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THE BRICKBVILDER 

^A^ ILLUSTRATED ARCHITECTURAL MONTHLY DEVOTED TO THE ART, SCIENCE, AND BUSINESS OF BUILDING 

NEW YORK ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY, Publishers boston 



Volume Twenty-four 



INDEX FOR 1915 



January to December Inclusive 



Index to Plate Illustrations — According to Subject 

Plates numbered 1-16 in the January issue ; February, 17-32 ; March, 3348 ; April, 49-64 ; May, 65-80 ; June, 81-96 ; 
July, 97-112; August, 113-128; September, 129-144; October, 145-160; November, 161-176; December, 177-192. 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 



Plate No. 



115 
116 



6,7 
4 



Title, Location, and Architect. 

BANKS 

Hartford National, Hartford, Conn., Donn Barber 16-18 

Murchison National, Wilmington, N. C, Kenneth M. 

Murchison 

National, Far Rockaway, L. I., Jos. L. Steinam 

BATH HOUSES 
Bath and Gymna.sium, W. 28th Street, New York. William 
Emerson 

Bath in the Grove, Kansas City, Mo., Wilder & Wight __- 

South Side, Pittsburgh, Pa., MacClure & Spahr 101,102 

HOSPITALS AND ASYLUMS 

Cook Countv Infirmary, Oak Forest, 111., Holabird & 
Roche, and Richard E'. Schmidt, Garden & Martin 161-165 

Cook Countv Tuberculosis Colony, Oak Forest, 111. Rich- 
ard E. Schmidt, Garden & Martin -.. -_158-160 

Municipal Tuberculosis Sanitarium, Chicago, 111., W. A. 
Otis & Edwin H. Clark 151-157 

Relief Foundation, The Winifred Masterson Burke, 

White Plains, N. Y., McKim, Mead & White 91 96 

RECREATION THEATRES AND HALLS 

Field House, Pulaski Park, Chicago, 111., W. Carbys Zim- 
merman ^ 

Playhouse, Neighborhood, Grand Street, New York, N. Y., 
Harry Creighton Ingalls, F. Burrall Hoffman, Jr., 
Associated 58-60 

Toy Theatre, Dartmouth St., Boston, Putnam & Cox 56,57 

RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS. 

CHAPELS AND PARISH HALLS 

Chapel of the Dominican Sisters of St. Agnes, Sparkill, 

N. Y., Davis, McGrath & Kiessling 172 

Parish Hall, St. John's, West Newbury, Mass., Clark & 

Russell 



174 



176 



171 



175 



1-3 



All Saints' West Newbury, Ma.ss., Clark & Russell 173,174 

All Saints', Goodmayes, Essex, England, P. K. Allen. ...179, 180 
Batnist Memorial, Twickenham, England, Ingall, Bridge- 

water & Porter . .- "''iVq 

Carrollton M. E., New Orleans, La., Sam Stone Jr.. 119 

First of Christ, Scientist, Los Angeles, Cal Eliner Grey 86-88 
First of Christ, Scientist, Worcester, Mass., O. C. S. Ziroh 89 90 
Ravenswood Presbyterian, Chicago, 111., Pond & Pond 117, 118 
St. Columba's Roman Catholic, Johnstown, Pa., John 1. 

Comes, J. E. Kauzor, Associated ..-_--------- 

St. James' Presbyterian, New York, N. Y., Ludlow & 

Peabod V - : - : 

St. Mark's Roman Catholic, Dorchester, Mass., Brigham, 

Covenev & Bisbee .----;;:;-,;-: id'ir" 

Webb Horton Memorial Presbyterian, Middletown, N. Y., 

Carrc."-e & Hastings ...-..-...---------- 

West Park Presbyterian, New York, N. Y., Carrere & 

Hastings 

^''B'^a'l'?e';htfrun, Newark, N. J.. Albert S. Gottlieb 166, 167 

"^Y^ W^C^A^Bldg^.' Newark, N. J.. George B. Post & Sonsl44,145 
Y. W. H. A. Building, New York, Louis Allen Abramson. 

EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS. 

COLLEGES, UNIVERSITIES . , , i. 

Engineering Building, Mechanical and Llectncal, Johns 
Hopkins University, Homewood, Baltimore, Md., Jo.seph 

Gifman' hX Vohn^ "HoVkiiis ' Unive^^^^^^^^ 

Baltimore, Md., Parker, Thomas & R^'^'' -^-^— ^r---.-- "^""" 
Gymnasium, Dartmouth College, Hanover. N. H... Charles ^^^ ^^ 

ML!J.^\M7)c;^ufin;tiuite3ie'Eva^:U«^ ' 

Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., John T. \\indrim 46 4y 



.168-170 



22 



141-143 



EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS - Continued. 



Plate N.I 



Title, Location, and Architect. 

LIBRARIES 
■Harry Elkins Widener Memorial, Harvard University, 

Cambridge, Mass., Horace Trumbauer 106-111 

SCHOOLS 

Addison, Cleveland, O., F. S. Barnum & W. R. McC<)rnackl46, 147 
Edward Devotion, Brookline, Mass., Kilham & Hopkins . 19, 20 
Kindergarten, Downers Grove, Downers Grove, 111., Per- 
kins, Fellows & Hamilton 103-105 

Norwood High, Norwood, Ohio, Bausmith & Drainie 44, 45 

Vose, Milton, Mass., Kilham & Hopkins 21 

Walker, Concord, N. H., Huse Templeton Blanohard 148-150 

RESIDENCE BUILDINGS. 

APARTMENTS 

Craig, 58th Street and Monroe Avenue, Chicago, 111., Rich- 
ard E. Schmidt, Garden & Martin 97, 98 

North Street, Buffalo, N. Y., Green & Wicks 99, 100 

11 East Chase Street, Baltimore, Md., Wyatt & Nolting.. 120 
405 Park Ave., New York, N. Y., Cross & Cross 61-63 

CITY HOUSES 
Chicago, I'l?; Astcjr St-eet. Thomas C. Dennehy, Esq., 

Frederick W.^ Pei-kins...:.' . . - . -,-.•--,- 23, 24 

Chicago, 111., Two' Houses chjWcoftli^wa-Avenue, Riddle 

&■ Ridd'.o - ':.--:.'.:.'. 73, 74 

CLUB HQUSEife " > , . ,, 

Boston Cit\ , "SocntiTset Strtrel, li{»st6ti,"W^s.'ii'., Newhall & 

Blevins j...,,'-..-J 31-36 

Elks', Brooklyn, N. Y., H. Van Buren Magonigle, A. W. 

Ross 37-39 

Phi Gamma Delta Fraternity, Philadelphia, Pa., Mellor 

& Meigs ■*0-43 

Three Arts, Chicago, 111., Holabird & Roche. 112-114 

COUNTRY AND SUBURBAN HOUSES 

Annapolis, Md., S. W. Labrot, Esq., Parker, Thomas & 

Rice...: - 121 123 

Ard-sley Park, N. Y., Charles A. Cass, Esq., Wilson Eyre 

& Mcllvaine 

Chestnut Hill, Pa., Mrs. E. G. Hood, Steward.son &• Pago 
Cleveland, House Abram Garfield, E.sq., Abrani Garfield. 
Evanston, 111., Mrs. A. C. D. Riley, Perkins, Fellows & 

Hamilton ''}< ^2 

ICcclcstiin, Md., R. L. Williams, Esq., Laurence H. Fowler 14, 15 
Grosse Point, Mich., E. D. Speck, Esq., Albert M. Spahr 79-81 
Guilford, Baltimore, .Md., Mrs. C. L. Applegarth, Howard 

Sill. A----V- 

Guilford, Baltimore, Md., James C. Fenhagen, Esq., Lau- 
rence Hall Fowler ''^ 

Guilford, Baltimore, Md., Group of Houses, Edward L. 

Palmer, Ir. H, ,1 

Guilford, Baltimore, Md., Howard Sill ..1-J4, 1^.^ 

Guilford, Baltimore, Md., Joseph Evans Sperry.. 134 

Guilford, Baltimore, Md., James McEvoy, Esq., Thomas 

BondOwings - ,V,:.-."---A ' 

Hamilton, Mass., George S. Mandell, Esq., WiMiam U. 

Rantoul ------ 11-1'^ 

Ipswich, Mass., Augustus N. Rantoul. Esq., Andrews, 

Jacques ^- Rantoul -- u-C'yi^- 

Lake Forest, 111., Charles Paxton, Esq.. Richard E. 

Schmidt, Garden \- Martin '^-'^ 

Lexington, Mass., W. R. Greeley, Esq.. W. R. Greeley.. 30 

Newtonville, Mass., Frank Chouteau Brown... »^. "-i 

St Martins Pa., Double House, Edmund B. Gilchri.st 

WalkerviUe, Ont., Hiram Walker, E.S(|., Burrowes * 

Welles -.- -- - ' 

Washington, I). C. James Parmelee. Esq., Charles A 

Piatt .- - 



8 10 
25, 26 
69, 70 



126 



84, 85 



75 



66-68 



HOTELS 
Statler, Detroit, Mich., George B. Post & Sons 



TENEMENTS 
The Rogers, West 4Uh Street, 
venor Atterbury 



New York, N. Y., Gros- 



50 53 



64, 65 



u 



Index to Volume XXIV., Jan. — Dec, 1915. 



The Brickbvilder 



Subject Index to Illustrations in Letter Press 

Pagres numbered 1-28 in the January issue ; February, 29-52 ; March, 53-78 ; April, 79-104 ; May. 105-130 ; June, 
131-156; July, 157-182; August, 183-210; September, 211-236; October, 237-264; November, 265-290; 

December, 291-318. 

MEASURED DRAWINGS OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 



Title and Location. DraJ. r. \v Page. 

IXX)RWAYS 
Bartlet-Atkinson House, Newtraryport, Mass.. Gordon Robb 237 
French-Munroe House, Bristol, R. I., Gordon Robb and 

M. A. Dyer 183 

Nichols House, Salem, Mass., Gordon Robb and M. A. Dyer 29 
Richard Derby House, Salem, Mass., Gordon Robb and 

M. A. Dyer 131 

GATES AND POSTS 

Baldwin-Lyman House, Salem, Mass.. Gordon Robb 265 

INTERIORS 
Mantels at " Evergreen," Baltimore, Md., Riggin Buckler. .37, 38 
Mantel in Crowninshield-Devereux House, Salem, Mass., 
Gordon Robb and M. A. Dver — - 79 



Title and Location. Drawn by. Page. 

INTERIORS — Continued 

Parlo.'-. "The Lee Mansion," Marblehead, Mass., Gordon 

Robb and M. A. Dyer 157 

Parlor in House at 94 Federal Street, Salem. Mass., Gordon 

Robb 291 

Stairway. Nichols House, Salem, Mass., Gordon Robb and 

M. A. Dyer 53 

PORCHES 

Hosmer-Waters House, Salem, Mas-s., Gordon Robb and 

M. A. Dyer 105 

Tucker-Rice, Salem, Mass., Gordon Robb and M. A. Dyer.. 1 
WINDOWS 
Palladium, Customs House, Salem, Mass. . Gordon Robb 211 



PUBLIC BUTLDINGS, 

Title, t^tcaiion. and Arch:ie':t. ^" - - 

BUSINESS AND COMMERCIAL 

Biddle Press Building, Philadelphia, Pa., Bunting <v 

.Shrigley 147 

"Farm Journal" Building, Washington Square, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., Bunting & Shrigley 201 

Mercantile Building, Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio, 

J. Milton Dyer 140 

Printing House of Sinnickson Chew& Sons Co., Henry A. 

Macomb 11,12 

Small Office Building, 120 Water Street, Boston, Mass., 

Andrew Hepburn and Guy Lowell, Assoc. Architects... 73,74 
Village Stores, Chatham, Mass., Henrv Bailey Alden and 

William H. Co.x, .Assoc. .Architects..' '. 259,260 

Worcester Market, Worcester, Mass.,^.Q..C. fc. ^ir<!fl^.....l91,192 

CLUB AND ASSOCIAIK3S4?G\&irVLV€S ,.• /•*•.••• 

Building for the MusiCiini'5ntiUjal'>feli5f 'Society, Boston, 

Mass., Maher & Wfticlie'ster „^^'.-,.'.:'.'.*.'.125, 126 

Church Club, St. Paul„>IiBn.f ^j^iferiek H,Iir<)olc^ .:.;!. 169. 170 
T-Square Club, 'PfiilaildpM^ ."P4j :^Vils4i; •ftjrfe & 

Mcllvaine _V .• ti --•-•- -•-'-*• *..' ..253,254 

PARK AND RECREATION 

Aquarium, Marine Park, South Boston, Mass., William 

Dowries Austin 47,48 

Bath in the Grove. Kansas City, Mo., Wilder & Wight ... 15 

Field House, Pulaski Park, Chicago. 111., W. Carbys Zim- 
merman 13, 14 

Fordyce Bath House, Hot Springs, Ark., George R. Mann 
& Eugene J. Stern; 283,284 

Winter House for Birds, Franklin Park, Boston, Ma.ss., 
William I^ownes Austin 49,50 

HOSPITALS AND ASYLUMS 
Nurses' Home, St. Luke's, New Bedford, Mass., George 

Hunt Ingraham _ 70 

Providence Retreat, Buffalo, N. Y., Esenwein & Johnson. 74 

Walter Reed Army General, Wa.shington, D. C, Marsh & 

Peter 69 

White Plains, N. Y., Donn Barber 69 

MEMORIALS 

Dudley Memorial Gate, Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Mas.s., Howells & Stokes 1 255,256 



RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS. 

CHURCHES 

Bethany Reform. Ephrata, Pa., Frank Seeburger and 

Charles F. Rabenold, Assoc. Architects 310 

Christ Episcopal, Needham Heights, Mass., Edmund Q. 

Sylvester 309 

Park Street, Boston, Mass 27 

Plymouth Congregational, Chicago, 111., Riddle & Riddle. 304 

CHAPELS 

Episcopal, Westbury, L. I., N. Y., John Russell Pope.301,302, 303 
For the Ladies of the Cenacle, Newport, R. I., Maginnis& 

Walsh... 307 

Roman Catholic, North Weymouth, Mass., Charles R. 

Greco 308 

SY.NAGOGUES 

B'Nai Jeshurun, Newark, N. J., Albert S. Gottlieb 305,306 

Y. M. C. A. AND Y. W. C. A. 

The Young Women's Hebrew Association, Interiors, 

Louis Allen Abramson 51 



EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS. 

Title. Location and .\n hite<^ ;s. Page. 

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES 
.Armory, University of Illinois 257,258 

LIBRARIES 
Carnegie Public, Sharon, Mass.. C. Howard Walker 9,10 

SCHOOLS 

Fairmount School, West Orange, N. J., Dillon, McLellan & 

Beadel % 

George Frisbie Hoar, South Boston, Mass., Herbert L. 

Wardner 144 

Grade Schoolhouse, Framingham, Mass., Charles M. 

Baker and Stanley B. Parker, Assoc. Architects.. 97 

Grade Schoolhouse, Framingham. Mass., Charles M. Baker. 98 

Gregory. West Orange, N. J., Dillon. McLellan & Beadel. 95 

Hopewell. Taunton, Mass., Kilham & Hopkins 109 

Kindergarten, .Anne L. Page Memorial, Wellesley, Mass., 

Kilham & Hopkins S 

ShurtlefT, Chelsea, Mass., Kilham & Hopkins 41 



RESIDENCE BUILDINGS. 

COUNTRY AND SUBURB.AN 
Guilford, Baltimore, Md., Houses for 

Eugene L. Norton. Esq.. Edward L. Palmer, Jr Z2i 

Mrs. George W. Gail, Edward L. Palmer. Jr. 224 

William Fusselbaugh, Esq., Edward L. Palmer, Jr. 225 

Dr. Joseph S. Ames, Edward L. Palmer, Jr 225 

A. Morris Tyson, Esq.. Edward L. Palmer, Jr 226 

John Daniels, Esq., Edward L. Palmer. Jr. 226 

Charles W. Hendley, Esq., E. H. Glidden.... 227 

John E. Semmes, Jr.. Esq., Laurence Hall Fowler 227 

Two Small Houses at Erie, Pa., Frank B. Meade 174 

FARM AND OUTBUILDINGS (Stables and Garages) 
Garage on Estate of Edward C. Schaefer, Esq., New 

Rochelle. N. Y., Reiley & Steinback 190 

Gardener's Cottage, Lane Estate, St. James, L. I., Ford, 

Butler & Oliver 164 

GARDEN BUILDINGS 

Garden House and Pergola, Maidenhead, F^ngland, 

Thomas Mawson 99.100 

Garden Wall, Delta Psi Fraternity House, Philadelphia, 

Pa., Cope & Stewardson 136 

RENAISSANCE AND MODERN ARCHITECTURE. 



ITALY 

Iron Entrance Grille, Chiesa San Marco, Rome 

Iron Gate across Bottom of Large Door^vay, Rome 

Iron Grille at the Vatican, Rome 

Old Iron Gateway in Rome 

SPAIN 

Casa de Miranda, Burgos, Corner of Patio 

Colegio del Arzobispo, Salamanca, Detail of the Patio 

Court House and Prison, Baeza 

Palacio Arzobispal, Alcala de Henares, Upper Part of 

Staircase 

Palacio Arzobispal, Alcala de Henares, Doorway in Patio.. 
Palacio Arzobispal, Alcala de Henares, Detail of Loggia.. 



63 
66 
66 
66 



44 
45 
46 

86 
87 



The Brickbvilder 



Index to Volume XXIV., Jan. — Dec, 1915. 



ui 



Title. 



FRONTISPIECES. 

Month. Title. 



Palace of Maria La Brava, Salamanca, Spain Januarv 

Palace of Suarez Solis de Canada, Salamanca, Spain February 

Consulado del Mar, Palma de Mallorca, Spain March 

Archiepiscopal Palace, Plasencia, Estremadura, Spain. April 

Casa de Los Maldonados, Salamanca, Spain May 

Small Palace in Salamanca, Spain June 



Month. 



Palace of the Mayoralgo Family, Estremadura, Spain. .July 
A Composition of Wren's Buildings, by C. R. Cock- 

erell, R.A August 

Palace of Juan Bravo, Segovia, Spain September 

Doorway of Small Palace, Avila, Spain October 

Entrance Detail, Escuelas Menores, Salamanca, Spain. November 
Front of Ronda Cathedral, Ronda, Spain December 



Index to Plate and Page Illustrations— According to Author 

Pages numbered 1-28 in the January issue; February, 29-52; March, 5378 ; April, 7y-lu4; May, 105130; June, 
131-156; July, 157-182; August, 183-210; September, 211-236; October, 237-264; November, 265-290; 

December, 291-318. 



Architect. Home Address. Plate. 

Abramson, Louis A., New York City 11 

Alden, Henry Bailey and William H. 
Cox, Boston, Mass 

Allen, P. K., Tunbridge Wells, Eng- 
land 179, 180 

Andrews, Jacques & Rantoul, Bos- 
ton, Mass -- 27-29 

Atterbury, Grosvenor, New York City 64, 65 

Austin, William Downes, Boston, 
Mass. 

Baker, Charles M., and Stanley B. 
Parker, Boston, Mass. 

Baker, Charles M., Boston, Mass 

Barber, Donn, New York City 16-18 

Barnum, F. S., & W. R. McComack, 

Cleveland, Ohio 146-147 

Bausmith & Drainie, Cincinnati, Ohio 44, 45 

Blanchard, Huse Templeton, New 

York City 148-150 

Brigham, Coveney & Bisbee, Boston, 
Mass. 175 

Brooke, Frederick H., Washington, 
D. C 

Brown, Frank Chouteau, Boston, 

Mass. 82, 83 

Bunting & Shriglev, Philadelphia, 
Pa. ■- 

Burrowes & Welles, Detroit, Mich... 7:) 

Carrere & Hastings, New York City. 1-3, 168-170 

Clark & Russell. Boston, Mass. 173, 174 

Comes, John T., J. E. Kauzor, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa 176 

Cope & Stewardson, Philadelphia, 
Pa 

Cross & Cross, New York City 61-6j 

Davns, McGrath & Kiessling, New 
York City 172 

Dillon, McLellan & Beadel, New 
York City 

Dyer, J. Milton, Cleveland, Ohio 

Emerson, William, New York City __ 6, 7 

Esenwein & Johnson, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Eyre, Wilson, & Mcllvaine, Phila- 
delphia, Pa 8-10 

Ford, Butler & Oliver, New York City 

Fowler, Laurence H., Baltimore, Md. 14, lo, 135 

Garfield, Abram, Cleveland, Ohio... 69, 70 

Gilchrist, Edmund B., Philadelphia, 
p^ 84, 8o 

Glidden', E. H., Baltimore, Md 

Gottlieb, Albert S., New York City.. 166, 167 

Greco, Charles R., Boston, Mass 

Greeley, W. R., Boston, Mass 30 

Green & Wicks, Buffalo, N. Y 99, 100 

Grev, Elmer, Los Angeles, Cal 86-8S 

Hepburn, Andrew, Guy Lowell, 
Assoc, Boston, Mass. .... 

Holabird & Roche. Chicago, 111 112-114. 161-16.> 

Howells & Stokes, New York City... 

Ingall, Bridgewater & Porter, Bir- 

mingham, England 177, 1/S 



Page. 

51 

259, 260 



47-50 

97 
98 
69 



169, 170 



147, 201 



136 



95,96 

140 
16 
74 

253, 254 
164 
227 



227 

305, 306 

308 



73, 74 
255, 256 



11, 12 
307 



125, 126 

283, 284 

69 

99, 100 



174 



223-226 



Architect. Home Address. Plate. Page. 

Ingalls, Harry Creighton, F. Bur- 
rail Hoffman, Jr., New York City. 58-60 
Ingraham, Geo. Hunt, Boston, Mass. 70 

Kilham & Hopkins, Boston, Mass. .. 19 21 8, 39, 41, 109 

Ludlow & Peabodv, New York Citv. 171 
MacClure & Spahr, Pittsburgh, Pa'. . 101, 102 
Macomb, H. A., Philadelphia, Pa. _. 
Maginnis & Walsh, Boston, Mass. ._ 
Magonigle, H. Van Buren, A. W. 

Ross, New York City 37-39 

Maher & Winchester, Boston 

Mann, George R., & Eugene J. 

Stern, Little Rock, Ark 

Marsh & Peter, Washington, D. C 
Mawson, Thomas, London, England 
McKim, Mead & White, New York 

City 91-% 

Meade, Frank B., Cleveland, Ohio.. 
Mellor & Meigs, Philadelphia, Pa. .. 40-43 
Murchison, Kenneth M., New York 

City 115 

Newliall & Blevins, Boston, Mass. .. 31-36 
Otis, W. A., & Edwin H. Clark 

Chicago, 111. _-i 151-157 

Owings, Thos. Bond, Baltimore, Md. 132, 133 
Palmer, Edw. L., Jr., Baltimore, Md. 127 131 
Parker, Thomas & Rice, Boston, 

Mass 121-123, 136-140 

Perkins, Frederick W., Chicago, III. 23, 24 
Perkins, Fellows & Hamilton, Chi- 
cago, 111 71, 72. 103-105 

Piatt, Charies A., New York Citv ... 66 68 

Pond & Pond, Chicago, 111 117, 118 

Pope, John Russell, New York Citv. 301, 302, 303 

Post. Geo. B.. &Sons, New York City 50-53, 144, 145 

Putnam &• Co.x, Boston, Mass 56, 57 

Rantoul, William G., Boston, Mass. 11-13 
Reilev & Steinback, New York City. 
Rich.' Charles A., New York City ... 54, 55 

Riddle & Riddle, Chicago, 111. 73, 74 

Schmidt, Richard E., Garden &/ 76-78,97,98,158-161, 

Martin, Chicago, 111. S 163-165 

Seeburger, Frank, Charles F. Rabe- 

nold, Philadelphia, Pa 

Sill, Howard, Baltimore, Md 124-126 

Spahr, Albert H., Pittsburgh, Pa. .. 79-81 
Sparry, Jos. Evans, Baltimore, Md._ 134, 141-143 
Steinam, Jos. L., New York City ... 116 
Stewardson & Page, Philadelphia, 

Pa. 25. 26 

Stone, Sam, Jr., New Orieans, La. . 119 
.Sylvester, Edmund Q., Boston, 

Mass. 

Trumbauer, Horace, Philadelphia .. 10&-111 
Walker, C. Howard, Boston, Mass. . 
Wardner, Herbert L.. Boston, Ma.ss. 
Wilder & Wight, Kansas City, Mo. 4 
Windrim. John T., Philadelphia, Pa. 46-49 
Wvatt *L- Nolting, Baltimore Md. .. 120 
Zimmerman, W. Carbys, Chicago, 

111 -- 5 

Ziroli, O. C. S., Worcester, Mass.... 89. 90 



190 
304 

310 



309 

9, 10 
144 

15 



13. 14 
191. 192 



1 m 4f2'2 



IV Index to Volume XXIV., Jan. — Dec, 1915. The Brickbvilder. 

Index to Articles 

Pages numbered 1-28 in the January issue ; February 29-52 ; March, 53-78 ; April, 79-104 ; May, 105-130 ; June, 131- 
156; July, 157-182; August, 183-210 ; September, 211-236 ; October, 237-264 ; November, 265-290 ; 

December, 291-318. 

Page. 

Acoustical Properties of the Armory at the University of Illinois, Investigation of the. F. R. Watson --- 257 

Aquarium and Winter House for Birds for the City of Boston William Downes Austin 47 

Architectural Acoustics — The Insulation of Sound Wallace C. Sabine 31 

As He Is Known. Being Brief Slcetches of Contemporary Members of the Architectural Profession 

Messrs. R. Clipston Sturgis, John Lawrence Mauran, Irving K. Pond, and Henry Ilornbostel 25 

Messrs. Samuel S. Labouisse, William B. Faville, Robert C. Spencer, Jr., and Charles D. 

Maginnis 75 

Messrs. J. Harleston Parker, William B. Ittner, William Welles Bosworth, and Bertram Gros- 

venor Goodhue ^^'■ 

Messrs. Albert Kahn, J. Milton Dyer, Benno Janssen, and Aymar Embury II 127 

Messrs. George Strafford Mills, Albert H. Spahr, Elmer Grey, and Dwight Heald Perkins 145 

Messrs. Edwin Hawley Hewitt, Louis Christian Mullgardt, Albert Kelsey, and Harold Van 

Buren Magonigle -- 1^^ 

Messrs. Louis La Beaume, Waddy B. Wood, Walter Mellor, Alfred Hoyt Granger 207 

Messrs. Thomas C. Young, William A. Boring, Walter R. B. Willcox, William Emerson 233 

Messrs. Allen Bartlit Pond, C. Grant La Farge, Clarence H. Johnston, and Joseph H. 

Freedlander ^°' 

Messrs. William Rutherford Mead, Thomas Hastings, Charles A. Piatt, and Frank Miles Day..- -- 315 

Bathing Establishments, Public J|^ 

Brick Church and Parish House, Competition for a Small (Report of Jury and Winning Designs) 149 

Church Towers Steeples, and Spires of Sir Christopher Wren, The, —two Parts R. Randal Phillips 185, 228 

FMitorial Comment and Notes of the Month 27, 52, 78, 104, 130, 182, 210, 236, 264, 290, 318 

A Middle Course Richard Franz Bach 153 

Garden on an English EstaterA --- ....Edward W. Gregory . 99 

German Architecture, Modern, —Two Parts Irving K. Pond 213, 243 

Heating and Ventilating of Schoolhouses - Harold L. Alt 165 

Heating and Ventilating of Churches Harold L. Alt 3U 

Hospitals, Practical Suggestions for Planning and Equipment of M. E. McCalmont 67 

Illumination of the Suburban House (The Use of Electricity or Acetylene) Harold L. Alt. 248 

Infirmary, at Oak Forest, 111., The Cook County C. A. Enkson 277 

Ironwork from Rome and Tuscany, Some John H. Scarff 63 

Monographs Upon Types of Buildings Met in Everyday Practice. 

Library, Carnegie Public, Sharon, Mass., C. Howard Walker, Architect .- -- J 

Printing House of Sinnickson Chew & Sons Co., Camden, N. J., Henry A. Macomb, Architect 11 

Office 15uilding, Small, Andrew Hepburn and Guy Lowell, Associate Architects '3 

Musicians' Mutual Relief Society Building, Boston, Mass., Maher & Winchester, Architects 12."> 

Mercantile Building, Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio, J. Milton Dyer, Architect 140 

Press Building, Biddle, South 7th Street, Philadelphia, Pa., Bunting & Shrigley, Architects 147 

Church Club House, St. Paul, Minn., Frederick H. Brooke, Architect 1°^ 

Market Building, A Large, Worcester, Mass., O. C. S. Ziroli, Architect 191 

Publishing House, A, Philadelphia, Pa., Bunting & Shrigley, Architects ^01 

T-Square Club, New Buildingfor, Philadelphia, Pa., Wilson Eyre & McUvaine, Architects _.. John F. Harbeson ^53 

Bath House, The Fordyce, Hot Springs, Ark., George R. Mann & Eugene J. Stern 283 

Native Woods for Interior Finish, The Use of C. Matlack Price. 

I. Introduction, Cypress and Red Gum j^'-' 

II. Birch, Walnut, Butternut, Ash, and Chestnut -^-^^ 

III. Redwood, Fir, Hemlock, Cherry. Poplar, Whitewood, Maple, Beech, Red Cedar, Bass- 

wood, Sycamore, Tupelo, and Mesquite ^q. 

IV. The Oaks and Pines, and Elm (Concluding Paper) W'^"V"i,^"V' 

Nomenclature of the Styles, The George Chappell, Rockwell Kent. 

I. The Adam Style — The Greek Freeze ^^ 

II. Earlv Christain - Rococo —""V'VVirV-V. 

Plumbing Installation and Sewage Disposal Charles A. Whittemore. 

I. Soil, Waste, and Vent Pipes and Traps --- '.^ 

II. Traps, Fixtures, and Water Supply 

III. Water Service and Hot Water Supply System 

IV. Mechanical Appliances Used in Plumbing Systems and the General Principles of Sewage 

Disposal — 

V. Resume of Plumbing Requirements of New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, and Boston 

(Concluding Paper) ^"■"i\'ii"rWC-~ 9q? 

School Building as a Social Center, The -I- — E^'^^'^-Jmu'"'"* 

Schoolhouse. The Modern Walter H. Kilham. ^ 

I. The Class Room ,q 

II. Corridors and Stairways _„ 

III. Wardrobes, Toilets, and Special Rooms ^^ 

IV. Exposure and Plan jO^ 

V. Cost and Cubage -- , ,, 

VI. Special Features (Concluding Paper) -- - \"V"n u 

Spanish Buildings, Some Old and Unfamiliar. \---C-'" ■^"""'' ^- ^V"^- 

V. The Court House and Prison, Baeza ; Casa de Miranda, Burgos ; Colegio del Arzobispo, ^^ 

Salamanca oc 

VI. Palacio Arzobispal, Alcala de Henares rL'^'n^" c-"fi 

Stairways in Houses of Moderate Cost John 1. Gallon. ^^^ 

I. History of the Domestic Stair " ^i^g 

II. The Colonial Type of Stairway ,q, 

III. English and French Influences (Concluding Paper) t't""' ;"'.r;'iV" V 17 

Theater, The American - - Hugh Tallant 17 

I. The Theaters of Greece, Rome, and the Renaissance. , . u 

Trusses, De.sign and Construction of Roof and Wall Malverd A. Howe. 

I. Types of Wooden and Ordinary Steel Roof Trusses 

II. Loads and Their Application, Stresses, and Dimensions of Members and Design of Con- ^^ 

nections jj^ 

III. Design of Connections in Wood and Steel Trusses .-, 

IV. The "A" Type of Truss - {7, 

V. The Hammer Beam, and Scissors Types of Trusses (Concluding Paper) ...--- ^-^ 

Tuberculosis Colony, at Oak Forest, 111., The Cook County C. A. Enk.son -/^ 

Tuberculosis Sanitarium, The Chicago Municipal <-• A. Enkson o 

Two-Apartment House, Competition for a (Report of Jury and W^inning Designs) -"•^ 



COMPETITION PROGRAM-SMALL BRICK CHURCH- PAGE XX 



THE 



BRICKBVILDER 





ARCHimCVRAL 

MONTHIY 




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THE BRICKBVILDER. 



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BRICK, TERRA COTTA 
AND TILE COMPANY 



M. E. GREGORY. Proprietor 



CORNING 



NEW YORK 



Manufacturers of 



Architectural 

TERRACOTTA 



New York Office 



1182 Broadway 



CARTER, BLACK & AYERS 



Af enci«« in all the Principal Citimt 



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ST. LOUIS 
TERRA COTTA CO. 



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Manufacturers of 



ArchitectuTcJ 

AND 

Ornamental 



TERRA COTTA 



IN ALL COLORS 



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TIFFANY 



THE GUARANTEED 



ENAMEL BRICK 



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Eitablished 1856 



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1203 Chamber of Commerce Bldg. 
Chicago 



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Henry Maurer & Son 

Manufactuiera of 

HOLLOW TILE 

Fireproofing Materials 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 

Flat and Segment Arches 
Partitions, Furring, Etc. 

Hollow Wall Blocks for Buildings 

GENERAL OFFICE 

420 East 23d Street - New York 

Philadelphia Office, Penna Building 
Work« Maurer, New Jeraey 






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CONWAY BUILDING, CHICAGO 



D. H. BURNHAM & CO., ARCHITECTS 



THE FRONTS OF THIS BUILDING FROM CORNICE OF SECOND STORY TO SKYLINE ARE 

"NORTHWESTERN" 

ENAMELED TERRA COTTA 

This material affords clean, cheerful fronts for smoky cities, as it may be easily cleaned with 
soap and water. Photo shows building in process of cleaning. Note scattered dirty pieces 
and generally the deposit of dirt during erection. Dark portion below scaffolds shows 14 
months' accumulation of Chicago soot. 

THE NORTHWESTERN TERRA COTTA CO. 

CHICAGO 




^— ^/'- ^-^ — ■■i>>., i'^ — »yO>^'?-<:z.:^^yi^ y-1^^ 



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At the Eye Level 
Terra Cotta demands: 



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Smooth texture 

Close and even joints 

Color with a little variation 

Strength and delicacy 

in the modeled ornament 



Infills Shop. Winnipeg, Manilohu : 
Ross & Mtictlondld, Architects. 
Entirely of cream malt glazed 
Atlantic Terra Cotta. 



Atlantic Terra Cotta Company 

1170 Broadway, New York 






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Terra Cotta 

is the Ideal Material 
for the Store Front 



'T'HE automobile has been instru- 
-*- mental in evolvinfj a new and distinct 
type of store bnilding in which there are 
well lighted interiors and large show 
window space for the display of machines. 
The logical material for the exterior of 
these huildings containing great glass 
area is architectural terra cotta. It is 
light in weight, actually and in appear- 
ance, and therefore combines gracefidly 
with glass where other materitds are too 
massive. It can be treated in a light and 
pleasing decorative manner — and what 
is important in commercial work, at 
very slight expense — by a<lopting some 




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unit of decoration 
pattern as in the 



to form a repeating 
buildin<; illustrated. 



Al lOMUUlll. SAI.KS III ll.l)l>(,. j:,li.;:,l sou ill UliOM) si.. I'llM.ADI.I.l'IIU 

Executed in While Glazed Architectural Terra Cotta 

GEORGE F. I'.\«LIN(; & CO.. Arihilecls 

SMALL iiintracts receive the same careful attention that is accorded our largest 
orders, and our knowledge acquired through experience in manufacturing is al the 
disposal of every architect in solving his problems. 



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CONKLING- ARMSTRONG TERRA COTTA CO. 

Main Office ami Iforks. NICETOWN, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
347 Fifth Avenue, New York Waldo Bros., Agents, 45 Batterymarch Street, Boston 



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Y. W.C. .\. Building Dayton, Ohio 

Schenck and Williams, Archts. 



Terra Cotta on this building 
furnished by the 

MIDLAND 

TERRA COTTA 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



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The Winkle 
Terra Cotta Company 

St. Louis, Missouri 

Manufacturers of 

Arrijtt^rtural S^rra Qlotta 

In All Colors and Finishes 



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THE BRICKBVILDER 



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Ernest R. Graham, Architect NEW YORK Tlioiiipson-Starrctt Co., BuiKU•r^ 

The entire fagade of this structure, the largest office buiUhiij^ in the workl, is of 

Arrljit^rtural S^rra Olotta 

except the granite in the lower stories and the brick piers. The terra cotta is iiidistinduishablc 
from the granite to which it is adjacent. All the terra cotta was delivered and set complete in 
the building within a period of five months. Another notable example of the efficient nian- 
agement and service given by 

J^ft^ral ®^rra OIntta Ql0mpaug 

Trinity Building, NEW YORK Monadnock Muilding, CHICAGO 



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Ni^m f nrk Arrl|tt^rtural S^rra- 
C0tta Cnmpang 



THE new apartment house here illustrated stands on the 
north side of 81st Street, Manhattan, facing Central 
Park and overlooking the Museum of Natural History. 

On either side it is flanked hy high class private resi- 
dences, brownstone fronts. 

With such a site, the McMorrow Engineering & Con- 
struction Company instructed Messrs. Neville & Bagge to 
prepare plans for an adequate apartment structure which, 
while economically sound, would in quiet dignity and 
elegance conform to its surroundings. Naturally 
Messrs. Neville & Bagge chose Architectural Terra-Colta 
as their vehicle for expression, and just as naturally Mr. 
McMorrow looked to the New York Company. 

The building, to which a photogra|)h cannot do justice, 
speaks for the wisdom of the choice. 

Nrui fork Srrhtt^rtural S^rra-fflotta (Cmupauu 

ONK. KAC.TORV ONF. MANAGEMENT K)K IW K.NTY-MNE YEARS 

101 Vernon Avenue 

Borough of (Queens, City of New York 

Pittsburgh Sales Office : First National Bank Building, Pittsburgh. Pa. 



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MANUFACTURERS' CATALOGUES AND SAMPLES WANTED. 



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Fred I. Pease, Architect and Engineer, has opened 
offices for the practice of his jjrofession in the New 
Commerce Building, Erie, Pa. 

Emmens & Abbott, Architects, have opened offices 
for the practice of their profession at Stamford, 
Conn. 

Carl F. White, Architect, will continue the prac- 
tice of the firm of White & Shupe, Architects, with 
offices in the Citizens Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Sylvain Schaittacher, Architect, has moved his 
office to 233 Post street, San Francisco, Cal. 

John T. Kerr and E. T. Root, Architects, Port- 
land, Ore., have formed a partnership under the 
firm name of Root & Kerr, Inc., and will maintain 
offices at 405 Henry Building, Portland, Ore. 

W. C. Owen, Architect, has moved from Room 
1005, Mahoning Bank Building, Young.stown, Ohio, 
to Room 449, Leader News Building, Cleveland, 
Ohio. 

Garrett L. de Grange, Jr., Architect, has opened 
office in the Central Trust Company Building, Fred- 
erick, Md., for the practice of his profession. 



T. K. .Mitchell, Architect, has opened offices for 
the practice of his profession at 303 'j Main street, 
Jonesboro, Ark. 

Haeussler & liutf. Architects, of St. Louis, have 
dissolved partnership. August F. Haeussler will 
continue the business at the same quarters, 514 Roe 
Building. C. E. Huff has been taken into the firm 
of Cann, Carrubia &• Huff, which has opened offices 
at 1322 Central Bank Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Harry E. Reimer and George W. Herlin have 
formed a partnership for the practice of architecture 
under the firm name of Reimer &• Herlin, with offices 
in the First National Bank, Marshalltown, Iowa. 

C. F. J. Barnes, Architect, has moved his office to 
713 Kresge Building, Detroit, Mich. 

Charles Herbert McClare, A. I. A., Architect, of 
Cambridge, Mass., and Frederick S. Boyd, S.B., 
Architect, of Cambridge, announce the formation of 
a partnership for the practice of architecture, under 
the name of McClare & Boyd, Architects, with offices 
at 649 Massachu.setts avenue, Cambridge, Mass. Mr. 
McClare will continue his practice at Lakelands, 
Mount Umacke, Nova Scotia, Canada, for the pres- 
ent. Mr. Boyd will conduct the Cambridge office. 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 



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TURKESTAN" FACE BRICK 

A FACE BRICK OF HIGH QVALITY Til IT KF 
CONFIDENTLY RECOMMEND TO E\ FRY ARCHITECT 




HALLKiNBAt:K-Hlii\(;KKK)KI) Bl I1.I)IN(, 
WM. E. AUSTIN, Anhitecl 

THIS new l)iiilding shows an iMi|)or- 
tant use of our TURKESTAN BRICK, 
rough textured, in mixed shades, 50, 59 
and 58L. It is used for the prineipal 
portions of the facades, enibellishcd 
with architectural terra cotta in the 



bAFAYEIil, AM) WHITE STS., i>EW YOUK 

GEO. A. FULLEK CO.. BiiiMfr. 

upper and h)wer stories. In combina- 
tion with this material, and also con- 
sidered alone, TURKKSTAN HHICK lias 
heen pronounced salisf'aclorv in color 
and texture, and cinincntlv Miilahic lor 
facinj; larjre surfaces. 



Architects interested in this brick may have stini/iles and fiirlher inlorniiiliiin ii/ion rcifnest 

0. W. KETCHAM 

BURNT CLAY PRODUCTS— MASTER BUILDERS' EXCHANGE, PlllLADELi/lllA 

BRANCH OFFICES ■ 

NEW YORK, 1170 Broadway 

BOSTON, George Kendall, 4 Post Office Square 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 



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WASHINGTON-. Ilonir I.ifr Building 
HAI.riMOKK. linlliiiK.K' Vni.ri.an liuilding 

UOHKS iT CHI M /, > \ \ /;. l'i:\\S)ll (M t 



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PLASTIC ORNAMENT, 
which is the decorative key- 
note of modern tendencies in architec- 
tural design, can be expressed most effec- 
tively in architectural terra cotta. The 
great ingenuity of the designer in working 
out graceful scrolls and intricate foliage can 
be imparted to the modeled clay and then 
glazed to insure durable and lasting qualities. 
The facilities of the American Terra Cotta and 
Ceramic Company for executing work of this 
character are unexcelled because of their wide 
experience in working with the leading expo- 
nents and advocates of this style of archi- 
tecture from the time of its inception. 







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Onitimt'iiliil I errii Coll<i Panel on the lliime Ihiildinfi Assoviution 
Bank Buildinfi. \euark. Ohio l.onis II. Sullivan, .irchitect 



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AMERICAN TERRA COTTA AND CERAMIC COMPANY 

PEOPLE'S GAS BUILDING, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS Works at Terra Cotta, Illinois 



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A Monograph on the Work of 

CHARLES A. PLATT 

Authorized by Mr. Charles A. Plall 

iHE great beauty and distinction of Air. Piatt's work has received considerable 
attention from the architectural profession, and this volume, in the preparation 
of which the publishers have been fortunate in securing Mr. Phitt's per- 
sonal co-operation, should be warmly welcomed by all architects, decorators, and land- 
scape designers who are interested in the best Domestic Architecture. It should be 
a great inspiration for future country house work and will help architects to further 
understand Mr. Piatt's work and aid in analyzing the means by which he has created 
his effects. 

The book is a monumental work, superbly printed on heavy paper, and contains 
the best country and city house work which Mr. Piatt has designed. The illustrations 
comprise large views of the exteriors, interiors, gardens and details, reproductions 
from the floor plans, and detailed working drawings. 

Handsomely hound in Buckram, gilt top, containing ISi plates, si::f /-•'x 16 inches. 
Price $20.00 net. Express prepaid. 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 

Architectural Publishers 

85 Water Street Boston, Mass. 



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NIAGARA FALLS GAZETTE KUILIJING 
C. K. I'helps, Architect \Vm. S. Humbert. In 



Entire front solid white 77iatt gla-ze Architectural 
Terra Cotta ( Our No. 25) 



WM. S. HUMBERT, INC. 

NIAGARA FALLS, N. Y. 

Sept. 17, 1914. 
New Jersey Terra Cotta Co., 
Singer Building, 
New York City, 

Gentlemen : We assure you that the terra cotta fur- 
nished us for the Gazette Building is highly satisfactory in 
every respect. Owers, Architect and contractor are much 
pleased with the material, and both Architect Phelps and 
Contractor Moyer appreciate your service and careful atten- 
tion to every detail of this operation. We, personally, are 
entirely satisfied. 

Yours very truly, 

Wm. S. Humbert, Inc. 



''SERVICE" and "CAREPXTL ATTEN- 
TION TO EVERY DETAIL" are highly 
important factors that should he considered 
by every Architect in awarding terra cotta 
contracts. 

®i|^ 5Jnu J? ra^ y 0^ rra (Cutta ^x\. 

SINGER BLDC;., NKVV ^ ORK CIT^ 



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Young; Women's Hebrew Association BiiildinK, New \'ork 



THE color of Terra Cotta used on this 
facade is a " Golden Buff" applied on 
a stippled surface, the background of orna- 
ment is a dark blue Glaze on a very rough 
surface treatment; the inscription at second 
story is V-sunk letters executed in " Matte 
Gold." 



.h\-li'it(\ti 

l.oui.s Allen Abramson 

l.oiiis I',. Jalladf 



hxtract from Architect' i letter — hy permission 

The tjuality, joiiitinsir and general character 
of the Terra Cotta is \ery satisfactory. Espe- 
cially has tlie Blue tjlazed color scheme shown 
up well, includinji the Matte Gold inscrip- 
tion panel " over the second story, its delicacy 
has been coniniented upon very favorably," 
\ er\' truly yours, 

I,. A. ABRAMSON. 



2Il|r ^outI| Amltnif SIrrra Qlntta (Un. 



150 Na.ssau Street, N.^ . 



South Am boy, N.J. 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 




■ INDEX OF ■ 
ADVERTISING 
ANNOVNCEMENTS 



American Enameled Brick and Tile Co. . xviii 

American Lead Pencil Co xxix 

American Luxfer Prism Co xxxv 

American Sheet & Tin Plate Co. . xlii 

American Terra Cotta & Ceramic Co. . x 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Co v 

Berger Manufacturing Co. . . xxviii and xxxvi 

Best Bros. Keene's Cement Co. . xiiii 

Bird, J. A. & W., & Co xliv 

Boyle & Company, Inc., John . . xxxv 

Bradford Pressed Brick Co xvii 

Bramhall, Deane Co xxxii 

Brick, Terra Cotta & Tile Co. ... ii 

Cabot, Inc., Samuel xlii 

Carter, Black & Ayers xiv 

Casement Hardware Co xxviii 

Columbus Brick & Terra Cotta Co. . xv 

Conkling-Armstrong lerra Cotta Co. vi 

Cutler Mail Chute Co xxxvi 

Dahlstrom Metallic Door Co xxxvii 

Decorators Supply Co., The .... xxxviii 

Detroit Lubricator Co xxxiv 

Federal Terra Cotta Co vii 

Fischer &c Jirouch Co., 1 he .... xxxviii 

Fiske & Co., Inc xiii 

Folding Partition Co., Inc., The ... xl 

(lillis & Geoghegan xxviii 

Gorton & Lidgerwood Co xxxii 

Goulds .Vlanufacturing Co., The ... xli 

Grant Pulley & Hardware Co xxviii 

Guastavino, R. , & Co iii 

Hicks, Isaac, & Son xxxiv 

Higgin Mfg. Co xxvi 

Hocking Valley Products Co xxii 

Hydraulic-Press Brick Co. . . xix and xx 

Hydrex Felt & Engineering Co. . xliii 




Johns-ManvilleCo.. H. W. 



xxxv and xxxix 



Kelsey Heating Co. , The xxxiii 

Keppler (Jlass Constructions Inc . . xxiv 

Ketcham, O. W jx 

Keystone Clay Products Co xviii 

Lord & Burnham Co xlv 

Luminous Unit Co xxxviii 

Macbeth- Kvans Glass Co xlvi 

Maurer, Henry, & Son ii 

Midland Terra Cotta Co vi 

National Fire Proofing Co. . . Back Cover 

National Lead Co xxv 

National X-Ray Reflector Co xxxix 

Never Split Seat Co xl 

New Jersey Terra Cotta Co xi 

New Jersey '/inc Co .xxvi 

New York Architectural Terra Cotta Co. viii 

Northwestern Terra Cotta Co iv 

Pfotenhauer-Nesbit Co xiv 

Pomeroy, S. H., Company .... xlvii 

Raymond Concrete Pile Company . xxx 

Reliance Bail Bearing Door Hanger Co. . xli 

Rookwood Pottery Co xiv 

Sayre & Fisher Co xiv 

Sedgwick Machine Works xxvii 

Smith Co., The H. B xxxii 

Smith, Edw., & Co xxvi 

South Amboy Terra Cotta Co xi 

Standard Stained Shingle Co xlii 

St. Louis Terra Cotta Co ii 

Tiffany Enameled Brick Co ii 

Trenton Potteries Co xl 

Turner Construction Co xxxi 

Tuttle & Bailey Mfg. Co xxxvi 

Valentine & Co xxiii 

Western Brick Co xvi 

Western Electric Co xli 

Winkle Terra Cotta Co vi 



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Jackson. Rosencrans & Waterbury. 
Architects 



"Tapestry" Hrick Kireplace- Wate 
town. \. v.. V. M.C. A. 



Tapestry Brick Fireplaces 

Trade Mark KeKJstered U. S. I'alent OHu-e antl t'aiiada 

Afford an opportunity for charming decorative effects impossible wilh ordinary 
face brick. 

We willingly co-operate with the architect in the development of special fire- 
places to suit his particular requirements. if you will send a rough pencil 
sketch with instructions as to color, we shall be glad to prepare color sketches, 
working drawings for the use of the mason and all other details, including 
formulas for the right kind of mortar. 

Send for free book "Tapestry" Brick Fireplaces containing many suggestions. 

FISKE & COMPANY, Inc. 

BOSTON and NEW YORK 



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Rookwood Faience Fountain ^^ yj-^ ^ FlshcrCo 

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Fountain in the Baef' 

Kaufmann Store. 

Pittsburgh. Pa. 

Starrett and Van VIeck 

Architects 

Sculpture by 
C. J. Barnhorn 



The Fountain, except 
Clock Frame and Upper 
Bronze Bowl, is entirely 
of Rookwood Faience 
in Colored Mat Glazes. 
Height, approximalely 
19 ft. 



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Manufacturers of 



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Made by 

THE ROOKWOOD POTTERY COMPANY. CINCINNATI, U. S. A. 
Architects' Building, N. E. cor. 40th Street and Park Avenue, New York 



Fine Pressed 
Front Brick 

Of I'arious S/uu/es, Plain ciiid Moulded 
Specici/ Colors Made to Order 

Also Superior FjuDNeled Brick 

Several Colors ^ | 

Repressed and Harvanl Red lir/ek. Hard 
Buildi?iir Hr/(l\ hire liriek and Hollo^i' Hriek 

OFFICE: 2hl HROADU.-l)\ NFdl YORK 

CORSER UARRES STREET :; f 

WORKS: SJYREl II.LE, SEN JERSEY 
'^: '■ OIR NEir C ATA I.OGLE SENT OS AI'I'I.IC ATIO S %'% 

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PFOTENHAUER = NESBIT CO. 

ST. JAMES BUILDING, BROADWAY, Cor. 26th ST. 
NEW YORK 

IMPERVIOUS 

FRONT BRICK 

ROUGH TEXTURE 
SMOOTH FACE 

IN RED, BUFF, GRAY, MOTTLED, 
WHITE, ETC. 

Enameled Brick, Roofing 
Tiles, Paving Clinkers, Etc. 

Genuine "K I TTAN I N G'' Brick 
Genuine -H A R V A R D Brick 
Genuine 'GREENDALE" Rugs 




11 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 



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The Western Brick Company 



Danville, Illinois 



The successful operation of their No. 3 Plant, located 
on C. & E. I. R. R., at Danville, thus doubling their 



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ii 1915 ANNOUNCEMENT ii 



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1 1 The successful operation of their No. 3 Plant, located 1 1 



i i production of Brown, Tan, Buff, and Red Shades of i i 



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11 Empire Rough Texture Facing Brick. jf 

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The execution of a contract, by which they become 1 1 

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licensed manufacturers of Rug Texture Brick, avail- || 

able for delivery after January 1, 1915. ' |j 

j i The above in addition to their long established lines 1 1 



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i i of Cloisters, Empire, and Persian Facing Brick, Shale 1 p 



II Commons, and all sizes of Hollow Building, Partition, || 

if and Floor Tile. " || 

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Ii 1915 Capacity - - 120,000,000 n 

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THE BRICKBVILDER 



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THeSmdard ^K 
Red Brick 
ofAmerica 



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of jf. Un/foj?m quail fy^ 
year in and year out 
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afteranot/ier. 



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IMPRESSED 
i/BRICK" 



(TfiADE MARK RE<3. U.S. PATENT OfFICE) 



owe part of their distinctiveness to tlie unique 
brickmaking' qualities of Bradford Red8hale, 
which we control. The rest of it is due to 
twenty years of highest brick-making' endeavor, 
aided by every modern facility. 

Bradford Pressed Brick do. 

"The Red Brick People" 

Bradford, Pa. 

s. We also make Fl re-prooFi ng'. Hollow Brr'ck and Hollow Block 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 






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HOTEL ST GEORGE. 

51 CLARK STRCCT. 
OKOOKLVHMEICMTS.NEWYOP. QOtOter 10,1914. 

American Enameled Brick & Tile Co., 
1182 Broadway, 
new York. 

Gentlenen: 

The white enameled brick sold us by you, 
and which we used on the front and rear of the new 
addition to the Hotel St. George, located at the 
corner of Pineapple and Henry Streets, has given 
great satisfactiontto us, and brought forth gener- 
ally favorable comment from the residents of the 
neighborhood, particularly the real estate men who 
are interested in the improvements that are made 
in this locality. 

It is refreshing to note the white clean- 
ly appearance of the building, compared with the 
dull and sombre, and oftentimes dirty fronts of the 
other buildings. 

We would be glad to have you make a 
pnotograph for your booklet. 



HOTKL ST. t;K(JK(;i:. ISKOOKl.VX. N. V. 
llS.niMi White ■■Anierk-:in " ICiinmeled Hric-k 
used for tlie exterior of the new addition 



Yours vei>y>^ruly. 



AMERICAN ENAMELED BRICK & TILE COMPANY 

" illauufarturrrB of lEiiamrlrft iBrirk txrlusiurly " 
1182 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY, N. Y. 






We will gladly send 

samples upon 

request 



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A W \\ halen. Arch'l, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 






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The beautiful rich red of 

KEYSTONE REDS 

is natural and permanent. Walls built of this smooth face imper- 
vious brick will not discolor under any weather conditions and 
age will only increase their beauty. 

KEYSTONE ROUGH TEXTURE BRICK 

have an individual texture and color not approached by any other 
and have the same enduring qualities as our smooth face brick. 

KEYSTONE CLAY PRODUaS CO. 

GREENSBURG, PA. 









THE DOUBLE HOUSE 
of HOLLOW TILE 

A 1\ interesting new publication 
-^^ on the double house, built of 
hollow tile with stucco exterior 
Fifty-two original designs, esti- 
mated to cost about S9,000, re- 
cently submitted in a competition 
conducted by The Brickbvilder, 
are illustrated with pen and ink per- 
spectives and complete floor plans. 
Several houses of this type which 
have been recently built are also 
shown with their plans and accompa- 
nied by a description. An authorita- 
tive article on the use of hollow tile 
and its cost in comparison with other 
materials completes the book. This hook 
is full of suggestions for architects having 
this type of house to design or who are 
interested in group planning. 

PRICE FIFTY CENTS, POSTPAID 

Rogers ami Manson Company 

85 WATER STREET BOSTON 



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11 






THE BRICKBVILDER 



xix 



The Predominant Material for Churches 



Hy-tex 

The Standard 
of Quality 
in Brick 



special Competition Note — 

Members of the architectural pro- 
fession who are interested in the 
Hy-tex Brickbuilder Competition 
for 1915 cannot serve themselves 
better than by securing one of our 
special "Competition Packets" at 
once. Simply make the request, 
in person or in writing, of our 
nearest Branch Office, or write 
us here at St. Louis if you prefer. 
Extra copies of the Competition 
Program may likewise be procured. 



T^HE material of which a structure is built hears an 
-^ intimate relation to the intended use of that structure. 
It is the outer garment, or indeed the body, which should 
be expressive of the inner spirit. Nowhere has this a 
more significant architectural meaning than in ecclesi- 
astical architecture. The temple of old and the church 
of our era have always demanded the most worthy and 
dignified media for expressing the outer form. 

From time immemorial two materials have been 
utilized for this lofty purpose: Stone (or Marble) and 
Brick, — really an artificial stone,— as the history of 
architecture shows, and they still remain the most appro- 
priate. Brick, like Stone, has individual distinction and 
character that lends itself to the widest possibilities of 
architectural artistry. 

But it far excels Stone in the wide range of its application. 
Stone is appropriate only for the most pretentious structures, 
while Brick is equally appropriate for these as well as for 
every type of building down to the humble cottage or bun- 
galow. That Brick lends itself admirably to the most pre- 
tentious structures, the ancient records bear striking testimony 
on the banks of the Euphrates, the Nile, and the Tiber. In 
medieval times you need but recall Milan, Pavia, Siena, Tou- 
louse, Blois, Bruges, Antwerp, Liibeck, and a hundred others 
that leap to the memory in proof that Brick, as well as Stone, is 
fit not only for chapel and cathedral but for palace or civic hall. 

In modern times the wide range of varied color and tex- 
ture in Brick ofifered by the manufacturer gives it an added 
advantage in affording the delight and despair of the artist. 

This fact, more especially, has application to the subject 
of the present competition, "A Small Church" (see announce- 
ment on next page), where Stone would be too heavy and 
quite out of keeping. 

We therefore feel, as manufacturers of Hy-tex Brick, 
peculiarly justified in urging upon your attention The Brick- 
builder Competition of li>l5 for A Small Church because 
Hy-tex covers the entire range of face brick and leaves you, as an 
artist, unhindered and untrammeled, with the whole palette 
of color tones and textures for your inventive designing. 



HYDRAULIC -PRESS BRICK COMPANY 

SAINT LOUIS 

SOMEWHERE IN THE HY-TEX LINE THERE IS JUST THE HRICK VOr WANT 



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XX 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



Competition for a Small Brick Church and Parish House 

TO BE FACED WITH HY-TEX BRICK 

First Prize, S500 ,, . Third Prize, $150 

Second Prize, $250 Mentions Fourth Prize, $100 || 

Competition Closes March 31, 1915 

THIS COMPETITION IS OPEN TO ALL ARCHITECTS AND ARCHITKCTIRAI. DKAFTSMEN P P 



11 



2 J? 



I i For the design placed second a prize of $250 For the design placed fourth a prize of $100 



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PI 
PROGRAM I i 

THE problem is a small brick church, designed to be faced with Ily-tex brick and where consistent with the ^ f 
design treated witli brick in the interior wall surfaces. It is especially desired that the design should show ; 

generous appreciation of good brickwork, and in this connection originality in the treatment of the facing 
possibilities of tlie material is courted. 

While the church may be meant for any ecclesiastical body, the design should avoid mere slavish adherence to 
traditional tvpes and reveal the serious attempt at an originality that is characteristic of the free American spirit. 
It, therefore, may be adapted to any part of the rnited States and take on any form expressive of the Christian 
faith. The parish house must be an integral part of the composition. Its location on the lot, however, is to be at 
the discretion of the designer. The church group shall be at least 10 feet from party lines. The lot is at the ^ | 
intersection of two streets, having a frontage on one of loO feet and on the other of 100 feet. The grade is level. 'i '■■ 

REQUIREMENTS 

For the Chiirr/i. An auditorium to seat 400, an unobstructed view of the pulpit platform to be had from every . 

seat. Provision for a portion of the seats may be made in balconies if the designer so wishes. A pulpit platform 
with space for communion table; an organ chamber and space for chorvis choir not to exceed 20 in number. Ample 
vestibules are necessary. There shall be also a minister's room convenient to the pulpit. 

For the Parish JIoii.se. The parish house, which is meant to provide for the Sunday school and institutional — 
or social — activities of the church, may be one or two stories. If of one story onlj', part of the accommodations 
i('(|uire(l may be provided for in a basement naturally lighted. There shall be a Sunday-school room with six or 
eight small class rooms opening off the main area and separated from each other by partitions so arranged that all 
may have a fairly good view of the platform in the Sunday-school room. This room, including the class rooms, 
siiould |)ro\i(le a seating capacity for about 350. All the class rooms may be provided for on the main floor or part 
on a mezzanine floor. There should be rooms provided for the infant class and a Bible class, a Sunday-school library, 
a suite including ladies" parlors, dining room and kitchen, coat and toilet rooms for men and women. 

Each coin[)etitor shall specify the section of the I'nited States in which the church is to l)e located. 

The jury will give consideration to the quality of the design and its fitness for execution in l)rick and excellence 
of plan. 

No cubic contents are fixed and no limit of cost imposed. 

An additional value will be given to the work if the style and color of brick cho.sen are indicated on the drawing, 
either by a key or a series of notes printed on tlie sheet at a size which will permit of two-thirds reduction. Ily-tex 
brick are manufactured by the Hydraulic-Press Hrick Compau}-, and contestants will be helped by referring to the 
catalogues and booklets issued by this company, which may be had upon application to any one of their branch 
oflices or the home ofHce at St. Louis (see addresses on preceding page). 

CONSTRUCTION 

Methods of bonding, anchorage, etc., as usually employed in the construction of brick walls, may be followed. 
The exterior walls are to be faced with brick and also the interior walls if consistent with the design. p f 

DRAWING REQUIRED (there is to be but one) 

On one slicet a pen ami ink persiXTtive. vvitliout wasli or color, drawn at a scale of 4 feet to ttie inch. Tlie brickwork sliouki be in- 
dicated liberally enoujth on this perspective to show adeijuately the use of materials. A lon^itiiditial section through the church building 
only drawn at a scale of S feet to the inch. Main floor plan of church and parish house, with additional plan of the latter showing arrange- 
ment of features not provided for on main floor, all drawn at a scale of l(i feet to the inc-h. Key plan showing treatment of the lot. Detail 
elevation of the principal feature of the design at a scale of 4 feet to the inch. 'J'he plans are to be blocked in solid. All lettering should 
be clear and free from scroll so as to reduce with distinctness, (iraphic scales must accompany section, details, and plans. The size of the 
sheet is to be exactly lii inches by 30 inches. Plain rules must be drawn on the sheet enclosing a space measuring exactly 20 inches by 
2()'i> inches. The slieet is to be of white paper and is not to be mounted. \'ery thin paper or cardboard is prohibited. 

The drawing is to be signed by a ni>i,t-ih-plumif or device, and accomi)an.\ing same is to be a sealed envelope with the nom-de-plume on 
the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawing is to be delivered flat or rolled (packaged so as to prevent creasing or crushing) at the office of THE HKICKBVILDER, 
8.5 Water street. Boston, Mass., on or before M.irch 31, 1915. 

The I'ost Office Ue])artnient now r<-(iuires that drawings sent by mail shall be at the letter — or first class — postage rate. Those who 
wish their drawings returned, except the pri/.e drawings, may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names 
twenty-five cents in stamps. 

Drawings submitted in this competition are at owners' risk from time they are sent until returned, although reasonable care will be 
exercised in their handling and keeping. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of The Biiu kiivii.i)):i( and the right is reserved by Thk Hkk Kiivii.nKJi to publish or 
exhibit any or all of the others. 

Drawings submitted in this competition will be returned direct from the office of Tiik Bhu khvii.dkii to the contestants. 

The designs will be judged by five members of the architectural profession representing different sections of the country. 

For the design placed first there will be given a prize of $500 For the design placed third a prize of $150 



11 



4 The next six designs in order of merit will be given Mentions ^ ^ 

^ ^ The prize and mention drawings v,\U be published in Thk Biiu kiivii.dkr. ^ ^ 

This competition is conducted under the patronage of the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company. I I 



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11 






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VOLUME XXIV 



NUMBER 



CONTENTS for JANUARY 1915 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS ^,,,,,,. p,,,, 

BATH AND GYMNASIUM, PUBLIC, NEW YORK, N. Y IV.lUam Emerson 6, 7 

BATH IN THE GROVE, PUBLIC, KANSAS CITY, MO. IVildcr & ]V,ght 4 

CHURCH, WEBB HORTON MEMORIAL, MIDDLETOWN, N. Y. 1-3 

FIELD HOUSE, PULASKI PARK, CHICAGO, ILL IV. Carhys Zimmerman 5 

HOUSE, CHARLES A. CASS, ESQ., ARDSLEY PARK, N.Y. iVihon Eyre & Mclhame 8-10 

HOUSE, R. LANCASTER WILLIAMS, ESQ., ECCLESTON, 

GREEN SPRING VALLEY, MD Laurence Hdl Fowler 14, 15 

HOUSE, GEORGE S. MANDELL, ESQ., HAMILTON, MASS.. IVilliam G. Rantoul 11-13 

LETTERPRESS 



Page 

PALACE OF MARIA LA BRAVA, SALAMANCA, SPAIN Frontispiece 

\ Gordon Rohh ^ 
I M. A. Dyer 



EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS 

I. Measured Drawing of the Tucker-Rice Porch, Salem, Mass. 
Samuel Mclntirc, Architect. 

THE MODERN SCHOOLHOUSE IValter H. Kilham 

I. The Class Room. 

lUustralions from Photographs and Drawings 

MONOGRAPHS UPON TYPES OF BUILDINGS MET IN 

EVERYDAY PRACTICE 

The Small Town Library and the Modern Printing House. 
Illustrations from Photographs and Plans 

PUBLIC BATHING ESTABLISHMENTS 

Illustrating Recent IVork in Representative American Cities 

THE AMERICAN THEATER Hugh Tallant 

Part I. The Theaters of Greece, Rome, and the Renaissance — ( Cont ). 
Illustrations from Photographs and Dra-wings 

THE NOMENCLATURE OF THE STYLES } ^ocW/'/^f^/" 

A Humorous Theory Illustrating in Caricature Familiar Schools and 
Phases of Architecture. 

AS HE IS KNOWN .... -' 

Brief Sketches of Contemporary Members of the Architectural Profe.ssion. 

Messrs. R. Clipston Sturgis, John Lawrence Mauran, Irving K. Pond, and 
Henry Hornbostel. 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH 



13 



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Piibliihed Monthly by 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY, Bo.ston, Mass. 

ARTHUR D. ROGRR.S RALPH KLINHOI O Rl J.S.SRI.I. 1- WHITEHHAD 

President and Treasurer Vice President and Business Man.iger Secretar/ and Managing [Editor 

Single Copies, 50 cents 
Yearly Subscription, payable in advance, U.S.A., Insular Possessions and Cuba, ^5.00 
Canada ^5.50 Foreign Countries in the Postal Union 6.00 

All Copies Mailed Flat 









ts Branches. Entereil as 
las» Matter, March 12. 1892. at the Post Office at Boston, Moss. 
Copyright, 191^, by Rogers and Manson Company 



Trade Stjpplied I>y tnc American News 0>mpanv 
Second Cli " * 







XXll 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



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v^ nmNhcrof hrick niarinfactnrcrs, 

recognizing our exclusive right as originator, 
designer and patentee of Rug Texture Brick, 
have applied to us for license to manufacture 
under our patents on a royalty basis. 

JVe have granted a feu: of these 

applications and intend granting a few more. 
We will publish through the medium of this 
Journal in an early issue the list of licensed 
manufacturers. 

hi order to avoid 

any distasteful legal action — and we are 
determined to protect our rights — we request 
the Architectural and Building profession to 
specify and purchase Rug Texture Brick only 
from licensed manufacturers or ourselves. 

•••HOCKING VALLEY^^^ 
PRODUCTS COMPANY 

COLUMBUS, OHIO 






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'PLATE- 1 

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•THETUCKER-RICE POUCH 

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PALACE OF MARIA LA BRAVA, SALAMANCA, SPAIN 
DATE ABOUT 1350 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOLUME XXIV 



JANUARY, 1915 



NUMBER I 



The Modern Schoolhouse. 



I. THE CLASS ROOM. 



By WALTER H. KILHAM. 



/>/3C ^^03 re/ 



SCHOOLHOUSE architecture stands to-day at the 
parting of the ways. While millions of dollars are 
expended each year on splendid school buildings 
throughout the country, almost no form of modern build- 
ing has made so little real progress in the last twenty years 
as the public school. From a diffuse method of design- 
ing, which used to subordinate the plan to the external 
requirements of " American Romanesque," the pendulum 
swung towards excessive standardization of the plan, 
merciless reduction of the cube, and suppression of all 
originality in design. Now there is evidence of a move- 
ment towards ' ' humanizing ' ' 
the school building while re- 
taining the advantages of stand- 
ardization, and the introduction 
of various sorts of civic con- 
veniences into the buildings to 
increase their value to the com- 
munity at large. Meantime, the 
cost of schoolhouses is advanc- 
ing by leaps and bounds, and it 
is a real question whether the 
municipalities should be ex- 
pected to make such large in- 
vestments in buildings when 
educational ideas are still in a 
state of development. 

During all this period little 
advance has been made in the 
science of heating and venti- 
lating, of disposition of ward- 
robes, of the question of recreation space, or in the 
general features of the schoolroom itself beyond a ten- 



=^ 



29-0 



Fig. 1. Seating Plan for 23 by 29 Class Room 



two, and some towns are even adopting thirty-six as the 
standard number. It is therefore possible to .somewhat 
reduce the standard size of a room from that formerly 
adopted. Practical school men also dislike a room which 
is so large as to tempt the installation of additional seats 
with the pressure of increased population in the district. 
In general, the length ought not to much exceed thirty 
feet, as it is difficult for a i)upil in the rear to easily see 
figures on a blackboard at a greater distance, and there is 
danger of difficulty in hearing a teacher unless she speaks 
very distinctly from this distance. 

In a class room lighted uni- 
laterally the width from the win- 
dows to the corridor wall has 
been diminished, until the gen- 
eral practice is now to make it 
about twenty-four feet. Twenty- 
three feet has been used to a 
considerable extent and is per- 
fectly practicable for primary 
schools, but hardly wide enough 
to take six rows of grammar 
grade desks with aisles between 
each row. (See seating plans 
reproduced herewith.) Where 
forty pupils are accommodated 
in five rows of eight desks, the 
room may even be narrowed to 
twenty feet. 

Professor I )resslar (" Ameri- 
can Schoolhouses," 1911) states 
that the width of the schoolroom where unilateral light- 
ing is used should never exceed twice the distance from 



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dency to narrow its form and to hold down its seating the floor to the top of the windows where external con- 
capacity. 

These papers will attempt to deal with the protjlems of 
the school architect in this period, which, in many ways, 
the writer believes will be the most interesting one for 
many years, and to discuss matters of school planning and 
details of construction as they arise in the course of the 
planning and erection of a modern school building. 

Size of the Room. The first point to be decided is the 
number of desks to be accommodated. The practice of 
seating fifty or more pupils in an ordinary class room 
under one teacher is now only followed in congested cities 
where it has been impossible to keep the school accommo- 
dation up to the needs of a growing population. The 
general practice is to reduce the number of desks to forty- 



ditions arc favorable, and where they are unfavorable 
even this distance is too great, and he cites Oerman au- 
thorities who insist on a factor of only one and one-half 
times the height. He concludes that in our climate, 
which is brighter than that of Prussia, a standard class- 
room should be J4 by 32 feet by \zV-i feet high from floor 
to ceiling. 

The Boston report for l'H4 gives 23 by 29 feet as the 
standard size for upper and lower elementary grades, and 
not less than 12 feet inches high in the clear. High 
school rooms are 26 by il feet for forty-two desks. This 
is not, however, always followed, the department stating 
that they regard it as an ideal size, and indeed have no 
objections to an aisle as narrow as 15 to 16 inches. Their 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



wtnc/ou/J 
29'o" 



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Fig. 2. 



aim is rather to obtain a room area of approximately 
15 square feet per pupil. The new Massachusetts state 
law. however, prescribes widths of aisles as follows: 

Wall Aisles. Center Aisles. 

Primary .schools 2' 4" I'-S" 

Ciramniar schools — - 2'-8' \'~T 

High schools... 3' 0' l'-9" 

Taking: the case of a grammar school class room with 
six rows of twenty-four-inch desks, it is evident that with 
a three-foot blackboard aisle ^- 

the room would have to be at 
least 25 feet 7 inches wide, or 
else have only five rows. In 
this case the room might be 
21 feet inches by say 32 feet 
inches or, perhaps, a little 
more, the tendency being to 
lengthen the room beyond the 
accepted standard. It remains 
to be seen, therefore, whether 
the new law will have bene- 
ficial results. If the additional 
width in the aisle is merely a 
matter of easy egress, it hardly 
seems to be necessary and not 
worth the injury done to the 
shape of the room from the 
point of view of lighting as 
well as hearing and seeing. 
The state authorities claim 
that their object in holding to 
the wider aisle is to limit the 
seating capacity of the room. 
In this case it would seem that 
the desired object might be 
more directly attained by pre- 
scribing a certain amount of 
floor area or of cubic air con- 
tent for each pupil. The Mas- 
sachusetts state law, applying 
to other cities and towns than 
Boston, prescribes a school- 
room width of not more than two 
and one-third times the height. 
New Jersey requires a ceiling 
height of at least twelve feet. 
Fifteen square feet and two 
hundred cubic feet of space per pupil is another rule 
which fits conditions well and is adopted by the State of 
New York. New Jersey uses eighteen square feet. It is 
obvious that a building standing free in an open lot will 
receive better light than one in a city where it is likely to 
be darkened by adjacent buildings. A good many build- 
ings have been constructed with rooms 13V2 and even 
15 feet high, but the long stairways and additional cost of 
construction are not offset by any advantage in lighting. 

Windows. It is a time-honored rule that the glass area 
of class-room windows, measured inside the sash, must be 
at least one-fifth of the floor area of the room. This is re- 
quired by the City of Boston and the State of Massachu- 
setts, the former stating that the window head shall be 
square and close to the ceiling, the latter not specifying 
whether it shall be square, but reciuiring it to be not more 



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Illustration of Application of Massachusetts Law for 
Grammar Grades 




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Fig. 3. Illustration of Seating the Pupils in Five Rows 



than eight inches below the ceiling. New Jersey allows a 
ten per cent deficiency in required glass area to be corrected 
by the use of prism glass in the upper sash. When this 
is employed it should be especially calculated to throw the 
light to the inside of the room. 

The Inspection Department of the New York State 
Education Department rules as follows : 

The windows in all study rooms and recitation rooms 
should be so arranged that the main light will come from 

the pupils' left. If necessary 
to have more window space, 
the supplemental light should 
come from the rear ; but no 
window should be placed in 
the rear directly opposite the 
teacher's desk. The windows 
should be grouped together as 
nearly as possible on the pu- 
pils' left, so that the light may 
be massed, thereby furnishing 
a comparatively even distribu- 
tion of light and minimizing 
areas of light and shadow. 
The windows should extend as 
near to the ceiling as the ])rin- 
ciples of construction will ad- 
mit, and should be without 
transoms or unnecessary 
framework. In study and 
recitation rooms, one pane of 
glass to a sash is recommended ; 
under no circumstances should 
there be more than four. Any 
considerable area on the side 
to the left of the pupils that is 
without window surface should 
be opposite the space in front 
or in the rear of the pupils' 
desks. The ratio of window 
surface to floor surface should, 
as a rule, be one to five. If 
the main light comes from the 
north or from a side of the 
building which is much shaded, 
the ratio should be one to 
four." 

It is not a bad i)lan to use 
factory glass in the u])per sash of windows on the south 
side of a building to soften the glare of sunlight and ob- 
viate the constant adjustment of window shades. 

Large sheets of glass are more easily washed, but un- 
less plate glass is used they present a poor appearance, 
and in either case are costly to replace when broken. 
Boston forbids large sheets of glass, and architects in 
general seem to feel that better scale is given to the build- 
ing by the smaller panes. The glass area should always 
be figured exclusive of the muntins. The sills should be 
kept as near the floor as is possible in order to get good 
light on the first rows of desks. This height will be con- 
trolled to some extent by the direct radiators under the 
windows, and should be from 2 feet 6 inches to 2 feet 
11 inches from floor to top of window stool. 
Double hung windows, in two sashes, upper and lower, 



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THE B R I C K B V I L D E R . 



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are ordinarily employed ; but with the growing- demand 
for fresh air forms of windows which allow the opening of 
the entire window aperture are coming more and more 
into demand. This subject will be treated more at length 
later on. Transoms are objectionable, as they are expen- 
sive, cut off light, and are hard to clean. Double run of 
sash is sometimes employed, but with the advent of the 
metal weather strip its use has become infrequent. It is, 
of course, very expensive, is difficult to build in a 12-inch 
wall, costly to clean, and is rather a confession of an in- 
adequate heating plant than a part of the equipment of a 
modern building. 

Much attention should be paid 
to the arrangement of windows and 
piers so that no large piers or solid 
wall surfaces shall be placed so as 
to cast a shadow on the desks. If 
necessary to have such a pier, it 
should come in the part of the 
wall forward of the area occupied 
by the pupils. A good point to 
remember in planning a school is 
that in these days of high prices 
the only article whose cost has not 
increased is daylight. When pos- 
sible, mullions and heads should 
be beveled or .splayed so as to 
increase as much as possible the 
amount of light entering the room. 

Blackboards. No other material 
used in this country is as satisfac- 
tory for the blackboards as slate. 
This should be of the best quality, 
X inch thick, with joints accurately 
fitted, cemented, and cleaned off to 
give a perfect surface. This is not 
difficult to obtain and no other re- 
sult should be accepted. Boston 
requires the blackboards to be 
4 feet wide, 22 inches from the 
floor in kindergartens, 2 feet 4 
inches to 2 feet 6 inches up to 
g-rade IV, and 2 feet 8 inches in 
grades V to VIII. In high schools 
they should be 3 feet inches from 

the floor. They are placed only behind the teacher and 
on the long side opposite the windows, the " tack board " 
occupying the end opposite the teacher. 

The requirement of a 4-foot width for the blackboard 
meets with criticism from some authorities as being 
excessive. It is evident, for example, that in the upper 
grade or high schools the top of the blackboard will be 
6 feet 8 inches to 7 feet from the floor, so that the 
upper part is too high to be written on without standing 
on a chair, and even in a primary school no pupil could 
reach to a height of 6 feet 2 inches or 6 feet 4 inches. 
Blackboards are costly and absorb much light, hence it is 
the writer's practice to reduce their width to 3 feet 
or 3 feet 6 inches, which is ample and even exces- 
sive according to Professor Drcsslar's view. He recom- 
mends a blackboard width of only 28 inches for the first, 
second, and third grades, 32 inches for the fourth and fifth, 
36 inches for sixth to eighth grades, and 40 inches for high 



DETAIL OrBLACmO/IW TP/Af 






CM/e 






Fig. 4. Detail of Schoolroom Finish 



schools. As it is often desirable to have a portion of the 
blackboard rather high so that matter written on it may 
be easily seen from a distance, a compromise can be made 
by liaving the chalk rail and entire blackboard higher at 
the teacher's end. This is the board that the teacher 
naturally uses, and the lower portion, being obscured by 
desks and tables, is less easily seen by the pupils. 

Blackboards, for obvious reasons, should never be 
placed on the wall piers between the windows. The 
strain of eye adjustment is very injurious to the pupils. 
(iround glass blackboards have not come into genera! 
use in the United States. A profit- 
able field for invention would seem 
to be a material which would give 
a white or light colored surface on 
which a black crayon could be used, 
which, if possible, should be of a 
sort which would not produce the 
clouds of dust which come from the 
ordinary chalk. 

Various artificial blackboard 
preparations are in more or less 
common use, some of which are 
much cheaper but are not as good 
as slate. Of these, the sort that 
consists of a liquid preparation 
applied to the plaster is probably 
the least .satisfactory. There are, 
however, satisfactory siibstances 
which are sometimes useful to em- 
ploy in " battery " or sliding black- 
boards, on account of being lighter 
in weight. 

Battery " blackboards are not 
in common use except in high 
schools. They consist of one or 
two frames containing blackboards 
hung with chains and weights like 
a window to slide up and down in 
front of the wall blackboard. They 
are frequently useful in labora- 
tories and rooms where a large 
amount of blackboard work is 
done by the teacher and it be- 
comes necessary to leave it for 
several days. Care should be taken in their erection, es- 
pecially when they are to be attached to masonry walls, as 
their weight is considerable. 

C/ass Room Doors. Boston re(|uires that eacli class 
room shall have one door to the corridor, 3 feet 6 inches 
wide by 7 feet inches high i)laced near the teacher's end. 
Under certain conditions two doors may be required. The 
door must be partly glazed, open out. and be hung on 
brass plated, ball-bearing butts (number not specified, but 
three butts should be used, even if the center one is not 
of the ball-bearing kind). The door must have a four-Ievcr 
mortise lock, master keyed, cast brass knobs (not lac- 
(luered), 2-inch plain brass numbers, card holders 3'/i; by 5 
inches, and hooks to hold open. Raised thresholds are 
not allowed. As the wardrobes are entered only from the 
schoolroom and not from the corridor, this affords only 
one means of egress from the room. The Massachusetts 
state law (Form B. vn^) reciuires that " class, recita- 







j-tcr/OA/ r//w 3/iJ^ 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



tion, domestic science, and manual traininjf rooms and 
laboratories, if so directed, shall have at least two ways of 
egress, one of which may be through an adjoining room." 
The Boston claim, which is also the writer's view, is that 
more than one route of egress from a room is liable to 
cause confusion and doubt in an emergency which might 
lead to unfortunate results, and that 
only doubtful good could ensue from 
having two doors leading to the same 
corridor, while serious confusion 
might be occasioned by classes using 
the adjoining room as a way of 
egress, particularly when the ad- 
joining room is served by the same 
corridor. A real objection to the 
two-door plan is the space that is 
wasted in the best blackboard (i.e., 
the blackboard opposite the win- 
dows) by making another door as 
well as the additional expense. A 
point also might well be raised 
against the use of locks on school- 
room doors. Except for book and 
apparatus rooms, storerooms, etc., 
the writer can see no valid reason 
for having any interior locks in a 
school building, and the objections, 
as a possible source of danger, are 
obvious. If used at all, they should 
be of the type that is always free on 
the inside. 

The best type of door is clearly 
one that is absolutely flush, without 
mouldings of any sort, like the doors 
used in the best hospitals. When 
this for any reason is not feasible, 
the paneling should be arranged 
vertically so as to reduce the num- 
ber of horizontal ledges to hold dust. 

Objections are sometimes made to 
the glass panel in the door on the 
ground that it destroys the privacy 
of the room. It has been the writ- 
er's experience that a great ma- 
jority of schools are operated with 
the doors open anyway, and the 
light coming through the glass panel 
has great value in lighting the cor- 
ridor. The disadvantages of the 
glass panel have not been apparent. 
In case of objection to transparent 
glass, a rippled or frosted glass 
could be used which would ensure 
privacy without impairing its lighting value. The size of 
the panel is a matter of preference. In some places it 
extends the entire length of the door. 

Transoms are useless and expensive, collect dust, are 
difficult to clean, and should not be employed. 

High fixed sash above the blackboard on the corridor 
wall are used to obtain additional light for interior corri- 
dors. They introduce another surface to be kept clean, 
and are no addition to the class rooms. Their value in 
helping light the corridor, however, makes it desirable on 




Fig. 6. Detail of Teacher's Closet and Bookcase 



the whole to include them in the plans. When used, the 
sills or ledges should always be splayed down, both to 
admit more light and to avoid making a horizontal ledge 
to collect dust above the eye line, and consequently un- 
seen. What dust collects on the splayed down surface is 
visible and hence likely to be removed. 

Tack Boards. For pinning up 
drawings or pictures, a soft sur- 
face into which thumb tacks can be 
pushed is necessary. This is ac- 
"^^^ //c/V complished in Boston schools by 

TfiPOl/(j/i substituting for the blackboard at 

Cl AJJ /OOOAI the rear end of the room soft wood 
DOO/Q iJAA/3J sheathing with burlap stretched 
over it, with sewed seams extend- 
ing from the base to the moulding 
at the top of the blackboards. A 
picture moulding is included at the 
top of the burlap. Instead of bur- 
lap the use of cork tile is suggested 
as being more cleanly and better 
adapted to the purpose. In the 
lower grades the tack board is 
omitted and a card rack at the top 
of the blackboards is substituted. 

liookcasts. A bookcase with glass 
doors which will lock, together with 
some drawers and a cupboard be- 
low, is a necessary part of a class 
room. Space for this can generally 
be found in the thickness of the 
ventilating stacks without project- 
ing into the room. Where this is 
not practicable, they may be built 
in any convenient corner. Boston 
specifies that these bookcases shall 
be about 5 feet 9 inches wide and 
the upper doors be fitted with cylin- 
der, master-keyed locks, latch, and 
knob. The drawers and cupboard 
are to have ordinary locks. The 
drawers and cupboards may be 15 
or 20 inches deep, but a depth of 
9 or 10 inches is all that is neces- 
sary for the bookcase. The book 
shelves should be adjustable. Where 
the building is to be used for both 
day and night sessions, an arrange- 
ment of pigeon holes for holding 
the books of the day scholars when 
the night school is occupying the 
desks is desirable. 

Teacher s Closet. Preferably in 
connection with the class room, but allowably from the 
wardrobe, there should be a small closet for the teacher's 
coat and hat. This may frequently be managed in con- 
nection with the bookcase. (See drawing.) A wire grille 
panel at the bottom and top of the door gives ventilation. 
The closet should have a shelf and five or six hooks. 

Walls. Up to the level of the top of the blackboards it 
has been common to cov^er the walls with a good quality 
of burlap, which is free from projecting knots and loose 
ends, hung vertically and pasted to the plaster in wall 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



paper style. This is then painted with a glazed surface 
which renders it non-absorbent, and it forms a splendid 
protection to the plaster. A great many schoolhouses 
have been thus treated, but it is more and more the 
writer's observation that with the good discipline obtain- 
ing in modern schools any special protection of plaster is 
unnecessary, especially if hard plaster is used. The bur- 
lap is, in many ways, an improvement on the old style of 
wood sheathing wainscot, with its many dust-holding joints 
and its high combustibility. It is, however, difficult to 
g-et a good job of burlap in places where the workmen are 
not accustomed to the process, and it has a way of some- 
times coming off after a few years' use. It is also quite 
expensive, and the cost of burlapping- a building would pay 
for any plaster repairs required for a long- term of years. 
When burlap is not used, ordinary wooden corner guards 
from the base to about 6 feet inches high form a suffi- 
cient protection for exposed angles. Where all the walls 
are of brick or other fireproof material, glazed brick or 
tile are sometimes used for dadoes, and, aside from their 
cost, are excellent. In England, where a wider variety of 
this sort of products is available than with us, they are ex- 
tensively used in the rooms and corridors. 

Above the top of the blackboard the wall is painted in 
oil to the picture moulding, which is placed one-half an 
inch below the ceiling. 

Fireplaces. A fireplace in a class room is such an anom- 
aly in America that the mere mention of it here may cause 
a smile. They are universally used in England, however, 
and when a fire is kept in them they add enormously to 
the cheerfulness of the schoolroom. The writer has al- 
ready introduced them in one or two instances and ven- 
tures the opinion that with the irresistible growth of the 
new notions of ventilation their use will become common. 

Ceilings. The ceiling is generally tinted in water color 
a light cream or bufif, but reasons of economy sometimes 
require the plastering to be merely left white and clean. 
The angle with the walls is scjuare, no coves being intro- 
duced, and when ])ossible it is better to have the ceiling- 
free from drop beams. When these occur, however, as in 
fireproof construction, running at right angles to the out- 
side wall, it is better to let the window heads run up be- 
tween the beams, thus gaining additional lig-ht, than to 
fur across the bottoms for the sake of a level ceiling:. 

Floors. The best wood wearing surface for a class room 
floor is undoubtedly maple, which should be of the best 
commercial grade, with sides and ends matched, about iV-i 
inches wide and blind nailed. Beech and birch are used 
to some extent and also rift Georgia pine, which makes 
a g-ood-looking floor but has a tendency to splinter. 
" Heart rift " is the quality which should be used, but 
owing to the tendency of contractors to try to substitute 
inferior grades it is safer to specify maple. A two-inch 
cove base into which the baseboard is rebated is much in 
favor as an aid to cleanliness, although in practice it is ajn 
to shrink and form a dust-holding crack. An under floor 
should always be laid when the floor is framed with 
wooden joists and it is better to provide it even in fire- 
proof construction. This should be of boards not over 
eight or nine inches wide and laid diagonally so as to 
allow the upper flooring to run lengthwise of the rooms 
without being affected by the shrinkage in the boards of 
the under floor. Between the n])per and lower floors a 



layer of incombustible building paper should be laid in all 
second or third class construction. Raised thresholds 
should be eliminated as useless and apt to hold dust. 

The upper flooring should always be laid lengthwise of 
the rooms, in order that when the boards in the aisles be- 
tween the desks which take the most wear become worn 
out, new ones may be easily substituted. The same 
remark applies to the flooring of the corridors and ward- 
robes. Only the best materials should be used for school- 
house floors, as it is tlic i)arl of tlic building whicli receives 
the greatest wear and is the first to need repairs. 

Deafeners are not used to any great extent in school- 
room floors, aside from the layer of paper or felting be- 
tween the upper and lower boards. For special places 
such materials as mineral wool, a "quilt" of seaweed 
and pai>er, or even mortar are sometimes employed. 

After laying, the floors should be traversed and planed 
to a smooth and even surface and then oiled. 

Platforms for the teacher's desks are no longer used. 

Battleship linoleum has not proved to be a satisfactory 
material for class room floors on account of its property of 
showing all footprints and dust marks, making constant 
cleaning' necessary, and also on account of the difficulty 
of fastening down desks and chairs without ruining its 
appearance in case a different seating- arrangement is 
used. Difficulty has also been experienced in Boston in 
overcoming the tendency of the edges to turn up. It has 
also been found to wear oiit rapidly under the scuflling of 
a pupil's feet constantly in the same place, as under a 
chair. It may find a place in rooms not having fixed fur- 
niture, or possibly for offices. 

Details. The various details of woodwork, etc., in the 
class room need to be studied with the greatest care. In 
these days, which mark the passing of wood as a building- 
material and the widening use of actually imburnable ma- 
terial, an effort should be made to reduce the amount of 
wood used to its lowest terms. In particular, every effort 
should be made to eliminate grooved mouldings and ledges 
which form lodging places for dust. This seenis like a 
totally unnecessary remark ; but the writer has recently 
seen a large new school built with widely projecting, 
finely detailed cap rnouldings around the tops of the black- 
boards and extra wide wooden mouldings around all the 
fixtures. Projecting: architraves with a J« inch ledge on 
top should be eliminated. Wooden trim of any sort should 
have the top rounded or beveled .so that any dust settling- 
there can be .seen and cleaned oft', especially when it 
comes above the eye line. The chalk trough should have 
the groove run to the ends so as to be easily cleaned out. 
Removable wire nettings for holding the eraser clear of 
the trough are sometimes used, but are gradually being 
discontinued as being merely a useless source of expense. 
Mouldings around heating inlets are unnecessary, as the 
frames containing the deflectors are now made with 
flanges, which should fit tightly to the wall so as not to 
make dust pockets. The grille is omitted at the outlet 
oiK-ning, and the floor and base run directly in and around 
it, forming no place which is not directly in i)iain view. 
All corners of wood trim should be rounded. Many schools 
arc finished in North Carolina pine and some in chestnut, 
but the best woods are undoubtedly ash or plain oak, with 
preference for the latter. These woods are strong, hard, 
durable, of agreeable api)earance, and suited for this use. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



THE KINDERGARTEN. 



THE Boston requirements for a kindergrarten require 
at least the space of an ordinary' class room and 
wardrobe, but preferably a space of 800 or 9()() 
square feet. They comprise a large room, a small room, 
a supply closet, a wardrobe, and a water closet. The 
large room should have a 16-foot circle, regulation lines 
painted on the floor with at least 4 feet around it. The 
small room requires about 200 sciuare feet, with wide doors 
or " Flexifold " curtain opening into the larger room. In 
addition there should 
be a supply closet, a 
wardrobe, and a toilet 
room connected and 
separate from the 
main toilet rooms. 
This should have a 
low water closet and 
a bowl or sink. 

The room should 
be in a sunny corner 
of the building and 
should have windows 
on two sides. A li- 
noleum floor is desir- 
able as the furniture 
is not fastened down. 
It is also much 
warmer than wood, 
a good point, as the 
small children are on 
the floor more or less 
of the time. The 
blackboard heights 
are the same as for 
primary grades. The 
u sual bookcase 
should be provided, 
but the teacher's 
closet should accom- 
modate clothing for 
two or three teachers. 
The wardrobe must 
accommodate sixty 
hooks. 




Basement Floor Plan 



In places where the kindergarten has been less standard- 
ized, the accommodations provided are much more liberal. 
The open fireplace is frequently found and especial care 
is taken to introduce an artistic and pleasing decorati\-e 
scheme. Attractive sun rooms are provided for winter 
play, and the rooms are larger and better equipped. 

An interesting type of kindergarten is that recently 
built at Wellesley, Mass., on the grounds of Wellesley 
College. This is a one-story building constructed of 
hollow tile with stucco covering, and designed to resemble 
the regulation school as little as possible. The main floor 
contains a large central room, a smaller room for Mon- 
tessori work, and another small room for special work, all 
three arranged on the south side of the building, assuring 
both sunshine and seclusion from the highway. This floor 
also contains the toilet rooms with miniature fixtures for 



the pupils and regulation size for the teachers, also ward- 
robes supplied with low benches for the easy putting on 
of little leggings and rubbers. The standard pole fixtures 
are used for the garments. 

The schoolrooms have large French casement windows 
so as to admit all the air possible. The floors are covered 
with cork matting, an improvement over linoleum in that 
it obviates the danger of the child's slipping during the 
games, is noiseless, and not cold — a very important feature 

of a kindergarten. 

Indirect lighting 
fixtures are installed 
for use on dark days. 
Special cases are pro- 
vided for materials 
used in carrying on 
kindergarten work. 
Blackboards are pro- 
vided and also tack 
boards over the cases. 
The large class room 
contains a fireplace 
where the children 
can gather for stories 
around a cheery fire, 
and the walls are 
tinted a soft brown, 
which harmonizes 
with the woodwork of 
fumed oak. 

At the rear and not 
interfering with the 
light is projected a 
conservatory with 
masonry walls to the 
window-sill height 
and special green- 
house construction 
above. Shelves and 
plant boxes are placed 
around the windows. 
The floor is of brick 
and tile. This may 
not only be used as a 
sort of play room, but also as a place for the study of plant 
life and the care of flowers. 

The basement contains in the southeast corner — which, 
owing to the slope of the land, is well above ground — a 
room for clay modeling, a janitor's bedroom and bath, 
and the usual heating and ventilating plant, etc. 

All the plumbing fixtures for the children are carefully 
selected and of special low height. Toilet rooms have 
terrazzo floors and sanitary ba.ses. 

The details of the casement windows are of interest, 
being made according to actual French practice instead of 
the usual American type. The advantages of having the 
kindergarten in a separate building away from the older 
pupils are obvious, but it is naturally an arrangement 
difficult of general adoption. 

( To be (0)1 1 ill lied. ) 



First Floor Plan 



Anne L. Page Memorial Kindergarten, Wellesley, Mass. 
Kilham & Hopkins, Architects 



Monographs Upon Types of Buildings 
Met in Everyday Practice. 

THE SMALL TOWN LIBRARY AND THE MODERN PRINTING HOUSE. 



THE public in general is apt to consider that for a 
small outlay of money nothing: but a work of medi- 
ocre merit can be achieved. This supposition has 
agfain and again been proved false, and yet again and 
again people will say in an apologetic way when referring 
to a building- that was built for a small sum, " Well, you 
know it isn't very satisfactory either from a practical or 
an artistic point of view, but what can one expect for the 
amount that it cost? " Such a statement is really noth- 
ing" more than either a reflection on the amount of study 
given the building by the architect, or a reflection on the 
intelligence of the speaker, who very probably wanted 
fifty thousand dollars' worth of building materials erected 
and donated to him for half what they cost the contractor. 
The point which it is wished to emphasize here is that 
no matter how small an amount of capital is to be invested 
in a building operation, the expenditure can bring, with 
proper study by the 
architect in co-oper- 
ation with his client, 
a result that is as 
practical and ;es- 
thetic as the size of 
the building and 
character of the ma- 
terials attainable at 
the designated price 
will permit. 



BA-fEAENT- PLKM 



An example which will demonstrate this is the small 
Carnegie library which has just been c()m])letcd for the 
town of Sharon, from the design of C. Howard Walker, 
architect. There undoubtedly have been many libraries 
built that are similar andetiually good. There is nothing 
unique about this library building except that it has 
been carefully thought out and built with good ma- 
terials at the low contract price of S'J,7()3 by a first class 
builder. 

Care was exercised in choosing a site suitable to the 
type of building contemplated. A site for a public library 
in a small town should be in the center of the town. The 
building committee was fortunate in securing such a loca- 
tion. The architect, finding a basement auditorium was 
re(iuired, avoided so far as possible a high basement front 
fac^ade by placing the building in such a way as to take 
advantage of the slight slope towards the rear of the 

lot. 

It was decided by 
both the building 
committee and the 
architect that the 
building should be 
in design architec- 
turally harmonious 
with the traditions 
of the town. The 
town was essentially 




-nt/i - risot^- 




Carnegie Public library. Sharon. Mass. 
C. Howard Walker. Architect 



10 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



of New England traditions, and the Colonial style was 
therefore adopted. 

Naturally before considering the exterior of the build- 
ing, the plan was carefully studied. The library was to 
be controlled by one person, which naturally suggested 
one room. Librarians, however, like to have their own 
private quarters ; children and adults cannot be indiscrim- 
inately poured into a reading room, and a number of 
people, often thoughtless in disturbing readers, come to a 
small library simply to return or take out books for home 
use. One room, therefore, carelessly planned, would 
obviously create turmoil. The solution of the problem, to 
be sure, is simple, and yet it is the simplest solutions that 
are sometimes the ones never put into execution. People 
coming to the library merely for a moment's visit find the 
librarian directly opposite the entrance, ready to take or 
deliver books. This free passage from the front vestibule 
to the librarian's desk automatically separates the two 
sides of the room — one side devoted to children, one to 
adults. The librarian is assured a certain privacy in an 
alcove flanked by bookcases and separated from the room 
by the desk, from behind which visually the room is under 
control, and the librarian screened behind the desk is re- 
moved far enough from the door to escape the draft while 
it is open. 

Cold and rainy weather demand a vestibule. A main 
room (58 by 28 feet inside dimensions) demands as small 



a vestibule as possible encroaching on its area. The 
vestibule feature was therefore studied to be compact, 
and a glance at the plan will show that although ample, 
the arrangement of stairs, doors, newspaper rack, etc., in 
connection therewith, leaves no waste space whatever. 

In the basement an auditorium with a capacity of one 
hundred persons with a separate entrance and vestibule, 
a boiler room, storage space large enough to ultimately 
allow an antiquarian room to be partitioned off from 
it, toilets, coal pocket, exit stairs, etc., are provided all 
studied for a compact and practical solution. 

The mechanical eiiuipment of the building was considered 
both from the point of view of comfort for the library users 
and for economy in upkeep. The building is thoroughly 
heated and ventilated ; the auditorium is partially heated 
by indirect heat, the entire building being on an air lined, 
semi-vacuum system with traps installed to produce semi- 
vacuum, which automatically decreases the pressure on 
the boiler, which in turn diminishes the coal bills. The 
building is lighted by electricity, indirect lighting being 
installed in the reading room. 

The exterior walls are of brick, the texture and bond 
being carefully selected. The wall openings were thought- 
fully studied, and the one feature where the architect felt 
at liberty to include architectural ornament was the front 
entrance. This entrance gives to the building an archi- 
tectural note and Colonial character at slight cost. 




Detail of Entrance Doorway 

Carnegie Public Library, Sharon, Mass. 
C. Howard Walker, Architect 



THE B R I C K B V I L D E R 



11 



The interior is finished in North CaroHna pine stained 
silver gray, is soft to the eye, and a most attractive way of 
finishing- a perfectly good inexpensive material. 

The building is simple throughout ; it is not big enough 
to be anything else, but it is essentially adapted to its 
purpose and admirably fits its environment. 

THE CHEW PRINTING HOUSE, CAMDEN, N. J. 

Henry A. Macomb, Architect. 

THERE is an increasing acknowledgment of the fact 
that no good reason exists why a printing and publish- 
ing building need resemble a foundry or a cold storage 
plant. The modern evolution of this type of building as 
illustrated by the subject chosen here seems to demon- 
strate the interest the architectural profession is taking in 
plants of ' this kind, and it is hoped that each successful 
work will stimulate further endeavor in the solution of 
these utilitarian problems. 

As will be realized, printers in the larger cities have 
for a long time had to accommodate their business to 
floors in conventional loft buildings which were de- 
signed to accommodate any one of a number of busi- 
nesses, all different in their requirements. They have 
had to accept minimum ceiling heights and poor light, 
vibrating floors, elevator service all too inadeciuate, in- 
sufficient heating, and bad ventilation as a standing handi- 
cap. Added to these there has been the problem of 
heavy insurance and excessive light charges. 

The plan for the new 
Chew Building was 
studied with a view to- 
wards its specialized 
construction and equip- 
ment. It is a printing 
house caring for all 
branches of the print- 
ing business under one 
roof and designed with 
a nice feeling for the 
tradition of the printing 
art as practised in and 
around Philadelphia. 

The building has a 
frontage of 35 feet and 
is 99 feet deep, divided 
into an office section 
32 feet in depth with the 
manufacturing portion 
in the rear. The walls 
throughout are built of 
brick upon stone founda- 
tions. The columns, 
floor, and roof construc- 
tion are reinforced con- 
crete with the same 
material used for stairs 
and elevator enclosure. 
The main fa(,-ade is faced 
with brick laid in Flem- 
ish bond. White semi- 
glazed architectural 
terra cotta has been used 
for the entrance door- 



way, window lintels, and entablature. The inside walls of 
the office are faced with hollow tile and plastered. The 
office portion of the building has been excavated and con- 
tains a basement for storage, boiler room, coal bins, etc. 
This gives all the necessary space recjuired in the base- 
ment and effects a considerable saving in the total cost of 
tlie building. It will be noted on the plan of the first floor 
that the office is 2 feet higher than the press room floor in 
the rear. The story height of the front section is 11 feet 
8 inches top to top, and 13 feet 8 inches in the press room. 
Roth sections of the second and third floors have been 
kept on the same level. The high ceilings, together with 
the large window openings, ensure the natural light which 
is so necessary in the press and composing rooms. 

Much time and money is lost to the printer when the 
heating is inadetiuate, it being essential that the temper- 
ature of the shop be kept uniform at all times to even a 
greater extent than in private dwellings, not primarily 
for the comfort of workers, but because of the serious 
eifects that changing temperatures have on paper and 
printing presses. Varying humidity is also the enemy of 
the printer becaiise of its effect on the register of the 
printed sheets. In both the heating and ventilation of 
the Chew Building care has been taken to meet the most 
exacting re(|uirements in this respect. 

Freight handling demands important consideration. 
It is ideal when the freight entrances are large and on 
a level slightly below the floor of a truck so that its load 

may be placed on hand 
trucks, which are pushed 
on to elevators and then 
distributed to the places 
where stock is needed. 
It will be seen that large 
doors have been pro- 
vided on each floor of 
this building so that 
both freight and large 
machinery can be trans- 
ported by outside pulley 
hoist if necessary. 

The press room is 
directly on the ground, 
paved with concrete and 
a hardened dust less 
cement surface, thereby 
doing away absolutely 
with the vibrating floor 
evil and providing an 
excellent foundation for 
the presses. 

The building contains 
47,320 cubic feet in the 
administrative section, 
built at a cost of 15 cents 
per cubic foot. The 
factory section contains 
97. 020 cubic feet and 
cost at the rate of 13'/1» 
cents per cubic foot. 
The total amount of 
the contract cost was 
J20,250. 




I'rintint; House of Smnickson Chew & Sons Co., Camden, N. J. 
Htnry A. Macomh. Architect 



12 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



The evolution of the so- 
called "loft-building'' 
type of structure, the sort 
used by one type of print- 
ing: plant, from fire traps to 
fire-safe buildings, marks 
a forward step in the prog- 
ress of the fight to con- 
serve life and property by 
combating fire dangers. 
When the building is to be 
occupied by one concern, 
however, and built for the 
specific purpose of manu- 
facturing a certain product, 
there is generally enough 
data at hand to produce a 
well designed and con- 
structed building, pro 




Composin}< Room 



drilled, in case an incipient 
blaze is discovered. Their 
value has been demon- 
strated in saving stock 
from damage by water. 

To aid in maintaining 
higher standards of safety, 
every floor has two exits 
remote from each other, 
leading to a passage which 
in turn ends on the street. 
Outside fire-escapes have 
been provided with bal- 
anced stairway (/. c, a 
stairway which drops 
automatically when it is 
stepped upon) at the lower 
level, and this outside stair- 
way is extended to the roof. 



tected against general fire hazards and the special hazards 
of the particular branch of manufacturing housed. The 
Chew Printing House is as fireproof as it can be made, 
both in the structure itself and its equipment. It is pro- 
vided with an automatic sprinkler system, fire alarm 
system, and other similar appliances for the protection of 
the occupants and contents. The automatic sprinkler, as 
we have called attention to before, is almost the only 
absolutely dependable means of preventing the spread of 
fire, and this device as installed to-day practically never 
fails to accomplish its purpose, and at the same time 
materially reduces the cost of carrying fire insurance. 
Chemical extinguishers have been placed in convenient 
places where they may be used by employees, specially 



(lood ventilation has a direct effect on the efficiency of 
those employed within the printing house, as well as in all 
classes of factories. When oxygen is replaced by other 
gases or consumed, the air becomes unfit for respiration 
and almost incapable of supporting life. It has been 
estimated that from forty to fifty per cent of the deaths 
which occur are attributable to the morbific influence of 
foul air. Realizing the importance of good ventilation for 
their employees, the owners of the Camden, N. J., plant 
we are discussing have installed a process of diluting the 
confined foul air with pure, fresh air properly warmed and 
properly humid. This has been accomplished without the 
production of drafts and is a factor in the successful 
operation of the building. 



■ 
■ 
■ 


hi±s^^ 




i:~u:. 


HUlib 1 


t, i 

'< Maoiuii 




• 


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[-^ 


1 


T^- 


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^ 





Ba-scment Plan 



First Floor Plan 



Second Floor Plan 



Third Floor Plan 



Printing House of Sinnickson Chew & Sons Co., Camden, N. J. 
Henr\' A. Macomb, Architect 



i 



Public Bathing Establishments. 

ILLUSTRATING RECENT WORK IN REPRESENTATIVE AMERICAN CITIES. 




BATHING has been 
considered a nec- 
essary and enjoy- 
able practice by civilized 
people of all times, even 
among- those of the ear- 
liest days of which we 
have any record. The 
ruins of the gfreat public 
baths endowed by the 
Roman emperors, and 

made the center of the Ground Floor Plan of Field House and Plot Plan 

Roman citizens' activities, are to this 
day a source of marvel and pleasure to 
antiquarians and students of history. 

The same demand for bathing facili- 
ties for the citizens of large centers 
of population has continued to make 
large, public bathing establishments a 
feature of European life. In America, 
on the other hand, we have always had 
different ideals of living from those of 
the European and, consequently, our 
development in many respects has dif- 
fered widely from theirs. Thus, contrary to European 
conditions, where only the homes of the richer people 
have bathrooms, even small and unpretentious American 
city and suburban houses have a bathtub supplied with hot 
and cold water. American hotels, likewise, have always 




c 



T7T- 



™c?i: tVoiToiuun: lj| 



Second Floor Plan of Field House 



furnished excellent 
bathing facilities for 
travelers, and with the 
present high standard 
of hotel operation in 
this country, the patrons 
of metropolitan hotels 
have come to expect a 
private bathroom with 
each suite, or single 
sleeping room. For 
these reasons the public 
bathing establishment has not been an 
important or, in fact, a necessary fea- 
ture of our lives, and consc(iuently 
public baths are not well known to 
us, save for such as the Russian and 
Turkish baths operated in the larger 
cities as private undertakings. 

In the large American cities, how- 
ever, with the influx of a constantly 
increasing foreign-born population, the 
conditions that obtain in European 
cities are beginning to be felt here, and 
measures must naturally be taken to afford these people 
ample Imthing and recreation facilities to safeguard public 
health. It is also evident upon investigating the living 
conditions of large masses of people employed in mechani- 
cal and industrial i)ursuits that their bathing facilities arc 





General \ kw of Bathing Pool and Field House. Pulaski Park. Chicago, II 
W. Carbys Zimmerman. Architect 

13 



' 



14 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 




Shower Room in Locker Building, Pulasi<i Park 

not of the best, in many cases being: limited to the iise of 
a pail and spongfe. Such handicaps are not conducive to 
bodily cleanliness, especially when it is remembered that 
the majority of these laboring- people are of European ex- 
traction amon.q- whom private bathing- is not adhered to so 
rigforously as among American people. 

These conditions, gfradually assertint;- themselves, are 
not passing unnoticed by the public mind and we are now 
seriously thinking of means to raise the standard of living 
of the working masses and to supi^ly them with facilities 
which will make clean living attractive and easy for them 
to accomplish. 

The architect, to whose attention this problem will 
naturally be brought for solution, is interested in the 
precedent which any ex- 
isting baths may estab- 
lish to influence the de- 
sign and construction of 
those which will be built 
to suit American condi- 
tions, in knowing how 
nearly the conditions 
fulfilled by the European 
baths agree with those 




Lontjitudinal Section of Field House 



in America, and what has already been done in this 
country in a serious endeavor to create an accepted type 
for these structures. 

A great number of baths have been erected in tlie larger 
cities of the Continent and England, which embrace the 
various kinds of bathing arrangements such as single tub 
and spray baths, plunge baths, and swimming pools, as 
well as hot air and vapor baths. Principal among these 
may be mentioned the Luebecker Thor People's Baths in 
Hamburg, the Guentzbad in Dresden, and the Mueller 
Volksbad in Munich. These are all large establishments 
provided for the accommodation of the people and the 
traveling public. They are all larger and of a more 
monumental character than present American needs would 
seem to demand, inasmuch as the practice which has been 
established in cities like New York, of dividing the popu- 
lation into a number of geographical units and serving 
them with smaller buildings, has worked out to good 
advantage . 

The need in America, however, is not confined to in- 
door bathing accommodations, our extended heated term 
making outdoor pools desirable, especially in centers re- 
moved from the ocean or unpolluted rivers. In the three 
establishments illustrated in this paper there are seen 
three different types that have recently been erected in 
representative American cities, to meet varying demands. 
The development of Pulaski Park in Chicago has been 
effected with the intention of serving many more interests 
of the people in its vicinity than bathing, but for the great 
majority of its patrons perhaps this will be its chief service. 

It is located on a site 
of 3.8 acres bounded 
by Noble, Blackhawk, 
Cleaver, and Bradley 
streets, in one of the 
most densely populated 
districts of the city, the 
predominating nation- 
alities being Polish and 
Bohemian. The devel- 




View of Field House from Flay I'ield, Pulaski Park, Chicago, III. 

W. Carbys Zimmerman, Architect 



I 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



15 



opment comprises a field house, playground, locker 
building, and swimming pools, and represents an expendi- 
ture of $695,000 exclusive of grading and planting, dis- 
tributed as follows : land, $450,000 ; field house, $175,000 ; 
locker building and swimming pools, $70,000. 

The play field is situated between the field house and 
locker building and provides a running track, baseball 
diamond, etc., for boys, while in the corresponding space 
to that occupied by the swimming pool, on the other side 
of the locker building, is arranged a playground for girls 
and young children, with the customary apparatus, wad- 
ing: pool, sand court, etc., served by a large space in the 
locker building-, divided into small compartments for 
dressing. 

The outdoor pool and locker building is restricted to 
the uses of men and boys and provides accommodations for 
five hundred per hour. The pool is divided into two parts 
to meet the demands of the bathers, whether they desire 
shallow or deep water'. The deep pool is 40 feet wide and 
60 feet long, while the shallow one is 60 feet wide and 
180 feet long. 

The field house, as may be seen from a study of the 
plans reproduced herewith, is devoted mainly to gymnasia 
for men and women with the attendant locker, shower, and 
toilet rooms. The respective gymnasia are located at 
opposite ends of the building in wings with separate en- 
trances from the street so that the men and women may 
enter and leave the building independent of each other. 




Plan at Level of Pool 





Public Bath in tiie Grove, Kansas City, Mo 
g^. 



COLO/f/VADC 



QOL0jV/Vj4D€ 




« '^/fowfue jv. L 



First Floor Plan 




View of Pool, Public Bath In the Grove, Kansas City, Mo. 
Wilder & Wiflht, Architects 



The space devoted to showers is divided into two rooms, 
one containing individual compartments, formed by thin 
partitions, the other being left entirely open. The locker 
and shower rooms are 16 feet high with enameled tile 
walls and ceilings. The showers are overhead fixtures, 
supported from the side walls and individually controlled 
by the bather to obtain any desired temperature. 

The remainder or central portion of the field house is 
occupied by a large auditorium, reached by way of an 
ample lobby from the main entrance in the tower. It 
occupies two stories in hei.ght and has grouped around it 
on the second floor a library, children's play room, and 
small club rooms, making the build- 
ing one of great service in a crowded 
city district as a community center. 
The building is heated by a two- 
pipe vacuum system for direct radia- 
tion in all rooms, fresh tempered 
air being admitted to the auditorium 
and stage, library, children's play 
room, club rooms, and locker and 
shower rooms. Exhaust is affected 
from the shower and locker rooms 
by mechanical means, but natural 
vents are relied upon for the ex- 
haust of the other rooms. 

The Math in the Grove, Kansas 
City, similarly furnishes a center 
of recreation in a park, but is in- 
tended primarily for use only in the 
summer months. It consists of a 
large pool, constructed below the 
level of the natural grade and sur- 
rounded (m three sides by open 
pavilions which make it specially 



16 



THE B R I C K B V I L D E R 



desirable for aquatic sports 
because of the ease with 
which a largfe number of 
spectators can be accommo- 
dated. The pool is built 
with a sloping bottom, rang- 
ing: from a depth of 2 feet at 
the shallow end to 9 feet at 
the deep end to suit the needs 
of both swimmers and non- 
swimmers. In the long 
passageways located at 
either side of the pool under 
the colonnades, lockers for 
men and women respectively 
are provided. These are 
lighted by windows facing 
the pool and vault lights set 
in the pavement of the col- 
onnades. The floor plans 
reproduced herewith show 
the comparative areas de- 
voted to showers for men 
and women, waiting rooms, 
attendants" rooms, and the 
general scheme of operation. 
Above the base course, 
which is stone, the entire 
building is constructed of 
glazed terra cotta. The 




Third Floor Plan 






urn R M 



r 




First Floor Plan 





/^^^^^\ 


r--^2 




..1 



Fourth Floor Plan 



^■■f 



I,:-T^T;-_i 





roofs are covered with tile and finished with an Italian de- 
tailed cornice showing open rafters. A modeled frieze to 



Second Floor Plan 

and confining circumstances 
in which thev live. 



suggest the purposes of the 
building occurs directly be- 
neath the cornice and fur- 
nishes an attractive piece of 
decoration. 

The third example, the 
Public Bath and Gymnasium 
for the City of New York, 
more nearly corresponds in 
service with the European 
baths previously referred 
to, although it is much 
smaller than any of those 
mentioned. It is intended 
for use throughout the year 
and means to provide bath- 
ing accommodations of a 
cleansing nature to the in- 
habitants in the ])art of the 
city in which it is located, 
perhaps more than to pro- 
vide a place for people to 
enjoy swimming. It is op- 
erated in connection with 
a gymnasium, where under 
experienced instructors 
those desiring to do so may 
embrace the means of 
building up their physique 
to counteract the dangerous 
of the tenement districts 




Shower and Dressing Rooms Swimming Pool 

Public Bath and Gymnasium for the City of New York, West 28th Street, New York 
William Emerson. Architect 



VOL. 24, NO. 1. 



THE B R I C K B \- I L n E R 



PLATE \. 




WEBB HORTON MEMORIAL PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, MIDDLETOVVN. N. Y. 
CARRERE & HASTINGS, ARCHITECTS 



M 






i 



VOL. 24, NO. 1. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 2. 




REAK FACADE 



WEBB HORTON MEMORIAL PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, MIDDLETOWN. N. Y. 
CARRERE & HASTINGS, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 1. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PI..\TK 3. 




AUDITORIUM 










FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



WEBB HORTON MEMORIAL PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, MIDDLETOWN. N. V 
CARRERE & HASTINGS. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 1. 



THE BRICKBVILDRR. 



PLATK 4. 




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VOL. 24, NO. 1. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 5. 





PULASKI PARK FIELD HOUSE. CHICAGO, ILL. 
W. CARBYS ZIMMERMAN, ARCHITECT 



I 



VOL. 24, NO. 1. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



IM.ATK 6. 







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THE B R I C K B V 1 L I) K R 



PLATE 7. 




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THE BRICKBVILUER 



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VOL. 24, NO. 1. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE M. 




ENTRANCE FRONT 



HOUSE OF GEORGE S. MANDELL. ESQ.. HAMILTON, MASS. 
WILLIAM G. RANTOUL, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 24, NO. 1. 



THE B R I C K B V I L D E R 



PLATE 12. 




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VOL. 24, NO. 1. 



THE B R I C K B \' I L I) K R 



PLATE V 




LIVING ROOM 

HOUSE OF GEORGE S. MANDELL. ESQ., HAMILTON, MASS. 
WILLIAM G. RANTOUL, ARCHITECT 



IJ 



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VOL. 24, NO. 1. 



THE BRICK BVILDER 



PI.ATK U. 




GARDEN FRONT 




..■tf./*'^jtfcr»^". T j -j r *«.?*•• MU *bjy 



ENTRANCE FRONT 



HOUSE OF R. LANCASTER WILLIAMS, ESQ., ECCLESTON, GREEN SPRING VALLEY. MD. 

LAURENCE HALL FOWLER, ARCHITECT 



i 



VOL. 24, NO. 1. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



ri..\TK IS. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSE OF R. LANCASTER WILLIAMS, ESQ., ECCLESTON, GREEN SPRING VALLEY, MD. 

LAURENCE HALL FOWLER, ARCHITECT 



The American Theater. 

ITS ANTECEDENTS AND CHARACTERISTICS. 

By HUGH TALLANT. 

PART I. THE THEATERS OF GREECE. ROME. AND THE RENAISSANCE- (Continued 



THE old wooden theater of Dionysus seems to have 
served every purpose for upwards of a hundred 
years. At all events, it was not replaced by a stone 
building- until towards the middle of the fourth century 
B.C.,* and even then its reconstruction seems to have 
been due to sociological rather than to technical demands. 
The Greek drama was not yet so changed in character as 
to require a differeyit setting from that of the Age of 
Pericles, and it certainly did not merit a nobler setting. On 
the contrary, the new plays were so far inferior to the old 
that their presentation at the annual contests was begin- 
ning to be interspersed with reproductions of the earlier 
masterpieces —a confession of weakness previously un- 
known. Under such conditions the stone theater at 
Athens and those which shortly followed it in other Hel- 
lenic cities were merely a glorified expression of the same 
dramatic requirements which had led to the erection of 
their wooden prototypes. They were the natural result 
of increasing prosperity and facilities, combined with civic 
pride and artistic emulation. They represented a great 
advance in material splendor, but added little to the prac- 
tical convenience of either actors or spectators. 

The new theater was erected upon the same site as the 
old, in spite of the fact that the dimensions, shape, and 
orientation of the property were anything but ideal. Im- 
mediately to the south stood the ancient temple of Diony- 
sus, dating back almost to the Heroic Age.t and far too 
venerable a monument to be either removed or dismantled, 
although it formed an inconvenient barrier to the exten- 
sion of the theater in this direction. However, the archi- 
tects took advantage of every inch. In order to obtain 
increased space for the new skene, which was to be wider 
than the old, they crowded its southern wall again.st the 
very corner of the temple, and at the same time shifted 
the orchestra a few yards to the northwest. To offset this 
last change, which cramped the auditorium on the south, 
they terraced out the ikria to the west by means of double 
retaining walls with cross buttresses, and also cut down 
into the rock of the Acropolis on the north in order to add 
a few rows of seats at the rear. Even so, the auditorium 
remained irregular and unsymmetrical, and afforded no 
greater seating capacity than before, if we can believe the 
half of what we are told.t Worst of all, it faced towards 
the south— a most undesirable orientation, because the 
spectators thus had the light in their eyes, besides being 
oppressed by the fierce heat of the midday glare in the 
bowl.S 



* This estimate by Dorpfeld is accepted byHaiKh. See'The Attic Theater 
Chapter III. pajte *b. 

t It is assigned by Dorpfeld to the sixth century B.C. 

+ Plato (Symph. 175. E) states that the wooden theater of his day seated over 
30,000 people. The stone theater seated about 17.000. 

§ Vitruvius (V, 3. 2) expressly warns architects against thi.s danger. 



Yet with all its defects the Dionysiac Theater still re- 
mains the oldest, the most historic, and the most inter- 
esting building of its kind. Its original arrangement, 
according to the restoration of Messrs. Dtirpfeld and 
Reisch, is shown in Fig. 4 (Thk Bkickhvim)ER. Decem- 
ber, 1914). The general irregularity of the layout is only 
too painfully ajiparent, but even more striking is the ap- 
parent defectiveness of the sight lines. As will be seen, 
the sweep of the concentric seats was in the form of a 
semicircle with the ends prolonged by straight lines, so 
that the spectators at the two sides of the auditorium 
faced not towards the proskenion, but parallel to it. In 
fact, they must have found a considerable portion of the 
proskenion wholly cut off from their view by the pro- 
jecting wings of the stage-building. Various explana- 
tions have been suggested to account for this seeming 
defect. It has been pointed out that "in Greek theaters. 
where the choral and musical contests outnumbered the 
dramatic, the orchestra was always the most imi)ortant 
part of the building " ;* also that " the theater in antiq- 
uity was by no means reserved for scenic representations, 
but was used for public gatherings of the most varied char- 
acter, "t These are, however, merely excuses, which might 
palliate, but certainly would not condone, so obtrusive a 
defect. Moreover, the architects of other Greek theaters, 
far from trying to minimize the difficulty, seem to have 
been determined to aggravate it. They usually con- 
structed their tiers of seats in the shape of a semicircle 
I^rolonged. not by straight lines, but b\- (7 con I inn oner of 
llic same cnrve, so that the inside boundary of the audito- 
rium formed about two-thirds of a circle. This formation 
obliged the unlucky occupants of the side seats to face 
actually away from the proskenion. So pronounced an 
arrangement must have been dictated by good and suffi- 
cient rea-sons ; for the Greeks were above all things a 
l)cople of logic and sound common sense. The most 
I)lausible explanation seems to be that at the time when 
the earliest stone hemicycles were erected very little even 
of the play was presented upon the proskenion. It will 
be remembered that the (Jreek drama originated in a 
dialogue between actor and chorus, to which was sub- 
sequently added the representation of personages and 
events. The performance thus came to consist of three 
features ; namely, singing and dancing by the chorus, 
dialogue between the chorus and the players, and dra- 
matic action on the part of the players alone. The theory 
is that at the time under consideration — that is towards 
the close of the fifth century n.c. and the beginning of the 
fourth — the players were in the habit of descending to 



• "The Attic Theater.- Chapter III. page iv 

t "Pompeii ami Im Kemain*. " by AugiMt Mau. Chapter XV. paite 142. It will 
be rcniemtwrrd that when the Kphexianii hail bn-nme aniterrd aKain<it Paul anil 
hi* companion.*. ' (hey runhed with one accord inl<i (he (heater. Ac(.« lu ."' 



17 



18 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



the orchestra level in order to carry on their dialogues 
with the chorus, and found it more convenient to remain 
there during the balance of the scene, rather than to pass 
repeatedly back and forth. Some authorities even argue 
that there was no stage at all, that the word "proskenion " 
was used to designate merely the space in front of the 
skene without reference to anything in the nature of a 
platform, and that the dramatic action took place entirely 
upon the ground. In either case, the actors are supposed 
to have performed, for the most part, either within or 
immediately behind the circle of the orchestra ; they sel- 
dom withdrew to the proskenion before the end of the 
scene ; and they were distinguished from the chorus 
merely by their costume and by their central position, as 
in modern opera. Thus the dramatic as well as the sj^ec- 
tacular interest was located at or near the center of the 
orchestra. This region became the important objective, 
and in disposing the seats so as to face towards this point 
of view the designers of the early hemicycles were adopt- 
ing an arrangement as practical and correct in the matter 
of sight lines as it was simple and effective in the matter 
of architectural scheme. As for the stage, it was probably 
nothing more than a low wooden platform with steps in 
front leading down to the ground. No material traces of 
such a construction have yet been discovered in the re- 
mains of any Greek theater ; but pictorial representations 
occur in numerous vase paintings of the third century 



B.C., which have been discovered in the Grecian cities of 
southern Italy. Some of the paintings show the actors 
standing also on the ground, and in one case even mount- 
ing the steps. If a raised stage was so common at this 
time in the cities of Magna Gnccia, it doubtless was not 
unknown in Attica ; but whether it was used for serious 
as well as comic performances, and whether, in any case, 
it was customary in large theaters, are questions which 
modern antiquarian research has so far been unable to 
answer.* 

Another point which strikes us in connection with the 
Theater of Dionysus is its enormous size. Nowadays a 
playhouse is considered "big " if it contains more than 
twenty rows of chairs on the ground floor or accommodates 
over 1,200 people. The Metropolitan Opera House in 
New York seats only 3,300. But the Hemicycle at Athens 
contained seventy-eight tiers of ikria and accommodated 
17,000 spectators. This vast capacity was not imposed by 



* The theory that there was no stage in the early (Ireek theater was Hr.st ad- 
vanced in lSS4by HOpken in his treatise. " Oe theatro Attico." It is amplified and 
developed by Dorpfeld in " Das Kriechische Theater." The opposite opin- 
ion is maintained in " The Attic Theater." by Haitjh and Hickard-Cambridtte, 
who arKiie in favor of a low wooden stajte. The further theory that the stone 
staKe in later (Ireek theaters was intended to represent adjacent buildinKs. 
while the wall of the skene behind corresixmded to the sky. seems almost too 
fantastic and far fetched for serious consideration. It is in flat contradiction 
to the statements of Vitruvius (V, 7. 2). Pollux (III. 4. \2i). Phrynichus {.page 163. 
ed. Lobeck), and of various classical writers mentioned by Richards in the C/assiia/ 
Kf.'iiiv lor 1891. paKe 97 ; and is rejected by recent authorities such as Mau 
( ' Pompeii and its Remains." page 142) and Lechat (" Epidaure." pages 214-228). 




FIG. 5. RUINS OF THEATER AT EPIDAURUS, GREECE 



THE B R I C K B V 1 L D E R 



19 




20 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 




Fig. 8. Present Condition of Side Cliairs, Dionysiac Tlieater 

the intrinsic requirements of the drama. It was dictated 
wholly by social and economic conditions. The Athenian 
was essentially a man of intellectual capacity and aspira- 
tions. Books were scarce and were accessible only to a 
favored class. The average citizen was obliged to depend 
upon the annual dramatic performances for the satisfac- 
tion of his literary tastes. His anticipation and interest 
were correspondingly great. Moreover, as has already 
been described, he could obtain the price of admission for 
the asking, the annual deficit being successively appor- 
tioned among the wealthy men of the town. Under such 
conditions more than 17,000 places 
would doubtless have been filled 
could they have been provided. As 
it was, the auditorium covered the 
area of a modern city block, and 
imposed extraordinary demands 
alike upon the presentation and 
character of the play. Both actor 
and playwright were at their wits' 
end to make their production 
" carry " to the limits of the house. 
The actor built up his apparent 
stature by means of high- heeled 
buskins and a huge mask under 
whose conventional leer he could 
conceal a speaking trumpet. The 
playwright selected themes so trite 
that the spectators could supply 
the thread of the story from mem- 
ory, if they now and then missed a 
word or a gesture of the play. Too 
often he went further and based his 
plot upon situations so crude that 



they could have been aired in the atmosphere of the 
police court without losing their propriety of flavor. Mur- 
der, revenge, matricide, parricide, suicide, and other as- 
sorted and unmentionable abominations enliven the famous 
tragedies of Orestes and Clidipus. Perhaps it is going 
too far to ascribe quite so heavy a responsibility to the 
fact that the Theater of Dionysus had a large seating 
capacity. The Athenian public must have liked this sort 
of stuff; otherwise they would not have applauded it, and 
the committee of five, who judged the contests, would not 
have premiated it. The fact is that Grecian drama was 
adapted to Grecian taste and Grecian morals, as well as 
to Grecian theaters. Four centuries were yet to elapse 
before the Christian Era. 

The Theater-of Dionysus has been so often and so fully 
described that a scant enumeration of details is all that is 
recpiired in the present connection. The skene consisted 
of a main building, probably two stories high, with wings 
at each end projecting towards the auditorium. At first 
the e.Kterior was plain, the decorative colonnade shown on 
the plan (F'ig. 4) having been added some thirty years 
later. Beyond these .general facts very little is known 
concerning the architectural effect, as subsequent changes, 
together with the wear and tear of centuries, have obliter- 
ated all definite indications. Even less is known with 
regard to the construction of the original orchestra, as it 
has been entirely destroyed in order to make way for the 
existing stone pavement. It probably consisted of a ring 
of flat stones filled in with well tamped earth, as at 
Epidaurus (Fig. 5>, although this is wholly a matter of 
conjecture. 

The main entrance was by way of the parodoi,* two 
openings to the right and left of the skene, which led to a 
horizontal walk-way carried around between the orchestra 
and the seats. This passage broadened out towards the 
ends, owing to the fact that the curvature of the audi- 
torium was not concentric with that of the orchestra — an 
excellent arrangement which allowed for crowding towards 
the exits, and which was obviously intentional, as it occurs 

* irapo£oi. 



I 




Fig. 9. Present Condition of Carving on Arm of Central Throne, Dionysiac Theater 



THE BRICKBX'ILDER. 



21 




22 



THE BRICK BVILDER 



also in the theater at the Piraseus. The radiating aisles 
running up the slope were extremely narrow (only 2 feet 
3 inches in the clear) and must have obliged the audience 
to mount in single file. About halfway up they were in- 
tercepted by a horizontal passage known as the diazoma,* 
or girdle, which may have led to a special exit at its east- 
ern end. The triangular shaped blocks of seats included 
between the diazoma and the aisles were known as kerkides, 
from the kerkis, a tapering rod used for weaving. As has 
already been mentioned, they were apparently designated 
by letters corresponding to those on the admission checks. 
The small temple adjoining the rear wall is of later date, 
having been constructed about B.C. 319 by Thrasyllus to 
commemorate his victory with a chorus of men. 

The first row of seats consisted of individual thrones 
for the priests and other dignitaries, whose names are in- 
scribed upon them. The excellence of the workmanship 
suggests that these chairs were part of the original con- 
struction, although the lettering is of a later date. The 
center throne was by far the finest. It was decorated on 
the arms by bas-reliefs representing boys engaged in a 
cocking-main — not an altogether sacerdotal subject ac- 
cording to modern ideas — and was protected by a balda- 
chin carried on wooden posts, for which the holes are still 
in evidence. A similar awning was apparently stretched 
over the other chairs at a later date. The present condi- 
tion of the center throne is shown in Fig. 6, a general rcs- 
torationt of it and the flanking chairs in Fig. 7, the present 
condition of these chairs and the decoration on the arm of 
the central throne in Figs. 8 and 9, respectively. 

+ This drawinvr is reprothiced from the restor.'ition by .\. Defrasse in 
OKspouy's ■■ Details <if .\iK'ieiil .Vrchitecture." 



The ikria were made of Peiraic limestone. The top of 
each step was divided into three parts : a front surface or 
seat 13 inches wide, a recess 2 inches deep and 16 inches 
wide for the feet of the spectator next above, and a further 
horizontal surface 6 inches wide. The steppings were 
13 inches high, which, with the 2-inch recess for the feet, 
made a total of 15 inches — possibly a trifle low for a com- 
fortable seat; but the Greeks were not a giant race, and, 
moreover, they came to the show provided with cushions 
to sit on. Apparently, too, they crowded into a width of 
16 inches apiece, to judge from certain vertical marks on 
the face of the ikria, although the modern theater-goer 
considers himself abused if he is allowed less than 
20 inches. 

The steps in the radiating aisles were only 8 inches 
high on the vertical face, the extra 5 inches being taken 
up in the slope of the tread, which was well roughened to 
prevent slipping. A perspective view of the ikria, the 
thrones, and the edge of the orchestra is given in Fig. 10, 
and a section through the same,* which also shows the 
drain by which the rain water from the slope was carried 
oflf to the rear of the stage buildings and the construction 
of the steps in the radiating aisles in Fig. 11. This drain 
was open except for slabs of stones which bridged it op- 
posite the ends of the radiating aisles, but the rebate in 
the rim suggests that it may have been protected by a 
grating. As will be seen, the first stepping behind the 
row of thrones was later cut away so as to accommodate a 
second row of temporary wooden chairs. 

'The data for these drawings were obtained partly from " Das Kriechische 
Theater." by Dorpfeld and Reisch. partly from " Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst." 
Vol. XIII. page 197, and partly from photographs which will be reproduced in the 
present connection. 



.!j-'S?^3?v3«^i!f 





1 o 

I ■■ ■■I- ■■ I 



Scale of meters 
FIG. 11. SECTION THROUGH IKRIA AND RADIATING AISLE OF DIONYSIAC THEATER. ATHENS, GREECE 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



23 



The Nomenclature of the Styles. 

A HUMOROUS THEORY ILLUSTRATING IN CARICATURE 
FAMILIAR SCHOOLS AND PHASES OF ARCHITECTURE. 

DRAWINGS BY ROCKWELL KENT. TEXT BY GEORGE S. CHAPPELL. 




THE ADAM STYLE. 



THIS style, the first known, may be called the Parent 
Style of all architectural schools. Little is defi- 
nitely known concerning it, but ingenuity clears up 
several important points. We know that the site was 
first carefully prepared, an elaborate garden laid out and 
an orchard planted, one tree of which was of suflicient 
age to produce a luscious pippin before the foundations 
o? the main house were actually begun. We read that 
" \dam delved and Eve span "-in other words, the 
mln was the contractor and the lady her own architect a 
span being the primitive unit of measure. It may be 



.seen by consulting the elevation that the architect act- 
ually forgot the stairs ! This is known a-s the Original 
Sin ; all others are imitations. In detail this style is di.s- 
tingui.shed by great purity of ornament, expressed chiefly 
in forms derived from natural .surroundings, leaves (not- 
ably of the fig and grape, in assorted sizes), and, in 
later periods, by a .serpentine motive which eventually 
ran amuck, so to speak, and ruined the original concep- 
tion. There has lately been an interesting revival of the 
Adam style in Ritz-Carlton hotels and Broadway play- 
hou.ses. 



24 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




THE GREEK FREEZE. 



THE well-known observation, that "architecture is 
frozen music," was doubtless made in reference to 
the early Greek article, an example of which is por- 
trayed herewith. The columns are built of cheesi-form 
sections called " drums," which, with the " flutes " that 
accompanied them, probabl\- furnished the music before 
the Big Wind of 46 li.c. silenced them forever. This 
type persists in cold storage form and shows amazing 
vitality considering the various uses to which it is put, 
as it serves equally well for temples, D. A. R. conven- 
tion halls, court houses, railway stations, and bunga- 
lows. A rubber stamp of the Temple of Ptestum is the 
sine qua non of the successful architect. It is interesting 



to note the persistence of the Greek idea through the 
ages in the three exclamations: Greek, "O Hellas"; 
Latin, " Helas " ; modern American, " O Hell." Rarely 
does one architect look upon the work of another with- 
out the modern form of this art-felt expression springing 
to and from his lips. The style is a favorite one for 
bank buildings on account of its appearance of stabilit>-, 
combined with an indefinite number of openings for in- 
come or outgo, though in this respect it is le.ss subtly 
symbolic than its Egyptian prototype, the Pyramid. 
Owing to the absence of circular openings, it suggests 
squareness and never suffers from the Roman complaint 
of fallen arches. 



As He Is Known, Being Brief Sketches of Contemporary 
Members of the Architectural Profession. 




R. CLIPSTON STURGIS 



MR. STURGIS was born in Boston the day before 
Christmas in 1860. As he had relatives and con- 
nections in England, he apprenticed himself for 
three years to an architect in London, and later, return- 
ing to America, entered the office of his uncle, John H. 
Sturgis, where he succeeded to a considerable portion of 
his work. Since then he has practised successfully and 
well in Boston, has been for a number of years chairman 
of the School Commission, developing and controlling 
the city schools, and is now president of the American 
Institute of Architects. These data, however, do not e.\- 
plain a number of existing facts, for instance : wh>-, being 
born in 1.S60, he should still be an exponent of perennial 
youth ; why, being apprenticed to a very inferior British 
architect, he should have done admirable work ; why, 
with a very broad catholicity of taste, he should be so 
thorough in refinement of detail ; and why, in an environ- 
ment of intensities, he should have kept an urbane atti- 
tude of mind associated with very definite opinions. All 
these apparent contradictions most have been the result 
of what is known as the personal equation, made up of a 
delicate sense of humor regulating the develoi)ment of 
facts to a normal, not to an extravagant, condition, and 
playing upon the background of a very sincere mind. 
For sincerity of purpuse, witliout the slightest ostentation, 
and equally devoid of casuistry, is the foundation of Mr. 
Sturgis' character. It appears in his work, whether de- 
voted to his profession or to public or private interests. 
It was evident in the standardization of schoolhouse plans 
and equipment ; it has been equally evident in his work in 
the American Institute of Architects and in his careful 
attention to details in his designs. He says he gained 
rapidity of draftsmanship in the London office. He cer- 
tainly has, with his .skilful and delicate touch in pencil 
and water color, outdone anything that ever came out of 
that office. Associated with his sincerity is a very ju.st 
sense of relative proportions in facts and in fancies, for 
his facts and his fancies are felicitously interwoven in act 
and speech. At times there is a touch of Robin Good- 
fellow about him, which none the less accords well with a 
strenuous intention. It is not easy to give the impression 
in "mere words" of a personality with so many pha.ses. 
all of them so co-operative with the sincere underlying 
idea ; but the result is a man perpetually young perform- 
ing the wise service of middle age. — C. //. W. 




JOHN LAWRENCK MAURAN 



JOHN LAWRENCE MAURAN was born in Providence, 
R. I., in 1866, and received his early professional train- 
ing at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
graduating with the class of 1SS9. After some time 
spent in travel and study abroad, he entered the Boston 
office of She])ley, Rutaii & Coolidge. Later the work of 
this firm took him to Chicago, from which city he went to 
St. Louis as chief of the local othce which his employers 
had estal)lislied there. Shortly after he became a part- 
ner in the St. Louis ofiice, biit in 1900 withdrew from 
his connection with Sheple\ . Rutan be Coolidge and 
formed a i)artnership with Iv. J. Russell and E. (i. Garden 
to practise under the firm title of Mauran, Russell ix. Gar- 
den. The success of the new firm was immediate and has 
been continuous. Afr. Garden's retirement in 19<I9 made 
way for the admission of Mr. W. I). Crowell to the parl- 
nerslii]). The firm, both under its earlier and its i>resent 
caption, has executed a large volume of work, various in 
chaKicter but alwa\ s aiiprojjriate to its purpose. It is, 
however, the wide range of " Lawrie " Mauran's personal 
tastes and the adaptability of his talents which impresses 
and which tends sometimes even to depress the innocent 
bystander. His interests extend themselves far afield and 
touch many phases f)f the life and activities of his adopted 
city. He has been called upon to render much service in 
the public welfare and has contributed freely of his time, 
energy, and talents in many causes. By his example he 
has given the public a clearer idea of the i)roper practice 
of architecture and a renewed res])cct for the character of 
the architect. As is natural, he has been active in the 
councils of his local chapter of the Institute, and also in 
the affairs of the national body, as treasurer of which he 
is now serving his second term. He has brought to this 
office the same qualities of clear vision, high purpose, and 
tireless industry which have marked him in other rela- 
tions. Whatever he has been called upon to do. he has 
done well : and yet it would be unfair to picture him 
as .some I'orbirlding monster of efficiency. Those who 
know him intimately value his loyalty, his easy compan- 
ionship, and his genial outlor)k on life. He honors his 
profession, and that it has borne him just rewards is as 
fitting as it was inevitable. He has all the human qualities 
that appeal to the sense of fellowship, enjoys the in- 
terests of his fellow-workers, and posse.sses a fine feeling 
of si)ortsmanship. I.. I.. 



25 



26 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 




IRVING K. POND 



IRVING KANE POND was born at Ann Arbor, Mich., 
on May 1, 1857. I lis ancestry on both sides traces back 
to lin^hsh settlers in New Kngland. It is, perhaps, 
juslitiablc to credit to this fact the vigorous independence 
of mind which is one of his marked characteristics in mat- 
ters intellectual, political, social, and professional. His 
formal e<lucation was received in the Ann Arbor public 
schools and the University of Michigan, from which latter 
he was graduated in 1879 with the degree of Civil En- 
gineer ( hon. degree A.M. in 1911). Of far greater value, 
however, was llie education lie derived from his daily life 
in a home which alVordcd a steadily stimulating atmos- 
phere of clear and forceful thinking. 

Immediately after leaving the University Mr. Pond 
went to Chicago and entered the office of Solon S. Beman, 
just then come to Chicago to undertake the building of 
the town of Pullman, He became head draftsman for 
Mr. Heman and continued in this capacity until, in the 
spring of 1887, he struck out for himself in partnership 
with his brother, Allen B. Pond. His sojourn with 
Mr. Heman was broken by a year of travel in ICurope. 

Mr. Pond was one of the founders (now honorary mem- 
ber! of the Architectural Sketch Club (now the Archi- 
tectural Club). He has always been generous of his time 
in eflforts to raise and broaden the status of the drafts- 
man and of the architectural profession. He is a Fellow 
of the American Institute of Architects, which he has 
served as director, vice-president, and i)resident; and he 
is an active member of the Institute Chapter in Illinois, 
which he has served as president. The work of the firm 
of Pond & Pond covers the range that usually falls to an 
architect who does not purposely limit his field. For the 
Training School for the Bajjtist Home Missionary Society 
his firm received the first gold medal awarded bv the 
Illinois Chapter (1909). 

The architectural style — if one may use the word 
"style " of the work of an individual — that has come to 
be recognized as characteristic of the work of Mr. Pond 
has been of slow growth. Its roots can hardly be traced 
to the influence of any one country or jicriod. The rather 
does it represent the sincere and thoughtful expression of 
a man who lives deeply and who feels that true art must 
be the sincere e.xpression of the artist's living thought. 

Mr. Pond is a member of the Chicago Literary Club; 
a charter member of the City Club of Chicago ; a charter 
member of the Little Room and of the Cliff Dwellers ; a 
member of the University Club and of the National 
Academy of Arts and Letters. — ,-/. B. /'. 




FIENRY HORNBOSTEL 



HENRY HORNBOSTEL was born in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., on Aug. 15, 1867. He prepared for college at 
Deghuees School. He graduated from Columbia in 
the class of 1891, and continued his studies in Paris for 
several years. UiJon his return to New York he entered 
l)artncrship with Mr. Raymond and practised under the 
firm name of Raymond ic Hornbostel. After Mr. Ray- 
mond's death Mr. Hornbostel worked as an associate with 
Howells & Stokes (1899) on the Phube Hearst comi>eti- 
tion for the buildings of California University. Later he 
became a member of the firm of Wood & Palmer, which 
later became Palmer & Hornbostel, and still later Palmer, 
Hornbostel iV Jones. 

Mr. Hornbostel sees, as perhajis no other man in this 
country does, the comparative values of the elements 
which make up a competition program. He knows how to 
emjihasize those of importance until they fairly shriek their 
presence. 

He never jjermits himself to be confused or ham jiered 
or limited by masses of detailed requirements ; the salient 
features of the scheme leap into a coherent whole in his 
mind, and are readily translated by him into drawings 
which are after all found to have places for details as well, 
as for the main elements of the scheme. 

The clause in many specifications, " Time is the essence 
of the contract," seems to have sunk deeply into his mind, 
and speed has become his dominant characteristic ; he 
never leaves him.self quite time enough to do a thing 
leisurely. Coupled with this vast physical energy is a 
mind of e()ual activity ; he is interested in most every- 
thing and has opinions worth while about anything that 
comes up, although he may, perhaps, never have heard 
of the subject before ; he has a most restless, active, 
enterprising, and inquiring mind and an imagination of 
surprising fertility. 

He is a man who can in a brief time accomplish an enor- 
mous amount of work, and there are probably few in his 
profession who can draw so rapidly once he has set himself 
to the task. To fully ai)preciate his enthusiasm one should 
see him make a drawing ; half his office waits upon him, 
while the other half admires; the board is tilted slightly 
towards him, a fine clean stretch of white tracing paper 
awaits his pencil and many more freshly sharpened are 
placed at the top of the board ; loaves of bread await the 
time when it maybe necessary to erase ; his coat is off and 
his hands and arms move rapidly over the drawing. The 
picture is a great spirit of energv bent over a drawing 
table. — ././;. 



EDITOR-IAL COMMENT 
AN D*N OTES ^ ^ 
FOR.^THE'tMONTH 




^ 



THERE is at present a propaganda advocating that 
investors " Build Now." The reasons for this ad- 
vice are as follows : 

First. Materials are cheaper than they were and, there- 
fore, buildings cost less to build. 

Second. The contractors in order to keep their ]ilants 
busy, and to avoid dismissing men, are ready to do work 
for less profit than they were. 

Third. Because of less building, there is a constantly 
increasing number of unemployed, creating an unfortunate 
condition of public welfare, and increased building would 
normally put back these unemployed into the position of 
wage earners, thereby increasing the circulation of money 
and general prosperity. 

Therefore, fire, fire, burn stick ; stick, stick, beat dog, 
etc. 

Now all these reasons given are true of the condition 
as far as the cash cost of buildings is concerned. The broad, 
general statement can be made and proved, that less cash 
is required for erect- 
ing a building now than 
twelve months ago. All 
minor detailed state- 
ments, such as to the 
cost of brick and cement, 
are unnecessary. Ma- 
terials have decreased 
in value. Labor has not 
decreased in value, but 
stocks have. Recent 
investments are being 
made largely in bonds. 
Mortgage rates have in- 
creased. Additional de- 
posits of collateral to 
cover loans have been 
demanded by the banks. 
All bills, including 
rents, are harder to col- 
lect promptly. Credits 
are extended, and the 
public generally is econ- 
omizing, as the value of 
individual sales every- 
where indicates. There- 
fore, despite the fact 
that it requires less cash 
to build, it is harder to 
get the cash, and the fire 
will not burn the stick. 
The investor does not 
see as ready a return for 
his investment as he did, 
and doubts whether pro- 



portionally he will get as good a return even on a less 
expenditure for value received. The cheaimess of build- 
ing is a result ; it has not yet become a cause. What sane 
basis of advocacy of " Build Now " can be made, simply 
because it costs less cash to build now ? There is only the 
basis of the natural growth of cities and towns. To cite 
an instance which is typical of the country at large : if the 
city of Boston has not overbuilt in the last ten years, — 
and it apparently has not, —it is certainly under building 
now. To an optimistic mind, the investor who builds 
upon the present market will have his building completed, 
ready for occupancy, at the very time that conditions be- 
come again more prosperous, and prices therefore in- 
crease. He will be the early bird and will catch the 
worm, provided there is one ; but at all events he will 
have discounted the demand for location of the city's nor- 
mal increase, and when all is said, this seems to be a wise 
act for the investor to consider, always providing he does 
not have to pay so dearly for his money that he wipes out the 

difference between the 
cost of building a year 
ago and the cost of build- 
ing to-day. 




A 



Park Street Church, Bo.ston, as Ktccntly Restored 
27 



I'EW years ago a 
group of Boston 
architects started 
the movement of restor- 
ing the Colonial build- 
ings in Boston, which 
had for many years been 
covered with paint, to 
their original appear- 
ance, which showed red 
brick exteriors and 
white painted trim. 
First among these res- 
torations was the Old 
State House, then in 
order, — Christ Church, 
or, as it is more com- 
monly known, the Old 
North Church, the Old 
South Meeting House, 
and the present in- 
stance, the Park Street 
Clinrch. which has been 
a landmark of downtown 
Boston fora full century. 
The results in each 
ca.se have been tnost 
satisfactory, and in the 
last example, under the 
sui)ervision of Putnam 



28 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



& Cox, architects, in spite of several handicapping circum- 
stances, the result is extremely pleasing. In addition to 
restoring to the walls their original red brick color which 
was effected by the sand blasting process of removing 
paint, two exterior fire-escape stairways and shop windows 
for the establishments which were to occupy the basement 
were additions necessitating careful handling to obviate 
doing violence to the design. 

How well these features have been incorporated may be 
seen in the illustration herewith. The ironwork of the 
fire-escapes follows closely that of the period during which 
the church was built, and the intrusion of the shop win- 
dows in a church edifice is skilfully hidden by means of 
the small panes of glass set in bowed sashes. 

The principal feature of the restoration, howev'cr, has 
been the vividness with which the return of the walls to 
their original brick red has thrown into prominence the 
fine detail of the building. When it was all painted uni- 
form in color, one missed the cleverness with which the win- 
dows were placed in slightly recessed arches, and the way 
the engaged columns and entablatures were made to out- 
line the two bays to right and left of the tower. Now 
these parts of the design are restored to their original 
values and the building seems to have a grace and dignity 
which are entirely new to beholders of this generation. 

PLATE DESCRIPTION. 

Webb Horton Me.\iori.\l Presbyterian Chirch, 
MiDOLETOwx, X. Y., Plates 1, 2, and 3. This church 
is located near the center of Middletown, N. Y., on a site 
large enough to permit a successful grouping of the build- 
ings, though its proportions compelled careful study to 
secure the plan permitting the best and most effective use 
of the space. The grouping and the architectural char- 
acter of the buildings are in the spirit of a modernized 
adaptation of the Italian Romanesfjue. 

The buildings are placed on three sides of a court 
which faces on the street and occupy a space approxi- 
mately 155 by 160 feet. At the rear of this court, set well 
back, is the main building containing the church audito- 
rium, about 70 by 77 feet, and entered at the grade of the 
court. Beneath this in a story opening at a lower grade 
is a completely equipped gymnasium with a tile lined 
swimming pool about 18 by 40 feet and a bowling alley. 

Extending forward to the street from the main building 
on either side of the court are the parsonage and the Sun- 
day-school buildings, the latter containing the rooms for 
the social as well as the religious work of the church. 
The heating plant is in the cellar of this wing. 

The basement walls are concrete with rubble facing. 
The upper walls are brick faced with a gray buff brick 
laid in common bond with raked joints. All steps are 
bluestone and sills limestone. The inserts in the brick- 
work are of terra cotta. The roofs are red Spanish tile 
with copper gutters and leaders. All the tower floors and 
the auditorium floor are of fireproof construction. 

The cost of all the buildings was about $150,000. 

Public Bath in the Grove, Kansas City, Mo., 
Plate 4, — Pulaski Park Field Mousi;, Chicago, III., 
Pl.\te5, — Public Bath and Gymnasium for the City 
of New York, N. Y., Pl.vtes 6 and 7. See article on 
page 13. 



House of Charles A. Cass, Esq., Ardsley Park, 
N. Y., Plates 8, 9, and 10. The house is situated rather 
close to the road on a plot which contains four acres. 
It is deriv^ed from the simple type of English country 
house, as found in the Cotswold district. It is built 
of a rough textured brick, ranging in color from light 
red to the darkest brown — in fact, some are almost black. 
The joints in the brickwork, as may be seen in the illustra- 
tions, are rather wide and very deeply raked, so that the 
edge of each brick is exposed clean, (iables, eaves, and 
projections are all formed in the brick courses, as little 
wood being used in exterior construction as was consis- 
tent. All timbers which are exposed on the exterior, such 
as rafter heels, porch posts, lintels, etc., are hand-hewn 
chestnut or oak and are structural in every sense. 

The roof is of stones of varying thicknesses, being one 
inch or more at the starting course and gradually decreas- 
ing towards the ridge. They have also a slight variation 
in color, consisting of gray, green, and the lighter of the 
purple tones, this latter bein.g used to carry a little of the 
genera] wall tone into the roof. 

House of George S. Mandell, Esq., Hamilton, 
M.\ss., Plates 11, 12, and 13. This is a comparatively 
large country house, situated on a rolling country 
side near the north shore of Boston. It is typical, es- 
pecially on the entrance front, in its informal handling 
of brickwork, of the character which pervades much of 
the country house work in the vicinity of Boston. It is 
designed in a free adaptation of Colonial forms as they 
are found in the early New England farmhouses, some of 
which were built of brick. The detail of dormers, cor- 
nices, belt courses, etc., follows the very simple lines of 
the early prototypes. On the garden side the house 
assumes a more formal character, suggesting English 
Georgian work, and shows an unusual grouping of a 
three-story central mass with a gambrel roof which com- 
bines agreeably through the agency of the large chimneys 
which come through the roof at the points of intersection. 

House OF R. Lanca.ster Williams, E.sq., Eccle.ston, 
Green Spring Valley, Md., Plates 14 and 15. The 
house is situated on the top of one of the hills which form 
the southern border of Green Spring Valley. The nature 
of the site, as well as the preference of the owner, sug- 
gested an oblong plan, the long axis parallel with the 
ridge of the hill, with the principal rooms overlooking the 
valley, although this is the northern exposure. 

The requirements, in general, called for a rather large 
house of moderate cost, suitable for occupancy during the 
entire year. The arrangement of the first and second 
stories is shown by the plans. There is a basement story 
under the entire house, except the porches and terraces. 
In the basement are placed the laundry, the boiler room, 
cold storage, the pressure water storage tank. etc. 

The house walls are of terra cotta hollow tile faced with 
brick. The floors, roof, and partition are frame. A local 
brick was used, varying in color from a purple red to a 
salmon red, and laid in Flemish bond with slightly raked 
out f^-inch thick gray mortar joints, giving a wall mod- 
erately rough in texture and a soft neutral red in color. 
The cornices, columns, frames, and sash are painted a 
cream white ; the shutters, lattice, and flower boxes 
a bluish green, and the ironwork a very dark blue. The 
roof is covered with an unfading green slate. 



II 



THE BRICKB\^ILDER. 



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Room of Mr. J. Picrpont Alorgan, vaniis/ied t/iroiiglioiit uith I'ahpar 

Valspar used exclusively 

/;/ the )iew 

J. P. Morgan & Co. Building 

New York 



"QUALITY PARAMOUNT" 
\^ was the important factor in 
the selection of materials for use in 
this aristocrat of office buildings. 
Within its doors will he transacted 
millions upon millions of dollars of 
the world's business. 
That Valspar was chosen exclu- 
sively as a finish for all woodw ork, 
whether indoors or out, and for 
every article of furniture, is hut 
natural — yet signiticant. 



BecaUvSe of its unique qualities Val- 
spiar should always he specified 
where great durability, a beautiful 
tinish (dull or polished) and a water- 
proof, spot-proof \arnish is desired. 

Valspar is to other varnishes as heat- 
treated steel is to ordinary carbon 
steel. 

Other information gladl\ furnished 
upon request. 

Let us send vou our literature. 




VALENTINK & COMPANY, 

VAUENTINR'S 



457 FOLRTH AVKM K, MAN ^()RK CI lA 



LSPAR 



The Voniish Tti»l Won 1 T- 



w^ p 



A arf^cst . Un ii iijactu rcrs 
of //igli-^iade I arnis/tcs in the World 

NEW YORK CHICAGO BOSTON 

TORONTO PARIS AMSTERDAM 

FULLER k CO., San Francisco, Agents for Pacific Slope 



•VA-R^NT^tlES- 

Eslabtishtd I8.i2 



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MMMMMMMWMMMWM 



WMfWMMIMNit 



.x^$!i%««$«iiMi «t m usi mmtsmKmamtmm 



XXIV 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




KcppItT Translucent Crystal Ceilnij:. ni :i I ,uiii|k-,iii ilt'iKiriincnt vtort-. I Ins i-ciliiijx i- made up of tuimerous repetitions of 
two small panels. The bonier effect of both the octagon and oblonj^ panels is produced by the use of small, jjokien amber units. 
The body part of each panel is composed of small, clear g-las.s units. The units are ornamented in relief and electro-glazed together. 

These ceilings give the lighting advantages of glass and the solid, substantial feeling and appearance of masonry. 

Keppler Translucent Crystal Ceilings are used in 
many of the distinguished buildings of Europe — great 
railway stations, hotels, libraries, stores, banks, and 
fine residences. There is no other form of glass 
construction which affords such opportunities for com- 
bining beauty, substantial appearance, and daylighting 
efficiency. 

This method of glass construction is now offered 
to American architects. Any design desired can be 
executed. 

Full information concerning Keppler Translucent 
Crystal Ceilings and other Keppler Glass Construc- 
tions for utilizing daylight will be sent upon request. 

Keppler Glass Constructions Inc SmT New York 

Crystal Ceilings \'aulrs Pavements Floors Roofs Skylights I'artitions Fireproof Windows 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



XXV 



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J^UTCH BOY red lead-in-oil is a 
wonderfully workable paint as well 
as a remarkable protective paint for metal. 
It is easy to mix and easy to applv. 



Easy to Mix 

Dutch Boy red lead-in-oil breaks up 
equally as easy as white lead-in-oil. 
Powerful machinery has ground the 
highly oxidized red lead and incor- 
porated it thoroughly with genuine 
linseed oil. Result : An exceedingly 
line and smooth pigment-in-oil. 

The high oxidation of the red lead 
and its extreme fineness keep the red 
lead and linseed oil mass soft and work- 
able. Being a paste, Dutch Boy red 
lead-in-oil is sanitary. No dry pig- 
ment to fly about. 



Easy to Apply 

Field coats, as well as shop coats, can 
be put on without difficultv. Dutch 
Boy red lead-in-oil brushes out far, 
covering a niaximum amount of sur- 
face with a minimum amount of jiaint. 
Its smoothness and fineness insure a 
film of paint and uniform in thickness 
throughout. 

Paint made of Dutch Boy red lead- 
in-oil flows freely. The hard-to-get-at 
places can be painted properly. 



T7MBODYIN(i as it does every quality that makes for an 
^-^ ideal metal paint, from durability and protection to distinc- 
tive color and tractability, Dutch Boy red lead-in-oil promises 
to become a universally used paint for metal construction work. 



Send for Sample 

Let us send you a sample of 
Dutch Boy red lead-in-oil for 
inspection. We will include 
our pamphlet, "Red Lead in 
Paste Form," which gives fur- 
ther details, practical formulas, 
etc. 

Address the branch nearest 
you to insure quickest delivery. 



NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY 

Manufticturcrs also of Dutch Boy While Ixa,! and 
Dutch Boy l.inseed Oil 

New York Boston Buffalo Chicago 

Cincinnati Cleveland St. Louis 

San Francisco 

(John I". Lewis &: Bros. Co., Philadelphia) 

(National Lead tV Oil Co., Pittsburtrh) 



■v z 









XXVI 



THE BRICKBVILDER 






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The specifying of paint is 
possibly a small detail of your 
work, but paint covers a large 
amount of your product. The 
part that 

zinc 



plays in producing paint of 
unusual wearing and protect- 
ive qualities is so remarkable 
that we are trying to place 
before every architect our 
interesting book/' O//^' of Tour 
Prol?/cms^''\\\\\c\\ discusses it. 

The New Jersey Zinc Company 
Room 502, SS Wall Street. New ^'ork 



II 






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1827 



Eighty-Eight Years' Experience in Making 
High Grade 

V ARN ISH 

THAI., Aristo Finish ^" «►= 

Produces a beautiful, tlull, artistic Hiiisli over natural wood or 
stained work. Knriclies the grain anil coloring of the wood with- 
out the defects found frr)ni using wax. Will not scratch or mar 
white, and is verv durable. Dries hard overnight. 

"< " Rex White Enamel • ^-^ 

(Semi-CxIoHs) 

A beautiful white enamel, drying with a rich, eggshell gloss 
effect. Durable and easy working, covers perfectly and is out of 
dust within a few hours. 

EDWARD SMITH & CO. 

"Varnish Makers for ^^ Years" 

Main Office and Worki 

West Arenue, 6th and 7th Streets, Long Island City, N.Y. 

P. O. Box 1780, New York City 
Western Branch, 3532-34 South Morgan Street, Chicago 



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Architects 
David Knickerbatker Boyd. F. A. I. A. 
J.ihn I,. Conevs. A 1. A. 
V. D Abel 



PhUa- 
delphia 



Residence of 

Wm. ^r. McCawley 

Haverf'.nl Pa. 



The Architects who built this house used 

Ail-Metal 
SCREENS 

AND WEATHER STRIP 



HIGGIN 



1! 



They wanted the finishing touches to the house to be in keeping 
with the rest of the materials that went into it — the best. 

They wanted the screens and weather strip to be permanent — 
no repairs or further expense in after years. 

We shall be glad to furnish estimate for your next building. 

The Higgin Manufacturing Co. 

517-539 WASHINGTON AVENUE 
NEWPORT, KENTUCKY 

(Opposite Cincinnati) 






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THE BRICKBVILDER 



xxvu 



I I Iliililililiii 11 ■Illllllll I li l l i l i l i Ill I l i ll illlliillilil;lfa. l !li!i l iiii:biy. 



Architects as Efficiency Engineers 



iiiiiiiiiii 




Skeleton elevation of a complete Sedgwick Automatic 
Brake Dumbwaiter Outfit. The Automatic Brake 
does not lock fast, but is applied and regu ated by the 
load itself, requiring nc manipulation by the operator 
but giving absolute security. These outfits like al 
Sedgwick productions, are built in quantities by special 
machines on the interchangeable part system. I his 
explains the exceptional value which is represented by 
the moderate Sedgwick prices. Comp etc plans and 
working drawings are furnished with each dumbwaiter. 
Our Service Department gladly co-operates with archi- 
tects on all dumbwaiter and elevator problems. 



L 



In days of old, architects planned houses. The twen- 
tieth century architect is a designer of homes — 
and a true home is simply a house in which in- 
ternal friction is minimized. Architects of homes, 
therefore, must be household efficiency engineers. 

Now, efficiency is simply doing things better, or more 
quickly, or more easily. And a home builder 
looks to his architect to provide the means thereof 
in the home design. 

Consider the dumbwaiter, for instance. 
A good dumbwaiter is a tremendous factor in house- 
hold efficiency because it lightens household 
burdens — hastens household tasks simplifies 
household duties — -lessens household effort. 

A good dumbwaiter is a convenience and an economy 
— just in proportion to its goodness. And the 
professional designer of homes of convenience and 
economy must be responsible for the installation 
of a good dumbwaiter. 

For, be it known, a length of rope over a pulley, with 
a box at one end and a weight at the other, is 
not a good dumbwaiter, though it is called a 
dumbwaiter. 

A good dumbwaiter is one designed for a specific pur- 
pose — made by dumbwaiter specialists — built of 
the best materials by the best methods. Sold at 
a price perhaps just that little higher which marks 
the difference between a permanent household 
economy and an ever present source of trouble 
and disappointment. 

A good dumbwaiter is an essential part of a modern 
home, just as is good plumbing, good lighting, 
good ventilation, a good heating system. 

Your clients will always get a good dumbwaiter when 
you specify as below and permit no substitution. 

SPECIFICATIONS 
" The Dumbwaiter to be manufactured and installed by the 
Sedgwick Machine Works, 182 Liberty Street, New York." 
Omit " and installed " if local labor is to be employed. 



lilllil! Ilffi 



SEDGWICK MACHINE WORKS 



182 LIBERTY STREET 



SPECIALISTS IN HAND-POWL-R 
DUMBWAITERS and KI.FVATORS 



NEW YORK CITY 



u 



xxvin 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 






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THE PUBLIC 

and the OPERATOR 

BOTH PROTECTED 

Tlie Ci. iV G. Telescopic 
Hoist is operated from the 
sidewalk. The operator is 
free from any possibility of 
injury due to a carelessly han- 
dled load falling upon him. 
Pedestrians are saved from 
the danger incident to an un- 
guardeil open hatch. 




Grant 

Rolling 

Partitions 



Horizontal Rolling: Partition 



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TelescQpic //o/is# 

Hoists or lowers ash cans, kegs, barrels, cakes of ice, etc., 
between cellar and sidewalk. Raises a maximum load of 
500 lbs. at a speed of 30 feet per minute. 
When not in use no part shows above street level. F",very 
hoist subjected to thorough working test, and so compact 
it can be shipped anywhere without being "knocked 
down." A<laptabU' to anv building, old or new. 

Price. $115 F.O.B. Cars N. Y. City 

Send for Illustrateil Booklet 

GILLIS & GEOGHEGAN 

544 West Broadway New York City 



I 



Adapted for 
church and Sun- 
day School rooms, 
Y.M.C.A. build- 
ings, schools, halls, 
etc. The useful- 
ness of many 
churches and schools depends upon the style, arrange- 
nnent and quality of the partition work employed. 
Best materials, construction, workmanship and finish 

are assured. Feel free to consult us regarding this item. The par- 
titions coil to the side or roll overhead, and are made of various 
kinds of wood. Black- 
board surface can be 
furnished on one side 
of overhead partition. 



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Write for details and 
catalog 

Grant Pulley 
and Hard- 
ware Co. 

3West29thStreet 
NEW YORK 




I 



Vertical Coiling Door 



« 



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OWNER 

ARCHITECTS 

CASEMENTS 



^^ 



BULLDOG 



DR. GARDNER. YONKERS, N. Y. 

ALBRO & LINDEBERG 

. EQUIPPED WITH BRASS 



I 



ADJUSTERS, ONE 
OF OUR THREE SIMPLE, POWERFUL. EASILY IN- 
STALLED TYPES THAT OPERATE CASEMENT SASH 
EASILY, QUICKLY AND POSITIVELY FROM IN- 
SIDE THE SCREENS AND STORM SASH. 
QuT "Casement Window Handbool^ " is a "clincher "for 
Casement IVindows when shown to skeptical clients. 
Sent to architects who postalize us — 
Not mailed to waste baskets. 



CASEMENT H'D'W CO. 



9 CLINTON ST. 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



IP 

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Reinforcing and 
Furring Plate 

WRITE FOR CATALOG 

^^BergerMfg.Co. 

CANTON. 0. 

FOR THE BEST SERVICE ADORFbS NEAREST BRANCH 

NEW YORK, BOSTON. CHICAGO 
MINNEAPOLIS, ST. LOU15 
SAN FRANCISCO, PHILADELPHIA 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. xxix 






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Special Prize Offer to Those Enter- 
ing The Briclebvilder Cow petition 

On page xx of this issue will be found the 
program for The Bricklrcilder competition for 
a Small Brick Church and Parish House. 

We repeat our offer, made in connection with previous 
competitions, to give additional prizes to those whose 
draw^ings are premiated by the jury of award. 



To each Competitor w hose draw in^ is first, 
second, third or fourth w c will send one 
gross of VENUS pencils, any degree se- 
lected or any desired assortment, provided 
i/^ VENUS pencils are used in making the 

1 1 winning drawings, L'nder the same con- 

11 ditions we will send one complete set of 

Ml 1 

VEN us drawing pencils, 1 7 degrees to each 



11 

I i competitor receiving Honorable Mention. 

11 



j j // is not necessary that pencils shall he seen red direct fron/ us in 
1 1 order that a competitor may he elioihle for these special prizes. If 
II von do not use FENUS pencils reoiilarly, a supply may he secured 

from your dealer, or vce vcill send yon, u:itho//t cost, samples of 

whatever decrees you may select. 



i! 

ii -LZll^ I AMERICAN LEAD PENCIL CO. 



I i Tust fill out the coupon and mail it so that I 

I I theVENUs'pencilsjTiay reach you at once. | -7^;^" \Z.^;^.^yoA^c^y 

I I Kindly tend VENUS pencilt a* offered in 

ii « ..r^F^TiTM 4 KT f I? A rk OrMr-lI rf\ the BRICKBVILDER. 



AMERICAN LEAD PENCIL CO. 



Ip -. , I prefer medium pencil* 

IJ 218 5th Avenue, New York City, New York | ' w s 

i j and Clapton, London, England I ^am* 



p p ana ^..lapion, i^uuuun, •^..b.«..v. I 

ii ' Addre,* 






XXX 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




THE BRICKBVILDER. 



XXXI 



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TWEiKnun iMimiMi Tg 
■ III £ii!S! mill III m e 
"!£!!!!!!!!&!■! Ill III » 
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Howard Chapman, Architfct 
Turner Construction Co.. Contractor 

^^4 Warehouse and Factory, Great Atlantic and F'acific 
leaCo, Jersey City. N.J. ; 9 glories. 185x121 feet ; 300 
lb. floor loads: structural concrete with brick pnnrl 
walls. This building look first prize in the 1910 national 
competition for ihe best designed and executed con- 
crete factory. It was the first of four buildings erected 
by us for this Company, without competition, the others 
beinj? : an 8-8tory warehouse 60x90 feel; a 9-story 
addition, 120 x 100 feet, to the main warehouse: and an 
8-story factory. 80 x 140 feet, occupied by the Hartford 
Suspension Co , an allied concern. 



R. J. Reidpath & Son, Architects 
Turner Construction Co., Contractor 

Paper Warehouse of Ailing & Cory, ^|^R 
Buffalo, N. Y. ; 6 stories and basement, I83x 
54 feet, with wing 1 00 x 65 feet ; floor load, 300 
lbs. per square foot. A beautiful example 
of the artistic effects to be had by using brick 
panel walls with structural steel frame and 
reinforced concrete interior construction. 




STRUCTURAL CONCRETE 



TURNER, 



KD 



©im- 



ipsiiny 



Branch Office, Prudential Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. 



THE two buildings shown above 
refute the idea that concrete is a 
material in which pleasing effects cannot 
be realized. Even were brick panel 
walls not used, these buildings would 
be architecturally attractive. And the 
brick panels add the touch of color 
needed to soften the white of the con- 
crete. The use of structural concrete 
instead of structural steel not only re- 
duced the cost of these buildings, but 
also hastened their completion besides 
resulting in a more durable, fire-proof 
construction. 



I 



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i^VA^Kr^^l8m^^*l>i^^l>ir^^lfe^>^<f^V'.■ M ^^^Wl 



-y»,Y»./». /»ir»v;'»v». /», (-1, /'»." 



XXXll 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 







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There is no Question ! 



as to the Economy, Effi- 
ciency and Durability of 




GORTON 

Self - Feeding 

BOILERS 

The ratings are absolutely 
guaranteed The reservoir 
feeds the coal to the fire 
as required. 



In use over quarter century, giving the best 
of service, and apparently as good to-day 
as when first installed. Why ? 

ASK FOR COPY "HEATING CATALOG" 

GORTON & LIDGERWOOD CO. 

96 LIBERTY STREET - NEW YORK 



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Select the ''Quality" Range 




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''E were recently asked why the BRAM- 

HALL DEANE range costs more than 

some others. The answer is, that it is worth 

more. For one thing the materials of which 

our ranges are made are the very best and the most 

costly. ARMCO Iron costs more than ordinary 

iron, but it also lasts longer. Coal, wood, gas, heat 

and ashes all contain sulphur — a very corrosive 

agent. Alternate heating and cooling hurry the 

rusting process in ranges. AR.MCO Iron resists 

these attacks better 

than any other sheet RPAMHAI I 
metal because of its purity, its evenness and DI\/\i'inrVL(L/, 
uniform quality. It is the best material for the r-v r-< « x t i-< /-</-v 
vital parts of a stove. DLANL CO. 



Resists Rust 
We Use It 



We add the best workmanship to the best 
materials. The result is the best range. 
Catalog Waiting for You 



261 West 36th St. 
NEW YORK 



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THE BRICKBVILDER 



XXXlll 




•jEffiSi-FWDi-ILM'- 



'I|Sl-FL®l:fM- 



(iKNF:llAI, Idea nf nhnt niir llciitiiia Hii<>>'jn<'iiticm> 
I- ro\er mnv Im- hiwl l>> roferrilitf In our d'hiTlinrnii'iil in 
I- DiTcmlxT ili'ijc of TH K HICICK ItVI M>KK 
I'hf Kfl****) G«'nPr«lor in Ihi* pliin nlioMn here, uill 
..livtT nlKHit l)4.finf) nihil' fi-cl <ir frr»h air ryrrii /i<.iir 
Wi' \\\\\ Klnillt M'nH ilr-lniU-'l hi'iilinu p*iH><'iflcnlinn« nnil 
ill piirl u-iiiiir-* fur this lii.wtrit on rcHini'iit rrom jou, 

HE f^E.L5L 



WARM Am GLnLRATOR 

SYRACUSE, N. Y. 




CHICAGO 

2767 Lincoln Avenue 



NEW YORK 
1n:iA Park Ave 



XXXIV 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



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A Radiator Valve 
That Can^t Leak 

You will run across many valves that are really 
not supposed to leak, but this is the one type of 
valve we know of that si/np/y can't leak. 

Detroit Packless X'alves can be specified with 
positive assurance that your client will be abso- 
lutely free from the troubles that arise where 
ordinary valves are installed. 

It is for that reason that Detroit Packless Valves 
are to-day being specified in some of the finest 
office buildings, hotels, apartment houses, manu- 
facturing plants, residences, hospitals and public 
buildings. 

DETROIT PACKLESS 
RADIATOR VALVES 

are positive insurance against stained and dis- 
colored walls and ceilings, loose plaster, spoiled 
rugs, floors, furniture and decorations. 

They are absolutely tight — and they will 
always stay tight. 

Their first cost is the whole cost. They do not 
have to be repacked at frequent intervals at con- 
siderable expense for labor — they prevent the 
damage which comes from leaking and eliminate 
the necessity of redecorating and making repairs. 

And they give permanent satisfaction because 

they are a i^ood valve and a handsome %<alve. 

Complele information on llie uihject of' radiator f allies 
will gladly be sent on request. Ast: for booklet I '-//. 

D etroit I ubricator C ompany 




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9. >iss$ss/sm^ssfmsi:issms!ssss:ms$mmm:sm!!^^ 



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LARGE EVERGREENS 
FOR JANUARY PLANTING 

EVKKGKKKNS can be mort' valuable than walls. They frame the 
hcMiNe an*! connect it with theKroundH. The> are a better windbreak 
than a wall. 'I'he.v shut otT the street or diHagreeable surroundines 
and unite the home landscape with the liewt in the di>4tan<-e. You have 
wanted e\erKreen etfects: but vou have nnt wanted tn wait for nmall trees 
to Krow up. We liave quant it ief» of evergreens that will save 10 years of 
euch wailinK. KtKit pruned. Krow n wid*? apart: guaranteed to (trow satis- 
factorily. or if not a«tisfa<'torj when received return at our expense. 
The coMl of di^ginK holes through the froBt for Winter planting can be 
deducted from our bill \\ hat could he fairer'.' Mulch the ground now 
to pre\etil d»'cper fn*e/.ing. White Pines up to *i.*> feet; Keil Ce<lar. 25 
feet: Hemlock. 12 feet : Nordmann s Fir. 30 feet: 
Hetinospora 1.') feet . Colorado Blue Spruce. 12 feet; 
and DoughtN Spruce. 11 feet 

Send for new <-atalog on Winter Kvergreen Planting. 
It tells you how to plant your landscape without buy- 
ing trees, Kather an interesting alternative, don't 
.^nu think r 




Jjicks irec^s 

Isaac Hicks fe'Son 

Westburu . Long Isleind 



USEFUL BOOKS 

ON HOUSE DESIGN 

This collection of books considers nearly every type of 
residence that the architect is called upon to design. Each 
consists of a group of designs rendered in pen and ink and with 
complete floor plans, ranging in number from fifty to one hun- 
dred, which have been submitted in recent competitions con- 
ducted by The Brickbvilder. There are also many illustrations 
of completed houses with their floor plans and interesting 
articles dealing with construction, superintendence, and other 
duties of the architect in the class of house of which the indi- 
vidual books treat. The titles are as follows : 

Number One — A House of Brick to cost $10,000. 
Number Two — The Brick House of Moderate Cost. 
Number Three — A House of Brick to cost $4,000. 
Number Four — A Brick Bungalow to cost $3,000. 
Number Five — The Double House of Hollow Tile. 
Number Six — A Hollow Tile House to cost $6,000. 
Number Seven — The Hollow Tile Bungalow to cost 
$4,000. 

Any or all of these books will be sent prepaid upon receipt 
of price — fifty cents per volume. 

Rogers and Manson Company 

Architectural Publishers 

85 Water Street Boston, Mass. 






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THE BRICKBVILDER 



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LUXFKR 
Daylights All Dark Spaces 

Stores, office buildings, basements and every other place where 
Daylight is considered an asset— LUXFER is installcd.CArch- 
itects are daily demonstrating the adaptability of LUXFER to 
meet all Daylighting problems by installing Luxfer Basement 
Lights, Skylights, Transom Lights, Floorlights, Vault Lights, 
etc-CLet us help you meet your present Daylighting problem 
— our Daylighting Experts are at your service. WRITE. 

AMERICAN Luxfer Prism company 



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Chicago — Heyworth Bldg. 
BoBton — 49 Federal Streel 
Cleveland — 419-20 Citizens' Bldg. 
Detroit — Builders' Exchange 
Duluth — 310 W. Michigan Street 
Kansas City — 909-10 N. Y. Life Bldg. 
Milwaukee — ^ Stroh Bldg. 
Minneapolis — 1137 Plymouth Bldg. 



New York — 507 W. Broadway 
New Orleans — 904 Hennen Bldg. 
i'hiladelphia — 411 Walnut Street 
Hochesler — 38 Exchange Street 
Dallas— Builder*" Exchange 
San Francisco — 445-47 Turk Streel 
Los Angeles — 1835 S. Main Streel 
St. Paul — 365 University Ave. 



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ROOF AND DECK 
CLOTH 



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Lay It On the Dry Boards ! 

Bayonne is laid directly upon the dry boards. There 
is no troublesome and expensive setting in wet paint 
— no buckling, as with ordinary canvas. A hand- 
some, perfectly smooth job is assured, at a smaller 
cost for laying- 

This material is specially treated with a water- 
proof compound that enables it to withstand all sorts 
of weather and temperature changes without leaking 
or deterioration. 

The unusual serviceability and attractiveness of 
Bayonne for porch floors and roofs, sleeping veran- 
das, open air pavilions, etc. , has led to its adoption 
by architects and builders for many 
important operations. 
Send for Sample Book "S" giving 
prices and laying instructions. 




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JOHN BOYLE & COMPANY, Idc 

112-114 Duanc St., 70-72 Reade St. 
NEW YORK CITY 



202-204 Market St 
ST. LOUIS 





Ailiiiin 

Atlanta 

Haltiin»re 

KirminKliu'K 

KoRtoti 



Huffalo 

L'hiraKo 

Cincinnati 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Dallas 

Davtiin 

Denver 

Detroit 

Duluth 

(ialveston 

lIiiUKhlun 

HoUKtr^n 



IndianapoliH 

KanHA.H City 

Los Angeles 

Louisville 

Menit>bis 

Milwaukee 

Minneapolis 

Newark 

New Orleans 

New York 

Omaha 

I'hiladelphia 

PitUburgh 



Portland 

KiK-hexler 

.St Louis 

M Paul 

Salt Lake City 

San Franc iwo 

Seattle 

.Svrai use 

T..le<l" 

WashiuKtiin 

Wilkesbarre 

Younsstown 



THE CANADIAN H. W. JOHNS-MANVILLK CO., LTD. 
Toronto Montreal Winnipeu Vancouver 2717 



XXXV 



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Consider the Advantages to 
Your Client of a Central Heating 
System for a Group of Buildings 



i Central Heating Systems ) 



This is made possible through the use of J-iVI 
Sectional Conduit. 

Steam can be transmitted long distances iiil/i pnuti- 
cally no iondenuition, permitting the entire plant to be 
heated from a central station. This means more 
efficient and more economical operation as regards 
both upkeep and labor, and it lowers the insurance rate 
for the entire plant. 

Also a big yearly saving may be effected by using all 
the exhaust steam for heating purposes. 

^ SECTIONAL 
CONDUIT 

is easy to install. It is of specially made tile and 
comes in half sections, with rough edges making a 
waterproof cemented joint. The upper half may be 
removed for further pipe installations without the 
slightest damage to conduit. 

The supporting tee sections enclose a roll frame pipe 
support, set in concrete, which takes all movement 
stress and allows no weight to rest on the conduit. 

Perfect insulation is assured by the use of J-M 
Conduit tilling. 

Your further investigation is invited. 

Write our nearest branch for detailed 
information and catalogue No. 112 

H. W. JOHNS-MANVILLE CO. 

Manufaclurert of Aibestot Shinalet. Roofinci. Stucco, Pipv Cov«rin(a. 
Cold Storaue Insulation, Waterproofing. Sanitary Sp«cialtie«. Acous- 
tical Correction, Cork Tiling, ate. 



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THE BRICKBVILDER 



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At-:'^. A. 







ORNAMENTAL 
GRILLES 



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EMa^MBii^ 



Radiator Enclosures 

and 

Special Design Registers 

for 

HEATING and VENTILATION 

Executed by 

Tuttle & Bailey Mfg. Co. 

76 Madison Avenue, N. Y. 

( E»tablUhed 1846) 

Send for our New Architect's Catalogue of Special 
Designs, No. 66A, arranged in groups covering the dif- 
ferent periods of architecture and containing 80 designs 



H 









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The CUTLER MAIL CHUTE 

COMPANY is 
giving a service 
based on over thirty 
years of experi- 
ence — ample facili- 
ties — a competent 
organization, and 
which meets strin- 
gent official require- 
ments in a manner 
completely elimi- 
nating trouble and 
liability for patent infringement — all at 
figures as moderate as the high quality 
of the work will permit. 

ARCHITECTS who, for any reason, lack full infor- 
mation on all or any of the points involved, should 
address the sole makers under the Cutler patents; or a 
regularly appointed a);ent will call on request. 




Cutler Mail Chute Co. 

Cutler Building Rochester, n. Y. 

♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 



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11 Floors of Metal Lumber 



The erection of tlie new eleven 
story Kenkert Building in Can- 
ton, Ohio, marked a new epoeli 
in the history of skyscraper 
construction, as Merger's pressed 
s tee 1 joists 

Berger's 



were used 

t b r o u g li o u t 

for tlie Hoor 

eonstruction 

and installed 

inseven weeks. 

The total area 

was 112,000 square feet and the 

building since completion has 

been regarded by architects. 

contractors and engineers as a 

model for strength and fire- 

jiroofing igualities. 



I >o you know tliat ISi-rgerV 
Metal Lumber pressed steel 
members withstand greater 
loads under high temperature 
than rolled steel members of 
greater sizes 




and weight '.' 
Do you know 
that Metal 
Lumber costs 
considerably 
less than any 
other system 
of fireproof construction and 
affords greater fire resistance'.' 
Why not send to-day forour cat- 
alog and look into our Metal 
Lumber Construction'.' The facts 
will interest you. 



The Berger Mfg. Co., Canton, Ohio 



nearest l-rattih 

BoHton San Kraociu'- 

Ciuciiinati 



h or the i'est sen' ice adjress tin- 
New York Philadelphia Minneapolis 

St. Louis Chieago 

Also inanufaeiurers of Prong Lock Studs and Furring, Rib-Trus, h'err.f- 
Lithic and Multifler Reinforcing Plates. Steel Ceilings, Expanded Met,ii 
l,atk, Side^valk Forms, Raydiant Sideivalk Lights, etc. 

F.x/<orl Dftinrtmint. nth Ave. and 22d Street, New )'ork City 






x'SS«*!i&;S««*«^*SiS!!S«8i*«$S«iSS^^ 






Vccii;&^j:;&^.v.,;iv>!.cV.^SS:i;;v,.. 



v..\^-,v>.;.;n~\\x»>;«*~^!s; ^ ^- 



THE BRICKBXMLDER. 



xxxvu 



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A Great Truth 
DRIVEN HOME 
to a Great Man ! 

1 lie day after his factories were swept 
by fire,' THOMAS A. T'.DISON said : 

"The hij); lesson of this tire has been tlie 
vakie of concrete construction. J\lv IniilcHnj^s 
are j^utted, hut there they stand ready for 
refitting. 

"One error revealed was in not using STEEL WINDOW SASHES AND TRIM and wired 
glass that withstands great heat. WE WILL CERTAINLY HAVE TO USE THAT 
FINISH HENCEFORTH." 

It is obvious to all who argue against the additional initial cost of hollow steel 
trim that Mr. Edison's enormous plant and thousands of men and their families 
are now at a complete standstill for no other reason than that his buildings were 
not equipped with this material. Would not Mr. lulison and the community 
at large be the gainers if the little additional money had been spent in the 
beginning ? 

What is true of Mr. Edison's in this instance may also be true of any plant, be 
it commercial, office or public building, and in such cases the loss occasioned 
by every day of idleness must be balanced against the small additional cost 
necessary to prevent such a loss. 

No building is complete without doors, windows antl trim, and no building, no 
matter how fireproof otherwise, ever was or ever can be absolutelv tiJ-ep7-(jof\\\'\\c'i>'i> 
its DOORS, WINDOWS and TRIM consist of fireproof material ! 

DAHLSTROM HOLLOW METAL DOORS, WINDOWS and TRIM are 

fireproof in reality^ and their use in Mr. Eldison's buildings would lia\ e ellectually 
prevented the fire from spreading from floor to floor, and from building to 
building. THE DAHLS1;R0M PRODUCTS make an otherwise fire-pro- 
tected building absolutely fireproof a?id 
fire-safe. 

In planning and constructing your build- 
ings profit by Mr. Edison's experience 
— Don't gamble with fate and run the 
risk of having the truth driven home to 
you in a like manner. Our experts can 
assist you, and will do so gladly upon 
request. 



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Dahlstrom Metallic Door Company 

Executive Offices and Plant 
88 Blackstone Avenue, JAMESTOWN, N. Y. 

Branches and Represeniatioes in all Principal Cities 



ntimnm 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 




The Decorators Supply 1 1 

Company, Chicago || 

I $ 

DESIGNERS AND MAKERS OF I | 









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Composition 
Electric 
Lighting 
Fixtures 



^FACTORY AND SHOWROOMS 

2547 ARCHER AVENUE 

Catalog Sent to Architects Only 








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MODEL FOR STONE KEY 

First National Bank, Freinout. Ohio 

Walker & Weeks, Architects 



The Fischer & Jiroiich Co. 

Decorative Sculptors 
Cleveland 






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XXXIX 






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Eye Comfort, "" the 
Right Light 

Because the "Eye Comfort" System of 
lighting from concealed sources involves 
the correct practice as well as the most 
advanced scientific principle of illumina- 
tion it is distinguished from all other vSO- 
called indirect and semi-indirect methods. 

It is now recognized that Indirect Liohting is the cor- 
rect principle, and it has been demonstrated that effi- 
ciency can be obtained only through the use of X-Ray 
Reflectors. The Reflectors are constructed in accord- 
ance with laws of light and are used in the "flye 
Comfort" System exclusively. 

By the use of X-Ray Reflectors full illumination is 
secured without loss of current, and a scientific dif- 
fusion of the light rays is provided. 
The "Eye Comfort" System has been perfected under 
direction of Augustus D. Curtis, who has from thehrst 
been the leader in the development of Indirect Lighting. 

We are Engineers, Originators, 
Educatoi's and Manufacturers 

Our Architects' Portfolio standardizes lighting speci- 
fications. It is sent free to architects and engineers. 
To others the price is $S a copy. We publish many 
other books and pamphlets relative to the correct 
lighting of hospitals, schools, hotels, churches, offices, 
homes and public buildings of all kinds. Write to 
us for literature explaining the kind of lighting in 
which you are interested. 

We construct lighting fixtures to conform to archi- 
tectural requirements, and our engineering departnuiit 
is always glad to co-operate with architects if they 
will send us their blue prints before wiring, as any 
change is expensive after plastering is done. 

National X-Ray Reflector Com pan v 

243 W. Jackson Boulevard, Chicago 
New York Office: Craftsman Bldc, 4 E. 39th Street 



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The Lintc Iliratrc. \cu ^ 
Li^hied with Krink Rcficcior'. 
and J-M l.inoliir I.ainps 



iLirr\ Crriehiun Inealt" 

^(..1 V. Burrall Huffman. Jr. 

A<^uctatrd Architrcl* 



T TNiyi'K and heautiful effects lan he 
^-^ ohtained hythe architect who specifies 

Frink and J M Linolite 
Systems of Lighting 

(Adapted for either J-M Linolite or 
standard base lamps) 

Equally adapted for exterior or interior 
illumination. Produce a splendid light 
diffusion of even intensity. There is no 
glare, for no filaments are visihle. There 
is no eye strain. Appro\ing comment is 
heard on every side. 

Havingspecialized in the design and man- 
ufacture of scientifically correct fi.vtures for 
over half a century we are ahle to place 
at your disposal the information we have 
gained h\ long experience. 

You are invited to avail yourself of the 
services of our engineering department. 

Write our nearest office for 
" Frink and J-M Linolite Catalog" 

H. W. JOHNS'MANVILLE GO. 

Sole Selling Agents for Frink Products 

Maniifaclurers of Asbestn-i Sliintjlcs. Roofings. Stur<-o. Pip* Cover 
ings. Cold Storage Insulation. Walerpr<M>Hng. Sanitary .Spei'ialtie-^ 
Acoustical Correvtion. Cork Tiling etc. 



Akron Colunibu.s 

Allinny I). ill as 

Atlanta Diivlim 

Haltimore Denver 

HirmiiiKli.iTii Uetroit 

Koston Diilntli 

IfuflTalo (jalveston 

Chicago Houghton 

Cincinnati Houston 




KnnsiiH ( 

I. OS ,\ni;rles I'nrllanil 
Cleveland Indianapolis Louisville K'xhester 
Memiihis 



Milwaukee St. Louis 

Minneapolis Si Paul 
Newark Salt Lake City 

New Orleans .San Francisco 
New York Seattle 
Omaha SMaiuse 

Philadelphia T"l<-'1i' 
Pitlshurgh W ' 



THK CANADIAN H W. JOHN.S-MANVILLK CO. LIMITKD 



Toronto 



Montreal 



Winnipeg 



Vancouver 



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How Inconsistent Most Plumbing Tests Are! 



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The Donovan Water Sealed and 
Self-Testing Closet Flange cor- 
rects the only weak spot in the 
plumbing field. Connects with 
lead or direct to iron pipe. 




This flange was designed to correct the un- 
sanitary method of connecting an earthenware 
fixture to the drainage system with putty. A 
very inconsistent action after testing all other 
joints with water. Its construction compels the 
flow of water to test the joint at each flush of 
the fixture, saving cost of final air test, which 
only determines condition at that time. 

As leakage of water indicates a defective joint, 
it compels attention until made tight. 

As all parts of flange must he used, there can 
be no unfair competition. 



The prominence of the two sets of nuts, one to 
secure the fixture in a rigid position, the other 
to compress the packing, makes it ob\ious that 
a perfect water sealed joint has been installed. 

To insure safe construction, architects are now 
specifying water closets with this feature, and 
municipalities should demand that all earthen- 
ware traps not practicable to install before rough 
test should be connected to drainage system 
with a " water sealed and self-testing joint." 

SESl) FOR DOXOl'JS FLJXGE BOOKLET 



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THE TRENTON POTTERIES COMPANY 



TRENTON, NEW JERSEY 
U. S. A. 






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Heart of the Oak— 

The 'NEVER spur Closet Seat 

Strength and durability proved by its solid steel- 
bolted construction and clinched by a five-year 
guarantee. The only seat when the best is 
wranted. Fully illustrated catalog for a post card. 



rvfEVER SPLIT Seat /p, 






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SSS«8iSSSS8iSSSSS«S8S«SSiS!^^ 

Improved Sectionfold Partitions 







KuU size model in Architect s Sample Company's Room. :01 Park 
.■\ venue. N. Y,. showiriK various Panels, Shuttle Door, etc. 

Adapted for Churchea, Schools, Y. M. C. A. Buildings, Audi- 
toriums. Assembly Halls, Indoor Playgrounds, Ball 
Rooms. Gymnasiums. Bungalows, etc. 

THK doors constitutinK partitions are made in all woods and finishes, 
veneers on white pine cores. Doors may be of any heisht and thick - 
ne.ss. and anv width, as reciuired. Panels may be of jtlass or slale. use- 
ful forschools. A Shuttle l>oor may be plared anywhere In the partition. 

The rtoor action for the Improved Sectionfold Foldinti Partitions 
.saves time, labor, and expense of steel frame necessary to inaccessible 
overhead hanKers. avoids settlingr and misalignment, Sectionfold 
accessibility of action and ease of erection permit the replacing of old 
partitions with Improved Sectionfold Folding Partitions, quickly and 
ine.\pensivelv, in old of new buildings, 

lilrected per Sectionfold standard details, or modified to meet exist- 
ing conditions, or after architects' designs and details. 

The Folding Partition Co., Inc. 

I I'at.-m Applir,! I'cri 

507 Fifth Ave. at 42d St., New York, N. Y. 

Telephone Murray Hill 6475 Factory : RIDGWAY. PA. 

S«SJSSSSS*SS*SiS«SS«SS««SSSS«S«SSiSSS5««S«5SS^^ 



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THE B R I C K B \' I L D E R . 



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Federal Building, Chicago 

The men who designed and constructed this build- 
ing and the many other buildings where 

GOULDS PUMPS 

are installed appreciate the high quality of Goulds 
Pumps and the satisfactory long time service which 
they give. If you want guaranteed pump service, 
all you need do is specify Goulds. W^rite our 
nearest office for pump data. 

THE GOULDS MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

Main Office and Works: SENECA FALLS, NEW YORK 

Branch Houses : 
BOSTON. NEW YORK. ATLANTA, CHICAGO, HOUSTON 



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My name is RELIANCE 

I am BALL BEARING 

DOOR 

If you want the UAMnTD 
best, this is the HAINbtK 

RELIANCE BALL BEARING 
DOOR HANGER COMPANY 

30 EAST 42D STREET ■ NEW YORK 



Can be used 
any sliding.. 



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\bur copy i 



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for 



you 



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Fill ou< 

and mail 

ihe coupon- 

attaching it 

to your 

letter-K(?ad.. ^ 

AsK for exira copifs, if you wish, for ^rour 

draujjhfsmcn-we shall be ^lad to serultlu?m tojtou. 



WESTERN ELECTRIC COMPANY 

Manufaclurert of ihe 8,000.000 ■'Btll" Trirphonrt 

463 We»t Street, New York City 



Hows •> Al Pracval >.M> d ih. 




N^^^yWftWWMHWMIMMK 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 









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Corrosion 

I h W1^1*^#^d f cb-opeIThearth 

J. A A YY CI J. VXZ\X • 3i po„^ . c ^.^^^,^^0 

Corrosion, the enemy of sheet metal, has been 
successfully conquered. If you specify for 

Copper Bearing Open Hearth Roofing Tin 

manufactured by this Company, corrosion \\ ill be robbed of its prey. 
The Copper alio}' insures the stoutest resistance against corrosion. 

This Comfiany mill exhibit at San Francisco fe(l915)<) '" <*'' Palace of Mines and Metallurgy 

American Sheets Tin Plate CompaH[ 

General Offices :Frick Building, Pittsburgh,Pa. 



Chicago Cincinnati 



DISTRICT SALES OFFICES _== 

Detroit New Orleans New York Philadelphia Pittsburgh St. Louis 



Denver 
Export Representatives: Unitkd States Stekl Products Company. New York City- 
Pacific Coast Representatives: United States Steel Products Company. San Francisco. Los Aneeles. Portland. Seattle 



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DENVEH CITY THAMWAY BUILDING. DENVER 

Mortar Colored with Cabot'a Mortar Colors 

W, K. <£■ A. A. Fither. Architects. Denver H'hitney-Steen Co., liuildera 

* Cabot's Mortar Colors, which were need In the faeint; up of the brickwork 
of the Denver City Tramway Co.'b office building Jind car barnn . . . proved 
to be very aatiafactory to as in every way. and we do not know of any miperior 
colors on the market. We alno used the same material on the residence for 
Mr. C. S. Morey. which likewise ()roved very Matisfactory " 

Denver, April 25. 1912. W . K. & A. A. Fisher, ArchitecU. 

Ct^X^^k^m Maw4-a>i> P:m.Im.«« HtroDff. LaKllriB, roiroroi, tasT to Mix. For more 
l^aOOl 8 mOnar l^OlOrS than 30 year^ Calwfe Mortar Colors (in paste 
form) have been favored by those who realize that the only true economy in 
mortar-coloring is to use strong, lat^iting uniform colors and pay the price — 
because those qualities cannot be had in cheap colors and there is no cure for 
an uneven, faded color except by the costly method of repointing or painting. 
Cabot's Colors are made on this principle — and are cheap in the end. 

r**L-A'« r^AVMn MWAA^iMj* Makes a perfect and permanent bond between 
LabOt S Uamp-prOOting piaster and brick, stone or concrete walls, 
and protects delicate stone from cement mortar discoloration. 

Cabot's Waterproof Brick Stains ;:';'^ll''f,V"Kor!;'';"iKou?"^o°'i'' 

iiiK the texture. Uives a uatura) brick t«ine to faded or discolored brick, and 
dofs not crack or peel. .^Iso macie coIorlesH. for waterproofing only. 
Full informatiun srjit on retiufst 

SAMUEL CABOT, INC., Manufacturing Chemists 

1133 Bro.dw.T. NEW YORK BOSTON 24 W. Kiiuit Street. CHICAGO 

Cftbot'a Creosote Stains Cabot's Quilt, etc. 



Stained Shingles Look Better 
and Last Longer 

WF, select Cedar Shingles, thoroug^hly seasoned and dried, 
treat them scientifically, so that each shingle is thoroughly 
preserved against dry rot, worms and decay. We use finest earth 
pigments (no aniline dyes) ground twice in Linseed Oil, then 
mixed with Creosote Oil. The result is 



"CREO-DIPT" 



STAINED 
SHINGLES 



ITC.rade 



.'1-inch. Ml Difffifiu C..1. ,1 







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We are responsible 
for both quality of 
shingles and stain. 

They last twice as 
long as brush-coated or 
natural wood, cost less 
and save all the nuiss 
of staining on the job. 
Dor exclufive procett in- 
tures even stains and even 
colors that will not fade 
or wash out in streaks. 

'["his excellent illus- 
tration of the use of 
"Creo-Dipt" Shingles 
is especially gratifying 
since the Architect 
repeatedly specifies 
their use. 

He remarks that his confidence in "Creo-Dipt" Shingles is 
especially strong since on his home 18-inch Perfection Shingles 
on the side walls were laid 8 inches to the weather and show no 
signs of curling, as is often noticed in other shingles. 

Write for Sample Color Pad showiiiE Stains on Wood, and our Catalog 
that shows houses in alt pans of the country, buiti by prominent architects. 

Standard Stained Shingle Co. i^^SN^ir/NDrN-V 



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■ of Architect Jaino H. Ritcliie 
Newton Outer. Matis. 
Roof, one coiur; siilc walK. anuther 






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NOVENTO 

Wdter Proof 
-Sheaihinq Paper 



Use Alkali-Proof Paper Under Stucco 

It is just as important that sheathing paper lie alkah-proof as \\atorprt)()f when used under stucco, because any paper 
which cannot resist the action of the alkali in stucco soon loses its stren^'th and disintegrates, thus permittinc moisture to 
reach the sheathing boards and cause them to warp and rot. 

Prevent this by using Hydrex-NOVENTO Waterproof Sheathing Paper — a sturdy, extra heavy felt-paper, which besides 
being waterproofed through and through is COATKD on both surfaces with a weather-, water- and AI.K AI,l-proof com- 
pound. It has the further improvement of a soapstone Hnish on w eather side \\hich is an additional protection to the material. 

It contains no tar or acids to corrode v\irc lath, nails, tin or other metal. Costs but a few dollars more for the average 
house than tar paper or the ordinary absorbent building paper. 

For absolute protection and permanency, specify Hydrex-NOX'KNTO Waterproof Sheathing Paper. 



THE HYDREX FELT & ENGINEERING CO. 



People's Gas BUIk. 
Chicago 



K. C. Life BldK'. 
Kansas City 



120 Liberty Street, New York ilrrFram';.'; 



Kaclnries : 
Kiihwny. N. J. 



Also maker!, of Hvdn\x-SA.\/ F/.Ok' Siiinuinradrning Felt. HYDKEX Walerptonfing Felt, HVnRF.X Comtxn'ini. HVnUF.K I'resei-salive I'MST. IIVHRFX 

Ifatei-proo/ Canvas, Hydrex-FI.VVI SOX Roofings. F.I,. 



Keeiies(emeht) 



The Plaster Par Excellence 
Sanitary and Permanent 



[Keenes(enent) 










II 

%j yy 



KeEH£S(EMEHT) 



Si. Vincent'* Hoipilal, Birmingham, Ala. 

iTi Ihf l•(Jn^ttucli<m ol wliicli llcsl Bt«>. K<-<rni-v Irmcnl »J> u-r.l cMrii- 
T. N. Waltern. Archilrct. 



Perfect sanitation, the great desideratum 
in hospital construction, is difficult to obtain 
with ordinary plaster. 

Besi Bros. 
Keenes Cemeni 

The Plaster That stands 
Hard Knocks 

Insures perfect sanitation, as there is no 
scaling off of fine dust and no chipping 
through wear or contact. In addition, it 
is the most permanent of plasters. 

.S(>t(f l\Y iiio^l ilniln <i 

The Best Bros. 
Keene's Cement Company 

Etlabliahed I8H9 

DEPT. R. MEDICINE LODGE, KANSAS 

NEW YORK < Hl( A<.() 






«IMWMW«WIMNMMNMIW^^ 




« » i t mmmm 



JWIMWMINMMMII » -^ 



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THE BRICKBVILDER 



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Ripolin Enamel Paint 

used in buildings for 
permanent investment 

Look at the upper illustration — it 
is a handsome apartment house at 
1100 Lake Shore Driv^e, Chicago. 
Ripolin was used not only for the 
interior but also for exterior trim, 
cornices, shutters, window frames, 
and the blinds are green Ripolin. 

\Mien the exterior woodwork accumulates 
dust or soot, it is simply washed with water 
and the Ripolin comes up fresh and white 
as new. Instead of repainting, simple 
cleaning is all that Ripolin ever needs — 
permanent discoloration is not possible. 

While we are on Lake Shore Drive it is inter- 
estinji^to note that the white hreakerson the Drive, 
recently painted with two domestic enamels, have 
just heen done over w ith Ripolin. When it he- 
came apparent that early repaintinj^ would be 
necessary, some one went carefully into the subject 
of durability and permanence. Hence, the choice 
of Ripolin. 

Some reasons why Ripolin is the enamel paint for 

real economy : 

It outwears all others. Its luster never dims and the tough sur- 
face resists blows or vibration. It has remarkable coverinE 
capacity — 20 to 259' greater than anj' other enamel. 
It flows freely, enabling the painter to do a better 
job in quicker time. 

Ripolin comes in a high gloss, 
like glass, in a soft eggshell 
finish, or perfectly flat. Any 
desired tint may be obtained by 
mixing pure color ground in 
Japan with white Ripolin. 








Note Seal on the Can 



Tliree 

Ap:irtment Houses 

.-It 1550 North .'^t.-ite St. 

I-ake Shore Drive .and Division St. 

and UW Lake Shore Drive. Chicago. 

Marshall & Kox. Architects. 
Ripolin used — inside and out — in all three buildinsrs. 



J. A. & W. BIRD & CO. 

Disliihiilers of Kipolin for I 'nited Stales and Canada 

99 PEARL ST. 74 beaver ST., new york 

BOSTON, MASS. 667 people's gas bldg.. Chicago 



livery bit of information you 'wish will be found in the " Specification Booklet'' sent you in the Ripolin Purple 
Portfolio fir yrntr files, ff you have not received it, a postal -will bri)ig it. Also Ripolin Specifications 

7cill be found in S-<vref s fndc.x. pa^e 1SS5 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 





To the Architect who 
Specializes 

Whether it be Office Buildings ^ 
Private Dwellings ^ Stores, Hotels, 
Theatres, Churches, or any other 
special kind of structure. 

A Request 

Let us compile for you an 
indixidual portfolio of li^htin^* 
glassware and fixturesespecially 
adapted to your line of work. 

This will gi\'e you a \'ery 
concise, convenient reference 
— and a \'ery complete one too, 
for we make e\'ery known kind 
of lighting glassware in almost 
exery form. 

We are constantly sending 

^^;/^/v//catalogues to arch itects, 

but we feel that an individual 

portfolio like this will be of 

especial value and convenience. 

Please write us, stating the lines 

of architecture in which you are 

interested. 

Macbeth -Ex'ans Glass Co 
Pittsburgh 

Sales and Show rooms also in New York, Chicago 

Philadelphia. St. I.ouis, Boston, Cineiiiiiati 

.San Francisco, Dallas, Cleveland 

Macbeth-Evans Glass Co Ltil Toronto 




CiHjgjgfammjgjgjErarsjz/gjargCTgmjEefgjEJHmjHjgjHfajzEJHjajEJHJHmmjgjE^ 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



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S SS Si 5SS!SSi!««SSiSi^$SS«Si!«S*«!SS$8SiS{^^ 



Pomeroy Fire Retardant Windows 

Will Protect Edison's Rebuilt Plant 

On the night of December 9th, 1 9 1 4, fire in the 
main plant of Thomas A. Edison, Inc., and asso- 
ciated companies at West Orange, N. J., de- 
stroyed or seriously damaged ! 1 buildings and 
caused a loss variously estimated at from $750- 
000 to $3,000,000. 



The "Engineering News" Says: — 

"The fire started in one of the low brick-and-timber buildings — and rapidly 
spread to the immediately adjacent low brick shops and storage houses. The 
contents of these proved such effective fuel that the fire soon spread into and 
through the reinforced concrete buildings. 

" The effect of the fire on the brick-and-timber buildings has nothing of nov- 
elty (total destruction). Every concrete building in the path of the fire was 
gutted of contents. The fire rapidly broke through the glass windows and, 
aided by the inflammable contents and w^ooden trim, soon destroyed every- 
thing except the concrete frame." 

r. Edison says: — 

" There was where our mistake lay. We had wooden sashes 
and plain glass w^indows, and the flame just swooped its 
way about. You can bet that we will now have steel sashes." 

So Pomeroy Windows Were Ordered 
And Here is the Service We Rendered 

The fire occurred on December 9th. Sunday afternoon, the 1 3th, we received the order 
for I 15 two-mullion windows — the equiveJent of 345 single Pomeroy Hollow Metal Fire 
Retardant Windows. 

Thursday, December 1 7th, the first shipment of 1 windows went forward by auto truck ; 
14 more went on Friday, the 1 8th ; 7 more on Saturday, the 19th. 

On Tuesday, December 22nd, we shipped a carload. And on Thursday, the 24th, a 
second carload completed the order. 

Eleven days to manufacture and ship I 1 5 double-mullion windows complete. 
The Edison engineers knew Pomeroy quality before. Now they know Pomeroy service. 

Pomeroy Fire Retardant Windows would have saved the 
Edison plant by confining the fire to the building in which it 
started. 

Let us send you our 1915 Catalog 

S. H. POMEROY COMPANY, i„. 



30 East 42nd Street 



New York City 







« • 




The offices of the United Fruit Company at Cristobal, Canal 
Zone, and the Depot of the Panama Railroad Company at 
Panama City, Panama, have exterior bearing walls and 
interior partitions of 

N/\TCO HOLLOVn^TILE 

The United Fruit Company's building is 87 feet long and 
64 feet wide, the Depot 166 feet long and 50 feet wide with 
a wing in the rear to the train shed 105 feet long and 
40 feet wide. 

In the Depots the columns of the main facade are of 4-inch 
NATCO Tile filled up solid with concrete. 

An incidental advantage of NATCO influential in its selection for the 
United Fruit Company's Building is the comparative light weight of this 
material, the fact that it would superimpose less load than any other form 
of masonry construction upon the 40-foot piling supporting the foundation. 

It bears witness to NATCO' S superiority, this expansion of NATCO 
construction to such far-distant territory as the Canal Zone. 



NATI0^4AL• FIRE PRQDFING- COMPANY 



Pittsburgh 



New York 



Chicago 



Boston 



THE BARTA PRESS, BOSTON 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



XXI 



The Predominant Material for Churches 



Hy-tex 

The Standard 
of Quality 
in Brick 



special Competition Note — 

Members of the architectural pro- 
fession who are interested in the 
Hy-tex Brickbuilder Competition 
for 1915 cannot serve themselves 
better than by securing one of our 
special "Competition Packets" at 
once. Simply make the request, 
in person or in writing, of our 
nearest Branch Office, or write 
us here at St. Louis if you prefer. 
Extra copies of the Competition 
Program may likewise be procured. 



T^HE material of which a structure is built bears an 
^ intimate relation to the intended use of that structure. 
It is the outer garment, or indeed the body, which should 
be expressive of the inner spirit. Nowhere has this a 
more significant architectural meaning than in ecclesi- 
astical architecture. The temple of old and the church 
of our era have always demanded the most worthy and 
dignified media for expressing the outer form. 

From time immemorial two materials have been 
utilized for this lofty purpose : Stone (or Marble) and 
Brick, — really an artificial stone, — as the history of 
architecture shows, and they still remain the most appro- 
priate. Brick, like Stone, has individual distinction and 
character that lends itself to the widest possibilities of 
architectural artistry. 

But it far excels Stone in the wide range of its application. 
Stone is appropriate only for the most pretentious structures, 
while Brick is equally appropriate for these as well as for 
every type of building down to the humble cottage or bun- 
galow. That Brick lends itself admirably to the most pre- 
tentious structures, the ancient records bear striking testimony 
on the banks of the Euphrates, the Nile, and the Tiber. In 
medieval times you need but recall Milan, Pavia, Siena, Tou- 
louse, Blois, Bruges, Antwerp, Liibeck, and a hundred others 
that leap to the memory in proof that Brick, as well as Stone, is 
fit not only for chapel and cathedral but for palace or civic hall. 

In modern times the wide range of varied color and tex- 
ture in Brick offered by the manufacturer gives it an aikleil 
advantage in affording unendintj jiossibilities of pattern anil color 
in the wall surface, at once the lieli^ht and despair of the artist. 

This fact, more especially, has application to the subject 
of the present competition, "A Small Church" (see announce- 
ment on next page), where Stone would be too heavy and 
quite out of keeping. 

We therefore feel, as manufacturers of Hy-tex Brick, 
peculiarly justified in urging upon your attention The Brick- 
builder Competition of l'.tl5 for A Small Church because 
Hy-tex covers the entire range of face brick and leaves you, as an 
artist, unhindered and untrammeled, with the whole palette 
of color tones and textures for your inventive designing. 



HYDRAULIC-PRESS BRICK COMPANY 



BRASCn OFFICES AND EXHIBIT ROOMS 



SAINT LOUIS 

BAl.riMoRF. cmt^r.d. ci.KVP.i.Avn. owkvport. mmois. pa 

rOIEOO, WASHINGTON 



INDIANAP<1I.I«, 



KANSAS CITV, MINNEAPOUS, NEW YORK tITV. OMAHA. I'HII.ADF.IPMI A. 



SOMEWHERE IN THE HY-TEX LINE THERE IS JUST Till RKICK Yor WANT 






lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllillllllllllllllllllllllllll 



XXll 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



if 

Competition for a Small Brick Church and Parish House 

ii TO BE FACED WITH HY-TEX BRICK |p 

First Prize. S500 „ . Third Prize. SI 50 

Setond Prize, $250 Mentions Fourth Prize, $100 



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Competition Closes March 31, 1915 



I I seat. Proxisioii for a portion of tlie seats may l)e made in baleonius if the desigiuT so wishes. A pulpit platform 
I {} with spaee for eonnnunion table; an or{;;ni ehamber and space for chorus choir not to exceed !2() in number. Ample 
"' * \estibules are necessary. There sliall be also a minister's room convenient to the pulpit. 

Fnr the Parish House. The parish house, which is meant to provide for the Siniday school and institutional — 
or social — activities of the church, may be one or two stories. If of one story only, part of the accommodations 
re(|uired may be provided for in a basement naturally lifjhted. There shall be a Sunday-school room with six or 
f p eight small class rooms opening off the main area and separated from each other liy partitions so arranged that all 
^i may have a fairly good \iewof the platform in the Sunday-scliool room. This room, including the class rooms, 
f f .should provide a seating capacity for about 350. All the class rooms may be provided for on the main Hoor or part 
f on a me/y.anine Hoor. There should be rooms provided for the infant class and a Bible class, a Sunday-school library. 






Tins coMPiirrrioN is open to ai.i, AR<:inTK(:Ts and ARt:iiiTK<;n hai. dkmtsme-'n | ''^ 

PROGRAM i i 

TlIK problem is a small brick church, designed to be faced with Ily-tex brick and where consistent with the 
design treated with brick in the interior wall surfaces. It is especially desired that the design should show- 
generous appreciation of good brickwork, and in this connection originality in the treatment of the facing 
possibilities of the material is courted. 

While the church may be meant for any ecclesiastical body, the design should avoid mere slavish adherence to 
traditional types and reveal the serious attempt at an originality that is characteristic of the free American sjji'rit. 
It, therefore, may be adapted to any part of the United States and take on any form expressive of the Christian 
faith. The parish house must be an integral part of the composition. Its location on the lot, however, is to be at 
the discretion of the designer. The church group shall be at least 10 feet from party lines. The lot is at the ; 

intersection of two streets, having a frontage on one of 150 feet and on the other of 100 feet. The grade is level. J 

REQUIREMENTS 1 1 

For titc Church. An auditorium to seat 400, an unoijstructed \iew of the pulpit platform to be liad from everv 



a suite including ladies' parlors, dining room and kitchen, coat and toilet rooms for men and women. 

Each competitor shall specify the section of the United States in which the church is to be located. 
^ ^ The jury will give consideration to the quality of the design and its fitness for execution in brick and excellence 

of plan. 

No cubic contents are fixed and no limit of cost imposed. 

An additional value will be given to the work if the style and color of brick chosen are indicated on the drawing, 
either by a key or a series of notes printed on the sheet at a size which will permit of two-thirds reduction. II\-tex 
l)rick are manufactured by the Hydraulic-Press Hrick Company, and contestants will be helped by referring to the 
catalogues and bt)oklets issued l)y this company, which may be had upon a|)plication to any one of their branch 
offices or the home office at St. Louis (see ad<lresses on preceding page). 

CONSTRUCTION 

^Methods of bonding, anchorage, etc., as usually en)ployed in the construction of brick walls, may be followed. 
I'lie exterior walls are to be faced with brick and also the interior walls if consistent with the design. 

DRAWING REQUIRED (there is to be but one) 

On one slK-et ;i pen aiul ink pL-rspcflivc. without wash or color, ilnivvn at a scale of t feet to the incli. The l)rickwork should be in- 
ilit-atecl liberally enough on this perspective to show adeciuately the use of materials. A lonjiituilinal section throufch the church building: 
only drawn ut a scale of S feet to the inch. Main Hoor plan of church and parish house, ivlth additional plan of the l;itter showing arrange- 
ment of features not provided for on main floor, all drawn at a scale of Hi feet to the inch. Key pl:in showing treatment of the lot. Detail 
elevation of the principal fi-ature of the design at a scale of 1- feet to the inch. 'I'he plans are to be blocked in solid. All lettering should 
be de.ir .and free from scroll so as to reduce with distinctness, (iraphic scales must accompany section, details, aiul plans. The size of the 
sheet is to l)e exactly -ii inches by 'Ml inches. Plain rules must be drawn on the sheet enclosing a space measuring exactly 20 inches by 
-2(i'L' inches. The sheet is to be of white paper and is not to be mounted. \'ery thin paper or cardbo.ard is prohibited. 

The drawing is lo be signetl by a noi,i-iti<-f/liimi' or device, and accompanying same is to be a scaled envelope with the 7i(>in-ile-plvme on 
the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The ilrawing is to be delivered flat or rolled (packaged so as to prevent creasing or crushing) at the office of THK BRICKHVII.DKIJ. 
85 Water street. Hostnn. Mass., on or before March SI. liM.i. 

The I'ost Oftice Department now requires that drawings sent by mail shall be at the letter — or first class — postage rate. Those who 
wish their drawings returned, except the prize drawings, may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names 
twenty-five cents in stamps. 

Drawings submitted in this competition arc at owners' risk from time they are sent until returned, although reasonable care will be 
exercised in their handling and keeping. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of The Bkickiivii.»kh and the right is reserved by Thk Bhk Kiivii.nKri to publish or 
exiiibit any or all of the others. 

Drawings submitted in this competition will be returned direct from the oflfiee of '1'iik Hiiukiivii.dkk to the contestants. 

The designs will be judged by five members of the architectural profession representing ditt'erent sections of the country. 

For the design placed first there nitl be given a prize of $500 For the design pieced third a prize of $150 

l-'or the design placed second a prize of $250 For the design placed fourth a prize of $100 

The next six designs in order of merit >vill be given Mentions 

The prize and mention drawings will be published in The Hkh kiivii.dkk. 

This competition is conducted under the patronage of the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company. 



CONTENTS for FEBRUARY 1915 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

ASSOCIATION BUILDING, YOUNG WOMEN'S HEBREW, 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 
BANK, HARTFORD NATIONAI , HARTFORD, CONN. 




- I ^ ■■■III 1 1 Ta ' ^" ~*' — 



rjji^^'^'--7^^''''^v;y>''-^''/TO''-gi^^;T . 




BRICKB^ALaEJ. 



.V 






NUMBER 2 



Architect 

Louis Allen Abratmon 
Donn Barber 



Plate 



23, 24 



HOUSE, CITY, THOMAS C. DENNEHY, ESQ., CHICAGO, ILL 

Frederick >V. Ferkim 

HOUSE, MRS. E. G. HOOD, CHESTNUT HILL, PA. .._ Slewardson & Page 25, 26 | 

HOUSE, AUGUSTUS N. RANTOUL, ESQ., IPSWICH, MASS. 

Andrews, Jaques & Kantoul T7~l'i 

HOUSE, SOMERSET ROAD, LEXINGTON, MASS -.-W. R- Greeley 30 

SCHOOL, EDWARD DEVOTION, BROOKLINE, MASS Kilham & Hopkins 19,20 

SCHOOL, VOSE, MILTON, MASS. Ktlham & Hopkms 21 



Page 

PALACE OF SUAREZ SOLIS DE CANADA. SALAMANCA, SPAIN Froni,<p,eee 

, _ \ Gordon Robb 

EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS -■■-■--.-- \ M. A. Dyer 
II. Measured Drawing of a Doorway in the Nichols House, Salem, Mass. 
Samuel Mclntire, Architea. 

ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS .IVallaee C. Sab.ne 

The Insulation of Sound. 

Illustrations from Dra-wings and Diagrams 

OLD MANTELS OF BALTIMORE - ...R.ggm Buckler 

Measured Drawings of Selected Examples. 

THE MODERN SCHOOLHOUSE ...Walter H. Kitham 

II. Corridors and Stairways. 

Illustrations from Photographs and Drawings 

SOME OLD AND UNFAMILIAR SPANISH BUILDINGS Arthur G. Byne 

Part V. The Court House and Prison, Bacza ; Ca.sa de Miranda, Burgos ; Colegio del 
Antobispo, Salamanca. 

Illustrations from Photographs 

THE AQUARIUM AND WINTER HOUSE FOR BIRDS FOR THE CITY 

OF BOSTON -- - William Downet A u<lni 

Illustrations from Photographs and Plans 

PLATE DESCRIPTION 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH 



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ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY, Boston, Mass. gi y> ( 

ARTHUR D ROGFRS RALPH RHINHOI.D RUSSELL F WHIT tHKAD 'J; ^ \^,'^ Ji Ji\L I 

Pre.idfnl and TrM.urcr Vice President and Bu»inr» Manager Serretarv and ManaKing l.lrior K- ^ _ . •— "•* I 

Single Copies, 50 cents ' ^ 

Yearly Subscnption, payable in advance, U.S.A.. Insular Possesions and Cub.i. ?5 00 |w 

(^gnada -- ?5.50 Foreign Countries in the Postal Union 6.00 -^ 
All Copies Mailed Flat 

Trade Supplied by the American New. Company and in Branchea. Enleee.1 a« jffl" -■•■,•" Kg* ""V 

Oa-ia M.(lter. March u. 1891. at the Po.l Office at Bmtnn. Ma«« . "^^ ' '■ 

CopvriKlil. 1(^15, liy Rogcrt and Man*<>n < ompanv |^ 



Second 







XXIV 



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A mini her of /? rick warmfactKrers^ 

recognizing our exclusive right as originator, 
designer and patentee of Rug Texture Brick, 
have applied to us for license to manufacture 
under our patents on a royalty basis. 

JVe have granted a fevo of these 

applications and intend granting a few more. 
We will publish through the medium of this 
Journal in an early issue the list of licensed 
manufacturers. 

/;/ order to avoid 

any distasteful legal action — and we are 
determined to protect our rights — we request 
the Architectural and Building profession to 
specify and purchase Rug Texture Brick only 
from licensed manufacturers or ourselves. 

•••HOCKING VALLEY^^ 
PRODUCTS COMPANY 

COLUMBUS, OHIO 




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PALACE OF SUAREZ SOUS DE CANADA, SALAMANCA, SPAIN 
ERECTED IN THE WITH CENTURY 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



VOLUME XXIV 



FEBRUARY, 1915 



NUMBER 2 



Architectural Acoustics. 

THE INSULATION OF SOUND. 

By WALLACK C. SABINE. 
Harvard University. 



THE insulation of sound as an unsolved problem in 
architectural acoustics was first brought to the 
writer's attention by the New England Conservatory 
of Music, immediately after its completion in 1904, and 
almost simultaneously in connection with a private house 
which had just been completed in New York. A few years 
later it was renewed by the Institute of Musical Art in 
New York. In the construction of all three buildings it 
had been regarded as particularly important that com- 
munication of sound from room to room should be avoided, 
and methods to that end had been employed which were in 
every way reasonable. The results showed that in this 
phase of architectural acoustics also there had not been 
a sufficiently searching and practical investigation and 
that there was no experimental data on which an archi- 
tect could rely. As these buildings were the occasion for 
beginning this investigation, and were both instructive 
and suggestive, they are, with the consent of the archi- 
tects, discussed here at some length. 

The special method of construction employed in the New 
England Conservatory of Music was suggested to the 
architects by the Trustees of the Conservatory. The 
floor of each room was of semi-fireproof construction, 
cement between iron girders, on this a layer of plank, on 
this paper lining, and on top of this a floor of hard pine. 
Between each room for violin, piano, or vocal lessons was 
a compound wall, constructed of two partitions with an 
unobstructed air space between them. Each partition was 
of two-inch plaster block set upright, with the finishing 
plaster applied directly to the block. The walls surround- 
ing the organ rooms were of three such partitions sepa- 
rated by two-inch air spaces. In each air space was a 
continuous layer of deadening cloth. The scheme was 
carried out consistently and with full regard to details, 
yet lessons conducted in adjacent rooms were disturbing 
to each other. 

It is always easier to explain why a method does not 
work than to know in advance whether it will or will not. 
It is especially easy to explain why it does not work when 
not under the immediate necessity of correcting it or of 
supplying a better. This lighter role of the irresponsible 
critic was alone invited in the case of the New England 
Conservatory of Music, nor will more be ventured at the 
present mottient. 

There is no question whatever that the fundamental 
consideration on which the device hinged was a sound one. 
Any discontinuity diminishes the transmission of^sound : 
and the tr- 



M,>n frr,>n iTiasonrv to air is a discontinuity 



of an extreme degree. Two solid masonry walls entirely 
separated by an air space furnish a vastly better sound 
insulation than either wall alone. On the other hand, the 
problem takes on new aspects if a masonry wall be replaced 
by a series of screen walls, each light and flexible, even 
though they aggregate in massiveness the solid wall which 
they replace. Moreover, such screen walls can rarely 
be regarded as entirely insulated from each other. Grant- 
ing that accidental conmiunication has nowhere been es- 
tablished, through, for example, the extrusion of plaster, 
the walls are of necessity in communication at the floor, 
at the ceiling, at the sides, or at the door jambs ; and the 
connection at the floor, at least, is almost certain to be 
good. Further, and of extreme importance, given any 
connection at all, the thinness of the screen walls renders 
them like drumheads and capable of large response to 
small excitation. 

It may seem a remote parallel, but assume for discus- 
sion two buildings a quarter of a mile apart. With the 
windows closed, no ordinary sound in one building could 
be heard in the other. If, however, the buildings were 
connected by a single metal wire fastened to the centers 
of window panes, it would be possible not merely to hear 
from within one building to within the other, but with care 
to talk. On the other hand, had the wires been connected 
to the heavy masonry walls of the two buildings, such 
communication would have been impossible. This hypo- 
thetical case, though extreme, indeed perhaps the better 
because. of its exaggeration, will serve to analyze the 
problem. Here, as in every case, the transmission of sound 
involves three steps, — the taking up of the vibration, 
the function of the nearer window pane, its transmission 
by the wire, and its communication to the air of the re- 
ceiving room by the remote window. The three functions 
may be combined into one when a solid wall separates the 
two rooms, the taking up, transmitting, and emitting of 
the sound being scarcely separable processes. On the 
other hand, they are often clearly separable, as in the case 
of multiple screen walls. 

In the case of a solid masonry wall, the transmission 
from surface to surface is almost perfect ; but liccause of 
the great mass and rigidity of the wall, it takes up but 
little of the vibration of the incident sound. It is entirely 
possible to exi)ress by a not very complicated analytical 
ecjuation the amoimt of sound which a wall of simple 
dimensions will take up and transmit in terms of the mass 
of the wall, its elasticity, and its viscosity, and the fre- 
quency of vibration of the sound. But such an equation, 



32 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



while of possible interest to physicists as an exercise, is 
of no interest whatever to architects because of the diffi- 
culty of determining the necessary coefficients. 

In the case of multiple screen walls, the communication 
from wall to wall, through the intermediate air space or 
around the edges, is poor compared with the face to face 
communication of a solid wall. But the vibration of the 
screen wall exposed to the sound, the initial step in the 
process of transmission, is greatly enhanced by its light 
and flexible character. Similarly its counterpart, the 
screen wall, which by its vibration communicates the 
sound to the receiving room, is light, flexible, and respon- 
sive to relatively small forces. 
That this responsiveness of the 
walls compensates or more than 
compensates for the poor com- 
munication between them, is the 
probable explanation of the trans- 
mission between the rooms in the 
New England Conservatory. 

The Institute of Musical Art in 
New York presented interesting 
variations of the problem. Here 
also the rooms on the second and 
third floors were intended for 
private instruction and were de- 
signed to be sound proof from 
each other, from the corridor, 
and from the rooms above and 
below. The walls separating the 
rooms from the corridors were 
double, having connection only at 
the door jambs and at the floor. 
The screen wall next the corri- 
dor was of terra cotta block, fin- 
ished on the corridor side with 
plaster applied directly to the 
terra cotta. The wall next the 
room was of gypsum block, plas- 
tered and finished in burlap. In 
the air space between the two walls, deadening sheet was 
hung. The walls separating the rooms were of gypsum 
block and finished in hard plaster and burlap. As shown 
on the adjacent diagram (Fig. 1 ) , these walls were cellular, 
one of these cells being entirely enclosed in gypsum block, 
the others being closets opening the one to one room, the 
other to the other. The closets were lined with wood 
sheathing which was separated from the enclosing wall by 
a narrow space in which deadening sheet was hung in 
double thickness with overlapping joints. In the entirely 
enclosed cell, deadening sheet was also hung in double 
thickness. 

It is not difficult to see, at least after the fact, why the 
deadening sheet in such positions was entirely without 
effect. The transverse masonry webs afforded a direct 
transmission from side to side of the compound wall that 
entirely overwhelmed the transmission through the air 
spaces. Had there been no necessity of closets, and there- 
fore no necessity of transverse webs, and had the two 
screen walls been truly insulated the one from the other, 
not merely over their area, but at the floor, at the ceiling, 
and at the edges, the insulation would have been much 
more nearly perfect. 




SECTION THKO COUBIOOli 
PARTITION WALL 



Fig. 1. 



The means which were taken to secure insulation at the 
base of the screen walls and to prevent the transmission 
of sound from floor to floor are exceedingly interesting. 
The floor construction consisted in hollow terra cotta tile 
arches, on top of this cinder concrete, on this sawdust 
mortar, and on the top of this cork flooring. Below the 
reinforced concrete arches were hung ceilings of plaster 
on wire lath. This hung ceiling was supported by crossed 
angle bars which were themselves supported by the I 
beams which supported the hollow terra cotta tile arches. 
In the air spaces between the tile arches and the hung 
ceilings, and resting on the latter, was deadening sheet. 

This compound floor of cork, saw- 
dust mortar, cinder concrete, 
terra cotta tile, air space, and 
hung ceiling, with deadening 
sheet in the air spaces, has the 
air of finality, but was not suc- 
cessful in securing the desired 
insulation. 

It is interesting to note also 
that the screen walls were sepa- 
rated from the floor arches on 
which they rested below and on 
which they abutted above by 
deadening sheet. It is possible 
that this afforded some insulation 
at the top of the wall, for the 
arch was not sustained by the 
wall, and the pressure at that 
point not great. At the bottom, 
however, it is improbable that the 
deadening sheet carried under the 
base offered an insulation of prac- 
tical value. Under the weight 
of the wall it was probably com- 
pressed into a compact mass, 
whose rigidity was still further 
increased by the percolation 
through it of the cement from the 
surrounding concrete. 

Finally, after the completion of the building, Mr. Dam- 
rosch, the director, had tried the experiment of covering 
the walls of one of the rooms to a depth of two inches with 
standard hair felt, with some, but almost negligible, effect 
on the transmission of sound. 

Deadening sheet has been mentioned frequently. All 
indication of the special kind employed has been pur- 
posely omitted, for the discussion is concerned with the 
larger question of the manner of its use and not with the 
relative merits of the different makes. 

The house in New York presented a problem even more 
interesting. It was practically a double house, one of the 
most imperative conditions of the building being the ex- 
clusion of sounds in the main part of the house from the 
part to the left of a great partition wall. This wall of 
solid masonry supported only one beam of the main house, 
was pierced b}^ as few doors as possible, — two, — and by 
no steam or water pipes. The rooms were heated by in- 
dependent fireplaces. The water pipes connected in- 
dependently to the main. It had been regarded as of 
particular importance to exclude sounds from the two 
bedrooms on the second floor. The ceilings of the rooms 



Details of Construction, Institute of Musical 
Art, New York. N. Y. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



33 



below were therefore made of concrete arch ; on top of 
this was spread three inches of sand, and on top of this 
three inches of lig-nolith blocks; on this was laid a hard- 
wood floor; and finally, when the room was occupied, this 
floor was covered by very heavy and heavily padded car- 
pets. From the complex floor thus constructed arose 
interior walls of plaster on wire lath on independent stud- 
ding;, supported only at the top where they were held 
from the masonry walls by iron brackets set in lignolith 
blocks. Each room was therefore practically a room 
within a room, separated below by three inches of sand and 
three inches of lignolith and on all sides and above by an air 
space. Notwithstanding- this, the shutting" of a door in 
any part of the main house could be heard, though faintly, 
in either bedroom. In the rear bedroom, from which the 
best results were expected, one could hear not merely the 
shutting of doors in the main part of the house, but the 
working of the feed pump, the raking of the furnace, and 
the coaling of the kitchen range. In the basement of the 
main dwelling was the servants' dining room. Rapping 
with the knuckles on the wall of this room produced in the 
bedroom, two stories up and on the other side of the great 
partition wall, a sound which, although hardly, as the 
architect expressed it, magnified, yet of astonishing loud- 
ness and clearness. In this case, the telephone-like 
nature of the process was even more clearly defined tlian 
in the other cases, for the distances concerned were much 
greater. The problem had many interesting aspects, but 
will best serve the present purpose if for the sake of sim- 
plicity and clearness it be held to but one, — the transmis- 
sion of sound from the servants' dining room in the 
basement along the great eighteen-inch partition wall up 
two stories to the insulated bedroom above and opposite. 

It is a fairly safe hazard that the sound on reaching the 
bedroom did not enter by way of the floor, for the com- 
bination of reinforced concrete, three inches of sand, three 
inches of lignolith block, and the wood flooring and carpet 
above, presented a combination of massive rigidity in the 
concrete arch, inertness in the sand and lignolith block, 
imperviousness in the hardwood floor, and absorption in 
the padded carpet which rendered insulation perfect, if per- 
fect insulation be possible. No air ducts or steam or water 
pipes entered the room. The only conceivable communi- 
cation, therefore, was through the walls or ceiling. The 
communication to the inner walls and ceiling from the sur- 
rounding structural walls was either through the air space 
or through the iron angle bars, which, set in lignolith 
blocks in the structural wall, retained erect and at proper 
distance the inner walls. Of the two means of communi- 
cation, the air and the angle bars, the latter was probably 
the more important. It is interesting and pertinent to 
follow this line of communication, the masonry wall, the 
angle bars, and the screen walls, and to endeavor to dis- 
cover if possible, or at least to speculate on the reason for 
its exceptional though unwelcome efficiency. 

From the outset it is necessary to distinguish the trans- 
verse and the longitudinal transmission of sound in a 
building member, that is, to distinguish as somewhat differ- 
ent processes the transmission of sound from one room to 
an adjacent room through a separating wall or ceiling, 
from the transmission of sound along the floors from room 
to room, or along the vertical walls from floor to floor. 
Broadly, although the two are not entirely separable phe- 



nomena, one is largely concerned in the transmission of 
the sovmd of the voice, or the violin, or of other sources 
free from solid contact with the floor, and the other in the 
transmission of the sound of a piano or cello, — instruments 
in direct communication with the building structure, — or of 
noises involved in the operation of the building, dynamos, 
elevators, or the opening and closing of doors. In the 
building under consideration, the disturbing sounds were 
in every case communicated directly to the structure at 
a considerable distance and transmitted along the walls 
until ultimately communicated through the angle bars, if 
the angle bars were the means of communication, to the 
thin plaster walls which constituted the inner room. The 
special features thus emphasized were the longitudinal 
transmission of vibration by walls, floors, and structural 
beams, and the transformation of these longitudinal vibra- 
tions into the sound-producing transverse vibrations of 
walls and ceilings bounding the disturbed room. Many 
questions were raised which at the time could be only ten- 
tatively answered. 

What manner of walls conduct the sound with the greater 
readiness ? Is it true, as so often stated, that modern con- 
crete construction has contributed to the recent prevalence 
of these ditHiculties ? If so, is there a difference in this 
respect between stone, sand, and cinder concrete ? In 
this particular building, the partition wall was of brick. 
Is there a difference due to the kind of brick employed, 
whether hard or soft ? Or does the conduction of sound 
depend on the kind of mortar with which the masonry is 
set? If this seems trivial, consider the number of joints 
in even a moderate distance. Again, is it possible that 
sound may be transmitted along a wall without producing 
a transverse vibration, thus not entering the adjacent 
room ? Is it possible that in the case of this private house 
had there been no interior screen wall the sound communi- 
cated to the room would have been less ? We know that 
if the string of a string telephone passes through a room 
without touching, a conversation held over the line will be 
entirely inaudible in the room. Is it possible that some- 
thing like this, but on a grand scale, may happen in a 
building? Or, again, is it possible that the iron brackets 
which connected the great partition wall to the screen 
wall magnified the motion and so the sound, as the lever 
on a phonograph magnifies its motion ? These are not un- 
worthy questions, even if ultimately the answer be negative. 

The investigation divides itself into two parts, ^ the one 
dealing with partition walls especially constructed for the 
test, the other with existing structures wherever found in 
interesting form. The experiments of the former type 
were conducted in a special room, mentioned in some of 
the earlier jxipcrs (Thk Brickhvii.dkk, January. 1914>, 
and having i)eculiar merits for the work. For an under- 
standing of these experiments and an appreciation of the 
conditions that make for their accuracy, it is necessary 
that the construction of this room be explained at some 
length. The west wing of the Jefferson Physical Labo- 
ratory is in plan a large square in the center of which 
rises a tower, which, for the sake of steadiness and insu- 
lation from all external vibration, is not merely of inde- 
pendent walls but has an entirely separate foundation, 
and above is spanned without touching by the roof of the 
main building. The sub-basement room of this tower is 
below the basement of the main building, but the walls of 



34 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



the latter are carried down to enclose it. The floor of the 
room is of concrete, the ceiling a masonry arch. There 
is but one door which leads through a small anteroom to 
the stairs mounting to the level of the basement of the 
main building. Through the ceiling there are two small 
opanings for which special means of closing are provided. 
The larger of these openings barely per- 
mits the passage of an observer when 
raised or lowered by a block and tackle. 
It is necessary that there be some such 
entrance in order that observations may 
be taken in the room when the door is 
closed by the wall construction under- 
going test. 

Of prime importance, critical to the 
whole investigation, was the insulation 
between the rooms, otherwise than 
through the partition to be tested. The 
latter closed the doorway. Other than 
that the two rooms were separated by two 
eighteen-inch walls of brick, separated 
by a one-inch air space, not touching 
through a five-story height and carried 
down to separate foundations. Around 
the outer wall and around the antecham- 
ber was solid ground. It is difficult to 
conceive of two adjacent rooms better in- 
sulated, the one from the other, in all 
directions, except in that of their immediate connection. 

The arrangement of apparatus, changed somewhat in 
later experiments, consisted primarily, as shown in the 
diagram, of a set of organ pipes, winded from a bellows 
reservoir in the room above, this in turn being charged 
from an air pump in a remote part of the building — re- 
mote to avoid the noise of operation. In the center of 
the room two reflectors revolved slowly and r\,oiselessly 
on roller bearings, turned continuously by 
under governor control, in the room above, 
of the observer was in 



a box whose folding 
lids fitted over his 
shoulders. In the 
box was the small 
organ console and the 
key of the chrono- 
graph. The organ 
and chronograph had 
also console and key 
connection with the 
antechamber. The 
details of the appara- 
tus are not of moment 
in a paper written 
primarily for archi- 
tects. 

Broadly, the 
method of measuring 
the transmission of 
sound through the 
partitions consisted in 
producing in the 
larger room a sound 
whose intensity in 



^1 
3 ^ ^^-^ 



Fig. 2 



a weight. 
The chair 




Fig. 3. Testing Room and Apparatus 



terms of threshold audibility was known, and reducing 
this intensity at a determinable rate until the sound ceased 
to be audible on the other side of the partition. The in- 
tensity of the sound at this instant was numerically equal 
to the reciprocal of the coefficient of transmission. This 
process involved several considerations which should be 
at least mentioned. 

The sound of known intensity was pro- 
duced by organ pipes of known powers of 
emission, allowance being made for the 
volume of the room and the absorbing 
power of the walls. The method was 
fully explained in earlier papers.* It is 
to be borne in mind that there was thus 
determined merely the average of inten- 
sity. The intensity varied greatly in dif- 
ferent parts of the room because of 
interference. In order that the average 
intensity of sound against the partition 
in a series of observ-^ations should equal 
the average intensity in the room, it was 
necessary to continuously shift the in- 
terference system. This was accom- 
plished by means of revolving reflectors. 
This also rendered it possible to obtain 
a measure of average conditions in the 
room from observations taken in one 
position. Finally the observations in the 
room were always made by the observer seated in the box, 
as this rendered his clothing a negligible factor, and the 
condition of the room the same with or without his pres- 
ence. Consideration was also given to the acoustical 
condition of the antechamber. 

Two methods of reducing the sound have been employed. 
In the one the sound was allowed to die away naturally, 
the .source being stopped suddenly, and the rate at which 
it decreased determined from the constants of the room. 
In another type of experiment the source, electrically 

maintained, was re" 
duced by the addition 
of electrical resis- 
tance to the circuit. 
One method was suit- 
able to one set of con- 
ditions, the other to 
another. The first 
was employed in the 
experiments whose 
results are given in 
this paper. 

The first measure- 
ments were on felt, 
partly suggested by 
the experiments of 
Dr. Damrosch with 
felt on the walls of 
the Institute of Musi- 
cal Art, partly be- 
cause it offered the 
dynamically simplest 
problem on which to 

* The Ameiitaii Atchitfc 
U>T 1909. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



35 



.08 



.06 



.05 



.04 



.03 



.02 



.01 



test the accuracy of the method by the concurrence of its 
results. The felt used was that so thoroiig-hly studied in 
other acoustical aspects in the paper published in the Pro- 
ceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 
in 1906- The door separating' the two rooms was covered 
with a one-half inch thickness of this felt. The intensity 
of sound in the main room just audible 
through the felt was 3.7 times threshold 
audibility. Another layer of felt of equal 
thickness was added to the first, and the 
reduction in the intensity of sound in 
passing- through the two was 7.8 fold. 
Through three-thickness, each one-half, 
the reduction was 15.4 fold, through 
four 30.4, five 47.5, and six 88.0. This 
test was for sounds having the pitch of 
violin c, first c above middle c, 512 
vibrations per second. 

There is another way of stating the 
above results which is perhaps of more 
service to architects. The ordinary 
speaking intensity of the voice is, — not 
exactly, of course, for it varies greatly, — 
but of the order of magnitude of 1,000,000 
times minimum audible intensity. As- 
sume that there is a sound of that in- 
tensity, and of the pitch investigated, in 
a room in one side of a partition of half- 
inch felt. Its intensity on the other side of the partition 
would be 270,000 times minimum audible intensity. 
Through an inch of felt its intensity would be 128,000. 
Through six layers of such felt, that is, through three 
inches, its intensity would be 11,400 
times minimum audible intensity — very 
audible, indeed. The diminishing in- 
tensity of the sound as it proceeds 
through layer after layer of felt is plotted 
in the adjacent diagram, (Curve 1, Fig. 
2), in which all the points recorded are 
the direct results of observations. The 
intensity inside the room is the full 
ordinate of the diagram. The curve 
drawn is the nearest rectangular hyper- 
bola fitting the observed and calculated 
points. The significance of this will be 
discussed later. It is sufficient for the 
present purpose to say that it is the 
theoretical curve for these conditions, 
and the close agreement between it and 
the observed points is a matter for con- 
siderable satisfaction. 

The next partition tested was of sheet 
iron. This, of course, is not a normal 
building material and it may therefore 
~ seem disappointing and without interest to architects. Rut 
it is necessary to remember that these were preliminary 
investigations establishing methods and principles rather 
than practical data. Moreover, the material is not wholly 
impractical. The writer has used it in recommendaticns 
to an architect in one of the most interesting and suc- 
cessful cases of sound insulation so far undertaken — 
that in an after-theater restaurant extending underneath 
the sidewalk of Broadway and 42d street in New York. 



Fig. 4 



The successive layers of sheet iron were held at a dis- 
tance, each from the preceding, of one inch, spaced at 
the edges by a narrow strip of wood and felt, and pressed 
home by washers of felt. After the practical cases cited 
at the beginning of the paper, it recjuircs courage and 
some hardihood to say that any insulation is good. It 
can only be said that every care was 
taken to this end. The results of the 
experiments can alone measure the ef- 
ficiency of the method employed, and 
later they will be discussed with this in 
view. 

The third series of experiments were 
with layers of sheet iron with one-half 
inch felt occupying part of the air space 
between them. The iron was that used 
in the second series, the felt that used 
in the first. The air space was unfortu- 
nately slightly greater than in the sec- 
ond series, being an inch and a quarter 
instead of an inch. The magnitude of 
the effect of this difference in distance 
was not realized at the time, but it was 
sufficient to prevent a direct comparison 
of the second and third series, and an 
attempt to deduce the latter from the 
former with the aid of the first. When 
this was realized, other conditions were 
so different as to make a repetition of the series difficult. 

In the following table is given the results of these three 
series of experiments in such form as to admit of easy 
comparison. To this end they are all reduced to the 
values which they would have had with 
an intensity of sound in the inner room 
of 1,000,000. In the first column each 
succeeding figure is the intensity outside 
an additional half inch of felt. In the 
second column, similarly, each succeed- 
ing figure is the intensity outside an 
additional sheet of iron. In the third 
column, the second figure is the intensity 
outside a single sheet of iron, and after 
that each succeeding figure is the in- 
tensity outside of an additional felt and 
iron doublet with air space. 







































\ 










V 












\ 












\ 


s, 






i 






\ 






V 








N 




.K 


::::: 









\3 



1,000,000 


1,000,000 


1,000,000 


270,000 


22,7(0 


2.^000 


128.000 


8.700 


3,300 


65. (HM) 


4.880 


700 


33,(KKl 


3,150 


220 


21,500 


2,060 


150 


11.400 


1.520 


88 



Fig. .5 



The sound transmitted in the second 
and third scries is so much less than in 
the first that when an attempt is made to plot it on the 
same diagram (Curves 2 and 3, Fig. 2) it results in lines 
so low as to be scarcely distinguishable from the base 
line. Magnifying the scale tenfold (Fig. 4) throws the 
first series off the diagram for the earlier values, but ren- 
ders visible the .second and third. 

The method of representing the results of an investiga- 
tion graphically has several ends in view : it gives a visual 
impression of the phenomenon ; it shows by the nearness 



36 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



with which the plotted values * lie to a smooth curve the 
accuracy of the method and of the work ; it serves to in- 
terpolate for intermediate values and to extrapolate for 
points which lie beyond the observed region, forward or 
backward ; finally, it reveals significant relations and 
leads to a more effective discussion. It is worth while 
thus examining the three curves. 

Attention has already been called to the curve for felt, 
to its extrapolation, and to the close approximation of the 
observed points to an hyperbola. The latter fact indi- 
cates the simplest possible law of absorption. It proves 
that all layers absorb the same proportion of the sound ; 
that each succeeding layer absorbs less actual sound than 
the preceding, but less merely because less sound reaches 
it to be absorbed. In the case in hand the sound in pass- 
ing through the felt was reduced in the ratio 1.88 in each 
layer, 3.53 in each inch. It is customary to test such 
curves by plotting them on a special kind of co-ordinate 
paper — one on which, while horizontal distances are uni- 
formly scaled as before, vertical distances are scaled with 
greater and greater reduction, tenfold for each unit rise. 
On such co-ordinate paper the vertical distances are the 
power to which 10 must be raised to equal the number 
plotted — in other words, it is the logarithm of the number. 
Plotted on such paper the curve for felt will result in a 
straight line, if the curve in the other diagram was an 
hyperbola, and if the law of absorption was as inferred. 
How accurately it does so is shown in Curve 1, Fig. 5. 

When the observations for iron, and for felt and iron, 
are similarly plotted (Curves 2 and 3, Fig. 5), the lines are 
not straight, but strongly curved upward, indicating that 
the corresponding curves in the preceding diagram were 
not hyberbolas, and that the law of constant coefficient 
did not hold. This must be explained in one or the other 
of two ways. Either there was some by-pass for the 
sound, or the efficiency of each succeeding unit of con- 
struction was less. 

The by-pass as a possible explanation can be ([uickly 
disposed of. Take, for example, the extreme case, that for 
felt and iron, and make the extreme assumption that with 
the completed series of six screens all the sound has come 
by some by-pass, the surrounding walls, the foundations, 
the ceiling, or by some solid connection from the inner- 
most to the outermost sheet. A calculation based on these 
assumptions gives a plot whose curvature is entirely at the 
lower end and bears no relationship to the observed values. 
In the other case, that of the iron only, a similar calcu- 
lation gives a similar result ; moreover, the much lower 



limit to which the felt and iron screens reduced the sound 
wholly eliminates any by-pass action as a vital factor in 
the iron-only experiment. 

The other explanation is not merely necessary by elimi- 
nation, but is dynamically rational. The screen walls such 
as here tested, as well as the screen walls in the actual con- 
struction described by way of introduction, do not act by 
absorption, as in the case of the felt ; do not act by a proc- 
ess which is complete at the point, but rather by a process 
which in the first screen may be likened to reflection, and 
in the second and subsequent screens by a process which 
may be more or less likened to reflection, but which being 
in a confined space reacts on the screen or screens which 
have preceded it. In fact, the process must be regarded 
not as a sequence of independent steps or a progress of an 
independent action, but as that of a structure which must 
be considered dynamically as a whole. 

When the phenomenon is one of pure absorption, as in 
felt, it is possible to express by a simple formula the inten- 
sity of the sound I, at any distance x, in terms of the 
initial intensity I,,, 

I = I„Rk-^ 
where R represents the factor of surface discontinuity, 
and k the ratio in which the intensity is reduced in a unit 
distance. In the case of the felt tested, R is .485 and k is 
3.53, the distance into the felt being measured in inches. 
As an application of this formula, one may compute the 
thickness of felt which would entirely extinguish a sound 
of the intensity of ordinary speech 10.4 inches. It is 
not possible to express by such a formula the transmission 
of sound through either of the more complex structures. 
However, it is possible to extrapolate empirically and 
show that 10.4 inches of neither would accomplish this 
ideal result, although they are both far superior to felt for 
thicknesses up to three inches in one case and five and 
one-half inches in the other. 

A number of other experiments were tried during this 
preliminary stage of the investigation, such, for example, 
as increasing the distance between the screen walls, but 
it is not necessary to recount them here. Enoxigh has 
already been given to show that a method had been de- 
veloped for accurately measuring the insulating value of 
structures ; more would but confuse the purpose. At this 
point the apparatus was improved, the method recast, and 
the investigation begun anew, thenceforward to deal only 
with standard forms of construction, and for sounds, not 
of one pitch only, but for the whole range of the musical 
scale. 



* /« reproducing from the plotted diagrams for Figs. J, 4, 
and 5, the dots, in some cases, Xi'hich indicated the plotted vahies 
of the observed points, do not clearly appear in distinction on 
the lines. The greatest divergence, in any case, from the line 
dra^vn was not more than twice the breadth of the line itself. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



37 



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THE BRICKBVILDER 





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The Modern Schoolhouse. 

II. CORRIDORS AND STAIRWAYS. 

By WALTER H. KII.HAM. 

THE ideal place for the corridor is, of course, along Corridor F/oors. Tlie best material for these is probably 

the outer wall of the buildins', so that it may have terrazzo, hard and well polished. To avoid contraction 

windows in the side opposite the class room doors, cracks, it should be divided into areas of about xo to KK) 

The air of cheerfulness and space which the architect can square feel by strips of slate or marble. A terrazzo floor 

thus obtain, will go farther towards making the school- is not as good wiien used upon wooden joists in second 

house a really attractive place, which the pupils in later class construction on account of the shrinkage of the tim- 

years will pleasantly recall, than almost any other single bcrs, but it is by no means impracticable. It is not very 




thing within the power of the architect to accomplish. 
Considerations of economy usually dictate in a large build- 
ing that the main corridor shall become merely a sort of 
street, serving rooms on 
both sides ; but such a 
corridor is almost inevi- 
tably dark and monoto- 
nous, even when fur- 
nished with casts and 
pictures, in inverse pro- 
portion to the amount of 
outside light that it re- 
ceives. In small school 
buildings of eight or ten 
rooms, however, there 
is often no real obstacle 
to the longitudinal cor- 
ridor with rooms along 
one side, and if the cor- 
ridor can be broken by 
a sunny bay window, or 
some such feature, the 
pupils will enjoy the 
building more, even if 
constructional standards 
are violated. In any 
event outside light, if only at the ends, is essential, and 
the corridor should, when possible, run to the light. 

IVidt/i of Corridor. Massachusetts law requires that 
corridors shall be well lighted and, if so directed, shall 
terminate on an egress ; that they shall not be less than 
10 feet wide in the clear for buildings with eight class 
rooms, and shall increase at least 1 foot in width for every 
two additional class rooms. They may decrease 1 foot in 
width for every two class rooms less than that number, 
and shall be free from sharp turns where circumstances 
will permit. 

The Boston law requires corridors not less than 8 feet 
wide for four class rooms on a floor and not less than 10 
feet for over four rooms, governed by length, access to 
stairs, etc. When the stairs are placed at the ends of the 
corridor, against a window, their width usually governs 
the width of the corridor. A corridor width of 10 feet 
6 inches will take two runs of stairs each 5 feet wide with 
a 6-inch well-way, and this will be found to be a convenient 
width for the corridor when it is not used as the main exit 
from a large assembly hall. A greater width is a rather 
useless expense, except in corridors of great length, and 
tends to give an impression of loose planning, although it 
is often advocated by building committees. 



Second Floor Corridor 

The Michael Driscoll School, Brookline, Mass. 

Kilham & Hopkins, Architects 



much more costly, ho\ve\:er, to span the corridors with 
reinforced concrete slabs or terra cotta tile arches, on 
whicli the terrazzo with its base of concrete can be laid 

easily and a perma- 
nently satisfactory re- 
sult obtained. 

Cement floors in gen- 
eral give trouble from 
"dusting" unless they 
are treated with some 
reliable concrete hard- 
ener or preservative. 
Sanford E. Thompson* 
recommends a grano- 
lithic floor made of ce- 
ment, rUnii Island sand, 
and crushed granite in 
a fairly stiff mixture, 
and then grinding off a 
thin layer, so as to show 
the grains of sand and 
the i)ieccs of coarser 
aggregate. This gives 
a varied texture to the 
surface, showing the 
numerous colored grains 



and permits of pleasing effects by using aggregates of differ- 
ent colors. The surface becomes more glossy and dense, 
so that it is readily cleaned. Mr. Thompson's book gives 
definite specifications for the i^rocess. 

Other suitable floor surfaces are tile, marble mosaic, 
and the various magnesium compositions. The latter in 
particular, when laid by good workmen, are more resilient 
and somewhat less noisy tlian terrazzo. It is difficult, 
however, to find this material in a satisfactory color. Tile 
and mosaic are ordinarily considered too expensive to be 
employed in .school buildings. Some institutions have 
made use of a red granolithic floor grooved to imitate tile, 
cf)mi)lete with border of a different color, etc., but in 
regard to cleanliness a floor with an absolutely flush sur- 
face will be more satisfactory. Battleship linoleum may 
also be employed and in general, is more useful for 
corridors than for class rooms. 

If the floor has to be of wood, maple is probably the 
best material ; but the use of too much water in scrubbing 
should be discouraged, as it causes the wood to shrink and 
opens up cracks. The best treatment for a wooden floor, 
is oil and then more oil, which can be sprayed on 

• " Floor Siirface.H in Kireprixif KuilHinKH " by Siinford K. Thompson, reprintei! 
from the Inumal nj thr Amrrican Society »/ Civil /•,'»« inrrts. 



39 



40 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



cheaply, holds down the dust, and keeps the floor in excel- 
lent condition. There are also many patent preparations 
which have their advocates. 

Corridor Walls. Light glazed or salt glazed bricks 
make probably the best wall surfacing for the lower ]ior- 
tions, but many places employ burlap to a height of about 

7 feet, or to the tops of the doors. A picture moulding at 
the ceiling is necessary. 

Lights. The corridor will require ceiling or short pen- 
dant electric lighting fixtures of 32 candle power each and 
also emergency gas outlets. The stairways and vestibules 
should be similarly equipped. 

Stainvays. Any building of two 
or more stories should always be 
provided with more than one stair- 
way, having outside light and lead- 
ing directly to an egress doorway. 
The first requisite as to location of 
these stairs is to have them as 
widely separated as possible and at 
the terminations of the corridors, so 
that there will be no lengths of cor- 
ridor or dead ends beyond the stair- 
case from which there would be no 
egress. A single stairway in the 
center of a building is forbidden in 
most localities and should not be 
tolerated anywhere. 

Much has been written as to the 
proper width for schoolhouse stairs. 
Boston forbids over 5 feet. Pro- 
fessor Dresslar recommends 5/4 to 
6 feet. It is evident that if pupils 
are to pass over the stairs more than 
three abreast, there will be need of 
a center rail. Three pupils can be 
perfectly well accommodated on a 
tread in a width of 5 feet, and a 
wider stair than this seems unnec- 
essary. Professor Dresslar says 
that one hundred students in double -^c^Ni^i 
file can easily descend a broad, iTniN&Ej(|i 
well lighted stairway in thirty-five 
seconds, which time can be reduced 
by fire drills. Observation in the 

Chelsea, Mass., schools, shows that under ordinary con- 
ditions, a class of forty pupils, marching two abreast, 
completely descends one story in forty seconds. At the 
fire drill the same group of buildings containing two 
thousand pupils is emptied in two minutes, using seven 
exits — a rough average of three hundred pupils per exit. 
New York City requires each building to have a sufficient 
number of fireproof stairways and exits to permit of its 
occupants vacating the same in not over three minutes in 
fireproof and three and a half minutes in non-fireproof 
structures. 

The rise and tread should be easy, 6/4 or 7 inch rise by 
about 10>^-inch tread. The handrail should be about 2 feet 

8 inches high on the runs, and 3 feet inches on landings. 
An additional low handrail is sometimes provided for 
small children. To av^oid lodgment of dust and prevent 
injury, the balustrade should be of a simple pattern mainly 
in vertical lines, and the newels should be without project- 




Detail of North River Stone Stairs on Steel Strings 



ing cap mouldings. Massachusetts law requires the steps 
of stairs to have a rise of not less than 6 inches nor more 
than 7 inches, and a run of more than 10 inches. There 
shall be not more than 15 nor less than three risers between 
landings. When returning on walls or directly upon 
themselves, the landings shall be the full width of both 
flights, and no winding steps shall be used and no closets 
shall be placed under any stairs. The last provision is 
extremely practical, for there is no place in a school 
building more likely to invite rubbish than the space under 
the short run of stairs from the vestibule to the first floor. 
In the event of a fire starting there, 
egress from that end of the building 
would be at once impossible. It is 
important, therefore, to make this 
flight fireproof even if the rest of 
the stairs have to be of wood and 
to close the whole space up solidly 
so that no closet of sheathing can 
ever be built there. 

In case there is an assembly hall 
above the second floor, a stairway 
width of 1 foot for every hundred 
persons which the hall is capable 
of seating is re(|uired, but no such 
stairway may be less than 4 feet 
inches in width. 

New York prescribes 4 feet 
inches as a standard width of stair, 
but in that city many of the duplex 
stairways are in use, enclosed in 
wired glass and metal frame parti- 
tions. These have not come into 
general use in other cities, as a 
somewhat greater story height is 
implied and school buildings of the 
size and height of those in New York 
City arc not common elsewhere. 

In all cases "winders" should 
be prohibited and no door should 
open immediately on a flight of 
stairs, but a landing of at least the 
width of the door should be pro- 
vided between such stairs and such 
doorway . 
The New Jersey code requires the following : All stair- 
ways (except cellar stairs) must not be less than 4 feet 
in width and have intermediate landings. The stair 
risers must not exceed 7 inches in height and the treads 
must not be less than 12 inches in width, including 
the projecting nosings. A uniform width must be main- 
tained in all stairways and platforms, and the rise and 
tread for each run must be uniform. Handrails are to 
be placed on both sides of all stairways used by pupils 
and the inside rail must be continuous. Winding stairs 
are not allowed and stairways constructed of reinforced 
concrete are required to have an approved non-slippable 
tread embedded in concrete. 

All stairs must be constructed of fireproof materials 
except stairs in one-story buildings leading to the cellar 
or basement, which may be of slow-burning construction, 
with no open risers, and must be enclosed by fireproof 
walls and without open well holes. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



41 



All stairways in buildings of more than one story in 
height must be separated from the corridors by thick 
wooden, iron, or kalamein partitions. Doors shall swing 
towards the exits only and be glazed with polished wired 
glass. All such doors shall have door springs and 
checks, but no floor stops or other device to hold the door 
open will be allowed. 

Buildings having more than two rooms and less than 
nine rooms on the second floor shall have two stairways, 
one at each end of the building, and each leading direct 
to an exit from the first floor to the ground. Every 
school building having nine or more class rooms on the 
second floor shall have at least three flights of stairs, one 
near each end of the building and each leading direct to 
an exit from the first floor to the ground. 

Construction of Staira'avs. To reciuire all stairways to 
be fireproof would seem like a hardship to many building 
committees in small communities who are accustomed to 
the cheapness in first cost of wooden stairs ; but after the 
disasters of recent years it seems incredible that any other 
construction should be considered. The time may arrive 
when all school buildings will be only one story high, but 
until then we must endeavor to guarantee our buildings as 
far as possible against loss 
of life by fire. Either re- 
inforced concrete or steel 
is a suitable material for 
stair construction; the 
main point of interest is 
the wearing surface which 
should be specified for the 
treads. The most satis- 
factory substance which 
the writer has used is 
North River stone in slabs 
about 2 inches thick, with 
smooth surface, which 
gives a most agreeable 
feeling of security and 




Second Floor Plan — Shur'.Ieff School, Chelsea, Mass. 



comfort to the feet, and seems to wear almost indefinitely. 
Slate has also been used to a considerable extent. It 
is hard and clean but does not wear as well as the North 
River stone. Slate treads examined recently which 
have had five years' use in a school running double ses- 
sions constantly, and hence receiving double wear, show 
an erosion at the end nearest the handrail of about one- 
quarter of an inch at the edge of the tread, diminishing 
towards the back. North River stone treads five years 
old in a school having single sessions show no appreciable 
wear at all. Concrete treads are subject to "dusting," 
and do not have as agreeable an appearance, nor do they 
" feel " as comfortable as either of the above. 

The landings may be of slate or North River stone on a 
steel frame, but a better way is to make them of rein- 
forced concrete with terrazzo surface. The stairways may 
be rendered much lighter by painting the soffits white. 

If the stairs have to be of wood, the treads should be 
protected by some form of "safety" or non-slipping 
tread, which is generally of iron with a filling of lead or 
carborundum, which renders them fairly safe against 
slipping and protects the wooden tread from wear. 
The walls surrounding a staircase should always be 

of masonry. Brick nog- 
ging and wire lath are fre- 
quently passed by com- 
plaisant inspectors and 
committees who wish to 
make a ''record'' for 
cheap construction: but 
this ])ractice means taking 
a chance. 

It ought to be constantly 
kei^t in mind that the 
princii)al fire risk in any 
well constructed building 
lies in the vertical open- 
ings in the floors. If there 
were no open stair wells. 




iiiliiiBn!|[R| 




V? 



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.1 



howing Open Kalconles for Fire Stairs 



Kllham & Hopkint. ArchltecU 



42 



THE BRICK BVILDER 



even a building constructed of wood, 
and plastered on wood lath, would con- 
tain a fire in the story where it origi- 
nated for a considerable time ; but an 
open stair well causes an upward draft 
of air, which attracts smoke and flame. 
For these reasons, a self-closing door, 
shutting off the basement from the stair 
well, should never be omitted, even in 
the cheapest construction, and in this 
respect the new rules such as those of 
the Massachusetts District Police and 
of the City of New York should be care- 
fully studied and followed in all school - 
house construction. These, in short, 
require the installation of self-closing 
" smoke-doors," separating the stair- 
way from the corridor, so that smoke or 
flame originating in one cannot be com- 
municated to the other, whereby a 
chance may be maintained of keeping 
one exit clear, even if the other is 
full of smoke. Massachusetts requires 
that stairways from the basement to 
the first story, and elsewhere if so 
directed, shall be enclosed with fire- 
proof walls with fireproofed self-clos- 
ing doors, or wired glass not less than 
}i inch thick, set in metal frames, or 
if they suit conditions better, metal 
covered doors. These enclosures are 
always required for buildings of three 
stories and upwards and should be in- 
stalled in those of two stories. New 
York City provides that " all stairways 
of all buildings shall be enclosed on 
each floor with fire and smoke-proof 
partitions and doors, all such doors to 
be self-closing." No locks or latches 
should be allowed on these doors. 
For purposes of filing pupils out, 
many principals will ask for some 
form of door holder to keep doors 
open ; but a pupil or janitor should 




cJer^^/? 3-3 jr^/e- 



Section of Typical New York Double 
Reverse School Stairway 




Plan of Typical New York Double Reverse 
School Stairway 



be detailed to see that they are kept 
closed after the class has passed through. 
For purposes of transmitting light these 
doors may be largely of wired glass, 
and it is well to specify polished or 
transparent wire glass for use at the 
eye level. 

The outside exit doors should either 
be single doors with locks always free 
on the inside or double with some form 
of push bar or "panic" bolts which 
automatically release the standing leaf 
by the pressure of the body. The old 
fashioned, T-handle vertical bolt is still 
allowed by law, but it works stiffly and 
has nothing to recommend it. The un- 
speakable top and bottom bolts without 
the T-handle, which caused much of 
the trouble at the Collingwood School 
fire, should never find a place even 
in the cheapest schoolhouse. No 
rolling, sliding, or revolving door of 
any type should find a place in a 
schoolhouse. 

In large school buildings the outside 
tower stairs have points of great ad- 
vantage. This form of stairway is 
constructed in a "tower," which while 
contained within the main walls of the 
building is entirely separated from the 
interior of the structure by heavy brick 
walls, possibly with metal sash and 
wired glass to admit light to the cor- 
ridor. It can only be approached by 
the pupils passing to an outdoor bal- 
cony, whence access is had to the 
tower and stairs. This form of stair- 
way is used in Philadelphia, Chelsea, 
and elsewhere with marked success, 
and deserves to be more generally 
adopted, as any stairway whose ap- 
proaches are absolutely open to the 
outside air must be safer than one 
within the building. 




c/ecr/oD ■ Iff crrd/r<r -.^^ u^ 



Ji—X- 



Cross Section of Typical New York Double Reverse School Stairway 
C. B. J. Snyder. Architect 



VOL. 24, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



IM.ATK 16. 




HARTFORD NATIONAL BANK, HARTFORD. CONNECTICUT 
DONN BARBER. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 24, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PI.ATK 17 




BANKING ROOM 



HARTFORD NATIONAL BANK, HARTFORD. CONNECTICUT 
DONN BARBER. ARCHITECT 



M 



VOL. 24, NO. 2. 



THE B R I C K B \- I L U E R 



PLATE 18. 





DIRECTORS' ROOM 



i^'T"T;'g 







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BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



MEZZANINE FLOOR PLAN 



FIRST OFFICE FLOOR PLAN 



HARTFORD NATIONAL BANK, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT 
DONN BARBER. ARCHITECT 



i 



VOL. 24, NO. 2. 



THE BRICK BVILDER 



PLATE 19. 







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THE B R I C K B \' I L 1) K F^ . 

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VOL. 24, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATK 21. 



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VOL. 24, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDK 



R 



I'l.ATK 22. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



MEZZANINE FLOOR PLAN 



SEVENTH FLOOR PLAN 



YOUNG WOMEN'S HEBREW ASSOCIATION BUILDING, NEW YORK. N. Y. 
LOUIS ALLEN ABRAMSON, ARCHITECT 



I 



VOL. 24, NO. 2. 



THE B R I C K B V 1 L D E l< . 



1M.ATK 23. 




HOUSE OF THOMAS C. DBNNEHV, ESQ., ASTOR ST.. CHICAGO. ,LL. 
FREDERICK W. PERKINS. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 24, NO. 2. 



THE B R I C K B V I L D E R . 



PLATE 21. 



^ 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



THIRD FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSE OF THOMAS C. DENNEHY, ESQ., ASTOR ST., CHICAGO. ILL. 
FREDERICK W. I'ERKINS. ARCHITECT 



FOURTH FLOOR PLAN 



VOL. 24, NO. 2. 



THE BRICK BVILDER 



PLATE 25. 




HOUSE OF MRS. E. G. HOOD, CHESTNUT HILL, PA. 
STEWARDSON & PAGE, ARCHITECTS 



I 



VOL. 24, NO. 2. 



THE B R I C K B V I L 1) K R 



PLATli 26. 




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VOL. 24, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATK 27. 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 28. 




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VOL. 24, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PI.\rK 29. 




ENTRANCE HALL 




DINING ROOM 



HOUSE OF AUGUSTUS N. RANTOUL, ESQ., IPSWICH. MASS. 
ANDREWS, JAQUES & RANTOUL. ARCHITECTS 



I 



VOL. 24, NO. 2. 



THE B R I C K B \' I L I) K R 



PLATE 30. 




VIEW FROM STREET 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSE ON SOMERSET ROAD, LEXINGTON, MASSACHUSETTS 
W. R. GREELEY, ARCHITECT AND OWNER 



Some Old and Unfamiliar Spanish Buildings. 

PART V. THE COURT HOUSE AND PRISON. BAEZA; CASA I)E 
MIRANDA, BURGOS ; COLEGIO DEL ARZOBISPO. SALAMANCA. 

By ARTHUR G. BYNE. 
Illustrated from Photographs Specially Taken by the Author. 



BAEZA and Ubeda, two little-known towns close to- 
gether in northern Andalusia, richly repay an archi- 
tect's visit, having- fine civic buildings as well as 
interesting churches. Beyond the fact that each was the 
home of prosperous nobility (until the unfortunate day 
when all the provincial noblemen aspired to live in Madrid) 
no local historian has shown any reason why such excel- 
lent architecture should be found in these remote and 
never important places. It is known that Pedro de Val- 
delvira, who started the cathedral of jaen, in 1532, came 
up to them to build a church or two ; but no one who has 
seen his perfect but soulless Renaissance work at Jaen, 
could attribute to him the charming spontaneous facades 
of the Casa Consistorial, or the Carcel (prison) of Baeza 
— the latter being the subject illustrated here. 

This example shows to a preeminent degree the mas- 
terly way Spanish architects had of concentrating their 
ornament in doors and windows — a scheme helped by the 
patio plan which permitted the first floor to go practically 
unfenestrated towards the street. Another Spanish feature 
that invited to rich spotting was the lavish use of heraldic 
woiifs : noble blood being the most important considera- 
tion to the occupants of a mansion, they never failed to 
announce their claims to it. 

The windows in this example are Palladian but with 
the substitution, for the regular Palladian column, of 
the slender Moorish one that figures in ajimcz (three- 
light) windows. Convention is again thrown to the 
winds in the cornice ; for its crowning moulds instead 
of being the expected cyma and facia, are merely a 
large scale egg-and-dart. This is so overshadowed by 
the projecting tiles above, which in a measure play the 
part of the crown moulds, that it ceases to be unob- 
trusive or ungainly and becomes instead a highly in- 
teresting departure. 

Casa de Miranda, IJiuffos. Nothing more melancholy 
than the present abuse of this ancient palace could be 
imagined. The beautiful patio, of which a corner is 
shown, is now bricked-in in the upper story and each bay 
rented out as a room ; while the lower floor is so stained 
and bespattered b}^ the wine-makers who inhabit it that it 
resembles an abattoir. 

Delapidated though it all is, its richness and good taste 
announce themselves at first glance. The charming aiiw- 
rini frieze of soft Spanish granite is very delicately exe- 
cuted ; the columns are decidedly Spanish, being a stone 
adaptation of the wooden bracketed column essential in the 
light wooden construction of the Moors. Spanish archi- 
tects saw the decorative value of this member and com- 
bined it interestingly with the Corinthian capital . In this 
instance the corner member, so often slighted and treated 
haphazardly, is well studied, with its onr volute retained 
between the two Moorish corbels. 



Besides the patio there are several other fine apart- 
ments equally suggestive of plastic material, particularly 
the handsome portal to the now crumbling staircase with 
its sculptured columns and armorial bearings. 

The Casa de Miranda is dated 1543, but there is no rec- 
ord of its builder. There is a story told of an American 
millionaire trying to buy it to remove and rebuild in his 
own land, and being frustrated by a noted Spanish archi- 
tect. The latter, noting with grief how many works of art 
leave the country, has been trying for some time past to 
collect enough money to reclaim the Miranda, but money 
is not abundant in Spain. On hearing of its pending re- 
moval, he perscmally visited every mason in Burgos and 
got him to pledge himself not to be hired out for the pur- 
pose of demolishing it. When, therefore, the American's 
representative came to inquire the cost of demolition he 
could not find a contractor to undertake the job, and the 
whole scheme was abandoned. I give the story as illus- 
trative of a fine unmercenary spirit. 

(.'oltilio del . }r~o/>isfio. Sa/aiiianai. The Colegio Arzo- 
bispal was founded in the early With century by the 
Archbishop of Toledo, Don Alfonso de Fonseca y Ulloa, 
whose father had built the beautiful Casa de las Muertes 
already illustrated in The BRiCKnvii.nriR. The Colegio 
was commenced in 1527 after plans by Pedro de Ibarra ; 
two other Spanish architects likewise strongly influenced 
by Michelangelo worked towards its excellence — Alonzo 
de Covarrubias and Alonzo Berruguete. The result is 
the best building in .Salamanca ; and the best part of the 
building is the patio (accredited to Ibarra alone) which, 
according to some authorities, stands untouched in Spain 
for simi>licity and i)urity of line. 

Here, as in most patios, the floors instead of being sup- 
ported b\ masonry vaults, as would be the case in Italy. 
are tiles resting on wooden beams ; this jiermits of a light 
and slender architectural treatment often extending several 
stories high. Convents and Colegios ( priests' seminaries ) 
were so numerous and so vast in Spain that economy had 
to be considered in their structure. Street and patio 
fa(;ades were of stone, while inner patio walls were of 
stucco, relieved only by a finely designed door or stairway, 
as has been shown in the Alcala example. The result was 
highly eff'cctive as well as economical. There is nothing 
quite like this patio in Italy ; its colonnettes, its cajMtals, 
its portrait medallions, its cornices, are all distinctly Span- 
ish — less exuberant and, therefore, in better taste, than 
earlier patios. Seen through the arches is the distant 
stair hall always emphasized, and legitimately, by consid- 
erable ornamentation, for it is often the only interior fea- 
ture that departs from conventual plainness. 

The old Colegio is now known as the "Nf)l)les Irlan- 
deses," or seminary for Irish priests. The number in 
training is generally about twenty. 



43 



THE BRICKBVILDER 





CORNER OF THE PATIO 
CASA DE MIRANDA, BURGOS, SPAIN 



THE B R I C K B V 1 L D E R 



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COLEGIO DEL ARZOBISPO, SALAMANCA, SPAIN 



46 



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The Aquarium and Winter House for Birds 

for the City of Boston. 



By WILLIAM DOWNES AUSTIN. 



THE Boston Aquarium is located in Marine Park, at 
South Boston. It was built by the City of Boston and 
paid for out of an income from the Parkman fund — a 
bequest of George Parkman to the city for the im])rove- 
ment and maintenance of the city parks. 

The building is primarily and principally to provide 
facilities for the exhi- 
bition of fishes and only 
very secondarily for the 
promotion of scientific 
study. 

The exhibition tanks, 
each about 5 feet high 
and 3 feet 6 inches deep, 
are built of cypress 
planks and are of such 
varying lengths that 
they can be subdivided 
into two, three, four, 
and five compartments, 
each with a front 4 feet 
6 inches high and 3 feet 
\\% inches wide of pol- 
ished English plate 
glass 1% inches thick. 



The partitions are of similar glass, but unpolished and 
only Vs of an inch thick. There arc fifty-five of these 
compartments. 

The tanks stand in the working spaces on concrete fioors 
raised about 2 feet above the main floor of the public 
portions of the building. They are lighted by skylights 

in the low roofs of these 
working spaces. The 
public portion is lighted 
in the daytime by sun- 
light and in the evening 
by electric light diffused 
through the water in the 
tanks behind the glass 
fronts. Provision is 
made for the exhibition 
of local salt water fishes, 
for specimens from 
warm southern salt 
water, for local fresh 
water fish, and for trout 
which rc(iairc refrig- 
erated water in warm 
weather. An under- 
Ground Floor Plan ground reservoir with a 






Aquarium, Marine Park, South Boston. Mass. 

William Downcs Austin. Architect 
47 



48 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



capacity of 100,000 gallons is provided for 
the storage of salt water which is brought 
from the harbor near by into the reservoir 
through a pipe line. From the reservoir 
the water is pumped to distributing tanks 
in the attic, from which the exhibition tanks 
are supplied by gravity. One distributing 
tank is fitted with a steam coil for warming 
the salt water for the tanks containing the 
southern fishes. 

The fresh water tanks are supplied from 
the city service. Water in all the tanks is 
in constant circulation, and the salt water 
returns through filter beds into the under- 
ground reservoir. The refrigerated fresh 
water is also filtered and used again. The 
ordinary fresh water wastes into the city 
sewer. 

The building has brick exterior walls 
covered on the outside with rough cast 
plaster. The foundation walls are concrete. 
The underpinning courses and exterior 
steps and retaining walls are of cut granite 
composite. The roofs are wooden construction covered 
with red shingle tiles. Except the roofs, the building is 
entirely first class construction. The interior floors and 
walls of the public portions are terrazzo in ditTerent colors. 
The frames enclosing the glass fronts of tanks are painted 
cast iron. The ceilings are rough plaster. The details 





Detail of Entrance to Aquarium 



Interior of Aquarium Looking Towards Rotunda 

in the entrance porch are clear white marble and the walls 
of the porch are paneled with different colored polished 
foreign marbles. The building covers about 8,000 square 
feet. The total cost, including all equipment and archi- 
tect's and engineer's commissions, was $135,778. The 
building was first opened to the public in November, 1912. 
The Winter House for Birds is 
located in Franklin Park and is the 
pioneer building of the Zoo. It was 
built by the City of Boston and paid 
for by funds from the same source 
that provided the Aquarium. Its 
purpose is what its name implies, 
plus the provision for exhibiting the 
birds. 

The principal reciuirements of 
such a building are : plenty of light 
and warm fresh air for the birds ; 
cages of different sizes suitable to 
the various kinds of birds ; sufficient 
space for the public; a large flying 
cage in the center of the room ; pro- 
vision for feeding the birds from 
the rear of the cages through small 
doorways opening into keeper's 
passages; outside cages against 
the walls of the building, with 
tiny doorways connecting each 
exterior cage with an interior one 
to enable birds to enjoy indoor 
or outdoor life at their pleasure 
or that of the keeper ; roosts or 
shelters in the exterior cages, pro- 
tected by narrow glass roofs ; facili- 
ties for a bird bath in each cage ; 
kitchen in basement for prepara- 
tion of bird food ; storerooms in 
basement ; heating and ventilating 
apparatus; a bird hospital; a 
quarantine room ; the usual offices, 



THE BRICK B\MLDER 



49 



and bed and bath rooms 
for keepers. 

The exterior walls are 
brick and vaulted with 
rough cast plaster on 
the exterior. The win- 
dows in the frieze and 
elsewhere are enclosed 
in frames of glazed terra 
cotta in patterns of 
green and cream. The 
main roof is principally 
glass, the balance being 
copper on boarding. 
The entrance porches 
have cast iron columns, 
wooden superstructure 
and ornamental copper 




Ground Floor Plan 



roofing. The columns 
and superstructure are 
elaborately modeled and 
carved, and the i)orchcs 
are painted and lac- 
(juered throughout in 
vermilion, and dull gold 
with minor tones of 
blues, grays, yellows, 
browns, and greens. 

The terraces around 
the building arc paved 
with roughish grano- 
lithic in squares of ^ 
feet, in slightly differ- 
ent colors, giving a faint 
checkerboard effect. All 
stone trimmings and 




Detail of Principal Knirancc 

Winter Hou.se for Birds. Franklin Park. Boston, Mass. 

William Downes Austin. Architect 



50 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



steps are of cut granite composite. The interior walls 

are plastered directly on the brickwork and are tinted 

a soft grray-green color. All eagres are painted black. 

Floors of cages are concrete and about 2 feet 6 inches 

above the main floor 

of public portion. 

Finished floors of 

public portions and 

the walls under the 

fronts of cages are 

terrazzo. The two 

narrow exhibition 

rooms are separated 

from the main room 

by plate glass 

screens and glass 

doors. 

The building was 
completed in Octo- 
ber, 1913. Its total 
cost, including all 




W intti House for Birds, Franklin Park, Boston, Mass. 
William Downes Austin, Architect 



equipment and architect's commission, was Si 16, 116. 
Exclusive of the terraces the building covers 9,280 sc|uare 
feet. The terraces average 30 feet in width. 

Its style of architecture is quite a departure from the 

usual but the ideal 
setting in an oak 
grove, adjacent to a 
lawn for displaying 
peacocks, and a 
great outdoor flying 
cage where brilliant 
plumage attracts the 
eye suggested an 
unusual treatment, 
and the Japanese 
style which would 
permit of lively 
color seemed a fortu- 
nate one to empha- 
size the building in 
its setting. 



PLATE DESCRIPTION. 



Edward Devotion School, Brookline, Mass. 
Plates 19, 20. This school forms the central and domi- 
nating structure of a complete group of three buildings. 
It is connected to the other buildings by tunnels and 
terraces and contains the heating plant for the group. 

The assembly hall seats one thousand persons. It is 
finished with fumed oak and French gray plaster. The 
gymnasium is sunny and well lighted and is equipped with 
showers and dressing compartments of Tennessee marble. 
Two observation galleries are provided. The stairs are 
of steel and North River stone, and the construction of the 
assembly hall and boiler room portion is fireproof, the 
balance being second class construction with brick walls, 
partitions and stacks, the ceilings and minor partitions 
being wire lathed. The exterior walls are buff brick to 
match the existing buildings and the trimmings of gray 
terra cotta, with a green slate roof and copper lantern. 

A new type of window used in the class rooms admits 
a large amount of outside air when open. The building 
is splendidly and thoroughly finished in every part and 
cost about $130,000, or approximately 19 cents per cubic 
foot, including general contract, plumbing, heating and 
ventilating, and electric work. 

VosE .School, Milton, Mass. Plate 21. The exte- 
rior is of red water-struck brick, laid in Flemish bond, 
with gray terra cotta trimmings. Heat and vent ducks 
and practically all interior walls are brick. The floor and 
roof frames are steel girders and trusses and Georgia 
pine joists. The staircases are all fireproof, made of iron 
and slate enclosed in brick walls. The roof is of asphalt 
composition, with copper flashings. The ventilation is by 
fan driven by electric motor, forcing the fresh air through 
concrete tunnels under the basement floor to the brick 
up-takes with automatic temperature control. 

The interior finish is in ash with burlap dadoes. The 
intention was to secure not extreme cheapness but the 
most durable and attractive results. While not strictly 



" fireproof" in every .sense of the word, the building is 
ncarlj' so in fact and is fully as secure from fire danger 
as a building of the first class. 

The cost, including the general contract, plumbing, 
heating, ventilating, and power plants, lighting fixtures, 
granolithic outside walks and steps, and grading, seeding, 
and curbing the grounds, and a playground 720 feet by 
300 feet, was $84,377, or about 17 cents per cubic foot. 

Young Women's Hebrew A.s.sociation Building, 
New York City. Plate 22. This building is located 
on a plot 100 feet by 100 feet, facing south, overlooking 
Central Park north and is the first of its type of any 
magnitude to be designed. 

One of the most difficult problems to soh-e was that of 
providing a sufficiently large building for the amount of 
money available. This was accomplished by the devel- 
opment of a "dual plan," that is, making possible the 
usage of one room for two or more purposes. Thus, the 
auditorium, by means of concealed doors and removable 
ai^purtenances, is transformed from auditorium to syna- 
gogue ; the gymnasium is likewise transformed into a 
spacious dance room, the spectator's gallery of the former 
being used as a musician's gallery for the latter. The 
physical director's office and lavatory is a rest and dress- 
ing room for the dancers. The room used as an employ- 
ment office, with outside entrance at night, is a Penny 
Provident Fund Department for children by day. 

Another problem was arranging the different rooms 
so that the activity of one would not interfere with the 
use of any of the others. Thus, all of the noise cre- 
ating departments, such as the power sewing machine, 
typewriting, and domestic science rooms, are placed on 
one side of the building ; whereas the classes in stenog- 
raphy, languages, and arts are on the opposite side. 

The building contains dormitories of one, two, and three 
beds each. The ceiling heights in these stories are low, 
but not unpleasant, namely, 9>^ feet from floor to floor. 



THE BRICKBVILDKR 



51 




Editorial Comment. 



THAT architect is rare who can succeed, under pres- 
ent conditions, solely because of his talent for desi.t;n. 
At his best he is rivaled by the man proficient in 
promotion, and is crowded by the good office organizer. 
Not only this, but he sees many commissions entrusted to 
practitioners whose nominal presence in the profession is to 
its continual detriment. It is unnecessary to expand upon 
the difficulties of the general situation. Remedial action 
has included state legislation for the licensing of archi- 
tects and professional society legislation fixing a schedule 
of minimum charges. State legislation can never assist the 
jesthetic or essential side of architecture, and people will 
pay any price for something that they understand and want. 
To secure for the profession recognition and respect, the 
first effort should be to establish standards for minimum 
service ; and, the second, to unite to get the chores done in 
such a manner that the individual can devote himself to 
the essence of his profession ; so that he can, in other 
words, have time to exercise those particular talents which 
have made his profession peculiarly valuable. 

Standards of .esthetic production are indefinable and un- 
necessary. The layman who can appreciate the definition 
of a work of art a])preciates the work itself still better. 
But, on the other hand, standards for the accumulation on 
drawings and in the specifications of the data necessary 
for the construction of a building and for the direction of 
the work are very much needed ; and a knowledge of high 
standards on the part of the public, which purchases ser- 
vices in these forms, will discourage or do away with 
dealings with those incapable of providing service con- 
forming to high standards. When architectural societies 
are as jealous of standards as legal societies, they will be 
entrusted by the state with their enforcement. A good 
many offices have carefully studied the arrangement of 
drawings, the lettering, dimensioning, indication of ma- 
terials, and details of heating, lighting, and so on. Let 
these be taken by the local society and extended into a 
complete scheme, setting forth, for various types of build- 
ing, the minimum amount of description of plan, eleva- 
tion, section, construction and engineering of various 
kinds, and of supervision and direction, that shall consti- 
tute service according to the views of the local society. 
Any attempt to establish sesthetic standards is unlikely to 
result appreciably in this generation or the next ; but 
clear distinctions between one kind of service and another 
on the basis of this suggested discrimination will be com- 
prehensible to the layman at once. 

The other suggestion has for its purpose the liberation 
of the artistic temperament. It contemplates strong local 
societies with very heavy dues, $200 to $300 or more per 
year, for members in active practice, and perhaps vary- 
ing in proportion to the gross earnings of each practi- 
tioner ; for it will be the function of these societies to do a 
great deal of that work of its members which is not dis- 
tinctly architecture. Every office must now do, besides 
design, some engineering, a lot of bookkeeping, and must 
acquire some experience in and knowledge of law. The 
society will, to relieve each office of part of this work, 
have offices of its own and will retain, for the common 
benefit and use, engineers for surveying, steel and con- 



crete work, heating and ventilation, electric work, plumb- 
ing, and so on, and all the work done along these lines 
will be done according to standards established by the 
society, and the experience gained will be to the advan- 
tage of all its members. Among the duties of this staff 
will be the scientific investigation of all materials and 
apparatus which enter into buildings and the establish- 
ment of standards for all materials, comparable to those 
set up by the National Board of Fire Underwriters, and 
others. This department could also make lists of quanti- 
ties and prepare preliminary estimates. 

The accounting department will establish standards for 
office bookkeeping, so that after a while an architect can 
form some idea in advance as to how much a drawing or 
a set of drawings ought to cost, and how long it ought to 
take to make it. It will work out the best forms for orders 
and certificates and audit the office account of the owner's 
expenditures, and payments to contractors, and will be of 
assistance in many other ways which are sure to develop. 

The legal department will, in the first place, keep up 
to date on building law, maintaining copies of all impor- 
tant laws and, as far as possible, having duplicates for the 
use of members. It will be its duty to study proposed 
laws, inform the society of action necessary, and notify 
members of enactments. This department can maintain 
service in the registries to inform members of attachments 
and liens on the properties for which they are responsible. 

The possibilities of these departments have been sketched 
not completely or because this outline represents more 
than a small part of the scope of such architectural socie- 
ties, but because, in even so brief a view, the possibilities 
seem so great. 

If it is admitted that the ability to comprehend all of the 
elements of a building and arrange them in an orderly 
and, if possible, a beautiful way is the job of the architect 
as against any other, then all the other things are less 
peculiarly his to do : and when he does them thoroughly, 
he is only exhausting himself as far as his real ability 
goes. The other things must be done. When they are 
slouched by an artist, they hurt the profession as badly as 
if the neglect were on the part of an untrained man. 

If, now, the chores are done by a commission under the 
direction of an intelligent artist, with the accumulated 
experience of the society, they can be well done. 

The gist of the matter would seem to be that the 
harassed architectural profession will succeed best by 
ceasing to talk about compensation until people know com- 
pletely what its members do to earn it ; and then to 
arrange so scientifically what there is to do so that the 
part which is peculiarly architecture can be done to the 
very best advantage. 



In selecting representative renderings to illustrate the 
article on "Monographs on Architectural Renderers," 
Part XI, published in the December, 1914, issue of The 
Brickbvilder, five of the drawings were chosen from 
Modcrne Baii/onnoi, and reproduced from that journal. 
These included renderings by II. Wilson, Edgar Wood, H. 
Billing, Benirschke, and Ilirchmann. We acknowledge 
with thanks the courtes\- extended by Modcrne Baufonuoi . 



52 







^^^^Iljgljgjgri^- 



UM 







NUMBER 3 



1915 



Architect 

CLUB, BOSTON CITY, SOMERSET STREET, BOSTON, MASS. .Nen'W/ & Bleyim 

CLUB HOUSE, ELKS', BROOKLYN, N. Y \ ^- ^^"^•"^" Magomglc 

[ A. iV. Koss 
CLUB HOUSE, PHI GAMMA DELTA FRATERNITY, 

PHILADELPHIA, PA Mellor 6c Magi 

SCHOOL, NORWOOD HIGH, NORWOOD, O Bausmith & Draime 



Page 

CONSULADO DEL MAR, PALMA DE MALLORCA, SPAIN Frontispiece 

j Gordon Robb 
I M. A. Dyer 




EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS . 

III. Measured Drawing of Stairway in the Nichols House, Salem, Mass 
Samuel Mclntire, Architect. 

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF ROOF AND WALL TRUSSES 

Mal-verd A. Howe, C.£. 

Part I. Types of Wooden and Ordinary Steel Roof Trusses. 
Illustrations from Diagrams 

THE MODERN SCHOOLHOUSE IValier H. Kilham 

III. Wardrobes, Toilets, and Special Rooms. 
Illustrations from Drawings and Plans 

SOME IRONWORK FROM ROME AND TUSCANY ...John S. Scarf} 

Illustrations from Measured Draivings and Photographs 

PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS FOR PLANNING AND EQUIPMENT 

OF HOSPITALS M.S. McCalmont 

Illustrations from Photographs and Plans 

THE NOMENCLATURE OF THE STYLES _ J ^l7kwcu''Kcnf 

A Humorous Theory Illustrating in Caricature Familiar Schools and 
Phases of Architecture. 

A SMALL OFFICE BUILDING REMODELED FROM A GROUP 

OF OLD BRICK HOUSES 

Illustrations from Photographs and Plans 

AS HE IS KNOWN„ -. 

Being Brief Sketches of Contemporary Members of the Architectural Profession. 
Messrs. Samuel S. Labouisse, William B. Faville, Robert C. Spencer, 
and Charles D. Maginnis. 

PLATE DESCRIPTION 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH _. 



53 



55 



59 



63 



73 



75 



77 






^ -^ 






Published Monthly by 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY, Boston, Mass. 

ARTHUR D ROGER.S RALPH RF.INHOl.D RUS.SKLL F. WHM l-HHAD 

President and Treasurer Vice President and Business Manager Secretary and Managing Editor 

Single Copies, 50 cents 
Yearly Subscription, payable in advance, U.S.A., Insular Posse.ssions and Cuba, ^5.00 

Canada )!5.50 Foreign Countries in the Postal Union 6.(i(' 

All Copies Mailed Flat 

Trade Supplied l>y the American News Comp.mv and its nranclies. Hntefod a« 

Second Class Matter, March 12, 1892, at the Po*t Office at Boston, Mass. 

Copyrinht, lyi-j, hv Rogers .ind M.insnn Omp-inv 



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THE BRICKBVILDER 



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THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION 
EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAl. DETAILS 

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MAIN.STAIRWAY IN THE NICHOLS HOUSE, SALEM, MASS. 
SAMUEL McINTIRE, ARCHITECT BUIl.T IN 1800 

MEASURED AND DRA\VN BY 

(^ M.A.DYER 



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3-lNCH-SCALEDETAlL- 
OE- BALUSTER.- &-5C110LL 



PLATE 5 

MAUCH • 1915 



■STAIHWAY-IM- NICHOLS -HOUSE' 

5AMUEL']V1C1HT111E -ARCHITECT 

■5ALEM'MA55- 



MEASURED -6- 

•DRAWN • BY- 

•GOR.DOM- ROBB- 

•6r- M-A'DYER- 



I 




CONSULADO DEL MAR, PALMA DE MALLORCA, SPAIN 
ERECTED IN THE XVIITH CENTURY 



THE BRJCKBVILDER. 



VOLUME XXIV 



MARCH, 1915 



NUMBER 3 



Design and Construction of Roof and Wall Trusses. 

PART I. TYPES OF WOODEN AND ORDINARY STEEL ROOF TRUSSES. 

By MALVERD A. HOWE, C.E. 
Director Architectural and Civil Engineering Departments. Rose Polytechnic Institute. 



A TRUSS is defined as a framework, having- members 
composed of wood, wrought iron, steel, reinforced 
concrete, or other suitable materials, so arranged as 
to form a series of triangles and having for its purpose 
the transference of its loading to one or more supports. 

In buildings, trusses are used over large rooms, assem- 
bly halls, etc., which have finished ceilings, where the 
walls are so far apart that simple beams cannot be em- 
ployed economically, and also over rooms where the ceil- 
ings are omitted and the trusses are exposed. 

The loads imposed upon trusses, in addition to their own 
weights, require careful consideration. Ordinary roof 
trusses usually support the roof covering and all roof 
framing above the truss, any snow which may be expected 
to remain on the roof, and the pressure produced by the 
wind blowing against the roof. In addition to the above 
loads there may be imposed the weight of a ceiling and an 
attic floor with any loading which may be placed upon the 
floor. Occasionally an entire floor is suspended by rods 
from the roof trusses as in the North German Lloyd Pier 
Shed at Hoboken, N. J. 

Trusses entirely concealed in partitions are used over 
large rooms which occupy one or more intermediate stories 
in a building. An example of the use of very heavy con- 
cealed trusses is in the La Salle Hotel, Chicago. Each of 
the steel trusses over the foyer has a span of nearly 
77 feet and weighs 221,000 pounds. Other examples 
are found in the Guaranty Trust Building, New York ; 
Astor Hotel, New York; Bankers' Trust Building, New 
York ; New York Stock Exchange ; Union Central Life 
Insurance Building, Cincinnati, and the National Shaw- 
mut Bank, Boston. 

Concealed cantilever trusses are used to support walls 
and columns. A notable example of the use of trusses in 
this manner is in the People's Gas Company's Building, 
Chicago, where sixteen stories of the front of the building 
are supported by cantilevered trusses with projections of 
^V2 feet. Cantilever trusses are also used to support bal- 
cony floors in theaters, stores, etc., and in grand-stands 
to support roofs and floors. There are a few examples of 
cantilevered trusses used in the bottom stories of buildings 
to carry the side walls where it is not possible to place 
suitable foundations immediately underneath the walls. 
In such cases masonry piers are built well within the 
property lines. Each pier makes one support for a truss 
which extends to the property line. If the building is 



narrow, each truss extends from property line to property 
line ; but if the building is wide, the cantilevered trusses 
extend inward towards the center of the- building only to 
the first row of interior columns. 

TvPE.s OF WoonicN TKr.s.siiS. 

The form of a truss is governed by the length of span 
and the purpose for which it is to be used. Ordinary roof 
trusses usually have horizontal bottom chords and the top 
chords of the shape of the roof. Long span trusses and 
exposed ornamental trusses may have their bottom chords 
broken instead of straight. 

The forms of trusses shown in Figs. 1-18 are suitable 
for pitched roofs. The form shown in Fig. 1 is used for 
spans not exceeding 20 feet. The center tie is introduced 
to support the bottom chord and any loading which may 
come upon it. Fig. 2 is a combination of three trusses, 
each having the shape shown in Fig. 1, and is suitable for 
spans not exceeding 40 feet. These trusses can be built 
entirely of wood, but usually the vertical members are 
made of metal rods. For spans between 40 and 80 feet, 
the forms shown in Figs. 3,4,5, and 6 may be used. The 
truss shown in Fig. 3 has all members of wood excepting 
the verticals, which are metal rods. When the pitch of 
the roof or the span is so large that the length of any 
diagonal member becomes over thirty times its least dimen- 
sion, then the form shown in Fig. 4 should be used. The 
type shown in Fig. 4 has all members of wood excepting 
the diagonals, which are of metal, and is preferable to the 
form shown in Fig. 3 for long spans. The truss shown 
in Fig. 5 avoids the use of long compression members in 
the web and can be used for spans exceeding 80 feet by 
increasing the number of panels. When this truss is used, 
provision must be made for lateral bracing between trusses 
if ]Mirlins are not used at the apexes, marked A in the 
figure. The Belgian truss shown in Fig. 6 has one set of 
web members normal to the rafters. The light lines in 
the figure show members made of metal rods. 

For steei) roofs where the trus.ses are exposed or when 
broken ceilings are desired, the fofms of trusses shown in 
Figs. 7-17 are suitable. Fig. 7 shows a simple form of 
scissors truss which can be used for spans not exceeding 
30 feet. If the truss is exposed, the center rod can be 
boxed to give the ai^iicarance of a wooden member. The 
scissors trusses shown in I'^igs. 8 and 10 are not intended 
to be exposed and therefore metal rods are used, as indi- 



56 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 














It a 






TYPICAL FORMS FOR WOODEN ROOF TRUSSES 
For their use and description see text 



THE B R I C K B V I L D E R 



57 




20 




21 





24 




25 








St 




32 




S3 



:^ N - H^ I 



S4 




TYPICAL f'ORMS FOR ORDINARY STEKL ROOF TRUSSES 

For Ihcir use and description see text 



58 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



cated by light lines. The truss shown in Fig. 9 is con- 
structed entirely of wood when the span is short. For 
spans of 30 to 40 feet, the tension members should be of 
metal. These can be boxed to give the appearance of 
wooden members. The form of truss shown in Fig. 11a 
is used over the Museum, Hanover College, Hanover, 
Ind. The light lines indicate the members made of metal 
rods. Fig. A is a perspective drawing showing the final 
appearance of the trusses as finished by boxing the metal 
members. The scissors truss shown in Fig. 12 can be 
constructed entirely of planks and has the advantage over 
other forms in having its supports well below the tops of 
the walls which de- 
creases the outward 
push. The truss shown 
in Fig. 13 is really a 
scissors truss, although 
it has the appearance of 
a hammer beam truss. 
The curved members 
are inconsistent unless 
other bracing is used in 
the truss as indicated 
by dotted lines. 

The hammer beam 
trusses shown in Figs. 
14 and 16 may be used 
for spans not exceeding 
about 60 feet. The 
horizontal member at 
the top of the wall may 
extend over the wall as 
shown in Fig. 16, to 
make an easy connection 
for the rafter, but it 
should bear upon the 
vertical member under- 
neath and not upon the 
wall. These trusses are 
usually built entirely of 

wood, excepting the single rod in the center, which is 
boxed. The truss shown in Fig. 15, while having the 
general appearance of a hammer beam truss, is, in reality, 
an " A truss," and should be so considered in the deter- 
mination of stresses. Fig. 17 shows a truss which lies 
between the hammer beam truss and the " A truss." 

The scissors truss, " A truss," and the hammer beam 
truss require careful designing, as each form produces 
thrusts against the supporting walls. The wall may be 
strengthened by pilasters or buttresses to resist the thrusts, 
or the trusses may be made so heavy and stiff that the 
thrust is very small. 

For flat roofs the Howe truss is suitable. All members 
excepting the verticals are made of wood. Figs. 18 and 
19 show the usual forms. The Howe truss can be used 
for spans up to 130 feet. The depth of the truss should 
not be less than one-tenth the span, and the length of the 
panels should not be greater than the depth of the truss. 



Wooden roof trusses should be spaced from 10 to 15 
feet apart. The shorter spacing is usually the more 
economical. 

For concealed trusses in partitions, the Howe truss is 
the most suitable, as the top and bottom chords can be 
made a part of the floor framing and the web members 
arranged to provide for necessary openings in the parti- 
tions. 

Ordinary Steel Roof Trusses. 

Any of the forms outlined for construction of wood 
can be used when rolled steel shapes are employed. 

For pitched roofs the 




Perspective View of Truss in Museum, Hanover College, Hanover, Ind. 
Herbert Follz. Architect 



forms shown in Figs. 
JO-26 are types in 
common use. The 
form shown in Fig. 20 
is used for spans less 
than 40 feet. The fan 
truss shown in Fig. 22 
can be used for spans 
up to 50 feet, and the 
forms shown in Figs. 21, 
23, 24, 25, and 26 may 
be used for spans up to 
80 or 90 feet. The 
forms shown in Figs. 
27, 28, and 29 can be 
used for spans up to 200 
feet by increasing the 
number of panels in the 
central segments. For 
spans much exceeding 
200 feet some form of 
arch or arch truss should 
be employed. 

For flat roofs, trusses 
in partitions, cantilev- 
ered trusses, and simi- 
lar structural features, 
the forms shown in Figs. 30-34 are suitable. 

Examples of trusses having broken or curved chords 
are shown in Figs. 35-40. The curved knee brace in 
Fig. 35 should be braced as shown by the dotted lines. 
Fig. 38 shows the method of hanging a balcony to the 
truss. With the exception of the truss shown in Fig. 36 
these trusses are supported by steel columns and are ex- 
posed . 

Roof trusses of steel are spaced from 20 to 25 feet apart. 
In school buildings, churches, dwellings, etc., the trusses 
are usually concealed. In gymnasiums, train sheds, mills, 
etc., they are exposed. For pitched roofs the forms shown 
in Figs. 20-23 appear to give the best satisfaction. 

In some cases good results are obtained by constructing 
trusses of steel and then boxing the members with wood 
or encasing them with concrete. This method is em- 
ployed when the loads are very heavy and it is desired to 
have the trusses show in wood or concrete. 



tjjf .1§&tioiJtr|fnb. 



The Modem Schoolhouse. 

III. WARDROBES, TOILETS, AND SPECIAL ROOMS. 

By WALTER H. KILHAM. 



om 



*:: 



I o o o~o 



ELEVATION 



ON the question of wardrobes, a difference of opinion 
amongr school men is quickly manifested. Questions 
addressed to a number of teachers on this subject 
elicited a variety of answers. Eliminating for the moment 
the old style of placing- racks for 
clothing in the corridors, the main 
question arises between the method 
of building a separate closed room 
for the garments or adopting the 
more compact plan of arranging 
hanging space in the thickness of 
the ventilating stacks and opening 
directly into the class room. In 
case separate wardrobe rooms are 
used, as is very generally the case,, 
and is recommended by most 
teachers, they should be at least 
from ArVi to 5 feet wide and ought to 
run to the outside wall, so as to 
have a window. Even with this 
width they are cramped and dis- 
agreeable, and facilities for sitting 
down to put on rubbers, etc., can- 
not be provided. To make them 6 
feet wide or more, as desired by 
some authorities, would entail too 
heavy an expense in a large build- 
ing. They should be separately 
heated and ventilated, or the foul 
air from the school- 
room may be drawn out 
through them. They 
therefore add roughly 
125 square feet of floor, 
or say 1,700 cubic feet of 
contents each, which in 
a large building adds 
materially to the cost. 
They are supplied with 
devices for hanging 
clothes of which the pole 
system, with hooks and 
hatpins, as illustrated in 
Fig. 7, is one of the best. The heights 
of the lower poles are for the kindergar- 
ten, 30 inches from floor ; lower grades 
36 to 40 inches ; upper grades 44, 48, and 
52 inches ; distance between poles 8 
inches for elementary, 12 inches for high 
schools. Pins and hooks, 8 to 12 inches 
on centers for elementary, and 16 to 18 inches for high 
schools. Each hook has a painted number VA inches 
high. A copper drip gutter is often placed in the floor 
under the umbrella clips, or is formed in the floor when 
terrazzo or composition is used and does not need to be 
drained. Another rather elaborate arrangement 
clothing is the "stall" system shown in iMg. 8. 



Fig. 7. Details of Hanging Poles for Wardrobes 




compartments are made of wire mesh, without doors. A 
wire shelf at the bottom is provided for rubbers and a 
wooden shelf at the top for hats. They are invaluable 
for keeping children's clothing separate, but are too 
costly for general adoption. 

If the interior walls are treated 
with burlap, the wardrobe walls 
should be similarly treated to above 
the height of the clothes poles, but 
hard plaster painted in oil is more 
hygienic and sufficiently durable 
and, of course, glazed or salt glazed 
bricks are still better. 

Opinions continue to vary as to 
whether these wardrobes should 
open directly to the corridor or be 
entered only from the schoolroom. 
In either case they offer the pos- 
sibility of a dangerous trap in case 
of fire. At the CoUingwood School 
fire, it is said that although the 
teachers stood at the class room 
doors, the panic stricken children 
bolted through the dressing rooms 
to the stairs, thereby escaping from 
their control. Had these rooms 
been accessible only from the class 
rooms, this danger would have been 
averted, but a series of cii/s-dc-sac 
would have been built 
D 




COFPEI? CCTVEfLD 
UNDEI^ UMBT\1.UA 
RACKi 



5ECTION 



SECTION 




+ 



Fig. 8. Plan of Wardrobe and 
Details of Individual Wire Stalls 



which might have proved 
even more dangerous. 

Another objection to 
separate wardrobes is the 
opportunity they offer for 
petty pilfering. The 
doors to the corridor 
must be kept locked ; but 
many authorities think 
that these locks should be 
free on the inside, so that 
while exit is always pos- 
sible, entrance for the 
thief is prevented. 

It is not of much importance wlielher 
the wardrobe is at the same end of the 
room as the teacher or not. If it can be 
arranged at the teacher's end, her con- 
trol over it is naturallv more efficient ; 



SFXTION 



for 
These 



but some of the front blackboard space, 
the most valuable in the room, will be lost by the doors 
necessary for entrance to the wardrobe. 

Most of these troubles are obviated, and the cubic con- 
tents (and hence the cost) of the building is reduced by 
the adoption of the so-called "Chicago" type of ward- 
robe, which is built in the thickness of the ventilating 
stack or wall and opens directly into the class room for its 



59 



60 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



entire length. By this plan no space is lost, the entire 
wardrobe is constantly under the eye of the teacher, and 
the children can use their own seats for putting on over- 
shoes. These closets should be well ventilated, and it is 
perfectly practicable to draw the exhaust air from the 
class room through them to the outlet duct. The fronts 
slide up as shown in Fig. 10, and the doors may be utilized 
for blackboards or " tack " boards, so that no wall space 
is lost. 

These wardrobes have not yet come into general use 
outside of large cities, but the writer ventures the sugges- 
tion that the tax payer's turn is coming in school con- 
struction and that the time honored separate wardrobe 
will not be generally used. The old corridor clothing 
racks seem to have entirely disappeared, but some cities 
still place clothing lockers along the corridor walls, a 
practice which has little to recommend it. 

Saiiitarics. The toilet rooms in any school building are 
properly subjects for the most careful attention. They 
should first of all be well lighted and receive as much 
sunlight as possible. In grade schools these rooms are 
generally placed in the basement, but in upper grade and 
high schools when it is possible they should be located on 
each floor in order to save long trips to the basement by 
pupils whose time is increasingly valuable. 

The temptation to take any dark corner of the basement 
for toilet room space is always present because it seems as 
if the best portions ought to be utilized for manual train- 
ing or play rooms ; but ample 
light, air, and sunshine are 
invahiable aids to hygienic 
conditions in the toilet rooms. 
The walls are generally left 
with the masonry exposed and 
whitened, but when possible 
they should be lined with white 
enameled or salt glazed brick. 
The more attractive the room 
appears, the better care will 
be taken of it. Floors are 
often of granolithic, but arc 
better of asphalt, sloping to 
the urinal in the boys' room 
and to a floor drain in the 
girls'. 

Fixtures. Different rules 
exist for the number of fixtures 
to be provided. For a mixed 
or co-educational building the 
following schedule is required 
by Massachusetts law, being 
based upon the assumption of 
an equal number of pupils of 
each sex : 




Fig. 9. 





W.-iter 


Closet.' 




Urin 


il Slabs. 




Pupils 


Uirls. 


Boys. 


Urinals. 


Feet. 


Inches. 


5ECT10N 


50 


i 


2 


2 


2 


8 




100 


4 


3 


4 


5 


4 




200 


6 


4 


6 


8 







300 


9 


6 


8 


10 


8 




400 


12 


8 


10 


13 


4 




500 


14 


9 


12 


15 







600 


16 


10 


14 


18 


8 




700 


18 


11 


16 


21 


4 




800 


20 


12 


18 


24 







900 


22 


13 


20 


26 


8 


Fig. 10. 1 


1000 


24 


14 


22 


29 


4 





For buildings having a greater number, or majority 
fraction of a hundred pupils, or occupied by either sex 
exclusively, the same ratio respectively is to be observed. 
Boston requires water closet accommodation at the rate 
of I'b per schoolroom (40 pupils), being 5 8 per room for 
boys and l}i for girls and 33 inches of slab urinal per 
schoolroom. Other authorities give slightly varying 
rules. Professor Dresslar recommends that the requisite 
number of seats for girls be obtained by dividing one-half 
of the total number of pupils (if co-educational) that the 
building is designed to accommodate by 15, i.e., if the 
school is built for 600 pupils, there should be 20 seats for 
the girls. For boys, the number of seats needed can be 
approximated by dividing by 25, with about 10 urinals. 
Hence, for the accommodation of 300 boys, 12 seats are 
generally ample. Mr. Wm. fieorge Bruce, in his useful 
Manual, recommends one seat for every 15 girls and one 
urinal and closet for every 25 boys, slightly increasing 
the number for kindergarten and primary schools. 

It will be seen by the above that the tendency is for 
educators to request a larger number of plumbing fixtures 
than the boards which are more directly concerned with 
the expenditure of the public money are apt to recom- 
mend. The Boston rule given above, for example, is the 
result of several years' careful study of the question by 
officials charged with the duty of obtaining the best prac- 
tical results in schoolhouse construction possible under 
the appropriations and eliminating all unnecessary ex- 
pense. Although this rule cuts 
down the number of fixtures 
in some cases about 20 per 
cent, it has been found to work 
well and no complaint has 
come to the attention of the 
writer. A schoolhouse by all 
means should be comfortable 
and convenient ; but there is 
no good reason why the tax- 
pa j'ers' money should be used 
for providing school children 
with luxuries of this sort such 
as few city hotels possess. 

The water closet compart- 
ments are 2 feet 6 inches wide 
on centers and 4 feet deep, and 
behind them a space is ar- 
ranged for pipes and vents 
w^hich should be wide enough, 
say 2 feet, to admit a man to 
make repairs. 

Only substantial and well 
made fixtures should be con- 
sidered. Wash down or si- 
phonic action closets are suita- 
ble with a raised rear vent of 
about 11 square inches area, 
connected to a duct leading to 
the special exhaust fan pro- 
vided for the toilet rooms. 
Short hoppers on heavy iron 
traps with the same raised 
local vents are also in common 
use, although the siphon closets 



Plan of Class Rooms Showing Wardrobes in 
Ventilating Stacks 




ELEV/-.T10N 



PLAN 
Details of Class Room Wardrobes in Ventilating 
Stacks 



THE BRICK BVILDER 



61 



are superior. These closets are 16>^ inches high for the 
upper classes and 13>^ inches for the lower classes. The 
type of water closet seat that is open in front is preferable 
to that which forms a complete ring; . The tanks may be 
of plain wood and are best kept behind the partition. The 
chains should also be here because they can be easily 
operated by a lever coming: through the partition. This 
prevents the children from playing with the pulls and 
perhaps injuring- the tanks. 

The so-called "seat-ac- 
tion ' ' valves which operate 
by the pressure of the body 
on the seat are held in favor 
by some as is also the ' ' before 
and after ' ' flush, but for gen- 
eral purposes the hand oper- 
ated flush is simpler and will 
be found adequate with a little 
attention from the janitor. 
Simplicity is a very important 
factor in connection with any 
appliance designed for school - 
house use; and while the ques- 
tion of flushing- the fixtures is 
an important one it is doubt- 
ful if any real benefit is ob- 
tained by the installation of 
complicated automatic mech- 
anism. Some authorities 
hold that children cannot be 
trusted to use hand pulls, and 
the automatic flush is indis- 
pensable; but large city 
schools designed by the writer 
and fitted with hand pulls show good results, perhaps due 
partially to the fact that the children are trained and 
instructed to use the fixtures properly. 

Automatic flush tanks are, however, in common use for 
urinals and when properly regulated give good results, 
and the principle must now be applied also to the water 
closets in Massachusetts. 

The closet enclosures in Boston are generally of Jb -inch 
V-grooved hard wood sheathing applied vertically to top 
and bottom rails of same wood, supported at the ends 
with iron pipe about 8 feet high to which doors are hung. 
Iron pipe also ties the compartments together and to the 
wall. The wood is kept about one foot above the floor 
and the back partition has a 2-foot slate base. This 
represents a certain amount of retrenchment in expendi- 
ture, as formerly slate was used for the entire partitions. 
Slate is suitable and cleanly, but is dark and gloomy in 
color and very much more expensive than wood. The 
crevices in the sheathing partitions are theoretically ab- 
horred by sanitarians, but it is extremely doubtful if they 
are actually harmful. Marble is not commonly employed 
on account of expense, otherwise it is, of course, a desir- 
able material. 

The ventilated slab urinal (illustrated in Fig. 12), 
with or without partitions, is still commonly employed. 
Partitions should be used when possible and should be 
so designed as to reduce the contact with the back and 
bottom slabs to the lowest possible aniount so as to 
avoid corners which are difficult to clean. The slab 




Fig. 11. Details of Insfalia- 
tion of Toilet Fixtures and 
P>nclosin!< Partitions. 



PLAN 



urinals are flushed automatically from a special tank 
through a "/s-inch perforated pipe, to receive which a 
groove is inade in the back slab. They are vented through 
apertures at the bottom into the space behind. Individual 
porcelain urinals of the pear shaped type are unsuitable for 
schools on account of the difficulty met with in cleaning 
them, but the modern vertical ones are highly satisfactory 
and are worth their additional cost which is not great, as 

separating partitions arc not 
necessary with this type. 

A black slate sink is gen- 
erally provided in the l)a.se- 
ment, sometimes in the toilet 
room, but perha])s jireferably 
in the play room, with self- 
closing cocks for hot and cold 
water. With the increasing 
respect in which modern 
school buildings and their fix- 
tures are held by the pupils, 
it seems as if the more at- 
tractive porcelain or enameled 
wash basins might be sub- 
stituted for the slate sinks. 
The drinking fountains are 
sometimes placed in this sink, 
but are better kept separate 
and located in the corridor 
or play room, outside the 
toilet room, and, of course, 
should be of the "bubbling 
stream" type. vSimilar drink- 
ing fountains should be also 
installed in the upper cor- 
ridors, in porcelain or enameled iron sinks. Provision 
should always be made in the corridors for a faucet for 
the purpose of drawing water for flower vases, water- 
color drawings, etc. A slop sink is often installed in a 
closet off the corridor, supplied with hot and cold water ; 
biit when the toilets can be located on each floor instead 
of the basement, it is much better to locate the slop sinks 
in them and avoid an extra closet to keep clean. 

Windows of toilet rooms should have ribbed glass where 
exposed to view from outside and wire .guards. Doors to 
toilet should be arranged " in " and " out," and if neces- 
sary screens should be constructed inside in co-educational 
buildings. 

Ventilation is eflected through the local vents of the 
water closets and the ventilated urinals into vent-ducts 
eciLiippcd with a special exhaust fan, and fresh air should 
be supplied to the room from the main system. 

All the above applies, of counse, to schools in compara- 
tively large places. In rural districts many of the con- 
veniences afforded by an adequate water supi)]y are 
unobtainable, and the sanitation of buildings of this class 
may well form the subject of a separate chaj^ter. 

Such contrivances as range closets, trough urinals, and 
"dry" systems of any .sort form no part of a modern 
schoolhouse and will not be considered here. It may 
sometimes, of course, be impracticable to provide an electri- 
cally driven fan for the toilet room ventilation, and in 
such cases recourse may he had to a flue which may be 
heated by steam coils or by an independent fire, so as to 



62 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



;^ 



c 



^ 



ELEVATION 



avoid the necessity of operating the furnace or boiler in 
mild weather. 

Baths. Baths are introduced to some extent in large 
buildings, but are hardly an essential portion of the plant. 
Shower baths are used more particularly in connection 
with the gymnasiums, but in the poorer districts of cities 
it is sometimes worth while to provide a bathtub for the 
immediate cleansing of some particularly untidy pupil and, 
if desired, this may be provided in connection with the 
toilet room. A shower is not necessary in this case, but 
both hot and cold water should be provided. 

PrincipaT s and Teachers'' Roonis. 
It is customary to provide the prin- 
cipal of an ordinary grade school 
with an office of 200 to 250 square 
feet, in which center the clock 
and telephone systems of the build- 
ing. This room should have its 
own toilet room, containing water 
closet and bowl, and should also be 
provided with book storage in the 
shape either of a book closet or a 
bookcase. In large schools where 
a clerk is employed, an outer and 
larger office should be provided 
which may contain the master 
clock and telephone center, with 
an inner private office for the prin- 
cipal. Where there is no outer 
office, a place with a seat should be 
arranged for parents and pupils who are waiting to see the 
principal. These offices are best arranged on the first floor 
in a central location, conveniently near the main entrance 
and so as to command it if possible. Some recommend 
placing this office on the second floor if the building has 
three stories. In addition, there should be a room for 
teachers of about the same size, or a little larger, with 
separate toilet facilities. Boston allows a room of 300 
square feet for 10 teachers. If there are both men and 
women teachers, separate rooms should be provided. The 
teachers' room should include an arrangement for warm- 
ing" lunches, either by gas or electricity. A slate shelf, 
about 20 by 36 inches with slate back which will carry 
the little gas or electric stove, makes a neat arrangement. 
In view of the desire of the teachers to give the room a 






SECTION 



PLAN 
Fig. 12. Details of the Ventilated Slab Urina 



homelike appearance and air of privacy, this should be 
located in the room so as not to be .seen from the cor- 
ridor. Those who still further wish to pamper the teach- 
ing force may provide a cupboard with glazed doors for 
holding cups, saucers, and utensils. 

Nurse's Room. The nurse's room should have from 200 
to 400 square feet of area, according to the size of the 
school, with good outside light. The window shades 
should be set to roll from the window sill upwards. A 
white tile dado and rounded sanitary coves at the corners 
give the room a professional air, but are not essential. 
The floor may be of terrazzo, like 
the corridors. An electric recep- 
tacle should be provided for a hand 
portable light. In connection with 
this room, a nurse's closet for sup- 
plies is convenient ; it may be about 
3 by 4 feet in size, with a shelf and 
half a dozen hooks for clothing. 

An enameled iron or porcelain 
surgical lavatory with hot and cold 
combination shampoo cock operated 
both by hand and foot valves is re- 
quired, and in addition a 5-foot 
enameled iron bath tub and a water 
closet are desirable additions, 
though they are not always sup- 
plied. Provision ought to be made 
for a gas or electric stove, as in the 
teachers' room, and a secondary 
clock. The nurse's room is not regarded as an essential 
part of an ordinary building, but will be found useful for 
the eye, throat, and nose examinations now customary in 
most cities. 

Storerooms. Many schoolhouses fall short in the mat- 
ter of storage space. The mere matter of storage of text 
books not actually in use does not require a great amount 
of space when the shelving is arranged in library fashion. 
A room 8 by 10 feet on each floor, which need not neces- 
sarily have outside light, will be amply sufficient, but for 
unpacking cases and storage of bulky articles more space 
is recjuired. A fair sized room in the basement, .some- 
where near the boiler room, which should have extra wide 
doors to the corridor so that a large case can be taken in, 
will be found a very great convenience. 






Views of Wardrobe, Open and Closed, in Ihickness of Ventilating Staci<s 

Leonardo High School, Leonardo, N. J. 
Brazer & Robb, Architects 



Some Ironwork from Rome and Tuscany. 



By JOHN S. SCARFF. 
Accompanied by Measured Drawings by the Author. 



THE advent of machinery at the beginning- of the 
nineteenth century marks a new era in the history 
of the arts and crafts. Unlike former times when 
individual effort and skill counted as the most important 
factors in accomplishment, the emphasis now was placed 
upon speed and the facility of production. The worker 
left his workshop for the factory and in so doing lost his 
individuality, and art became subservient to commer- 
cialism. Brought to the realization of the artistic poverty 
of our lives, we g-rant to-day the importance of the man 
and his individual efforts as being equally vital with that 
of the factory and its prodiiction. 

The worker in iron has but few constructional details 
to use as elements 
of design, and the 
interest and charm 
that lies in the 
earlier work is due 
to the strict obser- 
vance of structural 
requirements and 
that every hammer 
stroke reflects per- 
sonality. The 
metal was used at 
a red or white heat 
and there was no 
time for copying or 
measuring a de- 
sign, except by the 
eye, and so we get 
a freshness and 
spontaneity that the 
more carefully la- 
bored and complex 
designs do not 
show. 

The medieval 
smith took great 
delight in the sim- 
plicity of his work. 
To-day where the 
architect designs 
the detail and in- 
sists upon accuracy 
in the reproduction, 
the result is an un- 
interesting .same- 
ness, lacking in 
charm. An exam- 
ination of the ac- 
companying illus- 
trations of old 
ironwork will show 
some of the few and 



simple methods employed in its execution. Two pieces 
are welded together, or bored and riveted, or joined by 
short strap-like pieces of iron known as collars. The 
quality and charm of the design depends upon the degree 
of fidelity to the structural requirements. Welding is used 
to suggest brancing growths. Rivets, first used as simple 
spots, later, more developed and complex, became centers 
of floriated forms. The collar is used when the design is 
a variation of the c and s scrolls and in more conventional 
and geometric forms to give greater richness. In these 
methods of construction the structural details are an inte- 
gral part of the design. The accompanying examples of 
this period of workmanship from Rome and Tuscany show 

the same difference 
of quality that exists 
between all the life 
and arts of the two 
greatest centers of 
the Italian Renais- 
sance . While 
Rome is more splen- 
did with a magnifi- 
cent voluptuous 
beauty, Tuscany at- 
tains the finer spirit 
and higher level. 

Of the Tuscan 
work that shown in 
Xo. I, occurring at 
the second story on 
the main fa(;ade of 
the Palazzo Publico 
at Pistoja, for the 
grace and refine- 
ment of its simpli- 
city, cannot be ex- 
celled. No. VI 
illustrates a flank- 
ing lialcony on the 
same fac^ade. No. 
Ill is an excellent 
and exceedingly 
graceful design 
where heaviness in 
the section would be 
disastrous. No. I\' 
shows a variation 
of the well-known 
Siena <|uatrefoil that 
gives so rich a tex- 
ture. The close and 
solid effect of No. V 
is obtained by wide 
straps bolted to a 
heavier framework. 




Iron Entrance Grille, C liKsa San Marco, Rome, Italy 
63 



64 



THE BRICKBVILDER 





No -I 



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No-Y Convenf ^ o r? Marco, florenc'e, No-YL Palq?2o Cornu rya le , Pi'^foia 



EXAMPLES OF TUSCAN IRONWORK 
MEASURED AND DRAWN BY JOHN S. SCARFF 



THE BRICK BVILDER. 



65 




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J^-c•/ 



66 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



Among the Roman examples No. I, between two of the 
courtyards of the Vatican, is a variation of the common 
bar desiofn that the disturbed condition of Italy during" the 
fifteenth century developed as a protection. Here in the 
main field the vertical bars are threaded through the hori- 
zontal ones, and in the borders the horizontal through the 
vertical. No. Ill, besides the nice proportioning of mem- 



of smelting and use of the old material for later work, 
accounts for the scarcity of examples of an early date in 
Italy. In Rome, where throughout the Renaissance bronze 
was the accepted metal, examples are to-day noticeably 
rare . , 

Up to the fifteenth century the artisan had been content 
to perfect his constructional details and was satisfied with 




Iron Grille at the \'atican. Rome 

bers, depends for its charm upon its fine contrast of border 
to open field. No. IV, more magnificent and dignified, 
has served as inspiration for the entrance grilles of the 
Boston Public Library, and shows a developed scroll 
border and plain barred panels where sciuare bars are 
placed diagonally for greater richness. 

Although iron has a great initial strength, because of 
the effect of moisture and weather, it is even more perish- 
able than wood. This, combined with the early difficulty 



Old Iron Gateway in Rome 

simplicity, but with the perfection of methods came the 
inevitable love of the display of skill and later the imita- 
tion of other materials. To-day we may consciously place 
our craftsman in a position analogous to the early worker 
desirous of the perfection of his methods within structural 
limitations and be content with a dignified simplicity, or, 
armed with the apparatus of a more complete technical 
knowledge, seek to impress our personality upon structural 
excellence and gain greater complexity and elaboration. 




iron Gate .Across Bottom of Large Doorway, Rome, Italy 



VOL. 24, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



Pi.ATr II. 



I 




BOSTON CITY CLUB, SOMERSET STREET, BOSTON, MASS. 
NEWHALL & BLEVrNS. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATK 32. 




BASEMENT KLOOK I'LAN 



THIRD FLOOR PLAN 



BOSTON CITY CLUB, SOMERSET STREET, BOSTON. MASS. 

NliWHALL 4i BLEVINS. AKLlll IKC T.S 



VOL. 24, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 




ErCHTH KI.OOK PLAN 



TKNTH KLOOK PLAN 



BOSTON CITY CLUB. SOMERSET STREET, BOSTON. MASS. 

NEWHALL & BLKVINS. AKCHITKCTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 34 




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VOL. 24, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATK r, 




GRILL ROOM 



BOSTON CITY CLUB, SOMERSKT STREET, BOSTON, MASS. 
NKWIIAI.I. & BI.KVINS, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 36. 




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VOL. 24, NO. 3. 



THE B R I C K B V I L D E R 



PLATE 37. 



V 




ELKS' CLUB HOUSE, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
II. VAN BUKKN MAGONIGLK, A. W. KO.SS, AKCHITIXTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 3S. 




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VOL. 24, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PL.\TK :t9. 




RLKS' CLUB HOUSi;, BKOOKl.YN. N. V. 
H. VAN BUREN MAGONIGLK. A. W. KOSS. AKLlllTKCTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATF-: 40 




PHI GAMMA DELTA FRATERNITY HOUSE, I'HILAUELI'IIIA. I'A. 
MELLOR & MEIGS, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 4.1. 




DINING ROOM 



PHI GAMMA DELTA FRATERNITY HOUSE. PHILADELPHIA. PA. 
MELLOR & MEIGS. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE W. 




GENERAL VIEW 




SIDE VIEW 



NORWOOD HIGH SCHOOL. NORWOOD. OHIO 
BAUSMITH & DRAINIE. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATK 4S. 




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Practical Suggestions for Planning and Equipment 

of Hospitals. 



By M. E. McCALMONT. R.N. 



THERE are so many problems of hosiiital managfe- 
nient intimately connected with problems of planning' 
and arrantyement that the progressive architect will 
insist upon having- these thing's determined before he even 
attempts the preliminary plans of a hospital. 

By way of illustration, there are two distinct methods 
of distributing- linen : the old way of havin.tr larg:e linen 
rooms connected with each ward and a liberal suppl\- kept 
there regardless of the number of patients ; or the more 
modern method of a large and convenient central linen 
room where the entire hospital stock is kept, and from 
which each ward grets its daily allowance on written reciui- 
sition. The latter method is by far the most economical 
and satisfactory, but the planning: for such a feature of 
managfement is obviously different from that recjuired by 
the first method. 

So, too, the serving: of food. If a dietitian is to be cm- 
ployed, it should at once be determined how niuch cooking: 
is to be done in the special diet kitchen. If all the jirivate 
room trays are to be served from this kitchen, and all the 
food for the private patients prepared there, obviously the 
arrangements should be very different than if the food is 
to be sent in bulk from the main kitchen to the ward diet 
kitchens and only a few delicacies prepared in the special 
diet kitchen. In other words, if a larg:e amount of cook- 
ing: has to be done in the special diet kitchen, it is only 
fair that this department should be conveniently arranged 
and placed in close proximity to the storerooms, cold 
storage, etc. A large hospital at present in course of con- 
struction and recently visited has its diet kitchen at so 
great a distance from the storerooms, and with so little 
available storage capacit\- in the room itself, that the i.oor 
dietitian who will have to work there can only have the 
heartfelt sympathy of those who realize how extreme but 
needless the inconveniences are, and how a little consider- 
ation of the ultimate management would have saved a vast 
amount of human energy throu.ghout the years the hos]iital 
will live. 

Added to this waste of human energy is the slightly less 
important waste of equipment. Another new hosi)ita] 
recently visited shows a half dozen exi)ensive steam tables 
installed but never used because it was found more iiracti- 
cal to send the food from the main kitchen on food trucks 
fitted with hot water containers and which successfully 
took the place of the steam tables. And so there stands, 
unutilized, this expensive and unnecessary installation of 
equipment, while the hospital is crying out for common, 
everyday needs for which there are no funds. 

In this same hospital a large percentage of the plumbing 
fixtures cannot be used because they were installed without 
a thought of what the rooms in which they are placed were 
to be used for. Unenclosed toilets in utility rooms where 
nurses have to come and go constantly : bath tubs not 
partitioned off in rooms which have to be used for many 
purposes — these are but a few of the features which com- 



plicate and make difficult the management of a hospital to 
a degree (|uite past the comjuehension of those who have 
never worked in one. 

A dietitian has many accounts and records to keep, yet 
seldom has she desk room or office accommodations. If a 
matron is to have jurisdiction over the laundry, her sewing 
and mending room should be in close proximity, else there 
are miles of needless steps each day. 

In brief, the personnel of a hospital should be outlined 
and the duties of employees defined, if one would have a 
hospital that is practical from a working standpoint. 

If a hospital is to include a social service department, 
adequate preliminary provision should be made for the 
same. If the Board of Trustees believe in the educational 
functions of a hospital, and wish to have mothers in- 
structed in the care and feeding of infants, the prepara- 
tion of milk, etc., it can just as well be determined in 
advance and a portion of the dispensary be properly 
planned and equipped for this purpose. If communicable 
diseases, delirium tremens, etc., are to be admitted, the 
architect should know it before he be.gins his plans. 
Otherwise he may have a beautiful hospital to look at, but 
it will not be intelli.gent as far as results are concerned, 
and the workers and the patients will be the victims. 

SoMK OF THi': Things an Arcihti-:ct Siioi-ld Know 
Bkfore Planning a IIosi'it.vl. 

There is a certain field of inquiry which should be cov- 
ered before an architect begins his hospital plans. Some- 
times it is very difficult to ascertain the facts, for seldom 
can they be obtained from the hospital committees : but as 
many of the points bear directly upon the future manage- 
ment and the ultimate maintenance of the hospital, and as 
the maintenance is directly affected by the initial construc- 
tion, the progressive architect will realize that it is worth 
his while to make an effort to ascertain the followin.g : 

Siiidy of local conditions : Population census for the 
last three decades, rate of increase. 

Topography and situation of the hospital. 

Nature of the community, nationalities, religions, in- 
dustries, wealth, and poverty. 

Manufactures, kind, size of plants, niuuber of em- 
ployees, how cared for medically. 

Health statistics (a guide as to the relative proijortion 
of diseases which will have to be cared for). 

Ihireaii of charities : scope of activities, iihilanthropies, 
civic movements, district nursin.g, or social service. 

Conlrmfilated otffanizatioii, management, and f^ersonncl of 
the hospital. 

History of the hospital (if already in existence): incep- 
tion, growth, activities, sources of income, cost of mainte- 
nance. 

I'utnre construction : blueprints of all existing buildings 
(showing all underground piping, etc.). 



67 



68 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



Plans for future expansion (looking: ahead at least ten 
years). 

Many an architect who may chance to read the foregoing 
will doubtless feel an impatience with such detail and 
possibly fail to see wherein it concerns his work. If so, 
it is because he has not yet attained the proper viewpoint. 

Hospitals are philanthropic institutions, very few of 
which are self-supporting. Most of them are built and 
maintained by funds secured through endless days of 
labor, effort, and anxiety on the part of relatively small 
groups of individuals. Occasionally we find those which 
are heavily enough endowed to make the problems of 
maintenance a matter of small moment. But as a rule the 
future upkeep is a question of almost constant effort on 
the part of boards, and ceaseless vigilance and economy on 
the part of the conscientious su])erintendent. 

If architects could but realize what a part their intel- 
ligent or stupid planning means in the future cost of 
maintenance in the hospitals for which they are responsible, 
it is certain they would make a greater effort to study 
hospital needs and functions. 

To build a beautiful hospital is a gratifying proposition, 
but to build a beautiful hospital which is too expensive for 
the community to maintain and which is therefore aban- 
doned, is a disgraceful fact of which there is more than 
one instance in this country. Or to build one so extrav- 
agant in its administrative features that it carries a bur- 
den of constant indebtedness, is almost equally lamentable. 

There are two hospitals in the same section of the 
country, one with a per capita cost of $1.34 per day, the 
other with a per capita cost of $4.56, a difference of $3.22 
per day. Both average about twenty-seven patients per 
day, making a difference of over $30,000 per year in cost 
of maintenance. This is extreme, but it is a fact, and 
while some of it might be ex])lained by the comparative 
extravagance and economy in the management of the two 
institutions, yet without doubt most of it is due to the 
relative inconveniences which necessitate a larger per- 
sonnel, increased e(]uipment, and expensive administration. 

Is it surprising that we beseech our architects to 
become sufficiently altruistic to either make a study of this 
many-sided problem or else not attempt the work ? 

We realize, to be sure, that building committees are also 
greatly at fault, as is typified by a striking example which 
may be of value : The citizens of a medium sized town 
decided to build a hospital. A committee was formed, 
and it was agreed that they should secure their plans 
through a competitive contest advertised among architects. 
The following letter was accordingly sent forth : 

Dear Sir : The Hospital Association would like to 

have you submit them preliminary plans for a sixty-two- 
bed hospital as follows : 

Rooms Beds Total Beds 

Private rooms 22 1 22 

Surgical ward (men's) 18 8 

Medical ward (men's) 18 8 

Surgical ward (women's) ._ 1 6 6 

Medical ward < women's) 1 6 6 

Children's ward 14 4 

Private ward 4 2 8 

To be fireproof. Plans to be arranged so that they can 



be added to if necessary, to cost about $60,000, your terms 
and estimate of cost to be submitted with plans. 

Yours very truly. 

The results may be imagined. As the plans submitted 
did not meet the requirements of the community and 
lacked many of the provisions most important to the ulti- 
mate management, an outside person conversant with 
hospital needs was at last consulted and the architects 
interested were invited to again make plans according 
to the following specifications : 

Dear Sir : Enclosed herewith is a blueprint showing the 
plot of ground upon which the hospital is to be built — ele- 
v-ations, grades, points of the compass, etc. 

It is desired to have a fireproof hospital of about fifty 
beds, with accommodations for from twenty to twenty-five 
nurses and from fifteen to eighteen employees. Total 
cost not to exceed $60,000. 

The distribution of rooms, wards, etc., to be approxi- 
mately as follows : 

Male medical ward about 6 beds 

Female medical ward ,, 6 ,, 

Male surgical ward ,, 6 ,, 

Female surgical ward ,, 6 ,, 

Children's ward ,, 6 

Maternity ward ,, 4 

Nursery ,, 6 or 8 bassinets 

Private rooms, maternity ,, 2 or 3 ,, 

Private rooms (one floor) ,, 8 or 10 ,, 

A second floor of private rooms, similar to first, to be 
used for nurses at present, but so arranged as to be easily 
converted into use for private patients without any great 
expense, at such time as a nurses' home may be possible. 

Each i^riv'ate room to have a clothes closet and station- 
ary washstand with hot and cold water. 

Floors used for patients should have the following ulilitx- 
or service rooms : diet kitchen, chart room or nurses' sta- 
tion, toilet, bath, and utensil rooms, treatment rooms, isola- 
tion rooms, clothes lockers, linen closet, house maid's closet. 

Rest room for special nurses on private floors. 

Provisions should be made for offices (and vault), recep- 
tion rooms, pharmacy, accident rooms or dispensary, ob- 
servation ward (one or two beds), laboratory, morgue, 
X-Ray department, nurses' class room. 

Room specially sound proofed with barred windows, 
removed from wards, for noisy and delirious patients. 

Operating suite : two operating rooms, sterilizing 
room, rooms for dressings, supplies, and instruments, 
closet for surgical appliances, wash and locker room for 
nurses, wash and locker room for doctors, kitchenette for 
doctors, recovery room. 

Service building: power plant, laundry (sorting room 
for soiled linen, distributing room for clean linen, mend- 
ing or sewing room), kitchen and main diet kitchen, din- 
ing and serving rooms for officers, nurses, employees, 
cold storage, receiving station for all su])plies, supply 
rooms for vegetables, commissaries and household sup- 
plies, hospital supplies, linen supplies and blankets, drugs 
(stock), furniture and equipment not in use, screens, etc., 
trunk room, small carpenter and repair shop, disinfecting 
room, incinerating room. 



THE BRICKB\'ILDFR. 



69 



MTl 




r/urnottOA/t 



WALTER REED ARMY GENERAL HOSPITAL, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

MARSH & PETER, ARCHITECTS 





HOSPITAL AT 
WHITE PLAINS, N. Y. 



DONN BARBER. 
ARCHITECT 







r 

J 



wnweftAAi 




r,==i 



^^7=? 




■■■MtyiTnOXPLM 



70 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



Livinjr quarters for the following: personnel : suites for 
superintendent, housekeeper, and dietitian one bath, oper- 
ating' room nurse and night superintendent one bath, resi- 
dent physician (two beds, one bath). 

Accommodations for (eight ) male employees : engi- 
neer, fireman, two orderlies, elevator boy. gardener or yard 
man, general utility man, laimdry man. 

Accommodations for (eight) female employees: cook, 
two cooks' assistants, two laundry women, three maids. 

Also for eighteen or twenty nurses. 

Roofs to be utilized as far as funds will permit. 

Future construction mid expansion to be tentatively 
planned for now : additional ward capacity, hydrotherapy 
department, social service department, expansion of out- 
patient dispensary (all in basement of hospital), garage 



and ambulance quarters, contagious building, nurses' 
home. 

The foregoing specifications are intended to be suggest- 
ive rather than arbitrary. If too extensive for the funds 
available, the architect shall use his best judgment in 
eliminating or curtailing such features as may seem to 
him logical, or shall state definitely how reductions may 
be made, and the financial saving therefrom. 

It must be admitted that the foregoing represents " some 
of the things an architect should know," if we are to have 
efficient hospitals. In fact, they are points which he 
should insist upon knowing if he is to attempt such a 
proposition. It would seem as though the difference were 
worth the insistence. 



EXTERIOR VIEW. 
B.<\SEMENT, FIRST, AND 
SECOND FLOOR PLANS 



GEORGE HUNT INGRAHAM 
ARCHITECT 




NURSES' HOME, 
ST. LUKE'S HOSPITAL, 
NEW BEDFORD, MASS. 



*«3Bca^W9 •.A.ooff -AJW- 





fffftliir 



A*5/:>i£jV7- PL ;4jv- 



'flAS T ■ FL OOK PL .Jt-V* 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



71 



The Nomenclature of the Styles. 

A HUMOROUS THEORY ILLUSTRATING IN CARICATURE 
FAMILIAR SCHOOLS AND PHASES OF ARCHITECTURE. 

DRAWINGS BY ROCKWELL KENT. TEXT BY GEORGE S. CHAPPELL. 




EARLY CHRISTAIN. 



IN the emancipation of the early (ioths from classic 
forms it is to be noted that they attained a robust 
beauty all their own. Far from lacking- what has 
been termed the Roman "punch," such significant 
details as the famous apse of .St. Eloi de Riere (here 
represented) prove conclusively that these first artists 
of the Christian Era knew very well what satisfied 
their cravings, and went to it forthwith. Facades 
were generally neglected in favor of interiors, all 
surfaces of which were treated with lavish care and 
richness. Certain exterior features, however, are 



worthy of mention, one among them being the art- 
fully concealed ribs of the vaulting. Damp-proofing 
being unknown, rudimentary methods were adopted 
in the removal of fluid contents from basilica base- 
ments, a favorite system being shown in the accom- 
panying illustration, which also suggests that the 
early fathers had a definite knowledge of illumina- 
tion-processes applied not alone to missals and holy 
books, but also to problems of human life of a 
universal nature touching more intimately the home 
and fireside. 



72 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 




ROCOCO. 



THIS fanciful style was a late development of 
the Renaissance, or Great Awakening-, when, 
wearied by the formuUt of Vig-nola, the old 
masters began to sit up and take notice. A j^eneral 
freedom of form began to be displayed and, though 
old motives were employed, they were given a new 
twist which resulted in an effect of bad taste and 
GREAT charm. The example shown in the illus- 
tration is peculiarly interesting in that it shows the 
two main divisions of this style. The row of domes 



in the foreground, with their somewhat florid orna- 
mentation, belong clearly to the earlier period, which 
seems almost serious compared to the dainty bit of 
interior decoration shown in the middle distance. It 
is a matter of much regret that a too eager pursuit 
of novelty resulted, as it inevitably must, in a final 
disintegration of the school, to say nothing of the 
scholars. This period is reminiscent of the old 
Adam style, but lacks the vigor and restraint of the 
parent school. 



A Small Office Building. 

REMODELED FROM A GROUP OF OLD BRICK HOUSES. 

ANDREW HEPBURN, Architect, GUY LOWELL. Associate Architect. 



A SOMEWHAT un- 
promising row of 
three old brick houses, 
party-colored as to fayade, 
distinctly shopworn as to 
interior — in fact, a very 
dilapidated group of build- 
ings, but with the possi- 
bility of better things sug- 
gested by the general mass, 
brickwork, and grouping of 
windows — was the problem 
confronting the architects 
when it was decided to 
renovate the buildings at 
120 Water street, Boston. 

The original buildings 
were four low stories in 
height, with the usual 




Sketch of Buildings Before Altera«ion 



irregularly spaced granite 
posts on the street floor 
front, subdividing this story 
into a conglomeration of 
stairs and small stores. 

Starting with the idea 
that the exterior suggested 
a red brick building with 
white woodwork and small 
panes of glass, the fa(,"ade 
was developed along the 
lines of least resistance. 

The owners were quick to 
see the possibilities of the 
building, and they and the 
tenants took the arcliitcct's 
suggestions with "sweet 
reasonableness "; and under 
such unusual conditions the 




Small Offlce Buildin.q at 120 Water Street, Boston, Mass. Andrew Hepburn, Archited, Guy Lowell, Associale Architect 

73 



74 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



road to a solution was well 
paved. 

It was decided to have 
two stories and an attic in 
the altered building, each 
story high enough for a 
mezzanine gallery should 
such be desirable. In fact, 
a mezzanine gallery was im- 
mediately decided upon for 
the street floor ; but there 
are at present no such gal- 
leries on the second floor, 
although there is height 
and light enough for 
them . 

On the exterior the 
changes above the first 
story consisted of adding 
cornice and balustrade, 
removing the old paint on 
brick with acid and sand 
blast, and the use of white 
paint for everything but 
the brickwork. The first 
story facade is of cast iron 
with wood sashes, which 
are divided in small panes 
to accord with the style of 
the building. 

The left hand entrance 
with vestibule is the main 




Interior of First Floor Office 




First Floor Plan 



entrance to the general 



office of the insurance company which occupies the 



all floors of 
are painted wi 



rift 
th oi! 



hard pine 
paint. 



building. This general 
office is well lighted by the 
glass front on the street 
and by the windows on the 
rear alley. The private 
office of the president is 
readily accessible from 
the public space. The 
right hand entrance admits 
to a stairway which leads 
to the board room and clerk 
space on the first mezza- 
nine floor and to offices on 
the second floor. The cor- 
ridor of the floor connects 
directly with a corridor in 
an adjoining building for 
convenience and is of course 
fitted with fire-doors. A 
men's toilet is on the 
first floor, and a women's 
on the mezzanine, above 
which is additional pip- 
ing for future toilet accom- 
modation. 

Tile interior of the build- 
ing is as simple and inex 
])ensivc as it could be 
made. All standing finish 
is of North Carolina pine, 
stained and varnished, and 
oiled. The ]:ilaster walls 











Fi^JT rtOCR, PLAJi 

ACK TO CKOIJ/ta fiMOK 




{n]iq ^ jniiLFFj R"trnii^piO^ 




cmxmD noon iiA,s 




Providence Retreat Hospital, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Esenwein & Johnson, .Architects 



THE Providence Retreat Hospital is situated three 
miles from the business section of the city upon a lot 
2,000 by 750 feet, setting back 400 feet from the street 
line. The exterior is treated in dark red brick trimmed 
with matt white terra cotta. The roof is of red tile. 
Upon the interior all flooring is of maple excepting in the 



bathrooms and water sections, where tile is used. The 
stairs are of iron with slate treads. Patent plaster has 
been used throughout, with the exception of the bath- 
rooms, toilets, etc. 

The building is equipped with a fan system of heating 
and ventilation. 



As He Is Known, Being Brief Sketches of Contemporary 
Members of the Architectural Profession. 




SAMUEL STANHOPE LABOUISSE 



SAMUEL STANHOPE LABOUISSE was born in New 
Orleans, La., in 1879. After graduating from Tulane 
University he entered the School of Architecture of 
Columbia University, receiving his degree with the last 
class to finish the course under that well beloved teacher, 
Prof. William R. Ware. Coming back to New York after 
a year spent in travel and study in Europe, he was em- 
ployed in the oflice of Mr. Thomas Nash, and in 1906 
returned to his native city and began the practice of archi- 
tecture as a partner in the firm cf UeBuys, Churchill & 
Labouisse. This partnership has recently been dissolved 
by mutual consent, and Mr. Labouisse is practising alone. 
Although he is a nephew of H. H. Richard.son, it would 
be doing Mr. Labouisse's own energetic i:)ersonality scant 
justice to say that he owes his early prominence and suc- 
cess to inherited characteristics. His style has nothing in 
common with that of Richardson except in so far as it is 
an expression of a cultivated and sensitive taste. His 
preference in design is for the early Italian Renaissance 
and the Colonial; for styles reminiscent of the clas.'-ic 
rather than the medieval, and it is in these styles and in 
some charming modern interpretations of the old archi- 
tecture of Louisiana that his most successful work has 
been done. For the picturesque streets of the old city — 
the " 7'ieu.r carre," as it is called, with its filagree bal- 
conies and delightful courtyards— he has an almost parental 
aiTection. This has shown itself many times in his cham- 
pionship of the beauties of the old style and in his effective 
efforts to preserve Us charms from wanton injury. Largely 
through his collaboration with the local Committee on 
Preservation of Historic Monuments the threatened de- 
struction of the balconies on Canal street and the demo- 
lition of some of the buildings of the ancient I5arracks has 
recently been averted. In many other matters touching 
the public welfare he has found time to give unstinted 
service, and he has worked untiringly for the cause of 
better government in his native city. Through his efforts 
the course in architecture was established in Tulane Uni- 
versity and to this department he has freely given his 
services. He was instrumental in establishing the Louisi- 
ana Chapter of the American Institute of Architects and 
has served his Chapter as president, besides serving on 
many Institute committees. He is a Fellow of the Insti- 
tute and also a member of the Association of the Alumni 
of the American Academy in Rome. —A'. C. C. 




WILLIAM B. FAVILLE 



WILLIAM B. FAVILLE is of American lineage and 
might be fifteen or fifty, so uncertain is the age "f 
the enthusiast. He gained his first schooling in 
his chosen profession at the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology and his first jiractical experience in the offices 
of McKim, Mead & White ; still one could hardly claim 
him as a true exponent of either infiuonce. An intense 
love of color for its own sake, coujiled with an innate sense 
of the decorative, quite naturally has led him into a freer 
exercise of architectural possibilities than the fixed lines of 
"classicism " would permit. With one having less of the 
truly architectural inspiration this strong bent towards 
that which is purely sulssidiary in the art would lead to an 
excess of the ingenious in detail and in planning ; but in 
Mr. Faville's work it is quite absent. Although, perhaps, 
not always successful in linking a very well considered and 
formed plan to an equally well studied and reserved eleva- 
tion, it can be truly said that the source of the failure to 
do so can be found in the contradictory elements of the art, 
as we know it, rather than in the attitude of the architect 
Inmself towards the same. Civen that freedom of choice 
in selection, something due every architect, Mr. Faville 
rarely misses a right solution of a building jiroblem and 
giving it a telling architectural expression. The new 
Masonic Temiile, the Flood residence, the Oakland Free 
Library, the California and I'nion Savings Hanks, and the 
Columbia Theatre — all of San Francisco — each in its way 
bespeak the same architectural point of view- the love 
of color and the i)urel\- decorative are ever there; but, 
these purely casual things in this art are never thought 
sufficient if they merely cover an insufficient architectural 
body, so to speak. He never enters into the trivialities 
of personal conceits ; his originality is displayed in choos- 
ing from well known traditional examples and in using 
these in a trite and agreeable manner. This in itself is a 
valuable ([uality in an architect, as it jilaces him in easy 
communication with not only his patrons, but also with 
workers who, without losing their identity, have to be 
entrusted with details in execution. Mr. Faville is a mem- 
ber of the firm of Bliss & Faville. San Francisco, Cal., 
who are responsible for the main features of the plan of 
the Panama-Pacific Exposition buildings. The develoi>- 
ment of the great enclosing walls was especially delegated 
to them, as was the Palace of Education and the Palace of 
Varied Industries. — A. /■'. Af. 



75 



76 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




ROBERT CLOSSON SPENCER, JR. 



PRECISION and breadth stand out as conspicuous 
characteristics in the work of Robert Closson 
Spencer, Jr. He believes that the joy of creative 
worlv is legitimate, that it is not only the right of the 
architect, but that it also is essential for the greatest good 
to the client that the architect should experience that 
pleasure which comes from doing original work. And the 
noteworthy fact is that he never forgets his convictions 
nor recedes from his jiosition. His work is uniformly in 
harmony with his theories. 

His precision he inherits from his father and from his 
grandfather, who was the author of the Spencerian System 
of Penmanship. His breadth and his democracy come, I 
suspect, from his mother. At least, it is safe to assume 
that most creative democrats— for that is what he is in 
architecture — have mothers noted for ijuiet force and 
unassuming strength and sweetness. 

He was born in Milwaukee, April 13, 1864. After the 
usual common and high school training lie entered the 
I'niversity of Wisconsin and graduated as a mechanical 
engineer in 1886. He commenced his study of architec- 
ture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, after 
which he studied and worked in the offices of Wheelwright 
& Haven, and with Shepley, Rutan &• Coolidge. He 
crowned his eastern experience by winning the Rotch 
Traveling Scholarship in 1891 and for two years he studied 
in Europe as the eighth Rotch scholar. The colored 
drawing of the ceiling of the central dome of the Villa 
Madonna, Rome, which was i)ublished in the Rotch 
Scholarship Envois, has shown his ability to work and to 
show every detail without the loss of breadth. Many 
acquire breadth by elimination, but Robert Spencer never 
does. He includes everything, but always keeps all parts 
in proper relation. This drawing is one of many made 
during his study of Italian interiors from the standpoint of 
decoration and color. 

In recognition of his work the American Institute of 
Architects conferred the honor of fellowship upon him in 
1909. His interests as well as his attainments are shown 
by his membership and activity in the I'niversity and City 
clubs of Chicago. 

He began independent practice in Chicago in 1895 and 
in 1905 he took into partnershij) Mr. Horace S. Powers. 

Robert Spencer was one of the first to put the jjopular 
periodical article on domestic architecture ujion a basis 
dignified, valuable, and suggestive. His series of articles 
on Farm Houses in the /.acfirs' Home Journal in 1900 
were a distinct contribution to society and" to architecture. 

In addition to the value which his clients receive in his 
work, and the pleasure which he and his associates get 
from doing it, he never fails to interest and satisfy his 
brother architects, whether it be the drawing they look at 
or the finished construction. — D. H. /'. 




CHARLES D. MAGINNIS 



CHARLES D. MAGINNIS was born in Londonderry, 
Ireland, in 1867, and educated at theCusack's Acad- 
emy in Dublin, and later won the Queen's Prize in 
Mathematics at an e.xamination held at South Kensington, 
London. He declined appointment to the English Civil 
Service when seventeen years old and came to Boston 
as a lad in 1886. He began his architectural experiences 
when he entered the office of W. P. Wentworth, a man 
who in his day was associated with much of the most 
serious and the best work of Boston. About 1888 he en- 
tered the office of the late E. M. Wheelwright, who was 
then serving as city architect. Mr. Maginnis rapidly made 
a brilliant reputation for himself as a draftsman, his pen 
and ink renderings being particularly fresh and original 
in their style. He remained with Mr. Wheelwright until 
1896, when with Timothy Walsh and Matthew Sullivan 
he formed the firm of Maginnis, Walsh &■ Sullivan, later 
continuing the business with Mr. Walsh alone. He has 
been a member of the Municipal Art Commission of the 
City of Boston since 1908 and of the Massachusetts State 
Art Commission since 1911 ; a Fellow of the American 
Institute of Architects ; member of the Boston Society of 
Architects, Boston Architectural Club; very prominent 
in the Arts and Crafts Society, and a freijuent contributor 
to the architectural periodicals, besides having published 
a very clear and much sought for work on the subject of 
"Pen Drawing." He has won his chief fame in the de- 
signing of Roman Catholic churches, a task to which he 
has brought a degree of enthusiasm and thorough appre- 
ciation of the possibilities of material, the value of wall 
surfaces, and the efficient massing of ornament, light, and 
shade, that are his not merely by temperament, but also 
because of careful training. He is essentially an artist 
and is able to embody in his work those delicate shades of 
meaning which count for so much in an architect's life, 
but which so few of us are able to make real. In all of his 
work, however humble the building or however exalted 
the problem, he never loses sight of the essential charac- 
ter of the edifice. He has used color a great deal — indeed, 
all his work has a quality of color even though carried out 
in monotone, and monotony or mere adherence to types 
has never been his limitation. He loves his problems and 
works over them, idealizes them, dreams of them, until 
they assume visible, blooming shape. And though his 
architecture is so thoroughly picturesque, and though the 
element of color plays so large a jnirt therein, he follows 
perfectly legitimate academic tradition. He is a product 
of the American School of Architecture, plus all the ideal- 
ism which made the early Italian Renaissance so charm- 
ing, and his churches in every instance are truly monu- 
ments of architecture. Scattered as they are throughout 
the country, they are works of careful, conscientious art 
and a joy to all who behold them. — C. H. B. 



PLATE DESCRIPTION. 



The Boston City Club. Plates 31-36. The Boston 
City Club is located on Somerset street and Ashburton 
place, a retired though central section of Boston. It has 
been designed to house a club having- a very large mem- 
bership with varied civic and business interests. The 
chief centers of activity are located in the ujiper and lower 
stories of the building, between which the floors are de- 
voted to small private diningr rooms and chambers. 

The building- has three entrances: one devoted to the 
use of members on Somerset street, one for visitors at the 
upper end of the Ashburton place fagade, and a central 
entrance which leads to the main lounge and is reserved 
for use upon formal occasions. From the members' 
entrance a wide staircase of easy ascent leads directly to 
the main lounge and to the right is an ample corridor, 
g-iving- access to the check rooms, barber shop, and the 
main bank of elevators at the rear. 

The main loungfe extends up two stories in the center of 
the building and is surrounded by a mezzanine Hoor con- 
taining- alcoves on the loungfe floor level and writing- 
rooms and picture grallery on the second level. The grill 
room is two floors below the level of the lounge. Its ceil- 
ing- is supported by heavy oak beams stained a dark gfray. 
The upper portion of the walls is pierced by leaded case- 
ment windows which open on the main corridors of the 
floor above. The walls are of cement plaster treated in a 
manner to represent stone. 

On the third floor above the members' entrance is 
located the main banquet room and lecture hall, occupying 
a space of 100 by 60 feet, two stories in height, and accom- 
modating: five hundred diners. On the top floor the main 
dining room is located, also occupying a space of two 
stories. It is 80 by 60 feet and accommodates four hun- 
dred and fifty diners at a time. 

The service and kitchen arrangements are particularly 
ample and are located in an extension of the main build- 
ing- which extends the full height of the sixteen stories. 
In this section service and freight elevators are located, 
also special service rooms on each floor directly over one 
another, with dumb waiter service to the main kitchen. 
The latter is on a level with the main dining- room ; above 
it on a mezzanine floor is a compartment nearly the same 
size, in which all vegetables are prepared and the baking- 
done. An ice manufacturing plant is located on the roof 
above the kitchen. There are twenty-two small private 
dining rooms and sixty sleeping chambers, averaging in 
size 12 by 24 feet. 

The total cost of the building: was $540,000, or 31 cents 
per cubic foot. This includes besides the cost of construc- 
tion, elevators, heating and plumbing, refrigerating sys- 
tem and refrigerators, vacuum cleaning system, ])neumatic 
order system, bar, check room and barber shop fittings, 
kitchen equipment, bowling alleys, lighting fixtures, all 
furniture, rugs, etc., and two 300 horse-power boilers. 

The Elks' Club House, Brooklyn, N. Y. Plates 
37-39. The Elks' Club House is located on a lot 100 by 
115 feet and occupies a space 80 feet wide by 99 feet deep, 
arranged on the lot to preserve the light on all sides of the 
building and leaving a ten-foot driveway on each side. 

The architectural style adopted is transitional between 
Italian Gothic and Renaissance. The materials are a light 



yellowish gray brick similar to that used in the Madison 
Scjuare Presbyterian Cluirch in New York, designed some 
years ago by McKim, Mead (!<: White. It is laid up with 
a wide flush joint. All ornament is executed in terra 
cotta, much of which is in polychrome. The cornice fol- 
lows Italian precedent and is decorated in color. 

The basement contains a bowling alley with lockers 
and general toilet, kitchen, stewards' department, serving 
pantry for the third floor service, bar, fan chamber, re- 
frigerating plant, and storage space for wines and supplies. 

On the first floor the most imposing apartment is the 
main lobby, which is floored with terrazzo. This room 
as well as the dining room and the lodge room have been 
left entirely undecorated in plain white plaster with the 
intention of adequately treating them at a later date. The 
main lodge room on the second floor is about 36 feet high. 
with three mezzanine floors arranged about it, which pro- 
vide space for committee rooms, otTices for lodge oflicers, 
etc. The club room on the third floor will be the apart- 
ment used chiefly for club gatherings and is 45 feet wide, 
16 feet high, and occupies the full depth of the building. 

The cost of the entire building was a small fraction over 
31 cents per cubic foot. 

The Phi Gamma Delta Fkatkrnitv House, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Plates 40-43. The architectural style of 
the Phi Gamma Delta Fraternity House was chosen to 
conform to that of the other buildings at the University of 
Pennsylvania with which it is connected. The walls are 
of red brick laid with a rough cut, one-inch mortar joint. 

The building is designed to accommodate forty students, 
the total membership of the chapter. The sleeping (|uar- 
ters i)rovide for eighteen resident members to.gether with 
facilities for study. These are arranged in suites of bed- 
room and study to be occupied by two students each. The 
chapter room where the meetings of the organization are 
held is located on the top floor. 

The cost of the building entire, not including the furni- 
ture, which was designed by the architects, but all interior 
finish, wainscoting, etc., was 25 cents per cubic foot. 

XoKwooi) High School, Norwood, Ohio. 1'lates 44, 
45. The Norwood High School was designed to amply 
meet the educational needs of a growing community and 
it is so arranged that it can readily be extended to take 
care of future needs by constructing- another portion simi- 
lar in size and shape to that already built, forming a com- 
pleted building about a hollow square in the center of 
which would be the present auditorium wing. 

A special feature is the separate gymnasia provided for 
boys and girls, that tor the former being 44 by 62 feet 
and for the latter 35 by 62 feet. The swimming i)ool. 17 
feet wide by 40 feet long, is located in the basement and 
varies in depth from 3>4 to 7 feet. It is lined on the 
sides and bottom with white enameled brick. The doors 
leading to the pool are provided with two locks eaJh and 
are keyed ditTerently so that security is guaranteed when 
the pool is being used by either boys or girls. Seiwratc 
locker rooms are provided on each floor instead of the 
usual lockers in corridors, and from these locker rooms 
entrance can be had to separate toilet rooms on each floor. 

The cost of the building, exclusive of furnishings, was 
$257,000, or 16 cents per cubic foot. 



77 



I EDITORIAL COMMENT 

1 AN D'fN OTES ^ < C 

I FOR.^THE*MO NTH ^ 




ai>5»»»»»»vvvi ■ 


■ «<WWW«t<<W«<<<<^<WW<<<K<«<<««W««<<<<WW««4«««S<i««<V>>»>W^^^ 


!y*»i»>»i»»»»»»»»»»i> 


'»>»»»»»»»S ■ 



IT IS interestins: to 
note the changre that 
is takin.qf place in the 
mental attiti:de of some 
architects towards the 
builder. There comes to 

our table frequently manifestations of this change, an 
instance of which we give below in the substance of a 
letter received recently from a well known architect. He 
has devoted much time to perfecting the details of office 
administration as well as to the preparation of plans and 
specifications which will obviate as far as human contriv- 
ance can the ambiguities and difficulties of interpretation 
which so frequently arise in these documents while in the 
hands of the contractor. His observations on the relation 
of architect to builder are of value because they are based 
upon actual, personal experience. 

The creations of the architect are by no means his 
alone. However spontaneous or studied is the composi- 
tion on paper, there is no future for it in the eye of the 
beholder, unless it is built in somewhat the spirit in which 
it is first imagined. That this process is so much more 
difficult than, for instance, the methods by which the 
painter gets his results, is not sufficiently realized. He, 
with all his troubles, can paint out and paint in again 
until he has got what he is after ; but woe betide the 
architect who wishes to paint out. Steel and bricks and 
things, once put, must stay put. Many an architect goes 
about with a smile that conceals what he really thinks 
about his own work, which he could set right if he could 
only have a chance to re-arrange and try again. 

The errors in building are by no means all those of the 
architect. The bricks were not like the sample — but 
there was no time to change ; it was necessary to proceed 
with those that were on the job. The contractor placed 
the rafters wrong and, all things considered, could not be 
asked to take them off again. So the architect tore up the 
carefully considered full size detail and drew a new one on 
the smooth boards of the side of the house and now tries 
to pretend that the best that he could get was just what 
he wanted anyway. 

The architect must not only foresee the finished result, 
but the steps by which it is to be reached, and a large part 
of this duty is accomplished finding the right contractor. 
A contract with a good contractor is unnecessary ; a con- 
tract with a bad contractor is no good. The bad contractor 
can usually be avoided, certainly if the owner has had one 
experience with a man whose bid was too low and whose 
organization throughout was as incomplete and inaccurate 
as his estimating department. 

The good contractor is of varying kinds. If he is just 
a business man and knows only whether certain methods 
are profitable or unprofitable, knows only how to hustle a 
job, the architect cannot reach his highest success. He 
can at best get a business result, and he cannot get that 
without co-operation ; but there are a good many worse 
things than just a business result. Many owners are pray- 
ing devoutly for the advent of an architect who knows 
enough to get a dollar's worth for a dollar and get it quickly. 

One trouble is that the builder is not encouraged to make 
suggestions. He really knows more about the mechanics of 



Ciiruiiis/ances compel us to request that subscribers do not send to us 
material for publication — p/iotograf>/is, drawings, etc. — unless arrange- 
ments have been preiiously made for its acceptance. During the past 
three months we have had enough material sent us to supply the plate 
forms of Thic Hrickhvilder for at least three years. To hold this 
material until it can be published or to turn it back is annoying to the 
sender and distressing to us, hence this request. — The Editors. 



buildingthan many archi- 
tects ; but the architect re- 
sents being told. If the 
builders would speak out 
as they think, they would 
say in one voice that 
needless expenditures of 
money are being locked up every year in buildings to gratify 
whims on the part of architects. The direct, simple, natural, 
mechanic's, or builder's way of putting a structure together 
is not only just as apt, but much more apt, to be arranged 
in a beautiful way than a complicated, difficult, and expen- 
sive construction which many architects advance. The 
builder hesitates to talk to the owner about such things, 
and the architect ignores him. 

The architect who wishes to succeed must work as 
closely as possible with the manufacturers of materials 
and the practical builder. Costs play an increasingly im- 
portant part in the choice of every piece of material that 
goes into the building. Nothing stamps a structure more 
firmly as in error than an elaborate limestone first story 
and a galvanized iron cornice, unless it is a hospital with 
hundreds of thousands of dollars irrecoverably buried in 
architecture that ought to be drawing interest to sup])ort 
beds. Because the designer does not know what a thing 
costs, he does not know whether to use it or not. When 
a building costs too much, he does not know where to cut it. 
Co-operation between the architect and the builder is 
absolutely essential to the success of the architect. The 
builder seldom wishes to get along without him, nor will 
any one of sound judgment hesitate to believe that even 
with many architectural draftsmen a builder cannot ar- 
range a building as well, or make it appear as well as 
the architect of experience ; but the owner will not pay 
for the architect's delays and additional and unneces.sary 
expenses which unfortunately are becoming to be believed 
a procedure of many architects' offices. 

The change which has started in the direction of co- 
operation between architect and builder cannot develop 
too rapidly. It is yet a new idea to the boy who has been 
trained to consider a pretty drawing as the end of his 
endeavors, that the building is the thing ; or that pencils, 
pens, and brushes will never produce buildings that he 
will wish to point out to his children. Men are the tools 
with which he must work ; and he must be eager to find 
the man to supply the right material, and the man to buy 
it and put it in place. When he finds him, he must treat 
him and his opinions and abilities with the respect due a 
fellow-worker with whom the credit of the result must be 
generously spared. 



T 



iHE preliminary examinations for the Rotch Travel- 
ing Scholarship will be held at the office of the secre- 
tary, C. H. Blackall, 20 Beacon street, Boston, on 
Monday and Tuesday, April 12 and 13, 1915, at 9 a.m., to 
be followed by the sketch for competition in design on 
Saturday, April 17, at the Boston Architectural Club. 
The successful candidate receives $2,000 to be expended 
in foreign travel and study during two years. Candidates 
must be under thirty years of age and must have been 
engaged in professional work during two years in the 
employ of a practising architect resident in Mas.sachusetts. 
Candidates are requested to register at the office of the 
secretary as soon before the examination as practicable. 



78 



li 



i 



I 



t\ 



II 



II 






11 






Competition for a Two Apartment House 



THE BRICKBVILDER 

II L-ompetition tor a Iwo Apartment House i 

I I On a Lot Ilaviiip a Froiita;;,- of .!() IV.l and D.-plli of 1(10 F,-i-l 

II TO BE BUILT OF NATCO XXX HOLLOW TILE. Cost Not to Exceo.l .S7.2()() 

II First Prize, S500 Mentions Thir.l Prize, $150 
I I Second Prize, 8250 Cinpoiition Closes at r, P.M.. Mo...la>. Juno 21, 1915 Fourth Prize, $100 

j I PROGRAM 

I I rr^HE pi-oblem calls for a Two Apartiiu-nt IIousi-, tiic walls and foundations of winch arc to he hiiilt of N;i«co 

li I ^^^ Hollow Tile. The lot has a frontage of ;}0 feet and a depth of 100 feet. The land is level. The 

!! 



Ill 



T 

location may be assumed in the residential section of any city. The house .should be so designed that it may 

I I be located within a block with access to rear entrance from street since there is no alley at rear of lot. The archi- 
tectural type and plan arrangement and the exact location of the house ujion the lot are left to tiie desifriier. 'i'here 

II is to be a basement and two floors. The treatment of the roof is optional with the designer. The basement is to 
be equally divided between the two families that are to occupy the house. Provision should be made for separate 
heating plants, laundries, etc. Each family is to be provided with five rooms and a bath on one floor, although 
if space permits an additional small room may be added to the second floor. At the rear entrance separate stairs 
should lead to the divisions of the basement and another stairway to the second floor. 

I I Invention in relation to plan is desirable in this competition. It would be es|)ecially interesting if the contes- 

tants would frankly acknowledge the need of clothes" drying porches and make jn-ovision for them. Also the de- | ^ 
signer may give consideration to the demand on the part of tenants for porches — open or enclosed — on the front, | | 

^ y provided they can be successfully incorporated in a design for a house of this class. These features are submitted | | 

I I only for consideration and are in no sense mandatory. Designs in which they are successfully combined will be I f 
given special consideration by the jurors. The total cubage of the hoii.se and porches must not exceed 40,000 feet. 
For the purpose of this competition the price per cubic foot is set at 18 cents, this being the estimated cost 
at which houses of the type specified can be built of Natco Hollow Tile in almost every part of the countrv. 

I I Measurements of the house must be taken from the outside face of exterior walls and from th<' level of basement 

floor to the average height of all roofs. Porches and other additions are to be figured separatelv at one-fourth 



I I (;^5 per cent) of their total cubage, except the clothes' drying porches. The latter need not be included in the cubjige. 
I I The jury will give consideration: First, to the excellence of the design and its fitness to the materials emploved. 

I I Second, to the excellence of plans. 

f. f It is hoped that the designs submitted in this competition will show a careful study of the problem and that the 

^ ^ contestants will think of the hou.se as one to be actually built. While originality in design is desired, attention is 
^ ^ particularly called to the fact that these houses are presumed to meet a practical need in e\ery American citv, and 

that they should in all respects be a distinct improvement over the average hou.se of this class which is put up bv 

the speculative builder. 
^ I The employment of Natco Hollow Tile for the walls of apartment houses is in hartnony with the spirit of the 

^ f known, meets successfully the most exacting architectural requirements that may be imposed upon it. The walN 



I I present time, which is to eliminate inflammable construction within city limits. The material itself, as is well 



ire fireproof and the entire house can be made fireproof by the use of tile for partitions and floors, at a moderate 
additional expense. Each drawing must bear the following title: '"Design for a Two A])artnient II«)u.se to be \ 

II Built of Natco XXX Hollow Tile."" f 

On the drawing in a space measuring 4 by .5 inches — enclosed within rules — is to be given at a si/e uliicli will 
permit of three-fourths reduction, a calculation of the total cui)age. The cubage "ill be carefully checked before th<' 
designs are submitted to the jurv. Tlie jury icill positixrlij not con.sidrr those de-sigiis xchich e.rcecd the prescribed cidiage. 

p^ CONSTRUCTION P| 

^ 4 On the back of tliis pap:e will be found details of construction which are rcconiiuended. * ^ 

^ ^ Natco Hollow Tiles beinff heavily scored on all sides permit of stucco beinjf used as an outside finish, and plaster applied direct lo the 

i ^ tile for interior finish. The floors and roof need not be; of fireproof construction. 

1 1 DRAWING REQUIRED (there is to he hut one) 

^ ^ On one sheet a pen and ink perspective, without wash or color, sliown at a };oo(i sized scale the character of the exterior finish must 

^ f be clearly indicated on the perspective and detail. Plans of the basenu'nt. first and second floors, at a scale of H feet to the inch ; the 

^ ^ size of each room must be given on the plan at a size to permit two-thirds reduction and be clearly read. A section showing construcli<ui of 

^ ^ exterior walls through roof; height of floors to be given on section. A key cross section at the same s<'ale as plans showing height from 

^ ^ cellar floor through all roofs. Knough detail sketches to fill out sheet. In connection with plan of Hie first floor give- the plot plan. 

f f The plans are to he blocked in solid. A graphic scale must accompany the jilans. ;^ ^ 

^ ^ Xhe size of the sheet is to be exactly H by 'M) inches. Plain black border lines are to be drawn on the sheet I Inch from g 

f ^ edges of the long dimension and 'i inch from edges of the short dimension, giving a space inside the border lines, 21 by -^H inches. The 

I f. sheet is to be of white paper and is not to be moutitcd. Very thin p.-iper or cardboard is prohibited. 

4 4. The drawing is to be signed hy anom-de-plunic or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the n<in>-ilr-j,hime on 

$ ^ the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. The drawing is to be delivered flat or rolled (packaged so as to 

f ^ prevent creasing or crushing) at the office of THK HK1CKI{\'IM)KH. 8.5 Water street. Boston, Mass., on or before ,Iune «1. ini.i. 

^ I The Post Office Department now requires that drawings sent by mail shall be at the letter — or first class — postage rale. ^ . 

I 4. Drawings submitted in this competition are at owner's risk from Hie time they are sent until returned, although reasonable care will be g g 

I ^ exercised in their handling and keeping. The designs will be iudg<'d by four members of the architectural profession, representing different ^ % 

I i sections of the country and a builder of practical experience in hollow tile construction. 

f 4 The prize designs are to become the property of Thf Biik kiivii ni:ii and the right is reserved by Tiik Hhk kiivii nm to imhlish or 

i ^ exhibit any or all of the others. The full name and address of tli<' designer will be given in connection with each design published. Those 

f ^ who wish their drawings returned, except the prize drawings, may have them by enclr)sing in the seidcd envelope containing their names, 

^ ^ 25 cents in stamps. Drawings submitted in this competition will be r<'tiirned direct from the oiric<- of I'm Bun khvm nt n to the contestants. 

f ^ For the design placed first there will be given a prize of $500 For the design placed third n prize of $l.'>0 

i ^ For the design placed second a prize of $250 For the design placed fourth a prize of $100 

4 ^ This competition is open to all architects and architectural draftsmen. The prize and mention drawing.s will lie published in Tin. 

f i BiilCKBViiDEH This competition is conducted under the patronage of the National Fire Proofing Company. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

a 



iy THEBRICKBVILDER. 



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5TANDAm-AND-TYPlCAL- DETAILS- NATCO-XXX- HOLLOW •TLLEiCONSTLUCIlON 




•PLAN-Or-JAMB 






■.■•>:^;,p.-'< 



Typical Details of Natco XXX Hollow Tile for Small Apartment House Construction. 






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Published Monthly by 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 
Boston, Mass. 

Yearly Subscription, payable in advance, U. S. A., Insular Possessions and Cuba ^5.00 

Canada ^5.50 Foreign Countries in the Postal Union 6.00 

Single Copies 50 cents All Copies Mailed Flat 

Trade Supplied by the American News Company and its Branches. Rntered as 
Second Qasj Matter, March 12, 1892, at the Post Office at Boston, Mass. 

and M, 



Copyright. 1913. by RoRcr 



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>Ji^ijfS3li il"J>tt < y. ii ;f . Z ii M* i iiSXI i mmi<« iii i* »»ii MM ' " ' C""» i m^ ^ — » ^ i I m i ^ (U^TiZTAtd^ 



i^ tiij^ »n Mr j" jt j[ ' n gyngijf 




XXIV 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 




PAVILION OF GRAY MATT-ENAMEL ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA, ERECTED BY THE NATIONAL TERRA COTTA 
SOCIETY, PANAMA-PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

GEO. W. KELHAM, ARCHITECT 





(<nr») 




ARCHIEPISCOPAL PALACE, PLASENICIA, ESTftEMADUrtA, SPAIN 
ERECTED IN THE XVIITH CENTUKY 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



VOLUME XXIV 



APRIL, 1915 



NUMBER 4 



Plumbing Installation and Sewage Disposal 

I. SOIL, WASTE, AND VENT PIPES AND TRAPS. 

By CHARLES A. WHITTEMORE. 



MANY problems in pliimbing and sewage disposal 
are so comprehensive in scope that the service of 
an expert on these subjects is mandatory. Many 
of the problems are also of such a nature as to demand 
the attention of a trained biologist. With these the archi- 
tect seldom comes in contact except to arrange the features 
of disposal plants along architectural lines. The object of 
this article is to present some of the principal facts in con- 
nection with the everyday plumbing problems which are 
met in every architect's office. Too many times plans for 
buildings are drawn, contracts let, and construction com- 
menced without proper regard for such vital factors as the 
arrangement of pipes, proper spacing, and means of con- 
cealing the rough work. This statement may seem trite, 
but evidences of such facts may easily be seen in many of 
our best buildings. 

The ideal plumbing installation is one in which the 
sanitary conditions are perfect, where all noise of water 
action is eliminated, where the piping is concealed, and 
where all the exposed parts of the system are so arranged 
as to have the minimum number of dirt catching places 
which may be breeding spots for germs. Seldom is it 
possible to obtain all the requisites of such an installation 
in one building ; but by giving a little more thought to 
details which may seem unimportant it is possible more 
frequently to approach the standard of perfection about 
which much has been written. 

Every architect has probably had the experience of ad- 
vancing ideas in regard to the practical installation of 
plumbing work, only to be met by the plumber's state- 
ment, "It can't be done that way." Many times the 
plumber may be correct, but all too freqiiently his decision 
is based on the fact that to carry out the architect's ideas 
would involve a little more labor, even though it would 
give better results. A familiarity with the plumbing 
laws, and a little study into the practical requirements, 
would enable the architect to controvert statements not of 
fact and demonstrate the practicability of his requests. 

In many cases it is wiser, no doubt, to leave matters of 
detail of installation to the judgment of the plumber con- 
tractor ; but it is imperative that in matters of arrange- 
ment of pipes and fixtures the architect should have suffi- 
cient knowledge to be able to insist that work should be in- 
stalled as best adapted to the general scheme of the proj- 
ect in hand. A little knowledge in some cases may be 
dangerous, but a little more knowledge may be the means 
of adapting the plumbing to the building rather than 
building around a plumbing installation. 

The number of times that a partition has been changed, 



a door shifted, or a room rearranged because the architect 
had laid out his work contrary to the laws governing the 
installation of plumbing, is far too great to indicate that 
architects in general have given the requisite amount 
of consideration to this important part of a building oper- 
ation. There are but few architects who are not famil- 
iar in a general way with the building requirements of 
strength and stability and general construction under 
which they work, and but few who are conversant with the 
plumbing requirements which are so vital a part of the 
same laws. 

Too frequently plumbing questions are left to be worked 
out at the building. It is just as important that the course 
of a conductor pipe or soil or vent should be traced from 
the roof to the sewer, and the various traps and fixtures 
located when the plans are being drawn, as it is that the 
loads from the roof should be traced through the con- 
struction to the foundations. This may seem debatable, 
but in a harmonious, complete, and well built building 
the fact is obvious. 

General knowledge of the various divisions of a plumb- 
ing system is so universal that a table of definitions would 
be superfluous in an article of this character. The process 
of manufacture is also a portion of specialized study which 
need not now be considered. It is, however, important to 
consider the practical side of placing pipes of various kinds, 
their functions, limitations, and general arrangements, and 
also to consider advantages or disadvantages of the differ- 
ent types of plumbing material and fixtures which now 
are in general use. 

vSoil pipes, which are those pipes carrying the discharge 
from closets or into which waste pipes are connected, if of 
iron, should be of the grade known as extra heavy. The 
" standard " or lighter weight pipe is never used in the 
best work. The "extra heavy" is usually cast with a 
raised " XH " on each length and should weigh not less 
than 2}i pounds per inch of diameter for 2-inch pipe ; not 
less than 3^ pounds per inch of diameter up to 7 inches, 
and for larger sizes up to 12 inches, not less than 4^ to 
4/4 pounds per inch of diameter. Tables giving the exact 
weight for various sizes may be found in any good hand- 
book. These pipes come in two forms, — coated or un- 
coated. Coated pipe is treated with hot asphalt or pitch 
both inside and out and offers more resistance to corrosive 
action than the plain pipe. Some plumbing regulations, 
however, will not allow coated i^ipe to be used, but insist 
on plain pipe. The object of using uncoated pipe is that 
tests may be made to determine whether or not flaws in 
the nature of sand holes exist, which may be more readily 



82 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



tested in the uncoated than in the coated pipe, and also 
that imperfections may not be covered over and later 
develop a serious defect. The uncoated pipe should, how- 
ever, never be used without being- painted both inside and 
out with red lead or some equally good protective paint, 
after being- thoroughly tested with oil. 

In connection with the use of cast iron pipe, all the fit- 
ting's should be of the same grade : that is, with the extra 
heavy cast iron pipe extra heavy fittings should be used, 
and where uncoated pipe is specified or rcciuired by law — 
as in New York and some other cities — the fittings 
should be uncoated also. These fittings, as well as the 
pipe itself, should be examined to ascertain if the pipes 
are cylindrical and smooth inside and also be examined 
for cracks, sand holes, presence of slag, and other detri- 
mental features. It is advisable in using cast iron pipe to 
specify the maker's name and see that each length of pipe 



The tile pipe used for sewer connections is made in two 
grades, — salt glazed and " slip glazed " or coated. Salt 
glazed pipe is composed of a clay which vitrifies on both 
outside and inside when it is fired, and is preferable in all 
sewer or soil work because the glazing is not subject to 
the imperfections so freciuently found in coated tile pipe. 
When the salt glazed pij^e is used, however, the inside of 
the hub and the outside of the spig-ot end, if left unglazed, 
form a good surface to bond the cement used in making 
the joint. When the pipe is glazed on both hub and 
spigot, the joint should be filled with a layer of picked 
oakum well calked in place and the remainder of the space 
filled with a good cement or hot asphalt. The asphalt is 
more elastic and in places where there is possibility of 
the pipe moving, as in case of settlement of the earth 
around it, should be used in preference to the cement. 

The slip glazed or coated tile pipe is formed of a soft 



v//-^//Yrm 



?^/yyyyy^y//i^ 



and all fittings used are stamped 
with the same marks of the 
manufacturers. 

Next in importance to perfect 
pipe in making a plumbing sys- 
tem gas tight is the method of 
connecting the various sections. 
Joints between lead pipe and 
iron pipe should be made with 
heavy brass ferrules ; between 
lead and lead, or lead and brass, 
the joints should be wiped 
joints ; joints between outlets of trap waste or vent ])ipes 
should be all screw joints. Cup joints, slip joints, or 
union joints should nev-er be allowed, nor should leather 
packing' or putty be allowed in connection with any air, 
vent, soil, or waste pipes. 

In making up joints in cast iron pii)es the spaces be- 
tween the hub and spigot end should first be filled with a 
ring of picked oakum which should be well pounded in 
place. Molten lead should then be poured in and well 
hammered with calking tools to expand the lead and en- 
sure tight contact with the iron. In the best practice a 
second layer of picked oakum and a second layer of lead 
is insisted upon in order to make positive that the joint is 
thoroughly gas and water tight. In making connections 
with cast iron pipe where two pipes come together at an 
angle, the connections should be made with the proper 
T-Y or Y branches, and no branches at an angle less than 
45 degrees with the main line should ever be allowed. 
All changes in direction of a soil line should be made 
with curved pipe, Y branches in which one leg of the Y 
affords an opportunity for a cleanout, or V4, Vs, or Vu; bends. 

Tile drain pipe should never be used in a building as a 
part of the main soil system, but is frequently used from a 
point 10 feet beyond the wall to the sewer. In residential 
work it should never be used in a position where the con- 
tents of the pipe might contaminate a water supply, or 
where it is likely to be subjected to the action of frost. 
The joints of this kind of pipe are so difficult to make 
permanently tight that its use is restricted to unimportant 
parts of an installation. In forming drains around walls 
to carry off surface water it is valuable, and also to form 
part of a general ground drainage system. In such cases 
the pipe is either vitrified or glazed and laid with open 
joints, or a porous tile is used. 



WALL 



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Fig. 1 
Plan Showing Minimum Furring to Conceal 4-Inch Soil Pipe 



clay with a coating of vitrifying 
clay applied to the surfaces be- 
fore firing. The principal ob- 
jection to this kind of pipe is 
due to the fact that the coating 
does not become an integral part 
of the pipe and in use is likely 
to become damaged, leaving the 
unvitrified, porous pipe exposed. 
An imi)ortant problem in the 
installation of soil pipe, wastes, 
vents, etc., is to so arrange 
these pipes as to be economically spaced and still be con- 
cealed from view. Many architects, in laying out their 
work, overlook the fact that 4-inch pipe is 5% to 6 inches 
over the hubs, and that while 4 inches of furring with an 
inch of plaster against a brick wall would thoroughly 
cover the larger portion of pipe, the hubs and fittings will 
all project through the finished plaster surface unless pre- 
cautions are taken to ensui'e their concealment. Fig. 1 
shows the closest possible arrangement where pipes come 
in contact with a furred brick wall, under which con- 
ditions a 4-inch soil pipe may be concealed. Provision 
should always be made so that joints may be calked when 
the pipes are in position, as frequently it is impracticable 
to make up long lengths of jnpe and thus eliminate the 
calking of joints after the pipes have been erected. 

Aside from the difficulty of concealing vertical lines of 
the pipe, the horizontal run-outs require the most atten- 
tion. In arranging to avoid skeleton construction or 
beams, or to come within the thickness of the floor con- 
struction, particular care must be taken. 

Where concrete construction is used, the main difficulty 
in installing the horizontal branches comes in connection 
with the calking of the joints. The pipes cannot be made 
up and cast into the floor slab on account of the necessity 
of removing the wood forms and the extra difficulty atten- 
dant upon this process if pipes or other construction mate- 
rials are in the way. In order to gain the greatest amount 
of space, the bends, or fittings which extend from a main 
soil branch to take the various fixtures, should be arranged 
so that the joint in the hub of the fitting which comes in 
contact with the length of pipe passing through the floor 
should never be closer than 4 inches to the under side of 
the concrete slab, and even in this case a special bent 
calking tool will be reciuired, or the joint should be calked 



THE BRICKBVa L'D'E R 



83 



IJracticc as the pipes 



from above. It should always be borne in mind that 
wherever a soil pipe passes through a floor and a branch 
main is taken off for fixtures on this floor, the exten- 
sion of the branch main, if there are more than one or two 
fixtures on it, requires a vent of the same size as the pipe 
itself. This pipe must extend full size from the lowest 
branch up through the building" to a point above the high- 
est fixture, and there either be connected with the exten- 
sion of the original soil pipe or be carried independently 
through the roof as a vent. 

The waste pipes are known in 
carrying the waste water from 
fixtures such as lavatories and 
sinks. These pipes are usually 
of galvanized wrought iron or 
iron size brass, although in many 
instances a small size cast iron 
pipe is used. Lead pipe should 
never be allowed for waste, vent, 
or soil pipes. 

Wherever the cast iron waste 
or vent pipe is used, the same 
considerations as noted above 
apply in making up the joints. 
Wherever galvanized or wrought 
iron pipe is used, the joints are 
made up with threaded couplings, 
in which case the thread should 
be cut so that the ends of the 
pipe, when finally assembled and 
placed in position, will be in con- 
tact inside of the fittings, or else 
special recessed fittings should be 
used. These joints should be 
made up with red lead or white 
lead in order to ensure their 
being gas and water tight, and 
care should be exercised to see 
that all burrs are reamed out. 

There are special fixtures which may be used on a waste 
pipe in order to take branches coming froin opposite sides, 
as, for instance, in office buildings where bowls are located 
on opposite sides of a partition. For such places a doiible 
T-Y or a special vent fitting is i:sed, and the wastes and 
vents are taken from the same connection. Where waste 
lines extend through several floors with bowls on opposite 
sides of the same partition, as in an office building with 
various floors divided in the same manner, the fixture 
wastes occasionally are connected to the soil stack on one 
floor, to the vent stack on another floor, and so on. This 
construction is somewhat simpler and more readily ensures 
the cleansing of rust or scales or anything that might 
lodge in the vent stack. The conditions from a sanitary 
standpoint are as good as though separate soil and vent 
lines were run and connected in the usual manner. 

In installing waste pipes, soil pipes, and also vent ])ipes 
in very high buildings, the vertical pipes should not be 
rigidly connected to the construction. A slip support 
should be used to permit a slight movement in the con- 
nection, in a vertical direction, if any settlement should 
occur in the building or if any undue expansion should 
take place in the pipes themselves. 

The vent pipes are pipes installed to relieve the air pres- 



ir-LEAD 




Fig. 2 

Section Showing Copper Collar to Prevent Leakage 
Around Soil Pipe 



sure from the main soil stacks and to prevent siphoning of 
traps and also to allow the free ]>assage to the open air of 
any gases that may originate in or enter the system. The 
sizes of the vent pipes follow regular defined laws, and 
where soil branches are used should be the same size as 
the soil branch pipes. In other words, a continuation of 
the soil line forms the vent. The vents from smaller fix- 
tures such as sinks, lavatories, etc., are smaller in size 
and are most frequently galvanized or wrought iron, with 
the fittings of the same material. The vent pipes should 
enter the main vent stack at a point not less than 3 

feet above the seal of the trap, 
and the vent should be taken 
from the high point of the trap. 
According to the best practice, 
vent connections for closet and 
slop sinks should be made from 
the branch soil or waste piiies 
just below the trap of the fixture 
and in such a manner as to pre- 
vent obstruction. No other waste 
pipe should be connected between 
this vent and the fixture. 

The end of vent pipes should 
never be connected to a chimney, 
as the evai)oration of the seal of 
traps is much more readly ac- 
celerated and thus allows gases 
more easily to enter the building. 
The vent pipes should always ex- 
tend through the roof and should 
be made 1 inch larger in size than 
the main vent stack, but never 
less than 4 inches in diameter. 
The fittings for all vent lines 
should be of the same material 
as the vent pipe lines, and no off- 
sets should be made on an angle 
less than 45 degrees to the hori- 
zontal. Every vent line should be connected at the 
bottom with a soil or waste pipe, or a drain in such a 
manner as to iireclude the possibility of an accumulation 
of dirt or rust scale. Accumulations of this character are 
never to be encountered in pipes through which water is 
continuously flowing. \'ent j^ipes are subject to corro- 
sions due to the moisture and gases which they themselves 
carry off, and this increases the likelihood of rust scales 
forming which would fill the pipe unless proper precau- 
tions are taken to prevent it. 

No vent pipes less than 1V2 inches should be allowed ; 
and up to 3 inches in diameter should be galvanized 
wrought iron pipe, plain v/rought iron pipe being subject 
to deterioration through rust. All vent pipes 3 inches and 
larger in size should be extra heavy cast iron. 

Where the vent pijies pass through the roof, the joint 
and flashing must be made with special care to |irevenl 
leakage. There are various methods of constructing this 
connection. The more comiiKMi and less expensive method 
is that in which a copper or lead sheet is secured to the 
roof below the finished surface. To this is soldered a 
collar which extends about 6 inches above the roof. A 
counterflashing of the same material is secured to the vent 
pipe by a soldered joint or by a joint formed with a tiglit 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



OAKUM 



gasket of lead and secured by means of an iron clamp. 
This counterflashing: prevents leakage and moves with the 
expansion and contraction of the pipe. 

Another method shown in Fig. 2, which is more perfect 
but more expensive, is to extend the pipe above the roof 
2 or 3 feet with a copper collar carried the full height of 
the pipe and leaded into the hub at the top. A still better 
construction is to use a " double hub " shown in F'ig. 3. 
The hub is slipped over the pipe and secured about 6 
inches above the roof, the lower hub being set over the 
copper collar referred to in the 
first method. The upper hub is 
then calked in place in the same 
manner as in making up a joint 
in cast iron pipe. This ensures 
a thorough, lasting joint in which 
the possibility of leakage is very 
remote. 

The traps used in connection 
with plumbing fixtures are from 
the standpoint of sanitation a 
most important part of the instal- 
lation. If the remainder of a 
plumbing system is perfect, the 
value of the good work may be 
completely nullified by the use or 
improper installation of the fixture 
traps. The standards by which 
the merit of a trap may be judged 
are : first, the resistance offered 
to the breaking of the seal and 
thus allowing the sewer gas to 
pass into the building; second, the 
volume of water forming the seal ; 
third, the ability of the trap to 
cleanse itself at each flush of water 
passing through. 

There are two general types of 
traps, — the siphoning and non- 
siphoning. These terms do not 
apply to the method of installation alone, although a 
siphon trap may be installed in such a manner as to be 
non-siphoning to a certain degree. The difference be- 
tween them lies principally in the manner in which they 
are constructed. Ordinary or siphon traps have a per- 
fectly smooth bore their entire length, while the non- 
siphoning trdfs are usually arranged with a large water 
capacity or of a special shape so as to prevent the air 
pressure from becoming great enough to force or draw 
the water out of the trap. 

The simplest form of trap is the U-trap. In this the 
seal is that part of the U which lies below the bottom of 
the straight pipe and is at all times full of water, thus 
preventing the gases in the drain from entering the build- 
ing through the fixtures. It is not a satisfactory type for 




Fig. 3 

Section Showing Arrangement of Double Hub to 
Prevent Leakage Around Soil Pipe 



general use, because the seal is easily broken and because 
the volume of water will not be sufficient protection against 
loss of seal from evaporation. 

The seal of a trap may be broken in three ways : by 
evaporation, by siphoning from the mass of water passing 
through the main soil stack, and by self-siphoning from 
the mass of water passing through the trap itself. 

Evaporation may be overcome by providing a sufficient 
body of water in the trap to protect the trap if not in use 
for a considerable period. The rate of evaporation may 
easily be estimated so that the 
length of time the seal will re- 
main intact if no water is passed 
through it may be accurately de- 
termined. It is far better in cases 
where traps are likely to be in 
disuse for some time to have the 
water taken out and a non- volatile 
fluid put in. For example, where 
summer residences are left with- 
out attendance during the winter, 
the trap should be cleaned out 
and petroleum, kerosene, or a 
similar non-volatile and non-freez- 
ing oil should be put in to keep 
the seal intact. In planning work 
this ])oint is freciuently overlooked 
and consequently no adequate pro- 
visions are made so that easy 
access may be had to the traps. 
In one such case the plumber was 
forced to tear up a considerable 
portion of a finished floor in order 
to get at the traps to fill them 
with oil. Such occurrences would 
not take place if a little more 
thought were given to the prac- 
tical requirements. 

If traps are installed so that 
the outlet from the trap connects 
with a waste pipe at an angle less than 45 degrees, 
the possibility of self-siphoning is great, particularly 
if there is a long run to the soil pipe. The flow of 
water through the trap forms a suction which is greater 
than the resistance offered, and the seal is broken. To 
obviate this, vents are installed and connected to the crown 
of the trap or to the waste pipe just below the trap outlet. 
The vent at the crown is objectionable because it facili- 
tates the evaporation of the seal, but this objection is not 
great when the trap is in frequent use. 

If ordinary traps are installed without vents and only 
a short distance from a soil stack, there is a possibility 
that the volume of water in the stack may exert sufficient 
force on the branch pipe to pull the water from the trap. 
This possibility is very remote when vents are installed. 



Some Old and Unfamiliar Spanish Buildings. 

VI. PALACIO ARZOBISPAL, NOW ARCHIVO HISTORICO, ALCALA DE HENARES. 

% ARTHUR G. BYNK. 
Illustrated from Photographs Specially Taken by the Author. 



THIS palace was the Alcala residence of the arch- 
bishops of Toledo, who were primates of all Spain. 
The two who, in the middle sixteenth century, 
commissioned the architect Covarrubias to build it were 
Fonseca and Tavera. The former was the son of that 
bishop Fonseca who had left several fine buildings in 
Salamanca. The architect was son-in-law to the great 
transitionalist in Spanish architecture, Enrique de Egas. 
Covarrubias gave Spain its finest Renaissance buildings. 
His plan for the Archiepiscopal palace at Alcala called 
for four great patios, but only the one illustrated was 
ever completed. Each patio was to have a monumental 
staircase, but only one — the one shown — was finished. 
Even incomplete, this edifice, with its splendid carving 
and rich Mudejar ceilings, comes nearer to the best archi- 
tecture of Italy than any other building in Spain. It is, 
nevertheless, unmistakably Spanish because of that subtle 
freedom, almost carelessness, which imparts a distinctly 
//;/ Italian charm to the best Renaissance ornament in 
Spain. In the carving this carelessness is paradoxical, 
for it shows an unerring precision of touch, such as a skil- 
ful impressionist working in clay gives at the last mo- 
ment. 

It is interesting that Covarrubias, with his obvious fa- 
miliarity with Italian Renaissance, should have been con- 
tent to forego the fat^ade and concentrate all his ingenuity 
on beautiful interior courts and galleries. Nothing on the 
exterior of this Alcala palace suggests even remotely the 
magnificence of the interior ; and this because the architect 
could not, or did not care to, break away from the Mussul- 
man tradition that still prevailed in domestic architecture 
— a simple exterior with gradual increase of luxury, sur- 
prise, even mystery, on entering. This adherence by 
Spanish builders to the Moorish idea is one reason why 
much of their Renaissance is adaptable for terra cotta — 
it is an enclosed architecture where richness of modeling 
in ornament can be appropriately practised. 

The doorway reproduced here is under the patio arcade 
between the main entrance and the grand stairway. It 
leads to a small antechamber and is surmounted by the 
arms of Cardinal Tavera. Few architects are aware that 
such pure Renaissance as this doorway with its artistic 
reserve could be found outside of Italy ; least of all in 
Spain, where Renaissance is so seldom sober and re- 
strained. As for the patience that went into the ornamen- 
tal rustication, it is doubtful whether an equal exhibition 
of perseverance could be found even in Italy. If all the 
workmen who executed it were not painstaking Moriscos, 
there were enough of these at any rate to set the 
example. 

These blocks are carved with consummate skill and 



show an infinite variety of design, with mythological 
winged figures predominating. If any two blocks are 
alike in detail, they are jjlaced too far apart to be easily 
detected. 

Rustication was never as popular in Spain as in Italy, 
and when used it was not in the structural way of the 
Italians, but merely to ornament a stone surface. This 
is undoubtedly why the whole motif makes one think of 
terra cotta. Not a very large area has been carried out, 
however, for hard times came upon Spain before Covar- 
rubias' entire scheme for a simiptuous palace could be 
realized. 

The staircase, of which the upper part is illustrated, 
shows besiaes unmistakably plateres(iue ornament, certain 
eccentricities of construction that could never be found in 
the native land of Renaissance, since they arise from an 
amusing misunderstanding of her motifs. The balusters, 
for instance, instead of being individually turned and 
carved, are carved in groups of three from a single block 
with a central piece left to connect them ; in other words, 
it is a Gothic method of arriving at a Renaissance form by 
means of perforation. Covarrubias grasped the decora- 
tive value of the spindle, but never dreamed of treating 
each one as a imit ; he constructed his stair balustrade ex- 
actly as his (iothic father-in-law had done at Toledo. ( )ddly 
enough, this construction that seems so strange in stone 
would be the most logical method were the material 
terra cotta. 

One regrets the Moorish influence that allowed the 
architect to break his arch in three ; fortunately, the jnire 
arch only is used in the lower arcade of the patio. This 
arcade is beautifully built, not with a masonry vault, but 
with a light wooden ceiling of the Moorish, or rather 
Mudejar, type, Mudejar being the term applied by the 
Spanish to the work done for them by those Moorish arti- 
sans who remained in the country after the fall of Granada. 

The upper colonnade and cornice are a very typical bit 
of Spanish Renaissance. The double corbel over the 
column traces its pedigree straight back to the extra 
wooden beam with carved ends which was used as a sup- 
port by all Moorish builders. The whole treatment of the 
upper gallery, in fact, is a stone interpretation of a wooden 
loggia, as seen in the best preserved Moorish palaces. 
The walls here are merely of plaster, but with a dozen or 
so of fine doorways inserted. These are cut in stone and 
are as effective as the one given. All vary in detail. 

An architect who could put up with the meager accommo- 
dations of the Alcala inn could busy himself for a week in 
this old . hr/iiiO — not over the many precious documents 
it contains, but in studying the vast wealth of suggestions 
in the small comjileted portion of the Bishops' palace. 



85 



86 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 




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UPPER PART OF STAIRCASE 
PALACIO ARZOBISPAL, ALCALA DE HENARES, SPAIN 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



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DOOKVVAY IN I'AIIO 

PALACIO AKZOBISPAL, ALCALA DE HENAKES. SPAIN 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




DETAIL OF LOGGIA 
PALACIO ARZOBISPAL, ALCALA DE HENARES, SPAIN 



Design and Construction of Roof and Wall Trusses. 

II. LOADS AND THEIR APPLICATION, STRESSES, AND 
DIMENSIONS OF MEMBERS AND DESIGN OF CONNECTIONS. 

By MALVERD A. HOWE, C.E. 
Director Architectural and Civil Engineering Departments. Rose Polytechnic Institute. 



ALL trusses should be so desiy-ned that the loads 
imposed upon them shall be concentrated at their 
apexes, that is, at the points where the members of 
the truss meet. This arrangement produces only direct 
tension or compression in the truss members. If loads 
are applied between the apexes directly to the truss mem- 
bers, such members must be designed for cross-bending- 
stresses as well as for direct stresses. For light roofs, 
however, it is customary to support purlins between the 
apexes of the top chords of trusses. Usually this practice 
should not be followed. 

The actual weights of roof covering, roof framing, etc., 
as well as of ceilings and floors, are readily determined, 
and the proper amounts to be 
placed at the truss apexes de- 
cided upon. The weight of 
material in a single truss is 
found either from tables of 
weights or by means of an 
empirical formula. For spans 
between 40 and 125 feet, 
wooden trusses weigh from 3 
to 10 pounds per square foot 
of roof surface, and steel 
trusses weigh from 5 to 14 
pounds per square foot of roof 
surface supported. The smaller 
weights are for trusses sup- 
porting roofs of half pitch, and the larger weights 
for trusses supporting flat roofs. 

The weight of snow which is likely to remain on 
the roof depends upon the pitch of the roof and 
local climatic conditions. Roofs of half pitch will 
not retain snow unless snow guards are used. It 
is seldom that a snow load exceeding .30 pounds 
per horizontal square foot of roof is assumed, 
even in New England and the Northern States. In 
Chicago 20 pounds is assumed as snow load and in 
St. Louis, 10 pounds. 

The actual effect of wind upon a roof truss is almost an 
unknown quantity. The general practice is to assume a 
wind pressure of 30 or 40 pounds against a vertical surface 
and then reduce this force to a force normal to the roof by 
an empirical formula. Using 30 pounds as the normal 
pressure against a vertical plane surface, the normal pres- 
sure on a roof of one-sixth pitch is 13 pounds; one-fourth 
pitch, 18 pounds; one-third pitch, 22 pounds, and on a 
roof of one-half pitch, 27 pounds. These values are per 
square foot. 

Mr. C. C. Schneider, in his " (ieneral Specifications for 
Structural Work of Buildings," states: "In climates 
corresponding to that of New York, ordinary roofs, up to 
80 feet span, shall be proportioned to carry the minimum 
loads in Tabic VI per square foot of exposed surface, 




applied vertically, to provide for dead, wind, and snow 
loads combined. 

TABLE VI. 
Minimum Loads on Roor.s. 

Gravel or Composition Roofing 

On board-s, flat slope, 1 : 6 or less 50 pounds 

On boards, steep slope, more than 1:6. 45 ,, 

On 3-inch flat tile or cinder concrete 60 ,, 

Corrugated sheathing- on boards or purlins.. 40 ,, 

Slate on boards or purlins 50 ,, 

Slate on 3-inch flat tile or cinder concrete ..65 ,, 

Tile on steel purlins 55 ,, 

Glass 45 

" For roofs in climates where no snow is likely to occur, 
reduce the foregoing loads by 10 pounds per sciuare foot, 

but no roof or any part thereof 
shall be designed for less than 
40 pounds per square foot." 

The stresses found by using 
the loading specified above are 
usually larger than those ob- 
tained by combining the 
stresses produced by the vari- 
ous loadings considered 
separately. 

Stresse.s in Tkuss Members. 

The determination of the 
stresses in the truss members 
is not difficult, even when the 
trusses are not symmetrically 
shaped about the center of the 
span, and when the loads are 
not imrallel and eciual. Many 
text books and pocket books 
explain graphical and alge- 
braic methods for the deter- 
mination of stresses. Never- 
theless, the following routine 
method, on account of its general application, may not be 
out of place here. 

In Fig. 41 is shown an unsymmetrical truss with un- 
symmetrical loading. The first step towards finding the 
stresses produced by the loads is the determination of the 
reactions at the supports. Between the sui)ports draw a 
horizontal line RT (in this case the line follows the bottom 
chord of the truss) and prolong the directions of the load 
forces as shown by the dotted lines, and then place the 
letters N, M, L, etc., in the spaces between these lines as 
shown. In Fig. 42 lay off to scale the forces in their 
proper magnitudes and directions as shown by the broken 

line NML F and draw FN. This line gives the 

direction of the reactions at R and T, as shown by the 
lines PR and (JT, Fig. 41. In I'ig. 42, from any con- 
venient point () draw the lines numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., 
and then in I'ig. 41, beginning at P, any i^oint on PR, 



89 



90 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



draw the lines 1,2, 3, 4, etc., parallel to the correspond- 
infif lines in Fig. 42. Join P and Q in Fig. 41, and draw 
OU in Fig. 42 parallel to this line ; then FU represents 
the reaction or supporting force at T, and UN that at R. 

The forces acting upon the truss may now be represented 
as shown in Fig. 43. Beginning with the force AB, lay 
the forces off in order as shown in Fig. 44, and then con- 
struct the stress diagram in the usual manner by drawing 
lines parallel to the truss members so that the lines meet- 
ing at a point in Fig. 43 shall, 
with the external forces at 
that point, form a closed poly- 
gon in Fig. 44. The lines in 
Fig. 44 represent the stresses 
or forces acting at the apexes 
of the truss. For example, 
AK in Fig. 44 represents the 
stress in the truss member 
between the letters A and K 
in Fig. 43. The character of 
the stress is found as follows : 
separating the stress polygon 
NAK from Fig. 44, as shown 
in Fig. 44a, the direction of 
NA is known, and, in order 
that the figure may be a closed 
polygon, AK and KN act as 
shown by the arrowheads. 
Transferring the directions 
to Fig. 43, the kind of stress 
is at once evident, AK is in 
compression and KN in ten- 
sion. Figs. 44b and 44c are 
similar stress polygons sepa- 
rated from Fig. 44. 

In case there is a set of 
rollers at one support, the 
reaction or supporting force 
is vertical in direction, and its 

magnitude equals the vertical component of the corre- 
sponding reaction as found in Fig. 44. 

Dimensions of Truss Members and De.sign or Connec- 
tions I'OK Wooden Trusses. 

Compression Members. The safe stress which a compres- 
sion member can transmit depends upon the shape of its 
cross-section, its imsupported length, and its area. Tim- 
bers of the same area and length have quite different 
carrying capacities. For example, a piece 1 by 4 inches, 
6 feet long, will not support as great a load as a piece 
2 by 2 inches which has the same length. The piece hav- 
ing the least dimension is the weaker. Again, if the sticks 
are of the same section, the longer piece will not support 
as great a load as the shorter piece. A 1 by 4 inch piece, 
12 feet long, is not nearly as strong as a piece 1 by 4 inches, 
which is 6 feet long. 

It is customary to proportion compression members by 
the application of an empirical formula which gives in a 
particular case the load per square inch for given values of 
unsupported lengths and least dimensions . The unsupported 
length is usually the distance between the apexes at the 
ends of the piece, but this is not the case where there is 
no framing to prevent deflection sidewise. Trusses should 




be braced in pairs at each apex of the compression chords ; 
the neglect of so doing has been the cause of a number of 
accidents. The least dimension is the smaller of the two 
dimensions of the cross-section of the piece, and the aetual 
size of the stick should be used. There are nmnerous 
tables published which give the total loads for timbers of 
market sizes and of various lengths. Such tables should 
not be used unless they are based upon the aetual sizes of 
the timbers and not upon the nominal sizes as is generally 

the case. 

In case the compression 
member is made up of sev- 
eral pieces as, say, six planks 
2 by 12 inches to form a mem- 
ber 12 by 12 inches, the pieces 
must be securely fastened to- 
gether by bolts spaced not 
more than fifteen times the 
smallest dimension of apiece. 
That is, a 2-ineh piece must 
have bolts spaced not over 30 
inches apart. 

Good practice limits the 
maximum unsupported length 
of compression members to 
30 times the least dimension. 
Portland, Ore., specifies 20 
in place of 30. 

There is no universal for- 
mula for wood in compres- 
sion, which is somewhat 
remarkable when one remem- 
bers that wood has been used 
in structures from earliest 
times. Looking over the 
building laws of about thirty- 
one cities, sixteen different 
formuhe are found. The 
American Railway Engineers 
Association has adopted the following formula as a stand- 
ard : The strength per square inch of a column, strut, 
or any i)iece in compression equals B( 1 — L/60D), where 
B is the compressive strength per siiuare inch on the end 
fibers of a piece not over 15D long, L the unsupported 
length of the piece, and D the least dimension of the 
strut. B is expressed in pounds per square inch and L 
and D are expressed in the same unit, usually inches. 
The safe values of B are given in the building laws of 
several cities, and when used in the above formula the 
results are conservative. 

Tension Members of Wood. The tension members of 
wood cannot be proportioned independently of their con- 
nections, as the connections at the joints or apexes require 
considerable cutting in the way of notches and holes. 
This will be considered in conjunction with the design of 
splices and other connections. 

Tension Members of Wrought Iron or Steel Nods are com- 
monly employed for certain web members of wooden 
trusses. They are usually made of round rods having 
'threads for nuts at both ends. There must be sufficient 
area at the root of the threads to safely carry the tensile 
stress imposed. The customary unit stresses are 12,000 
pounds per square inch for wrought iron and 16,000 pounds 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



91 



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for steel. A considerable saving in weight is made bj' 
upsetting-, or enlarg-ingf, the ends of the rods, so that the 
area at the root of the threads is a little in excess of that of 
the body of the rod. If upsets are used on steel rods, they 
must be very carefully made, or the rod will be considerably 
weaker than the net area indicates. This is due to the 
fact that steel is injured in the process of upsetting. If 
the entire rod after being upset is properly annealed, there 
can be no objections raised against its use. Upsets on 
wrought iron rods are much more reliable than those on 
steel rods. 

SpHees for Wood in Tension are of many forms, of which 
only a limited number can be critically considered. 

One of the older forms of 
splice is shown in Fig. 45, r 

and is made, practically, 
entirely of wood, as the 
bolts shown have little to 
do other than to keep the 
pieces in place. This splice 
may fail in direct tension 
at the smallest section of 
the main member, or the 
splice plates, or in com- 
pression on the end fibers 
at the notches bf, or by 
longitudinal shear along 
the planes ab or fg. To 
design this splice, let 

T = the permissible ten- 
sion with the grain of the 
wood, 

C = the permissible di- 
rect compression with the 
grain of the wood, 

Cx=the permissible 
compression across the 
grain of the wood, 

S = the permissible shear with the grain of the wood, 
and d = the diameter of the bolt holes. 

All stresses are expressed in pounds per square inch 
and all dimensions in inches. 

If the depth D of the member is assumed, then the 
proper values of w, t, and 1 are found from the relations : 

(D — 2d)Tw = total tensile stress, (l) 
2(tD)C = total tensile stress, (2) 

and 2(lD)vS = total tensile stress. (3) 
In the building laws of Chicago, 1913, for short-leaf yel- 
low pine, T = 1,000, C = 800, and S = 120. Assume the 
total stress as 24,000 pounds and D as 7>2 inches, then 
if ^-inch bolts are used with a driving fit, 

(7.5 — 1.5) l,000w = 24,000, or w = 4 inches; 
2(t 7.5) 800 = 24,000, or t = 2 inches, 
and w + 2t = 4 + 4 = 8 inches. 
This fixes the minimum size of the main member as 
8 by 10 inches nominal size, or 7>4 by 9>^ inches actual 
size. In this particular case the same size piece is re- 
quired if D is assumed 9}^ inches. 

The distance fg is found from eepiation (3). 2(17.5)120 
= 24,000, or 1 = 13.3, say 14 inches. This expression 
ignores the surface lost through the bolt holes and also 
the additional strength due to the bolts. If the splice bars 



1 

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arc of the same kind of wood as the main member, ab = fg 
and e is a half of w, approximately. 

This design assumes that there are no other connections. 
If, as is often the case, the sjilice is located at a joint, then 
allowance must be made for any cutting which reduces 
any of the areas found above. 

Fig. 46 shows a very efficient splice. The two rods and 
cross bars are made of rolled steel. If tlie permissible 
tension for steel is 16,000 pounds per square inch, each of 
the rods is !}{ inches in diameter if the total stress is 24,000 
pounds. The total area of wood in end bearing for one 
cross bar is found from the eciuality 7.5(2t)800 = 24,000, 
or 2t = 4 inches. The thickness of a cross bar is deter- 
^ „ mined by its cross-bending 

~ ^ ^ , strength and can be found 

from the expression, (2d 
+ W) (total stress) /8 = 
16,000 (2t) (h-)/6, where 
the permissible fiber stress 
for steel is 16,000 pounds 
per square inch. For the 
splice shown in Fig. 46, 
(2.5 + 7.5) (24,000)/8 = 
16,000 (4) (h-)/6, or h = 
1^ inches. 

The distance of each bar 
from the end of the piece 
it is in is 14 inches, corre- 
sponding to the distance 1 
in Fig. 45. 

The splice shown in I'ig. 
47 is suitable for exjiosed 
trusses. The steel plates 
are each }( inch thick and 
the bearing bars 1 by 3 by 
7/4 inches, the total stress 
being 24,000 pounds. 
These are attached to the 
side plates by two }i-mch rivets in each bar. The %-inch 
bolts, or lag screws hold the pieces in place and counteract 
the tendency of the bearing bars to rotate. This type of 
splice was used for the main triisses, 90-foot span, of the 
Forestry Building, Pan-American Exposition. 

This S]:>lice (Fig. 47), requires facilities for countersink- 
ing Ixoles and driving rivets. If bolts are used in place 
of the r^ivets, their size can be found as follows : Bolts ^4 
inch in diameter will be safe in shearing and bearing on 
a X-inch plate, but to resist a bending movement 3,000 
(/4 + /i) = 1,875-inch pounds, for each end of each bolt 
1-inch bolts are required. The use of bolts is not as satis- 
factory as the use of rivets. The rivets fill the holes in 
the plates and bars and are not considered as being sub- 
jected to bending stresses, wliile the bolts may or may not 
fit tightly in the holes and, consequently, must be consid- 
ered as being subject to bending stresses. 

When bolts are used as just explained, care must be 
exercised to have all threads well outside the i>lates. 
This necessitates the use of washers under the nuts. 

If no bearing bars are used and the strength of the 
sjilice is made to depend upon the bolts and side plates, 
more bolts will be rcciuired, or the bolts must be larger. 
If only four bolts are used, the total stress and size of tim- 
ber being the same as for Fig. 45, each bolt carries one- 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 






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fourth of the entire stress, or 6,000 pounds. The bearing 
of a round bar against the ends of wood fibers may be 
taken as one-half that for a flat bar, or in this case 400 
pounds per square inch. The diameter of each bolt is 
6,000/(7.5) (400), or 2 
inches for bearing. The 
total bending moment 
which must be taken by 
the four bolts is 

24,000 (2t + W)/8 = 

24,000 (0.5 + 7.5)/8 
= 24,000-inch pounds, or 
6,000-inch pounds for each 
bolt. This is considerably 
less than the capacity of a 
2-inch bolt in bending. 

The use of four 2-inch 
bolts makes a clumsy joint 
(Fig. 49) as the bolts must 
be spaced about five diam- 
eters apart and recjuire 
large nuts, even when re- 
cess niits or thin nuts with 
washes are used. 

Nine 1/4 -inch bolts have 
a bending capacity of 
25,200-inch pounds, and a 
bearing capacity against 
wood of 30,400 pounds, 
and against the ^-inch 
plates a bearing value of 
25,300 pounds. These 
bolts may be spaced 5/4 
inches apart as shown in 
"Fig. 48. Washers must 
be used under all nuts in 
this type of splice in order 
that the threads on the 
bolts may be outside of the 
side plates. 

A form of splice some- 
times used for connecting 
tension and also compres- 
sion members is shown in Fig. 49. Round pins made of 
very hard wood or metal are used as shown. The bearing 
against the end fibers of the wood is the same as for 
Fig. 48, if metal pins are used. If wooden pins are used, 
the bearing value across the grain of the wood of the 
pins governs. In order that the pins may be effective, 
the side bars are securely bolted through the main mem- 
ber and enough bolts used to resist in tension at least one- 



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half the total stress in the main member. The square 
bars shown in Fig. 49 are much more efficient but require 
careful work in fitting them in place. 

This splice is efficient as long as the bolts remain 
o o tight, but the round pins 

— [ > ■■ ■ I I ! I I ' 1 '■ 

are especially inefficient if 
the bolts become loose due 
to the shrinkage of the 
wood . 

Since the round bars 
have a tendency to roll and 
the square bars a tendency 
to rotate, small unit 
stresses should be used in 
designing this type of 
splice. 

All of the splices de- 
scribed above are suitable 
for solid timbers. In case 
the tension members are 
made up of i>lanks, the 
splicing is accomplished 
by arranging the planks 
so that the breaks in con- 
tinuity of the strands do 
not occur at sections which 
are near together. Usu- 
ally the equivalent of one 
strand of plank is required 
to splice the remaining 
strands. The use of spikes 
to fasten the strands to- 
gether is preferable to 
bolts, as the tightness of 
the si)ikes does not appear 
to be affected by the 
shrinkage of the wood. 

Splices for Wood in Com- 
pression. Members in 
compression composed of 
solid timbers are spliced 
by butting the squared 
ends and holding them 
in place by planks spiked or bolted to the sides of the 
timbers. Generally compression members are obtained 
full length, so that no splicing is necessary. If a 
splice is required, it should be located as near as pos- 
sible to a truss apex or joint. Built-up compression 
members require no special treatment other than having 
the squared ends of the planks in each strand closely in 
contact and all thoroughly spiked. 



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VOL. 24. NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 46. 





n$> 




MAIN ENTRANCE 

THE EVANS MUSEUM AND DENTAL INSTITUTE, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, PHILADELFnilA. PA. 

JOHN T. WINDRIM, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 24, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PI.ATK 47. 



« 




GENERAL VIEW 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



THIRD FLOOR PLAN 





iJrilE^--- 



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BASEME>iT FLOOR PLAN 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



THE EVANS MUSEUM AND DENTAL INSTITUTE. UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. PHILADELPHIA. PA. 

JOHN T. WINDRIM. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 24, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 48. 




OPEN COURT ON FORTIETH STREET 

THE EVANS MUSEUM AND DENTAL INSTITUTE, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. PHILADELPHIA. PA. 

JOHN T. WINDRIM. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 24, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE (<l. 




OPERATIVE CLINIC 



THE EVANS MUSEUM AND DENTAL INSTITUTE, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. PHILADELPHIA. PA. 

JOHN T. WINDRIM, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 24, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE .SO. 




HOTEL STATLER, DETROIT. MICH. 
CEO. B. POST & SONS. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 51. 




VOL. 24, NO. 4 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 52. 




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VOL. 24, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 53. 




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VOL. 24, NO. 4. 



THE BRICK BVILDER 



PLATE 54. 




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VOL. 24, NO. 4 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 55. 




TENNIS AND FOOTBALL COURT 



GYMNASIUM. DARTMOUTH COLLEGE, HANOVER, N. H. 
CHARLES A. RICH, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 24, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 56. 




LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH AUDITORIUM 



TOY THEATRE, DARTMOUTH STREET, BOSTON, MASS. 
PUTNAM & COX. ARCHITECTS 



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VOL. 24, NO. 4. 



THE BRICK BVILDER. 



PLATE S7. 




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DARTMOUTH STREET ELEVATION AS ORIGiNALLY DESIGNED 



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FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



MEZZANINE AND SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



THIRD FLOOR PLAN 



TOY THEATRE, DARTMOUTH STREET, BOSTON, M/>SS. 
PUTNAM & COX, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 58. 




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VOL. 24, NO. 4. 



THE B R I C K R \' I L D E R . 



PLATE 59. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



BALCONY FLOOR PLAN 



THIRD FLOOR PLAN 



NEIGHBORHOOD PLAYHOUSE, GRAND STREET, NEW YORK, N. Y. 
HARRY CREICHTON INCALLS. F. BURRALL HOFFMAN. JR., ASSOCIATK ARCHITFCTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 60. 




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The Modern Schoolhouse. 



IV. EXPOSURE AND PLAN. 



By WALTER H. KILHAM. 



IT rarely happens that the architect is seriously con- 
sulted about the selection of a site for the schoolhouse, 
so that in designing the building he is obliged to ad- 
just the plan to conditions as he finds them. In laying 
out the sketches a variety of questions present themselves, 
which in the case of a competition become poignant with 
anxiety. Shall the class rooms be so planned as to face 
south for the sun or north for the steady light? Shall 
the roof be flat or pitched ? What will be the material of 
walls and trimmings ? What type of window opening and 
sash will be adopted? Is the buildinif to be of "fire- 
proof" or "second-class" construction? vShall the 
pupils enter the building through the basement or not ? 
and, after all, is the structure to be a monument or merely 
a utilitarian shelter ? All these and many more questions 
will have to be answered before the architect finds him- 
self in a position to appear with his sketches before the 
officials in charge, and a short consideration of some of 
them at this juncture is appropriate. 

Exposure. Proper orientation is one of the points that 
first requires attention, and until it is settled not much 
progress can be made in laying out the plans. The ques- 
tion lies between the relative advantages of northern or 
southern, eastern or western lights for the class room, 
and considerable differences of opinion will be found to 
exist on these points. The writer has endeavored to ob- 
tain from each of several practical school men an expres- 
sion of opinion on the question of exposure, together with 
their views as to the actual effect on the health, atten- 
dance, and mental condition or temper of teachers and 
pupils. Most of the answers favored as much sunlight in 
the rooms as possible ; but some very decided opinions 
to the contrary were received, supported by effective and 
convincing arguments. 

It seems to be generally admitted that the direct rays 
of the sun have a very important germicidal and purifying 
effect, and that a room which does not receive direct sun- 
light is for this reason not a suitable ])lace for young 
children to spend a considerable portion of their time. 
Attempts to obtain any definite information as to relative 
conditions of morbidity in north and south rooms failed 
to elicit any exact replies ; but the "cheerful, brightening, 
healthful, and wholesome " influence of a sunny exposure 
was dwelt upon by nearly all who responded. These 
teachers also thought that the trouble of adjusting the 
shades was not of great importance compared with the 
benefits derived from sunlight in the rooms. 

The cheerful and healthful effect of sunshine is offset to 
some extent, however, by the injury to the eyes resulting 
from the glare of sunlight on the printed page. In an 
ordinary room a person reading or working can move 
about and adjust himself so as not to be annoyed by the 
heat and glare of the sun ; but in a class room the pupil 
must sit at his desk in one position and is powerless to 
avoid its effects. The master of one of the largest schools 
in the country, whose buildings contain rooms facing in 



all four directions, writes as follows: "I would recom- 
mend, as far as possible, a steady north light, free from 
sun. If any other exposure is required by conditions, I 
should recommend an eastern exposure, thereby getting 
the sun in the morning. The most objectionable of all is 
a full south exposure. In the buildings under my con- 
trol, the north exposure rooms have to my mind the least 
of what the teachers call 'wriggling' among the pupils. 
That may be due to the fact that the light does not make 
them nervous. I have one teacher whose eyes were nearly 
ruined by continued service in a south exposure room 
and who has had no trouble since changing to a north 
exposure room. In the fresh air room it is necessary to 
my mind to have east or south exposure." Another 
school man of long experience writes: "This matter 
seems to involve two considerations generally regarded 
as conflicting of necessity. A steady north light free 
from the sun is the ideal light for the schoolroom so far 
as light in its relation to vision is concerned. It is, 
however, a general impression among the teachers that 
direct sunlight is essential to the highest degree of 
healthfulness. vSunny rooms are more cheerful, and some 
believe that sunlight exercises an undefined influence on 
the child's general physical condition, imparting vigor 
and robustness ; while a north light has a tendency 
towards pallor and antemic conditions. Teachers, as a 
rule, prefer a sunny room. However, in twenty-five 
years of observation I have found that rooms of southern 
exposure invariably have bad conditions of lighting. 
Pupils cannot tolerate direct sunlight while they are 
studying-, however beneficial it may be under other con- 
ditions. The result is that shades are drawn, almost in- 
variably darkening the room too much and producing eye 
strain and other evils. I have never made any scientific 
investigation in order to secure data on the results ob- 
tained in different conditions of light. It would be a very 
valuable and imi«)rtant study well worth making." 

In t-lie planning of a city building it is sometimes almost 
impossible to avoid having some rooms with north expo- 
sure, nevertheless it seems only fair to state that no com- 
plaints have ever reached the writer from north rooms in 
buildings of which he has knowledge. 

The question of sunlight in its dual relations to health 
and to vision seems to raise a serious obstacle to a definite 
solution of the problem of schoolroom lighting. A plan 
which distorts itself in a vain effort to provide a south 
exposure for all of its rooms is as bad as one all of whose 
rooms face north ; but if the rooms as far as possible can 
face east and west, very satisfactory conditions will have 
been attained. The eastern exposure is preferable, be- 
cause the sun will have been in the rooms in the early 
morning hours, helping to start the day cheerfully and to 
warm the rooms on chilly winter mornings. The after- 
noon sun comes at a time when the rooms are overheated 
and the glare of its level rays is fatiguing, but many 
schools are not used in the afternoon. Two points still 



93 



94 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



may well be noted : drawing and sewing rooms should 
always be provided with north light, and laboratories and 
various manual training, cooking, or recitation rooms 
where the pupils pass only an hour or two at a time, and 
which are not occupied as " home " rooms, may well have 
the restful north exposure. On the other hand, it is a 
great advantage to have sunlight permeate the corridors, 
wardrobes, and toilets where the effect of its disinfecting 
powers is even more necessary. 

The Boston Schoolhouse Commission requires school- 
houses to be so planned that every room shall receive sun- 
light during some portion of the day. While the Board 
believes in unilateral lighting, it concedes that it is better 
to have light from two sides than to have no sunlight. 
A room that has sunlight during all the school hours is 
regarded by them as not 
desirable. 

The above discussion 
is still only academic if 
the school architect fails 
to take notice of sur- 
rounding conditions. 
In the country, neigh- 
boring trees or high hills 
may seriously affect the 
orientation of the rooms, 
and in the city the free 
light for a building may 
be cut off by tall build- 
ings, either already built 
or liable to be . A clever 
set of plans was recently 
adopted in competition 
in an eastern city where 
the result of so extend- 
ing the plan as to give 
all the rooms an eastern 
or western aspect was 
to bring a number of 
them within 30 feet of the property line on which a large 
apartment house was likely to be erected, which would 
effectiially darken all of the best rooms. On paper the 
plan was admirable ; on the lot it was a failure. It may 
also be desirable to locate the rooms away from a noisy, 
dusty roadway, or to so place them as to secure a more 
attractive outlook. It will rarely be found that the lot is 
square with the points of the compass and the architects' 
ingenuity will be tested to make the best of the local 
conditions. 

Unilateral Lii^htitig. The amount of accommodation re- 
(juired being given and the cjuestion of exposure settled, 
the type of plan to be used will depend largely on local 
conditions, it being always kept in mind that a compact 
plan with the smallest perimeter will be the most economi- 
cal. The type of plan, whether extended, H-shape, T- 
shape, or whatever is used, must depend largely on the 
orientation of the rooms, and this brings up the ciuestion 
of unilateral lighting in regard to which so many commit- 
tee men have to be " shown." The blind ends of wings 
caused by this plan create an endless amount of comment 
and humoristic designation of unilaterally lighted school 
buildings as mausoleums, "cold storage plants," etc., by 
unthinking citizens who cannot understand the reason for 



Detail of School Stairways and Entrance at Grade 



not taking advantage of every opportunity for securing 
outside light. Unilateral lighting, however, has come 
rapidly into favor among practical school men, and the 
majority of answers to questions sent out strongly favored 
it. The majority of pupils are right handed and find 
light coming from the left the most convenient to work 
with. When windows are placed in the wall at the back 
of the pupils, another set of shadows is produced which is 
confusing and annoying. Moreover, the light coming from 
such windows is likely to prove very trying to the teacher's 
eyes. One headmaster writes, referring to some rooms 
which are lighted at the rear : ' ' We found this very hard 
on the teacher's eyes. I had one teacher about eight years 
ago who taught in a room where she faced a south light. 
vShe was obliged to be out of school six months with a very 

severe eye trouble. The 
eye specialist said that 
it was caused wholly by 
facing the south light, 
emphasized by the fact 
that it was reflected by 
the roof of another build- 
ing." Another master 
says : " Some of my 
rooms have light from 
the rear of pupils as 
well as the .south light, 
and the teachers com- 
plain frequently of the 
discomfort of facing the 
light from the win- 
dows.' ' Another objec- 
tion to bilateral lighting 
is the blackboard space 
that is lost. It is evident 
that the worst form of 
lighting is that from 
windows in opposite 
sides of the same room 
which would cause two separate shadows from each motion 
of the hand. Nevertheless the writer would not hesitate 
to add end windows in a north lighted schoolroom in order 
to admit sunlight for a portion of the time. 

When unilateral lighting is used, the window area must 
be carefully studied in connection with the wall construc- 
tion. The long window wall carries the ends of the floor 
timbers and hence must be substantially built and able to 
stand a considerable load. A system of iron construction 
for a long group of windows is the ideal solution of this 
problem, as by this means the window piers may be re- 
duced to their lowest terms, but for most suburban work 
this will be found too expensive. The individual single 
windows and frames, with brick piers between, will, owing 
to their simplicity, always be found the cheapest to con- 
struct and generally are adopted even if shadows are 
caused by the piers ; but if the windows are wide and well 
distributed, very little inconvenience will result, provided 
the room is not of excessive width. 

Entrances. Having decided upon the aspect of the class 
rooms, some thought has to be given to the entrances. If 
the school is co-educational, custom has decreed that the 
entrances for boys and girls shall be separated as widely 
as possible and the more southerly entrance be appropri- 




THE BRICKBVILDER 



95 




Rear View, Gregory School, West Orange, N. J. 

ated for the girls. Where this involves a boys' entrance 
at a particularly exposed northerly end, it is well to look 
over the plans again and see if a method cannot be devised 
for so locating the entrances that both shall be as sheltered 
from the wind and prevailing winter storms as possible. 

As the doors must open outward, some 
sort of a housing must be arranged that 
will contain the doors when open and 
hooked back. If they are allowed to 
project beyond the wall line of the build- 
ing, they are liable to be caught and 
slammed by the wind or damaged by 
the pupils. Where the school grounds 
are not fenced in, it may be necessary 
at night to close these exterior recesses 
with collapsible gates to prevent their 
being appropriated by loafers. 

Many school architects advocate plac- 
ing the doors for the pupils' entrances 
in the basement, so that dirt from muddy 
shoes, etc., is not tracked into the main 
corridor. By this plan the cumbersome 
and costly outside ilights of stone steps 
may be eliminated and the construction 
of the entrance itself be considerably 
simplified. Upon the other hand, it 
means that in leaving the building 
pupils have a longer distance to traverse 
before arriving at the exit, which, in an 
emergency, might become a serious de- 
fect. The door itself is also more re- 
moved from the control of a teacher 
standing on the first floor level. Ad- 
vantage may often be taken of a sloping 
site to secure a good basement entrance, 
but on a level lot it would mean elevat- 
ing the building considerably to obtain 
it. Generally the entrance is arranged 
to come at the level of a landing half a 
flight down from the first floor, with 
direct communication through a door to 
the basement from the vestibule, out- 
side of the vestibule idoor leading to 
the main story. These doors are of the 



utmost importance in keeping back smoke or a draft of air 
from the basement in case of fire originating there, which 
without them would quickly draw up the stairways and 
involve the entire building. If the entrance is in the base- 
ment, "smoke doors" should be installed to protect the 
stairway from the basement corridor. In any event, the 
outside door should be at the foot of the stairs, and not 
located at any distance which would reeiuire the pupil to 
traverse much of the building before finding egress. 

On account of their rather exposed situation, the walls 
of the vestibule are best lined with smooth or glazed brick 
which is durable and cleanly, and the, outside and vesti- 
bule doors should have their upper halves filled with 
glass. 

The accompanying illustrations of the Fairmount School 
at West Orange, N. J., designed by Messrs. Dillon, Mc- 
Lellan & Beadel, show an interesting type of design, 
wherein the basement is eliminated and the pupils' en- 
trances are through two sunny, above ground playrooms, 
cleverly arranged at the front of the building so as not to 
darken any class room. In this building the first floor is 
only iYt. feet from the ground. The toilets are placed on 
the main corridor, near the back entrances, on the main 
floor. This corridor is 14 feet inches wide and is also 

utilized for hanging coats and 
hats. The boiler room at the 
rear naturally has its floor at a 
deeper grade, but the basement 
" play room ' ' is eliminated and 
the simny play room wings 
shown in the picture are sub- 
stituted. 

Play Rooms. Of what actual 
use is a basement play room ? 
This question, sent out to va- 
rious authorities, brought the 
unanimous reply, "No use." 
The so-called basement ' ' play 
room" is usually nothing but 
a space remaining in the cellar 

„ , „i Di after all the needs of the building 

Ground Floor Plan '^ 





Gregory School, West Orange. N. J. 

Dillon, McUllan & Btadcl, Architects 



96 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




General View, Fairmount School, West Orange, N. J. 

have been met, which is ordinarily ecjuipped with a ce- 
ment floor, whitewashed walls, and nothing else. It is 
always hot and generally either dark, damp, or dusty — 
frequently all three. As the architects of the Fairmount 
School point out, one would naturally expect the recreation 
rooms of a school, where the children, fatigued with indoor 
study, go to recuperate from the 
work of the class rooms, would 
be the pleasantest and most 
healthful portions of the build- 
ing. If the children were at 
home, no one would think of 
sending them to the cellar for 
exercise and play ; but that is 
just what is done in hundreds 
of school buildings. In France, 
schoolhouses universally have 
an outdoor playground, secluded 
from the road and enclosed by 
walls, along the sides of which 
is a roof, forming a sort of open 
shed known in that country as a 
preau convert ,^\i\c\\. gives shelter 
when it is recjuired and admits 
fresh air at all times. These 
walls are often decorated with 
the pretty green chestnut lat- 
tices so common in that country, 
which give a little touch of inti- 
macy and removes the institu- 
tional appearance. 

In the Fairmount School the 
play rooms occupy the two one- 
story wings on the front. These 
have wooden floors and are 
more in the nature of glass en- 
closed porches than rooms. In 
fair weather they can be com- 
pletely opened up to the air, and 
being exactly like sheds or piaz- 
zas, they provide the ideal open 
air play rooms just as does the 
French arrangement. 

Inquiries among a number of 
school principals failed to find 



^■^^^^atVjli a single voice raised in defense of the 
basement play room, and nearly all said 
that if the weather was too severe for 
the outdoor play, they would shorten 
the recess and dismiss the children 
earlier. 

Another version of the above ground, 
gla^ed-in play room is that at the Greg- 
ory School, also at West Orange, N. J., 
and designed by Messrs. Dillon, 
McLellan & Beadel. It is similarly con- 
structed of wood, as plaster or masonry 
is a detriment. Only enough heating 
is required to take the chill out of the 
air in the coldest weather. It will be 
noticed that one of the rooms of this 
school (intended as a kindergarten) has 
^ a fireplace and is separated from the 
next by a removable partition so as to throw two rooms 
together for neighborhood meetings, etc. 

Yards. In suburban districts not much trouble will be 
encountered in finding sufficient space around the build- 
ing, but in congested cities the school yard becomes a real 
problem and needs careful consideration. Fencing, or 




Detail of Play Room, Fairmount School, West Orange, N. J. 
Dillon, McLellan & Beadel, Architects 



THE BRICK BVILDER 



97 



even curbing, is not required in most small cities, and 
even paved walks are optional. Large cities, however, 
generally enclo.se the grounds with a plain iron fence hav- 
ing gates which can be locked at night and are furnished 
with a standard yard padlock which is generally furnished 
by the School Department of the city. The play yard 
ought to be located on the sunny side of the building and 
be as large as the appropriation will allow. Boston re- 
quires a minimum of 30 square feet per pupil and paves 
the yards with brick sloped to drains. Colored bricks 
are set in the paving to indicate positions of the classes 
for forming in line and for certain games. wSeparate en- 
trances are provided for boys and girls from their respec- 
tive yards to the play rooms. Areas, steps, and inclines 
are avoided as much as possible. Driveways for ash and 
coal teams are laid with vitrified pavers on a heavy con- 
crete base. 

A grass treatment around a building is apt to prove diffi- 
cult to keep in order and grass banks in particular are to 
be avoided. In most cases the yards are graveled or cov- 
ered with stone-crusher screenings. Cinders should not 
be used as they are ruinous to children's clothes on ac- 
count of dirt. Shrubbery around school yards ought to 
be encouraged, and if well cared for by those in charge is 
not likely to be injured by the pupils. 

The Exterior of f/ic Building. As brick is the exterior 
material of the majority of modern schools, the only ma- 
terial that needs discussion is that which will be used for 
trimmings. Hollow tile with cement finish is, it is true, 
used to an appreciable extent and is suitable, but brick 
at present is favored by most building committees. The 
question of materials for the cornice, sills, belts, and other 
trimmings is involved with the type of building proposed. 
If the building is to be a "monument," it will be quite 
likely to have a pitched roof which probably implies over- 
hanging eaves and copper rain gutters ; but if a plainer 
building is intended, a flat roof is likely to be called for 



with inside rain water disposal and no structural need of 
eaves. In this case the architectural style may require a 
classical cornice, with considerable projection or merely a 
Tudor string course with flat parapet walls. Whichever 
is employed, the young architect (and the older one as 
well) should see that ev^ery precaution is taken to prevent 
the entrance of moisture into the walls from above. The 
tops of all parapets should be protected by copper, turning 
down outside and entirely covering the back of the wall 
above the roof. Any masonry cornices having a flat wash 
over 6 inches wide should have a copper covering, no mat- 
ter what their material. Any lack of care in thoroughly 
flashing all horizontally exposed portions is sure to result in 
unsightly staining and efflorescence of the brickwork and 
which- goes on until in a few years repointing or relaying 
of the brickwork becomes necessary. So true is this, that 
any one who watches the construction of a brick building 
can usually predict with certainty the location of any 
efllorescence that will appear upon the walls. 

In case the building is constructed of hollow tile, es- 
pecial care needs to be taken with window sills and pro- 
jecting belts. The common method of making window 
sills of tiles laid horizontally on a slope and finishing with 
an inch of cement is poor, as it is difficult to get a cement 
finish which will stand such exposure without crazing, 
cracking, and finally spalling off. A sill of granite, lime- 
stone, or marble should be used, and a copi)er "pan" 
binder it is not to be despised and is well worth its cost. 

Many recommend placing wire grilles over the basement 
windows as a protection against damage from ball play- 
ing, etc. Their cost is considerable and their utility 
somewhat doubtful. If used, they should be hinged to 
allow for cleaning the windows. To prevent their being 
tampered with by children, they are then provided with 
padlocks, which add to the security of the building from 
burglars, but are objected to by some who think that 
egress from the basement by means of the windows in 








#^ 



Grade Schoolhouse, Framingham, Mass. 
Charles M. Baker and Stanley B. Parker, Associate Architects 



98 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



case of fire should not be prevented. The writer believes 
that in most cases their use can be safely discontinued and 
an item of cost eliminated. 

Monumental Treatment of Schools. The exterior treat- 
ment of a modern elementary school should always be dig-- 
nified, but never showy or ostentatious. In the smaller 
cities a spirit of civic pride often impels the authorities to 
select a conspicuous site and give the building: an unduly 
important character, but the practice of placing- school- 
houses of any sort upon main thoroughfares is unwise. 
Not only is there an ever present danger to small children 
from swiftly passing- automobiles and trolley cars, but the 
noise and dust is extremely objectionable, as well as the 
exposure of the children to miscellaneous traflfic on their 
way to and from school. It is far better to locate the 
school on a quiet side street, where land is cheaper and a 
commodious playground can be easily provided. 

Much of the current American school architecture seems 
to ignore the fact that a schoolhouse is an educational 
institution and not a political monument. I grant that a 
great city school of twenty to forty rooms or more must 
necessarily be imposing from the mere fact of its enor- 
mous bulk ; but why do buildings of such hulking propor- 
tions have to be constructed in residential districts when 
they are out of scale with everything in the vicinity ? The 
city school is surrounded by large and high buildings 
which bring it into some sort of proper relation to the 
neighborhood, but no such excuse exists in the suburb. 

Schoolroom story heights are necessarily greater than 
those of dwellings, and a high basement seems to be 
everywhere accei)ted as essential ; add to this the theory 
that a three-story building is cheaper in proportion than 
one of the two stories and that land must be economized, 
and the building rises into the air far above the roofs of 
the surrounding dwellings. Just why the basement has 
to remain is not clear to me ; if it could be eliminated as 



was done in the Fairmount School, the building would at 
once settle down into a harmonious relation to its sur- 
roundings. 

The old, high pitched roofs and towers which crowned 
the Romanesque school buildings of the '80's and '90's 
have gone by ; but one may well wish that a quiet Col- 
legiate or Georgian type of brick architecture with some 
vestige of a visible roof might replace the current flat 
roofed, boxlike designs which, while appropriate to urban 
surroundings, absolutely fail to correlate themselves with 
a suburban landscape. The flat roof possesses some ad- 
vantages of economy and ease of construction and elimi- 
nates the great garrets which seem so wasteful of space ; 
but when one takes into account the easier treatment of 
eaves and cornices, the low sloping roof is not much more 
expensive. 

The same line of thought may apply to the ornamental 
details of the exterior. The comparative cheapness of 
elaborate detail when executed in terra cotta or cast stone 
is a temptation to the young architect to show off what he 
knows, " epater les bourgeois,'^ and bestow on the entrances 
and facades the results of cursory examination of plates of 
Beaux Arts designs, which detract from the quiet dignity 
which ought to characterize a building devoted to educa- 
tion. The fault is one which is by no means confined to 
schoolhouses ; imfortunately there are a good many of the 
higher institutions of learning which rejoice in over elabo- 
rated buildings whose parvenu vulgarity will become a 
source of regret to their occupants after the lapse of a few 
years. 

The accompanying illustrations of school buildings at 
Framingham, Mass., by Mr. Charles M. Baker, architect, 
are most agreeable examples of the scholarly adaptation 
of the grade school to suburban surroundings in such a way 
that it forms an organic and harmonious part of the village 
architecture, with a total absence of any exotic effect. 



*f>>« 




Gradf Schoolliouse, Franiini^ham, Mass. 
Charles M. Baker, Architect 



A Garden on an English Estate, 



By EDWARD W. GREGORY. 



WOOLLEY HALL 
is an old English 
estate which came 
into the possession of the 
present owner, Mr. Walter 
Cottingham of Cleveland, 
Ohio, two years ago. It is 
situated in the Thames val- 
ley near Maidenhead, one 
of the most popular river- 
side resorts between Lon- 
don and Oxford . It is close 
to Windsor and, like other 
estates thereabout, is sur- 
rounded by much forest 
land. For the past two 
years continuous develop- 
ment of the property has 
been carried on under the 
direction of Mr. Thomas 
Mawson, England's cele- 
brated garden architect, 
who has probably planned 

and carried out more public and i)rivatL' estates than any 
other living English designer. Mr. Mawson is to English 
architecture of to-day what "Capability" Brown was to 
the architecture of about a century and a quarter ago ; but 
he has achieved a very much wider celebrity. Brown 
approached the layout of a plan from the gardener's point 
of view; Mawson from the architect's. Brown and his 



1 


■5 


^^ 


Bf^pw 


1^ 










\.::. 1 



Garden House from the Lawn 



many followers showed 
their admiration of pas- 
toral effects by copying 
them. Mawson is more 
concerned with using natu- 
ral features as accents in 
a conventional scheme. 
Where Brown's idea was 
to have the house /;/ a 
garden, Mawson 's is to 
have a house and a. garden. 
The former saw architec- 
ture and gardening- as 
things apart ; the latter 
sees them in combination. 
This is, indeed, the great 
distinction between late 
(reorgian garden planning 
and that of our own day. 

The old garden at Wool- 
ley Hall, as found in ex- 
istence by the present 
owner, had many desirable 
features and they have considerably influenced the design 
of the subsequent development. One of the principal and 
most interesting features which have been retained is a 
kitchen garden with an old brick enclosing wall together 
with a block of gardeners' cottages and glass houses. The 
part of the garden which is completed lies to the north of 
the house and has been designed on a scale which will 




View of Pergolas and Garden House Across I'anel Garden 

Thomas Mawson, Architect 
99 



100 

accord with the complete 
development which is 
contemplated in the fu- 
ture. It comprises the 
double pergolas, two 
panel gardens and gar- 
den house, tennis and 
croquet lawns, bowling 
green, and an extended 
walk which leads into 
the park. The illustra- 
tions reproduced here- 
with show the principal 
features of this portion 
of the estate and as the 
foliage and vines have 
not had time to make 
much headway, the con- 
structional details of the 
design can be more 
clearly perceived than 
will be possible in the fu- 
' ture when the planting 
has come to maturity. 

Perhaps the most in- 
teresting vista is that 
which is to be seen from 
the north end of the 
carriage court where the 
three arches shown in 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 




Side Entrance in Garden Wall 



bonding being varied by 
horizontal courses of 
thin tiles. Another 
illustration shows the 
central grass glade with 
pergolas on either side 
as seen from the garden 
house looking towards 
the south. The length 
of the pergolas extend- 
ing from the garden 
house can be realized 
from the view taken 
across the panel rose 
garden. The texture 
of the enclosing walls 
and the general char- 
acter of the architec- 
tural detail may be seen 
in the illustration of the 
small side entrance. 

The owner's ideal was 
to attain a garden of 
distinctly English type, 
in which nature should 
be the predominant part- 
ner, but in which art and 
architecture should have 
recognized places. It 
will take another year 



the illustration give access to the double pergolas leading 
through to the domed garden house and beyond to the 
oval bowling green. The structure of the piers and walls 
is easily realized from a study of the picture. Red brick 
has been used for the major portion of the work, the 



before the pergolas and walls are sufficiently clothed with 
foliage for his ideal to be consummated; but a large mea- 
sure of success is assured by the dignified and sympathetic 
character of the architectural accessories already con- 
structed which will provide the foundation. 




V^iew of Arches in Garden Wall Looking Toward Garden House 

• Thomasi Mawson, Architect 



As He Is Known, Being Brief Sketches of Contemporary 
Members of the Architectural Profession. 




J. HARLESTON PARKER 



HARLESTOX PARKER was born in Boston in 
November, 1S72. A graduate of Harvard in tlie 
class of 1893, he studied architecture for two years 
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Then came 
a year in the office of Winslow & Wetherell, a year in 
Ualy, and two years in Paris, where he studied at the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts in the Atelier Laloux. 

In the spring of 1899 he returned to Boston, and the 
partnership of Parker & Thomas was formed, with offices 
in Boston and Baltimore — an association which lasted until 
1907, when the firm name was changed to Parker, Thomas 
& Rice. 

In fifteen years of spirited and successful practice, Mr. 
Parker's varied enthusiasms and effective vitality have 
found a natural outlet. No one of our time has better 
appreciated the universal nature of the demands on the 
profession, and no one has proved himself better (|ualififcd 
satisfactorily to answer more of these varied calls. His 
commercial structures are paying investments; his clubs 
breathe comfort and dignity, and his jirivate houses are 
worthy frames for cultivated and successful lives. 

Mr. Parker's zeal for his clients' interests does not end 
with the signing of the contract, but from that moment 
seems to take on renewed vigor. Indeed, long after one 
of his buildings has been accepted by the owner, his vigi- 
lance and invention remain at the service of the client, 
with a wealth of fertile suggestion and experienced dis- 
crimination. 

No account of Mr. Parker's personality can be complete 
which does not call attention to his peculiar talents as a 
draftsman. With him objective visualization has been 
developed to a state of rare precision. In his Harvard 
days, his sketches in the Lampoon were filled with amaz- 
ingly lifelike representations of his contemi)oraries,and 
this happy faculty is still a source of exquisite delight to his 
friends. In the preparation of rapid perspective sketches 
for clients and subordinates, this ability is of real service, 
and many puzzling difficulties have been quickly solved 
by a quick transition to the third dimension, with its 
resulting clear, analvtical viewpoint. 

The superficial student of the Renaissance is amazed at 
the multiple activities of the great artists of that epoch ; 
but a maturer examination convinces one that the artist 
of every time has never concerned himself with merely 
one side of life. — A". .S". /?. 




WILLIAM B. ITTNER 



WILLIAM B. ITTNER was born in St. Louis, Sep- 
tember 4, 1864. He acquired his education in the 
public schools of his native city and was graduated 
from the Manual Training School, which is a department 
of Washington University, in 1884. His architectural 
studies were pursued at Cornell LTniversity, t'rom which he 
was graduated in 1887. He engaged in the practice of his 
chosen profession in the following year and very success- 
fully demonstrated his ability as a designer with a facility 
for expressing the refinement and charm which are char- 
acteristic of his work in many buildings of a domestic, as 
well as commercial character. A deep student, a pains- 
taking investigator, and a resourceful designer, the happy 
opportunity came to him through his selection as Commis- 
sioner of School Buildings for the Board of Education of St. 
Louis in 1897 to bring into full play all the.se latent attri- 
butes. The result has not only placed its deep impress 
on the city of St. Louis, the hai)py posse.ssor of these 
mode! buildings, but his influence and the high standard 
which he has set in the jilanning and designing of educa- 
tional buildings has made him an eminent authority 
abroad, as well as throughout the length and breadth of 
his own country. As an architect he has made his field of 
activity particularly and peculiarly his own. As a man, 
he has commanded and received tlie respect and sincere 
liking of his fellow-citizens and co-workers in the 
jirofession. 

Mr. Ittner is a I-'ellow of the American Institute of 
Architects and has been president of the St. Louis Chap- 
ter. His standing among his fellows is further indicated 
by the fact that he has been president c)f the St. Louis 
Architectural Club and of the Arcliitectural League of 
America, and his popularity among the alumni of his 
Alma Mater, as attested by his elevation to the presidency 
of the Cornell Club. The dearest distinction and highest 
honor in Mr. Ittner's eyes must ever be his ]M)sse.ssion of 
the first medal awarde<i to him by the St. Louis Chapter 
of the American Institute of .Architects for his conspicn- 
ouslv meritorious work in his chosen field. No tribute 
could better evidence his acknowledged su])rcmacy in that 
field, coupled with an appreciation of all that makes the 
life of man worth living, than this spontaneous expression 
of appreciation of the.se qualities by men with whom he 
has worked for so many venrs shoiikler to shoulder. 

-./.A. M. 



101 



102 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




WILLIAM WELLES BOSWORTH 



WILLIAM WELLES BOSWORTH was born in 
Marietta, Ohio, on May 8, 1869, and received his 
early education at the Marietta Academy. At 
the ajje i)f sixteen he entered the Massachusetts Institute 
<if Technolojiy and was atVdiated with the Class of 1S89. 
Upon completinji his course at Technolojiy, he took up 
work with Shei)ley, Rutan & Coolidge, and spent a season 
with Frederick Law Olmstead in landscape design, assist- 
ing in the development of the group plans for the Leland 
Stanford Jr. University. Following an extensive tour of 
Europe with William Rotch Ware, he established a prac- 
tice of his own, designing several charming country cot- 
tages at Mt. Desert and Long Island, and conijileted a 
group of buildings for the Hampton Normal and Agricul- 
tural Institute. 

Due to the persuasion of Thomas Hastings and John 
Galen Howard, he decided to resume his architectural 
studies at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, but went first to 
London, where he enjoyed the opportunity and inspiration 
of studying under Alma Tadema. Then Paris claimed 
him and he entered the atelier of Godefroy & Freynet, 
and later the Ecole des Beaux Arts and the atelier of 
Gaston Redon. He also spent considerable lime working 
under Chausseniiche. After further travel in Europe, he 
returned to New York to enter the office of Carrere & 
Hastings, and was given charge of the plans for the Pan 
American Exposition at Buffalo, later going to the Exjio- 
sition as resident architect. A little later he was retained 
by the Group Plan Commission of the city of Cleveland to 
develo]) working jilans for the improvement of that city. 
In the com])etition for the West Point Military Academy 
Buildings he was associated with Messrs. Cram, Goodhue 
& Ferguson, who were the successful competitors. 

He has built up a large practice in New York, and 
among the most notable examples of his work are the 
beautiful gardens for Mr. John D. Rockefeller at Pocan- 
tico Hills, the town house for Mr. Rockefeller, Jr., and 
the great white granite building which is now Hearing 
com])letion for the Western Union Telegraph Company. 

In February, 1913, he was appointed architect for the 
new buildings of his Alma Mater, the Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology, which are now well under way, and 
give proof that he has nobly solved the diverse require- 
ments of a group of educational buildings of this magni- 
tude, and that he has preser\ed an architectural dignity 
and simplicity compatible with the highest ideals of his 
profession. 

Mr. Bosworth has ever cherished the best traditions of 
Greek art, and instils in everything that he does a classic 
sense of simplicity and refinement of detail. To this ap- 
preciation for the classical, he brings a highly developed 
quality of sensitive selection. It is this i)erfecti()n of taste 
that distingui-shes all that he creates, and the recognition 
of which is a vital principle of all enduring art. — H. /;'. K. 




BERTRAM GROSVENOR GOODHUE 



Tl'.N or more years ago Mr. Goodhue was thought of 
chiefly as an accomplished artist in pen and ink, and 
his admirable drawings are too well known to need 
more than a mention. Now his pen and ink have been 
almost entirely laid aside, and he is accepted by all as one 
of our leading architects. 

This change in Mr. Goodhue's medium from pen and 
ink and shiny Bristol board to bricks and mortar and grad- 
uated slate has, of course, been due to the steadily increas- 
ing demands on his time in conducting his practice. 

To any one very familiar with Mr. Goodhue's work and 
his methods of working, several points cannot fail to at- 
tract notice. One of these is his unerring eye for pictur- 
esque composition. In his drawings and al.so in his executed 
buildings one usually finds an interesting grouping of 
parts. Nowhere is this better exemplified than in the 
buildings of the San Diego Exposition and in the prelimi- 
nary drawings for the same. 

In addition to this capacity for arranging the various 
parts of his problem into a picturesque and well-balanced 
whole, his work also shows the joy he takes in perfecting 
and making interesting the very smallest details. In fact, 
it is not unlikely that he delights more in the finish of his 
hand-wrought, half-polished, iron hardware than in some 
of the bigger things of the profession. 

It is this persoral attention that he so willingly gives to 
the small things that makes his buildings so full of interest. 

Mr. Goodhue's personality is evident everywhere in his 
work to those who know him and his work intimately. 
Everything that comes from his busy office is unmistakably 
his and is characterized by a certain cleverness and fresh- 
ness of expression. To Mr. Goodhue an architectural 
" bromidism " is almost an unpardonable sin. It is his 
continual searching for new and interesting forms, coupled 
with a thorough knowledge of the work of the Middle 
Ages, that has caused him to be regarded as an authority 
on contemporary Gothic art. 

Mr. Goodhue's early and indeed only professional train- 
ing was received in the office of James Renwick in New 
York. Mr. Renwick was the designer of Grace Church 
and St. Patrick's Cathedral; therefore, Mr. Goodhue's 
architectural instruction from the beginning had a strong 
Gothic tendency. 

Before entering the office of Cram &• Wentworth in Bos- 
ton he had proved his ability as a designer by winning the 
competition for a cathedral at Dallas, Tex., and, after a 
year spent with Cram &• Wentworth as chief draftsman, 
lie was given a full partnership in their practice. 

In 1903, after the firm had won the West Point Compe- 
tition, Mr. Goodhue assumed the resiJonsibilities of the 
New York office of Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson. 

In January of last year the partnership was dissolved, 
and Mr. Goodhue is now conducting an independent prac- 
tice in New York. — E. I). A'. 



PLATE DESCRIPTION. 



The Evans Museum and Dental Institute, Univer- 
sity OF Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. Plates 
46-49. This building: was built from funds left by the 
late Dr. Thomas W. Evans, an eminent scientist and den- 
tist. Its architectural style may be described as Colle- 
giate Gothic. The Evans Museum occupies the east half 
of the Spruce street wing, and is as nearly fire and biirglar 
proof as modern science can make it. 

A feature of the building is the large operative clinic in 
the north wing on the second floor. This occupies the 
entire wing on Irving street and is 200 feet long and 
48 feet wide. It is 30 feet high and is flooded with day- 
light from the north side, and a skylight 10 feet wide run- 
ning the length of the ceiling. The room is furnished 
with 136 chairs, equipped with electric service for 
power and light, also gas, com- 
pressed air, and water service. 
A power house furnishing power 
for the lighting and heating, as 
well as for the service of the 
laboratories and the clinic, ad- 
joins the building on the north. 

Hotel Statler, Detroit, 
Mich. Plates 50-53. The 
Hotel vStatler follows in its de- 
sign the style known as Adam, 
or the type of architecture de- 
rived from the classical and 
Italian Renaissance. The two 
lower stories are of buff Indiana 
limestone laid in wide horizon- 
tal courses with a granite base. 
The shaft of the building is con- 
structed of brick, laid up with 
a gray mortar joint in English 
cross bond, which gives a slight 
diaper pattern to the walls. The 
three upper stories are of brick 
and terra cotta. 

The building is sixteen stories high. The first two 
floors, each of which has a mezzanine floor, are devoted to 
public rooms with the necessary service quarters. Above 
are eleven guest room floors with a total of eight hundred 
rooms and two floors devoted to sample rooms. A ser- 
vants' dormitory floor is located immediately under the 
roof. Below grade, the laundries, mechanical plant, store 
rooms, etc., are arranged in a basement and subbase- 
ment. There are no public rooms below the ground floor, 
the barber shop, toilet rooms, etc., being located on the 
first mezzanine. 

The private bathrooms which are provided with each 
bedroom are ventilated by a system of forced ventilation, 
and between every two bathrooms is a shaft containing all 
of the supply, waste, and other pipes, which are accessible 
from within each bath through an opening large enough to 
admit a workman. 

Gymnasium, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H. 
Plates 54, 55. Dartmouth College Gymnasium is uniciue 
in that it gives facilities for thorough practice for both 
baseball and football in very large inside courts. Through 
the center of the building, one story above the ground 





Sample Room Floor Plan 

Hotel Statler, Detroit, Mich. 

Geo. B. Post & Son.";, Architects 



floor, is a large Trophy Hall, 80 feet square. There is a 
gymnasium floor space 360 feet long through the center of 
the building for 100-yard straightway runs. The Drill 
Hall, S5 by 280 feet, with an open truss roof ceiling, is 
located above the Trophy Hall, at the end of which are 
staircases and across the front an observation balcony. 

Toy Theatre, Bo.stox, Mass. Plates 56, 57. The 
Toy Theatre is the outcome of a desire to create a small 
and distinctive playhouse in which plays of the highest 
order ccfuld be presented. Restrictions on the property 
required the front of the building to set back 14 feet from 
the street line, but as bays were allowed to extend over 
this line, and their size was not specified, the front of 
the building took the form of one large bay, which finally 
became the most distinguishing exterior feature of the 

building. The first of the three 
stories is of marble with delicate 
Corinthian columns of cast iron. 
The second and third stories are 
of water-struck brick with white 
marble trimmings and wrought 
iron balconies at the third story 
windows. 

In the auditorium only enough 
ornament is used around the 
proscenium opening to draw the 
eye to it and make it act as a 
frame for the scenes which are 
being enacted on the stage . The 
walls and ceiling are plain sur- 
faces of gray white relieved by 
a small amount of plaster deco- 
ration and spots of warm color 
and black in strong contrast dis- 
creetly used. A row of boxes 
forms the rear of the auditorium. 
Together with these, the main 
floor comfortably seats 400. The 
balcony capacity is 300, making 
a total seating capacity of 700. 

Neighborhood Playhouse, (irand Strei;t, Xew 
York. Plates 58-60. The building is arranged to be 
used- by a semi-public i^ihilanlhroinc organization for its 
own activities, primarily as a theater, secondarily for 
social purposes of various kinds. The fa(,'ade is of light 
red brick with white marble trimmings, the third story, 
which sets back from the street, being of stucco. The 
auditorium is 40 feet wide and 46 feet deep and accommo- 
dates about three hundred people on the floor in .seventeen 
rows. It is about 11 feet high and has a flat ceiling, 
treated very simply with plain moldings. There is a small 
balcon>- of seven rows which accommodates about one 
hundred peoi)le. The orchestra pit will accommodate, at 
least, eighteen musicians. The large panels on the wall 
above the wainscot have been treated with acoustic felt. 
While the vestibule, lobby, and other principal rooms are 
painted in an old ivory tone, the auditorium has a body 
color like old ])archment, and on this certain parts of the 
decorative features are brought out in black and a gra>ish 
yellow, making a very striking contrast and giving the 
room a (listinctivc cliaracter. 






1(13 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 

AN D*N O T ES f t 

FOR.'^THE'^MO NTH 




IN his address at the annual banquet of the American 
Institute of Architects on Dec. 4, 1914, Mr. C. Grant 
La Fargfc spoke of the highest duties of the architect, 
those of " forwarding our civilization." His appeal is to 
men already competent in all the technical requirements 
of his profession, and in all the skill of professional rela- 
tions, and he distinctly and justifiably states that these 
accomplishments are but the weapons to be used for still 
greater achievement, and that they carry with them, the 
more they are possessed, higher and greater responsi- 
bilities and duties for the " forwarding of our civilization " 
— the civilization of mankind, not alone of individuals, 
of communities, of nations, but of humanity. Xod/esse 
oblige. Capacity, skill, must impel to ideals or they for- 
feit the birthright. All that may be obtained by study, 
all that may accrue by natural or acquired advantages, 
should be at the service of a still greater endeavor, that of 
the "forwarding of civilization." And to the architect 
is given almost a imique opportunity. In his hands rests 
the materialization of dreams. His creations are the least 
evanescent of the material works of man ; his work alone 
is that of man's creation, demanding nothing of nature 
but her materials and her accord. If, therefore, he places 
in the material pageant of man's environment forms 
which he alone creates, his responsibility is great indeed, 
and demands forethought, preparation, and persistent 
idealism. 

There are many spheres of action for which the architect 
is especially well adapted. He is closer in relation to the 
business world than is any other artist, and his advice can 
be of not only .esthetic but of material value. The vast 
means of legislatures and of corporations have constantly 
been ignorantly expended in matters of which the archi- 
tect has expert knowledge. The prevalent idea that he is 
a spendthrift is one of a lack of perception that he has 
knowledge which conserves the greatest values of his 
work, which should be that of the highest utilitarian 
efficiency plus distinguished expression. He should apply 
his knowledge to the conception and promotion of great 
enterprises. 

It is the architect who should foresee the demands of 
the public in the future, not merely satisfy them in the 
present and thereby lay an intolerable burden upon future 
development. He should accept the dicta of opportunism 
only after all means to secure his ideal had been ex- 
hausted, and then merely as a progressive step in the 
right direction. The field of his endeavors is not confined 
to actual work, it is devoted to the conception of achieve- 
ment beyond his own span of life. He should be a 
dreamer whose dreams may be often realized by his 
successors. 

An appreciation by the public of the benefits of attrac- 
tive environment is created by the object lessons which 
architecture provides. Standards of taste can be incul- 



cated, but must be accompanied by excellent examples. 
In imagining and creating these examples lies the justifica- 
tion of the architect in its best sense. He must make his 
dreams come true. Whether it be in coordinating fancies 
with facts, in establishing canons of action, in stimulating 
endeavor, the motive should be sincere, high minded, and 
direct. It is not merely his expert knowledge of planning 
and development, his appreciation of proportion, of color 
and detail, — an appreciation that evades the untrained, but 
wisdom of percejition and clarity of advice and sincerity 
of action that is demanded of him. Nothing less is worthy 
of his profession. It is this attitude of mind which is 
more and more becoming evident, which is making the 
Institute of Architects a power in the community, which 
is slowly but surely impressing itself upon the ijublic. It 
is only in recent years that the architects have been re- 
quested for their opinion upon large federal and municipal 
expenditures, since the initiative in many subjects of na- 
tional interest has been taken by them. It is only a few 
years since the intention of their professional ethics, no 
matter what the tentative details may have been, has been 
recognized as being upon a plane which at one time would 
have been thought Ouixotic, but now is felt to be progres- 
sive. The profession of medicine has for centuries, from 
the time of its patron saint Cosimo, been considered to be 
one of altruism, in which the element of public service was 
one of its highest attributes. Now appears the same code 
in the profession of architecture, elevating the accom- 
plished artist, the capable administrator, the imaginative 
dreamer into a citizen who is deserving well of his fellow- 
men, who frankly takes the stand that his ability and 
achievements are but means to an end — that mentioned 
by Mr. La Farge, the " forwarding of our civilization." 

The architect, therefore, has an evangel to preach, and 
he is qualified to speak. When he states that the destruc- 
tion of works of art of the past is far more than a tem- 
porary evil ; when he claims that the apologies for such 
destruction are of little value ; when he asks that at least 
protest should be put on record, he is " forwarding our 
civilization." When he states that ignorance of art is 
stultifying, that appreciation of art is elevating, and that 
apathy towards it produces an atrophy of some of the fin- 
est qualities of man's mind, he is " forwarding our civili- 
zation." When he states that the approval of matters of 
art, if allowed to remain in the hands of the ignorant, is 
imbecile : that control and expenditure of public moneys 
for art in the hands of the venal is criminal, and should 
be so considered, he is " forwarding our civilization." 
When he offers, as he does, the best that is in him, in sug- 
gestion, advice, and achievement, and finds it ignored and 
offers it again and again, knowing that in the end, beyond 
his time, the record of his action will help that best to pre- 
vail, he is " forwarding our civilization." These are the 
duties of the architect beyond his skill in his profession. 
04 




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NUMBER 5 



CONTENTS for MAY 1915 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS ^,,,,,,, p,,, 

APARTMENT HOUSE, 405 PARK AVE., NEW YORK, N. Y Cross & Cross 61 63 

HOUSE OF JAMES PARMELEE, ESQ., WASHINGTON, D. C. . Charles A. Piatt 66-68 

HOUSE, ADDITIONS TO, OF ABRAM GARFIELD, ESQ., 

CLEVELAND, OHIO Abram Garfield 69, 70 

HOUSE OF MRS. A. C. D. RILEY, EVANSTON, \LL.._I\rktm, Fello-ws & Hamilton 71, 72 

HOUSES, TWO, ON WOODLAWN AVENUE, CHICAGO, ILL. Riddle & Riddle 73, 74 

HOUSE OF HIRAM WALKER, ESQ., WALKERVILLE, ON- 
TARIO, CAN. Burrovcs aclVelles 75 

TENEMENTS, THE ROGERS, WEST 44TH STREET, 

NEW YORK, N. Y Grosyenor Atterhury 64,65 

LETTERPRESS p^^^ 

CASA DE LOS MALDONADOS, SALAMANCA, SPAIN Frontispiece 

EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS j Gordon Robb 

V. Measured Drawing of Porch on Hosmer- Waters House, Salem, Mass. j M. A. Dyer 
Samuel Mclntire, Architect. 

THE MODERN SCHOOLHOUSE ..IValter H. Kilham 

V. Cost and Cubage. 

Illustrations from Photographs and Plans 
STAIRWAYS IN HOUSES OF MODERATE COST John T. Fallon 

I. History of the Domestic Stair. 

Illustrations from Photographs and Drawings 
PLUMBING INSTALLATION AND SEWAGE DISPOSAL _. C/.<ir/« ^. Whittemore 

II. Traps, Fixtures, and Water Supply. 

Illustrations from Diagrams 
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF ROOF AND WALL TRUSSES 

Mal-vcrd A. Hone, C.£. 

III. Design of Connections in Wood and Steel Trusses. 
Illustrations from Diagrams 

BUILDING FOR THE MUSICIANS' MUTUAL RELIEF SOCIETY, 

BOSTON, MASS., MAHER Sc WINCHESTER, ARCHITECTS _ 

AS HE IS KNOWN 

Bemg Brief Sketches of Contemporary Members of the Architectural Profession. 
Messrs. Albert Kahn, J. Milton Dyer, Benno Janssen, Aymar Embury II. 

PLATE DESCRIPTION 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH _.. 



105 



107 



111 



115 



119 




^r- 



J- 



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Published Monthly by 

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tmim mM 

O §SL—~) ' — ii\l ^■iii iillJJiiMi 






fy^ i ya^ " " " \ iiij|ii g )pi|^i| ^ng |r 







XXIV 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



II 11 

II 

II 



Pavilion built of gray matt 
enamel architeclutal terra 
coUa. Floor, red prome- 
nade tile. Hoof, green 
enamel mission tile 




Erected by fhe National 
Terra Cotla Society in the 
Varied Industries Build- 
ing. Panama - Pacific In- 
ternational Exposition 



Mr. (;K0. W. KKIJIAM. Anhiu- 



Publications of the National Terra Cotta Society 

"Architectural Terra Cotta, 
Standard Construction" 



Architect's Eilition 



Draflsinan's Edition 



One Hundred and 
Si.xly Pages 



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11 



I 

I 

■f. ■'/, 

I 
I 




iovtt) 




I 



• FIALF • ELEVATION- OF • FRONT- 

•JGALE-CNE- HALF- INCH ■ EQi^LS- ONE ■ FCXDT ■ 



• DETAIL- OP • MSE • -DETAIL OP-CORNICE ' 

•Oait-THHEE- INCHES- tOi^LS-O^t' FT- •I'laLE-THREE.-ltlCHtS- EOV^LS-OMETT- 



•PLATE •)■ 

•HAY- I^i;- 



•P OUCH-OM-HOSM EH- WATERS -HOUi-E 

JAMUEL-n^lMTlR-E- AR.CH1TECT- 

BUILT IN 179; JALiri ■ MAjy • 



MEAJUR.ED • & 
•DRAWN •BT^ 

C'ORDON-ROBI 
(5-- M -A -DYER • 




CASA DE LOS MALDONADOS, SALAMANCA, SPAIN 
EARLY XVITH CENTURY 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



VOLUME XXIV 



MAY, 1915 



NUMBER 5 



The Modem Schoolhouse. 



V. CUBAGE AND COST. 



By WALTER H. KILHAM. 



IN computing the probable cost of a schoolhouse project 
the apparent simplicity of the type of building should 
not delude the architect into the belief that a general 
rule for offhand estimating can be given and adhered to. 
The Boston Schoolhouse Commission some years ago 
adopted a rule by which it could judge of the efficiency of 
any floor plan laid before it for consideration. It was that 
the total area of the building on each floor should not ex- 
ceed twice the total area of the class rooms on that floor 
measured inside the walls. In case an assembly hall ex- 
isted, it could be counted as two class rooms in a " small " 
building and four in a " large " one, the actual meanings 
of ' ' small ' ' and ' ' large ' ' not being clearly defined, except 
that a building of over sixteen class rooms was " large." 
28,000 cubic feet was allowed per class room for the lower 
elementary and 30,000 cubic feet for upper elementary, 
with allowances for assem- 
bly halls as above. The 
scheme worked fairly well 
for the Boston type of 
school, having separate 
wardrobes and small room 
sizes, and it had a distinct 
value in standardizing the 
prevailing diffuse methods 
of schoolhouse design. It 
was not applicable to high 
schools or to many sub- 
urban buildings where es- 
pecially large halls were 
desired for civic or neigh- 
borhood uses. 

In connection with any 
scheme of comparing costs, 
the method of cubing nat- 
urally plays a very impor- 
tant part. It is generally 
customary to take the cube 
from the basement floor 
level to the mean level of 
the various roofs ; but this 
apparently simple proposi- 
tion is susceptible of many 
forms of manipulation, ac- 
cording to whether the 
figures are intended for 
public or private use. In 
a recent competition the 
program limited the cube 
of the proposed building 





School 




Borough Year 


Total .\ccom. 


Cu. 
Cu. 


Content? Area T>-p. fl. No. C. R. 
ft. sq. ft. Units 


Various Contracts 


Contract 
Price 


J'er Cent. 
Total Cost per 
Cost 1 Cuft. 


Co.st per 1 Cost jx-r 
Pupil Unit 


1 
Biiilrling, ' ' ^ ! 


1 i 
Sanitary, ] ^ j 


H-un.i{[';-.V 




i ' i i ! 


1 
Elvctric, 1 1 


Kurr.itiirc. cxclii.sivi 
Ci\nnii:i.siuin, 


of 


1 : 

1 1 !■' 






runiiturf of Clyinnasium, 


1 






Lab. Ec|uipmcnt, 




, 


Mofh. Kquipmcnt, 




; ' 


Organ. 




1 


Elevator.--, 




1 : : ' 
1 


1 

: 1 






j» , i* 


8 S 


REMARKS: 











to a certain figure. This was easily fulfilled in the win- 
ning design by not indicating any cellar under the large 
assembly hall and counting the cube from that floor. 
The cost of filling to support this floor had to be assumed 
by the city after the work was started. In another com- 
petition the cubage was limited and stipulated to be 
counted from the cellar bottom to the outside of the roof. 
The plans conformed to this requirement, but the imposing 
exterior effect was gained by carrying up the walls 12 feet 
above the roof, involving a cost above that contemplated. 
The regular practising architect who does not concern 
himself with the flummery of competitions, whether or not 
of the " approved "variety, fails to be interested in such 
manipulations of the cubage of the building, and c(|ually 
he will avoid making himself a slave of cubic feet. The 
general public frequently becomes hopelessly confused 

between cost per cubic foot 
and cost per pupil, and it 
is evident that the relation 
between these two factors 
may vary widely ; for a 
building on account of hav- 
ing, for examjile, a very 
high roof with a large 
amount of attic space, may 
show a low cost per cubic 
foot and at the same time 
a high cost per pui)il. As 
stated above , thecustomary 
way is to calculate cubage 
from cellar floor to mean 
height of the roofs, and 
this certainly represents 
the contractor's view of 
how much building he has 
to construct. The (Ger- 
mans, however, regard the 
cost of a building as the 
cost of the utilizablc space 
that the occupant really 
gets, that is, the cost of the 
contents included between 
the cellar floor and the 
ceiling of the topmost 
story. An elaborate form 
for compiling statistics of 
cost was formulated by a 
convention of city building 
officials of the (ierman 
Empire, and all (ierman 



Record Cost Card in use by the Superintendent of School Buildings. 
New York City. Size of Card Is .5 by 8 Inches 



108 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



cities were requested to use the uniform method of com- 
putation in figuring school building costs. This system 
is too lengthy for reproduction here, and it is evident that 
it is not exactly applicable to American uses. 

A more interesting method of standardizing schoolhouse 
cost has been devised by Mr. C. J. B. Snyder of New 
York * and is reproduced herewith by his permission : 

(A) Cubic Content. This shall be understood to be the 
product of the following : 

1 . The area of the ground space occupied by various 
portions of the building measured to the outside of 
foundation walls, by 

2. The height of these portions measured from the 
lowest floor level to the average roof level of same. 

3. This shall include all covered or enclosed stoops, 
steps, or entrances; chimneys to roof level, etc. 
There shall be excluded areas ; vaults ; coal slides ; 
underground ducts ; o])en stoops, steps, or en- 
trances, etc. 

(B) Total BuUd'uin Cost. This shall include : 

1. Construction, including excavation, fill, grading 
sidewalk and yard pavements, planting, seeding, 
retaining walls, fences, curbs, in fact, all items not 
otherwise specified, provided for or logically belong- 
ing with items in (2) plumbing; (3) heating and 
ventilation; (4) mechanical equipment; (5) electric 
work; (6) furniture; (7) gymnasium equipment, 
as a completed structure. 

2. Plumbing, gas, and drainage, including connections 
with street mains (where sewers and mains occur in 
the streets upon which the property is located). 

3. Heating and ventilation, including all automatic con- 
trol, air conditioning apparatus, and electric drive, 
when used for any purpose in connection with the 
plant. 

4. Mechanical eciuipment for shops, also freight and 
passenger elevators. 

5. Electric work, including all bell and gong control 
and interior telephones; lighting fixtures; generat- 
ing plant and all motors or appliances not included 
in (3). 

6. Furniture, including everything for the operation of 
the school, except (7). 

7. Gymnasium equipment. 

Note. — The cost of site and of architect's and engi- 
neer's services arc not to be included in any of the factors. 

(C) .{hnormal Cost. This shall include : 

1. All earth or rock excavation, piling, concreting ma- 
son work, grillage, waterproofing, drains, etc., in 
excess of that required for the building under nor- 
mal conditions, i.e., resting upon firm, dry earth. 

2. Areas, open or covered. 

3. Vaults and coal slides. 

4. Underground ducts or passages. 

5. Excavation, fill, grading, or retaining walls, in ex- 
cess of that recjuired for the building on a site where 
the surface of ground is practically level and even 
with the street grades. 

6. Roof playgrounds. 



7. Additional cost of plumbing, gas and water work 
due to absence of sewers and mains in the streets 
adjoining property. 

8. Swimming pool and accessories. 

(D) Normal Cost. This shall mean the theoretical 
cost of the building, supposing all conditions of site, soil, 
and surroundings to be normal. This will be found by 

B — C = D, 

and will afford the basis for comparison of cost, one build- 
ing with another. 

(E) Area Typical Floor. This shall be computed at 
the level of the floor above the auditorium and shall 
include the outside walls. 

(F) 'Total Class Room .hea. This shall be understood 
to mean the sum of the floor areas of all schoolrooms to 
be occupied by what are considered pure classes, i.e., all 
rooms in which teachers are stationed for purposes of 
instructing pupils who may be assigned thereto. These 
shall be measured within the walls. 

(G) .iuxiliary Room .Area. This shall be understood 
to mean the siim of all the floor areas within the build- 
ing for the use of the principal, teachers, and pupils, 
including all floor areas of intermediate stories or parts 
thereof, exclusive of those provided for in (F). 

(H) Class Room .irea. Typical I-'loor. This shall mean 
the sum of the floor areas of the pure class rooms on the 
floor above the auditorium, from which floor (E) is com- 
puted. 

(I) X umber of Class Rooms. This shall mean the total 
number of rooms to be occupied by pure classes, as de- 
fined in (F). 

(K) Pupil Capacity. This shall mean the total num- 
ber of pupils accommodated when all pure class rooms are 
fully equipped. 

(L) Cost per Class Room (Pure) will be : 
B (total building cost), 
I (number of class rooms), 

( M ) Per Capita Cost ( Total ) . 

B (total building cost), 
K (pupil capacity), 

(N) Per Capita Cost (Normal). 



N = 



D (normal building cost). 



•Report of Superintendent of SohcMil BuildinKs. New York, 1913. 



K (pupil cai^acity), 
being the real basis for comparison of per capita costs, one 
building with another. 

(O) Per Capita Cost (Abnormal). 

C (abnormal cost), 

K (pupil capacity), 

being the per capita cost due to abnormal conditions of 
site, surroundings, soil, etc. 

(P) Cost per Cubic Toot (Total). 

B (total cost), 
P ^ — 

A (cubic contents), 

(Q) Cost per Cubic Foot (Normal). 
D (normal cost), 
■^ A (cubic contents), 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



109 



being- the real basis for comparison of cubic foot costs, one 
building- with another, when costs of labor and materials ; 
the type of building-, whether frame, brick, fireproof, 
etc. ; kind of materials used, etc., are substantially the 
same. 



R = 



S = 



( R ) C osf per L tidic Foot ( Abnorn-ial ) . 
C (abnormal cost), 
A (cubic contents), 

being the cubic foot cost due to abnormal conditions of 
site, surrounding-, soil, etc. 

(S) Maiio of Effective Teac/iiiitr Sfiaee to Total h'loor . Irea. 
H (classroom area, typical floor), 
E (total areas, typical floor), 

being the real basis of comparison as to economy of plan- 
ning one building- with another. 

Other information 
could be obtained, 
but it is thought that 
sufficient has been 
g-iven to cover the 
essentials in obtain- 
ing- true compara- 
tive data, exclusive 
of the consideration 
which must be given 
to materials and 
local conditions. 

In calculating: the 
probable cost of a 
building from a set 
of plans, the cubic 
foot route is the 
most reliable, but 
as a committee man 
recently said to the 
writer, " Pupils are 
your product, and a 
factory ought to 
know what its over- 
head cost of produc- 
tion is." In elemen- 
tary schools the cost 
per pupil is com- 
paratively easy to 
estimate ; but in 
high schools reliable 
statistics are diffi- 
cult to compile on account of variation in program, varia- 
tion in number of dw])artments and accessory rooms, and 
different ideas in various cities regrarding laboratories, 
gymnasiums, wardrobes, and fixed equipment in general. 
For example, one city may regard a high school as in- 
complete unless equipped with a swimming pool and a 
SlO.OOO.OO organ ; while another regards any gymnasium 
at all as a luxury and cuts down the assembly hall to 
accommodate half the enrolment of the school. 

An elementary school consists practically entirely of 
" home " rooms, excluding: perhaps the two departments 
of domestic science and manual training; a high school 
may have a certain number of so-called " home " rooms, 
some additional "recitation" rooms, and a large num- 




Ground Floor Plan First Floor I'lan 

Hopewell School, Taunldn, Mass. 

Kilham & HoDkins, Architects 

Cost — 18' - cents per cubic foot ; $129 per pupil. Second class construction, stairways and all walls and 

partitions fireproof 



her of laboratories and special departments, varying ac- 
cording to the ideas of the local Board of Education. It 
seems fair, therefore, to figure the cost per pupil of any 
building on the actual total number of scats or places in 
all class, study rooms, and laboratories, but not counting 
the assembly hall. Mr. C. J. B. Snyder writes as follows 
regarding this : "The difficulty I have experienced in 
obtaining actual figures as the accommodation to be 
afforded by a high school building is due entirely to 

(a) Variation in programs, 

(b) Number and grade of students with relation to 

(c) Number of class rooms, study rooms, laboratories, 
libraries, and other sjiccial rooms, and 

(d) A rule which will apply to a classical high school 
will not, in any sense, apply to one devoted to manual 
training or any special purpose. 

" As a business proposition there should be such a rela- 
tion between (a) the 
program, (b) the 
number of students, 
and (c) the number 
of class rooms, that 
they shall be all oc- 
cupied for each 
period of the day on 
the single session 
plan." 

The high cost per 
pupil of many high 
schools is due to the 
I)ractice of main- 
taining ''home 
rooms ' ' where each 
pupil has his head- 
quarters, leaving his 
seat empty when he 
goes to s]iecial work 
in the laboratory or 
elsewhere. If, on 
the contrary, every 
room is made to do 
duty continuously 
for recitation pur- 
poses, a considerable 
saving can be made 
in the cost of the 
building. Some 
cities, IMiiladeli)hia 
for example, utilize 
the assembly hall as a study hall. On every third seat 
there is arranged an arm table made to hinge down when 
not in use. The division assigned to the hall for its .study 
hour takes its place in the chairs having these tables which 
are sufficiently separated to avoid interference. 

Figured on the above basis, the DeWitt Clinton High 
School in New York cost about S.^OO.oo per pupil ; the 
Washington Irving High School, about W75.(M» to 5400. 00 ; 
the Boston High School of Commerce, about $2'>2. OO; 
the Haverhill (Mass.) High School, $225.00; the Salem 
(Mass.) High School, about $230.00, and so on. Elemen- 
tary schools in the city of Boston of fireproof construction 
should theoretically cost about $140. on ])er pujiil ; those 
of second-class construction in the suburbs from $110. (»0 



110 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



to $130.00, with of course a wide range of variations for 
local conditions which vary from the standard. 

While it is true that calculations of the costs of elemen- 
tary schools are much simpler to compile than those of 
hig-h schools, there is still room for wide variation in 
figures on the question of what the actual capacity of the 
school is ; for the rooms may be under occupied in some 
cases and overcrowded in others. Mr. II. L. Patterson, 
of the Boston Schoolhouse Department, considers that the 
only fair way to estimate the capacity of an elementary 
school is to figure the total number of square feet in all 
pure class rooms and divide by fifteen, the result being 
the pupil capacity of the building. The following table 
of costs of Boston schools was compiled by Mr. Patterson 
on the above basis and is reproduced herewith by permis- 
sion. It will be seen that the figures vary from those in 
previous reports. 

First Class. 

Nairn-. Nil. c.f \"o. of Cost of Cost I'cr (.'.isi I'ei' 

Rooms. I'upils. BuikliiiK. Pupil. Cu. Kt. 

Win. K. Russell 18 976 $188,524.56 $192 14 $0.21 

Jefferson 19 1,038 210,89l).49 203.17 .24 

Washington 30 1,.560 325,541.60 208.68 .25 

O.H.Perry. -.. 14 770 146,145.63 189.80 .24 

Mather 30 1,650 289,332.99 175.36 .21 

Thomas Gardner 14 770 140,267.57 182.17 .19 

Oliver W. Holmes 24 1,224 195,648.02 159.84 .20 

Dearborn 21 1,110 217,131.32 195.61 .22 

Patrick A. Collins.... 17 904 176,663.79 195.42 .23 

Edward Everett 14 614 107,515.43 175.17 .21 

John Cheverus 16 704 102,706.35 145.89 .19 

Abraham Lincoln 40 1,820 280,088.43 153.89 .24 

Samuel Adams 14 632 107,518.34 170.12 .22 

SiCCOND Cla.ss. 

JohnWinthrop 16 724 $110,673.54 S152.86 $0.18 

E. P. Tileston 16 724 132,-506.39 183.02 .26 

U.S.Grant 18 822 116,509.09 141.74 .19 

Lewis - 17 778 108,090.29 138.93 .17 

Average on the above thirteen buildings first class, cost 
per pupil, $180.56; cost per cubic foot, 22 cents. On the 
four buildings of the second-class construction the cost 
per pupil, $154.14; cost per cubic foot, 20 cents. Per- 
centage saved on second-class buildings over first-class in 
cost per pupil, 14.06 per cent ; percentage saved on second- 
class buildings over first in cost per cubic foot, 9 per cent. 

In the above comparison four second-class buildings, 
have been compared with thirteen first-class buildings, 
which is hardly fair. The following table shows four first- 
and four second-class buildings for comparison : 

First Class. 

Name. No. of No. of Cost of Cost K-r Cost Per 

Kooms. Pupils. HuildiiiK. Pupil. Cu. I'"t. 

Edward Everett 14 614 $107,515.43 $175.17 S0.21 

John Cheverus 16 704 102,706.35 145.89 .19 

.\braham Lincoln 40 1,820 280,088.43 153.89 .24 

Samuel Adams 14 632 107,518.54 170.12 .22 

Si:co.\D Class. 

JohnWinthrop. 16 724 $110,673.54 fl52.86 $0.18 

E. P. Tile.ston 16 724 132,506.39 183.02 .26 

U.S.Grant 18 822 116,509.09 141.74 .19 

Lewis 17 778 108,090.29 138.93 .17 

Percentage saved on second-class buildings over first in 
cost per pupil, 4 per cent; percentage saved on second- 



class buildings over first in cost per cubic foot, 7 per cent. 
Following is a comparison of lower eletnentary school 
of the first- and second-class construction: 



I'lRST Class. 

N:niie. No. of No. of Cost of 

Kooms. Pupils. BuilditiK. 

Marshall 12 758 $124,467.65 

Farragut 14 714 150,526.43 

Paul Jones 11 643 114,370.33 

Ellis Mcndell 12 612 122,267.20 

Christopher Columbus 24 1,110 173,512.08 

J. B. O'Reilly 14 672 112,839.00 

Samuel W. Mason 14 644 118,324.64 

John G Whittier lo 478 74,7.^6.15 

James Otis 12 612 107,818.00 

Joseph Tuckerman... 10 480 77,423.25 

Sarah J. Haker.. _ 24 1,152 161,194.23 

Wm. E. Endicott .-.. 10 476 79,057.77 

Nathaniel Hawthorne 9 447 67,912.07 

Nathan Hale 12 480 67,231.82 

Peter Faneuil.. 17 760 108,079.50 

Wm. L. Garrison 10 460 66,151.48 

Lafayette 8 352 62,804.25 

Second Class. 

John L. Motley 4 172 $22,510.25 

Charles Hulfinch 10 538 78,925.73 

George T. Angell 8 352 55,154.50 

Benedict Fenwick 12 547 62,881.45 

Wm. Bradford 8 372 42,714.04 

Ellen H. Richards..-. 8 366 44,589.76 

Mozart 4 148 22,891.00 

Martha Baker 4 160 24,557.91 

John J. Williams 12 495 69,138.44 

John D. Philbrick 8 333 59,663.75 

Philip Sheridan 12 495 70,735.20 

Florence Nightingale. 10 391 60,414.14 



Percentage saved on second-class buildings over first- 
class in cost per pupil, 3.09 per cent. Percentage saved 
in second-class buildings over first-class in cost per cubic 
foot, 8.333 per cent. 

It is difficult to explain the high cost of some of these 
buildings of second-class construction, particularly as 
many attempts at economy were introduced. A building 
of second-class construction in the vicinity of Boston can 
generally be produced of the highest type of material 
throughout for from ISll' to 19 cents per cubic foot, and 
these figures can be redticed in most other localities. 

Mr. Ernest F. Ciuilbert of Newark (Report for 1913-14) 
gives the average cost of twenty elementary schools in 
that city, all of fireproof constrtiction and all having an 
auditorium and gymnasium, except three, where a com- 
bination room serves both purposes, at $147.00 per pupil, 
based on the New Jersey law of 18 square feet per 
pupil. This result would be lower still if based on the 
ordinary rule of 15 s(iuare feet. These buildings are all 
well appointed and of imusually attractive exterior 
appearance. 

While the cost per cubic foot remains the safest method 
for the architect to use in estimating from the plans the 
probable cost of a new building, there is always danger 
that he will, in his desire to redtice cubage, so cut down 
and restrict the accommodations as to seriously hamper 
the use of the building without any corresponding gain in 
cost, and great care should always be taken in the design- 
ing stage to see that no advantage is thrown away in the 
desire to keep down to a limit of cubature. 



Cost I'er 


Cost Per 


Pupil. 


Cu. Ft. 


$164.20 


$0.24 


210.82 


.Zi 


177 87 


.22 


199.78 


.24 


156.32 


.23 


167.91 


.25 


183.73 


.27 


156.35 


.23 


174.54 


.26 


161.30 


.23 


139.92 


.23 


166.09 


.23 


151.93 


.24 


140.08 


.20 


142.21 


.25 


143.81 


.24 


178.42 


.28 


$130.87 


$0.23 


146.59 


.22 


156.69 


.26 


114.96 


.19 


114.82 


.17 


121.83 


.19 


154.67 


.21 


153.49 


.19 


139.67 


.23 


179.17 


.19 


142.89 


.21 


154.51 


.21 



Stairways in Houses of Moderate Cost, 

I. THE HISTORY OF THE DOMESTIC STAIR. 

Accompanied by Examples Selected from Recent Domestic Work. 
By JOHN T. FALLON. 



DURING all the vicissitudes of developing growth 
through which the planning of the house has passed, 
the prime importance of the stairs has remained 
comparatively unchanged. We are accustomed to think 
of domestic planning in its modern sense to have com- 
menced somewhere in the eleventh century and to have 
settled down to a steady and consistent growth after the 
life of society was freed of the necessity for protection and 
was able to consider its habitations from the standpoint of 
ease of living. The persistence of tradition in architecture 
long after actual causes or necessities are removed, a 
phenomenon that has been pointed out by Viollet-le-Duc 
in his dictionary of architecture, acted to postpone the 
realization of conditions of comparative comfort until at 
least four centuries later. This tendency to cling to obso- 
lete ideas in art becomes the means of explanation of many 
otherwise unsolvable t|uestions in the history of house 
planning and one that shall be referred to later on . 

The stairway, performing a continuous and important 
function and being the key to the planning of the house, 
plays a most prominent 
part in domestic archi- 
tecture. The prob- 
lems of affording an 
easy ascent, of being 
conveniently related to 
the body of the house, 
and of receiving a digni- 
fied and suitable treat- 
ment have been constant 
and unchanged. The 
variety of solutions has 
depended upon the 
growth and develop- 
ment of social life and 
upon differences in the 
customs and climate of 
the respective countries. 
No little importance at- 
taches itself to the vari- 
ous materials most ac- 
cessible to the builders. 
In Gwilt's "Encyclo- 
pedia of Architecture" 
the staircase is defined 
as "that part or subdi- 
vision of a building con- 
taining the stairs which 
enable people to ascend 
or descend from one floor 
to another." Accept- 
ing this technical de- 
scription, it is evident 
that the staircase is dis- 
tinct from the hall, 




Stairway in an Old House, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Ill 



commonly known as the entrance hall from its position 
nearest the entrance, and this difference continued to be 
preserved in all continental planning until the beginning 
of the past century. A lax nomenclature has crept into 
the English language and these two distinctive features 
have been confused, so that we continually speak of the 
staircase as the liall or even of the staircase hall. Modern 
planning has ceased to preserve this distinction, but for 
the purposes of historical discussion it must be kept in 
mind. 

It was in Italy that the staircase first received attention 
as a feature in the general composition of the house. The 
domestic life of the upper classes having developed in the 
security of the towns enclosed with walls, house planning 
became naturally less irregular and more regard was 
given to comfort and dignity. In Italian palaces, until the 
end of the fifteenth century, the usual way of building the 
stairs was to start them near the vaulted entrance way and 
to carry them up in straight flights between walls. With 
the advent of Palladian ideas, the staircase assumed more 

imposing proportions, 
although it was not until 
much later that the 
monumental staircase as 
one of the chief features 
of the Italian Renais- 
sance began to be built. 
Indeed, until late in the 
seventeenth century, 
intra- mural stairs were 
considered grand 
enough for the most 
splendid palace. 

The spiral staircase, 
soon discarded by the 
Italian architects, was 
left for the French to 
develo]\ and as Wharton 
and Codman have sug- 
gested in their admir- 
able book, its structural 
difliculties must have 
liad an esjiecial fascina- 
tion for tlie ingenuity of 
tlie (Jallic mind. Xo 
doubt, it was one of the 
motives of Gothic house 
planning so tenaciously 
clung to by the French 
aristocracy long after 
they became familiar 
with the simpler and 
more logical Italian 
methods. After their 
full assimilation, the 



112 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




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113 



French stairway came in line with the national art develop- 
ment and in the various periods was interpreted in the most 
elegant and graceful manner. In Italy, stairs were usually 
of stone, wood being- little used in interior architecture ; as 
we have observed, the stairs instead of being" placed between 
walls were often carried up in an open staircase. In con- 
trast to the French custom, the balustrades were usually 
stone or marble. The medieval French stair was usually 
of wood — a material that was soon abandoned for stone. 
Begfinning with Louis XIV, the stone stair with decora- 
tive iron railing: becomes a distinctive feature of French 
houses. Since the eig-hteenth century, French archi- 
tects have spent their talents upon the beautiful wrought 
iron stair rails which decorate almost every domestic 
interior in France. 

The distinction between hall and staircase was never 
observed as clearly in Engfland as it was on the continent. 
The Tudor hall with its screened end separating- it from 
the staircase was followed by the Renaissance hall, in 
which an open arcade was substituted for the screen. 
Different habits of living tended also to unite the two 
features; for, unlike the continental dwelling, the English- 
man's home is his castle and the stairs become more inti- 
mately associated with the family life, with less need to 
shut them off from the other rooms. The vestibule never 
formed part of the English house and the hall, in medi- 
eval days the center of feudal life, refused to shake off 
entirely this function. 

The natural tendency in the architecture of the Amer- 
ican colonies was to borrow its ideas of planning from the 
modest houses of the middle class where the confusion of 
the two features was apt to be most prevalent, and all 
our later traditions have helped rather than hindered this 
development. Privacy in domestic planning is not nearly 
as sought for here as it is in Europe ; in our house plan- 
ning, little attempt is made to separate the life of the 
occupants from the intrusion of strangers. We show this 
in our entrance doors of plate glass, in our abhorrence of 
fences, and in many other ways, preferring to invite rather 
than to repel attention. That there will soon be a reaction- 
ary swing of the pendulum is certain, if one may deduce 
the general tendency from specific and isolated examples. 

In England, wooden stair rails were greatly used during 
the Tudor period, marked by elaborate detail rather than 
by great merit of design. Their charm for us probably 
lies as much or more in their quaintness and patina of age 
as in their intrinsic worth. The introduction of Italian 
motives brought the classic stair of stone, which was 
copied in smaller houses in wood. Iron rails were little 
used in England, where the influence of the joiner and 
carver was so strong towards the use of the more tract- 
able material. The Anglo-vSaxon skill and ingenuity in 
wood working is perhaps more of a factor in our Colonial 
architecture than is generally realized. It is certainly one 
of our important inheritances from the mother country, 
since not only were the traditions bodily transplanted, but 
the actual workmen themselves must have been here at 
most but a generation or two. 

Let us now have a more detailed glance at the English 
stair during the early part of the eighteenth century, — 
the pre-Revolutionary period when intercourse between 
America and England was at its height and when the 
style was in the real process of transfusion, (iodfrey, in 



" The English Staircase," says, " The extreme and some- 
what constrained intellectuality of the Georgian era, mir- 
rored so faithfully in the quality of its furniture, made 
chiefly for that elusive quality known as elegance. We 
have already seen the exuberance of the early Renaissance 
restrained by the desire for the correct classic forms which 
obtained from Charles II to Oueen Anne. But the very 
essence of the staircase was now to be materialized and 
expressed in the simplest lines. It was to be a flight of 
steps in one continuous curve from floor to floor and to 
effect this the covering string must be abolished, the heavy 
handrail must give place to a light and polished roll, and 
the newel — in order that it may not obstruct the essential 
line — must become little more than a slightly accentuated 
baluster. This ideal was not completely reached until the 
finest examples of iron balustrades were introduced in the 
later years of the century ; but every alteration that 
occurred was with this object in view." 

The first step in this development was the suppression 
of the closed string, the stairs being brought out over a 
small constructional string. The stair ends were then 
decorated with consoles, which became in their richly 
carved forms the great feature of the Georgian stair. The 
balusters became slighter and great ingenuity was spent 
upon their design. From two to three balusters were used 
to each tread, usually with alternate designs, the favorite 
type being one with a hollow gfroove worked spirally 
around the shaft, another with vertical flutings, and a third 
the ordinary turned type. A distinctive Georgian feature 
was the small, square block introduced just below the 
shaft. The start of the stairs began with a sweeping 
curve around which the handrail and baluster swept to 
meet a small, central newel. 

In a later article the Colonial ty])e of stairs will be dis- 
cussed and its points of similarity with the Georgian 
designs of England shown. We are chiefly concerned 
here with indicating the English development during this 
period as a basis for showing how much more clo.sely this 
feature followed its prototypes than other parts of the 
Colonial house. One index of the effect of the Revolution 
in lessening our connection with England is illustrated by 
the fact that iron stair rails, which start to appear in 
England in the last quarter of the eighteenth century, 
were practically unknown in America. 

The -Colonial stairway has naturally had a lasting in- 
fluence in America, due both to the patriotic support of 
our one national style and also to its practical and simple 
elements. It is fortunate in many ways that the type was 
adopted at one of the high-water marks of English archi- 
tecture, since no forms hav^e since been dcveloi^ed in 
England which approach the Georgian type in grace and 
ease. Even with the modern taste for eclecticism, the 
Colonial stair is so strongly embedded in the minds of 
American architects that it not only has a national appli- 
cation, but it colors and modifies every other European 
type that is imported. While the French and Italian de- 
signs have a restricted use in our domestic architecture, 
they are drawing the attention of designers towards a 
more elegant and classical form of expression. It is safe 
to say that the house of moderate cost will never depart 
very far from the lines of Colonial development ; but it is 
certain that continental inHuences will more largely enter 
into and influence its growth as time goes on. 



114 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 




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Plumbing Installation and Sewage Disposal 

II. TRAPS, FIXTURES, AND WATER SUPPLY. 

By CHARLES A. WHITTEMORE. 



iTIlAIMEEy 



THE reasons for installing vents in connection with 
traps is sufficiently obvious. Occasions will arise, 
however, when the vent installation is inadvisable 
because of difficulties in prearranging- a definite location. 
For example, many times in large office buildings the 
floor space is left undivided until such time as the tenancy 
is determined. Frequently it may not be decided until the 
floors have been set in place and the ' ' roughing-in " of the 
plumbing system already installed. In order to accommo- 
date tenants who may wish special office arrangements or 
different provisions from the typical lay-out, and in order 
to meet their requirements as to lava- 
tory service, it is necessary to provide 
wastes and supplies in such a manner 
as to be suitable for any demand. 
These may be placed near a column, 
or built in with the floor and left flush 
with the same, or with the finished 
plaster surface of the wall. If the fix- 
tures are not connected at once, the 
wastes and supplies may be capped 
and be ready for future connections. 
The only feasible way in which a sys- 
tem of this kind may be made elastic 
is by the use of non-siphoning traps. 
It is not impossible, however, to pro- 
vide a vent system which could be 
capped in the same manner as the 
wastes, but this would mean compli- 
cations and additional difficulty in 
concealing the pipes, all of which may 
be eliminated by the use of non- 
siphoning traps. 

Non-siphoning traps may be di- 
vided, in a general way, into three 
classes : one in which the waterway 
is so large as to preclude the possi- 
bility of siphonage ; another in which 

the interior construction of the trap is such as to give 
a special motion to the water flowing into and through 
the trap, which many claim will prevent siphonage ; the 
third by constructing the interior of the trap in such a 
manner as to form sufficient resistance so as to prevent 
the water being drawn out. Of the first type there are 
many examples among that class of traps called "pot 
traps" in which a portion of the water seal can be 
siphoned out and still leave sufficient water to prevent 
escape of sewer gas through the trap. 

The second type is represented by traps, such as the 
centrifugal trap, in which the water enters the trap at an 
angle, or by an inlet of a special form, which gives the in- 
flowing water a circular motion so as to make the trap, in 
addition to being non-siphoning, a self-cleaning trap. 

The third type is represented by certain patented traps, 
in which the interior construction is such as to offer spe- 
cial resistance to the flow of the water by means of pro- 



COIV W/^TEP- 



COLO vYAT£R 
CHAMfc£E- 

CA.ST &RAii 
CTK.EA5E TRAP 




COLD VYATER- 



Fig. 1 

Section Showing Arrangement of Grease Trap 
Installed with Sinl< 



jections from the periphery towards the center, in the 
nature of cup plates or baffle plates. 

A non-siphoning trap should not be used until thorough 
tests have been made under pressures which would exceed 
the normal pressures of a system, and imder conditions 
which duplicate as nearly as possible the exact features of 
the installation in connection with which they are to be 
used. Non-siphoning traps should be used only in connec- 
tion with outlets from lavatories or similar fixtures. A too 
general use of this type of trap should not be permitted, 
as it lets down the bars which guard the health. Satis- 
factory installations of non-siphoning 
traps would be more difficult to ob- 
tain if their use were allowed without 
reservation. 

No one questions that from a stand- 
point of sanitation non-siphoning 
traps properly used are cjuite as per- 
fect as any trap in a full vented sys- 
tem. The special conditions which 
must be considered in the construc- 
tion of such a trap, the importance of 
restricting their use to installations 
that can be readily supervised, and 
the growing demand for this type of 
trap make it all the more necessary 
that strict adherence to the sanitary 
laws be required, and that the instal- 
lations be made only by competent 
mechanics. 

The problem of intercepting the 
grease from kitchen and pantry sinks 
before it enters the drain is often 
overlooked in laying out plumbing 
work in residences. Every residence 
should have a trap either located out- 
side the house or near the kitchen 
sink for this purpose. 
The outside grease trap should be built of brick and 
cement-12 feet deep and 4 feet wide, with an iron ladder 
on each side to afford facility for cleaning and also an iron 
cover flush with the ground. All the waste water from all 
sinks in kitchens and pantries should pass into this trap 
before entering the main drain. 

The main waste pipe should be 3 inches in diameter 
with 2-inch branches to sinks. 

All changes in direction in the grease trap system 
should be made with a Y branch and Vh bend with a brass 
cleanout in the end of the Y branch. 

The outlet of grease trap should be 4-inch Ex. Hy. 
C. I. pipe and should turn down into the grease trap not 
less than 5 feet, with a brass cleanout at heel of the bend 
where it goes out of the grease trap, and should run 5 feet 
oiitside of main house trap. 

In some residences an outside grease trap is not prac- 
tical. In such cases a special grease trap should be 



115 



116 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



lean 



installed flush with the inside of the bottom of the sink, 
constructed with an inner cage which may be readily 
taken out and emptied. (Fig. 1.) 

The most important part of such a trap is its installa- 
tion. All the cold water used in the house should first 
pass through the cold water chamber of the grease trap. 
To accomplish this, the cold water main from the founda- 
tion wall should first be connected with the grease trap 
and no branches should be taken from the main until after 
it has left the trap. 

This may cause a little additional expense, but it is the 
only effective way to properly install a trap of this kind, 
and it is so easily cleaned that the services of a plumber 
are seldom necessary. 

As a rule, the main house trap is set inside of the foun- 
dation wall ; but the proper and sanitary place to set the 
main house trap for residences is in an outside manhole, 
with an indirect fresh 
air supply with iron 
cover flush with the 
ground. 

The water test is al- 
ways made from the 
main house trap, and 
frequently a leak de- 
velops outside and al- 
lows the water to come 
through the foundation 
wall. When the drain 
is clogged, it is most 
frequently at the main 
house trap ; if the trap 
is inside the wall, the 
removal of the cover 
allows the soil in the 
pipe to go over the cellar 
floor, creating a very unsanitary condition. 

Fig. 2 shows a method of installing this type of trap 
outside the wall. Under these conditions the trap is pro- 
tected from freezing, and a fresh air circulation through 
the entire sanitary system is assured. 

Plumbing Fixtures. Aside from the ordinary iron 




fix- 



tures which are used only in inexpensive work or in places 
where they will be required to withstand rough usage, 
such as sinks in boiler rooms, etc., plumbing fixtures are 
usually either enameled iron, porcelain, or vitreous china. 

The enameled iron fixtures are those made of iron on 
the surfaces of which an enamel preparation has been 
baked. 

Porcelain fixtures are of earthenware, which are cov- 
ered both inside and out with the porcelain enamel and 
then " fired " in the kiln at a high temperature. Vitreous 
china fixtures are made from a fine grade of china clay 
which vitrifies when baked and produces a hard, non- 
crazing surface. 

A fixture to be perfectly sanitary must be of a non- 
absorbent substance ; it must not be subject to discoloration 
through acids or alkalies and must not easily break, crack, 
or craze. The surfaces should be smooth so as to be read- 
ily washed off and kept clean by each flow of water. 

The applicability of various types of fixtures to the loca- 
tion in which they are intended to be placed must be left 
to a great extent to the owner or user. The majority of 



manufacturers at the present time produce fixtures of a 
high standard and of relatively equal merit. There are, 
however, one or two makers of fixtures in a class by them- 
selves whose output is of an exceptionally rare quality. 
The catalogues give such excellent reproductions of the 
fixtures that a list may be formed and fixtures chosen 
without much trouble. 

In the final selection of fixtures it is advisable, in every 
case where possible, to see the fixtures "under water," 
that is, with the water turned on the various parts of the 
fixture so that the action of the faucets, wastes, traps, 
tanks, etc., maj- easily be examined. 

Fixtures are of three classes: "A," "B," and "C." 
" Class A " refers to a specially selected prpduct of the 
kiln and these fixtures are supposed to be perfect. 
" Class B," as may be readily understood, are " seconds " 
and subject to slight imperfections ; while ' ' Class C ' ' 
^— ^ refers to the ordinary 

,L/~\A kiln run and are adapted 

fHT only to the least expen- 

^jf0;i^ ' sive installations. 
Architects in specify- 
ing " Class A " should 
insist that imperfections 
in surface, color, etc., 
will be sufficient cause 
for rejection, and no 
reputable supply house 
will hesitate to replace 
on demand any goods 
which do not come up 
to the standard of their 
class. 

Frequently plumbers 
buy the pottery from the 
manufacturer or jobber 
specified, but supply their own brass work, as the trim- 
mings are called. This should not be permitted. An 
architect should specify the make of faucets, valves, etc., 
as carefully as the fixtures themselves and frequently 
assumes that he does. In order to be sure that the manu- 
facturer's responsibility covers all parts of the fixtures, 
the specifications should mention that " the fixtures are to 
be complete in accordance with plate number blank " or 
" complete as per sample approved." 

The fixtures should be set either entirely open, that is, 
without any wood work or other enclosure which would 
form a receptacle for dirt or be subject to decay, or they 
should be entirely enclosed by means of a non-absorbent 
substance, such as tile or hard finished cement. 

Closets are known as " wash down," " siphon action," 
or "siphon jet," according to their construction. The 
wash down " type has a large waterway through the trap, 
but only a small water surface in the body of the closet. 
The water from the flush tank enters through the 
rim and space at back of the closet and flushes the pan. 
This type is objectionable because of the noise due to the 
large volume of water necessary to complete the flush and 
the difficulty of making the fixture self-cleansing. 

Siphon action closets are more frequently used to-day 
than any other type of closet. They are so constructed 
that the flush from the tank forces the water, forming the 
seal of the trap over the bend and fills the soil pipe. The 



Afiiin 



Section Showing Arrangement of Main House Trap Outside of Foundation Wall 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



117 



effect of this action is to pull the contents of the closet 
throug-h the trap and into the main soil. Enough water 
flows from the tank to keep the seal intact. If well de- 
sig-ned, they are self-cleansing, sanitary, have good water 
body and waterway, although somewhat noisy in action. 

The highest type of closet is the siphon jet. This closet 
is the acme of perfection in that it is sanitary, self-cleans- 
ing, noiseless, and durable. More care must be taken in 
the manufacture of a closet of this kind on account of the 
difference in design, and as a result the fixtures are of 
a better quality. These closets in addition to being si- 
phonic in action have a jet at the bottom of the bend which 
increases the effect of the flush and aids materially in 
the cleansing process. The water comes into the closet 
through the flushing rim and through the jet and forces 
the contents of the closet through the trap, and by the 
siphonic action of the mass of water draws out all the im- 
pure matter in the bowl. The jet also cleanses portions 
of the fixture which might become soiled. 

The types of urinals in general use are the flat back 
lipped urinal and the porcelain enameled stall. Thanks 
to the advance in sanitation, the old trough types are pass- 
ing away and the old non-vented open urinals are becom- 
ing things of the past. The flat backed urinal is made in 
two types, — one in which the trap is beyond the fixture, and 
the other in which the bottom of the fixture contains a 
water body somewhat like that in a water closet. 

The porcelain stalls are more sanitary than the wall type 
of urinal. They are readily flushed in all parts, the sur- 
face is impervious, and there should be no crevices which 
may afford lodgment for germs. In using urinals of this 
type it is well to note that the bottom of the urinal extends 
below the floor, and provisions should be made for the 
trap, etc., at this point. A space 4 inches deep, and of 
the same area as the urinal will occupy, should be left in 
the floor construction and the " roughing-in " laid out 
accordingly. Another method of installing these fixtures 
is to raise the body of the urinal above the floor, in which 
case it is necessary to form a step in front of the base. 
This is objectionable because of the greater difficulty in 
maintaining a sanitary condition at the floor than when 
all the material is flush, and also presents the possibility 
of injury in case of a misstep. 

In addition to the fixtures mentioned above, the ordi- 
nary sinks and slop sinks should be carefully considered 
in laying out plumbing work. These, however, are not of 
sufficient importance to require detailed explanation. In 
every case where possible, however, slop sinks should be 
of porcelain or vitreous china rather than enameled iron, 
in order to preclude the possibility of damage to the sur- 
face. 

In connection with the installation of closets, an im- 
portant feature is the floor connection. This should be 
an approved type of joint, consisting of a heavy brass floor 
plate properly secured to the branch soil pipe and bolted 
to the trap flange and the joint made gas tight. No rubber 
washers should be allowed in making up this connection, 
and all floor flanges should be set in place and tested 
before any closets are finally connected. 

The wastes for lavatories are arranged in three general 
classes, — the so-called "pop-up waste"; the combina- 
tion waste and overflow, and the ordinary "plug and 
chain." In the "pop-up waste" a movement of the 



handle controlling the waste raises a metal disk from its 
seat in the outlet and allows the water to flow through. 
The combination overflow and waste is in the form of a 
hollow pipe and is controlled by a handle similar to the 
" pop-up waste," but has no disk at the outlet, the end of 
the pipe being ground to fit a seat in the valve. Of these 
types the "standing" or combination is the most satis- 
factory in operation and maintenance. The " plug and 
chain" is objectionable because the plug is subject to 
damage from abrasion or cutting and the metal work of 
the chain is difficult to keep properly clean and sanitary. 

Faucets are divided broadly into two general types, — 
self-closing and compression. The compression type is one 
in which the water is shut off by forcing a washer down to 
the seat of the valve and closing the port through which the 
water passes. The self-closing type, as the name implies, 
shuts off the water automatically when the pressure used 
to turn the water on has been released. The advantage of 
the compression type lies in the fact that the water may 
be turned on and left running without attention as long as 
desired, but where meters are installed and the water is 
paid for by the amount which passes through the meter, 
the compression faucets are a source of waste. The self- 
closing faucets on the other hand are used almost exclu- 
sively with the idea of their greater economy in water 
consumption, and also that they in a measure insure 
against damage due to water left on without attention, and 
a possible overflowing of fixtures. 

In connection with the subject of faucets, the tanks and 
valves used in connection with intermittent flush, or an 
ordinary flush for closets or similar fixtures, might well 
be considered. An intermittent flush is obtained through 
a form of tank in which the amount of water running into 
the tank is regulated so as to open the valve at predeter- 
mined intervals and flush the fixtures. This form of flush 
is particularly valuable in public toilet rooms, and these 
types of valves have been so perfected that they seldom 
get out of order. 

The regular flush valves which are used in connection 
with flush tanks operate either by a chain or button or 
handle. The float or ball cock is installed in connection 
with these tanks in such a manner that as the water leaves 
the tank the ball cock opens the supply valve. The in- 
rushing water raises the ball cock to a point at which the 
water is automatically shut off, when the tank is filled. 
This form of tank in its ordinary construction is a source 
of great annoyance. It is difficult to eliminate the noise 
from the flush and from the inrushing water ; the valves 
and ball cocks frequently stick and allow a continuous 
flow of water through the tank and fixture and recjuire 
considerable attention. 

The elimination of the noise from these tanks and valves 
has been a great problem to the manufacturer of good 
plumbing fixtures. To a large degree the noise may be 
eliminated by the use of reducing pressure valves which 
cut down the pressure of the water entering the tank and 
prevent the hissing of the valve. A form of siphon from 
the supply pipe into the overflow has been adopted by 
some makers to prevent the "gurgling," as the water 
leaves the tank in the flushing process. A tank that is 
absolutely noiseless is difficult to obtain and in a practical 
installation it can be counted on only when the governing 
conditions are most favorable. 



118 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



There is one method of flushing closets, and fixtures of 
a like character, which is comparatively noiseless, that is, 
by the use of fiushometers. These specially constructed 
valves are placed on the supply line to the fixture and so 
arranged that a stated amount of water will pass through 
the valve under pressure and the valve automatically close 
after this amount of water has passed through. In many 
cities fiushometers may not be installed except where tanks 
are arranged for their supply. 

The majority of fiushometers operate at a pressure 
as low as 3 pounds. This latter feature is particularly 
desirable where fixtures are installed in an upper story, 
and unless connected directly to the street pressure, a 
sufficient head of water is not possible on account of the 
lack of space from the fixture to the roof. In such cases 
a large pipe should be installed of sufficient capacity to 
hold enough water, if possible, to produce the required 
pressure. 

Cold Water Supp(v System. The cold water supply sys- 
tem for the average building or residence consists merely 
of the supply from the street main through the wall of the 
house branching from this main to the various fixtures 
and recjuires no circulation. It is essential, however, in 
any installation of a cold water system to extend the cold 
water pipes for a distance of not less than 2 inches beyond 
each faucet in order to provide an air chamber or air cush- 
ion, against which the water pressure may be forced, and 
thus prevent what is known as water hammer in the pip- 
ing. The length of this air cushion depends entirely on 
the water pressure and must be varied to suit such condi- 
tions. 

A cold water supply system for a large office building, 
or commercial or manufacturing establishment, consists of 
the supply from the street through the walls, the connec- 
tion of this supply direct to a water drum, or tightly closed 
tank, from which the various rising lines are taken to 
supply the fixtures in various portions of the building. 
This tank maintains the same pressure at all times as in 
the street main, and forms a storage so that if all the 
faucets in the building should be open at the same time, 
there still would be a sufficient supply of water under 
pressure so that the supply from any one faucet would not 
be appreciably diminished. 

In an installation of water supply to fixtures no pipe 
should be allowed under any conditions less than ^ of an 
inch in internal diameter except the branches to the fixtures 
themselves from the supply line. When small pipes are 
used, the possibility of the noise from the water rushing 
through the pipes is very much increased. 

Various kinds of pipe for water systeme are used, such 
as lead, iron, galvanized iron, lead lined iron, tin lined 
iron, brass tubing, and iron sized brass pipe. The lead 
pipe is not allowed in the best practice because of the pos- 
sibility of damage to the pipe and subsequent leakage, and 
also because of the action of the acids and alkalies on the 
lead. The iron pipe is objectionable on account of being 
subject to corrosion. Galvanized iron pipe is better than 
either of these, but is not so permanent as other forms of 
piping. Lead lined pipe and tin lined pipe as the names 
imply are iron shells with a lead or tin lining in the 
pipe. 



The best kind of lead lined pipe is that in which the 
lining is well imited with the iron pipe itself, other 
forms of lead lined piping being open to the objection that 
a defect in the lining would permit of the passage of water 
between the lead and iron and the gradual closing of the 
bore of the pipe until the pipe itself should be rendered 
practically useless. The lead lined pipe requires lead 
lined fittings, and in the use of pipe of this character the 
architect should be particularly careful to see that all fit- 
tings and all pipes are properly installed. Tin lined pipes 
can be easily determined by a slight crackling in the pipe 
when the pipe is bent, and also by cutting the end of the 
pipe square and clean and breathing on this cut end. The 
breath will make the surface of the lead turn blue, while 
the tin will remain bright, and in this manner the thick- 
ness of the tin lining may easily be determined. 

Brass tubing is a drawn tubing and should be examined 
to see that the thickness is the same in all parts. It should 
be slightly annealed or re-heated in order that it may not 
be too brittle for use, the harder pijies being more likely 
to develop defects in the nature of split pipes. Brass tub- 
ing is thinner than the iron sized pipe and is frequently 
called fine thread pipe. The threads for connections on 
this piping must be carefully cut in order not to perforate 
the pipe itself and make a weak joint. 

Iron sized brass pipe is a brass pipe made on the same 
standards of dimensions, etc., as iron or galvanized iron 
pipe and commercially is known as I. S. pipe. This is 
the best of the various kinds of piping on the market and 
while slightly more expensive than galvanized iron pipe 
or tubing, repays the increased investment by its perma- 
nence and security against defects. 

In the large cities there are two varieties of service in 
the street mains, — the high pressure and low pressure. 
High pressure is service on which the static pressure 
usually supplied to the various buildings is approximately 
100 pounds per square inch. This service is used in con- 
nection with high buildings where a lower pressure would 
not force water to the highest fixtures and is used exclu- 
sively for standard sprinkler equipments, fire lines, and 
standpipes. The low pressure service varies from 40 
to 60, 65 or 70 pounds, and is the service most generally 
siipplied for the cold water system in buildings not over 
10 stories in height. 

Where high pressure service is used in connection with 
plumbing installations of the ordinary character, addi- 
tional care must be exercised in the character of the pipes, 
the cutting of threads, make-up of joints and fittings, and 
special tests should be put on to determine the efficiency 
of the system before any pipes are covered i:p. Fre- 
quently in the larger buildings the high pressure service 
is extended to a certain point in the building, and reducing 
pressure valves are installed in order to supply the plumb- 
ing equipment with water at a more workable pressure. 
With low pressure service these precautions are unneces- 
sary. Sometimes the high pressure service is extended 
to a tank above the highest fixtures, which tank has a suffi- 
cient capacity to supply the building, and the fixture lines 
or supply lines are taken directly from this tank. In 
such cases the necessity of a reducing pressure valve is 
eliminated. 



VOL. 24, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 61. 




APARTMENT HOUSE, 405 PARK AVE., NEW YORK, N. Y. 
CROSS & CROSS, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 62. 






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VOL. 24, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 63. 




r^^^^^^u^^^^^jl 




DETAIL OF WINDOW AT FOURTH STORY 



DETAIL OF ENTRANCE 




ENTRANCE HALL 



APARTMENT HOUSE. 405 PARK AVE.. NEW YORK. N. Y. 
CROSS & CROSS, ARCHITECTS 



I 



VOL. 24, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 64. 




THE ROGERS TENEMENTS, WEST 44TH STREET, NEW YORK. N. Y. 
GROSVENOR ATTERBURY, ARCHITECT 



ll 



VOL. 24, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE fi3. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



TYI'ICAL FLOOR PLAN 



THE ROGERS TENEMENTS, WEST 44TH STREET, NEW YORK, N. Y. 
CROSVENOR ATTERBURY. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 24, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 66. 




ENTRANCE PORTICO 



HOUSE OF JAMES PARMELEE, ESQ., WASHINGTON. D. C. 
CHARLES A. PLATT, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 24, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE fi7. 




GARDEN FRONT 



HOUSE OF JAMES PARMELEE, ESQ., WASHINGTON. D. C. 
CHARLES A. PLATT, ARCHITECT 



i 
I 



VOL. 24, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 68. 



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VOL. 24, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 69. 




VIEW LOOKING TOWARD MUSIC ROOM BAY 



ADDITIONS TO HOUSE OF ABRAM GARFIELD, ESQ., CLEVELAND, OHIO 
ABRAM GARFIELD, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 24, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 70. 




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VOL. 24, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



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VOL. 24, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 72. 




inwiiwn 

DETAIL OF FRONT ELEVATION 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



MEZZANINE FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSE OF MRS. A. C. D. RILEY, EVANSTON, ILL. 
PERKINS, FELLOWS & HAMILTON. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 73. 





VIEW FROM GARDEN 



TWO HOUSES ON WOODLAWN AVENUE. CHICAGO, ILL. 
RIDDLE & RIDDLE, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 71. 




4 
I 



VOL. 24, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 75. 



^V" 



4 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST 



HOUSE OF HIRAM WALKER, ESQ., WALKERVILLE, ONTARIO, CANADA 
BURROWES & WELLES, ARCHITECTS 



I 



Design and Construction of Roof and Wall Trusses. 

III. DESIGN OF CONNECTIONS IN WOOD AND STEEL TRUSSES. 

fii/MALVERD A. HOWE, CK. 
Director Architectural and Civil Engineering Departments. Rose Polytechnic Institute. 



AT the intermediate top chord joints there are usu- 
ally two members to be connected to the chord at 
each joint. In the ordinary construction one of 
these is composed of one or more round rods and the other 
of wood. Figf. 50 shows a very common detail. The 
connection shown for the rod is objec- 
tionable as, unless the rod is small as 
shown, the standard cast iron washers 
do not provide sufficient bearing area 
on the wood to transmit the full strength 
of the rod. The same criticism often 
holds good for the wooden strut. Re- 
solving the stress into the two compo- 
nents M and N as shown, the area of 
the rafter along ab must be sufficient to 
carry the stress N, and the area along 
ac on the strut must be sufficient to 



Then a stress of '9,000 pounds re(|uires a bearing area of 

15 scpuire inches. 

If the block is made with the grain normal to the page, 

the bearing across the grain for the same kind of wood is 

500 pounds per square inch, and 18 scjuarc inches are re- 
quired for a stress of 9,000 pounds. 
When the strut is normal or nearly 
normal to the rafter, the bearing is prac- 
tically across the grain of the rafter. 
Taking a stress of 9,000 pounds and a 
5'/!' by S'/u inch strut, it is evident that 
there is not sufficient bearing area if the 
rafter is made of short-leaf yellow pine. 
This is best provided for by a rectangu- 
lar steel plate as shown in Fig. 53. The 
net area of this plate is 9,000/250 = 36 
^'■^■^° square inches. If the breadth is 5>4 




carry the stress M. The cut ac is sometimes made nor- inches, the length is about bV-i inches, say 7 inches, since 

mal to ab, and occasionally the cut in the rafter is made a part of the bearing area is lost in providing for the pas- 

as shown by the 

dotted lines cdb. 

If the strut is con- 

siderably larger 

than is required to 

take its stress, any 

of the cuts answer 

very well. 

Thedetail shown 
in Fig. 51 is so de- 
signed that there 
are no excessive 
stresses. The cast 
iron angle washer 
has sufficient area 

the gm?n dong°e'f, and with the grain along de, of the be avoided in this case by making the strut 6 by S inches 
wood, to carry the corresponding components of the rod f5V- by 
stress. The white oak angle block is more 




Fig. 51 



Fig. 52 



sage of the vertical 
rod. The thick- 
ness may be 
roughly taken as V-a 
the overhang, 
which is ''4 inch in 
this case, and 
therefore the thick- 
ness of the plate is 
yi inch. This is 
the minimum 
thickness of plate 
which should be 
used under any cir- 
cumstances. The 
use of a plate can 



/L'), which gives sufficient bearing area on the 



than sufficient in bearing areas to care for 
the strut stress. This block is preferably 
made of cast iron, as shown in Fig. 52. 
The wooden angle block shown in Fig. 51 
is made with the grain running parallel to 
the rafter. This arrangement makes the 
pressure from the strut act on a diagonal 
surface of the wood, and the allowable pres- 
sure on this surface is given by the expres- 
sion r=q + (p-q) (^/90)-*, where q is the 

issible pressure across the gram and 




permu-- 

p that with the grain. Taking q = 500, 

p = 1,400, and Q = 30°, r = 600 pounds per square inch, 

•Design of Simple Roof Trusses in Wood an. S,,-., .v -Ma.verd A. Howe 
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York City. 



Fig. 53 



rafter. 

The detail shown in Fig. 54 occurs when 
the Pratt system of bracing is used. The 
cast iron angle washer is proportioned in 
the manner outlined for Fig. 51. The ver- 
tical strut is connected by mortise and 
tenon to the rafter. The end of the tenon 
in the plane ef must have sufficient area to 
give the required bearing on the inclined 
cut in the rafter. If the rafter is very steep, 
this detail will not answer, as too much of 
the rafter will be cut away in making the 
mortise. The details shown in Figs. 55 and 
56 can be used to advantage in some cases. The cast iron 
angle block shown in Fig. 55 can always be so designed 
that no excessive cutting of the rafter is necessary. The 



119 



120 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



two lugs shown on the angle washer reduce the work of 
cutting, but necessitate rather long castings in order that 
there may be sufficient wood between the lugs to resist in 
longitudinal shear the stress transferred to the ends of 
the wood fibers by one lug of the angle washer. 

When the top chord of a truss is hori- 
zontal or nearly so, the vertical members 
of the web are usually round rods and the 
diagonal members rectangular timbers. 
Such trusses are commonly built with a 
counter brace in each panel. The detail 
of a top chord joint is shown in Fig. 57. 
The washer under the nut of the vertical 
rod is made of rolled steel or of cast iron 
(Fig. 58), and for very heavy trusses a 
rolled channel reinforced by a flat plate 
is employed (Fig. 59). Whatever type of 
washer is employed, it must have suffi- 
cient bearing area against the wood to 
safely transfer the rod stress. The main 
brace and counter brace have square 
bearings against an angle block. If this is made of wood, 
the grain should run parallel to the top chord unless the 
chord is very broad, and then the grain runs perpendicu- 
lar to the chord. In determining the depth of the notch 
for the angle block, the effect 
of the counter brace is neg- 
lected. When the fibers of 
the angle block are per- 
pendicular to the chord, the 
notch will be over twice as 
deep as when they run paral- 
lel to the chord. 

Center Top Chord Join fs of 
IVoodcn Trusses. This joint 
is best made by using a cast 
iron angle block as shown in 
Fig. 60. The wooden mem- 
bers have square bearings 
and the vertical rod transmits 
its stress directly to the cast- 
ing without the use of a washer. The detail shown in Fig. 
61 is often employed. The bent plate holds the wooden 
members in place. Care must be exercised to see that the 
distance ab is sufficient to safely transfer the rod stress 
to the inclined 
fibers of the wood . 
The connection 
shown in Fig. 62 
is designed in the 
manner outlined 
for the splice 
shown in Fig. 47. 
(See preceding 
paper, April, 
1915.) The connection consists of two side plates to which 
are riveted bearing bars. The plates are fastened to the 
chords by lag screws or bolts, the former being preferable. 
When the Pratt system of web bracing is used, the detail 
shown in Fig. 63 may be employed, provided the wooden 
members are of sufficient size to permit of the necessary 
cutting for the rods. The diagonal rods should be in 
pairs and arranged symmetrically about a longitudinal 




Fig. 54 





Fig. 57 



plane passing through the center of the top chord. A cast 
iron angle block is more expensive than the detail shown, 
but it makes a much better connection. Fig. 64 shows a 
connection used in the truss shown in Fig. 11a. (^See first 
paper, March, 1915.) The chord members are made up 
of two pieces, 4 by 12 inches each, sepa- 
rated by packing blocks 4 inches thick. 

hitermediate Bottom Chord Joints of 
Wooden 'Trusses. For the present it will 
be assumed that the bottom chord is 
horizontal, or nearly so. Practically the 
details of the connections are the same as 
shown for the top chord joints. Figs. 
65-70 show details in use. The two first 
shown are suitable for light trusses. 
The center joint is usually made as 
shown in Fig. 70, when the Howe type of 
bracing is used. When rods are used for 
diagonals, the center joint has but one 
web member, which is a vertical. Very 
often the chord is spliced at this joint, 
and, when this is done, the splice must be designed con- 
sidering the effect of the notch for the angle block when 
diagonals meet at this point. 

foints at the Supports of Wooden Trusses. The joint at the 

support of a wooden truss is 
not easy to design unless 
there is a great surplus of 
material in the truss members 
meeting at this point. The 
detail shown in Fig. 71 is 
composed entirely of wood, 
the bolts A and B being used 
solely to keep the members in 
place. The entire stress in 
the top chord member is 
transferred to the inclined 
surface ab of the bottom 
chord member, and the hori- 
zontal component of the stress 
is resisted by the longitudinal 
shear of a T-shaped piece as shown by the dotted lines 
cbbV. To provide sufficient bearing area on the support 
and to counteract the effect of bending due to the eccen- 
tric action of the ff)rces at the joint, a white oak bolster is 

used which is 
|V,-??-./| _ thoroughly bolted 

to the bottom 
chord. To an- 
chor the truss to 
the supports, two 
angles or bent 
plates are suffi- 
cient. 

The cast iron 
angle block shown in Fig. 72 may be used to advantage if 
not i)laced too near the end of the bottom chord. There 
must be enough wood in longitudinal shear on the left of 
the lugs on the angle block to resist the horizontal com- 
ponent of the stress in the rafter. The vertical component 
of this stress produces generally a variable stress across 
the wood fibers of the bottom chord member. This stress 
is a maximum at the left end of the block. The bolts 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



121 




Fig. 60 



probably take some stress at times, but should be ne.Qlected 
in desig-ning- the angle block, as the bolts and lugs amnot 
be made to act at the same time. 

The detail shown in Fig-. 73 was used in the trusses of a 
blacksmith shop of the Boston & Maine Railroad at Con- 
cord, N. H. 

The arrange- 
ment shown in 
Figf. 74 was used 
in a round house 
roof at Urbana, 
111. Here the 
total component B is taken by two 
bolts. The principal difficulty in 
designing this form of joint is in 
getting sufficient bearing area for 
the bolt stress at D. When steel 
plate is available, the detail shown 
in Fig-. 75 may be used. The four 
or more vertical bolts and the hook 
at A carry the horizontal compo- 
nent of the rafter stress to the 
bottom chord. 

Hook bolts are used at A to prevent the bent plate 
from drawing- out of the notch in the timber. 

The effective depth of the notch 
is about twice the thickness of 
the plate used. The inclined 
bolts have an unknown stress. 
Their function is to prevent 
the plate from bending at B, 
when possible, the depth CB 
should be sufficient to ensure that 
the stress on the inclined cut on 
the rafter is not exces- 
sive. This stress is, of 
course, modified by the 
inclined bolts. The bol- 
ster is bolted and keyed 
to the bottom choi'd mem- 
ber as shown. 

The detail shown in 
Fig. 76 is preferable to 
that shown in Fig. 75, but 
is more expensive. 

The connection shown 
in Fig:. 77 is composed of 
two side plates and suffi- 
cient bearing bars t(; take 
the stresses in the top aiid 
bottom chord members. 
The bars are riveted to 
the side plates and these 
are fastened to the 
wooden members by lag 

screws. The lag screws in the compression member 
must be spaced on centers not over thirty times the 
thickness of the side plate in order that the plate may not 
buckle. 

The detail which is shown in Fig. 78 is very compact 
and can be easily adjusted. Fig. 79 shows a similar 
detail which was used in an auditorium in the city 
of Seattle, Washington. 



heavv trusses 





Fig. 69 



DESIGN OF CONNECTIONS FOR STEEL TRUSS MEMBERS. 
The members of steel roof trusses arc generally com- 
posed of two rolled angles which are placed back to back 
and separated by the thickness of the gu.sset plates which 
connect the several members meeting at a joint. For 

spans exceeding 
80 feet, the top 
chord is often 
made of two an- 
gles and a plate 
as shown in Figf. 
80b. For very 
the top chord is 
made of two channels as shown in 
Fig. 80c. vSometimes the channels 
are latticed top and bottom and 
sometimes a cover plate is used on 
top and lattice bars on the bottom. 
The H section shown in Fig. 80d 
is also used for heavy truss mem- 
bers. Channels and I beams are 
sometimes used for the web mem- 
bers. The grreater percentage of 
roof trusses have their members composed of two angles 
as stated at the beginning of the paragraph. 

In selecting angles only those 
marked standard should be con- 
sidered, as the selection of other 
angles may cause delay and ex- 
pense. 

Considering: the stresses alone, 
it is usually the case that numer- 
ous members of roof trusses are 
found which require but one angle, 
and a very light one at 
that, to resist the stress. 
To avoid as much as pos- 
sible eccentric stresses, 
two angfles should always 
be used. The thickness of 
the metal should not be 
less than W inch and the 
angle legs through which 
rivets pass should not be 
less than 2\'\ inches. This 
provides sufficient metal 
to allow for some deteri- 
oration through rusting, 
and also jiermits the use 
of %-inch rivets through- 
out the structure. 

Regardless of the small- 

ness of the stress to be 

transmitted, the angles 

carrying the stress should 

have at least t-ico rivets connecting them to the gusset 

plate, and in the best designing three rivets are used. 

The extra metal and rivets provided by the above re- 
(luirements add greatly to the rigidity of a tniss, with- 
out any serious addition to the cost. 

In selecting the particular form of truss to be used, the 
question of transportation should be considered. Trusses, 
or parts of trusses, which have one dimension not exceed- 



122 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



ing- 10 feet, can be transported by rail. By keeping: this 
in mind, the number of field connections to be made can 
often be grreatly reduced. Of course, if the trusses must 
be transported any distance on wagons, the size of the 
fractional parts will be gov^erned by this portion of the 
transportation. As a general 
rule, field connections should 
be reduced to a minimum. 
It is seldom that the weight 
of an ordinary roof truss is 
so great that it cannot be 
raised as a whole and put in 
the place it is to occupy ; 
therefore the field connec- 
tions should be made before 
the truss is put in place. In 
some instances local condi- 
tions will prevent this, and the various 
parts will have to be raised separately 
and then assembled. 

Compression Members in Steel Trusses 
are designed with the aid of empirical 
formula; which contain a governing 
factor called the slenderness ratio. 
This ratio equals the unsupported 
length of the member divided by the 
least radius of gyration of the cross-section of the member. 
The least radius of gyration is usually designated by the 
letter r. Tables are easily obtained which give the values 
of r for the sections 
shown in Fig. 80. The 
approximate values 
shown in the figure 
can be used for pre- 
liminary calculations. 

All compression 
members are made full 
length where it is pos- 
sible. Even the rafter 
of a truss for a pitched 
roof is made continu- 
ous and of the section 
necessary to carry the 
maximum stress. This 
statement is, of course, 
dependent upon the 
transportation facili- 
ties. Making the 
rafter full length in- 
creases the amount of 
steel in the rafters, 
but reduces the size of Fig. 75 





gusset plates and the number of rivets, and, moreover, 
adds to the stiffness of the truss. 

The two angles composing a compression member must 
be fastened together at intervals, so that the slenderness 
ratio for a single angle does not exceed that of the two 

angles used. A stay rivet 
every two or three feet of the 
unsupported length of the 
member is generally sufficient 
to fulfil the above condition. 
Each pair of angles form- 
ing a compression member 
of a truss should have the 
line passing through the cen- 
ters of gravity of its cross- 
sections coincident with the 
line of stress, to avoid as 
much as possible eccentric distribu- 
tion of stress. Since it is impossible 
to rivet angles to the gusset plates 
without having eccentric stresses, it 
is common practice to assume the 
rivet lines as coincident with the line 
of stress. 

Unless the truss is very heavy, 
each angle is attached to the gusset 
plates by rivets passing through but one leg, which ap- 
parently introduces large bending stresses. Tests in 
tension show that over 80 per cent of the net strength 

of the angles is devel- 
oped when but one leg 
is connected, and that 
this percentage is not 
greatly increased by 
the use of hitch angles 
in attempting to con- 
nect the other or out- 
standing legs to the 
gussets. Using the 
low unit stresses com- 
monly specified for 
roof truss work, it is 
quite permissible to 
connect one or both 
legs of the angles as is 
most convenient. 

Design of Tension 
Members in Sleef Koof 
Trusses. The design 
of tension members 
for steel trusses re- 
Fig. 76 quires but little 





o I : o o o o I ^t" '/}) < 



Fig. 77 



Fig. 78 




\ 



Fig. 79 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



123 



explanation. The area available of any pair of angles for 
resisting- tension is the difference between the gross area 
of the angles and the area destroyed by rivet holes. 
When each angle is connected to the gusset plate by rivets 
through one leg, it is customary to deduct the area de- 
stroyed by one rivet hole from 
the area of each angle (the 
diameter of the hole being 
taken Vs inch larger than the 
nominal size of the rivet). 
When hitch angles are used 
(see Fig. 91), practice is not 
uniform ; some deduct two 
holes and some but one. In 
case the rivets attaching the 
hitch angles to the angles are 
in the same cross-section as 
those in the other legs, allow- 
ance must be for two holes. 
If the rivets are staggered, 
but one hole for each angle 
may be deducted. 

Design of Joints in Si eel 
Trusses. At the apexes of the 
truss the various members are 
connected through gusset 
plates. These plates are never 
less than Vt inch thick and '"' Fig. 80 




seldom thicker than lu\ inch. For all ordinary trusses 
the gusset plates may be made ''s inch thick. 

Except for very light trusses, the rivets are either "'^ 
inch or '/s inch in diameter. Since the minimum thick- 
ness of the angles is '4 inch and that of the gusset plates 



\5 



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Vi 



s^zzzz^ 



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K / B -. 



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I 



(c^) 



not over '/i> inch, the capacity 
of the rivets is governed by 
their bearing on the gusset 
plates, this value being less 
than the capacity of the rivets 
in double shear. The number 
of rivets required to connect 
any member to a gusset plate 
is found by simjily dividing the 
stress in the member by the 
capacity of one rivet. As pre- 
viously stated, not less than 
two rivets should be used in 
making any connection. 

Top Chord Joints in Steel 
Root Trusses. Two joints are 
shown in Figs. 81 and 82. The 
top chord is not broken at the 
joints, and consc(|uently no 
rivets are required to connect 
it to the gusset plates consider- 
ing the stresses in the chord 
members only. However, 




Fig. 86 



FiR.87 



124 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



there is an unbalanced stress in each case due to the 
other members at the joints which requires attention. 
Considering the joint shown in Fig". 82, and assuming 
that the stresses in the members occur at the same time, 
the number of rivets required in the chord member will 
be the same as in the diagonal web member, since the 
stress in this member is the resultant of the purlin load, 
W, and the two chord stresses, all of which act upon an 
unbroken piece. For the connection shown in Fig. 81 
the number of rivets through the chord member must be 
sufificient to transmit the resultant of the purlin load, W, 
and the two chord 
stresses, Si and Si'. 
In case the maxi- 
mum stresses in all 
of the members at a 
joint do not occur at 
the same time, then 
W, Si , and vSi' must 
be considered for the 
different cases, and 
the maximum num- 
ber of rivets found in 
any case will be the 
number reciuired. 

If the top chord is not continuous as shown, but is cut 
at the center of the gusset plate, then the number of rivets 
required for transmitting the stresses, Si and Sj, to the 
gusset plate is found in the usual manner. The purlin 
load, W, will be transmitted through one of the chord 
members. If the purlin rests upon the chord member 
upon the left, then the ntimber of rivets in this member 
will be governed by the resultant of Wand .Si. Practi- 
cally the number of rivets required for Si and Sj can be 
found in the usual manner and then enough added to 
carry the purlin load W. This provides an excess of rivets. 

Bottom Chord Intermediate Joints for Steel Roof l^riisses. 
These do not differ essentially from those just considered. 
Fig. 83 shows a joint where the chord is not continu- 
ous, and also the proper method pf connecting the two 
members. The use of the gusset plate to splice chord 
members is not permitted by some specifications. An 
independent splice relieves the gusset plate of severe 
stresses and also permits the use of a smaller plate and 
fewer ri\-ets. All things considered, the independent 




Fig. 88 



splice is preferable. The method shown in Fig. 83 is 
common practice, however. 

Joints at the Snpports of Steel Roof l^ntsses. The form 
of this joint is governed by many conditions. Fig. 84 
shows a common type for trusses of short span which are 
supported on masonry walls. If the top chord angles are 
cut square at the ends as shown in the figure, the gusset 
plate under a compressive stress is unsupported laterally 
for a considerable distance, and, therefore, it is better 
practice to make the cut as shown by the dotted lines. 
The size of the bearing plate must be sufficient to safely 

transmit the vertical 
reaction to the ma- 
sonry, and also pro- 
vide room for two 
anchor bolts outside 
of the bottom chord 
angles. The number 
of rivets in the bot- 
tom chord angle is 
governed by the re- 
sultant of V and S. 

At the fixed end 
of the truss but one 
plate on the ma- 
sonry is required, but at the other end two plates are 
needed. The upper plate is given freedom to slide by 
elongating the holes for the anchor bolts to provide for 
small longitudinal movements of the truss. 

For trusses having spans exceeding 70 feet, some form 
of roller bearing is provided at one end. Fig. 85 shows 
one type of roller bearing and Fig. 86 a detail of the fixed 
end of a very heavy truss of long span. 

The detail shown in Fig. 87 is expensive if proper bear- 
ing is provided for between the truss members and the 
cast iron wall plate. The details shown in Figs. 88 and 
89 are good practice. They provide a definite bearing on 
the wall which is independent of the truss members. 

When it is necessary to support trusses on steel columns, 
the connections are best made by means of gusset plates 
as shown in Figs. 90 and 91. If it is not possible to use 
gusset plates, then connection angles are employed as 
shown in Fig. 92. In these forms of connections no spe- 
cial provision is made for expansion or contraction due to 
changes of temperature. 



Fig. 89 




Fig. 90 



Fig. 91 



Fig. 92 



The Musicians' Mutual Relief Society Building, Boston. 



MAHER & WINCHESTER, ARCHITECTS. 



THIS building was designed to accommodate the 
Musicians' Mutual Relief vSociety and the Boston 
Musicians' Protective Association. It is unique in 
its character and one of the first of its type to be erected 
in this country. Its main purpose is to provide a club 
house or meeting place for the musical societies mentioned 
above and to provide offices where the business affairs of 
the organizations can be carried on. The large ballroom 
with the necessary accessories is used for conventions and 
large meetings and also provides a source of income, for 
the building has been so arranged that the ballroom as 
well as the banquet room in the basement can be rented 
without encroaching upon the privileges of the members 
of the musical societies who use the building as a club. 

The building has a frontage of 100 feet on St. Botolph 
street and 80 feet on Garrison street, and is of fireproof 
construction. The exterior is of dark red brick and lime- 
stone, the brickwork being laid with a wide joint in 
various bonds and the cornices ornamented with carved 
lyres and the names of famous musicians. 

The first floor is occupied by a large assembly room, 
with entrances from both streets, for carrying on the gen- 
eral business of the associate members. It has a terrazzo 
floor and alcoves for reading, games and billiards, and 
telephone booths, also offices for each society, a ladies' 



room; and a directors' room. The remainder of this floor 
is given to the ballroom lobby. 

In the basement is a kitchen and restaurant, toilets, 
showers, barber shop, and a large locker room with metal 
lockers of sizes to accommodate the various instruments 
of the members. The remainder of the basement is oc- 
cupied by the boiler room, a large storeroom, and a ban- 
quet room with serving room and toilets adjacent which 
can be let separately or in conjunction with the ballroom. 

The ballroom lobby on the first tloor has entrances 
from St. Botolph street and the passageway at the rear of 
the building. Two staircases ascend from this lobby to a 
mezzanine floor containing the checking rooms, etc., and 
from thence to the ballroom floor. This room is espe- 
cially fitted to serve the purposes of either an auditorium 
or a ballroom. It has a large stage at one end and seats 
on a raised platform running around the other three sides. 
A gallery seating two hundred people is on the Garrison 
street side. The floor of the ballroom when used as an 
auditorium is covered with a canvas, and by the use of 
portable chairs an audience of eleven hundred is accom- 
modated. 

The use of the space at the left side of the ballroom in 
which the staircases are located has been ingeniously 
made to serve several purposes by a full use of mezzanine 




Building for the Musician.s' Mutual Relief Society, Boston, Mass. 
Maher & Winchester, Architects 
125 



126 

floors, the level below the 
ballroom floor providing 
ample and conveniently 
located checking rooms, 
and that above the ball- 
room floor, on either side 
of the stage, retiring 
rooms for men and 
women. The disposition 
of these floors is not shown 
on the plans reproduced 
herewith, but their posi- 
tion is shown in the gen- 
eral view of the exterior, 
as well as the way in 
which the ballroom en- 
trance has been made a 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




• -? -• ' -f T-- 



J.IW 



r 




Stage in Ballroom 



trophies of the various 
musical instruments. The 
soffits of the ceiling beams 
are similarly decorated 
with little figures playing 
instruments and illustrat- 
ing the various dances.'." t 
The cost of the building 
was 25 cents per cubic 
foot. This includes con- 
struction, heating, plumb- 
ing, wiring, vacuum - 
cleaning system, ballroom 
draperies, cushions, porta- 
ble and gallery chairs, 
canvas-floor covering, 
window shades and 



separate feature in the composition of the main f;n,-ade 
to make a distinction between the uses of the building. 
The proscenium arch is decorated in modeled stucco with 



screens, metal lockers and checkroom cubicals, lighting, 
kitchen and serving-room fixtures, blackboards, and tele- 
phone booths. 




Detail of Main Entrance 



Detail of Upper Stories 



As He Is Known, Being Brief Sketches of Contemporary 
Members of the Architectural Profession. 




ALBERT KAHN 



ALBERT KAHN was born in Rhaunen, Germany, in 
1869. His early years were spent in the German 
public schools and gymnasia until at the age of 
twelve years he came with his family to America. He 
started his arcliitectural training in the office of John Scott 
& Co., in Detroit, where he remained about a year, fol- 
lowing which he entered the oflice of Mason & Rice. He 
was with them for the next fourteen years, during tlie 
latter part of which he had charge of the designing. 
While with Mason & Rice he received the American Archi- 
tect traveling scholarship, which furnished him the wel- 
come opportunity for a little less than one year's travel 
and study in Europe. 

In 1895 Mr. Kahn with George W. Nettleton and A. B. 
Trowbridge, who were fellow draftsmen in Mason & Rice's 
office, formed a partnership under the name of Nettleton, 
Kahn & Trowbridge. Mr. Trowbridge severed liis con- 
nection with liis associates two years later to become Pro- 
fessor of Arcliitecture at Cornell LIniversity, and shortly 
after Mr. Kahn was left to continue the business alone, 
owing to the death of Mr. Nettleton. 

Mr. Kahn was among the first to perceive the imjior- 
tance of improving the design of factory and industrial 
buildings, and it is in this field that a great deal of his 
important work has been done. His efTorts as seen in 
many of the largest automobile plant.s in this country and 
in the recently completed Detroit Athletic Club Building 
and the Hill Memorial Building at Ann Arbor, Mich., 
testify to his solutions of many difficult problems in plan 
and equipment and to the measure of success which has 
been accorded his work. 

In a study of his work it will be noted that he has never 
deviated from the true purpose of an architect — he has 
always subordinated his love of what is beautiful to the 
utilitarian requirements of the structure, creating a build- 
ing appropriate to its purpose and satisfying to the eye. 

Mr. Kahn is not alone endowed with a very keen sense 
of what is best in art, in the broader meaning of the word, 
but has combined with this rare gift, in an unusual degree, 
commercial ability of a very high order. Even without 
this unusual combination of gifts his unswerving integrity, 
concentration of purpose, and industry would have carried 
him far towards the important position he now holds in his 
profe.ssion. — 3f. A'. B. 




J. MILTON DYER 



IT IS always a matter for congratulation when jiersonal 
magnetism has been fortunate enough to be held in 
check by good education. The first is almost sure to 
" get along," and when it lacks the restraint imposed by 
the second, we suffer by the ])resence of more or less per- 
manent monuments to this f|uality. Milton Dyer would 
find work to do even if he had to make his brick without 
straws; but, for the peace of the community in which he 
lives, he has not had to do without straws. His education 
has been more two-sided than that of most architects. In 
addition to four years in the ICcole des Beaux Arts he took 
a complete course in engineering and mechanicsat the Case 
School of Applied Science before leaving this country. 

He returned to Cleveland about seventeen years ago 
and startled the entire local profe.ssion by at once acquir- 
ing large and important commissions. Ivvery one con- 
sidered, and of course properly, that this was very unwi.se 
on the part of the owners; but, for some reason, the 
■ things were good and Dyer continued to proceed. Suc- 
cess is a somewhat complicated afiair and depends upon a 
great many, and often oj^posed, characteristics ; but it is 
customary to look for, and find, one particular thing and 
charge everything to that account. 

Therefore it is our duty to determine this one predomi- 
nant thing, even if it is only a jiart of the story. Genius 
has been called, among many other things, "an infinite 
capacity for taking pains," or, in other words, giving at- 
tention to detail. This is almost exactly not the case with 
Mr. Dyer. Please do not misunderstand. His cajiacity is 
to never lose sight of the main big feature of the problem 
and to not be confused by its details or allow them to 
get into a false |)erspective. The one most important 
thing that he has done for Cleveland — and it needed the 
lesson is teaching scale. You may like or not like some 
individual building, but you will see that its scale is good. 
Milton Dyer is a good friend. It is often said of a man 
that he will do anything for any of his ac<|uaintances and 
other similar characterizations which arc true, but insuf- 
ficient. My recollection nf him, covering his professional 
life, is only one of good nature and tolerance in regard to al- 
most everybody. This is a pleasant trait and one that can 
hardly be assumed or acquired, and I take ])leasure in 
mentioning it as something more desirable than Mr. Dyer's 
well recognized success as an architect. — .7. C 



127 



128 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




BENNO JANSSEN 



B i:\NO JANSSEX was born in St. Louis, March 12, 
1.S74. lie was educated in a private school and later 
entered the University of Kansas. After receivin;.; 
his early architectural training in St. Louis he entered the 
Boston uftice of Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, and later thai 
of Parker & Thomas. 

After grounding himself thoroughly in the practical side 
of the work, through office experience, he finished his ar- 
tistic and theoretic education in Paris. During this period 
he availed himself of the opportunity to study the various 
styles of the countries adjacent to France. A short time 
after his return to this country he became associated with 
McClure &• Spahr of Pittsburgh, and in 1907 entered into 
partnership with Franklin Abbott, under the firm name of 
Janssen & Abbott. Success followed this union. 

Always admired by his associates in his student days for 
his remarkable ability of architectural expression, no less 
than for his personal charm, he, nevertheless, was mis- 
understood by many, due to the fact that he unconsciously 
was an exponent of the " New School," which teaches that 
the final result of an architectural attempt is the " build- 
ing itself " and not the effect produced on paper, the latter 
being the vogue at that particular time. His rapidly 
made drawings were especially interesting to those who 
understood and left an indelible impression upon them. 
His seeking for truth of expression, the reasonable use 
of architectural forms, and for the understanding of the 
fundamental principles which govern architectural designs, 
portrayed only the dominating characteristics of the man 
as he is. Mr. Janssen's work shows not only individuality, 
but a comprehension of his problem, a forceful composi- 
tion and yet an understanding of the value of detail and 
the selection of material. Add to this executive ability, 
tireless energy, and one has little reason not to understaml 
his success. One has only to look at the Pittsburgh Ath- 
letic Club to appreciate the influence of this personality. 
For this firm to have the force to impress upon a commit- 
tee the necessity and importance of producing a building 
of this character is no less an achievement than the 
design itself. The residences his firm has executed show 
not only individuality, but an indigenous f|uality which is 
so essential for a good, architectural result. 

Although Mr. Janssen has devoted the larger part of his 
life to competitions, he, nevertheless, has shown the rare 
capacity to devote himself as energetically to the produc- 
tion of a beautifully finished building as to the production 
of the drawings which have won the commission. 

One might assume from the foregoing that Mr. Janssen 
is some sort of a super-genius. He is not, however, but 
merely a talented young man, whose human <|uality can 
be vouched for bv those who know him. — //'. I). C. 




AYMAR EMBURY II 



WIDESPREAD recognition of Mr. Embury's ability 
has come early in his career. He was born June 
15, 18H0. He studied at the Drisler School, New 
York, and continued his education at Franklin College, 
Dresden, (Germany. His architectural training did not 
begin until after his graduation from Princeton University 
in the class of 19(io, followed by a Master's Degree in 
1901. 

As a newcomer into the architectural profession, Mr. 
Embury found the kindness and helpfulness of his fellow 
draftsmen invaluable. He is always ready to give them 
full credit and freely acknowledges that everything that 
he has learned of architecture was taught him while a 
draftsman by fellow draftsmen. His experience was 
gained in the office of George B. Post and successively 
in the offices of Cass Ouilberl, Howells & Stokes, Palmer 
& Hornbostel, and Herbert D. Hale. It may be inter- 
esting to note that among his contemporaries during this 
period were E. F. Guilbert, Alfred M. Githcns, James O. 
Bettelle, and the late T. R. Johnson. 

Mr. Embury has become, as he jokingly expresses it, a 
forced specialist in country house work. He has devoted 
much sympathetic study to this type of architecture which 
is frequently scorned because of the inadequacy of its 
material returns, and has utilized the large number of 
problems which it offers to prove his ability and genius as 
a designer. He has fostered a most sincere esprit de corps 
in his office, which can be no stronger attested than by 
<|uoting from his introduction to a book in which his work 
has been published : " I look to them not only to carry out 
my .schemes but to advise about them, and I receive no 
criticism so valuable, so constriictive, and so trenchant as 
tliat gi\en me by the men who work for me. From them 
I expect to receive sympathetic comprehension of my aims 
and frank and full expressions of opinion of the way I am 
trying to realize them. Artists themselves, they do not 
substitute flattery for criticism and, sincerely anxious that 
our joint work may be as creditable as possible, they never 
hesitate to point out defects or faults. There is no appre- 
ciation of successful work so ])leasant as that of the men 
who have assisted towards its success." 

Mr. F'mbuiy has contributed widely to the literature on 
architectural subjects. His books have been a great aid 
to the better appreciation by the layman of the architect's 
aim and purpose, and his articles in the professional jour- 
nals are instructive and much ai>preciated. As a member 
of the New York Chapter of the American Institute of 
Architects and the .'\rchitectural League of New York he 
is an enthusiastic and active worker, always ready to 
wholeheartedly further their plans for development or 
entertainment. — A'. /•'. //'. 



i 



PLATE DESCRIPTION. 



Apartment House, 405 Park Ave., New York, N. V. 
Plates 61-63. This building: is of steel skeleton con- 
struction, resting- on concrete piers carried down to bed 
rock considerably below the level of the tracks of the 
New York Central Railroad which are located immediately 
outside the building- line on Park avenue underground. 

The enclosing walls are of brick, 12 and 16 inches thick, 
with 2-inch terra-cotta tile furring. The building- is 144 
feet high from the curb level to the top tier of beams. 

There are twenty four apartments, the rental of the 
south and larger apartments ranging from $5,500 to $6,500, 
and the north apartments from $3,500 to $4,500 yearly. 

The passenger elevators do not open on public halls, 
but connect directly with the private vestibules of each 
apartment. Each apartment is provided with refrigerators 
supplied with an ice coil from the refrigerating plant in 
the basement. Vacuum cleaners and interior telephone 
systems are also installed. All fireplaces are equipped 
with large flues for the burning of wood. 

The Rogers Tenements, West 44th Street, New- 
York, N. Y. Plates 64, 65. To the passerby in the 
street the facade presents a spirit of repose and comfort 
beyond that of the average apartment in the neighbor- 
hood. The term " model " is decidedly applicable to the 
arrangement of the rooms and the amount of light and air 
provided for each apartment when the size of the plot, 
50 by 100 feet, is considered in comparison with the usual 
provision made in the average apartment house. 

The total cost of the building averaged 32.3 cents per 
cubic foot. To keep down the cost and yet to erect the 
building fireproof throughout, it became necessary to omit 
all ornamentation of the faqade, except that which was 
possible in the use of the structural material itself. 

The street front, above a low base course of concrete 
finish, is built of a dark red wire cut brick, laid in dark 
mortar, with almost black headers in patterns. The win- 
dow sills and the main roof coping are of cast concrete. 
All exposed faces of these concrete sections are of broken 
tile and crushed gravel, brushed with wire brushes. 

The walls of the inner courts are faced with a light gray 
pressed brick. To further reflect the light, the side walls 
of the adjacent buildings were painted. The courts are 
much larger than required by the Building Code. 

The connecting link between the two units of the build- 
ing contains on the second floor a reading room or meet- 
ing iilace for the free use of all the tenants — a i^leasant 
innovation to find in an apartment dwelling. The large 
windows and center skylight give ample sunshine. 

Other features of interest to the tenants are the individ- 
ual storage lockers in the well lighted basement, a stor- 
age room on the entrance floor for baby carriages, and 
playgrounds on the roof for the children. The.se are 
protected by high fences of heavy woven wire and are 
also separated from the clothes-drying yards. 

Structurally, the building is modern in every respect and 
in keeping with the best work of its class in fireproof con- 
struction. Exterior walls above the basement are of brick 
and furred with 2-inch terra cotta blocks. 

The floors are of reinforced concrete built in general by 
the low arch method and supported by steel beams. On 
this are bedded the wood sleepers, to which the finished 



floors of comb grained North Carolina pine are nailed. In 
the hallways and the bathrooms the floors are of tile. 

Partitions around the halls and stairs throughout are of 
terra cotta blocks, and all other non-bearing partitions are 
of solid plaster, finishing 2 inches thick, built of light iron 
bars fastened at top and bottom to the concrete construc- 
tion and covered with metal lath. 

Each apartment is kei)t an independent unit, separated 
from the public hall by a kalamcin iron door, jamb, and 
casing, and the fire hazard reduced to the minimum. 
The stairs are of pressed steel, finished with white marble 
treads, iron railing, and wood capping. 

All hot water for the building is sujij^lied from a large 
tank in the cellar to which is connected a garbage burner. 
This consumes all the garbage handled daily by the jani- 
tor and the one fire .serves a double purpose. 

Copper is used exclusively for exterior sheet metal work. 
The roofs are paved with vitrified promenade tile. 

The heating plant consists of a low pressure, sectional 
boiler, with abundant radiation in each apartment. 

Additions to House or Abram (iARi-iELn, E.sq., 
Clicveland, Ohio. Plates 69, 70. The portion of the 
house illustrated shows chiefly the music room, which 
occupies an entire wing, the upper portion of which ex- 
tends over a covered drive to provide space for an organ 
chamber and a gallery which are reached by a winding 
staircase located in a bay. The room is 25 feet wide, 42 
feet long, and 16 feet high. The tracery through which 
the organ sound enters the room occupies one end and the 
organ console is located at the opposite end. 

The woodwork of the room is oak. The mantel is lime- 
stone and the ceiling is of cast ornamental plaster. The 
predominant color of the room is blue, because of that color 
appearing frequently in the furnishings. The walls above 
the i)aneling are tan color, and most of the large pieces 
of furnitui-e are in colors approaching tan. The restful 
effect of the room is due in great measure to a discrimi- 
nating use of very pale tan and green glass in the leaded 
glass windows, which modify the daylight in a pleasing- 
way, although the tones are so pale that they are hardly 
noticeable. 

Two Houses on Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, III. 
Plates 73, 74. These houses were designed together for lo- 
cation on narrow city lots. It was the aim of the architects 
to utilize the land to the fullest extent, and their solution 
makes the space at the rear the most desirable and im- 
portant part. The service has been confined to a court 
between the houses with direct entrance from the front. 
The rooms which are used but a portion of the day, and 
which are least disturbed by the noi.ses of the street, are 
placed at the front of the houses. 

House of Hiram Walker, E.sy., Walkicrville, On- 
tario, Can. Plate 75. The exterior walls are built of 
a rough textured brick of mixed shades. The woodwork 
on the exterior is white oak stained to harmonize with the 
walls. The interior is finished on both floors in white 
enamel paint, and all the floors are oak with the exception 
of the bathrooms, kitchen, and laundry, which are tiled. 
The house is heated with hot water and is provided with 
thermostat heat control. A garbage incinerator is also 
provided. The cost was about 25 cents per cubic foot. 



129 



ED1TOR.IAL COMMENT 
AN D'fN OTES ^ * 
FOU'^THE'^MO NTH 




THE LICENSING OF ARCHITECTS. 

IT IS required by statute that before practising: their 
professions lawyers be admitted to the Bar, and that 
engineers, clergymen, and doctors should have re- 
ceived a degree. Architects can, however, practise at 
will, without having qualified for their work, excepting in 
their own estimation. Why has the profession been left 
unguarded to unqualified invaders ? Has it inherent quali- 
ties of so high a character that it needs no protective bar- 
riers ? Are the difficulties of its practice so great as to 
discourage any attempts to practise it by untrained per- 
sons? Does it owe any duties to the public to guide them 
in the choice of its practitioners ? There are unscrupulous 
men and inefficient men in all professions, and a Nemesis 
of sorts always awaits them, though it sometimes takes 
a long time for them to receive their deserts ; but in all 
cases, excepting that of the architect, at least some quali- 
fications are demanded. Why are architects an exception ? 
Possibly because an architect is primarily an artist, and 
art cannot be controlled by statute beneficially. Possibly 
because the architect is a business man, a promoter, and 
statutes that apply to such persons become active only 
when procedure is criminal. It may be that as with poets 
— it is not advisable to nip "mute, inglorious Miltons " 
in the bud. But taking it for granted that any coercive 
act requiring a certain amount of training may be inimical 
to a very occasional genius who might have succeeded if 
he had not been supjjressed, cannot it be claimed that there 
might be reiiuirements demanded which even a genius 
could overcome, and that the act of overcoming them 
might be of benefit to him ? To eliminate bad elements 
need not endanger good ones. An act licensing architects 
need not be an antitoxin which might destroy the subject 
for whose welfare it is to be used ; it may be merely an 
antiseptic preventing contagion. Another plausible claim 
can be made that an acknowledged stamp of qualification, 
if it is based upon so low a degree of merit as it must be 
in dealing with prospective and not actual practitioners, 
belittles the profession generally and reduces all to a lower 
level. This seems specious, especially as in every pro- 
fession degrees of attainment are recognized by special 
indications of merit. 

The qualifications necessary to practise a profession 
should be those which would imply criminal ignorance if 
imknown to the applicant. Afterwards, progress can be 
rewarded by honors, one of those honors being election to 
the American Institute of Architects. And, incidentally, 
the neglect to place the letters A. I. A. orF. A. I. A. after 
an architect's name, is not praiseworthy as modesty. These 
letters rejiresent an honorable distinction, a reward of 
merit, and an indication to the public of the esteem in 
which the man is held by the members of his own profes- 
sion, who are better fitted to judge of his qualifications than 



are any other people to whom this might be delegated. 
But to return to the subject of the licensing of archi- 
tects — the principal argument in opposition seems to be 
based upon the anticipation that men who deserve little 
will receive formal acceptance in the professional ranks, 
while at present they are outlaws ; that they will be en- 
dowed with a mantle of respectability which they do not 
now possess. This would seem to depend entirely upon 
the requirements of the licensing act and the character 
of its administrators. At first the public would concern 
itself little about the matter ; in time they would come to 
recognize the fact that advocacy of the licensing of archi- 
tects by the architects would be an act of altruism, much 
more caused by a desire to protect the public from ineffi- 
ciency than to clear the skirts of the profession. It would 
bring the outlaw within the law and make him subject to 
censure and expulsion, and therefore tend to make the 
profession unattractive to him. It would force him to 
overcome his limitations due to his neglect, and the stand- 
ard of reciuired attainment could be gradually increased 
if found desirable. It matters very little to the architect 
of acknowledged reputation that there are camp stragglers. 
It matters a good deal to the public whether they are pil- 
laged by those individuals. The i^ersonnel of the licens- 
ing board naturally requires careful consideration ; but as 
the duties of such a board would require but little time, 
for which there would be no monetary return, it would 
not be attractive to the professional politician. Even a 
bad government does not object to posing as a friend and 
protector of the people when it costs nothing to do so, 
and the appointees to the licensing board for architects 
would probably be men of ability. But even if they were 
not, the statute could be so drawn that it would be 
practically self-acting, and it very i^robably would be com- 
mitted to the hands of the architects themselves. 

W. H. C. 

THE Hy-tex Church Competition was judged at Wash- 
ington, May 10, by a jury selected from the officials 
of the American Institute of Architects. The mem- 
bers of the jury were: R. Clipston Sturgis, president; 
Thomas R. Kimball, vice-president ; Burt L. Fenner, 
secretary; John Lawrence Mauran, treasurer; C.Grant 
La Farge, director. 

The jury made the following awards, — First Prize : 
Maurice Feather, VVatertown, Mass. ; Second Prize : Fred- 
erick II. Kennedy, Boston, Mass. ; Third Prize : Antonio 
di Nardo and Charles L. Bolton, Philadelphia ; Fourth 
Prize: H. J. Voss and A. F. Law, Boston. Mentions: 
Robert Wesley Maust, Wyoming, N. J. ; E. Donald Robb, 
Boston ; Jerauld Dahler, New York ; Davis, McCirath, and 
Kiessling, New York; Francis P. Smith and J. Herbert 
(iailey, Atlanta, da. ; M. A. McClenahan, Salt Lake 
City, Utah. 



13(1 



■'■^'1^^'^':'" "■ '^ 



""""""'''"' 'i tmiiiL 










_> 



K^t'j^VJi'iJt^ aLv^ l ^ j yiii^i ' j M' ^iii ^i i^^ji i u,^ 






,:: ^ '< ^Mj Wi t 







'^O/LKOTLi'] 



VOLUME XXIV 






pgt^i^ijAyie'iijitf 




NUMBER 6 




CONTENTS for JUNE 1915 I 






J Vr^ _ i 



■fei' 



Plate 
86 88 
89,90 




I- 




PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS ^rchhect 

CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST, FIRST, LOS ANGELES, CAL. _ _ eimer Grey 
CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST, FIRST, WORCESTER, MASS. O. C. S. Ziwli 

HOUSE OF CHARLES PAXTON, ESQ., LAKE FOREST, ILL. 

Richi:rd E. Schmidt, Garden & Martin 
HOUSE OF E. D. SPECK, ESQ., GROSSE POINT, MICH Albert H. Spahr 

HOUSE AT NEWTON VILLE, MASS Frank Chouteau Brown 

HOUSE, DOUBLE, AT ST. MARTINS, PA Edmund B. Gilchmt 



LETTERPRESS p^^, 

SMALL PALACE IN SALAMANCA, SPAIN Frontispiece 

EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS ) Gordon Robb 




E 



lA 




J-Ji 



VI. Measured Drawing of Doorway, Richard Derby House, Salem, Mass. ( M. A. Dyer 
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF ROOF AND WALL TRUSSES 

Maluerd A. Howe, C.6. 

IV. The " A '• Truss. 

Illustrations from Diagrams 

PLUMBING INSTALLATION AND SEWAGE DISPOSAL _ .CA<jr/« ^. IVhitiemore 
III. Water Service and Hot Water Supply System. 
Illustration from Diagram 

MERCANTILE BUILDING, CLEVELAND, O. __ 

J. Milton Dyer, Architect. 

THE MODERN SCHOOLHOUSE ...IValter H. Kilham 

VI. Special Features. (Concluding paper.) 
Illustrations from Photographs and Plans 

AS HE IS KNOWN 

Being Brief Sketches of Contemporary Members'of the Architectural Profession. 

Messrs. George Strafford Mills, Albert H. Spahr, Elmer Grey, Dwight Heald Perkins. 

BIDDLE PRESS BUILDING, PHILADELPHIA, PA Bunting & Shngley 

COMPETITION FOR A SMALL BRICK CHURCH AND PARISH HOUSE 
Report of the Jury of Award. 
Wmning Designs. 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH - 

A Middle Course . Richard Franz Bach 

PLATE DESCRIPTION 



131 



133 



137 



140 



141 



145 




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Published Monthly by 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 

Boston, Mass. 

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XX 



THE BRICKBVILDER 






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Notice to Architects 



Attention is called to decree in suit in United States Court of the 
Hocking Valley Products Company vs. McArthur Brick Company 
in regard to Rug Brick patents. 

ill the District Court of the Knited States 

SOUTHKKX DISTRICT OF OHIO K.ASTERN DIVISION 

IN P:qI'ITY. No. x^ 

HOCKTN(; VALLEY PRODUCTS COMPANY, Plaintiff 

rs. 

THK M. AKTHrR HRICK COMPANY, Defendant 

Kntkv 

This (lay caine the j)luiiititt' l>y T. P. Linn, its solicitor, iind tlie 
det'eiuhiiit l)y O. E. ^'olleinveich'r and Finckel i*i; P^inckel. its so- 
licitors, and thereupon, on motion of the ])laintitl', the defendant l>y 
its said solicitors consentinjj thereto, it is ordered, adiud<,'ed and 
decreed tliat a jjerpetual injunction issue out of and under the seal 
of this Honorable Court a<fainst the defendant as follows : that the 
defendant, The McArthur Hrick Conij)any, its agents, clerks, ser- 
vants, workmen, employes and attorneys and all ])ersons claiming 
or holding under or through said defendant, he and they are 
herehy pei'petually enjoined from directly or indirectly making, 
using, selling or practicing the ])atented inventions made hy Daniel 
E. Reagan, as set out in the Bill herein, and more ])articularly 
contained in and described as Letters Patent of the United States 
to Daniel E. Reagan, assignor, to the Hocking ^'alley Products 
Company, No. LI 00,989, dated June 'Jo. 1914, for brick macliine, 
and No. L101,09.S. dated.June 'Jli, 191 4, for method of ornamenting 
bricks, and from infringing said Letters Patent, or either of them, 
directly or indire<-tly, in any manner whatsoever. 

It further a])i)earing to the Court that the ])arties hereto have 
settled and adjusted the (piestion of ])rofits and damages, no order 
with resj)ect thereto is nuide. 

It is further ordered, adju<lged and decreed that ])laintitf have 
and recover of and from said defendant the costs of this suit taxes 
at S-- , and that it have execution therefor. 

Entered IMay twentv-sixth. Nineteen Hundred F'ifteen. 



Ill Ihf. next issue of Thk Bric kbvii.dhii we will puhlish the 

nxnni/drfure Ihig ]irirk 



names of those lirmised to 



FOR DISTINCTIVENESS AND INDIVIDUALITY OF EXTERIOR 
Manufactured by 

Hocking Valley Products Company 




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SMALL PALACE IN SALAMANCA, SPAIN 

ERFXTED IN THE XVIITH CENTURY 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



VOLUME XXIV 



JUNE, 1915 



NUMBER 6 



Design and Construction of Roof and Wall Trusses. 

IV. THE "A" TYPE OF TRUSS. 

By MALVERD A. HOWE, C.E. 
Director Architectural and Civil Engineering Departments, Rose Polytechnic Institute. 



THE simplest form of the " A " truss is the combina- 
tion of two rafters and a collar beam as shown in 
Fig-. 93. If the supports A and B are immovable, the 
stresses in the members of the truss, which are produced 
by symmetrical vertical loading, are readily found by 
the usual methods. The graphi- 
cal determination of the stresses 
is illustrated in Figs. 94 and 94a. 
All members are in compression 
and there are no bending stresses 
other than the secondary stresses, 
which are common to all trusses 
having more or less rigid connec- 
tions at the joints. 

In case the loading is not sym- 
metrical, the problem is not as 
simple. Assuming that the con- 
nections at A and B (Fig. 93) are pins (fixed connections, 
usually, are not feasible in buildings), it is evident that 
the connections at joints 
C and D (Fig. 93) cannot 
be made with pins, since 
the four-sided figure 
ACDB would collapse 
under an unsymmetrical 
load. If, however, the 
rafters are made continu- 
ous from A to E, and from 
B to E, a pin may be used 
at E and the collar beam 
connected by pins at C and 
D. The structure is now 

stable and, strictly, is a two-hinged arch if the relative 
positions of A and B remain unchanged. While the 
elastic theory of the two-hinged arch can be readily aj)- 
plied in this case, it is probable that the following method 
will be found to be easier and sufficiently exact for 
practical purposes. 

The case of unsymmetrical loading is usually due to the 
action of the wind on the roof. Such loads can always 
be represented by vertical and horizontal components, as 
indicated in Fig. 95. 

Two equal and symmetrically placed loads on a sym- 
metrical two-hinged arch produce a horizontal thrust at 
each support which is twice that produced by either one 
of the loads alone. Then it may be assumed for the ver- 




tical components \'i and V. ( Fig. 95) that the thrust at 
each support is ( 1 ) 

„,=H.=|(v,^.v=^';). 

Owing to the symmetry of the frame in every partic- 
£ ular, the thrusts due to the hori- 

zontal components may be con- 
sidered as equal and each having 
the magnitude of one-lialf tlie 
total horizontal loading. 
^ Then, 



h, 



(2) 

1 



- h. = , ((i, + (J,) 



Fig. 93 



The vertical reactions are 
precisely the same as for a simple truss on two supports. 
Therefore, the following is derived : 



(3) 




Ri 



R-. = 



(v,(L— a)+V, ^) 

(4) 
; (v.a-fV. ■;) 



(5) 

— r, -- + r, -= 

( <J,b + (j,f ) . 



To illustrate tlie ai)plica- 

tion of this method, take the 

truss shown in Fig. 96, and, for convenience, assume the 

normal wind loads to be 1,414 and 707 pounds, as indicated 

in the figure by their vertical and horizontal components. 

The horizontal thrusts are 

]lA--lI.-h,- 
1 ( 



1,(X)0 (10j,(10) + 500 (40), (40) — (1,000 + 500) r =0 



H„ = H., + h., 



j l,OO0(10)/(10)+50()(40)/(4O)+ri, 000-1-500) I =1,5()0. 

The vertical reactions are 

Ra = Ri + ri = 1,000 — 500 = + 500, 
Rh = Rj + r, = 500 + 500 = l.OOO. 



134 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



The stresses in the members are best found by moments 
and the resolution of forces. 

At A the reaction 500 is resolved into two components, 
one parallel to AC, and the other normal to AC, as in- 
dicated by the dotted lines. The direct stress in AC 
equals 500 cos B, or 354 
pounds compression. 

In a like manner the ^ Q^y 

two forces at B are re- 
solved and the stress in 
BD found to be 1,767 
pounds compression. 

The stress in CD is 
found by cutting the 
frame through CE and 
CD and taking E as a 
center of moments. 
(See Fig. 96a.) 

.Stress CD (10) = — /7^ 

1,000(10) — 1,000(10)+ ^=- 

708 (14.14) or the stress | TJ 

in CD is 1,000 pounds 
compression. 



A 







V^ 


c \ 


% 




;<?»/ 






\ 




1 




1 ' \ 

1 1 \ 



S/>AA/=l 



Fig. 95 



to be 1,060 pounds compression. This disposes of all of 
the direct stresses in the truss members. 

The rafters AE and BE are each subjected to bending 
moments produced by the normal components of the re- 
actions. These moments are zero at A, E and B and 
j^ maximums at C and D. 

The moments at C and 
D are each equal to 
500 (10) (12) = 
60,000 inch-pounds, 

or— 1,000 (10) (12) + 

1,500 (10) (12) = 

60,000 inch-pounds. 

To further illustrate 
the determination of the 
stresses and bending 
moments in the "A" 
truss when the support- 
ing walls are assumed 
to be capable of resist- 
ing the horizontal 
thrusts at A and B (Fig. 



^^2 



/?, 



Using the same section and taking D as a center of 97), assume that the trusses are spaced 10 feet on centers 
moments, the stress in CE is found to be 354 pounds and have the dimensions shown in Fig. 97. Let the roof 
tension. In a similar manner the stress in DE is found covering be slate on heavy sheathing and the rafters, 

purlins, and truss members be of long-leaf 
southern pine. The apex loads, due to the weight 
of material and snow retained by snow guards, 
will be about 4,000 pounds at each apex. The 
normal wind load* is assumed to be about 1,900 
pounds at C and 950 pounds at E. 

The stresses produced by the vertical loads of 
4,000 pounds at each apex are found from a 
stress diagram similar to that shown in Fig. 94a, 
and the stresses due to the wind forces are found 
in the manner just given. All of these stresses 
are shown in Fig. 98. 

Inspection shows that the maximum stress in 
the rafters is 10,875 pounds compression, and 
that the bending moment is 56,448 inch-pounds. 
It is sufficiently exact to design the rafter so that 
the sum of the unit stress in compression and 
that for cross bending does not exceed the allow- 
able unit stress in compression. 

If the least dimension of BD is 7'/!' inches, 
Ld = (9.9) (l2)/(7.5) = 16 (nearly), a slender- 
ness ratio which corresponds to an allowable 
imit stress in compression of about 1,000 pounds 
per square inch. 

Assuming the depth of the rafter to be 7/^ 
inches, the extreme fiber stress due to the bend- 
ing moment is 

(6) 
(56,448)/(7.5) (7.5) (7.5) = 
803 pounds per square inch. 

The stress per square inch due to the direct 
stress is 

10,875/(7.5) (7.5) = 193 pounds. 




•Two valuable articles by R. Fleming. American Bridge Company 
on Wind Pressure FormuUe and their application to roof trusses, are 
published in The Engineering Snvs, Jan. 28, 1915, and Feb. 4, 1915. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



135 



The sum of these two unit stresses is 803 f- 193 = 996 
pounds, which does not exceed the allowable unit stress 
found above. 

As far as the direct stresses and bending- moments are 
concerned, the rafters can be made of timbers 1% by 7>4 
inches, but this allows noth- 
ing- for the necessary cutting- 
to make the collar beam con- 
nections. Therefore the 
rafters should be lV-2 by QVs 
inches (8 by 10 inches 
nominal). 

The collar beam, on ac- 
count of its length, should be 
at least 7V-i by l\-> inches. 

If the connections at C and 
D are reinforced above and 
below by solid knee braces, 
the bending- stresses in the rafters proper will be re- 
duced, but the collar beam will be subjected to bending 
stresses. 

If in addition to the knee braces the connection at E is 
made as rigid as possible, and the collar beam 
made at least as large as the rafters, the truss 
will have ample strength and stiffness. 

In case it is desired to relieve the supporting 
walls as much as possible from horizontal forces, 
some means must be provided for taking care 
of the horizontal forces. 

The horizontal thrust due to the wind must, 
of course, be taken by one or both walls. 

The horizontal thrusts pi-oduced by the dead 
load (4,000 pounds at each apex) can be provided 
for by making the rafters sufficiently strong and 
stiff so as to prevent the points A and B from 
separating- any great amount due to the changes 
of lengfth of the truss members and the bending 
of the rafters. 

The simplest way to consider this case is to 
assume a hinge at A and rollers at B as shown in 
Fig. 99. 

The reactions at B are vertical and have the 
same magnitudes as found for Fig. 98 at B. The 
vertical reactions at A are the same as in Fig. 98, . 
but the entire horizontal component of the wind 
is resisted here. Owing to the shape of this par- 
ticular truss and the disposition of the wind loads, 
the horizontal thrust in this case happens to be 
the same as given in Fig. 98. 

Fig. 99 shows the loading, reactions and stresses 
to be considered. The direct stresses in the 
rafters may be neglected, as the bending mo- 
ment at C is so large. This moment is, 

8,687 (7) (12) = 729,700 inch-pounds. 

A timber llV^ by llV-i inches is required with 
a fiber stress of about 1,300 pounds per sciuare 
inch. 

The collar beam is now in tension and its stress 
is about 10,700 pounds. 

Assuming that the collar beam is made so heavy 
that its change in length can be neglected, and 
that the rafters are free to bend throughout their 
length, the change of span between A and H i)ro- 



duced by the bending of the rafters can be found from the 
expression (see Fig. 99), 



d = 



Mo + Ml) 



(b^ + be), 




3E1 sin d 

where Me is the bending moment at C and Mi, that at I), 

E Young's modulus of elas- 
ticity, and I the moment of 
inertia of the cross-section of 
the rafter, with reference to 
an axis normal to the plane 
of bending. 

Inserting numerical values 
in the above expression, 

1,346.600 

^ ~3(1,500,000)(5,136)(.707) 

(84- + (84) (84)) = 

1.16 inches. 

Under a full load the change in span will i>robably 
be larger than the above quantity, owing to the stretch- 
ing of the collar beam and the give in the connections at 
C, D and E. 




Fi". 9<» 



136 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



The " A " truss should be framed with the span a little 
short to allow for the horizontal deflection of the support- 
ing: ends. One end of the truss can be placed in its 
proper position on its supporting; wall, but the other end 
should be given freedom to slide out- 
ward on its support as the roof load- 
ing is applied. Another method is 
to force the ends apart the amount of 
the horizontal deflection by a tempo- 
rary strut. As the load comes on the 
truss, the stress in this strut will be 
relieved until finally it can be removed. 

The sizes of 
the rafters can 
be materially 
reduced by the 
introduction 
of bracing: as 
shown in I'^igf. 
100. As the 
points F ap- 
proach A and 
B, the bending 
in the rafter 
grows smaller 
and smaller 
until finally, when the points F coincide with A and 
B, there is no bending in the rafters. There is, how- 




Fig. 101 



ever, a horizontal thrust due to the wind forces and 
a change in span due to the changes of length of the 
individual members of the frame. A common form of 
this type of truss is called the scissors truss, which will 
be considered later. 

Joi)it Connections for the " ,i " Tntss. 
Where the rafters meet, the simplest 
connection is that shown in Fig. 101, 
which consists of a hardwood key and 
one or more bolts. 

The collar beam connection can be 
made in several ways, but the detail 
shown in F'ig. 
102 has the ad- 
vantage of being 
simple and does 
not require any 
excessive cut- 
ting of the 
rafter. The col- 
lar beam has a 
tenon entering 
a slialloxc mor- 
tise in the rafter 
to keep it in 
'''^- ^°2 place vertically. 

The wrought iron straps are attached with lag screws which 
are i)lacecl along the coitcr lines of the jiieccs connected. 




ORNAMENTAL BRICK GARDEN WALL 

DELTA PSI FRATERNITY HOUSE, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, PHILADELPHIA 

COPE & STEWARDSON. ARCHITECTS 



Plumbing Installation and Sewage Disposal 

III. WATER SERVICE AND HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM. 

By CHARLES A. WHITTEMORE. 



IN arrang-ing- for the water service pipes to be brought 
into a building, after the usual formalities of filing 
applications and other papers with the water depart- 
ment of the city or town, a deposit is usually required to 
cover the expense of the connection to the main in the 
street ; the laying of the pipe from the street main through 
the wall of the building ; and the installation, outside the 
wall of the building, of the necessary gate valves, or 
"cut-offs," by means of which the water supply to the 
building is controlled. It has been found from experience 
that in order to facilitate the service installation, the 
plumbers should be required to make the application in 
the name of the owner of the building-, to make the deposit 
required by the city water department, and to be responsi- 
ble to the owner and to the city for the proper installation 
of this work. 

The city authorities, upon receiving an application, 
have the engineering department look over the conditions 
of the ground and the building-, and determine the dis- 
tance of their pipes from the building line. An estimate 
of the probable expense of installing: this work, together 
with the probable expense of the material used, is then 
made, and this amount represents the deposit which the 
owner, or for him the plumber, is required to make. 
Upon the completion of the work, if the expense involved 
has not amounted to the estimated deposit, the balance is 
returned to the depositor. In case peculiar difficulties are 
encountered and the expense is more than the estimate, 
the owner or plumber is required to pay the amount in 
excess of the original deposit. 

The general contractors should be required to do the 
dig-ging" in the street, obtaining the necessary permits for 
opening the street, and arrange for the preliminary work 
of the water department. This has been found to save 
considerable time and avoid delays in having: the water 
brougfht into the building when desired. 

The street connection with sewers and mains, etc., can 
be done only by licensed drain layers and men who are 
under a bond for opening the street. It is, therefore, of 
importance in arranging for any such work to be sure that 
the proper man is caring for this portion of the installa- 
tion. 

After the watv^r pipes have been brought through the 
building wall, connections are left for the meters. These 
meters are the property of the city or town controlling the 
water supply and are installed by the water department 
unless special meters are iised or special arrangements are 
made with the water department. In some of the smaller 
cities and towns where there is a large water supply, 
meters are not recjuired ; but in the main it is always advis- 
able in writing specifications to note that the plumber is 
to arrange with the city for the meter installation, and 
that the plumber is to be responsible for all these con- 
nections. 

There are two general types of meters used to indicate 
water consumption : one in which the amount of water is 



determined by the velocity of the water (lowing through 
an orifice of a fixed size ; the other by the amount of water 
contained in a chamber in the meter. In the former type 
the velocity per foot determines the amount of water used, 
the aperture being constant, and the amount of water 
passing througfh is automatically registered on a dial. In 
the other type the water chamber is continually filled and 
refilled, and thus the volume of water consumed is me- 
chanically registered. There are several standard makes 
of meters on the market, but inasmuch as this particular 
phase of the plumbing installation is so seldom encoun- 
tered it is hardly necessary to discuss these types. 

When it is desirable to ascertain the exact amount of 
water consumed in connection with a mechanical plant so 
as to determine the cost of maintenance, meters of either 
of the above types are used. 

As has been previously noted, the water in a large in- 
stallation after having passed through the supply main 
and the meter is conducted to the cold water supi)ly 
drum. From this drum the various rising lines are taken 
to supply different parts of the building. Each rising line 
should be tapped separately into the drum, and at the base 
of each rising line there shoiild be a separate gate valve or 
other approved form of shut-oft". All of these rising lines 
and valves should be tagged, and the number on the tag 
should be noted on an index which should be framed or 
attached to the wall near the drum, so that trouble in any 
portion of the building may be immediately localized and 
damage prevented by closing off the proper valve without 
depriving the remaining portion of the building of its 
normal supply of water. 

At the base of each rising line branching from a main 
line in the basement a " draw-oft' " cock should be placed 
and either connected with the sewer or extended to a sink 
or drain so that it may be possible at any time to draw off 
the cold water from any portion of the building without 
inconvenience to any other portion. 

/lot ]l'a/er Siipp/y System. The hot water supply sys- 
tem is a problem by itself, and much discussion has been 
aroused over the most perfect method of installation, so 
as to give hot water at all points without delay. An ideal 
system is one in which the temperature of the water at all 
points varies but slightly : in which the circulation is con- 
tinuous and unobstructed ; and in which the hot water is 
conducted directly to each faucet, so that hot water may 
be drawn as soon as the faucet is opened. 

There are two general types of hot water installation, — 
one in which the circulation i)i])es are carried on the base- 
m«nt ceiling and from this circulation loops, forming the 
continuous circulaticm to the individual fixtures, are car- 
ried up through the building. From the rising side of 
the loop supplies t(j the various fixtures are taken, the 
size of the pipe being undiminished throughout its length. 
After reaching the highest point at which a relief valve 
should be installed to relieve the system of any air, vapor, 
or steam that might force its way in through the water, 



137 



138 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



the pipes are carried down to the main circulation pipe, 
gradually reducing" in size, thus maintaining a constant 
circulation in this portion of the system by retarding the 
flow due to the head of water descending- in the pipe. 

In a building several stories in height, the circular loops 
are usually carried to the under side of the top floor, and 
the supply for the fixtures in the top floor are taken from 
the top of the loop. This supply acts as a relief valve, as 
whenever the faucets in the fixtures on the top story are 
open an opportunity for air to escape is easily afforded. 

In the other system the main hot water supply lines are 
carried to a point pref- 

^^ 



RonL SUrPL 1 - 



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Wf\l^t-S FOR. rl'tt ^^ /«i.vm ^F 



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erably above the high- 
est fixtures, circulating 
at this level around the 
building so as to supply 
the lines in various 
sections and returning 
by a similar pipe to 
the tank or heater 
or g-eneral storage 
supply. The various 
supply lines, which are 
taken from the circu- 
lation system at the 
high point, are ex- 
tended through to the 
lowest point of the sys- 
tem and are there con- 
nected to the return 
from the circulation 
system. 

Advantages are 
claimed for each sys- 
tem, but the consensus 
of opinion would seem 
to indicate that the 
former system may be 
depended upon to give 
the best results. 

The determination of sizes for hot water circulation 
pipe is a problem which reciuires careful consideration. 
It is difficult to lay down hard and fast rules for sizes of 
pipes for different installations, but in general it might be 
stated that the return circulation pipe in a loop should not 
be less than one-half the size of the supply line. For 
example, if the supply riser of the loop is one and one-half 
inches in diameter, the return line should not be less than 
three-quarters of an inch for installations where many 
fixtures are to be supplied from both rising and return 
sides. The sizes can be best determined by practical 
experience rather than by an arbitrary rule. 

The hot water supply system should be installed through- 
out in brass pipe, preferably iron sized brass, as the ex- 
pansion and contraction of tubing if used might develop 
defects not visible under the preliminary pressure tests. 
Lead lined or tin lined iron pipes are used in some cases 
for hot water systems, as well as for cold water pipes. 
Plain iron or galvanized iron pipes should not be used for 
hot water except in the cheapest installations, as the ' ' rust- 
ing " and "scaling" take place even more freely than 
when the same kind of pipes are used for cold water. 



Not H'ahr Drum. In office buildingfs or buildings 
where there is a considerable demand for hot water, and 
where the various rising lines throughout the building are 
supplied from one source, a hot water drum, similar to the 
drum mentioned for the cold water system, is advisable. 
The different rising lines or circulating: lines should be 
taken off in the same manner as for cold water. Near 
the drum shut-off valves should be in.stallcd and properly 
tagged, so as to control various parts of the building 
independently. 

In many instances in large buildings the rising lines are 

so scattered that it 

tl'_Fi.O^R.-3, %__ ^ 

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would be exceedingly 
difficult to supply all 
of them from one 
drum. In such cases 
it is advisable to supply 
separate drums for a 
group of rising lines 
in different parts of 
the basement and con- 
nect these drums with 
a circulation system. 

This would give the 
same results as if all 
the rising lines were 
conducted to one cen- 
tral point and con- 
nected into a single 
drum. 

There is a variety of 
devices on the market 
at the present time for 
heating hot water for 
office and commercial 
buildings as well as 
for domestic purposes. 
These vary from the 
ordinary heating de- 
vices used in residences 
to the instantaneous heaters used in hotels and large build- 
ings. The most common of all the known devices for resi- 
dence work in the past has been the water back, water 
front, or circulating: coil installed in connection with a 
wood or coal range or furnace. For residence work, where 
a coal fire is used in connection with the kitchen range, a 
cast brass water front or water back is undoubtedly the 
best, the difference between these being that the heating 
surface is placed either at the front or at the back of the fire 
box. The position with reference to the fire makes but 
little difference so long- as a large amount of surface comes 
in contact with the heated portion of the fire box. In less 
expensive installations the water chamber is made of cast 
iron, but this material is not nearly so satisfactory on ac- 
count of the great corrosive eff"ect of the alkaline waters 
on the interior of the water chamber producing what is 
known as " rusty water." With cast brass this objection- 
able feature is entirely removed. 

The advantage of the cast brass chamber over the circu- 
lating coil consists in the fact that a larger surface of 
water comes into immediate contact with the heated por- 
tion of the fire. Unless the fire is banked around the 



DlAGR.An SHOV<llNG LOOP 
SrSTEn OF HOT WATER- ■ 
■5VPPUBS- 

FLOOR. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



139 



pipe when a coil is used, only a small portion of the 
water surface is in actual contact with the heated coals. 

A more modern device for heating: hot water for smaller 
installations is the small gas heater which is, as a rule, 
attached in close proximity to the storage boiler. There 
are on the market many good types of water heaters which 
are inexpensive to operate, and which do not readily get 
out of order. In selecting- one of these devices the prin- 
cipal considerations should be : first, to see that as large 
a surface of the water as possible is presented to the direct 
effect of the heat ; second, the possibility of cleaning de- 
posits, which are products of gas combustion and which 
eventually cover the exposed surface, forming an insulat- 
ing medium which prevents the most effective action of 
the heat on the water. 

The next step in the nature of refinement in the me- 
chanical appliances for heating water is the automatic, 
instantaneous heater in which a small pilot light is kept 
burning at all times. By the motion of water in the pipe, 
due to an open faucet, the pilot light ignites the larger 
flame and produces the hot water almost instantly. The 
instantaneous heaters of this type are frequently equipped 
with an automatic thermostatic device for maintaining an 
equal temperature at all times. By this means if the tem- 
perature of the water drops below the fixed point, the flame 
is automatically ignited and the water rises to a fixed tem- 
perature, at which point the flame is again automatically 
extinguished. 

The capacities of these heaters vary from a small size 
of one and one-half to two gallons per minute to larger 
sizes, which will produce six to eight gallons of hot water 
per minute. Care should be taken in selecting a heater 
of this nature to see that the pilot light is so protected 
that it will not be extinguished accidentally, allowing the 
gas to escape in the chamber. 

Every form of gas heater should have a vent pipe con- 
nected directly to a flue of a chimney or to the outer air, 
so as to carry off the combustion gases and any leakage 
of fuel gas which might occur in the apparatus. 

There are various forms of combination laundry stoves 
with a hot water jacket which are in common use in some 
classes of residences and which give very satisfactory re- 
sults. These are of cast iron throughout or have a brass 
water jacket in a cast iron frame. In either case a double 
service is effected, heating water and affording an opjior- 
tunity for heating irons in connection with the laundry 
work. 

When the demand for hot water is multiplied to the ex- 
tent in which it is usually found in office or commercial 
buildings, the simplest and best installation, where steam 
cannot be used as a heating medium, is a large storage 
tank with a small, independent coal heater. The water, 
continually circulating between the storage tank and the 
heater, maintains the temperature of the water at almost 
any desired point. These heaters require but little atten- 
tion and consume so small a ([uantity of coal that their 
cost in the average heating plant is negligible. 

Where high pressure steam is used in a building, a type 
of hot water heater which is instantaneous, and in which 
no storage tank is recjuired, is made by installing in a large 
wrought iron pipe a section of brass pipe usually not less 
than two inches in diameter. The live steam is supplied 
at one end of the iron pipe, completely filling the space 



around the outside of the brass pipe, and is returned to 
the steam plant from the opposite end. The water con- 
tinually flowing through this superheated steam is raised 
to a high temperature. The amount of water produced 
in a heater of this type depends entirely on the length of 
the pipe around which steam is allowed to circulate, and 
heaters of this variety are installed in many hotels where 
the demand for hot water is enormous. One of these 
heaters used in a Boston installation produces over 100 
gallons of hot water per minute. The hot water from the 
heater is maintained at a temi)erature of approximately 
160 degrees, and at the return end of the circulation loop 
the temperature is seldom lower than 100 to 120 degrees. 

The storage tank should be carefully estimated to give 
the proper volume of water to supply all of the fixtures at 
hand without a perceptible diminution of supply. 

In ordinary work for a small house a 40-gallon boiler 
should be sufficient where there is but a single bathroom. 
Where there are two bathrooms, a boiler of not less than 
50 gallons should be installed. In many of the better 
classes of residences storage tanks as large as 100 gallons 
capacity are frequently used. In office buildings the ca- 
pacity of the storage tank is usually estimated at about 
one and one-half gallons per oflice and should be never 
less than 200 gallons except where the demand is small. 

These storage tanks are constructed of galvanized iron, 
black iron, or copper. The copper tanks are superior in 
durability to the galvanized or plain iron, and where high 
pressures are to be used, the tanks must be well rein- 
forced. 

Every storage tank shoiild be tested or guaranteed by 
the makers to withstand a certain pressure. Small 
kitchen range boilers are usually tested to 100 to 150 
pounds per square inch and guaranteed for a working 
pressure of 80 to 125 pounds. The larger boilers should 
be tested to 250 pounds per square inch and guaranteed 
for working pressure of 200 to 225 pounds. 

In case a storage tank is used, the water in which is to 
be heated by steam, a system of coils in the boiler through 
which the steam is allowed to circulate is usually pro- 
vided. This is not advisable in the case of a low pressure, 
steam heating apparatus unless there is a large amount 
of surplus capacity in the boilers. The rapid condensa- 
tion of the steam, due to the radiating effect of the piping, 
is too much of a drain on the boiler and robs the rest of 
the heating system of its proper supply of steam. 

In some residences brass coils are installed around the 
inside of the fire pot of furnaces, steam boilers, and occa- 
sionally in hot water boilers. 

These coils are economical in oj^eration and take but 
little space around the fire pot. Some other method of 
heating the water must, of course, be provided where they 
are used in the summer. 

The water from a hot water heating system should 
never be drawn off for domestic purposes unless it is first 
filtered, because it is likely to be rusty and also likely to 
contain more or less grease and oils from the piping itself. 

It is advisable in installing a hot water system in a 
large building to have thermometers placed at the base of 
the rising lines and also at the base of the return line. 
In this way a difference in temperature may easily be no- 
ticed and by valve adjustment the temperatures through- 
out the whole system may be readily equalized. 



140 



THE BRICKBVILDER 





^1 








f— 1 • I ' 

•few * a^rfer* f 



. . . J 



J 



■ . -M 



J ' » i Li^^ Wv-t- r-l- -^ J 



BASEMENT PLAN 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN 



THE problem presented in planning- this 
building: was that of providing: a show- 
room and offices, tog^ether with a large stor- 
ag^e space to accommodate the stock of a 
manufacturer of plumbing- supplies. The 
first floor showroom, tog:ether with the sam- 
])le bathrooms for the display and demon- 
stration of fixtures, are finished in tile, the 
side walls being: blue and the floors buff. 
The basement showroom is similarly floored 
with tile, the wall finish, however, being 
fumed oak. The general offices which ad- 
join the first floor showroom and have direct 
access to the storage portion of the building 
are also finished with fumed oak. There is 
an additional showroom on the Euclid avenue 
frontage devoted to the display of rougher 
materials used in plumbing installation. 

The concrete, flat slab type of construction 
was followed in the erection of the building, 
the exterior being faced with terra cotta, por- 
tions of which are in low toned polychrome to 
afford ornament. The design is typical of 
the advancing standards in modern American 
commercial architecture. The cost complete 
was slightly under 18 cents per cubic foot. 



MERCANTILE BUILDING, EUCLID AVENUE, CLEVELAND, OHIO 
J. MILTON DYER, ARCHITECT 



The Modern Schoolhouse, 

VI. SPECIAL FEATURES. (Concluding paper.) 

By WALTER H. KILHAM. 



UPPER elementary school buildings are g-enerally 
provided with a cooking room, manual training 
room, and assembly hall, and frequently with a 
gymnasium and sewing room. In many cities provision 
is also made for one or more " fresh air" rooms, some- 
times to accommodate regular classes and sometimes only 
for a special class of defective or anaemic children. 

T/ie Cooking Roovi. This may be located in the base- 
ment if necessary for reasons of economy, but should be 
at least half above outside grade. A room of 900 to 1,000 
square feet is desirable, preferably located at a corner of 
the building so as to obtain light on two sides. The 
walls are treated as in class rooms, but less blackboard 
space is required — about 10 running feet is sufficient. The 
floor should be of 



4 feet long, with two cold and two hot water cocks and 
soapstone drip shelves 24 inches long at each end. and 
provided with a grease trap. The coal and gas ranges 
should have si.x holes each and be provided with tile 
hearths and hoods. Space should be allowed for a refrig- 
erator with drain. In connection with the cooking room a 
pantry is useful but is not always included, and similarly a 
space large enough for a dining table for use in demonstra- 
tions. This is sometimes located in the space enclosed by 
the work benches. The above represents what might be 
considered as minimum requirements for a cooking class. 
vSome prefer modifications or improvements on this ar- 
rangement, such as finishing the work benches in white 
tile and rather elaborate cupboards and dressers, and 

others recommend 




D 



PLAN or I\OO.M 



wood or linoleum, 
with an ample tiled 
hearth in front of the 
ranges. The ventila- 
tion should be the 
same as for a class 
room, but less heat is 
required. An ad- 
ditional vent should 
be provided for the 
hood over the ranges 
and a smoke flue for 
the coal range. A 
separate wardrobe is 
not obligatory, but ac- 
commodation should be provided for the teacher's .street 
clothing. 

The work benches are generally arranged in the form 
of an oblong or ellipse for a class of about 24 pupils. 
Each section contains two drawers for utensils, a bread- 
board arranged to pull out, and a Bunsen burner with a 
hinged iron grill over it, set on an aluminum plate at each 
station. Access should be provided to the center from 
one or two sides. The tops are 24 inches wide, made of 
pine, and with the bread-boards should not have painter's 
finish. The benches are open underneath and may be 
supported on pine standards. A demonstration bench 
similar to one section is located in the center. 

A dresser for dishes, etc., should be included in the 
room, to be about 10 feet long in three sections ; the upper 
portion should have four adjustable shelves and glazed 
sliding or hinged doors. The lower portion contains a 
set of three drawers and two cupboards with shelves. A 
fuel box is needed for the coal range ; this should have 



II Y I,*' 


T II V 1 


g Pi 


II - - II - - II - 

not: 



r^^ 



fRONT ELEVATION SECTION 




DEMONSTRATION 
TABLE 



REAI^ ELEVATION 

CookiiK! Room Detriil 



Plan and Details of a Typical Cooi<ing Room 



placing a white porce- 
lain sink b e t w e e n 
every two sections ; 
but it would seem as 
if the most appropri- 
ate equipment would 
be that which would 
most closely approxi- 
mate the ordinary 
kitchen of the ])upils' 
homes. 

The Manual Train- 
ing Room. The size, 
location, and general 
description of this 
room are similar to those of the cooking room. A small 
demonstration stand may be built in one corner, if desired, 
with two or three raised steps, but tliis is sometimes 
omitted. About 15 feet of blackboard is included, with 
a bookcase and teacher's closet. The small stock room 
adjoining may be of about 80 square feet in area, with 
18-inch shelving running around it, 5 feet 6 inches and 
6 feet 6 inches from the floor. There should also be a 
storeroom with all the shelving possible for finished 
work and hardware : an area of 40 square feet is ade- 
quate. The work rack in Boston .schools is made about 
28 feet long, in sections 6 feet 6 inches high and 2 feet 
deep. The length is made to take twenty-four com- 
partments, or as many compartments as there are 
benches in the room, and the height eciual to the number 
of divisions that use the room (two each day, five days, 
outside limit). These compartments have numbers and 
letters painted. A soajistone sink ?< feet long, with hot 
and cold water and drinking fountain, is installed; also 



two compartments each, about 24 inches s(|uare and ,'?o electric or gas connection for the glue pot. I'our disjilay 



inches deep, with hinged lids and with a small shelf in 
one section. Accommodations should also be provided in 
the main coal room for a supply of range coal and kindling 
wood. A bookcase similar to those in other class rooms 
should be provided. 

Near the ranges should be installed a soapstone sink 



frames of burlap over a soft wood, with a 2-inch mould- 
ing around, are included in the eciuipment. 

'I'/ic Assembly //all. Upper elementary schools are 
usually provided with an assembly hall large enough to 
accommodate 400 to 800 pupils. If the school is a large 
one, of 20 to 40 rooms, it is rarely considered necessary 



141 



142 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



to build a hall capable of containing the entire enrolment 
of the school at one time, although the teaching staff fre- 
([iiently asks for it. In New York City the seating capac- 
ity of high school assembly halls is generally about 50 per 
cent, and in elementary schools 33 per cent of the entire en- 
rolment. While a great deal is claimed for the inspiriting 
effect of a convocation of the entire school at one sitting, 
the investment of capital for a great auditorium which in 
the nature of things can be utilized for only a small por- 
tion of the time is so heavy as to generally preclude its 
being undertaken except under the pretext of providing a 
gathering place for the outside public of the neighborhood. 
A hall which will seat 800 or 1,000 people, moreover, pre- 
sents acoustic problems which unless very carefully treated, 
in a way frequently hard to obtain in a school building, 
make it very difficult for addresses by any but expe- 
rienced speakers. Moreover, in so large a hall it is neces- 
sary to build an inclined floor and curved galleries to 
provide anything like proper sight lines, all of which add 
to the complication and consequent expense of the build- 
ing. These difficulties disappear in the halls of 400 to 
600 seats, which only require the treatment of any ordi- 
nary lecture room. 

Assembly halls are to-day rarely constructed anywhere 
but on the first or ground floor, and a marked demand has 
arisen for special entrances direct from the outside to 
facilitate use of the hall by the public without disturbing 
or interfering with the school. These are generally easily 
provided and supply the additional exits required by mod- 
ern ideas of safety. In some (luarters an idea seems to 
prevail that the hall should be a sort of detached building, 
connected with the main school only by a cloister or corri- 
dor, but it is difficult to see how such an arrangement 
bears on schoolhouse planning. The school has the first 
claim to the hall and use by the public would seem to be a 
secondary matter. 

Differences of opinion will arise as to arrangement of 
the stage with reference to the main corridor. If the stage 
backs against the corridor wall, it is more easily accessible 
from the main building, but the audience faces those en- 
tering; if the stage is at the far end, it will be necessary 
to provide some secondary means of reaching it, but the 
general appearance is perhaps better. A hall entered 
from the side is less desirable from the point of view of 
seating, but the lighting is better, because of the daylight 
coming from the side, with neither the stage nor the audi- 
torium facing windows. In some halls where the stage 
adjoins the corridor the back of the stage is made to be 
removable, so that when an especially large amount of 
stage area is desired, a portion of the corridor may be 
thrown in. 

In Boston, assembly halls for elementary schools accom- 
modate from 400 to 800 as the school board may direct. 
It is not considered necessary to seat the full number of 
pupils in schools of greater capacity. Floors are level 
and of wood or linoleum, like the class rooms. Windows 
are fitted with rebated mouldings to take black shades 
and are so designed as to make the operation of shades 
practical and simple. The platform is of a size to accom- 
modate one or, in the larger schools, two classes, and has 
removable stepped platforms of wood to take the seats. 
Galleries may be used where the hall is two stories in 
height. Anterooms near the platform are desirable as 



well as a connection from adjoining class rooms to the 
anterooms or directly to the platform. A dignified archi- 
tectural treatment of the walls and a studied color scheme 
for walls and ceiling is expected. The lighting, acoustics, 
and exits are such as belong to a small lecture hall. Arti- 
ficial lighting must be under control from at least two 
points, one of which must be near an exit. An electric 
outlet for a 30-ampere projection lantern is installed 25 
feet from the curtain. In the ceiling over the platform a 
recess is provided for a spring rolled curtain 13 feet long. 
Moving-picture booths are now being provided for the 
larger halls. 

The state of Massachusetts imposes certain further pro- 
visions in the line of safety on school halls whose opera- 
tion and construction is not controlled by the Boston city 
ordinances. These are in general as follows : 

"When not above the second story of the building 
these assembly halls may have a stage or recessed plat- 
form, on which such fireproofed scenery and other stage 
appliances as the inspector shall approve may be used, 
and with such proscenium protection as the inspector shall, 
in each case, direct. If the assembly hall is above the 
second story of the building, it maybe used for such enter- 
tainments not requiring the use of scenery and other stage 
appliances as the inspector may approve, and for public 
gatherings: provided, Iwa'cirr, that an assembly hall in 
the third story of a building of exceptional construction 
and egresses, having a stage with approved fire-resisting 
proscenium wall of partition and an asbestos proscenium 
curtain operated by approved mechanism, with an approved 
automatic ventilator over the stage equal in area to one- 
tenth that of the stage floor, and with such permanent fire- 
proof scenery and other stage appliances as the inspector 
shall approve and set forth in detail on the certificate 
issued for such hall, may be used." 

Seats must not be less than 2 feet 6 inches from back to 
back, measured horizontally, and no seat shall have more 
than seven seats between it and the aisle. The inspector 
may prescribe the width of the aisles. For an assembly 
hall having portable seats, floor cleats or other approved 
devices for securing the seats in place must be used. 
For estimating the seating capacity of an assembly hall, 
6 square feet of floor space shall be taken as eciualing one 
seat. Each egress from the hall and galleries shall be 
provided with a sign carrying the word " EXIT " in let- 
ters at least 5 inches high. Emergency lights must also 
be provided, to be controlled near the main entrance and 
supplied from a separate circuit. Footlights are generally 
supplied for the stage in a trough, with sections to raise 
when the sections of the floor forming the covers are 
turned back. 

The assembly hall is usually by far the most important 
room in the building, and the architectural treatment 
ought to be such as will impress upon the pupils the effect 
of good proportions, simplicity, and dignity. All trivial 
or inappropriate ornament ought to be eliminated. It is 
difficult to understand the appropriateness of the practice 
in vogue in many American cities of interpreting the ex- 
pression "Collegiate Gothic" to mean encumbering the 
ceilings of the auditoriums with imitations of English ham- 
mer beam trusses laboriously carried out in white plaster, 
and even the up-to-date method of lining off the plaster 
walls with white " joints " to imitate a Caen stone interior 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



143 



is somewhat open to question from the architectonic point 
of view. 

In very large schools, where the auditorium is sur- 
rounded by corridors at the gallery level, it may be well 
to provide windows which can be opened to enlarge the 
possible gallery space for an unusu- 
ally large gathering. 

The Gymnasium . The subject of 
the school gymnasium is treated 
here only in relation to elementary 
schools. For this type of school a 
medium sized gymnasium of ap- 
proximately 35 by 50 to 60 feet will 
be found sufficient, with a clear 
height of 16 to 18 feet. The walls 
may be of brick and the floor of 
maple, laid diagonally. An obser- 
vation gallery, preferably on the 
long side, is desirable, and an outfit 
of showers and lockers. Running 
tracks are rarely included. There 
is a growing demand to combine 
the gymnasium and assembly hall 
in one for reasons of economy. 
When this is done, provision has to 
be made for storage of seats in some 
manner. 

Gymnasiums are too often tucked away in the basement 
under the assembly hall or wherever there is a large enough 
space free from supporting walls and flues. To obtain 
the necessary height, 
the floor is carried down 
into the ground. Where 
the gymnasium adjoins 
the outside wall on the 
east or south side of 
the building, a fairly 
healthful and cheerful 
arrangement may some- 
times be obtained ; but 
as was remarked in a 
previous article on the 
subject of play rooms, 
the idea of sending 
children into a cellar 
for exercise and recrea- 
tion seems anomalous 
on its face. A gymna- 
sium should rather be 
above ground, with 
windows in four walls 
admitting air and sun- 
shine from all direc- 
tions, and perhaps 
connected with the main 
building by a corridor. 

Better results will be obtained in a cheap shed of this 
description than in the most elaborate cellar exercise 
hall ever constructed. As a matter of fact, as much of 
this work as possible should be done in the fresh air and 
out of doors. In spite of the severe climate, a great 
deal more could be done out of doors than is now the 
practice. 




Exterior Appearance of Wing Containing P'resh 
Air Room on Upper Story 




Plan and Details of Fresh Air Room and Adjoining Kitchenette 



l-'rcsh .Ml Rooms. It is becoming more and more the 
custom to provide school buildings with rooms made so as 
to admit as much outside air as possible. When used for 
defective or anaemic children who are warmly dressed 
and provided witli a hot mid-forenoon lunch, amazing re- 
sults are obtained. Children who 
are dull, lifeless, and sickly ordi- 
narily gain weight, and sometimes 
develop surprising intelligence 
under fresh air treatment. The 
fresh air class room may have the 
same general finish and treatment 
as an ordinary room, but when pos- 
sible ought to be located at the 
corner of the building so as to admit 
windows on two sides, and provided 
with a type of window which when 
open admits fresh air through the 
entire area of the opening. Case- 
ments have been quite generally 
used but have to be hooked back 
and are apt to rattle and occasion 
trouble. Windows of the balanced 
sash type are suitable for the pur- 
pose and have some advantages 
over casements. To prevent rain 
beating in, Mr. P>. F. (iuilbert in 
his Newark schools introduces a sort of sloping canopy 
or shield of wired glass just above and outside of the 
windows which deflects the rain and protects the interior. 

vSome direct heat is 
generally provided, but 
there is no need of an 
interior fresh air supply 
— except to satisfy the 
inspector. In Massa- 
chusetts fresh air rooms 
cannot be constructed 
unless they are etiuipped 
with complete interior 
heating and ventilating 
the same as other class 
rooms. 

In connection with 
the fresh air room a 
small kitchenette is pro- 
vided for the prepara- 
tion and serving of the 
morning lunch of hot 
chocolate, jam sand- 
wiches, milk, etc. A 
china sink with a cup- 
board for cups and 
saucers, plates, etc., a 
small refrigerator with 
drain, a gas stove and 
drawers for towels, utensils, etc., completes the ecjuip- 
ment. A special toilet is useful if the room is to be 
used for defectives, and a good sized closet for sitting- 
out bags, etc., may be required. The present tendency, 
which is entirely towards more fresh outside air in all the 
rooms, is bound to greatly modify the prevailing ideas 
of heating and ventilation. 




c 



Sectioip o^ Lii^e B-B 




5ectio7 oij Liije A- A 



144 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



I'aiilt. Every large school building: should have a fire- 
proof vault in connection with the principal's room for 
the storage of records, savings accounts, etc. This vault 
should be approximately 6 feet square to allow the card 
ledger to be wheeled into it. 

Fire Prevention . Prevention of fire in a school building 
is one of the primary objects to be considered in its con- 
struction. Facility of egress and the means to promptly 
extinguish any fire that might occur are also matters of 
extreme importance and should be kept constantly in the 
mind of the architect. 
Fires in schoolhouses 
may be prevented first 
by using a fire-resisting 
construction, and sec- 
ond, by insisting upon 
order and cleanliness in 
all closets, storerooms, 
boiler rooms, and coal 
pockets. Absolutely 
fireproof construction 
cannot always be ac- 
complished within the 
appropriation, but a 
second-class building 
can be so put together 
as to be reasonably safe. 
In such a building the 
plastering will be done 
directly on the masonry 
without furring, a per- 
fectly feasible process if 
the walls are properly 
constructed; all interior 
or division walls will be 
carried up to the roof; 
ceilings will be plas- 
tered on metal lath. 
Although joists are used 
which make hollow floors, the extent of concealed spaces 
is so much limited by the walls that there is only a rather 
small area in which fire may run. The basem.ents are cut 
off absolutely from the other floors, any passages through 
being guarded by fire doors. Stairways are in brick towers 
C which may be contained within the building), with good 
doors at the outlets glazed with wired glass. This pro- 
vides a type of construction which affords only limited 
lurking places for fire, and no continuous flues through 
which fire can pass from story to story or go very far 
horizontally. 

The only point which has not been well covered in such 
a building is the treatment of the space between the upper 
story ceiling and the roof. Here a space 4 or 5 feet high 
is sometimes reijuested by the heating engineers to give 
access to the dampers. As ordinarily built, the rough ceil- 
ing and roof joists supply a large amount of exposed wooden 
surface split up into rather narrow pieces of wood which 
would take fire easily and burn rapidly. Even if the divi- 
sion walls run to the roof, it is necessary to provide open- 
ings in them, and if provided with tinned doors there is 
no guarantee that they will be kept closed. A prominent 
fire protection engineer advises building the roof of plank 
in mill construction form and making the upper story ceil- 




George Frisbie Hoar School, Soutfi Boston, Mass. 

Hcrbtrt L. Wardner, Architect 

This building shows the use of two different types of windows in the class rooms on the first 
and second floors for the admission of fresh air through the full area of the opening 



ing of metal lath on channel irons which would somewhat 
reduce the fire hazard. If this space is to be used for 
storage, it ought to be sprinkled ; but on account of the 
danger from freezing sprinklers are not desirable there. 

The question of standpipes versus extinguishers is still 
argued with some show of reason for both sides. Fire 
protection engineers seem to favor standpipes on the the- 
ory that extinguishers are portable and may be carried 
away, or not kept in proper working condition. The un- 
derwriters' standard is iM'-inch linen hose and '4 -inch or 

"H-inch smooth bore 
nozzles. Each line of 
hose is supplied by a 1- 
inch line of pipe and 
valve, and a riser sup- 
plying several lines 
should be proportion- 
ately larger. 

Smaller linen hose is 
not used on account of 
kinking, and rubber- 
lined hose is not advised 
because the rubber per- 
ishes in warm buildings 
rather rapidly. 

Massachusetts re- 
(|uires that the basement 
and each story of a 
building shall have some 
means for extinguishing 
fire, consisting of stand- 
pipe and hose or ap- 
proved fire extinguish- 
ers, or both, as the 
inspector shall direct 
and locate, and such 
appliances shall be kept 
at all times in good con- 
dition and ready for use. 
Where standpipes and hose are installed, approved hose 
racks and test cocks are to be provided. Sprinklers for 
boiler room, coal pockets, etc., are a desirable safeguard. 
In some buildings a stationary chemical tank and appa- 
ratus is located in the basement with pipes leading to 
hose reels in the different stories. Provision is made for 
operating the apparatus from any station in the building. 
vSuch an apparatus if installed should be placed under the 
care of the Fire Department, as the janitors usually fail to 
be impressed with the necessity of keeping it in condition. 
Probably the greatest safeguard is that of so cutting off 
drafts as to divide the building into numerous fire-tight 
compartments. This naturally involves cutting off corri- 
dors by various wired glass partitions, so that each section 
would have its own properly protected stairway. Such 
an arrangement is objected to on account of cutting off 
the view of the monitors appointed to watch the corridors, 
and as a matter of fact, considering the small number of 
fires in really properly constructed buildings, they hardly 
seem necessary. Fire engineers recommend their being 
held open by a fusible link and chain, which is also at- 
tached to an electric catch which is released by the same 
current that sounds the fire gongs and allows the doors to 
close. 



VOL. 24, NO. 6. 



THE BRICK BVILDER 



PLATE 76. 







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VOL. 24, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 77. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



HOUSE OF CHARLES PAXTON, ESQ., LAKE FOREST, ILL 
RICHARD E. SCHMIDT. GARDEN & MARTIN, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 78. 




GARDEN SIDE 




ENTRANCE SIDE 



HOUSE OF CHARLES PAXTON, ESQ.. LAKE FOREST, ILL. 
RICHARD E. SCHMIDT, GARDEN & MARTIN, ARCHITECTS 



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VOL. 24, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



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VOL. 24, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 




VIEW OF TERRACE FRONT 




VIEW FROM ENTRANCE DRIVE 



HOUSE OF E. D. SPECK, ESQ., GROSSE POINT, MICH. 
ALBERT H. SPAHR. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 24, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 81. 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 82. 




VIEW OF ENTRANCE SIDE 



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SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSE AT NEWTONVILLE, MASS. 
FRANK CHOUTEAU BROWN, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 24, NO 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 83. 



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DOUBLE HOUSE AT ST. MARTINS, PA. 
EDMUND B. GILCHRIST, ARCHITECT 



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VOL. 24, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 8.S. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAf/ 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



DOUBLE HOUSE AT ST. MARTINS, PA. 
EDMUND B. GILCHRIST, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 24, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 8fi. 




GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE FRONT 




BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 
ELMER GREY. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 24, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATK 87. 




^1 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 88. 




TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH AUDITORIUM LOOKING TOWARDS ROSTRUM 

FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST. LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

ELMER GREY, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 24, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE i 




BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST, WORCESTER, MASS. 
O. C. S. ZIROLL ARCHITECT 



I 



VOL. 24, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 90. 




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As He Is Known, Being Brief Sketches of Contemporary 
Members of the Architectural Profession. 




GEORGE STRAFFORD MILLS 



GEORGE STRAFFORD MILLS was born in London, 
England, Dec. 5, 1866. However, few if any of liis 
intimates are aware of liis English origin, for if there 
be a quality of alertness and perspicuity typically Ameri- 
can, Mr. Mills is an excellent representative of that type. 
He was but four years of age when, with his parents, he 
came to this country, and while he is essentially American, 
he is fortunate in having been endowed by birth and en- 
vironment with the best qualities of the two great nations. 
His boyhood was spent in St. Louis, where he received 
his early education. He was graduated from the Man- 
ual Training School of Washington University, following 
which he entered the office of George I. Barnett, the 
pioneer architect of the West. 

In 1885 he accepted the position of instructor of drawing 
in the Scott Manual Training School in Toledo, and in 
less than three years became the superintendent of that 
institution. The manual training movement was then in 
its infancy ; but the Toledo school under the direction of 
Mr. Mills soon became one of the foremost institutions of 
the kind, not only of the country, but of the world. 

In 1893 Mr. Mills returned to the practice of architecture, 
in which he has ever since been an indefatigable worker. 
In 1900 he was admitted to membership in the American 
Institute of Architects. In 1912 he formed a partnership 
with George V. Rhines, Lawrence S. Bellman, and Charles 
M. Nordhoff, who Viad been associated with him. 

At the beginning of his career Mr. Mills set up for him- 
self a high ideal and throughout his subsequent practice 
has assiduously striven to achieve it. By so doing he has 
won for the architectural profession of his community and 
state a greater respect and has given to the publii- a 
clearer conception of the proper i)ractice of architecture. 

From his father, who was well known as art critic of 
the St. Louis Republican, he seems to have inherited the 
abilitv of keen, impartial, and well balanced criticism. 
This balanced judgment, his knowledge of men, and his 
easy companionship have made his advice sought in many 
phases of activity outside his own profession. The Great 
Chemist of the Universe seems in George Strafford Mills 
to have given us a happy combination of the real and 
ideal, the busine.ss judgment, and the artistic ability, so 
that he contributes much to his profession, much to the 
community, and much to the ho.sts who delight to call him 
friend. — 6'. IF. S. 




ALBERT H. SPAHR 



ALBERT H. SPAHR was born at Dill.sburg, Pa., on 
June 19, 1873. He entered the office of Harry W. 
Jones, of Minneapolis, in 1889, and after spending 
five years in this office went to the Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology in Boston, taking the two-year special 
course in architecture. In 1896 he spent the'summer in 
England and France. On returning to this country he 
entered the office of Peabody & Stearns, of Boston, remain- 
ing there until 1901 when he went to Pittsburgh and 
formed a partnership with C. I). MacClure, under the 
firm name of MacClure & Spahr. Mr. MacClure died in 
1912, since which time Mr. Spahr has carried on the 
business alone. 

It seems to be the aim of many young architects to crowd 
as much archilecturc as possible in their public or private 
projects without regard to the feelings of their clients or 
the public that has to look at their work. Thev pile 
orders above each other, and their use of them is so fre- 
q-uent that one often wonders what they would do if (jreek 
frets and Ionic caps were taken from them. We all know 
the architect that tries to do the Farnese Cornice some- 
where U]) in the clouds, while a column order on the side- 
walk darkens the main rooms. Mr. Spahr apiiroaches the 
subject from a dilVerent point of view. Whether in a 
twenty-story office building or a country house, a set of 
])lans from his office will have every detail studied from 
the utilitarian as well as the artistic side. Along with a 
l)icturesque or monumental treatment of exteriors, the 
things that count for human comfort and sensible use 
inside will be carefully thought out. Doors will swing 
the right way, wall sjjaces will be left for furniture, light 
outlets will come where most needed, and radiators slink 
out of sight. His whole work is marked by a close and 
I)articular attention to detail, yet this useful (luality does 
not narrow his conception of arciiitecture as an art, nor 
does it prevent him giving the full measure of his design- 
ing ability to the creation of satisfying architectural com- 
positions as the many large country houses, in which field 
he has been particularly successful, can testify. 

Mr. vSpahr is fond of music, as all good architects should 
be, and when living in Boston often delighted the front 
rows, from the stage at many of the Cadet performances. 
In the intervals of absence from smoky Pittsburgh he now 
leads a nice little family in a dance over his farm in the 
Berkshire Hills. — /•■. //. /,'. 



145 



146 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




ELMER GREY 



ELMER GREV received his early architectural train- 
ing with the firm of Ferry & Clas, of Milwaukee, Wis., 
during which time he did much of the work in con- 
nection with the jikmning of the Wisconsin State Histori- 
cal Societies' Library and the Milwaukee Public Library. 
He was associated with this firm for a period of twelve 
years, in the meantime crossing to Europe at intervals 
for the intimate observation and study that go with a 
bicycle and sketch book. In the early days of his work 
as a draftsman Mr. Grey came into notice architecturally 
through his design for a water tower and pumping station 
which won first prize over mature competitors in a compe- 
tition inaugurated by the Engineerinit Nervs and Building 
Record of New York. He practised for three years in 
Milwaukee and is responsible for the design of the First 
Church of Christ, Scientist, and many interesting resi- 
dences in that city. In 1904 he came to California and 
entered into partnershii) with Myron Hunt, under the firm 
name of Myron Hunt and Elmer Grey. For the past four 
years, since the dissolution of that partnership, Mr. Grey 
iias been practising alone in Los Angeles. 

The decade just passed has given California an enviable 
place in the record of American architecture. The South- 
land, in particular, has become familiar to all who read for 
the peculiar charm of its residence work. There is some- 
thing inspiring in the ample hills, the blue sky, the bigness 
of the out-of-doors that calls forth latent forces. During 
this period of development the influence of Mr. Grey's 
work has been notable, invariably for good, always on the 
side of sanity and permanence. A man's personality ex- 
pressed through his handiwork is a very subtle and un- 
definable thing. It is the intimate quality that remains 
after all else has been analyzed, classified, and properly 
accounted for. It may be said with emphasis that all of 
his works speak of California, they grow out of our soil, 
they offer just the right mass against the sky, or find posi- 
tion among the eucalyptus and oak in such a way that one 
has no doubt they have always been there — they have 
the rare quality of being inevitable. On the other hand, 
Mr. Grey possesses, in a measure vouchsafed to few in 
practice, an intuitive feeling for the first great fundamen- 
tal icsthetic principle which many, alas ! stumble over 
and pass on to prospect in other fields without recogniz- 
ing an outcropping of gold — that principle which estab- 
lishes the big proportions of space and mass, solid and 
void, light and shadow. Even a small cottage may rise 
to distinction with no other claim. Combining with this 
perception of good proportions a sense of restrained en- 
richment, a sympathetic use of materials and choice of 
colors, we may find a definition of the qualities that attract 
us most of all in the ensemble of Mr. Grev's work. 

— K. A. /.'. 




DWIGHT HEALD PERKINS 



HERE in Chicago when we think of Dwight Perkins 
— as we often do — we think of him as a citizen and 
a patriot almost before we think of him as an archi- 
tect ; and if we wish thoroughly to ajipreciate his work, we 
must regard it in tlie light of his high ideals of the respon- 
sibility and opportunities of citizenship. In fact, I am in- 
clined to think that he would unhesitatingly state that the 
laws and obligations which the commonwealth impose on 
him are more weighty than those imposed by his profes- 
sion. This, of cour.se, has resulted in a part of his time 
and ability always being at the disposal of the community. 

Very naturally Mr. Perkins' altruism has led him into 
two great fields of service : first, the development of city 
planning, especially in its relationship to park systems 
and playgrounds ; and, second, the design and building of 
schools. Chicago owes him a large debt of gratitude for 
his work through many years as a member of its special 
Park Commission and as the author of the original Metro- 
politan Park report recommending the creation of the For- 
est Reserve district. His work has been equally valuable 
in initiating and fostering the movement which has resulted 
in the splendid system of small parks and jilaygrounds of 
which Chicago is so proud. His work in connection with 
school building is readily divided into two phases : first, 
that done as architect for the Board of Education from 
1905 to 1910 ; and, secondly, the work done by Perkins & 
Hamilton from 1905 to 1911, and by Perkins, Fellows & 
Hamilton from that date to the present. As architect for 
the board he was the author of forty school buildings of all 
kinds. Mr. Perkins injected into the designing of the 
schools of Cook County, science of a high order and a cer- 
tain amount of idealism and originality, a combination be 
it said in i)assing which, while highly ajiplauded by his con- 
freres, was not entirely ap])reciated by the board. Of the 
work done since 1910, and in which John Hamilton and' 
William K. Fellows share the credit, might be mentioned 
the new Trier High School, the Lion House in Lincoln 
Park, the Hamm Building, and many institutional build- 
ings and residences. 

Plunging as we did into Mr. Perkins' mature activities 
we had almost forgotten his beginnings, which are as fol- 
lows : born in Memphis, Tenn., 1867, student and in- 
structor in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ; 
draftsman in various offices, culminating in five years with 
Burnham & Root from 1888 to 1894 (the heroic days of 
the World's Fair). Since then he has been in independent 
practice. So much for his deeds, in style — always a deli- 
cate subject, I might say he belongs to the party of the 
Architectural " Young Turks," that he is the sturdy 
opponent of reactionary design, and that dust has long 
accimiulated on his Vignola and Motifs Historic|ues. 

— 7. /:•. T. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




147 



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148 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




Competition for a Small Brick Church 
and Parish House. 

REPORT OF THE JURY OF AWARD. 




Mention Design 
Submitted by Francis P. Smith and J. Herbert Gailey, Atlanta, Ga. 



THERE is nothing- more promising for the future of 
architecture in this country than the results of such 
competitions as these. The prizes offered for designs 
for a small country church and parish house in brick 
brougfht a very largfe number of drawings (over 150), and 
among- these over 50 
which had the merit 
that one would expect 
to find only in the work 
of men of considerable 
experience. Yet most 
of them were submitted 
by young: men. It is 
therefore encouraging: 
for the future. 

The most conspicuous 
quality in the four prize 
winners is not that they 
are well planned, nor 
that the design is pleas- 
ing and well rendered, 
but that they would 
build well, and in exe- 
cution, woiild look 
probably better than as 
presented by the draw- 
ings. 

That placed first is good in plan, well balanced and 
arranged, good in section, with a nice sense of proportion. 
The exterior is likewise good, quiet, and restrained. The 
whole is straightforward and churchly. The only ad- 
verse criticism might be that it does not seem the small 
country church of the 
program, but rather an 
important suburban one- 

The second prize is 
awarded to a design 
which would certainly 
look better in execution 
than it does as pre- 
sented. Indeed, if one 
grants the author the 
ability to detail well and 
oversee his modeling or 
sculpture, it would be 
an exceptionally inter- 
esting building. More- 
over, it is distinctly the 
small church. The plan 
is one of somewhat im- 
aginary balance, there 
being really but slight 
relation between the 




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Mention Design 
Submitted by F^obert Wesley Maust, Wyoming, N. J. 

149 



two masses. As the exterior shows a good eye for mass 
and ornament, so the .section shows a good eye for pro- 
portion . 

The third prize, like the first, is North Italian and is 
handled in a quiet and sure way that indicates good knowl- 
edge of the value of 
contrast in plain sur- 
face and ornament and 
of the accent of chiaro- 
scuro. It is even less a 
small country church 
than number one, but it 
is a convincing piece of 
architecture. 

The fourth prize, like 
the second, has distinct 
individuality. The de- 
signers had a vision of 
familiar motives and 
composed and used 
them in a way to pro- 
duce a charming origi- 
nality. In the plan 
there is a balance be- 
tween church and parish 
house equally apparent 
in plan and elevation, 
the whole making a delightful composition. 

These four designs represent excellent and thoughtful 
work and are fully entitled to the prizes, and j-et it is hard 
to draw the line sharply between these and the plans given 
mention, and between those mentioned and many of those 

not placed in the honor 
list. The six n-iention 
designs are presented 
as of equal merit. 

The design by F. P. 
Smith and J. H. Gailey 
is quiet, strong, and 
dignified, and the 
church, if it had been 
twice as long, would 
have had a verj- im- 
l)ressive interior. 

The design submitted 
by R. W. Maust is 
really a small country 
church, and so simple 
and restrained as to ap- 
peal very strongly. It 
would look well in exe- 
cution. 

The design by Jerauld 



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151 



Dahler is simple and restrained, very distinctly the small 
church as far as its exterior is concerned ; but the plan is 
somewhat pretentious for so small a scale, and the same 
thing: applies to the great coffered vault of the interior. 

The church by Davis, ^NIcGrath & Kiessling- is full of 
good design within and without and indicates everything 
accomplished in a simple way with plain materials. 

The desig'n submitted by E. Donald Robb is one of the 
very few with a Gothic motive. Gothic and brick are not 
very closely associated in the minds of most of us, although 
Holland abounds in examples. The adaptation of brick to 
Gothic forms is well understood here. 

The design by I\I. A. McClenahan is a freak, but a 
good freak ; and if we could not play about at times and 
forget to be serious, none of us would do good work. A 
man who can design this is an able man. 

It seems strange that hardly any one chose to follow 
simple New England, Philadelphia, or Virginia brick 



churches, and those who did handled the style with far 
less skill than those competitors who followed foreign 
types. 

There were numerous others interesting for their idea, 
rendering, or other features, and one hates to pass them 
by without a word. Perhaps the best general word is that 
over and over again the jury said it wished it could detail 
and execute some of the designs ; they were so good and 
needed only a little knowledge about execution to be fine. 
Those not mentioned may believe the jury said this about 
their design. 

R. Clipston Sturgis, Chairman, Boston. 

Thomas R. Kimball, Omaha. 

Burt L. Fenner, New York. 

John Lawrence Mauran, vSt. Louis. 

C. Grant La Faroe, New York. 

fury of .l-a'ard. 




FOURTH PRIZE DESIGN 
SUBMITTED BY H. J. VOSS AND A. F. LAW, BOSTON, MASS. 



152 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




COMPCTTnON FORASMALL BRICK CKURCHANIy PARISH HDUZ 



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MENTION DESIGN 

SUBMITTED BV JKRAUI.D DAHLER, NKW YORK, N. Y. 



MENTION DESIGN 

SUBMITTED BY DAVIS, McGRATH & KIESSIJNG. NEW YORK. N. Y. 






c«DiMo fiogjjPuil 



CHVRCH 
P E T 1 T I O N 



MENTION DESIGN 

SUBMITTED BY E. DONALD ROBB, BOSTON, MASS. 



MENTION DESIGN 

SUBMITTED BY M. A. McCLENAHAN. SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 
AN D*N OTES ^ * 
FOU^THE* MONTH 




Hgg^w^g^aag3agjgaa«a«<<««g<^<Rg^ 



A MIDDLE COURSE. 

The follozvins; article is an e.vpatialion iif>o>i the paper icriiteu by 
Mr. Claude Bragdon, entitled, " The Dead Hand in Architecture,'" 
ivhich zvas published in The Hrickbvilder, //^/j', 1914. Although 
delayed in publication, it is hoped that its appearance note tvill re- 
call .Mr. /'ragdon's paper and that it may elicit an equal degree 
of attention. — Editors. 

THE "dead hand" is clawing at our vitals! Mr. 
Claude Bragdon, through the agency of The Brick- 
BViLDER for July, 1914, leaps into our sedate midst 
in a bold attempt to administer the strongest kind of cas- 
tigation to a taoistic profession. Mr. Bragdon lays at the 
professional door the blame for greater sins of artistic 
omission than have ever appeared in the category of the 
most Jtsthetic saint. If there were a Universal Index of 
" unbuildable " buildings, we should all be homeless (and 
ofticeless) directly, for the pen would hesitate to write 
wdi/icctur upon the majority of modern designs. 

Before the complacent practitioner has read one page of 
this rending attack by the author of the " Beautiful Ne- 
cessity," he will hunt his cyclone cellar, wait in his 
benighted condition of retarded development, and — prob- 
ably come up smiling. And there is the chief of his sins. 
If only he would come up in a chastened frame of mind, 
open to ambitions of growth ; if only he would spread his 
wings and soar like a kite with well balanced tail. But 
his metaphoric tail is too heavy ; it consists of the whole 
weight of unaltered and — so far as he is able to deter- 
mine — unalterable tradition. He has looked so long upon 
one set of forms that he has come to regard them as his 
grandfather's clock, that must needs stand in his hallway 
because it has always stood there. In other words, he 
has stagnated his inventive faculty and is content to ride 
in the rut of irresponsible repetition, disregarding the 
many hands stretched out to aid him. Before Mr. Brag- 
don gets through, the modern architect has not a leg to 
stand on — in fact, he ought to be so contrite and humbly 
submissive as to be completely satisfied to sit down. But 
although Mr. Bragdon uses a sharp pen, he means merely 
to goad the architect, not to stab him. He does not con- 
sider his victim a good-for-nothing, but simply an ami- 
able shirker of his high, moral duty. Let us follow the 
argument, expatiate upon its virtues, and, if we may be 
forgiven, attempt to rehabilitate somewhat the poor archi- 
tect's blasted reputation. 

We have man at the outset diligently working at the 
most apt expression of his day and age, producing ulti- 
mately what we choose to call a style, an imperceptible, 
unconscious growth sprung from an elemental human 
need, the product of careful hands under the guidance 
of conservative minds. Conservatism has nurtured 
this product until it becomes a hothouse plant, whose 
fruit is forced and rapidly decays. So finally the 
virtue becomes subject to the relativity which controls all 



things ; it negates its own good effect. We have the alge- 
braic process of the addition of a negative. But, it is 
alleged, the great number of architects are blindfolded by 
this conservatism and fully persuaded that they yet prac- 
tise it as did Phidias of Athens. They do not see that 
they have been marooned ; the current of life is fast 
sweeping by and their ship of progress is not of twentieth- 
century model. Instead of regarding precedent in the 
light of a handy tool, they consider it rather the food for 
their architectural souls. We would counsel them to cast 
away all forms that are old and that the world has called 
good in the past. On the contrary, we invite them to 
analyze all the past styles, select the fundamentals, imbibe 
the transcending or, in the broad sense of the word, 
classic elements, and eliminate those features which are 
distincth- personal to the individual period or age. That 
is the salvation of the modern style. As some one has 
aptly said, not to wear last year's hat again, not even to 
remodel it, but (gods of millinery protect us !) to dismantle 
last year's hat and to make a new one of the same mate- 
rials. And it is in the materials that the whole secret lies. 

The piirpose of the past is to teach the present, and we 
candidly hope that our present will be tutor to an unsus- 
pecting future. Pupils sometimes learn in spite of the 
teacher, but the lesson is not correctly presented ; the 
maximum of benefit is not attained. How are we present- 
ing ours ? Have we a moral right to prepare for future 
generations a text-book of architectural practice that is 
but a regurgitation of centuries of improvement ? The 
question is a broad one. If we have no right to profit by 
what others have done before us, if we must begin anew 
with tent and igloo and long-house, then the millennium 
will come too soon. On the other hand, if we draw rea- 
sonable inspiration from the past, if we carefully glean 
the secret of impersonal beauty and truth out of the works 
of our forbears, surely we will but carry along the torch. 
Is it not the noblest purpose of every time and style to 
carry along the torch ? The flame, to be sure, is uniform, 
consisting of the sum of beauty and human good : but the 
fuel may, indeed must, be different with each hand that 
keeps it burning. 

As in literature one manner gives place to another. 
Fielding to Dickens, Dickens to Locke ; as in music a 
mode of tone arrangement supersedes its predecessor, even 
with the wide distinction of Wagner and Strauss, so it is in 
every field of human expression. The mental attitude is 
the basis, and by its very definition that basis must con- 
tain the roots of growth, it must be able to germinate. 
And, to put the cjuestion again, does our modern method 
in architecture give such promise ? 

We have advanced along every line ; in response to the 
cry of the century, specialization has produced experts 
in every detail of building, appliances to meet even the 
remotest requirement, short methods, apparatus, time 



153 



154 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



savers, and efficiency to make building- easy. What bene- 
fit has accrued to design as the architectural language of 
the time? Imitation, mimicry, masquerade, are weak words 
to define our lack of backbone. One ag-e builds of stone 
and diii/ds its design ; we build of stern , structural material 
and put over it a mantle of design; nay, we even debase 
that mantle by wilfully imitating one material in another. 
Where is our courage and our conviction ? We decry false 
iewels, but we make our buildings — the permanent record 
of our artistic sentiments — wear false fai^ades, shells 
hiding: the substance and strength which should rightly 
express our life. 

Yes, the architect faces stupendous obstacles. His 
ideals are there, to be sure, but they must be relegated 
while the serious business of life receives attention. And 
what is this insistent business ? It consists of the fault- 
less calculation of a number of personal, firm, and dealer's 
profits, blighting hurry (the formal mode of progress of 
the day) and an obviously and helplessly ignorant public. 
But who has not such obstacles to surmount ? And are 
they not so many gems in the final crown of success ? 

But to return to Mr. Brag^don. The " gflamour of Paris 
and of precedent ' ' has provided a g^racef ul mode of eva- 
sion of one's responsibilities. The public was dumfounded 
by the momentous display of the great groups at Chicago 
in '93, the apotheosis of Paris, and has not yet recovered. 
But we believe it has recovered ; and, what is more, we 
believe it is dissatisfied with the peddling of old trinkets. 
Let us enjoy Europe and profit by her success, it is our 
privilege ; but let us have done with Europe as a present 
source of examples. 

It will be admitted that most originality is half-brother 
to ignorance, volitional or crude, of historic precedent. 
Originality seeks freedom and, having once loosed its 
shackles, does not know what to do with its hands. Hence 
the many amorphous intrusions upon the dignified process 
of stylistic evolution. Of these we wash our hands, for 
they represent the opposite extreme to which the pendu- 
lum may swing. 

The extreme has its greatest antidote in restraint, sty- 
listic restraint, personal restraint. This, Mr. Bragdon 
believes, should be inculcated by the schools of the coun- 
try. He at once accuses the schools of failing signally in 
their duty. But we can say with conviction that the teach- 
ing of architectural history must inexorably remain one 
of the fundamentals of the teaching- of architecture. We 
further maintain that history is a vast storehouse of ideals, 
and that the teaching of architectural history brings out 
restraint as the dominant quality of the noble sequence of 
styles. The teaching of such history is lifeless unless this 
restraint is everywhere emphasized. Restraint is the 
measure of art, especially of the Mistress Art, as Mr. 
Blomfield has christened it. The " sedulous aping- of the 
mere externals " is a salutary form of architectural play ; 
it is likewise a necessary part of architectural training ; 
without it there is no beginning except that of the aborig- 
ines. Unfortunately in most modern schools the teach- 
ing of history and the teaching of design are two alien 
departments. Were the actual precept ably elucidated, 
more frequently brought before the student over his board, 
the field of design would have a saner interpretation. 
Indeed, we see no wiser course for the tyro than the study 
of conventions. Your noiiveau must not blow himself up 



like the frog in the story, feeling within him the inconti- 
nent spark that will set the river of art afire and con- 
vinced that he is the maker of the new style that shall 
express the twentieth century. He should not be per- 
mitted to quote Michelangelo as he stood before Brunel- 
leschi's dome at Florence : " Like you I will not build," 
unless the apostrophe be edited to read : " Like yo^x I icill 
build, until I know better." That is what Michelangelo 
meant. That is what the schools teach ; that is what they 
must teach under present conditions or cease to be schools. 
As student, the embryonic architect will never "know 
better " ; but as a man among men in the harvest field of 
life he will have his opportunity. Let us not require of 
the schools that they teach any more than the simple his- 
tory, theory, and principles. Let the individual himself 
temper his education with experience, for the value of 
maturity is in its corrective influence. Shades of Vignola 
forefend, if the schools begin to teach us " not to remem- 
ber, but only to forg-et." Better far to sign over our 
artistic souls to the blackest arch-fiend of the . /;•/ Nouvcaii 
at once. 

No, Mr. Bragdon, the schools are on the right track ; 
the practitioners are on the wrong one. The schools give 
instruction in the professions on the basis of supply and 
demand, and seek to add to this a quantum of scholarli- 
ness and breadth and humanity. When the architects 
have made a beginning — the gray heads alone are eligible 
for the first — then the schools will leap to their assistance. 
But until then they must remain the stabilizing influence. 

But wherein does the man in practice fail ? Mr. Brag- 
don's scathing indictment covers the whole field of archi- 
tectural morality. The architect fails to think in terms of 
his materials, of his place, of his time. Mr. Bragdon is 
frank in assuming the role of the iconoclast in his arraign- 
ment; but it is the virtiie of the iconoclast that he turns 
the bright spotlight of observation upon the ikon he seeks 
to break, and so shows us how nearly it is hidden in the 
cobwebs of carelessness and neglect. 

In the first count is included the unscrupulous substitu- 
tion and interchange of materials, one doing duty for and 
openly simulating another. All materials have individual 
modes of asserting themselves. Let the architect but 
study them and handle them in terms of themselves. He 
cannot err. What is more, if he conscientiously persists 
in this course his clients' taste will rapidly improve and 
soon of itself require that the truth be told. If there are 
differences in the prices of materials, such honesty would 
have its own reward, for the cheaper material need not 
necessarily be inimical to good design. Notre Dame in 
terra cotta would be as edifying as the Woolworth Tower 
in wood. And so each material has its beauty, its grace, 
its color and texture, not to mention its varied practical ad- 
vantages in durability and lightness, ease of manufacture, 
or constructive feasibility. 

In the second count comes the accusation that climatic 
and environmental requirements are not squarely met. 
This truth is palpable. Yet how many are aware of it ; 
how many have even seen the ludicrous features that char- 
acterize sun shaded structures in sunless places, buildings 
bedecked with ornamental applique that is out of sight 
because of distance or of the concealing blanket of city 
dirt ; or, worse yet, gorgeous edifices resplendent with 
commercial " mosaic " and composed of cubby-holes 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



155 



intended for the unwholesome habitat of ,i^t////s homo / 
It is in the third accusation that we must ag-ain ask Mr. 
Bragdon to go more slowly. The substance of it is that 
the architect uses forms too readily on the suggestion of the 
pattern-book, gathers them from the antique or the medie- 
val, as may be required, without regard for significance 
or contemporary value, and that he has not the courage 
to develop forms expressing his own time. Mr. Bragdon 
has advised us in his book to "go to nature — the source 
of ever}- kind of formal beauty." He will admit, we be- 
lieve, that nature forms have not often appeared in the 
history of ornament without an inherent meaning, an alle- 
goric or symbolic connection. This is the real reason for 
their continuance in many cases. The process of simplifi- 
cation, call it conventionalization, if you will, refines out 
types, and succeeding generations use types apart from 
their significance. It is recognized that in modern times, 
with plentiful libraries, newspapers, architectural periodi- 
cals and means of communication, motives no longer need 
such intimate significance to imbue them with life. Thej' 
do not need to be dry and uninteresting as a consequence, 
and where necessar}- a proper meaning may yet be given 
them. The fact that a lion's head was used in the past 
does not render invalid the use of a lion's head in the 
architecture of the present. That point of view seems to 
indicate more of an iconoclastic tendency than Mr. Brag- 
don himself would confess. Let us go to nature, then, 
and avoid the lion now under the ban and choose the head 
of the buffalo. It will not be difficult to concede this step ; 
it is reasonable, national, and modern. But we cannot 
yet see other thoroughly modern and national items, such 
as compressed air riveters, taking their places as duly 
representative motives in design. We feel assured that 
certain type forms will persist ; it is a phenomenon of 
ornament that this should be so. Perhaps, also, they are 
a gentle reminder of the greatness that has gone before, 
and may even serve to teach us that the germ cannot 
sprout entirely apart from all external influences, for the 
seed needs water. 

And here we end our species of counter-reformation. 
We are heartily on the side of Mr. Bragdon in his mis- 
sionary work — would that every member of the profession 
had his courage. And the great army of American 
builders of the beautiful needs something more than a cur- 
tain lecture. Yet we honestly feel that the " dead hand " 
is harmless; that it is, indeed, dead, and that it dwells 
among us as a valued relic. Architects will get rid of it 
soon enough, but not until they have a better substitute. 
At any rate, let us hope that, though the hand be dead, 
the arm is yet alive and sinewy ; that the body is in tune 
with the time, full of strength, ambition, and promise. — 
KICHAKI) FRANZ BACH, 
Curator, School of ArcliUciiurc, Columbia ('uivcrxHy. 

THE month of May i)resents a comparatively favor- 
able showing in the building industry. Permits 
were issued in 71 cities during the month for con- 
struction work aggregating over $70,000,000. This ex- 
ceeds the total for April, which was $64,652,631. As 
compared with the corresponding months of 1914, both 
April and May are almost on an even basis. There was 
in April a decrease of 1 per cent ; in May of 2 per cent ; 
but during the first three months of the year there was a 



much more marked slirinkage as compared with the first 
quarter of 1914. New York makes a better showing in 
May than it made in April, its May gains amounting to 
50 per cent. Chicago also, in spite of its labor complica- 
tions, shows a comparative gain of 14 per cent. 

The official building permits issued by the 71 cities 
during May, as received by the American Contractor, 
New York, total $70,273,533, as compared with $72,057,- 
666 for May, 1914. Of these 71 cities 22 make gains, the 
more notable instances of activity including, in addition 
to New York and Chicago, the following; Cleveland, 
a gain of 134 per cent ; Denver, 99 per cent ; Harrisburg, 
152 ; Lincoln, 224 ; Hartford, 61 ; New Orleans, 46 ; Okla- 
homa, 49; St. Joseph, 76; Sioux City, 59; and Wilkes- 
Barre, 177. 

MANY architects will undoubtedly be interested in 
the meeting of the American School Hygiene 
Association, which is to be held in San Francisco, 
June 25 and 26, under the patronage of the Panama-Pacific 
International Exposition. The educational exhibit of the 
exposition is itself very comprehensive and it is planned 
to supplement this with an exhibit of the most progressive 
and hygienic types among the schools of California. 

This will be the eighth congress of the National Asso- 
ciation, last year's meeting having been postponed on 
account of the war. The Congress of 1913, it will be re- 
called, was merged into the Fourth International Congress 
on vSchool Hygiene, very successfully held at Buffalo, and 
it is to be expected that the papers in this present meet- 
ing will have the same great practical value as those that 
appear in the proceedings of former congresses. 

It is hoped to place the importance of the hygiene 
movement as represented in this Congress of the Ameri- 
can School Hygiene Association strongly before all those 
who are responsible for health conditions in our public 
schools. Among these responsible people there are per- 
haps none that are more influential than the architects of 
the country. Any architect who has even the remotest 
interest in schools can derive substantial benefit from 
membership in this Congress and in studying its ])roceed- 
ings, whether expecting to attend or not. The member- 
ship fee is $3, which should be sent to Dr. Wm. Palmer 
Lucas, vSecretary-Treasurer, University Hospital, vSan 
Francisco. This gives full membership in the Association 
for one year, including a copy of the printed proceedings. 

PLATE DESCRIPTION. 

Hou.se ok Ciiakmcs Paxton, Esq., Lakf. Fokicst, 
Ili,. Plates 76-7X. This house is veneered with a me- 
dium textured brick laid up with gray mortar joints and 
trimmed with Bedford stone. The roofs are covered with 
stained cedar shingles. The outside finish is white pine, 
])ainted, with the exception of entrance doors and frames, 
which are of white oak. 

The interior is finished in white wood enameled through- 
out except the main hall and stairs, which are of white 
oak, stained and varnished rubbed, and the service por- 
tion, which is finished natural. 

All plumbing is of modern type with vitreous china 
lavatories, enameled iron tubs, and sinks and syphon jet 
closets. The house is heated with steam and the boiler 



156 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



is provided with an auxiliary coil for heating- water for the 
domestic supply in addition to the small hot water heater. 
A vacuum-cleaning- system is also installed. 

House of E. D. Speck. Esq., (Jrosse Point, Mich. 
Plates 79-81. This house is located at Grosse Point 
Shores, about twelve miles from the center of Detroit. 
The property has a frontagfe on Lake vSt. Clair of 600 feet 
and a depth of 8,000 feet. The place was planted about 
twenty-five years ago by the older Olmstead and has 
beautiful trees and shrubbery. The approach to the house 
is from the northwest and the carriage entrance is on 
that side. The terrace front faces southeast. 

The first story of the house is built of brick laid with 
wide flush joints with buff stone trimmings. The second 
floor timber work is of oak of rather a grayish brown 
color, with rough plaster panels, colored grayish cream. 
The roof is of red tile laid random edge and not selected 
for color. The main hall, which extends through the 
house, is finished in English oak of a grayish brown color, 
paneled from floor to ceiling. The hangings are tuscan 
red with a Sharistan rug in the same predominating color. 
The drawing room is paneled in French gray and has a 
decorated ceiling. Hangings and rugs are a light mauve 
color. The dining room is paneled in English oak of a 
grayish brown color, the ceiling is decorated in cream 
white, and the hangings and rugs are gray-blue and gold. 
The living room is also finished in English oak with the 
walls above the wainscot covered with gray-green plush, 
the hangings being of a darker green velour trimmed with 
old gold. Adjoining the living room is the den finished 
in gum wood, gray-brown in color. A small loggia opens 
from this room, which gives a vista of the rose garden to 
the northwest. To the southwest of the living room is the 
sun room finished with brick walls, timbered ceiling, and 
a tile floor. This room leads to the sunken garden to the 
southwest with its pergola and pools. 

The construction is fireproof throughout, and all mod- 
ern equipments have been provided, including refrigerat- 
ing, sweeping, and water softening plants, indirect hot 
water heating with thermostat control, and a push button 
electric elevator. 

The second floor is finished in ivory white with mahog- 
any doors and trim. The service portion is entirely in 
the wing of the third floor. 

First Church of Christ, Scientist, Los Angeles, 
Cal. Plates 86-88. An unusually shaped lot is partly 
responsible for the unique plan and unusual exterior of 
this church. The sloping condition of the site has been 
taken advantage of by placing the Sunday-school room 
with its entrance at the low end. 

The main entrance to the auditorium is at the point of 
intersection of the streets. This plan enabled the foyer 
and auditorium to be placed on the same level and but a 
few steps above the grade of Alvarado street. The main 
auditorium is 95 by 91 feet in size and seats 1,125 per- 
sons. Over the foyer is a balcony easily reached by two 
flights of stairs, seating 175 additional persons, making a 
total seating capacity of 1,300 people. One of the fea- 
tures of the auditorium are two large alcoves on either 
side raised about 3 feet above the level of the auditorium 
floor, like the loges of a theater. One of these loges 
has two sets of entrance doors opening on a spacious 
arcaded porch on the south side of the building, which 



with its adjoining waiting room provides a pleasant place 
for persons who have brought children to Sunday-school 
to wait while it is in session. The ceiling of the audi- 
torium is coiTered to increase its acoustic properties, and 
for the same reason the side walls were lined with felt 
instead of being plastered and a high wooden wainscot- 
ing placed around the auditorium. The rostrum and 
readers' desks are arranged in the way usual to Christian 
Science churches. The organ console has been sunk into 
the floor of the auditorium immediately in front of the 
rostrum so that the organist would hear the sounds from 
the organ in approximately the same way that the congre- 
gation would. 

The entire basement of the building below the main 
auditorium floor has been excavated. The major portion 
of the basement has been taken up with a large Simday- 
school room which receives an abundance of light and air 
and comfortably seats 900 people. 

The building has solid brick walls with a gi'ay brick 
facing laid up in Flemish bond with darker headers. The 
roof is covered with red mission tile. 

First Church of Christ, Scientist, Worcester, 
Mass. Plates 89, 90. This church is constructed of 
brick, faced with golden bricks in three light shades, laid 
at random as to color. The bonding is done with flush 
headers every fourth course. The pediment and columns 
and other trimmings are terra cotta of a light buif color, 
which blends in pleasing effect with the brick. 

The heating system is low pressure steam, with direct- 
indirect and direct radiation. The ventilation of the 
auditorium is effected with a gravity system during the 
winter months and in summer through an open dentil 
course in the ceiling light, fresh air being admitted 
through the ventilating box bases of the direct-indirect 
radiators. A steam coil is installed in a space above 
the ceiling light to keep the sunlight above clear from 
snow and ice. A sufficient velocity is secured by the heat 
from this coil to ventilate the upper part of the auditorium. 
The auditorium, which seats 450 people, was designed 
without windows, the lighting arrangement being an 
adaptation of a principle of the ancient temples to modern 
usage. Light is admitted through the ceiling and has 
proved to be a very successful method, as may be judged 
from the illustrations of the interior. The ceiling light is 
glazed with acid treated rippled glass, and the skylight 
with wired hammered glass. The diffusion of light is 
very good. Artificial light also is admitted to the audi- 
torium through this ceiling light, there being installed 
between the ceiling light and skylight fifty-four 100-watt 
tungsten lamps, with a 12-inch cone-shaped mirror reflec- 
tor over each lamp. The ceiling pans shown under the 
balcony are installed to relieve the shadows caused by the 
projections and not for necessary illumination. 

While the omission of windows was primarily a matter 
of design, it also fulfilled a requirement of the building 
committee that the congregation in the auditorium should 
not be disturbed by noises caused by traffic in the streets. 
The omission of windows might be thought to give the 
auditorium an oppressive atmosphere which would react 
upon the imagination of the congregation ; but, to the 
contrary, it has made the building more comfortable and, 
in addition, ensures it being cool during the hottest sum- 
mer months. 



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CKBVI 




VOLUME XXIV 



CONTENTS 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 





JULY 1915 



Architea 



Plate 



APARTMENTS, CRAIG, 58TH STREET AND MONROE AVENUE, 

CHICAGO, ILL Richard E. Schmidt, Garden & Martin 97, 98 

APARTMENT HOUSE, NORTH STREET, BUFFALO, N. Y Green & IVkks 99, 100 

BATH HOUSE, SOUTH SIDE, PITTSBURGH, PA MacClure & Spahr 101,102 

KINDERGARTEN, DOWNERS GROVE, DOWNERS GROVE, ILL. 

Perkins, Fellows & Hamilton 103-105 
RELIEF FOUNDATION, THE WINIFRED MASTERSON BURKE, 

WHITE PLAINS, N. Y. McKtm, Mead & White 91-96 



SJi 



LETTERPRESS 

PALACE OF THE MAYORALGO FAMILY, ESTREMADURA, SPAIN_^_ 

EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS , Gordon Robb 

VII. Measured Drawing of Woodwork in Parlor, "The Lee Mansion," < .* ^ r> 
Marblehead, Mass. } M. A. Dyer 

STAIRWAYS IN HOUSE OF MODERATE COST John T. Fallon 

II. The Colonial Type of Stairway. 

Illustrations from Photographs and Drawings 
GARDENER'S COTTAGE, THE LANE ESTATE, ST. JAMES, 

LONG ISLAND, N. Y 

Ford, Butler & Oliver, Architects. 

HEATING AND VENTILATION OF SCHOOLHOUSES Harold L Alt 

Illustrations from Plans and Diagrams 

THE CHURCH CLUB, ST. PAUL, MINN. 

Frederick H. Brooke, Architect. 
PLUMBING INSTALLATION AND SEWAGE DISPOSAL.. CAar/ej /4. fVhittemore 

IV. Mechanical Appliances Used in Plumbing Systems and the 
General Principles of Sewage Disposal. 

TWO SMALL HOUSES AT ERIE, PA 

Frank B. Meade, Architect. 
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF ROOF AND WALL TRUSSES 

. Mal-vcrd A. Howe, C.£. 

V. The Hammer Beam and Scissors Types of Trusses. (Concluding paper.) 

Illustrations from Diagrams 
AS HE IS KNOWN 

Being Brief Sketches of Contemporary Members of the Architectural Profession. 
Messrs. Edwin Hawley Hewitt, Louis Christian Mullgardt, Albert Kelsey, 
Harold Van Buren Magonigle. 

PLATE DESCRIPTION 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH 



Page 
Frontispiece 



174 



175 



179 




Published Monthly by 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 
Boston, Mass. 

Yearly Subscription, payable in advance, U. S. A., Insular Possessions and Cuba j!5.00 
^5.50 Foreign Countries in the Postal Union 6.00 




IfcT.- 



^11 



wn 



Single Copies. 



50 cents 



All Copies Mailed Flat 



Trade Supplied by the American News Comp.iny and it.i Branches. Entered as 

Second Class Matter, March 12, 1892, at the Post Office at Boston, Mass. 

Copyright, 1915, by Rogers and Manson Company 

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20 



THE BRICKBVILDER 





Notice to Architects 



For your information, we publish a list of 

those licensed to manufacture 

RUG texture brick. 



II 

I 

i 

I 



Alliance Brick Co. (The) . 

Bloomfield Brick Co. . 

Boone Urick, Tile & Paving Co 

Decatur Brick Manufacturing Co. 

Des Moines Clay Co. . 

Everhard Co. (The) . 

Kirchner Brick Co. (The) . 

Kulage Brick Works . 

Milton Pressed Brick Co. (Ltd.) 

Los Angeles Pressed Brick Co. 

McArthur Brick Co. (The) 

New Lexington Clay Mfg. Co. (The) 

Twin City Brick Co. . 

Wadsworth Brick & Tile Co. (The) 

Western Brick Co. 



Alliance, Ohio 
Bloomfield, Ind. 
Boone, Iowa 
Decatur, 111. 
Des Moines, Iowa 
Massillon, Ohio 
East Fultonham, Ohio 
Hobart, Ind. 
Milton, Ontario 
Los Angeles, Cal. 
McArthur, Ohio 
New Lexington, Ohio 
St. Paul, Minn. 
Wadsworth, Ohio 
Danville, 111. 



Any others producing RUG brick are 
infringing our rights under our patents 
and are doing so illegally. We made for 
the RUG brick a permanent place in 
architecture and believe architects will, 
HI a spirit of fairness, protect our rights 
in specifying 

Hocking Valley Products Company 

Sole owner of RUG Brick Patents and manufacturer of 

( ireen3alQl^ uq1 ^rick 

D. E. REAGAN, President COLUMBUS, OHIO 




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THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION 
EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS 




'T~'///S is a most iiili-rcstiiis; example of the 
-*- eighteenth eentioy type of drawing room in 
zchieh the fireplace end is paneled to the ceiling. 
The pilasters, ivith a slight entasis and hcauti- 



panels, ivhieh are made of single pieces of wood 
in an effective manner. It is claimed that the 
interior woodwork in this house zvas made i?t 
England. The fireplace facing is of Dutch 



fully carved capitals, frame the heavily moulded pictorial lilies in black and ichile. 




(nrn ) 



/A'/ J- JHO W ■ ?Z OJE C TION OF COR. Ml CI. ■ 



f^ELOOK 




•ONE- QVARTER -INCH ■ 5CALE • ELEVATipiM 



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JVLY- 191^ 



•WOODWORIC-IIM-PAIILO^-OF- 
•LEE • MANSION- AT' MAOLEHEAD- 

BV1LT1N-17(d6- 'MASJ- 



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•DR.AWN- BY- 
•GORJ^OM-ROBB- 
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PALACE OF THE MAYORALGO FAMILY, ESTREMADURA, SPAIN 
ERECTED ABOUT 1400 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



VOLUME XXIV 



JULY, 1915 



NUMBER 7 



Stairways in Houses of Moderate Cost. 

n. THE COLONIAL TYPE OF STAIRWAY. 

By JOHN T. FALLON. 



THE predominance of tradition in the history of a 
nation's architecture is more or less axiomatic. Even 
with the access to all that has been done in the past 
which modern artists possess, it is impossible to trans- 
plant a style racially different from our own and to cause 
it to grow and take root. It will inevitably die a natural 
death, as has been proven by Richardson's experiment 
with French Romanesque, 
or, if it becomes a vital ele- 
ment of our own work, it 
will take on a recognizably 
different aspect. 

Now, from the early 
days of the colonies, up to 
the decline of taste in the 
Mid-Victorian Era, our 
main outside artistic im- 
pulse caine from England, 
from which source we in- 
herited our habits of living 
and in a restricted sense 
our ideas of domestic plan- 
ning. The great accessi- 
bility in this country of 
wood as a building material 
changed substantially the 
forms and details of the 
Colonial house from those 
of Georgian England, but 
the stairway is one of the 
exceptions from this state- 
ment. We have seen in a 
previous article that the 
English stairs were built 
of wood, and consequently 
little or no adaptation was 
necessary to the importa- 
tion of this feature. 

The hall invariably extending through the width of the 
house, with the stairs at one end, is distinctly Colonial, as 
was the same tendency repeated in the simple rectangular 
planning of the living rooms. However, the Jacobean 
arcade, shutting off the staircase from the hall, persists in 
Colonial work. This division takes now the form of an 
elliptical arch, now the form of a beam supported by 
columns with varied spacing or even without support. 

In both English and American houses, the stairs usually 
run in short straight flights, then a (luarter landing, then 
another flight at right angles. The Colonial type of 
house usually demanded a door under the landing, which 
influenced their designers to make the first flight of suffi- 




Stairway in the House of Rev. Joseph Hutcheson, Warren, R. \. 

Charles A. Piatt, Architect 



cient length to bring the first landing to the proper level 
to allow for this door height. The width of the hall some- 
times operated to suppress the intermediate flight and to 
make necessary only one landing. 

A recent writer has thus summarized the typical Colo- 
nial plan: " The first flight rising from the first floor con- 
tained roughly two-thirds the total number of steps needed 

to reach the second. At 
the top of the flight was a 
level landing crossing the 
hall. Thence continuing 
to the floor above was a 
second flight containing 
the remaining one-third of 
steps. By this means 
head room was obtained 
under the landing for a 
rear entrance to the hall. 
The scheme adopted in 
some modern Colonial 
houses of having a flight 
on each side of the hall 
ascend to the landing, with 
a shorter flight continuing 
to the second floor from the 
center of the landing, has 
no counterpart in Colonial 
work. But it is not an un- 
reasonable elaboration of 
the style ; and that we have 
no example in old houses 
is perhaps only because 
the arrangement calls for 
a larger scale of building 
than the means of the 
Colonists afforded. The 
introduction of steps in the 
landing, causing a break 
in its level, is only to be seen in a few houses built 
towards the end of the eighteenth century." 

This introduction was not a space-saving compromise, 
as he has pointed out, but a distinct step towards the 
elliptical stair that rose in one flight from floor to floor, as 
may be deduced from the absolute elimination of the 
newel, already suppressed in importance, and the round- 
ing of the landing corners, carrying rail and string up in 
one warped line. The full elliptical stair is a develop- 
ment that was reserved for a few late Colonial examples 
of the early nineteenth century. The increasing techni- 
cal skill of the stair builder was shown in this last phase, 
which is comjiarable in the mastery over materials with 



160 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



161 




Stairway in House at Kensington, N. Y. 
Aymar Embury II, Architect 

the finest efforts of contemporary French stone masons. 

Before discussing more fully the details of the Colonial 
stair, it might be well to call attention to the association 
of Georgian work with the use of mahogany, and to re- 
view the causes that led up to it. This wonderfully col- 
ored wood, with its inimitable grain, is indigenous to 
Central America and the West Indies. Its beauties were 
first discovered in 1595 by one of the members of an ex- 
pedition of vSir Walter Raleigh, but it was not until the 
opening of the eighteenth cen- 
tury that its suitability for cabi- 
net work and furniture began 
to attract attention. It came 
rapidly into vogue, primarily 
through the efforts of Dr. Gib- 
bons, who influenced a wood 
carver named Wollaston to bring 
it to the notice of the British 
public. It was originally im- 
ported from Jamaica, where the 
bulk of the eighteenth century 
supply was obtained, the ex- 
ports from this island being 
521,300 feet in the year 1753. 

The use of mahogany for the 
hand rails of Colonial stairs was 
general. This part of the stair 
is naturally subjected to great 
wear, and a wood of hard tex- 
ture and handsome grain is de- 
manded. Mahogany fulfils these 
conditions admirably. Its use 
was seldom extended to the 
spindles and treads, as consid- 
erations both of cost and of taste 



prevented a wider employment. The hand rail became 
more delicate as the development went on ; its profile 
was generally classic and refined, although occasionally 
a simple round section was used. It was carried con- 
tinuously from floor to floor, a suppressed baluster newel 
being used to turn the corners. A favorite modification 
was the sweeping rise of the rail at the landings, as if 
to surmount the newel. A half section of the hand rail 
was often repeated along the top of the wainscot. This 
stair wainscot, which is so often omitted entirely in 
modern houses of the inexpensive type, was inevitable in 
the old work ; in the cheaper houses it was usually pre- 
served in line by a simple wall moulding carried up at the 
height of the rail. These wood wainscots were never 
elaborate affairs ; generally, they consisted of simple 
panels with occasionally a balancing of the newels by a 
fiat pilaster treatment. 

As mentioned in the previous article, the Georgian de- 
velopment of the baluster led to attenuation and delicacy. 
A usual treatment was the use of two or three different 
designs to a tread, although this is not inevitable. In- 
deed, a favorite variation from the turned types was a 
square spindle, sometimes with groovings on the face and 
sometimes without. The start of the rail was made from 
a small, unobtrusive newel siirrounded by a circle of bal- 
usters. The other variant, a start from a prominent and 
projecting newel, although frequently used, was never 
particularly happy. 

The string was always an open one with step ends in con- 
sole form, sometimes beautifully carved, but more usually 
with a simple design cut in the flat and applied. The infinite 
variation in these designs adds great fascination to the 
study of these old stairways. It was not until the end of 
the period that the landing newels were entirely done 
away with and the string continued in one line ; in most 
of the examples, the newel projected d<nvn to receive the 
string and to be ornamented below by some simple drop. 




Stairway in House of C. D. Gibson, Esq., New York, N. Y. 
McKim, Mead & White, Architects 



162 



THE BRICKBVILDER 







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THE BRICKBVILDER 



163 



The soffit of the stairs demands some attentioii. In the 
older work the first flight was usually supported by a base 
of paneling-, and the soffit so concealed. The soffit of the 
top flight was filled in flat with plaster on a line with the 
bottom of the string', sometimes paneled and sometimes 
left plain. The practice of showing the soffits of the in- 
dividual steps as if they were solid blocks, common in the 
late English stairs, was used in very few instances, one 
being that of vShirley in Virginia. 

The painting of Colonial stairways was always white, 
and any other color now seen on the woodwork of an old 
building may be safely assumed to be of a later date. The 
only contrasting notes to this monotone color scheme was 
the rich tone of the mahogany hand rail and wainscot cap. 
The wall of the staircase was whitewashed, if a simple 
house, or papered with imported wall paper in the larger 
houses. Here may be said to be another Georgian inno- 
vation. Although there were examples before this time, 
wall paper first came into general use in this century. 
The early wall papers used in Colonial days were printed 
by hand on square pieces of hand-made paper from wood 
blocks, and it was not until 1800 that roller presses began 
to be introduced. The designs were first copied from 
figured velvets and brocades, but soon landscape and 
architectural subjects replaced these and continued in 
vogue through the period of the Empire. 

The problem of the stairs in modern houses of moderate 
cost can hardly be said to have received the study that 
our ancestors gave to it. When the traditional types of 
Colonial stairs are faithfully copied, not merely in detail 
but in the essentials of planning, we produce examples 



that are, at least, comparable with the antecedents; but 
generally in the more inexpensive houses the problem is 
slighted and neglected. 

The illustrations show how eminently suited to our 
modern life are these Colonial types, and how even in a 
literal transcript the .selective faculty may be exercised to 
produce not a finer model, but stairways that bear com- 
parison with the high water marks of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. Occasionally, French or Italian detail is introduced 
into the design to give a modern flavor or to produce an 
air of sophistication that our forefathers' work lacked. 
But, on the whole, it may be said that for practical utility 
and as an ;esthetic inheritance, the Georgian stair is one 
of the most important influences in American interior 
architecture. Tastes may veer in one direction or an- 
other, but the basic elements of our stairway designs 
will waver little from the Colonial stair. 

The art of the stair builder was in earlier days an im- 
portant component of the building trades. It is certain 
that the present day artisans are not less skilled, but, since 
the architect has laid less stress on the design of the stair- 
way, the artisan has come to have less training in its 
construction. Discussion has recently centered ujwn the 
training of the individual workman as a means towards 
the elimination of the stereotyped and conventional in 
architecture. Stair building as a trade has been only im- 
perfectly transmitted to the present generation of work- 
men, but by a conscious eff^ort on the part of the architect 
to keep this feature on the high plane to which it once 
rose, its structural possibilities could be once more easily 
realized and its design thereby improved. 




Stairway in House of Robert J. Collier, Esq., Wickatunk, N. J. 
John Russell Pope, Architect 



164 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




The Heating and Ventilation of Schoolhouses. 



By HAROLD L. ALT. 



THE subject of heating; and ventilating the school- 
house has undoubtedly been given as much attention 
and thought as any other one particular type of build- 
ing, and it is quite possible that, owing to the constant re- 
currence of this problem in all portions of the country, it 
might be said that it has been met by a greater variety of 
solutions than can be found in any 
other form of bi;ilding. Yet, with 
all of the thought, time, and money 
which has been put into this prob- 
lem, it is a peculiar fact that it is 
not yet possible to assert that the 
perfect ventilating system has been 
devised. 

In the first place, — what is a per- 
fect ventilating system ? We cannot 
by any possibility maintain air in- 
side of a building at the standard of 
purity possessed by the air before 
entering, owing to the fact that im- 
purities are constantly added to the 
air within an occupied room. The 
only exception to this is when the 
outside air is so bad that mechani- 
cal or physical methods of cleaning 
may remove a quantity of undesir- 
able exterior elements which might 
be accounted more deadly than 
those which the air would pick up 
within the room before being ex- 
pelled throiigh the vent openings. 
It is not within the province of 
this article to enter into the theory 
of ventilation so much in regard to 
the scientific or medical side as it 
is to point out to the conservative 
architect the methods which are 
giving the greatest satisfaction to- 
day according to the standards based 
upon well recognized and generally 
accepted theories. Yet, in passing 
over this point of the discussion, it 
is hard to omit the mention of an 
actual test in a regular schoolroom 
operating under normal conditions. 
It was demonstrated that it is pos- 
sible to re-use the air of the fully 
occupied room for continiious peri- 
ods of three hours with the usual 
recess interval and without the use 
of any of the outside air whatso- 
ever, except that which leaked in 
through crevices and occasionally 
opened doors, it being impossible, 
of course, to keep the class rooms 
absolutely air tight. It is also in- 
teresting to note that this test was 
carried on for five hours a day for 




/« //le plans accompanying this article the 
rooms have been indicated by letters as foltoivs : 



.-(A' 

/)'/. 

/>'A' 

f 

CA' 

(; 



Aiiditdi itim 
Assembly Hall 
Anleninni 
Hoys' HiiyKKim 
Bovs' Ijnker 
linilci- Koom 
Class Room 
Coal Room 
Cymnasium 



The apparatus has been indicated as folloxvs : 



AH' 
11 
D 
/■' 



.lir H'clsltri 

Hoili'i- 

naiiilH'i 

J-'ltH 



three weeks without perceptible effect on the school chil- 
dren, who were carefully observed by experts making- 
psychological and physiological tests ; these tests were 
compared with a corresponding class in another room 
which was ventilated according to the best standard 
methods and practices of to-day, with no apparent differ- 
ence between the two. 

In spite of this experiment, how- 
ever, there are few who are yet 
ready to admit that fresh air is not 
required or that the condition of the 
air in a room can artificially be made 
as desirable for human beings with- 
out a fresh air supply as with it. 
Until experiments demonstrating 
this fact have been made in multi- 
ple, with results of an invariably 
successful nature, the engineer and 
architect are not justified in depart- 
ing from the old standards of the 
recjuired amount of fresh air per 
pupil per minute. 

It is a question if the average 
architect in designing a schoolhouse 
takes into proper consideration on 
his preliminary sketches the re- 
quirements of the ventilation sys- 
tem. While the modern trend is tow- 
ards the elimination of this trouble, 
there are still many architects 
who cause themselves much need- 
less work and later revising of plans 
by not making proper allowances in 
the preliminary drawings for the 
necessary ducts and flues. 

In schoolhouse ventilation work 
there are three systems of piping 
which are in common use. These 
may be termed the trunk line, or 
single diict system, the double duct 
system, and the individual duct sys- 
tem. 

The trunk line system is the one 
which is most familiar, a large per- 
centage of the air blast duct work 
being laid out by this method. The 
double duct system, which consists 
of a warm air duct supplying two- 
thirds of hot air and the cold-air 
duct supplying one-third of cold air 
to the base of the flues, the air be- 
coming mixed in the flues and enter- 
ing the room at a desired tempered 
degree, is also fairly well known. 

The individual duct system, how- 
ever, has advantages over the other 
two. This system gives every room 
its own duct and flue continuously 



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I'R 

II' 



(r'irls' Locki'i 

Citis' I'laytoom 

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Library 

PassaKf 

Rn iUilion Room 

Teachers' R()i>m 

I 'eslibiile 

I otitic Room 

IVaiilrobe 



Healer 

Re-beale. 



'il'erinii llealei 



165 



166 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



from the fan to the room outlet and regulates the tempera- 
ture of the air to suit the requirements of each individual 
room. It has been found by experience that rooms situ- 
ated on the north and south sides, or on the windward and 
leeward sides, of a building will not require air at the 
same temperature, the difference being several degrees. 
The main objection to the common trunk line system 
ordinarily used is that this varia- 
tion of requirement cannot be 
satisfied. 

Another advantage possessed by 
the individual ducts is the matter 
of head room in the basement. 
The argument is often advanced, 
however, that the double ducts, 
with the air mixing in the vertical 
flue, give the same temperature 
control as the individual duct in 
which the air mixes back at the 
heater, and at the same time they 
permit the use of the trunk line 
system. This is true, but between 
the heater and the base of the flue 
not only must two ducts be carried, 
but they must have a cross-sec- 
tional area of approximately 50 per 
cent more than actually required. 
This is clearly understood when it 
is noted that on a very cold day 
the cold air duct may be almost 
entirely shut off at the base of 
each flue, thus requiring all the 
ventilation for the building to come 
through the hot air duct, while on 
a warmer day the warm air duct 
may be 50 per cent closed and the 
cold air duct utilized to its full 
capacity. Therefore, where these 
ducts are extended along the base- 
ment ceiling, as is usually the case 
(or any place where head room is 
an object), the individual duct will 
make an appreciable saving in the 
height. 

The first form of heating which 
was applied to schoolhouses was 
that of the fireplace and the stove. 
Later, however, as advancement 
in the art of heating became more 
pronounced and ventilation was 
required, furnaces were substituted and are still in use at 
the present time in some of the older schools, although 
generally with more or less dissatisfaction. 

In order to show the progress of modern heating and 
ventilation, let us first take Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4, which show 
the third, second, first, and basement floor plans respec- 
tively of one of the older schools of moderate size in 
which furnaces had been in use. These furnaces required 
maintaining four separate fires, and at their best were 
subject to back drafts on days of high winds and to 
other gravity hot air heating troubles as well. This school 
was recently remodeled as shown, so as to eliminate these 




Fig. 4 



gravity at times when outside conditions made such oper- 
ation feasible, and at the same time to avoid the troubles 
usually experienced with the plain gravity system. 

To accomplish this a fan F was installed which would 
force the air into the heating chambers, across the heaters 
and up the flues, thus assisting gravity enough to counter- 
act adverse outside conditions. 

It is not intended to hold up this 
school to the architect as an ideal 
installation, but rather to employ 
it as a means of showing what can 
be done to improve the existing 
unsatisfactory furnace systems. 
Owing to this being a remodeled 
system, some of the flues were 
installed by necessity in places 
where, architecturally speaking, 
they have no business being lo- 
cated ; but this could, of course, 
readily be overcome in a new 
building properly designed to ac- 
commodate the ventilating system. 
The exhaust flues are heated 
with vertical aspirating pipes, as- 
sisted by radiators located in the 
flues at the third floor, as shown in 
Fig. 1. 

Some time after this school was 
remodeled another school building 
was erected a short distance away 
and connected to the old building 
by means of a pipe tunnel. The 
plans for the new building are 
shown in Figs. 5 to 8, inclusive, 
which are the attic floor, second 
floor, first floor, and basement 
plans respectively. In this later 
school, as shown in Fig. 8, an air 
filter screen S was installed, to- 
gether with a fan F, which forces 
the air over the heating coils H. 
The system is arranged .so that 
either the gymnasium, the audito- 
rium, or the class rooms may be 
used at different times, all sup- 
I^lied from the same fan F, the 
flues being opened and closed as 
desired through a system of switch 
dampers. 

In the attic plan, Fig. 5, it will 
be seen that the exhaust flues are connected together 
and carried through the roof, circulation being assisted 
by the heaters H, which make aspirating flues out of 
these vents. 

This arrangement is a step in advance of the arrange- 
ment in the older buildings, having a more positive air 
supply movement, a certain amount of temperature con- 
trol, filtered fresh air, and a concentration of apparatus. 

Of course a fan system on the vents is also most desir- 
able, as this produces an almost constant pull on the 
rooms, rendering it possible to regulate the quantity of 
fresh air much more closely than when aspirating flues 



troubles and to give a ventilation system furnished by are in use. It is quite remarkable the amount of differ- 



J 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



167 




Fig. 5 



ence made in the amount of incoming air by the assistance 
given through the exhaust outlets. 

Still further progress is indicated in Fig. 10, where the 
individual duct system is used and individual tempera- 
ture regulation thus secured for the various rooms. For 
the purpose of this discussion the upper floors of this 
building may be assumed to be treated in a manner simi- 
lar to the floor plans already shown. The small additional 
plan of the boilers shows the smoke connection and method 
of running the flue into the chimney. 

The basement plan, shown in Fig. 10, is an especially 
good typical duct, illustration showing as it does the use 
of the individual ducts for the class rooms located with 
varying exposures, combined with a large trunk line duct 
supplying the auditorium above. A system of switch 
dampers is installed, throwing either the class room {i.e., 
the small individual ducts) or the auditorium {i.e., the 
large trunk duct) into service as desired. 

The chief weakness in 
this installation consists 
of the lack of facilities 
for cleaning and purify- 
ing the air, it being ab- 
solutely impossible to 
install either an air 
washer or a filter screen 
in the space allotted to 
the ventilating plant. 
This is, perhaps, not 
quite as serious a con- 
sideration in this par- 
ticular case as it might 
be under other condi- 
tions, owing to the fact 
that this school is in a 
suburban location where 
the air is of unusually 
clear character. 

The ideal layout of a 
ventilating system to 
which it is desired to 
call the reader's atten- Fig. 7 



tion is shown in plan 
and elevation in Fig. 9, 
this being one of two sets 
of apparatus of identical 
nature now being in- 
stalled in a new high 
school in process of con- 
struction. In this par- 
ticular school the appa- 
ratus shown is purely a 
class room proposition, 
taking care of all rooms 
on the left side of the 
building. The other ap- 
paratus is situated across 
the corridor and furnishes 
air for all the class rooms 
on the other side of the 
building. The audito- 
rium and gymnasium are 
supplied by a third appa- 
ratus situated in the rear, thus making it possible to oper- 
ate all sections of the entire school at one and the same 
time instead of in parts alone as was necessary in the 
other layouts. 

In Fig. 9 the air enters through the window screen 
and passes in front of the tempering heater T, from which 
it is drawn through the air washer AW and heater H by 
the fan F. This fan is set in an enclosure which is made 
as air tight as possible, owing to the fact that the fan takes 
its suction directly from the room, thus making a plenum 
chamber out of it. The discharge from the fan is blown 
partially through the re-heater R, and partially through a 
by-pass beneath the re-heater, as indicated in elevation in 
Fig. 9. Here it is forced into the pipes P, which pick 
up the air and carry it to the various room outlets, the 
horizontal runs in this particular case being carried in a 
tunnel beneath the floor of the basement corridor. This 
is an ideal arrangement, which, however, re(iuires all heat 



Fig. 6 




Fig. 8 



168 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



flues to be carried down to the basement floor instead of 
stopping off at the basement ceiling as is customary. 

The respective ducts obtain individual temperatures 
by the amount of hot and tempered air admitted by the 
dampers D. These dampers are governed by a thermo- 
stat located in the room which 
the duct supplies, and thereby 
determining the temperature 
of the air entering the room. 

The architect will undoubt- 
edly at once question the cost 
factor on these more or less 
ideal systems of heating and 
ventilation. The most ap- 
proved system — including 
air washers, heaters, and 
fans of sufficient capacity to 
supply every pupil in every 
class room with 30 cubic feet 
of air per minute, and to give 
every seat in the auditorium 
20 cubic feet per minute, be- 
sides supplying anywhere 
from four to ten changes of 
air per hour, as may be re- 
quired in the various other 
rooms thi-oughout the build- 
ing — will cost from 2.1 cents 
to 2.8 cents per cubic foot, according to the amount of 
horizontal run and other variable factors, the a\-erage for 
a large number of schools approximating 2.4 cents per 
cubic foot. 

It is often considered advantageous to install an auxil- 
iary system of di- 
rect radiation, but 
many architects are 
opposed to the use 
of direct radiation 
in a building where 
air is supplied for 
v^entilation, arguing 
that it is much 
cheaper to increase 
the temperature of 
the entering air by 
adding a few more 
sections on the 
heater than it is to 
carry steam pipes 
throughout the 
building and to in- 
stall anywhere from 
two to six or eight 
radiators per room. 

As far as first cost 
is concerned this is 
entirely correct, but 
the operating cost is 
excessive, owing to 
the large power bills 
which are incurred 





Fig. 10. Showing Arrangement in Basement of an Individual Duct System 



during the periods when the school is not in use, during 
which periods, however, heat is necessary to afford pro- 
tection against the danger of freezing. 

With direct radiation installed in the rooms no electric 
power need be expended from Friday afternoon until the 

following Monday morning, 
the temperature in the build- 
ing in the meantime being 
maintained by the direct ra- 
diators without ventilation. 
When the hot blast system 
is used alone, either cold out- 
side air must be heated and 
driven within the building 
in order to maintain the re- 
cjuired temperature, or a by- 
pass must be arranged from 
the vent fan into the sup])ly 
fan so as to revolve the air 
without the use of an out- 
side connection during this 
period. This by-pass is 
sometimes not only difficult 
to obtain, but where the vent 
fans are located on the roof, 
or in the attic space, is abso- 
lutely impossible. 

It is, moreover, very unde- 
sirable to use the hot blast system for heating such rooms 
as toilets, vestibules, kitchens, lunch rooms, and, in fact, 
any rooms from which there is a possibility of odors 
being spread throughout the building. 

vSince it is necessary, therefore, to install some direct 

radiation and to run 
steam supply and 
return mains for 
the heating of these 
particular rooms, it 
does not require an 
excessive amount of 
additional piping to 
locate the risers 
so that they may 
feed radiators in 
every room. It is 
certain that the in- 
terest on the addi- 
tional expenditure 
involved by this in- 
stallation would not 
be as great as the 
expense incurred in 
using power to run 
the hot blast system 
when it is being op- 
erated for the pur- 
pose of maintaining 
a satisfactory tem- 
perature during the 
period intervening 
between sessions. 



Church Club House, St. Paul, Minn. 



FREDERICK H. BROOKE, Architect. 



THE Church Club 
House, which is illus- 
trated here and which 
has recently been completed 
in St. Paul, is the outgrowth 
of a demand for a building 
to serve the social needs of 
the very large number of 
young- people in that section 
of the city commonly known 
as the ' ' Hill District. ' ' Al- 
though there were enough 
good homes, churches, and 
schools in this district, there 
was not one public building 
ecjuipped to offer a place for 
legitimate amusement and 
needful recreation. This 
building was planned to 
provide such equipment in 
the community, and thus 
keep the yoimg people in 
the wholesome environment of their own neighborhood. 
Athletic activities are given their due importance, the 
space devoted to them occupying the entire basement, in 
addition to a special wing one story in height. This wing 




Basement Plan 



is occupied by the swim- 
ming pool, which is 25 by 
50 feet, and has a depth of 
water ranging from 4 to 8 
feet. Along one of the side 
walls are private dressing 
compartments and a few 
showers. The other wing 
of the basement is taken up 
by the gymnasium, while 
between the two wings are 
the lockers and showers. 
In order to get the neces- 
sary height to the "gym" 
ceiling, the floor of that 
part is lower than in the 
rest of the basement. At 
one end is a space for spec- 
tators and above this are the 
boys' lockers. Across the 
front of the building are 
the bowling alleys and the 
office for the physical director. The heating plant and 
its accessories are also on this floor. A dumb waiter con- 
nects the gymnasium with the kitchen above so that large 
banquets are possible, while direct access to the outside 




Chuicl) Club House, St. Paul, Minn. 
Frederick H. Brooke, Architect 
169 



170 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



by a separate vestibule and stairway makes it possible to 
use this part of the building; independently of the rest. 

The principal part of the main floor is given to the 
auditorium, which, with the gallery, seats about 550 per- 
sons. At the end is a 
good sized stage and 
four complete dressing 
rooms, through which 
are the necessary 
emergency exits. The 
kitchen is on this floor 
and is directly con- 
nected to the auditorium 
by the serving room. 
Here again the plan has 
been so arranged that 
this particular part may 
be used without interfer- 
ing in any way with the 
other activities of the 
building, and for this 
purpose a special lobby 
is provided with ticket 
office and coat room. 

From the front of the building one comes through the 
main entrance into the main corridor, which gives easy 
access to the offices, reception room, and boys' club room. 
The women's lockers are on this floor and are connected 
by a stairway with the swimming pool below, thus mak- 
ing it possible to use the pool for men or women inde- 
pendently as desired. 

The second floor is taken u]) largely with the upper i^art 
of the auditorium and the gallery. Several rooms are 
provided for the use of committees and organizations and 
a special room for the men's club. Again a dumb waiter 
connects this floor with the kitchen and makes it possible 




Auditorium, Lootcing Towards the Stage 




for the women's or girls' organizations to use their own 
rooms for gatherings where refreshments can be served. 
The interior is simple and direct in its general finish. 
A good deal of character has been given to the audito- 
rium by a simple use 
of plaster pilasters and 
paneled ceiling and a 
wainscoting of fumed 
oak, which is carried 
around the room at the 
height of the bases of 
the pilasters. 

The exterior is of 
brick with granite base- 
ment story and marble 
trimmings. Considera- 
ble interest is given to 
the brickwork by the use 
of panels of patterns and 
spots of marble inserts. 
Iron marquises mark 
the i^rincipal entrances. 
The facades express 
the plans in a logical 
manner. The large windows of the auditorium form a imit 
of composition which is differentiated from the rest of the 
building by a slight break in the wall. The importance of 
the first floor is echoed in the window treatment of brick 
arches filled with brick patterns. By treating the wall 
surfaces between the windows of the third floor with brick 
patterns, and by projecting a brick belt course just below 
the sill line, a frieze has been formed which caps the other 
two stories and at the same time expresses the different 
character of the dormitory floor. The widely projecting 
cornice and tile roof add to this subordination of the third 
floor and complete the composition in a satisfying manner. 



Men ' s dorm itories 
occupy the third floor, 
arranged in suites of 
two rooms and bath 
and as single rooms. 
The janitor's suite is 
also on this floor. 









IUEcrnara moow^ ij tlOTTUIL ■ -Ol f UJ. tfllT r 



•Jloii tttirft: Etctmon taoKr 





First Floor Plan 



Church Club House, St. Paul, Minn. 

Frederick H. Brooke, Architect 



Second Floor Plan 



VOL. 24, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 91. 




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VOL. 24, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 92. 



I 




--—I, 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN OF ADMINISTRATION GROUP 

WINIFRED MASTERSON BURKE RELIEF FOUNDATION, WHITE PLAINS, N. Y. 
McKIM, MEAD & WHITE, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 93. 




VOL. 24, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 94. 




GROUP OF TYPICAL PATIENTS COTTAGES FROM QUADRANGLE 



WINIFRED MASTERSON BURKE RELIEF FOUNDATION, WHITE PLAINS, N. Y. 
McKIM, MEAD & WHITE, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 95. 




VOL. 24, NO. 7. 



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GKOUl' PLAN 

A HOSPITAL D NURSES' HOME G MALE PATIENTS' COrPACES K BOILEF< ROOM 

B ADMINISTRATION BUILHING E DINING HALL AND SERVICE BUILDING II FEMALE PATIENTS' COTTAGES L ENGINE ROOM 

C SUPERINTENDENT'S HOUSE K ASSEMBLY HALL J ISOLATION BUILDING M LAUNDRY 

N OVERSEERS' HOUSE 

WINIFRED MASTERSON BUKKK KKLIK[<' FOUNDATION, WHITE PLAINS, N. V. 

McKlM, MEAD 4i WHITE, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 97 




DETAIL OF PRINCIPAL FACADE 



CRAIG APARTMENTS, 58TH STREET AND MONROE AVENUE. CHICAGO, ILL 
RICHARD E. SCHMIDT, GARDEN & MARTIN, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 9S. 




BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



CRAIG APARTMENTS, 58TH STREET AND MONROE AVENUE, CHICAGO, ILL. 
RICHARD E. SCHMIDT, GARDEN & MARTIN, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 

/1 



PLATE 99. 




VIEW OF OPEN COURT 



APAKTMICNT HOUSE, NORTH STREET, BUFFALO, N. V. 

GKEEN & WICKS, AHCHITECT.S 



! 



VOL. 24, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 100. 




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VOL. 24, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 102. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



SOUTH SIDE BATH HOUSE, PITTSBURGH, PA. 
MacCLURE & SPAHR, ARCHITECTS 



I 



VOL. 24, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 103. 




.ft^-- V.^^-rs:. 



DETAIL OF GROUP ROOM WING 



DOWNERS GROVE KINDERGARTEN, DOWNERS GROVE, ILL. 
PERKINS, FELLOWS & HAMILTON, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 104. 




GENERAL VIEW 



DOWNERS GROVE KINDERGARTEN, DOWNERS GROVE, ILL 

PERKINS. FELLOWS & HAMILTON. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVI LDER 



PLATE 105. 




VIEW OF A GROUP ROOM 



DOWNERS GROVE KINDERGARTEN, DOWNERS GROVE. ILL. 
PERKINS. FEI-LOWS & HAMILTON, ARCHITECTS 



Plumbing Installation and Sewage Disposal. 

IV. MECHANICAL APPLIANCES USED IN PLUMBING SYSTEMS AND THE 
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 

By CHARLES A. WHITTEMORE. 



IT IS sometimes necessary in the case of high buildings, 
when the city water pressure is quite low, to establish 
a forced circulation of either hot or cold water. To 
accomplish this end, pumps of various types are installed 
in the system so that the water coming from the service 
mains is either forced directly through the plumbing sys- 
tem or lifted to a suitable tank and from this point dis- 
tributed by gravity to the various fixtures. The latter 
method is usiially preferable in that it maintains an ample 
reservoir and supply of water in case of accident to the 
pumping plant. The water is kept at a constant pressure 
and the pulsations of pump action are not so noticeable. 

Recently the opposition to maintain large volumes of 
water in tanks above the roof has assumed proportions 
demanding consideration. It is obviously a potential 
menace, and for this reason a pumping system which can 
do away with the overhead tanks is desirable. 

The type of pump is determined largely by the duty 
imposed upon it and ranges from the steam turbines or 
electrically driven pumps to the smaller inspirator types. 
In the steam turbines a capacity of many thousand gallons 
a minute can be obtained and pressure made to suit the 
conditions. 

It is hard, therefore, to lay down an established rule to 
determine the character of a pump for a special condition. 
The architect should decide this matter by making a per- 
sonal investigation into the individual requirements of 
each case. In some cases an electrically driven pump of 
a smaller size would be perfectly suitable. In other cases 
a small, water force pump will give the requisite service. 
In large buildings where a power plant is operated, a 
steam driven pump can be operated at a low cost. Ob- 
viously it would be impossible to operate a steam pump 
from a low pressure system unless the demand on the 
pump is small. Electrically driven pumps in the ma- 
jority of cases are operated at less expense and at a lower 
repair and maintenance cost. 

In the handling of sewage the conditions are of such a 
different character that the problem of pump installation 
becomes almost a special study. Many of the large build- 
ings,— hotels, theaters, etc., — in order to develop suitable 
space below the street level, require plumbing equipment 
installed at a point below the normal grade of the sewer 
in the street. In such cases pumps of a special nature 
must be installed to raise the sewage from the low point 
of the system to the main sewer. This is usually accom- 
plished by an arrangement of pumping or lifting devices 
known as an " ejector." 

In connecting ejectors of any type into a system, par- 
ticular care should be taken that the soil and plumbing 
lines, on which the ejector is connected, should be vented 
separately through the roof, and also that the connection 
from the ejector should be made on the sewer side of the 
house trap, if a house trap is installed. 



Ejectors may be divided into two types, — the air com- 
pressor type and the centrifugal pump type. In the type 
in which an air compressor is used, the drains and soil 
pipes all deliver into a tight iron tank from which the out- 
let extends to the level of the sewer. In this tank is in- 
stalled a float which, upon reaching a certain fixed point, 
due to the rise of material in the tank, opens a relief valve 
and allows the compressed air to enter the tank compart- 
ment. The force of this air pressure blows out all of the 
material from this compartment into the sewer. Check 
valves are installed on the various inlet pipes to prevent 
the air pressure from forcing the contents of the tank 
backward into the main soil pipes in the building, and a 
check valve also is placed on the discharge pipe to prevent 
any return flow from the discharge pipe into the tank 
after the air pressure has been stopped. In connection 
with this type of installation, it is necessary to install an 
air tank, in which the air may be maintained at a constant 
pressure ; the pumps to maintain this pressure and to 
supply compressed air after each discharge of the appara- 
tus. In this particular type a stage of perfection has 
been reached which is highly desirable in mechanical 
appliances of this kind, and after an installation has been 
completed it requires very little care and attention. 

The centrifugal type of sewage ejector consists of a tank, 
or receptor, into which the sewage is discharged from the 
fixtures. A float, rising under the influence of the water 
in the tank, operates a starting switch which, in turn, actu- 
ates the motor ; this motor, driving a centrifugal pump, 
raises the water from the tank level to the level of the 
street. These pumps are designed in various sizes to suit 
the lift of the water — that is, the distance from the tank to 
the street sewer — and are made in single and duplex 
units. 

The simplest form of centrifugal pump is frequently 
called a bilge pump and consists merely of the motor, the 
centrifugal pump itself, and the tank cover. In an in- 
stallation of this kind the tank is frequently a cement pit 
over which a tight cover is placed and a motor mounted 
upon it. 

In the duplex unit, in which there are two pumps and 
two motors, the motors themselves are placed above the 
cover in the same manner as in a single imit, but the 
pumps are mounted outside of the iron casing in an open 
space which is accessible and available for use to carry off 
surface water or to act as a cellar drainer. This type is 
far superior to the single unit type and is more easily 
cleaned and operates at a low cost. 

In either the compressed air or the centrifugal type the 
time consumed in discharging the normal tank is about 50 
seconds, and represents a capacity of approximately 100 
gallons. 

Cellar drainers are devices usually installed in connec- 
tion with a boiler room or a particularly low portion of the 



171 



172 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



basement to care for the draining of the cellar floor, or as 
an insurance against damagfe due to leakage from the out- 
side. Frequently an apparatus of this sort is installed at 
a point where water enters the cellar through the walls 
and where the expense of waterproofing would be 
prohibitive. 

The general type of cellar drainer consists of a small 
strainer, a float, an inspirator valve, and a discharge pipe. 
These cellar drainers are usually mounted in a sump pit 
which may be either of concrete, earthen ware, or iron, 
and which should have a strainer cover. The water rising 
in the sumj) pit raises the float, which in turn opens the 
inspirator valve and allows the water pressure to flow 
directly by the mouth of discharge pipe from the cellar 
drainer ; and, by the same principle as the atomizer prin- 
ciple, the water is drawn from the sumj) pipe up through 
the discharge pipe. The float, receding as the water is 
discharged, automatically cuts ofl" the water pressure. In 
buildings w-here the water is measured by a meter, the 
actual operating expense incurred in an installation of this 
kind is only when the float has reached its highest stage 
and is on the descent ; this expense is small. 

Cellar drainers are adapted only to conditions where the 
water cared for is small in quantity and where the actual 
operation of the drainer is likely to be intermittent. The 
maximum capacity of this type with an ordinary street 
pressure of 60 pounds is approximately 1, ()()() gallons per 
hour. In cases where a more serious influx of water must 
be opposed, a pump similar to an ejector pump should be 
installed. 

The installation of a cellar drainer many times is more 
in the nature of an insurance against damage from water 
than because of the actual present need. These drainers 
operate under a very low street pressure, and the cost 
of maintenance is merely the amount of water passing 
through the inspirator valves while they are actually per- 
forming some service. 

Sc-a'oge DisposaL Sewage disposal in its broadest sense 
applies to towns and cities more than to individual instal- 
lations, but many large estates and country houses have 
disposal systems of their own, and it is in these that we 
are interested. No attempt will be made to discuss the 
scientific nature of the question, but an outline of various 
methods will be given in order to show the i)rincipal char- 
acteristics of each type. The whole subject is technical and 
demands scientific training along specialized lines. In the 
course of ordinary architectural practice the problem of 
sewage disposal is seldom encountered. It is, therefore, 
of importance to secure the services of a trained sanitary 
engineer in order to be certain of the best results. 

There are three general divisions under which the sub- 
ject of sewage disposal may be considered : first, the filter 
beds ; second, the bacterial system ; and third, mechani- 
cal filters. 

In the first type the sewage, after having been collected 
in proper tanks and having passed through sedimentation 
or settling tanks, is forced by pumps to the surface of the 
filter bads, which are usually composed of a mixture of 
sand and ordinary earth. The filter beds are usually large 
areas of land taken in an undeveloped section of the city 
or town or estate, and are arranged in the form of depres- 
sions at varying levels. The supply pipe from the pump- 
ng plant or the drain pipe from the ordinary sewerage 



system delivers the material into the first filtration bed, 
which, by a system of trenches or overflow pipes, connects 
through the remaining portion of the system, and as soon 
as one bed is filled to the proper level the next filtration 
bed is filled. 

By a system of valves these beds may be made in relays 
so that one complete unit of several beds may be filled up 
and another one brought into use while the first is actu- 
ally filtering the material deposited. In this manner the 
waste matter is all cared for by being absorbed in the 
earth and by the natural action of the nitrifying bacteria. 

The disadvantage of this system is principally due to 
the fact that it requires a large amount of area for the 
filter beds, and that after being used for some time the 
earth becomes thoroughly clogged and slow in action. 
Filter beds of this general character may be seen at 
Framingham, Mass., where for some little time they have 
been in operation. 

In the bacterial type of sewage disposal systems the 
sewage is conducted to a tank which is tightly closed and 
in which certain bacteria are colonized. The action of the 
bacteria on the waste matter is such that the discharge 
from the tank is a clear liquid. This effluent has many 
times been carefully tested, and is found, after having 
passed through the process of septic tanks, to contain no 
bacteria or germs of dangerous character, so that the dis- 
charge from a system of this nature may be connected 
directly to an open stream or river. It has also been 
demonstrated that animal life may be sustained in the dis- 
charge from this type of system. 

The advocates of this type claim for it many advantages 
over any other system in existence, but in large installa- 
tions it is cjuite essential to have a trained scientist to keep 
a system of this type in good working order. 

The third type, or mechanical filtration, is that type in 
which sedimentation tanks are used, the filling of these 
tanks being accomplished either by gravity or by pumps, 
and the product passing from one sedimentation tank to 
another until the effluent is practically free from all possi- 
bilities of contamination. Sedimentation tanks of this 
nature recjuire more attention than do the other systems 
noted, and this system is subjected to the still further dis- 
advantage that the materials filtered must be cared for 
after the process of filtration is completed. 

Many of the smaller cities and towns throughout the 
country have no general system of sewers to take care of 
the flow from the house drains of the independent build- 
ings. The necessity therefore arises for providing some 
means of disposal of the waste matter in each installation 
where sewers are not available. There are various ways 
in which this may be accomplished, such as by means of 
leeching cesspools, syphon cesspools, vaults, or a direct 
discharge to a river or the sea. 

Where any of the above systems are adopted it is of vital 
importance that the pipes conducting the waste matter to 
the disposal point shall be of a proper size and shall be 
properly laid. 

It is an established fact that more difficulty arises from the 
use of pipes which are too large in size than from pipes of a 
smaller internal diameter. The velocity of flow in a small 
pipe is greater with a given pressure than a larger pipe. It 
is, therefore, obvious that the danger of clogging in large 
pipes is more to be considered than in pipes of smaller size. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



173 



It would be absurd to attempt to establish the exact 
dimensions for the main connection from the house drain 
to the sewer or to the cesspool for each installation, but as 
a g-eneral rule a 4-inch pipe will be sufficiently large for 
the averagfe house, a 6-inch pipe for a residence of larger 
proportion, and an 8-inch pipe for an ordinary city build- 
ing. Different conditions occurring in each installation 
may change the sizes of these pipes, but the above dimen- 
sions are the nearest that can be established arbitrarily. 

These pipes should pitch, if possible, 14 inch to the foot, 
but never less than Vh inch to the foot. 

From a point 10 feet beyond the wall, to which point the 
iron house drain is built, the pipe can be of tile to advan- 
tage. The tile pipe should, however, as has been pre- 
viously noted, be smooth inside and thoroughly glazed, 
and, where this drain leads to the cesspool or other dis- 
posal system, the joints between the main house drain and 
the tile pipe and the joints in the tile pipe itself should all be 
made with particular care to be both water and gas tight. 

A defective joint in a pipe of this character would readily 
permit of the waste matter in the pipes escaping into the 
surrounding soil, and, by following the different strata of 
the ground, eventually reaching a well or cistern from 
which water may be drawn for drinking purposes, and 
thus afford an easy vehicle for the spread of disease. It 
also causes a certain pollution of the ground in the vicinity 
of the pipe, and is likely to create disagreeable odors. 

The leeching cesspool is one of the worst possible 
methods of sewage disposal. It is constructed ordinarily 
of walls laid up dry, the house drain being extended 
directly into the chamber. The liquids in the cesspool 
are supposed to pass off through the walls into the sur- 
rounding ground and be disposed of in this manner with- 
out objectionable features. The fact remains, however, 
that within a short time the apertures in the walls speedily 
become clogged, and this causes either overflow of the 
cesspool, or, if the cesspool is sufficiently large to retain 
a considerable supply of material, it affords an excellent 
breeding place for bacteria. A cesspool of this character 
should be properly cleaned at frequent intervals. 

A syphon cesspool consists of two cesspools at a distance 
from each other, in one of which the house drain dis- 
charges directly. A pipe connecting the two cesspools 
extends towards the bottom of the first cesspool and dis- 
charges with an open end into the second, the theory 
being that the rise of water, or liquids, in the first cesspool 
will, by syphoning action, produce a flow into the second 
cesspool. The liciuids will then readily pass off through 
the walls without clogging the openings. The first cess- 
pool is, therefore, merely the depository of the solid mat- 
ter, which can be readily cleaned. 

Mention has previously been made of the system of 
surface disposal by filter beds, which system has been ad- 
vantageously used in many installations. This is not 
desirable, however, in small installations, such as we are 
now considering. There is a method closely allied to 
this which in the smaller installations is fre(iuently 
adopted, and which is far better than either of the cess- 



pools noted above. This is the system of "under the 
surface" irrigation. 

In a system of this character the waste matter from the 
main house drain is conducted into a tightly closed cess- 
pool, and from this cesspool porous terra cotta drains are 
laid to whatever place is determined upon as the sub- 
surface irrigation field. In this field lines of porous terra 
cotta pipe are laid, and are all connected to the main dis- 
charge pipe from the cesspool. At intervals a gate valve, 
controlling this main discharge pipe, is opened and the 
material in the cesspool is allowed to flow through the 
porous pipes. By this means the water percolates through 
the pipes and is absorbed in the surrounding ground. 
The solid particles which are carried through the pipe are 
deposited at various points at the end of the pipes and are 
speedily oxidized by the action of the earth and air. 

A system of this kind is very valuable and requires but 
little attention, but in order to be of the maximum effi- 
ciency the gate valve should be opened and closed at reg- 
ular stated intervals. 

The difference between an installation in which the 
flow in the pipes is intermittent and one in which the flow 
is constant, is the difference between an efficient discharge 
and a disposal system full of potential trouble. 

The question will be raised as to what is the difference 
between the system of sub-surface irrigation and a leech- 
ing cesspool, but the answer upon examination is perfectly 
obvious. In sub- surface irrigation a very small portion 
of the material to be absorbed by the earth is deposited 
in any one place. In the leeching cesspools the amount 
of material to be absorbed is so much larger in proportion 
that the earth with which it comes in contact becomes 
clogged and imabsorbent. 

The location of the cesspool and of sub-surface irriga- 
tion fields should be carefully considered in laying out 
the work. The nature of the soil in each independent 
installation may be of such different character that in the 
installation of cesspools the material passing off through 
the walls into the surrounding ground may be carried to 
a greater distance than anticipated and pollute wells or 
cisterns which are first thought to be beyond the range 
of contamination. 

In order to be absolutely sure that an effect of this kind 
cannot take place, it is advisable to dig a test pit the depth 
of the proposed cesspool, in order to determine exactly the 
conformation of the sub-soil strata. This will immedi- 
ately determine in which direction the liquids will be most 
likely to distribute after coming in contact with the earth 
outside of the cesspool. 

In any event it is wise to maintain cesspools as far away 
from the house and as far away from a well as the condi- 
tions of the property will permit. It is not wise to estab- 
lish the locations or the details of a disposal plant, even of 
such small comparative size as is reciuircd under the con- 
ditions noted above, without as thorough and complete 
knowledge of the conditions of the property, the character 
of the soil, and the location of any waterways which may 
be in the vicinity as it is possible to obtain. 



174 



THE BRICKBVILDER 









Design and Construction of Roof and Wall Trusses. 

V. THE HAMMER BEAM AND SCISSORS TYPES OF TRUSSES. (Concluding paper.) 

By MALVERD A. HOWE, C.E. 
Director Architectural and Civil Engineering Departments, Rose Polytechnic Institute. 



THE skeleton frame of a typical hammer beam truss 
is shown in Figf. 103. The introduction of other 
pieces in the frame merely adds to the stiffness of 
the structure, the principal work of carrying- stresses 
being- performed by the mem- 
bers shown. 

The behavior of this truss 
under loading- is very similar to 
that of the "A" truss, and 
therefore for spans for which 
it is generally used it is not 
feasible to construct the truss 
on supi^orts which are unable 
to take care of the horizontal 
thrusts. 

In the following analysis of 
the stresses it will be assumed 
that the supporting points A 
and B remain unchanged in 

their relative positions and that there are no bending 
moments at these points. If now the assumption is made 
that there are no bending moments at the joints E and 
F, the directions of the reactions at A and B become 
fixed. The left reaction will pass through A and E, 
and the right reaction through B and F. Any loading 
below E and F is assumed to be transferred by rafters to 
the wall and the purlins resting at E and F. 71u-sc as- 
siiniptious can be used only for symmetrical loading. Fig. 
104a shows the stress diagram for the truss and loading 
shown in Fig. 104. The horizontal thrust at A and B 
(Fig. 104) equals MK as scaled from Fig. 104a. It is evi- 
dent that this thrust becomes smaller and smaller as the 
vertical distance between A and E increases. 




For unsymmctrical loading the connections at E and F 
cannot be assumed as pinned. Following the method pur- 
sued in the consideration of the "A" truss, the horizontal 
thrust for an imsymmetrical vertical loading is assumed 

to be one-half that for twice the 
loading symmetrically placed. 
The magnitude of this thrust is 
found by constructing a figure 
similar to Fig. 104a and taking 
one-half of MK as found. 

For an unsymmetrical hori- 
zontal loading the horizontal 
thrust at each support is as- 
sumed to be one-half the total 
horizontal loading. 

The vertical reactions for an 
unsymmetrical loading are the 
same as for any simple truss on 
two supports. 
The outside forces acting on the truss are now fully de- 
termined. The direct stresses in the truss members can 
be found by the method of moments. 

The maximum bending moments in the rafters occur at 
E and F, and, if the rafters are not sufficiently strong to 
carry these moments and such direct stresses as may 
occur, they must be reinforced by extra timbers, or by 
knee braces, which are iisually curved. It is better prac- 
tice not to place any dependence upon knee braces or 
curved struts. 

To illustrate the method by an example, take the truss 
shown in Fig. 105. The truss has a span of 60 feet, a rise 
of 40 feet, and supports purlins at E, G, K, H, and F. 
If the trusses are spaced about 15 feet on centers, the 




Fig. 104 



175 



176 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




Fig. 105a 



dead load at each ai^ex will be about 9,000 pounds and 
the wind load about 4,000 pounds. For the wind load, 
2,800 pounds will be taken for both the vertical and 
horizontal components. 

Considering the dead load alone, the vertical reaction at 
each support is equal to one-half the total load, or 22,500 
pounds. Under the assumption that the directions of the 
reactions shall pass through A and E on the left and B 
and F on the right, the horizontal thrust at each support 
equals 22,500 tan ^=11,250 pounds. 

For the vertical components of the wind forces, the 
vertical reactions are quickly found by moments, 

Ri (60) = 2,800 (50 + 40) + 1,400 (30) 



or Ri = 4,900 pounds and R-. 
pounds. 

To determine the horizontal thrusts 
due to the vertical components of the 
wind forces, place an etiual number of 
equal and symmetrical loads on the truss. 
Then the vertical reaction at each sup- 
port is 7,000 poimds and the correspond- 
ing horizontal thrust is 7,000 tan ^^3,500 
pounds. Since one-half of the loading 
produces one-half the thrust, the true 
horizontal thrust produced by the verti- 
cal components of the wind forces is 
1,750 pounds at each support. These 
act in the same directions as the thrusts 
produced by the dead load. 

The vertical reactions produced by the 
horizontal components of the wind loads 
are found by moments, 

Ri (60) = 2,800 (20 + 30) + 1,400 (40), 

or Ri = 3,267 pounds acting do-um-a'ard 
and R-i = 3,267 pounds acting u/ncard. 

According to assumption, the horizon- 
tal thrusts are each equal to one-half the 
total horizontal load, or 3,500 pounds, 
and both act from the right towards 
the left. 

The final reactions at each support are 
shown in F'ig. 105. 



7,000 — 4,900= 2,100 



The bending moments at E and F are produced by the 
wind forces alone, and each equals 

1,633 (10) + 1,750 (20) = 51,330 foot-pounds, 

or 616,000 inch-pounds. 

The direct stresses in the truss members can be found by 
graphical methods or by moments. In either method, how- 
ev^er, the effect of the bending moments in the rafters must 
be considered. This can be doneby assuming that all joints 
of the truss are pin connected and that the bending mo- 
ments are taken by auxiliary beams, as shown in Fig. 105a. 

Taking the auxiliary beam on the left, let it be supported 
at joints C and (1 and from its center assume a cable run- 
ning to the joint E. Now assume that the cable is short- 
ened until the center of the auxiliary beam is subjected to 
a bending moment of 51,330 foot-pounds, the rafter bend- 
ing moment. Then, evidently, the effect of this bending 
moment upon the truss is equivalent to applying a force of 
3,630 pounds acting downward at joints C and G, and a 
force of 7,260 pounds acting upward at E, as indicated in 
Fig. 105a. In a like manner the effect of the rafter mo- 
ment on the right is found as indicated in the figure. The 
auxiliary beams can now be removed, leaving the forces 
just found acting upon the truss, and the stresses found in 
the various members of the truss by drawing the usual 
stress diagram as shown in Fig. 105b. 

If the method of moments is used, the stresses are found 
in the manner illustrated below. 

The stress in CE is found by taking a section cutting the 
l)ieces CE and EN (Fig. 105c) and using the point N as 
a center of moments. The moment force 3,630 pounds 
found from Fig. l()5a must be introduced at joint C. 

From Fig. 105c, stress CE (7.07) = 24,133 (10) — 9,500 
(10)— 3,630 (7.07), or stress CE = 17,100 pounds com- 



/V-/<^,/v-^ X^ji pij,. 105c 




\M 



m 



-/- - - ^ 



V\§.. 105d 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



177 



pression. In a similar manner the compression in FD is 
found to be 19,700 pounds. 

From Fig. 105d, stress GE (9.42) = 24,133 (30) — 9,500 
(26.67)— 2,800 (6.67) — 11,800 (20)— 3,630 (32.98) + 
7,260 (18.85), or stress GE =24,700 pounds compression. 
Ill a similar manner the compression in IIF is found to 
be 21,100 ]wunds. 

The magnitudes of these stresses show that the direct 
stresses may be neglected in propor- 
tioning the rafters at points E and F, 
and only the bending moments con- 
sidered. 

Since the bending moments are pro- 
duced by the wind loads alone, and 
since these will have a maximum ef- 
fect only at long intervals, it is per- 
missible to use a fiber stress of at least 
1,800 or 2,000 pounds per square inch. 
Using 1,800 pounds, the section modulus required at E is 

616,000/1,800 = 342.2. 

The nearest commercial size which can be used is a timber 
12 by 14 inches (actual size llV^ by 13VL' inches). Includ- 
ing a direct compression of 22,900 pounds, the maximum 
unit stress at E is about 1,900 pounds per 
square inch. Since some cutting of the 
rafter will be necessary in connecting the 
members NE and EM, it will be advisable 
to use a timber 12 by 16 inches for the 
rafter, which should be continuous from 
C to G. 

The member AN is usually curved, and, 
therefore, must resist not only the direct 
stress as fovmd when it is straight, but in 
addition it must be capable of resisting the 
cross-bending stresses due to its shape. 
For all practical purposes the following 
method is sufficiently exact for dimension- 
ing such members. 

In Fig. 106, let y represent the middle 
ordinate of the center line of the curved member and R 
the stress along the line AN. Then the maximum unit 
stress in the curved piece must not exceed the allowable 
unit stress in the piece if assumed as straight. If f is the 
allowable unit stress, b the breadth of the piece, and d 
the depth measured in the direction of y, then 

f = R(d + 6y)/bd', 




Fig. 106a 




or 



d = -j R + v/24Rybf + R' [ /2bf. 



The methods of analysis for the "A" truss and the 
hammer beam truss given above are not theoretically exact, 
but they permit the use of ordinary methods of calcula- 
tion and lead to results which can be safely relied ui)on. 

THE SCISSORS TRUSS. 

Tile scissors truss, like the hammer beam truss, when 
on supports which are immovable, has a tendency to push 
the walls outward when vertical loads 
arc placed upon it. Unlike the ham- 
mer beam truss, the members are not 
subjected to cross-bending stresses. 
Fig. 108 shows a typical form of this 
truss. As this truss is often used 
where the supporting walls are un- 
able to resist horizontal thrusts, the 
truss must be so designed that the 
change in the length of the span, due 
to the changes of length of the individual members, is 
small. If the change in the length of the span is known, 
the truss can be framed this amount short of the span de- 
sired, and the truss allowed to slip on one support as the 
loading is placed on the truss until finally the proper 
span is reached. A better way, however, is to so design 
the truss that this horizontal deflection is 
very small — so small, in fact, that it can be 
neglected. The method of doing this will 
be illustrated by an example. 

Let p = the stress per square inch in any 
member of the truss produced 
by a full load ; 
u = the stress in any member of the 
truss produced by a load of one 
pound acting at the left sup- 
port, which will be assumed to 
be on rollers and parallel to the 
plane of the support, usually 
horizontal ; 
1 = the length center to center of 
connections of any member of 
the truss, expressed in inches ; 
E ^ Young's modulus of elasticity for the material 

employed in any member of the truss ; 
D = the total change in length of span produced by 

a full load, ex])ressed in inches ; 
a = the area of the cross-section of any member of 
the truss, expressed in S(|uare inches: 
and H = the horizontal force aj^plied at the support 
necessary to make D = zero, expressed in 



pounds. 



For example, if b= 12 inches, y = 24 inches, f = 1,000 
pounds per square inch, and R = 24,000 pounds, d = 18 
inches. 

This shows that curved members are not economical to 
say the least. A better arrangement is shown in Fig. 
106a, where all of the pieces are straight and can be 
boxed to give the appearance of a curved brace. 

When a curved member is used between N and M (Fig. 
105) it is better to ignore it in the determination of stresses. 

If the truss has the form shown in Fig. 107, the re- 
actions may be found in the manner explained for Fig. 105, 
and then the stresses in the various members found by 
the method of moments. 



Then 
and 



D= ^(pul E) 
H = D/2(u'l/aE). 



Let the truss shown in I'^'g. 108 have a span of 20 tVct 
and a rise of 10 feet, and, for convenience, let the apex 
loads be 1,000 pounds, as shown. Assume all members 
excepting the vertical to be made of white pine timbers, 
6 by 6 inches, and the vertical rod to be 1 inch in diam- 
eter, upset at the ends. Young's modulus for white pine 
is about 1,000,000 and for steel 30,000,000. The calcula- 
tions for D and H are given in tabular form on page 178. 
From the results of these computations it apjiears that 



178 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



apex loads of 1,000 pounds produce a horizontal thrust of 

about 2,000 pounds, if the supports are immovable, or a 

change in length of span of %oo inch if one end of the 

truss is free to move. These 

results are true for very small 

unit stresses, as shown by the 

values of p in the table. 

If the truss in Fig. 108 is as- 
sumed to be distant each way 

from other trusses, 10 feet, the 

actual apex loads may approach 

2,500 pounds each. These will 

cause a horizontal thrust of 

about 5,000 pounds, or a change 

of span of about '•Yio" inch. 

This change of span length is 
of no importance if the truss 
is permitted to slip on one sup- 
port. If the truss cannot slip, 
then the supports must be capable of taking the horizontal 
thrust of 5,000 pounds. 

The members AC and CB are responsible for over 50 
per cent of the horizontal deflection and the jMcce CE for 
over 13 per cent. 

If the small truss used in the example can produce such 
a large horizontal thrust when the unit stresses in the 
members are so small, it is quite evident why walls lean 
outward and roofs sag when scissors trusses are treated 
as simple trusses on two supports. 

In case the span is assumed not to change and the su])- 
ports resist the horizontal thrusts, the actual stresses in 
the truss members can be found by the usual graphical 
methods after the magnitudes of the thrusts have been 




found as explained above. These stresses are generally 
quite small and do not call for heavy details at the joints. 
However, it is best to make the connections relatively 

as heavy as the members con- 
nected. 

When the truss is supposed 
to simply rest on the supports, 
then the details must be made 
heavy to avoid yielding in the 
connections. 

With the exception of the con- 
nections over the supports, the 
ideas conveyed by the numerous 
details given for simple trusses 
can be used in designing the 
other connections. 

Figs. 109, 110, and 111 show 
details of connections at the 
supports which are suitable. 
COMPUTATIONS FOR D AND H. 





Stre.ss 


— 













Piece. 


Produced 

by 1,000 Lb. 

Loads. 


a 
Sq. In. 


P 

Lbs. 


u 
Lbs. 


I 

Ins. 


pul 
E 


aB 


AD 


-3,160 


36 


87.8 


— 0.71 


84.8 


.00528 


.00000118 


UK 


— 2,100 


36 


58.3 


— 0.71 


84.8 


.00351 


.00000118 


EF 


— 2,100 


36 


58.3 


— 0.71 


84.8 


.00351 


.00000118 


FH 


— 3,160 


36 


87.8 


— 0.71 


84.8 


.00528 


.00000118 


DC 


— 800 


36 


22.2 





63.2 








AC 


-1- 2,360 


36 


65.5 


-f 1.58 


126.5 


.01316 


.00000875 


CE 


-1- 1,980 


0.785 


2522 


+ 1.00 


80.0 


.00672 


.00000340 


BC 


+ 2,360 


36 


65.5 


-1-1. 58 


126.5 


.01316 


.00000875 


CF 


— 800 


36 


22.2 





63.2 




















.05062 


.00002562 






.05062 










^ u-1 




H = 


^00002562 


!=1 


975 pounds. 


D 






Fig. 109 



Fig. 110 



Fig. Ill 



As He Is Known, Being Brief Sketches of Contemporary 
Members of the Architectural Profession. 




EDWIN HAWLEY HEWITT 

EDWIN HAWLEY HEWITT was born in Red Wing, 
Minn., in March, 1874. After a partial course at 
Hobart College he entered the University of Minne- 
sota in the sophomore class in 1893, graduating with the 
degree of A.B. in 1896. He then went to the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, where he studied during the 
winter of 1896-1897. The next three years were spent 
in the offices of Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge ; Wheelwright 
& Haven, and others. He was married in 1900 and went 
at once to Paris, where he entered the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts in May, 1901. He stood at the head of all the for- 
eigners in the entering class, becoming a member of the 
Atelier Pascal. In October, 1904, for private reasons, he 
was forced to return to the_ United States, but he had 
completed his work at the Ecole and expected to return 
there for his diploma. Arriving in Minneapolis, he was 
almost immediately offered a commission and at once 
started in on private practice, not having an opportunity 
to return to Paris for over eight years. 

As time went on he realized the importance in architec- 
tural work of the allied science of engineering in all its 
branches, and in September, 1910, he formed a partner- 
ship under the name of Hewitt & Brown, architects and 
engineers. 

Mr. Hewitt has always taken the highest interest in all 
things pertaining to architecture and art, and was most 
instrumental in the hard work which culminated in the 
completion of the Minneapolis Institute of Fine Arts. He 
has also taken a most active part in all things pertaining 
to the state in artistic lines and is president of the Minne- 
sota State Art Society. He became a member of the 
American Institute of Architects in 1913, and for the past 
two years has been the active president of the Minnesota 
Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. 

Mr. Hewitt has taken a leading part in the advance- 
ment of all things architectural in the Northwest, and it is 
largely due to his efforts that the architects of the North- 
west are all in close touch and harmon\' with one another. 
It is also due to his efforts that the Architectural School of 
the University of Minnesota has been brought into close 
touch with the profession and that the architects of the 
Northwest are taking an active interest in the school 
work. 

He has the rare gift of visualizing a project in its en- 
tirety and seeing what is the apj^ropriate and the projier 
thing for the specific case. — E. II. B. 




LOUIS CHRISTIAN MULLGARDT 



LOUIS CHRISTIAN MULLGARDT is emphatically 
an original designer. The freshness of his vision 
and the novelty of many of his technical expedients 
will be manifest to the most superficial observer, while at 
the same time it is equally obvious that his innovations 
have not been conceived in any perversity of spirit. He 
is a man who goes his own way, because he has to go his 
own way." 

This, in part, is what Herbert D. Croly, author and 
editor, wrote of Mr. Mullgardt after he had made a critical 
study of his work. Mr. Croly 's analysis accounts for the 
originality and beauty of Mr. Mullgardt's " Court of the 
Ages," and other structures designed by him at the 
Panama-Pacific International Exposition. The Court of 
the Ages has commanded such universal expressions of 
approval by architectural critics and the public in respect 
to distinctive composition, style, and infinite detail as to 
ensure its permanency in the annals of architecture. 

The work of Mr. Mullgardt consistently divulges its 
creator's wide versatility. It cannot be classified as be- 
longing to any previous style, but there is something about 
it, perhaps its very quality, that betrays its authorship. 

Mr. Mullgardt came from London to San Francisco in 
1905. He is a native of Missouri. His earlier years were 
spent in St. Louis, where he began the study of architec- 
ture. Subsequently he continued his studies in Boston 
and at Harvard. Following this, he went to Chicago, 
where he first became engaged as designer of important 
work. In 1893 Mr. Mullgardt entered private practice in 
St. Louis. In 189.'i he made an extended trip to Europe 
for further study. In 1902 he was commissioned to go to 
Manchester, England, and in 1903, to London to execute 
important work there and in Scotland. The results of his 
labors for the next two years before coming to San Fran- 
cisco, could they be noted here in detail, would be most 
complimentary testimonials of his genius. 

To his accomplishments as an architect and sculptor 
should be added those of artist and writer, he having con- 
tributed liberally to magazines, jiarlicularly those relating 
to architecture. 

Mr. Mullgardt is president of the Cidiforuia Society of 
Etchers, vice-president of the San Francisco Society of 
Artists, director of the San Francisco Art Association, 
ex-president of the San Francisco Society of Architects, 
and member of the International I'"ine Arts Jury of Award 
of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. — //'. /'". A'. 



179 



180 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




ALBERT KELSEY 



ALHERT KELSEV'S manifold and viseful activities 
would seem to belong to a life begun much earlier 
than 1H7(). Horn on April 26 of that year, in St. 
Louis, and resident since boyhood in Philadelphia, he en- 
tered upon his architectural apprenticeship when scarcely 
more than a lad and speedily became active in the com- 
munity interests of his new world, seizing with avidity 
upon the opportunities offered by the T SciuareClub, then 
newly organized for the benefit of draftsmen. Its atmos- 
phere of enthusiasm undoubtedly gave stimulus and direc- 
tion to his eager and forceful nature, while the comrade- 
ship of older men in the work of the study classes, com- 
petitions, and sketching trips became to him an effective 
course of training in architecture. From this he naturally 
became a club leader, giving indefatigable service in and 
out of ortice. He suggested and was first jiresident of the 
Architectural League of America, whose work, until the 
growth of the Beau.x Arts Society's atelier system ren- 
dered it no longer neces.sary, was an effective agency for 
good among younger members of the profession. From 
this training school to active work in the Institute 
was a natural transition and to the older organization, 
especially in its local ehai)ter, Mr. Kelsey has also given 
unselfish and effective service. 

In 1896, as a foreign traveling scholarshij) holder, he 
studied town planning while abroad, and returned an ar- 
dent propagandist of civic improvement, carrying its doc- 
tiines, as a lecturer, far and wide through the country. In 
1903 he devised the exhibit on municipal improvement 
at the St. Louis Fair, after foreign study of the subject as 
chief of that division, while in Philadelphia the first of the 
j)lan schemes for the epoch-making parkway was proposed 
by him. These manifestations of public spirit find their 
natural retiex in his private practice, which is marked by a 
total absence of commercial spirit and a mental attitude 
of painstaking care, i)erhaps best illustrated in his Olm- 
sted Monument at Harrisburg and the Philadelphia 
branch library at 6.Sth street and (jirard avenue. In the 
latter, also, the "thematic" character of the decoration 
is an index of his conviction that a building should be 
brought into relationship with its place and peopk- and 
given root in the soil of their traditions in order that it 
may tell its story in a living tongue. 

Mr. Kelsey's association with Paul Cret upon the Pan- 
American Building at Washington brought into his life 
not only its most notable architectural success, with 
credit enough to its authors for any three architects, — 
but also its most potent influence in the contacts afforded 
with Charles F. McKim and Elihu Root, for to these men, 
he will tell you, he owes his chief inspiration to thorough- 
ness and high idealism. To his intimates " Bert" Kel- 
sey, in spite of his long and strenuous career, is still a 
boy at heart, with a boy's capacity for fresh enthusiasm 
and ardent partizanship in every good cause. — //'. P. L. 




HAROLD VAN BUREN MAGONIGLE 



TmCRIC used to be a comfortable tradition among 
biographers that ancestors were not only worthy of 
being asked to grace the occasion, but that they were 
entitled to a respectful prominence and a due modicum of 
credit. Of late, this ancient custom seems to be more 
honored in the breach than in the observance. And yet, 
in the present instance, it seems interesting to know that 
the great-great-grandfather of him whose portrait is 
here sketched was an Irish poet whose revolutionary 
proclivities were too ardent even for the little island, 
which is generally thought to be not ill disjiosed to bellig- 
erent natures. I'rom it he was exiled, in due course. It 
also seems of more than passing moment to know that 
.\Ir. Magonigle's immediate forebears came from Scotland 
and Holland, at which point the traditional biographer 
would take occasion to point out that no ancestral tree 
could i)0ssibly ofi'er a better combination of the qualities 
e.s.sential to the making of an architect than one which 
had been nourished by the brilliant imaginative and poetic 
(jualities of the Celt, the not less brilliant keenness of the 
Scotch, and the modest patience of the Dutch. I do not 
know what part these ancestral influences may play nor how 
much they have Contributed to what seems to me to be 
the admirable sincerity of .Mr. Magonigle's work. 

Possessing a facility with pen and pencil which have 
won him renown as a draftsman, Mr. Magonigle resists all 
the artful temptations which lure less able men into the 
wiles of architectural trickery, and though his renderings 
sing with the beauty of line anti color, they also speak 
truth. It ought not to be forgotten that the same ad- 
mirable sincerity guides Mr. .Magonigle in his relations to 
the profession and in his labors for its welfare. Of these 
latter, he gives generously to the Institute and his Chapter. 

Mr. Magonigle began his association with architecture 
in the office of \'aux &• Radford, but later, stimulated 
by the influence of gothicism in the office of Mr. Charles 
C. Haight, and bv that of classicism in the office of 
•McKim, .Mead & White, where he remained for several 
years, Mr. .Magonigle went to Boston, and, entering the 
office of Rotch iV Tilden, tried for the Rotch Traveling 
Scholarship, which he won in 1894. The two following 
years were spent in Italy, !•" ranee, t-ireece, and I'^ngland. 
Returning to America he reentered the office of .McKim, 
Mead &• White, and began jiractice in 1897. l-"or two 
years he was associated with Mr. Evarts Tracy, and for 
two more years he was at the head of the office of Schickel 
& Ditmars. Since 1901, except for a brief partnership with 
Mr. Henry W. Wilkinson, he has been in practice under 
his own name. During these years of study and develop- 
ment, Mr. Magonigle learned the inestimable value to an 
architect of touching life at many points. Few architects 
have so wide a range of interest and so many avenues of 
contact with the broad heritage of art. They are, I opine, 
the sources of his sincerity. — C. II ■ W. 



PLATE DESCRIPTION. 



Winifred Masterson Burke Relief Foundation, 
White Plains, N. Y. Plates 91-96. Of this pro- 
posed group there have been completed at present the 
administration building-, the superintendent's house, the 
hospital, the dining hall and servants' building, the 
boiler and power plant, the laundry, four cottages and 
the arcaded passag-es forming the central quadrangle. 

The institution is not a hospital but a home for conva- 
lescents, and considerable attention has been given to 
produce buildings where the patients may be as free as 
possible from the institutional atmosphere so character- 
istic of hospitals. 

The administration building has the usual receiving 
rooms, examination rooms, and offices on the first floor, 
while above are quarters for the staff and nurses and 
dormitories for some of the help. To the south is the 
superintendent's house, a complete residence sufficiently 
isolated but with direct access to the administration build- 
ing. On the opposite side is the small hospital. Balanc- 
ing the administration building, on the opposite side of 
the quadrangle, is the dining hall, with the larg-e kitchen 
and several dining rooms for various groups of patients 
and employees. The remaining sides of the quadrangle 
will be closed in the future by the assembly building and 
the nurses' home. 

The four cottages now built are those on either side of 
the administration building-. It is these small units hold- 
ing only twenty patients each, and planned with a com- 
fortable sitting- room and spacious log-gia on each floor, 
which assist so materially in defying- the character inher- 
ent to most medical institutions. 

Craig Apartments, Chicago, III. Plates 97, 98. 
The particular interest of this building lies in the adapta- 
tion of the plan to a corner lot. It is so arranged that 
the space usually g-iven to a courtyard in the rear is here 
used as a fore-court over which the various living rooms 
have their exposure. 

The construction is of ordinary brick bearing- walls with 
all interior structure of wood. Bedford stone is used for 
trimmings, while brick quoins accent the corners. The 
roof over the central part is covered with g-ray slate. 

The English basement is divided into main entrance 
lobby and the usual janitor's quarters, boiler room, laun- 
dries and store rooms. The entrance lobby has a black 
and white cement tile floor, with black marble base, 
plaster cornice, and wall panels. Above the basement 
are three stories with four apartments on each floor. The 
living- rooms and dining rooms are trimmed in birch with 
walnut and mahogany finish, while the kitchen is of natural 
finished birch. All the other rooms are finished in enamel. 

Apartment House, Buffalo, N. Y. Plates 99, 100. 
In this building there are thirteen apartments, four of 
them being duplex. The apartments average 1,600 square 
feet each, except those which are duplex and average 
3,000 square feet. 

Steel framing has been used with concrete and hollow 
tile floor arches and brick exterior walls. The front stair 
halls are finished in Caen stone cement lined oft" in joints, 
with oak entrance doors and casings to all apartments. 
The finish of the apartments is simple : the plasterwork 



has been painted gray and the woodwork white with 
French walnut doors, all dull finish, excejH in the service 
portion, where there is a washable gloss finish. 

A part of the basement is used as tenant space because 
of variations in the grades. The rest is occupied by jan- 
itor's quarters, boiler room, laundries and ironing rooms, 
and individual storerooms for each apartment. 

South Side Bath House, Pittsburgh, Pa. Plates 
101, 102. This building- was erected from funds left by 
the will of a Pittsburgh citizen and was recently officially 
giv^en to the city. It is located in the congested mill dis- 
trict of Pittsburgh on a lot with a frontage of 58 feet and 
a depth of 93 feet, and accommodates about two hundred. 

The construction is fireproof throughout. The exterior 
walls are of brick laid with wide raked joints and buff 
Bedford stone trimmings, with granite steps and base 
course. The roof of the flat portion is vitrified tile, while 
the pitch roof is covered with mottled purple and green 
roofing slate. The windows throughout are hinged at the 
bottom with the top coming in, so that there can be no 
view of the interior from the outside at any time. 

In the basement are located g-as fired boilers to heat the 
building and the water for the pool, a pump to circulate 
the water and fans for ventilating the building. A fully 
equipped laundry is also in the basement. In addition to 
the space occupied by the pool, the first floor has a vesti- 
bule, office and shower room. In the front part of the 
second floor are a large toilet and a tub bathroom, while 
on a balcony running- along two sides of the pool room 
are the dressing rooms, consisting of marble partitions, 
with fine grille work overhead. The pool room, which 
extends through the entire height of the building, is fin- 
ished in brick and terra cotta, the pool itself being lined 
with enameled brick. The entire building is lighted by 
electricity to allow night bathing. 

Kindergarten, Downers Grove, III. Plates li)3- 
105. The plan of this building is the outcome of the 
theory of its builders that kindergarten groups should be 
small. There are two complete imits which are identical 
in arrangement, one on each floor. Each unit is devoted 
to a class of thirty children and three teachers. In the 
work which is done in a large class the three teachers co- 
operate in the central room, but for the greater part of the 
time the children are divided into three groups of ten 
each, one group remaining in the large room and each of 
the other two going to one of the group rooms to the north 
or south. 

The administration and service part of the building is 
at a level halfway between the two kindergarten floors and 
serves as an entrance through which all persons must pass 
to enter the other portions of the building. In this part 
are the director's room, the teachers' room, the kitchen, 
the heating apparatus and the toilet and locker rooms for 
each class. 

The construction is of brick, with iKinelcd frame sec- 
ond story and slate roof. The floors are of wood con- 
struction and are covered with cork tile, giving a most 
agreeable color and texture. The stairs have been so 
planned that access and escape are easy and in opposite 
portions of the building, minimizing the risk from fire. 
81 



}amiM^M<<'<i^Mi'(M^M«:^i^:i?(i;i:ix<<<^^^^ 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 
AN D*N O T ES ^ i 
FOR.'^THE'^ MONTH 




CITY-PLANNIN(i in its broadest phase and in par- 
ticular detail is fortunately now receiving a great 
deal of attention and study. The first national 
city-planning conference was held in Washington in 190^^, 
and since then there has been one each year in various 
parts of the country. This year the conference was in 
Detroit on June 7, X, 9, and is reported to have been the 
most successful held thus far. It is gratifying to note 
that the attendance included real estate men and property 
owners who took a prominent part in the discussions. 

The subject of city-planning is a very comprehensive 
one, including, as it does, every branch of a city's growth. 
While an aesthetic result is always dreamed of as the ulti- 
mate, there will be no value in such a result unless it be 
attained after a study of many less ideal considerations. 
The first step, therefore, in any city-planning undertak- 
ing is to make a careful investigation of the conditions ex- 
isting in the community. In case a new section or area is 
to be planned these conditions are purely physical, but 
their importance must be thoroughly understood. When 
the planning is in relation to an existing city, a survey of 
the actual conditions of that city must be made, particu- 
larly of the working and living conditions. This study 
should lead to a forecast of the future growth of the city 
and its resultant requirements, for in order to plan com- 
prehensively the vision must be of the probable city, even 
a hundred years hence. 

This economic and social aspect of city-planning is not 
the only phase, but it constitutes the first step to be taken. 
A plan based on such study and survey will create oppor- 
tunities for landscape developments and architectural em- 
bellishments which, in turn, should receive the same 
careful study. In the early days of city-planning all the 
emphasis was laid on the sesthetic consideration, but with 
the inception of the city-planning conferences a tendency 
developed t(j lay the stress on the social and economic 
considerations. There has been evidence of this lack of 
balance in schemes where real economic value has been 
accompanied by absolutely inadecpiate architectural treat- 
ment. Active co-operation of the architect must be ob- 
tained if serious and far-reaching mistakes are to be 
avoided in this matter. 

The professional training of the architect jiarticularly 
fits him for effective activity in city-planning. He has 
had to face questions of economics ; he has been handi- 
capped by mechanical and physical considerations in his 
aesthetic achievements ; he has been through the experi- 
ences that are to be met by the city planner, and conse- 
quently his power in this connection is not limited to the 
aesthetic problems that may be created, but is of great 
value in the earlier work of survey and study. 

The development of city-planning in America has 
taken place so far principally through the medium of city- 
planning boards or commissions in the various cities. 



Few of these commissions have any power to act, but are 
purely advisory boards, acting with the other city depart- 
ments which are endowed with the necessary powers. A 
commission of this kind has great value, not alone as a 
body which may give advice on any particular ciuestion, 
but it has an indispensable purpose, in that through it 
as a clearing house may be attained a unity of concep- 
tion which is the primary condition of good city-planning. 
In most cases these commissions are composed of pri- 
vate citizens serving without pay. Here lies a field of 
work which is open to the architect — a place where he 
may exert his influence and help maintain the lead of the 
profession in the creative work of his community. Some 
few may have an opportunity to direct a real estate devel- 
opment, and by careful study produce an ;esthetic result 
and at the same time a judicious investment ; some others 
may have the exceptional opportunity of laying out a com- 
prehensive scheme for a new city or for the re-planning of 
an existing city. These individual opportunities are dis- 
tinctly limited, but to all is open an opportunity at all 
times to advise, to stimulate, and to direct the activities 
of the community in this work which holds such great 
hope for the future of architecture. 



YALE UNIVERSITY honored Ralph Adams Cram 
at the recent commencement by conferring on him 
the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. In 
granting the degree the following comment was made : 
" By teaching and by practice, to revive Gothic forms and 
adapt them to modern uses — this has been Mr. Cram's 
labor, this is his distinction. The soul of man requires 
the pointed arch, and as such works of past genius disap- 
pear, modern genius must give us its substitute." 

At Harvard, Horace Trumbauer was given the honor- 
ary degree of Master of Arts with the statement : 
" Architect of the Harry Elkins Widener Memorial 
Library ; they who enter its doors will ever admire the 
design and the adaptation to the use of a company of 
scholars." 



TWK Natco Two- Apartment House Competition was 
judged at Boston, July 12. The members of the 
jury were : H.J. Carlson, Boston ; H. L. Duhring, 
Jr., Philadelphia; Arthur W. Joslin, Boston; Edward L. 
Palmer, Jr., Baltimore ; Thomas E. Tallmadge, Chicago, 
111. The following awards were made: first prize, Olaf 
William Shelgren, Buffalo, N. Y. ; second prize, Hugh 
Macomber Ferriss, New York City ; third prize, J. Ivan 
Dise, New York City ; fourth prize, Maurice Feather, 
Watertown, Mass. The mentions : William H. Flanigen, 
Woodbury, N. J. ; Frederick J. Feirer, Ridgefield Park, 
N. J. ; Emil F. Hasenbalg, Chicago ; R. F. Walker, Mel- 
rose, Mass. ; Cleon M. Hannaford, Boston, Mass.; Arthur 
J. Pohle, Albany, N. Y. 



182 



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VOLUME XXIV 



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NUMBER 8 



CONTENTS for AUGUST 1915 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS ^,,,,,„ p,,, 

APARTMENT HOUSE, 11 EAST CHASE STREET, BALTIMORE, MD. 

IVyatt & Nolting 120 

BANK, MURCHISON NATIONAL, WILMINGTON, N. C... Kenneth M. Murchison 115 

BANK, NATIONAL, FAR ROCKAWAY, L. I Jo!. L. Slemam 116 

CHURCH, RAVENSWOOD PRESBYTERIAN, CHICAGO, ILL. _. Pond & Pond 117,118 

CHURCH, CARROLLTON M. E., NEW ORLEANS, LA Sam Stone, Jr. 119 

CLUB, THREE ARTS, CHICAGO, ILL Holabnd & Roche 112-114 

LIBRARY, HARRY ELKINS WIDENER MEMORIAL, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

.__ Horace Trumbaucr 106-11 1 

LETTERPRESS p^^^ 

A COMPOSITION OF WREN'S BUILDINGS. C. % Cockerell, R.A. Fronltspiece 

EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS j Gordon Robb 

VIII. Measured Drawing of Doorway, French-Munroe House, | M. A. Dyer 
Bristol, R. I. 

THE CHURCH TOWERS, STEEPLES, AND SPIRES OF SIR CHRISTOPHER 

WREN R. Randal PhilUpi 185 

Illustrations from Photographs 
GARAGE ON THE ESTATE OF EDWARD C. SCHAEFER, ESQ., 

NEW ROCHELLE, N. Y : 190 

Reiley & Steinback, Architects. 
A LARGE MARKET AT WORCESTER, MASS 191 

O. C. S. Ziroli, Architect. 

Illustrations from Photographs and Plans 

STAIRWAYS IN HOUSES OF MODERATE COST John T. Fallon 193 

III. English and French Influences. (Concluding Paper.) 
Illustrations from Photographs and Drawings 
PLUMBING INSTALLATION AND SEWAGE DISPOSAL __ CAdr/es ^. IVhitlemore 197 

V. Resume of Plumbing Requirements of New York, Chicago, 
Philadelphia, and Boston. (Concluding Paper.) 

A PHILADELPHIA PUBLISHING HOUSE__ 201 

Bunting & Shrigley, Architects. 

COMPETITION FOR A TWO-APARTMENT HOUSE 202 

Report of the Jury of Award. 
Winning Designs. 

AS HE IS KNOWN 207 

Being Brief Sketches of Contemporary Members of the Architectural Profe.ssion. 

Messrs. Louis La Beaume, Waddy B. Wood, Waller Mellor, Alfred Hoyt Granger. 

PLATE DESCRIPTION 209 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH... 210 



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Published Monthly by 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 
Boston, Mass. 

Yearly Subscription, payable in advance, U. S. A., Insular Possessions and Cuba ^5.00 

Canada ^5.50 Foreign Countries in the Postal Union 6.00 

Single Copies 50 cents All Copies Mailed Flat 

Trade Supplied by the American News Company and its Branches. Entered as 

Second Class Matter, March 12, 1892, at the Post Office at Boston, Mass. 

Copyright, 1915. by Rogers and Manson Company 

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Corridor, Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 
HORACE TRUMBAUER, Architect 

This illustration shows a 

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R. GUASTAVINO CO. 



NEW YORK 
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VOLUME XXIV 



AUGUST, 1915 



NUMBER 8 



The Church Towers, Steeples, and Spires of 
Sir Christopher Wren. 



PART I. 



By R. RANDAL PHILLIPS. 



BEFORE proceeding- to consider in detail the wonder- 
ful series of church towers, steeples, and spires 
which Wren built in London after the Great Fire of 
1666, a few observations may be made on their general 
character and the circumstances which gave occasion for 
them. The clarity of Wren's genius is displayed very 
remarkably in his city churches. If there be anything in 
the assumption that a man's character must surely find 
expression in his work, then it is amply illustrated in 
Wi-en's city churches, for these churches bear the impress 
of a great constructive mind and reflect the stately, 
ordered life of the Grand Old 
Man of English architecture. 
It is well always to remember 
that Wren gained fame first as 
a mathematician and a scien- 
tist, and when in later years he 
took up the study of buildings, 
he evinced the same spirit of 
adventure and followed the 
same principles of log^ical 
thoug-ht which had distinguished 
him as Gresham Professor of 
Astronomy and as one of the 
leading founders of the Royal 
Society. 

The historic fire of London, 
two centuries and a half ago, 
burned not only the great 
Cathedral, the Guildhall, and 
the Royal Exchange, but also 
eigihty parish churches, fifty of 
the City Company halls, and 
thirteen thousand houses. Fifty 
of the churches were rebuilt by 
Wren, and, though circum- 
scribed by conditions of cost and 
of necessity, — most of them 
having had to follow the old 
foundations, — they present a 
variety of planning and a re- 
source in design which consti- 
tute a unique tribute to a single 
great mind. As regards the 
religious quality of the inte- 
riors, there may be differing 
opinions. Some, the writer Westminster Abbey; 




among- them, would echo the words of Miss Milman: 
There is no suggestion of mystery in these City churches: 
no dim aisles lure the soul to speculate upon things un- 
seen, no majestic altar elevation typifies arduous access to 
the Most High ; the mood indeed is rather calm than 
ecstasy. Devotion here would scarcely disturb a pros- 
perous trader's conception of the world as a pleasant place 
in which an honest man can await without fretful im- 
patience the summons to another." But however this 
may be, there is no question as to the splendid merit of 
the steeples and spires which dominate the exteriors of 

these churches. These steeples 
and spires, moreover, are 
uniciue as Renaissance equiva- 
lents of a Gothic feature. 
Wren was the first architect to 
conceive a Renaissance spire, 
and no one since has excelled 
his achievement. The variety 
in design is astounding ; no two 
are alike ; yet they have this 
in common — t/ir lo-iCcr is />>oi/ff/il 
visibly down to t/ic ground in 
every ease. Wren never erected 
a church with a tower rising 
from the roof ; he never at- 
tempted to combine a portico 
with a tower and spire. Later 
architects did so, like (Jibbs in 
the Church of St. Martin-in-the- 
Ficlds, and Hawksmoor in St. 
George's, Bloomsbury, but the 
effect of their work is not nearly 
so satisfying to the eye as Wren's 
invariable practice. 

With such a feature as a 
steeple or spire, support, real 
and apparent, is essential ; and 
nothing meets the case so well 
as a design which starts directly 
from the ground and is built up 
with forms that express suj^i^ort, 
that rise from stage to stage 
without api)arent effort, offering- 
no check to the eye or to the 
understanding. When, on the 
Western Towers other hand, the tower is set 



186 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 




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St. Michael's, Cornhi 



St. Andrew's, Holhiorn 



within the church and rises through the roof, not 
only is the effect of solidity at the base lost, but 
the scale of the tower itself is destroyed. Wren 
was fully aware of the value of the plain square 
base, which he adopted in every instance, but it is 
probable that another reason for his concentration 
of ornament in the upper parts of his towers and 
steeples was due to the fact that the sites were so 
enclosed. It is an unfortunate fact that there is 
not a single church desi.gned and carried out en- 
tirely by Wren of which a complete and open view 
can be had. St. Clement Danes, in the Strand, is 
the sole exception, and this is not wholly Wren's 
work, the steeple having been added by Gibbs. 

To'a'ers. Of the ten church towers by Wren 
which carry neither steeple nor spire, five are 
Gothic in style. These are St. Alban's, Wood 
street; St. Mary's, Warwick ; St. Mary's, Alder- 
mary ; the twin western towers of Westminster 
Abbey, and St. Michael's, Cornhill. It is cus- 
tomary to deplore Wren's essays in the Gothic 
style, to point out how the spirit of his own times 
was totally out of touch with the spirit that ani- 
mated the Gothic builders, but when all has been 
said the fact remains that Wren's Gothic towers, 
at least, are quite pleasing compositions, and if the 
detail is hard the general proportions are satisfac- 
tory. St. Michael's, Cornhill, follows Magdalen 
College Tower very closely, but a comparison of 
the two will show at once the far greater merit 
of the Oxford example. The belfry openings in 
Wren' s tower have the appearance of being pinched 



in between the octagonal angle turrets, and the bold- 
ness of these latter is a little overpowering. This 
tower is 25 feet square at base and 130 feet high to 
the top of the pinnacles. A somewhat similar treat- 
ment was adopted for St. Mary's, Aldermary. Only 
the upper part of the tower, however, is Wren's work, 
the remainder having survived the fire. St. Mary's, 
Warwick, also bears some resemblance to St. Mic- 
hael's, Cornhill, but is a far more commonplace 
design. Nor can St. Alban's, Wood street, be con- 
sidered other than dull. By contrast the western 
towers of Westminster Abbey claim our admiration. 
The upper parts were carried out, so far as can be 
ascertained, by John James, the architect of St. 
George's, Hanover square, but, as Wren was in 
charge of the work of restoration at the Abbey for 
many years, and drew up a report in 1713 in which 
he specifically refers to the designs he had prepared 
for the towers, these may reasonably be attributed to 
him. In his report he says : ' ' The two western towers 
ought certainly to be carried to an equal height, one 
story above the ridge of the roof, still continuing the 
(iothic manner in the stonework and tracery. ... I 
have prepared perfect drafts and models (drawings), 
such as I conceive may agree with the original scheme 
of the old architect, without any modern mixtures to 
show my own inventions." In this same report Wren 
also outlines his scheme for the completion of the cen- 
tral tower of the Abbey. He says: "The original 
intention was plainly to have had a spire. ... In 




St. Mary's, Somerset 
Thames Street 



St. Andrew's-by-theVVardrobe 
Queen Victoria Street 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



187 



my opinion the tower should be con- 
tinued to, at least, as much in heiyht 
above the roof as it is in breadth ; and, 
if a spire be added to it, it will give a 
proper grace to the whole fabric, and 
the west end of the city, which seems 
to want it. I have made a design which 
will not be very expensive, but ligfht, 
and still in the Gothic form, and of a 
style with the rest of the structure. . . . 
I have varied a little from the usual 
form, in g^iving twelve sides to the spire 
instead of eight, for reasons to be dis- 
cerned in the model. . . ." Whether 
this spire would have been a desirable 
addition to the Abbey, some have ques- 
tioned, but the western towers are, at 
least, good evidence that Wren might 
well have been trusted with the addition. 
The Renaissance towers of Wren's 
churches have a 
strong family likeness 
one to another. The 
two best are the towers 
of St. Mary's, Somer- 
set, and St. Andrew's- 
by - the - Wardrobe . 
The former is all that 
remains of the church , 
which was pulled 
down in 1872. The 
tower was saved by 
the intervention of the 
late Mr. Ewan Chris- 
tian, and its preserva- 
tion was well merited, 
for it is a graceful de- 
sign, marred only by 
the fantastic and re- 
dundant group of ped- 
estals and finials at 
the top. It measures 
20 feet square at base 
and rises to a height 
of 120 feet. 

St. Andrew's -by - 
the-Wardrobe is a 
brick tower with stone 
quoins and dressings. 
Halfway up it bears 
a well designed clock 
case, and above is the 
belfry, the whole being- 
crowned by an open 
balustrade. This 
church, like many an- 
other, has suffered at 
the hands of the re- 
storer, and one cannot 
think that the awk- 
ward hood-moulds to 
the belfry openings 
are Wren's ; they are 



i 

P 






I 




St. Mary's, Aldermary 




St. Mary-le-Bow, Cheapside 



quite out of scale with the rest of his 
work. At St. Andrew's, Holborn, the 
tower was not destroyed in the fire, so, 
in 1704, it was repaired and refaced 
with stone by Wren. It is of good out- 
line, but the double-arch treatment of 
the belfry stage calls for criticism. The 
effect of a segmental arch within a semi- 
circular one is never satisfactory, and 
Wren did not overcome the defect here 
any more than he did in the similar 
arrangement adopted by him in the 
Fountain Court at Hampton Court and 
the arcade of Trinity College Library. 

Towers unth Steeples. It is when we 
come to consider the towers with steeples 
that the wonderful talent of Wren is 
made fully manifest. Half a dozen claim 
attention by reason of their striking 
composition, and it is difficult to place 
them in any order of 
merit. St. Mary-le- 
Bow, however, ex- 
tremelybeautiful from 
every point of view, 
is generally accorded 
the first place. It is 
fitting that to the 
originator of such a 
feature as the Renais- 
sance steeple should 
be accorded the honor 
of producing the most 
perfect example of its 
kind. Looking at the 
tower and steeple of 
Bow Church one is 
conscious of no check, 
no abrupt change, 
from base to summit. 
From the base, the 
walls rise plain and 
square to the belfry 
stage, where a pilaster 
treatment is adopted 
with the usual entab- 
lature and balustrad- 
ing. Here the abrupt 
change in form is 
made, for, rising from 
within the tower, and 
masked by inverted 
scroll ornaments, ap- 
pears a circular stylo- 
bate supporting the 
delightful open peri- 
style with its circular 
entablature and bal- 
ustrading. Within the 
peristyle is a stone 
cylinder 11 feet in di- 
ameter, buttressed by 
consoles of beautiful 



Bride's, P'leet Street 



188 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



form and carryinjr in turn a columnar lantern with were, for some reason, not exercised in this instance, 

pyramidal termination. As an example of scientific con- Was it owing to his having matured in his art, as Mr. 

struction the design is no less arresting. The walls of the Blomfield suggests, with the resultant adoption of a rigid 

tower are exceedingly thick, the upper part of the belfry and severe classic style, thereby throwing off the lightness 

stage being brought to the octagon by massive moulded of touch which characterizes St. Mary-le-Bow ; or was it 

corbels. From the top of the octagon springs a dome because he sought to achieve a constructive triumph? 

having an eye in the crown, the joints being non-radiat- One might be led to the latter conclusion quite readily, 

ing, whilst the upper surface is finished flat, forming the for the construction of this steeple differs from anything 

floor of the peristyle. The circular stone core rests on attempted either before or since. Up to the crown of 

the dome and is buttressed up by the circular peristyle of the belfry windows the walls are extremely massive and 



columns and consoles, the weight from 
the lantern and spire being in this man- 
ner carefully distributed. The steeple 
was repaired by George Gwilt in 1820, 
when red granite was substituted for the 
worn i^ortland stone in the columns and 
entablatures of the lantern stage. The 
height is 225 feet to the dragon on 
the top. 

Another very noteworthy design is 
St. Bride's. Early in the nineteenth 
century a scheme for opening out the 
view of the church from Fleet street was 
carried out by J. B. Papworth, but 
modern rebuildings have entirely sup- 
planted this, with the result that no 
complete view of the tower and steeple 
is now possible. The square base rises 
plainly to the belfry stage, where a 
somewhat unusual order treatment is to 
be seen, inasmuch as columns are used 
at the angles instead of pilasters. The 
deep blocking course with its solid bal- 
ustrade is returned over the pilasters 
instead of over the angle columns, thus 
cleverly curtailing the diagonals, and 
with the further aid of urns the eye 
is gradually carried over the complete 
change of plan which is made at this 
point. Rising from within the deep 
blocking course is a circular drum, 
which acts as a base for the steeple 
proper. This comprises four stages 
practically identical with one another, 
being simply erected on a graduated 
diminishing scale. The plan for each 
stage is an octagon, with a pilaster at 
the intersection of adjacent faces. The entablatures are 
broken over each pilaster, thus overcoming what would 
otherwise have been a number of very severe horizontal 
divisions. The avoidance of too marked a diminution in 
diameter between consecutive stages has resulted in a 
steeple of great height — 226 feet, making it easily the 
highest in London. 




St. Clement Danes, Strand 



s(iuare on plan, but at this level flat 
faced pendentives are formed, the octa- 
gon being brought to the circle by a 
heavy ring of stone. From this ring 
springs a conical dome which has non- 
radiating or flat joints to within a short 
distance of the crown. This dome is 
exceedingly thick, the masonry (showing 
as the circular drum which rises from 
within the blocking course.) forming the 
base of the steeple proper. Built up 
on the platform of the drum is the core 
of the central staircase, from the outer 
shell of which buttress walls radiate to 
each angle of the octagon, and are 
vaulted over one to the other, so as to 
form the ceiling above. This construc- 
tion is repeated throughout all the 
stages. The only cause for wonder is 
that all this stonework is standing on 
a dome, which, in spite of its flat joints 
and steep pitch, must exert enormous 
pressure outwards on the walls be- 
low ; it has, in fact, been found neces- 
sary to connect the opi:)osite walls of 
the tower just below the springing of 
the belfry windows by means of large 
iron tie-rods. Whatever was Wren's 
dominating idea in evolving the design, 
St. Bride's is, both from the point of 
view of architecture and of construc- 
tion, clearly the work of a master. 

St. Stephen's, Walbrook, and St. 
Michael Royal, College Hill, may be 
taken together, as they are very much 
alike. While the towers are practically 
identical, in the steeples a wonderful 
variety of design is displayed, for, although the propor- 
tions of the three stages in elevation are very similar in 
each case, yet the plans of the stages are cjuite dissimilar. 
In each case, moreover, owing possibly to lack of ready 
money. Wren was obliged to make the tower a complete 
feature in itself and to finish the steeple as funds 
permitted. 

In St. Stephen's, Walbrook, a sciuare ])lan has been 



Although designed on severely classic lines, the whole 

composition is original, and the succession of dark, open adopted for the stages, the angles being brought forward 

spaces rising one over the other, diminishing in size as and developed with a columnar and pilaster treatment, 

they approach the top, forces the eye to follow them as Urns are freely used to mask the breaks, but, as in the 

they soar upwards, in spite of the entablatures marking case of Christ Church, Newgate street, there is a certain 

each story. Thus the " motif " justifies itself, and the disjointcdness in the whole effect. Here, however, the 

monotony at first apparent is lost. Usually so free in his entablatures are broken back into the main faces of the 

works, the severity of design would make one think that square, thus avoiding what otherwise would be very severe 

Wren's imagination and extraordinary inventive capacities horizontal checks to the eye. 



I 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



189 



vSt. Michael Royal, College Hill, the later of the two, 
was one of Wren's last steeples, having: been built in 1713. 
The octag"onal plan is used in each stage. In the first 
the angles of the octagon are marked by columns, the 
entablature being broken out over each. In the middle 
stage curved ramps carry the lines up to terminate in the 
lantern stage. The western towers of St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral show another variation in this same scheme of steeple 
which Wren developed. They rise to a height of 220 feet 
and are divided into five stages. The lower two are em- 
bodied in the fabric of the Cathedral, and are treated with 
coupled pilasters and a complete entablature. Above is 
the clock stage, square on plan, with sculpture groups at 
the angles. In the next stage a change is made to the 
circular form of plan, the architectural treatment con- 
sisting of an open colonnade 
around a hollow cylindrical drum. 
Groups of coupled columns are 
projected from the rest of the 
colonnade on the diagonals of 
the square stage below and 



carry an entablature which breaks out over them with 
vases, ramps leading up to the crowning octagonal stage 
and the lead covered cap. The southwest tower con- 
tained, in addition to the clock and great bell, the famous 
geometrical staircase, while in the northwest tower is a 
small carillon. 

In the case of St. Clement Danes, Wren modified and 
recased an existing tower up to the level of the pres- 
ent clock story only, the steeple having been added 
thirty-four years later by James Gibbs. There are many 
points of interest about this steeple, more particularly 
in regard to the plans adopted for the various stages, 
but as it is not the work of Wren it must be passed 
with no more than bare mention. Attention, however, 
should be drawn to the characteristic treatment of the 

tower, which, with its classical 
buttresses and flanking domes, is 
in Wren's happiest manner, and 
though surmounted by the work 
of another must have a place in a 
consideration of his designs. 





St. Stephen's, Walbrook 



St. Paul's Cathedral, Southwest Tower 



St. Michael Royal, College Hill 



190 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



•'t'-'J>f^- 



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FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PL/\N 




GARAGE ON ESTATE OF EDWARD C. SCHAEFER, ESQ., NEW ROCHELLE, N. V. 

REILEY & STEINBACK, ARCHITECTS 



i 



A Large Market Building 

AT WORCESTER, MASS. 

O. C. S. ZIROLI, Architect. 



THE building for the Worcester market, which was 
recently completed and occupied, is a gratifying indi- 
cation of the study and care which is now being given 
to the solution of the very practical, everyday problems 
which for so long have been passed over as barely worthy 
of serious architectural consideration. The housing of a 
general provision store has been worked out here with 
considerable thought, so that a very convenient and effi- 
cient scheme has been combined with a pleasing, archi- 
tectural treatment, both on the exterior and interior. 

The building has a frontage of 108 feet on the principal 
street and extends back on an unimportant street to a 
depth of 227 feet. The exterior is of glazed terra cotta 
and is particularly interesting because of the modeled 
ornament showing forms which relate to the purpose of 
the building. Fireproofing has been obtained by the use 
of concrete with steel reinforcing for the structural parts 
throughout. 

The main floor plan is characterized principally by the 
simple and commodious arrangement which makes for the 
greatest convenience and comfort of the shoppers. The 
aisles are 10 and 12 feet wide, five of them running the 
length of the building and three running across. They 
are lined on either side with glass covered counters where 
the store's goods are displayed in the best possible man- 
ner, and yet are absolutely protected from handling by the 



public. All of the aisles are covered with a cork flooring, 
which is laid over a rather deep layer of prepared sawdust, 
which, in turn, is directly on the fireproof floor construc- 
tion. This padding gives a slight resilience which is 
hardly noticeable in the step, but which is really very 
comfortable and restful. The lighting of this floor is by 
indirect fixtures, which give an evenly distributed illumina- 
tion over the whole area. 

Perhaps the most interesting feature of the building is 
the arrangement whereby the display counters are kept 
constantly supplied with goods. For this purpose there are 
two stock rooms, one above the main store floor and one in 
the basement below. Each of these rooms is divided into 
sections which carry different kinds of goods, each counter 
in the store having above or below it a section where only 
the goods sold at that particular counter are stored. These 
sections and their corresponding counters are connected 
by elevato-s so that as goods are sold and the counters 
emptied new stock can be supplied immediately and with- 
out any of the confusion and filling of the aisles by trucks 
which is necessary in the usual arrangement. 

Belt conveyors have been used throughout, so that 
from the time a sale is made all of the handling of the 
goods is done by mechanical means, whether the package 
must simply be wrapped or is to be shipped or stored as 
the case may be. This makes for the greatest speed and 




General View of Worcester Market 
191 



192 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



efficiency in the operation 
of the store. In connec- 
tion with the shipping: 
room there are cold stor- 
age chests where perish- 
able goods awaiting de- 
livery may be placed. The 
market has its own kitchen 
for the cooking of delica- 
tessen goods and also its 
own bakery with six ovens. 
A unique feature in the 
stock room is a large 
roaster where 200 pounds 
of coffee may be roasted 
in twenty minutes. After 
roasting, the coffee is 
cooled by a blast of air 
and when separated by suc- 
tion from all foreign matter 
is ready for sale. The 
market also has its own 
carpenter shop, electrical 
plant, and a pumping sys- 
tem for the cold storage 



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rooms. A fan placed on 
the roof provides ventila- 
tion for the whole building. 
Men's locker rooms and 
t(jilets are on the first floor, 
while space on the second 
floor is given to the girls' 
locker room and ' a rest 
room. For some of its 
storage and stock room the 
market still uses a section 
of the old building, 140 by 
40 feet. The receiving de- 
partment, where incoming 
goods are received, is also 
in the old building. The 
offices both for the general 
business and for the par- 
ticular business of the 
store sales are on the upper 
floor. They extend along 
both street fac^-ades and are 
reached by a special en- 
trance which is on the 
principal street. 




General View of Interior, Worcester Market 



Stairways in Houses of Moderate Cost. 

III. ENGLISH AND FRENCH INFLUENCES. 
(Concluding Paper.) 

By JOHN T. FALLON. 



ALTHOUGH the influence of the Georgian stair is 
predominant in our modern domestic architecture, 
other English types are not without their impor- 
tance. With the accessibility which we possess to the 
entire range of English house design, the best of all 
periods have been appropriated and made our own. 

The houses of the Jacobean period are full of compelling- 
charm. Built during the age when the middle class was 
springing into its real im- 
portance in modern so- 
ciety, they unite pictur- 
esque and naive desig^n 
with a close relation to 
our present-day modes of 
living:. Their size and 
scale so nearly approach 
in many instances the de- 
mands of the great Ameri- 
can middle class — if such a 
term can be used — that 
they serve admirably as 
models for many of our 
modern country houses. 

The English stairway 
of the early seventeenth 
century was one of many 
flig'hts. The confined 
spaces allotted to the stair- 
case in the early planning- 
made it impossible to 
arrange the steps in long 
flights, and to the many 
landings thus occasioned 
is due the impressive char- 
acter which the designers 
were able to effect by 
means of the elaborate 
newels and the carved 
ornamentation of their 
finials. The earliest finials were of simple form, a circu- 
lar or acorn shaped ball being used with a moulded base 
and with several incised lines around its surface. The best 
finials aoproach the shape of vases, and that this motive 
was the underlying- idea of the joiners is shown by the 
later general use of elaborately carved vases. From the 
round top to an octagonal shape and then to a "square 
turned " were short steps, and this latter soon became a 
standard type. 

The finial on top presupposes a pendant below, a feature 
which followed much the same line of developnient. The 
clo.sed strings were generally plain and heavy with a 
simple moulded capping to receive the balusters, and were 
often painted on the flat face with ornamental designs. 
The balusters were heavy and rather widely spaced, being 
either turned or square in section. An important variant 
was the fashion of filling up the space between the hand 




Stairway in House at Cornwall, N 
Parker Morse Hopper. Architect 



rail and the string by thin boarding- pierced to show the 
outline of a strapwork pattern or design. This was soon 
developed by the introduction of carving into great panels 
of interlacing ornament, and became the forerunner of 
the continuous balustrades of flowing foliage made famous 
by Grinling Gibbons. 

The elaboration of the finial and the balustrade is the 
most interesting- feature of this period. The finial, start- 
ing from the simple turned 
form, as we have observed, 
developed quickly, in the 
more elaborate examples, 
into vase shaped forms 
surmounted by heraldic 
figures; and, reaching this 
culmination, sank again in 
importance, first to the 
basket of flowers and fruit, 
and later to entire elimina- 
tion. The balustrade, at 
first of simple and heavy 
balusters, was replaced by 
intricate strapwork pat- 
terns until in the days of 
the Renaissance it was 
once more reinstated, and 
from then its reign has 
been supreme. 

It will be seen from this 
slight historical rhiiinc of 
the Jacobean stair that its 
elements are based rather 
upon the art of the 
"joiner" than upon the 
essentials of classic de- 
sign. When simplified it 
lacks the interest of carv- 
ing and ornamentation that 
gave the old examj^jles their 
picturesque charm, and it is apt to appear heavy and 
complicated. While its adaptation to the requirements 
of houses of moderate cost is naturally limited because 
of these reasons, the illustrations are suggestive of in- 
telligent handlings of the style. In this type of stairway 
the questions of materials and craftsmanship are para- 
mount. English oak with its wonderful graining and 
color has no equal and, when united to the hand-wrought 
workmanship of the seventeenth century artisans, trans- 
formed commonplace designs into works of beauty. 

A logical development of interest in the (Georgian Era 
brings one to a study of the work of the brothers Adam 
and their disciples, who spoke the last word on the eigli- 
teenth century stairway. Although they introduced many 
innovations into other features of house design, in the 
stairway they found one subject which had already attained 
a form equal to their own delicacy and refinement. As 



Y. 



19:} 



194 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



has been previously indicated, the ultimate gfoal of the 
Georgian designer was the subservience of every part to 
the upward gliding of the stair. Triumphing over every 
difficulty of wood construction, these Adam stairways 
swept up gracefully in one circular or elliptical flight, the 
steps not held in place by any apparent construction, but 
building up from one to another like a pile of blocks. 

Interest of detail was focused upon the iron railing and 
balustrade. The balusters were of wrought or cast iron, 
intended to be seen in relief, for their silhouettes were 
delicately suggestive of Greek and Pompeian motives and 
were of the utmost lightness. Some of Robert Adam's de- 
signs might have been copied from the decorations on a 
Greek vase, so full are they of the then recently discov- 
ered Hellenistic spirit. 

We are now passing through a phase of taste in which 
the slender attenuations and extreme delicacy of scale of 
the Adam style have had a distinct influence upon modern 
design. It can hardly be said that the design of the stairs 
has followed as closely this impulse as other features. 
Whether it is the austerity of the Adam stair type that fails 
to make an appeal to American designers, or whether the 
questions of cost have limited its use, is a matter for de- 
bate. A few years of further development may, however, 
produce examples to eeiual the originals, although at pres- 
ent the advance is slow. 

During the best periods of design the Anglo-Saxon art 
has always been open to (rallic influence, and the unerring 
good taste of French domestic design has helped to solve 
many of the problems of the English house. American 
students who went to Paris in the eighties were quick to 
appreciate how sure and true French taste was in even 
the most debased periods of art, and were as quick to 
seize upon the French ideas of interior work and to come 
back full of their inspiration. From then on the styles 
of many elaborate houses were modeled after the French 
manner, and even houses of the more moderate size were 





Stairway in Phi Gamma Delta Fraternity House, Philadelphia, Pa 

MeIlor& Meigs, Architects 



Stairway in the House of G. B. Penniman, Quogue, L. 1. 

Edward S. Hewitt, Arcliitect 

greatly affected by the foreign training of the designers. 
The F'rench stairway was never as intimate in character 
as the English. An indication has already been given of 
its more public place in planning. To add to this, it was 
and still is almost invariably built 
of stone or stucco, at least in houses 
of any pretensions whatever ; and 
as these materials lend themselves 
to varied or elaborate treatment only 
in the more costly examples, there 
is little to be said about the simpler 
French stairways in this discussion. 
Forsaking the intramural type of 
Italian stairs, the French examples 
from the days of Louis XIV were 
enclosed in "staircase halls." 
They were generally square in plan, 
but sometimes round or elliptical. 
The stair rose in one continuous 
flight from floor to floor, the winders 
being worked out with consummate 
ingenuity to preserve the sinuous 
lines of the string and, at the same 
time, to afford an easy ascent. The 
string, always a closed one, was a 
strong band of mouldings that swept 
continuously from floor to floor. 
Except in the more monumental 
stairways of the days of Louis XIV, 
stone or marble balustrades were 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



195 




STAIRWAY IN HOUSE OF RALPH B. WILLIAMS, ESQ., DOVER, MASS. 
WINSI,OW, BIGELOW & WADSWORTH, ARCHITECTS 



196 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



never in great favor, and with the reign of Louis XV 
wrought iron, so adapted to the soft, graceful lines of the 
period, came to usurp the field entirely. The French 
genius has never been more at home than when solving 
the design of the stair balustrade in the flowing curves of 
this epoch, and the severity of Louis XVI never ciuite satis- 
fied the taste in this feature or 
quite supplanted the former types 
in popular favor. The modern 
designer, seeking for inspiration 
among the French styles, inva- 
riably returns to these felicitous 
types as the highest expression of 5-t ^ "^ 
the French stair rail. 

Much might be written of the 
genius of French stone masons, 
but at least in the problems of 
the stairway they found a suitable 
outlet for all their energies and 
skill. And even in the smaller 
houses they delighted to show 
how complete was their conqiiest 
over this material, while in the 
grander examples they performed 
many real /o/trs dc force. The 
stereotomy of some of these old 
stairways is unsurpassed by the 
triumphs even of Gothic vaulting of the thirteenth century. 

Rut this is a digression from our subject, for this work 
has little in common with the unpretentious American 
house. Setting aside the questions of prohibitive expense. 



^ 



OTL- 



PAi.uST£.»~S - WMfTL' . 

Detail of Stairway in Showrooms, New York, N. Y 

Mott B. Schmidt. Architect 



foreign to our tastes. The illustrations will show that 
only a detail here and there has left its mark upon our 
modern work. 

Modern stair design is being greatly influenced by the 
work of Mr. Charles A. Piatt, who has probably given 
more of an impetus to the study of this problem than any 
other American designer. In 
matters of detail he has managed 
to extract from apparently ex- 
hausted motives a fresh vitality, 
and to adapt a wide variety of 
ideas that give new blood to this 
old problem. Among other archi- 
tects who have made notable con- 
tributions to this phase of house 
design maybe mentioned Messrs. 
Delano & Aldrich and Mr. John 
Russell Pope. The former have 
taken as inspiration for many of 
their designs the European types 
produced towards the end of the 
eighteenth century and have 
borne firmly in mind the primary 
essentials of the elegance and 
ease of these examples. Mr. 
Pope's work has embraced a 
wide field and in each stairway 
has fully expressed not only the details, but also the un- 
derlying principles of the styles in which he works. 

The futiire of the domestic stair is not easy to forecast, 
but there is bound to come a still wider appreciation of 




there is a grandiose quality about all of it that is really classic design for this feature. 




f 



Stairway in House at New York, N. Y. 

Delano & Aldrich, Architects 



Stairway in Showrooms, New York, N. Y. 
Mott B. Schmidt, Architect 



VOL. 24, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 106. 




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PLATE 107. 




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VOL. 24, NO. 8. 




THE BRICKBVILDER 

III 



PLATE 108. 




THIRD FLOOR PLAN 




BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN 

HARRY ELKINS WIDENER MEMORIAL LIBRARY, HARVARD UNIVERSITY, CAMBRIDGE, MASS 

HORACE TRUMBAUER, ARCHITECT 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



VOL. 24, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 109. 




O 3 10 13 20 23 30 
.VA i r^^a II I I I |TrrT 



LONGITUDINAL SECTION 



„ ,_,.Li 



HARRY ELKINS WIDENER MEMORIAL LIBRARY, HARVARD UNIVERSITY, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

HORACE TRUMBAUER. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 24, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 110. 




VESTIBULE AT MAIN ENTRANCE 



DOORWAY TO MEMORIAL HALL 



HARRY ELKINS V^IDENER MEMORIAL LIBRARY, HARVARD UNIVERSITY, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

HORACE TRUMBAUER, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 24, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 111. 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 111. 



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TEA ROOM 



VIEW OF COLKT 



THREE ARTS CLUB, CHICAGO, ILL. 
HOLABIRD & ROCHE, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 24, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 115. 





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PLATE 117. 




GENERAL VIEW 



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MAIN FLOOR PLAN 



RAVENSWOOD PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, CHICAGO, ILL. 

POND & POND, ARCHrTECTS 



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VOL. 24, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 118 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 120. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



TVI'ICAL FLOOR PLAN 



APARTMENT HOUSE. 11 EAST CHASE ST.. BALTIMORE, MD. 
WYATT & NOLTING, ARCHITECTS 



p 



Plumbing Installation and Sewage Disposal. 

V. RESUME OF PLUMBING REQUIREMENTS OF NEW YORK. 
CHICAGO, PHILADELPHIA, AND BOSTON. 

(Concluding Paper.) 

By CHARLES A. WHITTEMORE. 



THE Building Laws of New York, Chicag-o, Phila- 
delphia, and Bostoji represent characteristic require- 
ments of the various localities and form the basis of 
the general building laws in regard to plumbing installa- 
tion which are accepted as a standard throughout the 
whole country. Some localities, however, have special 
requirements, which differ from any of these standard 
laws; but in the main a knowledge of the laws of any of 
these cities would be a sufficient guide to enable one to 
lay out a plumbing installation in any portion of the coun- 
try and be reasonably sure that the general scheme would 
be accepted by the authorities under whose direction the 
work would be inspected. 

In Boston the Plumbing Department is a branch of the 
Building Department. In New York the inspection of 
plumbing comes under the Department of Buildings of the 
Borough of Manhattan. In Philadelphia it is entirely 
under the control of the Board of Health and completely 
dissociated from any connection with the Building De- 
partment. In Chicago the plumbing installations are 
entirely under the control of the Commissioner of Health. 

In some ways this latter arrangement is advisable in 
that those cities which consolidate the Plumbing and 
Building Departments under one head still have definite 
requirements established by the various Boards of Health, 
and these requirements are occasionally quite different 
from the requirements of the plumbing installation. 

For example, the Building Department of Boston re- 
quires that all buildings must have toilet rooms provided 
with " adequate ventilation to the outer air either by win- 
dow or by suitable light shaft." In some cases where 
installations in strict accordance with these requirements 
have been made, the Board of Health has required addi- 
tional provisions for ventilation of such rooms, the point 
being that the Building Department upon approving a 
building presumably establishes the fact that the venti- 
lation provided is adequate. It seems highly desirable, 
therefore, that building laws should be so divided in re- 
sponsibility that all of the plumbing work and regulations 
in connection with plumbing should be under one head : 
either entirely under the head of the Building Department, 
with no intervening authority from the Board of Health, 
or entirely under the control of the Board of Health, with- 
out additional inspection or recpiirements from the Build- 
ing Department. 

In New York and Philadelphia distinct provisions are 
made as to the method and manner in which additional 
work ordered by the Board of Health, either in existing 
building or buildings under construction, must be exe- 
cuted. New York requires that a layout of the work 
ordered shall be submitted to and approved by the Super- 
intendent of the Bureau of Buildings. Philadelphia re- 



quires that the work shall be done in a manner specified 
within the time fixed. In Boston the Board of Health 
makes requirements that plans and sketches must be sub- 
mitted to them for their approval and the work executed 
accordingly, without reference to the Building Depart- 
ment, except where structural changes are necessary. 

Where repairs or alterations are ordered by the Board 
of Health in New York, particularly if new vertical and 
horizontal lines of pipe are to be used, drawings and de- 
scriptions must be filed with and approved by the Super- 
intendent of Buildings before the repairs or alterations 
shall be commenced. These repairs need not necessarily 
comply strictly with the requirements of the law in case of 
old buildings except when a soil or vent line has been 
damaged by fire so as to constitute more than 50 per cent 
loss, in which case all of the work must be made to com- 
ply with the new requirements. 

In Chicago repairs may be made on existing plumbing 
provided thac all the horizontal and vertical lines are ex- 
posed so as to be ready for inspection and made to con- 
form with the requirements of the Plumbing Department. 

In Boston the same regulations are in force, that is, an 
alteration to a present installation must conform with the 
requirements for new work except in cases where a spe- 
cial permit may be issued. 

Building laws of all the larger cities are almost unani- 
mous in their requirements as regards the general 
divisions of installations, such as pipes, traps, valves, 
etc. All of these different products are standardized by 
various manufacturers so that the standard weights of 
pipe are practically the same in every case ; the sizes of 
traps are the same, the only difference being in the method 
of construction. 

The plumbers before commencing any operation are 
required in the cities under consideration to secure a 
license, pass the examination by the examining board, 
and having secured a license, file an ajiiilication for each 
separate plumbing installation. In New York in addition 
to the iisual method of procedure, the plumber is required 
to sign an affidavit that he is the person duly authorized 
to execute the contract. In Philadelphia the affiidavit is 
not required, nor is it required in Boston or Chicago. 

New York and Philadelphia also require that the regis- 
tration of master plumbers shall be renewed annually. 

Plans showing the plumbing installation of each build- 
ing are required in all of the larger cities before a permit 
is issued. These plans may be merely a sketch indicating 
a general outline, or, as required by New York and Phila- 
delphia, must be complete plans with specifications. 

Where the plumbing work is under the control of the 
Building Department it seems hardly necessary to file an 
additional set of plans, which are practically duplicates 



197 



198 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



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200 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



of those under which the biu]ding is to be constructed ; 
but as in the case of Philadelphia and Chicago, where the 
plumbing installation is entirely under the control of the 
Board of Health or of a separate department from the 
Building Department, the duplication above referred to is 
not encountered, and it is advisable to have a complete 
set of plans rather than a sketch. 

Where complete plans or specifications are not required 
of the plumbers, the resulting sketches illustrating the 
work that they proprose to do are frequently so ambigu- 
ous and noncommittal that anything from the installation 
of a single fixture to a complete installation of the build- 
ing might easily come under the head of repairs. In the 
case of new buildings there is no doubt but that a complete 
and comprehensive set of plans should be filed so that 
future trouble may be obviated by having drawings to 
which reference can be made showing exact installation. 

An additional requirement which does not occur in any 
of the laws under consideration, but which might well be 
made a part of the plumbing laws, is that upon the com- 
pletion of the work, plans should be filed showing any 
changes made in the process of construction and installa- 
tion from the plans originally approved, thus making the 
plans on file with the Building Department or the Board 
of Health an absolute record. 

Another point of difference between the various laws 
regarding plumbing installation is in the methods of test- 
ing the system. In Boston water or air tests are to be 
made satisfactory to the inspector. In New York the 
tests are distinctly noted : a water test must be put on 
first, and after the work is all completed, a smoke test 
must be applied, all to the satisfaction of the inspector. 

Philadelphia requires first an air test of not less than 
three pounds to the square inch applied to the entire 
drainage system ; but if this is impracticable and special 
permission is obtained from the Board of Health, a water 
test may be substituted for the air test. At the comple- 
tion of the work when all of the fixtures are connected, 
the smoke or peppermint test shall be applied in the pres- 
ence of the inspector if deemed necessary. This gives 
the Board of Health the option of requiring four different 
tests on the plumbing installation, if in their judgment it 
is deemed necessary. 

In Chicago the tests prescribed are, first, general inspec- 
tion test in the presence of the inspector, either a water 
test of 10-foot head or an air test, and in addition either a 
smoke or peppermint test as may be directed. 

In New York and Chicago it is possible upon obtaining 
approval from the plumbing authorities to connect flush- 
ometer valves directly to the street pressure. This is not 
allowed in Boston or Philadelphia, and all flushometer 
installations must be made on a tank-supply system. 
Where a low pressure is used, flushometers may easily be 
connected to the street pressure without serious difficulty. 
Where the high-pressure service is supplied there is a 
chance for debate as to whether or not flushometers should 
be connected directly to this service. In any event, it is 
much safer to have flushometers supplied from the tank 
as is required in Boston. 

The use of non-syphoning traps is not received with 
much favor in Boston, while in the other cities installa- 
tions of this character are quite common, the installation of 
non syphoning traps being recognized as a commercial con- 



dition. The traps, however, must in every case be ap- 
proved by the head of the department having control. 

In New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago special traps 
are required for each fixture. Not more than three wash 
trays may be connected to one trap ; but in no case may 
wash trays and sinks be connected through the same trap, 
while in Boston it is possible to connect three wash trays 
and one sink to a trap, or a battery of fixtures may, under 
certain conditions, be provided with only one trap. 

All the cities under consideration except Chicago require 
running traps on the house drain. Chicago, however, 
stipulates that no trap shall be placed on the house drain 
or on the house sewer. 

Another requirement, which is distinctive of Chicago 
regulation, is that no steam boiler may be supplied from 
the street pressure, the supply coming from the tank 
which must be of sufficient capacity to maintain six hours 
supply for the boilers. In the other cities the boilers may 
be sui^plied directly from the street pressure. 

This requirement in regard to the supplying of steam 
boilers from storage tanks is in some cases of considerable 
value. As a rule, however, the street mains are so ar- 
ranged that it is possible to make repairs without the 
necessity of shutting off the water supply from the build- 
ing for an extended period. Another point of installation 
which, in the judgment of many, is better than the supply 
tank, is to have for each building a double service from 
the street main coming from opposite sides of a gate valve 
so that one section of the street main may be shut off 
without affecting the supply of the building. 

In Chicago there is also a requirement that the plumbers 
must file a bond before commencing the work, whether it 
be for alteration or repairs or any change which necessi- 
tates a change in any part of the city water-works system 
or the sewer connection. In the other cities the connec- 
tions may be made only by licensed drainage layers, who 
are under bond to the city for a proper connection to the 
water or sewer system, and the general contractor who 
does the excavation is under bond for opening the street 
and must properly repair the paving. 

In Chicago also the plumbing plans must be approved 
by the Commissioner of Health before the general permit 
for the building will be issued by the Building Department. 
This is a requirement peculiar to Chicago alone. 

In comparing the laws of New York, Chicago, Philadel- 
phia, and Boston it is at once obvious that there are two 
distinct classes : one in which the desideratum is a complete 
scientific, workmanlike installation in accordance with the 
law ; another class in which the protection of the individ- 
ual from defective plumbing is the principal considera- 
tion. These two divisions will exist so long as the 
Plumbing Department regulations are under the control 
of the Building Department of the city, which is composed 
of trained mechanics, or under the control of the Board of 
Health, which is composed principally of trained biologists. 

The appended table of comparison between the laws of 
the various cities will show at a glance points of difference 
more readily than a written description. In the table 
wherever spaces are crossed out, it does not necessarily 
mean that no requirement is made in regard to the par- 
ticular item, but does refer to the fact that the laws govern- 
ing the plumbing installation do not specificallj' mention 
the conditions noted. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



201 



A Philadelphia Publishing House. 

BUNTING & SHRIGLEY, Architects. 

THIS building- is devoted to the publishing: and print- 
ing of the Farm Jotirnal, and has been planned to 
accomplish its purpose as efficiently and economically 
as possible. The principal faqade is that on Washington 
square illustrated below ; but a reference to the plans will 
show that this does not indicate the true size of the struc- 
ture, for the reason that the lot on which it is placed has a 
frontage of but half its width on an important thorough- 
fare. This condition has, of course, affected the plan to 
the extent of locating the general business and editorial 
offices on the Washington square side, leaving the parts 
fronting on the unimportant streets for the space devoted 
to the printing: and mailing of the magazine, and the 
delivery and receipt of freight. 



The paper rolls are received at the rear of the basement, 
the printing is done on the first floor, and the addressing 
and wrapping on the second floor, from whence the maga- 
zines pass through a chute to the mail wagons. The 
remainder of the building is used for editorial rooms, 
general offices, the subscription department, and rooms for 
the employees comprising: rest and recreation rooms, 
dining room, and kitchen, as well as a janitor's suite on 
the third floor. 

The exterior is of red brick, stone, and terra cotta, on 
a structure of reinforced concrete. The power, heat, and 
light for the building are generated by its own plant. 
A plenum system of ventilation is used throughout ; ice 
water is piped to all rooms ; a sprinkler system is in- 
stalled and also a central vacuum-cleaning plant. The 
cubic cost of the building, exclusive of the mechanical 
plant, was 12 cents, and 15 cents with the mechanical 
plant included. 




First Floor Plan 



Farm Journal" Building, Washington Square, Philadelphia, Pa. 



202 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




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Competition for a Two-Apartment House. 

REPORT OF JURY OF AWARD AND PRESEN- 
TATION OF PRIZE AND MENTION DESIGNS. 



THE program for this competition was intended to 
bring- forth solutions of the difficult problem of 
designing a two-apartment house. This is a con- 
stantly recurring problem in the 
smaller practice of to-day, and 
the results thus far have not 
always been quite satisfactory. 

A very large number of draw- 
ings, over two hundred, were 
submitted, a gratifying response 
to the rather difficult and cir- 
cumscribed program of the com- 
petition. 

One of the principal consider- 
ations to be taken into account 
in a competition of this nature 
is the suitability of the design 
to the material. The jury was 
somewhat disappointed, there- 
fore, not to find more designs 
where these limitations had been 
considered and where the build- 
ing would not have looked as 
well built in brick or wood. 
Tile and stucco will permit of 
quite a different architectural 
treatment than will any other 
materials, and the designer is 
not making the most of his work 
when he does not take advan- 
tage of these characteristics. 

The program was interpreted 
differently by the various com- 
petitors in the question of 
whether the building" should be 
carried to the party walls or 
should stand independently. 
This difference was not consid- 
ered by the jury in making the 
awards except in the cases of 
some drawings where the de- 
signs depended largely for their 
effect on the adjacent owner 
using the same or a reversed 
design, and these were consid- 
ered as being no solutions of 
the problem. 

The design which was 
awarded first prize was given 
its place largely because of the 
perspective which shows a real 
knowledge of material, shows its 
use in proper masses and with 
an excellent opportunity for 
color contrasts. Its weaknesses 
are obvious; the enclosed 




Design Submitted by Ricliard J. Shaw, Boston, Mass. 




TniciL PtyuL IniiL i» JirrwB Tiom. Titruiicu JIOJM* floOL »l*H JitsT ruxil Plan IwtMIITT Plxi 

MilQN FOIL A TWO APAH-TMENT HOUjr. TO ,„,„,^,, 
ht 6UILT OF NATCO XXX HOLLOW TILE -fivp 



Design Submitted by Harold Thorp Carswell, New York 
203 



porches are scarcely more than rooms, and the detached 
house — so attractively shown in perspective — would be 
very much hurt if the adjoining neighbor built up to his 

party line. If this be true on 
the party wall side, it is equally 
true on the entrance side, where 
one would be obliged to go down 
a narrow passage to the front 
door. These faults, however, 
are overbalanced by the general 
excellence of the design. 

The second prize design was 
very favorably considered by 
the jury, particularly on account 
of its very excellent plan and 
its well lighted porches. The 
perspective is handled by a 
clever draftsman who was not, 
however, careful enougfh of the 
materials to be used. The bay 
window is perhaps of wood, the 
belt course is perhaps of brick, 
and the house itself, with the 
exception of the porch to the 
right, might well be of wood 
also. But the handling of the 
plan with certain ciualities in 
the perspective, and especially 
the fact that the porches are 
arranged one house after the 
other to give the proper expo- 
sure, appealed to the jury. 

There is a charm about the 
third prize drawing, both in 
rendering and in design, that 
leaves little to be desired. The 
front door, for example, is 
placed just where it should be. 
Perhaps one is not sure that the 
material is hollow tile, for it 
might equally well be wood or 
brick ; and surely one wishes 
for more room at the sides than 
this narrow city lot would give. 
In fact, the worst that can be 
said about this house is that it 
would be much better adapted 
to a wider lot. 

The fourth prize design has 
a most interesting perspective, 
charming in its outline and ex- 
cellent in rendering. The jury 
found fault because the second 
floor had only an open balcony, 
for they felt that soon this bal- 
cony would have, perhai)s, a 



204 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



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MENTION DESIGN 
SUBMITTED BY R. F. WALKER, MELROSE HIGHLANDS, MASS. 



MENTION DESIGN 

SUBMITTED BY WILLIAM H. FLANIGAN, WOODBURY, N. J. 




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MENTION DESIGN 

SUBMITTED BY EMIL F. HASENBALG, CHICAGO, ILL. 



MENTION DESIGN 
SUBMITTED liY FREDERICK J. FEIRER, RIDGEFIELD PARK. N. J. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



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206 

canvas roof which would very 
much hurt the lines of the 
design. The plan is interest- 
ing and the house is livable. 
The mentions are not pre- 
sented in any order, but all as 
of equal merit. 

The design by R. F. Walker 
has a beautifully rendered 
perspective which unfortu- 
nately gets part of its charm 
from showing two houses in- 
stead of one. The plan is 
good, particularly in the 
handling of the drying 
porches. 

The house by Wm. H. 
Flanigan is good in gen- 
eral design, but would look 
equally well in brick. The 
glazed porches are hardly a 
good solution of that part of 
the program. 

The design submitted by 
Frederick J. Feiner is chiefly 
interesting on account of the 
deep front porch — a feature, 
however, which was obtained 
at too great an expense in 
the planning. 

The design of 
Emil F. Hasenbalg 
isa very interesting, 
practical plan with 
an excellent ar- 
rangement, the 
porch in the correct 
location and still not 
cutting off all the 
light from the living 
room. The per- 
spective is not 
nearly so interest- 
ing as the plan, the 
round gable at the 
side being particu- 
larly unhappy. 

There is a real 
charm about the 
perspective of the 
design by Cleon M. 
Hannaford, and the 
house would build particularly well in rows. The urns 
on the porch roof are rather trivial, and the porches them- 
selves are rather too small ; but the building has a charac- 
ter all its own — a character which the jury would like to 
see built into our city blocks. The plans, too, are well 
studied. 

The perspective of the design by Arthur J . Pohle shows 

a good treatment of open air porches which is eminently 

suited to a city lot, but the rest of the plan needs a much 

w'der frontage. 

The two drawings which are also published with this 



Mention Design 

Submitted by Clcon M. Hannaford, Boston, Mass. 



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Mention Design 

Submitted by Arthur J. Pohle, Albany, N. Y. 



report, by Richard J. Shaw 
and Harold Thorp Carswell, 
although not receiving prizes 
or mentions, are presented 
as good examples of well ar- 
ranged sheets and of good 
draftsmanship. That by 
Richard J . Shaw is particu- 
larly interesting in the per- 
spective in showing the 
surroundings and the partic- 
xilar location of the house. 

Many other drawings, not 
shown here, are interesting 
in one way or another, and 
some of them would easily 
have been among either the 
prize or the mention draw- 
ings had it not been for some 
unfortunate feature which the 
jury felt was too vital to be 
graciously overlooked. 

Considerable emphasis was 
laid on the practical " build- 
able " qualities of the de- 
signs, and for this reason 
alone several were elimi- 
nated. Competitors must not 
overlook the fact that in sub- 
mitting designs 
they should not con- 
sider them as mere 
pictures, nor even 
as " first sketches," 
but rather as work- 
ing plans which 
have not been 
worked out in 
detail. 

The jury feels 
gratified at the re- 
sponse to the com- 
petition and at the 
energy and thought 
which evidently 
were expended upon 
solving the problem. 
No one who sub- 
mitted a drawing 
can feel entirely un- 
recompensed for 
the thought devoted 
to the consideration of the program must have been of 
some personal benefit. 

The general character of the work is a fair indication of 
the healthy condition of the younger architectural thought 
of the country and promises well for future standards. 
Harry J. Carlson, Boston. 
Herman L. Duhring, Jr., Philadelphia. 
Arthur W. Joslin, Boston. 
Edward L. Palmer, Jr., Baltimore. 
Thomas E. Tallmadge, Chicago. 

/ury of Aii'ard. 




As He Is Known, Being Brief Sketches of Contemporary 
Members of the Architectural Profession. 




LOUIS LABEAUME 



LOUIS LABEAUME was born on July 31, 1873, in 
St. Louis, and there received the preliminary part of 
his education. In 189.S and 1896 he was at Columbia 
University, where he took the special course in architec- 
ture. The next four or five years were spent in getting 
office experience ; during this time he worked in the 
offices of Parish & Schroeder ; Andrews, Jacques & Ran- 
toul ; Peabody & Stearns, and C. Howard Walker. 

The experience gained in these various offices was of 
great and immediate value to him, for after spending a 
year abroad in study, sketching and measuring the master- 
pieces of architecture, he was in a position to qualify as 
assistant to the Chief of Design on the work for the Louisi- 
ana Purchase Exposition held in 1904. From 1904 to 1912 
he was in active practice in St. Louis, in partnership with 
G. C. Mariner, and in 1913 formed with Eugene S. Klein 
the present firm of La Beaume & Klein. The work dur- 
ing these periods has been extensive both in and around 
St. Louis and in neighboring states. The influence of 
Mr. La Beaume in the work is most apparent because of its 
direct simplicity, which is evidenced in the selection of ma- 
terial as well as in the straightforward solution of the 
problem which was in hand. His ability to get at the root 
of the requirements of his clients, to analyze them, and to 
solve them simply is perhaps the greatest factor in the 
success of his prac'ice. 

Five years ago Mr. La Beaume visited Mexico and 
studied examples of the notable old work which may be 
found there. This architecture of Mexico in its pictur- 
esque yet classic beauty made a very strong appeal to 
him, an appeal which finally has found public expression 
in a recently published book on the " Picturesque Archi- 
tecture of Mexico." 

His jjublic spirit in things worth while and his keen ap- 
preciation of the best there is in architecture, literature, 
and drama, and his scintillating wit, as well as his delight- 
ful personality, make him the man that attracts and re- 
tains clients and friends. 

While his membership in the American Institute of 
Architects dates only from 1913, his interests in the organi- 
zation and its activities make him a valuable member and 
good timber for the real work in furthering the best in- 
terests of the profession, and its members, to which the 
Institute is pledged. — E. J. R. 




WADDY BUTLER WOOD 



ONE day, some years ago, — no matter how many, — 
there came to my office a pleasant-faced, eager young 
man in search of work. With " no training and no 
experience," as he frankly put it, he was ready for a try 
at almost anything. He was given the elevation of a small 
house to trace as a test of his possible usefulness. What 
he promptly brought back was a tracing to remember. 
Dashed off in a bold, flamboyant manner and lettered 
largely in a sort of Hispano-Mooresque character, that 
tracing was worthy of a castle in Spain ! Well, sordid, 
practical considerations let him go —and it was regretted 
later. So he had to become an architect, at once, as he 
says himself, "going into the practice of architecture 
from necessity, as no one would hire me." 

Waddy Butler Wood was born in 1870 in Virginia. After 
the usual schooling he had two years at the Virginia Poly- 
technic Institute, followed by some field work in engineer- 
ing. That was his technical training. Practically self 
taught in architecture, poring at night over shades and 
shadows and perspective and the history of architecture, 
drawing from casts a short while at the Corcoran School 
of Art, developing ideas, forming an individual taste, ac- 
quiring a facile technique with his brush, and a sense of 
color in materials which now and then has given value to 
his work, thus he has guided his own artistic growth. 

After working alone for some years, Mr. Wood formed 
the partnership of Wood, Donn & Deming, from which 
he retired at the end of six years, and has again for the 
last three years practised ahme. 

Of his early work, done before the partnership days, the 
most decided success, in a combination of right iilanning 
and agreeable design, is Providence Hosjiital. The Union 
Trust Company's building, the Masonic Temple, and the 
Naval Hospital at Portsmouth are, perhaps, the most im- 
portant works by Wood, Donn ik Deming. While these 
buildings are stately and dignified in a somewhat more 
academic treatment, the Providence Hosi)ital is charming 
in its own way. Yet in such a fa(;ade as that of the vStory 
& Cobl) office in Washington, Mr. Wood jiroves that he 
can hold himself to a classical handling of his subject. 

Only a few of his important works, and none of the many 
residences in which one finds distinction and originality, 
have been alluded to here from the goodly list of things 
done during his vigorous professional life. — .-/. 11. 11. 



207 



208 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




WALTER MELLOR 



WALTER MELLOR was born in Philadelphia, April 
25, 18S(), ijrepared for college at the Haverford 
School, and graduated from Haverford College 
with the clas.s of 1901. The following year he entered the 
Architectural Department of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, graduated with the class of 1904, and after about a 
year in the office of Mr. Theo. P. Chandler he formed the 
partnership for the practice of architecture with Arthur 1. 
Meigs, under the firm name of Mellor & Meigs. 

These are the facts, as devoid o( sentiment as a refer- 
ence from " Who's Who," and, as might be supposed, are 
the least important considerations when we are thinking 
of Mr. Mellor's work. It is an important fact to note in 
passing that the firm is not one of those firms made uji of 
two individuals, differing in their artistic convictions, for 
the work is an intimate association of work with Mr. Meigs, 
hence the firm. 

Here is work of a peculiar sort and with a peculiar kind 
of charm — work which it is doubtful could be developed 
far outside Philadelphia. There is a great architectural 
influence ever present in Philadelphia, and whether its 
effects are e.xpressed literally or only in intangible phases 
of feeling (as in the case of Mellor & Meigs' work), that 
influence is subtly felt. Its name is Wilson Eyre. 

I do not mean to suggest that any of Mr. Mellor's work 
could be traced to anything as definite as what a student 
would call a " Wilson Eyre influence," because it is very 
individual and personal with the younger firm, and full of 
a great deal of architectural sanity and spirit all its own. 

The keynote of the work we are discussing is more dif- 
ficult to define than to feel in the presence of the work 
itself. It is informal, it is free of academic tendencies, but 
always sane and not at all bizarre. It is frank, sincere, 
and straightforward. One docs not feel the presence of 
any architectural tricks or mannerisms, and at the same 
time there is that (|uiet absence of " period style" which 
comes only from easy familiarity with all styles. 

Without impairing the real originality of the firm's 
work, Mr. Mellor has been able to find worthy inspiration 
in the work of the modern English architects, and with 
this there is also a subtle suggestion or echo of the same 
medievalism that constitutes much of the romance of 
Wilson Eyre's work. 

Certainly the character of an architect's own oflice must 
reflect with more intimate exactness than the ruti of his 
work — that architect's personal tastes and convictions. 
This would be borne out in the case of the oflice of Mellor 
& Meigs, — picturesque, practical and straightforward, and 
rendered with an agreeable dash of per.sonal individuality, 
and with that peculiar friendlittcss towards the materials 
used that characterizes the works of the modern English 
architects. — t". M. P. 




ALFRED HOYT GRANGER 



IN surveying the work of Alfred Hoyt Granger, one 
must pass beyond the confines of the material and 
seek in the ideals and convictions of his strong per- 
sonality the reflection of a sympathetic mind. The archi- 
tecture of Mr. Granger has not si)rung from the drafting 
board, neither is it a concoction of academic rule and 
theory, but rather a reflection of the great human efforts 
of the day. His is a mind that dwells upon the amal- 
gamation of the modern forces of thought ; his ideas, 
those moulded from the conceptions of poet, of engineer, 
and of philosopher, whose works he studies and loves. 
He speaks the language of the art philosopher, who 
interprets the thought of the generation. It is a delight 
to discover such understanding combined with such cer- 
tainty and indejiendence, and he who would place the 
gauge of fleeting architectural fancies upon the buildings 
constructed by him, will be at a loss to take their measure 
by our bandied conventionalities. The truth is, these 
are the works of a thinker, unharassed by " nKJvements 
in art." It is the very isolation from contemporary work 
that makes their true worth more diflicult of under- 
standing, yet more distinctive, and bold. His devo- 
tion to his patron, H. H. Richardson, has influenced 
his views and conception of his problems ; and earnest- 
ness, deej) consideration, and independent thought 
have held him close to the truth. Mr. Granger is a 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology man, but his 
training has never been forced into the narrow chan- 
nels of atelier idiosyncrasies. At Pascal's atelier in 
Paris, this manifestation of broad visions left him free 
from the "company march, shoulder arms" spirit, and 
he was always an advance scout for the wider fields of 
thought. In England he later found a charm that ap- 
pealed to his spirit ; he drew, sketched, and measured, 
and, more than all, retained the sense of simplicity 
which he found. This influence of English architecture 
blended with the New England traditions which he 
held, and we find the delightful combination in one of 
his earlier works, the Rice house in Cleveland. His 
subsec|uent work all rings true in this fundamental un- 
derstanding of cultured demands, and there remains 
in and near Chicago a lasting e.xpression of honest, 
beautiful buildings, homelike, individual, and substantial, 
true to these first acquired i)rinciples. His larger 
work in railway stations, office buildings, college 
groups, and sturdy warehouses are redolent of ear- 
nestness and honesty. His encouragement to younger 
men lies in his love for his profession, which he has 
always supported with sacrifice and the ardent labors of 
the enthusiast. A lover of books, human nature, and his 
art, he has accomplished much in welding them together 
to make up his environment. — ./. B. J>. 



PLATE DESCRIPTION. 



Harry Elkins Widener Library, Harvard Univer- 
sity. Plates 106-111. This building-, which is located 
on the south side of the Harvard Yard, is exceeded in 
capacity, in this country, only by the New York Public 
Library and the Congressional Library. It is about 250 
feet in length by 200 feet in width. The rear and two 
sides are occupied mainly by book stacks, while on the 
front are the offices of administration on the first floor, the 
main reading- room on the second floor, and special read- 
ing- rooms on the third or attic floor. 

The stacks extend through eight low stories and there 
is room for expansion by adding- two more floors of stacks 
in the basement. The total capacity at present is about 
1,900,000 volumes. In the attic story are a number of 
rooms for special collections 
and departmental libraries, a 
photograph room, and a map 
room. An unusual feature is 
the private studies for the 
professors and some 300 
reading stalls for research 
students, which are located 
among the stacks. 

The traditions of the older 
Harvard buildings are car- 
ried out in the selection of 
materials ; the exterior is 
brick with limestone trim- 
mings. The vestibule is of 
Rossato marble. The en- 
trance hall and the outer 
memorial room are also 
marble , while the main read- 
ing room is of travertine 
entirely in oak. 

In the basement are the various machines for the pas- 
senger elevators, the pneumatic tubes, the vacuum-clean- 
ing apparatus, and ventilating system. Heat is furnished- 
from outside the building. 

The Three Arts Club, Chicago, III. Plates 112- 
114. This club building was designed for the use of girl 
students of Music, Drama, and the Pictorial Arts. On the 
first floor are the club features, the living room, music 
room, dining room, and tea room, all opening on a court 
which faces south. The basement has been left as clear 
as possible so that a gymnasium and a recreation room 
may be arranged there. The second and third floors con- 
tain bedrooms with baths. The studios and servants' 
quarters are on the fourth floor. Each studio is provided 
with running water, so that with a general bath and toilet 
they may be occupied also as bedrooms. 

The interior treatment is of the simplest. . The walls 
are of sand finished plaster with no tint or further treat- 
ment and the ceilings are calcimined. 

The exterior is of brick laid in varied patterns with red 
and gray terra cotta trimmings. The top cornice mould- 
ing, band course, sills, and lintels are of brick colored 
terra cotta. The panels in the arches above the entrance 
doorway are mosaics with yellows and -greens as pre- 
dominating colors. 

209 




Interior of Living Room, Three Arts Club, Chicago, 111. 
Holabird & Roche, Architects 



The Widener room is finished 



MuRCHisoN National Bank, Wilmington, N. C. 
Plate 115. In the first floor of this bank building are the 
usual requirements for a bank, while the directors' room is 
in the mezzanine floor over the entrance. On the upper 
floors are various arrangements of offices. 

The lower part of the exterior is of white mai'ble, the 
central part is brick, and the upper part terra cotta. The 
cost was approximately iZ cents a cubic foot. 

National Bank at Far Rockaway, L. I. Plate 
116. The exterior of this bank building is entirely of 
glazed terra cotta. The interior of the banking floor is 
finished in marble with bronze screens separating the 
public from the clerking space. There are the usual bank 
vaults and also vaults for safe deposit and silver storage. 

The upper floor is devoted 
entirely to offices. The cost 
per cubic foot, including 
equipment, was 45 cents. 

Ravenswood Pre.sbvter- 
lAN Church, Chicago, III. 
Plates 117, 118. The ex- 
terior of this church is rough 
red brick with a slight play 
of color in the material itself ; 
the vertical stripes in the 
gables and over the entrance 
are of brick of gray, buff, 
red, and purple brown. The 
visible roofs are of Vermont 
green slates. The interior 
walls are of rough creamy 
white plaster above a high 
wood wainscot ; the ceiling, 
including the trusses and purlins, are similarly plastered. 
The seating capacity of the auditorium and gallery is 
571 while the alcove or side lobby will seat 70 more. The 
heating is by direct steam radiation ; the ventilation is by 
forced draft fan system. The cost, including pews and 
carpets and a new heating plant, was approximately 19 
cents per cubic foot. 

C'ARROLLTON M. E. ChURCH, NeW ORLEANS. PlATE 

119. The walls of this church are of hollow tile, the lower 
part being veneered with red brick and the upper part 
finished with stucco of a light cream color. The roof is 
red tile. The interior is plastered and the finish through- 
out is cypress. The cost, including new pews and furni- 
ture and a gas-heating system, was approximately 19 cents 
per cubic foot. 

Apartment House, No. 11 E. Chase Street, Balti- 
more, Md. Plate 120. The exterior of this apartment 
house is of a soft grayish brown brick, with the basement 
of marble and all ornamental features above the first floor 
line of matt glazed, nearly white, terra cotta. The con- 
struction is reinforced concrete floors and columns while 
the partitions are plaster block. 

The heating is by vacuum steam system. There is a 
refrigerating plant, a vacuum-cleaning system, electric 
lifts in the housekeeping apartments, and electric eleva- 
tors. The cost complete, including the mechanical plant, 
was about 32 cents a cubic foot. 



EDITOR-IAL COMMENT 
AN D'fN O TE S ^ f 
FOIl*THE*MO NTH 




THE New Standard Documents of the American Insti- 
tute of Architects, which were authorized by the 
Annual Convention last December, are now available 
and may be obtained on application to the Secretary of 
the Institute at the Octagon, Washington, D. C. These 
documents constitute a Second Edition, the First Edition 
having been published in 1911. 

Prior to the publication of the First Edition the only 
standard contract form available for purchase was the 
Uniform Contract, issued by the American Institute of 
Architects and the National Association of Builders. 
This document has been used to a very considerable ex- 
tent throughout the country, but principally in building 
contracts of relatively small size. Its principal defect lay 
in the fact that it did not cover a large number of general 
conditions that are usually needed. 

The First Edition of the Standard Documents of the 
Institute was developed to meet this lack in the Uniform 
Contract and to furnish a standard document adequate for 
large as well as small contracts. It failed to acquire any 
very general use, however, perhaps mainly on account of 
its length; but many of its provisions seemed unnecessarily 
complicated and contractors considered a few inequitable. 

The Standing Committee on Contracts undertook last 
year a revision of the documents, in the hope of meeting 
the objections raised against the First Edition, and devel- 
oping a document that would commend itself for general 
use and which would take the place of the Uniform Con- 
tract. The work of revision was carried on in close co- 
operation with contractors' organizations, both by the 
.Standing Committee and by its sub-committees in the 
various Chapters. Every clause was frankly discussed in 
joint conferences and the phraseology carefully adjusted 
so as to establish most equitably the rights and duties of 
each party to the contract. Many clauses that in the past 
have given a too arbitrary power to the architect have 
been modified so as to afford the contractor reasonable 
protection against unfairness or bad judgment ; and, on the 
other hand, the clauses defining the responsibilities of the 
contractor have been in many cases revised to make more 
definite his duty and the scope of his responsibility. 

Two radical changes from the previous documents have 
been incorporated in the new Second Edition : first, arbi- 
tration of all disputes on demand of either party ; and 
second, definition of the relations between the general 
contractor and his sub-contractors. 

Some architects feel that general arbitration is undesir- 
able ; that in certain matters the architect should have 
autocratic power over the contractor, as in the interpre- 
tation of the contract documents, and the approval of 
materials and workmanship. Contractors almost unani- 
mously object to the giving of this autocratic power to the 
architect and find in it the source of many a hardship and 
injustice. There is a growing sentiment among architects 



that the acknowledgment of the principle of general arbi- 
tration puts the relations of the contractor, the owner, 
and the architect on a much sounder basis and by its new 
.Standard Documents the Institute gives this sentiment 
the stamp of its approval. 

In buildings built under the general contract system, sub- 
contractors are becoming more and more important, since 
the general contractor himself is coming to do less and less 
of the work. Theoretically, the owner, having a contract 
with the general contractor, is iminterested in the rela- 
tions that exist between the contractor and his sub-con- 
tractors. Practically, this is not so. It is directly to his 
interest that responsible and capable sub-contractors be 
employed, and that they be properly paid for their work. 
The proper object of a sub-contract is to transfer to the 
sub-contractor certain work which by the main contract 
has been assumed by the general contractor. This trans- 
fer must be complete, including all the various incidental 
duties and responsibilities. The sub-contract must, there- 
fore, closely conform to the terms of the general contract, 
not only in the details of the work but in the General Con- 
ditions under which the operations are carried on. In a 
Standard Document it is possible to ensure this by insert- 
ing an Article that shall standardize the fundamental 
relations and make such adjustments as are necessary in 
certain of the General Conditions to make them fit the 
relations between the contractor and sub-contractor. 
With such an Article embodied in the general contract, all 
sub-contractors can be put under identical working con- 
ditions, and complete sub-contracts effected, even if the 
contractor sends nothing but the simplest sort of accept- 
ance of the sub-bids, merely referring to the general con- 
tract for the terms under which the work is to be done. 
Such an Article is embodied in the New Standard Docu- 
ments and, to the extent that the new documents are used, 
will help to standardize sub-contract conditions and so 
remo\-e the cause of many disputes and much loss. 

To assist contractors in their operations under the new 
documents, a brief standard form of sub-contract is also 
issued, as well as a standard letter-of-acceptance for use 
in less formal undertakings. As in the First Edition, a 
standard form of surety bond is also issued. 

The new documents have already received the approval 
of several national organizations among the building 
trades, and undoubtedly others will follow. They are 
already in use in contracts for public service corporations as 
well as for private individuals. They represent a distinct 
step in advance of previous documents, and architects 
will find them worthy of careful study as a foundation for 
private otifice forms. The value of a standard form is 
measured by the extent of its use, and architects can help 
to standardize building conditions, and develop the full 
value of the new documents, by adopting them intact as 
their own standard office forms. 



210 






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HE-BRICKB\^LDEF^I 






PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 




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NUMBER 9 



SEPTEMBER 



Architect 

HOUSE OF S. W. LABROT, ESQ., ANNAPOLIS, MD Parker, Thomas & Rice 

HOUSE AT GUILFORD, BALTIMORE, MD. Ho-ward Sill 

HOUSE OF MRS. C. L. APPLEGARTH, GUILFORD, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Howard Sill 

GROUP OF HOUSES AT GUILFORD, BALTIMORE, MD., Ed-ward L Palmer, Jr. 
HOUSE ON DEVON STREET AND BRETTON PLACE, GUILFORD, 

BALTIMORE, MD Edward L. Palmer, Jr. 

HOUSES ON DEVON AND SUFFOLK STREETS, GUILFORD, 

BALTIMORE, MD Edward L. Palmer, Jr. 

HOUSE OF JAMES McEVOY, ESQ., GUILFORD, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Thomas Bond Owings 

HOUSE AT GUILFORD, BALTIMORE, MD Joseph Evans Sperry 

HOUSE OF JAMES C. FENHAGEN, ESQ., GUILFORD, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Laurence Hall Fowler 



9 1 5 

Plate 
121 123 
124, 125 



128, 129 



130, 131 



132, 



135 



LETTERPRESS 

PALACE OF JUAN BRAVO, SEGOVIA, SPAIN 

EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS Gordon Rohb 

IX. Measured Drawing of Window Over the Entrance, Custom House, Salem, Mass. 

MODERN GERMAN ARCHITECTURE 

Illustrations from Photographs 

THE USE OF NATIVE WOODS FOR INTERIOR FINISH 
I. Introduction, Cypress and Red Gum. 

HOUSES AT GUILFORD, BALTIMORE, MD. for 

Eugene L. Norton, Esq \ 

Mrs. George W. Gail . / 

William Fusselbaugh, Esq. __' 

Dr. Joseph S. Ames ^ / 

A. Morris Tyson, Esq. \ 

John Daniels, Esq. . ._ ' 

Charles W. Hendley, Esq. .E.H. Glidden 

John E. Semmes, Jr., Esq. Laurence Hall Fowler 

THE CHURCH TOWERS, STEEPLES, AND SPIRES OF SIR CHRISTOPHER 

WREN R. Randal Phillips 

Illustrations from Photographs 
AS HE IS KNOWN 

Being Brief Sketches of Contemporary Members of the Architectural Profession 
Messrs. Thomas C. Young, William A. Boring, Walter R. B. Willcox, 
William Emerson. 

PLATE DESCRIPTION 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH 



Page 

Frontispiece 
211 



_ _ Irving K. Pond 
C. Matlack Price 



Edward L. Palmer, Jr. 





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Boston, Mass. 

payable in advance, U. S. A., Insular Possessions and Cuba ^3.00 

^5.50 Foreign Countries in the Postal Union 6.00 

50 cents All Copies Mailed Flat 

lied by the American News Company and its Branches. Entered as 
i Matter, March 12, 1892, at the Post Office at Boston, Mass. 
Copyright, 1915, by Rogers and Manson Company 

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PALACE OF JUAN BRAVO, SEGOVIA. SPAIN 
KRECTED ABOUT UOO 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



VOLUME XXIV 



SEPTEMBER, 1915 



NUMBER 9 



Modern German Architecture. 



PART I. 



By IRVING K. POND. 



DID I not believe that in modern German architecture 
there lies more than a hint of helpful sug-g-estion 
for us here in America, where we are just begin- 
ning ' ' to find ourselves ' ' in the arts ; and did I not believe 
that underneath our powers of mimicry and our demon- 
strated capacity for adaptation there lie deep wellsprings 
of idealism and fonts of real power and feeling- which may 
be broug-ht to the surface to the healing- and enrichment 
of ourselves individually and communally — did I not be- 
lieve this, I should neither care nor dare to write of Ger- 
man architecture at the 
present time . One thing: 
must be borne in upon 
us as we study any 
markedly characteristic 
phase of a great national 
expression : that we can 
have no great art, no art 
in any sense, until we 
have a conscious definite 
idealism and a conscious 
will and power to give 
that idealism expression 
in the work of our hand 
and brain . All the activ- 
ities of life are avenues 
of self-expression. Art 
directs endeavor into 
paths of consistent 
order, harmony, and 
unity, that is, into paths 
of beauty. We are 
bound whether or no to express ourselves ; we are not 
bound, except morally, to express ourselves consistently, 
and in so doing achieve art. We are morally bound to 
express the best that is in us for the delectation and ad- 
vancement of the individual and the race, and we are 
morally bound to repress that within us which cannot 
beneficially affect our fellows. What will so affect our 
fellows is a matter for conscious and serious study. 

Of all the arts —of all art — architecture is the highest 
and most potent medium of self-expression — the most 
polished mirror for self- reflection. On the surface of 
architecture may readily be seen what lies deep in the 
race which produces it. Whether they will or no, archi- 
tecture for those who practise it and for the public which 
tolerates it is a subtle and ruthless agency for self-revela- 
tion. That those most deeply concerned do not always 




define clearly the image which stands revealed does not 
change the facts. It means that an interpreter is needed. 
In our own imitations and adaptations can we not read 
the general inability or fearfulness of our people individ- 
ually and collectively to act firmly and as a unit in moral 
crises — read the dread of the unpleasantness which must 
accompany the meeting of a moral issue ; or do we see 
only a careless or happy-go-lucky attitude towards such 
issues? Is a certain big simplicity which is apparent in 
our design as in no other to-day except may be here and 

there in the German and 
among the out-of-the- 
way Finns to the north — 
apparent in our national 
as also in the advanced 
as well as in the conven- 
tional phases of our in- 
dividual architecture — 
to be taken as an ex- 
pression of careless opti- 
mism, of an accepted or 
altogether acceptable 
belief that everything is 
all right anyway, or is 
it the as yet undefined 
conviction of the grow- 
ing unity and mission of 
our country ? It may 
be well for our philoso- 
phers to inquire into 
that manifestation of a 
bigness of spirit and cT)n- 
ception which is appearing in our own architecture great 
or small ; appearing in communal as in individual work 
and so indicating the carrying on of personality and indi- 
viduality over into governmental activities and official 
expression. Our philosophers maybe able to clarify the 
atmosphere and present to the inner vision of the artist 
real objects in their correct relationships ; and then per- 
haps the artist may be able to present some definite, 
ennobling, soul-penetrating image to the outer vision of 
his fellows. 

In spite of the bigness of conception which marks much 
of our architecture, — governmental, municipal, and do- 
mestic, — we find dominating in all three fields forms which 

*N()Ti:. The illustrations accoinpanyiiit? these papers are reproduoecl from 
Mddrine liaii/ormen, published in StuttKart. I offer my sincere thanks to the 
publishers of that s'aluable journal. — /. I\. /' 



A Bridge in the Shoneberg City Park at Berlin 
F^mil Schaudt, Architect 



214 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




are not altogether expressive of our national and individual 
ideals, which do not denote us truly, which are more in 
the nature of affectation or pretense — forms expressive of 
Roman pomp and power rather than of the altruistic de- 
mocracy of our own time and place. We should not be sur- 
prised to find these forms dominating German Imperial 
architecture. In that superimposed architecture we do 
find them, notably in the new Dom at Berlin ; in the new 
library and museum. 
But that architecture 
was superimposed and 
did not express the then 
will of the people . That 
expression is found in 
minor churches, in com- 
mercial, mercantile, and 
industrial structures, in 
domestic work and 
markedly in the schools 
and town halls — in all 
the avenues, in fact, in 
which the people were 
acting- independent of 
bureaucracy. But is 
there something in the 
people which makes 
them, perhaps contrary 
to their better natures, 
effective tools in bu- 
reaucratic and Imperial hands ? If so, we should expect 
to find that something in the art of so self-expressive a 
race as is the German ; and we are not disappointed. 

In the first place, to judge German art fairly, we must 
realize that Germany is expressing what is in her, not 
necessarily what is in us. She professes to think some of 
it is in us, but that our hypocrisy and our puritanism pre- 
vent us from obtruding it. Be that as it may, a certain 
childish frankness i)crmits the German, in common with 
certain of his neighbors, to display in his art a primitive 
coarseness which we 
conceive to be vul- 
garity when not 
worse . Th i s i s nota- 
bly so in the art of 
the illustrator and 
not wanting in the 
art of the sculptor. 
There is refinement 
too in both these as 
in the other arts. 
The fact that both 
elements appear is 
clearly indicative 
that German art is 
the expression of the 
German self. From 
that standpoint we 
must view it. There 
is red blood cours- 
ing through the 
German veins. It 
flows from primitive 
sources charged 



House at Blasewitz 

G. Hanichen and H. Tscharmann, Architects 




.\partment House at Munich 
Max Neumann, Architect 



with primitive passions, and is not so attenuated as to 
appear blue of itself or by reflection. Did the Bismarck 
monument at Hamburg or the commemorative pile at 
Leipsic come from a race unconscious of its power, un- 
certain of its ambitions, or confused as to its designs? It 
was we, looking on from without, who did not understand 
the full meaning of these monuments. We were not 
wrong in seeing in the former monument an a])preciation 

on the part of a united 
l^eople of the strength 
and vigor of character 
in him who did so much 
to effect that unity. 
But we were far afield, 
some of us, who, in spite 
of the hints given out 
by certain of the mili- 
taristic moderns, saw in 
the great Leipsic pile 
only a monument to a 
fearsome past now dead. 
We seem in the light of 
recent events to see in 
these crude and brutal 
forms, wonderfully com- 
bined and unified as they 
are, a glorification of the 
spirit of war, an appeal 
to the lower instincts in 
man rather than to his higher nature. Others claim so 
always to have interpreted this monument ; for my own 
part I had not. In spite of crudities and a certain coarse- 
ness which sometimes manifested itself, and which I 
attributed, and still in a measure do attribute, to the work- 
ings of a powerful spirit striving to give itself articulate 
expression, I saw the hopeful and helpful signs of a 
dawning social consciousness, of an industrial and social 
altruism, not to say democracy, which held a promise and 
an inspiration for some of us who were striving to find our- 
selves, and a warn- 
ing and rebuke to 
many of us who were 
not so striving, but 
who were content to 
keep on with our 
dilettanteism and 
endless futile ex- 
pressions of mental 
inertia. In spite of 
the attitude of mili- 
tary Germany, I 
cannot bring myself 
to believe that I en- 
tirely misinterpreted 
the expression, and 
tlie self-revelation of 
social, commercial, 
and civic Germany 
as presented in the 
characteristic forms 
of its modern archi- 
tecture. 

In proceeding 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



with this sketch of modern Ger- 
man architecture I shall ignore 
the superimposed forms of Im- 
perial expression which holds 
nothing- of value for us except a 
warning, and confine myself to 
the architecture of the people. 
And I shall not dwell upon what 
I conceive to be the failures, for 
as I should like to be judged, if 
judged at all, by my best, I con- 
cede the same privilege to those 
whose work I am discussing. I 
shall frankly state wherein I feel 
that the expression falls short of 
the ideal and wherein it ap- 
proaches ; for I have an ideal 
and conceive that to labor with- 
out an ideal were worse than 
useless — it were vicious. I do 
not have to love and take to my 
bosom and make a part of my- 
self an object or a form because 
I hold it in admiration ; nor do 
I have to confine my ad- 
miration to matters 
which are merely part 
and parcel of myself. 
However, when I see an- 
other doing in his own 
manner and for himself 
what I feel that I should 
be doing in my own 
manner for my own self, 
a certain sympathy leads 
me to offer a meed of 
praise, and possibly it 
widens my powers of 
comprehension. 

Modern German arch- 
itecture is an awaken- 
ing, not a Renaissance, 
and as an awakening it 




Interior — The " Stoclethaus " at Brussels 





wifxkmUM} 



lioni Street — The " Stoclethaus " at Brussels 



215 

holds its lesson for us. It has 
been criticized because it em- 
ploys classic forms without 
knowledge. I wonder from 
what pinnacle of knowledge the 
critics speak. It is criticized 
because it harks back to the 
Romanesque. Why should it 
not in principle so long as it 
does not misuse the forms ? The 
Romanesque was a style welded 
into form in the white heat of 
dawning social consciousness 
and national unification. The 
Romanesque was an unsuccess- 
ful experiment with us, not be- 
cause it was not right for us in 
principle, but because we could 
only handle it in terms of an 
alien and expired life. We, in 
other words, were impressed 
only with forms without and 
not by any sense of self-con- 
sciousness or self -need within. 
May not a clear vision 
of the content of mod- 
ern Germanarchitecture 
help us here ? We are 
great as a people, we 
acknowledge it, but did 
not natural resources 
and a peculiar environ- 
ment make us so? 
When we will to be great 
and achieve greatness 
consciously our attitude 
towards art will experi- 
ence a change. Com- 
parisons are odious, and 
likenesses irritate and 
annoy, yet despite the 
latter I must say that 
for all our sophistication 




View from Garden 



The "Stoclethaus" at Brussels 
Josef Hoffmann, Architect 



Detail of Garden Facade 



216 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



in some matters we are, so far as concerns art, a prim- 
itive people, and I doubt if we are ever to attain to any 
real self-expression by continually bedecking ourselves 
in the garbs of other, even 
though great civilizations. 
To be ourselves we may 
have to come out naked and 
make mistakes and some- 
times make ourselves hide- 
ous as the Germans did. 
Whether or no one likes 
the garb the ( Germans have 
woven for themselves, he 
must acknowledge the skill 
of the craftsmen who fab- 
ricated it. And this brings 
me to the other and more 
technical side of the sub- 
ject. 

The people of the United 
States were introduced to 
German architecture, more 
especially as affecting inte- 
riors of various classes, 

at the exposition in vSt. Louis in 1904. There and then 
our eyes were first opened to the beauty and perfection 
of German craftsmanship as well as to the freshness and 




Villa on the " Hohen Warte " at \ ienna 
Josef Hoffmann, Architect 



virility of modern Cierman design. It devolved upon 
me, as it happened, to write of that particular exhibit at 
that time for an architectural magazine,* and if I spoke 

then with appreciation 
bordering on enthusiasm, 
I have had no valid reason 
to modify that attitude 
since. I did not then and 
do not now urge an adop- 
tion of the style in this 
country; but I did then 
and do now urge an analy- 
sis of the s])irit. While we 
have no reason to employ 
the forms except in those 
rare instances in which 
they naturally function 
and respond to a real call, 
I do urge on our part a 
careful study of their use 
and application in their 
native environment. Only 
so shall we perceive their 
real merit and recognize 
their suggestive value to us in the solution of our own 
problem. 

'Aichilectiiial Keinrd. February. 1905. 




Town Hall at Rudolstadt 
Theodor Veil and Gerhard Herms, Architects 



The Use of Native Woods for Interior Finish. 



PART I. 
Introductory. 

By C. MATLACK PRICE. 



WHAT kind of wood shall we use for interior trim ? 
This is a question which should not be difficult 
to answer in a country which possesses as many 
suitable and beautiful native woods as this country. The 
question resolves itself rather into one of suitability, into 
consideration of the finish which is desired. That locality 
should govern choice is not necessary on account of gen- 
erally direct shipping facilities and the fact that stock for 
the entire interior finish of the averagfe house would not 
make more than one car load. 

Generally speaking, however, 
it is desirable to use local mate- 
rials, both inside and out, for 
reasons either of economy or 
appropriateness, or both. 

In taking up any subject so 
specific as wood there are neces- 
sarily encountered certain spe- 
cial terms used to designate 
various properties or peculiar- 
ities of woods, and it is obviously 
convenient, whether for infor- 
mation or reminder, to define 
these terms, giving in definition 
their accepted and general ap- 
plication. 

Hard "and " Soft " U 'oods . 
The timber of commerce has 
been placed in two broad and 
rather arbitrary divisions, — 
"hardwoods" and "softwoods." 
This division is rather a matter 
of convenience than a designa- 
tion of the actual hardness or 
softness of the woods in the two 
divisions. Actual hardness or 
softness is established by ob- 
vious physical tests, by which it 
will be found that some woods 
listed in the " hardwood " class 

are softer than some woods listed in the "softwood" 
class. Commercially speaking, the pines, hemlocks, firs, 
cedars, cypresses, and spruces are called "softwoods." 
These may further be classed as " needleleaf " trees, 
while the "broadleaf" class embraces all other kinds, 
such as oaks, maples, birches, ash, gum, etc. 

Both "hardwoods" and "softwoods" have certain 
characteristics and properties in common, certain facts of 
their growth and structure common to all trees and essen- 
tial to recognize in any consideration of woods for finish. 

'' Saptvood"" and '^ Heart-wood. '^ All lumber, whether 
" soft " or " hard," is made up of two kinds of wood, — 
" sapwood " and " heartwood." The former is the new, 
living wood of the tree, the portion bearing the sap, the 
outer portion of the trunk. The "heartwood" is the 
core of the tree, the old wood, in some species quite dead, 

217 



its nature from the ' ' sap- 




Lobhy, City Club, Chicago, III. 
Pond & Pond, Architects 
Paneling and wainscot on piers is of cypress, stained 
a greenish gray and waxed. Ornament at ujiper i)art 
of piers is in various colors. 



and usually quite different in 
wood " of the same tree. 

Annual Rings. The "sapwood" is of different depth 
in different kinds of trees, the inner layers gradually 
turning into ' heartwood," as each year adds a new ring 
of wood around the tree. The yearly growth, which 
shows like a ring in the cross-section of a tree trunk, is 
called the "annual ring," and is composed of the two 
growths, — ' ' springwood ' ' and ' ' summer wood, " — of 

which the different colors make 
the ring. Trees enjoy two pe- 
riods of growth each year : first 
in the spring, usually a quick 
growth, and later, a slower 
growth in the summer ; and 
these two seasons give their 
names to the two kinds of wood 
in each annual ring. 

The different proportions of 
spring and summer woods and 
the depth of the complete an- 
nual ring give a different ap- 
pearance to different woods ; but 
there are also other structural 
details in wood which determine 
what is often called its ' ' grain . ' ' 
Grain '^ and Figure.'" 
" Grain" in wood is a very in- 
definite term, meaning a great 
many different things to different 
users of wood. It may be used in 
speaking of appearance, or again 
in speaking of the physical prop- 
erties of wood which are en- 
countered by the mill man or the 
carpenter. What might better 
be called " figure," as in bird's- 
eye birch or maple, burl ash, 
or red gum, is often called 
"grain," and the figures ap- 
parent in (|uarter sawed oak, also wrongly called grain, 
are due to the presence in woods of narrow, light colored 
lines called " medullary rays." 

''Medullary A'ays." These are usually no wider than a 
pencil line, and in some woods are invisible. Most of the 
appearance and character differentiating one wood from 
another are due to the nature of the medullary rays. Oak 
is ([uarter sawed to expose the conspicuous flat sides of 
the rays, which in cross-section would show only their 
line-like ends. The variety in the prominence of these 
medullary rays makes some woods more adaptable to 
cpiarter-sawing than others, while the appearance of many 
woods is not aided at all in this way. 

The consideration of " grain " recalls the old and once 
popular art of " graining " common woods with a paint- 
brush. This particular kind of artistic knavery enjoyed 



218 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



high popularit\' in the days when brickwork was painted 
green, and cast-iron and wood were "sanded" to re- 
semble stone. That was a period when the ideal of archi- 
tecture was " to seem rather than to be," and though it 
is doubtful if a revival of such debased and debasing de- 
vices will ever occur, one is sometimes impelled (with due 
mental reservations) to admire the technical dexterity of 
some of the artisans of those times. Cheap and inferior 
woods were painted to resemble quarter sawed oak, and 
masters of the " art " were able even to effect actually de- 
ceptive imitations of such elaborate woods as mahogany 
and Circassian walnut. The immorality of all such de- 
ception is fortunately recognized to-day, and the growth 
of appreciation of the intrinsic beauty of materials put a 
stop to the activities of the expert " graining" painters, 
and public as well as architects began to demand the 
natural beauty of the actual wood, revealed by a trans- 
parent stain instead of concealed under some masquerade 
of paint. It is apparent, then, that distinction between 
" grain " and " figure " is important, as well as acquain- 
tance with what produces them. One does not hear of 
quarter sawed cedar or white pine, because the medullary 
rays in these woods are too fine to contribute in any degree 
to the appearance or character of the woods. 

The lumber trade is concerned in general with the com- 
parative weights and strengths of different woods, but these 
properties need form no part of a consideration of woods 
used for interior finish. More important properties are 
the ease with which a given wood may be worked, its 
appearance in doors or paneling, its cost, and the finishes 
which it is best adapted to take. 

Before taking up individually those native woods best 
adapted for use as interior finish, there should be recog- 
nized also the importance of " seasoning," what makes it 
necessary, and to what extent " seasoned " wood may be 
relied on. 

" Seasoned" Timber. All " green " or standing timber 
contains more or less water, and " seasoned" lumber is 
lumber from which, to greater or less extent, the water 
has been expelled. Water begins to dry out of any lumber 
as soon as that lumber is exposed to the air, and the 
longer the exposure the more water leaves the wood. No 
mere exposure in ordinary temperatures, however, will 
drive out enough moisture from lumber to fit it for finished 
carpentry. 

To further season lumber there is the dry kiln, the 
dry heat of which expels more water from the wood, 
though not all. A little more may be dried out in the 
greater heat of an oven, but a point is reached where no 
more moisture can be expelled without reducing the wood 
to a substance resembling charcoal, no longer wood. It 
will therefore be seen that the term "thoroughly kiln 
dried" can only be taken in a comparative way, since it 
is not possible to drive out all moisture from wood with- 
out destroying the wood. 

There can be no fixed rules governing the length of 
time required to kiln-dry lumber, because much depends 
upon the conditions of the lumber before going to the kiln. 
Perhaps it has been air dried for some time before ship- 
ment to the kiln, or perhaps it is fresh cut. Obviously it 
is best to dry wood gradually and slowly, first in dry air, 
then in the kiln. No lumber is placed in a dry kiln until 
it has been air dried at least six months, and experienced 



users of lumber allow the wood to "come back" to 
normal temperature conditions by allowing it to stand in a 
dry shed ten days after it has been taken from the kiln 
before putting it in work. 

Warfiing and Checking. That wood tends to warp or 
curl in the process of seasoning is the natural result of its 
cellular structure, and care is therefore taken in season- 
ing, whether by air or kiln, that the wood is uniformly 
exposed to temperature changes on all sides. The dry 
cells in wood, those from which the moisture has been 
drawn, naturally contract while the cells containing mois- 
ture remain as they are, so that a board will curl or warp 
forward the side which dries more rapidly. Since «// the 
moisture in wood cannot be expelled, even in " thoroughly 
seasoned" stock, even such stock may warp if exposed to 
dampness on one side, because the cells of that side 
gradually become refilled with new moisture. Wood so 
exposed, and not protected, will gradually but inevitably 
curl towards the dryer side. 

Ordinarily dry wood, or " seasoned " wood, is stronger 
than green wood, but green or iinseasoned wood, naturally, 
does not concern the architect, because it could not be 
used in finish, and would not take paint or stain. Every 
architect and builder should carefully study the seasoning 
of lumber, and should, if possible, visit mills and talk 
with experienced men who do the actual work — the kiln- 
men and others who have the wood under close personal 
observation from its arrival in the log, or squared, until it 
is turned out in seasoned lumber ready for use. It is then 
time to go into the study of wood preservatives, fillers, 
paints, stains, and varnishes, of which more later. The 
question of the decay of wood and its prevention is an in- 
teresting one, but is a consideration which does not 
enter into interior trim, which is not exposed to decaying 
or erosive agents. 

" Checking " is unlike warping or twisting, but is also 
to be reckoned with in seasoning wood. Some woods 
are more likely to "check" than others, unless great 
care is exercised in the seasoning process, the "check- 
ing" taking the form of many small splits, or even large 
cracks, due to uneven drying. 

Wood Preservation. Trouble experienced with wood- 
work is usually due to lack of care in protecting it before 
the final finishing coats are applied. Because all woods 
are porous, and when dr\- the pores are open to absorb 
moisture, unfinished doors or trim placed in a damp room 
quickly absorb the moisture in the air, which causes them 
to swell up. When the moisture in their surroundings is 
removed, when the building is heated and dried out, all 
the joined woodwork naturally tends to warp and open at 
the joints, and it is very difficult and expensive and some- 
times impossible to repair the damage. 

If the architect were not aware of the cause of the 
trouble, he might make a mental note that he would never 
use that kind of wood again, and his client would (with 
apparent justification) accuse him of ignorance of his busi- 
ness. Or the fault might lie with the client, who, im- 
patient to move in, refused his architect the time necessary 
to set the woodwork in dry interiors. 

To prevent such unfortunate adventures with wood- 
work, all interior trim, which is usually shipped from the 
mill "in the white," or natural condition, should immedi- 
ately receive one coat of filler, shellac, or stain, as the 



I 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



219 





Curly Cypress Grain 



Carved Cypress Panel 

The carved panel above and those at either side show ap- 
pearance of cypress when given the ' ' Sugi ' ' finish after the 
ancient Japanese manner of treating wood. This is accom- 
plished by searing the surface with flame and then brushing 
out the charred parts which exposes the harder portions. 




Natural Cypress Grain 



case might require. Certainly doors should not be hung-, 
or trim and paneling installed in a building where the 
plastering is still damp. All finish which is set against 
plaster, brick, or other backing should be "back painted " 
with at least one heavy 
coat of asphaltum stain, 
or lead and oil, to pre- 
vent absorption of mois- 
ture. Obviously, wood 
that is not back painted 
is protected only on one 
side, and neither the 
mill man nor the wood 
itself should be con- 
demned if proper care 
is not taken in handling 
it when it arrives "on 
the job. ' ' 

Careful architects in- 
sist, and embrace in 
their specifications, a 
clause to the effect that 
no wood trim shall be 
set or doors hung until 
heat has been turned on 
in the building. 

The foregoing notes 
are offered in connec- 
tion with the following 
articles on native woods 
for interior finish be- 
cause they are applic- 
able to all such woods, 
and because constant 
reference will be made 
to these several points. 

The most important 
and widely used woods, by reason of their natural variety 
and their wide natural distribution, are the pines and the 
oaks. Of these there are twelve distinct species of soft 
pines, twenty-two hard pines, and fifty oaks. 

Other woods to be considered are red cedar, and other 
cedars, the spruces, cypress, the firs, and redwood of the 
so-called softwoods ; and of the so-called hardwoods, 



white ash, the maples, the birches, sycamore, chestnut, 
walnut, red gum, sap gum, tupelo, mesciuite, basswood, 
Cottonwood, and whitewood. 

Of these, some are not obtainable in large quantities, 

and consequently are 
not very widely used. 
Architects, however, 
may add great local in- 
terest to a piece of work 
by employing some sel- 
dom used but suitable 
wood characteristic of a 
given locality, and 
should be thoroughly 
familiar with the prop- 
erties and possibilities 
of all native woods. 




CYl 
b 



Cypress Door and Dresser in the Dining Room of James A. Green, Architect, 
Greenwich, Conn. 

An examjile of "Sugi" finish on cypress, the Japanese character of 
which has been accented by the decorative painting on the door and the 
pierced carving over the dresser. 



CYPRESS. 

PRESS is given, 
botanically, as ex- 
isting in two genera, or 
principal kinds, of which 
one has two species, or 
varieties, and the other 
six, as recognized by 
the United States Forest 
Service. 

In disctissing this or 
any other wood, in the 
light of its uses for in- 
terior finish, there are 
two distinct considera- 
tions to reckon with, — 
its inherent pliysical 
propi'iiics and its super- 
ficial appearance. Under 
the first head fall such properties as durability, worka- 
bility, action under paints and stains; while under the 
second fall such characteristics as grain, figure, and gen- 
eral appearance when finished. 

Cypress possesses certain reliable pliysical character- 
istics which adapt it naturally to use for interior trim and 
doors. It is worked easily, does not split or splinter, and 



220 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




Chamber in the House of Wm. L. McKee, Esq., iin>tMi, K. I. 
Kilham & Hopkins, Architects 
This room shows the use of large cypress boards with a wide channel 
at the joints for the entire facing of the walls. They are finished with 
a dark stain and waxed. The mantel is decorated with stra]>w()rk. 



forms a g-ood base for paint, stain, oil, varnish, or 
enamel. Since the question of decay does not enter very 
seriously into the use of woods for interior finish, there is 
no occasion to speak of the peculiarly lasting qualities of 
cypress when exposed to the elements, thouj^h its 
well-known durability in this connection recom- 
mends it for use in kitchen trim, where the wood- 
work is often subjected to steam and other forms of 
moisture. 

The sligfhtness of its tendency to warp, or to 
shrink or swell, makes it a distinctly suitable wood 
for doors or paneling, and further suitability lies 
in its availability in large, clear widths, and is 
evidenced in its appearance, which is discussed 
presently. 

vSince there is little or no pitch in cypress, it forms 
an excellent base for the application of paint or 
enamel, while the interesting and decorative nature 
of its grain makes a transparent stain an even more 
popular method of finish. 

The above notes briefly comprise the principal 
physical characteristics of cypress, which brings us 
to a consideration of its superficial appearance. 

The natural wood varies in color from almost 
white, as found in cypress from Arkansas, Tennes- 
see, and Missouri, to almost black, as found in 
southern Louisiana and Florida. The usual natural 
color is yellowish, with the sapwood considerably 
lighter in color than the heartwood, which is often 
of a rich orange color. 

As a base for paint or enamel, cypress, being a 
close grained wood, does not require filling if the 
stock is in a properly dry condition. 

The natural grain of cypress has a wide range 
and diverse beauty — is, in fact, singularly varied. 
The "edge" grain has a quiet simplicity, the 
"slash" grain a broad, sweeping freedom, while 
the ' ' sugi ' ' finish brings out strange and involved 
figruring, as rich as Oriental decoration. 



The finishing of cypress is by no means difficult, 
as it takes stains readily, and its grain is thereby 
brought out to more striking advantage. A trans- 
parent stain, wiped ofi^, is the nearest approach, of 
course, to the natural wood; while a penetrating 
stain colors it more deeply and produces a richer 
and more substantial effect. The wood may be 
stained in effects very closely approximating ma- 
hogany, cherry, black walnut, or any of the oaks, 
or the so-called " mission " tones — grays, browns, 
greens, or tans — for conformity with modern "art 
craft " color schemes. 

A finish peculiar to cypress is the recently dis- 
covered " sugi " finish. The name is taken from a 
Japanese wood (which cypress closely resembles) 
and from which the Japanese have for years fash- 
ioned intricate panels which have been known as 
Japanese driftwood. ' ' The effect of this Japanese 
wood, however, is not the result of long exposure 
to salt sea waves, but the result of a clever burning 
process. The winter growth and summer growth 
of Japanese sugi wood possess such relative hard- 
ness and softness that quick exposure to a fiame 
chars the soft portion, leaving the harder portion 
untouched. The charred portion is then scored out with 
a wire brush and rubbed clean of any trace of the fire, 
causing the hard portions to stand out in a remarkably 
decorative manner. This treatment has been found to 




I 



Stairway in House at Locust Valley, L. I. 
Grosvenor Attcrbury, Architect 
An interesting use of cypress for stair balustrade, paneling, and ceiling 
beams, in which the wood has been simply treated to preserve the natural 
appearance of its figure and grain. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



221 



apply as well to our native cypress as to the Japanese sugi 
wood, and hence the term " sugi finished cypress." 

The uses of cypress for interior finish are obviously not 
prescribed by any detrimental features of the wood itself, 
in points either of its physical properties or its appear- 
ance, and it is, as well, generally available and not re- 
garded as by any means 
an expensive wood. 

RED GUM. 

RED gum is an inter- 
esting wood which 
has found wide use only 
in comparatively recent 
years. This is because 
it used to be considered 
so difficult to ' ' season ' ' 
properly that the mills 
did not care to handle 
it. The designation 

red ' ' in its name must 
be supposed to have 
been applied on account 
of the color of the leaves 
in autumn rather than 
the color of the wood 
itself, though this is a 
rather reddish brown. 

One often hears of 

sap gum ' ' in connec- 
tion with "red gum," 
and allusions frequently imply that the former is another 
kind of gum tree, whereas "sap gum" is the "sap- 
wood" growth of the red gum tree, and "red gum" is 
the " heartwood " growth of the same tree. These two 
varieties cut from the same trunk are now being distin- 
guished in architects' specifications. 

Consequently, the color of the wood will depend upon 
whether or not it has been cut from the heartwood or the 
sapwood, and it is advisable to specify, in spite of the 
fact that the two growths from the same log are now 
being regarded virtually as different woods. 

In texture red gum presents a close, interlocked grain. 




Paneling in the Showrooms of Irving & Casson, Boston, Mass. 

The stiles, rails, and all mouldings are of selected gum wood, with 
panels of Circassian walnut. The wood has been treated with a very 
light water stain and finished with a light coat of wax to preserve its 
natural beauty and original color. 



and hence requires no " filler " as a base for paint, stain, 
or enamel, its smooth surface tnaking it also adaptable in 
this regard. It is easily worked and of a grain suffi- 
ciently fine and compact to take carving well. 

Commercially, the term "red gum" applies to the 
heartwood of the red gum tree. In Europe this wood 

is known as red gum, 
satin walnut, and hazel- 
wood. Unselected gum, 
or sai) gum, may be 
partly heartwood and 
partly sapwood, or all 
sapwood. Red gum is 
furnished in either plain 
or quarter sawed lum- 
ber and veneer. The 
veneer is usually rotary 
cut, and is now being 
used in a proportion 
four times the quantity 
of any other species. 
Two of the most impor- 
tant uses of red gum are 
for doors and interior 
finish. It is essential, 
of course, that the wood 
be properly seasoned, 
in which case veneer- 
built doors of red gum 
are rigid and free from 
warp, and possess de- 
sirable (lualities of stability and appearance. 

Red gum has been found of peculiar adaptability for 
use as interior trim and doors in hospitals, for the reason 
that it is odorless and has a grain so closely interlocked 
that it is practically impossible to force any foreign mat- 
ter into its structure. Being free from resinous proper- 
ties, both red and sap gum form excellent bases for white 
enamel, which sets with a hard and brilliant surface. 

In the matter of appearance red gum is unique — in fact, 
a kind of mockingbird among woods. It is doubtful if 
the natural grain of any wood may be converted merely 
by a stain finish to so closely resemble as i^'rcat a variety 




Plain Red Gum 



Quarter .Sawed Red Gum 



Selected Figured Red Gum 



Rotary Cut Red Gum 



222 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



•■s4j(J!ii.>W . 



of other woods. Red 
gum, selected for figfure, 
is the only wood which 
successfully imitates 
Circassian walnut, while 
the straight «rain stains 
to an excellent imita- 
tion of mahogany, wal- 
nut, cherry, or even 
maple. 

All red gum lumber 
does not possess the 
figure. This must be 
selected. But where 
figure does exist, it runs 
so deeply through a 
plank that matched 
quartered panels may be 
obtained with greater 
perfection than in any 
other wood excepting 
Circassian walnut. 

The increasing use of 
red gum for interior 
trim is naturally creat- 
ing a demand for furni- 
ture to match, and the manufacturers are proceeding 
accordingly. 

Red gum is especially adapted to dull finishes, taking 
on a satin-like sheen, which, even in a " natural " finish. 



if--. 




aiM. 



Living Room, Eiizaiietti Peabody House. Boston, Mass. 

R. Clipston Slurgis. Architect 



All woodwork is red gum, with only a light coat of wax for a finish. 
By accident the wood was covered with a heavy coat of orange shellac 
when set in place, and although removed later, some entered the pores 
of the wood, which acts as a preserver without altering the effect de- 
sired. The paneling is finished by a carved cornice. 



does not show finger 
marks. 

Certain specific rec- 
ommendations have 
been found advisable in 
connection with finishes. 
By reason of its rich 
natural color, red gum 
is better without a pig- 
ment stain, but finished 
as near "natural" as 
possible. To obtain a 
clear and attractive fin- 
ish, it is recommended 
to apply a coat of 
bleached shellac for a 
surfacer, bodied up 
with a very pale var- 
nish. Pale, thin, quick- 
drying varnishes are 
better than those of 
heavy body, because 
they stand oil rubbing 
better. It has been 
found from general 
experience that a 

heavy varnish is apt to "pull out " of red gum. 

Among woods for interior finish distinctively native, 

red gum, like cypress, seems destined to occupy a unique 

and prominent place. 




Chamber in House at Dedham, Mass. 

James Purdon. Architect 
The walls are paneled with selected gum wood, treated with 
wax to leave the wood in its natural color. The furniture is of 
the same wood and the fireplace facing of dull blue tiles. 



Library in House at Lake Forest, 111. 
Howard Shaw, Architect 
The walls of this room are given a distinctive appearance by 
the use of large panels of gum wood which have been stained 
and given a dull finish. The stiles are chamfered. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



223 




VIEW OF REAR 
HOUSE OF EUGENE L. NORTON. GUILFORD, BALTIMORE, MD. 

EDWAFU) I.. I'ALMKK, JK., AKCIIITKCT 



224 



THE BRICKBVILDER 













\ \\:\\ I )i- i'K().\ I 




IMKST FLOOR PLAN 



ENTRANli, i>L I. Ml. 

HOUSE OF MRS. GEORGE W. GAIL, GUILFORD, BALTIMORE, MD. 

EDWARD L. PALMER, JR., ARCHITECT 



I 



VOL. 24, NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 121. 




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VlliVV SHOWINC; MAIN KNTKANCK 



HOUSIC OF S. W. LAHKOT, KSC^., ANNAI'OI.IS, Ml). 
I'AKKliK, THOMAS & KKi:. AKCIIITiaT.S 



VOL. 24, NO. 9. 



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PLATE 123. 





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IIOU.SH AT GUII.FOIU), I'.ALTIMOKIC. MD. 

IIOVVAKO SIM,, AiaillTIXT 



VOL. 24, NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 125. 





11 J. .! 



VIEW FROM SOUTHKAST 




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VII-AV I'KOM NUKIliWI-.M 



noiI.SK AT GUILI'OKD, BALTIMORK, Ml). 
IIOWAKI) SILL, AKCMITIXT 



VOL. 24, NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 126. 




UKTAU, OK SIUK KNTKANCK 



lIKSr FLOOR PLAN 



iii;r.\ii. ()!■ MAi:. i 



HOUSE OF MRS. C. L. APPI.EGAKTH, GUILFORD, HAl.TlMoKK, MI). 

IIOWAKD SILL, AKCIiriKCT 



VOL. 24, NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 127 




\li:\\S FKOM DKVON STKKKT 



r.r^OIIP OF'' HOUSES at GUILKOKD. BALTIMOKK. Ml). 

KDWAKI) L. I'AI.MKK, JK., AKCIIITKCT 



VOL. 24, NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 128. 




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PLATE 134. 




VIKW FROM GAKDKN 



HOUSE AT GUILFORD, BALTIMORi:, MD 
JOSEPH KVANS SCKKKY, AKCIIITIX I' 



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VOL. 24, NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 135. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



DETAIL OF ENTRANCE 



HOUSE OF JAMES C FENHAGEN, ESQ., GUILFORD, BALTIMORE, MD. 
LAURENCE HALL FOWLER. ARCHITECT 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



225 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSE OF WILLIAM FUSSELBAUGH, ESQ. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSE OF DR. JOSEPH S. AMES 

TWO HOUSES AT GUILKORD, BALTIMORE, MD. 

EDWARD L. PALMER. JR., ARCHITECT 



226 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSL OK JUll.N UANlELi, ESU. 

TWO HOUSES AT GUILFORD, BALTIMORE, MD. 

EDWARD L. PALMER, JR.. ARCHITECT 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



227 





VIEW FROM STREET FIRST FLOOR PLAN 

HOUSE OF CHARLES W. HENDLEY, ESQ., GUILFORD, BALTIMORE, MD. 

E. H. GLIDDEN, ARCHITECT 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 

HOUSE OF JOHN E. SEMMES, JR., ESQ., GUILFORD, BALTIMORE, MD. 

LAURENCE HALL FOWLER, ARCHITECT 



The Church Towers, Steeples, and Spires of 
Sir Christopher Wren. 



PART II. 

By R. RANDAL PHILLIPS. 



IN a letter written to a friend in 1708 on the subject of the 
further rebuilding of churches in London, Wren gives 
some details in connection with materials which may 
here be quoted as prefatory to a further consideration of 
his church towers and spires. He says : " It is true the 
mighty demand for the hasty works of thousands of 
houses at once, after the fire of London, and the frauds 
of those who built by the great, have so debased the value 
of materials, that good bricks are not to be now had, with- 
out greater prices than formerly, and indeed, if rightly 
made, will deserve them ; but brick-makers spoil the 
earth in the mixing and hasty burning, till the bricks 
will hardly bear weight ; though the earth about London, 
rightly managed, will yield as good brick as were the Roman 
bricks, (which I have 
often found in the old 
ruins of the city) and 
will endure, in our 
air, beyond any stone 
our island affords ; 
which, unless the 
quarries lie near the 
sea, are too dear for 
general use ; the best 
is Portland, or Roch- 
abbey stone ; but 
these are not without 
their faults. The 
next material is the 
lime ; chalk-lime is 
the constant practice, 
which, well mixed 
with good sand, is 
no't amiss, though 
much worse than hard 
stone-lime. The 
vaulting of St. Paul's 
is a rendering as hard 
as stone ; it is com- 
posed of cockle-shell- 
lime well beaten with 
sand; the more 
labour in the beating, 
the better and 
stronger the mortar. 
I shall say nothing of 
marble, (though 
England, Scotland, 
and Ireland, afford 
good, and of beautiful 
colours) but this will 
prove too costly for 
our purpose, unless 




X'edast's, Foster Lane 



for altar-pieces. In windows and doors Portland- stone 
may be used, with good bricks, and stone quoyns. As to 
roofs, good oak is certainly the best ; because it will bear 
some negligence. The churchwardens' care may be de- 
fective in speedy mending drips ; they usually whitewash 
the church, and set up their names, but neglect to preserve 
the roof over their heads. It must be allowed, that the roof 
being more out of sight, is still more unminded. Next to 
oak is good yellow deal, which is a timber of length, and 
light, and makes excellent work at first, but if neglected will 
speedily perish, especially if gutters (which is a general 
fault in builders) be made to run upon the principal rafters, 
the ruin may be sudden. Our sea-service for oak, and the 
wars in the North-sea, make timber at present of exces- 
sive price. I suppose 
'ere long we must 
have recourse to the 
West-Indies, where 
most excellent timber 
may be had for cut- 
ting and fetching. 
Our tiles are illmade, 
and our slate not 
good; lead is cer- 
tainly the best and 
lightest covering, and 
being of our own 
growth and manufac- 
ture, and lasting, if 
properly laid, for 
many hundred years, 
is without question, 
the most preferable ; 
though I will not deny 
but an excellent tile 
may be made to be 
very durable ; our 
artisans are not yet 
instructed in it, and 
it is not soon done to 
inform them." 

Of the wonderful 
use which Wren made 
of lead for the spires 
of his city churches 
we shall speak later, 
but before doing so it 
is necessary to deal 
with the remainder 
of his steeples. 

vSt. Vedast's, Fos- 
ter lane, presents in 
many respects 




Christ Church, Newgate Street 



228 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



229 



marked contrasts. It is a composition in which the 
square, the convex, and the concave occur, arranged with 
buttress-like angles, resulting in a strong, pleasing, and 
distinctly orig'inal achievement. The tower is, as usual, 
square to the top of the belfry stage. Above, instead of 
the ang:les being curtailed, they are preserved and devel- 
oped by the aid of pilasters into 
buttress shapes, the main faces of 
the square being set back in the 
form of a concave curve. This is 
repeated in the next stag:e, except 
that the four main faces are made 
convex, but at the same time are 
kept well behind the angles. Above 
the cornice of this stage is a small 
base from which rises the pyramidal 
terminal. The main effects of such 
a treatment are, that the difificulties 
usually experienced in curtailing the 
diagonals without undue abrupt- 
ness are largely decreased ; the nec- 
essity for urns is avoided ; the 
angles are strongly defined and of 
good contour, the ascent being 
graduated ; while the curved and 
broken entablatures afford the mini- 
mum check to the eye ; at the same 
time the sharp lines and curved faces 
throw shadows both hard and soft, 
and the whole scheme thus tends to 
a very successful result. The con- 
struction of the tower differs, nec- 
essarily, from the usual methods 
employed by Wren. Flat faced cor- 
beling pendentives are formed in the 
upper part of the belfry, from the 
top of which segmental arches are 
thrown one to the other, thus form- 
ing" a platform pierced at the center. 
On this platform stands the first of 
the upper stages, which is perfectly 
square internally, all the masonry 
being massed at the angles. Near 
the top of this stage true pendentives 
are formed to carry the upper por- 
tion, which is circular internally 
and is corbeled over at the top to 
support the superstructure, liberal 
recourse being made to iron bands 
at this point. Once above the belfry 
stage the steeple is entirely open to 
the weather, and consists really of four big, inclining angle 
buttresses held in position by the comparatively shell-like 
walls. 

Christ Church, Newgate street, is perhaps the least suc- 
cessful of Wren's stone steeples, serving to show the 
fatality of adhering to a square plan throughout all the 
stages. Unless one is prepared to go on building up in- 
definitely, extravagant breaks at the various stage levels 
must be made in order to terminate the steeple, thus giv- 
ing rise to a most disjointed appearance as a whole. In 
fairness to the architect, however, it should be stated that 
the steeple of Christ Church was robbed of its corner vases 




St. Margaret, l^attens, Koad Lane 



about 1828. The belfry stage is unusually sciuat, and in 
spite of its rows of pilasters appears unable to support the 
massive attic and balustrade. Rising from behind the 
balustrade is the square stylobate that carries the open 
colonnade, through which can be seen the square core 
that appears above as the miserably thin lantern with its 
colossal and glorified baluster ter- 
minal. At St. Mary-le-Bow, where 
the corresponding stages are circu- 
lar, the inverted consoles are used 
with telling effect, and their equiva- 
lent want is most grievously felt in 
this example. No attempt has been 
made to minimize the horizontal ef- 
fect of the entablatures, as is usually 
done by breaking them in certain 
positions, with the result that not 
only are the breaks from stage to 
stage great, but the horizontal lines 
are most pronounced. Construc- 
tively the whole is naturally square 
throughout. Big squinch arches in 
the belfry support massive arches 
running parallel with the walls, the 
upper surface forming a platform 
on which stands the square stylo- 
bate under the colonnade. This 
stylc^bate is triangular in section, 
the inner shell converging to the 
lines of the square core above, the 
base of the triangle being formed 
by the peristyle floor. The weight 
of the topmost stage, buttressed 
up by the peristyle, passes down 
through the square core and in- 
clined wall of the triangle on to the 
massive walls of the tower. 

To'iccrs until Spires. Although 
one naturally looks for Wren's inas- 
terpieces among his steeples, he was 
really none the less successful in his 
spires. His genius in moulding 
stonework to most beautiful shapes 
has already been alluded to ; but 
with lead, owing to the nature of 
the material, he had a freer hand, 
and consequently indulged in some 
most fantastic shapes, just as his 
fancy thought fit or the conditions 
suggested. 

St. Martin's, Ludgate Hill, may, 
perhaps, be considered his best design for a lead spire, 
being in fact, a work of singular interest and charm, not 
only in itself, but also in its relation to the cathedral 
beyond. As in all his designs, the base of the tower is 
visible from the ground, and the flanking aisle walls are 
brought up to the sides of the tower by gigantic stone 
scrolls. From the stone octagonal base with its consoles 
there rises above the tower cornice the graceful lead shape, 
leading up to the open balcony with the crowning turret 
and spire, the whole producing a most beautiful and 
delicate result. 

St. Nicholas Cole Abbey is among his least successful 



230 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



231 



desig-ns, being lacking in elegance and 
scale. Rising from a stone octagonal base 
on top of the tower, the big lead sweep 
with its numerous "eyes" carries one 
up to the capping supporting the balcony 
railing above, from within which rises the 
terminal, built up with its various shapes. 
The balcony, however, is a blemish, as it 
cuts the line of the spire most unfortu- 
nately at this point. 

The treatment adopted for the spire of 
St. Augustine and St. Faith reminds one 
somewhat of St. James's, Garlick Hill, 
and St. Vedast's, Foster lane, inasmuch 
as the angles of the spire are throughout 
its height likewise strongly accentuated, 
first by lead sweeps, then by pilasters, 
and finally by scrolls and vases leading 
up to the spire proper. The effect is one 
of considerable originality and grace. 

St. Margaret, Pattens is remarkable for 
its great octagonal spire, rising to a height 
of 200 feet, the highest of all Wren's 
spires. The tower itself is fine in scale, a 
massive piece of stonework relieved by 
horizontal mouldings and by shallow pil- 
asters at the angles. There is a well 
designed balustrade with corner piers 
carrying obelisk pinnacles, and from 
within this balustrade the spire rises. It 
is paneled on each face, pierced by small openings at 
three levels, and terminated by a ball and vane. Alto- 
gether it is a very noteworthy achievement as a classical 
rendering of a Gothic spire. 

Similar in treatment is the spire of vSt. Swithin's, 
Cannon street, where a 
lead covered octagon 
emerges again from 
within a stone balus- 
trade ; but in this ex- 
ample the chamfering of 
the corners of the tower 
in order to change the 
form from the square to 
the octagon cannot be 
regarded as a pleasing- 
expedient. The height 
of the spire is 150 feet. 

Though St. Mildred's, 
Bread street, has been 
almost swallowed up by 
modern buildings, and 
is lost to sight at street 
level, it possesses a very 
beautiful little spire, as 
will be seen from the 
accompanying photo- 
graph taken at roof 
level. The tower itself 
is of brick, crowned by 
a strong cornice and 
blocking course, from 
which a graceful sweep 




St. Mildred's, Bread Street 




St. Benet's, Paul's Wharf 



leads to a lantern whose corners are 
marked by ramps and pilasters carrying 
an entablature. Above rises the s])ire 
proper, resting on balls at the four angles, 
and tapering away gently, a ball and vane 
completing the design. 

Wren used all kinds of forms for his 
spires, and among them the cupola fre- 
quently figures as a base for a lantern and 
terminal. His most successful result in 
this manner is unquestionably St. Benet's, 
Paul's Wharf, a brick church, with a 
tower and spire that are quite perfect. 
The tower itself, 17 feet square on plan, is 
in three stages, with stone quoins alter- 
nating with brick at the corners. The 
cupola is set upon a deep blocking course; 
it has eight small oval windows, around 
which the lead is dressed completely, and 
is finished with a corona as a base for the 
open octagonal lantern. For this latter, 
Wren has adopted his favored treatment 
of ramps and pilasters carrying an en- 
tablature, the latter being broken out over 
each pilaster. 

vSt. Mary, Abchurch has a brick tower 
surmounted by an ogee cupola supporting 
an open lantern and spire. This is one 
of the least successful of Wren's spires, 
the outline being very awkward. 
A cupola supporting a spire is used again in St. Mar- 
garet's, Lothbury, the spire of which is in some respects 
very similar to St. Mildred's. It is not, however, equal 
in design to the fine tower below it, which is of excellent 
proportions, and possesses, moreover, a noble entrance 

doorway . 

The examples illus- 
trated are remarkable 
for their variety in the 
treatment of the Renais- 
sance spire, but they 
do not exhaust Wren's 
achievements in this di- 
rection, for there were 
some further very strik- 
ing examples among the 
churches that have been 
demolished, — St. 
Benet's, Gracechurch 
street ; St. Michael's, 
Queenhithe ; and St. 
Michael's, Crooked 
lane, being the most 
notable ; while with the 
demolition of St. An- 
tholin's, Watling street, 
went the only stone 
spire, pure and simple, 
which Wren carried out. 
St. Edmund, King 
and Martyr, in Lombard 
street, has on its tower 
St. Mary, Abchurch, Abchurch Lane a sort of large lantern, 



232 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



rather than a spire, and this serves to remind us that 
though Wren in the University chapels which he built at 
Oxford and Cambridge did not include any tower or spire, 
Emmanuel College Chapel and Pembroke College Chapel 
have lanterns of particularly elegant design. 

St. Philip Magnus, London Bridge, must be regarded 
in a class apart, for it is a strange mixture of a steeple, 
a cupola, and a spire. The tower is not equal in design 
to some of the other towers by Wren. The stages are too 
numerous, and the balustrade over the belfry is extremely 
crude. Better work is seen in the octagonal stone lantern 
above, carrying a cupola, a smaller lantern, and a spire. 
But regarded as a whole, one feels that too many features 
are crowded upon one another in this design. 

There remains only to mention the tower of St. Dun- 
stan's-in-the-East. This is in the perpendicular style 
which appealed to Wren when he was reciuired to work in 
the Gothic manner, the crowning 
feature being a stone spire carried on 
four flying buttresses. It is interest- 



ing as a classical essay in the Gothic, but does not call 
forth much admiration, the form of the spire being 
essentially unsatisfactory. 

Thus we have passed in review the unitjue series of 
church towers, steeples, and spires designed by Sir 
Christopher Wren. The versatility of this great man was 
astonishing, and no less remarkable was his capacity for 
work. Though he did not take up the study of architec- 
ture until he was thirty, he designed no fewer than fifty 
churches in the city of London and Westminster, in addi- 
tion to a great cathedral, three palaces, two large hospitals, 
several important university buildings, numerous city 
company halls and civic buildings, and many works of 
domestic character. Truly the labors of an architectural 
Hercules ! Of his city churches sixteen have already been 
demolished, and there is always danger of others having to 
make way for improvements. Let us hope, however, that 
the hand of the spoiler will be kept from 
them for Wren's churches are among 
the architectural treasures of London. 




St. Margaret's, Lothbury 



St. Philip Magnus, London Bridge 



St. Dunstan's-in-tlieEast 



As He Is Known, Being Brief Sketches of Contemporary 
Members of the Architectural Profession. 




THOMAS C. YOUNG. 



TO sketch the life of Thomas Crane Young is indeed 
to sketch an outline of the architectural development 
of the Middle West during the last two decades. 

Born at Sheboygan, Wis., in 1858, his early education 
was obtained at the Grand Rapids High School, where he 
graduated ; after which he studied for one vear at the Art 
Academy in Cincinnati. Coming to St. Louis as a student 
of the St. Louis School of Fine Arts, Mr. Young entered 
upon a field in whose future development he was destined 
to play an important role. 

Upon completing his studies at the Art School, four 
years were spent in the offices of E. M. Wheelwright, and 
of Ware & Van Brunt of Boston ; and two more years in 
European travel, including work at I'Ecoledes Beaux Arts 
and the University of Heidelberg. In 1885, he returned 
to St. Louis to form a partnership with William S. Eames, 
under the firm name of Eames & Young. This partner- 
ship continued until 1914, when the firm was incorporated 
under the old name, with Mr. Young as president. 

It would scarcely be possible to over-estimate the influ- 
ence that the firm of Eames & Young has had upon the 
architecture of St. Louis. Although starting when the 
wave of Richardson was at its height, Mr. Young was ever 
sensitive to the moods of the day and when the time came 
reluctantly gave up the Romanes(|ue to embrace the 
Classic, working either in the Italian, French, or Roman 
style. The large and important work that has come from 
the office of Eames & Young, includes a long list of many 
of the largest and most important buildings in the United 
States. To mention only a few : the Federal Prison at 
Leavenworth, Kan.; the Customs House in San Francisco; 
the Educational Building at the Louisiana Purchase Ex- 
position, and the Boatman's Bank Building in St. Louis, 
are sufficient to recall the wide field that this firm has 
covered. In all of the work, from the largest to the small- 
est building, the hand of a versatile designer and a serious 
student of the Classic, is strongly evident. 

By nature ever reserved and composed, never stooping 
to gain passing popularity, Mr. Young has been a promi- 
nent and outspoken factor in every question pertaining to 
art and civic development in his adopted city. He has 
been a leading and faithful member of the local Chapter, 
where his advice has ever been valued ; and though still in 
the prime of life he can already look back ui)on a career 
full of wonderful activit\- and success. — 6'. S. 




WILLIAM A. BORING. 



IN the early years of the writer's connection with 
Columbia University there came to the school of archi- 
tecture a young man from California — our first stu- 
dent from the Pacific Coast — who, though he only remained 
witli us a year, both made and received a lasting impres- 
sion. He was not only the oldest of our students, being 
at that time ( 1866) twenty-seven years of age, but by far 
the maturest in mind and exi)erience. He had already 
had a remarkably successful practice in Los Angeles, de- 
signing large and important hotels, university buildings, 
and iHiblic edifices, following a two years' course in the 
University of Illinois, and his broad-minded intellectual 
alertness, and keen, clear way of working delighted Pro- 
fessor Ware, who was the head of the school at that time. 
After three years in Paris and several months in the in- 
spiring office of McKim, Mead and White, he entered into 
partnership with Mr. E. L. Tilton in 1890. The reputa- 
tion of the firm of Boring & Tilton for sound, thoroughly- 
studied and artistic design is too widely known to need 
more than brief mention. Their work includes such im- 
portant groups and buildings as the Immigrant Station at 
Ellis Island, the entire lay-out of Bogalusa, La., the Jacob 
Tome Institute group at Port Deposit, Md., St. Agatha's 
School in New York, and many schools, hosijitals, clubs, 
and large houses, besides the usual run of minor work. 

But the office routine did not absorb all of Mr. Boring's 
energies. From my first acquaintance with him I noted a 
quiet, clear-headed efficiency, a habit of straight thinking 
and positive convictions, which marked him as destined 
for great usefulness in civic and ])rofessional organiza- 
tions. Moreover, the suavity and geniality of his tempera- 
ment and his sympathetic breadth of view, have made him 
f>erso)ia gratissiina in many circles. He was the organizer 
and first jiresident of the Beaux Arts Society, and has 
served as president of the New York Arcliitectural League, 
Vice-President of the American Institute of Architects, 
Secretary and now treasurer of tlie American Academy at 
Rome and member of the Munici])al Art Commission of 
New York and of the National Commission of Fine Arts. 
He is an Associate of the National Academy of Design. 
A thinker, a reasoner in art, as well as a capital fellow, he 
has been called now to serve the Columbia School of 
Architecture as Associate in charge of Design. The staff 
of the school thereby gains a congenial colleague and the 
students a "guide, philosopher, and friend. " — . /. P. /•'. //. 



233 



234 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




WALTEF^ R. B. WILLCOX. 

TIIK life of Walter R. B. Willcox presents an example 
of a personality led by an innate force toward its 
most eongenial'and effective field of activity, enlist- 
ina therein for devoted service all subsequent efforts. 
Well established in a business career, he forsook it for the 
uncertain life of an architect and began at the bottom of 
the ladder in an architect's olhce in Boston, solving with 
unfamiliar drawing implements the mysteries of the or- 
ders, eager to grasp every phase of architectural art. His 
age, with like unimiiortant details, deserves no mention ; 
it is sufficient to say that he brought to architecture unim- 
paired enthusiasm and devotion which have constantly 
been with him. Beginning with the rudiments in the 
Boston ofhce, he continued his studies in the -School of 
Architecture of the University of Pennsylvania. A visit 
to Burlington, Vt., disclosing an attractive field, he began 
there an active practice ; residences, schoolhouses, uni- 
versity buildings, hospitals, and commercial structures 
throughout that section of the country, several won in 
competition, marked the extent and character of his 
work. 

By nature devoted to the highest ideals of his profes- 
sion, it was natural that he should early afliliate himself 
with the American Institute of Architects, and in 1907 was 
enrolled as a member. With difficulties largely overcome 
and a secure position gained, an attractive home, reflect- 
ing as did also his business quarters, his own architectural 
tastes, it might have been supposed that his goal had 
been reached. This was not to know the man. The 
same quality that impelled him toward architecture made 
him now seek a w-ider field for his efforts where he ])er- 
haps could have what he so much desired, more associa- 
tion with his fellow workers. Terminating his business in 
the I'-ast, he made a tour abroad ; then, with an earlier 
associate, Mr. William J. Say ward, he began, unheralded 
and unknown, a new practice in Seattle, Wasliington. In 
this field he displayed his customary energy in profes- 
sional and also in public affairs. He was active in the 
establishment of the Seattle Architectural Club and served 
devotedly the Washington State Chapter of the American 
Institute of Architects as its secretary and president. 
Sensitive to the high importance of a city plan, he be- 
came its earnest advocate and was active in securing for 
the city a Municii)al Flan Commission. As a member of 
this Commis.sion. representing his Chapter of the Institute, 
he became the Commission's architectural vital force and 
the right hand man of the distinguished engineer em- 
ployed as expert. Mr. Willcox became a Fellow of the 
Institute in 1910 ; has served on important committees, 
and in 1913 was elected to the Board of Directors. 

A striving to realize the highest ideals of his profession 
and of community life, freedom from restricting precedent 
in design, with admiration for the best that had gone 
before, these may characterize the most significant traits 
of his life and work. — C. H. A. 




WILLIAM EMERSON. 

MR. EMERSON once told me that when his father 
was casting about for the best method of fitting his 
son for the profession of architecture, he sought 
the good otlices and counsel of his friend, the late Pro- 
fesst)r Ware. "What should an architect know?" was 
his straightforward inquiry. "More than any one else 
about everything," was the equally straightforward reply. 
Not too terrifying, perhaps, for the brother of a great 
American philosopher and man of letters, but the genial 
professor prom])tly resolved his great truth into some- 
thing compas.sable within a lifetime and a little more 
promising of an eventual practice. 

Of course Mr. I'^merson would be the first to admit his 
failure to attain the happy (?) state prescribed by Profes- 
sor Ware. He probably would not even be willing to 
admit that he knew as much about any one thing as did 
someone else (he is far too modest), but I think that a 
number of his friends would immediately protest that it 
would not be easy to excel him in the use of brick, for 
which simple, ancient, and honest material he has a great 
affection and api>reciation. I It is, of course, a pleasure to 
record such a fact in Tin-: Brickbvii.der. i Its variation of 
texture, color, and b(jnd a])peal to him and his mastery of 
the material is shown in many city dwellings and tene- 
ments, and in a recently completed public bath for the 
city of New York. 

He has also just completed the North River Homes, in 
New York City. To this undertaking he has brought 
much patient study an<i a keen sympathy with the effort 
to improve the housing conditions in our large cities. 
The result of his labors will contribute greatly to the bet- 
terment of the living conditions of low salaried workers, 
wliile other housing problems which are already engaging 
his attention will add largely to the knowledge of this 
important subject. 

He was graduated from Harvard University, with 
honors, in 1895. Then to Columbia University for two 
years under Professor Ware and so to the Beaux Arts, 
which he entered in 1898, and where he remained, with one 
absence, until 1901. Returning to New York City, he en- 
tered the office of William B. Tubby, and later, that of 
York and Sawyer. For si.x months he was chief designer 
for the Board of Education of New York City, finally en- 
tering business for himself in 1905. 

To the profession of architecture he is a loyal and de- 
voted servant, giving of himself with a generosity and an 
enthusiasm which seem to flow from inexhaustible sources. 
The Society of Beaux Arts Architects counts him as one of 
its most active workers. For two years he was Chairman 
of the Committee on Education and was later Chair- 
man of the Paris Prize Committee. The New York Chap- 
ter and the Institute are both the richer for his labors. 
No task seems too large or too small to enlist his effort to 
set a higher standard. Happy the profession which can 
claim such practitioners. — C. //. W. 



PLATE DESCRIPTION. 



House OF S. W. Labrot, Esq., Annapolis, Md., Plates 
121-123. This house has a very interesting: plan in its 
modern adaptation of a scheme quite common in the Colo- 
nial Manor Houses. Many of the old houses had a cen- 
tral building: with two small flanking wings connected by 
a narrow corridor, one of these being used as an " office " 
and the other as a guest house. While this general 
scheme has been used there has of course been a change 
of requirements. 

The walls are of very dark red brick with white trim- 
mings, and the roof is of slate. The interior woodwork 
is of delicate Colonial detail and is finished in mahogany 
and white. The construction is fireproof, all the floors 
being concrete. In the service quarters glazed brick has 
been used to face the walls. 

Houses at Guilford, Baltimore, Md., Plates 124- 
125. The remaining plates of this issue are devoted to 
the recent work at Guilford, near Baltimore, Md. Guilford 
is the later development in that very interesting suburban 
scheme which the Roland Park Company has been carry- 
ing out during the past few years. Roland Park was the 
first district to be opened and has grown into a beautiful 
suburb famous for its interesting streets and the architec- 
tural merit of its individual houses. These results were 
attained largely by restrictions included in the deeds and 
by very close supervision over all plans for proposed 
buildings. The deeds for sale, from the beginning, had 
provisions which reserved to the company the right to ap- 
prove or reject plans for the houses to be erected ; and it 
is interesting to note that as new tracts have been opened, 
the demand from the community has been not for less re- 
strictions but for more detailed and comprehensive ones. 
None has realized the advantages of the scheme moj-e 
thoroughly than those living in the development and 
enjoying its privileges. 

The success of the scheme, both esthetically and com- 
mercially, has been so marked that the company a few 
years ago bought the large estate of Guilford adjoining 
Roland Park and has developed it along lines similar to 
the earlier work. 

The architectural department of the company is headed 
by Mr. Edward L. Palmer and while a great deal of the 
work has been done under his direction, yet a large pro- 
portion has been done by Baltimore architects not con- 
nected with the company in any way. This arrange- 
ment has tended to give a certain variety of expression 
without disturbing the unity, for each designer has been 
careful to avoid any bizarre note which would be out of 
harmony with the surrounding work. 

The Two Houses by Howard Sill, Plates 124-126, 
are very similar in construction and in the materials used. 
They are both built of Colonial brick ; the joints were 
struck and then slightly cut at top, a treatment between 
the roughly struck joints and those more elaborately 
treated. The bricks vary in color so that when seen in 
the wall they have a tone closely approaching that of old 
work. 

The interior woodwork in each is yellow poplar finished 
in old ivory enamel ; the doors are of mahogany with 



small brass knobs. The service portions are of yellow 
pine with waterproof varnish. The cost of the house for 
Mrs. C. L. Applegarth was about 27/^ cents a cubic foot, 
while the cost of the " House at Guilford " was approxi- 
mately 32/4 cents a cubic foot. These figures do not in- 
clude grading or sidewalks, but do include the architect's 
fees. 

The Group ox Bretton Place, Plates 127-131, was 
designed primarily as an architectural spot at this partic- 
ular point which is one of the entrances to Guilford. The 
group consists of seventeen houses, built under three 
separate roofs. They are of brick with brick party walls 
isolating each house ; the roofs are slate. To offer cer- 
tain spots of relief some half timber work with brick fill 
has been introduced and also some simple brick patterns 
in other places. The brick is rather rough in texture and 
varying in color, and is laid in a simple "struck " joint. 
The woodwork is of oak, and was covered with a light 
coat of stain containing bitumen, giving a soft brown 
color which has weathered nicely. 

The cubic cost of the houses, exclusive of grading and 
street developments, was about 19 cents. They are small 
but are well finished and are well provided with plumbing 
conveniences and arrangements for cooking. 

In the planning of the group careful consideration was 
given to the vistas which would be opened as one looked 
into the group. Some interesting feature, such as a 
gable or a doorway, has been placed approximately on the 
axis of each approaching street. To assist the effect 
further, gate posts were placed on either side of the street 
in order to give depth of perspective and something of a 
frame to the picture. Considerable care also was given 
to the roofs and chimneys ; the long, unbroken roofs 
giving considerable scale and making the whole group 
count for a good deal when seen from a distance. 

The House for James McEvoy, Esq., Plates 132, 
133, is of brick with limestone cornice and front entrance. 
The roof is green slate. The living room is paneled in 
gumvvood with the fireplace trimmed in verde antique 
inarble. The hall, dining-room, and reception room are 
paneled. The heat is by a vapor system with concealed 
radiation. The cost of the house was about 26 cents a 
cubic foot. 

The " House at (iUilford," Plate 134, by Joseph 
Evans Sperry has solid brick walls and is trimmed with 
marble. The entrance motive is wood. The roof is of 
Spanish tile , the overhang being sui)ported by wooden 
brackets which rest on marble corbels. 

The House for JamesC. Fenhagen, Esy., Plate 135, 
is on a lot adjoining the house for John E. Semmes, Jr., and 
the construction of both is similar. The exterior walls 
and the interior bearing walls are of hollow tile. The 
facing brick is red with a wide variation in color ; the 
cornice and string course are of brick. The roof is green 
slate and the trim is all painted a brownish ivory color. 

The interior finish is poplar painted white and is very 
simple. The cost, including all heating and plumbing, 
and the rough grading and brick walks and steps, was 
about 25 cents per cubic foot. 



235 



EDlTOklAL COMMENT 
AN DfN O TES ^ <? 
FOR.'*THE<*MO NTH 




i3iiSi!ii&SS.<i««««««^P^^ 



THK relation in an architect's practice which the two 
elements, construction and design, shall bear to one 
another has always been somewhat confusing:. It 
has not been an infrecjuent occurrence to find men who 
were extremely clever at designing, and yet who could 
not carry out their designs without the greatest assistance 
from others specializing in construction. While the 
scheme of our business life to-day reciuircs a certain 
amount of specialization in any work, it is unfortunate if 
this specialization in architecture is carried to the ex- 
treme of ignorance of allied subjects, — the designer 
knowing only how to design. 

Such narrowness must work against the development 
of sound architectural forms and motives. Steel, to name 
the modern material of the widest use, has created oppor- 
tunities for great originality in design, but what de- 
signer can make the most of these opportunities if he 
doesn't know the material, its strength, and peculiarities ? 
Such a one must continue the use of old forms in a man- 
ner that is now illogical. 

A better knowledge of structural material than is now 
possessed by the average will also increase the opportuni- 
ties for architectural design. It is most unfortunate that 
subjects which are crying out for esthetic handling, sub- 
jects such as bridges, factories, and warehouses, are so 
often handled by engineers alone. In this way many 
latent possibilities where our everyday surroundings 
might be improved are totally lost. These problems are 
not confided to the architect, largely because the public's 
oi^inion of him and of his ability to handle them is not 
very high. It, therefore, behooves the profession to cor- 
rect this condition and bring within the scoi)e of its work 
these problems now largely given to the engineer. 

While architecture has been defined as "the art of 
building beautifully," it ought to be amplified by the 
phrase "and constructing soundly," for though the 
esthetic effect resulting from a design is of great import- 
ance the client is interested primarily in the actual struc- 
ture, and its permanence and soundness will be the most 
important considerations to him. And, from a business 
point of view, the pleasing of the client is an important 
factor in a practice. The architect is employed not merely 
to prepare drawings (except in very unusual cases), but 
he is to produce a building of a thoroughly sound charac- 
ter and, unfortunately, in many cases the necessary 
knowledge is lacking. Of course, on large work consult- 
ing engineers may be called in to work in conjunction 
with the architect ; but even then the best results cannot 
be obtained unless the latter can grasp the engineer's point 
of view and discuss with him the problems that arise. 

In the smaller work very often the special structural 
knowledge is supplied by the manufacturers of building 
materials, and here again the result cannot be the best 
unless the architect possesses enough knowledge to check 



the work. Otherwise he is unable to know whether too 
much or too little material has been used ; there may be a 
gross and expensive waste or the amount used may be 
dangerously small. Yet the responsibility of the result 
lies with the architect. 

To be sure it cannot be expected that the architect shall 
have the special education that is necessary for great 
engineering feats. The variety of subjects his profession 
requires him to understand and the scope of his activities 
preclude any highly cultivated knowledge along that 
special line. 

Perhaps the most nearly ideal substitute for the archi- 
tect-engineer is a partnership including an architectural 
engineer. With this scheme the constant contact with 
the work of the oflfice will result in a sympathy and un- 
derstanding of purpose which is essential to the best solu- 
tion of problems, and which is not possible when outside 
assistance is called upon for special cases. However, such 
a specialized partnership is not practicable in the small 
practice and so we again face the fact that the architect 
should have a better knowledge of building construction 
than is generally the case to-day. 

When it is clearly understood that the construction of all 
classes of building lies within the sphere of architects, 
and must be taken up by them instead of being relegated 
to others, we will not confront reactions in state laws 
making toward the supervision of architecture by engineers. 



T 



illE F'ourth National Housing Conference is to be 
held in Minneapolis on October 6-9. The program 
includes more than usual concerning practical mat- 
ters relating to the subject of dwellings and should be of 
interest to a large number of architects. There are to be 
papers and discussions by city officials, lawyers, and real 
estate men as well as by architects prominent in city plan- 
ning, landscape architecture, and the planning of houses. 
One of the most interesting days for the architect will 
be the 9th, when the Housing Institute will be held. The 
([uestion to be dealt with chiefly is the practicability of 
developing garden suburbs in America for wage earners, 
including types of small houses for workmen, construction 
and maintenance, and management, both financial and 
social. Minneapolis, while being with its lakes and gar- 
dens a very beautiful city, has been shown by housing 
investigations to have every type of housing evil known 
to older and larger cities, and delegates should find these 
problems thoroughly typical of the average American 
city. A feature of the conference will be an exhibition 
showing what has been done in various cities toward 
developing a modern dwelling. 

Copies of the proceedings of the Conference, as well as 
pamphlets issued during the year, will be sent free to all 
members of the National Housing Association, of which 
the annual membership fee is $5.00. 



236 



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