR POOL BATHS 



We have discussed the planning and functions of the 
public bath house and a few words on the construction of 
the building may be of some value. The materials for 
the building, as in the hospital, must be primarily se- 
lected for their sanitary qualities, but they further re- 
quire an ability to withstand the severe amount of wear 
and tear received from the bathing public. The disin- 
tegrating effects due to the steam and water must also 
be considered, and the architect must bear in mind that 
the waterproofing must be as nearly perfect as possible. 
Eliminate as far as possible all openings for pipings, 
standards or fixtures. It is safe to say that no bath 
building yet constructed has not suffered more or less 
from leakage. 

The fittings throughout should be of the strongest 
character and sufficiently heavy to withstand the hardest 
usage. For this reason the spray and foot baths, used in 
the modern Berlin Baths, with their exposed piping and 
elaborate fittings, are not adaptable for our purposes. 

The circulation of water in the bath may be likened 
to that of the blood in the human system, — the main 

rising lines to the arteries 
and the network of branch 
lines carrying the water to 
the numerous bath compart- 
ments in the remotest parts 
of the building, to the veins. 
Perfect circulation is most 
essential, and, to further 
this, the street supply must 
be of sufficient pressure to 
carry the water to the 
highest levels without the 
use of pumps. The street 
sewers should be of suf- 
ficient depth to drain the 
lines by gravity. All piping 
must be exposed, should be 
direct as possible, and have 
the controlling valves in con- 
venient positions. 
The proper cleansing of the surface water of the pool 
is important, — a superficial spray has been provided for 
the purpose, generally introduced under considerable 
pressure through a perforated pipe. The movement of 
this superficial current is further assisted by arranging 
an overflow gutter at the opposite end of the basin. The 
inlets of the pool are so disposed as to further this circu- 
lation and keep an even temperature throughout the 
pool. Considerable difficulty is encountered in produc- 
ing a uniformly heated volume of water. To overcome 
the cold spots there are various arrangements provided to 
obtain these results. A common English method is to 
increase the circulation by providing a return main from 
the pool to the boiler and by gravity keep up a constant 
circulation similar to that in the ordinary house boiler. 
This method has the serious objection of re-using the old 
water and from principles of sanitation cannot be com- 
mended except in pools where a very moderate amount 
of work is required. There are also various systems of 
steam injection, either directly into the pool or else by 
means of tapping the supply line at certain intervals 
with injectors of live steam. This produces a rapid cir- 



THE BRICK BU I LDER 



U9 



culation of the water, but 
both systems are subject to 
the noisy steam hammer, and 
in the latter case the intro- 
duction of live steam into the 
pool frequently results in 
severely scalding the bather. 

The position of the heat- 
ing coils, the proximity of the 
skylights, are all considera- 
tions which effect the tem- 
perature of the pool. 

Wtf have indicated in out- 
line the extent of the modern 
bath movement. It is evident 
not compare either in size or im 




TYPICAL PLAN OF LAUNDRY FOR PUBLIC BATH 



that our institutions do 
pressiveness with foreign 

(concluded. ) 



bath buildings, but the value 
of this facility lies not in pre- 
tentiousness but in its sani- 
tary and economic features, 
and it is in this rational 
direction that our baths have 
shown progress. It may be 
that in the modern civic 
movement sufficient impor- 
tance will be placed on this 
much neglected subject to 
allow the architect some lati- 
tude for the realization of his 
ideas, which will result in a 
comprehensive system of public baths worthy of Ameri- 
can communities and ideals. 




PUBLIC BATH AT SELLY OAK, ENGLAND. Arnold Mitchell, Architect. 



THE task of housing in one city hall the vast and 
hitherto scattered municipal machinery of London 
has fallen upon the shoulders of Mr. Ralph Knox of 
Chelsea, a young architect previously little known to 
fame. As the author of the successful design he has 
shown great skill in economizing internal space within 
an irregular area that fronts the south bank of the 
Thames by seven hundred feet near the Westminster 
Bridge. Public discussion has been chiefly directed to 
the exterior. With the character of Somerset House in 
mind he has chosen to rely for effect upon long, unbroken 
horizontal lines and the great mass of the building. The 
skyline is broken only by eight chimney stacks and a 
central fleche. The design is generally felt to be a 
worthy successor to the works of Inigo Jones, Sir Chris- 
topher and Sir William Chambers. 



IN Paris a society devoting itself to economical buildings 
for the poor has opened an apartment house for large 
families only. None with less than three children is ad- 
mitted. The rents vary from $36.80 to $84.80 a year. 
The building was immediately filled, and a census showed 
that the ninety-four separate apartments sheltered six 
hundred and twenty persons, of whom four hundred and 
twenty-seven were children. Most of the tenements have a 
large balcony upon which a good-sized living-room opens. 
The partitions between the parents' and the children's 
rooms extend only three-quarters of the height to the ceil- 
ing. The window sills are so high as to prevent the chil- 
dren climbing to them ; and at every stairway, in addition 
to the regular steps, there is a llight of steps of half height 
that the little folks can mount without effort. The (ire 
escapes are unusually complete and commodious. 



120 



T UK H R I CK HI* I L I) E R. 



Armories for the Organized Militia. 



LIEUT. -COL. J. HOLI.IS WELLS. 

{Of Clinton & Russell, Architects.) 



IN designing a building to meet the requirements of a 
military organization, the character and size of the 
organization must, of course, be taken into account and 
its needs must be studied. 

An armory should be built as nearly fireproof as pos- 
sible. It should be substantially built and have entrances 
and exits, which, though ample, should be so arranged as 
to be easily protected from the mob. There should be 
enfilading towers with narrow windows so arranged for 
rifle fire that streets at or near these exits may be cleared. 

The building generally should, therefore, be designed 
in a simple, straightforward manner, combining many of 
the features of the mediaeval fortress or castle, and al- 
though it is not anticipated that troops will have to stand 
a siege therein, nevertheless many of the ideas of early 
architecture may well be adopted in planning, for soldiers 
may have to enter and leave their armories under adverse 
circumstances. The roofs of armories should be easy of 
access for the troops, and parapets and platforms should 
be arranged for riflemen so that they may control all 
surrounding streets and buildings. At least a portion of 
the building should be higher than the roofs of the build- 
ings adjoining, so that there may be no chance for dam- 
age being done from them. 

A well-selected hard-burned brick, carefully laid up 
in cement mortar, is both substantial and economical for 
front work. Granite, perhaps, is best adapted for special 
trim of the facades and may be used to excellent advan- 
tage for base, copings, band courses, and around windows 
and doors, but beyond this, unless cost is not to be con- 
sidered, it is not desirable to go. Troops at any rate are 
simply a necessary evil, they are expensive to maintain, 
and the buildings in which they are quartered should be 
simple and in keeping with the purpose for which they 
are intended, /. e. , for the housing and drilling of bodies 
of men whose training is along simple, practical martial 
lines and for the proper storing of quartermasters', com- 
missary and ordnance supplies. 

All exterior doors and windows at or near the level of 
the street should be protected with heavy iron grilles and 
gates, and double sets of heavy, hard wood doors, hung 
on specially strong hinges, opening out, are necessary. 

In planning the interior of an armory, the size of the 
property determines the lay-out. Generally in the cities 
and larger towns where armories are usually located the 
cost of the property limits its area. If, therefore, it is 
necessary that the building should be several stories in 
height, a very excellent plan would be obtained as 
follows: 

The main consideration is the drill hall, which, if 
possible, should approximate in size not less than 200 
x 300 feet for a regiment of infantry, consisting of twelve 
companies. The floor should be near the street level and 
should open directly thereon. The hall should be lighted 
and ventilated from the outside by windows high up in 
the walls and above by a clere-story with adjustable side- 
lights running nearly the entire length of the hall. The 
clear height of this hall from the floor to the lower chord 



of the roof trusses should beat least forty feet, except on 
the sides and ends, where galleries for spectators may be 
placed, and the height under the lowest point of these gal- 
leries should not be less than twelve feet. Galleries 
should be suspended from the roof trusses so that the 
drill floor is not obstructed by posts. They should have 
ample flights of stairs at the four corners of the drill hall 
leading to exits to the streets. 

Except for cavalry, wood floors are preferable gener- 
ally throughout. The drill-room floor should be designed 
for a total load of three hundred pounds per square foot. 
The arches between the floor beams may be brick or hol- 
low terra-cotta blocks brought up level to {he tops of the 
beams, and on top of this may be laid 3x4 inch yellow 
pine sleepers, beveled on the edges and fastened to the 
I beams 16 inches on centers with strong wrought iron 
clips. Between the sleepers and level with their tops lay 
a good rich cinder concrete, and in order to avoid dust 
through the flooring, lay a covering over the top of the 
sleepers of hot asphaltic cement and three ply of roofing 
felt turned up on walls and around all pipes, etc. 

A very satisfactory flooring is a first quality clear, 
kiln-dried, heart-face, comb-grained Georgia pine, 
tongued and grooved, blind-nailed to each sleeper with 
two twenty-penny wire nails. The floor strips should be 
about two inches wide and two and one-half inches thick 
laid very close and absolutely level. It should be through- 
out of the very best selected stock, free from knots, stains 
and perfectly sound. The best of care should be exer- 
cised in selecting this material and in laying it. The en- 
tire floor should be smoothly planed, scraped and sandpa- 
pered to a satisfactory surface and on completion covered 
with a hard finishing oil. No base is required around the 
walls but a one and one-half-inch quarter round molding 
of yellow pine may be run to obtain a neat finish. 

It is unnecessary to plaster or even paint the interior 
walls of the drill hall ; brick laid up in English bond 
with white struck joints and light terra-cotta trims around 
window and door openings have proven highly satisfac- 
tory both from an artistic and utilitarian standpoint. In 
fact, generally the staircase and entrance halls may be 
treated in the same manner. 

The roof over the drill hall is generally an interesting 
problem. An excellent example of this is in the 71st 
Regiment Armory at Park Avenue and 34th Street, New 
York City, where the roof is carried by five pin-connected 
trusses of modified Pratt type with inclined top and bot- 
tom chords, the latter being curved to give an outline 
suggestive of arch construction and secure an increased 
clearance without involving an unnecessary height of end 
column to develop large moments of flexure. The trusses 
are 190 feet 4 inches long center to center of end piers 
and are 24 feet deep in the center. The bottom chord 
has a versed sine of about twelve feet and converges 
from the lower end panel point to intersect the top panel 
chord at the end pin where it is pin-connected to a steel 
wall column. The ends of the bottom chords are extended 
from the lower end panel point by false members tangent 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



12 I 




SEVENTY-FIRST REGIMENT ARMORY, PARK AVENUE AND THIRTY-FOURTH STREET, NEW YORK. Clinton & Russell, Architects. 



122 



T II E B R I CK B UILDER 




x 2 

2 2 

< < 

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U j* 

u ' 

0! § 

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X o 



rr* 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



123 





FOURTH FLOOR PLAN. 



I 




"V'Tl 

i I ' 




9 ! 



TTT" I. I.I. . 

I r ■ ■ I (■■ ■■■, ^, ■•■-■■,■■'■ ■ 








FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



* 



' ' t 

iiiTiiiinrinf - .f mn 1 
I 

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liASEMENT PLAN 




BASEMENT MEZZANINE PLAN. 



FLOOR PLANS, SEVENTY-FIRST REGIMENT ARMORY, NEW YORK. 
Clinton & Russell, Architects. 



124 



T H E BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUI LDER. 



12< 





SIXTY-NINTH REGIMENT ARMORY, LEXINGTON AVENUE AND TWENTY-SIXTH STREET, NEW YORK. 

Hunt & Hunt, Architects. 



126 



T UK BRICKBUILDER 






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FLOOR PLANS, SIXTY-NINTH REC.IMENT ARMORY, NEW YORK. 
Hunt & Hunt, Architects. 



THE BRICKI3UILDER 



127 



to them and curved to make tangent connections with 
web plates projecting from the sides of the wall columns. 
These members serve as knee braces uniting the wall 
columns and trusses and completing the arched outlines 
of the lower chords. The trusses are supported on 7^- 
inch pin-bearings. At one end of the truss this pin en- 
gages the top of the wall column and provides a fixed sup- 
port for the truss. Here the connection plates, to which 
the top and bot- 
tom chords are 
riveted, are ex- 
tended below 
the latter to 
form jaws which 
are field riveted 
to the wall col- 
umns and give 
increased rigid- 
ity to the con- 
nection. At the 
other end the 
bearing pin en- 
gages a pair of 
16 x \Yi - inch 
vertical link 
plates about 
four feet long. 
The upper ends 
of these links 
engage a 7^- 
i n c h pin 
through the 
cover plates of 
the wallcolumn. 
This arrange- 
ment provides 
a swinging sup- 
port for the 
truss and allows 
longitudinal 
movement to 
correspond with 
temperature va- 
riations. The 
end of the truss 
projects inside 
the column and 
has clearance 
there between a 
pair of vertical 
guide angles, 
which engage 
the lower edge 
of the connec- 
tion plates and prevent under transverse displacement. 
The trusses are connected by longitudinal purlins in 
vertical planes web-connected to them at each panel 
point. The purlins are riveted trusses with a uniform 
depth of about six and one-half feet; part of them have 
the connections for the vertical suspension rods to carry 
balcony and gallery platforms. Provisions are also made 
to carry the gallery suspenders from the first and second 
panel points at each end, where the vertical rods have nut 




DETAIL OF LEXINGTON AVENUE FACADE. 

SIXTY-NINTH REGIMENT ARMORY, NEW YORK 

Hunt & Hunt, Architects. 



bearings on the upper ends of vertical angles riveted inside 
the bottom chord channels. Bent plates about six feet apart 
are riveted to the top chords of the purlin trusses to form 
inclined seats for the jack rafters, which are 7-inch 
I beams receiving the floor system. The wall columns 
which carry the roof trusses have the required cross- 
sectjonal area built up with half a dozen 16-inch 
cover-plates \\ and 5 8 inch thick. They are made 

in two-story sec- 
tions spliced to- 
gether with 
cover-platesand 
horizontal dia- 
phragms be- 
tween flange 
angles riveted 
to the channel 
webs. The 
heaviest wall 
columns have a 
maximum load 
of 168 tons and 
a sectional area 
of 24 square 
inches. 

The lower 
chords of the 
trusses are 
secured trans- 
versely at the 
center and at 
the quarter 
points of each 
truss by a pair 
of inclined 
inch sleeve-nut 
rods in longitu- 
dinal vertical 
planes, which 
have their up- 
per ends con- 
nected to the 
lower flanges 
of the purlin 
trusses at the 
adjacent panels. 
These rodshave 
eye-bar heads 
drilled for 1- 
inch bolts. At 
the lower end of 
the rod this bolt 
engages lugs at 
the foot of a 
pair of vertical angles riveted across the face of the truss. 
At the upper end the rod is connected by a pair of links 
to a web plate projecting from the seat of the intermedi- 
ate purlin. The end purlins have their bottom flange 
angles extended and built into the brick gable walls. 
Pairs of lug angles are riveted to them just clear of the 
brickwork to receive the sway rods. All of the steel 
and iron work in the drill hall and the ceiling is painted 
three coats of light green. 



128 



THE BRICKBUILDKR. 



Editorial Comment and 
Miscellany. 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLYCHROMATIC 
EXTERIOR GLAZE DECORATION. 

ALL who are interested in architecture and the ce- 
ramic arts are familiar with the growth and develop- 
ment of glaze decoration. The porcelain tower at Nan- 
kin, built 833 B. C, was one of the best examples of 
exterior polychromatic glaze decoration. The Assyrians, 
Egyptians, Italians and Spaniards have all left many 
beautiful examples of what has been done with colored 
glazes applied to building exteriors and interiors — some 
of them date back to 3,000 B. C. 

The glazes mostly used by the ancients and during 



glazed with every known color and texture, is within 
the reach of every architect, and there is no reason why, 
with all of our advanced methods of manufacture and 
the discovery of the lost arts of glazing, more monu- 
ments of architectural beauty, such as the Academy of 
Music in Brooklyn, will not be erected. 

This building of Byzantine architecture, modeled in 
high relief and glazed in oriental tones, covers a city 
block. While the glaze color treatment has-been criti- 
cised by some, this is no reason why polychromatic 
glazed exteriors should be condemned. Those who 
criticise this sort of work, with an idea toward con- 
demning it, stand in the way of architectural and ce- 
ramic progress, and incidentally in their own light. 
This is the only means of beautifying our cities with a 
sanitary fireproof and weather-proof material. — Herman 
A. Plusc/t, in the Keramic Studio. 




MAIN HUILDING, UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA, MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

Clarence H. Johnson, Architect. 

Two hundred and fifty thousand mottled granite brick used for facing. Made by Twin City Brick Co., St. Paul, Minn. 



mediaeval times were the transparent lead, and in some 
cases, as in Lucca Delia Robbia's work, the opaque tin 
enamels. The best examples of polychromatic glaze 
work are to be found in the Mediterranean countries. 
The clear air, colored skies and changing waters furnished 
inspiration for the early ceramists, and they have handed 
down to posterity records of color which will neither 
fade away nor be destroyed by the ravages of time. 

The Greeks, not satisfied with monochrome for their 
beautiful marble temples and public buildings, embel- 
lished them with various colored paints; it almost seems 
a sacrilege to us, but what was the effect ? They have 
stood the architectural criticism of centuries, and are 
now being reproduced in more durable material. 

Terra cotta modeled in every conceivable design, 



THE Right Hon. John Burns has introduced into Par- 
liament a bill which has for its object the scientific 
planning and improving of cities and towns with the aid 
and authority of the Government. The general welfare, 
rather than that of the individual, is to dominate. The 
growth and success of this idea in England and on the 
Continent, the substantial sums contributed by individuals 
there to further the propaganda, the inquiries started by 
very influential persons here, the proposal to have foreign 
experts lecture on the subject in this country ; these things 
foretell a time, perhaps, when not only individual buildings 
will be designed, but also their arrangement in groups, 
and their relation to each other will follow a pre-ordained 
plan, when localities will be improved with a view to the 
public weal and not left to the fate of land speculators. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



129 




REFECTORY AND BOAT HOUSE, GARFIELD PARK, CHICAGO. 

W. C. Zimmerman, Architect. 
Roof of Green Glaze Tile made by Ludowici-Celadon Company. 



THE TOLL OF CARELESSNESS. 

DURING the last five years fires in the United States 
have destroyed property valued at $1,257,716,955, 
or an average of $251,000,000 a year. The tabulation by 
underwriters shows that the greater number of fires come 
from preventable causes, such as defective chimneys and 
flues, fireplaces and heating and lighting apparatus. 
Carelessness in construction and in maintenance and 
protection of prop- 
erty by owner or 
tenant is responsible 
for this waste of 
property, says the 
Boston Herald. The 
human fault cannot 
be eliminated en- 
tirely, but competent, honest 
inspection at the time of con- 
struction and at stated inter- 
vals thereafter should reduce 
the percentage of prevent- 
able fires. New laws are 
needed to keep pace with de- 
velopment of the builders' 
craft. But the greatest need is better 
enforcement of the laws that now 
exist. 



and hard wood floors. Each apartment is furnished with 
regulated steam heat, hot and cold water, artificial re- 
frigeration and a vacuum cleaning system. In each apart- 
ment are five fireplaces with independent flues. There 
are facilities in the basement for washing, drying and 
ironing and for storage. Two safes for valuables are 
built in the walls of each apartment. 

The entire facade above the third story, including the 

cornice, bay windows 
and balconies, is of 
mat glaze terracotta, 
which matches the 
lower stories, which 
are of marble. The 
terra cotta was fur- 
nished by the At- 
Terra Cotta Com- 



APARTMENT HOUSE, PARK 

AVENUE AND SIXTY-FIRST 

STREET, NEW YORK. 

PLANNED for one apartment on 
each floor, except the first floor, 
on which, in connection with the 
basement, are two duplex apart- 
ments. Rooms are finished in white 
enameled wood with mahogany doors 




BUILDING 
OPERATIONS FOR MAY. 



DETAILS FOR ST. CLARES CHURCH, 

NEW YORK. 

N. Serracino, Architect. 

Made by Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 



OFFICIAL reports of 
building operations in 
forty-five leading cities throughout 
the country received by The 
America 11 Contractor, New York, 
show somewhat of an improve- 
ment as the season advances. The 
aggregate loss, as compared with 
May, 1907, is 25 per cent, whereas 
the previous month suffered a de- 
crease of 33 per cent, as compared 
with 1907. Only ten cities reported 
an increase, ranging from 1 to 165 
per cent, while thirty-five show losses 
ranging from 2 to 73 per cent. 



I^O 



III K BRICKBU I L DKR 




burned, and the one just destroyed was erected three 
years later. 



HOUSE AT CLEVELAND OHIO. 

Harlen E. Shimmin, Architect. 

Roofed with Imperial Spanish Red Tile. 

Made by Ludowici-Celadon Co. 

APARTMENT HOUSE, MADISON AVENUE AND 
EAST FIFTY-FIFTH STREET NEW YORK. 

PLANNED for one apartment on each floor. The 
halls are spacious; there are separate quarters for 
servants, and additional rooms may be had by the tenants 
when desired. The system of heating and ventilation 
gives to each room a com- 
plete change of filtered air at 
short intervals without the 
necessity of opening the win- 
dows. Heat is supplied from 
the street mains of the New 
York Steam Company. 



M R s', 



R. OSCAR HAMMER- 
EIN, who intends 



to lift Philadelphia to the 
honor of supporting perma- 
nent opera, intends also to 
give that city a demonstra- 
tion of speed. Demolition 
on the site was begun March 30, and the impressario de- 
clares that the first performance of grand opera will be 
given on the evening of November 17. Mr. Hammerstein 
is also something of an architect, — has been, like many 
other people, "his own architect." "One of the un- 
published New York oddities of Hammerstein," says the 
Philadelphia North American^ " was his acting as his own 
architect of the Victoria Theater, and failing to note, 
until a week before its opening, that he had not provided 
for a box office in his plans." 




PROBABLY only a few persons now living will be 
able to see the Washington Cathedral completed, 
but none can fail to be impressed with the design by the 
late Henry Bodley of London and Henry Vaughan of 
Boston. This, as exhibited at the Corcoran Gallery in 
Washington during the last few weeks, is seen to be 
based upon the recognized English precedents; and while 
conservative of conception, it is destined to be a great 
and lasting ornament when reared upon Mount St. Alban. 

THE demand for buildings in Washington capable of 
accommodating large gatherings of people seems 
never to be adequately filled. The Tuberculosis Con- 
gress has applied for permission to use the old Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Station at Sixth and B streets. Already 
a portion of this has been claimed by the Treasury De- 
partment for the storage of articles intended for the com- 
ing exposition at Seattle, and the National Museum 

also desires it for storage 
until the museum's new 
building in the Smithsonian 
grounds is completed. Under 
these conditions certainly ac- 
tivity in public building at 
Washington cannot easily be 
overdone. 



"T — III 
1 ye 



SPANDRIL OVER AN ENTRANCE. 
Schmidt, Garden & Martin, Architects. 
Northwestern Terra Cotta Co., Makers 



IS will be a record 
ear for new building 
at 1'rinceton University. The 
expenditures aggregate 
nearly two million dollars. 
The new physical laboratory 
is now building, the laboratory of biology and geology 
will be started this month, and soon, also, the Gothic 
dormitory, presented by the Class of '77. In the near 
future are to be started the freshman dormitory, pre- 
sented by Mrs. Russell Sage; the John R. Thomson Grad- 



THE famous Drury Lane Theater in London was en- 
tirely destroyed by fire on March 25. The ruins of 
this, one of the most celebrated playhouses in the world, 
are full of memories. It is the third time that it has 
been destroyed by fire. The original building, erected 
under royal patent in 1663 by Thomas Killigrew, was 
burned in 1672. Two years later, when the theater was 
rebuilt, the architect was Sir Christopher Wren. Colley 
Cibber and his associates managed it through palmy days 
and later gave way to Garrick, who, with Peg Woffington 
and Kitty Clive, made the house a landmark in London's 
dramatic history. In 1791 the second house was torn 
down and another, tinder the management of Richard 
Brinsley Sheridan, was erected. In 1809 this building 




BUILDING FOR I. O. O. F., BUFFALO. 
Thomas W. Harris, Architect. 
Light brick used in base and trim made by Kittanning Brick Co. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



I3 1 




uate College and an additional 
dormitory to be built by several 
graduate classes. Two new club- 
houses are about completed and a 
group of ten houses for members 
of the faculty. Ten more faculty 
houses are under construction. 



DETAIL BY F. H. KIM- 
BALL, ARCHITECT. 

New York Architectural 
Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 



HOLLOW BLOCK WALLS 

WITH OUTSIDE VENEER OF 

BRICKS. 

A SUBSCRIBER writes as 
follows: "I have built for 
myself a small house in which I 
have used hollow terra-cotta build- 
ing blocks for the walls with a 
veneer of brick on the outside, — 
all of the partitions and the foun- 
dation being of hollow blocks. It 
is two stories 
and attic above 
basement. I 
have had no 
d i ffi c u 1 1 y in 
keeping it 
warm in win- 



ter and find it far cooler in summer 
than any house I have ever lived in. 
I have had a wide experience in build- 
ing houses and firmly believe that I 
have solved the problem in a most 
satisfactory manner. The cost, it may 
be added, exceeded very little that of 
wood construction." 



IN GENERAL. 

The City Parks Association of Phila- 
delphia in its endeavor to stimulate interest 
in the development, not only of new parks 
for the city, but in creating public senti- 
ment in favor of making better use of what 
the city already has in the way of open 
spaces, has appropriated one hundred dol- 
lars for a prize for a scheme of decora- 
tion for the City Hall Courtyard and the pavements sur- 
rounding this building. They have appointed John F. 
Lewis, President of the Pennsylvania Academy of the 
Fine Arts; David Knickerbacker Boyd, President of the 
Philadelphia Chapter, American Institute of Architects, 
and Milton B. Medary, Jr., President of the T-Square 
Club, to act as a Committee and Jury of Award to 
arrange an open public competition, to secure plans and 
drawings with the above end in view. The Commission 
has associated Prof. Paul P. Cret of the University of 
Pennsylvania to assist them in carrying out this work. 

In the entrance to Prospect Park at Ninth Avenue 
and Fifteenth Street, and the Monument to the Prison 
Ship Martyrs, Brooklyn will possess two works of the 
late Stanford White that are distinctly his own. The 
monument will be dedicated in October. It consists of 
a Doric shaft of Newport white granite, rising from a 




plaza, which has the impressive dimensions of an 1 8-foot 
diameter at base and 14 feet at the necking and a 
height of 150 feet. At the top a platform 20 feet square 
constituting an abacus will support a bronze urn 28 
feet high. The shaft is pierced by a well 9 feet in diam- 
eter containing a stairway and elevator. The bones of 
the prison-ship martyrs will be contained in brick vaults 
under the monument. 

The National Society of the Fine Arts, the Washing- 
ton Architectural Club and the Washington Chapter, 
A. I. A., invite competitive plans for the arrangement of 
stands for spectators on the route of the inaugural pro- 
cession. Three prizes are offered: First, $300; second 
and third, $100, each. The amount of these prizes will 
be increased if the funds available permit. The follow- 
ing will act as a jury: J. R. Marshall, T. J. D. Fuller, 
Frederick D. Owen, Frank D Millet, John B. Larner. 
Further particulars may be had if desired by addressing 
Percy Ash, Secretary, Washington Chapter, A. I. A. 

At the annual meeting of the 
Washington Architectural Club held 
June 6 the following officers were 
elected: Hector McAllister, President; 
Leo J. Weissenborn, Vice-President; 
Charles S. Salin, Secretary; Daniel 
J. Lix, Treasurer; Louis A. Simon, 
Francis B. Wheaton, Waddy B. Wood, 
Directors. 

The well-known group of dormi- 
tories of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania is to be enlarged by means of a 
gift from an unknown donor, in- 
creasing the capacity of the buildings 
to eight hundred students. 



The 
Rocke- 
feller 
I n s t i - 
tute at 
S i xty- 



DETAIL BY J. WARNER ALLEN, 
ARCHITECT. 
South Amboy Terra Cotta Co , Makers, sixth 

Street 
and the East River, 
New York City, has 
received an additional 
$500,000 from its 
founder, which sum 
will be used for the 
erection of a new 
building near the 
present institute. 

On May 23 the 
Hanna Monument was 
unveiled at Cleveland. 
It is the work of the 
late Augustus St. (iau- 
dens and is supported 
by a pedestal designed 
by Henry Bacon. 




DETAIL BY HERMAN MILLER, 
ARCHITECT. 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Co. 
Makers. 



112 



THE BRICKBUILD E R 




DETAILS BY L. A. GOLDSTONE, ARCHITECT. 
New Jersey Terra Cotta C'>., Makers. 



The North- 
western Uni- 
versity has re- 
ceived a gift 
of $150,000 for 
a gymnasium 
building. 

T. Wendell 
Bailey, archi- 
t e c t , has 
opened an of- 
f i c e i n t h e 
American Ex- 
press Build- 
ing, < )klahoma 
City, Okla. 
Manufactur- 
ers' catalogues 
and samples 
desired. 

Robert Bickel, architect, and C. I. Auten, civil en- 
gineer, have opened an office as Architects and Engineers 
in Loyal Guard Building, Flint, Mich. Manufacturers' 
catalogues and samples desired. 

Anthony J. Blix, architect, formerly of St. Cloud, 
Minn., has opened an office in the Temple Court, Minne- 
apolis. 

Parker Fiske, of Fiske & Co., New York and Boston, 
a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
is an enthusiastic student of the best brick architecture 
found in this country and abroad. As a result of his 
study of color and texture effects, which may be obtained 
and which have been obtained by an intelligent and artis- 
tic use of materials, his company will issue a series of 
booklets, some of them illustrated, dealing with face 
brickwork. The first two of these booklets, one entitled 
" Fashions in Face Bricks" and the other "Some Good 
Brickwork," have just come to hand and we are glad to 
commend them as well worth study. 

The terra cotta used in the Academy of Music, 
Brooklyn, Herts cV Talent, architects, mentioned in Mr. 
Plusch's article which appears in another column of this 
issue, was furnished by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

The Grueby Faience Company is now engaged in 
enlarging its plant and bringing it up to date in all 
respects to better meet the increasing demand for 
architectural faience. Karl Langenbeck, one of the 
leading chemists in ceramics in this country, has been 
engaged as superintendent for the enlarged plant. 

The architectural terra-cotta (polychrome) used in the 
Bronx Church House, Bosworth cSc Holden, architects, 
illustrated in the plate form of this issue, was furnished 
by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 



NEW BOOKS. 

Architectural Composition. By John Beverley Rob- 
inson. An attempt to order and phrase ideas which 
hitherto have been only felt by the instinctive taste of 
designers. Illustrated by eighty-eight half-tone en- 
gravings and eighty-five line drawings. New York: 
I). Van Nostrand Company. Price, $2.50. 



Kidder's Architects' and Builders' Pocket-Book. 
Fifteenth edition revised. Illustrated with one thou- 
sand .engravings mostly from original designs. New 
York : John Wiley & Sons. Price, $5.00. 

IJecoration of Metal, Wood, Glass, Etc. Edited by 
II. C. Standage. A book for manufacturers, me- 
chanics, painters, decorators and all workmen in the 
fancy trades. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 
Price, $2.00. 



Compiled and de- 
New York: H. M. 



Tiik Commuter's Garden Record. 
signed by Amy Carol Rand. 
Caldwell Company. 

Bungalows, Camps and Mountain Houses. Elaborately 
illustrated and accompanied by full descriptive text. 
New York: William T. Comstock. Price, $2.00. 

The Architectural Annual. 
This work provides ameans 
for the intercourse of pro- 
fessional ideas by word and 
illustration of men who 
make the Architectural 
League of America what 
it is, and to acquaint those 
widely separated members 
more closely with the 
opinions of their contem- 
poraries and the product 
of their skill. A large por- 
tion of the edition having 
ing been subscribed for by 
the members of the 
League, the committee an- 
nounce that the remaining 
volumes may be obtained 
from M. A. Yinson, 205 
Caxton Building, Cleve- 
land. Price, $2.00. 




DETAIL FOR CAFE. 

G. A. Mueller, Architect. 

Made by Brick Terra Cotta 

and Tile Co. 



KIDDER'S ARCHITECTS' and 
BUILDERS' POCKET-BOOK 

FIFTEENTH EDITION, REVISED 

The changes in this edition consist of the correction of all typo- 
graphical errors reported to the publishers, and the rewriting of Chap- 
ters XXIII and XXIV. This work has been done by Rudolph P. 
Miller. Professor Alvah H. Sabin has also brought the section on 
Paints and Varnishes up to date. 

16 mo, xix 1703 pages, 1000 figures 

Morocco. J5«00 

NEW YORK : JOHN WILEY & SONS 

Academy Architecture, No. 32 

is the latest volume and largest 
one ever published of it. 

CONTAINS AN INTERESTING COLLECTION OF 

ENGLISH HOUSES, SMALL CHURCHES AND MODERN 

SCULPTURE. 

FOUR FINE COLOR PLATES. 



PRICE 
Postpaid 



$1.75 



Twenty-six back numbers in stock. Price of full set 
(except Nos. l to 6), $40.00. 



n. 



A. VINSON, A J7l a TJ a °" ed s, " es 



205-206 Caxton'Bldg. 



CLEVELAND, 0. 



THE BRICK H U I L D E R . 

VOL. 17, NO. 6 PLATE 73. 




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VOL. 17, NO. 6. PLATE 74. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 6. PLATE 75. 




DETAIL Of FRONT ELEVATION. FORDHAM HOSPITAL. NEW YORK. 

Raymond F. Almirall, Architect. 






T H E B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 17, NO. 6. PLATE 76. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 6. PLATE 77. 




~<ECO/tD FLOog PLA/iJ- 
■AMPltl-ANCi . 
JTABL1: ' VLP//IS 





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NURSES HOME 

AND 

AMBULANCE STATION. 

STABLE AND MORGUE. 

FORDHAM HOSPITAL. 

NEW YORK. 

RAYMOND F ALMIRALL 
ARCHITECT 




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T II E B R ICKBU ILD E R. 

VOL. 17, NO. 6. PLATE 7b 




BRONX CHURCH HOUSE, FUL'I'ON AVENUE AND 171ST STREET NEW YORK. 

BOSWORTH & HOLDEN, ARCHITECTS. 



T HE BRICK BUILD E R. 

VOL. 17, NO. 6. PLATE 79. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 6. PLATE 80. 




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VOL. 17, NO. 6. PLATE 81. 



.■}IXTM Floor ■ PlA;N- 




FLOOR PLANS, 

BRONX CHURCH HOUSE. 

NEW YORK. 

BOSWOHTH & HOLDEN 
ARCHITECT 



FIFTH -Floor Plaw 









THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 6. PLATE 82 _ 




APARTMENT HOUSE, PARK AVENUE AND 61ST STREET, NEW YORK 

(ALL TERRA COTTA ABOVE THIRD STORY.) 

William A Boring, Architm r. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 6. PLATE 83. 





THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 6. PLATE 84. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 6. PLATE 85. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 6. PLATE 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVII 



JULY 1908 



Number 7 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

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Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mall Matter, March 12, 1892. 



Copyright, 1908, by ROGERS & M ANSON 



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CONTENTS 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

OSWALD C. HERING; P. B. HOWARD; CHARLES BARTON KEEN; LITTLE & BROWNE 

PAGE & FROTHINGHAM; PEABODY & STEARNS; WILLIAM G. RANTOUL; 

WINSLOW & BIGELOW; WYATT & NOLTING. 

LETTERPRESS 

IAi.K 

TOWN HALL, FROM THE COURT, LUBECK, GERMANY Frontispiece 

THE AMERICAN THEATER — VIII Clarence II. Blackall r.33 

ARMORIES FOR THE ORGANIZED MILITIA — II Lieut-Col. J. Mollis Wells < v> 

HOUSE AT WINCHESTER, MASS Illustration 1 1 48 

STANDARD ARCHITECTURAL BOOKS FOR OFFICES AND LIBRARIES-I Edward R. Smith 149 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY ' 5 " 




n 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




VOL 17 NO 1 DEVOTED-TOTHE-INTEREJnr-Of-ARCHITECTYRE-INMATERIAU-Or-CLW- 



6\<«« <«««««««« <T^Tr<«»<««^<««^<«»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»7y^a 



T. 



x 




The American Theater VIII. 



THEATER LIGHTING. 



BY CLARENCE H. BLACKALL. 



THEATER lighting as understood to-day, and es- 
pecially as elaborated in this country, is practically 
a development of the last twenty years, and the possi- 
bilities of the electric light have been utilized in such 
manner as to completely change many of the effects, 
both in the house and on the stage. In the old days the 
term " theatrical " 
was synonymous with 
something cheap and 
tawdry, but the elec- 
tric light, with its 
flood of illumination, 
makes it no longer 
possible to use silicia 
in place of satin, or 
jute in place of velvet, 
and iu our best the- 
aters the workman- 
ship and the materials 
must now be of the 
best. And our houses 
demand a degree of 
illumination far be- 
yond anything which 
was conceivable with 
gas, while, at the same 
time, anything like a 
glare in the eyes of 
the auditors must be 
studiously avoided. 
Theater lighting is 
really a specialized 
science as well as an 
art, which offers all 
sorts of fascinating 
possibilities. The de- 
mand seems to be con- 
stantly increasing for 
more lamps, more illu- 
mination ; and where, 

a few years ago, lamps of small candle power were used 
by the hundred, we now use high candle-power lamps by 
the thousand. It is true, in a measure, that the amount 
of light is often in inverse proportion to the moral stand- 
ard of the theater, but every playhouse calls for, at least, 
a brilliantly illuminated entrance and foyer. Indeed, the 
whole exterior of a theater should be so designed as to 




LYCEUM THEATER, NEW YORK AT NIOHT. 



appear at its best at night. The Lyceum Theater, New 
York, is an excellent example of what can be accom- 
plished in this direction, and in a different way, the 
Illinois Theater, Chicago, is very effective. The problem 
of exterior design is complicated by the business neces- 
sity for electric signs, which must be large and of strik- 
ing appearance, and 
must stand out at an 
angle from the front 
of the building so as 
to catch the eye from 
a distance. These 
signs are often com- 
bined with the canopy 
over the entrance, and 
they can hardly be too 
brilliantly lighted; a 
thousand lights are 
none too much for a 
large canopy and sign, 
in addition to half a 
dozen flaming arcs. 
The manager will 
always urge the archi- 
tect to be lavish with 
lights at the entrance, 
for that is where it 
pays. 

For the auditorium 
itself opinions differ. 
Some prefer a subdued 
effect with all the 
lamps shrouded by 
rich stained glass, as 
in the Stuyvesant 
Theater, New York, 
where there is hardly 
light enough to see to 
read the programmes, 
and faces cannot be 
distinguished across the hall, but most theater goers seem 
to prefer the cheerful brightness of the Keith houses, the 
Hippodrome at Cleveland, or the Lyric, New York. But 
on one point the American public is pretty well agreed: 
there must be no central chandelier to blind the eyes of 
balcony and gallery, and the attempt is always made to so- 
distribute the lights as to give equal illumination every- 



134 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




CEILING LIGHTS, COLONIAL THEATER, BOSTON. 

where, and to kill all shadows. Manifestly, this is not 
the most artistic treatment but it is what goes. 

Even with this handicap, however, monotony can be 
avoided, in a measure, by using the varieties of color 
afforded by electricity. In this respect we have much 
to learn from abroad. The former Eden Theater, in 
Paris, had strong amber incandescents throughout the 
house proper, white arc lights in the corridors and circu- 
lations, and ordinary incandescents in the foyer, pro- 
ducing a very interesting variety of effect. In the 
King's Way Theater, London, the wall lights are all 
enclosed in shades of a tender old-rose tone, while the 
lights on the ceiling are screened from below by strong 
amber opal glass. As a general rule, all electric bulbs 
should be screened in some way, either by ground glass 
or by an envelope of colored glass or stuff. Shades of 
the Holophane prismatic type are admirable in some 
cases, giving a diffused brilliancy without the slightest 
glare, which is very satisfactory. The ceiling globes of 
the Colonial Theater, Boston, are of this type, likewise 
the discs enclosing the lights on proscenium moldings of 
the Majestic Theater, Boston. Only rarely can arcs be 
used for interiors. The great Albert Hall in London 
has a splendid illumination from eight flaming arcs 
hung from the top of the dome, which fill the whole 
vast interior with a trembling, golden blaze, but the 
ordinary theater is too small for such intensity. The 
Cooper Hewitt mercury vapor lamp also offers some 
most fascinating possibilities, which have thus far never 
been utilized. 

The outside display and sign lights and all of the 
lights in foyers, lobbies and stairs are best controlled 
from a switchboard near or in the manager's or the ticket 
office. ' All the lights in the house proper are controlled 
from the stage switchboard, and in the best houses are 
connected through a dimmer by which they can be turned 
up or down. The amount of light required is entirely 
a matter of judgment and is radically modified by many 



factors such as the tones of the decoration, the character 
of the fixtures and the arrangement of the lights, but in 
a general way an allowance of 0.02 candle power per 
cubic foot, fairly well distributed, is a safe minimum. 
There should be a preponderance of light at the back of 
the house rather than at the front, and more light on the 
walls than on the ceiling, and the lights of the proscenium 
and the box fronts are best concealed or at least carefully 
shrouded. 

A few special points have to be borne in mind in 
planning the electric work for a theater. All the exits 
are usually required by law to be marked by an illumi- 
nated sign. The lights for these signs should be on an 
independent circuit, not controlled by any switchboard. 
An improvement would be to fit these lights with some 
form of simple storage battery which would be charged 
through a bypass while the plant or the main supply is in 
operation, and would come into operation only when the 
main source of supply is cut off, thus giving illumination 
for a period of an hour or two, amply sufficient to allow the 
escape of an audience in emergency. The same system 
could to advantage also be applied to furnish some slight 
illumination for the exit corridors. A modification of 
this system has been applied to the New Amsterdam The- 
ater in New York. Then there should, in addition, be 
installed on the main switchboard a safety switch which 
is thrown into operation by the pressure of a push button 
at any one of several points throughout the house, so 
that in an emergency an usher or the manager in the foyer 
can instantly throw on the lights in the auditorium. 
Such a switch is inexpensive and is positive in action, 
but is required, unfortunately, in only a few cities. 

The stage lighting of the time of Shakespeare was 
limited to a few candles set along the front of the stage. 
The stage lighting to-day is one of the most intricate and 
sensitively organized functions of the theater. The stage 
electrician is a more important man than the stage car- 
penter to-day and far more depends upon him. The intro- 
duction of electricity has profoundly modified our ideas 
of illumination, but the end is not yet. We still cling to 




SIUYVESANT*THEATER, NEW YORK. 
Showing Interior Lighting 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



r 35 



the intensely artificial scheme of footlights, which dis- 
torts every natural shadow on the human face, falsifies 
the effect of all the features and absolutely demands the 
intensive and unnatural coloring which we have come to 
associate with a theatrical makeup. A few attempts have 
been made to illuminate the stage from the front or from 
the sides in a more natural manner. Spot lights, over- 
head illumination have tried to give a more natural as- 
pect to the human face. But the difficulty of successfully 
illuminating the stage from the front, while at the same 
time keeping the house in semi-darkness, is a very ob- 
vious one, and above all, the reluctance of the theatrical 
profession to accept so glaring an innovation as the 
omission of footlights and the diminution of grease 



These lamps, by the way, are usually colored by a stain 
applied to the outside of the glass, there being a practical 
difficulty in obtaining bulbs colored in the glass of uni- 
form tone at a reasonable cost. This stain has to be re- 
newed at frecp^ent intervals and is a troublesome feature 
of stage lighting. 

The depth of the stage from the curtain line towards 
the back of the house is arbitrarily divided into spaces of 
about three and one-half feet called entrances, with a 
space of about a foot and a half left between each en- 
trance. Over these intermediate, spaces are rows of 
lights suspended from the gridiron in such manner that 
they can be raised or lowered, the cables supplying the 
wires being suspended either from the first fly gallery or, 




MAJESTIC THEATER, BOSTON, SHOWING INTERIOR LIGHTING. 



paint and powder will undoubtedly long stand in the way 
of a rational stage lighting. 

In order to understand the system of stage lighting, 
reference must be had to a typical stage plan and section. 
The footlights are carried across the front of the apron, 
the lamps being set at a slight angle, as shown by the 
detail. For a 40-foot curtain opening a good allowance 
would be to put in 48 white lights, or lamps with clear 
glass globes, 48 reds and 48 blues, making all the lamps 
of 32 candle power. The detail shows a typical construc- 
tion of the footlight trough and hood, both of which are 
lined with tin and painted with white asbestos paint, this 
material giving a softer reflection than would be possible 
from a polished surface, besides being much easier on the 
actor's eyes. It is an excellent scheme to separate the 
lamps by partitions, so that the colors will not mix. 



better, from the gridiron itself. These rows of lights 
are called borders, or border lights, and contain the same 
number of 32 - candle - power lamps that are put in 
the footlights. The footlights, however, are arranged so 
as to leave a free space of not less than two feet at each 
end of the apron while the border lights are made the 
full width of the curtain opening. In some entrances the 
whole frame of the border is suspended in such manner 
that it can be tilted one way or the other so as to throw 
the reflections either straight to the rear or more down- 
ward. The inner surface of the reflector enclosing the 
border lights is painted with asbestos white paint. 

Opposite each entrance and about five feet back from 
the line of the curtain there are arranged usually two 
floor pockets, into which connections can be plugged for 
either incandescent or arc lights. The incandescent lights 



1 36 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




ILLINOIS THEATER, CHICAGO. 

Showing Exterior Lighting. 

are arranged in bunches of five 32-candle-power lamps 
about a circular reflecting disk and mounted on an ad- 
justable extension iron stand- 
ard with heavy base which 
can be moved about as desired. 
This is called a bunch light. 
The arc lights when used are 
enclosed in a box fitted with 
an adjustable lens or reflector 
after the manner of search- 
lights and are termed spot 
lights. For illuminating back 
drops additional light is some- 
times required from the floor. 
This is obtained by plugging 
into one of the floor connec- 
■ tions a cable leading to a row 
of lights arranged on a long 
strip of wood, this strip being 
placed on the floor with the 
lights up, and constituting 
what is known as a strip light. On the proscenium wall, 
each side of the curtain opening, there is a small gallery 
raised eight or ten feet above the stage level, in which 
are installed not less than two connections for spot lights. 
These are usually made at a capacity of fifty amperes each, 
and the reason for two connections is to allow for dif- 
ferent colors being used at once. On each side of the 
curtain opening, on the face of the wall towards the 
stage, there will be a vertical row of twenty or thirty 
32-candle-power lamps on a movable strip, constitut- 
ing the proscenium lights or rows. 

In some theaters the borders are furnished with four 
colors, white, blue, red and yellow. Also for special 
effects other colored lamps can be inserted in the 
sockets of either the borders or the bunch lights. It is 
usual also to provide for an independent circuit to the 
center of the gridiron and connected to a long flexible 
cable, to which can be attached a chandelier. Con- ' 
nections for fireplace or other local illumination are 
generally made to one of the floor plugs in an en- 
trance. 

Most of our theaters are now equipped for moving 
picture machine connections. There should be pro- 



vSlctiom thro' 
footl.ight 



Tbough 




vided a circuit of not less than fifty'amperes' capacity, 
carried to the rear of the balcony to a plug outlet. 

It will be readily seen that an equipment of this 
sort calls for a total number of lights on the stage, 
reaching as high as ten thousand lamps in some cases, 
and necessitating a very heavy consumption of electric 
power. It will also be appreciated at once that the load 
would be a varying one, as the lights might be turned 
off and on in a twinkling, and a thousand amperes 
thrown off or on without any notice. A load of this 
description would be very trying to an isolated plant. 
Consequently, in nearly all of our city theaters the 
current is supplied by the Edison Company as being 
more regular and having a greater reserve under sudden 
exigency. The fluctuation in the amount of current 
required is shown by the annexed diagrams, the current 
being taken from readings during different plays. 

The switchboard required to control all this electri- 
city is necessarily quite complicated. Each color on 
the foots and borders is on two separate switches; 
there is a separate switch for the bunch lights and for 

the arc lights on each side, 
and also for the spot lights on 
each side. It is customary, 
also, to control all of the lights 
of the auditorium from the 
stage switchboard, these lights 
being lowered just before the 
curtain is raised. All the 
switches must also be ganged 
together in such way that any 
group of lights in the house 
or in any part of the stage can 
be turned on or off simulta- 
neously. Furthermore, it 
must be possible to control 
absolutely the intensity of the 
light at all these points. For this purpose dimmers are 
used, consisting of some form of rheostat through which 
the current is turned, cutting down the efficiency of the 
lights and consequent illumination. These dimmers are 




TYPICAL STAGE PLAN, FOR LIGHTING. 



THE BRICKBUILDE R 



K,7 



usually for a three-wire circuit, and the dimmers them- 
selves have to be ganged together. In the best equip- 
ments there would be two separate dimmers for each 
border and for each color on each border, and for the foots 
as well. And these dimmers must be so arranged that 
one set can be turned up while the other is being turned 
down, and moved so carefully that there will be no sudden 
drop in the light. It is customary, also, to put all the 
house lights on a dimmer and drop them gradually, 
rather than turn them off abruptly. 

The construction of stage switchboards is a specialty 
which is being constantly improved, and the best board 
to-day may be out of date in a very few years. There 
are at present several general types in use. Quite com- 
monly, the dimmer con- 
tacts are all exposed on 
the face of the board, and 
jack-knife switches are 
used ; but in the most up- 
to-date board nothing ap- 
pears on the face of the 
panel except lever handles, 
which operate by rods and 
by gearings to control the 
dimmers and the switches, 
all of which are on the 
back of the board so as to 
show no sparking. A 
form of board has been 
devised in which the en- 
tire control is by a bank 
of push buttons, connected 
either electrically or pneu- 
matically to the direct con- 
trol of the switches and 
the rheostats. The latter 
board is the ideal one, as 
it is extremely compact, 
and can be operated with 
ease by a single person, 
but it has not yet been 
perfected in such manner 
that it can be depended 
upon. 

As a precaution, all 
main circuits on the main 
switchboard should not 
only be fused but should 
be equipped with circuit breakers. And every board 
should be equipped with a volt meter, wired to use as a 
ground detector, and should also be fitted with a record- 
ing ammeter. Both of these devices would be pretty 
sure to save their own cost in less than one year by the 
stoppage of leaks and reduction of waste. 

The switchboard is usually located on the back of the 
proscenium wall at one side of the curtain opening, the 
electrician standing in the line of the first entrance, where 
he can see the stage. He is obliged, of course, to depend 
largely upon cues in changing the lights and can not 
rightly judge of the stage effect. In the Metropolitan 
Opera House, New York, the first entrance is left entirely 
clear on each side, the switchboard being located in the 
basement under the center of the front of the stage. 




.Stage. Fi-oosu -*■ 
TYPICAL STAGE SECTION, FOR LIGHTING 



The electrician has a stand in the center of the footlights, 
where a shallow screen a few inches high and hardly 
wider than one's head allows him a full view of all of the 
stage without his being visible to the audience. Right 
at his hand is a master wheel controlling the ganged levers 
of the dimmers, and the main switchboard is so near 
that he can speak to the two assistants who work the 
switches or individual dimmers as directed by him. This 
is an excellent arrangement in many ways but has the 
drawback of requiring the undivided attention of three 
men during the whole performance. 

The switchboard of the Metropolitan Opera House is 
one of the largest in the country, controlling 11,488 
16-candle-power lamps, besides motors, 44 arc pockets 

and 228 incandescent 
stage pockets ; lamps and 
pockets distributed as fol- 
lows: 

4880 — 16 candle power 
lamps for auditorium il- 
lumination and entrances, 
halls, etc. 

700 — 50 candle power 
whites in 8 borders, 1 foot 
and 2 proscenium lights. 

468 — 32 candle power 
ambers in 8 borders, 1 foot 
and 2 proscenium lights. 

468 — 32 candle power 
reds in 8 borders, 1 foot 
and 2 proscenium lights. 

468 — 32 candle power 
blues in 8|'borders, 1 foot 
and 2 proscenium lights. 

150 — 32 candle power 
in transparent border 
light. 

150 — 16 candle power 
in paint frame border 
light. 

225 — 16 candle power 
in working lights on stage, 
in cellar and sub-cellar. 

1025 — 16 candle power 
in dressing-rooms. 

vSixteen quadruple 
stage pockets, for bunch 
lights (sixty-four pockets), 
four colors, white, amber, red and blue, 15 ampere capa- 
city each. 

Sixteen quadruple stage pockets, for transparencies 
(sixty-four pockets), four colors, white, amber, red and 
blue, 15 ampere capacity each. 

Sixteen single stage pockets, for arc lights on stage, 
30 ampere capacity each. 

Six single auto pockets, three for each bridge, for arc 
lights, 30 ampere capacity each. 

Twenty-two single auto pockets, for arc lights, in fly 
floor, 30 ampere capacity each. 

One hundred single stage pockets, for musicians' 
stands. 

Switches are so arranged that almost any combinations 
of light and shade can be made and any gradation of tone 



38 



THE HRICKBU1LDKR 



or color produced. There are one hundred and sixteen 
dimmers in all. 

Stage lighting as an art, distinct from its scientific 
function, presents a very interesting study. A few illus- 
trations will show some of the possibilities involved in 
this medium. In the play of " The Sleeping Beauty and 
the Beast" the lighting effects were quite as important 
as the scenery. In one of the acts, when Beauty pricks 
herself with the magic bodkin and falls into her long 
sleep, she drops on to a couch in the center of the stage 
and from each side a strong beam of white light is con- 
centrated upon her, while the lights of the borders are 
dimmed successively from the rear, the footlights finally 
dropping out and leaving the stage in almost complete 
obscurity except for the star- 
tling relief of the effect in the 
center. In the play of " Ben 
Hur, " a most striking and 
novel effect was produced in 
the last act. The stage was 
filled with some two hundred 
and fifty or three hundred 
people, the hero and his 
mother in the foreground 
waiting for coming of Christ. 
The people all turn toward 
the quarter from which the 
Lord is expected and a broad 
beam of light is thrown down 
from high up in the flies, at 
first so broad that it mingles 
with the general illumination 
of the stage. As the borders 
and footlights are slowly 
dimmed the broad ray of light 
becomes more evident. This 
is narrowed down very slowly 
while the borders and foot- 
lights are dimmed continually, 
until the light becomes a mere 
pencil of vivid illumination. 
As the lights on the stage are 
dimmed to the vanishing point 
the pencil of light is narrowed 
down until it disappears. Any 
one who has seen this light 
will appreciate how striking 
it is and how cleverly the 
supernatural is indicated rather than shown. 

In a play which was produced at the Garrick Theater, 
Philadelphia, a short time since, sunrise effects were very 
cleverly simulated by sheets of gelatine colored an even 
gradation from deep blue green, through crimsons, redsi 
oranges, yellows, and a pale, clear white light, which were 
drawn upward in front of a box containing a bank of 
strong lights. The color illumination was thrown from 
each side upon the stage and in the course of a few minutes 
all the varying effects of dawn were reproduced in a 
most striking manner. 

In the " Wizard of Oz," the effect of a cyclone is pro- 
duced by dimming the lights on the stage and dropping 
a thin gauze curtain across the front, upon which is pro- 
jected the illumination from a stereopticon in front of the 




gallery, with a circular slide upon which are painted a 
dim representation of clouds and hurling masses of vapor 
and dust. The trick of course is obvious to anyone who 
is familiar with the theater, but the effect is carried out 
very cleverly, and the kaleidoscope and stereoscope are 
used in a variety of effects to help out stage delusions. 

These illustrations might be extended almost indefi- 
nitely but they are sufficient to indicate in a measure the 
possibilities and scope of stage lighting. As was stated 
in the beginning, however, the science and art of stage 
lighting has yet to be perfected. Our effects are crude 
as compared to what we could imagine, and the whole 
system of footlights is radically wrong. .Some attempts 
which have been made to produce a more rational illumi- 
nation will be described under 
stage construction. 



R' 



TABLE SHOWING ELECTRICAL CONSUMPTION IN AMPERES. 



EPR ESEN TAT1 V E 
BARTIIOLDT, whose 
Public Buildings Bill carries a 
total appropriation of $23,- 
000,000, favors a change in the 
method of appropriating funds 
for Government structures. 
Hitherto it has been the cus- 
tom for the Treasury Depart- 
ment to deduct from the ap- 
propriation for a building the 
expenses of the .Supervising 
Architect's Office. In this 
manner substantial sums have 
been lopped off the amount 
originally intended to be avail- 
able for the buildings them- 
selves, and greatly to the dis- 
appointment of districts where 
the buildings were to be lo- 
cated. Mr. Bartholdt proposes 
that appropriations for the 
buildings be left intact by the 
Treasury, and that the cost of 
designing and superintending 
them, aswell as other expenses 
of the Supervising Architect's 
Office, be provided for in the 
appropriations for the main- 
tenance of the Treasury De- 
partment. 



A 



GREAT new boulevard one hundred and fifty feet 
wide has been approved for execution in Paris. It is 
to be absolutely straight and is to continue the Champs 
Elysees to the forest of St. Germain, ten miles distant. 
It will contain foot paths, wagon roads, electric tram 
lines and speedways for automobiles, but is to have no 
grade crossings. It is proposed to line a portion of the 
boulevard with model tenements for the small wage- 
earners. This improvement is supposed to be a part of 
that magnificent scheme for the further improvement of 
Paris which was recently laid by the Prefect of the Seine 
before the Municipal Council. It represents several 
years of study by experts, and is said to involve a total 
expenditure of $80,000,000. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



139 



Armories for the Organized Militia- -II. 



BY LIEUT. -COL. J. HOLLIS WELLS. 



IN designing the floors for an armory, a live load of 
seventy pounds per square foot may be assumed ex- 
cept, of course, for the floor of the drill hall. The usual 
hollow tile construction between floor beams, 3x4 inch 
spruce sleeper and 2^ x 7/% inch comb grain yellow pine 
flooring, makes a very satisfactory construction for the 
floors. 

A very good roof covering for large span construction 
is of so-called plastic material, which, if properly laid 
over five-ply of heavy roofing felt and well carried up on 
the walls and parapets, will prove satisfactory and be ab- 
solutely watertight. Of course everything depends on 



to heat this space to 6o° F. when the weather outside 
is o° F. 

The lighting of the building is an important item and 
may be best and most economically accomplished by 
direct current generators located in the cellar. 

For the drill hall, the system installed in the 71st 
Regiment Armory has proven very satisfactory. The 
area of the floor is about forty thousand square feet. 
Suspended from the lower chords of the trusses, at a 
height of about thirty-five feet from the floor, are 
seventy-five (75) chandeliers, each comprising five 
4 ^ -ampere arc lamps, with concentric diffusers 




ARMORY AND GYMNASIUM, STATE UNIVERSITY, COLUMBUS, OHIO. 



Yost & Packard, Architects. 



the workmanship around gutters, valleys and the flash- 
ings of the parapets, but with experienced superintend- 
ence and competent workmen, the old trouble with leak- 
ing roofs has been entirely obviated at very small sacri- 
fice of time. 

If possible, an armory should be equipped with a 
heating, power and lighting plant so as to be absolutely 
independent of all outside connections which might be 
destroyed in time of riot and insurrection. 

The heating plant may be economically installed on 
the one-pipe system, by running trunk lines through the 
cellar and taking off therefrom the vertical risers and 
branches to direct plain surface radiators. Heating coils 
should be run around the inside and just below the 
windows of the clere-story, so as to avoid draughts. The 
heating surface for the drill hall should be sufficient 



such as are manufactured by the General P^lectric 
Company. Beneath the galleries, the regular system of 
carbon filament, 16-candle-power lamps are used to 
destroy shadow. The remainder of the building 
generally is lighted about thirty square feet of floor 
space to each 16-candle-power of lamps, and diffu- 
sion is obtained by the use of Holophane glass through- 
out. A more modern system could be installed in place 
of carbon filament lamps of high voltage, by using high 
efficiency lamps, either Tantalum or Tungsten, and a 
glassware for diffusion, treated by a process discovered 
by Major Zalinski, U. S. A., retired, which, although more 
expensive in first cost, is very much cheaper in operation, 
and in every way more satisfactory in general results. In 
designing fixtures for this type of lamp, however, it must 
be remembered that the lamp must hang vertically. 



140 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



All plumbing should be substantial and the work- 
manship should be of the best, for the wear and tear is 
something appalling. An excellent method to obtain 
sanitary wash rooms and toilets for the enlisted men is 
to use absolutely nothing at all absorbent. The floors 
should be tiled with vitreous tile, the walls lined with 
white glass, having sanitary curves at base, and the 
partitions may be of slate. 
The wash room should con- 
tain at least forty (40) strong, 
porcelain basins, with both 
hot and cold water compres 
sion faucets. Water closets 
and urinals should be isolated 
from the wash room. The 
best urinal to use is of solid 
porcelain, similar to those now 
in use in the Hudson Terminal 
and other buildings in New 
York City. Water-closets 
should preferably be of the 
siphon jet variety, with hard- 
wood seats extra strongly at- 
tached and without covers, 
and all may best be flushed by 
some approved flushometer 




GALLER1 \Mi SECOND FLOOR I'LAN. 



two sets of fire lines running up through the building, 
with hose of sufficient length to reach all parts of the 
building. 

A plunge bath is a great convenience, and of course 
there must be an ample number of showers for both 
officers and men, six for the former and not less than 
thirty for the latter. The hot water system should, there- 
fore, be carefully controlled 
with thermostats and mixing 
chambers, with thermometers 
attached to the showers. 
Proper dressing rooms adjoin- 
ing the shower and plunge 
bath rooms are, of course, a 
necessity. The partitions be- 
tween showers may be of 
thick, rough glass, supported 
in iron frames, and the walls 
and floors tiled. 

These are some of the 
necessary accessories for a 
first-class armory building, 
but, of course, much depends 
on the ingenuity of the archi- 
tect, or on the amount of 
money available, as to just 




BASEMENT II. AN. FIRST FLOOR I'LAN. 

FLOOR PLANS, ARMORY AND GYMNASIUM, STATE UNIVERSITY, COLUMBUS, OHIO. 



device. Avoid, by all means, cisterns and chain and 
pull devices. 

The water supply is necessarily from sources outside 
the building. It would be well, therefore, to tap the 
street mains from two or three points, and carry these 
lines to a common point in the building, usually the 
suction tank, where one is required. Both hot and cold 
water should be supplied to all basins, slop sinks and 
showers. 

In order to protect from fire, it is well to install an 
electric pump of a capacity of about two hundred gal- 
lons per minute, this pump is also necessary to raise 
water to the highest point of the building, into a roof 
tank. A careful study of the water supply system 
is well worth while, and its installation should be in 
the hands of an expert. There should be at least 



how much further one may go. These, however, are the 
general requirements for a well-equipped building. 

The colonel of a regiment is its administrative head, 
and requires for his individual purposes two rooms, one 
reception and one office, the former, a formal room in 
which may be kept the colors aud regimental trophies, 
this should be about 20 x 35 feet in size, but the office 
may be much smaller. 

The colonel also requires a well-equipped toilet room 
and a large closet. The four adjutants should have 
their locker room adjoining the colonel's quarters. A 
room containing four hundred square feet will do for 
this purpose, but just off of this should be the adjutants' 
office. In this room is transacted the bulk of the civil 
and military business of the regiment. There are at 
times probably ten men on duty here, and officers and 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 




SECOND, THIRD, FOURTH AND FIFTH Fi.OOK PLANS. 

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I1ASF.MENT PLAN. 

ARMORY FOR FIRST CORPS OF CADETS, HOSTON. 
William G. Preston, Architect. 



142 



THE BRICK BUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



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IlliM ILUuR I'LAN. 



SKI OND FLCOR I'l.AN. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE BRICKBUI LDER 



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BASEMENT PLAN. FIRST FLOOR TLAN. 

armory AT CHESTER, pa. Price & McLanahan, Architects. 



SI'CON I) FLOOR I'l AN. 



146 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



non-commissioned officers are in and out. Each of the 
four adjutants and each of the four sergeant-majors 
require desks, and the regimental clerk has his type- 
writer in this room. About twelve hundred square feet 
of floor space is, therefore, the minimum that should be 
allotted to the adjutants' office, for with all the file cases, 
safes and other paraphernalia, this room should not be 
cramped. This suite of rooms, colonel's and adjutants', 
should be on the same floor as the drill hall. The lieu- 
tenant-colonel requires a room about three hundred 
square feet, with ample closet room and toilet. This 
room, for convenience sake, should adjoin the colonel's 
reception room. 

The board of officers' room may be placed on this 
floor, and this should be a show room, of about fifteen 
hundred square feet of floor space. 

The three majors require two rooms, one containing 
about three hundred square feet of space, and a locker 
and dressing room of about two hundred square feet. 
Each company should have three rooms: a parlor, a 
locker room and a small store room. In 
order to describe a well-designed armory, 
from the standpoint of a militia man, it 
might be well, perhaps, to refer again to the 
new armory of the 71st Regiment, N. (t., 
New York. The site is particularly a fortu- 
nate one, because Thirty-fourth Street is 
some seventeen feet higher in elevation 
than Thirty-third 



V 




SIXTY-FIFTH REC1MENT ARMORY, ISUFFALO. 



Street, so that it 
was possible to 
place the drill- 
room floor about 
six feet above the 
level of Thirty- 
fourth Street, and 
have two stories 
below. In these 
lower stories are 
located the com- 
pany parlors, 
locker rooms and 
store rooms. The parlors are 21x42 feet and are located 
on the floor immediately under the drill floor. In wide 
corridors off the company parlors, the rifles are kept in 
oak racks, which have heavy plate-glass sliding front that 
can be kept locked. The line officers' locker, dressing and 
toilet rooms are also on this floor, as well as the offices of 
the quartermaster, the library, recreation rooms and the 
store rooms for the companies. These store rooms are 
interior, and are ventilated at the top into the corridors, 
into which fresh air is driven by means of a fan. The 
quartermaster's office is divided into three parts, one his 
private office, about 10x20 feet ; the office of the battalion 
quartermasters, 10 x 20 feet, and a general room of 
about one thousand square feet, in which the quarter- 
master sergeants handle the clothing supplies, and have 
their desks, closets and other appurtenances. The 
library is 28 x 47 feet in size, and is well furnished 
with bookcases, tables, comfortable chairs and divans, — 
each company parlor and the library has a fireplace. 

The recreation room is really a mezzanine gallery, 
overlooking the gymnasium and is about 32 x 126 feet. 



At one end are located six billiard and pool tables, and at 
the other end games may be played and the men served 
with soft drinks and cigars. 

The gymnasium is two stories in height and is about 
35 x 80 feet and opens directly into the theater, which 
is 35 x 68 feet, so that both rooms may be used in con- 
junction. 

This theater has a gallery. There is an entrance 
direct from the street into a lobby, off from which are 
hat and coat rooms and toilets. Immediately adjoining 
the gymnasium are four bowling alleys of regulation 
length. The company locker rooms are located on this 
lower floor, immediately under the parlors, and are each 
entered either from the corridors or down a flight of 
stairs from the parlor. A completely equipped kitchen 
with ranges, refrigerator boxes, steam tables, soup 
kettles, coffee urns, etc., is located here, as are also the 
showers, toilets and wash rooms for the men, and the 
large store rooms and work shops for the regiment, all 
of which are fully equipped. 

The boiler and engine rooms are also located 
on this floor, as are also the ventilating fans and 
motors, which supply fresh air to the corridors 
and exhaust from the rifle and pistol ranges, 
which are located in the extreme easterly end of 
the two lower stories. 

A description of these ranges is in order. 
There is the standing range and the prone range, 

which is mezza- 
nined above the 
landing. At each 
range there are six 
targets on a line. 

A twelve-inch 
solid brick wall 
divides the gym- 
nasium and the 
theater from the 
ranges, which are 
about one hun- 
dred and sixty-six 
feet in length, 
from the firing point to the targets. Heavy steel plates 
protect the ends and the ceilings wherever necessary, 
and by means of inclined steel plates with apertures 
in them stray shots are held from passing down the 
range. 

At the extreme end of the range beyond the targets 
are located twelve bullet catchers 4 ft. 6 in. in height 
each. These catchers are made of half-inch steel plates 
bent spiral in shape, so as to catch the bullets and allow 
them to drop easily into pockets beneath. 

In front of the targets are built masks of 10 x 10 
inch spruce timbers, with openings through sheathed 
with two-inch spruce planking spiked to the timbers. 
The floors of these openings and masks extend over the 
markers' pit up to the target frame so as to form a plat- 
form. The object of these masks is two-fold : to protect 
the markers in the pits, and to prevent richochet shots 
from striking other targets than the one the firer 
intended. 

The frames for targets are of heavy spruce timbers 
and have white pine pulley stiles and target frames with 



George J. Metzger, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



'47 



pulleys and cords. Each target has a double frame, one 
to counterbalance the other, so that when one is up the 
other is down. These frames must be accurately set and 
are locked in place automatically. 

At the firing point there are ash partitions with 
splayed openings and hinged shutters. In these parti- 
tions also are the holes and boxes for used ammunition, 
brackets and apertures for the stationary telescopes, slid- 
ing partitions which may be used to form compartments 
separating one shooter from the other. The walls at the 
firing point are sheathed with ash. Just beyond the par- 
tition above described and about twenty feet toward the 
targets there is erected a mantlet made of sheets of tin 



of his telescope, spotting his own shot, but the value of 
the shot is conveyed to the scorer by means of a very 
ingenious contrivance, the basic patents of which are con- 
trolled by the Western Electric Company. In this par. 
ticular case one man scores for six. 

In the pit there are five push buttons for each target, 
and these buttons operate a small lamp which illuminate 
vari-colored small discs, which are fixed in brass plates. 
There are six of these plates and five discs in each plate, 
each disc corresponding in color to the marking disc used 
in the pit. These plates and discs are all contained in 
what appears to be an ordinary roll-top desk. At the 
moment the marker presses the button in the pit a small 




DRILL HALL, ARMORY FOR FIRST CORPS OF CADETS, BOSTON. William G. Preston, Architect. 



soldered together and fastened to 6 x 6 in. hemlock stud- 
ding. This tin mantlet has apertures corresponding to 
the openings in the partition at the firing point. Between 
this partition and the mantlet are placed the ducts which 
ventilate the firing point. The targets are brilliantly 
lighted by electric lights and reflectors. At the firing 
point each man controls his own light. By means 
of telephones the scorer may communicate with the 
marker. , 

A most interesting system of marking has been 
adopted with most satisfactory results. After a man 
has fired, the target is changed, the shot marked in the 
usual way, by means of a disc, the man firing, by means 



lamp is lighted at the firing point, and this light continues 
to burn until the scorer pushes his button, which puts out 
all lights on this particular target and indicates to the 
man firing and to the marker that the shot has been 
scored and the target cleared. This entire apparatus is 
operated by a small motor generator set, and is compara- 
tively simple and most satisfactory in operation. 

The pistol range is located above the rifle range. It 
has simply six lines of wires, which are to all intents and 
purposes trolleys on which paper targets can be made 
to travel back and forth. 

This range, too, is protected at all points by heavy 
steel plates. 



i 4 8 



THE BRICKBU I LDKR 




Will 



rnn 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



149 



A List of Standard Architectural Books 
for Offices and Public Libraries. 



BY EDWARD R. SMITH. 

{Reference Librarian, Avery Architectural Library, 
Columbia University. ) 

[It is the intention in this series to give a list of elementary and 
fundamental books on architecture that architects, the younger men 
especially, who contemplate the starting of a library, and librarians 
who wish to add an architectural section, may be enabled to obtain 
easily data which will be helpful. The parts of the series will be pub- 
lished on two sides of one leaf of The Brickhuildek each month and 
so arranged that the leaves may be easily lifted for separate binding. 

The measurements of books will be given according to the metric 
system. Key to description of books: .23x.16x.082 — length, breadth, 
thickness; 14 + 1443 p. — number of pages; ill. — illustrations in text; 
pi. — plates. The prices are those given at the date of publication with 
certain easily recognizable exceptions. — Editors.] 

THE professional bibliography is large. A broad 
discussion would be interesting, and especially of the 
monumental works which have been developed in every 
country, and which are most desired by the collector in 
the end. These give the greatest charm and value to an 
architectural library; but before they are reached, the 
student should become familiar with the less preten- 
tious, but still important, books which may properly 
underly the practical working of the profession. 
Various excursions might be undertaken with profit ; 
but for the present it will be wise to bind our steps to a 
narrow and well-trodden path. 

Some works of the standard elementary classes have 
come into the market recently; but, for the most part, 
the titles in our list are old friends, which have proved 
their value by long acquaintance. They are inexpen- 
sive also, and within the reach of almost every office and 
library. 

Dictionaries. 

Joseph Gwilt, F. S. A., F. R. S. A. (b. 1784 d. 1863). 
An Encyclopedia of Architecture, Historical, Theoreti- 
cal and Practical; illustrated with about seventeen hun- 
dred engravings on wood. Revised, portions rewritten 
and with additions (in 1888) by Wyatt Papworth, Mem- 
ber of Council of the Royal Institute of British Archi- 
tects, etc. London & New York ; Longmans, Green & 
Co. ; 1899; 8° (.23 x .16 x .082), 14+ 1,443 P> ill- 1 l pl-> 
cloth, 2 is. 

Gwilt's Encyclopaedia is the earliest attempt to dis- 
cuss in one volume all the elements of architectural in- 
formation. The last of its nine editions, that of 1888 re- 
printed in 1899, is too early to include all information 
now needed; but in general matters, which underly all 
architecture and which do not vary greatly with time, 
Gwilt is useful. The little treatises which it contains on 
geometry, perspective, conic sections, and especially 
that on shades and shadows, a matter in which Gwilt 
was much interested, may save one the trouble of carry- 
ing special books on those subjects. 

Russell Sturgis, A. M., Ph. D., Fellow of American 
Institute of Architects; and many Architects, Painters, 
Engineers, and other expert Writers, American and 
Foreign. A Dictionary of Architecture and Building, 
Biographical, Historical and Descriptive. New York and 



London, the Macmillan Co.; 1901-02 (Later ed., 1905); 
4to (.27 x .21 x 05), 3 vol., ill., 106 pi,; cloth, $18.00 
net. 

This book is, undoubtedly, the most convenient in its 
field. Its editor has especially preserved his sense of 
proportion. Occasionally an article is allowed the im- 
portance of a monograph, but for the most part one finds 
under the several headings simply so much as is needed 
for immediate service and is not forced to make his own 
abstractions. Space is thus left for an abundance of 
entries, which cover the field of architectural inquiry 
most completely. " Fitness for ready consultation " is 
secured by many cross references. 

The Architectural Publication Society (founded in 
1848, dissolved after the completion of the Dictionary). 
The Dictionary of Architecture. London, 1853-92; small 
fol. (.38 x .28 x .06 to .035) ; 8 vol 2,300 p., text, ill., 223 
pi. Detached essays and illustrations issued during the 
years 1848-52. London, 1853; small fol. (.38 x .28 x 
.03), various paging, ill., 28 pi. The entire work, includ- 
ing the " Detached Essays and Illustrations," was issued 
originally to subscribers only, in parts for ,£21. All 
parts not distributed were destroyed. A copy was offered 
by Batsford in 1900 for ^"17 10s. The Architectural Pub- 
lication Society's Dictionary is the most extensive book of 
its class. Although intended to deal thoroughly with 
English matters it is perfectly general. An important 
feature is the distribution of abundant bibliographies, 
which show extensive research in periodical literature. 
The "Detached Essays and Illustrations" consist of a 
series of extended articles which are sometimes bound in 
place with the other material. 

Thomas Dinham Atkinson, A. R. I. B. A., Architect. 
A Glossary of Terms used in English Architecture. Lon- 
don, Methuen & Co., 1906; rsmo (.17 x . 1 1 x .025), 24 
+ 320 p., 265 ill., cloth, 3s. 6d. net. 

This little volume, illustrated by pen sketches, may 
well be given a place on the shelves of a limited library. 

Paul Planat, Director of Construction Moderne and 
author of many works on architecture, etc. Encyclopedie 
de TArchitecture et de la Construction. Paris, Dujardin 
et Cie. No date, 4to (.27 x .2 x .05), 6 vol. in 12; ill., 640 
pi., 360 fr. unbound. 

This book is loosely made up in the characteristic 
French way and its articles approach occasionally to the 
type of monographs, but the plan of the work is broad, 
and its tone decidedly modern, much space being given 
to utilitarian and structural matters, with which the edi- 
tor of Construction Moderne is especially familiar. The 
illustrations are sketchy reproductions of more careful 
originals, -but they are abundant and well selected. 

Historical Manuals. 

Alfred D. F. Hamlin, A. M., Professor of the History 
of Architecture, Columbia University. A text-book of 
the History of Architecture London and New York; 
Longmans, Green & Co , 5th ed. 1904; crown 8° (.195 x 
.14X.033), 25+453 p., ill., pi., cloth, $2. (College His- 
tories of Art. ) 

Professor Hamlin's compact history covers the entire 
field with balance and regard for proportion. The chap- 
ter form is good for his purpose, a bibliography includ- 
ing both general and special works, a discussion of 



i 5 o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



general development, a discussion of typical buildings, 
and finally a larger list of monuments. The style is noted 
as a model of clear condensation. 

James Fergusson (b. iSocS, d. i8<S6). A History of 
Architecture in all countries, from the earliest times to 
the present day. 3d ed. R. Phenc Spiers, editor. 
London; John Murray, 1891-99; Vol. 1, 1893; 8° (.2.5 x 
.17 x .056), 5 vol., ill., 5 pi., 2 maps; £6 4s. Vol. 1 2, 
History of Ancient and Mediaeval Architecture. Vol. 3, 
History of Indian and Eastern Architecture. Vol. 4-5, 
History of the Modern Styles of Architecture. 

The " History of Architecture " is still the most use- 
ful historical manual in any language. It is a source of 
constant wonderment that the author managed to study 
critically so much building; and still more, that he col- 
lected such an unlimited supply of excellent illustrations, 
all laboriously engraved on wood. Phenc Spiers's 
revision has brought the old book pretty well up to 
date. 

Franrois Auguste Choisy: Professor of Architecture 
at the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussees, Paris, and author of 
many works on architecture. Histoire de l'Architecture. 
Paris, Gauthier-Villars, 1899; <S° (.24 x. 17 x. 04), 2 
vol., 866 ill. by J. Sulpis; 40 fr. unbound. A most 
unique historical manual is this of Choisy, dealing 
entirely with the development of types, and illustrated 
exclusively by diagrams drawn in geometric projection. 
In a work like this the individual monument counts for 
little. The principles underlying groups of monu- 
ments and their characteristic forms are under consid- 
eration. 

Banister Fletcher, F. R. I. B. A. (b. 1835 d. 1899). 
Late Fellow of, and Professor of Architecture in Kings 
College, London; and Banister F. Fletcher, A. R. I. B. A. 
A History of Architecture on the Comparative 
Method for the Student, Craftsman and Amateur. 
4th ed. Revised and enlarged. London, B. T. Bats- 
ford; New York, Scribner, 1901 ; 8° (.22 x .15 x .06), 
42 + 1 + 521 p., 256 plates comprising 1,300 illustrations. 
For the use of professors, lecturers and others the 128 
plates of drawings of construction and monumental 
detail contained in this work are issued as large lecture 
diagrams (40 in. x 27 in.), and lantern slides of the 
whole of the plates are also obtainable. Particulars of 
these may be obtained from the author. 

The Fletcher manual has a more definite form than 
books generally of this class. Each chapter, or rather 
subject, is cast according to a prearranged " System of 
Classification": 1. Influences, 2. Architectural Character, 
3. Examples of Building, 4. Comparative, 5. Reference 
Books. The fourth heading is quite interesting, showing 
in tabulated form the changes which occur in architec- 
tural motives from period to period. 

Russell Sturgis, A. M., Ph. D., F. A. LA., editor of 
a "Dictionary of Architecture and Building." A His- 
tory of Architecture; Vol. 1. Antiquity. New York, 
the Baker Taylor Co., 1906; 4to (.27 x .18 x .048), 
23 + 426 p., frontispiece, ill., pi. ; cloth, $5.00. Mr. Sturgis's 
History of Architecture, of which only one volume has 
appeared, promises to equal his Dictionary in usefulness. 
It will replace the old treatise of Fergusson, than which, 
of course, it is more scholarly and comprehensive. The 
photographic cuts furnish a rare body of illustration. 



Salomon Reinach : Apollo, Histoire ge'nerale des arts 
plastiques. From the French by Florence Simmonds; 
The Story of Art through the ages, an illustrated 
Record. New York, Charles Scribner Sons, 1905; 
8 V (.215 x . 14 x .05), 11 +316 p. nearly 600 ill., cloth, 
£2.00. 

Reinach's Apollo seems too general to be mentioned 
in an architectural bibliography; but the book is so 
good and the architectural part so considerable that the 
student may wisely add it to his collection. 

General Manuals. 

John Beverly Robinson, Member of the American 
Institute of Architects. Architectural Composition. 
New York, D. Van Nostrand Co., London, B. T. Bats- 
ford, 1908; 8° (.22 x .16 x. 025), n+234 p., ill.; cloth, 

Mr. Robinson's discussion of architecture along the 
lines of simple principles stands almost alone in the 
literature of architecture. It is concise, intelligent 
and should be quite indispensable in an architectural 
library. 

Julien Guadet (b. 1834, d. 1908). Inspecteur ^ne'rale 
des batiments civils, Professeur et membre du conseil 
supc'rieur a l'Kcole des Beaux-arts. Elements et theorie 
de l'Architecture; cours professc a l'Ecole nationale et 
speciale des Beaux-arts; Ouvrage honorc d'une souscrip- 
tion du ministre de l'instruction publique et des Beaux- 
arts, Paris. Paris, librairie de la Construction Moderne, 
1902-05; 4to (.27 x .20 x .04), 4 vol. ill. pi.: 100 fr. 
unbound. 

I'rof. Guadet's work should certainly be translated 
into English. The architectural profession in America 
is becoming dependent upon it as upon almost no other 
book. It is a "complete body of Architecture" more 
fundamental and thorough than any yet published. 

Eugene Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (b. 1814, d. 1879). 
Entretiens sur l'Architecture; translated by II. Van 
Brunt, second vol. by Benjamin Bucknall: Discourses on 
Architecture. Boston, James K. I >sgood & Co., 1875-81, 
4to (.26 x . 18 x .045), 2 vol., 20 + 1 + 5 1 7 p., ill., pi. ; cloth, 
$10.00. 

The " Entretiens " of Viollet-le-Duc may well take a 
place among our general works as a broad and thorough 
discussion of principles in all styles and periods. It 
is fortunate that we have such a good American trans- 
lation. 

Handbuch der Architektur, unter Mitwirkung von 
Fachgenossen, hrsg. von J. Durm, II. Ende, E. Schmitt 
und H. Wagner, various editions. Darmstadt, 1S80-96; 
8° (.27 x . 19 x .04), ill., pi. Div. 1, Allgemeine Hochbau- 
kunde; Div. 2, Die Baustile; Div. 3, Hochbau-construc- 
tion ; Div. 4, Entwerfen, Anlage und Einrichtung der 
Gebiiude. Price altogether about $186. More than 40 
vols. ; not yet completed. 

Although the Handbuch der Architektur is beyond 
the reach of many of our readers, both on account of its 
language and price, it is mentioned as a valuable book of 
its kind; a glorified manual in which each chapter is de- 
veloped into a special monograph by a specialist of stand- 
ing. These monographs may be bought separately. 
Some of them have passed through several editions and 
might well be translated into English. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



»$« 



Editorial Comment and 
Miscellany. 



THE cost of building has now been substantially re- 
duced by a number of causes. Steel and iron have 
gone down, and, generally speaking, lumber is being sold 
for 10 to 12 per cent less than a year ago. General con- 
tractors are willing to take less profit than at any time 
within the last few years and subcontractors are taking 
work at figures to serve little else than to hold their work- 
ing organization together. Although wages for labor are 
nominally the same, competition among mechanics to 
hold their places renders the labor better and, therefore, 
cheaper. From the "American Lumberman" is taken 
the following comparison of prices for building in 1907- 
08 representing actual figures obtained by a party who 
wished to build. 

Masonry and grading, 

Plastering, 

Plumbing, 

Heating, 

Painting. 

Lumber $4 to $6 a thousand less. 
The 1907 prices were made during the latter 
part of that year and the 1908 prices during June. 

WITH the intention of 
aiding tbe transaction 
of real estate business in 
New York City and State the 
Legislature at Albany has 
passed the Torrens Land 
Title Registration Bill. 
This provides for the State 
to do what private compa- 
nies have done since title insurance has been found nec- 
essary by the great maze of transfers made in the subdi- 








Per cent 


1907 


1908 


of Decrease 


>.3 2 9 


$944 


29.0 


585 


3*3 


46.8 


640 


500 


21.9 


73° 


57o 


22.0 


53° 


400 


24-5 




DETAIL 



BY 

J. 



GARAGE, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

Samuel Hannaford & Sons, Architects. 

Exterior of White Mat Glazed Terra Cotta made and set by 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Co. 

viding and development of congested districts. The 
scheme, which is already in operation in several states, 
is scarcely more than an experiment. The marketability 
of a title will only be increased by the owner's 
taking the precaution to register it on the statute 
books, which in most cases 
he will not do; and, after all, 
the efforts of a private cor- 
poration to insure its patrons 
against possible loss will al- 
ways inspire such confidence 
that private title insurance 
business will thrive whether 
there is state insurance or 
not The cost of registrating 
a parcel of land under the new law will be about fifty 
dollars. 



SOUTH AMBOY TERRA COTTA CO, 

Warner Allen, Architect. 




NEW York has followed the example of other cities in 
installing high pressure water mains. The in- 
ability of the Fire Department to cope successfully with 
conflagrations there has operated to maintain high insur- 
ance rates. The mains cover the district between West 
Twenty-Third, Chambers, West Broadway and the Hud- 
son River which has hitherto been one of great menace 
to the city. The method of getting the water is inter- 
esting. It is" supplied by the New York Edison Com- 
pany, which is under contract to fill the mains with 
water at high pressure within three minutes after an 
alarm is given. The company is penalized $5,000 for 
every minute's delay. As many as twelve of the enor- 
mous engines at the company's riverside power plants 
are coupled together and supply the pressure by which 
engineers declare the water can be thrown to the summit 
of the highest structure in New York. 



WINDOW SEAT EXECUTED IN DULL GLAZED FAIENCE 
BY HARTFORD FAIENCE CO. 
Willard T. Sears, Architect. 



IS there any limit to the skyscraper madness of New 
Yorkers ? asks the Boston Herald. The Equitable 
Life Assurance Society, not to be outdone by their com- 



! 5 * 



T II E U R I C K B U I L I) E \< 



petitors in business, the Metropolitan Company, 
are planning a 62-story building whose top will 
be 909 feet above the curb on Broadway and 
over 200 feet above the Metropolitan structure in 
Madison Square. Engineering skill now fur- 
nishes a reasonable guarantee of structural 
safety. Fireproof construction and precautionary 
devices for the elevators, reduce the possibility of 
interior disaster to a minimum. 
But there is an outside interest to 
be considered. What is the effect 
of the skyscraper upon the value 
of the adjoining property ? What 
will be the atmosphere in which 
people on the lower levels must 
live, when the streets become 
narrow defiles between towering 
precipices of steel and masonry ? 
Does business growth demand 

these abnormal structures, or is the public welfare being 
sacrificed to gratify an ambition to outdo one's neigh- 
bor's in spectacular 
architecture? 




V NORTHWESTERN TERRA (nil A 
Toledana & Wogan, Architects. 



to insure the attendant having proper super- 
vision of all readers and visitors. There is 
much to be gained by the public being per- 
mitted to view the books themselves, to see 
what books exist on a given subject and to 
make comparisons between them. In a 
great national library, the value of which lies 
in its completeness, the open shelf arrange- 
ment is manifestly inapplicable, 
likewise it must not be adopted 
for collections of unusually valu- 
able or handsomely illustrated 
works; but to render most service- 
able the many thousands of books 
of ordinary form, the library 
should bring them into as direct 
contact with its public as possi- 
ble. 



AT the annual 
conference of 
the American Li- 
brary Association at 
Minnetonka, Minn., 
the "open shelf 
craze," as librarians 
call it, was consid- 
ered. A great num- 
ber of thefts due to 
this arrangement of 
books was reported. 
Not one objection 
raised against it, 
however, can be con- 
sidered valid. Many 
of the libraries 




NEW MUNICIPAL BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 
Fireproofed throughout with Terra Cotta Hollow Tilt: by National Fireproofioj 



which have adopted the open shelf were never designed 
by their architects to have the books thus freely accessi- 
ble to the public. Nearly all the thefts of books reported 
could have been prevented by the planning of aisles so as 



OFFICIAL building reports from some fifty leading 
cities of the country for the month of June, re- 
ceived by the Ameri- 
can Contractor, New 
York, show epiite dis- 
tinctly that building 
operations are im- 
proving, the loss as 
compared with June, 
1907, being only 15 
per cent. Substan- 
tially the same cities 
reported a loss of 37 
per cent for March, 
7,7, for April and 19 
for May of the pres- 
ent year, as com- 
pared with the cor- 
responding months 
of last year. New 
York shows a loss of 
only 13 per cent, a 
gain of 35 per cent in Manhattan, being offset by losses 
in Brooklyn and the Bronx. The following figures 
show the percentage of gain in leading cities: Balti- 
more, 35; Birmingham, 57; Cincinnati, 5; Columbus, 





HOUSE FOR MR. BLACK (CARTER, BLACK ,v AVERS). 
Salt-glazed terra cotta blocks for foundation to first-floor beams; above that a heavily scored turra-cotta block. 

the right shows the walls before the stucco finish was applied. 



The illustration at 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



!53 




DOUGLAS PARK REFECTORY AND BOAT HOUSE, CHICAGO. W. C. Zimmerman, Architect. 
Roofed with Green Glaze Tile made by Ludowici-Celadon Company. 



34; Grand Rapids, 32; Milwaukee, 62; Omaha, 4; St. 

Paul, 43. 

The percentage of loss in leading cities is: Buffalo, 
11; Chicago, 6; Cleveland, 43; Detroit, 15; Hartford, 20; 
Indianapolis, 55; Louisville, 
53; Los Angeles, 50; Minn- 
eapolis, 12; Memphis, 41; 
Mobile, 34; New Haven, 59; 
New Orleans, 32; Philadel- 
phia, 5 ; Pittsburg, 47 ; St. 
Louis, 36 ; San Francisco, 32 ; 
Seattle, 2; Spokane, 53; To- 
ledo, 54. Taking into account 
the circumstance that the 
presidential election occurs 
during the present year, the 
gradual decrease of total 
losses from 37 per cent in 
March to 15 per cent in June 
is decidedly encouraging. 

The decrease in the price 
of structural steel seems to be 
producing an effect, notably 
in Manhattan, while the loss 
in Chicago is but trifling. 




WORKS OF THE NEW YORK ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA CO 

RAVENSWOOD, LONG ISLAND CITY, N. Y. 

Showing the New Suspension Bridge which crosses the East River 



it Blackwell's Island. 



A COMPARATIVELY new problem for architects is 
suggested by the preparations to erect a huge 
clock on a roof-top in Jersey City, to 
serve as a beacon for travelers upon 
the river and harbor; also as an adver- 
tisement of the concern providing it. 
But why a roof-top? The dial of the 
huge timepiece is to be twenty-eight 
feet in diameter, thus exceeding by 
five hundred and forty-four square feet 
the area of the City Hall clock in Phil- 
adelphia, which has long held the 
world's record for size. That so large 
an object should be supported in a 
casual sort of way by a roof-top, shows 
a lack of comprehension of the archi- 
tectural possibilities at hand. A digni- 
fied tower especially erected to support 
the clock would greatly add to the im- 
port and effect of the undertaking. 




DETAIL BY WINKLE TERRA COTTA CO. 

Widmann & Walsh, Architects. 



IN GENERAL. 

In the competition for the Springfield, Mass., City 
Hall, eighty-three sets of drawings were submitted. 

Edward Wanton Robinson 
of the Hartford Faience Co. 
has been elected a member of 
the Royal Society of Arts, 
England. 

Louis Lenz, with H. C. 
Koch & Son, Milwaukee, 
Wis., has just returned from 
a trip devoted to study, 
through France, Germany 
and Italy. 

Robert Brown, architect, 
for a number of years con- 
nected with A. H. Davenport 
Co., Boston, has resumed 
the practice of architecture 
with offices at 85 Devonshire 
Street, Boston. 

The Architectural League 
of America will hold a com- 
petition to obtain designs for 
a seal. Two prizes are offered: first $25, second $10. 
For particulars apply to H. S. McAllister, 729 15th Street, 
N. W., Washington, D. C. 

The St. Louis Public Library Board, 
of which John Lawrence Mauran is a 
member and Prof. F. M. Mann of 
Washington University, consulting 
architect, held a competition during 
April for the selection of architects 
for two branch library buildings. One 
was awarded to Mariner & La Beaume 
and another to Hellmuth & Spiering. 

Of all the electric lighting schemes 
appearing in New York at night the 
Singer Tower enjoys the most novel 
and impessrive. The structure ap- 
pears amid a blaze of light which is 
supplied from below and from the 
surmounting cornice, many of the 



'54 



T II E H K I C KB U I L DE R. 




DETAIL ISV NEW JERSEY TERRA COTTA CO. 
Shampan & Shampan, Architects. 



lights them- 
selves being 
hidden. 

The draw- 
ings submit- 
ted to the 
Bureau of 
Buildings for 
thesixty-two- 
story build- 
ing proposed 
by the Equi- 
table Life 
Assurance 
Society are 
seventy in 
number. ( >f 
these thir- 
teen large 



drawings present the plumbing and drainage equipment 
in which i,<;(>7 separate lavatories are shown and [69 
drinking fountains for the tenants. 

The collapse of several old buildings along the river 
front at St. Louis, occasioned by the excessive rise in the 
river, has resulted in renewed agitation by the news- 
papers of the proposition for a park along the river front. 
This matter has already received the attention of the 
Civic League of St. Louis, which published during 1907 
plans for just such an improvement. 

Each year the Indian Industrial School at Carlisle, Pa., 
expends thousands of dollars for tools, appliances and 
materials of construction, for theequipping of their shops 
and the erecting of new buildings. Manufacturers' cata- 
logues and samples are desired by the superintendent. 

Conspiracy is a charge that is always difficult to prove 
upon legal grounds, especially in Pennsylvania, witness 
the acquittal of the Harrisburg Capitol grafters. Proof 
of a sort may be wanting in the eyes of the gentlemen of 
the law; but that there is guilt on the part of the men 
recently tried is nevertheless the firm conviction of every- 
one in the community. This feeling is only intensified 
by the handshaking and Godspeed given the prisoners 
by the Harrisburg Court. 

The Grant Monument in Washington is to be placed 
where the House of Representatives did not want it but 
where Mr. McKim's Park Commission does. Objections 
were made to the necessary sacrifice of some trees of 
historical or scientific interest in the Botanical Gardens; 
but the far greater consideration of the relation of the 
monument to the full development of the city, and espe- 
cially that section which will form the new and enlarged 
Mall, has been weighed and has governed the placing of 
the new monument. 

Progress upon the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, 
the corner stone of which was laid in 1092, is now 
marked by the completion of the roof of the choir. ( >f 
the chapels which surround this and which are intended 
to represent the various racial elements of the New York 
Diocese, the Belmont Chapel, officially known as 
"St. Saviour's," is expected to be ready for services in 
( )ctober. Good progress is also being made on the ad- 






joining Chapel of St. Columba. Future 
progress depends entirely upon the con- 
tributions received, but funds already 
in hand will render it possible to have 
the crossing completed by a year from 
next November. 

The Twin City Brick Co. of St. Paul, 
Minn., is placing upon the market a 
new brick called the " Autumn Leaf," 
which resembles the variation in the 
color of autumn leaves. Two build- 
ings now in course of construction will 
be faced with these bricks, a Fire 
Engine House, St. Paul, and Insane 
Asylum at Rochester, Minn. The color 
effects are so combined in the indi- 
vidual bricks that they impart a soft 
rich tone to the entire wall. They 
have practically been accepted for 
several important building operations 
in New York City and Philadelphia. 

The American Enameled Brick and 
Tile Company of New York arc supply- 
ing their bricks for new building opera 
tions as follows: Electric Plant, Haw- 
thorne, 111. ; St. Yincent Hospital, West 
Brighton, N. Y. ; New Schoolhouse at 
New Bedford, Mass. ; Railway Station, 
Detroit, Mich.; Fire Department Houses 
at Everett, Mass., and Detroit, Mich.; 
State Capitol, Madison, Wis ; New 
Dispensary Building, University of 
Pennsylvania; five Public School Build- 
ings, New York City; Belmont Trust Company Building, 
Philadelphia; Plunge Bath, Sailors' Home, New York 
City; Plunge Bath, Y. M. C. A., Stamford, Conn. ; Plunge 
Bath, Tennis and Racquet Club, Cambridge, Mass. 

WANTED — Architectural Draftsmen. Pay from $2.80 to $5 52 
per diem. A competitive examination will be held simultaneously at 
the Navy Yards, Boston, Mass., Brooklyn, N. Y., Philadelphia, Pa., 
and Washington, D. C, August 3 and 4, 1908, for the purpose of 
establishing an eligible register of architectural draftsmen. Appli- 
cations must bo delivered on or before July 25, igo8. For application 
and further information address Commandant of the yard in which 
the applicant desires to be examined. 

Academy Architecture, No. 32 

is the latest volume and largest 
one ever published of it. 

CONTAINS AN INTERESTING COLLECTION OF 

ENGLISH HOUSES, SMALL CHURCHES AND MODERN 

SCULPTURE. 

FOUR FINE COLOR PLATES. 



DETAIL BY CONK- 

LING-ARMSTRONG 

TERRA CO! I A CO., 

FOR PACIFIC 

MUTUAL LIKE 

BUILDING, LOS 

ANGELES, CAL. 

Parkinson & IWk- 
strom, Architects. 



PRICE 
Postpaid 



$1.75 



Twenty-six back numbers in stock. Price of full set 
(except Nos. l to 6), $40.00. 



H. A. VINSON, **rc!?n a * a n,,cd s '" es 
205-206 Caxton Bldg. CLEVELAND, 0. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 7. PLATE 87. 




HOUSE AT LEXINGTON, MASS. 
Page & Frothingham. Architects. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 7. PLATE 





'/. . 

z x 

° 5 

° s 

5 I 

i-J H 

o 

< 



•J 
■/. 

ID 

3 

PC 



4 







THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 7. PLATE 89. 




TOWARD THE ROAD. 




TOWARD THE GARDEN. 

HOUSE. BEVERLY FARMS. MASS William G. Rantoul, Architect 



1 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 7. PLATE 90. 




STABLE AND GARAGE 
WITH FLOOR PLANS OF HOUSE 
HOUSE, BEVERLY FARMS, MASS. 

WILLIAM G. RANTOUL. ARCHITECT 




THE B R I C K B U I L I > E R . 

VOL. 17, NO. 7. PLATE 91. 





HOUSE AT DOVER, MASS. Winslow & Bigelow, Architects 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 7. PLATE 92. 





HOUSE AT 
OVERBROOK, PA. 

CHARLES BARTON KEEN. 
ARCHITECT 



loor pli 



r 



r* *—i 




Floor p 




THE HRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 7. PLATE 93 




VIEW OF THE FRONT 




HOUSE FOR HENRY C. FRICK. ESQ., PRIDES CROSSING MASS 
Little & Browne, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 7. PLATE 94 




DETAIL. HOUSE FOR HENRY C. FRICK, ESQ., PRlDES CROSSING. MASS 

Little & Browne, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 7 PLATE 95 




VIEW FROM THE SHORE. 



END Of- MAIN DRIVEWAY 




GARAGE AND POWER HOUSE 

HOUSE FOP HENRY C FRICK. ESQ., PRIDES CROSSING, MASS. 

Little & Browne, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 7. p LATE % _ 




VIEW FROM THE ROAD. 

HOUSE AT LEXINGTON. MASS. 
Oswald C Hering, Architect 



H&&, 







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VIEW FROM THE GARDEN 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 7. PLATE 97 _ 




DETAILS OF ENTRANCES. 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

HOUSE AT LEXINGTON. MASS Oswald C. Hering. Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. 17, NO. 7. 



PLATE 



ft:#. • 




HOUSE AT ROLAND PARK, MD. 

WYATT & NOLTING, ARCHITECTS. 



nk- 




Q 



F'R/t Floor. Plat 



[M ftJ 




yE-coND-FL°oR. Plan 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 7. PLATE 99. 




House at Dover, Mass. 

P. B. Howard, Architect. 



-J>£COS/D- fi.OO& -P/^A//- 




PLANS AT RIGHT 
HOUSE AT CONCORD. 



PLANS AT LEFT 
HOUSE AT DOVER 









SMA3S 


»***«. 


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r"t— — ' \—\ '"" 


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'/VJZJT ■ f^OOK /%.*//• 



■ SVXJr '• Flook fLAff- 




HOUSE AT CONCORD, MASS Howard & Dudley, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 7. PLATE 100. 




HOUSE AT NEW HAVEN, CONN 
Peabody & Stearns. Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVII 



AUGUST 1908 



Number 8 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 
85 Water Street ... Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1908. by ROGERS & MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ....... $5.00 per year 

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SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

" Terra Cotta 

Brick . 



. ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



PAGE 

II 
II 

II and III 
III 



Brick Enameled 
Brick Waterproofing 
Fireproofing 
Roofing Tile 



PACE 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

ANDREW, JAQUES & RANTOUL; CHARLES C. HAIGHT; LORD & HEWLETT; MURPHY & 

HINDLE; GEORGE BISPHAM PAGE; PERKINS & HAMILTON; 

PILCHER, THOMAS & TACHAU; POND & POND. 

LETTERPRESS 

APSES, CISTERCIAN MONASTERY, CHORIN, GERMANY Frontispiece 

ARMORIES FOR THE ORGANIZED MILITIA — III .' Lieut.-Col. ./. ffollis Welh 155 

THE AMERICAN THEATER — IX Clarence H. Blackall 163 

STANDARD ARCHITECTURAL BOOKS —II Edward R. Smith 167 

BRICKWORK IN EAST ANGLIA " 6 9 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 17a 




lw«<<<<<v<»<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<K<<«{<^<<<<<<<'>>>>>>y>>>>>>v>>>>v>>>>>>>^>>>>>>>>>>>>>v>vv>>>vff^wyyHl 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




VOL. 17 



DEVOTED -TO THE-lNTERE5TfOF-ARCHITECTVRE;-]N MATERIAU-OF-CLAY- 



AUGUST 1908 



g i<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<^<<<<<«<<<<<<<<<<<««»»»»»»»»»»»»^»»»»»»»»»»»>Tyyna 



"L 



_T 




Armories for the Organized Militia — III. 



BY LIEUT. -COL. J. HOLLIS WELLS. 

( Concluded. ) 



THERE are three departments which have not as yet 
been touched on. The Surgical Department may be 
located on a floor above the colonel's quarters. This de- 
partment requires not less than three rooms: one, the 
main office in which the regimental surgeon has his locker, 
the examining room, in which are the lockers of the as- 
sistant surgeons, and the room for the hospital corps. 
Ample locker and closet space must be laid out for this 
department and they should also have a r.oilet room. 

The ordnance officers require one room of about 
three hundred square feet, and last, but not least, the 
commissary should have plenty of room. 

The social side of the National Guard officers' life is 
not so great but that some consideration should be given 
to his comfort. The commissariat is his chief delight 
after his duties are over. The commissary should have 
a small office and a large reception room, where the 
entire board of officers may gather. It is not too much 
to expect that he should have a pantry and small store 
room with an ice box handy, and, of course, room for 
other things. 

The field music and the band should each have a couple 
of rooms, located anywhere, the farther away the better. 

The furnishing of an armory requires much careful 
consideration. Nothing but the most substantial of 
materials should be used. Imitations are expensive, the 
real goods are cheaper in the long run. 

Wood floors should have rugs or carpets in most 
of the principal rooms. Cork carpet runners are satis- 
factory in locker rooms. 

Desks, tables and chairs should be specially built to 
match the trim. Elaboration of detail is not necessary, 
but it is a mistake to stint. 

After the armory is built and furnished it requires 
care, else it soon deteriorates. The state of New York, 
after much experience, has decided that it pays to keep 
its armories up, and working under section 177 of the 
Military Code, no fault can be found with their up-keep. 
It may perhaps be of interest to quote this section, which 
reads as follows: 

" There shall be allowed for each armory one armorer, 
and if the armory be heated by steam one engineer; 
there shall also be allowed for an armory occupied by a 
regiment, by a battalion not part of a regiment, by a 
battery of light artillery, by a troop, or by two or more 
separate batteries or companies one janitor; and the 



armorer, the engineer and the janitor thus authorized 
shall be appointed by the ranking commanding officer of 
the organization or organizations quartered in the 
armory. Where a signal corps, troop, battery of light 
artillery, or the headquarters of a brigade occupies a 
portion of an armory such troop or battery of light artil- 
lery shall also be entitled to an armorer and a janitor, 
and such signal corps or brigade headquarters shall also 
be entitled to an armorer, who shall be appointed by its 
respective commanding officer, and such headquarters 
and quarters shall be considered an independent armory, 
upon the approval and certificate of the commanding 
officer of the brigade within whose district such armory 
is located, which shall be filed with the disbursing officer 
of the county in which such armory is located. The 
armorer shall, under the direction of the officer appoint- 
ing him, take charge of the armory, arsenal and places 
of deposit of the regiment, battalion, troop, battery, 
company, signal corps and brigade headquarters, and of 
all uniforms, arms, equipments and other property issued 
under the provisions of this chapter therein deposited, 
and discharge all duties connected therewith as shall be, 
from time to time, prescribed by such commanding 
officer. The special duty of the engineer shall be to 
take charge of the heating apparatus, and the janitor 
shall take care of the armory, the cleanliness thereof 
and of the furniture, fixtures and property therein. To 
provide for the proper care and cleanliness of armories 
and arsenals and of the property therein deposited, the 
commanding officer of a regiment, battalion, not part of 
a regiment, troop, battery, company, signal corps, or 
brigade, or the ranking commanding officer, where two 
or more separate batteries or companies are quartered in 
an armory, may appoint laborers as follows: for armories 
or arsenals having ten thousand square feet of floor sur- 
face, one laborer, where the floor surface exceeds twenty 
thousand square feet, two laborers, and for each thirty 
thousand square feet in excess of twenty thousand, an 
additional laborer; such computation of square feet, to 
include all drill-rooms, administration and meeting rooms, 
drill-sheds, hallways, rifle range and lavatories, but ex- 
cluding such cellar-rooms, boiler rooms and store-rooms 
as are not included in the foregoing classification and 
excluding armorers' and janitors' quarters. Before any 
such appointment is made, the necessity for the employ- 
ment of such laborer or laborers shall be certified by the 



'56 



THE BRICKBUILDER 






commanding officer of the brigade, and such certificates 
shall be filed in the office of the disbursing officer of the 
county in which the armory is situated. A certificate of 
the number of feet of Moor surface of each armory in 
which laborers are appointed shall be made by the engi- 
neer of the brigade and approved by the commanding 
officer of the brigade within whose district such armory 
is located, and filed in the office of the disbursing officer 
of the county in which the armory is located. Such per- 
sons so appointed shall receive compensation for the time 
actually and necessarily employed in their duties, to be 
fixed by the commanding officer appointing such persons 
as follows: when employed in armories or arsenals 
located in cities, armorers, janitors and engineers not 
to exceed four 

^> *- 



dollars per day 
unless the city 
has a popula- 
tion of less 
than two hun- 
dred thousand, 
in which case 
such compen- 
sation shall not 
exceed three 
dollars per 
clay, and two 
dollars per day 
in armories 
not located in 
cities; labor- 
ers not to ex- 
ceed two dol- 
lars per day, 
which com- 
pensation, as 
certified to by 
the command- 
ing officer ap- 
pointing such 
persons under 
the provisions 
of this section, 
shall be paid 
monthly, and 
shall be a 
county charge 
upon the 




h - ■ 

Ii 
JfrVt 






U U 




^y LJ V L_l 



BASEMENT I'LAN, FIFTH REGIMENT ARMORY, BALTIMORE. 
Wyatt & Nolting, Architects. 



by the pavilions and equipment rooms of the various 
companies of the ist regiment of the state of Connecti- 
cut, together with the naval battalion, signal and hospital 
corps and machine gun crew, the executive offices of 
the regiment being located on the second floor of the 
head house over the main entrance, including the rooms 
for the colonel, field and staff officers, library, meeting 
rooms, etc. In the basement is located the gymnasium 
for the use of the regiment, with necessary toilet, wash 
and shower rooms for both privates and officers with a 
plunge tank placed between the two series of rooms. 
There are also quarters for the band, the armorer, and 
large squad drill room, which would also be used on pub- 
lic occasions, such as the inauguration ball in honor of the 

governor, as a 
supper room, 
with necessary 
kitchen and 
pantry store- 
rooms adja- 
cent. The drill 
shed is placed 
on the first 
floor, the base- 
ment under 
same being 
reserved for 
storage rooms 
of the arsenal 
department of 
the state and 
the various 
companies of 
the regiment. 
A gun repair 
and reloading 
room is placed 
in the subbase- 
ment in con- 
junction with 
the firingroom 
and ranges for 
both rifle and 
pistol practice. 
Ouarters for 
both the jani- 
tor of building 
and armorer 



> 
> 



> 



county in which such armory or arsenal is situated, and 
shall be levied, collected and paid in the same manner 
as other county charges are levied, collected and paid. 
A commissioned officer shall not be eligible for appoint- 
ment to and shall not hold the position of armorer, 
janitor, engineer or laborer in any arsenal or armory." 

State Arsenal and Armory, Hartford, Conn. 

The building, as its name implies, is to be used for 
the business offices of the military organization of the 
state, containing in the central portion of the head house, 
principally on the first floor, the offices of the adjutant- 
general and his assistants, the quartermaster-general, 
pay corps, medical department and pension department. 
The remainder of the head house and wings is occupied 



of the arsenal stores are placed in the roof pavilions. 
The drill shed, which is the largest in the state, is 185 
feet wide by 267 feet long, with an observation gallery 
reached from second floor at the south end with returns 
on the side opposite the head house wings. Each com- 
pany has a parlor on the first floor with private stair from 
each to the equipment room on the second floor above 
and a tier of three small company officers' rooms reached 
from the landings of these stairs. The building has 
concrete foundations which, owing to the nature of the 
soil, were very complicated and deep, particularly at the 
south end. The roof pavilions are covered with slate 
but the drill shed and the flat decks of the head house 
are covered with slag roof. The drill shed is separated 
from the head house by metal-covered doors and trim, 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



'57 



but the trim throughout the head house is quartered 
oak with cement floors in all public passages and rooms, 
with wood floors in offices and parlors. The floor of the 
drill shed is of maple. 



Armory for Second Battalion, 
Brooklyn. 



Naval Militia, 



The armory for the Second Battalion, Naval Militia, is 
situated at Fifty-second Street and New York Bay in the 
Borough of Brooklyn. It was built by the city of New 
York for the occupancy of the Second Battalion, Naval 
Militia, of New York state. The building has been com- 
pleted and occupied by the battalion only within the last 
few months. The battalion is comprised of six divisions 
somewhat sim- 
ilar in charac- 
ter and size to 
the companies 
of a regiment, 
each division 
having a dis- 
tinct individu- 
ality. 

The appro- 
priation for 
the building 
being moder- 
ate and the 
required ac- 
commodation 
and drill space 
being large, 
the most rigid 
economy was 
necessary 
throughout. 
For this rea- 
son the build- 
ing has been 
made a practi- 
cal working 
armory with 
the result that, 
in proportion 
to the accom- 
modations fur- 
nished, it has 
cost less than 

any armory built in New York in recent years 
equipment, however, is complete and substantial. 

The armory consists of an administration portion, 
which is concentrated at one end of the drill shed. The 
space under the drill floor is only partially excavated, and 
it is used for storage rooms, magazine, boiler room and 
rifle and revolver ranges. The drill floor is one of the 
largest in the city. Its construction is of the mill or 
slow-burning type. The administration portion of the 
building is constructed fireproof. It contains a meeting 
and locker rooms for each of the divisions of the battalion 
and for its band, a general ward or meeting room and 
public and private offices for the different officers of the 
battalion. 

The exterior of the building is of common brick with 




> o 
FIRST FLOOR PLAN, FIFTH REGIMENT ARMORY, BALTIMORE. 

Wyatt & Nolting, Architects. 



The 



decorative features of terra cotta, and an effort has been 
made in the design to avoid useless and archaic features 
and yet give the building a distinctly military character. 
An interesting feature of the drill shed is its equip- 
ment with an officers' bridge, two military masts with 
semaphores and other appliances for signalling. Another 
interesting feature, and one which received special com- 
mendation from the commission recently appointed by 
Governor Hughes to investigate the armories of the state, 
has been the standardization of the decorations in the 
division rooms and other meeting rooms in the building. 
These have been finished throughout with wainscots to 
the ceiling of oak planks and with mural paintings in the 
ward rooms showing the development of the warship 

from the earli- 
est times; and 
in the other 
rooms depict- 
ing the most 
im portant 
events in the 
history of the 
American 
Navy. 

The paint- 
ings through- 
out are by 
RalphT.Willis 
and are of 
very high 
merit, — in- 
deed, they are 
oneof the most 
in t ere sting 
series of mural 
paintings in 
this country. 

Fifth 

Regiment 

Armory, 

Baltimore. 



The build- 
ing occupies a 
plat approxi- 
mately 310 x 
360 feet, open 
on all sides, 
the main entrance forming the central feature on one 
of the long fronts. 

The drill hall, 200 x 300 feet, is central to the entire 
building, and is surrounded on all four sides by smaller 
rooms. The various headquarter offices, reading room, 
board room and room for the hospital corps are in the 
front, and are approached both from the drill hall and 
from the entrance vestibule; the company's rooms, 
twelve in number, are at either end, completely occupy- 
ing the two sides of the building, the rooms are all 
entered from the drill hall direct; the space between the 
drill hall and the rear of the building is occupied by the 
gymnasium, dressing room, rooms for the quartermaster 
and ordnance. 

There is no cellar under the drill hall and the 



58 



THE BR I CK BU I L I) E R. 




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BASEMENT PL AW 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



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PIR5T FLOOR PLAN 



5ECO-1D FLOOR PlVNJM 



!) \SI MI"NT Pl-NN 



ARMORY FOR THE CITY OF CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 
Hartwell, Richardson & Driver, Architects. 



i6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 






entrance side: the space under the rear and the side rooms 
is used as rifle range (three hundred feet long), general 
heavy storage for quartermaster's department, bowling 
alleys and billiard rooms, dining-room, kitchen, etc., for 
the men, ambulance stable and the mechanical plant. 

The drill hall is 106 feet high to 
the center of the roof, with a wide 
gallery on the two long sides. 

In addition to the main entrance 
there are three exits from the main 
and basement floors. 

The stairs are placed at the en- 
trance and near the four corners of 
the building. The general toilets 
are placed near the four corners. 

The contents in cubical feet, 
about 6,000,000. 

Cost, including architects' 
fees, $300,000, or about five 
cents per cubic foot. The 
building is not fireproof. 



Armory for the Second Bat- 
tery, National Guard of 
New York, N. Y. 



Two years ago, as the result 
of a competition among six New 
York firms, Charles C. Haight 
was selected as architect of 
the Second Battery Armory, 




National Guard of New York. The building is to be in 
the Bronx to the east of the Third Avenue Elevated. 
Here 166th Street is deflected by the spur of a rocky hill 
and this is the site, an irregularly sloping rectangle 
approximately 200 by 300 feet. Franklin Avenue is the 
western boundary, and beyond, the 
hill drops off abruptly to a street 
below like a glacis at the foot of 
a fortress. To the south on the 
higher level is a continuation of 
1 66th Street. 

The problem demanded an un- 
usually compact plan. The drill 
hall alone was to be more than three- 
quarters of the plot in area. In 
shape, length rather than width was 
desirable, so a hall the extreme 
length of the ground seemed 
best, and the narrow strip left 
at the side suited the numerous 
smaller rooms for administra- 
tion and receptions, for officers 
and men with their showers 
and lockers, for meeting rooms 
and so forth, with no shaft re- 
quired to light them; but it 
proved awkward in the case of 
the wider squad room and 
gymnasium on the third floor, 
for it meant the superposition 
of rooms -58 feet in width on 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




BASEMENT PLAN. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



STATE ARSENAL AND ARMORY, HARTFORD, CONN. 
Benjamin Wistar Morris, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



161 



those of only 30. Accordingly the floor was con- 
tinued beyond the inner wall as a cantilever, so that 
the rooms project eight feet over the spring of the drill 
hall roof. Furthermore, the area of the plot was insuffi- 
cient for stables and gun room on the drill-hall level. 
They were placed below it and joined to it by a passage- 
way of easy slope, permitting guns and caissons to be 
limbered below and driven up in proper formation. 

As it passes the armory, upper 166th Street rises 
twelve feet and this determined the levels of drill hall 
and stables. 
From the upper 
level an arch, 
way opens on 
the drill hall 
and from the 
lower another 
leads to the 
stables, the two 
floors being 
each entirely 
independent as 
regards en- 
trances or exits ; 
the horses may 
be taken out- 
doors for exer- 
cise without en- 
tering the drill 
hall, nor need 
any service pass 
through it, and 
when drills are 
not taking place 
it may be 
closed. Then, 
too, on account 
of the sloping 
street and a 
shallow area 
part way along 
them, the sta- 
bles receive the 
necessary sun- 
light. 

In aesthetic 
expression the 
armory is a de- 
parture from 
the " school " 
type in the com- 
plete elimina- 
tion of heavy 
cornices and 
quoins and the 
suppression of the high glass roof. The site suggested 
the effectiveness of vertical masses, and these with a care- 
fully studied sky-line gave the expression desired. Wide 
piers where strength was needed and a multiplicity of 
windows in the curtain walls between, the armory became 
an idealized type of "mill construction," with the vital 
difference that here the piers did not merge into a flat 
cornice but rose above the curtain walls, a Gothic princi- 




DETAIL l)F MAIN ENTRANCE. 



ARMORY FOR TROOP C, BEDFORD AVENUE, BROOKLYN. 
Pilcher, Thomas & Tachau, Architects. 



pie evident in the city walls of Aigues-Mortes and Car- 
casonne or in Warwick, Dover and other English castles. 
The silhouette against the sky, prominent through the 
building's high situation, has been perhaps the most 
carefully studied element of the facade, and on it the 
success of the exterior in a great measure depends. In 
short, its merit is in the composition of its masses of dark 
red brick with little or no ornament and a sparing use of 
sandstone. 

The programme required a sighting range and signal 

station for com- 
munication 
with other 
armories, and 
to provide it, 
the southwest 
corner closing 
theaxis of lower 
1 66th Street has 
been developed 
as a tower over- 
looking the city 
to the west and 
south. Lower 
166th Street 
ends at the foot 
in a formal 
flight of steps 
connecting with 
the upper level, 
and since this 
is the natural 
approach, the 
corner tower be- 
came the prin- 
cipal entrance. 
A high vaulted 
hall leads to the 
" staircase of 
honor, "and this 
past the pri- 
vates' to the 
officers' quar- 
ters and recep- 
tion rooms, the 
reviewing stand 
and a spec- 
tators' gallery 
four seats deep 
surrounding the 
drill hall, all on 
the second floor 
level. The sev- 
eral entrances 
and stairways 



for the public have been so arranged that a visitor's first 
sight of the riding hall is from the gallery. It is a vast 
hall, nearly a hundred yards long, with iron roof trusses 
one hundred and sixty-seven feet in span. The gallery 
is hung from the trusses by iron rods, so there are no 
columns to interrupt the riding hall below. The roof is 
of concrete plates with center skylights; the walls of ex- 
posed brick; four staircases empty the gallery and they 



I 62 



T UK BRICK BUILD E k 



are so arranged that in case of panic there can be no 
possible confusion between spectators and the horses and 
guns. 

The third Hour is taken up by a general reception 



and services necessary for receptions and battery re- 
unions. The upper stories of the tower are given up 
to additional officers' rooms, janitors' rooms and so forth ; 
the basement contains, besides the gun room and stables. 



•M 






. I j-jfi=x. 









FIRST REGIMENT ARMORY, ST. I."UIS. 
Kames & Voting, Architects. 



i-~ > 



room, a squad room and gymnasium. Here are to take 
place the chief social functions. Wide doorways con- 
nect the rooms so they may be thrown together en suite, 
and because of the high ground the windows overlook 
surrounding buildings. At the brick are a small kitchen 



the various store rooms, services and a seventy-five-yard 
firing range, fitted up for both gun and small-arm fire. 

The New York Armory Board appropriated $450,000 
for the armory and the lowest estimate was within the 
appropriation. 




DRILL HALL, SEVENTH REGIMENT ARMORY, NEW YORK CITY. 

Clinton & Russell, Architects. 



vj 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The American Theater- -IX, 

THE STAGE. 

BY CLARENCE H. BLACKALL. 



I63 



off stags. 
ppokpt Side 



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THE real mystery of the theater lies behind the cur- 
tain. There is the enchanted region which is so 
alluring to the spectator and which holds so closely those 
who have fallen under its sway. There is fascination 
in the mere thought of going behind the scenes, and to 
the uninitiated the processes by which seeming effects 
are evolved have a very complicated appearance. Asa 
matter of fact, the stage of the American theater is an 
extremely simple affair. The beauty of it is that such a 
variety of effects are obtained so easily and with what is, 
after all, so very little machinery. The stages of thea- 
ters abroad are, by comparison with ours, very compli- 
cated, and in other countries a mass of machinery is em- 
ployed which we find en- 
tirely unnecessary, and in 
fact a detriment rather than 
a help, as will be seen by 
comparisons which we will 
make later. 

There are a few terms 
used in describing stage 
fitting which require some 
explanation. In the old 
days, when traveling com- 
panies and long runs were 
unknown, a prompter was 
stationed in the first en- 
trance about in the position 
now occupied by the switch- 
board. Hence that side of 
the stage was designated 
" prompt side," and the op- 
posite side of the stage was 
called the " O. P." or op- 
posite prompt side. The 
prompter, as a feature in 
American dramatics, has 
practically disappeared, be- 
ing replaced only in part by 
the stage manager, who at- 
tends to many other things 
besides cues, and is not in- 
frequently given a part in 
the cast, but "prompt" 

and "O. P." still remain as designations, the prompt 
side being the side on which the switchboard is located, 
— usually the right. In some theaters the switchboard 
is on the left of the stage and there seems to be an un- 
certainty in that case just how to apply the terms " P." 
and " O. P." In the French theaters there will be found 
still a protuberance in the center of the stage, in front of 
the curtain line, resembling a huge cockle shell with the 
back towards the audience. Towards the curtain it 
reveals a stand on which is placed a copy in large print 
of the music or the part that is being played and the 
pages are turned by an unseen attendant from below. 
Sometimes the prompter, or souffleur, reads the parts in 



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OPCHEITBA PIT 



FIG. I. TYPICAL STAGE PLAN. 



an audible whisperand foreign artists seem to find this 
personage quite indispensible. A souffleur's box has to 
be rigged up quite frequently for grand opera and Sarah 
Bernhardt's companies always have insisted on it, but it 
finds scant favor here. 

" Right " and "left " of stage refer to right or left 
of the actors as they face the audience. " Up stage " 
means the depth measured toward the rear from the cur- 
tain line. The apron is the portion of stage beyond the 
front of the curtain, often cut away underneath for the 
orchestra. The distance measured up stage is divided 
arbitrarily, as previously explained, into entrances, 
spaced about seven feet on centers. The first entrance 

. . i is formed by what are called 

the "tormentors," which 
are tlat pieces of scenery 
braced up from the floor 
and serving to mask in and 
diminish the total width of 
the stage opening. Draper- 
ies suspended from above 
corresponding to the tor- 
mentors are called the 
" tormentor draperies. " A 
'' border " is a row of lights 
suspended from the grid- 
iron in front of each en- 
trance, and the term is also 
applied to a piece of 
scenery hung from above 
to simulate a sky line. A 
"drop" is apiece of scenery 
forming the back of the 
scene and suspended from 
above. A " flat " is a piece 
of scenery mounted on a 
light framework of wood 
held by braces screwed into 
the stage floor. 

The "sink lines" are 
the lines of the longitudi- 
nal girders each side limit- 
ing the movable portions 
of the stage floor, including 
a width across stage of one or two feet each side more 
than the curtain opening. The sides of stage floor be- 
yond the sink lines are called the wings, sometimes also 
designated as the off-stage space. The excellent German 
scheme of having an extension of the stage in rear is 
seldom possible in this country on account of the limited 
area of land usually available, but when circumstances 
will permit, it is highly desirable. The extension should 
be as wide and high as the curtain opening, can be used 
for storage of properties and scenery and for lighting 
effects, and for lack of a suitable English equivalent is 
commonly designated by its German name, " Hinter 
Buhne." 



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164 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



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"Cuts" are slots across stage, rarely used with 
us. A carpet cut about six inches across is, however, 
desirable, just inside the curtain line, permitting a carpet 
to be drawn up over the stage floor from below and held 
taut across the front by closing the hinged cover into the 
carpet. Another cut at the extreme rear is desirable, 
two feet across and the full width between sink lines, to 
permit of lowering scenery and drops for storage under 
the stage. 

" Traps " are openings in the stage floor through 
which a person can be raised or lowered out of sight. 
" Bridges " are sections of the floor of a stage so arranged 
that they can be raised to 
varying levels. " Ar- 
bors " are vertical poles 
which work in transverse 
slots running across the 
stage, these arbors some- 
times being on small 
trucks under the stage. 
To these arbors isolated 
pieces of scenery can be 
attached. The only ad- 
vantage of these is that 
for a transformation the 
arbor and the scenery to 
which it is attached can 
be slid off at the sides 
without the operator be- 
ing seen. 

Up to a comparatively 
few years ago all flats and 
side scenery were made 
of uniform height, sliding 
on trucks at the bottom 
and in grooves at the top, 
like an ordinary sliding 
door. These grooves, 
called "coulisses" on the 
French stage, were ar- 
ranged in groups under 
each border, so that the 
flats enclosed the en- 
trances. Suchconstruction 
is still in use in some of the 
older vaudeville houses, 
and occasionally for the 
tormentors, but the 
grooves constitute a 
clumsy device at best and 

our scenery is now either built up and lashed together in 
box form, or braced to the floor with extension braces. 

The stage in European theaters is habitually sloped 
up towards the rear at the rate of one-half inch to the 
foot. As a rule our stages are built level and the few 
exceptions have not been satisfactory. The galleries on 
each side of the stage from which the scenery is operated 
are called " fly galleries." The light lattice floor over 
the stage to which are attached the running blocks for 
the scenery ropes is called the "gridiron," the space 
above it to the under side of the roof being termed the 
" rigging loft." The bridge connecting the two fly gal- 
eries across the rear of the stage is called the "paint 



I 



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.JiroMP Fly Gallic 



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FIG. 



bridge." It is often omitted in theaters, as its sole pur- 
pose is to serve the scene painter, who works with his 
canvas suspended on a movable frame against the rear 
wall, hoisting and lowering the whole scene as he needs 
to reach any portion thereof. 

The size of the stage is governed a good deal by the 
character of the house, but it may be said in general that 
while many stages are too small, none of them are 
too deep and few of them are too wide. For vaude- 
ville or for light dramatic performances a stage thirty feet 
deep from the curtain line could be used, but the ordi- 
nary theater to-day is made as near fifty feet as ihe cir- 
cumstances will allow and 
should never be less than 
forty in depth. The usual 
custom is for all of the 
scenery for the given pro- 
duction to be kept on the 
stage as convenient for 
us|e as possible. The 
drops, borders, ceiling 
pieces and even some flats 
are suspended from the 
gridiron, but there is 
always a lot of scenery 
which has to be stood on 
edge against the wall sur- 
rounding the stage. Con- 
sequently when the total 
width is more than ninety 
feet the stage hands have 
to do a good deal of walk- 
ing to set and strike a 
scene and a greater width 
than that is not desirable 
in any theater, except as 
it may be planned spe- 
cially for very large and 
cumbersome perform- 
ances. 

The width of the cur- 
tain opening is to a certain 
extent a function of the 
total available width of 
the auditorium, but most 
stage managers object 
to excessive widths, 
and forty feet is about a 
fair average for a first- 
class combination house. 
For vaudeville or for stock houses presenting light 
dramas or comedies it is too much. The height of 
the curtain opening varies from thirty feet up. It was 
formerly quite the custom to mask this opening by a fixed 
drapery hung outside of the curtain, but of late years the 
custom has been to lift the curtain entirely free of the 
whole opening, showing no draperies at all except the tor- 
mentor draperies. This means that the curtain must be 
lifted the whole height of the opening, and the height of 
this opening is, of course, a factor of the design of the 
auditorium, but is usually not less than thirty feet. The 
tendency of American practice is to make it too high. 
The portion of stage floor between the sink lines must 




^TAatr Tloob 



TYPICAL STAGE CROSS SECTION. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



«6 5 









be so arranged that a trap or opening of any sort can be 
cut at short notice in any entrance. The building laws 
of most of our cities allow this construction to be entirely 
of wood. The illustration (Fig. 4) shows a typical ar- 
rangement. The beams are of hard pine, mill planed, 
continuous for the whole span between sink lines, and 
braced by 3 inch by 6 inch wooden uprights at three 
points under each beam. The typical stage plan shows 
an arrangement of traps which answers the usual require- 
ments, namely, three in each of the first three entrances. 
The square openings are called "star traps," the oblong 
ones "grave traps," and for 
each the construction consists 
of a movable platform much 
like an ordinary dumb waiter, 
sliding up in four corner guides, 
counter-weighted, and hoisted 
by ropes attached to the bottom 
of the frame and running over 
wheels at top of the guides. 
The stage floor over the trap is 
cleated together, resting on 
runs on the sides of the floor 
beams. By dropping the out- 
board ends of the runs the 
flooring over trap can be slid 
to one side under the adjoining 
stage floor, allowing the trap to 
ascend flush with the floor. It 
is also usual to fit up the rear 
entrances with bridges, three 
in width to each entrance. 
These are simply sections of 
the floor resting on framework 
which can slide up or clown in 
guides below the stage and can 
be set and held at any desired 
height or depth, or can be set 
on a slope sidewise. These 
are used as a ground for stair- 
ways, upper stories, moun- 
tains, pits, etc. 

It is perfectly possible to 
build the stage entirely of iron, 
and the greater ease with which 
the wooden beams can be shifted 
or cut is not in usual practice 
of very great advantage, as the 
bridges are fixtures in any case 
and are better constructed if of 
iron, and really very few plays 
or operas are produced in these 

days requiring set traps. In vaudeville houses, stages 
are very commonly framed like any ordinary floor, with- 
out reference to any possible traps or bridges. The 
wearing floor in all stages is a single thickness of one 
and three-eighths-inch matched rift hard pine. 

Most of the foreign theaters and a few of the Ameri- 
can ones have a very deep space under the stage, often in 
several tiers. It is so much simpler and easier to raise 
scenery than it is to lower it that the excessive under 
stage is but little used and a depth of more than ten feet 
is a detriment rather than a help. The best use for the 




GfLIDIfLON 




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T^OOPtQ L'lCHTi 



FIG. 3. TYPICAL STAGE, LONGITULiIN AL SECTION 



under stage space is for storage and for properties. The 
stage of the Stuyvesant Theater, New York, has a large 
elevator or lift in the center. While a scene is being 
struck some of the stage hands collect all the properties 
on the elevator, drop with them to the under stage, ex- 
change them for the properties of the next act and are 
back with the latter on the stage before the new scenery 
is set, thus greatly reducing the confusion on the stage 
and saving considerable time. In a play like Julius 
Cesar the properties or movable accessories are quite 
formidable as compared to the mere scenery, and every 

foot of space under the stage 
could be utilized. Ordinarily 
the space under the stage is 
only a rubbish hole. 

The first tier of fly galleries 
on ea side is set up sufficient- 
ly from the stage to give a 
height of at least 28 feet in the 
clear underneath. The dis- 
tance between fly galleries is 
governed by the width of the 
widest back drop that is likely 
to be used. In practice it is 
well to make this distance 52 
feet as a minimum, depending 
entirely of course upon the 
kind of house. It is usual in 
American theaters to have only 
two tiers of fly galleries, the 
second one often being set back 
one foot farther from the center 
than the first tier so as to allow 
for play of ropes coming down 
from above. It is a good idea, 
however, when practicable, to 
add a third fly gallery close to 
the under side of the gridiron 
for use in special emergencies 
in shifting the ropes. The 
front railing of the fly gallery 
is formed by what is termed 
the "pin rail." This is gen- 
erally made with a double row 
of heavy steel piping, in which 
are fitted iron belaying pins to 
which the ropes are hitched. 
The detail (Fig. 5) shows a con- 
struction for this purpose. The 
working fly gallery is usually 
on the O. P. side, which is also 
the side from which the curtain 
is operated. This is to enable the fly men to be able to 
watch the stage manager on the prompt side and to re- 
ceive signals from him. As will be seen later, nearly all 
the leading ropes are carried down to one side and the 
rail has to support the entire weight of all the scenery, 
amounting in some instances to fifty or sixty tons. The 
strain is all upward and consequently the front of the 
rail has to be very heavily trussed. 

It is an excellent scheme, where practicable, to set 
back the pin rail on the fly gallery sufficiently to allow a 
space not less than two and one-half feet outside, pro- 



vStagk, Fiooja- 






1 66 



THE BRICKBUI LDE K 



tected in turn by a light guard rail, from 
which a spot light can be operated, sky 
borders attached, panoramas carried 
around and entangled scenery readily 
reached by poles and straightened out. 
The width of the fly gal- 
lery need only be enough 
to work the ropes, say 
eight or ten feet. 

The opposite fly galler- 
ies of the first tier are con- 
nected by the paint 
bridge, which is supported 
n the pin rail truss and 
is usually made so that in 
an et"°rgency it can be 
ciuirely remov ' without 
any serious acuity. It 
is setoff one foot from the 
rear wall and has a guard 
rail only on the side 
towards the curtain. This 
paint bridge is not re- 
quired to be very strong 
but should be able to sup- 
port a center load of not 
less than two tons. The 
paint bridge should be not 
less than five feet wide. It can be set up, if desired, so 
that the floor is on a level with the pin rail as it is better 
to extend the pin rail clear through to the rear wall and 
not cut it off to give access to the paint bridge. 

The drops, borders, border lights, panoramas, etc., 
are all hung from the gridiron. The illustration (Fig. 2) 
will make 

clear the |, on p ir 

manner in 
w h i c h the 
scenery is 
usually sup- 
ported. Each 
scene is at- 
tached to a 
wooden bat- 
ten or strip 
about four 
inches wide 
to which are 
tied four 
24 -inch 
manila ropes. 



1 1 1 1 1 r 




FIG. 4. 



passes over a pulley across to a 
standing block on the side (Fig. 7 1 
n whence all the four ropes for 
each scene are led together down to 
the pin rail and attached to a single 
belaying pin. When the 
ropes are not in use the 
ends are brought together, 
tied to a bag weighted 
with sand and hoisted out 
of the way. This is the' 
usual attachment. A bet. 
ter method is to have each 
set of ropes permanently 
fastened to a long 1 ' i -inch 
iron pipe batten and lash 
the scenery battens to this 
piping. < If course for 
very wide scenes as many 
as six or seven supporting 
ropes might be needed 
ami on the other hand, for 
small vaudeville stages 
three is sufficient. 

The gridiron is con- 
structed with longitudinal 
slots corresponding to the 
lines of rigging. The 
slots (Fig. 6) are formed with I beams spaced ten 
inches apart, to which are clamped iron or wooden blocks 



TYPICAL STAGE FRAMING PLAN. 



spaced regularly six inches 
curtain line to the back 
the gridiron must be sus- 
construction, and the floor 




_1ca le 

FIG. 5 

Bach rope is led up to the gridiron, 



DETAIL OF PIN RAIL. 



,5c o.le 

FIG. 6. 

DETAIL OF GRIDIRON BLOCK. 




FIG. 7. 



DETAIL OF HEAD 
BLOCKS, 



on centers from the 
wall of stage. All of 
pended from the roof 
.should be of lattice 
work or grat- 
ing about two 
inches open, 
so that extra 
ropes can 
be dropped 
through 
the gridiron 
any whe r e. 
Sometimes a 
slat floor of 
wood is used 
over light 
steel beams, 
but as the up- 
per portion of 



stage has the greatest fire hazard, wood is not desirable. 



THE historic plan of Washington which it is gen- 
erally supposed Major L'Enfant left to posterity 
should not be laid wholly to the credit of that French 
Engineer. In a recently published " Life of Andrew 
Ellicott," who was also a major of Washington's staff, 
the plan of the city is given as Major Ellicott's 
best known work. Ellicott succeeded L'Enfant in the 
Washington work and carried out his own plans with 
General Washington's commendation. The location of 
the Capitol and the White House is conceded to 
have been determined by L'Enfant; but otherwise 
the share of the two majors in the details of the 
city plan will always remain somewhat in doubt. 



From a letter dated March 23, 1X02, from three later 
commissioners to Mr. Dennis, chairman of a committee 
of Congress, it is learned: "Major L'Enfant's plan of 
the city was sent to the House of Representatives on 
December 13, 1791, by President Washington for the 
information of the house and afterward withdrawn 
Many alterations were made therefrom by Major Elli- 
cott with the approbation of the President and under 
his authority. All the appropriations (except at the 
Capitol and the President's House) were struck 01 
and the plan thus altered sent to the engraver . . 
being made partly from L'Enfant's draught and partlv 
from material possessed by Ellicott." 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



167 



STANDARD ARCHITECTURAL BOOKS -- II. 
Historical Mateuiai. by Place, Period and Style. 



Prehellenic Antiquity. 
f MCORGES PERROT, Professor in the Faculty of 
V J Letters, Paris, member of the Institute ; and Charles 
Chipiez. Histoire de l'Art dans l'Antiquite; translated 
in the following series: A History of Art in Ancient 
Eg y/>t, translated and edited by Walter Armstrong, B. A., 
1883; 2 vol. ./ History of Ancient Art in Chaldea and 
Assyria, translated by Walter Armstrong, 1884; 2 vol. 
A ///story of Ancient Art in Phoenicia and its Depend- 
encies, translated by Walter Armstrong, 1885; 2 vol. 
./ History of Ancient Art in Persia, translator not given, 
1892; 1 vol. ./ History of Ancient Art in Sardinia, 
fud(Ca, Syria and Asia Minor, translated by I, Gonino, 
1892; 2 vol. A ///story of Ancient Art in Primitive 
Greece, translated by I. Gonino, 1894; London, Chapman 
■V 1 1 ill; New York, A. C. Armstrong, each volume, 4to 
(.269 x 185 x .026), price 21 shillings. The " Histoire de 
l'Art " of Perroi and Chipiez is quite general: but as pre- 
hellenic art is mainly recovered by excavation, and there- 
fore largely architectural, the book may be relied upon to 
give a careful discussion of the architectural development 
of each country studied. In the class of libraries to 
which this list is recommended, Perrot and Chipiez will 
cover sufficiently all early historic civilizations except 
that of Egypt, for which special recommendations are 
made. It will be better, of course, to buy the original 
French work if this may be used to advantage. If not, 
the English translation listed is a good substitute. 

James Henry Breasted, Ph. D. ; Professor of Egyptol- 
ogy and Oriental History in the University of Chicago, 
Director of Haskell Oriental Museum, Director of the 
Egyptian expedition of the University of Chicago. A 
History of Egypt from the Earliest Times to the Persian 
Conquest. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1905; 8vo 
( . 245 x .175 x .05), 29 1 034 p., frontispiece, 200 ill., pi., 
maps ; cloth, $5.00. 

In many libraries Professor Breasted's book will give 
is much information about Egypt as may be required 
with unusual defmiteness. It is not ofen that any manual 
leaves so clear an impression upon the mind. The half- 
tone illustrations develop the most attractive qualities of 
Egyptian art. 

Francois-August Choisy, L'art de batir chez les Egyp- 
tiens. Paris, Edouard Rouveyre, 1904; 4to (.28X.19X 
025), 4 + 155 p., to6 ill. ; 20 francs, unbound. 

The monograph by Choisy on Egyptian architecture is 
leveloped on the same lines as the chapter on this stib- 
ect in his " Histoire de l'Architecture " already de- 
cribed; dealing entirely with principles of design and 
onstruction. It supplements Breasted's book perfectly. 

Classic Antiquity. 

William J. Anderson (b. 1865, d. 1900), Director of 

|ie Architectural Department of the Glasgow School of 

rt; and R. Phene Spiers, F. S. A., F. R. I. B. A. The 

architecture of Greece and Rome, a sketch of its Histor- 

al Development. Second ed. revised and enlarged. 

uidon, Batsford; New York, Scribner's, 1907; 8vo (.24 

.253 x .045), 382 p., ill., pi. ; cloth, 18 shillings. 

There has been an abundance of material on classic 



architecture ; but until the appearance of this book it was 
either crowded into general works or extended in special 
monographs. This manual does very well the prelim- 
inary work of clearing ground and presents that large 
general view which is the best introduction to any subject. 

Marie-De'sire-Hector-Jean-Baptiste d'Espouy, Pro- 
fessor at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. Fragments 
d'Architecture antique d'apres les releve's et restaurations 
des anciens pensionnaires de l'Academie de France a 
Rome. Paris, Charles Schmid; without date (1890 -1905); 
fol. (.47 x .325 x .04), 2 vol., 200 pi.; 300 francs, un- 
bound. 

Every year the Institute awards to some young French 
architect the Grand Prix de Rome in Architecture, which 
pays the expenses of further education in classic countries 
for four years. During the first three years the recipient 
of the prize is obliged to send for exhibition in Paris care- 
ful drawings and restorations of some monumental frag- 
ment. These "Envois de Rome" are stored at the 
library of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Prof. d'Espouy has 
undertaken to select from this mass and to publish those 
drawings which are not only the finest in themselves but 
which also illustrate most perfectly the development of 
classic architecture. The renderings are by the best 
French draughtsmen. 

Francis Cranmer Penrose (b. 1817, d. 1903), D. C. L., 
F. R. S., F. R. I. B. A , F. R. A. S., F. S. A., President 
R. I. B. A., 1894-1895. Investigation of the Principles 
of Athenian Architecture, as the result of a recent survey 
conducted chiefly with reference to the Optical Refine- 
ments exhibited in the construction of ancient buildings 
at Athens, illustrated by numerous engravings, published 
by the Society of Dilettanti. New ed. London and 
New York, Macmillan Co., 1888; fol. (.545 x .38 x .035) 
10+101 p., ill., 42 pi. ; 117 shillings. 

Penrose's book on Athenian architecture is not be- 
yond the reach of a modest collection, and should cer- 
tainly be secured by any one who is interested not only 
in architecture but also in good books. It is probably 
the most masterly architectural investigation yet pub- 
lished. Ltitle has been added to our knowledge of the 
Parthenon since Penrose left it. 

George Dennis. Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria. 
Revised ed. London, Murray, 1878; 8vo ( 235 x.165 x 
.05), 2 vol., ill., pi., maps; cloth, 42 shillings. Re- 
printed; London, Dent (Every-Man's Library), 1907; 
2 vols., i2tno; cloth, 2 shillings. 

The Architecture of Etruria derives its chief impor- 
tance from the fact that it explains many leading charac- 
teristics of the great Roman style which followed and is 
partly based upon it. Dennis is the standard English 
work on the subject. 

Auguste Mau, Member of the Archaeological Institute 
in Rome. Pompeii, Its Life and Art, translated by Fran- 
cis W. Kelsey, University of Michigan, with numerous 
illustrations from original drawings and photographs. 
New ed. revised and corrected. New York and London, 
The Macmillan Co., 1902; 8vo (.22 x .15 x .045), 25 + 
557 + 2 p., frontispiece, ill., pi., plans; cloth, $2.50 net. 

The most intimate impression we receive of Roman 
art, and of Greek, too, for that matter, comes from the ex- 
cavations of Pompeii, which are considered, quite suffi- 
ciently for our purpose, in this excellent book. 



1 68 



T H E B RICKBUIL DHR 



Rodolfo Amadeo Lanciani, Commendatore, Professor 
of Ancient Topography, University of Rome. Ruins 
and Excavations of Ancient Rome; a companion book for 
students and travellers. Boston, Houghton, Mifflin & 
Co., 1897; 8 vo (.2 x .14 x .045), 24 + 612 p., ill., 16 
maps; cloth, $4.00. 

Besides the monumental works upon which his repu- 
tation rests, Prof. Lanciani has published in English 
several lighter books which have enabled those who run 
to read very easily, and with perfect appreciation of the 
architectural history of the greatest of all cities. Of these 
perhaps the most informing and most available for our 
purpose is the " Ruins and Excavations." 
Middle Ages. 

Howard Crosby Butler, Professor of Art and Arche- 
ology, Princeton University. Architecture and Other 
Arts; Part II of the publication of an American Archae- 
ological expedition to .Syria in 1899 1900. Architecture, 
Sculpture, Mosaic and Wall Painting in Northern Cen- 
tral Syria and the Djebel Hauran. New York, The Cen- 
tury Co., 1903; small fol. (.37 x .29 x .04), 25+433 p., 
ill., pi. ; cloth, $20 00 net. 

When de Vogue's book on "Syrie Centrale" was pub- 
lished in 1865 it was discovered at once by all critics, from 
Viollet-le Due down, that his revelations were vastly sig- 
nificant in the study of media.- val architecture, for the 
reason that the disintegration which befell Roman forms 
in the dark ages is most logically worked out in the 
table-land of Syria. De Vogue*'s work does not properly 
come within the limitations of our list, but this fine 
American book by Professor Butler replaces it perfectly 
and is a splendid addition to any library. 

Georg Gottfried Dehio, Professor in the University of 
Strasburg, and Gustav von Bezold, Director of the Ger- 
manic Museum, Niirnberg. Die Kirchliche Baukunst 
des Abendlandes. Stuttgart, Bergstriisser, 1901; text 
Svo (.24 x .165 x .03), vol. 1 2: pi., small fol. (..; x 
.32 x .035). vol. 1 5; 296 marks, unbound. 

Two leaders in the artistic life of Germany have 
undertaken to publish a body of illustrations of the most 
important mediaeval churches of western Europe. Their 
drawings are not elaborate, or especially attractive, but 
they are good, telling one in most cases precisely what 
one wishes to know concerning the building in question. 
There are plans of all important monuments. 

Raffaele Cattaneo. L'Architettura in Italia del secola 
VI al mille circa, translated by the Countess Isabel 
Curtis-Cholmeley in Bernani ; Architecture in Italy, from 
the sixth to eleventh century. London, T. F. I nwin, 
1896; 4to (.27 x .2 x .04), 363 + 1 p., frontispiece, ill. ; 
cloth, $2. 15 net. 

The existence of an English translation enables us 
to enrich our list with a notable book. Our readers will 
find the line illustrations from early Italian ornament 
most attractive and useful. 

G. T. Rivoira. Le Origini della Architettura Lom- 
barda e delle sue principali derivazioni nei paesi d'Oltr 
Alpe. Rome, Loescher & Co., 1901-1907; 410 (.31 x .225 
x .03-06), 2 vol., ill., 20 pi. ; 90 lire, unbound; 506 copies 
printed. 

It is a transgression of our self-imposed limitations to 
introduce so unfamiliar a language as Italian; but 
Rivoira's discussion of the Romanescpue style, in Italy 



usually called Lombard or Byzantine, is so ingenious 
and his splendid body of illustrations covers this suggest- 
ive period so completely, that even a small library may 
well give it space upon its shelves. 

Arne Dehli, Associate of American Institute of Archi- 
tects. Selection of Byzantine Ornament. New York, 
Helburn, 1890; small fol. (.36 x . 29 x .035)., 2 vols., no text, 
100 pi.; $20.00, unbound. Dehli's "Byzantine Orna- 
ment" is intended for use on the office table, as a source 
of suggestion in decorative design. The selections, 
mainly from St. Mark's and the Ravenna buildings, are 
well drawn in outline. 

Charles A. Cummings (b. 1833, d. 1905), Member of 
American Institute of Architects. A History of Archi- 
tecture in Italy from the Time of Constantine to the 
Dawn of the Renaissance, with nearly five hundred illus- 
trations. Boston and New York, Houghton, Mifflin & 
Co., [901 ; 8vo (.235 x .16 x .035), 2 vols., frontispiece, 
ill. ; cloth, $750 net. 

The late Mr. Cummings left a charming work which 
covers this fascinating but vague period in a most sym- 
pathetic and careful manner. It should be in every 
American library. 

Edouard-Jules Corroyer (b. 1851, d. 1904), Archi- 
tecte, Inspecteur general des edifices diocesains. L'Ar- 
chitecture romane; in Bibliotheque de l'enseignement des 
Beaux-Arts. Paris, Maison (Juantin, no date. (1888); 
1:1110 (.21 x .15 x .025). 320 p., ill.; cloth, 3 francs 50 
centimes. 

Edouard Corroyer was a pupil of Viollet-le- Due and 
played an important role in the study and preservation 
of French monuments. His little manuals on French 
Romanesque and Gothic Architecture will be found use- 
ful, that on Gothic Architecture has been translated. 

Charles Herbert Moore. Development and Character 
of Gothic Architecture. Second ed. rewritten and en- 
larged. New York and London, The Macmillan Co., 
1899; 8vo (.24 x . 165 x .035), 28 + 454 p., ill , 11 pi. ; cloth, 
$4.50 net. 

American students have found in Professor Moore's 
"Gothic Architecture" quite the best manual on this 
subject in English. It is the starting point for all re- 
search in the history of Gothic Architecture. 

Edouard-Jules Corroyer. Architecture gothique ; trans- 
lated by Walter Armstrong; Gothic Architecture. Lon-. 
don and New York, Macmillan Co., 1893; i2mo(.2i x.15 
x .025), 382 p., ill. ; cloth, $2.00. 

See note on Corroyer; L'Architecture romane. 

Eugcne-Emanuel Viollet-le-Duc (b. 1814, d. 1879). 
Dictionnaire raisonne de l'Architecture franchise du Xle 
au XVIe siecle. Paris, 1S54-68, latered., 1875; Svo(.245 
x .16 x .035), 10 vols., portrait, ill. Table Analytique et 
Synthetique par Henri Sabine. Paris, 1889; 8vo M 20 + 387 
+ 1 p. The price of this book in half morocco and with- 
out the Table Analytique varied from £1 2s. to ,/."8 in 
1907. 

Notwithstanding the prodigious mass of literature 
which is constantly appearing on the general subject of 
mediaeval art, Viollet-le-Duc's great Dictionnaire still 
leads the field. Not only is it an inexhaustible treasury 
of information ; it is also a strong book by a great writer, 
who appreciated fully the force of the historic movement 
which he did so much to make intelligible. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



169 



Brickwork in East Anglia. 

THE Eastern Counties of England — Norfolk, Suf- 
folk, Essex — afford examples of a great number of 
beautiful manor houses and other buildings constructed 
almost entirely of brick, and counting among them the 
earliest examples of such work subsequent to Roman 
times. The bricks used by the Romans in Britain were 
of large dimensions, being much longer and wider and 
thicker than those of the present day, while the bricks in 
East Anglian houses are smaller and thinner than the 
standard brick of to-day. The reason for this is found in 
the fact that the revival of brickbuilding in England 
was coincident with the incoming of the Flemings into 
the Eastern Counties in the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies. They brought with them the traditions and even 

the materials of the Neth- 
erlands, for there seems 
little doubt that in the first 
instance the bricks used in 




IIORHAM HALL, ESSEX. 

the houses came over from Holland. As Mr. Edwin Gunn, 
A. R. I. B. A., pointed out in a most interesting paper, 
which he read before a recent meeting of the London 
Architectural Association, materials for the manufacture 
of brick and tile could be readily obtained in the Eastern 
Counties, but their use was somewhat restricted by the 
badness of the roads, which made the transit of any 
heavy material in bulk a serious and difficult matter. As 
a consequence, in most cases previous to the eighteenth 
century, brickwork is found only in buildings of sufficient 
size and importance to have justified manufacture on the 
spot, or in such situations that the bricks could be brought 
by water. In the smaller buildings its use is restricted 
by bare necessity, and generally confined to chimney 
stacks, wall base or nogging. Tile roofs were frequent, 
but the builders were obviously more at home in their use 
of thatch, and displayed none of the dexterity of the Home 
Counties tilers, whilst tile-hanging is almost unknown. 




HORHAM HALL, ESSEX. 



The type of small domestic building in the Eastern 
Counties which was most common in the Middle Ages 
differs hardly at all in its constructive essentials from the 
half-timbered buildings of the southern counties of Eng- 
land. It has usually a base of brickwork or brick and 
flint upon which is erected oak framing composed chiefly 
of vertical studs, the narrow panels between being filled 
with clay and straw. Each successive story overhangs 
that below, and the panels are plastered flush with the 
framing. An immense amount of work such as this re- 
mains almost intact in such towns as Lavenham, Sud- 
bury, Hadleigh, and in their adjoining villages. It was 
also a very frequent practice to fill in the panels between 
the timber framing with brick nogging, laid with most 
charmingly-ordered irregularity in various forms of diag- 
onal, herringbone and 
checker patterns. 

Wherever oak half-timber 
construction of this form has 
been usual, its stability and 
durability have generally 
proved to be very great. 
But whilst its structural con- 
dition remains good, its ex- 





GIFFORDS HALL, STOKE-BY-NAYLAND. 



I 70 



THE BRICKBUILDKR 



ternal appearance often takes an air of picturesque dilapi- 
dation, which, though much appreciated by sketchers 
and potographers, is distasteful to the mind of the owner, 
who then proceeds to find a remedy. In Kent and 
Sussex this remedy is generally tile-hanging, but, as 
before stated, this is uncommon in East Anglia; it is, 
in fact, in the early seventeenth century that the specially 
individual characteristics of the district develop. 



seen to have been rebuilt from the base upward is 
evidence of this. In the later type detached Hues are 
abandoned; or rather, they appear to coalesce into ribbed 
chimney stacks, having a fine sturdy effect and the prac- 
tical advantage of keeping the flues warm and preserving 
their own stability. 

Among the illustrations which accompany this paper 
it will be noted what an outstanding feature the chimneys 



II itt 




^^^j^^fl^l 


wft 







GIKKORDS HALL, STOKE-UV-NAYLAND. 

As already indicated, great proficiency in the use of 
brickwork was attained at a comparatively early date in 
the Eastern Counties It is only necessary to instance 
such examples as Little Wenham Hall, East Barsham 
Manor House, Oxburgh Hall, Great .Snoring Rectory, 
Layre Marney, and other 
similar buildings in proof of 
this. In the smaller build- 
ings, however, it is chiefly in 
chimney stacks and wall base 
that brickwork shows. The 
capacity of the local brick- 
layer to produce good results 
with no other material than 
common red bricks (of course 
two inches thick) and plain 
tiles was quite surprising. It 
is astonishing to note the 
variety of design extracted 
from these simple materials as 
used in the chimney stacks of 
the early seventeenth century. 
Earlier than this the usual 
clusters of octagonal shafts, 
often elaborately molded, are 
most frequent, but from that 
time onward a distinct local 
type seems to have arisen, and 
one which appears to have 
many points in its favor. 

Beautiful as all must admit 
the clustered type of stack to deanery tower. 

be, the single flues of which 

it is composed offer the very greatest chance of down- 
draught, owing to their large cooling surface, and, fur- 
thermore, have great opportunities of falling into disre- 
pair. The abundance of examples in which they may be 





EAST BARSHAM, NORFOLK. 

are, and in what diversity they are wrought. For the 
rest, one sees how unostentatiously the brickwork has 
been used in unbroken wall space, in conjunction wth the 
oak framing or with stone dressings to windows, balus- 
trades, string-courses and other parts. 

Among the brick' built 
houses which remain to tell of 
the wealth and prosperity of 
the Eastern Counties, at the 
beginning of the sixteenth 
century, East Barsham is the 
most widely known. The 
walling is of thin, red brick 
( five courses, including joints, 
rising to about one foot), 
mellowed with age to a warm, 
rich red, in which diaper work 
is sparingly introduced. The 
traceries, molded bricks and 
w r indow heads exhibit no 
characteristics unfamiliar to 
the native craftsman, but here 
and at Great Snoring Rectory, 
close by, intermixed with this 
native work is much ornament 
in terra cotta, which betrays 
a foreign hand — presumably 
Italian. Prominent on the 
exterior is the cluster of the 
chimney shafts at the west 
end, rising above a great pile 
of brickwork, which, at one 
time, formed the end wall, 
containing the fireplaces to the hall and adjoining par- 
lor, while other striking features are the molded brick 
pinnacles at the corners of the towers and the panel 
work on the main front of the house. Other fine 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



171 




MOYNS PARK, ESSEX. 

chimney stacks are to be seen on Thorpland Hall, 
Norfolk. 

Horhatn Hall, Essex, is another example of the old 
brick house of East Anglia. Here, as usual, the walling 
is of thin, red bricks, with dark gray headers sparingly 
introduced to form a diaper in places, but with stone for 
all the wrought work to porch, bay and window. The 
porch gives access through the "screens" to the great 
hall, which occupies the whole of the center of the house, 
measuring about 46 feet by 24 feet, and 25 feet high, and 
having a magnificent bay window, arranged in four tiers 
of lights. 

Another fine house is Moyns Park, in Essex — won- 
derfully striking in the breadth of its effect, with the 
great bays alternating with the gables. On elevation, 
the features are apparently of the simplest character, but 





MOYNS PARK, ESSEX. 

the work is so well proportioned and so pleasingly dis- 
posed that the result is truly a "joy forever," the more 
so as the brickwork, after centuries of exposure, has 
mellowed to a beautiful tone, which, with the lichen and 
ivy, forms a color harmony of exquisite value. 

Of the other houses shown, the illustrations may be 




OLD HOUSE, MOYNS PARK, ESSEX. 



MOYNS PARK, ESSEX. 

left to speak for themselves. Hadleigh dates from 
about 1500, and Giffords Hall from about the time of 
Henry the Eighth, with a hall of much earlier date — 
probably fifteenth century. They all testify to the 
noble effect of brick building, to the charm of cunningly- 
devised chimney stacks, and to the breadth of effect 
which can be secured by plain wall space, appropriately 
relieved; they are eloquent, too, of that quiet grandeur 
which has grown round about them in the course of 
centuries, wherein the hand of time has wrought its 
kindest work. 



I 72 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Editorial Comment and 



Miscellany. 




THE chief cause of the acknowledged monotony of 
American streets is the practice of building solidly 
to a uniform street 
line. In every case 
where an old land- 
mark in the shape 
of a public building 
or venerable man- 
sion, surrounded by 
a bit of ground and 
verdure, has been 
razed for modern 
buildings there is a 
feeling of mute re- 
gret. This is because 
the only agreeable 
spot of relief in an 
otherwise solid street front has gone. 
It is useless to complain of destiny in 
the growth of cities, but it is natural 
to *ish for some compensation to the 
losses it causes. It is natural that 
Martin's neighbor on Fifth Avenue 
should protest against the projecting 
summer garden and portico of the 
restaurant; likewise the neighbors of 
Sherry's, of the St. Regis, of the 
Hotel Gotham and of the Waldorf. 
And the Appellate Court may be right 
in compelling the removal of all struc- 
tures now existing beyond the house 
line on either side of Fifth Avenue; 
but a portion of the public, at least, is 
interested in knowing what is to take 
the place of these verdant terraces 
which are truly an ornament to the 
thronged thoroughfare. If for the 
physical needs of the traffic the terraces 



UNION STATION, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

1 1 H Hurnham & Co., Architects 

Fireproofed throughout with Terra Cotta Hollow Tile 

by National Ki reproofing Company. 




of the opposition, one of the city's leading dailies 
declares that the wishes of the average taxpayer and 
resident of Chicago have not been considered. How 
weak a plea: The true attitude of that fraternity, — if 
attitude it have, — is never ascertainable in such cases 
when a few leaders are supplying the momentum for a 
public improvement. Whatever change is proposed is 

sure to meet with 
the muttered criti- 
cism, reluctance and 
apathy of the aver- 
age taxpayer and 
resident. These 
persons have never 
actuated a public im- 
provement of an 
esthetic nature. 
Radical changes in 
cities are always 
achieved by a dicta- 
tor or a dictator 
backed by a unani- 
When the average 
taxpayer and resident takes a hand 
there will be time enough to consider 
his wishes. 



mous council. 



THE findings of the Board of Award 
of the New Sing Sing Prison 
Competition are neither satisfactory 
nor unexpected. While the successful 
competitor may not have been foretold, 
the unfortunate outcome is not sur- 
prising in view of the unfavorable 
circumstances which met the launching 
of the competition. In the opinion 
of some, these circumstances, which 
caused some of the best talent in New 
York state to hold aloof from the con- 
test, had their origin in part in the 
disagreement between the champions 
of the "closed competition " and those 
of the "open competition." At all 




FAIENCE WALL PANEL 

5 feet high, .} feet wide. 

Executed by Hartford Faience Co 



and gardens 
must go, will 
the city do 
anything to 
beautify the 
Avenue by 
other means? 
Will it bring 
a glimpse of 
verdure to 

asphaltum wastes, admitting the beauty of Nature to 

Vanity Fair? 

TH KRE is considerable agitation in Chicago over a 
boulevard elevated upon a series of arches, and pro- 
posed by Mr. Burnham and his associates for connecting 
the north and south park systems. Voicing the sentiment 




DETAIL BY NORTHWESTERN TERRA 

COTTA COMPANY. 

Toledano & Wogan, Architects. 



events, it is 
very satis- 
fying to read 
the protest 
entered by 
the State 
Architect of 
New York 
and to note 
his warm 
approval of Warren & Wetmore's superb plan 



DETAIL BY CONKLING-ARMSTRONG 

TERRA COTTA CO. 

A. A. Ritcher, Architect. 



THE first skeleton skyscraper in New York City is 
the Tower Building at 50 Broadway, which was 
designed by Bradford L. Gilbert in 188S. The scheme of 
transmitting the weight of walls and floors through 
girders and columns to the footings was then a novel one. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



i73 








w • • ■ • 




THE LAKESHORE PLAYGROUND SHELTER, CHICAGO. 
1'erkins & Hamilton, Architects. 

Exterior and Interior walls constructed of salt glazed hollov 
Terra Cotta blocks made by National Fireproofing Co. 



The building laws made no provision for such con- 
struction. When a permit was applied for, the plans 
were submitted to a board of seven examiners, who long 
deliberated the matter and at 
length approved the applica- 
tion for a permit. The build- 
ing was finished a year later. 
Now it is being demolished to 
give place to a new thirty- 
eight-story structure designed 
by Architect W. C. Hazlitt. 




number of seats under cover was very close to 40,000. 
There were numbered seats for 68,000 people and stand- 
ing room with iron rails to lean against for from 40,000 

to 50,000 more. 



I N the preliminary competi- 



DETAIL BY AMERICAN TERRA COTTA & CERAMIC CO 
W. J. Frein, Architect 



ARCHITECTS designing buildings in connection with 
athletic fields may make interesting comparisons 
with the vStadium at Shepherd's Bush, London, where 
125,000 spectators 
could watch 2,000 of 
the picked athletes of 
the world in the re- 
cent Olympic Games. 
The length of the turf 
inside the running 
track was 235 yards, 
the breadth just under 
100 yards. The swim- 
ming pool was 109J/2 
yards long by 50 feet 
wide, with a depth of 
12 feet in the center 
for high diving. The 




GARFIELD PARK REFECTORY AND BOAT HOUSE, CHICAGO. 

W. C. Zimmerman, Architect. 
Roofed with green glazed tile made by Ludowici-Celadon Co. 



tion for the Springfield 
(Mass.) Municipal Building 
Croup, Evans & Bright of 
Philadelphia and Louis R. 
Kaufmann of New York were 
the two winners who, by the 
torms of the competition, are permitted to enter the final 
contest along with five other firms invited to submit 
designs and to be paid $400 each for so doing. These 

firms are Cass Gilbert, 
Hale & Rogers, Lord 
& Hewlett, Peabody& 
Stearns and Pell & 
Corbett. The two 
winners in the prelimi- 
nary competition will 
also be paid $400 each. 
The final competition 
will also be open to all 
Springfield architects 
who are able to qualify 
professionally before 
Prof. Warren P. Laird 
of the University of 



174 



T II E H R I C K P. U I L H E R 




Pennsylvania who 
is the advisory 
architect of the 
Municipal Build- 
ing Commission. 
The two local 
firms whose work- 
is regarded as the 
best will be paid 
$400 each. ■ 



DETAIL BY F. M. ANDREWS, 

ARCHITECT. 

New York Architectural Terra Cotta Co., 
Makers. 



WALL Street 
is having a 
building boom. 
Within a fortnight 
plans for three 
skyscrapers have been announced. The Bank of New- 
York Jias plans by Clinton cV Russell for a twenty-story 
building of limestone and granite, costing $650,000, and 
to be erected at the northeast corner of Wall and William 
streets. Another is the 1,000-foot high building to 
occupy a plot at Broad and Wall 
streets. The cost is placed at $7,000, 
000, and the area of the tower, it is 
reported, is to be 100 by 80 feet. 
Ernest Flagg is said to be the archi- 
tect. The United States Realty Co. 
plans a twenty-four-story building 
for Nos. 67 and 69 and Nos. 89 to 91 
Beaver Street. 




DETAIL BY NEW JERSEY TERRA COTTA CO. 
Clinton & Russell, Architects. 




DETAIL BY SOUTH AM BOY TERRA COTTA 
J. Warner Allen, Achitect. 



CO. 



REAL estate owners in New York, aroused at the 
recent announcement of a $1.61 tax rate, are or- 
ganizing for the purpose of keeping a strict watch upon 
the making up of the annual budget, and of following 
the manner in which it is 
spent. Little effort is made, 
they argue, to collect the 
full tax upon personal prop- 
erty, while the burden of 
municipal extravagance in- 
variably falls upon real es- 
tate. Conditions may be 
pretty bad in New York, but 
the tax rate objected to is 
much less than that in force 
in many other American 
cities. 



Two New Park 
Buildings, Chicago. 

(See illustration, this number.) 

SEWARD PARK, Chi- 
cago, is named for Wm. 
II . Seward, President Lin- 
coln's secretary of state, the 
Park Board having adopted 
the names of Lincoln's cabi- 
net officers as names for this 
and future small parks. 




DEAN BUILDING, SO. BEND, IND. 

George W. Selby, Architect. 

Brick made by Hydraulic-l'ress Brick Co.. St. Louis 



The di- 
mensions 
of the 
ground are 
346 x 218 
feet. It is 
situated in 
a densely 
populated 
district on 
the North 
Sidewhere 
ground is 
expensive 
for park 
purposes. 

The site is not a large one, but cost $85,000, it being nec- 
essary to wreck a large building which previously occu- 
pied it. The building was erected at a cost of $85,000, 
and its equipment (including outdoor improvements) 
$15,000 more. Ample facilities are provided for gym- 
nastic instruction for men, women 
and children of all ages, both 
summer and winter. A large 
amount of play apparatus has been 
installed for the children. Space 
has been provided in the field for 
games and a running track. 

The building contains a large 
gymnasium for men and one for 
women, each 40 x 78 feet. Steel locker, toilet and shower 
accommodations for men, boys under ten years of age 
and women and girls are provided in three groups with 
gymnasium connections from each, 400 steel lockers be- 
ing installed in each group with separate toilets and 

shower baths. The locker 
groups are each on three 
levels with upper floors con- 
structed of 1 -inch glass in 
iron frame and a small stair 
connection is provided from 
floor to floor. The roof 
above each is of green glass 
tile. 

The central loggia, 40 x 
60 feet, provides entrance, 
shelter and lounging space 
for a large number of people. 
The assembly hall above it 
(of the same size) is well ar- 
ranged for entrance and exit 
stairs on both sides — and 
is intended for dancing and 
entertainments. 

Adjoining the assembly 
hall is a free reading-room 
and delivery station con- 
ducted by the Chicago Public 
Library Board. Below this, 
on the first floor, are lunch 
rooms and the director's 
office. 

The building is built en- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



175 



tirely of brick both 
inside and out, the 
exterior being of a 
rough wire-cut 
brick with beauti- 
ful variation of 
color in reds and 
browns. The in- 
terior is of a 
yellow vitrified 
brick, the roof of 
green enameled 
tile. 

The Lake Shore 
Playground is used 
entirely for a base- 
ball field. The 
portion to the east 
of the building 
for some three 
hundred feet is 
used for a play- 
ground and an 
athletic field for 
men, women and 
children. The 
building contains 
a rest-room, toilets 



and shower baths for women and 
separate equipment of locker, toilet and shower accom- 
modations for men and boys under ten years of age 
as well as a very large area 
of outdoor observation and 
shelter floor space. 



similar work at 
Pompeii. An 
American com- 
pany now proposes 
to attack the task 
with all the im- 
proved methods of 
modern mining. 

The "Build 
Now " campaign 
is substantially as- 
sisted by lower 
prices for building 
materials; but this 
advantage is al- 
most offset by high 
interest rates, for 
the money market 
is not yet in con- 
dition to back a 
normal building 
industry. 

HOUSE FOR LLEWELLYN HOWLAND ESQ., PADANARAM, MASS 

M il waukee's 
Convention Hall, 
of which the cor- 
ner-stone was laid 
August 1, has the distinction of being available for 
use as a huge single auditorium, seating 8,594 persons, 
or being readily divisible into several smaller halls each 

separate from the other. 




MASS 

Phillip B. Howard, Architect. 

Phe walls are buiit of two courses of hollow tile terra cotta blocks, the blocks in the outside course 

measuring 12 in. x 8 in. and those on the inside 12 in. x 4 in. The walls are 9 in in thickness. 



IN GENERAL. 
Russell E. Hart, New 
York City, winner of The 
Brickbuilder's Competition 
for a Theater Building, will 
spend the coming winter in 
study and travel in England, 
France and Italy. 

Wilson Levering Smith, 
formerly with Parker, 
Thomas & Rice, has opened 
an office for the practice of 
architecture in the Law 
Building, Baltimore. Manu- 
facturers' catalogues desired. 

The following named 
have been elected officers of 
the Pittsburg Architectural 
Club: Benno Jannsen, Presi- 
dent; Richard Kiehnel, Vice- 
President; Stanley L.Roush, 
Secretary; James M. Mac- 
queen, Treasurer; John T. 
Comes, Chairman of Enter- 
tainment Committee. 

Excavation at Herculan- 
eum has been intermittent, 
and has lagged far behind 




OFFICE BUILDING FOR DETROIT GAS CO. 

John Scott & Co., Architects. 

Exterior of white mat glazed terra cotta made by Atlantic Terra Co. 



George F. Newton is the 
architect of the Music Build- 
ing now being erected at 
Mt. Holyoke College. . . . 
Delano & Aldrich are doing 
the Music Hall which is the 
gift of Mrs. Russell Sage to 
the Northfield, Mass., Sem- 
inary. . . . Another dona- 
tion by Mrs. Sage provides 
for a new dormitory at Prince- 
ton, for which building 
Frank Miles Day & Bro. 
have been chosen archi- 
tects. . . . Parish & Schroe- 
der are the designers of the 
$80,000 Dining Hall now 
building on the campus of 
the Mt. Hermon, Mass., 
school. . . . Shepley, Rutan 
& Coolidge have the design 
completed for the John Hay 
Memorial Library at Brown 
University. For this build- 
ing $150,000 had been raised 
when Andrew Carnegie 
added as much more. Con- 
struction is soon to begin. 

The Metropolitan Life 
Insurance Co.'s tower on 
Madison Square, New York, 



176 



THE BRICKBUILDKR. 




DETAIL BY BRICK, TERRA 

COTTA & TILE CO. 
Henrv C. Pelton, Architect. 



is to have four of the largest 
bells in the world. They are 
to chime the quarter hours 650 
feet above the pavement. 

Since Warren & Wetmore's 
plans were filed for the much 
heralded Ritz-Carlton Hotel in 
New York, it is reported that 
the project is to be abandoned, 
for the present at least. Mean- 
while the management of the 
Plaza Hotel in New York plans 
to build a palatial hotel upon 
American lines in both London 
and Paris. 

Plans for the restoration 
of the famous old castle of 
Heidelberg have been accepted 
by Grand Duke Frederick of 
Baden. 



mark out the 
design and 
are about 
one-eigh t li 
inch in width. 
The real 
joints come 
along certain 
of these re- 
cesses. The 
recesses are 
beveled and 
filled in with 
black cement 
after the 
panel is set, 
thereby hid- 
ing the joint 
and giving a 
mosaic effect. 




UK 1 AIL BY MILLER & OPEL, ARCHITECTS. 
Made by St. Louis Terra Cotta Co. 



O. F. Semsch, chief en- 
gineer for Ernest Flagg, 
has supplied figures for an 
imaginary skyscraper of the 
maximum height permissi- 
ble under the various re- 
strictions of the New York 
Building Code. The build- 
ing would rise to a height of 
150 stories; its walls would 
be 12 inches thick at the top 
and at the bottom 1 2 feet ; 
they would withstand a wind 
pressure of 30 pounds per 
square foot their entire 
height; the building would 
cost about $60,000,000. The height of such a building, 
it is declared, does not depend upon any structural 
defects or the wind pressure to which it would be sub- 
jected. 

The new residence for James A. Blair, Esq., at Oyster 
Bay, Long Island, Carrere & Hastings, architects, will 
be built of " Real Roman Tapestry Bricks," furnished by 
Fiske & Co., New York. These bricks are 18 inches long, 
8 inches thick, 6 inches wide and run in a great variety 
of color, from clear red to clear blue, with intermediate 
shades of brown, purple, olive and weathered copper. 

The terra cotta used in the Armory at Brooklyn of 
which Pilcher, Thomas & Tachau were the architects 
and the Naval Battalion Armory, Brooklyn, Lord & How- 
lett, architects, was supplied by the Atlantic Terra Cotta 
Company. 

The two Park Buildings, Chicago, Perkins & Hamil- 
ton, architects, illustrated in this month's issue, are 
roofed with tile made by the Ludowici-Celadon Co. 

The faience panel by the Hartford Faience Company, 
illustrated in this issue of The Brickbuilder, is composed 
of about five pieces. The black lines are recessed which 




HOUSE AT COLUMBUS, OHIO 

Julian & Julian, Architects. 
Built i>( " Ironclay 



The advantage of this over mosaic is the 
ease with which the panel 
can be set without the work- 
men getting the pieces in the 
wrong place. 

Skyscrapers more than 
twenty stories in height are 
not profitable. The cost of 
operating elevators sufficient 
to safeguard the tenants 
makes the cloud piercing 
b u i 1 d i n g uneconomical. 
Such were the opinions of 
the building managers from 
all the large cities in the 
country who met in conven- 
tion at the Auditorium, Chi- 
cago, to discuss questions of 
systematic management of 
skyscrapers. The convention is the first of its kind ever 
held and it probably will result in the formation of a 
national association of building managers. 

WANTED — An Architectural draughtsman, fully competent to 
take charge of a small office, is desirous of obtaining a permanent 
position offering opportunities. Address " W. R. C." care THE 
BRICKBUILDER. 

ORDER BEFORE SUPPLY IS EXHAUSTED 

COMPLETE SET 

Four Architectural Annuals 
I900-I90I - - 1906-1907 



brick. 



Published by 

Albert Kelsey 

PHILADELPHIA 



Published by 

The Architectural League 

OF AMERICA 



926 Pages and over 950 Illustrations 

SPECIAL OFFER 

The set (4 volumes), express paid, $7.00 (Published price, $11.00). 

Special price for single nos. 1900, 1901, each $3.00; 1906 $1.00, 

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Order from M. A. VINSON 

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Buy one book each month and watch your Library grow 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 8. PLATE 101. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 8 PLATE 102. 





ARMORY FOR TROOP C, BROOKLYN, N Y. 
Pilcher. Thomas & Tachau, Architects 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 8. PLATE 103. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 8. PLATE 104. 




T H E B R I C K B U 1LDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 8. PLATE 105. 



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VOL. 17. NO 8 PLATE 106 




THE BRICKB U I L I ) E R . 

VOL. 17, NO. 8. PLATE 107. 




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POST OFFICE, KANKAKEE, ILL. 
Pond & Pond, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 8 PLATE K 





PARK BUILDING, SEWARD PARK, CHICAGO. 
Perkins & Hamilton, Architects. 



THE 

VOL. 17, NO. 8. 



BRICKBUILDER 



PLATE 109. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 8. PLATE 110. 




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VOL. 17, NO. 8. PLATE 111. 



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VOL. 17, NO. 8. PLATE 112. 




Sffe ~ 



VIEW FROM STREET 




NAVAL BATTALION 

ARMORY, 

BROOKLYN, N Y. 

LORD & HEWLETT, ARCHITECTS. 




VIEW FROM WATER FRONT 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 8. PLATE 113. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 8. p LATE m . 




ARMORY AT HAVERHILL, MASS 
Andrews, Jaoues & Rantoul. Architecis. 




■First ■ Floor -Pl^ti- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVII SEPTEMBER 1908 Number 9 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1908, by ROGERS & MANSON 

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ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



PAGE 

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Architectural Faience .... .... II 

" Terra Cotta . . . . II and III 

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PAGE 

Brick Enameled ......... Ill and IV 

Brick Waterproofing ......... IV 

Fireproofing . . . . . . . . . IV 

Roofing Tile ..... .... IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



CONTENTS 



Page 

NEW YORK CITY HOUSES 187-210 

TWENTY-FOUR PAGES OF ILLUSTRATIONS 
FROM PHOTOGRAPHS OF HOUSES 
AND PLANS, 
REPRESENTATIVE OF THE BEST OF RECENT WORK 

LETTERPRESS 

I'AGH 

CHURCH OF ST. HEREON, COLOGNE, GERMANY Frontispiece 

SANATORIA FOR CONSUMPTIVES T. MacLaren 177 

THE CONTAGIOUS HOSPITAL Edward F. Stevens 1X3 

THE AMERICAN THEATER — X Clarence H. Blackall 185 

CONVENTION OF THE ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE OF AMERICA — REPORT 214 

STANDARD ARCHITECTURAL BOOKS FOR OFFICES AND LIBRARIES Edward R. Smith 215 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 21S 



i?8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




<uoouiLai:— nrjCc 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



179 



powerful assistants in enabling 
the body to throw off those 
conditions which we call di- 
sease. Not only daylight but 
sunlight; indeed, fresh, pure 
air must be sun warmed, sun- 
penetrated air." 

The ideal way to obtain 
these conditions would ap- 
pear to be a tent, well venti- 
lated and provided with win- 
dows for the direct admission 
of sunlight, and the canvas 
would permit of perfect pen- 
etration of light. While a 




NORDRACH RANCH SANATORIUM, COLORADO SPRINGS 



tent, pure and simple, can be safely used by an individ- 
ual and set alongside a residence, as is so often done, 
the problem of using groups of tents as part of a san- 
atorium is more difficult, owing to fire risks. In some 
instances, tents with roofs of permanent material have 
been used with very considerable success, and they 
have the advantage of being economical, and the more 
temporary parts, the canvas sides, can be easily and 
cheaply renewed. The difficulties to be overcome in a 
sanatorium composed of tents, however, are lavatory 
conveniences, heating and administration. 



Most sanatoria hitherto 
built have been placed in a 
haphazard fashion as regards 
the obtaining of the maximum 
of sunshine in the rooms. In 
a paper on "The Orientation 
of Buildings and of Streets 
in Relation to Sunlight," by 
William Atkinson, architect, 
Boston, he gives diagrams 
showing the proportions of 
sunshine entering rooms fac- 
ing the different points of the 
compass, at the periods of 
March and September, with 
the following results: to the N. E. and N. W. 17-37, to 
east and west 81-63, to the south 80-56 and to the S. E. 
and S. W. 104-68. While considerations such as the con- 
tour of a particular site, or shelter, or the avoidance of 
cold winds in special localities, have influenced the placing 
of a building, the fact of the greater proportion of sun- 
shine from the southeast or southwest does not appear 
to have been fully appreciated. 

In looking over various plans of sanatoria few are 
found to face southeast or southwest. Ruppertshain, 
near Konigstein, Germany, faces southeast. Basel San- 





DETAIL .Snowing R1B3 

AlB JFAttS OF THI 

QYP3UA\ COOF CLAB3, 



PLA/^I. 



Ve/MTIL-^.TOR. 



DETAILS ^ROOTf 





...;-.- . 




QVP>3U^ 5LAB3 




DETAILS 



E.LEVATlO/1 



5ECTICV1 



NORDRACH RANCH TENT. 



i8o 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



atorium, Davos, Switzerland, faces southwest, and the 
center portion only of Hohenhonnef in the Siebenbirge, 
Germany, faces southwest. In England, the King 
Edward VII Sanatorium at Midhurst faces almost south, 
with slightly projecting wings forming very obtuse 
angles with center portion of building. These projec- 
tions are evidently made with a view of obtaining some 
shelter. 

The only recent example nearly approaching the ideal 
in respect of obtaining the maximum of sunshine in the 
rooms, is that of " Heatherside " at Frimley, England, 
by Edwin T. Hall, architect, plan of which was illustrated 
in The Brickbuilder of April, 1907. This is a two- 
storied building, the center part faces south and is mainly 



tinuous porch runs in front of the rooms, of moderate 
depth, just enough to protect and accommodate the patient 
without excluding the sunshine from the bedrooms, and 
to assist this the porch openings are made as wide and 
high as possible. The intention is that patients will 
nearly always sleep on the porch, and with this in view it 
is made divisible by means of curtains made of heavy 
canvas the full width of porch and extending from the 
floor to a height of seven feet. The ends of curtains 
next the walls are fastened tight with cleats and the 
outer ends are fastened to rings in porch posts with straps 
about one foot apart drawn tight to prevent flapping. 
The openings in the towers at ends of sleeping porches 
are provided with French windows to prevent the wind 




*•*> m in 
^ n n 1 j 1 1 > j 




AGNES MEMORIAL SANATORIUM, DENVER, COL. Gove & Walsh, Architects. 



administrative, containing offices, public rooms, twelve 
beds for patients requiring special attention, and four 
radial pavilions containing twenty-two patients' beds each. 
Had these radical pavilions been set at angles of 45 de- 
grees instead of slightly less, all rooms would have faced 
exactly southeast and southwest. The radial pavilion 
idea is excellent for administration and supervision. 

As regards the windows in rooms, Dr. F. R, Walters 
recommends that at least one-half of one side of each 
room should consist of window space. 

The type of plan of sanatorium 
consisting of a corridor with rooms on 
each side has been abandoned as not 
conducive to the best results, and it 
is further recommended that even 
with the single line of rooms there 
should be ample windows in the corri- 
dor with corresponding openings in 
the walls of rooms so that a thorough 
circulation of air can be obtained. 
But it is evident, if the starting point is 
made to obtain rooms facing as nearly 
southeast and southwest as possible, 
that this would eliminate any possibil- 
ity of the plan with a double row of 
rooms. 

Where climatic conditions permit, 
open air sleeping porches should cer- 
tainly obtain. From the fact that an open air sleeping 
gallery is provided in the North London Consumption 
Hospital and that in Colorado, sleeping porches are used 
in zero weather it would scarcely seem that climatic con- 
ditions imposed limitations on the idea. 

The Agnes (Phipps) Memorial Sanatorium, Denver, 
Col., was the first example on a large scale in Colorado, 
of the hospital plan modified by the insertion of sleeping 
porches. It consists of a central administrative building 
connected by corridors to two two-storied pavilions con- 
taining accommodation for forty patients each. A con- 




DETAIL SHOWING PATIENT S UNIT, THE AGNES 
MEMORIAL SANATORIUM, DENVER. 



sweeping lengthwise of the porches, and at the same time 
making comfortable little sun room?. 

Important points in the construction of pavilions are: 

1. The elimination of all wood trim in the rooms; all 
corners and angles rounded ; floors of quarter sawed 
yellow pine filled and varnished and the walls and ceiling 
painted. 

2. Wide door between room and porch so as to per- 
mit of cot passing through. 

3. Stud partitions between rooms doubled and insu- 
lated with hair felt, making them 
sound proof. 

4. Rooms heated by steam through 
direct-indirect radiator, and ventilated 
through flues placed near the floor and 
carried up to the attic where they 
connect with galvanized iron ducts. 
These ducts are proportioned to the 
intakes and carried to the center of 
the building, opening into a large 
heated chamber directly under a cu- 
pola. 

The addition now being built to 
the Glockner Sanatorium, Colorado 
Springs, Col., provides sleeping 
porches and a system of baths between 
the rooms for the accommodation of 
the better class of tubercular patients. 
The sides of sleeping porches are provided with sashes 
which slide down into pockets, and adjustable shades are 
used inside to regulate the light. The doors between 
rooms and sleeping porches are, as in the Agnes Memorial 
Home, made wide enough for beds or cots to pass through. 
The floors of corridors are deafened by means of a double 
set of joists, clear of each other. 

The plan of the proposed Sanatorium, Cragmor, Colo- 
rado Springs, was prepared according to directions of the 
late Dr. S. Edwin Solly and is designed to accommodate 
the best class of patients, and as the climate of Colorado 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



181 



y 



is peculiarly favorable to the open-air treatment, the 
sleeping porches have governed the idea of the scheme. 
The building will face southwest. 

The center portion of the building contains on the 
first floor mainly administrative and public rooms, and 
the two upper stories, patients' rooms. The wings are 
two story and contain patients' rooms, nurses' rooms and 
dietary kitchens. 

The unit of patient's suite 
consists of a sleeping porch, 
private bath and a room with 
a fireplace, — this latter being 
a dressing-room rather than a 
bedroom, — the idea being that 
patients will sleep on the porch. 
Cross ventilation to the rooms 
is obtained by the windows on 
the two sides, and each bath- 
room has a special ventilating 
flue. To prevent stagnation of 
air in the inner corners of sleep- 
ing porches, vent flues in side 
walls are proposed. To reduce 
to the minimum the disturbance 
of one patient by the coughing 
of another, the sleeping porches 
are separated both vertically and 
horizontally. No porch is built 
over another, and none adjoin, 
each having aroom intervening. 

The Cottage Sanatorium at Cragmor, Colorado 
Springs, is an attempt at a compromise between the san- 
atorium on hospital lines and the plan of a central build- 
ing with single hut or tent accommodations for patients. 
It consists of the central administrative building with 
cottages for men and women placed on either side at 
moderate distances from central building and from each 
other and is possible of extension by simply repeating 
the cottage buildings. 

The problem lay in determining the arrangement and 
the number of patients to be accom- 
modated in the cottage unit and to 
obtain sleeping porches with two open 
sides. Each cottage is two stories in 
height, the rooms have all good direct 
light and are intended for dressing- 
rooms rather than bedrooms. No at- 
tempt has been made to obtain com- 
plete isolation of sleeping porches, 
and so far no complaints have been 
made of the coughing of one patient 
disturbing another. Should this occur, 
patients so disturbing could be located 
in the second-story corner suites. The 
sides of porches are provided with ad- 
justable curtains. The scheme has been largely experi- 
mental, and therefore the utmost economy was observed 
in construction, — the central building, for instance, being 
an old cottage re-modelled and extended. All the build- 
ings are frame, and the heating is by hot-air furnaces. 
At present the principal accommodations are two cot- 
tages containing eight rooms each. 

In the Nordrach Ranch Sanatorium, Colorado Springs, 



J Mn Rita' Quart ERA Die 



D'tiinc Roon 

Munac-s! Quarters Dietary 
Kitcmem l> Toilet R*s 

i 




SUGGESTIONS FOR A SANATORIUM PLAN. 
MacLaren & Thomas, Architects. 




TYPICAL PLAN OF PATIENTS SUITES, GLOCKNER 
SANATORIUM, COLORADO SPRINGS, COL. 

George M. Brvson, Architect. 



Col., patients' accommodations are provided entirely in 
tents and the open-air treatment is here carried out to its 
fullest extent. The following description is by Dr. John 
E. White, President and Medical Director: 

" The tent colony at the Nordrach Ranch Sanatorium 
begins about 75 feet from the central building and con- 
sists of nine 25-foot terraces, 200 feet long, running par- 
allel to each other. Each terrace 
accommodates eight Nordrach 
tents, 25 feet apart. The ter- 
races are supported with rough 
stone walls and with the ce- 
ment sidewalks, trees, lawns 
and flower gardens, a very at- 
tractive effect is secured. The 
nurses' tents are located in the 
village of tents and at the head 
of every bed is an electric bell 
which is connected with the 
nurses' tents. There is also a 
system of private telephones 
connecting the various depart- 
ments, one of which communi- 
cates with the doctor's tent. In 
one corner of the tent colony 
there is a two-story frame build- 
ing containing janitor's room, 
outside lavatories for men and 
women, together with coal and 
woodbins. It is only possible 
to carry out the open-air.treatment to its fullest extent in 
a well-constructed tent. The ordinary type is not suffi- 
cient, — there is not enough ventilation through the 
canvas itself to supply the required amount of fresh air. 
A tent must have special ventilating features. The Nor- 
drach tent is octagonal in shape, with shingle roof, oiled 
floor and strong army canvas on the sides. A galvanized 
stationary ventilator, shaped somewhat like an umbrella, 
fits into the apex of the tent and can be opened or closed 
by means of a damper controlled by a cord fastened 
usually to the head of the bed. In ad- 
dition there are two good-sized win- 
dows in each tent on opposite sides 
of the octagon. The furnishings are 
the same as would be used in a 
chamber in the house, namely, a 
white iron bed, plenty of soft, warm 
bedding, a bureau, toilet table, rugs, 
chairs and a stove. The wardrobe 
washstand is built into the tent itself. 
The fires are built by the attendants 
before patients go to their tents at 
night and the ventilators are closed 
until after retiring when they are 
opened and all have a deep, refresh- 
ing sleep, with scarcely a cough, whereas if patients 
were in the closed rooms of houses they would probably 
cough all night. The fires are built again in the morn- 
ing before patients arise, and tents are warmer and 
more comfortable than the rooms in most houses. The 
strongest winds never make the least impression on the 
tents, as their octagonal shape renders it impossible for 
the wind to get a purchase upon them. Our tent life is 



182 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



more than satisfactory in every way, and the results that 
we are obtaining are very gratifying." 

The Nordrach tent illustrated while not exactly like 
the one in use there follows closely its design but is 
modified in construction with a view to making it a per- 
manent and as nearly as possible fireproof structure 
and requires only periodical renewal of the canvas sides. 

A steel frame work of Ts and angles is proposed, with 
hollow ventilated roof of gypsum slabs covered with as- 
bestos shingles. The floor is formed of monolith. The 
flue from stove is hollow concrete construction. In all 
other respects it is similar to that described by Dr. White. 

Groups of these tents could with advantage be steam 
heated from a central system, and not only eliminate the 
smoke from the colony but practically the only danger 
from fire. 

The following is a description of the Gardiner Sana- 
tory Tent by Dr. C. F. Gardiner: 

"The tent is 
of dark khaki "'"'TM^™ 7 ' 

twelve-ounce FLRtt 8c \ SfC7 

duck, stretched 
over an eight- 
sided framework 
of wood, without 
any center pole 
and without pegs 
and guyropes, so 
that it stands 
firm, like a house. 
The floor is 
raised eight 
inches from the 
ground, and is in 
sections so that 
it can be easily 
moved. The 
lower edge of the 
wall is fastened 
several inches 
below the floor 
and one inch out 
from it all 
around. This is 
to insure at all 

times an inflow of air that is gradual and without 
draughts, since this inch space in a circular tent repre- 
sents an area of 520 square inches, and the hole in the 
top for overflowing air has an area of some 177 square 
inches. In this way the tent cannot be closed and is 
ventilated automatically and constantly. There are 
small shutters so constructed that they can partially 
close the opening from within the tent in case of very 
high winds. The opening at the top of the tent is 
covered by a zinc cone, which can be controlled by 
pulleys and rope within the tent, in stormy weather 
being drawn to within an inch of the tent roof. The 
heating is by a central draught, circular stove, which 
burns either wood or coal and can be so regulated as to 
keep a good fire without care, for ten hours. The 
stove is of such a size as to thoroughly warm the tent 
under any conditions and at the same time it is impos- 
sible to overheat the air or interfere with ventilation. 




The more heat used, the greater the displacement of 
heated air upward, and a more rapid interchange of air 
at once occurs. As the heated air can escape at the 
top, the fresh air can always enter at the bottom of tent. 
This is automatic and is not under the control of the 
invalid. A small window, which does not open is used 
in these tents. It is placed horizontally and is 1 foot by 
6 feet. The floor being about eight inches from the 
ground there is very little fear of dampness. It is, of 
course, more comfortable and practical for an invalid to 
live in tents during the winter in a climatic dry belt such 
as Colorado, Mexico, Arizona and some parts of California, 
but they have been used with success in Massachusetts 
Oregon, New York and probably in many other places. 
Sanatory tents, or, if preferred, sanatory tent houses, 
can be used as part of a general sanatorium ; a main 
building being used as a heating, dining and administra- 
tion building, and surrounded by the tents." 

Suggestions 



OTTA/LS OF 



/J//f OUTLET 



*/X '/VLETS 




GARDINER SANATORY TENT. SIZE FIFTEEN FEET. 



for two types of 
plan are here of- 
fered, one being 
a system of de- 
tached cottages, 
and the other 
groups of tents, 
the central build- 
ing and infirmary 
being the same 
in either case. 

Of the cottage 
plan the unit 
would be similar 
to that of Crag- 
mor Cottage San- 
atorium, which 
is two story and 
accommodates 
eight patients in 
all. The cot- 
tages are so 
placed as to cause 
the two open 
sides of each 
sleeping porch 
to face south and east and south and west and the 
rooms behind the sleeping porches are well lighted, es- 
pecially those at either end, which have south and east 
and south and west windows. The aspect of the cottage 
unit having been determined by the foregoing conditions, 
the placing of the units in their relation to each other has 
been governed by the following considerations: far 
enough apart so that the shadow of one will not strike 
the other; ample circulation of air around each cottage; 
clear views and privacy. The entrances to these cottages 
being at the back confines traffic to that side, and thus 
there is the desirable quiet in front of sleeping porches. 
Nurses' quarters and a dietary kitchen are provided with 
each group of five cottages. In certain climates the cot- 
tages could, if necessary, be connected to each other and 
to the central building by a covered way. 

In the plan on tent system, the tents are arranged in 
groups of fifty or sixty as a maximum. Each group of 



.ows/z CJ1P 

00TTSO J.//*£3 ^sTroMf />0J/r/O/Y of 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



183 



tents is arranged around a kind of quadrangle, in the cen- 
ter of which is a small building containing accommoda- 
tions for two nurses, a dietary kitchen, bath and toilet 
rooms. To this building would be connected the bells 
from all the tents in one group. 

Each group would to a certain degree be independent 
of the rest of the institution. The tents are arranged 
with a view to as little interference with each other as 
possible, in regard to air, light or view. The tent sug- 
gested would be the modified Nordrach Tent, as illus- 
trated, 12 feet diameter and 25 feet on centers, with 
windows placed on southeast or southwest faces. 

The cottages or tents would be steam heated from a 



central system. Both cottages and tents are placed on 
radial lines, facilitating supervision, and large future ex- 
tensions are obviously easy. 

The infirmary building for the seriously ill would be 
laid out on the principle of the cottage unit on a larger 
scale. In the central building the rooms frequented by 
invalids would have light on the southeast and south- 
west sides. The power house and heating plant would 
be as far removed as practicable from the sanatorium 
proper, and the main entrance and drive thereto would 
be at the back of the building, thus insuring freedom 
from dust and noise, to all the frontages of the build- 
ings. 



The Contagious Hospital. 



BY EDWARD F. STEVENS. 



IN many states there is a law requiring cities or large 
towns to be provided with hospitals for the care of 
contagious diseases. In Massachusetts the statute reads 
(Chapter 75, Section 40): 

" Each city shall establish and be constantly provided, 
within its limits, with one or more isolation hospitals for 
the reception of persons having smallpox or any other 
disease dangerous to the public health. Such hospitals 
shall be subject to the orders and regulations of the 
boards of health of the cities in which they are respec- 
tively situated. A city which, upon request of the state 
board of health, refuses or neglects to comply with the 
provisions of this section shall forfeit not more than five 
hundred dollars for each refusal or neglect." 

Many cities and a few of the larger towns are provided 
with commodious, well-planned contagious hospitals, while 
others are provided with buildings hardly worthy of the 
name of "hospital," and often called "pest houses, "where 
those afflicted with contagious diseases are treated. These 
buildings are usually old houses pressed into service in 
the time of an epidemic, or buildings put up hastily 
under the same pressure, with the argument that when 
they are too much infected they can be burned down. 

Some suburban towns have excellent? contagious hos- 
pitals, but most of them can care for but two diseases at 
a time, and if there are two cases of scarlet fever and one 
of diphtheria in the hospital patients must be kept in 
separate buildings and attended by separate nurses. 
There must, of course, be a night nurse as well as a day 
nurse for each disease. If, while these two or three iso- 
lated cases are in the hospital, several cases of measles or 
erysipelas develop in the town and ask admission to the 
hospital, these newer cases must either have separate build- 
ings or the older cases must be bundled out and, after a 
thorough disinfection process, the new ones admitted; or 
if a suspected case is brought in the patient may be kept 
in the suspect ward for a day or two, then placed in the gen- 
eral ward with others who have the disease he is supposed 
to have, only to find after another day that there was a mis- 
take in the diagnosis, but too late to prevent infection. 

To guard against this last named difficulty and to 
provide for the major and what might be called the 
minor contagious diseases, the present policy would call 
for a building with maximum capacity for each disease 
and sufficient suspect wards for each department, each 
with its own diet, toilet, linen and medicine rooms; also a 



separate department for each sex. With the larger city 
hospitals this can and should be carried out. But for 
the town supporting a 50-75-bed general hospital and 
with a need of a maximum 18-20 beds for all contagious 
diseases such subdivision is impossible. How then can 
the smaller communities provide adequate and safe care 
for those intrusted to them? 

The question has often arisen in the mind of the 
writer, as it has doubtless with thousands of others, if 
the attending physician can safely go from scarlet fever 
to diphtheria, from measles to typhoid, from smallpox to 
pneumonia, from one house to another, with apparently 
perfect safety to the other patients, why cannot a nurse 
or an attendant, with the same precaution, attend to the 
wants of patients with different contagious diseases? 
This was never satisfactorily answered until the writer, 
visiting a hospital in Paris designed by Dr. Louis 
Pasteur,— was shown a man ill with African sleeping 
disease while in the adjoining bed was a man with 
erysipelas, adjoining this a boy with scarlet fever, all 
separated by glass partitions but visible and under the eye 
of the attending nurse. Next to these patients wasa three- 
bed ward with three boys convalescing from diphtheria, 
and so on around the entire building, holding some 
eighteen or twenty patients, all visible from the main 
corridor yet separated from it and from each other. 

The patient is taken directly to any room and whatever 
the development of the disease is completely isolated from 
all others. The nurse on entering the door puts on the 
gown kept in that room, covering her other clothes and her 
hair. After attending to the wants of the patient she 
thoroughly cleanses her hands at the sink which is in 
each room, removes her gown, taking all precaution and 
observing all the rules of antisepsis. Should a patient 
desire a bath the portable tub is wheeled into the room, 
which is filled from the taps at the sink. The tub is after- 
wards sterilized and ready for the next patient. 

In the same way the food is taken into the room and 
after the meal all dishes are sterilized before going back 
to the diet kitchen shelves. 

The general rule of the town and city boards of health 
is to form a "dead line " around the hospital, forbidding 
anyone to venture beyond "this sign." Not so the Pas- 
teur Hospital. A narrow balcony surrounds each build- 
ing and on certain days or hours the friends of patients 



1 84 



T H E BRICKBUI L I) E R 



are allowed to go to the windows 
of the rooms of their friends and 
talk to them and see what their 
condition may be without fear or 
danger from contagion. 

With these practical results be- 
fore him the writer has endeavored 
to work out a small hospital to ac- 
commodate ten to twenty patients 
where those afilicted with one con- 
tagious disease can be cared for 
without danger to those having 
another. 

The plan is to provide for 
twelve to twenty beds, — half male 
and half female. One room admits all patients. 
Here the street clothes are removed, sent down a 
chute to the disinfecting or fumigating room in the 
basement. The patient can be bathed and clothed, 
with the hospital gown, covered with a disinfected 
sheet, placed on the wheel truck and taken to the 




room assigned to him. The admitting 
room is then closed, disinfected and is 
- ready for the next patient. 

In the same way one diet kitchen 
provides food for all and one linen closet 
the linen. The rooms may have all of 
one disease or all different, the only di- 
vision being the division of sexes in the 
two ends of the building. The single 
rooms may be used for either the more 
virulent or suspect cases and the large 
ward for convalescents. In the three 
bedrooms special toilets would be pro- 
vided. Adjoining this building could be 
a small one-story building with kitchen, 
dining-room for nurses, and sleeping and toilet rooms. 
A hospital for contagious diseases was recently 
planned for a near-by city, in which sixteen patients 
will be cared for, and accommodation for four nurses 
is provided on the second floor, the cooking being 
brought from the main kitchen. 




PLAN FOR ISOLATING HOSPITAL BUILDING. 



Edward 1". Stevens. Architect, 




MAIN BUILDING, FREEDMENS HOSPITAL, WASHINGTON, D. C. Price & de Sibour, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



185 



The American Theater — X. 

THE STAGE {continued). 

BY CLARENCE H. BLACKALL. 

rHE accompanying illustrations of an actual rigging 
loft (Figs. 8 and 9) and fly galleries (Fig. 10), will 
serve to make this construction clear. The leading 
blocks in this case are set in light frames on an angle, 
the gridiron itself ending at the leading blocks. The 
illustrations will also give one an idea of the quantity of 
rope required, which is often many miles in total length. 

In the fly gallery illustrated is shown the mechanism 
for operating curtains, which is of a most primitive char- 
acter, consisting simply of three drums operated by man 
power. This is the usual arrangement. There are at 
least three curtains in a theater, the outer one made of 
asbestos or of steel, the next one, which is specifically 
called the main curtain, and a curtain which serves as an 
act drop. Some- 
times a fourth cur- 
tain is added in the 
shape of a black 
velvet drapery in- 
tended to be low- 
ered only when 
quick changes are 
to be made on the 
stage. This is 
really somewhat 
cumbersome and is 
not particularly 
desirable. 

The height from 
the stage floor to the 
rigging l°ft must 
be such that any 
drop or border can 
be lifted entirely 
free from the top of 
the highest scene 
which is likely to be 
set on the stage. 
As a matter of fact 
the higher the 

stage-space the better the stage manager is pleased. Few 
scenes are ever more than twenty-five feet high. Conse- 
quently a height in the clear of fifty feet would seem 
to be sufficient, but sixty is a safe minimum and it -is 
often made as much as seventy-five or one hundred. 
With a proscenium opening of over thirty-five feet and 
a height of gridiron of less than seventy, it is necessary 
to lift the curtain above the top of the gridiron. In this 
case the supports for the sheaves are either furnished by 
the roof beams or bracketed out from the proscenium 
wall. The method of supporting the curtains is pre- 
cisely the same as for the scenery. 

With the arrangements thus described the scenery 
constitutes a dead weight, every pound of which is moved 
by the pull of fly men. In European theaters the scenery is 
almost always counterweighted, and it is becoming quite 
generally the custom to counterweight the scenery in the 
best of the American houses. In such case the leads 



FIG. 



RIGGING LOFT, 



from each scene are brought to a rod on which are 
theaded iron weights, the whole sliding in vertical 
guides against the side wall of the stage, and operated 
by an endless rope attached to the counterweight frame 
and running over pulleys at stage level and at gridiron, 
as shown by Figure n. \ 

In this case the hanging lines are carried over to the 
side wall of stage, not to the pin rail, and a scene can be 
operated from the stage level or from one of the fly gal- 
leries. A simpler but less convenient way is to dispense 
with the continuous hand rope, hitching the lead lines to 
a counter weight at fly gallery level after the scene has 
been hoisted in place and trimmed. This does not allow 
the scene batten to be lowered to the stage, but the scene 
can be hoisted to the gridiron if necessary, and the side 
walls at stage level are kept free of ropes or weights. 

Several attempts have been made to apply hydraulic 
power to the operation of the scenes, and with perfect 
mechanical success, but the cost is very large, and is 

seldom warranted 
by the results. In 
the Metropolitan 
Opera House, New 
York, electricity 
has been applied 
very successfully to 
moving portions of 
the scenery. On 
one of the left fly 
galleries is a series 
of drums, one for 
each of five of the 
lead lines in each 
entrance. Any one 
or more drums can 
be thrown in right 
or left gear with a 
main shaft on which 
is an electric motor. 
At the stage level, 
beside the prompt 
stand, is a small 
switch board with 
colonial theatre, boston. a rheostat handle 

and series of push 
buttons, two for each drum. Pushing a button engages 
a corresponding drum on the fly gallery into the main 
driven shaft, so that the drum will either raise or lower 
the scene, while the rheostat handle starts the motor and 
regulates the speed. Any number of scenes can thus 
be raised or lowered simultaneously or in opposite direc- 
tions. There are two motors and sets of drums, one for 
the curtains and the drops of the first entrance, and one 
for all the rest. This very ingenious mechanism was 
devised and installed by the Elevator Supply and Repair 
Company, and is shown by Figure 12. 

The Hippodrome, New York, also has a limited 
electrical scene operating device. The ropes are led to 
drums on the fly gallery, and the power is transmitted 
from a mainshaft by beveled friction wheels, which are 
thrown in by hand by an operator stationed in the fly 
gallery. This theater also has five electric carriers 
working on overhead trolleys suspended from the grid- 




iS6 



THE BRICKIU'ILDKR. 




iron, used for shift- 
ing heavy pieces of 
scenery. Each has 
a lifting capacity of 
about twelve hun- 
dred pounds. 

In designing a 
proscenium it is 
quite customary to 
keep the actual con- 
structive wall back 
a short distance 
from the curtain 
opening on each 
side, building out 
the lower portion 
of the proscenium 
of iron to withstand 
hard usage and 
carrying up the or- 
nament of the pro- 
scenium opening in 
plaster. If proper 
provision is made 
therefor it is very easy to reserve a space immediately 
over the proscenium arch and in front of the curtain 
ropes, permitting of a light gallery to be thrown across 
from fly gallery to fly gallery. This is often a conven- 
ience in special effects and in repairing defects in the 
curtain mechanism. It is also highly desirable at times, 
to be able to reach the center of the space immediately 
over a border light, and for this purpose, a device which 
is quite common in Europe is sometimes used, consisting 
of a light gallery not over a foot and a half in width 
suspended from the rigging loft by light iron rods, the 
borders being suspended in turn from this bridge, and 
fed electrically by a cable leading out under the bridge. 
The border reflectors take up about a foot and a half. 
Consequently this 
space cannot be 
used for scenery, 
and a bridge of this 
kind might often be 
a great convenience. 

To show the 
complexity of the 
foreign stage as 
compared with the 
American, sections 
are given here (Figs. 
13 and 14) of the 
upper portion of the 
stage of the Court 
Theater, Vienna, 
which is, perhaps, 
the most elabo- 
rately equipped 
stage in the world. 

A stage construc- 
tion known as the 
Asphalia system 
was devised in Vi- 
enna some years 



HEAD BLOCKS, COLONIAL THEATER, BOSTON. 




FIG. IO. FLY GALLERY, COLONIAL THEATER, BOSTON. 



since. The entire 
depth ot the stage 
is divided into sec- 
tions about seven 
feet deep, each sec- 
tion extending the 
whole width of the 
curtain opening and 
one or two feet be- 
yond on each side 
and being sup- 
ported by hydraulic 
plungers so that any 
section of the stage 
could be lifted to 
any desired degree 
or set at any angle. 
Some sections were 
supported on single 
plungers so that a 
piece of flooring 
could be raised and 
then turned to a 
position at an angle 
with the curtain. The only theater in this country which 
has been equipped on this system is the Auditorium at 
Chicago. It is a luxury of stage construction which is 
appreciated to a limited extent by those who have it, but 
the cost is so great and the result in the main is really so 
little with our American methods of scenery building 
that few theater managers care to pay for it. 

The proscenium wall is usually carried down under- 
neath the stage on the curtain line. The projecting 
apron is generally open underneath so that for special 
attractions the orchestra pit can be floored over, extra 
seats put in, and the musicians stowed away under the 
stage. This is a very unsatisfactory arrangement from 
the standpoint of the audience, but means more profit for 

the house and some- 
times has to be en- 
dured. 

< >ne of the most 
remarkable pieces 
of scene building 
was the ship which 
was built for the 
production of L'Af- 
ricaine in the Paris 
Opera House. The 
stage represents a 
cross view of an 
East India liner 
looking towards the 
rear and the ship is 
crowded with hun- 
dreds of people. At 
a given time the 
ship is supposed to 
strike upon a rock 
and cants bodily to 
one side, throwing 
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21 I 



sharp angle. The whole 
floor is framed and bal- 
anced upon a central 
pivot. 

The designing of 
scenery is very largely in 
the hands of specialists 
who have grown up in the 
business. Only rarely is 
scenery designed by an 
architect or one who" has 
made it an artistic study. 
The late E. W. Godwin of 
London was an architect 
who did a lot of very 
interesting scenery for 
Henry Irving. Mr. Frank 
Chouteau Brown has de- 
signed some very credit- 
able scenery for the Castle 
Square Theater, Boston, 
and there are individual 
scene painters throughout 
the country who are 
thoroughly artistic in tem- 
perament and are con- 
stantly trying to do good 
work, but for the most 
part the scenery which is 
inflicted upon the public is 
of very low artistic order. 
The unrealness of the 

stage seems to permeate the artists who do the scenery, 
for seldom are they willing to even copy an architec- 
turally good interior or a bit of real architecture, but 
they seem to delight in impossible moldings, fantastic 
constructions and bizarre combinations 
of color. Only rarely do we find a bit 
of scenery like the ballroom scene in 
Erminie which Francis Wilson drew 
pretty straight from the Royal Belvi- 
dere Palace at Vienna. Ine ase of ope- 
ation, in simplicity of construction and 
in quickness of manipulation our stage 
settings are way ahead of anything 
that is done abroad, but we seldom 
see here the character of artistic work 
in scenery which is so marked a feature 
of the productions of houses like the 
Paris Opera House. 

There is one difficulty with our 
present methods of stage setting. They 
take too much time, or if hurried, the 
details of properties, lights, etc., are 
apt to suffer. There is a device which 
very materially reduces the time re- 
quired between acts and offers some 
most alluring possibilities, namely, the 
revolving stage. This was tried to a 
. limited extent in the old Madison Square Theatre, New 
York, and on a small scale was used a good deal for the 
♦'living pictures" which had such a vogue a few years 
since in the vaudeville houses. It has not yet been fully 




FIG. II. SECTION SHOWING COUNTERWEIGHT FOR SCENERY. 




FIG 12. ELECTRIC SCENE HOISTS. 



worked out in this country, 
but in Germany it has met 
with such favor and suc- 
cess, that it seems more 
than probable that it will 
be adopted into the Amer- 
ican stage traditions, and 
for that reason it deserves 
notice in this connection. 
It is really so simple and 
offers so rational a solution 
of some of the greatest 
difficulties of stage setting 
that for some kinds of 
plays little can be said 
against it. One of the 
best examples of its use 
is afforded by the stage 
of the Deutsche Theater, 
Berlin, a sketch plan and 
section of which are given 
herewith (Figs. 15 and 16) 
largely from memory. 

The revolving portion 
of stage consists of a cir- 
cular platform about three 
inches thick, sunk so the 
top is flush with the main 
stage floor, and mounted 
on rollers running on a flat 
iron track. The plan shows 
a setting from Twelfth 
Night, with two garden scenes and two interiors set at 
the same time, while two more very effective interiors, 
the Duke's palace and Olivia's house, are formed by 
simple pleated drapery dropped in front of the set 
scenes. The whole platform is rotated 
by four men, with the leverage of 
handspikes thrust into sockets in the 
floor. Towards the audience the scene 
is framed by adjustable inner tormen- 
tors, and to change a scene the whole 
stage is simply rotated, in full view of 
the audience. The lighting is one of 
the specially good features of this de- 
vice. Of course sky borders would be 
out of the question, and rows of border 
lights could not be used to advantage 
unless they could be masked by bor- 
ders. Consequently, for the outdoor 
effects, a plain white panorama cloth is 
hung so as to entirely encircle the 
stage, and is illuminated by four arc 
lamps hung as shown by the sketch. 
Behind the inner tormentor drapery is 
a light bridge with a single row of in- 
candescent border lights, also some 
amber spot lights. The white back 
cloth under the arc light takes a pale 
blue tone giving a well nigh perfect illusion of outdoor 
sunlight and blue sky. 

( )ne scene can be set and thoroughly studied by the 
stage manager while an act is before the public, and long 



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I II. 13. TRANSVERSE SECTION OF STAGE, COURT THEATER, VIENNA. 



FIG. 15. SKETCH SECTION, REVOLVING STAGE, 

DEUTSCHE THEATER, MERLIN. 




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FIG 14. CROSS SECTION OF STACK, COURT THEATER, VIENNA. 



THE BRICKBUILDKK 



21 3 



waits can be absolutely avoided 
by this device. It allows a free- 
dom in scene setting and design 
which is not possible with the 
ordinary system, and the cost 
is but trifling, while in prin- 
ciple it is extremely simple. It 
is not applicable to all stage 
conditions, but for small dramas 
and comedies, Shakespeare, 
and, to a more limited extent, 
for some operas it certainly 
offers great possibilities. A 
stage equipped with a revolver 
could at the same time use 
the ordinary setting, when de- 
sired. 



THE situation regarding 
the Equitable's proposed 
1000-foot skyscraper in New ,, I(;> ,£_ 

York City seems to develop 
uncertainties. The plans 

have been approved by the New York City building 
department ; but the Tribune announces that the pro- 
tests of thousands of the Equitable's policy holders 
are causing the officers of the society to hesitate 
before putting $10,000,000 of the policy-holders' money 
into such a structure. "Some of the largest policy 
holders," says that paper, "have submitted to the 
society as an alter- 
native proposal that 
of selling the 
present building 
and site, which are 
valued at anywhere 
from $15,000,000 to 
$20,000,000, and of 
then erecting a 
building much fur- 
ther uptown, at a 
cost for site and con- 
struction of about 
$5,000,000 or $6,- 
000,000, the rest of 
the money to be dis- 
tributed among the 
policy holders. 
This, it is argued, 
would appeal to all 
that conservative 
element of the 
population who con- 
stitute the principal 
body of insured, 
and would prove a 

far more effective advertisement for the society than 
any 100-foot-high building. " 




largest institution of its kind in 
the world. . It is to cover about 
thirty acres of land, and the 
cell-house, which is to harbor 
two thousand prisoners, will be 
surrounded by large air spaces, 
and the height of the building 
will be restricted to four tiers, 
instead of eight or ten tiers, as 
has been the custom. The aim 
in the construction will be to 
make the new prison spacious, 
airy, well lighted, to provide it 
with modern sanitary devices, 
and to safeguard in every way 
the health of its inmates. The 
contrast with existing institu- 
tions of its sort will be almost 
startling. The idea in the new 
construction will be not only 
to provide for the security of 
the prisoners, but for their 
comfort and happiness as well 
— something which would have 
been deemed quite out of order in the old days. How 
far an advance is to be marked appears in the fact that 
enameled steel is to be used in the cells and all interior 
walls will be of porcelain enamel, the same as bath tubs. 
Each cell will contain a water-closet, wash basin, running 
water, one bunk for prisoner and steel case for papers. 
The dimension of the cell will be 6 by io feet on the 

floor and 8 feet 6 
inches in height. 



SKETCH PLAN OK REVOLVING STAGE OF 
DEUTSCHE THEATER, BERLIN. 




ELECTRIC BRIDGE, COVENT GARDENS THEATER, LONDON. 



THE French 
Government 
has at last decided 
to put the lower for- 
tifications of Mont 
St. Michel under the 
categoryof "historic 
monuments" and to 
be guarded as such. 
This will preserve 
that unique and 
much visited island 
against the en- 
croachmen t s of 
hotels and cafe's 
that have proposed 
various schemes to 
improve the en- 
trances to their 
property at the ex- 
pense of the beauty 
of the islands. 



T 



HE new Sing Sing prison, which New York State is 
to build in the highlands of the Hudson, is to be the 



EXPERTS anticipate the timber famine for the in- 
dustrial world thirty years hence. Other prophets 
foresee an end to the coal supply and of iron. Happily 
there are other materials of the earth the supply of 
which is not threatened. The making of an infinitude 
of clay products will likely go on forever. 



214 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Annual Convention of the Archi- 
tectural League of America. 

TI 1 E Annual Convention of the Architectural League 
of America was held at Detroit, September 17, [8, 
19. In addition to the regular business sessions the 
delegates were entertained at a banquet tendered them 
by the Detroit Architectural Club which had in charge 
the arrangements for the convention. Excursions were 
also made to various points of interest about the city. 

Frank C. Baldwin of Stratton & Baldwin, Detroit, 
was elected president for the ensuing year, and Boston 
was selected as the place for the next convention. 

The following committees were appointed : — Educa- 
cation, Prof. Newton A. Wells, Urbana, 111. ; Prof. C. A. 
Martin, Ithaca, N. Y. ; Herman V. Yon Hoist, Chicago. 
Traveling Scholarships, Prof. Percy Ash, Washington, 
D. C. ; Albert G. Skeel and S. G. Gladwin, Cleveland. 
University Fellowships, Prof. Emil Lorch, Ann Arbor, 
Mich.; August G. Headman, Philadelphia; John T. 
Comes, Pittsburg. Publicity and Promotion, Jesse N. 
Watson, St. Louis; Alfred S. Alschuler, Chicago; John 
M. Lyle, Toronto. Architectural Annual, Louis C. New- 
hall. Boston; Charles Mason Remy, Washington, D. C. ; 
L. C. Borie, Philadelphia. 

N. Max Dunning, Chicago, Frank C. Baldwin, 
Detroit, and J. P. Hynes, Toronto, were appointed a 
committee to confer with the American Institute of 
Architects and the Society of Beaux Arts Architects 
with a view of obtaining closer affiliation and cooperation 
in the educational work of these societies. 

The Committee on University Fellowships reported 
that but few applications had been made for the regular 
university scholarships, the reason undoubtedly being 
the lack of adequate general educational preparation. 
The committee called attention to the recommendations 
of last year by the committee on education, which urged 
that all draughtsmen seek to complete the requirements 
for entrance to college, in evening schools or by such 
other means as may be available. 

The report of the Committee on Education was in 
substance as follows: 

Early in the year the committee decided to send out a 
letter embodying the following questions: 

1. Do you think it practicable to arrange the work of 
the office so that draughtsmen who wish to do so may spend 
a certain number of days of each month in pursuit of a 
definite course of architectural studies? 

2. What, in your opinion, would be the best method of 
organizing courses of study to meet the requirements of 
the men whose time is largely occupied with office work? 

3. If such courses could be organized what branches 
of study would best supplement office work to give a well 
rounded training for the practice of architecture? 

4. Do you approve of the "Atelier" system and 
would you be willing to cooperate with the Architectural 
Club in your city or vicinity (a) in giving instruction 
to classes which they may organize, or (b) in giving 
financial aid toward the equipment of an atelier for the 
study of architectural design and-kindred subjects' 

5. If the plan of establishing "ateliers" or classes in 
connection with the architectural clubs of the League 
proves desirable and practicable, do you think that 



periodical competitions organized by the League, possibly 
In conjunction with the A. I. A., in a manner similar to 
the Society of Beaux Arts Architects, might accomplish 
any results not already accomplished by that societ)' 
toward the development of native taste in architectural 
forms and decorations. 

Summary: — In taking up the questions in detail we 
find: 

1 . There is a strong trend of opinion against the 
practicability of allowing draughtsmen to take time out of 
regular office hours for the purpose of study. 

2. It is the opinion of a large majority that such study 
must be pursued outside of office hours; also, that such 
study can never compensate for the lack of regular 
school training. 

3. There is a strong trend of feeling in the profession 
that those men having the natural gifts of will and 
talent, which are worth cultivating, will overcome the 
difficulties standing in the way of educational training. 
It is also evident from replies received that general 
culture is considered as a first essential to the educational 
equipment of the architect and that those special branches 
of knowledge essential to successful practice of the art 
may be included under three heads, Historical, Theo- 
retical and Technical. 

4. It is shown that more than 75 per cent of the 
replies favor the "Atelier" system as at present organ- 
ized by the Beaux Arts Society. These significant facts 
appear, however; the "Atelier" system presupposes a 
goodly degree of educational training and is best adapted 
to aid in the development of skill in artistic designing 
among draughtsmen who have already acquired what the 
schools can give. 

i. It would seem, from the replies received, that com- 
petitions are considered as a valuable stimulant and aid 
to progress and that there is a large body of draughts- 
men throughout the country to whom the advantages of 
the Beaux Arts competitions are not available because 
of inadequate preparation or insularity of location. 
There is a division of opinion as to the advisability of 
organizing new or independent competitions by the 
League. In any case such competition must necessarily 
appeal to a lower grade of talent and preparation than do 
the competitions of the Beaux Arts Society. 

The report was adopted with the following recom- 
mendations: 

That the clubs put their energy to the stimulating of 
an enthusiastic activity among its members, which will 
banish from the club rooms the commercial spirit and 
establish a closer relationship between the older and the 
younger members. 

That this can best be accomplished by the "Atelier" 
system of working, in which the older men give their 
time and energy to teaching the younger men by criti- 
cism, or working shoulder to shoulder with them. 

That the education of draughtsmen should include a 
thorough training in design and in historical and techni- 
cal knowledge, and to this end establish club "ateliers" 
and maintain and require attendance upon classes in con- 
struction, history of architecture and free-hand drawing 
from cast and life. 

On the (question of education which seemed to be the 

(Continued on page 2ij .) 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



215 



STANDARD ARCHITECTURAL BOOKS — III. 
Historical Material by Place, Period and Style. 



Middle Ages. 

NOTWITHSTANDING the prodigious mass of liter- 
ature which is constantly appearing on the general 
subject of mediaeval art Viollet-le-Duc's great Diction- 
naire still leads the field. Not only is it an inexhaust- 
ible treasury of information ; it is also a strong book by 
a great writer, who appreciated fully the force of 
the historic movement which he did so much to make 
intelligible. 

Emile Male, Professor of the History of Christian 
Art, Sorbonne, Paris. L'Art religieux du Xllle siecle 
en France; Etude sur l'iconographie du Moyen Age et sur 
ses sources d'inspiration. Ouvrage couronne' par l'Aca- 
demie des inscriptions et belles-lettres (Prix Fould). 
New ed. Paris, Armand Colin, 1902; 4to (.275 x.22 x 
.035), 4 + 408 p., 127 ill.; 20 francs. There is danger that 
the student, in considering medieval architecture, may 
treat it as an isolated phenomenon, and not as part of a 
world movement, into the temperament of which it is 
difficult for the modern mind to enter. An occasional look 
into Male's book will assist in the prevention of this lim- 
itation of sympathy. 

William Henry Goodyear, Director of the Art Depart- 
ment of the Brooklyn Institute. Vertical Curves and 
other Architectural Refinements in the Gothic Cathedrals 
and Churches of Northern France and in the Early 
Byzantine Churches at Constantinople. Brooklyn Insti- 
tute of Arts and Sciences Museum — Memoirs of Art and 
Archaeology ; vol. 1, No. 4; pamphlet. In a list of books 
on Mediaeval Architecture we should certainly mention the 
great accomplishment of Professor Goodyear in his 
study of Architectural Refinements in medieval build- 
ings. Of the, large amount of matter, however, which he 
has published, the greater part has appeared in period- 
icals and not in separate books. This pamphlet will serve 
to introduce a most important subject. It is hoped that 
a definite book will appear soon. 

Barr Ferree, Member of the Socie"te' de l'histoire de 
France, Paris, author of several works on architecture. 
The Chronology of the Cathedral Churches of France. 
New York, privately printed from the Architectural Rec- 
ord, 1899; 8vo, pamphlet, 36 p. This little pamphlet 
forms the fourth part (vol.3, p. 387) of a series of articles 
on French Cathedrals published by the author in the 
Architectural Record. (Vol. 2-8, 1892-1899.) Any chro- 
nology of mediaeval architecture must be more or less 
conjectural, but this attempt is, doubtless, as accurate as 
any, and in its tabulated form is convenient. 

Bell's Handbooks to Continental Churches. Six mono- 
graphs uniform with the English Cathedral series; cloth, 
2.s. 6d. For description of these books see the English 
Cathedral series to follow. 

George Edmund Street (b. 1824 d.1881) F. S. A., F. 
R. I. B. A., Architect of the New Law Court in Lon- 
don. Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages, Notes of a 
Tour in the North of Italy. Second edition, London, 
John Murray, 1874; 8vo (.23 x . 1 15 x .045), 26 + 415 p., 
ill., 63 pi., tables; 26 shillings. This is far from being a 
technical treatise on the architecture of Northern Italy. 



It is rather a memoir of many vacation trips in the region ; 
giving the impressions of a great architect upon many 
matters, not exclusively architectural. Even among 
more modern special works on the region there is little 
criticism more valuable. 

John Ruskin (b. 1819, d. 1900). The Stones of Venice. 
The usual bibliographical description is omitted. Un- 
less the collector can indulge in one of the fine English 
editions printed under the author's direction, it does not 
much matter which of the many reprints he acquires. 
It is difficult to read Ruskin in these days; the world 
has outgrown his peculiar type of mind, but the fact 
remains that of the many able men of his generation, 
who helped to rescue and preserve the remnants of me- 
diaeval art, Ruskin had the keenest appreciation of their 
finest qualities. His best criticism of mediaeval archi- 
tecture is as fine as any, and some of his best is in the 
two books mentioned in this list. 

John Ruskin. The Seven Lamps of Architecture. 
See note to Ruskin's Stones of Venice. 

Edmund Sharpe (b. 1809, d. 1877), M. A., F. R. I. B. A., 
architect and author of several important works on archi- 
tecture. The Seven Periods of English Architecture 
defined and illustrated. Third edition, London, Spon , 
1888; 4 to (.25 x.155 x .015), 15 + 37+ 1 p., ill., 22 pi.; 
15 shillings. Rickman's " Attempt to discriminate the 
Styles of English Architecture " has not been included 
in this list because, good as it is, his classification is 
superseded by this of Sharpe. The form of Sharpe's 
book is excellent, a careful description in text, and then a 
series of beautiful plates giving inside and outside views 
of one bay each from recognized models of the different 
styles. 

Edmund Sharpe. A treatise on the Rise and Progress 
of Decorated Window Tracery in England. London, 
Van Voorst, 1849; 8vo (.225 x .195 x .02), 2 vols, in 1, 
ill., 66 pi. Volume 2 has title: Decorated Windows, a 
scries of illustrations of the Window Tracery of the 
Decorated Style of Ecclesiastical Architecture. The 
two vols., bound together in half morocco were sold 
in 1849 for 1 8s. 6d. Sharpe's Decorated Window 
Tracery is an earlier book than the Seven Periods 
but hardly less important. It has the same extreme 
clearness of presentation both in the text and in the 
excellent steel plates. 

Francis Bond, M. A., Honorary Associate of the Royal 
Institute of British Architects. Gothic Architecture in 
England; an Analysis of the Origin and Development 
of English Church Architecture from the Norman Con- 
quest to the Dissolution of the Monasteries. London, 
B. T. Batsford, 1905; 4to (. 27 x . 195 x .06) ; 2 + 782 p., 
1254 ill. ; comprising 785 photographs, sketches and meas- 
ured drawings, and 469 plans, sections, diagrams and 
moldings; cloth 31 s. 6 d., net. 

Bond's Gothic Architecture has many interesting char- 
acteristics. The merely historical part is brief and in the 
rather rigid but useful form of a chronology. The 
greater part of the book is made up of careful discus, 
sions of various features, as vaults, choirs, transepts, 
moldings, tracery, etc. These, with the abundant and 
competent indexes, give the book the character of a 
thorough encyclopedia of English Gothic Architecture. 
Mrs. Schuyler van Rensselaer, author of Henry Hob- 



2l6 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 



son Richardson and His Works, etc. English Cathedrals ; 
Canterbury, Peterborough, Durham, Salisbury, Lichfield, 
Lincoln, Ely, Wells, Winchester, Gloucester, York, Lon- 
don, illustrated with i 54 drawings by Joseph Pennell, also 
with plans and diagrams. New York, the Century Co., 
1892; 4to (.275 x .19 x .045), 29 + 395 p., ill.; cloth, 
$6.00. This book is frankly the work of an amateur for 
amateurs, but the English Cathedrals invite this sort of 
sympathetic treatment, and the extraordinary series of 
illustrations by Joseph Pennel present the most delight- 
ful impression of the picturesqueness of English Gothic 
which is to be found in any book. 

Edward S. Prior, M. A. A History of Gothic Art in 
England, with illustrations by Gerald C. Horsley, and 
many plans and diagrams. London, George Bell & Sons, 
1900; 4to (.285 x .2 x .04), 14 + 465 p., ill.; cloth, 3rs. 
6d., net. An interesting manual with good maps and plans. 

Bell's Cathedral Series. English Cathedrals; an Itin- 
erary and Description ; compiled by J. G. Gilchrist, A. M., 
M.I). ; revised and edited, with an introduction on Cathe- 
dral Architecture by Rev. T. Perkins, M. A., F. R. A. S. ; 
with thirty-three Monographs on the Cathedrals, and 
eight Monographs on Abbeys and Churches. London, 
George Bell & Sons, series current; 8vo (. 19 x . 13 x .01 ) : 
profusely illustrated, plans, etc.; cloth, is. 6d. each. 
These little monographs of the Bell series are extremely 
convenient and thorough. If not the entire series a se- 
lection is within the reach of any library. 

Charles Eliot Norton, Professor Emeritus in the His- 
tory of Art, Harvard University. Historical Studies of 
Church Buildings in the Middle Ages; Venice, Siena, 
Florence. New York, Harper & Bros., 1880; 8vo (.23 x 
. 16X.04), 6 + 331 p. ; cloth, $3.00. Professor Norton's 
book on the three great mediaeval churches of Italy, St. 
Mark's in Venice and the cathedrals of" Siena and Flor- 
ence, is a broad and sympathetic survey of historical con- 
ditions which surrounded the conception and construction 
of these buildings. It is most scholarly and interesting. 

George Edmund Street. Some account of Gothic 
Architecture in Spain. Second ed. ; London, John 
Murray, 1869; 8vo (.24 x .165 x .05), 14 + 527 p., ill.; 
30 shillings. There are several works with abundant 
photographic illustrations of Spanish architecture, but 
none of them take the place of this fine English book by 
an architect greatly esteemed in his day. 

Renaissance. 

William J. Anderson. The Architecture of the Re- 
naissance in Italy, a general View for use of Students and 
others. Second ed. revised and enlarged ; London, B. T. 
Batsford, 1898; 8vo (235 x .16 x .035), 18 + 1 + 135 p. 
with 64 collotypes and other plates and 98 ill. ;.cloth, 12s. 
6d. net. Anderson's Renaissance does for its chosen 
style and period a work similar to that accomplished 
by Moore's Gothic Architecture in its sphere. It is a 
necessity in any library, and in many small collections 
will do the greater part of the work. With d'Espouy to 
supplement its illustrations, the period is well covered. 

Marie-Dcsire-Hector-Jean-Baptiste d'Espouy. Frag- 
ments d'Architecture du Moyen Ageetde la Renaissance 
d'apres les releves et restaurations des anciens pension- 
naires de l'Academie de France a Rome. Paris, Charles 
Schmid, without date ( 1897) ; small fol. (.45 x .34 x .045), 



4 + 5P, 100 pi. ; 150 francs. The notes on the Fragments 
d'Architecture Antique of d'Espouy apply very well to 
the present work. During the second and third years of 
their pensionnate in Rome the winners of the Grand Prix 
in architecture are obliged to send studies of mediaeval 
and Renaissance architecture to Paris. From the accu- 
mulation of these Professor d'Espouy has made this use- 
ful selection. 

Cesar-Denis Daly (b. 181 1, d. 1894), Editor of the 
Revue General de l'Architecture. Motifs historique 
d'Architecture et de Sculpture d'Ornament. First series, 
Choix de fragments empruntes a des Monuments francais 
du commencement de la Renaissance a la fin de Louis 
XVI. Second series, Decorations inte'rieures empruntees 
a des e'difices francais du commencement de la Renais- 
sance a la fin de Louis XVI. Paris, Ducher et Cie., 
1870-1880; fol. (.45 x .34 x .045), 2 ser. in 4 vols., ill., 398 
pi. ; 300 francs, unbound. To cover the period from the 
end of the Gothic to the beginning of the modern eras in 
France, there is nothing better than the Motifs Histor- 
iques. Daly selected the most characteristic and beau- 
tiful features of the French Renaissance and the styles 
of the four Louis, engraved them beautifully and ar- 
ranged them in such order as to present the chronologi- 
cal development. 

Claude Sauvageot, Director of l'Art Pour Tous. Pal- 
ais, Chateaux, Hotels et Maisons de France du XV« 
siecle. Paris, Morel, 1867; small fol. (.395 x .29 x .045), 
4 vols., ill., 294 pi. ; $60, unbound. It may be said quite 
truly that the French Renaissance appears at its best in 
the minor buildings, which developed during the reigns 
of the kings from Francois I to Louis XIII. These 
buildings are full of charming details which are sug- 
gestive in their application to modern work. The best 
collection is this of Sauvageot. 

Charles Thompson Matthews, M. A., architect. The 
Renaissance under the Valois, a sketch in French Archi- 
tectural History. New York, William T. Comstock, 
1893; fol. (.435 x .335 x .03), 23 p., ill.; cloth, $15. 
This monograph of Mr. Matthews is by an architect 
for architects, and quite useful. 

Lady Emilia Frances (Strong) Pattison Dilke (b. 1840, 
d. 1904). Author of the Renaissance in France, etc. 
French Architects and Sculptors of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. London, George Bell & Sons, 1900; 4to (.2<) x 
.2 x .04), 17 t-217 p., 42 pi.; cloth, 28 shillings net. The 
works on later French architecture which we recom- 
mend have been mainly technical, appealing to the 
architect and practical designer. We may introduce a 
book in a lighter historical tone. The eighteenth century 
should be studied more than it is by American architects. 
The literature of the subject is large, but for the most 
part beyond the limits of our present endeavor. 

John Belcher, A. R. A., and Mervyn E. Macartney. 
Later Renaissance Architecture in England, a series of 
Examples of the domestic Buildings erected subsequent 
to the Elizabethan period, with introductory and descrip 
tive text. London, Batsford; New York, Scribner's, 1901 ; 
fol. (.49 x .385 x .045), 2 vols., 153 ill., 170 pi- ; $45 un- 
bound. The English country house found a style well 
adapted to its necessities in the fine classic type with 
which the work of Belcher and Macartney is chiefly 
concerned. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



217 



THE ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE ARCHI- 
TECTURAL LEAGUE OF AMERICA. 

(Continued from page 2/4) 

most important subject before the convention, we quote 
some of the remarks made by the delegates: 

Louis C. Newhall {Boston). "The most important 
thing is that of education. The League is made up of 
the younger men, and the educational work should be 
more or less under the direction of the Architectural 
League of America and the Beaux Arts Society of New 
York, and perhaps some of the members of the American 
Institute of Architects. I think the Institute should repre- 
sent the professional end of it, so that membership in the 
Institute should be an honor to be conferred for accom- 
plishment. We should have a definite qualification for 
our membership in the League, and no man should be 
admitted unless he has had a certain amount of education 
along certain lines, and then when he has attained that 
education he will be in a position to take advantage of 
what the League may be able to give him." 

John M. Lyle (Toronto). "Speaking as a Beaux Arts 
man I may say that the difficulty we have to contend 
with is in the small towns. It seems to me that the 
Beaux Arts system of education has accomplished some- 
thing in the way of education, and has by the com- 
petitive brought the weak and the strong men together, 
and it has been found that the strong man will pull the 
weaker man up with him always, but such an advantage 
is hard to get in the small town. It works all right in 
the larger cities. The Beaux Arts Society has been criti- 
cised as trying to bring French architecture to America. 
I do not think the members of the society have that 
idea at all ; the idea is to establish the Beaux Arts System 
of training here, not the architecture. It seems to me 
that as Americans we have always had strong personali- 
ties, but never any great number of men working 
together in the same ideas. If you have too much indi- 
viduality you are going to have pandemonium, and I 
think the League should put itself on record as working 
along some certain lines." 

Emil Lorch (Ann Arbor). "There is no doubt 
that when it comes to teaching, the Beaux Arts Society 
is doing it the best of any society in the world, but is 
that the way we are going to get American architecture? 
In other words, if we take the architecture of Greece and 
the architecture of Rome, will we have out of it an 
American architecture in time? I say we cannot. We 
want to foster something that is really our own, and we 
must not forget that we, like the old Gothic architects, 
stand on the brink of an era." 

Herman V. Von Holst (Chicago). " I am very vitally 
interested in education as it touches the nature of archi- 
tecture. I think well of the Beaux Arts system, where 
all the big men and the little men get together and where 
it is the practice of the big men to uplift the smaller 
minds; that to me is the essential process of education 
among human beings, and I detest any reference to the 
establishment of any system of education wherein such 
a thing as examinations occurs; it suggests a thing that 
is un-American. I do not like any suggestion of a system 
of education that will put out a sort of examination that 
men must cram for before they can accomplish anything, 
and so I welcome that little hint as to the method of the 
Beaux Arts Society, and I am heartily in favor of trying 



to do something, as a member of this League, to system- 
atize the educational efforts, that a man's ability may be 
recognized, and a mark put upon him — a certificate, if you 
like — to show what he is capable of. Of course we all 
understand that we must have some foundation of edu- 
cation, that a man must know something of the higher 
.-nathematics, but with all this, I say let us be careful not 
to establish a system of examination that will make a 
man purely mechanical as an architect. 

" Architecture, according to my idea is the most diffi- 
cult branch of work that a human being can attempt, 
because all work, all architecture, if it is perfect, must 
be a perfect organism, which is a perfect unit. The 
trouble now with our draughtsmen is that we have to 
keep them shut up in stuffy offices, possibly, working by 
electric light all day, and they do not get out into the 
open, into the parks, etc., except, possibly, on Saturday 
or Sunday, and with these constant surroundings where 
can they get the true inspiration for their work ? I think 
that the local clubs should, in the education which they 
may establish, try to give the members, and cultivate in 
the members a love of the out-door nature, and a healthy 
feeling for it, and keep their own individuality alive by 
joining the communities in trying to solve the problems 
for better and more beautiful cities, which are the prob- 
lems that all important cities in this country are setting 
themselves to-day." 

J. P. Hvnes ( Toronto). " You started out to discuss 
the responsibility of this organization to education, and 
that means we must fasten it down to some responsi- 
bility of the clubs. Up to the present we have recog- 
nized no foundation on which to build professional 
knowledge ; some suggest a certain amount of office work, 
others contact with architectural clubs, and I think that 
everyone will recognize that we will not get it in this 
way. It is the first duty of the architectural body to see 
that a systematic education is laid at the start, and then 
they may possibly be able to solve all the other questions. 
In that respect I feel that this League and the clubs that 
compose it have this very first duty to perform, but I 
contend that it is not the duty of these clubs to supply 
an architectural education for the community. The 
clubs should take up some part of the Beaux Arts Society 
training after they have a scientific and historical knowl- 
edge on which to work. If we are to establish a national 
style we must start on some educational basis first." 

Prof. Newton A. Wells (Urbana). "The schools 
have their field of endeavor, they must be technical and 
they must give a general education; there is the high 
school, the college, the university, and the technical 
school, which teaches the higher mathematics and also 
teaches th'e rudiments of design, but all that is educa- 
tional work that should precede the work of the Beaux 
Arts Society. There is, however, another class of men, 
located in our various clubs, who have not yet risen to 
the point, perhaps, where they are competent to enter the 
Beaux Arts competitions. What we want to get at is 
what to do and how best to do it, to pull along with the 
Beaux Art Society and not to tread on its ground, and I 
think we should keep in mind that the League is made 
up of young men, beginners, and that we have the Insti- 
tute always to look forward to; that we should not rival 
it in its branch of the work, but willingly take our place 
in the world's work and do what we can." 



2l8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment and 
Miscellany 



THE GREAT DAILIES ARE LENDING A HAND. 

A NET loss from business failures in the United States 
of $252,000,000 in a year would create a panic. A 
decrease in the value of all of the agricultural products 
of the country for a year amounting to $252,000,000 would 
lessen the purchasing power of the people and handicap all 
industry and commerce. Carelessness which would result 
in the loss of a quarter of a billion dollars from the United 
States treasury would be a crime inconceivable. But the 
losses by fire in the United States during the past four 
years have averaged $252,000,000 each twelve months, and 




CHAPIN & GORE BUILDING, CHICAGO. 
Richard Schmidt, Architect. 

the daily record of firescontinues without receiving special 
consideration, except as there may be some startling 
features that attract passing interest. A great conflagra- 
tion startles the people and rouses them to some inquiry 
as to causes and preventives. Public sentiment in the 
mass is stirred and legislative bodies respond with stat- 
utes and ordinances of salutary intent. But the fires still 
continue. There is little diminution of the monthly rec- 
ord of loss. The minor fires are as numerous as ever and 
the greater losses come with startling regularity. Fifty 
per cent of these fires are due to carelessness. The 
Americans, showing the virtue of vigilance as a mass, are 
not heeding the warning as individuals. 

The American insurance underwriters have repeatedly 
sought to avert this unnecessary waste. The National 




t'OMMERCIAL I1LOCK, NEWBURY STREET AND MASSACHUSETTS 

AVE., BOSTON. 

Bowditcb & Stratton, Architects. 

Fire Protection Association, originally organized by in- 
surance interests, is an active force in the interest of fire 
prevention, investigating important fires and giving pub- 
licity to facts for educational and warning purposes. 
With the continued increase in annual fire loss, the un- 
derwriters have foreseen the time when insurance rates 
would rise and when, in fact, insurance might become im- 
possible. That is not an exaggerated fear. The San 
Francisco calamity forced several insurance companies 
out of business. In the last fifty years 1000 insurance 
companies in the United States, or more than three times 







COMMERCIAL BLOCK, HANOVER AND UNION STREETS, BOSTON. 
Wheelwright & Haven, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



219 



the number of existing companies, have been 
forced to withdraw. In the last ten-year period 
the insurance business shows an underwriting loss 
of 4% per cent of the premiums received. How 
long will capital be attracted to the insurance 
business, with its constantly increasing hazard and 
loss? The American underwriters have made no 
prediction, but much significance is attached to 
the attitude of the foreign companies, who in the 
past have carried a large amount of American in- 
surance. From time to time they have been nar- 
rowing the limits of their risks. Now it is said 
that European companies are becoming so alarmed 
over the increasing losses in the United States that 
they are seriously contemplating withdrawal from 
this country. A recent semi-official statement 
from these quarters is attracting attention among 
property owners. Investigation of the facts as 
shown by the records indicates that the foreign in- 
surance interests are not unnecessarily alarmed. 
The loss in the San Francisco conflagration was 
$350,000,000. If a fire in the congested portion of 
New York city should cover an area as large as 
that of the San Francisco fire, it is estimated that 
every insurance company doing business in the 





CORRIDOR IN THE HUDSON TERMINAL BUILDINGS. 

Showing use of Guastavino glazed tile for ceiling. 



HUDSON TERMINAL BUILDINGS, NEW YORK. 

Clinton & Russell, Architects. 

Upper walls of architectural terra cotta, gray interspersed with reddish hue. 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Co., Makers. 

country would be put out of business. 
But is such a conflagration impossible' 
Is New York city free from danger 
spots, or is its fire fighting apparatus 
equal to any test? 

What are the conditions that exist 
in the average American city? Chelsea 
was swept by fire because for years 
after it had been warned of the danger 
of its "rag district" it tolerated the 
tinder box which, once fired, created a 
blaze which no apparatus could quench. 
Unkempt dumps, piles of tinder fire 
traps exist in other cities and invite the 
conflagration fiend, but people refuse 
to recognize the danger. The lack of 
individual responsibility is even more 
marked than is the absence of thought- 
ful and careful public opinion. The 
cigarette butt is still snapped away 
without regard to where it may light. 
The match is thrown down carelessly 
or its snapping head allowed to lie un- 
touched until some bootheel may crush 
and ignite it. Men still hunt gas leaks 
with matches, women pour oil on fires 
to brighten the flame, money rs wasted 
in cheap constructicn under the pre- 
tence of saving it. In scores of ways 
individual carelessness and reckless- 
ness aid the fire fiend. 

Conservation is the problem of the 
future. Man's resources are exhaust- 
ible. The discovery of new resources 
and new forces is not endless. Man 
must learn to save and make the most 
of what he has. Waste must be 



220 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




TOURO INFIRMARY, NEW ORLEANS, LA. Favmt & I ivandias, Architects. 

Brick made by Hydraulic Press Brick Co., St. Louis. 



stopped. It is the problem of life. To save health 
and strength for the later years of activity; to save 
money and goods for the time of famine; to save forests 
against the time of vanishing timber supply. Waste is 
the evil of the day. Conservation is 
the virtue of the future. The prevent- 
able waste of 50 per cent of $252,000,- 
000 a year is a national folly. It is 
worse; it is a national disgrace. — Edi- 
torial from the Boston lit raid. 



BUILDING OPERATIONS FOR 

AUGUST. 

r pHERE is a loss of 10 per cent in 

±. the aggregate building operations 
of forty-two leading cities throughout 
the country, as reported by the Amer- 
ican Contractor^ New York, compared 
with August, 1907 ; the previous months 
of the year all presented a loss except 
July, as follows: January, 44 per cent; 
February, 33 per cent; March, 37 per 
cent; April, 33 per cent; May, 19 per 
cent; June, 15 percent. July showed 
an increase of 3^2 percent. In the re- 
port for August thirteen cities scored a 
gain from 1 to 224 per cent and twenty- 
nine show a loss from 2 to 89 per cent. The principal 
gains are: Chicago, 25 per cent; Denver, 24; Indian- 
apolis, 33; Louisville, 27; Syracuse, 25; Salt Lake City, 
128; San Antonio, 224. 




CHICAGO. 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects 
Made by American Terra Cotta and 
Ceramic Co. 



IX GENERAL. 

Brooklyn's new Academy 
of Music, which has cost 
$1,300,000, was opened to 
the public on September 16; 
six thousand tickets having 
been issued for the occasion. 

The Brotherhood of Loco- 
motive Engineers is to build 
a new home for itself and 




LIVE STOCK PAVILION, INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 

Rubush & Hunter, Architects. 

Roofed with red fire-flashed tile, made by Ludowici-Celadon Co. 



office building' in Cleveland that will represent a total 
outlay of a million dollars. " 

The new Municipal Courts Building to be erected 
near the City Hall of St. Louis will cost about $2,000,000. 
Isaac S. Taylor is the architect. 

The plans of architects Wood, Donn 
& Deming for a large laboratory for 
the National Bureau of Standards in 
Washington are being estimated on. 

Estimates are being submitted for 
the new Public Library, St. Louis, Cass 
Gilbert, architect. The cost of the 
building, not including furnishings, 
will be about a million and a quarter. 

York & Sawyer, as architects for 
John D. Rockefeller, have filed plans 
in New York for the main hospital 
building and isolation annex of the 
Rockefeller Institute for Medical Re- 
search. 

Estimates having been obtained 
upon the completed plans for the new 
Grand Central Station, New York, 
contracts for the superstructure of the 
north wing are being signed. The 
total cost will reach $20,000,000. 

The Chicago & Northwestern Railway is clearing 
four large blocks in Chicago for its magnificent new 
$20,000,000 station, which is to be capable of moving 

250,000 passengers every 
twenty-four hours. 

The big Pullman shops 
near Chicago, it is reported 
are to be razed and rebuilt 
upon an enormous scale for 
the manufacture of steel 
palace cars. Sixty acres are 
to be added to the area of 
the Company's shops and 
this involves the practical 
remaking of the town. 

The disastrous fires re- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



221 



ported at several 
English country seats, 
notably Winston 
Spencer Churchill's 
and Lord Brassey's, 
only go to show that 
fireproof building ma- 
terials can alone pre- 
serve architectural 
beauty as it is found 
in the grandeur of an 
aged pile. 

In the wake of the 
passing Fifth Avenue 




MAIN BUILDING OF MINNESOTA AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL, ST. PAUL. 

Clarence H Johnson, Architect. 

Built of dark seal brown mottled brick, made by Twin City Brick Co. 



tained on application 
to the Director of Ex- 
tension Teaching, 
Columbia University, 
New York City. 

The two special 
scholarships of the Ar- 
chitectural League of 
America in Harvard 
University have been 
awarded to W. H. 
Larsen and George 
Fox. The successful 
competitors are Bos- 



Hotel follows the Everett House, the old and well-known 
hotel on the Union Square Plaza at the Fourth Avenue 
corner. On this site a 1 6-story office and loft building 
is to be erected at a cost of $650,000. The materials 
are to be brick and granite with trimmings of 
limestone and terra cotta. 

Architects Hiss & Weeks have filed plans for 
what is declared the largest apartment house in 
the country. It will occupy the entire block 
bounded by Broadway, Amsterdam Avenue, 
86th and 87th streets in New York. It will be 
twelve stories in height and will contain one 
hundred and seventy-five apartments of from 
nine to twelve rooms each. An important fea- 
ture is the interior courtyard measuring 250 by 

100 feet. The 
building will 
cost about 
$3,000,000. 

Columbia 
University 
will offer at 
night, during 
the year 1908- 
1909, twenty 
evening 
courses spe- 
cially adapted to the 
needs of technical and 
professional workers. 
This includes work in 
applied mechanics, 
applied physics, ar- 
chitecture, electric- 
ity, fine arts, in- 
dustrial chemistry, 
mathematics and 
surveying and struc- 
tures. The work 
begins on October 
26, and continues for 
twenty-five weeks. 
A full description of 
the courses is con- 
tained in the An- 

DETAIL BY WILLIAM STEELE & SONS nouncement of Ex _ 
CO., ARCHITECTS. . m f 

tensionl eachinp- 

New York Architectural Terra Cotta Co., f 

Makers. which may be ob- 





DETAIL BY HILL & 

STOUT, ARCHITECTS. 

South Amboy Terra 

Cotta Co., Makers. 



DETAIL FOR RACQUET CLUB, 

ST. LOUIS. 

Mauran, Russell & Garden, Architects. 

Made by Winkle Terra Cotta Co. 




ton men, Mr. Larsen being in the office of Shepley, Rutan 
& Coolidge, while Mr. Fox is in the office of C. H. 
Blackall. The award was made by Ralph Adams Cram, 
representing the league, and Professor Warren and his 
associates, of the Department of Architecture, 
Harvard University. 

The Committee on University Scholarships 
announces that the Washington University of 
St. Louis, Mo., has granted the League a scholar- 
ship in architecture. This scholarship will en- 
title its holder to four years of free tuition in 
the Department of Architecture of the Washing- 
ton University. Further information relative 
to scholarships can be secured by addressing 
Prof. Emil Lorch, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

The T Square Club of Philadelphia announces 

for the near 

future the 

publication of 

volume two 

of "American 

C o m p e t i - 

tions." The 

splendid re- 
ception given 

volume one 

by architects 
has proven beyond a 
doubt the real value of 
this work ; and the T 
Square Club has an- 
nounced its intention 
to continue the publi- 
cation. The Committee 
which has been ap- 
pointed by the club to 
carry on this work con- 
sists of Adin B. Lacey, 
editor; Alexander M. 
Adams, treasurer; and 
Virgil L. Johnson, cus- 
todian of drawings. 
The character of the 
work will be the same 
as last year, the title spear & company building, 
fully indicating its con- pittsburg, pa. 

tents. The tentative „ Charles Bickel, Architect. 

Front of cream enameled terra cotta, 
list of competitions in- made by Northwestern Terra Cotta Co. 




222 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



eludes for this year the Porto 
Rican Capitol, New York State 
Prison, Y. M. C. A., Pittsburg, 
and the Municipal Office Build- 
ing of the city of New York. 

Architect Eli Benedict will 
conduct the course in plan 
reading and estimating at the 
23d Street Y. M. C. A., New 
York, during the coming sea- 
son. Samples of building 
materials are solicited. 




DETAIL BY CONKLINr.-ARMSTRONG TERRA COTTA 
Parkinson & Bergstrom, Architect--. 



CO. 



Lackey & Davis, architects, have opened an office 
at 304 Market Street, Camden, N. J. Manufacturers 
catalogues and samples desired. 

A partnership has been formed for the practice of 
architecture, to be known as Pond & Booth, between L. 
M. Pond, late of New York City and 
L. L. Booth, late of Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y. Offices are located in Symons 
Block, Spokane, Wash. Manufacturers, 
catalogues are desired. 

Several large building enterprises 
are being started in Philadelphia : John 
"Wanamaker has placed a $6,000,000 
mortgage upon his store property as 
security for a bond issue with the pro- 
ceeds of which the 15-story modern 
store building erected two years ago 
and left incomplete along its southern boundary will be 
immediately extended over the entire Wanamaker block. 
The completed structure will be one of the most imposing 
objects in the city, and it will contain forty-five acres of 
Moor area. D. H. Burnham is the architect. . . . Work- 
men are about beginning to demolish the old buildings 
occupying the block immediately north of Washington 
Square and to prepare this site for the enormous new 
building for The Curtis Publishing Co. The plans have 
been prepared by Edgar V. Seeler. . . . The Union 
League Club has decided to erect at once a fine modern 
building which is to occupy the half block remaining be- 
tween the present club-house and Fifteenth Street. The 
location is very valuable, on account of its close prox- 
imity to the center of the city, and Horace Trumbauer, 
who is preparing the plans, will therefore devote a por- 
tion of the building to offices. 

The Twin City Brick Company of St. Paul has been 
awarded the contract to furnish the facing brick for the 
new Minnesota State Prison Buildings at Stillwater, 
Minn., Clarence H. Johnston, architect. Some 2,500,000 
dark pink mottled bricks will be used. 

Sayre & Fisher Co. will supply the bricks for the new 
addition to the Astor Hotel, also for the new office 
building to be erected at 43d, 44th streets and Broadway 
for the Astor Estate. Their " Home Club " bricks were 
used in the new apartment at the corner of 64th Street 
and Madison Avenue. 

The South Amboy Terra Cotta Company will furnish 
the terra cotta for the following buildings: Lotus Club, 
New York, Donn Barber, architect; apartment hotel, 



F. |. Berlenbach, architect 
in polychrome terra cotta. 



98th Street and Riverside 
Drive, William L. Rouse, 
architect; addition to Yassar 
College group, Ewing cV Chap- 
pell, architects; Chemistry 
Building, Rutgers College, 
Hill, Stout & Williamson, 
architects; office building, 
Glenn Falls, N. Y., Marcus 
T. Reynolds, architect; State 
Armory, Hartford, Benj. Wis- 
tar Morris, architect; Church 
of the Assumption, Brooklyn, 
Much of this work will be 



NEW BOOKS. 



The Buildini 




DETAIL BY NEW JERSEY TERRA COTTA CO. 
William E. Mowbray, Architect. 



Mechanics' Ready Reference; Cement 
Workers' and Plasterers' Edition. 
By H. G. Richey, Superintendent 
of Construction United States Pub- 
lic Building. i6mo, vi + 458 pages. 
193 figures. New York, John Wiley 
& Sons. Morocco, $1.50 net. 

House Painting; Glazing, Paper 
Hanging and Whitewashing. A 
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abroad. M. A. Yenson, agent Caxton Building, 
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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVII OCTOBER 1908 Number IO 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

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CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 
HERTS & TALLANT ; KEESEY & CRET ; LOUIS H. SULLIVAN 

LETTERPRESS 

PACE 

CHURCH OP ST. GEREON, COLOGNE, GERMANY Frontispiece 

SANATORIA FOR CONSUMPTIVES The work of Scopes <Sf Feuslmann 223 

THE AMERICAN THEATER — XI. (THE END) Clarence H. Blackall 232 

THE NEW BROOKLYN ACADEMY OF MUSIC 233 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 239 

PROGRAMME FOR HOSPITAL BUILDING COMPETITION 244 



/ 




EAST END, CHl'KCH OF ST. GEREON, COLOGNE, GERMANY. 





lr<<<<<<<<^<<<<<<<<<V«^<V<V<<^<«<«<<<<<<<W>>>>>>>>^^ 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




VOL. 17 NO. 10 



DEVOTEDTO THE-INTERE5TJ-OP-ARCHITECTVRE-IN MATERIALi-Or-CLAY- 



OCTOBER 1 908 



C k^«««««««««^<«««r««««'«««'««««»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»>»v»yn 
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Sanatoria for Consumptives. 



THE WORK OF SCOPES & KEUSTMANN. 



THE tuberculosis sanatorium and hospital work here 
illustrated was developed by Scopes & Feust- 
mann, primarily through professional association with 
Dr. E. L. Trudeau's Adirondack Cottage Sanatorium 
at Saranac Lake, New York, and from the effort on the 
part of this firm to design a proper type for a cottage 
sanatorium. 

A circumstance of great importance in influencing the 
planning of sanatoria and tuberculosis hospitals lies in 
the fact that about eight or nine years ago, physicians 
treating tubercular patients in sanatoriums and health 



In this cottage, beds can be wheeled directly from the 
bedrooms to the porches. A still further advance was 
made in cottages, K and L, where direct light was ob- 
tained for sitting rooms and bath rooms, the shading of 
the south bedrooms by the porch roof being avoided by 
making the porch here a mere passage for connecting the 
sitting and sleeping porches. Another advance in the 
later type of cottage over the old one was made by pro- 
viding windows in the clothes closets. A change in de- 
sign was made in type M, in order to reduce the cost of 
these cottages, which had been gradually increasing each 




nRST FLOOR PLAN 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



PLANS, RECEPTION HOSPITAL, SARANAC LAKE, N. Y. 



resorts began more generally to advocate out-door sleep- 
ing and, particularly in acute cases, rest out of doors in 
bed during the entire day. Prior to that time, patients 
confined to their beds were compelled to remain indoors 
just at the time when the need of the tonic effect of out- 
door air was greatest. 

The complete development of the cottage type, from 
the inception of the Adirondack Cottage Sanatorium to 
the present time, can be seen in the "Evolution of the 
Cottage." (vSee page 224.) The first attempt to adapt 
the plan of the cottage to the requirements of the treat- 
ment now advocated (i.e., that no time be spent by the 
patient indoors except for meals) was made in the cot- 
tage plan I, in which the doors to bedrooms and sitting 
rooms were made wide enough to wheel a bed through to 
the porch. The inconvenience of this method has been 
overcome in cottage J, designed by the late W. L. Coulter. 



year. A more compact plan has been evolved, and the 
transoms over the main porch provide direct light for 
the sitting room. Of the cottages shown in the "Evo- 
lution of the Cottage," plans I, K, L, and M were de- 
signed by Scopes & Feustmann. 

Reception Hospital at Saranac Lake. While the hospi- 
tal is a purely local institution, designed especially to 
meet peculiar requirements, it has, nevertheless, certain 
features which would naturally commend themselves to 
those who have under consideration the erection of small 
hospitals for the treatment of tuberculosis, and more es- 
pecially may this hospital serve as something of a model 
when it is known that its plans have stood the test of 
competition, and that they have had the personal super- 
vision of those who have been pioneers in this country in 
the open-air treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. 

The site is admirably adapted for the building, being 



22 4 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



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sixty feet above Saranac Lake and commanding a good 
view of the surrounding country. 

One of the chief objects of this design was to intro- 
duce as much sunlight as possible into the patients' 
rooms and still retain good ample porch area. 

Rooms ten feet by thirteen feet six inches have been 
provided for twelve acute and eight convalescing 
patients. The twelve rooms for acute cases, which are 
confined to the first and second floors, open directly on 
to spacious, covered porches (one hundred square feet 
being allowed each patient). Each room has two win- 
dows, one of which is wide enough to admit a bed 
being wheeled through. These windows give good ven- 
tilation, together with ample sunlight, which is one of 
the chief points in designing a building of this nature. 



Eight rooms on the third floor are used for convales- 
cing patients who use the lower porches for their out- 
door cure. 

The plumbing is separated from all corridors by two 
doors. The entrance is well placed, giving all patients 
the privacy which is desired. No provision is made for 
internes' or doctors' quarters, because the hospital is 
visited daily by Saranac Lake physicians. 

Lean-tos and Shacks. To Dr. Herbert M. King, 
physician-in-chief at the Loomis Sanatorium, Liberty, 
N. V., belongs the credit of evolving from the sugges- 
tion of an Adirondack lean-to, a type of structure 
admirably adapted to the housing of incipient cases of 
tuberculosis of the poorer classes. These were first used 
at the charitable Annex connected with the Loomis Sana- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



225 




GENERAL VIEW OF FRONT. 





WEST COTTAGE. 



ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 




EAST VIEW, SHOWING DINING ROOMS AND SERVICE WINGS, VERMONT SANATORIUM, PITTSFORD, VT. 



226 



THE B RICKBUI LDER. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 



227 




COVERED WAY CONNECTING ADMINISTRAT'ON BUILDING AND COTTAGES. 





A COTTAGE PORCH. 



A CORNER OF COTTAGE PORCH. 



VERMONT SANATORIUM, PITTSFORD, VT. 



228 



THE RRIC KBUI LDER 





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DINING ROOM. 





CORRIDOR, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 



PATIENTS ROOM IN COTTAGE. 




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NURSES SITTING ROOM. 



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VERMONT SANATORIUM, PITTSFORD, VT, 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



229 





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THE BRICK IU T I LDER 




ONE STORY SHACK. FOR NEW YORK DEPARTMENT Ol 
HEALTH, SARANAC L IKE, N. Y. 



TWO STORY SHACK FOR NEW YORK DEPARTMEN1 OF 

III \l III, SARANAC I.AKK, N. V. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 



231 



torium. This method of housing for a portion of their 
patients has been adopted by sanatoriums and tuberculo- 
sis hospitals throughout the country, and in one instance, 
near Baltimore, Md., a complete sanatorium has been 
built in which the patients are housed in shacks. The 
use of shacks only in a sanatorium is inadvisable in a 
cold climate, and it is doubtful whether this system, 
without further accommodations in substantial and 
heated buildings, should be adopted in any but the 
mildest climate. However, the possibilities of this 
scheme of housing for low cost sanatoria may be seen 
from the accompanying illustrations of shack and lean-to 
types. 

The Mary Lewis Reception Hospital, connected with 
the Loomis Sanatorium, provides treatment for twenty- 
eight advanced or acute cases of tuberculosis in separate 
rooms. This building was designed for a well-to-do class 
of patients, and every care and comfort required by a 
tubercular invalid may be obtained here. There are a 
total of fourteen porches for the twenty-eight patients. 
These porches are so arranged as to afford any degree of 
privacy, inasmuch as a patient can be wheeled in his bed 
to any porch on the building. As in the Reception Hos- 
pital at Saranac Lake, the same method of recessing the 
south porch has been adopted to obtain ample light in 
such patients' rooms as face on this porch. Light and 
ventilation for all other rooms is obtained by separating 
the porches. Sufficient north porch space has been pro- 
vided for use in summer and for isolating patients. 

In the third story are located the kitchen and pantry, 
internes' quarters, examination and throat treatment 
rooms, and a small operating room for cases of surgical 
tuberculosis. There is no patients' dining room, as 
all patients in this building are served in their rooms, 
and when well enough to attend meals are transferred 
to the main sanatorium. 

The building is lighted by electricity, has a vacuum 
steam heating system and direct radiation, an hydraulic 
elevator, cold storage plant in basement, complete sys- 
tem of call bells from rooms and porches, and local tele- 
phones in all parts of the building. 

The Vermont Sanatorium. The trustees of the Ver- 
mont Sanatorium were familiar with Saranac methods 
and desired a plant that would make it possible to adopt 
in ever}' way the form of treatment advocated by Drs. 
Trudeau, Baldwin, Brown, Kinghorn, Trembley, and 
others of the Saranac school. It was required to pro- 
vide accommodations for sixty to seventy-five patients 
with present housing for thirty patients. All of these 
were to be incipient cases of the working class, who 
could afford to pay about $7.00 per week for complete 
treatment. 

The sanatorium consists of an administration build- 
ing, to which are connected the men's and women's 
cottages, by means of covered ways protected on the 
north side by storm sash. The main building contains 
medical and business administration, domestic arrange- 
ments and dining accommodations, small library and 
general living rooms, quarters for interne, and separate 
coat rooms for men and women. 

The second floor is mainly given over to the uses of 
an infirmary, as it is necessary in any institution for in- 
cipient tuberculosis to provide accommodations for 



twelve to fifteen per cent acute cases. In the second 
story over the medical wing is located the quarters for 
the women staff. As this staff is usually composed in 
part of ex-patients, a special porch is provided for their 
use. There is also a patients' isolating porch on this 
floor. The infirmary patients' dining room and diet 
pantry, bath and toilet rooms, linen rooms and maids' 
closet, and locker room for patients' outer clothing make 
up the balance of the second story. 

In further reference to the lockers, it may be of 
interest to know that for obvious reasons it is not con- 
sidered hygienic to place patients' clothing, except clean 
linen, in closets off their rooms, unless a window can be 
provided for ventilating such closets. This is usually 
expensive and complicates planning. The lockers are 
found to be perfectly satisfactory from the point of view 
of the patient and gives the authorities better supervision 
over the clothing. 

In the dining and living rooms, where a large number 
of patients may congregate, special ventilation is pro- 
vided, but in the balance of the institution only direct 
heating and natural ventilation is used. 

Each cottage contains accommodations for twelve 
patients in two stories. Each two patients have their 
own porch directly connecting with their bedrooms. 
The locker system for patients' clothing is also used in 
the cottages. 

It is proposed to enlarge the institution to- its full 
capacity (seventy to seventy-five patients) by the addition 
of shacks of the types adopted by the Department of 
Health, New York City, and the Michigan State Sana- 
torium. It is the intention of the management to gradu- 
ate patients from the infirmary in the administration 
building to the cottages, and from these cottages to the 
shacks, as their improved condition shall warrant less 
supervision and attention. 

Medical and Observation Pavilion. Adirondack Cot- 
tage Sanatorium. The most recent work of Scopes & 
Fuestmann combines under one roof, for economical 
reasons, what is now considered to be two essential units 
in a cottage sanatorium for the treatment of tuberculosis, 
namely, reception and observation quarters and medical 
administration. Newly arrived patients are placed in 
the observation quarters, located on the first floor, for a 
period of ten days or two weeks, under the close super- 
vision of a trained nurse, and allowed no latitude as to 
their own movements until their exact physical condition 
is ascertained. Here the patient receives first lessons in 
self-restraint, and is taught at first hand what will be 
required of him if he would regain health. After this 
period of observation, the patient is housed in one of the 
cottages of the sanatorium, at such distance from the 
administration building (i.e., dining hall, etc.) as is best 
suited to his physical condition. The medical adminis- 
tration, second floor, contains a waiting room, examina- 
tion rooms, drug room, clinical laboratory, X-ray room, 
library, statistician's room, and private working room for 
the physician-in-chief. 

The problem of sanatoria for consumptives presents a 
very broad field for further study, and we may look for 
some interesting solutions as the architectural profession 
becomes better acquainted with this special branch of 
hospital designing. 



2 3- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

The American Theater 



XI 



STAC,]. ACCESSORIES 



BV CLARENCE H. I'.I.ACKALL 



IN the days of the stock theater company a great deal 
of scenery had to be carried all the time. In these 
days of traveling companies a theater is very apt to have 
no scenery of its own at all, each company bringing every- 
thing it requires even down to the most minute proper- 
ties. Consequently the modern theater has little need 
for a scene room and such a feature can be dispensed 
with entirely in emergency, though it is well to provide 
a space 16 by 20 or 30 feet and not less than twenty-five 
feet in height, which will be termed a scene room and 
will be used for all sorts of purposes. Then there should 
be on the stage level a property room wherein are kept 
the miscellaneous objects which fit out the stage dressing. 
This should be at least 18 by 25 feet. There is required 
also a stage manager's room which serves as a species of 
office and is best arranged in close proximity to the 
switchboard on the prompt side. For bringing the 
scenery into the theater an opening is provided in the 
rear wall, preferably on one side, being eight feet wide 
and not less than twenty-five feet high. This door 
should be in several sections to slide up. If the stage 
floor is not on the level of the adjoining street there 
should be a large lift strong enough to take up three tons 
if necessary and finishing flush with the stage floor. 
This is for the introduction of steam engines, horses, etc. 
In the space under the stage there should be arranged 
the locker rooms for the stage men, lavatories for their 
use, and a waiting room which they can use when not 
employed on the stage, and there should also be a store 
room for the electricians' supplies, fitted with work bench 
and lockers. No permanent obstruction can be placed 
under the movable portion of stage, as it is never safe to 
say where a trap may not be wanted. 

"(ircen Room" is a term applied to a waiting room 
reserved specially for the actors and actresses. In the 
old theaters and to-day in European ones this is quite 
a feature. Few American theater managers will give 
the space required for this. It is, however, a very desir- 
able function and one which should be included where 
practicable. 

Dressing rooms should be entirely away from the stage. 
A very admirable device which has been adopted abroad 
is to enclose the stage with brick walls on all sides, out- 
side of which runs on three sides a broad corridor serving 
the encircling dressing rooms, access being had to the 
stage through a single door on each side near the curtain 
line. This, again, means an arrangement in plan which 
takes up a great deal of room and costs money. It is, 
however, usual to provide at least two dressing rooms on 
the stage level, each fitted with separate toilet and a closet 
and used exclusively by the stars. Then on the level 
either immediately above or below the stage there should 
be two rooms for the chorus or the supernumeraries. Each 
room is fitted with a long bench on one side for make-up 
and with rows of wash basins in the center, preferably 
of enameled iron. Individual dressing rooms are usually 
arranged in tiers at the sides of the stage and above the 



stage level. They should be about eight feet square, each 
room being well ventilated but not necessarily receiving 
daylight, and each room containing a ledge across one 
side for make-up and an enameled iron basin with hot 
and cold water. The dressing rooms are really the only 
portion of the stage in which gas is required, the gas 
being used for heating the grease paint. For a theater in- 
tending to accommodate average combination shows there 
should be not less than twenty individual dressing rooms 
and the two supers' rooms should each be not less than 
15 by 35 feet. This number of rooms could take care of a 
company numbering as high as two hundred. Some 
theaters like the New Amsterdam, New York, are able 
to take care of over six hundred actors. A well equipped 
theater should also have two rooms used for wardrobes, 
each room being not less than 13 by 30 feet. It is usual also 
to arrange for a stage carpenter's room somewhere about 
the building. It can usually be tucked in almost any 
corner not otherwise available and is sometimes even put 
up on the side of the rigging loft. It should be at least 
twenty-five feet long and not less than twenty-five feet 
high, so that scenes can be stood up. 

There is usually but one doorway between the stage 
and the auditorium, preferably on the prompt side. This 
is furnished with fireproof door and is supposed to be 
used only by the manager coming from the front of the 
house. The stage entrance is best placed on the rear 
and if the configuration of the land permits it is better 
to have the stage entrance through the basement so as to 
check any possibility of drafts from the door to the stage 
floor. At the doorway there should be provided a small 
closet or recess for the doorkeeper, fitted with letter box 
and key rack. Close to the stage door there should be 
an elevator large enough to take up three trunks at once. 

In planning a stage it is a good idea to bear in mind 
that spectacular horse racing is not uncommonly repre- 
sented and to arrange so that a team can get a start 
either in a side street or in a property room and dash at 
full speed across the stage, either running out through 
a door into the street again or having plenty of space to 
bring up in the wings. 

There are a few American theaters which are provided 
with a room to serve as a library, a place for study, and 
where can be gathered the photographs, play bills, 
posters, etc., which in time become so interesting and 
valuable, but the unfortunate disappearance of the stock 
company and the migratory character of most of our 
attractions hardly encourage any provision for such a 
room. 

In designing the finish and fixtures for the portion of 
a theater behind the curtain line, care must be taken to 
have everything of the most simple, durable, unbreak- 
able character. If a thing can be defaced or ruined it is 
well nigh hopeless to expect it not to be. The dressing 
room floors are best covered with battle-ship linoleum, 
glued to the constructive concrete filling. In the corri- 
dors this would not answer, as both linoleum and con- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



2 33 



crete would in a single season be ruined by dragging 
trunks and boxes across them. Rock maple flooring one 
and three eighths inches thick pasted to the constructive 
floors will give the best service. The stairs if of con- 
crete should have a granolithic surface and the edges of 
the treads protected by a steel nosing and a strip of 
safety tread. Sanitary bases of tile or cement should be 
used everywhere. All passages, also all dressing rooms 
if the money holds out, should be sheathed at least three 
feet six inches high. .Stairs should be made with wide 
landings, remembering that cumbersome trunks and 
properties will be carelessly carried over them daily. 
The wall plastering is best of Portland cement, with all 
corners rounded on a radius of not less than three inches. 
The doors should be built without panels, flush on both 
sides, like hospital doors, and glazing for all doors and 
windows should be with wire glass. Moldings are best 
omitted entirely, using perfectly plain wood casings 
of the narrowest possible dimensions. All doorways 
through which trunks are carried in any number should 
be protected by steel angles on the edges. Walls and 
ceilings of corridors and dressing rooms should be 
enameled, and the woodwork varnished and left bright, 
neither shellac nor paint being most suitable for this 
part of a theater. 

The worst kind of theater fire is one which starts on 
the stage during a performance and spreads like a flash 
to the mass of suspended, highly inflammable scenery and 
rigging. In such a case the lives of the audience and of 
the actors may depend upon the coolness of the men in 
the fly galleries, and whether they have the nerve to 
stand by till the asbestos curtain is lowered and the 
blazing scenery dropped to the stage and smothered. It 
is therefore highly important that there should be an 
exterior fire escape for the sole benefit of the fly men, so 
easy of access that they can fight the fire so long as 
there is any hope and be sure of getting out alive. 

A thoroughly well equipped theater should have a 
complete dust removing plant extended to all parts of 
the house with outlets and standpipes so arranged that 
with a fifty foot hose all parts of all floors and walls can 
be reached. Especially should such a system be put in 
for the rigging loft, even if it is omitted everywhere 
else. The accumulation of dust on a gridiron and the 
scenery battens is something which must be seen to be 
appreciated, and which can be removed without damage 
to the scenery only by the pneumatic process. 

There should be provided a billroom about 12 by 24 



feet where can be stored the posters, bills, paste pots, 
and various publicity adjuncts. This should be easy of 
access from a rear street or passage, with separate 
outside door. 

The planning of a large theater, while a specialized 
problem, is one which can seldom be solved twice in 
the same way. Only in the most general manner can the 
requirements be standardized. The very charm of the 
problem lies in the great diversity of possible treat- 
ments, and although it is preeminently an expert's work 
in its practical details, such as sight lines, stage construc- 
tion, and ventilation, once these points are rightly 
established the rest is simply a matter of good, bad, or 
indifferent architectural design. Most of the American 
theaters are indifferent. Some are so frankly bad as to 
be really quite hopeful as indicating only misdirected 
energy, while there is a small number, larger each year, 
of good, well-designed theaters, thoroughly worthy of 
study, notwithstanding the commercial limitations. It 
is not a problem which need be unreservedly turned over 
to a specialist. It is the writer's opinion that a specialist 
cannot be a good architect in the complete sense of the 
term, and that in proportion as one narrows the scope of 
his practise to a single class or kind of building, so is he 
sure to narrow his ability to give even that problem the 
best architectural solution. The architecture of a theater 
should above all things be imaginative, and how can a 
specialist let his imagination have free play ? The more 
the theater problem is studied and solved by competent 
architects as a part of general professional practise, the 
higher will be the standard of art in our theaters, and 
the less likely will it be that their design will be deliv- 
ered to the mercy of a graduated stage carpenter or 
scene builder. Gamier never was a theater expert, but 
he managed to make the rest of the world sit up and 
think; while there are several architects who do hardly 
anything but theaters, who yearly grow less fit. The 
theater is indeed a complicated problem, which unless 
started just right is so altogether wrong that the best 
architecture in the world can only make its failure more 
lamentable; but its complications are not beyond the 
comprehension of any well equipped architect who is 
willing to take the pains to inform himself, and these 
articles have been written in the hope of making a little 
more easy the practical study and elucidation of this most 
fascinating problem. 

THE END. 



The New Brooklyn Academy of Music 



HERTS & TALLANT, ARCHITECTS 



THE old Academy of Music, Brooklyn, was opened 
to the public in 1859, and destroyed by fire in 
November, 1903. It was the center of the civic life of 
the city and served as a rallying point for many of the 
great movements that have had such vital import in the 
progress of American civilization. 

.Soon after the destruction of the old building, a com- 
mittee of one hundred was organized, a corporation was 
formed, public subscriptions were invited, and within a 
short time the site was purchased. 



A competition for the selection of an architect was 
decided upon and Professor Laird of the University of 
Pennsylvania was engaged to serve as expert adviser to 
the committee in preparing the program and Mr. Carrere 
and Mr. Mead of the firms of Carrere & Hastings and 
McKim, Mead & White respectively, consented to act 
together with the advisor upon a jury of award which 
was to pass upon the designs and plans submitted. Ten 
firms of architects were invited to enter a paid competi- 
tion. A preliminary program was prepared by the com- 



2.H 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




VIEW TOWARDS STAGE, OPERA HOI SI.. 
enium Arch had not been decorated at time photograph was taken.) 



**tk 




VIEW ! ROM STAGE, OPERA HOUSE. 

\\ A< \ni\i\ 01 MUSIC, BROOKLYN, N. V. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



2 35 



mittee and their advisors, 
and submitted to the com- 
peting architects who were 
invited to attend a meeting 
where the program was dis- 
cussed in full, after which 
discussion and by consent of 
the competing architects a 
final program was drawn up. 
This program, complete and 
accurate in every detail, can 
well serve as a model for 
future competitions. In the 
three years required to ex- 
ecute the work there have 
been practically no modifica- 
tions either in the plans or 
specifications. 

Of the ten sets of draw- 
ings submitted, those by 
Herts & Tallant were judged 
the best, and they were se- 
lected as architects for the 
building. 

Originally the facade was 
designed for marble but it 
was afterwards redesigned to 
be executed in light color and 
brick and polychrome terra 
cotta. The exquisite har- 
mony of the color scheme is 
lost in the illustrations, but 
the detail which is the best 
spirit of the Italian Renais- 
sance is easily apparent. 

The building provides for 
a variety of functions: edu- 
cational, musical, dramatic, 
and social, so related that 
they form a single organism, 
whose parts may be distinct 
or operated together. The 
principal parts : 




plan is divided into four 



The Foyer and Ball Room 

Opera House 

Concert Hall 

The Offices and Lecture Halls of the 

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences 

Each of these divisions is, however, designed to serve 
two or more purposes. 

The building has a seating capacity of five thousand 
persons divided as follows: 



Opera House 

Concert Hall 

Banquet Hall 

Large Institute Lecture Hall 

Four Lecture Halls 



each 



2200 

1400 

600 

400 

100 



The opera house will serve not only for grand opera, 
but for large theatrical productions, oratorio, and sym- 
phony concerts, also for political and educational meetings 
of every description. With this in view every available 
foot has been utilized, and every care taken in the ar- 
rangement for compactness of seating and excellence of 
sight lines. 



While the Paris Opera House and other build- 
ings of its type have a larger seating capacity 
than the Brooklyn Academy of Music, it has long 
since been demonstrated that all seatings -over 
three thousand are practically worthless, and so 
here the opera house has been laid out on the 
lines of the standard American theater. 

The concert hall is planned primarily for 
chamber music and public lectures, and contains 
the Frothingham organ which is one of the pre- 
mier instruments in the United States, a gift to 
the institution by the Frothingham family in 
memory of their father. 

The foyer extends along the entire Lafayette 
avenue front of the building and has an area of 
five thousand square feet. It has special carriage en- 
trances at both ends. The ball room or banquet hall 
which is accessible from both auditoriums is forty feet 
wide and one hundred and eighty feet long, and is prob- 
ably the most characteristic and distinctive feature of the 
building. Connected with the banquet hall, beneath the 
music gallery, at the west end, are the kitchens, service, 
and store rooms arranged in tiers of three stories. 

Provision is made for the executive offices of the 
Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, lecture halls, 
rooms for experiments and demonstrations in electricity, 
chemistry, physics, photography, and studios for classes 
in design and life. Thus is housed at once halls for 
concerts, opera, drama, public lectures and meetings, and 
the principal educational organizations of the Borough of 
Brooklyn. 

It will be seen that the separation of the two audito- 
riums is complete, and that each distinctive function of 
the building is thoroughly isolated. The building is 
surrounded by a series of open air fire exits and fire gal- 
leries, which open directly on the adjacent streets. 

To William DeLeftwich Dodge was entrusted the 



2 3 6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




EXTERIOR DETAILS EXECUTED IN ARCHITECTURAL rERRA COTTA, BROOKLYN ACADEMY OF Ml 



entire mural decoration of the building', and here espe- 
cially he has shown himself at his best. 

The mechanical equipment of the building both as 
regards the stage and the heating and ventilating sys- 
tems is laid out along the same lines as the New Lyceum 
and Amsterdam theaters by the same architects, but 
shows a still further development in the matter of sim- 
plicity and expediency. Particularly noticeable in con- 
nection with the stage is the complete absence of the old 
system of pin rail sup- 
port for the suspended 
scenery. 

The construction of 
the gridiron shows the 
final step in the modern 
revolution whereby this 
portion of the building 
is entirely constructed 
of steel ; not only the 
floor but also the 
sheaves and lines being 
of this material. 

The building is 
heated throughout by 
the indirect system. 
The air is brought in 
from a central court 
where it is free from 
dust to an aperture two 
hundred feet square, 
passed through remov- 
able cheese cloth 
screens forty-six times 
this area and forced 
over steam coils on a 
thermostatic control by 
means of four large 
comb fans, into spe- 
cially constructed 
plenum chambers. 
From these dampers the 
air enters the main audi- 
toriums through mush- 
rooms under each of the 
seats, constructed with a 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE DOORS, B 



damper in each, which can be operated from below so that 
the floor air at any special point can be altered without in- 
terrupting the audience. The foul air is exhausted from 
the upper part of the auditoriums by a corresponding sys- 
tem of fans, and discharged from a fan house at the front 
of the building. 

The electric lighting system shows special study in 
regard to all the minor details. The ordinary exit lights 
are in this building replaced by illuminated signs sup- 
plied by special batter- 
ies so designed as to 
keep these lights burn- 
ing for fifteen minutes 
after all other lights in 
the house have been 
extinguished. 

Special designs have 
been made for the hard- 
ware on the exit doors 
whereby the simple 
pressing of the audi- 
ence within serves to 
draw the bolts of all 
the doors in the audi- 
toriums so that it be- 
comes impossible in 
case of panic for the 
audience to amass at 
any one of these exits. 
The exterior of the 
building presents an 
unusually interesting 
example of polychro- 
matic architecture. The 
charm of the color 
scheme suggests an 
American moderniza- 
tion of the art of medi- 
eval Italy and rejuvena- 
tion of the ideas of 
Lucca Delia Robbia. 

The basic and body 

tone is of cream in 

two shades — light and 

ran . dark, the lighter tones 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



2 37 




VIKW OF BALI. ROOM. 




VIEW OK GRAND LOBBY. 
BROOKLYN ACADEMY OK MUSIC, BROOKLYN, N. V 



2 3 8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



being used below and becoming heavier and richer as 
they work up, encircling in green and yellow the five 
majestic windows, topped by the splendid cornice. 

The ornamentation of the large entrance doors is of 
cream and yellow; the course above the doors is in green 
and burnt sienna. In the cornice the various com- 
mingled colors of blue, yellow, red, and sienna produce a 
warm brown color effect. 

Set in the cornice are twenty-two full sized lions' 
heads of life-like coloring and with tongues of red. 
In the background and between these lions' heads 
are distinctive panels of red and blue with sienna shad- 
ing. Over each of the large doors and on each side 



colors on plaster casts made from the molds of the terra 
cotta, and in this way the architects and manufacturers 
worked together to obtain the special shades needed for 
the desired effects. Sand-blasting was applied to special 
parts of the finished work so as to obtain the proper 
relation between such parts of the surface on which it 
was desired to retain the glaze and the others on which 
a dull finish was more effective. 

This work has now stood for about a year and shows 
little or no signs of fading. Should there be any 
changes in the colors or should accumulated dirt mar the 
detail it will be a simple matter to retone the whole work. 

As a matter of interest it should be stated that the 




VIEW TOWARDS STAGE, CONCERT HALL, BROOKLYN ACADEMY OF MUSIC. 



thereof are cherub figures alternating in arrangement 
with panels of ancient musical instruments. These are 
in cream relief against a yellow background. In the 
lower bands of the cornice are sienna toned flowers; in 
another section of the cornice the ornament is yellow 
with sienna background. 

The broad strip of ornament which encircles each win- 
dow shows beauty in design and color scheme and great 
delicacy in the modeling of its relief. This comprises 
a rich tone of green against which are placed cream 
white and yellow flowers and buds. 

Unusual care was taken in the execution of this work 
to insure the best possible results, both artistically and 
practically. The color scheme was worked out in water 



architectural terra cotta was furnished by the Atlantic 
Terra Cotta Company, and that the architects acknowl- 
edge their indebtedness to them for an enthusiastic 
cooperation. 

The lettering in the brickwork was obtained by burn- 
ing special tiles of brick-clay, upon each one of which a 
raised letter had been modeled. Owing to the fact that 
the letters had to be spaced at different distances, one 
from another in every individual case, the architects 
were obliged to lay out a full size detail of the entire 
lettering and from this detail the exact sizes of the tiles 
were determined; there were no two tiles of the same 
size. This work was executed by Sayre & Fisher Com- 
pany, and is, as far as known, unique in execution. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



239 



' r 



Editorial Comment and 

* 

Miscellany. 

THE HOSPITAL BUILDING COMPETITION. 

ONE of the most charming bits of secular architecture 
in Europe is the little hospital of the Ceppo at 
Pistoja. It was designed at a period when the Italian 
Renaissance was at its best, when ideals were high and 
art was simple and fresh in 
its motifs; when choice of 
materials, adaptation of the 
work of the craftsman to 
the artistic thought and a 
keen sense of the relative 
fitness of things were all 
combined to produce those 
exquisite masterpieces 
which have ever since been 
the joy of the connoisseur. 

It is so well proportioned as a design, the details are so 
appropriately considered both as decoration in mass and 
in their relative values, and above all the materials are 
used so knowingly that it has ranked for centuries as a 
classic example of the proper use of 
burnt clay. 

In selecting the problem for The 
Brickbuilder competition we had 
this Pistoja Hospital in mind. We 
do not wish to see medieval condi- 
tions merely assumed and unintelli- 
gently copied, but there is certainly 
a spirit in this building which seems 
singularly appropriate to hospital 
design, and no better standard could 
be suggested for the use of terra 
cotta. So we have asked for designs 
for a hospital in burnt clay, and if 
the bright minds which we hope will 
attack this problem can combine 
twentieth century needs with the 
decorative spirit and style which 
evolved the Pistoja Hospital, the re- 
sults will certainly justify our hopes. 
Be it understood, however, that the 
last word is never uttered on matters 

of architecture. A building may be totally different in 
mass, scheme, color treatment, and detail from the 
Ceppo Hospital while yet having all of its spirit. It 
is by no means needful nor desirable to copy the 
Italian model, but rather to draw from it the feeling 
of fitness in the use of the material, the frank, natural 
expression in design and perhaps suggestions in that 
most uncertain phase of modern work, the use of color. 

A hospital has long been 
regarded and treated as a 
lugubrious problem, breath- 
ing miasma and germs, 
suggestive of night shade 
and hellebore, where good ▼ 

people die and autopsies detail by 

are performed on their St 




DETAIL BY NEVILLE & BAGGE, ARCHITECTS. 
New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 




DETAIL BY WILLIAM H. GRUEN, 

ARCHITECT. 
Winkle Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 




bodies by pitiless scientists. But the hospital of our 
problem should be a thing of beauty, whose prominent 
features relate to sunshine and health, wherein unfortu- 
nates become happy and regain health, where everything 
is immaculate as well as comfortable. This is the idea 
of the modern hospital, and from the architectural stand- 
point it gains immensely in interesting possibilities by 
giving it a light, joyous treatment. 

The French, with the happy characterization of their 
race, call the public hospital the house of God. The 

patients are His guests. 
We hope the contestants 
will approach this hospital 
problem not as if it called 
for a hard, matter of fact 
solution, but as an oppor- 
tunity to adorn a civic tale 
and to apply to it some 
real architecture. 

And just another sugges- 
tion would we offer regard- 
ing detail. A diaper treatment is not the only way to 
suggest the use of burnt clay materials, and because we 
are using a material which lends itself to small pieces, 
geometrical pattern work is by no means indispensable 
as indicating terra cotta. The Pistoja 
Hospital has neither, nor has the 
marvelous terra cotta work of Pavia 
and north Italy any use for oil cloth 
designs in burnt clay. Such features 
have a distinct, if limited, applica- 
tion. Pistoja gains its effect by 
broad, unbroken wall surfaces and 
shadows contrasted with condensed, 
enriched, and strongly colored orna- 
ment, and the lead is a most excel- 
lent one to follow in studying our 
problem. 

The Brickbuilder has during the 
past few years published consider- 
able material in the form of illustra- 
tions and articles which treat of 
Hospital Plan and Design, and it is 
likely that those intending to enter 
this competition will find much of 
interest in the work presented. The 
following is a list of the numbers in 
which the articles and illustrations are published : 

1900 — November and December numbers. 
1902 — March, May, June, and August numbers. 
1903 — February, May, June, July, August, Sep- 
tember, and December numbers. 

1904 — February, March, April, May, June, July, 
and August numbers. 

1905 — March and August numbers. 

1906 — January number. 

1907 — April number. 

1908 — April and June 
numbers. 

In connection with this 
list it should be stated that 
the numbers cannot be sup- 
plied, they beingoutof print. 




•JH 



BARNET, HAYNES & BARNET, ARCHITECTS. 
. Louis Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



H° 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 





KI REPROOFING WORK IN THE NATIONAL MUSEUM, WASHINGTON, I). C. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



241 




A CORREC- 
TION. 

Our attention 
has been called to 
the fact that John 
A. Tompkins, 2d, 
was associated 
with Grosvenor 
Atterbury as ar- 
chitects for the 
house, 18 East 

75th street, illustrated on page 188 of The Brickbuilder 

for September, and that Stowe Phelps was associated 

with Mr. Atterbury 

as architects for the 

houses, 105 and 107 

East 73d street, illus- 
trated on page 189 of 

the same issue of 

The Brickbuiluer. 

— Eds. 



1 B^\-s^ '"'* - 


"^ r ; 




v^ 


Bfc i-^" 


'" 



DETAIL FOR RAILWAY STATION, 

WATERBURY, CONN. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 

South Amboy Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



DETAIL BY ALBERT RANDOLPH ROSS, 

ARCHITECT. 
Brick, Terra Cotta and Tile Company, Makers. 



RESTRICTING 
SKYSCRAPERS. 

The building code 
revision commission 
of New York City 
has recommended a 
restriction to 350 feet 
as the maximum 
height for future 
buildings in that 
city. This limit is 
to be permissible 
only for structures 
facing on parks and 
plazas. On ordinary 
streets the limit is to 
be 300 feet, and on 
streets only forty- 
five feet in width the 
height cannot exceed 
135 feet. Of course 




for September, 

1907. Greater 

New York, which 

presents about 

twenty-five per 

cent of the total 

con st rue t ion, 

shows an increase 

of 14 per cent 

over the same month last year. Twenty-eight cities 

show a gain of from 1 to 201 per cent and 17 show a loss 

of from 1 to 57 per cent. The principal increase occurs 

at: Birmingham, 137 per cent; Cleveland, 52; Denver, 

113; Kansas City, 47; Louisville, 38; Milwaukee, 56; 

Mobile, 23; New 
Haven, 39 ; Paterson, 
201 ; Salt Lake City, 
51; St. Paul, 86; 
Syracuse, 75 ; Wor- 
cester, 39. The in- 
dications are that 
henceforth an in- 
crease in building 
operations may be 
expected, and, cur- 
rent therewith, a 
gradual increase in 
the price of building 
material. Parties 
who contemplate the 
erection of buildings 
of any sort whatever 
will profit to the ex- 
tent of from 10 to 20 
per cent by taking 
advantage of the 
present low prices 
and starting opera- 
tions at once. 



INTERIOR OF A CONFECTIONER S SHOP, liOSTON. 

A. B. Le Boutillier, Architect. 

Showing floor of pale green glaze tile, made by Grneby Faience Company. 



FI REPROOFING 

OF THE NATION- 

A L MUSEUM, 

WASHINGTON. 



these are only recommendations, but they consider that 
people who are forced to live and do business on the lower 
levels have right to a reasonable amount of light and air. 



BUILDING OPERATIONS FOR SEPTEMBER. 

According to official building statistics from forty- 
five principal centers of construction, throughout the 
country, reported 
by the American 
Contractor , New 
York, building op- 
erations for Sep- 
tember, 1908, show 
an increase in the 
aggregate of seven 
per cent as com- 
pared with substan- 
tially the same cities 



On another page there is illustrated an especially 
fine example of fireproof construction in the New Na- 
tional Museum at Washington, Hornblower & Marshall, 
architects. The importance of safeguarding this build- 
ing and its contents from destruction by fire has led 
to a careful consideration of the whole matter of fire- 
proof construction, with the result that hollow terra 
cotta blocks have been employed. Every part of the 

work has received 
the closest scrutiny 
from the architects, 
government inspec- 
tors, and the con- 
tractors, with the 
result that the 
building is consid- 
ered to be abso- 

DETAIL BY J. K. JENSEN, ARCHITECT. llltely lndestrUCtl- 

New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, Makers. ble by fire. The 




244 



T II E BRICKBUILDER 




Competition for a Hospital Building. 

First Prize, $500. Second Prize, $200. Third Prize, $100. 

COMPETITION CLOSES JANUARY 16, 1909. 



PROGRAnriE. 



THE problem is a Hospital Building. The location may be assumed in any American city of about 30,000 inhabitants. The lot con- 
tains about five acres and lias a frontage of 300 feet on the main avenue, leading to the city, which runs east and west. The part of 
the lot on which the building is to be placed is practically level. 

It is to be a block hospital with three floors above the basement. The height of the first and second stories is to be not less than 12 
feet. No one floor above the basement is to contain more than 10,C00 square feet, exclusive of sun rooms and approaches. The length of 
the structure, including sun rooms and approaches, cannot exceed 160 feet. 

The following should be provided for in the plan : 

Two ten bed wards for each sex in the Medical Department; two ten bed wards for each sex in the Surgical Department: and in con- 
nection with each of these wards two one bed rooms. Two ten bed wards for each sex in the Children's Department. A Maternity Depart- 
ment to accommodate six patients, two of which are to be in private rooms, and in conjunction with this department a delivery room and 
baby room. 

In conjunction with the wards there should be provided service rooms or diet kitchens, nurses utility rooms, linen rooms, broom and 
medicine closets, clothing rooms and toilet rooms. 

In addition to thj private rooms provided for in connection with the open wards there should be at least eight private rooms for single 
patients. 

Operating and accident rooms, with their adjuncts of anaesthetic, sterilizing, bandage, instrument, nurses' work room, reception, and 
recovery rooms, also surgeons' dressing room and X-ray room. 

Single bed rooms tur at least twenty nurses; nurses' parlor; suite for superintendent and head nurse; bed room for two internes; 
reception room for patients; laboratory; drug room; cooking class room; kitchens; store rooms; laundry; bed rooms for fourteen 
domestics — four being males; dining room for staff and nurses; dining room for domestics; toilet rooms; small out-patients department ; 
autopsy room ; boiler room ; fan room, and such other features as may suggest themselves to the designer. 

The exterior of the building is to be designed entirely in Architectural Terra Cotta, employing colored terra cotta in at least portions 
of the walls. 

The following points will be considered in judging the designs ; 

A. Frank and logical expression of the prescribed material. 

B. Rational and logical treatment of the exterior. 

C. Excellence of plan. 

In awarding the prizes the intelligence shown in the constructive use of terra cotta and the development or modification of style, by 
reason of the material, will be taken largely into consideration. 

It must be borne in mind that one of the chief objects of this competition is to encourage the study of the use of Architectural Terra 
Cotta. There is no limitation of cost, but the designs must be suitable for the character of the building and for the material in which it is to 
be executed. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED. 

( in i me sheet, at the top, the front elevation drawn at a scale of S feet b i the inch. In the title of this elevation state which point of the 
compass it faces. On the same sheet, below the front elevation, the four floor plans drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch. 

On a second sheet, at the top, the elevation of secondary importance drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch ; immediately below half 
inch scale details of the most interesting features of the design. The details should indicate in a general manner the jointing of the terra cotta 
and the sizes of the blocks. The color scheme is to be indicated either by a key or a series of notes printed on the same sheet with the 
secondary elevation and details, at a size which will permit of two thirds reduction. 

The size of each sheet (there are to be but two) shall be exactly 36 inches by 24 inches. Strong border lines are to be drawn on both 
sheets one inch from edges, giving a space inside the border lines 22 inches by 3-t inches. The sheets are not to be mounted. 

All drawings are to be in black ink without wash or color, except that the walls on the plans and in the sections may be blacked-in or 
cross-hatched. 

Graphic scales to be on all drawings. 

Every set of drawings is to be signed by a nom de flume or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the nom 
d.< flume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat at the office of THE BRICKBUILDER, 85 Water Street. Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or 
before January 16, 1909. 

Drawings submitted in this competition must be at owner's risk from the time they are sent until returned, although reasonable care 
will be exercised in their handling and keeping. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER, and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or all of 
the others. Those who wish their drawings returned may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names, ten cents 
in stamps. 

The designs will be judged by three or five well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of $500. 
For the design placed second a prize of $200. 
For the design placed third a prize of $100. 

We are enabled to offer prizes of the above-mentioned amounts largely through the liberality of the terra cotta manufacturers who are 
represented in the advertising columns of THE BRICKBUILDER. 
This competition is open to everyone. 




THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 10. PLATE 115. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 10. PLATE 116. 




VltW OF BANKING ROOM. 

NATIONAL FARMERS' BANK, OWATONNA, MINN. 
Louis H. Sullivan. Architect. 



THE BRICK BUI LDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 10. PLATE 119. 




GAIETY THEATER, FORTY-SIXTH STREET AND BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

Herts & Tallant, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 10. PLATE 120. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 10. PLATE 123. 




LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH OPERA HOUSE. 

BROOKLYN ACADEMY OF MUSIC, BROOKLYN, N Y. 
.Herts & Tallant, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 10. PLATE 125. 



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DETAIL OF FRONT ELEVATION. 

BROOKLYN ACADEMY OF MUSIC, BROOKLYN, N Y. 

Herts & Tallant, Architects. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. 17, NO. 10. 



PLATE 121. 




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DETAIL OF LAFAYETTE AVENUE FACADE. 

BROOKLYN ACADEMY OF MUSIC, BROOKLYN, N Y 
Herts & Tallant, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUI LD ER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 10. PLATE 122. 




VIEW AT CORNER OF LAFAYETTE AVENUE ANO ST FELIX STREET. 

BROOKLYN ACADEMY OF MUSIC, BROOKLYN, N Y 

Herts & Tallant, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 10. PLATE 124. 








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VOL. 17, NO. 10. PLATE 117. 




INTERNATIONAL BVREAV OF AMERICAN REPVBLICS 
WASHINGTON -D-C 



DRAW* IV WRttK 
-ntACEP BY WIHW 

, rt.^Ktr tv j. s.m. 



ALBERTKELSEYAX) PAULPCRET 

(-v ASSOCIATED -ARCHITECTS s\ 

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WILLIAM -COPELAND - FURBER 

CONSULTING - ENGINEER. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 10. PLATE 118. 







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VOL. 17, NO. 10. PLATE 127. 




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DETAILS OF EXTERIOR. 

BROOKLYN ACADEMY OF MUSIC, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
Herts & Tallant, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 10. PLATE 128. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVII NOVEMBER 1908 Number II 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street ... Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1908, by ROGERS & MANSON 

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ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



PAGE 

Agencies — Clay Products ....... II 

Architectural Faience ........ II 

„ Terra Cotta II and III 

Brick Ill 



PAGE 

Brick Enameled . . . . . . . .Ill and IV 

Brick Waterproofing ........ IV 

Fireproofing ......... IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



CONTENTS 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

HENRY BACON; WILLIAM A. BORING ; MAGINNIS, WALSH & SULLIVAN; MAURAN, 

RUSSELL & GARDEN ; RENWICK, ASPINWALL & TUCKER ; LOUIS C. 

SPIERING ; R CLIPSTON STURGIS. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

THE FRANCISCAN MONASTERY OF THE TRINITY, DANTSIC, GERMANY Frontispiece 

COURTHOUSE PLANNING Thomas M. Kellogg 245 

THE DEPARTMENT STORE PLAN John Lawrence Man, an 252 

ENGLISH BRICKBUILDERS The work of R. II W/ Schuliz 256 

THE GOVERNMENT TO TEST BURNT CLAY BUILDING MATERIALS 260 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 262 

PROGRAMME FOR HOSPITAL BUILDING COMPETITION 266 




THE FRANCISCAN MONASTERY OF THE TRINITY, DANTSIC, GERMAN V 




tH«<<<<<<<<<<<<<<«<^<^<V^VVVV^V<<<<<<<<<<<<<'>>>>>>>>>>>>VV>>>>>>>>>>>>v>>>>>>>>>>>>>V>^>>>>>>>>>>>>W 



THE BRICKBVELDER 




VOL. 17 



DEVOTEDTO THE-INTEREJIf-OP-ARCHITECTVREIN MATERtALJ-OF-CLAY- 



NOVEMBER 1908 



il 1 



X 



m 



Courthouse Planning. 

BY THOMAS M. KELLOGG. 



IN every country the degree of progress is measured 
to a great extent by its method of administering 
justice. The existence and maintenance of law courts, 
and the gradual growth and increase in their scope and 
power, has been one of the strong and undeniable indi- 
cations of the advance of civilization, tending towards an 
increase of personal liberty and an assurance of the 
rights of individuals to hold and enjoy the possession of 
property, and to maintain their civil rights under the 
protection of established laws. 

The rapid growth of our own country and its marvel- 
ous development have been largely due to its ability to 
adopt and carry out from its infancy a system of wise 
and effective self government. In the pioneer days, 
when new settlements were being continuously formed, 
an element of lawlessness usually existed which threat- 
ened the safety and happi- 
ness of each community to 
as great an extent perhaps 
as the encroachments and 
depredations of the Indi- 
ans. To overcome this 
tendency it was necessary 
to deal summarily with each 
offender, and justice was 
administered with a stern 
hand. Few laws were rec- 
ognized, or even existed, 
but an inherent faculty of 
logic, based on common 
sense, together with the 
stern necessities of self- 
protection combined with the early American character- 
istic of fair play, formed the principles of justice as then 
administered. 

Thus our first courthouses came into existence, con- 
sisting usually of a crude log hut of a single apartment. 
Jails were seldom needed in those days, as there existed 
no sentimental prejudice against capital punishment, 
which was considered the only prompt and efficacious 
method of disposing of the guilty, as well as setting a 
wholesome example to others. As the settlements grew 
in importance and population, the schoolhouse and the 
courthouse kept pace with progress; and the latter gained 
all the more prominence owing to the interminable dis- 
putes and misunderstandings resulting from the govern- 
ment grants of land, and the difficulty of securing 
satisfactory titles to the various claimants. 




THE OLD COURTHOUSE AT ST. LOUIS. 



As villages were transformed into cities the demand 
for all public improvements increased in proportion, and 
the church, the schoolhouse, and the courthouse grew 
relatively in importance, as became the dignity of civil- 
ized communities. Then came the conflict with the 
mother country resulting in an independent nation, and 
the various states were subdivided into counties, each 
county seat having its courthouse. Naturally the build- 
ings began to assume more pretentious proportions, and 
the courthouse became the gathering point of the people 
from all the surrounding country, attracted as much by 
idle curiosity and the opportunity for political discussion 
as by the more serious interests to be settled by 
judge and jury. It will, therefore, be seen that the 
architectural character of our courthouses and other 
public buildings has, from the earliest days to the 

present time, been propor- 
tionate to the growth and 
importance of the various 
communities. And yet, 
the simplicity and dignity 
which usually marked the 
buildings of colonial days, 
especially in New England 
and certain portions of the 
South, gave a charm and 
individuality to the archi- 
tecture sadly lacking in 
many of our modern and 
more pretentious struc- 
tures. One cannot but 
have an occasional feeling 
of regret, and at the same time recognize the fact, that 
our architecture must necessarily keep pace with progress 
in wealth and prosperity. 

A modest brick colonial courthouse, with its simple 
and dignified portico of wood, needs the setting and 
surroundings, and even the atmosphere, to which it is 
adapted, being sadly out of place in one of the crowded 
thoroughfares of our larger cities, hemmed in by ruth- 
less and ungainly skyscrapers. Due allowance must 
also be made for the steadily increasing demands for 
space and expansion, and our modern courthouse of the 
average requirements must, therefore, of necessity be 
radically different from its simple and charming proto- 
type of colonial days. At the same time certain funda- 
mental principles governing the successful design of any 
building of a public or monumental character should be 



246 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



closely adhered to. Every 
effort should be made to 
frankly express its purpose, 
both in plan and exterior. 
The site and its stirround- 
ings should be carefully 
considered, and the char- 
acter of the building con- 
form to local conditions, 
with a view to making the 
most of the material at 
hand. 

The study of the ap- 
proaches should not be neg- 
lected, nor postponed until 
the building is completed, 




THE OLD MIDDLESEX COUNTY COT RTHOUSE AT EAST 
CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



features of the interior to 
which they give access. 
The circulation of halls and 
corridors should be direct 
and unmistakable, leading 
without confusion or un- 
necessary distance both to 
the staircases and eleva- 
tors as well as to the vari- 
ous departments of the 
building. 

After observing these 
preliminaries, which are 
more or less general in 
character, it may be in 
order to consider the more 




COURTROOM FLOOR, MIDDLESEX COUNTY COURTHOUSE, EAS1 CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



on the plea of economy or lack of time 
setting to an otherwise 
beautiful building is often 
hopelessly sacrificed and 
lost owing to a lack of that 
attention to this important jjjj 
feature at the beginning, 
which might have proved 
its necessity and secured 
its adoption. 

The nature of the site 
and its surroundings should 
also, to a certain extent, de- 
termine the distribution of 
the entrances to the build- 
ing, all of which should be 
governed by the impor- 
tance of the streets upon 
which they face, and the 



An appropriate 




COURTHOUSE, 1829. 



salient and distinctive features relating particularly to 

the average modern court- 
-f.-T Ti-'i -"_'=?",,,■ ._?;-'- house. These requirements 
;_' ' ' ""-_,: :':'--' i^^BB*-.-.: lV1 " necessarily vary largely 

with the locality and the 
population, and the extent 
of territory which the 
building is intended to 
serve, and must, in any 
case, be governed by the 
amount of funds availa- 
ble. 

Reference to two distinct 
types of buildings will per- 
haps serve as a partial 
illustration of general 
courthouse requirements ; 
one, a county courthouse, 
and the other a combined 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



247 



courthouse and postoffice building for the United States 
Government. 

The county building, with the exception of jail quarters 
in the upper story, is devoted exclusively to court pur- 
poses, with the usual county offices in conjunction there- 
with. The first or ground floor contains those depart- 
ments whose business directly concerns the public, 
namely, the recorder of deeds; surrogate's offices, where 
wills are probated and registered ; the auditor and tax col- 



together with a judge's room adjoining each; also jury 
and witness rooms, offices of the prosecutor, a bar con- 
sultation room, and library. 

On the third floor are two minor courtrooms for civil 
cases, each with its judge's room adjoining, together with 
additional jury and witness rooms, a jury dormitory with 
private toilet, and a room for the grand jury, the latter 
connecting directly with the prosecutor's offices on the 
floor below by means of a private stairway. This floor 




COUNTY COURTHOUSE AT CAMDEN, N. J. 
Rankin, Kellogg & Crane, Architects. 



lector; and sheriff. In addition to these are the offices of 
the county clerk, and a large meeting room and offices 
for the board of county freeholders. 

In the basement, directly below the sheriff's offices, is a 
large apartment for conducting sheriff's forced sales. 
This apartment is provided with a separate outside en- 
trance, also an inside stairway connecting the sheriff's 
offices with the salesroom. Adjoining the sheriff's office 
is a receiving room for prisoners, with a separate private 
entrance opening on the most retired and least important 
street and connecting with a prisoner's stairway and 
elevator which communicates directly with the criminal 
court above, and continues up to the jail in the top 
story. 

The second floor contains the three principal court- 
rooms: the criminal, the supreme, and the circuit courts, 



also contains a large gallery for the public opening into 
the criminal court below, which, on account of its size 
and importance, carries up through the two stories. 

The top floor is devoted entirely to the jail, with space 
for about one hundred and fifty prisoners, in addition to 
offices for the warden and physician, a large kitchen, and 
an infirmary, together with suitable bath and toilet ac- 
commodations, both for staff and prisoners. 

It does not, however, seem an ideal arrangement, 
either physically or morally, to combine a courthouse 
and jail in one building, and it was only for economic 
reasons that it was done in this case. It is probable that 
in the future there will be sufficient demand for addi- 
tional space in the courthouse proper to justify the re- 
moval of the jail to a separate building, where it properly 
belongs. 



248 



THE BRICKBUILDKR 



THIRD 
FLOOR 

PLAN. 



SECOND 
FLOOR 
PLAN. 





FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



CO! \TV COURTHOUSE, CAMDEN, N. J. 
Rankin, Kellogg & Crane, Architects. 



D 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



249 







UNITED STATES COURTHOUSE AND POST OFFICE BUILDING, INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 

Rankin & Kellogg, Architects. 



-5° 



THE RRICKBUILDER 



The Federal or United States courts are, for purposes 
of economy in building and convenience of administra- 
tion, usually located in the post office buildings of the 
larger cities. They are erected and equipped under the 
immediate control of the United States Treasury Depart- 
ment through the office of the Supervising Architect at 
Washington, and until a few years ago were entirely 
confined to that office. By a comparatively recent act of 
Congress, commonly known as the Tarsney Act, the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury has been empowered at his dis- 
cretion to employ architects in private practise to design 



for future accumulation. Toilet accommodations for the 
public, for male and female witnesses, and for employees 
of both sexes must not be overlooked. 

It will be seen by comparing the needs of the county 
building with those of the court requirements of the 
federal building that, while differing in minor details, 
they are quite similar in many respects. Each has its 
trials by jury, and therefore requires practically the same 
arrangement of jury and witness rooms ; the library is of 
equal relative importance ; the United States marshal 
coincides with the county sheriff ; the United States 




PLAN OF COURTROOM FLOOR, COURTIIOI si AND POST OFFICE, INDIANAPOLIS, INI). 



and supervise the erection of work of this character in 
conjunction with the office of the Supervising Architect. 
Several prominent and many minor buildings have already 
been successfully completed under this arrangement. 

The general requirements for the Federal Courts are 
similar in character to those of the county buildings, and 
each is proportionate in extent to the amount of territory 
to be served. They usually consist of two, and some- 
times three, large courtrooms, each with private rooms 
for judges ; a large and important library, centrally lo- 
cated ; one or two consultation rooms for the bar ; and a 
proportionately generous allotment of office space for the 
United States district attorney, marshal, and clerk of 
each court, besides rooms for male and female witnesses, 
jury rooms, a prisoner's room, controlled by the bailiff, 
and one or two cells for confining refractory prisoners. 
A smaller courtroom is usually provided for the settle- 
ment of petty cases without a jury, also a room for the 
grand jury, together with stenographers' rooms, and am- 
ple space for files and documents, making due allowance 



clerk with the county clerk ; and the United States district 
attorney with the prosecuting attorney of the county. 

Considerable leeway is permissible in the relative loca- 
tion of the various departments, both in the federal and 
county buildings, these being in many respects governed 
somewhat by local conditions. The judge's private room 
should invariably be directly accessible to the court ros- 
trum by a separate private doorway. The jury and wit- 
ness rooms, while not necessarily directly adjoining the 
courtroom, should be in close proximity, as should also 
the offices of the district or prosecuting attorney. The 
library bears a most important relation to the various 
courtrooms, and should, therefore, be centrally located 
so as to be readily accessible to each court. The grand, 
jury room should be so placed as to be within easy access 
to the offices of the prosecuting attorney, although, ow- 
ing to the amount of space usually required for the court 
offices it is commonly allowable to place the grand jury 
room on the floor above, connecting with the offices of 
the prosecuting attorney by means of a private stairway. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



251 



It seems hardly necessary to call attention to the im- 
portance of fireproof qualities in a modern courthouse. 
The nature of many of the documents, such as those per- 
taining to deeds and wills, is such that their loss or de- 



The architectural treatment must also come in for its 
full share of careful study. Dignity and simplicity, well 
defined proportions, purity of detail, and appropriate ma- 
terial will all do their part towards securing a successful 







COURTROOM, COURTHOUSE AND POST OFFICE, INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



struction would be indeed a serious matter. Careful 
attention should, therefore, be given to this feature, and 
the building so planned that the structural units are sim- 
ple and straightforward, and the steel columns, beams, 
and girders amply protected throughout with suitable 
fireproof covering. 



COLOGNE CATHEDRAL CRUMBLING. 

So much has been written of late about the unsafe con- 
dition of the cathedral at Cologne that the report of 
Dombaumeister Kertel, which was published in the Zen- 
tralblatt der Bauverwaltung will be read with interest. 
The "report says that the building as a whole is sound 
and safe. The investigation has shown, however, that 
much of the outer part of the dome is in bad condition. 
Not only the ornamental parts, but the flat stone walls, 
have suffered more than even the experts knew. It is 



result. But to all these characteristics, which appear 
necessary, there must be added that inherent quality, 
difficult to describe, but always to be closely striven for, 
without which all efforts are futile, but which, when at- 
tained, will enable the observer to determine correctly the 
character of the building and the purpose of its erection. 



remarkable, says the architect, that the signs of decay do 
not appear only on the very old parts, but are seen on 
those of the last century, and in some places which were 
repaired only twenty years ago there are unmistakable 
signs of decay. Nor are these ravages confined to one 
kind of stone. All the various kinds employed in the 
structure have been attacked, and the disintegration seems 
to begin not on the surface, but to work outwardly. The 
rapidity of the process is shown in the gallery on the 
north side, which is rapidly falling away, while five years 
ago it was intact. 



252 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Department Store Plan. 



BY JOHN LAWRENCE MAURAN. 



PRIOR to planning the Grand Leader Department 
Store Building, herewith presented, it was the good 
fortune of the writer to make a voyage of discovery 
among the department stores of the country in company 
with clients whose sole object was to incorporate in their 
own plans the best ideas obtainable. We saw not only 
the innermost workings, but heard at first hand the de- 
tails of each manager's pet hobby, and what follows must 
be judged in the light of the above preamble. 

Probably no architect ever designed a department store 
unaffected by the hobby or caprice of his client, and 
while this statement is likely true of every class of 
work, it is here almost fundamental, for the department 
store proprietor, or manager, has of necessity studied 
what appeals most strongly to his particular class of 
trade, or has worked up into a feature the "meet me at 
the fountain " type of advertising dodge. 

With this in view as accounting for divergencies be- 
tween conclusions written and those expressed in the 
typical plans, the first considerations in sequence are: 

First: Shape of lot and relation to principal abutting 
streets and alleys. 

Second: Type of show window for combined display, 
first floor lighting, and summer ventilation. 

Third : Character of trade — exclusive or mixed. 

Fourth: Access to floors, including character and loca- 
tion of accessory appliances. 

Fifth: Detail considerations of heating, ventilation, 
lighting plant, cash and bundle systems, etc. 

1 (iscussing these considerations sequentially, it may be 
said of the first, that here indeed the architect will find 
that each site presents its own particular problem, but in 
general his plan should be as nearly rectangular as pos- 
sible, the entrances of ample size and duplication on the 
principal street fronts — one or more groups depending 
on the length of the fa<;ade and the importance of the 
thoroughfare. A casual study of resulting aisle arrange- 
ment will convince the client, as well as the architect, 
that a corner entrance is expensive in floor space, window 
effectiveness, and circulation of incoming and outgoing 
shoppers. The service and freight elevators, delivery 
entrances, and canopy should, if possible, be located on 
an alley or on the least important abutting street. 

The floor plan should be as open and generous as pos- 
sible, giving extensive perspectives unbroken by stairs, 
elevators, etc., and never marred by an irregular or 
eccentric columniation. The size of lot and type of con- 
struction must govern column centering, but the plan 
shown is close to accepted spacing. 

The second consideration may provoke a heated argu- 
ment between architect and client, starting with a matter 
of taste, but proof positive may be easily adduced to show 
that the unbroken shell of plate glass front has gone to 
stay. The best "merchandiser" recognizes the differ- 
ence in dignity as well as the value of show window 
division, in the visible pier or column, and is ready to let 
his competitor indulge in the expanse of flimsy glass 
underpinning. 



Many effective show windows are constructed without 
enclosures other than draperies concealing the back shelv- 
ing, but in most of our cities atmospheric conditions 
enforce the need of tight wood or wood and glass en- 
closures, and reference to the plan will indicate the 
means of access for the window dressers, while intercom- 
munication from window to window is maintained 
throughout the paneled false work at the rear of struc- 
tural outside columns back of the heating and ventilating 
pipes which it conceals. The windows should have the 
single sheet of plate glass extend from an average of ten 
to eighteen inches above grade to a height of ten feet six 
to twelve feet above grade in order to secure ample tran- 
soms in first lloor. These transoms should be hinged at 
the bottom and mechanically operated in series, for in 
summer weather no artificial ventilation can produce the 
necessary air movement. Ample plug socket capacity 
should be furnished for holiday display to supplement 
the accepted transom bar concealed reflector. 

Even in our largest cities it is a serious question 
whether the highest class of trade can be catered to 
exclusively — the well to do spend much of the year out 
of town and it is conceded that the middle and poorer 
classes respond most quickly to the bargain sale advertise- 
ments, so it would seem safest to assume that the 
internal planning, the location of staple goods, the dis- 
position of elevators, and the deft combination of refined 
appearance and atmosphere with those "features" which 
attract the bargain hunter without repelling the fastidi- 
ous, will most successfully meet the requirements of our 
third consideration. 

It is hard to over-estimate the importance of careful 
study under the next heading, for the life blood of a suc- 
cessful department store must course through all depart- 
ments, i.e., the higher percentage of customers induced 
(not forced) to go to the upper floors, the more successful 
the plan. Generally speaking the basement should contain 
the cheaper grades of advertised bargains, ingress and 
egress to be furnished by broad, easy stairs either from 
the vestibule or from the main floor on the main en- 
trance artery so as to interfere as little as possible with 
the general circulation, or by both. Elevators and esca- 
lators to the basement are of minor importance, but not 
so the upper floors to which they are indispensable. 

< )pinions differ widely as to the value of an escalator 
as a trade factor, but certain it is that the broad step 
type is practical as a novelty and a real relief to the 
elevator service on busy days. The escalator need 
ascend only and its usefulness seems to reach its climax 
at the third floor. Its location should be on the main 
cross aisle off the center where it will interfere as little 
as possible with the general perspective. 

Stairs should never be featured to the extent of central 
floor location, but should be broad, easy, and attractive, 
adjacent to the elevators, and this brings us to the crux 
of the matter: In some stores otherwise successful 
elevators have been grouped radially out in the floor, 
destroying perspective, confusing passengers, and mutil- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




2 54 



THE BRICK BUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



255 



ating the scheme of aisle circulation which must be 
maintained. Others have placed banks of elevators of 
few units near entrances with the hope of facilitating 
access to upper floors, and in some cases have placed 
them modestly behind tight partitions. A careful survey 
of the situation must lead to a very different plan. Un- 
less the ground be nearly square and of considerable 
area one bank of as many units as possible located about 
the center of the long (perhaps blank) wall opposite the 
principal street will give the best results. With a 
square plan and two principal streets the accompanying 
plan seems to be the best commercial solution. The 
object is to lead customers seeking upper floors past as 
many display counters as possible to an ample number 
of elevator units where they can get quick service with- 
out suffering the annoyance of being hustled from one 
over-worked bank to another equally crowded. Most 
shoppers are not clever, and everything must be made 
clearer than daylight so this one large bank (or two at 
the most) becomes familiar by usage and should be 
evident to the stranger by having a polished wire glass 
enclosure through which the cars may be seen and each 
attractive floor be revealed, in passing, to the occupants. 
Every safety appliance on the elevators is money in the 
owner's pocket. 

Much might be written covering the multitude of 
matters under the fifth heading which at best can only be 
treated here more or less superficially. Every depart- 
ment store should be sprinkled (the system either exposed 
or concealed by a suspended ceiling) and ample fire escapes 
provided, preferably of the enclosed concrete stair type 
shown on the plan. If power or heat cannot be secured 
from outside service companies, it seems unwise to en- 
croach to the necessary extent on the valuable basement 
space, but rather to locate the plant in a sub-basement, 
or better still — as was done in the building here shown 
— place it under a separate roof across the street. Here 
is generated the steam for operating the dynamos for 
lighting, elevator, ventilating motor, tube system motor, 
etc., while the exhaust is used for heating. A large 
storage battery has been found economical for lowering 
the elevator peak and for elevator and scrub service light- 
ing after hours. A large coal supply either at hand or 
nearby is essential to avoid shutdowns. 

Artificial ventilation for at least the basement and first 
floor is essential, and so much data exists that no further 
comment is necessary except a word of warning that the 
client usually expects too much in the way of cooling in 
hot weather, for it is impossible to produce the cooling 
effect of air movement, even though the temperature be 
lowered, except by dangerous and expensive induced cold 
draughts — hence the previous reference to the need of 
transom auxiliaries in the first floor. The resulting dust 
practically prohibits them in the basement. 

The open light well is almost the only opportunity 
presented for a display of the designer's skill on the in- 
terior, but truth compels the writer to state that its value 
seldom offsets the tremendous fire risk and loss of floor 
space. 

It is a self evident proposition that the top floor should 
contain the stock room and almost equally axiomatic that 
on the next floor below may be located an attractive and 
well conducted restaurant, for no other lure is so certain 



to tempt the suburban or " professional " shopper up 
through the departments requiring this publicity. The 
location of the writing room, manicure, and hairdresser, 
as well as the office gives opportunity for multiplying the 
effectiveness of this device. 

The hospital rooms with physician and trained nurse 
have passed from the novelty to the necessity stage in 
the larger department stores. Not only must the shopper 
be furnished free with all the comforts of home in the 
modern store, including public telephone service, but the 
home staying purchaser must be permitted to order by 
telephone from the clerk in each department, so this in- 
dividual counter telephone service is no less important 
than the modern bundle wrapping and cash register 
station localized in every store unit. The necessity of 
ample, attractive lavatories for men and women cus- 
tomers on almost every floor is second only in importance 
to the obvious economic need of the same local accom- 
modations for employees. The saving of time is the saving 
of money and so it is as essential also to provide separate 
elevator service and a special restaurant for the employees, 
as it is to have automatic dummy elevator service for the 
replenishing of stock, and the spiral package chute to the 
delivery room. 

It is obvious that the concentration of the freight and 
employees' elevators, the dummies, chute, and other ser- 
vice accessories should be located on or near the service 
street or alley, for speed is a competitive argument. Un- 
less the abutting streets are highly congested, or all of 
great importance, it is seldom economical to have stock 
or delivery wagons enter the building — the most effective 
handling being by freight elevator after unloading, to the 
stock room, thence by freight and dummy to the selling 
floor, thence by chute or freight to the package room 
where distribution is made into the wheel trucks or 
"buggies," these in turn being raised to the shipping 
platform by a sort of freight escalator combined with 
fixed stairs, while a one story lift takes care of furniture 
and other bulky goods. 

Outside the universal ice water system there are so 
many details of special problems which happily are not 
universal, such as the photograph gallery, cold storage 
for furs, and soda water fountain, that it seems unneces- 
sary to dilate upon them, while artificial store lighting 
and other technical problems have been admirably 
treated in many available papers. 

Each store is after all a special problem, but it is hoped 
that the solution may be assisted at least by the experi- 
ences herein recorded. 



HARTFORD has done even more than erect the 
largest and finest stone arch bridge in the world. 
By this improvement it has gained a remarkable river- 
side park half a mile in length, lying thirty-five feet 
above the water and serving as an approach to the bridge. 
From this promenade a fine view of the Connecticut 
River northward and southward is obtained ; but that 
which delights the Hartfordites is that the worst tene- 
ments of the city have been removed to make way for 
this beautifying of the riverside. Hartford's example 
ma)- well be followed by many other municipalities in 
America, and that rare possession for a town, a water- 
side park with fine building sites behind it, obtained. 



256 



THE BRICKBUIL D E R . 



English Brickbuilders. 

THE WORK OF R. WEIR SCHULTZ. 



ANYONE familiar with the architectural profession 
of to-day will know that deep reading, erudite 
research, painstaking measurement, diligent study of 
old work, do not necessarily result in the production of 
good design, even when associated with initial aptitude 
and ability. There are many names that remind us of 
that fact very forcibly — 
names of men whose abil- 
ity is unquestioned, men 
who have had a university 
training, men who are wide 
in their knowledge though 
narrow in their sympathies. 
The reason is, perhaps, to 
be found in the self-con- 
sciousness of these archi- 
tects, which commits them 
to such productions as are 
considered "individual." 
In truth, this is no other 
than a cultured affectation, 
and it ends in failure. A 
certain proportion of archi- 
tects, however, trained in 
this school of thought, do 
rid themselves of the taint 
— possibly through an in- 
telligent intimacy with good construction as well as a cul- 
tured knowledge of design. Mr. R. Weir Schultz is one 
of these men; an architect, moreover, whose work is the 
more surprising, when we remember that he had de- 
voted great study to archeology and ancient architec- 
ture — particularly that of the Byzantine period. As a 
rule, when an architect becomes wedded to archaeology 




UNIVERSITY 5ETTLEMEN1 



in any form, he lapses into vagaries, loses touch with the 
present, and stifles his natural tendencies, in the ex- 
cessive study of the past. That fault is nowhere dis- 
played in Mr. Schultz's work. It is essentially modern, 
while scholarly, broad in treatment, eminently adapted 
to its needs; displaying, too, an appreciation of the 

craftsman's work, whether 
in wood, plaster, or brick. 
His houses are essentially 
English in feeling. They 
suit their environment; 
they do not shout at you ; 
they compose well and they 
are planned in a manner 
that does not engender the 
thought that architect and 
client have been at greatest 
pains to do everything in 
the opposite way to what is 
considered usual by the ordi- 
nary sane man. This is a 
point that needs emphasiz- 
ing, because in the work of 
some architects who have 
achieved a sort of reputation 
there is an incessant display 
of modulated eccentricity. 
Mr. Schultz is very happy in his general schemes and 
in the design of his brickwork detail, and the results 
which he has achieved by the contrivance of small em- 
bellishments with plain bricks used in many novel ways 
are most pleasing. The accompanying illustrations 
clearly show this. 

Pickenham Hall, a large country house in Norfolk, is 




ENTRANCK FRONT, PICKENHAM HALL, NORFOLK. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



2 57 




GENERAL VIEW OK I'KKGOI.A, HOUSE AT FELIXSTOWE. 



a typical example of his work. The whole is carried out 
in red brick, running five courses to the foot, the roof be- 
ing covered with red tiles, hand-made in the old manner. 
Over the entrance are figures and carving in stone, this 
work having been modeled from the architect's sketches. 
The whole design is sturdy in effect, while the variety in 
some of the brick enrichments is astonishing. The total 
cost of this house was about $100,000. 

Another good example of Mr. Schultz's work is the 
house at Hever, " How Green." This has been erected 
on a site overlooking the 
valley of the Eden, the plan 
being the outcome of the re- 
quirements to get as much 
sun as possible into the 
rooms. The walls are built 
of red bricks, with tile- 
hanging and roof tiles. The 
windows have oak frames 
and leaded lights, the bal- 
cony and porch are of oak, 
and there is an oak stair- 
case, with oak linings to 
walls of same and of 
the hall. In the hall is 
an interesting fireplace of 
brick, with some old tiles 
introduced effectively. 
With the exception of some 





. "&W 






••' . * -;• •3" •!*, ~ ?/* '5" . 


JO »* 


, 





WATER HASIN IN PERGOLA, FELIXSTOWE. 



modeled plaster friezes in the library, drawing room, 
and dining room, and some carving to chimney-pieces, 
the interior of the house is finished quite simply. The 
garden is a notable feature, having been laid out from 
Mr. Schultz's design. It is a very pleasant place, and 
makes the scheme complete. 

Mr. Schultz, it may be mentioned, gives special atten- 
tion to his garden schemes, recognizing how essential it 
is that the surroundings of the house should be included 
in the architect's design, in order that an harmonious re- 
sult may be secured. As 
one of many examples, we 
may turn to the pergola 
which has been erected 
under his direction at a 
house at Felixstowe; and 
in particular we may note 
the scheme of a water basin 
carried out with brick, 
shells, bottle-ends, and 
drain-pipes, which occurs 
in the length of this per- 
gola; the treatment is novel 
and effective both in form 
and color. 

At Tylney Hall Mr. 
Schultz has carried out a 
considerable amount of 
work, included in which is 



2 5 8 



THE BRICKBUILDKR 




AkllKN FRONT. 




JUHX'i 



T JU 



13 



PICKENHAM HALL, 
NORFOLK. 





DETAIL OK FRENCH WINDOW AM) HOOD. 



Dl I AIL OK EAST KI.KVAI ION. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



2 59 




a high water tower, built of brick, 
with half-timbering' in the top por- 
tion and a thatched roof, while 
numerous other treatments in the 
garden testify to the vigor and 
variety of his design. 

A curious little building is the 
University Settlement Hall at Car- 
diff, which has been erected in con- 
nection with the dockers' movement. 
A very plain and cheap building 



SOUTH FRONT, "HOW GREEN, " HEVER, KENT. 



''■ 




PLAN, " HOW GREEN. 



was required, and this Mr. Schultz 
has provided, securing also as much 
architectural quality as was possi- 
ble in the circumstances. The hall 
accommodates six hundred persons 
and cost $9,000. The walls are of 
red bricks, pointed inside and out, 
having in the gable at the front a 
small panel by Mr. W. Goscombe 
John, A. R. A. It is the roof, how- 
ever, which attracts chief attention. 





HALL FIREPLACE, "HOW GREEN." 



DETAIL OF BAY WINDOW, SCALERS HILL. 



:6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



This is built up of deals 
of small scantlings bolted 
together and carrying 
boarding, which is cov- 
ered with felt and laid 
over with tiles. This is 
a very economical form 
of roof and Mr. Schultz 
has used it in other small 
halls, such as the village 
hall and reading room at 
Shorne. 

These few notes, with 
the accompanying illus- 
trations, serve to indi- 
cate the character of Mr. 
Schultz's work. It is 
preeminently English 
(though the architect 
happens to be Scotch) 
and while based on the 
models which add so 
much charm to the Eng- 
lish countryside is full 
of fresh life and imbued 
with modern feeling. 
The houses, moreover, are eminently suited to live in 
as well as to look at, and are free from those foibles 




WATER TOWER, TYI.XEY HALL. 




GARDEN GATEWAY, TYLNEY HALL. 

which so frequently mar the work of architects of out- 
standing ability. 



THE GOVERNMENT TO TEST CLAYS AND 
BURNT CLAY BUILDING MATERIALS. 

AN investigation of clays and clay products needed in 
Covernment work is to be undertaken at once by 
the United States Geological Survey, Technologic 
Branch. A ceramic section has been created, with A. V. 
Bleininger of Champaign, Illinois, as ceramic chemist. 

This is an important extension of the structural ma- 
terials investigations which have been carried on for 
several years with a view to determining the nature and 
extent of the materials belonging to or available for use 
in the building and construction work of the federal 



Government and ho<v' these materials may be used most 
efficiently. 

With the growing scarcity of timber and the consequent 
increase in price, federal officials in charge of the con- 
struction work, which now amounts to $40,000,000 an- 
nually, have been looking about for desirable substitutes, 
such as clay products. The enormous fire losses of the 
country have also been an incentive in this direction, the 
federal engineers realizing more than ever before the need 
for more definite knowledge concerning the fire resisting 
properties of structural materials. All this has led the 
Government to take up a general investigation of the 
clays and clay products. 

The importance of the clay industry is seen when it is 
realized that the value of such in 1907 was $149,697,000, 
a gain of fourteen per cent over the previous year. 

Mr. Bleininger, the ceramic chemist, in speaking of 
the plans for the work of his section said: " First, it is 
intended that it should do the testing of clay products 
such as common and pressed brick, paving brick, hollow 
tiles and conduits, sewer pipe, fireproofing, terra cotta, 
enameled bricks, and glazed tiles, floor and roofing tiles, 
fire brick, electric porcelain insulators, and other struc- 
tural goods submitted for this purpose by the construction 
bureaus of the Government. Though standard tests of 
most of the above materials do not exist as yet, the work 
of the division would tend to fix and unify the methods 
of testing of the burnt clay products, thus insuring the 
highest quality of ware obtainable in the industry for the 
construction work of the Government. It is in no way 
intended that the testing be done arbitrarily without due 
regard to the just claims of the manufacturers, but it is 
proposed to aim for results beneficial to both the Govern- 
ment and the conscientious manufacturer. 

" The second part of the activity of the new section is to 
consist in evolving standard tests of clays for the purpose 
of determining the use to which they are best suited, 
thus assisting in the development of the clay resources 
of the country and avoiding the great money losses 
caused by ill-advised investments in low-grade clay prop- 
erties. This field is an extremely important one and was 
urged upon the L T nited States Geological Survey by the 
American Ceramic Society and the National Brick Manu- 
facturers' Association, the two leading organizations de- 
voting their attention to these lines. 

" The standardization of clay testing is proposed to be 
carried on in cooperation with the English and German 
investigations so that finally international standards may 
be adopted. 

" The third class of work to be entered upon deals with 
the general manufacturing problems, the solution of 
which would mean the elimination of much loss, or would 
lead to greater efficiency and perfection. There might 
be mentioned the important question of ' white wash ' 
or effloresence appearing on brick walls, a difficulty caus- 
ing serious annoyance and loss to manufacturers and 
users of bricks by marring the beauty of many 
structures. 

" In all of these investigations the .Survey will consult 
with an advisory committee composed of a number of 
leading clay manufacturers and technologists, so that 
the needs of the industries will be served in the best 
manner." 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



261 




HOUSE FOR AMOS L. SCHAEFFER, ESQ. 

ENGINEER OF PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION, NEW YORK CITY. 
SQUIRES & WYNKOOP, ARCHITECTS. 

AS shown by the illustrations the walls of this house 
are built of hollow tile terra blocks with stucco 
finish on the exterior. 

The foundation walls to grade are of local stone. 

All walls up to the second story level are 10 by 12 by 
12 hollow terra cotta tile. These are laid on end and 
figured twelve inches including joint. Story heights are 
therefore in even dimensions of feet. These blocks are 
so made that they can be broken in six inch lengths. The 
second story construction is similar except that the tiles 
are eight inches thick instead of ten inches as in the first 
story walls. In this house there are three interior bear- 




ing walls and the framing is parallel 
with the long dimensions of the 
building for end sections and parallel 
with short side for middle section. 

All openings are formed with 2 by 
4 studs as a rough nailing for wood 
door jambs and to form the bottom 
of concrete lintels and these studs 
are left in place. The window open- 
ings are not rebated, but the window 
box shows complete on the exterior 
and has a head the same width as 
the jamb. It is secured in place by 
nailing to wood blocks in the tile 
wall. The joint is packed with 
oakum and has given no trouble. 
The trim on the inside covers the 
joint and a mold on the outside 
covers the stucco joint. 

The exterior walls have a finish- 





ing coat of stucco in the water of which is mixed ten 
per cent Anti-Hydro waterproofing. The interior walls 
were waterproofed with a coat of Universal Compound 
waterproofing, and the plaster for the finish was applied 
directly to the tile. 

The dining room, living room, and hallways are 
wainscoted or decorated with woodwork which is 
secured to wooden nailing blocks put into the tile walls 
before plastering. 

The architects of the building have built several 
houses of this type, and have found that they can 
build more easily and quickly than with other mater- 
ials; that the walls are in all respects weatherproof, 
and that it is a comparatively inexpensive construc- 
tion. The average cost for ten houses which they 
have built is 21 cents per cubic foot. 



A HOUSE BUILT OF HOLLOW TILE TERRA COTTA BLOCKS WITH EXTERIOR FINISH OF STUCCO. 



262 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment and 
Miscellany. 



WOOD STILL PRINCIPAL MATERIAL USED IN 

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ACCORDING 

TO GOVERNMENT REPORT. 

Great as the advance in fireproof construction has 
been during the last ten years there has been no letup 
in the use of lumber, and both architects and builders 
find themselves so dependent on wood to-day that they 
are compelled to admit that the forests of the country 
are likely to be the chief source of building material for 
many years to come. 

" The use of cement, terra cotta, brick, and stone, with 
a framework of steel, will make it possible soon to do 
away with wood entirely," is a remark often heard, and, 
indeed, when one stands on lower Broadway and looks 
up at the towering skyscrapers, the statement seems to 
contain much truth. As a matter of fact, however, the 
popular idea that fireproof materials will do away with 
the need of using lumber in a comparatively few years is 
a very erroneous one. All of the various fireproof 
materials going into the approved construction of the 
more substantial buildings are used in greater quantities 
now than the world dreamed of a few years ago, yet the 
heavy demand for lumber continues. 

That wood predominates is shown by the annual build- 
ing records. Of the permits used for buildings erected 
last year, approximately 61 per cent were constructed of 
wood, and the remaining 39 per cent of fire resisting 
material, according to a report issued by the Oeological 
Survey on operations in forty-nine leading cities of the 
country. These figures are the more significant when it 
is realized that they only represent the building activi- 
ties in the largest cities; they do not take into account 
the construction of dwellings, stores, and other buildings 
in the thousands of small cities and towns scattered over 





CITY-INVESTING BUILDING, LOWER BROADWAY, NEW York. 

Francis H. Kimball. Architect. 

All the terra cotta work by the New York Architectural Terra Cotta 

Company. 

and not included in the forty-nine cities on which the 
reckoning is made. 

In towns and small cities wood is usually the pre- 
dominating building material and it is safe to say that if 
the statistics had included figures for all places of what- 
ever size, the percentage of wooden construction would 
have been much greater. These figures, as a rule, are 
only for the corporate limits, and the suburbs of these 
cities have each very large amounts to be added. The 
cost, also, is relatively higher in these cities than in 
towns nearer the base of the supply. 



A FIKKPI.ACK FACED WITH GRUEBY TIl.E. 



A MORE BEAUTIFUL BOSTON. 

Within a comparatively short time the Charles River 
basin will be usable for the newer purposes for which it 
has been made, and when the new roadway on the south- 
ern side is completed and provision is made for perma- 
nent headquarters for aquatic sports and for pleasure 
craft, then it will be shown whether Bostonians are 
alive to an unrivaled opportunity which nature, applied 
science, and the civic imagination of a few far-seeing 
citizens have provided for them. Certain it is that with 
completion of the basin an important new chapter in the 
improvement of Boston will have been written, and an 
example set that other American cities, similarly sit- 
uated, are likely to imitate. 

The record which Harrisburg, Cleveland, Buffalo, St. 
Louis, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Hartford and Spring- 
field have made during the past few years in utilizing 
their river fronts for parks, boulevards, and fine residen- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



263 



tial districts 
shows that the 
era of relegat- 
ing riparian 
lands wholly to 
comm e r ci al 
and transpor- 
tation uses has 
passed. Had 
foresight and 
wealth come 
earlier the ex- 
pense of the 
process of res- 
toration and 
appropriation 
would have 
been less to 
taxpayers. But 
cost what i t 
may, the high- 
grade Ameri- 
can city of the 
future will not 

be reconciled to factories and tracts where 
parks and driveways should be. Commerce 
will have to share the territory, more than it has in the 
past, with those who have 
in mind the promotion of 
physical health, municipal 
adornment, and the people's 
recreation. 



1 


\M ■ ... '. flfi 


EK W. < JM 


H^B t ^1 


£2flH "^*1*^^J*" V^E 



DETAIL BY CHICKER- 
ING & O'CONNELL, 
ARCHITECTS. 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Com- 
pany, Makers. 




DETAIL BY DAVVSON & MC- 
LAUGHLIN, ARCHITECTS. 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Company, 
Makers. 



THE Illuminating En- 
gineering Society, or- 
ganized to advocate systems 
of artificial lighting less 
destructive to the eyesight 
than the ordinary incan- 
descent burner, recently 

held a meeting in the St. Gabriel's Park Branch of the 
Carnegie Libraries 
in New York. 
The building was 
lighted according 
to designs prepared 
by a distinguished 
member of the so- 
ciety and which 
have been adopted 
for the lighting of 
similar buildings in 
the future. Among 
the i nnovations 
may be named the 
following : A lamp 
for a reading table 
outwardly resemb- 
ling the ordinary 
green-shaded 
burner, but pro- 
vided with a re- 
flector which equal- 




ized theamount 
of light, so 
that a book 
placed upon the 
outermost edge 
of the table re- 
ceived quite as 
much light as 
the one directly 
under the 
lamp. Another 
sort of reflector 
over the book 
racks makes 
the illumina- 
tion there uni- 
form, so that 
titles on the 
lower shelf 
may be read as 
easily as those 
nearest the 
light. An en- 
tirely different 
arrangement is employed to light reading 
matter in a horizontal position from that 
in a vertical position. No incandescent lights are left 

unshaded ; and there is a 
careful distinction made 
between local and general 
lighting so that no power 
need be lost in supplying 
general illumination where 
light is needed only for 
reading purposes. 



DETAIL BY CHICKER- 

ING & O'CONNELL, 

ARCHITECTS. 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Com- 
pany, Makers. 



DETAIL BY CLINTON & RUSSELL, ARCHITECTS 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 




CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST, SOUTH BEND, 1ND. 

S. S. Beman, Architect. 

Roofed with Ludowici-Celadon Tile. 



MADISON Square 
Garden has been 
placed upon the market 
for sale. The stockhold- 
ers, meeting November 12th, decided to bring to an end 

what they describe 
as twenty years of 
carrying the prop- 
erty pro bono pub- 
lico, without a cent 
of profit to them- 
selves. Of the 
three parts which 
comprise the build- 
ing, the arena has 
been d e pended 
upon alone to carry 
the investment. 
Without it many of 
the events that 
have become insti- 
tutions of the New 
York twelvemonth 
would have been 
impossible. The 
building was the 
first i mp or t an t 



M 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



work of the late 
vStanford White, 
and it was one 
of the first un- 
dertakings that 
gave impulse to 
the architectural 
improvement of 
New York. The 
more unfortu- 
nate, therefore, 
is the declara- 
tion of the di- 
rectors that 
Madison Square 
Garden can 
never be made 
a paying institution, it being too far removed, in their 
opinion, from the amusement seeking population and 
the main thoroughfares. From another point of view, a 
building with the function of an arena cannot earn an 
amount sufficient to justify such an outlay as the very 
ornate architectural character of the Garden and the 
cost of its central location have required. The fate of 
this, one of the most beautiful structures of New York 
or any other city, will probably be to afford a site for a 
purely mercantile building, occupying the whole of a 
once distinguished block. 




DETAIL BY JAKVIS HUNT, ARCHITEl I. 
American Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



ARTISTS' GUILD, ST. LOUIS. 

This building which is illustrated in the plate form 
of this number is built of paving bricks laid up with big 
white joints. Green enameled bricks in English size, and 
orange colored faience, have been used in the pattern 
work of the walls. 



BUILDING OPERATIONS FOR OCTOBER. 

Building operations took a decided upward turn dur- 
ing the month of October. Official reports from some 

fifty cities compiled 
by The American 
Contractor, New 
York, show an aggre- 
gate gain of 18 per 
cent, as compared 
with ( )ctober, 1907. 
Twenty-six citiesshow 
an increase in build- 
ing operations of from 
2 to 236 per cent, and 
twenty-four show a 
decline of from 2 to 
78 per cent. The 
principal gains were : 
Chicago, 25 per cent ; 
Dallas, 52 ; Denver, 
65 ; Des Moines, 46 ; 
Grand Rapids, 103 ; 
Mobile, 244 ; New 
York, 69; Philadelphia, 
58; Salt Lake City, 55. 





i.l l AIL l:\ SCHW Ak I / a 
i, Ross, ARCHITECTS. 

New Jersey Terra Cotta Com- 
pany, Makers. 



DETAIL BY HELMLE & HUBERTY, 
ARCHITECTS. 

South Amboy Terra Cotta Company, 

Makers. 



IN GENERAL. 

Under the administration of 
the Board of Extension Teach- 
ing, Columbia University an- 
nounces the beginning of its 
second year of Evening Tech- 
nical Courses, which will in- 
clude teaching in architectural 
draughting, architectural prac- 
tice, architectural engineering, 
and history of architecture. 
These classes are intended for 
draughtsmen from and in and 
about New York — the object 
being to give a complete archi- 
tectural education to those men 
who are unable to profit by 
regular courses in architecture 
at the universities. 

The contract for the erection 
of the new passenger station 
of the Chicago and Northwest- 
ern Railway Company has been 
let to the George A. Fuller 
Company. The contract com- 
prises the expenditure of ap- 
proximately $5,000,000, and 
stipulates that the new depot 

shall be completed within two years from the time work 
is begun. The station is to be one of the largest in the 
world, covering, with the train shed, ten acres of floor 
space devoted to the public use. Its total cost, inclusive 
of the cost of the ground upon which it will stand, will 
approximate $20,000,000. The train shed will be 840 
feet long and 320 feet wide, and will contain 16 tracks, 
each with a capacity of fifteen cars. 

The house at 5 East 51st street, New York, Percy 
Griffin, architect, was by mistake illustrated on pages 199 
and 203 of The Brickbuilder for September. This house 
is owned by John A. Melcher, Esq., and is not one of the 
group of houses on West 74th street, which belongs to 
the Clark Estate, as it would appear from the illustra- 
tion on page 203. 

The Government has bought for $450,000 a block im- 
mediately west of the new Union Station at Washington, 
and will use it 
as a site for 
the new city 
post office. 



The first 
two of the 
new group of 
buildings for 
the Bellevue 
Hospital, 
New York, 
were put into 
use Novem- 
ber 5th'. They 
are known as 




DETAIL l:s HKNin ('. PELTON, A lit H I I It i. 
Bl i< k Terra Cotta and Tile Company, Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



265 




DETAIL EXECUTED BY ST. l.OUIS 
COMPANY. 



TERRA COTTA 






"Pavilions A and B, " and together will accommodate 
about four hundred patients. The buildings were started 
in 1905, and their cost has been about $1,000,000. 
McKim, Mead & White are the architects. 

Augustus B. Higginson and E. Russel Ray have 
formed a copartnership for the practice of architecture, 
under the firm name of Higginson & Ray. Offices, 
McKay Building, Santa Barbara, Cal. 

W. Siwart Smit, General Manager of the Twin City 
Brick Company, St. Paul, Minn., is making a tour of 
Europe for the especial purpose of getting new ideas for 
color, shape, and sizes of bricks. 

The Twenty-third Annual Convention of the National 
Brick Manufacturers Association will be held at Roches- 
ter, Feb. 1 to 6, 1909. The headquarters will be at the 
new Seneca Hotel. 

The Western Brick Company of Danville, 111., has in 
four years increased its annual product from five to 
twenty-five millions. Their specialty is a medium priced 

facing brick. 
They will 
place upon the 
market during 
the coming 
year a number 
of new shades. 
Their bricks 
are made from 
shale which 
makes them 
highly vitri- 
fied and im- 
pervious. 

The Twin 
City Brick 
Company is 
now construct- 
ing a large 
stiff-mud 
plant for the 
manufacture 
of a new 
patent inter- 
locking facing 

block This 
AN OFFICE BUILDING AT DETROIT. uiui_k.. inis 

Albert Kahn, Architect. material gives 

Exterior of Enameled Brick, Made by American * e e ^ ec t 

Enameled Brick and Tile Company. of terra COtta 




and is manu- 
factured in all 
the colors of 
their facing 
brick. The 
cost of con- 
struction with 
these blocks 
will be little 
more than 
that for 
frame. Ar- 
chitects and 
builders who 
have seen 
these blocks 
have e x - 
pressed the 
opinion that 
this type of 
construction 
meets a de- 
mand which 
has existed 
for years. 
The new 
material will 
be placed on 
the market 
April 1, 1909. 




DETAIL BY WILLIAM J. BRINKMAN, 

ARCHITECT. 

Northwestern Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



TO DRAUGHTSMEN : I have an opening for a first-class 
man at designing and general preliminary work. Permanent 
position for the right man. R. H. HUNT, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

WANTED. High class architectural designer, -well up in 
modern designing and rendering and familiar with the best class 
of work in the smaller cities. State experience and salary 
expected and give references. FULLER AND PITCHER, 
Architects, Albany, N.Y. 

INDOORS AND OUT. I have a complete file of perfect 
copies of INDOORS AND OUT (the 27 numbers issued) 
which I will deliver to any address in the United States for 
$10.00. Money must accompany order. Address, I. CSb O., 
care THE BRICKBUILDER. 



A book that ivill assist you in the Hospital Competition 

" The Organization, Construction 
and Management of Hospitals ' ; 

By MEYER J. STURM, Architect, Chicago, and 

ALBERT J. OCHSNER, B.S , F.R.M.S., M.D. 

Professor of Surgery, University of Illinois, Chicago 

The Cleveland Press, Chicago, Publishers 

A GOOD BOOK FOR EVERY LIBRARY 

AN OPINION 

"'The Organization, Construction and Management of Hospitals' has been 
placed in our library, and I can say that we consider it a very valuable addition. I 
have had a good deal to do lately with hospitals in the way of caring for competi- 
tions, and I am very glad to have such authority to refer to as this work repre- 
sents." — F. W. Chandler. Boston, Mass. 

(Professor Chandler is the head of the architectural department of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology of Boston.) 

600 pages, 7% x 10H ■ 340 illustrations. Cloth hound, $7.00. 
Half morocco, $8.00. Sent express prepaid on receipt of price. 



Sold by 
205 Caxton Building 



M. 



A. VINSON 

CLEVELAND, OHIO 



I WILL BUY "Brickbuilder," August, 1898, April, 1899. 
"Brochure Series, " complete volumes or odd numbers. Stale price. 



2 66 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




Competition for a Hospital Building. 

First Prize, $500. Second Prize, $200. Third Prize, $100. 



COMPETITION CLOSES JANUARY 16, 1909. 



PROQRAnriE. 

THE problem is a Hospital Building. The location may lv assumed in any American city of about 30,000 inhabitants. The lot o >n- 
tains about five acres and has a frontage of 300 feet on the main avenue, leading to the city, which runs east and west. The part of 
the lot on which the building is to be placed is practically level. 

It is to be a block hospital with three tloors above the basement. The height of the first and second stories is to be not less than 12 
feet. No one floor above the basement is to contain more than 10,000 square feet, exclusive of sun rooms and approaches. The length of 
the structure, including sun rooms and approaches, cannot exceed 160 feet. 

The following should be provided for in the plan : 

Two ten bed wards for each sex in the Medical Department; two ten bed wards for each sex in the Surgical Department; and in con- 
nection with each of these wards two one bed rooms. Two ten bed wards for each sex in the Children's Department. A Maternity Depart- 
ment to accommodate six patients, two of which are to be in private rooms, and in conjunction with this department a delivery room and 
baby room. 

In conjunction with the wards there should be provided service rooms or diet kitchens, nurses utility rooms, linen rooms, broom and 
medicine closets, clothing rooms and toilet r< ii mis. 

In addition to the private rooms provided for in connection with the open wards there should be at least eight private rooms for single 
patients. 

Operating and accident rooms, with their adjuncts of anesthetic, sterilizing, bandage, instrument, nurses' work room, reception, and 
recovery rooms, also surgeons' dressing room and X-ray room. 

Single bed rooms for at least twenty nurses; nurses' parlor; suite for superintendent and head nurse; bed room for two internes; 
reception room for patients; laboratory; drug room; cooking class room; kitchens; store rooms; laundry; bed rooms for fourteen 
domestics — four being males ; dining room for staff and nurses; dining room for domestics ; toilet rooms ; small out-patients department; 
autopsy room ; boiler room; fan room, and such other features as may suggest themselves to the designer. 

The exterior of the building is to be designed entirely in Architectural Terra Cotta. employing colored terra cotta in at least portions 
of the walls. 

The following points will be considered in judging the designs : 

A. Frank and logical expression of the prescribed material. 

B. Rational and logical treatment of the exterior. 

C. Excellence of plan. 

In awarding the prizes the intelligence shown in the constructive use of terra cotta and the development or modification of style, by 
reason of the material, will be taken largely into consideration. 

It must be borne in mind that one of the chief objects of this competition is to encourage the study of the use of Architectural Terra 
Cotta. There is no limitation of cost, but the designs must be suitable for the character of the building and for the material in which it is to 
be executed. 

DRAWINGS REQUIRED. 

i in 'lie sheet, at the top, the front elevation drawn at a scale of 8 feet to the inch. In the title of this elevation state which point of the 
compass it faces. On the same sheet, below the front elevation, the four floor plans drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch. 

On a second sheet, at the top, the elevation of secondary importance drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch ; immediately below half 
inch scale details of the most interesting features of the design. The details should indicate in a general manner the jointing of the terra cotta 
and the sizes of the blocks. The color scheme is to be indicated either by a key or a series of notes printed on the same sheet with the 
secondary elevation and details, at a size which will permit of two thirds reduction. 

The size of each sheet (there are to be but two) shall be exactly 36 inches by 24 inches. Strong border lines are to be drawn on both 
sheets one inch from edges, giving a space inside the border lines 22 inches by 34 inches. The sheets are not to be mounted. 

All drawings are to be in black ink without wash or color, except that the walls on the plans and in the sections may be blacked-in or 
cross-hatched. 

Graphic scales to be on all drawings. 

Every set of drawings is to be signed by a twin de plume or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the now 
de pliimi on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat at the office of THE BRICKBUILDER, 85 Water Street, Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or 
before January 16, 1909. 

Drawings submitted in this competition must be at owner's risk from the time they are sent until returned, although reasonable care 
will be exercised in their handling and keeping. 

The prize drawings are to become the pn iperty of THE BRICKBUILDER, and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or all of 
the others. Those who wish their drawings returned may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names, ten cents 
in stamps. 

The designs will be judged by three or live well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of $500. 
For the design placed second a prize of $200. 
For the design placed third a prize of $100. 

We are enabled to offer prizes of the above-mentioned amounts largely through the liberality of the terra cotta manufacturers who are 
represented in the advertising columns of THE BRICKBUILDER. 
This competition is open to everyone. 



1 
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8 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 11. PLATE 129. 




ST. AGATHA SCHOOL, EIGHTY-SEVENTH STREET AND WEST END AVENUE, NEW YORK. 

William A. Boring, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILUER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 11. PLATE 130. 



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VOL. 17. NO. 11. PLATE 131. 




DETAILS OF EXTERIOR ST. AGATHA SCHOOL, EIGHTY-SEVENTH STREET AND WEST END AVENUE, NEW YORK. 

William A. Boring, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 11. PLATE 132. 




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DETAILS OF EXTERIOR, ST. AGATHA SCHOOL, EIGHTY-SEVENTH STREET AND WEST END AVENUE, NEW YORK. 

William A. Boring, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 11. PLATE 133. 




THIPE FL.-'-'K PLJUH- 




ECLECTIC SOCIETY BUILDING, MIDDLETOWN, CONN. 
Henry Bacon, Architect. 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 11. PLATE 134. 




BASEMENT PLAN. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 11. PLATE 135. 







THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 11. PLATE 136. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 11. PLATE 137. 




I* • • • • 4 

THIPDFLOOP PLX.2V- 



CLX33 ROOM 




Fourth ■ Ft oor Pla,tv- 




Secojvd Floor Plats 



PLANS, FRANKLIN UNION, BERKELEY STREET, BOSTON. 
R. Clipston Sturgis, Architect, 




■BASEPIETST ■ PL APS- 



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First -Floor Flak- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 11. PLATE 133. 




MUNICIPAL BATH HOUSE, NORTH BENNETT STREET, BOSTON. 
Maginnis, Walsh & Sullivan, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 11. PLATE 139. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 11. PLATE 140. 




FIRST FLOOR. fUUI '^ OLXONB FLOOR. PLAN 

BLIC BATHS, CARMINE STKEET, NEW YORK. 
Renwick, Aspinwall & Tucker, architects. 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 11. PLATE 141. 




LIVING 
ROOMS. 



GRILLE 
ROOM. 



RACQUET CLUB, ST. LOUIS. 

Mauran, Russell & Garden, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 11. PLATE 142. 




OF_COND FLOOR PLAN 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



RACQUET CLUB, ST. LOUIS. 

Mauran, Russell & Garden, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XVII 



DECEMBER 1908 



Number 12 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

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Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1908, by ROGERS & MANSON 



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CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

HENRY BACON; CLAUDE BRAGDON; WILSON EYRE; A. W. LONGFELLOW; MAURAN, 

RUSSELL & GARDEN; SHEPLEY, RUTAN & COOLIDGE; 

WOOD, DONN & DEMING. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

CHURCH OF ST. CATHARINE, BRANDENBURG, GERMANY Frontispiece 

THE DENOMINATIONAL CHURCH — I C. Howard Walker 267 

THE DEVELOPMENT AND FINANCING OF APARTMENT HOUSES IN NEW YORK— I. Elisha Harris Janes Tib 

SUGGESTIONS FOR ARCHITECTURAL STU DY IN WESTERN FRANCE — I Frederii X- Reed 279 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 285 




lw««<<<««<<<<v<<^«^<v«<<v<<^««<<<<«<w^v^ 



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THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOL. 17 NO. 12 



DEVOTTDTO THE-INTERE5TJ-Of -AR.CHITECTVRMN MATERIALJ-OF-CLAY- 




DECEHBERL1908 



)i^«^«^^<^««<<^<««<«<«««««^«<«v>»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»>»»v>»yiS 



T. 



X 




The Denominational Church — I. 



]!V C. HOWARD WALKER. 



THE church in America which is neither Episcopalian 
nor Catholic, which has deliberately abandoned 
ritual and traditional ceremony, the church which in its 
advocacy of simplicity in forms of worship has at times 
approached a formal austerity, has naturally thrown 
aside tradition of plan and incidentally developed new 
characteristics of plan pro- 
duced by novel conditions. 
This has been especially 
the case in the United 
States where church edi- 
fices, simple as all pioneer 
work must be perforce of 
economy, retained this de- 
sire for simplicity, partly 
because it was a protest 
against luxury, partly be- 
cause it formed its own 
precedent, and at the time 
that the meetinghouse be- 
gan to require further de- 
velopment in accordance 
with growing needs, there 
were in the land few if any 
church buildings which 
would serve as either stand- 
ards of merit or sugges- 
tions of advance. The 
whole condition of non- 
traditional church architec- 
ture has been chaotic, as is 
manifest in the results, for 
it is evident that the 
churches in America are 
not its crowning architec- 
tural achievement. 

Let us compare for a mo- 
ment the conditions deter- 
mining the architecture of 

the Roman Catholic church, the Church of England, 
and its American brother the Episcopal church with the 
conditions influencing the edifices of all other denom- 
inations. With the former the facts are positive, the 
architecture traditionally either of a classic type derived 
from adaptations of Roman basilicas, or Gothic, from 
the established forms of the cathedrals and churches of 
the middle ages ; in both cases developed from the 
necessity for impressive ritual, processional functions, 




THE OLD CHURCH FACING THE GREEN, LEXINGTON, MASS. 



occasional accommodation of the entire public, and con- 
stant and continuous occupancy by some portion of the 
people. The church therefore is initially conceived at 
its maximum capacity, with each detail absolutely de- 
termined by the exigencies of a service elaborated to the 
finest minutiae, and at the same time is capable of per- 
forming the service to the 
many or the few. 

This was accompanied 
by a practically unlimited 
exchequer from gifts or 
tithes, which, in the earlier 
days when the architecture 
was in its apogee, were ob- 
tained as often by coercion 
as by persuasion, or else 
from sympathetic piety. 
Associated with these two 
conditions of definite type 
and adequate means for 
erection of the building, 
and partly occasioned by 
both, was the existence of 
a body of church archi- 
tects, either ecclesiastics or 
laymen, and of guilds of 
masons, carpenters, etc., 
whose chief efforts for suc- 
cessive generations were 
devoted to church building. 
These architects grew up 
within the cloister walls or 
under the church protec- 
tion, they believed relig- 
iously in the work they were 
doing, loved it, gloried in 
it, were in awe of it. They 
were monks, priors, bishops, 
prelates of all classes, plan- 
ning the work for the glory of God, and not daring to 
build less well than their predecessors, and as assistants 
they had workmen with as great religious fervor as 
themselves, and often with the fanaticism which gives 
ecstasy to the uncultivated, and they never dreamed of 
doing their work inefficiently or ignorantly, nor of in- 
troducing novel experiments without good and sufficient 
reason. Little wonder that the results of the efforts of 
these men should have produced a church architecture, 



268 



THE BRICKRUILDER 




ARLINGTON STREET (UNITARIAN) CHI RCH, BOSTON. 
Arthur Gilman, Architect. 

whether classic in style or Gothic, which has become the 
source to which all turn for precedent and which has 
established tradition. 

Compare with this the anomalous condition of the 
churches in America, which have not recognized or 
desired to recognize this tradition. Denominations 
which from desire for freedom of thought have with- 
drawn from the parent church, are at first antagonistic to 
it even to avoiding reminiscence in architecture. Of 
many sects, and small groups of people, instead of entire 
communities, limited therefore in the number of indi- 
viduals in each church and consequently with compar- 
atively little money, and with no coercive powers to 
obtain it, the sole income coming not from fixed tithes 
but from an optional pew rental and the contribution box, 
the possibilities for fine church building have grown but 
slowly and only with the increasing prosperity of certain 
individuals among the parishioners. For it is a recognized 
fact that intellectual capacity is often disassociated with 
religious conviction, and with constant religious fervor. 
The intellectual idea produces the desire at least for 
a mental control which may create powerful sustained 
action, but seldom ardent enthusiasm of expression. 

Therefore the building of churches is no longer from 
a wave of thankfulness such as created Santa Maria Delia 
Salute and the Redentore in Venice, but is a deliberate 
effort of a comparatively small body of men working 
within limited bounds and assisted by occasional munifi- 
cence. As compared with the epochs of great building 
the opportunities are slight. The architects of the 
great churches were a part of the church body ; the 
builders were sympathetic with the architects ; both 
knew and understood the traditions and their causes. 



The traditions of the denominational church can be 
summed up in one phrase, Freedom of Thought. It re- 
quires either a sense of wrong or a certain amount of 
conceit to break away from tradition, and in either case 
the first impulse is to avoid the forms in which the tra- 
dition is expressed. Christianity at first avoided the 
forms of paganism, the denominational church avoided 
the forms of ecclesiasticism. In America the early 
church and the town hall were sometimes one, and often 
could be mistaken for each other. Limited in numbers 
and in funds, avoiding tradition and with no influence of 
existing churches about them, without architects of 
ability, and with all sorts of local novel conditions be- 
coming associated with the church in order to give it life- 
blood, what wonder that the expression of architecture 
in the denominational churches of America should be 
crude and chaotic. 

Here is the spectacle of small communities of people 
each attacking a serious problem without previous 
knowledge or experience, and trying at the same time 
that they make ends meet, to appear to be doing a 
greater piece of work than their conditions justify. 

The immediate result of such an attitude of mind is un- 
intelligent imitation; imitation of materials to reduce cost, 
imitation of plans of larger work which when reduced be- 
come inadequate, imitation of some piece of architecture 
that has been seen, regardless of whether it is at all 
related to the conditions or not, and as a natural conse- 
quence, diminutive cathedrals in wood, little St. Peter's in 
concrete. Here was a chance if ever one existed to work 
de novo, to take the conditions of the problem and the 




FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, COMMONWEALTH AVENUE, BOSTON. 

H. H. Richardson, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



269 



materials and funds at hand, and while associating with 
them some symbol of the church to denote the purpose of 
the building, work out a solution with simplicity. 

Occasionally churches are to be found in which this 
was done, but as a rule crude affectation is altogether too 
conspicuous. 

Assuming that the desire is to build the church simply 
and of materials at hand, what are the essential features 
of its plan ? The denominational church is focused upon 
its pulpit, not upon the altar; it is almost entirely free 
of ritual, and requires little provision for processional 
functions other than wedding and funeral ceremonies. 
Its congregation meet at stated times and are seated in 
rented fixed seats, not entering and leaving the church 
at all hours. Next in importance to the pulpit is the 
organ and choir, which choir is small, and excepting upon 




FIRST CHURCH (UNITARIAN), BOSTON. 
Ware & Van Brunt, Architects. 

certain festivals, takes comparatively small part in the 
services. 

As a result of these conditions, the chancel as such 
ceases to exist, and becomes merely a niche, the raised 
altar does not appear, the communion table being placed 
on the level floor, and the elevated pulpit becomes the 
principal point in the church. As the ritual, which is 
used by the congregation, has grown less in importance, 
the sermon, to which the audience is to listen, has become 
of more importance, and it is desirable that each person 
should be able to readily see and hear the minister. All 
intercepting piers, columns, etc., have therefore become 
eliminated and the aisle is no longer the cathedral aisle, 
but the name is merely applied to the passage between 
the rows of seats, and the body of the church becomes a 
large audience hall with a niche and platform at one end. 
Partially from tradition, partially from simplicity of 




CHURCH AT ST. LOUIS. 
Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 

treatment, this hall is in most cases rectangular in plan, 
but it often takes the polygonal or the circular form of 
an auditorium, and it is becoming usual to slope the 
floor so that each individual may see as well as hear 
readily. Manifestly the limitations of size of this 
audience room are influenced, first by the distance at 
which a normal voice can be easily heard, which is some- 
what over seventy feet, and next by the length of span of 
the roof trusses, of which the cost increases rapidly beyond 
forty feet. It is important that this room should be as 
well proportioned within as without, and it has none of 
the details of deep embrasures, piers, columns, etc., of 




CHURCH AT BOSTON. 
C. Howard Walker, Architect. 



2-JO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





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271 



the ecclesiastical churches. It has already been men- 
tioned that the great churches were planned for maxi- 
mum requirements, so that the entire community could 
be accommodated during great religious functions, and 
the comparison should be made between them and these 
other churches, each of 
which has a comparatively 
small fixed congregation. 

But associated with any 
church is religious instruc- 
tion for the young, which 
has developed into the 
Sunday school. In the 
cathedrals pupils are taught 
either in the body of the 
cathedral between services 
or in the chapels, but in 
the modern American 
church a .Sunday school is 
necessary, a large room 
without fixed seats accom- 
modating a number of 
somewhat more than half the congregation. It has been 
found that if the Sunday school can be so planned that 
it can be opened into the church that it will increase the 
capacity of the church at exceptional times and allow a 
smaller church to meet all desires. Instead, therefore, 




WINDEMERE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, CLEVELAND. 

J. Milton Dyer, Architect. 



great height of exterior wall. The next development in 
this arrangement comes from the subdivision of the 
Sunday school room into class rooms. Sometimes these 
rooms are merely adjacent rooms to the main Sunday 
school room, at times the class rooms only exist, and 

these are as far as possible 
arranged to increase the 
seating capacity of the 
church by opening into it 
with folding or sliding 
doors. As the class rooms 
do not require as great 
height as the church, they 
may have either other class 
rooms or galleries over 
them opening into the 
church. It is evident there- 
fore that the class rooms 
are becoming to the mod- 
ern American church what 
the chapels were to the 
ecclesiastical church, that 
is, adjacent cells to the main cell, but that they are used 
for a very different purpose. 

As manifestly these class rooms will be of no benefit 
as parts of the main auditorium, unless they are within 
easy hearing distance of the speaker, the whole tendency 




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MAIN FLOOR PLAN. 



CHURCH OK THE MESSIAH, ST. I.OUIS. 
Mauran, Russell & Garden, Architects. 



of the pupils being taught in the church, the Sunday 
school is practically an isolated portion of the church 
which may be thrown into it. This method of increas- 
ing floor area and seating capacity has in the smaller 
churches taken the place of galleries, which required 



has been to concentrate the masses of the plan near the 
pulpit, to broaden and shorten the church, and to have 
the class rooms in pseudo-transepts. But all traditional 
type of plan might as well be abandoned if this desire is 
paramount to the church authorities, for there is no doubt 



272 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



in regard to the best mutual relation of cells for this pur- 
pose. Either the body of the church should be an octagon 
or a hexagon with the class rooms opening from each of 
the sides, or it should be a < rreek cross with the class rooms 
in the transepts. Galleries can be used with either type. 
In all churches of this character, light can be obtained 
above the class rooms or from the ceiling. It will be 
obvious that a church of the character described covers 
large ground area, and would cost considerably more 
than one where the Sunday school was placed under the 
church in a high basement. 

This second type of church, the one with a basement, 
high out of ground, is a development of the necessity for 
economy both in 
regard to land and 
to area of building, 
and is difficult to 
treat satisfactorily 
as far as the ex- 
terior mass is con- 
cerned, not so 
much because of 
the height of wall 
but because the 
basement window 
openings being 
short in height, 
require greater 
breadth than those 
above to give ad- 
equate light, and 
the church wall 
seems set up on 
legs. If there is 
marked slope to the 
land on which the 
church is set, ad- 
vantage can be 
easily taken of the 
change in grade, 
but upon a level 
lot these high base- 
ment churches re- 
quire very careful 
proportioning to 
obtain even a toler- 
able result, and if 
sufficient land can 
be acquired there 
will be much 

greater probability of good architectural proportions 
where it is not necessary to have the basement high out 
of the ground. Here however, as in many other con- 
tingencies relating to the church in America, lack of 
funds goes far to jeopardize aesthetic results. 

There has grown up in the church a social life which has 
little to do with the religious life of the congregation, ex- 
cepting that it leads to an interest in the church as a factor 
in everyday life. In place of saints' days and the accom- 
panying processions and pageants and the celebration of 
other events in the church calendar, there are now social en- 
tertainments, fairs, socials, etc , which require many of 
the appurtenances of a well appointed dwelling, with the 





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PRESBYTERIAN C 
1 [1 iward Van I ) 



additional necessity of space for a larger number of 
people than would be present in all except very large 
houses. In place of the refectory of the monastery is 
the dining room, and while the kitchen is no longer of 
the size or capacity of the monastery kitchen, it is fully as 
necessary and quite as efficient. This department of 
church life is now almost wholly left in charge of the 
ladies of the congregation, and the fact that women have 
entered so largely into church organization in recent 
years has tended to enlarge this portion of the church 
plan. Not only is the dining room necessary but it has 
become nearly as large as the church and is becoming 
the center of a separate nucleus in the plan, the secondary 

factors being the 
kitchen, men's and 
women's coat 
rooms and adjoin- 
ing toilet rooms, 
and a ladies' parlor. 
The ladies' parlor 
is also practical as 
a committee room 
for the standing 
committee of the 
church and to a 
certain extent oc- 
cupies the same 
relation to the 
modern church 
that the chapter 
house did to the 
cathedral. Either 
the dining room or 
the large Sunday 
school room is ar- 
ranged with a large 
platform or stage, 
in connection with 
which are dressing 
rooms so that 
private theatricals 
can be readily 
given, and the 
whole department 
is much more sec- 
ular than religious 
in its character. 
For this reason if 
for no other, it is 
less closely related 
to the body of the church than is the Sunday school, 
and in the natural development of the plan is somewhat 
isolated. There are three obvious methods of planning: 
one to place this portion, the social portion of the church 
plan, in the basement of the church, another to place it 
in a separate wing of the church, the third to place it 
over the Sunday school. Each of these methods is prac- 
ticable and is influenced by the character of the lot and 
the limitations of expense. Placing these rooms in the 
basement, unless the church is on a side hill, is open to 
the objections already stated of a stilted, badly propor- 
tioned and perforated base to the building. It must be 
remembered on the other hand that these rooms, with 



HURCH, CHK M <>. 
Shaw, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



2 73 



the exception of the ladies' parlor, are seldom used with- 
out artificial light, and need by no means have so much 
outside light as is ordinarily given them. 

There seem to be no positive objections to the other two 
methods, excepting that the dining room is much more 
accessible on the ground floor than in the second story. 
This brings up the question of circulation. The cir- 
culation in the church is, from the mere reverential 
attitude of mind, gradual and without haste, and a large 
number of entrances and exits for the church seating 
four hundred or five hundred people is unnecessary ex- 
cepting in case of emergency. It is well, however, to 



desirable. The vestibules however, provided the egress 
be direct, need not be as large as those of the church. 

The vestibules of the dining room and its accessory 
rooms should be ample, especially about the coat rooms. 
Staircases are in many cases governed by more or less 
admirable state laws. It is needless to say they should 
be broad, not less than 4.6 nor more than 7.0 wide and 
not more than 7.0 in height between landings. 

American churches have no income from tithes, they are 
dependent upon pew rentals and contributions, both of 
which are fluctuating. They are, however, free from 
taxes. In small communities where land is to be ob- 




METHODIST CHURCH, ST. LOUIS. 
T. C. Link, Architect. 



have ample space in the vestibules, both because at these 
points the converging streams of people from the differ- 
ent aisles meet at the end of the service and are apt 
to linger, and must necessarily wait for carriages in 
rainy weather, and also because the main vestibule at 
least is used as space in which to arrange wedding and 
funeral processions. In the smallest church there 
should be more than one direct entrance and exit in case 
of panic, even where the windows are near the ground. 
In any large church a door opening into the vestibule at 
the end of each aisle is desirable. The circulation in the 
Sunday school is more rapid, and immediate egress more 



tained at small price, the burden of initial expense and 
also of cost of salaries and maintenance is much less than 
in large cities, yet these churches are proverbially poor, 
and in building, every possibility is compassed to obtain 
the most for the least money, both in superficial area 
of plan, character of materials, and cubical contents. Yet 
few church societies are content to eliminate a tower 
from their design, and a tower is a luxury of considerable 
cost. It has, however, come by tradition to be especially 
symbolical of a church edifice. Its original purpose 
being to elevate the bells so that they could be heard at a 
long distance to call to service, in many cases in American 



74 



T HE BR1CKBUILD E R . 



churches it has entirely lost 
that function and merely 
stands as a symbol announc- 
ing the church. Often, how- 
ever, it has the additional 
purpose of carry ing^a clock. 
It is so individual a note in 
Christian civilization that it 
will probably^never lose its 
significance, and will never 
be abandoned and, as in the 
case of the New Brattle 
Street church on Common- 
wealth Avenue in Boston, 
will be kept as a monument 
even if the church itself is 
removed. Many of the classic 
churches, however, are with- 
out towers, or if possessing 
them, they are built inde- 
pendently of the church as 
campanile or bell towers. 
In the cathedrals, however, 
they became incorporated 

with the walls of the church, and occurred not only singly 
and in pairs at the west end but also at the ends of the 
transepts and at the crossing of the transept and nave. 
In each of these positions the smaller churches have 
imitated the cathedrals, and towers have been placed 
indiscriminately where it was considered that they would 
compose well in the general mass. They appear over 
porches, in angles, invading the interior at times, and 
since the appearance of the omnipresent iron girder, 
unapparent on the plan. It is obvious that a tower 
should be apparently strong 
at its base and that its 
corners especially should 
be adequately solid, also 
that it should not seem 
heavier at the top than at 
the bottom, and that it 
should appear to start from 
the ground if possible. Its 
walls therefore are thicker 
than those walls of less al- 
titude, and even if it be 
built with steel construc- 
tion it must have this evi- 
dence of third dimension 
to insure appearance of 
stability. If it is not on a 
prominent axis of the 
church, it should not be 
too much buried in the 
body of the church without 
a well announced reason, 
but gains in effect by ap- 
parent isolation. The tower 
at the crossing of transept 
and nave which occupies 
the position of the classic 
dome, is, if of masonry, an 
expensive structure and 




BAPTIST CHURCH, si \ I I I E, « kSH 
Marsh & Russell, Architects. 




SECOND BAP1 IS! CHURCH, ST. LOUIS 
Mauran, Russell <Sr (iarden, Architects. 



usually out of scale, except- 
ing in large buildings. 

Up to this point we have 
considered the exigencies of 
plan of the denominational 
church, which can be rapidly 
summed up as follows: An 
audience room with or with- 
out galleries without inter- 
ruption of sight or sound, 
and with all persons within 
hearing distance of the pul- 
pit, which is the focus of the 
church ; a shallow apse or 
niche back of the pulpit, 
which will accommodate 
visiting clergy, etc., and 
upon which may be the 
organ and choir though these 
can be in a gallery at the 
side or at the other end. A 
Sunday school department 
which is often arranged so 
that it will supplement the 
church, but which may be in a separate building or in 
the lower story. A social department which is adjacent 
to the church and which may be in a separate wing, or 
in the basement or over the Sunday school. 

There are of course minor rooms, such as the choir 
room, minister's study, in some cases a baptistry, etc., 
which can be accommodated in any good plan. 

The exterior of the church is necessarily an expression 
of its plan, or should be; as a matter of fact it is not 
usually as closely related to the plan as could be de- 
sired, all sorts of ingenious 
devices ostensibly orna- 
mental being added to the 
structure. Many of the 
early churches were simple 
halls with a good porch on 
the main axis, a tower or 
belfry over the porch, good 
eaves or cornice, and well 
proportioned windows. 

The colonial churches, 
strongly influenced by the 
London prototypes by Sir 
Christopher Wren and his 
pupils, were of this descrip- 
tion. Many of them exist 
to-day and are usually 
known as meetinghouses, 
and are pleasurable to look 
upon. They were of stone 
or of brick with wood 
trims, as cut stone was be- 
yond the means of the 
builders, and frequently 
were entirely of wood, and 
in that case, frankly and 
simply of wood without any 
effort to imitate other ma- 
terials in the best examples. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



2 75 




A product of the Georgian period and of classic 
tradition, their details and proportions were based on 
the study of the orders of architecture, they were 
symmetrically planned and developed, and they are 
to-day the best churches of their kind. There is 
no attempt at imitation, for the wooden forms while 
adapted from stone are thoroughly characteristic of 
wood, and no effort to produce the bizarre in general 
effect. There are in England and in France small 
churches of equal sincerity in another manner, both 
built before the 
classic revival. Those 
of England are brick 
or stone with small 
square towers on the 
axis and with wooden 
porches of heavy oak 
beams, while those 
of France, also of 
stone and with wood 
porches, are often 
without towers, a 
wooden spire covered 
with slate over the 
crossing of transept 
and nave occurring 
instead and with small 
tourelles in which 
staircases mount to 
galleries. The gen- 
eral character resem- 
bles^Gothic work. 
During a later epoch the American 
church became heavier in detail, its 
wooden structure was made to 
imitate stone even to the reproduc- 
tion of buttresses in wood, but it 
has been reserved for the last four 
decades to produce the harlequin 
churches in which all materials are 
used with ostentation and insin- 
cerity. There are of course 
churches frankly imitative of good 
examples, such as Arlington St. 
Church, Boston, and the North 
Church in Portsmouth adopted from 
Wren and St. Paul's in Boston, a 
classic temple, and also the work of 
able individual architects, such as 
Upjohn and H. H. Richardson, 
whose training and genius made 
them capable of creation, but the 
vast majority of the work done for 
church societies throughout the 
country has been a bad adaptation 
of small means to a poor end. 
Especially is this evident in the 
introduction of minor details which have not been under- 
stood. Gothic architecture, under whose name the worst 
work has been produced because it seems to have greater 
freedom than does the formulated classic, is at its best 
the very apothesis of fine stone construction. There is 
not a superfluous factor in it, nor a stone that is not do- 




FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 

SYRACUSE, N. V. 
Tracy & Swartwout, Architects. 
Ballantyne & Evans, Associated. 



ing its work. In the process of its evolution, it produced 
vaulting with its ribs, tracery, buttresses, flying but- 
tresses, pinnacles, each absolutely necessary in its place, 
and each of which has been imitated as being merely 
ornamental. It was true some few years ago that of all 
the flying buttresses tucked in to fill spaces in American 
churches not one was necessary, not one doing any work, 
and it is equally true of many of the buttresses and 
pinnacles. The chief criticism that can be made is the 
excessive use of structural forms in so-called Gothic, of 

which the designer is 
ignorant of the pur- 
pose, and of classic 
details in classic arch- 
itecture, of which he 
has lacked knowledge 
of proportional rela- 
tions which have been 
established for cen- 
turies. In this re- 
spect the denomina- 
tional church is much 
more unfortunate 
than is the ecclesias- 
tical church, for the 
latter has studied its 
traditions and learned 
from them, both 
among the clergy and 
architects, while the 
former having no 
church building tra- 
ditions has not studied at all but 
has put together a farrago of odds 
and ends. 

Also the points for focusing 
effort have been ignored. Orna- 
ment has been considered essential, 
where in fact its purpose should be 
merely to embellish work already 
admirable. In superabundance it 
is vulgar, and when diffused it is 
ineffective. Restraint in the use 
of ornament is an indication not of 
paucity of imagination but of justice 
of perception. Especially is this 
the case where means are made to 
meet ends. A simple sincere build- 
ing with its ornament focused at 
its entrance, at the tops of its axial 
or important openings, and on the 
terminations of its towers or struc- 
tural points has distinction and 
contrast which place it far above a 
crude but elaborated mass. Espe- 
cially should all heavy detail be 
eliminated. No detail at all is 
better than burdensome detail. 

Buttresses should not occur unless they have an 
apparent purpose of resisting thrust or of stiffening long 
surfaces of wall. They are too often used as merely 
ornamental factors. 

( This article will be con t inn til in January, i cjny. ) 



2 7 6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Development and Financing of Apartment Houses in 

New York — I. 



BY KI.ISHA HARRIS JAM'S. 



AROUND 1860 there was little between the tene- 
ment houses for the poorest and a few so-called 
high-class apartments, expensive and large. From these 
limits the extensive building and many types of apart- 
ment houses have evolved. But, while the changes in 
the size and number of rooms have been caused by 
the demands of the tenants and many small conveniences 
have been added due to the keen competition among 
owners and agents, it is a peculiar fact that the hygienic 
improvements have been caused more by sanitary regu- 
lations than by any other reason. The periods of devel- 



than seven rooms and one bath. At the present time it 
is not uncommon to find suites of from eight to twenty 
rooms with two or three baths and one for the servants, 
besides wash basins between the chambers. Formerly 
there was one minimum size room for the servant, not 
much more than a closet; now, in some instances, there 
are three servants' rooms, and liberality in other ways, 
with large pantries, separate laundries, steam clothes 
dryers, cold refrigeration, separate service elevators, etc. 
Small conveniences are carefully considered, such as 
house telephones, public telephone service to each apart- 




I. APARTMENT HOUSE PLAN. 
Janes & Leo, Architects. 



opment have been marked: first, by the organization of 
the municipal Hoard of Health in the early sixties, 
which formulated the sanitary regulations governing 
these buildings; second, by the transfer of this authority 
to the Building Department and its supervision of these 
buildings; and, finally, by the new Tenement House 
Law of 1900. 

Fifteen years ago there were some large apartments 
which had been built by capitalists or estates, a few con- 
taining "duplex apartments, "or those extending through 
two stories; aside from these, there were few of more 



ment, mail delivered by electric carriers, elevators run- 
ning all night instead of until twelve o'clock, uniformed 
hall boys in attendance, and many other details for the 
comforts of the tenants. 

The advent of the Tenement House Law was a new 
era in apartment house building; and although opposed 
and condemned by some of the owners, builders, and 
operators, who were not easily convinced of or were 
unable to foresee its advantages and who thought their 
property and business would be ruined, its benefits 
were beyond description, and the conservative and 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



277 



shrewd ones realized that it was to their profit and 
a blessing to the tenants. The majority of arguments 
against it could be sifted down to opposition on account 
of some selfish interest of the opponent. The specula- 
tive builder accustomed to small rooms, narrow courts 
and dark halls, found that a larger lot with a smaller 
percentage of building and more generous lay-out of 
rooms would be required, and he was frightened. An 




FIG. 2. APARTMENT HOUSE PI AN. 
Janes & Leo, Architects. 

operator who purchased plots to divide into lots of cer- 
tain size to be laid out on the old lines, feared that he 
would not have purchasers, or would have to divide his 
property to a disadvantage. The owner was doubtful 
lest the larger building and its additional expense would 
not have its corresponding increase in rentals. Of 
course no law is perfect and some have apparently suf- 
fered from it, but the proportion is infinitesimal compared 
to the number who have been benefited by it. A few 
had to make sacrifices. At the same time many who 
were sure they were to be injured received benefits 
in a way that they did not then, and possibly do not 
now, appreciate. Just prior to the passing of this law, 
on account of the ease with which building loans and 
mortgages could be obtained, a multitude of speculative 
builders had started buildings with practically no capi- 
tal, or had undertaken two or three operations before 
finishing the first, being spurred on by the success 
of their predecessors in this line and encouraged by 
the operators, who in their greed had but the one idea 
of selling their properties for large profits. Apartments 
were springing up like mushrooms. The natural econ- 



omic result was a great increase of supply over demand 
and of many buildings carried along on extended credit 
while waiting for purchasers. This condition, had it 
continued much longer, would have been the cause of 
many failures and foreclosures. 

The new law was responsible for a great relaxation 
in building operations for almost two years, allowing the 
demand to meet the supply and stopping the frantic 
building speculations. Another and great benefit of the 
new law to all concerned was that its provisions were so 
carefully drawn that they virtually took the place of 
first-class architectural services. It is well known that 
the majority of apartments were and are designed by a 
class of architects who, on account of their lack of 
training and low charges, gave little or no study to the 
distribution and lighting of rooms and halls, to general 
design, or to taking advantage of special conditions. 
As long as they complied with the few requirements of 
the then existing law it was satisfactory. Their work 
consisted simply of a set of working plans to file with 
the Building Department, from which the builder com- 
pleted the work without their details or supervision. 
The result was poorly designed buildings with dark, 
dingy, ill-ventilated rooms. But now by reading the 
requirements of the 
new law and by fol- 
lowing its provisions, 
which are obligatory, 
it might be said to 
require more study 
to make a poor apart- 
ment house than to 
make a good one. 
The only way the 
architect can go 
astray is in the eleva- 
tions and by using 
poor judgment in the 
sequence of rooms. 
Take one clause as an 
example: 

"In every tene- 
ment house hereafter 
erected, . . . every 
public hall shall have 
at least one window 
opening directly 
upon the street or 
yard or court. Either 
said window shall be 
at the end of such 
hall with the planes 
of the window at 
right angles to the 
axis of said hall, or 
there shall be at least 
one window ... in 
every twenty feet in 
length or fraction 
thereof of said hall. 

"The aggregate area of window to light or ventilate 
the stair halls shall be at least eighteen square feet for 
each floor. 

" In every such house there shall be in the roof 
directly over each stair well ... a skylight of not less 
than twenty square feet in area." 




fig. 3. 



APARTMENT 
PLAN. 



HOUSE 



278 



T 1 1 E B RICKBUILD E R 



If you abide by the provisions, which you must do, 
you cannot plan a hall to be dark if you try. In general, 
it has resulted in well-lighted and ventilated apartments, 
very desirable, and easier to rent at higher rentals. 

The law was not necessary for the expensive high- 
class apartments, and studying many of those built 
under the old law you would find little of serious change 
in the planning, as good light and ventilation were essen- 
tial to commanding a high rent. The principal differ- 
ences were in the shape of courts and in minor details. 



lighting and ventilation has trifle larger and as many 
rooms as the old houses on a similar size plot. To be 
noted in Figs. 3 and 5 are the simple straightforwardness 
of the plans, the small amount of corridors and the few 
angles in the walls, features which show in most of the 
buildings erected under the new law and which are 
directly due to its provisions. 

All conscientious builders were thankful for the law. 
It is mandatory in every way, no discretionary powers 
are given to the commissioners. The framers appreciated 




FIG. 4. 



IPARTMENT HOISE PLANS. 
Ernest Flagg, Architect. 



Figs. 1 and 2 are good examples of the above, and are 
here illustrated. 

In both, the side courts would have to be wider, but 
the center ones are larger than required, otherwise the 
same area could be covered and little change in the 
arrangement would be necessary. The great change 
was in the cheaper apartments and tenements. 

Fig. 3 shows one of the new type of cheap apartments. 
Fig. 4 shows one of the best types of tenement houses 
under the old law and from this they vary through all 
degrees of poor lighting and arrangements; and Fig. 5 
shows a plan by Ernest Flagg of a tenement house under 
the new regulation; this with its excellent provisions for 



the class the)' had to deal with. If one wishes to spend a 
few hours in the Tenement House Department, studying 
the types of people having business there and listening to 
their questions, noting how they are trying to evade regu- 
lations, and the amount of the clerks' time they consume, 
one can then comprehend why it takes so long for the de- 
partment to act on plans and violations. The innocent have 
to suffer for the selfish, dishonest, and pig-headed ones 
who try to circumvent the law and who think they have in- 
fluence or can argue to have the law modified or suspended 
for their special case. These developments and require- 
ments, however, have changed but little the general 
methods by which the apartments are built and financed. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



279 



Suggestions for Architectural Study in Western France — I. 



BY FREDERICK REED. 



BRITTANY is a land of legends and superstitions. 
Her individuality never changes and her people are 
ever loyal to the life and art of the past. By intermarry- 
ing and speaking their own language they have clung 
tenaciously to traditions and customs with a devotion un- 
known to the neighboring provinces thereby furnishing 
a striking contrast to the rest of France. Here also, as 
nowhere else, the quaint and attractive dress of the 
Breton-folk harmonizes with the picturesqueness of the 
architectural ruins. This simple peasantry with white 
caps and heavy wooden sabots lend a dignity to their 
field labor and a nobility to their homes that are as im- 
pressive as their timber houses stained by time or their 
speechless menhirs of Druidic origin. The solidarity 



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DOLMEN OF THK BATHS NEAR SAUMUR. 

of the French republic to-day is an outgrowth of this 
Brittany and the other ancient provinces that still retain 
their own individual characters. Such an antithesis en- 
ables us to enjoy all the more a country where the me- 
morials of a pre-historic time are linked to the luxury of 
a modern art by the monuments of a strong and artistic 
architecture of the middle ages. 

In order to facilitate the work of any desiring to travel 
and study the architecture of western France let us in- 
clude the provinces of Anjou and Maine with Brittany. 
Anjon and Maine connect Brittany to Paris and by treat- 
ing the three as one 
we may to advantage 
take Paris as our start- 
ing point. In tracing 
the architecture of this 
region from the reign 
of the Gallic tribes to 
the present era we pass 
through a develop- 
ment of some twenty 
centuries. We have 
in there markable 
alignments of dolmens 
and menhirs around 
Carnac a wonderful 
example of the great 
ingenuity and skill of 
the cathedral at angers. a pagan race. In time 





WW' l&M 






all Gaul became subservient to the classic Romans who 
brought with them laws that meant enlightenment as 
well as subjection. 
After the Roman 
period came the 
Normans with a re- 
sistless energy that 
endowed the northern 
part of France with 
countless institutions 
that live to-day. 
Feudalism arose and 
enriched the country 
village as well as the 
cities and towns. 
These mediaeval lords 
crowned the hilltops 
with impregnable 
castles of splendor 
and fortified the cities 
with walls and towers. 
The peasantry be- 
came prosperous and 
lavished their savings 

in magnificent churches with their calvaries and ossua- 
ries. This developed love for grandeur accepted eagerly 
the spread of the renaissance. As a result, we find to-day 
within a short radius, a dolmen of fabulous antiquity, a 
Gothic cathedral of the purest art, a chateau of feudal 
splendor, and an old timber house most picturesque. 

There is considerable interest attached to a visit of the 
Carnac region with its vast megalithic monuments. Men- 
hirs, dolmens, and tumuli remain in such abundance — 
in spite of the fact that the vast majority have been con- 
fiscated by the natives — that we are amazed at the skill 
and arduous labor that must have been necessary to 




a medleval and feudalists 
remnant. 




chateau of angers. 

erect such powerful monuments in pre-historic times. 
vSome attribute these works to the Druids whose temples 
of worship were found in the freedom of the forests. At 
any rate we seem to feel an endeavor to imitate by these 
crude geometrical rows of stone those ancient cloisters 
of trees. The alignment at Kermario consists of over a 
thousand rough uncut pillars in ten rows, while that of. 
Menec has eleven rows with even more stones. Surely 
these are remarkable memorials of a barbaric age when 



28o 



THE BRICK BUILDER 




CHURCH OF ST. JOSEPH 
ANGERS. 



such huge bodies had 
to be handled with 
the sole assistance 
of rollers. 

In the dolmen of 
Corcorro at Plou- 
liarnel we have one 
of the largest in Brit- 
tany. The chamber 
measures twelve by 
twenty- four feet, and 
originally contained 
antiquities of great 
value. At Locmaria- 
quer near by is the 
chief dolmen of Mane 
Lud with a grotto 
underneath. Here 
also are two very 
large tumuli with 
vaulted chambers 

upheld by stones thirty-five feet high. Implements and 

Roman relics of all kinds were found 

in the various tombs. An extremely 

interesting fact exists at Bossenno 

near Vannes. The old brick and tile 

of the Romans are found to be in as 

excellent a state of preservation as if 

recently made. A proof of their dur- 
ability is evidenced by the natives 

who use these Roman tile for the clos- 
ing of water channels in preference to 

the modern tile which last only a few 

years. 

One of the few monuments of the 

Carlovingian period exists at St. 

Philibert de Grandlieu. Here is the 

earliest Christian church of stone and 

mortar, dating from the tenth century. 

The chief ornamentation of this 

church consists of three rows of red 

brick alternating with one of stone. 

Another fragment of great interest is the convent of St. 

Martin at Angers, 
which is supposed to 
be a relic of the ninth 
century. 

The romanesque 
style furnishes some 
excellent edifices 
among which one of 
the best examples to 
be found anywhere in 
western France is the 
eleventh century 
church of St. Sauveur 
atDinan. Especially 
noteworthy is the 
portal with its fine 
carving. The round 
church of St. Croix 
at Qui m perl e' is 
an old street of dinan. modeled after the 




A QUAINT OLD STREET IN 

DINAN. 




A FEUDAL PORTAL AT DINAN 



church of the Holy 

Sepulcher at Jerusa- 
lem. Besides the 

above, the eleventh 

century produced the 

cathedral at Laval 

and Locamaria at 

Quimper, both splen- 
did monuments to 

this style. The city 

of Angers contains a 

rich collection of 

romanesque work in 

the ruins of the richly 

sculptured St. Aubin, 

the remarkable 

bishop's palace, and 

the ancient hospital 

of St. Jean. Of the 

modern buildings at 

Angers the churches 

of St. Laud, nineteenth century, and La Trinite, six- 
teenth century, present the regular 
Angevin style. The twelfth century 
has left us the wonderful central tower 
of St. Sauveur at Redon and the 
abbey at Fontevrault, which is lavish 
in sculpturesque ornament. Main- 
towns like Chemillc, Loctudy, Le 
Mans, Prc-en-Pail, and Cunault have 
splendid examples of the romanesque, 
while Brest possesses a very interest- 
ing church of the transitional style in 
St. Matthieu. 

The intermingling of the Romance 
*_,'■ » and Prankish races have left in these 

provinces an architecture vastly differ- 
jfii j t ent in character to Normandy on the 

north and Poitou on the south. We 
discover the influence of both these 
people, but so modified as to impress 
one of the skill of the native archi- 




tects. The cause for 
this change is attrib- 
uted to the abundance 
of granite and the 
scare ity of other 
stones. On account 
of the difficulty expe- 
rienced in cutting the 
granite we have many 
structures which, 
while Norman in char- 
acter, still possess an 
individuality of their 
own. Yet in, the vari- 
ous churches of a later 
period we see how 
even the hardness of 
the stone did not pre- 
vent the spires and 
facades from being 
richly decorated. 




A.N OLD STREET OF DINAN. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



2»I 



There are noted examples 

of the wonderful adapta- 
bility of ornament in the 

noble towers of the well 

known fourteenth century 

churches at St. Pol-de-Leon. 

Nantes and Le Mans in the 

twelfth century provided 

several ecclesiastical build- 
ings with most lavishly 

sculptured portals. 

The town of Chartres 

possesses one of the finest 

Gothic cathedrals in Eu- 
rope. One cannot help but 

admire the simplicity and grandeur of this edifice, with 

her magnificent spires of harmony and proportion. At 

Lamballe there is an especially fine 

interior which merits careful study. 

Besides the churches just mentioned, 

the thirteenth century has produced 

the splendid examples of monastic 

architecture at Beauport, the old priory 

at Lehon, the cathedral at Dol which 

ranks as the finest monument of un- 

decorated Gothic in existence, and the 

cathedral at (Juimper whose beautiful 

spires adorn the finest and largest 

church in Brittany. 

The fourteenth century Gothic has 

several churches of great nobility. The 

best examples are found at Trcguier 

whose cathedral cloisters are well pre- 
served and the most extensive to be 

found in these provinces, and at Quim- 

perlc whose church, St. Michel, is 

graced with lacelike decorations. At 

Le Folgoet there is a fine type of the 

fifteenth century style with elaborate carvings of natural 

forms. Of 
later Gothic 
the church at 
Hennebont 
has an orna- 
mental spire 
three hundred 
feet hi gh , 
while the 
churches at 
Le Croisic, 
Graces, and 
Guerande 
contain some 
extraordinary 
sculptures. 

One of the 
greatest 
charms of 
western 
France lies in 
the beautiful 
stained glass. 
Nearly every 




ALONG THE PICTURESQUE CANAL AT DINAN. 




SOUTH PORTAL, CATHEDRAL AT 
CHARTRES. 




^^^f 



rrr r 



5=^ 




DETAIL OF WINDOW AT CHARTRES. 



town glories in relics of 
this celebrated method of 
symbolic art. We can only 
select a few of the finest 
examples for mention, 
although we would recom- 
mend that particular atten- 
tion be paid to this style of 
art, for it is a portrayal of 
mediaeval archaeology. The 
most ancient glass is that 
of the eleventh century at 
Le Mans, while the cathe- 
dral at Angers has some 
magnificent work of the 
twelfth, thirteenth, and fifteenth centuries. Chartres 
has never been surpassed in the color and brilliancy of 
the early thirteenth century glass. The 
large and majestic rose window in the 
west front has an individual charm on 
account of the boldness of design and 
the clear depth of its coloring, while 
the Jesse window ranks equally as well. 
This cathedral at Chartres possesses 
over a hundred windows of most superb 
effects. The cathedral at Dol has the 
large window of the choir filled with 
choice stained glass of the thirteenth 
century, while Paimpol has a superior 
rose window of the fourteenth century. 
Of the fifteenth century the noted ex- 
amples are found at Alenqon, La 
Faouet, and Fougeres. The chapel of 
Cran near Gourin has six remarkably 
well preserved windows of the six- 
teenth century which rival Ploermel's 
celebrated glass of the same century. 
Of modern glass little of commenda- 
tion can be said, although St. Malo, Quimper, and Le 
Mans possess some very good examples, while the 
Chapelle Royale at Dreux contains some magnificent 
windows by Wattier, Delacroix, Flandrin, and Lariviere. 

In Brittany are 
found a number of 
mediaeval castles 
which illustrate the 
tremendous power 
that opulence and 
temperament exerted 
in the direction of 
military architecture. 
The feudal lords built 
chateaux for fortifica- 
tions as well as 
homes. There is no 
more imposing relic 
of a Breton fortress 
than the chateau de 
Sucinio, thirteenth 
century, whose crene- 
lated towers have 
narrow openings and A renaissance clock tower, 

breaches constructed chartres. 




iSi 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




DETAIL OF FAMOUS GOTHIC 

ST A 1 IKS AT I'll \K I' RES. 



for the mouths of can- 
non. Combourg of 
the thirteenth century 
is another well pre- 
served monument of 
this style. There are 
four crenelated towers 
joined by an equal 
number of batiments, 
all of which form the 
enclosure of a grand 
old court. The castle 
at Vitre, founded in 
the eleventh century 
and reconstructed in 
the fourteenth, also 
portrays the powerful 
influence everywhere 
felt from the feudal system. The entrance is flanked 
with machicolated towers whose massive strength is most 
impressive. On the interior is an exceptionally finished 
tourelle of the sixteenth century renaissance. This castle 
at Vitre is, like Carcassonne, 
in Southern France, an 
eminent monument to the 
genius and skill of the 
middle ages. At Nantes 
we have a powerful fortress 
of Francis II, with six of 
the seven original towers 
remaining. 

In the chateau of Josselin 
we find an example of the 
severest type of military 
architecture. An exquisite 
facade of the early renais- 
sance faces the river with 
its three round towers built 
solidly on a rock founda- 
tion. The court is treated 
in the late ogival style when 

ornament was at its greatest exuberance. Charles I X and 
Henry III built at Kerjean the largest chateau in Brit- 
tany, having an enclosure of some forty thousand square 
yards. The castle is purely Breton in character, as seen 
in the monumental entrance and the one conspicuous 
feature is the chapel, which has a superior campanile. 




VIEW OF CHARTRES. 




OI.I) HOl'SE AT CM AK I RE 



The last chateau 
worthy of special 
mention is La Bretes- 
che, which has been 
well restored in the 
same style as the 
original. Two of the 
eight massive round 
towers at the entrance 
show how impregna- 
ble they must have, 
been in former years 
with their walls 
nearly ten feet thick. 
Mediaeval and mili- 
tary architecture has 
still a greater claim 
on this part of France, for feudalistic remains of great 
importance are scattered everywhere. At Cucrande is 
another Aigues Mortes whose massive walls and several 
entrances are guarded by machicolated towers of strength 
and picturesqueness. Towns like Tonquedec, Brest, 

Chateaubriant, Angers, 
Elven, and Mayenne have 
admirable examples of me- 
diaeval castles with massive 
donjons, beautiful keeps, 
machicolated towers, and 
crenelated walls. Nowhere 
in northern France can be 
found a better walled town 
than Fourgeres, while St. 
Malo, Ploermel, Laval, and 
Yannes all have military 
towers and frowning ram- 
parts. Dinan, whose thir- 
teenth century walls extend 
over a mile long, has three 
celebrated gateways. ( )ther 
famed entrances are Porte 
Cuillaume at Chartres, the 
ancient city gates at Rochefort-en-Terre, Porte Mordelaise 
at Rennes, and the great fortified gateway at Hennebont. 
In contrast to these ruined bulwarks of feudalistic 
days we have a modern example of military architecture 
at Brest which has one of the most spacious and safest 
roadsteads in the world. This remarkable fortress har- 
bor is fourteen miles long and seven miles in width, with 





A FF.riMI MON1 MEN! W < HARTRES. 



THE CHATEAU OF COMBOURG 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



283 




DETAIL OF PORTAL, CHATEAU JOSSELIN. 



a narrow en- 
trance three 
miles in ex- 
tent. The 
outside of this 
naval port is 
commanded 
by modern- 
ized fortifica- 
tions contain- 
ing some five 
hundred 
guns, while 
the roadstead 
itself is se- 
curely pro- 
tected by the 
city forts. 
France is 
justly proud 
of her chief 
naval station, 

which is one of the most important military ports in the 

world. 

The renaissance work 

throughout these provinces 

assumes quite a provincial 

air. There are many curi- 
ous and admirable examples 

that are both ingenious and 

decorative. Doubtless the 

finest type and one that 

merits marked attention is 

the chateau at Josselin. 

The one facade especially 

noteworthy faces the court 

and presents a long row of 

two-story dormers, which 

pierce the steep roof from 

a position directly over the 

wall. Besides Josselin there 

are other chateaux of pure and 

graceful renaissance located at St. 

Ouen, Mezanger, and Laval. 

The greater part of the renais- 
sance art was developed in minor 

work. We see touches of superior 

and exquisite workmanship in the 

cities, where the small houses are 

adorned with a novel and ex- 
tremely rich ornamentation. 

Chartres has several mansions that 

are remarkable, both on the ex- 
terior and interior. In rue des 

Ecuyers is a charming sixteenth 

century staircase, and in la rue du 

Grand-Cerf is a maison of consid- 
erable merit throughout. The 

Hotel de Prince at Angers, 

the Hotel du Grabatoire and the 

Maison Tambour des Pompiers at 

Le Mans are among the finest 

monuments of domestic renais- 



sance. For 
other speci- 
mens of this 
style we have 
illustrious 
buildings at 
Rennes, Pont, 
Scor f f, and 
C hateau - 
briant. 

On the 
church at 
Solesmesthere 
is an excep- 
tional array of 
sculpture. 
This little 
abbey is 
ranked as one 
of the para- 
mount exam- 
ples of renais- 
sance, and deserves a visit. 




DORMER WINDOW OF CHATEAU JOSSELIN. 




CATHEDRAL OF DOI. 




NORTH FACADE OF ST. COVENTIN AT 
QUIMPER. 



Another church of like im- 
portance is St. Armel at 
Ploermel, with choice works 
of art in the portals of 
Francis I. Besides the 
above the interior of the 
cathedral at Nantes, the 
wooden staircase in La 
Trinite at Angers, the or- 
nate pulpit at St. Thcgon- 
nec, the splendid carvings 
at Guimiliau, and the tower 
and spire at Landivisiau, 
all are elaborate works of 
the renaissance. 

There are many examples 
of fine carvingin this section 
of France, both in stone and 
wood. Some superior work 
is seen in the tombs at Nantes ; the 
early renaissance tomb of the Duke 
of Brittany ranks among the best 
monuments in existence, while the 
worthy tomb by Boitte is equally 
famous as a work of modern re- 
naissance. Other meritorious 
tombs are found in the Chapelle 
Royale at Dreux, Solesmes, Ploer- 
mel, and Quimper. Among the 
statues of importance maybe men- 
tioned the one of Victor Masse by 
Mercie, that of Jean de Cheverus 
by David dAngers at Mayenne, 
and the war monument by Crank 
and Croisy at Le Mans. St. Brieuc 
has many statues by Oge, and 
Nantes has a fine group by Driol- 
let. For figure sculpture the west 
portals of Chartres form the fa- 
mous series of early Gothic 
statues. 



284 



THE BRICKBUI LDER 




\ DOCUMENT BUILDING FOR THE EDISON ELECTRIC ILLUMINATING COMPANY, BOSTON. 

Winslow & Bigelnw, Architects. 







\ I noi'OLATE FACTORY, MILTON, MASS. 
Winslow & Bigelow, Architects' 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

Editorial Comment and 
Miscellany. 

THE .Springfield (Mass.) Municipal Building Commis- 
sion chose on November 28 the design of Pell & 
Corbett of New York from among the ten in the final 
competition for the group of buildings to be erected on the 
north side of the Court Square extension. The design 
proposes three structures: in the center a clock tower 274 
feet high ; upon the right or east a municipal office build- 
ing; upon the left a town hall capable of seating 3,000 
persons. Each of these buildings has a frontage of 115 
feet and they are 92 feet distant from each other. In the 
center of this space is the clock tower. The entire cost 
of the group is estimated at $1,100,000. Other firms in 
the final competition were: E. C. & G. C. Gardner, Kirk- 
ham & Parlett, and George R. Pyne of Springfield; Cass 
Gilbert, Hale & Rogers, and Lord & Hewlett of New 
York ; Peabody & .Stearns of Boston ; and Lewis R. 
Kauffman and Evans & Bright of Philadelphia. 



285 




WARREN & WETMORE have begun legal proceed- 
ings to have set aside the award made by the Com- 
mission of Award for the new .Sing Sing State Prison to 
Architect William J. Beardsley of Poughkeepsie. Many 
architects in New York and even a member of the Com- 
mission of Award have asserted that there was unfairness 
in the manner in which the decision was made. Warren 
& Wetmore's designs, it will be remembered, were con- 
sidered second best; and that firm's attorneys, in en- 
deavoring to have them declared the winner, maintain 
that the new prison cannot be built after the Beardsley 
design for $2,000,000, which is the amount of the appro- 




DETAIL BY J. E. O. PRIDMORE, ARCHITECT. 
Northwestern Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

priation. They also declare the action of the Commis- 
sion of Award was unconstitutional, inasmuch as the law 
creating it was a local law and defective as to title. It 
will be interesting to watch the judgment of the court on 
the first point in the plea of Warren & Wetmore's at- 
torneys, for there has been no little doubt upon the gen- 
eral question whether an architect's plans imply an 
accurate guarantee that they can be carried out for a 
pre-determined sum. 



LANTERN FOR RODEF SHOLEM SYNAGOGUE, PITTSBURG 

Palmer & Hornbostel, Architects. 
Made by Rookwood Pottery Company. 



SECOND BAPTIST CHURCH, ST. LOUIS. 

The problem called for an auditorium capable of seat- 
ing not less than twelve hundred people, with the nec- 
essary accessories, such as pastor's room, clerk's office, 
reception room, foyer, lobby, stair halls, and vestibules ; 
a room for prayer-meetings and the general and social 
gatherings of the congregation during the week, to take 
care of at least four hundred persons; a large sized room 
for a ladies' parlor; a boys' club; a dining and entertain- 
ing room, with kitchen, serving rooms, and provision for 
a stage; a Sunday school room capable of accommoda- 
ting one thousand, and living quarters for the caretaker 
and his family. 

The auditorium was placed at the corner of Kings- 
highway and Washington avenue. The secondary build- 
ing, or chapel, was placed to the south at a distance from 
the southwest corner of the lot, approximately sym- 
metrical with the position of the church at the north. 
Connection was obtained by an open loggia on the west 
and a closed one on the east, thus forming a courtyard 
or cloister, while, as the crowning feature of the whole 
composition, and upon the axis of the court on the east 
was placed a campanile (a special gift) which unifies the 
whole scheme. 

In detail the church is planned as a basilica with 
vaulted side aisles and clerestory, but with the addition 
of a large western gallery and corresponding to it on the 
east the choir and organ loft, baptistry, and pulpit plat- 
form, and back of these dressing and toilet rooms, clerk's 
office, pastor's reception room, and a study. 

Instead of one central entrance, two have been pro- 
vided with vestibules and lobbies directly connected with 
the stairs to the gallery, thus leaving space for the foyer 



286 



T II E BRICK BUILDER 




^ f 



ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, PARENTAL SCHOOLS, 
FLUSHING, L. I., N. V. 

C. B. J. Snyder, Architect. 
Roofed witli Ludowici-Celadon Tile. 

room stretching across the west front and underneath 
the gallery. This room, it is believed, will be the gath- 
ering place of those who desire to greet their friends 
before and after service, while 
on occasions of large attend- 
ance it can readily be made a 
part of the auditorium by low* 
ering the sash of the glazed 
partition of separation. 

The decorating and glass of 
the auditorium find their strong- 
est note in the treatment of the 
supporting columns of the 
clerestory, which are of a green 
scagliola resting on black mar- 
ble bases and plinths and 
crowned by capitals of old gold. 
No memorial windows are 
used, so a uniform and geomet- 
rical design was adopted for all 
the windows of each kind, the 
only variation being the con- 
ventionalized representation of 
the fruits and flowers of Pales- 
tine, which are used in the tympana of the main aisle 
openings. 

The general tone of the glass used is opalescent of 
various warm shades, while the painted ornament of 
the interior is of tones of green and dull red picked 

out with orange upon a 
warm gray background, 
all done in a flat way 
suggesting mosaic and 
in "drawing following 
closely the early Italian 
renaissance rather than 
Gothic. 

The woodwork of the 
room is of fumed oak 
of a soft brown color, 
not dark, nor with any 
suggestions of yellow, 
but rather of a grayish 

DETAIL HV NEW YORK AKCHI- , . . / 

ro ural terra cotta tone - Springing from 

company. the clerestory walls and 

Neville & Bagge, Architects. resting on large corbels 



DETAIL BY KIRKHWI & PARLETT, ARCHITECTS. 

New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 




done in dull gold, are the cased and paneled wood trusses 

following the curve of the two great arches, while the 

ceiling thus divided into bays is further subdivided into 

oblong plastered panels by molded purlins and rafters, 

the whole treated in a large way in tones of brown to 

harmonia» with the wood, thus producing an effect of 

great size and simplicity. 

In the study of the exterior design a controlling factor 

was the early adoption (for local and climatic reasons) of 

brick as the principal material, and naturally the motif 

was found in the superb brick architecture of Lombardy 

and north Italy in general. 

The question of color was always a controlling factor, 

and its application in this instance is as follows: The 

base course at grade is of dark red Missouri granite; all 

other stone, which includes only the door jambs, sills, 

and shafts of columns, is of a rich yellow sandstone from 

Minnesota. 

The brick selected was all of one burning and ranges 

from a rich, almost purplish brown to palest buff, 

and was laid in the following 
manner : The darkest bricks 
were used at the base in all 
cases, and as the building 
progressed in height a uniform 
shading was carried out, the 
lantern of the campanile having 
the ultimate degree of lightness 
of color. In the turning of the 
archesan effect 
of voussoirs 
has been ob- 
tained by the 
juxtaposition 
of light and 
dark bricks in 
groups, and 
patterns, 
diaper, and 
other details 
have been 

worked out in the same way, giving 

great variety and interest, and always 

harmony of effect. 

The terra cotta where used is of the 

same color and texture as the Minnesota 

sandstone. The roofs are of red tile. 

The courtyard has been laid out as a 

formal garden with an oblong pool term 

inated at the base of the campanile by a 

low wall fountain and surrounded by a 

molded curb of white stone. 

The campanile is of the following di- 
mensions: Base, 25 feet 6 inches by 25 

feet 6 inches, height, 215 feet. Above 

the molded base course the die rises to 

a height of . 30 feet with a straight 

batter of 9 inches, above this the shaft 

is 105 feet high constructed with an 

entasis of 9 inches, making it 18 inches 

smaller at the balcony stage. The 

octagonal lantern is 18 feet 6 inches in 

diameter, and 21 feet high, and the 







\ 



V- 



DETAIL FOR A 

MANTEL. 

Lord & Hewlett, 

Architects. 
C nkling- Arm . 
strong Terra 
t'.itta Company, 
Makers. 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



287 



whole is terminated by a cylin- 
drical drum with a conical roof 
and iron finial, the top of which 
is 215 feet from the ground. 



NEW ROOKS. 



The Cosmo-Studio Co., 437 
Fifth avenue, New York, have 
just issued the first volume of 
their new work entitled "Cosmo 
Collection," which consists of 
duotone and hand colored re- 
productions of the most famous 
paintings and sculptures from 
all the schools of the world ; 
architecture; portraits of peo- 
ple of permanent fame, their 
homes, and associated historic 
scenes; and popular subjects. 
Each picture is graphically de- 
scribed. The editor-in-chief 
for the work is George Hall 
Baker, M.A., Librarian Emer- 
itus Columbia University, with 
whom are associated as art 
editors Harry W. Watrous, 
N.A., Secretary Academy of 
Design, and Will H. Low, N.A. 
The advisory board having in 
charge the publication of this 
work includes Charles de Kay, 
chairman, founder of the Na- 
tional Arts Club; Justice David 
J. Brewer, United States Supreme Court; Frederick B. 
McGuire, director, Corcoran Gallery of Art; Halsey C. 
Ives, director, St. Louis Museum of Fine Arts; Charles 
M. Ffoulke, regent, National Academy of Art, Washing- 
ton, D. C. ; Glenn Brown, secretary, American Institute 

of Architects; Dr. 
Ira Remsen, presi- 
dent, Johns Hopkins 
University; Fred- 
erick Dielman, presi- 
dent, National 
Academy of Design; 
John M. Carrere of 
Carrere & Hastings. 

If one may judge 
the whole work by 
the standard set in the 
first volume it is safe 
to predict that this 
collection will surpass 
in excellence any- 
thing of its kind 
which has ever before 
been published. It 
constitutes an epi- 
tome of the world's 

DETAIL BY HEI.MI.E * HfBERTV, , , . . 

architects. best productions in' 

South Amboy Terra Cotta Company, architecture, sculp- 

Makers. ture, painting, and 




kindred arts. Perhaps the chief 
value which a work of this sort 
would have for the architect is 
the concise description of the 
subject which accompanies each 
illustration. These descriptive 
articles are furnished by men 
known throughout the world as 
authorities in matters of art. 



IN GENERAL. 



DKISCOLL STORES, BOSTON. 

Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 

Front of white mat glaze terra cotta, Atlantic Terra Cotta 

Company, Makers. 




Codman & Despradelle have 
been chosen as architects for 
the new Brigham Hospital 
which is to be built near the 
Harvard Medical School group, 
Boston. The selection was 
made by competition, in which 
many of the leading firms were 
participants. 

The Texas State Association 
of Architects has been organ- 
I , i/.ed with the following officers: 
J. E. Flanders, Dallas, presi- 
dent; James Wahrenberger, 
San Antonio, first vice-presi- 
dent; A. O. Watson, Austin, 
secretary-treasurer. The object 
of the association, as stated in 
the constitution, is "to unite 
in one common fellowship the 
architects of the state of Texas 
to combine their efforts so as to 
promote the artistic, scientific, and practical efficiency of 
the profession, and to cultivate and encourage the kindred 
arts and to correct unprofessional practices, and to help 
the cities of the state in securing proper building and 
sanitary laws." 

Wheelock, Joy & Wheelock, architects, Birmingham, 
Ala., will dissolve their copartnership January 1. 
S. Scott Joy will take offices in the Farley Building, and 
desires manufac- 
turers samples and 
catalogs. 

Emil John and 
M. A. Schmidlin 
have formed a co- 
partnership for the 
practise of archi- 
tecture, with offices 
in the Monadnock 
Building, San 
Francisco. 

The Western 
Brick Company 
have removed their 
executive offices 

from the Builders' detail by wii.i.iam h. gruen, 

Exchange to the architect. 

Indiana Pythian Winkle Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 




288 



tup: brickbuilder 



Building, Massachusetts avenue and Pennsylvania street, 
Indianapolis. 

Carter, Black & Ayers of New York will supply the 
brick for the new Nassau Hotel at Long Beach, L. I., 
L. R. Kauffman, architect; the new Carlton House and 
the Ritz-Carlton Hotel, New York City, Warren & Wet- 
more, architects; the new Martin Building, Broadway, 

TO DRAUGHTSMEN : I have an opening for a first-class 
man at designing and general preliminary work. Permanent 
position for the right man. R. H. HUNT, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

WANTED. By an architect in the South, a draftsman for 
general office work ; one competent to supervise work. A 
good chance for the right man. Address, stating experience 
and salary expected, " Columbia," care The Brickbuilder. 

A SENSIBLE GIFT 

A GLOBE, MAP, OR ATLAS 

is most practical. Will afford profit and pleasure to the 
entire family for years. Send for catalogue and price 
list. 

Enclose this ad with 5 two cent stamps and we will send 
POCKET MAP OF MANHATTAN 

RAND, McNALLY &> COMPANY 

New York City 



New York, Townsend, Stcinle & Haskell, architects. Har- 
vard bricks will be used in the Ritz-Carlton Hotel, and the 
general effect in the bond and jointing was studied from 
panels which were laid up especially for the purpose. 
This firm will place upon the market by the first of the 
year a new stiff-mud red brick of very rich color, made 
from Bradford shale. 

The bricks used in the Second Baptist Church, St. 
Louis, Mauran, Russell & Garden, architects, illustrated 
in this issue, were made by the Hydraulic-Press Brick Co. 



A SPECIAL ISSUE OF 

The English Architectural Review 

(London) illustrating 
RECENT ENGLISH DOMESTIC WORK 

will be published in December, 1908, in England, and will be distinct from 
the ordinary issues of the Review. The illustrations will be accompanied by 
plans and short descriptive notes in English, French, and German. 

The ivort of over ^ ( i prominent architects of England ivill be shoivn. 

Edited by MERVYN E MACARTNEY, K.R.I.B.A., F.S.A. 
The publ shers sjy : — 

" The enquiries for this issue, both from the United Kingdom and abroad, are 
already very numerous, and the examples given, not being the work of one particular 
school of architectural design, or limited to houses of a particular class, may he ac- 
cepted as forming the most complete and representative collection of Modern English 
I >omestic Work that has yet been published. The book may be confidently recom- 
mended to architects and the very large public which, at the present time, is 
interested in artistic houses and house-building. 

"As the edition must be strictly limited, orders should be received as early as 
possible." 

/V/, 1', bound in liiwible cioth, $2*25. Sent, express f>aid, on receipt of money. 
VI. A. VINSON, 
Representative of " The Architectural Review," London. 
205 CAXTON BLDG., CLEVELAND. 
Annual subscriptions to "The Architectural Review," $4.00. 



Competition for a Hospital Building. 

First Prize, $500. Second Prize, $200. Third Prize, $100. 

COMPETITION CLOSES JANUARY 16, 1909. 



PROGRAMME. 

The problem is a Hospital Huilding. The location may be assumed in any 
American city of about 30,000 inhabitants. The lot contains about five acres and has 
a frontage of 300 feet on the main avenue, leading to the city, which runs east and 
west. The part of the lot on which the building is to be placed is practically level. 

It is to be a block hospital with three Moors above the basement, lhe height of 
the first and second stories is to be not less than 12 feet- No one Moor above the 
basement is to contain more than 10,000 square feet, exclusive of sun rooms and 
approaches. The length of the structure, including sun rooms and approaches, 
cannot exceed 100 feet. 

The following should be provided for in the plan : 

Two ten bed wards for each sex in the Medical Department ; two ten hed wards 
for each sex in the Surgical Department; and in connection with each of these 
wards two one bed rooms. Two ten bed wards for each sex in the Children's De- 
partment. A Maternity Department to accommodate six patients, two of which are 
to be in private rooms, and in conjunction with this department a delivery room and 
baby room. 

In conjunction with the wards there should be provided service rooms or diet 
kitchens, nurses utility rooms, linen rooms, broom and medicine closets, clothing 
rooms and toilet rooms. 

In addition to the private rooms provided for in connection with the open wards 
there should be at least eight private rooms for single patients. 

Operating and accident rooms, with their adjuncts of anesthetic, sterilizing, 
bandage, instrument, nurses' work room, reception, and recovery rooms, also 
surgeons' dressing room and X-ray room. 

Single bed rooms for at least twenty nurses; nurses' parlor; suite for superintend- 
ent and head nurse; bed room for two internes; reception room for patients; 
laboratory ; drug room ; cooking class room ; kitchens ; store rooms ; laundry ; bed 
rooms for fourteen domestics — four being males; dining room for staff and 
nurses; dining room for domestics; toilet rooms; small out-paiients department: 
autopsy room ; boiler room ; fan room, and such other features as may suggest 
themselves to the designer. 

The exterior of the building is to lie designed entirely in Architectural Terra 
Cotta, employing colored terra cotta in at least portions of the walls. 

The following points will be considered in judging the designs: 

A. Frank and logical expression of the prescribed material. 

B. Rational and logical treatment of the exterior. 

C. Excellence of plan. 

In awarding the prizes the intelligence shown in the constructive use of terra 
cotta and the development or modification of style, by reason of the material, will 
be taken largely into consideration. 

It must be borne in mind that one of the chief objects of this competition is to 
encourage the study of the use of Architectural Terra Cotta There is no limitation 
of cost, but the designs must be suitable for the character of the building and for 
the material in which it is to be executed. 



DRAWINGS REQUIRED. 

< >n one sheet, at the top, the front elevation drawn at a scale of 8 feet to the 
inch. In the title of this elevation state which point of the compass it faces. On 
the same sheet, below the front elevation, the four Moor plans drawn at a scale of 
16 feet to the im h. 

On a second sheet, at the top, the elevation of secondary importance drawn at a 
scale of 16 feet to the inch ; immediately below half inch scale details of the most 
interesting features of the design. The details should indicate in a general manner 
the jointing of the terra cotta and the sizes of the blocks- The color scheme is to 
be indicated either by a key or a series of notes printed on the same sheet with the 
secondary elevation and details, at a size which will permit of two thirds reduction. 

The size of each sheet (there are to be but two) shall be exactly 36 inches by 24 
inches. Strong border lines are to be drawn on both sheets one inch from edges, 
giving a space inside the border lines zi inches by 34 inches. The sheets are not 
lo be mounted. 

All drawings are to be in black ink without wash or color, except that the walls 
on the plans and in the sections may be blacked-in or cross-hatched. 

(iraphic scales to be on all drawings. 

Every set of drawings is to be signed by a nom <U plume or device, and accom- 
panying same is to be a sealed envelope with the nom dt plume on the exterior and 
containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered Hat at the office of THE BRICKBUILDER, 
B5 Water Street, Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or before January 16, 190*3. 

Drawings submitted in this competition must be at owner's risk from the time 
they are sent until returned, although reasonable care will be exercised in their 
handling and keeping. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER, 
and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. Those who 
wish their drawings returned may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes 
containing their names, ten cents in stamps. 

The designs will be judged by three or five well-known members of the architec- 
tural profession. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize 
of $500. 

For the design placed second a prize of $200. 

For the design placed third a prize of $100. 

\\> ire enabled to offer prizes of the above-mentioned amounts largely through 
the liberality of the terra cotta manufacturers who are represented in the advertis- 
ing columns of THE BRICKBUILDER. 

This competition is open to everyone. 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 12. PLATE 143. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 12. PLATE 144. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 12. PLATE 145. 




DETAIL OF BRICKWORK AND MEMORIAL DOORS. 

FIRST UNIVERSALIST CHURCH, ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
Claude Bragdon, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 12. PLATE 154. 








Firlt floor plun 




/ Country Hoci jc Jor 

MP Rachm. 5 J Randolpi i 

«' Cbcstrjol t llll .Philadelphia .Pa 



Second foe plan 



Wll-,oi>r.>.r.- Architect 

•)i-,(-Wlr,<.,tSI P1..UR, 
35 w 2W i1^<l, New Yo'^GU 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 12. PLATE 155. 




HOUSE, BROOKLINE, MASS. 

SHEPLEY, RUTAN & COOLIDGE, ARCHITECTS. 




5EC0S1V • PLOOR ■ PL7KN- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 12. PLATE 156. 






HOUSE AT WASHINGTON, D. C. 
Wood, Donn & Deming, architects. 




FRONT OF HOUSE. 




REAR OF HOUSE. 

HOUSE AT THOMPSON. CONN. Shepley, Rutan & Coolioge, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILOEF 

DECEMBER, 

1903. 



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THE BRICKBUJILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 6. PLATE 




MAIN ENTRANCE FEATURE, WAR COLLEGE. WAR COLLEGE AND ENGINEER POST, WASHINGTON D. C. 

McKim, Mead & White, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 16, NO. 6. PLATE 




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PLATES 92 and 93. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 12. PLATE 146. 





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DETAIL OF BRICKWORK, INTERIOR OF CHURCH AND PLANS. 

FIRST UNIVERSALIST CHURCH, ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
Claude Bragdon, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 12. PLATE 147. 




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oROUND FLOOR PLAN. 

SECOND BAPTIST CHURCH, K1NGSH1GH WAY BOULEVARD, ST. LOUIS. 
Mauran, Russell & Garden. Architects. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 12. PLATE 148. 




DETAIL OF ONE OF MAIN ENTRANCES, SECOND BAPTIST CHURCH, ST. LOUIS. 

Mauran, Russell & Garden, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17. NO. 12. PLATE 149. 




VOL. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

17, NO. 12. PLATE 150. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 12. PLATE 151. 





TOWN HALL AT LANCASTER, MASS. 

A. W. LONGFELLOW, ARCHITECT. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 12. PLATE 152. 




TOWN HALL, 
LANCASTER, MASS. 





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OF PLATFORM, 




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i LTI'ER PART OF PORTICO i 

*::::: ^»:::::t»:::::'« 

SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




A. W. Longfellow, 
Architect. 




BASEMENT PLAN. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 












? 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 17, NO. 12. PLATE 153. 





NATIONAL CITY BANK OF NEW ROCHELLE, N. Y. 
Henry Bacon, Architect. 



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