Skip to main content

Full text of "A brief Greek syntax and hints on Greek accidence : with some reference to comparative philology, and with illustrations from various modern languages"

See other formats

lit yci 





















Robert Bratcher 

This book is due at the WALTER R. DAVIS LIBRARY on 
the last date stamped under "Date Due/' If not on hold ,t 
may be renewed by bringing it to the library. 

Critical Opinions of this Work. 

' While the Author (the well-known Harrow Master) justly 
apologises for the production of a new Greek Grammar, he 
fully justifies doing so, not so much because his colleagues 
pressed him, as from the scholarlike and, above all, from 
the intelligible manner in which he simplified his Greek 
Grammar Mules into this Brief Greek Syntax, which bids 
fair to become a standard work.' 

'Mr. Farrar's Greek Syntax differs in its method from ali, 
or nearly all, preceding Greek Grammars ; partly in its freer, 
larger, and more unhackneyed treatment of the subject, and 
partly in its constant reference to the general principles of 
comparative philology, and in its endeavour, wherever prac- 
ticable, to illustrate the idioms of Greek, by the similar 
idioms or peculiarities of other languages, especially English. 
The whole of this Syntax is very well clone. 
Mr. Farrar seems to have a happy way of explaining an 
intricate subject; and we are sure that any fairly-instructed 
youth will find no difficulty in going through this volume 
without any aid from a teacher. The Author has made his 
Greek Syntax indeed a really readable work — something far 
beyond a compendium of dry rules. He gives many apt 
quotations from some of our best old English poets ; and 
illustrates, often very happily, not a few peculiar construc- 
tions in Greek by reference to similar pages in other 
languages. ... In freshness and interest, in copious- 
ness of illustration, and in its freedom from all grammatical 
mysticism and pedantry, Mr. Farrar's volume surpasses all 
the Greek Grammars we have seen.' 

Critical Opinions of this Worh, 

' Mr. Faerae has produced a book in every way admirable, 
and calculated in no common degree to facilitate the study 
of Greek, and to make that study profitable for the educing 
the powers of the pupil. Mr. Farrar has shewn by his 
previous works that he was thoroughly acquainted with the 
subject of comparative philology, and had taken a high 
place as an original thinker and discoverer in that depart- 
ment. He has applied his knowledge in this little work to 
the elucidation of Greek Syntax. Perhaps the most striking- 
feature in the book is that Mr. Farrar grapples, in a fresh, 
independent way, with every question of Greek Syntax that 
comes up. He knows when he knows a thing with certainty, 
and he states what he knows in remarkably clear and un- 
mistakable language. He is equally decided in knowing 
when a point is justly a matter of doubt, and he is also 
equally distinct in stating Avhere exactly the doubt arises, 
and how it arises. This is a feature of the utmost impor- 
tance in a school-book. Most of the treatises on Greek 
Syntax often leave the young student at a loss as to what 
the meaning of the writer really is, and he is apt to go 
away from the perusal of these treatises with vague, imper- 
fect ideas. This one feature of Mr. Farrar's work will 
recommend it strongly to teachers. But there are many 
others which will make it exceedingly acceptable. Mr. 
Farrar carries his comparative philology into all portions 
of the work, and gives his explanation of the formation of 
the tenses, of the derivations of particles, of the meaning of 
the various terms used in grammars, and their history, and 
many other things only to be got by much reading and re- 
search. He has also employed, to a large extent, analogous 
examples from a variety of languages, and he calls to his 
use, not merely classical Greek, but the Greek of the New 
Testament and Modern Greek. In one word, he has made 
the study of Greek Syntax an interesting study for boys, 
and he has done this at the same time that he has amply 
satisfied all the demands of the present stage of scholarship 
and of comparative philology.' 


•Inter virtutes granimatieas liabebitur aliqua tcscire.' 


1 Nou obstaut has disciplince per illas euntibus sed circa illas 
haerentibus. Id. 









Honorary Chap lain to the Queen ; late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; 

Honorary Fellow of King's College, London ; one of the Masters at Harrow School ; 

Author oj 'Hie Origin of Language,' ' Chapters on Language? 

'Families of Speech,' Ac. 

PA f&l 

'1 o 



















I have taken the opportunity offered me by the demand lor a 
third edition to revise this Syntax carefully, to add a con- 
siderable number of illustrations, and to introduce some fresh 
matter which struck me as likely to be curious, interesting, 
or important. I have also corrected a few trifling blemishes 
which have been pointed out by the kindness of friends or 
reviewers. For the convenience of all who possess the pre- 
vious edition, I have left the structure of the book and the 
numbering of the sections undisturbed. 

I trust that these improvements may secure for this Syntax 
a continuance of the approval with which it has been generally 
received. I have tried, even more than in the previous 
editions, to illustrate many of the more remarkable idioms of 
English Syntax by comparing them with similar idioms in the 
classical and other languages. 

April 1870. 





The publication of a new Greek Grammar when there are 
already so many in existence, is an act which requires justi- 
fication ; and as it is also an act of some temerity, I will 
briefly state the causes that induced me to undertake the 

I observed from the comparison of a large number of 
1 Grammar and Scholarship papers ' that the same questions, 
— or questions involving the same points of scholarship, — 
recurred with a remarkable frequency. As there is a Gram- 
mar Examination every year at Harrow, I wished to draw up 
for my own pupils a manual which should, in as clear a 
manner as possible, give them some insight into these special 
points. With the encouragement, and by the wish, of some 
competent judges among the Harrow masters, I published in a 
small compass my card of ' Greek Grammar Rules,' in which 
I had attempted to fulfil this object ; and in drawing up these 
rules it appeared to me that many most valuable points 
relating to them and to the general structure of the Greek 
Language, had not hitherto found their way into any ordinary 
schoolbook. I therefore thought that I could render a service 
to the cause of Classical Philology, by amplifying my ' Greek 
Grammar Rules' into a larger and fuller Syntax; and the 
great favour with which the ' Rules ' were received, the 


number of schools that adopted them, and the many eminent 
scholars and teachers who wrote to me to express their appro- 
bation of them, confirmed me in this belief. 

I aimed above all things at making every point intelligible 
by furnishing for every usage (as far as was possible) a 
satisfactory reason ; and by thus trying to eliminate all mere 
grammatical mysticism, I hoped that I should also render 
grammar interesting to every boy who has any aptitude for 
such studies, and is sufficiently advanced to understand them. 
On the latter point I venture to lay some stress. I have 
published elsewhere my reasons for believing that we com- 
mence too soon the study of formal grammar, and that this 
study, which is in itself a valuable and noble one, should be 
reserved to a later age and for more matured capacities than is 
at present thought necessary. I should never think of putting 
this Grammar into the hands of boys who have no aptitude for 
linguistic studies, or of any boys below the fifth or sixth forms 
of our public schools ; and I have purposely avoided stating 
rules or reasons under a form in which they could be learned 
by rote. Taught in a parrot-like manner to crude minds, I 
believe that grammar becomes bewildering and pernicious; 
taught at a later age and in a more rational method, I beHeve 
that it will be found to furnish a most valuable insight into 
the logical and metaphysical laws which regulate the expres- 
sion of human thought, and that it will always maintain its 
ground as an important branch of knowledge, and a valuable 
means of intellectual training. 

All grammars must necessarily traverse a good deal of 
common ground, but the careful perusal of a very few of the 
following pages will prove, I trust, that this Syntax differs 
in its method frotn all, or nearly all, that have preceded it ; 
partly in the more free and informal manner of treatment, 
partly in its perpetual reference to the general principles of 
Comparative Philology, and partly in its constant endeavour 
to leave no single idiom of Greek unillustrated by the similar 
idioms or peculiarities of other ancient languages, of modern 
languages, and of English. A good illustration often throws 
over an idiom a flood of light unattainable by the most 


lengthy explanation ; and I feel great hopes that a student 
who has gone carefully through the following pages, will, 
— in addition to what he will have learnt about ancient 
Greek, — have acquired some insight into the principles of 
his own, and of other languages. Further than this, I shall 
have failed in my endeavour if he do not also gain some 
interest in observing the laws and great cyclical tendencies 
of Language in general. The historical development of one 
language bears a close analogy to the historical development 
of a large majority of the rest; and this is the reason why I 
have called such repeated attention to Modem Greek, and to 
the traces in Hellenistic Greek of those tendencies which in 
Modern Greek are still further developed, and carried to their 
legitimate result. 

I am not so sanguine as to hope that I have escaped errors. 
He would be a bold man, who, even after years of study 
should suppose that he had eliminated all the chances of error 
in treating of a language which is so delicate, so exquisite, 
and so perfect a medium for the expression of thought, as the 
Greek language is felt to be by all who have studied it. For 
myself, I may candidly confess that I have entered on the 
task with the utmost diffidence. Some critics may doubtless 
regard as erroneous, views which I may have deliberately 
adopted, and which I believe that I could adequately defend ; 
but independently of these I may doubtless have fallen into 
positive mistakes, 

' quas ant incuria fudit, 
Ant humana parum cavit natura.' 

For the correction of any such errors I shall be grateful, and 
I trust that they will neither be sufficiently numerous nor 
sufficiently important to outweigh some other advantages. 
My plan is necessarily, to a certain degree, tentative : if it meet 
with any favour, the knowledge and the experience of others 
may enable me in the future to introduce, from time to time, 
considerable further improvements. I have given to it the 
best thought and care at my command. With more leisure 
I could doubtless have rendered it far more perfect; but I 


hoped that the result might still be found commendable, how- 
ever much I may have fallen short of even my own standard of 
ideal perfection. The inability to reach the excellence which 
would have been attainable under more favourable circum- 
stances is no excuse for declining to attempt anything at all. 

It is unnecessary to give a list of the large number of 
grammars, monographs, and works of scholarship vthich I 
have felt it a duty to consult in the composition of these pages. 
I believe that I have not neglected any Greek grammar of 
great importance; and special obligations will be found acknow- 
ledged in their proper place. I have of course constantly 
referred to the chief works on Comparative Grammar both 
English and German, and to that immense repertory of Greek 
scholarship, the Greek Grammar of Mr. Jelf. I have found 
much that was most useful in Bernhardy, in Burnouf, in 
Winer, in Madvig, in the Student's Greek Grammar of Dr. 
Curtius edited by Dr. Smith, in Mr. Miller's Greek Syntax, 
and in i Die wichtigsten Regeln der Griechischen Syntax'' by 
Dr. Klein. There are however three authors to whom I am 
under more peculiar and extensive obligations, viz., Mr. F. 
TVhalley Harper, Dr. Clyde, and Dr. Donaldson. Mr. Harper's 
book en ' The Power of the Greek Tenses ' has rendered me 
most material assistance in treating that part of the subject. 
The well-known works of Dr. Donaldson have been constantly 
in my hands, even when I venture to dissent from the con- 
clusions of that admirable scholar. The Greek Syntax of 
Dr. Clyde, which is much less known in England than it 
ought to be, is a most suggestive and valuable book, to which 
I have been under constant obligations. I have often been 
Burprised by finding that it was unknown to English teachers 
to whom I have mentioned it. If its arrangement had been 
a little more convenient, and if it had seemed to be well- 
adapted for school usage in our higher forms, I should not 
have undertaken my present task. I am indebted to Dr. 
Clyde's work for many hints and many illustrations, all or 
most of which I believe that I have acknowledged in their 
proper places. If in any instance (and especially in the treat- 
ment of the Moods) I should have omitted to do so, I must 


content myself now with this more general reference to his 
Syntax, and to the other admirable books which I have just 
mentioned. I have gained more suggestions from the study of 
them than it was always possible specifically to acknowledge.* 
One pleasant task remains. I have to offer my warmest 
thanks to the Rev. Dr. Collis, the distinguished Head Master 
of Bromsgrove School, and to my friend and colleague 
E. M. Young, Esq., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, for 
their kindness in helping me to get through the task of 
correcting the proof sheets. Mr. Young was good enough 
to correct for me the sheets of the earlier part of the book ; 
Dr. Collis, though I am personally unknown to him, yet with 
a kindness for which I hardly know how to express sufficient 
gratitude, not only helped me to revise and correct the proofs 
of the entire book, but constantly enriched them with many 
acute and interesting suggestions, the result of his own ripe 
learning and judgment. Should this Syntax succeed in rend- 
ering the study of Greek Grammar more fruitful and more 
interesting, some of its success will be due to the kind offices 
of that well-known scholar. 

P. W. Farrar. 
Harrow : 

March, 1867. 

* I may observe that the same fact or rule is iD some instances 
intentionally repeated. 




The Greek Language 1 

1,2. The families of languages. 3. The Semitic family. 4,5. 
The Aryan family. 6. The classes of languages. 7-9. 
Synthetic and analytic languages. 10, 11. The progress of 
language from synthesis to analysis. 12. Respective advan- 
tages of synthesis and analysis. 13-15. Inflections not 
arbitrary. . 16. Reasons for the study of Greek . . . 1-7 


The Alphabet 8 

1. The Greek alphabet borrowed from Phoenicia. 2. The original 
sixteen letters. 2 (bis). Epsilon, Omega, &c. 3. The di- 
gamma, &c. 4. The Ionian letters. Archonship of Euclides. 
5. San. 6. Kojypa, yod. Origin of the alphabet. 

Letters as Numerals . . . . . . . .12 

7. Numerical value of letters. 8. crroix^a 7pa, u M aTa - 9. 
Earliest Greek writing. 

Pronunciation 13 

10. Consonants. 11. Sound of vowels. Racists and Etists. 

Classification of Letters 14 

12. Importance of the subject. 13. Labials, gutturals, dentals. 
14. Pinal consonants. 15. Laws of euphony. 

Vowels 16 

16-19. Ecthlipsis, synseresis, crasis, &c. 

Dialects 18 

20. The chief dialects : i. Ionic and Attic. H.iEoHc. iii. Doric, 
iv. Hellenistic. 



Parts of Speech 20 

21. All roots nominal or pronominal. 22. The eight parts of 
Nouns ... 21 

23. The declensions. 

Cases , ib. 

24. 'Casus.' 25. The five cases. 2G. The nominative and voca- 
tive. 27. The locative. 28. Origin of case-endings. 29. 
Evanescence of case-distinctions. 

Numbers - ... 23 

30. Named. 31. The dnal number. 
Genders ....... : . . 25 

32, 33. Origin and history of genders. 31. General rules of 

Declensions . 28 

35. A declension ormed by suffixes. 37. Heteroclites. 
Adjectives ......... 29 

38. Adjectives not indispensable. 39. Their gender. 40. Ad- 
jectival terminations. 41-43. Degrees of comparison. 44. 
Intensive prefixes. 45. 'AyaOhs and k<xk6s. 

Pronouns 81 

46, 47. Nature of the pronouns. 48-50. The third personal 
pronoun. 51. Peculiarities of ov. 52-56. Reflexive and 
demonstrative pronouns. 57, 58. Possessive pronouns. 59. 
AvtSs. 60, 61. "Octtis, '6s. 
Numerals ........ ... 35 

62. Cardinals. 63. Ordinals. 64. Other numerals. 

Adverbs . . 36 

65-68. Nature and classes of adverbs. 

Veres 37 

69-71. Nature and definition of the verb. 72, 73. Person-end- 
ings. 74, 75. Duals. 76. Voices. 77. Nature of the middle. 
78. Deponent verbs. 79. Peduplication. 80. Chief rules of 
reduplication. 81. Augment. 82. Chief kinds of augment. 
83. Moods. 84, 85. Verbs in -/u. 86-94. Verbs in -co. 
Irregularities of verbs. 95-100. Classes of verbs : incep- 
tives, desideratives, frequontatives, &c. 

Compound Words 50 

101, 102. Parathetic compounds. 103-105. Synthetic com- 
pounds. 106. Inferior power of composition in Latin. 107- 
109. Laws and irregularities of composition. 110. The 
word ' telegram.' 




1-3. Sentences and clauses ...... j 54 

The Article .......... 53 

4. Originally a demonstrative pronoun. 5, 6. Subsequent 
traces of this. 7. It also served as a relative 8. Its original 
form. 9. Development of the article in other languages. 10, 
11. It both specifies and generalises. 12. Its use with proper 
names. 13. Anarthrous words. 14. Distinguishes the sub- 
ject from the predicate. 15. Used instead of the. possessive. 
1G— 19. Its position. 20. The tertiary predicate. 21. Appa- 
rent violations of the law. 22. Slain usages of the article. 
23. With the infinitive. 24. Various phrases. 

Concord ........... 01 

25-27. Apparent violations of the concords. 28. Duals agree- 
ing with plurals. 29. The Schema Tindaricum. 30. Wholo 
and part figure. 31,32. Plural of excellence. 33. Use of 
aye, &c. 

Cases 07 

34. The case-endings were oneo separate words. 35. Varying 
points of view from which the relations of objects may be 
observed. 30. Gradual evanescence of case-meanings. 37. 
Comparison of cases in Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit. 

The Nominative 03 

38. The ' nominative absolute.' 39. Copulative verbs are fol- 
lowed by a nominative. 

The Vocative 69 

40. The slightest of all the cases. 41. The nominative often 
substituted for it. 42. Its origin. 

The Genitive .......... 70 

43. The name due to a mistake. 44. Its three main uses. 45. 
Genitives of ablation (causal, material, &c). 40. Genitives 
of partition. 47. Genitives of relation. 48. Genitives of the 
subject and of the object. 49. Double genitive. 50. Geni- 
tive absolute. 51. Compared with the ablative absolute. 52. 
Absolute cases in other languages. 

The Dative 77 

53. The dative expresses juxtaposition. 54. Hence it is used to 
express accidents, instruments, &c. Datives of place, time, 
manner, general reference, &c. 55. The ethic dative in 
Greek and various other languages. 



The Accusative 81 

56. The accusative implies motion towards and extension over. 
57. Accusatives of space, time, the cognate notion, &c. 58. 
Double accusative. 59. "Whole and part figure. 60. Accu- 
sative after passive verbs. 61. Accusative in apposition to 
the sentence. 62. Omission of the governing verb. 63. Anti- 
ptosis. 61. ' Accusativus do quo.' 65. The accusative used 

Contrasted Meanings of the Cases ..... 86 
66. Fundamental conceptions of the cases. 67. Their absolute 
use. 68. Contrasted instances. 

Adjectives 87 

69. Illustrations of the chief idioms in the use of adjectives. 

COMPARATIVES . . . . . . . . . .91 

70. Illustrations of the chief idioms in the use of comparatives. 

Superlatives 92 

71. Qualitative superlative. 72. Inclusive use of superlatives. 
73. Phrases used to strengthen superlatives. 

Prepositions 94 

74. The prepositions were originally local adverbs. 75. Their 
meanings are modified by the cases with which they are used. 
76. Due to the analysing tendency of language. 77. Spurious 
prepositions. 78. The n.ame ' preposition.' 79. The eighteen 
prepositions. 80. Variation in the use of prepositions. 81. 
Manner in which they alter the meanings of verbs. 

Prepositions which govern the G-enitive . . . .97 

82. i. 'Aj/tI. ii. irpS. iii. ix, if. iv. o.-ko, ev6v, /xeral-i, &C. 

Prepositions with the Dative ...... 98 

83. i. 'Ej/. ii. ffiv. 

Prepositions with the Accusative 99 

84. i. Els. ii. d-s. 

Prepositions with the Genitive and Accusative . . . ib, 

85. i. Aid. ii. Kara., iii. virep. 

Prepositions with the Dative and Accusative . . . 101 
i. 'Avd. Contrast of wa and icard. 

Prepositions which govern Three Cases. .... ib. 

86. i. 'Ajxrpi. ii. irepl. iii. eVi. iv. fierd. v. -rrapd. vi. irp6s. 
vii. v-nii. 87. Passage of Philo-Jndreiis. 

Prepositions in Composition 105 

88. Prepositions in Composition. 



Idioms connected with Prepositions 10,5 

89. Constructio prcegnans. 90-92. Other idioiiis. 93. Variation 
of prepositions in the same clause. 95. Various phrases. 

Pronouns 108 

96. Personal pronouns used for emphasis. 97. Meanings of avr6s. 
98. Possessive pronouns. 99. Use of reflexive pronouns. 
100. Interchange of reflexive and reciprocal pronouns. 101. 
Chief uses of demonstrative pronouns. 102. Chief uses of 
relative pronouns. 103. Chief uses of indefinite pronouns. 
104. Chief uses of distributive pronouns. 

The Verb 115 

105. The kinds of verbs. 10G-110. The voices. 111. Pour 
chief uses of the middle voice. 112. Contrasted meanings of 
the active and middle. 113. Special uses of the middle. 
114. The middle voice in other languages. 

Tenses 119 

115-117. General remarks on the tenses. US. Nine possible 
tenses of the indicative. 119, 120. Tabulation of the tenses. 
121. Important inferences from this scheme of the tenses. 
122-128. Full explanation of the nature and importance of 
the aorist. 129-131. Perpetual contrast of the aorist and 
imperfect tenses. 132. The past-aorist sometimes used for 
the (wanting) present- aorist. 133. Tabulation of the tenses 
of the passive. 

Chief Idiomatic Uses of the Tenses . ■ . . . .130 

134. 'Idioms.' 135. Dramatic use of the present and imperfect. 
136. Used to express an attempt. 137. Potential use of the 
imperfect without &v. 138. Use of the present with 7raAca; 
illustrated from other languages. 139. Use of kXvu, &e. 
140-143. Idiomatic uses of the imperfect. 

The Future 133 

144. Imperative use of the future. 145. The periphrastic future. 
146. Four passive and middle forms. 147, 148. The future 

The Perfect , . .134 

149, 150. ItS use to express abiding results. 

The Aorist .......... ib. 

151. 152, 153. Itsconnection 
in form and meaning with the future. 154. The gnomic 



The Pluperfect 13G 

155. Comparative neglect of the tense in Greek. Its use to 
imply rapidity. 

Moods ib. 

156. Difficulty and importance of the subject. 157, 158. The 
moods properly three in number. 159. Unsatisfactory no- 
menclature of the moods. 

The Indicative 137 

1G0. Already treated of under 'The Tenses.' 

The Imperative. ......... 138 

1G1-1G3. Slightness of tense-distinctions in the imperative. 
1 G4. Other modes of expressing command. 

The Subjunctive and Optative . . . . . . .130 

105. They are 'by-forms of the future and aorist.' 166. They 
form one subjective mood. 167, 168. Consideration of their 
tenses. 169. The tense-distinctions chiefly preserved in 
oratlo obliqua. 170. Possible origin of the aorist subjunctive. 
171, 172. Only four tense-forms (the present and aorist sub- 
junctive, and the present and aorist optative) in frequent 
practical use. 173. The optative mood a refinement of lan- 
guage. 174, 175. Its comparative unimportance and gra- 
dual evanescence. 

The Subjunctive in Simple Sentences 142 

176. Used in Homer as a modified future. Its use in pro- 
hibitions; its deliberative, hortative, and elliptic use. 

The Optative in Simple Sentences 143 

177. 1. The optative not, in reality, a separate mood. 2. Its use 
in icishes due to an ellipse. Its potential force. 3. Used 
with i.v as a milder future, and 4. as a polite command. 5. 
Its use to express a hopeless wish. 6. Its use to express 
indefinite frequency. 7. The correspondence of optatives. 

The Moods in Compound Sentences 146 

178. The chief kinds of compound sentence. 

Final Sentences 147 

179. The infinitive and future participle not exactly final. 180. 
"Os, offris with the future indicative after verbs of sending, 
&c. 181-183. The moods with final conjunctions. 182. 
Violations of the rule due to the dramatic tendency. 184. With 
past tenses of the indicative the final conjunctions express an 
unfulfilled result. 185. The subjunctive and optative used in 
the same sentence to express the nearer and the more remote 



Relative Sentences . . . . . . . . .149 

186--188. Use of the moods in relative sentences. 

Okatio Obliqua . . .150 

189. Eules of the ora I io obliqua. 190, 191. The optative and 
subjunctive in oratio obliqua, and in indirect questions. 192. 
The tenses in oratio obliqua. 193. The accusative and infini- 

Conditional Sentences . . . . . . . .151 

194-196. Advantage of treating separately the protasis and 

The Pkotasis 153 

197. Ei and eai/. 198. Four lauds of protasis. 199. Et with the 
indicative to express -possibility. 200. 'Eai/ with the subjunc- 
tive to express slight probability. 201. Et with the opta- 
tive to express complete uncertainty. 202. El with past tenses 
of the indicative (followed by av with a past tense of the indi- 
cative) to express impossibility. 203. Difficulty and vague- 
ness of the English versions of conditional sentences. 

The Apodosis . . . . . . . . . .155 

201. Variation of the apodosis. 

Complete Conditional Sentences . . . . . .156 

205-208. Complete and regular conditional sentences. wi:h 
their English and Latin equivalents. 209, 210. Impossibility 
of representing them accurately in idiomatic English. 211, 
212. Influence of the dramatic tendency. 213. Instances of 
the four classes of conditional sentences with regular and 
varied apodoses. 

Temporal Sentences. . . . . . . . .161 

214. General rules of temporal sentences, with examples. 

Special Uses of ivpiv, ecus, &c. . . . . . .162 

215. i. Trpiv av never used unless a negative conception precedes, 
ii. -KpLv with the optative in oratio obliqua, or with reference 
to the thoughts of another, iii. Correspondence of optative-, 
iv. Difference between npiv, eus, and trpiv av, e'eos &v. The 
infinitive with irpiv. General summary of the uses of wpif. 

The Infinitive . . . . . . . . . .164 

216. The infinitive not properly a mood. 217. Its connection 
with the noun. 218. Its use in Greek and English more 
extensive than in Latin. 219. Close analogy between the 
use of the infinitive in Greek and English. 220. Its use to 
express a consequence. 221. Qualified by various conjunc- 



tious. 222. The rpexegetic infinitive. 223. Adverbial use 
of the infinitive. 224. Used elliptically in commands, prayers, 
&c. 225. Tenses of the infinitive. 226-228. The accusative 
and infinitive. 229. The nominative and infinitive. 230. 
The infinitive with other cases. 231. Future infinitive after 
verbs of promising. 232-234. Declension of the infinitive 
with the article in Greek and other languages. 

The Participle 169 

235. Affinities of the participle with the adjective. 236. The 
Greeks <pt\ofjt.4roxoi. 237. Its two main uses. 238. It com- 
pletes the notion of the verb. 239. Differences between the 
infinitive and the participle after verbs of knowing, &c. 
240. (pddcras, XaQ&v, avvcras. 241. The participle expresses 
the accidents of the verbal notion. 242-245. Other uses of 
the participle. 246. Adverbs used to define participles. 

Verbals in -reos ......... 173 

247. Verbal adjectives. 248. Used in the neuter plural. 219. 
Verbal adjectives in -tos and -reos. 

*Av with the Moods ib. 

250. Meaning of &v, k4v. 251. Used with three moods. 252. 
Used with three tenses of the indicative. 253. Potential use 
of Si'. 251. Frequentative use of S*'. 255. Illustrated from 
English usages. 256. Kei> with the present and future indi- 
cative. 257,258. Special uses of #i\ 260,261. "When com- 
bined with relatives and relative particles av takes the sub- 
junctive. 262. Exceptions to this rule merely apparent. 
263-267. *Av with the infinitive and participle. 267. i. The 
verb belonging to av sometimes omitted, ii. av sometimes 
omitted, iii. Sometimes repeated, or iv. misplaced, v. Ths 
conjunction av. vi. Elliptical use of av. 

The Final Conjunctions 179 

268. &>s, '6ttws, "va. Rule for their use. 269. Irregularities in- 
troduced by the dramatic tendency. 270. onus with the 
future indicative. 271. Its elliptical use. 272. Final con- 
junctions with past tenses of the indicative. 273. I. Sum- 
mary of the uses of £>?. II. Summary of the uses of oncus. 
III. Summary of the uses of ha. 

Tile Negatives 182 

274. Differences of ou and y.T]. 275. Distinctions between ov 
and n^i. 276. Cases in which fxri is used. 277. nv after 
verbs of fearing, &c. 278. Illustrations of this apparent 



Ov 185 

279. General uses of eb. 280. Its power of coalescing with 
words. 281-283. Special uses of ov. 284, 285. Contrasted 
uses of oh and /j.y. 286, 287. Tho accumulation of negatives. 
288. Omission of negatives. 

Oi»,u:; 191 

289. Prohibitive and negative uses of ov ^. 290, 291. Ex- 
planation of them. 

M^ 011 192 

292. Use of fri] ov after negative notions. 293, 394. Use of ^ 
with the infinitive. 

Various Negative Phrases , 194 

295. Negative terms. 

Particles . . . . . . . . . . .195 

296. Importance of the particles. 297-303. Various classes of 
conjunctions. 304. Particles of emphasis. 

Interjections 201 

305. Importance of the interjections. 

Order of Words and Figures of Speech .... ib, 

306, 307. Difference of order in synthetic and analytic lan- 
guages. 308. Ehetorical inversions. 309. Sense-const ruc- 
tions, a. Constructio prsegnans. b. Zeugma, c. Syllepsis. 
d. Comparatio compendiaria. f. Various forms of anaicolu- 
thon. g. Aposiopesis. 310. Hyperbaton. a. Antip-osis. 
b. Chiasmus, c. Hysteron Proteron. d. Hypallage. 311. 
Euphemism, a. Irony, b. Hypokorisma. c. Litotes, d. Anti- 
phrasis. e. Ambiguity. 312. Pleonasm, a. Pcriphrasi ■■!. b. 
Polyptoton. 313. Hendiadys. 314. Asyndeton. 315. 
Paronomasia, a. Onomatopoeia, b. Alliteration, c. Oxy- 
moron, d. Antithesis, c. Rhyme. /. Rhythm. 




1. The Greek Language belongs to the Aryan or Indo- 
European family of languages. 

2. There are two great recognised Families of Language, 
the Aryan and the Semitic. These languages are spoken by 
the most advanced and civilised of human races. The other 
languages of the world, which may be classed together under 
the name3 Sporadic or Allophylian, have not yet been reduced 
to any unity, but fall under a number of different divisions. 

3. The Semitic languages are Hebrew, Phoenician, Cartha- 
ginian, Aramaic (i.e. Syriac and Chaldee), and Arabic. The 
name 'Semitic' is purely conventional, and they might con- 
veniently be called, from their geographical limits, Syro- 

4. The Aryan languages consist of eight main divisions, 
which we may call the Sanskritic, Iranic, Hellenic, Italic, 
Lithuanian, Sclavonic, Teutonic, and Celtic. The name Aryan 
is derived from the title At-ya, ' noble,' which was arrogated 
to themselves by the first founders of the race. 

5. The Aryan family of languages is the most perfect family 
in the world, and Greek is the most perfect language in this 
family ; It is * the instinctive metaphysics of the most intelli- 
gent of nations.' 

6. Again, there are four different Classes of Languages, divided 
according to their structure. 

These morphological or structural divisions are : 
i. Isolating languages, which have no proper grammar, and in which 
the words suffer no change to express any shades of thought or varieties 



of circumstance ; of these Chinese is the chief. Thus in Ghinese tha 
prayer 'Our Father which art in heaven,' assumes the form 'Being 
heaven me-another ( = our) Father who ; ' a style not unlike the natural 
language of very young children. Isolating languages are perhaps the 
oldest of all, and yet by that curious cyclical process which is observable 
in language, many modern languages in the last stage of their history 
resemble them. For instance, Chinese has never possessed cases or 
inflections of any kind, and English has lost nearly all which it once 
possessed ; or, as Dr. Latham expresses it, Chinese is aptotic, English 

ii. Agglutinating, like the Turkish, in which the material elements of 
words (root or stem), and the formal elements (pronouns, indicating 
space, position, &c), are juxtaposed in one word without undergoing any 
modification. In these languages all compound words are separable, i.e. 
the component parts are not fused together and altered in the process, 
but are merely parathetic or joined mechanically, as in the English words 
star-fish, railroad, clock-work, &c. 

iii. Polysynthetic (also called holophrastic or incorporant), in which, 
as in Basque, and in the aboriginal languages of America, each sentence 
is one long compound word, and is an agglomeration of simple words 
' in a violent state of fusion and apocope,' e.g. in one of these languages 
nicalchihua means ' I build my house,' but neither ni ' I,' cal ' house,' or 
chihua ' make,' can be employed as separate words.* 

iv. Inflectional languages, in which, as in Greek and Latin, the mate- 
rial elements (roots), and the furmal elements (pronouns, &c, expressive 
of various modifications), are united by synthesis into one inseparable 
whole, aDd in which the inflections have so entirely lost their force as 
separate words that their very origin is often undecipherable. 

7. Greek presents the most perfect specimen of an inflectional 
or synthetic language. 

8. A language which gets rid of inflections as far as possible, 
and substitutes separate words for each part of the conception, 
is called an analytic language ; and next to Chinese (which 
has never attained to synthesis at all) few languages are more 
analytic than English. Thus in nouns we have only retained 
one case-inflection, viz. the s which is a sign of the genitive ; 
and in verbs only one inflection to express tense, the -d in past- 
aorists, as I loved (=1 love-did). Yet English continues 
to be a thoroughly synthetic language, and it contains hun- 
dreds of single words which in any isolating language would 
require four or five separate words for their expression. 

9. A synthetic language will express in one word what 
requires many words for its expression in an analytic language, 
as will be seen by an instance or two : e. g. 

* Strange as this Iwlophrasis may appear to us, there are distinct 
traces of it both in Greek and Latin; see Origin of Language, p. 174. 


<f>t\r)6i)(rofiai, amabor, I shall be loved, Ich werde geliebt 

ive<f>iXrtcrofiai, I shall have been loved, Ich werde geliebt 

worden sein. 
ETErinii/j.e6a, honorati era?nus, we had been honoured. 
\vau)/, que je me sois delie. 
XeXvaoifirfi', may I have been unloosed ! que j'eusse du 

etre delie ! 
<t>-%£To, abierat, il s'en etait alle. 

Similarly the synthetic character of the Semitic languages 
enables them to express by an affix or a suffix some modifica- 
tion of meaning, which in modern languages would necessitate 
one or more separate words for its enunciation ; e.g. to render 
the one word 1*fl.53"iri\ veliirJcabhteeha* we require at least 
seven words, ' and I will cause thee to ride ; ' and yet in spite 
of this the one Hebrew word expresses more than our seven, for 
it implies that the person addressed is a male, so that in feet 
to give the full meaning of that one word we should require 
the nine words, ' And I will cause thee, O man, to ride.' No 
instance could illustrate more forcibly than this the difference 
between Synthesis and Analysis in language. 

10. The tendency of all languages, at least in historic times, 
is from synthesis to analysis, e.g. from case-inflections to the 
use of prepositions, and from tense-inflections to the use of 
auxiliaries. This tendency may be seen by comparing any 
modern language with its ancestor, e.g. Arabic with Hebrew, 
Bengali with Sanskrit, Persian with Zend, Danish with Ice- 
landic, German with Gothic, or English with Anglo-Saxon. 

11. It* may also be constantly illustrated by a comparison 
of Modern with ancient Greek, for which reason Modern Greek 
is often referred to in the following pages. But the simplest 
way of studying the tendency is to compare Latin with any 
of those six Romance languages (Italian, French, Spanish, 

* Ancient Hebrew, says Herder, ' seeks like a child to say all at once.' 
This reminds us of the remark in Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme. Mons. 
Jourdain : ' Tant de choses en deux mots ? Cov. Oui, la langue turque est 
comme cela, elle dit beaucoup en peu de paroles.' Gothe remarks of 
French, ' eine Nation ist zu beneiden, die so feine Schattirungen in 
oinem Worte auszudrucken weiss ' (Wilhelm Meister) ; but the remark 
is true in a far higher degree of Greek than of any other language ; e.g. 
to represent fully in French the word avriirape^dyeiv, we should require 
' faire sortir une armee en face de l'ennemi, et la mener contre lui ' — 
thirteen words for one. See Burnouf, Methode pour etudier la langue 
grecque, p. 1 fi5. 

b 2 


Portuguese, "Wallachian, and Engadinish) which have been 
immediately derived from it ; e.g. amabo becomes in French 
faimerai, which is a corruption of the analytic expression Ego 
amare habeo I have to love.* 

12. The advantage of a synthetic language lies in its com- 
pactness, precision, and beauty of form ; analytic languages 
are clumsier, but they possibly admit of greater accuracy of 
expression, and are less liable to misconception. What they 
lose in euphony, force, and poetic concision, they gain in the 
power of marking the nicest shades of thought. What they 
lose in elasticity they gain in strength. If they are inferior 
instruments for the imagination, they better serve the purposes 
of reason. Splendid efflorescence is followed by ripe fruit. In 
the tragedies of JEschylus and the odes of Pindar, marvellous 
as is the power which crams every rigid phrase with the 
fire of a hidden meaning, we yet feel that the form is cracking 
imder the spirit, or at least that there is a tension injurious to 
the grace and beauty of the general effect. A language which 
gets rid of its earlier inflections, — English for instance as 
compared with Anglo-Saxon, — loses far less than might have 
been supposed. 

13. It is most important to observe that no inflection is 
arbitrary ; it is now certain that every inflection is the frag- 
ment of a once separable word, having its own distinct mean- 
ing. Among all the richly-multitudinous forms assumed by 
the Greek and Latin verbs, there is not one which does not 
follow some definite and ascertainable law. The actual analysis 
of the inflections has been carried to considerable perfection ; 
but the derivations of many of them are as yet to a certain 
extent disputable and uncertain. The wise warning of 
Quinctilian is still required, ' Inter virtutes grammaticas 
habebitur aliqua nescire.' 

14. Parsing, — the hopeless stumbling-block of so many 
young students, — loses its difficulty and repulsiveness, when it 
is once understood that there is a definite recurrence of the 
same forms in the same meaning, and that the distorted 
shape assumed by some words is not due to arbitrary license 
but to regular and well understood laws of phonetic corruption. 

15. i. For instance, the word ffiovXtvrrav-o means ' they took 
counsel for themselves ;' we express the same conception by 
five words, and should require seven, but that we do possess 

* For further remarks on this subject see Origin of Language, 
pp. 173-181. 


an aorist* ('took') in English verbs, and also an inflection 
f s ' to express the plural ; but if we analyse the word 
Ij-juvXevaavTo we shall have to write it 

and shall find that it consists of sixf parts, viz. : 

1. An augment I (the fragment probably of the same root 
which we find in the preposition cu'c't, expressing indefi- 
nite past time). 

2. A root or stem, foovXev. 

0. A tense-letter, o-, here characteristic of the first aorist, 
and derived from the root as to be. 

4. A vowel, a, used as a tach between the tense-letter 
and the person-inflection. 

5. The relic of a pronoun, vr, characteristic of the third 
person plural. Perhaps we ought to call this the 
relics of two pronominal roots, ana, and the demon- 
strative -ta [lie and he = thcy~\.\ This termination 
was slurred in pronunciation, as we see from the Latin 
forms fuere, amavere, &c. 

6. A voice letter, o, indicating the passive or middle. 

ii. Similarly, i-re-ri/ji-rj-i'r-o consists of six parts, the re- 
duplication being used to mark the perfect, and the augment 
to place this perfect event still farther back in the past. 

iii. So too in Latin, such a word as amabantur is analysed 
thus : ama-ba-nt-u-r = root + sign of the imperfect + sign of 
the 3rd pers. plur. + junction-vowel + pronominal elements. 
In this instance we know that ' ba ' is a fragment of the root 
which we find in the auxiliary verb d>v, fu, &c, and the original 
form may have been am-a-ba-nt-u-se. 

iv. Again, take such a form as Ai/fli'yffojucu, 'I shall be 
loosed;' this, when analysed, is Xv-6-n-au-fiat, and consists, 
no less than the English phrase, of five parts, viz. : 

1. The root Xv-. 

2. 6- the relic of the root dha, to do or make : this mean- 
ing is preserved even in the Greek ridnpa, as ri tee dt'ifiev, 
Sapph./r. 62. 

* When this aorist is formed qualitatively, i.e. by mere internal modi- 
fication of the root as in take, took, (which is the ordinary Semitic 
method,) it is called a strong aorist; when it is formed by the addition 
of some extraneous word as love, love-did (=loved), it is called a weak 

f See Dwight's Modern Philology, ii. p. 274. 

\ See A. Schleicher, Vergleichende Grammatik, § 276. 


3. ?;- the representative of the root ja = ire (eljui); to go. 

4. ao- the future sign, which we find in tao-fiai, eso (ero). 

5. fiat, the first personal pronoun (in oblique case). 

The whole conception therefore is synthetically built up of 
the elements There avlII be (ao) a going (ij) to make (0) me 
(/xcu) loose (Av).* .Thus the two auxiliary verbs ' to go' and 
1 to be,' however much disguised, occur in every Greek and 
Latin future. 

15 (bis), i. Sometimes the original constituent elements are 
greatly obliterated. 

Take, for instance, the pluperfect iirewi'iyeu', or, to use the 
more Attic form, iireirip/r]. This is resolvable into e-ire-Trrj^-Ea, 
i.e. augment + redupl. + i*oot + auxiliary. This ea is really c .a- 
afi (cf. eram) which is the root ea, a junction vowel a, and 
the first personal pronoun. 

ii. The traces of a previous form of the word are sometimes 
unexpectedly preserved in the accentuation. Thus eXvoy, in 
the 1st person plural, is proparoxytone ; but in Doric the 
3rd pers. plur. is accented k\vov. The reason of this is that 
the 1st person was originally 'iXvofi (cf. inquara, sum, and the 
provincial Ich bi?H=Ich bin); but the 3rd pers. plural has 
been softened from an original IXvovt. 

iii. It will be seen that this analysis of Greek inflections de- 
pends entirely on the distinction between the material and 
formal elements of words, i.e. between the stem or inflective 
base (which the Hindoo grammarians call the a'nga or body) 
of a word, and the various affixes or suffixes, which indicate 
its special meaning and relations. This distinction was un- 
known or disregarded until the discovery of Sanskrit led to the 
study of Indian works on grammar ; but it is a distinction of 
extreme importance, and one which reduces grammatical con- 
ceptions to an extreme simplicity. 

The root of a word must be carefully distinguished from its 

A root is the ultimate constituent sound of a word reduced 
to its simplest form. It is in fact the core, or vocal skeleton of 
a group of kindred words. In some languages, as in Chinese, 
all words are also roots, and their mutual relations are only 
indicated by position. 

' The Indian grammarians called a root dhdtu, from dhd, to 
nourish : dhdtu means any primary or elementary substance, 
and consequently shows that these grammarians looked on 

* Seo A. Schleicher, Vergleichendc Grammatik, § 300. 


roots as the primary elements of words.' — Ferrar, Comp. Gram. 
p. 178. 

All roots are either verbal (i.e. predicative) or pronominal 
(i.e. demonstrative). 

The stem of a word is what remains of the word when it3 
inflections have been removed. It may be identical with the 
root : e.g. or-, crny.-, clue-, are both the stems and the roots of 
ofifxa, ariZ, and dux. But more often the stem is the root 
already modified and followed by various suffixes, as in oto'i^o-q, 
6tttlko-q, ductili-s. Thus of 7rpdyjua the root is rrpay-, but 
the stem .is jrpay^ar. The stem, says Bopp, may be con- 
sidered as a sort of general case, never employed in an isolated 
form, but which in a compound word takes the place of all 
cases : e.g. Te\se-<p6poc, Xoyo-ypacpog. Some stems are conson- 
ant, some vocalic. 

The inflections, or formal elements of a word, are those little 
syllables — the relics of pronouns and auxiliary verbs — which 
express the mutual relations of ideas, the various conditions of 
time, space, and circumstance. Elastic in their form and fluid 
in their meaning, they lend themselves to the expression of all 
modifications in the sense, and add in a marvellous degree 
to the clearness, wealth, and freedom of language (see Breal, 
Bopp, Gram. Comp. II. xxviii.). 

16. The reasons why we spend so long a time in acquiring 
a mastery over the Greek language are manifold. We do so 
partly because it is one of the most delicate and perfect in- 
struments for the expression of thought which was ever 
elaborated by the mind of man, and because it is therefore 
admirably adapted, both by its points of resemblance to our 
own and other modern languages, and by its points of dif- 
ference from them, to give us the Idea or fundamental con- 
ception of all Grammar; i.e. of those laws which regulate the 
use of the forms by which we express our thoughts. Again, 
Greek is the key to one of the most astonishing and splendid 
regions of literature which are open for the intellect to explore, 
— a literature which enshrines works not only of imperishable 
interest, but also of imperishable importance (both directly 
and historically) for the development of human thought. It 
is the language in which the New Testament was first written, 
and into which the Old Testament was first translated. It 
was the language spoken by the greatest poets, the greatest 
orators, the greatest historians, the profoundest philosophers, 
that the world has ever seen. It was the language of the 
most ancient, the most eloquent, and in some respects the 


most important of the Christian fathers. It contains the 
record of institutions and conceptions which lie at the base 
of modern civilisation, and at the same time it contains the 
record, and presents the spectacle, of precisely those virtues 
in which modern civilisation is most deficient. Nor is it an 
end only ; it is also a means. Even for those who never suc- 
ceed in reaping all the advantages which it places within 
their reach, it has been found to be in various nations and 
ages* during many hundred years, one of the very best 
instruments for the exercise and training of the mind. It 
may have been studied irrationally, pedantically, and too 
exclusively ; but though it is desirable that much should 
be superadded, yet with Latin it will probably ever continue 
to be,' — what the great German poet Gothe breathed a wish 
diat it always should be, — the basis of all higher culture. 
' Greek,! the shrine of the genius of the old world, as universal 
as our race, as individual as ourselves; of infinite flexibility, 
of indefatigable strength, with the complication and the dis- 
tinctness of nature herself, to which nothing was vulgar, from 
which nothing was excluded ; speaking to the ear like Italian, 
speaking to the mind like English ; with words like pictures, 
with words like the gossamer film of the summer ; at once the 
variety and the picturesqueness of Homer, the gloom and the 
intensity of iEschylus ; not compressed to the closest by 
Thucydides, not fathomed to the bottom by Plato, not sound- 
ing with all its thunders, nor lit up with all its ardours, even 
under the Promethean touch of Demosthenes himself.' 


1. The Greeks borrowed their alphabet from the Phoenicians. 
It originally consisted of sixteen letters, which were said to 
have been introduced by Cadmus. Hence Ausonius calls 
letters, ' Cadmi nigellse filias.' J The name Cadmus is probably 
a mere mythical personification of the Hebrew word Dip 
Kedem ' the East.' § 

* For the study of Greek formed one of the main branches in the 
education of the young Romans. 

f H. N. Coleridge, Introduction to the Greek Classic Poets. 

J Auson. Ep. iv. 7. It is sometimes stated that, according to Hesy- 
chius, tKcpoii'i^ai may mean ' to read ' with a reference to 1 'hceViiciau letters. 
This is not the case. His gloss is i:i<porA£ai, avayvuxrai, tor which 
Abresch doubtfully suggested avayiwvai ; but probably the word should 
be aljxariJ!(T3.i. 

§ This word also means ' the ancient,' See Ps. xliv. 2, &c. 


2. These original sixteen letters, called to. QoiyiKifia (Herod, 
v. 58, 59), or ra utto Kafyov, or tcl HeXcHTyaca, were probably 
as follows : — - 

A B r A 

o n 9 t 

and the liquids A M N 2. 

In this list F is digamma ; Q is koppa ; II is the sign of 
the aspirate. 

The arrangement of this alphabet is evidently systematic, 
viz., a followed by three media?, e followed by three aspirates, 
v followed by three tenues ; and the four liquids (see Donald- 
son, New Cratylus, ch. v.). 

The other letters of the Semitic alphabet were gradually 
borrowed. The Semitic alphabets, however, differ from the 
Aryan : i. in having no vowels ; ii. in being arranged in no 
phonetic order. 

2 (bis). The names Epsilon, Upsilon, Omega, Omicron were 
wholly unknown to the ancients, and were not introduced till 
the vowel-sounds were confused. It is now known that \pi\6v 
is opposed not to (Hcmtu (as smooth to aspirate) but to ci(pdoyyoi\ 
Plat. Orat. 393 D.; Athen. x. 453 F. V and £1 should bear the 
same name as they do in English, unless ' Omega ' be retained 
for its association. E w r as called eT, O was called oi>. Hence 
O was a positive refusal. When Dionysius the Tyrant invited 
Philoxenus to Syracuse, his only answer was a page of circles, 
one within the other, @, kptyairwv on jtoWclkiq cat oq>6dpu 
apvEirai. Hence to &t\ot,erov ou became the proverb for any 
emphatic negative. The Lacedaemonians gave a similar answer 
to Philip of Macedon. Plut. De Garrulit. c. 21; Auson. xxiv. 
36, 37. 

3. The digamma, or vau, F (/3a D), and koppa, 9 (tcoirwa), 
represent the Hebrew 1 vau, and p kooph. Although found 
in some old inscriptions, they early fell out of use in Greek ; 
but are retained in Latin under the forms of F and Q. The 
digamma was replaced by v and f ;* 9 by k and ^- H, which 

* The digamma f was evidently in use when the Homeric poems were 
composed ; but it had ceased to be employed as a written character when 
they were first preserved in manuscripts ; hence such apparent hiatuses 
as bWa eoi/ce at the end of an hexameter line. The first grammarian 
who called attention to it was the celebrated Apollonius Dyscolus in the 
time of Hadrian. In many Greek words o very early took its place, as 
we see by finding Fa£os for"Oa£os on old coins, and by a comparison of 

b 3 


was originally an aspirate, and continues to be so in the 
Latin H, was adopted as a sign of the double e. Palamedes 
is the legendary inventor of v, <p, and \p • Simonides and 
Epicharmus are variously asserted to have added the two other 
double letters £ and £, and the long vowels rj and w (Eurip. 
Fr. Palam.; Plin. N. H. vii. 26). 

The entire Greek alphabet of twenty-four letters, as it noAv 
stands, is said to have been first used by the Ionians of Asia 
Minor, and hence is called ra 'liaviKa ypafifxara. It was early 
adopted by the Samians ; and it is very probable that 
Herodotus, who often resided at Athens, and Avas a warm 
friend of the poet Sophocles, first introduced it among the 
educated Athenians. Hence (even before the archonship of 
Euclides) when Euripides introduces a peasant who cannot 
read, describing the written characters of the word Qtjitevq, he 
distinguishes between n and e.* The passage, which is a very 
interesting one, is preserved by Athenseus {Deipn. x. 79, 80) 
in his curious chapters on the Greek alphabet. 

4. The Ionian letters were not, however, formally adopted 
by the Athenians, or used in public monuments, until the 
archonship of Euclides, B.C. 403. Hence they are called ra 
ypaujuara tu aw' JLvkXeiSov cip^ovroQ. The alphabet of 

oT5o, oTkos, olvos with the Latin video, wcus, t/inum ; in others v, as we 
see by comparing /SociAefs (still pronounced vasilefs in Modern Greek) 
■with fiacriXevs, and by the absence of contraction in irKico, f>4ca, x«o, 
which are the ultimate forms of irKefoo, ttMva) (cf. aor. eTr\ev<ra), &c. 
The digamma was called .ZEolic, because it was retained latest in that 
dialect ; and the traces of it abound in Latin, which resembles iEolic 
more than any other form of Greek. It is represented in Latin by va- 
rious letters, as b, p, f, and especially v. Thus -npaFos becomes pro&us, 
SaFis daps, Fopfxlai Formise, w6v, tap, eWspos, lov, oyum, vet, vesper, viola, 
&c. It may however be considered probable that the f had a complex 
sound, viz. the sound of a guttural combined with a labial, a fact which 
is etymologically of the utmost importance, since it accounts for many 
otherwise impossible letter-changes in Greek words. See Garnett, Phi- 
lolog. Essays, p. 241 scqq. The f is fully handled in Ferrar's Compara- 
tive Graminar, pp. 87-90. He says it had nearly the sound of w, 
quoting Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who defines it as ov crvMaP)] iv\ 

* He describes the H thus: 

irpuna fxkv dvo 
ravras 5iei/ryei 5' eV ficaais &AArj fxia. 
and E thus: 

fy fief tis bp&bv fxia 
\o|al 5' 67r avrr/s rpels Karecrrtfipiyfievtu. 

Similarly, Agathon in his Telephus. 


twenty-one letters (i.e. all except £, i//, w, the three which 
were last adopted), is called rd 'Armed. 

5. Besides the obsolete F and 9, the Greeks at one time had 
a letter Sav, the representative of the Hebrew Zain ; it was 
ousted by C, which properly was the representative of the 
Hebrew Shin. Both 2aV and Ko7T7ra were retained as marks 
of the breed of horses ; a horse branded ~di> was called 

ovk e\£c w 2a/j.(pupa ; Arist. Ea. 603 ; cf. Nub. 122 ; 

and was guaranteed as being of a particular breed. A horse 
branded with Ko7r7ra* was called KoTrwariac, and was sup- 
posed to be of the Corinthian breed descended from the fabled 
Pegasus. Hitzig, however, thinks that these two letters were 
used in branding horses to represent the first and last letters 
of KHp Kodesh ' holy,' i.e. precious. 

5 {bis), i. Koppa (kooph = Q) was obviously valueless, as K 
could easily supply its place. In Latin, where K was not an 
indigenous letter, an irate grammarian called Q ' littera 
mendica, supposititia, vere servilis, manca, et decrepita ; sine u 
tanquam bacillo nihil potest, et cum u nihil valet amplius 
quam &.' 

ii. The letter yod, though obsolete in Greek, leaves repeated 
traces of its presence. Thus auelvav, ktsiiu), ote'XXw, Kopvcrau, 
are assimilations for apery wr, reryw, oreXyw, Kopvryco; /xdWov 
is for paXjor, fieXaiva for peXavya, rspsLva for repevya. We 
can often detect the original existence of this yod by referring 
to the Latin ; e.g. farcz'o is the Latin equivalent of <ppaa<j<j). 

6. The discovery of the Alphabet, and its representation by signs, 
must always rank among the very highest discoveries of human in- 
genuity ; probably, however, the discovery was very gradual. 

Writing seems to have passed through three stages ; viz.: 

1. The pictorial stage, in which, as in hieroglyphics, and the Mexican 
picture writing, each object was represented by its picture, and abstract, 
immaterial things by some picture which metaphorically indicated them. 

2. These pictures were taken to stand not for the object itself, but for 
the syllable which named the object ; e.g. a picture of the sun stood no 
longer for the sun itself, but for the word, sound, or syllable which 
meant sun (this in Egyptian is Ba, so that a picture of the sun would 
stand in any word in which the syllable ra occurred). 

3. The picture was taken for the letter with which the syllable it 
represented commenced (so that in Egyptian a picture of the sun would 

* We still find Q&pivdos'm inscriptions, &c, for Kipivdos, and it is found 
in the inscription on a helmet brought by Col. Leake from Olympia, 
9010s nairozaev = Koios fx iwoi-iiffev. 


etand for r). "We can still trace the pictorial origin of the Hebrew 
alphabet, from which the Greek is derived. Tims aleph (alpha) means 
ox, and is represented by ^, originally V- 

Beth (beta) means house, and is represented by 2, originally A, a tent, 
and so on. To this day we can trace back our sign for the letter m to 
the wavy line which was the conventional representation of water. See 
Chapters on Language, p. 139. 


7. The letters of the alphabet from a to a» are used in 
regular order to number the twenty-four books of Homer; 
but, besides this, they had the following numerical values, 
which should be remembered, because they not unfrequently 
occur in Greek books. When used as numerals, the letters 
are distinguished by a dash, us «', ft', &c. 

a' to f' stand respectively for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Then to make 
up for the lost digamma the sign 7', called stau or stigma, was 
used for 6. £' to 1' stand respectively for 7, 8, 9, 10. Then 
ia', ift', &c. for 11, 12, &c. k j is 20, ica? 21, c/3' 22, &c. Then 
\' = 30, // = 40, >''=50, £'=60, o'=70, tt'--=80 ; but the next 
letter ^' = 100. From this fact we see at once (as in the cor- 
responding numerical gap for the lost digamma between 5 and 
7) that a letter has been lost ; this is the letter koppa 9, which 
is accordingly retained as the sign of 90. 

The remaining letters from a' to u/ are used for the hun- 
dreds from 200 to 800. For the number 900 the Greeks use 
the obsolete sanpi <b or sp, the reverse of 4 1 or ps. 

For the thousands the dash is placed beneath the letter to 
the left; thus ,« = 1000, ^3 = 2000, ,7=3000, &c. 

Thus 1865 would be expressed in Greek by /iwtt' ; and 
10,976 by ,«W. 

8. The word Alphabet, which is comparatively late, is 
derived from the first two letters a, ft* The letters considered 
as elementary sounds are called oroiyjua ; considered as 
written signs ypdpp.ara. 

9. The earliest known piece of Greek writing (not later 
than B.C. 600) is on a prize vase brought from Athens by Mr. 
Burgon. It runs from right to left,f and is — 

iMa hoaoa -i/ewjeA HOT 

* The Latin clementa (perhnps = ol-e-mentu-m, from ol-cre) has been 
by some derived from the three liquids, /, m, n ; and there is something 
to be said for this derivation, strange as it may appear. See Hitzig, 
Die Erfindung des Alphabetes, S. 13, 14-. 

f The modes of writing varied; some inscriptions are found in which 


or twv 'ABfivjjQev adXav, 'I am one of the prizes from 
Athens.' Here we see o for w, and e for rj. The shape of the 
A is, hoAvever, more modern than the shape V which is re- 
tained in the Latin L. 


10. The Greek consonants were probably pronounced much 
as we pronounce them now, except that <p, which we pro- 
nounce as f* (compare <p<l)p fur, <j>iiyt>c ./agus, <pi>urwp /rater, 
thavai /ari, &c), was probably more often pronounced like 
ph in haphazard. We know that the Macedonians pronounced 
it like p, and talked of Hiknr-oe. But although graphically <p 
was represented in Latin by ph, yet in all the words of the 
original Aryan stock the Greek f appears in Latin as /(e.g. 
(pepcj yero, <pi)^T) /ama, &c). That there was, however, a dis- 
tinction between the two in sound appears from Cicero's 
ridicule of the Greek witness who could not pronounce Funda- 
nius (Quinct. Just. Or. i. 4. 14). See Ferrar's Comp. Gram. 
p. 108. 

Zeta was probably pronounced like the s in maison. It was 
a weak sibilant, which often has its origin in the obsolete yod. 
Cf. Tjivq with Dyaus, and £a with eta. 

11. The school of Erasmus used to dispute with that of 
Reuchlin whether the 77 should be pronounced like our i, as 
in Modern Greek, or like our e. This is what is meant by the 
quarrel between Itacists and Etacists, of which Ave hear so 
much at the revival of letters. Neither Avere exactly right, 
for v must have had the sound of ad, since it Avas used to 
represent a sheep's bleat, as in the line of Cratinas : 

i ?j ijXidiOQ uimrep Trnofiuroi' firj j3)'i Xeyw paclfei, 
1 but the booby goes saying baa baa like a sheep.' 

1 Avas clearly pronounced as in French, for koi, ko'i, is a 
pig's squeak, Arist. Acharn. 780 ; and Trot, the peewit's cry, 
Av. 227. 

the words are written from the top to the bottom, which is culled 
Kiovrtfidv ; others are written first from right to left, and then from left 
to right, a? the ox turns in the furrow; this style is called fiovaTpo<p-r\§6v. 
(Pausan. Lliac. i. p. 33S.) The &£oj/es and KupjSeis of Solon are said to 
have been written $<jvnTpo(p7fi6v (Ilesych. s. v.), as is the famous Sigean 
inscription. Originally none but capital letters were used, which is 
called the Uncial style ; the ordinary cursive Greek letters are not 
found in MBS" till the eighth or ninth century. 

* Ph is the more frequent Latin eqiiivalent of f, as in philosophic/, &c 


ai must have been pronounced ' ow,' since bow-wow, a 
dog's bark, is in Greek av av (Aristoph. Vesp. 903) ; and 
to bark is /3au/3ci£eu', baubari. 

ov must have been pronounced oo, as we see in the onomato- 
poetic* word j3ovg (compare our childish moo-cow) ; and the 
exclamation loii for ugh ! 


12. i. It is of the utmost importance to know and to re- 
member the divisions of the letters ; a division which lies at 
the root of all etymology. For, as a general rule, it is only 
letters pronounced by the same organ that are etymologically 
interchangeable (dentals with dentals, labials with labials, 
&c). Whenever it appears to be otherwise, "J" we may gene- 
rally assume that both letters existed in the original form. 
Thus bis does not come from cic, but the b represents the w 
in the Sanskrit divis ; nor is fiavd derived from yvvrj but 
from the f in yFava. Similarly fxeXag and KeXaivog are the 
same word, but the original form of the Avord was KfieXag, 
and the labial p has not been interchanged with the guttural 
k. Similarly avv and cum are the same word, but the fact is 
accounted for by the form t,vr=K(rvv (cf. Kav-vbe and vap-or 
with the Lithuanian Tcvap-a-s). 

Donaldson, who claims to have discovered this principle 
(art. Philology, Erie. Brit. p. 539), calls it ' the law of diver- 
gent articulations.' Older grammarians called it Metalepsis ; 
e.g. Sanskr. palctas—irsTt-Tes^coctus', but p cannot pass into k, 
so that Sanskrit differs from Greek in Inlaut, and from Latin in 
Anlaut. But even in Quinctilian's time coquus was pro- 
nounced quoquvs {Milt. Or. vi. 3. 47) ; and here we see the 
origin of the divergent forms of the word, since qv = kp. 
Similarly, by comparing vivus and ' quick ' (' quick and dead '), 
we are led to an original form qviqvus. Cf. Gothic quivs. 
See on this whole subject Curtius, Grundziige d. Griech. Etym. 
n. 36. 2a ; Corssen, Eat. Formenlehre, p. 28. 

ii. The vowels (^wj-j/eitci) are a, e, i, v, w. 

iii. The consonants are divided into : i. semi-vowels (hitt- 

* An onomatopoeia is a word formed in imitation of a sound. 

t The digamma F was really and originally a compound of y or <r and 
v ; ' and from their combination, and from the different changes which 
they separately and together admit of, arises that great variety of letters 
which are traced to an original identity.' Donaldson, Glc. Gr. p. 10, 



fiova) or liquids, which are X, p, r, p, and the sibilant o-; ii. 
double letters, £, £, \p; and iii. mutes (a^wra), which do not 
form a syllable, unless a vowel follows them, 
iv. Mutes are divided into three classes, viz. : 

Rough (aspirates, cuata), <p ^ 0. 
Smooth (tenues, \pt\a), w k, t. 
Middle {mediae, /Jtcra), /3 y 8. 

It is easy to remember the three aspirates, which at once recall the 
three tenues ; the media are the three first consonants, £, y, 5. 

13. Letters are also divided, according to the organs required 
to pronounce them,* into 

Labials, or lip-letters, tt /3 (p p. 

Dentals, or teeth-letters, r c \ v. 
Gutturals, or throat-letters, k y x- 

In Hebrew grammar these letters are remembered by useful mnemonic 
words ; e.g. the Labials by the word bum&ph ; the Dentals by da.tla,n-a,th ; 
the Gutturals by giehnk. They are exhibited conveniently in the follow- 
ing table, and should always be borne in mind. 




Labials .... 



Gutturals . . . 




Dentals .... 




14. No Greek word (except ovk and ek), ends in any con- 
sonant except v, p, or c (£, i/>). Any other consonant at the 
end of a word is rejected, as /u£\i(r), au>pa(r), ij!<za>'(r), &c. 
Hence v has superseded p in Itvtttov, and the first person 
singular of other historical tenses. 

15. Two laws of euphony are of constant recurrence : 

i. When two letters of different organs (e.g. labial and 
dental) come together, a tenuis only can precede a tennis, a 
medial ei medial, and an aspirate an aspirate. 

* This classification of letters is first found in Dioirysius of Halicar- 
nassus irepl cwdiaeais bvofiaruv. R was called by the Latins litera 
canina — ' Irritata canis quod rr quam plurima elicit.' Lucil. S was 
called litter a serpentina, and also solitarium, because it stands alone. 


This is why we have 

ir\£^9£('r, not TrXetcOeic from jtAekw. 
Tvfdeic, not TVTrdeic from rvirrw. 
kfd))fjiepoc, not ETrOrjfxepcG from kirni fj/jipai. 
j'u^0' 6\r)v, not vviv - 9' o\i]i' 
Xetcrog, not Xsy-oc from \iyu> ; 

and so on. 

The only exception admitted is in the case of the preposition Ik, as in 
iic8ovi>at, ilcBetVCU, eKjSaAAeiJ', ecc. 

ii. The Greeks dislike the concurrence of aspirates (when 
not necessitated by the last rule, as is the case in redu^dm, 
i0pi(p0j]y, &c.), and avoid it when possible. They had no ob- 
jection to <p0, especially when the <f> belongs to the root. 
Bopp, i. 104, a. 

Thus aspirates cannot be doubled, but the former is 
changed into the corresponding tenuis, as in Bailor, Shttow, 

For the same reason, in reduplication, we have tce^wprjica, 
ridrjp.1) xi'bVKa, for ■^eywpri'.M, diOiifti, &c.| ervftjjr, ffiofirjrt, for 
idvdrjv, (Tu>d rjdi, &c. And this accounts for such peculiarities 
as dpii,, rpi^oc — r P^X w ' ®P$> U> — r£t X w ) Quaoov — £X W > *£ w > & c> 

Exceptions are a. Some compounds, as au6o<p6pos, bpviQodi)pas, &c. 

b. The formative syllables -8ij and -61 are not changed, 
as in ■KO.vro.yoQzv, Kopiv069i, wpOwQrjv, r46vadi ; or, 
if any change is made, it is not, in the -6t\ of the 
first aorist, but in the aspirate which follows it. 
Thus we have tw/>0jjti, not tvitttjOi 

C. a<p$], vcpaivco, edev, 7/x<. 

N.B. This dislike of concurrent aspirates, though found in Greek and 
in Sanskrit, is not a peculiarity of the Aryan languages generally; e.g. 
in such Latin reduplications as/e/elli the f's represent an original aspi- 
rate. Ferrar's Comp. Grammar, p. 184. 

Some interesting remarks on the peculiarities of the aspirate, may be 
found in Meissner's Palcsstra Gallica, p. 16. 


16. Attic Greek avoids hiatus, or the concurrence of vowels, 
as much as possible, especially in verse. 

17. The fusion or coalescence of vowels is called truraXotrii/; 
of which the varieties may be tabulated as follows : i. Ee- 
thlipsis, or cutting off; ii. Crasis, or mixture of two words into 
one ; iii. Synseresis, or contraction of two syllables into one, 


18. Synalcepha. 

i. Ecthlipsis or ii. Crasis or iii. Synasresis or 

Elision, as u<f ov Mixture, as Contraction, as 

for «~0 OV. KU.K for KCU (.K. TlflUTE for 7 t[]T£. 

i. Ecthlipsis. Elision and hiatus are often avoided by adding 
a P (called v i(f>e\t:v(TTi^oi' or napayuytKoi')* to various datives, 
neuters, and 3rd persons. 

The £ in r/, on, rvepi, and the datives in the 3rd declension 
do not suffer elision in Attic. 

ii. Crasis. The absorption of a short vowel at the beginning 
of a word is called improper crasis ; as in >/ 'p) for »/ ejju), Tj 'yw 
for Jj eyu). This is also called Prodelision. 

The aspirate in a compound word may prevent crasis ; as 
irpo£t,io from rrpd and ti<o ; but /vpovyu) from -rrpij and iyto. 

iii. Synceresis. The following of the least obvious contrac- 
tions should be remembered : — 

at]=a, as ti/jk'uite = r«/idrf. 
o?j = w, as SrjXorjrs =c^/\wr£. 
a£( = cr, as Tifxaei = rifia. 
oei=ot, as crjXoa =S/;\o7. 
aui=(i), as Tijidnip.£r =rt^iw^KEJ'. 
n?7 = c7, as Ttuai} =Tifi(f. 

oi]=ot, as cn\(>>] =$n\oT. 

Besides this, there is an incipient crasis called Synizesis or 
subsidence, by which two written syllables are pronounoed as 
one; thus in verse deog is often a monosyllable, irc'Atwt; a 
dissyllable, &c. 

* It must not, however, be supposed that this v is a mere arbitrary 
suffix. It may be laid down as a proved fact that in language nothing 
is arbitrary. If the so-called v £<pe\Kv<rTiKhv is not purely a phonetic 
necessity, it is the mutilated relic of some older termination. Schleicher 
says, 'Das bekannte v {(peXicvariKov ist kein Resteiner friiheren Sprach- 
periode, sondern eine speciellegriechischejunge Erscheinung, z.B. eipepe-v, 
altind. xind grundf. abharat ; in diesem Falle trat das v also erst ein, 
nachdem das urspriingliche auslautende t g-esehwunden war, und das 
Sprachgefiihl sich gewohnt hatte, die Form als vocal isch schliessend zu 
empfinden.' Vergl. Gram. § 149. (I have not thought it necessary to 
preserve Schleicher's orthographic innovations.) 

The v i<pz\Kv<TTLKhv is in fact a kind of amisvarah or after-sound, as it 
is called in Sanskrit grammar ; such as we find in Tvairwov, iri,uTrpri/j.i, 
anguis (ex' y )> /SeV0os (fiddos), &c, and twice over in such words as 
XapfZdvw. y-o.vQa.vii3, rv-yx"-'' 10 : & c - 



19. While we are on the subject of these changes of form (meta- 
plasms, as they are called), we may mention Apocope, the shortening of 
a word, as 5&> for Su/xa ; Aphmresis, the cutting off an initial sound, as 
eifjSoo for XeLfroo ; Metathesis, as edpaos for dpacros ; Syncope, as idolatry 
for eiSai\o\arpeia, Tpdrnfa for TfTpaire£a, &c. 


20. Greek has three chief dialects, which may be tabulated 
thus : — 

Greek (cpwvr) 'E\\r)viicfi). 

* Ionic 7} 'las JEolic t) Alohis, Doric t) Accpis, 

SiaAeKTo? of the lyric poets, of Pindar, Theocri- 

Alcseus, Sappho, &c. tus, and the tragic 

Old Ionic or Epic, New Ionic of Attic r) 'At61s, 
of Homer, Herodotus. of the tragedians, 

Hesiod, &c. orators, historians, 

philosophers, &c. 

, I 
7] Koivri, or 'EAA.ijncrTJK^, 
of the Septuagint, and 
the New Testament. 

i. The Old Ionic or Epic of Homer contains many forma 
which afterwards became special in other dialects; hence 
arose the common absurdity! of old Homeric commentators, 
when they say that one form is Doric, another JEolic, &c, in 
the same verse, as though Homer wrote in many different 
dialects at once. 

From its use in the soft regions of Asia Minor, and many 
iEgasan islands, Ionic became pleasant and musical ; it rejects 
aspirates (as deKOfmi, nvnc), tolerates hiatus (as <pi\£eai) f and 

* Donaldson derives Awpieh from Set- and opos = Highlanders ; "loaves 
from i)tovta = Coast-men (cf. 'Axaiot Sea-men, AlytaXeis Beach-men), 
Alo\e7s from afc)Aos=Mixed men. Attica is 'Aktikti the shore-land, 
aKTb ' shore,' being derived from &yvvfu ' I break.' 

f The grandest instance of this is the remark of Herakleides on the 
word eiAr)\ov9/j.6v, which he says is a mixture of four dialects, TtWapcn 
TrciroirjTaL SiaAeKTou ! The v is Attic ; the o Boeotian ; the t Ionic ; and 
the syncope iEolic ! Nothing can beat this ! (See Kleist, Be Philoxeni 
Stud. Etymol. p. 41.) 


avoids contraction (as rvfdew, -e'j/c, -ejj) ; it uses ?; where the 
Doric uses a (as ^/ie'p)j), ou for o (as /.joDjoc), w for 077 (ay 
'iruxra for eyo^ira), eD for en (as 7rA.£i))'£C for nXioveg), &0* 

The chief peculiarity of the Attic is its proneness to con- 
tractions ; this may seem a strong contrast to its kindred 
dialect the Ionic, but in point of fact the uncontracted vowels 
of the Ionians spring from the rejection of intermediate con- 
sonants, and. the Attics only went one step farther by contract- 
ing the vowels in order to avoid the resultant hiatus. 

ii. The JEolic is chiefly interesting from the points of 
resemblance which it offers to Latin. 

a. Thus, like Latin, it has no dualjj" such at any rate is the 
case in Lesbian JEolic. 

b. Like the Doric, it makes the first person plural in fxeg 
(not fiev), the Latin mzis, as rji'doptc venimus, rinrro/jies verber- 
&mus ; and the third person plural in rn, like the Latin nt, 
tvtttovti verberan£. 

c. Nominatives in r?/c it forms in rix, as lirnoTa, al^inrdy 
like the Latin poeta, nauta, scriba, &c. 

d. It makes but little use of the middle. 

e. It accentuates, more frequently than other dialects, on the 
penultimate or antepenultimate syllable. 

iii. Doric was characterised by its TrXaTeiaafxog (brogue, 
or broad sound), especially in the use of a for w, as <£a/jri, 
redvaic<*)G. This very breadth and richness of sound made it 
better suited for songs and music (as the Scotch dialect among 
us), and hence (among other reasons') its appearance in the 
tragic choruses. 

It puts a for w, as rciv fxovaav for the gen. plur. 

a for e, as lywya. 

e for et, as Tvwrec, fieXiaSey (for ^E/\/£eiv). 

k for r, as ttoku for ttote. 

v for X, as i'iv6oi>, (Hvtkttoq. 

t for <r, as ridnri, (part. 

* Numerous Epic forms may be observed by attentively reading any 
page of Homer, e.g. the infinitives in efievai, the genitives in oio, the 
dative plurals in fjat, &c; and new I^nic forms in any page of Hero- 
dotus, as Siv for olv, ivdaura for ivrav8a, &c. 

f The grammarian Theodosius (Bekker, Anecd. Grcec. p. 1184) says 
Oi AtoAeis ovk %x ov(Tl &i/?K<£, '60ev ovSe ol 'Paipaioi, &ttchkoi fivres rGiv AioAeccj/. 
The ' Cui est sermo noster simillimus ' of Quinctilian is well known. 
(Instt. Or. i. 1-6.) But no genealogical connection between the two 
must be dreamed of. The interesting question of the real relation of 
Greek to Latin belongs to Comparative Philology. 


iv. The common dialect (»'/ ran'//), often called Hellenistic 
Greek, or Greek spoken by those who had acquired it as a 
foreign language, owed its origin and dissemination to the 
conquests of Alexander. It is a somewhat corrupt and loose 
Attic, with an admixture of Macedonian and Alexandrian 
words. It adopts various new forms, as \pev<Tp:a, rime, ruv- 
Beaia, EKYvvetv, or/yiiW, 6j.ivvw for tpeuloc, vikj], vovBirn^iQ, 
l/c^mr, iflTij/xi, o'fivvfxi ; it admits various poetical words, as 
ubdevTiAV ' to lord it,' aXiKrwp for aXeicrpvijv, 'iaQui for koBLw, 
fipeX' ' t° rain,' &c. ; it uses old words in new senses, as 
ffvviaTT)iit ' I prove,' o^wvtov ' wages,' epEvytadai eloqui, yivvi)- 
/.tara ' fruit,' XaXta ' language ;' and it frames new words and 
new compounds,* as ypriyoow, vaidiodtv, KaXoTrotur, af/jare/c- 
j£vrjiu, TUTTEirocppoavvii, utcpojyvariit, anr]roTzriyia, el^wXodvrov. 
Besides this, it ceases to employ the dual ; entirely abandons 
the use of the optative in oratio obliqua ; uses the infinitive 
instead of the future participle after verbs of going, sending, 
&c; admits el with the subjunctive, orav and 'iva with the 
pres. ind.; and, finally, shows a tendency to analysis, by using 
prepositions y where the case-terminations would have been 
originally sufficient to express the meaning, and by employing 
the active with tavbv instead of the middle (iTtipafev lavrbv. 
= trap/i^apo"). 

PARTS OF SPEECH (ra /-itpr], tci aTOi^Eia^ tov Adyou). 

21. It is probable that all words may be reduced to roots 
which are either the bases of nouns, or are pronouns denoting 
relations of place ; and indeed, at first, roots stood (as is still 
the case in Chinese) for any or every part of speech. The 
distinction between their functions is due to the advance of 
Language. (See Chapters on Language, p. 197.) 

22. A long time elapsed before men learned to analyse into 
distinct classes these 'grammatical categories.' Plato (Crat. 
§ 88; Soph. p. 261) only recognises the noun and the verb. 
Compare the remark of Jack Cade, ' It will be proved to thy 
face that thou hast men about thee that usually talk of a noun 
and a verb and such abominable words as no Christian ear can 
endure to hear.' — Henry IT, part ii. iv. 7. To these Aris- 
totle adds conjunctions (avvCErifxa, (TvyKarTjyopii/jarn, see 

* Many Latin words in Greek characters occur in the New Testament, 
as Xiyidiv, KtvTovpiwv, ffovftapiov, (nrzicoukdrciip, Kr\vaos, &c. 

f e.g. a.Trt)KpviTT€:v ti o,tt6 twos, iixBieiv o-irb ruv if x'ioov, irpoaicvveiv 
h'dnuiv twos, &C. 


Quint. Instt. Orat. 1. iv. 12), and the article (Arist. Poet. 20;. 
Tlie Stoics* and the Alexandrian grammarians finally adopted 
the division into eight parts of speech, which the Romans 
borrowed from them, only omitting the article and distinguish- 
ing the interjection from the adverb. 

NOUNS ('O)'fyara). 

23. The Greek noun has five cases, three numbers, and 
three genders. There are usually said to be ten declensions 
(k\i<teic), and it is true that all substantives, not anomalous, 
may be classed under ten types. But there was originally 
only one declension, and the various types alluded to, arise 
from the gradual changes assumed by the inflections in course 
of time under phonetic influences. In all more modern and 
philosophical grammars (as, for instance, those of Curtius, 
Donaldson, &c.) the declensions are more properly ranged 
under three heads, viz. the vowel declension, which has two 
divisions, i. the a declension, when the uninflected^ form of 
the noun ends in a or ij (ra/i/a-e, Kpirij-o) and the fern, noun 
in aort;; ii. the o declension, when the nninflected form of 
the noun ends in o, as Xo'yo-c ; + and iii. the consonant declen- 
sion, when the nninflected form ends in a consonant, or (the 
final consonant having been lost) in t or v. 

There is no doubt that this is the better and truer arrange- 
ment; in any case, however, the declension of a certain 
number of typical nouns must be learnt by heart. A better 
arrangement may enable the student to understand better, 
and to master with more rapidity, the laws and genius of the 
language, but there is no royal road by which labour in the 
acquisition of the language can be avoided. 

CASES (Utwcteu). 

24. Cases {w-ilxTEtc, casus, fallings) were probably so called 
because the nominative was regarded as the normal or upright 

* For other tentative divisions of the Parts of Speech, see Burggraff, 
Principes de Granvrnaire Generate, p. 176. They are all contained in the 
Greek line, irphs 5' e/j.1 rbv Zvcnr t vov ?ti (ppoveovr' eXtrjaov, It. xxii. 59, 
and in the Latin line, ' Vae tibi ridenti quia mox post gaudia flebis.' 

f The stem or uninflected form must be carefully distinguished from 
the nominative case. Thus irpay/xar- is the stem of the nominative 
irpwyjxa, gen. irpa.yjxa.r-os ; and Aoyo- of the nom. X6yos. 

\ This includes nouns like vdos, vovs, bariov, \sa>s, &c, where the 
uninflected form ends in 00 or eo. 


form of the word, and the other cases as deflections from it 
(7rAayif(,t obliqui). The Sanskrit grammarians call a caae 
vibhahti, ' division.' Hence also come the terms kXivis, 

25. The cases are — 

Nominative* (tvde'ia or 6p0i) tttwctlq casus rectus). 
Genitive (yevucfi, ktijtik^, ira-piKi]). 
Dative (jootiki], iiricrraXriKii). 
Accusative (alrta-iKi)'). 
Vocative (kXtjtikjj). 

26. The nature and use of these cases will be briefly ex- 
emplified farther on. We must however observe that neither 
nominative nor vocative are properly cases, nor did the Stoics, 
from whom the term is derived, ever call them so ; since 
they are independent and, so to speak, upright forms of the 
word, not resting or depending on other words. 

27. Besides these cases there was originally a sixth locative 
case, which is still retained as a distinct form in some nouns, as 
'AOip'rjm, nXaruiaai, 'OXvjj.Tri.aat, &c. at Athens, Platea, Olym- 
pia, &c; Ovpacnv ' foris,' out of doors; Meyapol, Uvdo~i,Mapa- 
OiLri, oikoi (domi) at Megara, at Pytho, at Marathon, at home. 

28. That the case-endings in Greek, as well as in all other languages, 
are mere corruptions of words once separable, is certain ; and that in 
Greek these words were pronominal in their nature (i.e. forms of pro- 
nouns) may also be considered certain. (See Donaldson's Gk. Gram. 
p. 80, Garnett's Philolog. Essays, 217 seqq.) The case-endings, like the 
pronouns from whence they spring, originally represented only concep- 
tions of space (nearness, distance, presence, absence) ; but they were after- 
wards extended to express relations of time, cause, &c. Bopp, Compar. 
Gram. § 115. The etymology of inflections is of course difficult from 
their antiquity, and the numerous contractions and other changes they 
have undergone. Having hit upon these pronominal words as mere 
formative elements, language naturally made them as mechanical as 
possible. For the original sense or the pronominal roots is nearly iden- 
tical, and many new meanings had to be given to them. 

There are three pronominal elements tt, 9, t, or pa, qua, ta, which 
mean primarily here, near, and there. 

1. The first (ir) under the forms ira or /xa, signifies superposition, and 
occurs in the first personal pronoun (fie) and the first numeral (/ueis, fiia, 
fi4u, compare our ' number one' = I). 

2. The second (9 qua), under a great variety of different forms, sig- 

* The first passage in which the names of the cases occur is in 
Chrysippus irepl twv TreVre irrwcreoiv (ap. Diog. Laert. vii. 192). ir\dyicu 
5e irrdaeis eicrl ytviKr) \k<x\ Sotik?)] koX cutiotikt]. Lersch, Sprachphiloso- 
fhie, ii. 185. 


niflefl proximity, and occurs in the second porsonal pronoun, and in the 
nominative ana dative cases. 

3. The third (t) denotes distance, and, variously modified, is found in 
the third personal pronoun, in negatives, in the genitive and the accusa- 
tive cases. 

To make this quite clear, and to follow these elements through their 
various changes, 'would require an entire treatise; we may, however, at 
once make the important observation that these three main relations of 
derivation, proximity, and direction towards, are respectively expressed 
by the genitive, dative, and accusative. 

29. Language, as it advances, tends to discard cases, and indeed all 
synthetic forms. The dative has disappeared from Modern Greek. The 
Romance languages have almost entirely discarded cases, using preposi- 
tions instead, i.e. expressing the requisite shades of meaning analytically, 
not synthetically. So too in English, where the s of the genitive is 
almost the only remaining case, except the m of the old dative plural in 
them, whom, seldom, whilom, &c. In some ruder languages (e.g. Basque, 
Greenland, &c.) there are very many cases. 

30. The numbers are singular (evikos), dual (dvikoo), and 
plural (ir\r)6vrTiic6c.). 

NUMBERS (WpiOfioi). 

How many numbers is there in nouns ? 

Two! Merry Wives of Windsor, iv. 1. 

31. The dual number (in the possession of which the Greek 
noun resembles the Sanskrit and Hebrew, but differs from 
Latin and most modern languages) is a mere luxury of lan- 
guage,* probably arising from the number of things which 
are usually and necessarily spoken of in pairs. \ That there 

* The dual survives in Lithuanian and Icelandic, and once existed in 
the Anglo-Saxon personal pronouns. In English we have the one dual 
word twain, but even this is corrupted into twins. 

f Another theory about the dual is that it was an older plural, origi- 
nating in the primary notion of the Ego and the Non-ego, or in the fact 
of there being two speakers, / and you, which stamps a character of 
dualism on the very essence of speech. It is curious that nos and vos in 
Latin are obviously connected not with ^ueTr, ifie7s, but with the duals 
vd>, <T<p<&. (Cf. voiirepos noster.) Donaldson accepts the theory that the 
dual is an older and weaker form of the plural, and mentions that some 
considered the Latin forms dixere, &e. for diaenmt, &c. as duals. 
(Quint, i. 5, § 42 ; New Orat. p. 396.) Schleicher {Compend. § 243) 
thinks that the dual may have been originally a mere doubling of the 
plural. Du Ponceau's jest that it must have been invented for lovers 
and married people finds a curious illustration in certain dual-forms in 
Australian dialects. For this and many other interesting facts about 
dual and plural, see Geiger, Urspr. d. Sprache, § ix. 369-386. Lord 
Monboddo's remarks (Orig. of Lang. i. 550) are a strange mixture of 
shrewdness and error. 


is a slight distinction between the conceptions of duality and 
plurality we may see at once from the fact that we cannot 
use the word ' all ' of two, though we can of three things. For 
instance, we could not say ' Two birds sat all together on a 
tree.' Nothing but an instinctive feeling that such a form 
corresponded to some external realit}', could account for its 
existence among people so utterly unlike each other as Green- 
landers and New Zealanders on the one hand, and Attic 
Greeks on the other.* It is however quite unnecessary to have 
a separate inflectional form for so slight a difference of con- 
ception, and as it is the tendency of advancing language to 
get rid of its original superfluous exuberance, it is mainly in 
dead languages and obsolete dialects that the dual exists. A 
language may be too perfect in its synthetic forms, and so 
tyrannise over the free motion of the intellect. Simplicity, 
not complexity, is the triumph of language ; and an immense 
wealth and multiplicity (divitias miseras !) of grammatical 
forms"]" is mainly to be found in the most savage languages, 
such as Kaffir, and the languages of the American aborigines. 
Hence the dual, being unnecessary, early begins to evanesce, 
and to be treated as quite subordinate to the plural. J It is 
not found in iEolic, barely in Hellenistic Greek, and in Modern 
Greek it has ceased to exist. § Long before it disappeared, the 
sense of it as a grammatical form is so vague that it may 
always be put with a plural verb ; and as in Hebrew we find 
such collocations as niOT D?3U ' lofty eyes,' where the noun is 
dual, and the adjective plural, so in Plato we have iy£kaaati}v 

* See on this whole subject the very interesting pamphlet of W. von 
Humboldt, Uebcr den Dual is, Berlin, 1828. He quotes from Lactantius 
the remark, ' Ex quo intelligimus quantum dualis numerus, una et sim- 
pliei compage solidatus, ad rerum valeat perfeetionem.' Be Opif. Dei. 

t The Abipones, a tribe in Paraguay, have two kinds of plurals, one 
for two or three objects, and another ending in -ripi for larger numbers. 
We may observe that as long as language is regarded as in itself an 
end, it abounds in forms capable of expressing the minutest distinctions ; 
but, as civilisation advances, language becomes more and more a mere 
instrument, and therefore only retains those forms which are necessary 
to produce immediate comprehension. 

J Another trace of this fact is that the masc. of the dual in the article, 
and in avr6s, ovtos, £/j-6s, &c, is in Attic put with fern, nouns ; as Svo 
Tire i5e'o (Plato), TovTia rcb 7]fi4pa, t£> x 6 'P 6 > & c - (Xen.). Observe, too, 
that the dual has only two case-terminations; having only three even in 
Sanskrit. (Meyer, Gedrdngte Vergl. d. Gr. iind Lat. Bed. S. 54.) 

§ Chceroboscus wrongly argues from this fact, ret SvXko. vrrrepoy^vrj 
iariv vffTepov yap iirevoTiOnirav raSvi'icd. (Bckk. Anecd. Gtcec. iii. 1184. 


a/jKpoi, l3\£\pavrEQ elq a\\{]\ovc (Plato, Euthi/d. 273 d) ; and 
even in Homer "\ve find such concords as oaat (patirc't, and 
j3atTt\i}eg .... ireTrrvjiEVid uf.i(bii>, Od. xviii. G4. No doubt, 
however, the possession of a dual stamps on language some 
of that beauty of form which is so remarkable in Greek ; and 
the KpciTEpotypore -cues of Homer is more lively and 
expressive than the ' Ambo conspicui, nive candidioribus 
ambo Vectabantur equis' of Ovid. ' The strong logic of the 
Italians,' says Mommsen, ' seems to have found no reason for 
splitting the idea of moreness into two-ness and many-ness.' 
Besides the words ambo, duo, and possibly octo, the only trace 
of a dual in Latin is the neuter dual termination % in vigintl 
(see Corssen, Krit. Nachtr. zur Lutein. Formenl. S. 9G). The 
same is true of Pali. In Prakrit the dual disappears alto- 

31 (bis), i. The Sanscrit plural as for masc. and fern, nouns 
is an enlargement of 5, the sign of the nominative singular, the 
enlargement being a symbolic indication of plurality. The 
neuter alike in the singular, dual, and plural is deprived of s, 
which is reserved for genders which indicate persons. Bopp, 
§ 22G. 

ii. The method of forming numbers in other languages forms 
a curious chapter of philology. In Chinese and other mono- 
syllabic languages, plurality is expressed by the addition of 
words meaning ' another ' or ' crowd.' In Basque the plural 
can only be expressed by suffixing the plural article, e.g. 
gizon = man, gizonak = men (homme-les), ak being the plural 
article ; ' mais il n'est pas possible a exprimer hommes,' Van 
Eys, p. 14. See too Geiger, ubi supr. 

GENDERS (yeV,j). 

32. In the ancient, and in many modern languages, the 
substantive expresses the gender (yei'oc), real or imaginary, 
of the object which it names. There are usually, as in 
Greek, three genders, masculine (apmnicov), feminine (6i]\vi;6t'), 
and neuter (oucirEpov),* but some languages (e.g. the Hebrew )| 

* "Words like 'ittttos, &vdpunros, &c, are common ; and words which do 
not change their gendir, though applied to different sexes, are called 
iir'iKoiva epicene ; e.g. Aristotle says, koI 6 67j\vs oe opevs e^\ripd'8r). Hist. 
Anim. xxiv. The sophist Protagoras is said to have been the first to 
call marked attention to the genders of words. See Aristoph. Nub. 669. 

t Hence we have the fern, for the neut. in the LXX. version of Ps. cxix. 
50, cxviii. 23. The names ovSerepov, neutrum, ' neither of the two,' show 



use the feminine to express the neuter, to which we find some- 
thing analogous in the fact that, in Greek and Latin, feminine 
names are often of a neuter form, as U.X6kioi', Glycerium,* just 
as in German all diminutives in -chen and -lein are neuter 
( das Mddcken, das Frdulein), even when they signify females. 
The feminine is generally indicated by a weakening of the 
masculine termination. 

33. The attribution of any gender to inanimate things 
only leads to endless confusion and anomaly, and a multipli- 
cation of rules and exceptions, for the most part admitting of 
no rational explanation, but due to the varying influences of 
fancy or caprice. It is the relic of a time when the imagina- 
tion was much more active than now, and when the energetic 
fancy of mankind attributed a life, analogous in some respects 
to its own, to the whole external world ; and, as some would 
express it, tinged everything with which it dealt with some 
faint trace of its own subjectivity. The necessity of regarding 
everything as partaking of life, and therefore as having some 
gender, is a heritage of the childish-poetic stage of human in- 
telligence, when f language was regarded as an end as well a3 
a means, and when the mind felt an imperious necessity that 
the forms of language should faithfully reflect the slightest 
variations of conception. 

The fanciful ness of genders may be seen by comparing the 
same word in different languages. Thus Kapdia ' heart ' is 
feminine ; but cor is neuter, and caiur masculine. In French 
labeur is masculine, douleitr feminine ; and couleur though 
derived from color is feminine, arbre though from arbor is 
masculine. In most languages, for obvious reasons, the sun 
is masc, the moon fern.; but in Gothic, Anglo-Saxon, \ and 

how purely negative was the conception of the neuter gender; in San- 
skrit it is called kliva, 'eunuch ;' in Servian srednji, ' intermediate gender;' 
inDutchonzijdig,unsided, 'qui ne penche d'aucun cote.' — Du Meril, p. 356. 

* It is a well-known rule in Greek that when women speak of them- 
selves in the plural, they also use the masculine. 

f See the author's Origin of Language, p. 45 ; Chapters on Language, 
p. 212. There is really no more necessity for gender in nouns and adjec- 
tives than there is in verbs which also express gender in Hebrew, Arabic, 
and Berber. The American languages are without it. 

I ' Mundilfori had two children, a son Mani, and a daughter S61.J 
>—The prose Edda. See Latham, Engl. Lang. ii. 156. In Hebrew WDW 
sun is sometimes fern., RT moon is masc. But another word for moon 
7112? is fern. (cf. 6 \x.i\v, 7) treA^vr]. ' Dispicite .... masculum Lunam.' 
Tertul. Apol. 15. Forcellini, s. v. Lunws). 


German, it is the reverse, der Mond, die Sonne, and in Russian 
the sun is neuter. Again, in German, a spoon is masc. {dei 
Loffel), a fork fern, {die Gabel), a knife neuter {das Messer) : 
so too a jug is masc. {der Krug), a cup fem. {die Tasse), a 
basin neuter {das Becken) ; wine is masc, milk fem., beer 
neuter (der Wein, die Milch, das Bier); the beginning is 
masc, the middle fem., and the end neuter {der Anfang, die 
Mitte, das Ende). And to crown this capricious absurdity, 
the word for wife, of all things in the world, is neuter {das 
Weib !).* French has discarded the neuter gender ; and Eng- 
lish (like Persian and Chinese) abandons genders altogether, 
or only expresses them (when necessary) by a separate word, 
except in the 3rd personal pronoun {he, she, it), and the rela- 
tive {who, which). We may well congratulate ourselves, 
therefore, that our language has been one of the very few 
which have had the wisdom to disrobe itself of this useless 
rag of antiquity, and to make all inanimate objects neuter, 
except in the rare cases where they are personified for the 
purposes of poetry (Prosopopoeia). 

Many of these anomalies are accounted for by the fact that 
sometimes- the form of the word determines its gender, entirely 
irrespective of its meaning, and sometimes the meaning irre- 
spective of the form. Thus rivers and hills are generally 
masc, but A'Ltvti, "Oaaa, Aljd)], Sri/i;, are fem., Avkchoi' neut. 
And in spite of their meaning ^apaaor, naiciov, avCpairocov are 
neuter ; while in spite of their form Kapco-troQ and kci/juvoq are 

It is curious to observe that in Modern Greek the prevalence 
of diminutive forms — (e.g. (biSi from ofidiov = snake, \papt from 
oii<r'<p<oj' = fish, and in the Tzaconian dialect, spoken about the 
Gulf of Nauplia,f \piuvxapoiiia = butterfly, a diminutive of 
ibvxv, &c.) — is due partly to a desire to secure uniformity of 

Pules of Gendek. 

34. The following are the general rules of gender : — 

1. Names of male persons and animals, of rivers (6 ttotu/uoq), 

nills (6 Xd^oc), winds (o uvejioq), and months (6 f»i>'), ar» 


* Possibly because a wife was regarded as a chattel ; possibly, how- 
ever, on the other hand, the neuter may here be a term of endearment 
as we speak of a child as ' a dear little thing.' 

f See Le Dialccte tzaconien, par G. Deyille. Paris, 1866. 


2. Names of female persons and animals, of trees, lands 
(// y?7), islands (i) ij/o-oc), and cities (?/ jtoAic), are feminine; 
also most abstract substantives, as )'/ e\-<c hope, // vikti victoiy, 
>/ upiTi] virtue. 

Exception. — A few trees and plants are masculine ; of which the com- 
monest are (poiui^ palm, ipivtbs wild fig, Acurbs lotus, kvtutos, afiapaxos, 
a(r<p68eAos, eWtfiopos. 

8. Most diminutives, names of fruits, and names of things 
regarded as mere material objects, especially if they are re- 
garded collectively as forming a class, are neuter ; also all 
infinitives used substantively, as to £>/»', life. Such phrases as 
to avOpw-ng mean ' the word " man." ' 

The following common words, which are fern., though they 
end in og, should be remembered : — 

i. Names of countries, islands, cities, plants. 

ii. Names of earths and stones, as >/ ^ap/joc sand, >/ irXiydog 
the brick, >/ xLijtyog the pebble, f) Xl'hg the gem. 

iii. Different words for ' a way,' as odoc, xiXevdoc, uTpa-rrog, 

iv. Various receptacles, as yradog jaw, KifiioToe chest, X)]iog 

v. Adjectives used substantivally, as »/ l'j-n-stpoc, yjEoaog, 
'ip>]j.toQ (sc. y)/),* y KepxoQ (otym), // oiaXenTOQ (jpiorrf). 

A few other feminines in or are difficult to class, as rouog 
disease, cponog dew, BoKog beam, pujjdog staff, fiifi\og book. 

The feminine also denotes a collection of things, as // 'Uirog 
cavalry, // Ka/JvXog a troop of camels; in the case of animals 
this is probably due to the fact that in a number of animals 
the females largely predominate. 


35. Besides the ordinary forms of declension, there are 
traces of another declension formed by suffixes : -dev for the 
genitive, -6c for the locative, -ce tor the accusative. These 
terminations answer the questions ir6Qer ; ttov ; irol ; 

Thus — nov ; where ? oiicot at home, Ovpacri at the doors, 
UvOoi at Pylho, <i\\odi elsewhere. 
Trida> ; whence ? o'lKodev from home, dvpadev from the 
door, ovpavodtv from heaven, pi£6* 
tier from the root (radicitus). 

* Possihly 7] vrjo-os (7^) may he ' the floating land ' (fe'ew). 


itoI ; whither? o'tcaSe (domum) homewards, dupai^e 
towards the door, 'Atiipa^e to 
Athens, ttoXwce to the city, epa^s 
to the earth. 

36. Homer also uses -cpi for the gen. (or perhaps we should rather 
say locative — Bopp, ii. 23, ed. Ureal) and dat. both sing, and plur. (evi- 
dently analogous to the Sanskrit instrumental bkt/as, bins); of which 
we find a trace in the Latin ibi (dat. of is), t\bi, alicui/, sicuii, xobis, 
nobis, and the dat. plurals in -bus. (Corssen, Latein. Formenl. S. 206.) 

The derivation of this syllable bhi is unknown. Pott derives it from 
abhi ' towards,' but this is probably itself a case of the pronoun a. See 
Breal, Bopp, ii. 36. 

Heteroclites, eve. 

37. Words that mix two declensions are called heteroclites, 
a3 okotos gen. oxorou and ckotovc, Taprapog plur. TapTupa, 
o'lTog pi. &i~a. 

ADJECTIVES ('E7r/0«-u). 

38. Adjectives, though highly convenient, are not indis- 
pensable to a language. The fact that substantives are fre- 
quently used adjectivally (e.g. mahogany table, door lock, 
artillery officer, &c), and that their place can always be sup- 
plied by a periphrasis of the noun and preposition (e.g. aurea 
corona = une couronne d'or, multi homines=beaucoup d'hom- 
mes, ein goldener Eing=ein King von Golde, &c), accounts for 
the non-existence in many languages of adjectival forms which 
occur in languages cognate to them. For instance, the Latin 
tot, quot, quotus, pauci, &c, can only be rendered in French 
by autant, tant, combien, peu, &c, with de. In Arabic, ' all 
men,' ' no men,' ' some men,' &c, can only be expressed by 
' the totality of men,' ' not one among men,' ' a portion of 
men,'* &c. In Greek, as in all languages, many adjectives 
are used for nouns, especially in poetry ; as -kevto^oq the five- 
pronged, i.e. the hand, (pepeotkog the house-bearer, i.e. the 
snail, avurrreoQ the boneless, i.e. the cuttlefish, &c; and in 
English, ' the deep,' ' the blue,' ' the true and the beautiful,' 
&c. Milton uses many such adjectival substantives, e.g. ' the 
palpable obscure,'' ' the vast abrupt,'' &c.f Compare, ' till that 
wicked be revealed,' 2 Thess. ii. 8 ; ' the silent of the night,' 

* Silv. de Sacy, Gram. Gen. p. 54 : Lobeck, Aglaopham. p. 845 ; Edele- 
stand du Meril, Sur la formation de la languefrang. p. 54. 

f In French many nouns have been formed from adjectives, e.g. 
sanglier (poreus singidaris), bouclier (seiitTxn bucculati'm), &e. 


2 Henri/ VI. i. 4 ; ' and mighty proud to humble weak doth 
yield,' Spenser, F. Q. iii. 7. 

39. As there was no ■prima facie reason why the adjective 
should so closely reflect the nature of the substantive with 
which it is joined as to express its gender by a different in- 
flection, we find many adjectives (especially those compounded 
with dvtr-, ev-, a-) which have only tivo terminations, and do 
not express the feminine by a separate termination ; nouns also 
are often used in apposition with other nouns as though they 
were adjectives of one termination ; as tjjuatvac yvvy, t) irarpir 
yrj, &c. This is a gradual approximation to the English use 
of the adjective, for in English also the adjective used to agree 
with nouns, as, younge Hughe, thinges espiritueles, wateres 
principales, &c. 

40. The adjectival termination is, at any rate in very many 
cases, derived from the pronominal suffix which forms the 
genitive case of nouns ; e.g. l)iiiov=()i)p6-aio, which becomes 
the adjective crjpoaio-c by adding a new case-ending. t (New 
Cratylus, p. 474.) In many languages genitives become 
adjectival without any change at all; e.g. in Einnish, kav-en 
=of a stone, and stony ; in Basque, guizon-aren-a=q/" man, 
and human,* &c. 

41. The three degrees of comparison are Positive (ovofia 
&ir\ovv), Comparative (avyicpiriKov'), and Superlative (v-n-ep- 

42. There are in Greek two modes of forming the compa- 
rative and superlative, one by means of the terminations repog, 
raroc, and the other by nor, igtoq ; repoc, rarog imply excess 
(more, most) ; repog indicates ' motion from ' (cf. praete?", subZe?', 
propter), and rn-oe ' motion through a series of points,' since 
tu denotes distance, and pa motion. (Donaldson.) 

43. The comparative and superlative in -twr, -iutqc (being 
in fact mere strengthened forms of the adjectival termination 
wq) are originally qualitative ; i.e. they do not so much imply 
excess, as ' a considerable amount of,' 1 like our termination -ish 
in brack-ish, or our qualifying word ' somewhat,' meaning ' a 
little too much,' as in ' somewhat bitter,' &c. 

[N.B. The i in mv is long in Attic, short in Homer.] 

44. It is clearly a defect both of Latin and Greek that they 
use the same form to express two conceptions so distinct as 
'somewhat' and 'more;" 1 e.g. that 7/&W according to the 

* Garnett, Philol, Ess. p. 267. 



context may either mean ' sweeter ' or ' sweetish,' of which 
the former is a comparison between relative qualities, and the 
other a judgment about a positive quality.* There were how- 
ever certain intensive prefixes which served the latter pur- 
pose, such as the Epic intensive prefixes £a-, ipi-, apt- (£uttXov- 
toq, epi^vdi'ic, api£r}\oq, &c), the comic prefixes Itttto-, j3ov-+ 
(lirivoKprinroQ, (dovXijjog, /3ou7ratt ' cf. our horse-laugh, horse- 
mushroom, &c), and rpig-, irav-, which are used in all poets 
and even in prose (7ray/ca\oc, TrayysXoioc, TrafxTrovnpog, Tpiofiu- 
Kapwc, &c. ; cf. our A /mighty, &c, and the German prefix 
alter-, in allerliebst, &c). To express a less degree they used 
the preposition inro, as viroXevKog sw&albus, whita's/z, vTroyeXav 
to smile. 

45. 'Ayadoc good, and kglkoq bad, borrow several compara- 
tives and superlatives from other forms ; but these comparatives 
and superlatives are not absolutely synonymous. 

'A vadoQ good, 

Kniv-oe bad, 

ajuetVan'J better ex- 
Kpeirroyv stronger, 
fieXrlwy morally better, 

Xwwv preferable, 

(j>ipTepoQ moreprqfitable, 
kcik'hov baser, more 

■%eip<i)v inferior, 

i}(Tffii)v weaker, 

N. B. vrrrepoe, vararog are derived 
rrpiorog from izpo ; 'iayajog from e£. 

cipiGToe (from'Apfjc the 

xpaTMJTOc, (from Kparoc). 
fiiXriGTOQ (Latin bonus, 

comp. Ionic fitvri- 

Xtoa-og (from Xaw to 


■^dpiarog (from X £ 'P> 

■yEipioq subject). 
rJKiffra (adv.). 

from vtto ; irporepog, 

PKONOUNS ('A»rwvvp'aO- 

46. A few words of explanation will perhaps throw some 
light on the nature of pronouns. 

* The kind of confusion thus introduced may be illustrated by this 
passage : ' If that collar-bone of yours had not been all the harder, you 
would have been,' &c. &c. — Tom Cringle's Log. ch. xvi. 

f etude yap rj irpo<rQy]K7i tSiv toiovtoiv Cv 00 " t ^ /J.eye8os rov inroKei/xevov 
8t)\ovv. — Etym. Magn. 

\ On these forms see Donaldson, New Crat. § 262. They are also 
distinguished in Donaldson's grammar, and partially in Burnouf's, § 197. 


Language is a sort of drama, in which, as in the older 
tragedies, there are only three characters (7rpo'<rwTa),* who 
have different roles to play. 

These three characters are : 

1. The speaker, iyio I. 

2. The person to whom I speak, av thou. 

8. The person about whom the conversation is occupied, I 
he; for which the Greeks have no precise or definite form, 
but use demonstratives, ovroc, eue'iroc, uvroc, clef, as will be 
seen immediately. 

47. The noun names, and specifies exactly, as Coesar, Lu- 
cullus, the king, &c; the pronoun only indicates the part 
which the speaker plays in the dialogue, and is therefore not 
merely in the place of the noun. ' I ' may be any one in the 
world, from the king to the peasant, but necessarily implies 
some one who is speaking of himself; ' thou ' may be any one, 
but must mean the person addressed ; ' he ' may be any one, 
from Adam to the child of yesterday, but must imply the 
person spoken of. 

48. ' I ' and ' thou ' are declinable in Greek, but have no 
gender. The third person is expressed by various words 
which are not only declinable, but also (as in English) express 
gender, as ovroc ipse, ovtoq hie, ole hicce, ikuvoq iste, ille. 

49. The reason of this is that ' I ' ' thou ' suppose two inter- 
locutors who are present, and who therefore need no further 
specification, their gender being regarded as obvious; one 
word, without gender, suffices for each. But the third person 
is or may be absent, so that for clearness the gender must be 
indicated (he, she, it) ; and this person may be more or less 
near, as ode hicce, the person here, questo (pointing to him, 
SeucTucwg) ; or close by me, cotesto {ovtoq hie) ; or there, by you, 
quello, iKtiroc (ille, iste). 

50. Greek however is far from being the only language 
which has no distinct and separate form for the third personal 
pronoun. Some languages have, for the third personal pronoun, 

* wpocrwiroi', persona, originally the masJc worn by an actor in playing 
his part; hence the remark of Rousseau in his cynical old age, ' Le mot 
latin persona signifie un masque, nom tres-eonvenable assurement a la 
plupart des gens qui portent parmi nous celui de Persovnes.' — Lettressur 
la Botaniquc. Milton uses it in its classic sense : ' If it were an honour 
to that person which he sustained.' — Hist of Engl. 
' Which was thy part, 
And person, hadstthou known thyself aright.' — P. L. x. 155. 


expressions which imply a person sitting, standing, lying down, 
&c; others, as is partly the case in Greek, have pronouns 
■which represent the third person as being at nearer or further 
distances from the speaker ; but many have not arrived so far 
in the analysis of conceptions as to have any one word for 
the abstract ' he.' (See W. v. Humboldt Ueber den Dualis, § 21, 
and Ueber die Verwandtschaft dcr Ortsadverbien mit dem 
Prone-men in einigen Sprachen.) 

51. The uses of ov, which is given in grammars as the third 
personal pronoun in Greek, are very liable to lead to confusion : 
hrst of all it is defective, having lost its nominative ; and 
secondly, in Attic Greek (though not in Ionic) it is not a 
personal, but mainly a reflexive pronoun. 

52. A reflexive pronoun is one which refers bach to the 
subject of the sentence, or one which expresses that the object 
of the sentence (i.e. the person spoken of) is also the subject 
(or the person speaking) ; as 'irv^a e/javruv, I struck my self; 
t^iEauKtv roy envrov xaiSa, he was teaching his own son. 

53. The reflexive pronouns are ov of himself* kpavTov of 
myself gecivtov of thyself, savrov of himself .f It will be ob- 
served that they have no nominatives. Why ? For the 
obvious reason that in strict grammar they never serve as the 
subject of a principal sentence, but as the complement to some 
other word ; i.e. they are used when the subject of the verb 
is also its object, as / strike myself Such a sentence as eyw 
avrog E7rpat,a tovto is not strictly reflexive. The reason why 
ov once had a nominative is because it was a demonstrative 
pronoun ; but when its reflexive use prevailed the nom. be- 
came obsolete.^ Similarly we have lost the custom of using 
himself, myself as nominatives in English. 

54. In Attic Greek, then, what is placed as the third personal 

* The plurals of ifiavrov, aeavrov, are ri^wv ab-rcbv, v^iwv abrSiv; of 
eavrov either kavruiv, or ccpuv avruv. 

f The French language uses meme to form a reflexive for the first and 
eecond personal pronouns ; as, Je me suis blesse moi-meme. Other lan- 
guages use a periphrasis for this purpose ; e.g. in Hebrew and Arabic it 
would be 'I hare wounded my soul,' &c. Silvestrede Sacy, Gram. Gen. 
p. 51. The simple pronouns are sometimes in poetry used reflexively in 
English, as ' He sat him down at a pillar's base.' — Byron. ' I will lay 
me down and sleep.' ' I gat me to my Lord right humbly.' ' But go, 
shewe thee to prestis.' — Wiclif s Bible. 

\ We have traces of the obsolete nominative h or f in 'tva, Lat. is, 
Engl, it ; and also in ply, and via ; a dative and accusative 1v are found 
in fragments. '/, himself or herself, is only found in objective sentences, 



pronoun is not a personal pronoun at all, but reflexire ; and 
as its nominative t is obsolete, it borrows uvrog instead ; thus : 

avToc, ?'/, d, himself, herself, itself (obsolete t) ; 

ov of himself, &c. ; 

o\ to himself, &c. (ol enclitic = to him) ; 

e himself, &c; 

and so on, refiexively throughout ; but kavrbv is used more 
frequently than e, as cnriKTeiver kavrov, he killed himself. 

55 As for the third personal pronoun, there is none in the 
nominative, in Attic, but the demonstratives are used instead; 
but for the other cases, the oblique cases of uvtoq (derived by 
some from av roc again he ?) are used, so that we have really : 

Nom. ovroc, eraii'oc, ode used for ' he.' 

Gen. civroDofhim. 

Dat. avrw to him. 

Ace. avrov or vlv him, &c. 

56. For 'him,' 'her,' 'it,' is used in Ionic; in the 
Tragoedians viy, and atyi ; afe, and, sometimes, though rarely, 
1 1v are also used for civtovq avrae alra. The root atyi, Doric 
\pe, is seen in the Latin ipse. 

Possessive Pronouns. 

57. In most languages the possessive pronoun is either 
directly formed from, or closely allied to, the genitive case of 
the personal.* 

58. Greek is richer than Latin in possessive pronouns 
(KTiiTiKul.arTioivi.iiai). Besides t/ioc mens, aog tuus, iifjETepog 
noster, vperepog vester, it possesses ayog his, her, their, acperepog 
their, and in Ionic lu'irepog belonging to us two, acpwhepog be- 
longing to you two. The Latin has no simple possessive adj. 
of the third person (his, her, its, their), for suus is reflexive ; it 
uses instead ejus, illorum, &c. (It is remarkable that the neuter 
possessive pronoun of the third person ' its ' is quite modern 
in English also, see Lev. xxv. 5, eel. 1611.) 

as in a fragment of Sophocles, preserved by Apollonius Dyscolus (Be 
Pronom. p. 70) : 

?'; jiev cos 2 Oaffffov , 7; 8' ws J re'/coi 
' One woman said that site (herself), the other that she (herself), bore the 
swifter son.' ob, of, e are both demonstrative and reflexive in Ionic 
and Epic. For the authorities on t see Donaldson, New Crat. § 139. 
* See Garnett, Philol. Ess. p. 260. 



59. i. Observe that avrve means ipse, -self (reflexive) ; * 
but avTov of him, avrui to him, &c. (demonstrative). 

ii. 6 axiToq means ' the same.'' 

iii. Although avro is the neut. of civtoc, yet for ' the same 1 
in the neuter, the Attic form is generally ravrbv not tuvtu. 

' OrrriQ. 

60. 6(ttlc, quisquis, is a compound of the relative and the 
indefinite Its declension in Attic is orov, otw, otwv, orotc. 
In the neut. plur. arret is the contraction of anva, and must 
not be confused with arra, which is used in Attic for the 
neut. plur. nra qucedam. 

61. There is no relative pronoun (avaQopucij arrwrvula) in 
Homer, for og, >/', 6 in Homer is demonstrative ; to form a 
relative he adds re to 6'c, so that ' and he ' is equivalent to 
' who ' (qui=et is). Similarly in Hebrew nt ' this,' is some- 
times a relative (Ps. lxxiv. 2, &c), and in German ' der.' 



62. i. Cardinals answer the question ' how many ?' The 
word is derived from cardo a hinge. 

ii. The first four cardinals only are declinable, from their 
being the most frequently used ; but after 200 they are 
regular adjectives of three terminations, as cUa/co<no(, a«, a. 

Obs. 18 and 19 may be expressed either by oKrwtcaiceKa, 
eryeaKaiSeKa, or by SvoTr, svoe oiovteq eiKOtriv. Similarly 28, 
29 may be IvoTv, kvbg dlorTsg rpiaicovra, &c. ; and even 7000, 
8000 may be rpiuKorriwr, ctaKoaiojy oiovra f-ivpia (Thuc. ii. 13). 
This resembles the Latin duodeviginti, undeviginti, &c, and 
our way of reckoning time (e.g. a quarter to eight=forty-five 
minutes past seven). 

iii. 21. 22, &c, may be either e'ikoitiv tic, tiKoai Ivo or dg, 
cvo kcu elkooiv just as in English it may be twenty-one, or 
one and twenty ; the rule being that if the smaller number 
precedes, the copula must be used. 

iv. Distinguish between fivpioi 10,000, and fxvplot inde- 
finitely numerous ; the regular number has the regular accent. 

* Thus we have in Shakspeare. ' Myself have letters.' — Jul. Cces. 
iv. 3. 'Were you sick, ourselves would wait upon you.' — Tennyson, 
The Princess. But for obvious reasons the nominatives of reflexive pro- 
nouns do not hold their grounds. See § 53. 



63. i. Ordinals express the position or order ; and answer 
the question ' which of the number ? ' 

ii. Except ZevTtpog, which has the form of the comparative, 
they all take the superlative termination -oc. They are all 
declinable adjectives of three terminations. 

iii. The student should distinguish carefully between the 
decads and the hundreds; 30th, 4Cth, &c, are rpia/cooroc, 
TeacapaKoaTog, &c; but 800th, 400th, &c, are TpiaKoaioaTog, 
TEtrcrapaKOtTioaroc, &C. 

iv. 21st, 22nd, &c, may be expressed in three ways, viz. : 
tig Kat tiKoaTog, irpCtTog Ka.i etKOffroff, or sikootog irpwroQ ; simi- 
larly 32nd, &c = 3uo KUi rpiamcrToc, civrtpog ecu rpiaKOcrroc, or 
TpiaKooroQ EevT£poc ; and so on. 

Other Numerals. 

64. Both Greek and Latin are particularly rich in their 
furms for numerals ; e.g. 

Multiplicatives. IlttXovc, hnrXovg, TpinXovg, k.t.X. simplex, 
duplex, &c, from which are derived our English 
multiplicatives simple, double, triple, &c, referring 
to size. 

Proportionals. cnrXamog, TpuzXaaioe, k.t.X. duplus. tri- 
plus, &c, our twofold, threefold, &c, referring to 

Numeral Adverbs, ci^a, rpiyci, rirpa^a, k.t.X. in two, 
three, four ways, &c, answering to multiplicatives. 
a7ra£, cig, rp'ic, k.t.X. once, twice, thrice, &c, an- 
swering to proportionals. 

We have also fisvTepaioc, rpiraioC) Terapralog, k.t.X. on the 
2nd, 3rd, 4th day, &c. ; TrouTalog ; on what day ? These are 
only adjectival forms of the dative feminine of Ssvrspog, k.t.X. 

ADVERBS (^EvippfifiOTa). 

65. ' When some case of a declinable word — whether sub- 
stantive, adjective, or pronoun — has fixed itself absolutely for 
the expression of certain secondary predications, it is called 
an adverb. The prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections, 
which are generally considered as distinct parts of speech, are, 

* This distinction is due to Ammonias (de Biff. p. 43), $nr\ovs nark 
(ityedos, SnrAdtrios kot' apid/xou. (Donaldson.) 

VEKBS. 37 

in regard to their origin and primitive use, neither more nor 
less than adverbs. Their right to a separate place in the 
grammar of an inflected language depends on their syntactical 
functions only. The preposition is an adverb of place, .... 
the conjunction an adverb of manner, . . . the interjection an 
exclamatory adverb.' — Donaldson, Greek Gram. p. 148. Hence, 
in spite of Home Tooke's sneer, ' the old grammarian was 
right, who said that when we know not what else to call a 
part of speech, we may safely call it an adverb.' 

66. Almost every adjective, and many participles, furnish 
an adverb in -wc, a termination derived from the old ablative 
case. The neuter accusative of adjectives both singular and 
plural is often used adverbially. Adverbs derived from 
adjectives are compared by taking the neuter sing, of the 
adjective for the comparative, and the neuter plur. for the 
superlative, as i)ciujc, ijcwr, ijciara. 

67. Other adverbs coincide with the actual cases of nouns, 
as Kofiicr] exactly, crjfjoaia publicly, icitf privately, koivtj in 
common, awovcr) zealously, cr-}(.o\y leisurely* (i.e. vix, scarcely); 
apX>) v at first, ovk upx>)i> not at all (omnino non), atcjjqv just, 
or hardly, cwpiav, irpo'iKa gratis, p.aKpav afar. 

68. Others consist of a preposition and noun, as Tvapa^prifia 
immediately, icadairep just as, irpovpyov advantageously, IkitqIuv 
out of the way, iva-^tpi) in order, &c. 

N.B. i. Observe that evtivg is 'immediately,' and evdv (with 
the gen.) 'straight towards.' Similarly arrik-pi'£=outright, 

ii. The w-s of Greek adverbs is the Sanskrit a-t (cf. Zicuxri 
didati) ; thus 6ju<3-c=the Sanskrit sama-t ' simili ;' t is the 
case-ending of the Sanskrit ablative, and in some Greek 
adverbs it is suppressed (e.g. ovtu>), iu others it becomes c. 
Compare the Latin adverbial ablatives raro, perpetuo, quomodo, 
&c. For the proofs of this identification see Bopp, § 183. 

VERBS (Pfifiara). 

69. The nature of the verbf (pil^n verbum, i.e. the word 
par excellence) has been variously defined by different gram- 
marians. All acknowledge its importance ; ' Alterum est quod 
loquimur,' says Quintilian, ' alterum de quo loquimur.' 

* Compare Shakspeare's 'I'll trust by leisure him that mocks me 
once.' Cf. Soph. 0. T. 434. 

t See Burggraff, Principes de Gram. gen. p. 345-349 ; Origin of 
Language, p. 104; Du Merit, p. 5G. 


1. According to most ancient grammarians its distinctive 
peculiarity is the expression of Time (pfj/-ia tie iari to irpoa- 
arjfialvov -^povor, Arist. De Interp. iii. 1). Hence the Ger- 
mans call it Zeitwort time-word, and the Chinese ho-tseu 
living word (just as Plato calls the verb and noun to. Ijx\Iv\6- 
rara pipr) tov Xuyov). But verbs which should express no 
circumstance of time are quite conceivable, and actually exist 
in some North American languages. 

2. Others say that it necessarily expresses an Action, and 
hence some Germans call it Thcltigkeitswort. Thus in Chinese 
a hand added to a hieroglyphic shows that a verb is intended ; 
for instance, a bent bow and a hand signify ' to shoot an 
arrow.' In Chinese also 'to be ' is ' to make ' (wei). Ob- 
viously however many verbs imply inaction rather than 

3. In the Grammaire Generate of Port-Royal the verb is 
defined as ' un mot qui signifie Y affirmation] and this definition 
may stand if we make affirmation include negation. 

4. Humboldt and others say that the verb must involve the 
abstract conception of existence, and so furnish the connection 
between the subject and the attribute {die reine Synthesis des 
Seins mit dem Begriff). This is only true if with Harris we 
resolve every verb into a participle with the verb ' to be,' so 
that, e.g. ypa<pw=£yw (el/jLL) ypatyuv. No analysis of the verb 
however can succeed in reducing it into a participle coupled 
with the verb to be. What is there participial in the root 
ypcuf> ? ' A verb divested of its paraphernalia may become an 
Irish participle, which is merely an abstract noun, but cer- 
tainly not a Greek, Latin, or even an English one.' 

5. Mr. Garnett, following out a hint in Dr. Prichard on the 
Celtic language, first showed that verbs do not differ from 
nouns by any inherent vitality ; they are simply nouns with a 
pronominal affix. ' Motion or action is no more inherent in a 
verbal root than the power of forging a horseshoe in a smith's 
hammer. It requires an extensive moving power to make it 
efficient, and so do the roots of verbs.' Their power of ex- 
pressing action, motion, sensation, or their opposites, resides 
only in the addition to them of the person or agent. In other 
words, a verb is ex necessario a complex, and not a simple 
term, and as such it could not have been a primary part of 

70. A comparison of the English and Greek verb shows the 
immense difference between an analytic and a synthetic Ian- 


guage. The English verb has five forms (e.g. love, lovest, 
loves, loved, loving) ; the Greek verb has about 1,200 forms. 

71. The inflections by which a verb expi esses its various 
modifications are called its conjugation (av'£vyia). 

72. The endings or inflections by Avhich the Greek expresses 
the three persons in the singular are really the three per- 
sonal pronouns (/, thou, he), although all trace of this fact has 
been nearly obliterated in the course of time. Thus to take a 
verb in -fit (those verbs being the oldest, and therefore the 
least disguised in their person- endings), it is easy to see that 
in Et-yut, ka-ai, ko-T'i{v), \ii is connected with the stem /je, -ai 
with <T£, and rt with the article* to. The passive terminations 
-fiat, -am, and -rcu show the same fact no less distinctly. The 
termination w looks as if it were connected with tyw, iEolic 
ia>v ; but it is certain that the person-ending comes not from 
the nominative but from objective cases of the pronouns, so that 
didiofit^ would mean 'giving here, i.e. my giving,' and SiSioai 
'giving there, i.e. his giving.' It is the object of Comparative 
Grammar to analyse all inflections in a similar way, and to 
show their original significance. At present however the 
results are not all certain, and the explanation of them would 
require a separate treatise, because each termination has to be 
traced through a long series of phonetic changes ; and in 
Sanskrit and Greek especially ' a vast number of articulations 
have been sacrificed to euphony, the restoration of which is 
often conjectural, and sometimes impracticable.' 

* We shall see in the Syntax the close connection between the article 
and the third personal pronoun. It is the same in German, where the 
definite article der, die, das is constantly used as a pronoun ; and the 
French article le is derived from Me, as is the Italian il, lo, and the 
Spanish lo, la. In the third person plural the termination is due to 
phonetic change. ; e.g. Tv-KTov(n = TVTrTovTi — Ye7:heTSint. In Welsh (which 
is an Aryan language) the pronoun of the third person plural actually 
ends in nt, uynt or huint = ihey (cf.' Introd. § 15, 5, p. 5). 

t Only two Latin verbs, inquam and su??;, retain a trace of the old 
termination in fit. The first philologer to point out that the person-end- 
ings were pronouns in oblique cases was Mr. Garnett, and he illustrated 
the fact from Syriac, in which ith = existence, ithai-ch existences of thee 
= thou art, itkai'-hun existences of them = they arc. The same result 
becomes very clear from a comparison of the Hungarian olvas-o»i I read, 
olv&s-od thou readest, 6lva.s-atok ye read, &c, with olma-ra my apple, 
olma-<2 thy apple, olma-tok your apple. See Garnett's Philolog. Essays, 
p. 291 ; Dr. Latham, Lect. on the Study of Language. Obviously, as 
Bopp observes, the moment that language began to mark persons by 
the addition of suffixes to the verb, those suffixes could not have been 
anything but personal pronouns. 


73. Many grammars throw no light whatever on the ordinary 
omission of a first person dual in the active. Thus Ave find for 
the dual of the pres. act. 

but for the dual of the pres. pass. 

rvTrru/Jido)', rvirreoOov, Tvirrecrdov, 

with no explanation of the reason why we should have no 
form for ' we two are striking,' and yet should have one for 
' we two are being struck. 1 The reason is that in the act. the 
first pers. plural is always used for the first person dual. We 
can only conjecture why no distinct form was retained, or 
why in the passive the aovist alone should have no first person 

74. There is an ingenious theory on the subject of the dual 
in the article 'Dual' in the 'Penny Cyclopaedia.' Believing 
that the dual is an older plural which was only colloquially 
retained, the author points out how easily a termination in 
v might have been changed into one in c (compare TvirTo/iEv 
and TV7rr()/.ieQ verbera?«ws ; shoon and shoes, eyne and eyes, 
house?* and houses, &c), and how easily this g might bo 
dropped ; on this theory tvutitov and -v-rvreTe, &c. might also 
very easily have been phonetic varieties of the same form. 

75. In many grammars both the second and third pers. dual 
of the historical tenses (imperf, plupf, and aorists) are made 
to end in jjr, as in the impf. act. of tvtttio 

irvTrTirr})', Itvjtt£tijv ; 

but in other modem grammars (and even in that of E. Bur- 
nout) the second person dual even in historical tenses is made 
to end in ov, so that Ave find 

tTvirreroy, t-vv-iTip 1 ; 

this latter is the more correct, for the Attics always prefer the 
form in ov for the second person of the dual, if Ave may trust 
the best MSS. 

VOICES (Am0e<m c ). 

76. The Greek verb has three voices — 

1. Active {htuiiicne tfipyqriKii)* as rvirrw / am striking. 

* The Stoics called the Active KaTj,y6p-r]^a bpObv ' upright,' 1 the Passive 
vtttiov 'supinum,' and the Neuter ovSirepov 'neither of the two! Dionysma 


This may be either transitive (a\\o7ra0//c), i.e. the action 
may pass on to some object, as ^t'cJw^t aprov I am giving bread. 

Or intransitive (avTOTradi)c), i.e. the action may stop with 
the agent, as rpiyo) I run. These verbs are also called neuter. 

2. Passive (vadrjrtKri), as rvTrrouuL I am being struck. 

3. Middle (/it'o-jy), as rvnTojiai I am striking myself. 

In Sanskrit the Active Voice is called Parasmai-pada ' fall- 
ing on another;' the Middle Atmane-pada ' self- affecting.' 

77. The only tenses for which the Middle has any special 
forms are the future and aorist.* What are usually called the 
perf. and plupf. middle are not middle forms at all, but are 
other forms of the perf. and plupf. act. The name perfect 
middle for such forms as -irv~a ought to be finally discarded ; 
the error of calling them so, rose from the instances in which 
this second perfect has an intransitive meaning, as kypr\yopa 
I am awake, iriiroiBn I am confident, eaya I am broken, 
Triiri]ya I stick fast, ipptoya I burst forth, &c. But this is a 
mere speciality of meaning. 

78. Verbs which have an active meaning, but only a passive 
or middle form, are called deponents (from depono I lay 
aside). It is probable however that they have not laid aside 
the active form, but never had one at all ; it is generally be- 
lieved that the -fiai form of verbs is the oldest of all. For it 
was most natural that verbs should be primarily regarded as 
middle, i.e. as expressing direct reference to the subject (or 
self). Hence the pat forms often exist in Homer side by side 
with the forms in w. Reflexive forms are far more common 
in other languages (e.g. French, Italian, German) than they 
are in English. That the transitive form and meaning of 
verbs was due to a later development of language is clear, 
since, as we have seen, the cases represent adverbial additions 

Thrax (p. 886) says that the two former names were suggested by a 
metaphor from the position of athleN s. On the derivation of the Latin 
word ' supine,' Priscian remarks, ' Sup : na vero nominantur, quia a pas- 
sivis participiis, quae quidem supina nmiinantur, nascuntur' (p. 811). 
Lersch, Sprachphil. d. Alien, ii. 197 ; Burggraff. p. 357. 

* This is just what we should expect from the close connection 
between the passive and middle, of which the middle or reflexive form 
was probably the earliest. We have very few reflexive forms (I bethink 
me, fear me, &c.) in English, but we represent many of the German, 
Italian, and French reflexive verbs by passive or neuter verbs ; e.g. Ich 
freue mich I rejoice ; si dice it is said; se emplearon diez hombres ten 
men were employed, &c. The gradual evanesceuce of the middle in 
Greek is analogous to the disuse of many old reflexive verbs in French, 
Buch as sc mourir, se partir, &c. Pellissier, La Langue franc, p. 177. 


to the noun, and -would therefore be originally independent of 
all verbal government, so that it would have been needless for 
the verb to have a transitive sense. Hence we find many 
Greek verbs that fluctuate between a transitive and intransitive- 
meaning, as lyw ' I have ' and ' I am,' ciyw ' I lead' and ' I 
move,' aipu> 'I raise' and 'I rise' (e.g. of the sun, Soph. 
Phil. 1315), ikavvb) 'I drive' and ' I ride,' irpaaoti) 'I do' 
and ' I fare.' The same is true in other languages ; e.g. in 
Latin, vertere, mutare, &c.; in German, Ziehen, brechen, 
schmelzen, &c. ; in French, de'cliner, changer, sortir, &c. ; in 
English, to move, brealc, turn, &c. (Jelf, § 360). 


79. i. Reduplication, i.e. a repetition of the root twice over, 
was a very primitive process, found in all languages, and 
adopted as the simplest known method of strengthening the 
meaning of the word to which it is applied. 

ii. Thus it is found in substantives both in Greek and Latin, 
as jjapfiapog, TranraXi], /3c'^/3oc, marmor, murmur, turtur, 
papilio, &c. 

iii. And in verbs both in Greek and Latin, tvETv^ya, XeXvkcl, 
&c., pepigi, tutudi, cucurri, tetigi, nemini, &c. 

iv. It is by no means confined to the perfect and pluperfect. 
Distinct traces of it appear in many presents, as jut'/xvw, iriirrw, 
yiyvwrTKw ; especially in the older verbs, viz. those in fit, as 
Slduifxi, riOiifxi, (<T)iW/7/i(, Tri^iTrXni-it, vi pnpit, ovivrjfll, sisto, 
gigno, pipilo, titubo, &c; and in the paulo-post-futurum, 
as TETvyojiai, Xe\vaojj,ai, &C. 

v. It is also frequently found in the aorist, as i'p/ayov, 
ijpapor. In Homer these reduplicated second aorists abound, 
as TriTTiQor, kekXvOi, u/j-TrETraXdn', Terap—o^rjy, XiXador, TrifpaSov. 
It will be seen that it always emphasises* the meaning of the 
verb, and is therefore peculiarly adapted to represent repeated 
or continued actions, such as vibration (u/j.Tr£iTaXwv), thought 
(k iippadov'), careful attention (ke^XvOi), scolding (Jjviwairov^), 

vi. It is natural therefore that it should be mainly charae- 

* Precisely on the same principle as in Hebrew, in Armorican, in 
Hindoo, and in Modern Greek, an adjective is repeated to represent the 
superlative, as D'KHp KHp holy of holies = holiest; p.ia tyrjXy ^77X77 
KptfxaQpa. a very high gallows. The process is constantly resorted to in 
common conversation, and is a regular idiom of Italian, e.g. 'Ella sen 
va notando lento lento,,' Dante, = very slowly, &c. 


teristic of the primary tenses, and especially of the perfect. 
(Besides such perfects as momordi in Latin, we find traces of 
reduplication in many others, as feci (=fe-fici), jeci (je-jici), 
veni (ve-veni), and many more.) 

vii. Unlike the augment, which is a mere prefix or ex- 
traneous adjunct, the reduplication is regarded as an organic 
part of the word, and therefore is retained through all the 
moods, while the augment is found in the indicative alone. 

Chief Eules of Reduplication. 

80. 1. Words beginning with p, with y*-, with double letters 
f, £, \p, with two mutes,* or with vowels, cannot take redupli- 
cation, but substitute the augment for it. This is only for 
the sake of euphony ; peopupa, \pi\La\Ka, &c, would sound in- 
tolerable, and therefore eppicpa, fyrikica, &c. are used instead. 

2. Verbs beginning with an aspirate, use the tenuis in 
reduplication, as ridvKa, ire6iXi]Ka. 

3. Three verbs take el instead of the reduplication, viz. : — ■ 

Xapjjarw, e'iXrjpa. 
Xay^cwo), eiXrj^a. 
fielpii), t't 

We have also eiprjKa used as the perfect of frjpi. Xf'yw makes 
both XeXeypai and eiXeyfiai in composition. 

4. Some verbs, beginning with a vowel, take what is called 
the Attic reduplication, as 

ayeipu), ayi/yepm, ayi'iyeppai. 


iyeipii), iyijyspKa, 

icrdiu), idijSoica, e^ri^eapai. 

eXavi'it), iXijXatca, eXi]Xapau 

tpeiSd), epr/peiKa, eprjpeicrpai. 

opvvpi, opwpoKa, opwpoffpau 

opvcrau), opiopv^a, opwpvypau 

We also have eXijXvda, evijvoya used as perfects of epyppat, 


5. Verbs in w with a reduplicated present, as /3(/3pw<r/aL>, 
yiyrwcr/cw, SiSpaaiai), pipyqaKW, winparrKd), rirpwcrKw, drop the 
reduplication in other tenses ; hence their futures are fipioaopai, 
yrdrropai, fiparropcu, pvi](ru>, &c\ 

* Except KT&Oficu, k£ktt]/, (ivdofxat, p.i/XVT]fiai. 
"f" But SiSac/cw fut. 5t8a£a>, f3if3d(a> fat. fiifldcra). 


AUGMENT (Avlnaiq). 

81. The Augment entirely differs from the Reduplication, 
both in meaning and usage. 

a. It is probably a fragment of the root which we also find 
in ara, signifying remoteness, and merely refers an action to 
the past. It was originally ' a demonstrative particle, primarily 
expressing remote place, and secondarily remote time;''* and 
was no original part of the verbal root. 

/3. It properly belongs only to the historical tenses. 

y. It is dropped in all moods but the indicative, except 
where it is used instead of reduplication. This is a trace of 
its independent existence as having once been a separate 
Avord. In the older Sanskrit, for instance, it is separable from 
the verb, and (as in Homer) it may be omitted at pleasure.f 
This helps to account for the fact that Latin has lost all traces 
of a syllabic augment. 

82. Augment is of two kinds ; syllabic (avWafiiKi)), which 
adds the syllable e, and temporal (xponrii), which only in- 
creases the length of a vowel. 

The chief peculiarities in augments are as follows : 

1. In later Attic fiovXopai, cuva/iai, and (sometimes) piXXio 
make I'lfoovXa/Jt]!', i]lvra.^j]r, i'j^eXXor. 

2. The diphthongs e\ and ov are not augmented ; J the other 
diphthongs are augmented by giving the augment to the first 
vowel of the diphthong, and subscribing the second if it be i, 
as at pew, ijpovv, «i^«rw, 7/u£«ro»'. 

3. Ten verbs beginning with e take the augment ei. The 
commonest of them are : 

taw I permit, eitav. 
kXiaaw I roll, tiXiffffur. 
1\kvu) I drag, iiXkvov. 

iito/jch I follow, e'nrofirjv, 2?id aor. taxo/iT)*: 
kpyaZofxai I work, upya£d/o;i'. 
eVw / creep, ilpizor. 
tyu I have, tTx 01 ') - n< ^ aor - * ff X ''* 
We have also t'nrov, and eIXop. 

* Garnctt's Philolog. Essays, p. 206. He adduces analogous forms 
from many other languages. Buttmann's conjecture that it is a mutila- 
tion of the reduplicate prefix, and Bopp's that it is a relic of the nega- 
tive prefix, are justly exploded. 

f Max Midler, Sanskr. Gram. p. 1-i-i. 

f It is now generally believed that the diphthong ed can be aug- 

MOODS. 45 

4. p is doubled after an augment, as ptVrw, tpptitrov. 

5. A few verbs take both the temporal and syllabic aug- 
ment, as 

ofjau) impf. etipuv pf. swpaKa 
avoiyw ,, ari^yov „ avitpya 

Notice the pluperfects itpneivl seemed, tuATren' I lioped, icfpyeiy I did. 

6. In synthetic compounds, i.e. compounds "where the two 
parts are not separable, but are so fused together that they 
cannot exist as two separate words, the augment is placed at 
the beginning of the word, as in oi\oco/<£w wkv(i>jh]o-<i, Kadijuat 
&CU.6 »/ /uqi', eTvirrrajjai >)jrtflrro/.ii}J'. 

But where the compound is parathetic, i.e. where the two 
parts are separable, and are merely juxtaposed, the augment 
is put between them, as in irponQtpu), irpooetptpov ; and this is 
the case in most verbs compounded with prepositions. 

7. The augment, which is constantly omitted in Homer, is 
never omitted in Attic except in xi'V 1 ' ^ or l XW y * But there 
are a few words, ' qulbus augmentum non proponunt traglcl,' 
e.g. iivwya, Kade£6firiv, KaOripyi: Porson Pro?/, ad Hec. xvi. 
(He adds xaOtvlov, but see Veitch, Greek Verbs, p. 300.) 

MOODS ('EyKXiffe.e). 

83. The moods (modi) in Greek are: 1. The Indicative 
(bpiOTiKti tyKXimg). 2. The Subjunctive (v7rorai:rtKjj). 3. The 
Optative (evKrinfy. 4. The Imperative (irpooraKrticr/). Besides 
these, there are : 5. the Infinitive {arrapEficparo^) ; and G. the 
Participle (uero-^oc) ; but the two latter, including the verbal 
adjective in -rt'oc, are by modern grammarians usually treated 
as verbal nouns, and not as moods. 

Protagoras is said to have been the first to distinguish the 
different moods of verbs.f 

The first four of these moods are called personal, the latter 
impersonal, as having less formal reference to a subject. 

The nomenclature of the moods is far from perfect. ' The 
indicative, i.e. mood of declaration, is continually used where 

* Exclusive of prod 'elisions like those in (Ed. T. 1602, 1608, Hec. 387, 
there are only a few instances of an omission of the augment in tragedy 
at the beginning of lines in the speeches of messengers. And the 
augment is sometimes omitted in the pluperfect — usually so in the New- 
Testament. See "Winer's Gram. § xiii. 8. 

f See the authorities quoted in Donaldson, New Crai. p. 204, 2nd ed. 


no declaration is made, — in interrogatives for example, and in 
conditionals. The optative has very many uses with which 
the expression of a wish has no concern, and has moreover 
quite as good a claim to the title of subjunctive.' (Harper.) 

Verbs in -pi. 

84. There are two main classes of verbs, those in w, and 
those in pi. 

The former (verbs in w) are far the most numerous ; 
the latter are the oldest. That this is the case appears, 
because : 

1. The pronouns which formed all person-endings are least 
obliterated, and most easily recognisable in verbs in pi (see 
ante § 72); and besides, these person-endings are attached 
directly to the stem, as ea-ptr, hi-do-re, whereas the verbs in 
a) require a connecting vowel, as \v-o-pe)', rtpa-o-per. 

2. The verbs in pi contain the simplest roots, and involve 
the most elementary notions, as ' being,' ' going,' ' giving,' 
' saying,' ' placing,' &c. 

3. This form in pi is predominant in Sanskrit, and the 
oldest languages of the Indo-European family.""' 

85- Observe that : «. This form of conjugation is only 
found in a few tenses, — chiefly in the present, impf., and 2nd 
aor.; but 

(3. Traces of a similar form of conjugation appear, especially 
in the 2nd aorists, in many other verbs, as e/Snv I went, 'ilpav 
I ran, erXrjv I endured, etydijv I anticipated, <rx £ c hold ! the 
imperative of zayov, ka\u>v I ivas caught, iyvu)v I knew, the 
imperative w~iOi drink, and others. 

y. In Latin we find traces of it in inquam, sum, and in the 
endings of the 3rd person sing, (as, stat=i'<xra7-t, &c), and 
3rd pers. plur. (di&nt=Si$oiTi), &c. 

N.B. i. In the impeif. ridripi and cidupi follow the analogy 
of verbs in w, having eridovr, irideis, iridei, and icVcSour, tdtdovc, 
iSiEuv more usually than triOr/v, rjc, /y, and eStcwi', wc, to. 

ii. 'iaTvpi vuries in its tenses between a transitive and in- 

* The rarity of verbs in m is no argument against this conclusion ; 
for, when one form has been nearly superseded by another, the feeling 
of analogy works so powerfully in language that the few remaining 
specimens of the old form soon disappear; 'thus in Modern Greek even 
Sl5w/j.i, ridrifit have given way for 5i5a>, 8erw' 


transitive meaning : thus 'larrifii I place, 'larnv I was placing, 
oTijtTio I will place, e<7TTj<ra I placed ; earrjKa I stand, eurrfiiceiv I 

was standing, tan\v I stood. [Similarly from the present of 
the German verb ich stehe Ave get our transitive verb to stay, 
and from the perfect ich stand our intrans. verb to stand. 

iii. There are 3 aorists in kci, ldr)Ka I placed (pf. teOeiku), 
E$u)Ka I gave, 7]ku I sent (pf. flra). Whether these represent 
an older, or merely a modified form of the aorist is uncertain.* 
It is remarkable that they are used mainly in the singular, 
the second aor. being more common in the plural. On the 
varying use of first and second aorists, see the admirable 
Greek Verbs of Mr. Veitch, p. 46. 

Verbs in -w. 

86. The Dorians made the fut. mid. in ov/acli, hence the fol- 
lowing are called Doric futures : — 

TTiTrTu) fut. Trecrovf-iat 
nXaiio fut. KXavcrov/jiai (or o/icu)! 
irXiio fut. tvXevo~ov}.iui (or o/uai) 
■Kvibi fut. TrvavfTov/uai (or opai) 
<pEvyio fut. (psvlovfiai (or ojiai). 

87. Contracted futures like ko/jliui from koh'i^m I convey, 
ox£(!ci£u) I scatter, fut. oKehu>, teXeu) I accomplish, fut. teXu>, 
are called Attic futures.^ 

88. The following futures have no tense sign : — yiu I shall 
pour, tpui I shall say, ecJo/iru and <payoj.iai I shall eat, -rriofiai 1 
shall drink, viofiat I shall return, ei/ji I will go (compare the 
English ' I am going ( = 1 shall go) next week.' In fact the 
verb ' go ' involves a notion of futurity, § as when we are going 
to do a thing ; and as in ' The first said unto him, I go, Sir, 
and went not.'' 

* In tfveyKa, the borrowed aor. of (pepw, the <r has been lost ; as also 
in elvra, ex 6a > f fffffra , and Kzas from Kalco. 

f In English in the same way we often have two forms coexisting, as 
in swelled and swoll, chided and chode, hanged and hung, rang and 
rung, &c., but the tendency always is to give different meanings to them 
(i.e. to desynonymise them). We are more alive to these varieties of 
form assumed by the same tense in Greek, because wo have specimens 
of their language extending over the space ot hundreds of years. 

f A few rare dialectic forms like xevaw, irecpvpa-o/jLai, &c, are called 
JEolic futures. 

§ So in Spanish ' Nosotros nos vamos manana, y ellos salen el dia 
despues,' we go to-morrow, and they leave the next day. Delmar'a 
8pan. Gram. p. 139. See too Yeitch, Greek Verbs, p. 200. 


89. There are fourteen verbs in which the fut. rnid. has a 
passive meaning, partly for metrical reasons, partly because the 
flit, passive was not in use ;* such are 

\i'E,oj.iai I shall be said. 
fiurfitrofxaij arvyiiaofiai I shall be hated. 
itXhKTOfxai I shall be taken. 
up^ofiai I shall be ruled. 
kc'taofxai I shall be suffered. 
oiKrjao/jai I shall be inhabited. 
rif.uinoj.LaL I shall be honoured. 
aBiKri(TOf.iai I shall be injured. 
£riuuorTOfiai I shall be punished. 

90. The following verbs among others (especially denoting 
some bodily activity) use the fut. mid. in an active meaning. 
These verbs present an analogy to such verbs as se taire, s'en 
alter, &c, which are similarly reflective in form but not in 

(jicu), yfTOjjcu I shall sing. 

(ikovw, aKovtrcjxaL I shall hear. 

(i7ro\uvw, imoXuvaopuL I sJiall enjoy. 

ftaiiLd, iDiiaofjciL I shall go {Je m\w irai). 

•ytyrwflxw, yi'Lorropui / shall know. 

y£/\«w, y£\a(Toj.iai I shall laugh {.Je me rirai de). 

CL?parrxu>, ^paaofiaL I shall run. 

Oavfici^M, OavfiufTOfidL I shall ivonder {.Je ??i'etonnerai), 

6t}ui\lo, tiripaaopuL I shall hunt. 

k\e7ttio, KXi^ofiat I shall steal. 

aiyiao, myiiiropai silebo, I shall be still {Je vie tairai). 

(Tico7raLo, mLowqf7o/.Lai tacebo, J shall hold my tongue. 

mrovha^io, aKovCaaofiaL I shall be busy {Je m'^tudierai a).f 

91. The presents »/kw I have come, ol^nfiai J have gone, have 
a perfect meaning. 

The perfects «rwya I bid, tWa I seem, xixTripai I possess, 

* These verbs tend to prove the theory of the original identity of the 
passive and middle ; and the evolution of the passive out of tho middle, 
as is actually the case in the Scandinavian languages. A similar argii- 
ment might be deduced from the fact that several aorists middle have a 
passive sense, and aorists passive a middle sense, as SzeAe \6riv I conversed , 
■t]pvi\Qr\v I denied, &c. (Clyde's Gk. Syntax, p. 57.) In the New Tes- 
tament, airiKpi&T)v is constantly used in the sense of aTTfKpivdfirii: 

f A list of peculiarities like these, as well as of the commonest irre- 
gular verbs, nouns, &c, has been drawn up by the author, in a little 
card of three pages, for the use of the Harrow School. 


c,l<5a I know, novi, fiifirrifxai I remember ; memint, and some 
others, have a present meaning.* 

92. The four verbs £«w I live vet Yaw I hunger, on^tw I 
thi?-st, ")(pao[iat I use, contract into ?j not into a ; thus the 
infinitives are £?/r, veiviji; 2/i^jJv, ^prj/jdai,^ being contracted 
i'rem older forms of the infinitive c,aer, venae'v, &c. 

93. When a verb has tenses derived from several stems 
the reason is that originally several verbs were synonymous in 
meaning. Language at an early stage abounds in synonyms; 
but at a later period cannot be burdened with this superfluous 
exuberance, and either desynonymises the words (i.e. uses 
them to express different shades of meaning) or drops them 
altogether. Sometimes, as in the cases before us, it retains 
only one tense of a verb, dropping all the others. Thus the 
verbs <f>epw, (pn/J-i, rpe-^jo, bpciw, iadiuj, etc. borrow their tenses 
from other obsolete roots conveying a similar meaning. 

94. The irregular verbs are precisely those which the 
learner will encounter most frequently ; he can hardly read 
any page of Greek without finding some which are of constant 
occurrence. In truth, the irregularity of verbs is often due 
to their antiquity, and to the fact of their expressing con- 
ceptions so common as to be most liable to phonetic corruption 
from the wear and tear of language. Philologically speaking, 
too, such verbs are generally the most interesting, since their 
very peculiarities often reveal to us secrets respecting the 
growth and structure of language at which we might otherwise 
guess in vain. 

95. Verbs in aw, e'w, tva, lj/to-w, imply to be or to have that 
which the name signifies, as Kopaio I have long hair, (juXito I 
am a friend, cpoyevu) / am a murderer, v-vuhjgu) I am sleep- 

96. Causatives usually end in 6w, iC,w, 6£w, vvto, euVw, as 
ciovXow I make a slave, 7ro\efjii£oj / make war, Itp^o^ta I fit, 
ijdvi'u) I sweeten, an pair a> I signify, KoiKaivta I make hollow. 

* 'Rien n'est plus facile que d'expliquer cette irregularite apparente; 
dvrjffKoi je meurs, rlQvriKa. j'ai souffert la moil ; done, je suis mort; j'acquiers, Kenrripai j'ai acquis ; done, je possede.' — Burriouf, 
Gr. Gram. § 254. 

f The infinitive of these contrnet verbs should not have the iota sub- 
script, as they have in many editions ; ra. els uv airape^cpara ovk ex et T0 ' 
irpoayeypa.ixfj.ivov • '6ri to. els v \Jiyovra prifxara ovoeirore ex et itph tov v ti 
av(K<j>6vriTov. — Etym. Magn. See Viger, Idiot, p. 220. 



97. When a noun gives rise to several derivative forms they 
differ in meaning, as 

w(i\e fxuu) I make hostile,* I am at war, iroXefii^uj 

I make Avar. 
rrXcvriu) I am rich, ttXovti^uj I enrich. 
covXou) I enslave, dovXevio I am a slave. 
bpfxia) I lie at anchor, oppi^w I bring to anchor (bppau) 1 

stir up, is from a different root). 
piTTTU) jacio I throw, piwrw jacto I boast, pnrra^u) I throw 


98. Frequentatives usually end in «4'w, i£u>, vliu), as arera^w, 
u)di£u), zpirv£io. 

99. Inceptives in anw,^ as fjflaorKw juve7iesco, yrjpaaita) senesco, 
litdvaKii) I begin to make drunk, &c. 

ICO. Desideratives in aeuo, as yeXairEiw 7 <z?ra inclined to 
laugh, cpnaeiio I want to do, TroXepi]o-eiw I should like to go to 
war, kpycLTeito I long to work ; cf. esurio, parturio, &c. 

Obs. i. The inceptive form ajcw has the same iterative mean- 
ing as the Epic substitution of (tkov for the augment, e.g. 
Clv£vz(tke for icireve, yoacujKtv for lyoa. 

ii. The desiderative form tretw is probably ' an old future in 
-atiu), of which the corresponding aorist is found in the so- 
called iEolio aorist optative in <7£ia,' as Tv\peia.1[ 


101. There are two kinds of compounds, Synthetic and Para- 

It is a curious and interesting fact that in Aryan languages the de- 
termining 'word always precedes ; in Semitic languages, where however 
compounds of any kind are rare, the determining word is always suf- 
fixed ; e.g. compare Newtown, Neapolis with Carthage ; J5«j-Yakoub 
with Jacobson, &c. See Families of Speech, Lect. iii. 

102. i. Parathetic compounds are formed by the mere 
juxtaposition of two separate words, as I'avatKXvrog famous 
for ships (ravtrl /cXuroc), yaa-pipapyog greedy, Kvioaarfpa the 
dog's tomb, &c. 

* Where a verb has two forms, one in 6w and one in iw, the former is 
usually transitive, the latter neuter; e.g. -noXifiovv to make an enemy of, 
troXe/nelv to be at war. 

f Some verbs in tdu have a quasi inceptive meaning, as ihiyyidui I 
grow dizzy, KeXaividu I grow black, wxpidw I grow pale, &c. 

I See New Cratylus, § 386. 


English is very rich in these parathetic compounds. Ben Jonson in 
his quaint grammar (1640) says, 'in which kind of composition our 
English tongue is above all other very handy and happy, joyning together 
after a most eloquent manner sundry words of every kind of speech.' 
But he confuses such parathetic compounds as mill-horse, hp-wise, cut- 
purse, with such synthetic compounds as notwithstanding, nevertheless, 
&c. One of his instances, twy-light, has since become the synthetic 

ii. The commonest class of parathetic compounds in Greek 
is furnished by the junction of verbs with prepositions, hence 
these compounds admit of tmesis, as Kara iriova fji'ipi EKrjar, or 
Ik di. ol i]v'io\riQ 7r/\)/y>/ (ppivag ; this tmesis is found, though 
rarelv, even in Attic, as ek 8' ijvd (Soph. Tr. 565), Ik c'e ttj/c//- 
aac (Eur. Bee. 1172). See too Ant. 420, 427, 432. 

Sometimes even, in Homer, the preposition follows, as 

£Vapi£oy U~ EVTEU. 

iii. Yet merely parathetic as the compound is, a verb is often entirely 
altered in meaning by the preposition with which it is compounded ; 
e.g. yiyvucrkw is I know, but avayiyvwcntai I read ; Kar ay ly vwctko} I con- 
demn, iinyiyvdxTKa) I decide, fxnayiyvuaKu I change my mind, avyyiy- 
fiicrKa I pardon. Hence such a sentence as 'Aveyveos a\\' ovk iyvas' ei 
yap eyvcos ovk av Kariyvm, you read it but did not understand ; for 
had you understood you would not have condemned. 

So, too, a.KovQ} I hear ; inaxovu) I overhear ; inraKovco I answer the door; 
elcraKovw I obey; Trapaitovw I mishear, &c 

103. Synthetic compounds consist of elements which are 
not separable, but have been modified before being moulded 
into one organic whole, as fieya\68o£oc, iravropiar)Q. 

104. i. Adjectives and nouns in composition usually assume 
their crude form, as tvoXvttovc, fieyaXoTroXie, and if any con- 
necting vowel be needed, o is generally used, as in Trarpoicr6voe t 

ii. This o is not contracted if the second part of the word 
originally began with a digamma, as in firjvoeih'iQ, SpdoEirijc, 


iii. Some synthetic compounds are however joined by the 
letter 77, as qKbrjcpopog, eXatprjpuXoc, ucnricr)<p6poe, davurrjipopoc, 
oTE(pai>r)<p6poc. This may possibly have arisen from a desire to 
avoid the concurrence of short syllables, since side by side 
with these forms we find t,i(poKr6roc, eXckjioktovoq, air-ido(j>Epiio>i', 


105. In these compounds both words are generally signifi- 
cant, as in ^vyrjfopog. Sometimes however one half is 
merely poetical and ornamental, as in fioroo-n-qirTpog Opovog, 
yivva drfXvo-iropoc, avi)p 0164 wroc. And frequently one half of 

d 2 


the word lias become superfluous, and lost all its meaning, the 
entire compound being only accepted in some secondary sense, 
as /jnv6\lir]<poj> £/<poc a single (-voting) sword, oi6<ppwi' nerpa a 
lonely (-minded) rock, Ittttoic6/ioq tcauriXwv a (horse-) groom of 
camels, riKrap kiovoyjki, &c. So in Sanskrit aqwa-go-sht'hct 
a horse cow-stall, and even go-go- slit' ha a cow-cow-stall.* 

N.B. i. Notice that \t0o/3oAog=pelted; XidojouXos — pelting ; 
^r?7-po^Toroc=killed by his mother; pjrjOo/vToroe = matricide. 

ii. Compounds of ipya'CofiaT, if they imply bodily action 
only are oxytone, as'XiOavpyog, upirskovpyoQ ; but on the other 
hand we have Travovpyog, Kcacovpyoc, irepitpyoq, &c, implying 
moral action. 

106. Latin has to a great extent lost — perhaps by contact 
with some aboriginal language — the rich power of composition 
possessed by Sanskrit and by Greek. ' Faciliore ad duplicanda 
verba Gra?co sermone.' — Liv. xxvii. 11. Even in historical 
times we can trace something of the loss. Virgil, for instance, 
has no compound words to compare with the 'Ubi cerva silvi- 
cultrix ubi aper nemorivagus ' of Catullus. 

107. It is an important and almost invariable law in Greek 
that a verb never occurs as a synthetic compound except as 
derived from some other synthetic compound. ' Verba non 
possunt nisi per Jlexuram quondam cum aliis orationis partibus 
prater prrepositiones consociari,' observes Lobeck. In other 
words, ' a verb, without losing its nature, can only be com- 
pounded with a preposition. When any other word is to be 
compounded with a verbal stem a noun is first formed of the 
two, and then a verb is derived from the noun.' Hence such 
words as XiOofiaXXto, iTnrorpicjxi), vavpa\opai, evTvy^pveiv, 
UtTpio-xtKTxtir, &c, would be simple monstrosities in Greek ; 
the only admissible forms being XiOofioXtio (from the inter- 
mediate substantive XiOnfjoXoc,), ixiroTpocpEu) (from livTrurpocpog), 
vavpa-^EW (from ravpa^nc^), evtv^eu) (from tiri/y^c), fierpioird- 
OeIv (from /.lETpioiradrjg). 

108. Apparent violations of this rule are either wrong read- 
ings or the result of carelessness, as in Euripides ov ru(ro(pE~ii>, 
SvadirjrritEir, aTciEioSpai.iovf.iai, KaKofjovXEvdslaa. The latter 
however should be (TracLocpofj/jnu) (Here. F. 8G3), KaKoftov\r r 
dEltra (Ion, 8G7), and were probably altered by some ignorant 

* See Pott, Ziihhnethode, p. 127. I have collected many other in- 
stances in my Chapters on Language, p. 217, and may add 'brass fire- 
irons,' ' tin shoe-horns,' ' wooden mile-stones,' &c. 

' TELEGRAM.' 53 

In the N. Test, we have tvcoKtlv to be well pleased; aud 
KapaSotcsiu to expect earnestly is found in some writers. Even 
Scaliger had seen that such a verb as tvayyeXXu) is not Greek, 
' nam to ev teal tci crrepnriKa /.lopia componuntur non cum verbis 
sed cum nominibus.' The careless violation of analogy in the 
Zvadvqtrica) of Euripides (Rhes. 791, El. 834) may be due to 
the metrical impossibility of tivadavarito ; yet in any other 
dramatist we should have been more surprised to find it.* 

109. The same rule applies to abstract substantives. Com- 
pounds like XidojjuXi}, ravfxayri, evirpa£ie would be impossi 
bilities in Greek ; the substantive must receive a derivative 
ending as XiOofioXia, vavfiajfia, el-pat,ia. 

110. Hence the word 'telegram' is a monstrosity, — ' a spot 
of barbarity impressed so deep on the English language that 
criticism never can wash it away.' From the words tjjXe and 
ypcKJxo might have been formed the substantive rnXeypatpoc, 
and then through the verb TnXeypiKJjtu) the abstract substan- 
tive telegraph em e.\ ' Telegram ' violates the laws of Greek 
synthesis, and if it meant anything, could only mean ' a letter 
at a distance.' It must be regarded as a convenient English 
hybrid ; and unfortunately many English hybrids are by no 
means convenient. It is said that we owe many of them, and 
this among the number, to the French. 

* New Cratylus, p. 624. For a list of other careless peculiarities of 
Euripides, see Bernliardy, Gricchisclie Syntax, s. 14. 

t Cf. from (<pov and ypdtyoo, faypdfos, £uiypa<f>4w, and then ^uypd/prf/M 
a painting. Plat. Phil, 39 n. 



1. i. Syntax (cruvra^tQ, construction arrangement) gives the 
rules for expressing or arranging sentences. 

ii. The syntax of a language is not elaborated till late. 
There could not be said to be such a thing as Greek grammar 
till the Alexandrian epoch. Suetonius tells us that the first 
Greek grammar was brought to Rome by Crates Mallotes, the 
ambassador of King Attalus, between the second and third 
?unic wars. 

iii. In the grammar of any language there must be a great 
deal which is common to it with every other language, and 
which must necessarily arise from the fundamental resemblance 
between the intelligence of different races. The points in 
which a language differs from others are called its idioms 
(i(5iw/mru or peculiarities). Some such idioms are isolated or 
unproductive ; others form a starting-point for many similar 
phrases, and may be called paradigmatic (see Craik, Engl, of 
Shakespeare, p. 203). 

2. When a sentence, however short, offers a complete sense, 
it is called a proposition (civtotf.Xi)c Xoyog oratio), i.e. an ex- 
pression of judgment. 

3. A sentence must consist of three parts — 
a. The subject, or thing spoken of. 

j3. The predicate, i.e. what is stated of the subject. 

y. The copula,* some separate verb expressed or under- 
stood, or some lingual contrivance to express the mental act 
which connects the subject and predicate. 

N.B. i. As both the copula and subject are often understood, or merely 
implied in the termination of a verb, a sentence may be expressed in 
Greek and Latin by a single word, as Set, fSpovrq, (creiae, aa\Tri£<=i, it rains, 
it thunders, there is an earthquake, the trumpeter is blowing. In Eng- 
lish and most modern languages, at least two words are required, since, 
owing to the analysing tendency, we express the pronouns even when 
they are unemphatic. 

* The copula belongs however rather to logic than to syntax; in 
Greek it is constantly omitted. Thus ayaObs 6 avr/p means ' the man is 
good,' but we in English must express the ' is,' to give any meaning. 
On the supposed necessity of this copula, see Origin of Language, 
p. 104 seqq. 


ii. Most forms of the finite verb make a sentence, containing these 
three parts e.g. rvirTco means ' I {subject) am {copula) striking {predi- 

iii. "Whatever may be the length of a simple sentence (i.e. a sentence 
that contains but one finite verb), it can always be reduced to these three 
parts, all other words being accessory either to the subject or the predi- 
cate ; e.g. The virtuous and happy old man lived in peace and prosperity ; 
here ' the virtuous, &c. man ' is the subject, 'was' is the copula, ' living 
in,' &c, is the predicate. 

iv. A compound sentence (i.e. a sentence that has more than one finite 
verb in it) may contain many simple sentences which are called its 

v. Clauses are either coordinate, i.e. of equal importance with the 
main sentence, as ' Alexander conquered Darius, and died young ' {trapa- 
ra^is) ; or subordinate, as ' Alexander collected an army that he might 
conquer' {vw6Ta£ts). 

THE ARTICLE ('Apdpov)* 

4. The Article 6, >/, to, was originally a demonstrative pro- 
noun, which also served as a personal pronoun ; as in 
Homer — 

fOiaei ae to gov fxivoq that courage of thine will ruin 

thee.j - 
ti)v iyw ov Xvo-oj her I will not set free. 
At)tovq teal Aio> vlog' 6 yap ftamXfj'i yoXw&ete '-'•'".A. the 

son of Leto and of Zeus ; for he angry with the king, 

we £<j>ar' eh^Eiaev F 6 yiptau' So said he; but he, the old 

man, feared. 

N.B. In this last, and in similar instances, 6 is not an 
article,^: but a pronoun in apposition, as in ' The Lord, He 
is the God.' 

' My banks, they are furnished with bees.' — Shenstone. 

* The word &p8pov in this sense is first found in Aristotle, Poet. xx. 
It means 'a joint' or ' limb' ; see Egger, Apollon. Byscol. pp. 112, 118. 

t The to in this and similar examples merely adds to the emphasis, 
and is like the use of the Latin ' ille ' before possessive pronouns, as ille 
tuus pater,' that father of yours; it is retained in the Romance lan- 
guages, — as HI mio cavallo,' &c. It is a constant Spanish idiom to xise 
the article in a demonstrative sense as a personal pronoun, as ' El que es 
sabio ' he (lit. the) that is wise. 

\ In some instances however this demonstrative is, even in Homer, 
to all intents and purposes an article ; e.g. 11. vii. 412, xii. 289, rb Si 
t€?x os v ne P Trw Sovttos bp&pei, &c. Apollonius Dyscol. Synt.'i. 31. But 
these instances are not numerous ; and on the other hand it is often 


5. Even when 6, ?/, to had developed into a definite article 
(like our ' the '), it was used as a demonstrative ;* as 

toil yap kcu yivoc sopiv, 'for we are also his offspring.' 

— Aratus, quoted in Acts xvii. 28. 
7,-po 7oi>, before this (German ehedeni). 
■?] roiatv 7/ toIq noXeftoy cupeaOai to take up war against 

these or those, 
oi iv atrTEi those in the city. 

6. Especially with various particles, as fiir, St, i:al, &c. 
£/3\aJ/£ fie 6 c~e~wa to cat to 7rotrjcrac so and so injured me 

doing this and that (or doing such and such a thing). 
Kai fioi kuXci top kcu tov now call me so and so. 
ol fiiv edav/ja^oy, oi ce ej36w)' some were in astonishment, 

others were shouting. 

7. This demonstrative pronoun (6, >"/, ro) also served origin- 
ally for the relative (oc i) o),"j" with which it is most closely 
connected. In fact og te not Sc means ' who ' in Homer (et 
is=qui) ; or, in other words, language originally states 
co-ordinately what was afterwards made subordinate. 

t'tAXa 7a j-Ltv 7ro\/an' iit-paQo^iEv rh cibarrrai the things 
which we sacked from the cities those tilings have been 
divided.—//, i. 125. 

(TIip example is a curious one because it is, I believe, the only instance 
in which Homer puts the relative before the antecedent.) 

This usage continued in Ionic, and even in Attic, as 

7a fxev 'Oravrig eItte . . . \e\e\6oj ca/joi ravra the things 

which Otanes said, &c. 
cWAjj fir'iortyi, t))v" Aptjg cpi\E~i (iEsch. Ag. 612), with the 

double scourge, which Ares loves. 

It is even continued in Modern Greek, as to. <p4pvei rj &pa what an hour 
brings. (Clyde.) 

8. i. Possibly og fj to was the original form of this demon- 
strative, and the c was dropped because (e.g.) o(c) ayadoQ avi)p 
would not sound well ; just as in German we have der gute 

omitted where an article is required, as vr)\Js 5e p.oi ijS' %<xTt]Ktv iir' &ypoo 
vocrcp) 7ro\^os far from the city. 

&\Aoi /xeV fa 6col re Ka\ avepes the rest of gods and men. 

* Similai-ly, in Hebrew H was originally demonstrative, and occa- 
sionally retains its demonstrative force, as in D I-"* H this day. 

f ' Thus too in English the demonstrative that has come to be also a 
relative.' — Clyde, Gr. Spit. p. 9, 


Mann, not tier gute(r) Mann, because the grammatical instinct 
■would have been offended by the conscious repetition of the 
pronoun (which wan felt, though not recognised) in der guter. 
See Breal, Bopp, ii. § 281. "()c in Attic is still demonstrative 
in the phrases ko\ oq and he, 7/ c bg said he, &c. 

ii. In i'act the use of an article with the nominative is an 
unconscious pleonasm, due to the obliteration of the nominatival 
termination. The nominative termination is derived from sets 
the Sanskrit article : many ages afterwards the Greeks used 
this same article under the form 6 to accompany and define 
the nominative. This double process of obliteration and re- 
production in language has already been illustrated in § 105. 
See Breal, Bopp, ii. xxxvii. 

9. "We see then that the article, the demonstrative, and the 
relative are merely developments of one and the same form.* 
This is illustrated by the tact that — 

o. There is no article in Latin in which Itic and Me serve 
the same purpose, when anything very definite is wanted. 
' Noster sermo articulos non desiderata says Quinctilian (Instt. 
Or. i. iv. 19). It must however be admitted that the article 
if unnecessary is at any rate very convenient. So far from 
being, as J. C. Scaliger called it, ' otiosum loquacissimce gentis 
instmmentum,' 1 it adds to language a most desirable precision. f 

* In fact they are all three simply determinative adjectives. DuMeril, 
Form, de la Langue franc, p. 60. 

f Duclos cites, as instances of the precision attainable by the use of 
articles, the sentences — 

a. Charles est fils de Louis 
£. — unfits — 

„ y. — I e fits — 

Here a. expresses the general fact ; )3. shows that Charles has brothers , 
y. shows that Charles is an only son. Here then one may see both the 
desirability of the article, and the absurdity of Scaliger's remark, 'Dis- 
pleased with the redundance of particles in the Greek, the Romans 
extended their displeasure to the article, which they totally banished ! ' 
Prof. Trithen observes that his arrogant dictum ' Articulus nobis nullus, 
ct GrcBcis superjhius' is much as if he had said ' There are no Alps in 
England; they exist in Switzerland, but they are superfluous.' (Trans. 
of the ThUolog. Soc. 1850, p. 11.) Moreover, colloquial Latin in all 
probability did use the pronouns as definite articles, and the numeral as 
an indefinite article ; hence such phrases as Terence's ' Forte unam 
aspicio adolescentulam.' — Andria, i. i. 91 ; cf. Plaut. Most. iv. 3. 9. This 
is an instance of one of ' those instincts of clearness which anticipate 
grammatical development.' For other methods by which the Latin 
makes up for its want of an article, see Nagelsbach, Lateinische Stylistik, 

d 3 


(3. The article has been developed by the llornance lan- 
guages (i.e. those derived from Latin) out of the demonstrative 
pronoun Me, as : 

In French le, la, les. 

In Italian il, lo, la, i, gli, 

In Spanish el, la, los, las 

In Wallachian lu, a ; le, i. 

In Sanskrit the article did not exist, the demonstrative sas, sa, tat 
being used instead (as in Latin) ; nor does it occur in Sclavonic and 

y. The same three iises of the article (as article, demon- 
strative, and relative) are found in German, as Der Mensch, 
den (relative) ich befreundete, der (demonstrative) hat 's gethan, 
the man whom I befriended, he has done it (Clyde). The 
demonstrative der has been applied as a definite article, just 
as the Anglo-Saxon ' poet ' has become 'the.' Similarly, in 
many languages, the indefinite article a or an (the Scotch ane) 
has been developed out of the numeral one. An for one is 
first found in Layamon's Brut, and at one time they seem to 
have been used almost interchangeably, e.g. ' The Owl and 
the Nightingale ' (a.d. 1250) line 6, ' An hule and one night- 
ingale.' Probably in later Greek the numeral was used in- 
definitely, cf. Matt. xxi. 14, tdiov avKijv jdiav kiri tt/c odov. 

Chief Uses of the Article. 

10. The Greek article (as in English) either (i.) specifies 
and individualises, as — 

6 /3ovc ietyuyQi) the ox (which you know of) has been 
killed ; 

Or (ii.) generalises, i.e. represents an individual as belong- 
ing to a class — 

6 fiove C^ov \pr](riixb)Tar6v tort the ox is a most useful 
Both uses exist in modern languages. Thus, in German, Der Mensch 
ist sterblich man is mortal ; in Spanish, El caballo es animal noble the 
horse is a noble animal, &c. 

* See Clyde's Gr. Syntax. In Wallachian (as in Basque) the article 
is suffixed, just as ille may follow its word in Latin, as ochiul for ochiu il, 
Mtcsc'ei for Mused lei. (Du Meril, p. 362.) It has also formed the 
articles aquestu, aquelu, from hie iste, hie ille. In the Romance lan- 
guages the article, still constantly retains its demonstrative force, as in 
Spanish, ' Mis libros y los que el tiene,' my books and the which he has; 
Los de vuestra nacion,' those of your nation ; in French, ' "Lq roi 1$ 
reut,' the king wills it, de la sorte, a ^instant memo, &c. 


11. In the latter case we often use our indefinite article a, 
an, as — 

ra ar)fj.iia tov awoaroXov the signs of an apostle. — 2 Cor. 
xii. 12. 

ovhi. , . . TiBiatriv avrov inro tov uoSiov c'tAAa stvI rrjv 
\v%i'iav they do not put it under a bushel but on a 
candlestick. — Mt. v. 15. 

del tov (TTparttorr)}' tov apyovra fope'iadcu a soldier should 
fear his general. 

12. The article is only used "with proper names* when they 
have been previously mentioned, or to call special attention to 
them, as 6 Swvpar^e ; but not generally if any designation is 
added, as HwnparriQ o (bikdaofoQ, QovKvdiErjQ 6 'Adrjvcuoc, Kpo'taoQ 
6 tG)v Avhb)v joacrtXevQ. So in Southern Germany Der Johann 
(the John, i.e. our servant John) soil das Pferd bringen is to 
bring the horse. And we talk of the O'Donoghue, the Chis- 
holm, &c. (Clyde.) In French this is common when names 
are used familiarly, as ' la Tagiioni,' &c. 

Our non-usage of the article with proper names leads to the style of 
deeds, &c, with their troublesome addition of ' the said,' ' the aforesaid,' 
&c. ' This tedious repetition which clogs and encumbers the style of 
our writs so much would be saved if we used the article in the way the 
Greeks do, and the style -would be as well-connected as it is without 
such gouty joints, to use an expression of my Lord Shaftesbury's.' — 
Monboddo, Orig. of Lang. ii. 57. 

13. Words signifying objects of which only one exists, are 
used as proper names, and need take no article, as fiao-iXevQ 
the king of Persia,f kv do-rei ' in town,' ki> ayopa at market, 
Iffj tiakaaot] at sea, vvktoq by night, &c. Hence ijXiog, yf], &c. 
and the names of virtues and vices are often anarthrous. 

14. The article distinguishes the subject from the predicate, 

fiaaiXEvc eyirero to izTwyjipiov the beggar became a king. 

* Names of places are expressed very variously with the article, as 
6 TroTafxbs 5 Eu<ppdrT]s the river Euphrates ; y Atrvri to opos Mount ^Etna ; 
Yldpvys to opos Mount Parnes; Si/ceAi'a y vyaros Sicily; y ttSAis ol Tapo~oi 
the city of Tarsus, &c. The common order however is 6 Ei^ppdrys Trora/j.6s 
the river Euphrates ; y BoA/3y hifivy the lake Bolbe; to AlyaAeccu opo* 
Mount JEgaleum ; y QeairpwTls 777 the Thesprotian land ; y AyAos vyaos 
the isle of Delos. The substantive and proper name are really in apposi- 
tion, and a similar collocation is not uncommon in English poetry, as 
'This great Oxus stream,' 'famous London city,' &c. 

f The king of Persia was called fiaffiAevs king, or /3. 6 piyas, but not 
6 /3., e.g. 01 izp6yovoi ol /3ao"iA.e'«s. 


rii£ tj ijfiipa iyivtro day was turned into night. 
Qtoc i)v 6 Aoyoc the Word was God. 

The .same rule holds in Hebrew and English. There is a strange 
violation of it in Milton's 

' Light the day and darkness night, he named,' 
where Bentley reads ' the Light. Day.' 

15. Often Greek (like French) uses the article where we 
use the possessive pronoun ;* as 

(iAyw ri]y KtfaXi)}' j'ai mal a la tete, my head aches. 
6 [3aai\ivQ nvv to) (Trpare.ii j.iaTi the king with his army. 
i\ti o^elg tovq 6<pQaXfiovQ his eyes are sharp (compare the 

French il a les yeux beaux, and the Italian egli ha la 

vista acuta). 

16. You may say in Greek either ayadbg uvijp, or dn/p 
ayados for a good man ; but ' the good man ' (and every 
similar collocation) must be in Greek in the same order as the 
English : 

6 ayaOuc arijp the good man, 

or which is equally correct but more pleonastic 6 ayijp 6 


17. The attributive genitive follows the same order, as fj Qefj.i<TTOK\4ovs 
apeTT) or 7) apery] QefiiaroKAeovs, 6 'A6r)vaiwv drj/ios or 6 $r)ixos 5 ' ' A9r)>i> ; 
and this holds true no matter how many intermediate words are inter- 
posed, as in 

t6 ttjj tov ^alvomos re'x^s tpyov the work of the wool-earder's art. 
r) tuv to. ttjs Tr6\ioos Trpdyfiara irpaTrSvrwv apeTT] the virtue of our 

In phrases like 'my mother,' ' thy word,' the order is r) ipr) pA\T7]p, or 
i] nr)rrip fj.ov, 6 ads Aoyos, or (5 \6yos ffov. 

N.B. — The attributive genitive must have the article, if the noun on 
which it depends has it, unless there be some special reason to the con- 
trary, as 

i) tov ytapyov 8d£a the husbandman's opinion. 

to tt)s optTTjs k&AAos the beauty of virtue. 

18. But if the adjective, when it occurs with a substantive 
and article, is placed either first or last, it becomes a predicate ; 
as : 

uyaOoc 6 ai'i)p good (is) the man. 

6 ariip ityaOoQ the man (is) good. 

So in Chinese ngo-jin=& bad man ; hnt jin-ngo = \\iq man is bad. 

* ' The Greek article here denotes that the subject has a definite kind 
*>f property it is known to possess.' — Winer, in. § xviii. 2. 


19. This must be specially noticed in all the cases; thus: 
ol Xoyoi xpevci'tg iXi-^Oqvay not ' the false words ' but ' the 

■words spoken' were falsa. 
6 fiavriQ rovg \6yov£ iptbhlg Xiyei the words which the 
prophet utters are false. 

20. The last example is an instance of what Dr. Donaldson 
calls a tertiary predicate, which assumes or anticipates the 
existence of another predicate, and must therefore be often 
rendered by a separate sentence, as : 

oEvv 'i-^ei tov tt£\ekvi' the axe ivhich he has is sharp. 
apxaia -a AapdaKtiav o'itwi' vpwpat irfiftara the woes of 

the Labdacidas ivhich I see are ancient. 
SnrXa 3' erterdv Oafiapria the penalty ivhich they paid was 

ov yap pavavaov t>]v ri\yr]V EKTrjaapnqv for the art which I 

acquired is no mean one. 

Notice the position of the adjective and article in the fol- 
lowing sentences : 

atyiiaav rijv Zokov \aXapaiq ralg uXvgmtl they let down 

the beam with the chains loosened. 
iviwpnaav rag oKi]vac ipijpovcthey burned down the tents, 

deserted as they were. 
lev-frd}] 6^,vx"Xog iralg 6 Apuavrac the son of Dryas, because 

he was keen in wrath, was bound. 
Kavravtf 6 -Kaiq dvarnrog ovr oovpfiariav sXeittet' olh'er and 

thereupon the boy, unhappy as he ivas, was neither 

lacking in lamentations, &c. 

21. Sometimes the law of the position of the article appears 
to be violated, as in 

y.-nff 6 Xvpeiby epic nor he who is my outrager. — Soph. 

Aj. 572. 
Zevg a v ytrrj'/rwp t.pog Zeus who is my father. — Eur. 

Hipp. 683. 
T&piriyavov iroinrrag kpbv paKog you've made my dress a 

rag. — Theocr. xxvii. 58. 

In all these instances probably the true reading is epoi* 
(New Crat. p. 487). Some editors however think that the 
possessive is emphatic, and content themselves with the re- 
mark, ' Articuli collocatio valde inusitata.'' 

* Possibly however the ifx&s is added as an afterthought. 


22. The following examples will illustrate the chief pecu- 
liarities of the article : 

i. dig rov fiijvbe twice a month. 

Tpia iiididapeixa rov fiijrbg rw (rrparioirr] three half darics 

a month to each soldier. 
dpa)(jj))y r>7c »V' £ /'"-' a drachma a day. 

This is called the distributive use of the article ; Clyde 

compares the German, Zweimal den Monat, and the Italian 

due volte il rnese ; so too in French, un franc la bouteille, &c. 

ii. ovtoq 6 avrfp* this man. 

EKtiroe u Xo-yog that argument. 

ijde i] yt'wfiri this opinion. 

eKaffTr] i) a/>x') each kingdom ; or, which is equally correct 

though less emphatic, 6 avfjp ovmc, // yvuifxr} rjde, &c. ; 

but 6 must never immediately precede ovtoc, itcelvoe, 

ode, eicaa-roQ, eKaTepug ; preceding avrog it means ' the 

same," 1 as : 

6 avrog avQpuTtog the same man ;*j" (homo idem). 

but 6 ardpwTTog avrog } , , ■, . , e /i \ 

, < r , „ n >the man himselt : (homo ipse), 

avrog o aropioTTog ) » \ x- / 

iii. Notice the difference made by the article in the following 
phrases : 

rpiaxovra thirty, ol Tpiatcovra the thirty (tyrants). 
evdeKa eleven, ol evfteica the eleven (executioners). 
oXiyoi few, ol oXiyoi the oligarchy. 
■nXeiovg more, ol -n-Xeiovg the majority; sometimes = the 

dead (cf. ' abiit ad plures '). 
iroXXoi many, ol ttoXXoi most, the mob. 
aXXoi others, ol ciXXoi the rest. 
iravra oem ten of each, ra travra deKa ten in all. 
dvo pipr) two parts, ra dvo nipt) two thirds. 
aXXt] x w 'p a another land, »/ aXXri \u>pa, the rest of the 

di'ct ivaaav fjuipav every day, ava iraaav rt)y fjuipav all 

day long. 
7rd<ra TroXig every city, irdca i/ iroXig or »/ ivaaa noXig the 

whole city. J 

* When ovtos, iiceivos, &c, are used without the article, they are in 
apposition, as To.vrt\v ex el T *X V7 \ V he has this as an art ; tovtcji TrapaSei- 
•yixcni xp&V-*vos using this as an example. 

f ainos, aurf], t<xvt6 or ravrou, are used for 6 avrSs, ?; avrfi, rb avr6. 

I The difference between 6 wus and 7rSs- 6 is much the same as that 


c'ovXoc e/uoq a slave of mine, 6 ip.bc c~oi/Xoc that slave of 

tajfarov -6 opog the farthest part of the mountain, ro 

ttrvarov opoc the farthest mountain. 
)'/ f-iivii ttoXiq the middle city, perrr] !j jroX/g or i/ ttOXlq 

piari the middle of the city, 
ro txiaov 7f7y_oe the middle wall, piaov t6 reiyot; the 

middle of the wall. 
7o7e ciicpoiQ irocriv with the loes, I'ikouic rolg Troatr on tiptoe. 
(3a(7t\ev(i)v 6 Kvpug Cyrus when he was king, Kvpoc, 6 

fiaai\evu)v Cyrus, who is king, 
-o tca\dv the beautiful, 7a taXa things beautiful. 

23. The article can turn any infinitive into a substantive : 

-X^aopai 70 Kardaveiv I will endure to die. 
70 \iyetv speaking, ~ov XiyEiv of speaking, &c. 

So our ' to ;' as 

' To err is human, to forgive divine ' 

(like the Italian ilpeccare. Clyde) ; and even in oblique cases, 
as Spenser's 

' For not to have been clipped in Lethe's stream 
Could save the son of Thetis from to die.' 1 

24. Observe the phrases ol iraw* the elite, 6 cul k-po-wi' the 
king for the time being, ol iraXai the men of old, 76 avpirav 
on the whole, tuXXu for the rest, 7a ttoXXo. for the most part, 
tu pdXirrra in the highest degree, -6 ett' ipol for my part, 7a 
a/ro tovIe henceforth, to aoen) the word ' virtue.' 

between ' the -whole ' and ' all the ;' i.e. the difference is almost inap- 
preciable. "We might say that 6 was, like the Italian tutto, meant an 
indivisible whole ; and that was 6, like ogni, was a distributive whole ; 
— but in point of fact 60^/4 orders are used in the same clause, as waai 
toTs Kpurals koL toIs Oearais Tram. — Ar. Av. 444. was = omnis ; awavres = 
cuncti (i.e. conjuncti) ; avfj.wavres = v.niversi, all by common consent ; 
'4\os = totus. — Donaldson, Lat. Gr. p. 79. 

* This adjectival use of adverbs is not unknown in Elnglish ; e.g. 

'My sometime daughter.' — King Lear, Act i. sc. i. 
' Mild innocence 
A seldom comet is.' — Bonne. 

' They hoped for a soon and prosperous issue.' — Sidney. ' The then Par- 
liament voted,' &c. Even in Latin, though it has no definite article, we 
find such phrases as ' discessu turn meo.' by my then departure. Cic. Pis 
ix. 21 ; ' ipsorum deorum scepe prsesentise,' the frequent presences of the 
gods, &c— Cic. Be Nat. Beor. 11. lxvi. 166 ; Nagelsbach, Lat. Styl. § 75 


kv rolg irpu>Toi=zomnium primi. — Thuc. i. 6. 
£j' to~iq -nXe'iarai quite the most. 

to and to 6e sometimes=therefore (at the beginning of 
. sentences). 

to rwro" tvvovi' the good will of these ; cf. (Ed. Col. 
8, 579, &c, vide § 38. 

N.B. Before we leave the article, it is worthy of notice that 
in such phrases as ' the more they have, the more they desire,' 
we use 6'o-w, tu(tov-(o, and in Latin quo, eo. Here ' the ' in 
English is not an article at all, but a corruption of the Ger- 
man je. 


25. The rules for the three concords are the same in Greek 
as in Latin. The numerous violations of them which are 
given below are nearly all self-explaining, and arise from the 
fact that the Greeks being an extremely quick race, often 
allowed the sense to overrule the grammar, or substituted the 
logic of thought to that of grammatical forms. They saw 
through the form, and often disregarded it. This important 
principle of construction is called the sense-figure, — (t\V^» 
Trpog to orifiatvofievov, constructio ad scnsum, or briefly Kara 
nvvuriv. Hence all such expressions as the following : — 

6 oyXos . . . eirtica.TapG.roi tlaiv the people . . . are ac- 
cursed. — John vii. 49. 
<bi\e t&kvov dear child. 

to fitipc'iKiov koXoq the boy grew up handsome. 
Tpoiav ekovree . . . aroXog the host, after taking Troy. 
(pevyu eg KepKvpav wg avTutv evepysTjjg* he flies to 

Corcyra, as being their benefactor. 
iroXiv eirpadov wX&va c)' avrovg I burnt the city, and slew 

them (i.e. the inhabitants). 
lg t$e ti)v ^irapriji' wg yyysXOr] . . . «*o£ef avrolg when it 
was announced at Sparta, they decided, &c. [compare 
Gibbon's expression ' Each legion, to whom was al- 
lotted,' &c.]. 
repwrbv rpavt^a 7r\//p?;c a full table is a good thing. 

* Expressions like ' The ship sailed, and thy (i.e. the crew) were 
brave,' or ' The city was in confusion, and they voted,' &c, are very 
common in Greek, which very properly despised a pedantic accuracy of 
grammatical structure, when the meaning could be quite as clearly 
expressed with more brevity. In Thuc. i. 110 we find rprfipets . . . ovk 


ol iraib'ie tlaiv aviapov boys are a bore. 

alvvara ianv awncpvye'iy it is impossible (neut. plur.) to fly. 

apvv-Lti etiTtv avrw Ave must defend him. 

£o£a»' return when this had been decreed. 

r)o«7 poi opwy it seems to me, seeing, &c. 

tpa iciidea Ovfioii the woes of my heart. 

26. Neuter plurals take a verb singular, because mere 
multeity or mass implies no plurality, or separation of 
agencies ; * in fact, the neut. plur. is an accusative or objective 
case, things not animate being regarded as only capable of 
being acted on. Hence tu £wa rpi^zL properly means ' as to 
the animals there is running.' This is called the Attic figure 
(<T\/i/^irt 'Attikov), and it exists also in Hebrew and Arabic. 

27. But here also the sense also controls the form, when 
requisite : 

ra tLXi] kZitren^av the magistrates sent out. 

(nrapra XeXvitui the ropes have grown slack (i.e. one and 

all of the ropes). 
Toaah 'iQvn iaTpaTivov so many nations were going to 


28. Duals agree with plurals, because the dual is a subor- 
dinate plural, as tiXiro c' aXiujua loupe and he grasped two 
stout spears. — Horn. 

In dfupw to! Tr6\ee both the cities (Time.) we have a masc. dual with a 
fern, noun (r&i for ret), as is always the case in Attic Greek. 

29. Sometimes by what is called the Pindaric or Boeotian 
figure a singular verb is put with a plural noun, as peXiyapvec 
vjivot viTTEpwv «p\ a ' ^-oywi' riXXe-ai. — Olymp. xi. 4. Honeyed 
hymns becomes the origins of later songs. The exigences of 
metre have even forced from Shakspeare this violation of 
syntax, as 

' Hark ! hark ! the lark at heaven's gate sings, 
And Phoebus 'gins arise, 
His steeds to water at those springs 
On chaliced flowers that lies." 1 

* 'The neuter plural governing, as they call it, a singular verb, is one 
of the many instances in Greek of the inward and metaphysic grammar 
resisting successfully the tyranny of formal grammar. In truth, there 
may be multeity in things, but there can only be plurality in persons. 
Observe also that, in fact, a neuter noun in Greek has no real nominative 
case, though it has a formal one — that is to say, the same word in the 
accusative. The reason is, a thing has no subjectivity or nominative 
case; it exists onlv as an object in the accusative or oblique case.' 
—Coleridge, Table 'Talk. 


Mr. Morris shows that lies is a plural form in some English 
dialects, but similar phrases are common in Shakspeare, Bacon, 
&c. ' Is this the fashions.' — 2 Henry VI. i. 2. ' There is 
tears for his woe.' — Jul. Cces. iii. 2. ' There is none of 
Hercules's folloAvers,' &c. — Bacon, Adv. of Learn. ' Good 
Things cometh from God,' is the title of one of the 
Homilies. This idiom is confined in Attic to eifxi, used im- 
personally at the beginning of sentences. 

tori yap t/ioiye Kat /3wyunt I too have altars. 

eanv ot=evioi=SUnt qui. 

tori 3' kirra arahtoi l£ 'A/3u?ou it is seven stades from 

i)i' c)' afKplTrXeKroi icXifiah'BQ there icas wrestling tricks. — 
Soph. Tr. 520. 
We have the same idiom ; e.g. ' it is now a hundred years 
since,' &c. Dr. Priestley defends the propriety of a singular 
verb after 'there ' even when a plural follows.* Compare the 
French il y a des homines ; and the German ' Es sind 
Menschen.' 1 This construction is the rule in Turkish (Barker, 
Turk. Gram. p. 83). 

30. A singular and plural are often mixed "j" by what is 
called ' the whole and part figure ' (o^/ia icad'oXov cat fiepog)', 

e/jLevov kv rrj kmvTov ra^et 'i^aaroc they stayed, each in his 

own rank. 
ovtol fiev aWoQ a/Wo \iyei they say, some one thing, 

some another (cf. Matt, xviii. 35). 

31. The plural of excellence (by which -a person says ' we ') 
often leads to a mixture of concord s,| as 

i)v Qavw davoufxeda if I die, we ivill die. 
So in Ovid : 

'Et flesti et nostros vidisti jlentis ocellos.' 

* Such a construction apparently used not to be uncommon ; e.g. we 
find in Dowsing's record of his desecration of Cove Hythe Church in 
1643, ' There was four steps with a vault underneath. There was many 
inscriptions to Jesus in capital letters',' &c. 

f Rarely a plural is put between two singulars, as in 

el 5e k' "Ap-qs &pxwci jj.o-x^ s % 4>o?j8os ' A-k6tO^0}v . — 11. v. 138. 

This is called the ffxvh"- 01 - 'AJwfiaviKov (see Lesbonax, p. 179), from the 
occurrence in Alcman of the phrase Kdcrrcvp re irdiAav rc^eW S^TjT-rjpes 
ical TloXvStvKris Castor, tamers of swift steeds, and Pollux. Bernhardy, 
Griech. Syiit. s. 421. , 

\ Compare in Hebrew p ,r JV D^HPN 

CASES. 67 

32. A woman using the plural also uses the masculine ; 
thus Electra says : 

TreaovjieO' el j£pj) Trarpl rifiupovuevoi. — Soph. El. 891. 

33. aye, (pipe, Icii, elrri, being merely interjectional, can 
be put with plurals ; as 

el-rre j.ioi, tI naayer, wi'bpeg ; — Ar. Pax, 325. 

CASES (Ylrwaeic).* 

34. The case-endings, which once were separate words 
although in course of time they have got inseparably united to 
the noun-stems, originally denoted the simplest and most 
obvious relations, viz. those of place. From these relations, 
which, as we have seen, were expressed by pronominal ele- 
ments, the others were developed. There are some languages 
in which the cases are expressed by entirely separate words ; 
e.g. in Chinese the word tclii ' bud ' is used for the genitive 
case, as metaphorically indicating the ideas of dependence and 

35. The relations of objects may be considered from so 
many points of view, that we must not be surprised to find 
that the border-limits of the cases are by no means very de- 
finite, and that different cases can be used to express nearly the 
same conception. Thus e£, apurrepag (« dextra), ev apiarepq., 
EC aptirrepuy (zur Eechteii), en apiarepa are all good Greek for 
on the left ; and we can say equally well in English on the left, 
at the left, and to the left. (Clyde.) The nominative and voca- 
tive are generally treated as cases, but they are not really so, 
because they express no objective relations. The word tttwoiq 
casus in its original meaning (falling) is entirely inapplicable 
to either of them. 

* The word Trrwais ' case ' from iriirTeiv is first found in this sense in 
Aristotle, Categor. i. For a full account of it see Lersch, Sprachjjhilos. 
der Alien, ii. 182 seqq. Indeclinable words are called forrwra. The 
nominative was not regarded as a tttuxtis, and hence in Aristotle it is 
called simply ovo/na; but each other case was considered &s and rov 
ovoftaros TreirTtoKv?a ; they were called tttw(T€ls irXayiai, obliqui cases ; and 
also, by Chrysippus, vitriai. The number of cases differ greatly in 
different languages. Many modern languages (e.g. French, Italian, &c.) 
have lost them altogether ; Hebrew has two, Arabic three, German four, 
Greek five, Latin six, Russian seven, Sanskrit eight ; while some lan- 
guages, like Basque and the American languages, have as many cases as 
there are prepositions, or rather postpositions. See Burggraff Princ. de 
Gram. gin. p. 243. 


36. The metaphysical nicety with which the Greek casee 
are employed rendered their use very difficult to foreigners. 
This is one of the reasons •why in the New Testament preposi- 
tions are so often employed where they would be superfluous 
in classic Greek, as in cibovcu ejc, kaditiv utto, ■n-oXef.u'iv /utr«, 
etc. In Modern Greek the dative case (and the genitive 
plural) have been entirely displaced by analytical phrases 
(prepositions, &c.).* 

37. Of the eight cases found in Sanskrit (which is pro- 
bably the oldest language of the Aryan family) the Greek 
retains but five, and the Latin six ; so that we have these 
three tables : 













Genitive. Ablative. 






Dative. Instrumental. 


















Ablative. Instru- 



mental. Locative. 



From this table it appears that in Greek the accusative 
alone of all the cases has preserved its exact original force. 
The genitive and dative are mixed, or, as Pott calls them 
{El. Forscli. i. 22), synergistic cases, and cannot be reduced to 
a single principle. Thus the gen. is also an ablative ; the dat. 
is also an instrumental and locative. 

The cases fall under two divisions, of which one consists of 
the nom., accus., and vocative; the other cases admit of fre- 
quent interchanges. 

On this view of the cases see Quinctilian (Instt. Orat. i. 4- 
26), who points out the distinct traces of a locative in the 
Latin (militiae, humi, domi, belli, ruri, ibi, ubi}, just as we 
have similar traces in the Greek o'Lkoi, &c. iEsch. has 7rf'£o<, 
cf. fiiaffoi (vEol.) tto'l, o'i. Simon., fr. 209, has kv 'Ifjfyioi, 
where the locative is defined by a preposition. The only 
locative of the a declension is \afxai. 

Such forms as ohpcuodev, dvrxtdev, are ablatival. 

NOMINATIVE (llrwauj opBfi, evdeat, 6yo^ia(TTiK,)). 

38. By an example of the constructio ad sensum, the nomina- 
tive is sometimes placed in independent apposition to the 

* Devi lie, Dialccte traconicn, p. 98. 


notion of the sentence, though not to the form in which it is 
expressed. This is called the nominative absolute, as 

aiCiOQ f.L ev£j (=at3oi)jLtat) race -rrpa^aQ I am ashamed at 

such conduct. 
Xoyot £)' a\\///\o((T(i' eppodov)' icaKol, 
(j>v\a£, iXiy-^iop (j>v\ai:a there "was an angry dashing of 
mutual reproaches, guard reviling guard. — Soph. Antig. 
Obs. Such phrases as ovBeu 5eW where it was not necessary, ovSlv 
irporrrJKov avTois though it did not concern them, ilpr\jx4i/ov although it 
had heen said, StSoy/x^ov after it had been resolved, 8J£a>' ravra when 
this resolve had been taken, &c, have been sometimes regarded as no- 
minatives absolute ; but this, as we shall afterwards see, is an error. 

The nominative absolute, which is not unfrequentin English, especially 
in poetry, is of a different kind from this ; e.g. ' And we being exceed- 
ingly tossed with a tc-mpest, the next day they lightened the ship.' — 
Acts xxvii. 18. 

These instances are not like the so-called Greek nominative absolute, 
but like the genitive absolute. They have risen from the loss of caso- 
endings in English, exactly like the nom. absol. of Modern Greek. See 
§ 52 inf. 

39. Copulative words (implying existence, seeming, being 
called, chosen, &c.) take the same case after as before them 
(as in English ' it is I,' &c.) ; as 

KddiarrjKE fiaaiXtvc he is appointed king. 
Oeog uyvopu^ETo he was styled ' a god.' 

So too ukovu) in the sense / am called, as in e^dpol aicov- 
ovaiv they are called enemies.* 

N.B. Bopp connects the c, which is the common suffix of 
the nominative, with the Sanskrit pronominal theme sa ' he,' 
'that person there' (Comp. Gram. § 134), from which root 
the article is also derived. 


40. The vocative is the slightest of all cases, and has no 
influence on the syntax. Hence in many languages it does 
not exist at all ; even in Latin it is almost non-existent, for 
the nominative is constantly used for it in the 2nd declension, 

* So audio in Latin — ' Sen Jane libentius audis,' or whether you 
prefer to be called Janus ; and in English, ' Do I hear ill of that side 
too ?' = Am I ill spo/cen of in that quarter also ?— (Ford.) 

' Or hear'st thou rather, pure etherial stream, 
Whose fountain who shall tell ?' — Par. Lost, iii. 6. 

Cf. Spenser, F. Q. i. 23. 


in which alone it is found at all. Greek does not possess it in 
neuter words, and even in some masculines, as w deog, £> tbikoe, 
oi'HtAtoc; and Buttmann observes further (Gram. p. 180), 
that the nominative is used for it in all instances where its 
occurrence would naturally be rare, e.g. £> ttovc. 

41. Hence too the nominative (especially with the article) 
is often substituted for it, as 

cr^fiofjopoc paaiXevc;' tire) ovricai'oitriv avaaauq people- 
eating king ! since thou lordest it over weaklings. — - 
II. i. 231. 

w ovtoq A'iag ho Ajax ! 

aii b TrpEtrfivraTOQ you, the eldest. — Xen. Ci/rop. IV. v. 17. 

X Cil P E o fiatriXevQ twv 'louSat'wv hail, king of the Jews ! 

Compare Degener o populus. — Luc. ii. 11. Vos o Pompilius sanguis. 
— Hor. A. P. 293, 

42. It is not unreasonable to conjecture that when a separate 
form for the vocative exists, it is merely due to the change 
produced in the nominative when used rapidly in calling or 
addressing others ; in fact, that it is due like other phonetic 
corruptions to what Prof. Mliller calls 'muscular effeminacy.' 
It usually contains the stem of the word, occasionally modified 
by euphonic laAvs (Bopp, § 205). 


43. i. The name of this case is probably due to a simple 
mistake. The Stoic grammarians called it Trrtiaig yaviKrf or 
general case, because it expresses the genus or kind ; in fact, 
there are many languages in which the genitive is directly 
formed from the nominative by adding to it the adjectival 
termination, and it is often a matter of indifference whether 
we use an adjective or a genitive case, e.g. 'an aquatic bird' 
is the same thing as ' a bird of the water.' 

ii. The genitive termination is derived from dya or ti/a, the 
pronominal root of the second person. Probably the termina- 
tion was first used for adjectives (jUij/jlo-vio-q) before it was 
adopted for the expression of genitival relations. 

* Genitivus would have been a translation, not of yevucbs but of 
*yzvu7}Tii<6s. (See some valuable remarks on this point in Max Miiller's 
Lectures, i. 103-105.) Obviously, the Latin names of thisease {genitivus, 
patriots, jjossessivus, &c.) cover but a very small part of its signification. 
Some authors call it the The nomenclature of the cases is 
very inadequate, though Priscian observes of it, 'Multas et diversas 
unusquisque casus habet significationes, sed a notioribus et frequentior- 
ibus acceperunt nominationem ' (lib. v. de Gam). 


44. All the multitudinous uses of the genitive are traceable 
to its employment for the expression of three* main con- 
ceptions; and these are so wide that they are often almost 
interchangeable,— in fact, both ablation and partition fall in 
reality under the head of relation. 

1. Ablation, in which it is an ablative case, and corresponds 
to the English ' from.'' 

2. Partition, in which it implies ' some of. 1 

8. Relation, in which it involves the notion of connection or 
comparison, &c. The vagueness of this term is quite in accord- 
ance with the essence of the genitive, of which the characteristic 
suffixes in Greek are -oc, ol-u, derived from the Sanskrit 
pronoun sya ; and of which the general function is ' to per- 
sonify an object in attaching to it a secondary idea of local 
relation ' (Bopp, §§ 189, 194). 

45. To the first head Ablation f belong the genitives of 
cause, material, fulness, exclusion, motion from, ■perceptions, 
both mental and physical (as derived from an object), &c. ; 
a very little thought will show how these conceptions can be 
arranged under this head, although some of them (e.g. full of 
made of, &c.) might be, from some points of view, equally 
well arranged under the genitive of partition. The close 
connection of the two classes of conceptions may be seen from 
the possible interchanges of our ' of and '■from,'' the German 
von, the French cle, and the Greek t£ and airo. 

Causal Genitives ; 

Kvfiara Travroluv civi/Awi' waves caused by all kinds of 

"HpciQ a\ara~iai wanderings caused by Hera. 
taXojaai' irpoloaiaQ they were condemned for treachery. 
i.v-^u)\rjQ tTri/jE/KjiETai he blames me for a vow (unpaid). 
^wo ( u£j'oe yvvaiKoe angry about the woman. 
o'ipioi r>7c tv\t]qX a his for my misfortune (Germ. O des 

Leides ! and in vulgar French ' pauvre cle moi '). 
rrjg fiioplag what folly ! 
■Xfinarov avcpog excellent fellow ! 

* Donaldson, Gr. Gram. p. 464 seqq. 

f Although Greek has not a distinct ablative (acpaip^TiK^i tttuitls) like 
the Latin, yet some Greek grammarians recognised the forms ovpav68ev, 
ifiiBev as a sixth ease. The name ablativvs for the sixth ease is believed 
to have been first used, if not invented, by Julius Casar, in his treatise 
Be Analogia, Lersch. ii. 231. 

| Be is used after exclamations in Spanish, as Infeliz de mi ! ah pool 
me l Ay de mi hijo ! alas ! my poor son ! 


e'Lte tiv uyyeXtge jiet ejx i\\vQ^ ; didst thou visit me 

for the sake of some message ? 
tov h' 'icpvv iyu) from him I sprang. 
Kpariarov Trarpog rpacfieli- nurtured by a noble sire. 
^wK-parrjc 6 Hiiofpai-laKov Socrates the son of Sophron- 


Material ; * 

vojxiafxa hpyvpiov a coin of silver. 

TTwpirov Xlduv ifoiitiv roy vabv to build the temple of tuff. 
Fulness, or Emptiness ; "J" 

'inirttifia. nii'ov a cup of wine. 

ci\ic Be Traidwy' but enough of sons ! 

7r\}jp>)c (TTEvayfxwy ovte. oaupviov ketoq full of groans, 
nor void of tears. 

' Supplied of kernes and gallow-glasses.' — • Macb: i. 2. 

' I am provided of a torchbearer.' — 3feixh. of Ven. ii. 2. 

Exclusion, or Separation ; J 

uTTE-^ofiai oivou I abstain from wine. 
Xijys x^ (H0 cease from wrath (cf. Abstine irarum, 
desine querelarum, &c, Hor.). 

* It might be better perhaps to regard the genitive of material as 
falling under the head of partition — something detached from the whole. 
In Modern Greek it is expressed by awS, as a-iraOl curb £v\o a sword of 

f So in English, ' empty of all good ' — Milton ; and in Italian, ' Dei 
beni della fortuna abbondante.' — Boccaccio. With these we may range 
genitives implying skill, ignorance, as fj-dxvs «3 elSSre Trdaris ; compare 
' Pugnse sciens,' Hor. ; and Milton's ' Intelligent of seasons,' Par. Lost, 
vii. 427 ; and 

•Yet oft his heart, divine of something ill, 
Misgave him.' — Id. ix. 845 

(' mens prresaga futuri,' Claud.). Similarly in Italian, fratico, 'skilled 
in,' takes a genitive, e.g. ' ■pratichissimo di questa sorte d' antichita ' ; 
and in Spanish, 'Dotado de ciencia,' gifted with learning; ' escaso de 
medios,' scanty in means. 

\ Here belong the genitives after compounds in a privative, as&(paipos 
apas, ayevarbs Kanwv, &tt€tt\os (papeccv \euKWf, btnais rinvccv, &c, and the 
Latin imitations ' Immodicus irce,' Stat. Th. ii. 41 ; ' Immunis aratri,' 
Ov. M. iii. 11 ; ' interritus leti,' Id. x. 616. We have something like it 
in English, as in Shakspeare's ' Unwhipped of justice ; ' and Milton's 
'the teats Unsucked q/'lamb or kid;' and Keats' 'Innumerable of hues 
and splendid dyes ; ' and still more closely Sheridan, ' The land-lord was 
unfurnished of every kind of provisions.' — Life of Swift. It is probably 
to an imitation of this idiom that we owe the much-abused line — ' Yet 
virgin of Proserpina flora. Jove.' — Par. Lost, ix. 396. 


&<paX\oj.iat tTiq eXttIcoq I am balked of my hope. 

iXevdepog <p63ov free from fear. 

ttXi'iv y kf.iov except me. 

air^XXayuat rrjc. voaov I am quit of the disease 

ij/AapTov gkokov I missed the mark. 

'lorctrrOe ftatipui' get np from the steps. 

tiXXodi yaii)Q elsewhere in the earth. 

Motion from ; 

yijg uTroiag 7i\0ov from what land I came. 
Perceptions ; 

u^ovat TrimjQ they smell of pitch. 

aKovia tou SifiaaicaXov I listen to the teacher. 

rat Kuxbov (Tviiii/jLL I even understand the dumb. 

46. Under the second head 'Genitive of Partition' fall those 
which express time, possession, place, and all which can 
possibly imply that the action affects a part of the object. 

The following are all partitive genitives of one or other class ; 
and with them may be compared such English expressions aa 
' O/long time,' Acts vik. 11 ; ' There be of them,' &c, Lev. 
i\\ 16: 

kcic dipovg teal -)^eijdiLi'oc both winter and summer.* 

rvtcroQ by night, fiftipae by day. 

avv aoi perel^oj' ■ wv 'icruv Avith thee I shared an equal 

(TVfiflaXXETai (>£ ttoXXci rovle cetparog many things con- 
tribute to this tei-ror. 
kcriciQ fjetrtififaXov 'iffrrj^ei' ijCrj ^T]\a, ^Esch. Ag. 1 054, 
already the victims stand on the central altarf (cf. 
Soph. Kl. 900, kayoLTT\q opu> irvpag . . . ft6(rrpvj(oy I sea 
on the mound's edge ... a curl), 
-j/c y»lc trtfiov they laid waste some of the land. 
Kpr)T7ipaq kireaTt-^arro iroroio they crowned the gobleta 
with wine. J 

„ * Comp. Italian, di nolle ; French, de nuit ; German, H acids, einea 
Abends ; Spanish, de noche, &c. The English ' o' nights ' is probably ' on 
nights.' See Morris, Specimen of Early English, p. lv. 

f The genitive of place is confined (mainly) to poetry, but is found ir 
the local adverbs ov, ttov, clvtov, &c. Cf. the German, Ich gehe des 

% Buttmann, in his Lcxilogus, shows tbat even the learned Virgil 
misunderstood this genitive, and took it to mean ' they crowned (with 
flowers) the goblets of wine ; ' hence his expressions ' Vina coronant '• 
aud 'Magnum cratera corona Induit implevitque mere' 



/3t/3pw(cwc Koeidv re kcu al^iaroc battened on flesh and 

■nanae <f aXbg and he sprinkled some salt over it. 
■y^e'cpac vitpafievog iroXiijg aXoc washing his hands in the 

foamy brine. 
aXX' Ioti tov Xeyovrog but he is at the mercy of the 

|7ro\ic ai'dpog laB" krbg the state belongs to one man. 
ohk- ears lavrwv ye are not your own. 
TroXkrJQ avoiuc, tan it is a matter of no slight folly. (Cf. 

James iv. 1 .) 
oh iravroQ hvopoQ sic KopivOov irrd' o ttXovq it isn't every 

man who can sail to Corinth. 
ovTt /d) Xay^ojiri rove's uvufxaynv they shall certainly not 

gain me as an ally. 
TTodiLy 'iXajSev he grasped him by the feet. 
kmjggq cpvbg antral the ivy clings to the oak. 
ysveiov a\p'!ij.ieyoQ touching his beard. 
elg too fffjiepag to this day. — Eur. Phcen. 428. 
elg toxito klvOviov to such a pitch of danger. 

47. Under the wide term of Genitives of Eelation (which is 
in point of fact merely a convenient term for such genitives 
as do not obviously fall under the two other heads) are classed 
those which express or involve comparison,^ value, price, &c. 

* Cf. the French 'manger de' and our 'eat of my venison,' or 'ho 
that clrinketh of this water.' Similar is the Latin ' Implentur veteris 
Bacchi, pingidsque fcrince.' Many such idioms in Latin are mere imita- 
tions of the Greek idiom, only admissihle in the poetic style. They 
a.bound in Silius Italicus, who has been called by Jani ' the great patron 
of the genitive case.' 

f The instances in which the possessive genitive sinks into a mere 
epithet are few ; as in arrrpuy ev<ppivi) a night of stars, x l ^ vos "Tepvf a 
wing of snow, cno\\s rpvepas a robe of luxury, rpavfiara ai'uaTos wounds 
of blood. This is frequent in English poetry, as in Crabbe's 

His cap of darkness on his head he placed. 
His shoes of swiftness on his feet he braced. 
His sword of sharjmess in his hand he took, &c. 

Cf. ' Nearer there grew no sticks of bigness.' — Fuller's Holy War. And 
in Hebrew, as ' Ships of desire,' Job ix. 26=pleasant ships, &c. 

| Some may prefer to arrange the genitive of comparison under the 
head of ablation, as in Latin ; in Modern Greek, comparison is expressed 
by air 6, as 6 Kairibs elVe iAacppirep >s anb rbv aepa. Sophocles, Mod. Gr. 
Gram. p. 125. 'When two objects are compared, it is natural to say 
that one is the better, &c. of the two, and it is an easy transition to say 
that one is better of the other.' — Sir G. C. Lewis, Bomance Languages, 


fiei£wi> icrrl tov Trarpoe he is taller than his father. 
tinrXaaiog avToc ewvtov iyhsro became twice as great as 

ore deivoTUTOQ aavrov ?jffda when you were at your best. 
avdevoQ devrepog second to none. 
aWa tu)v £iKaiu)r things other than Avhat is just. 
Kpeiaaov ayyovi)Q things worse than hanging. 
%la 6tau>)' divine of goddesses.* 
KptiGGovuv vucwfxevoi conquered by superiors. 
nepidoadai r j/e KefaXiJQ to bet one's head. 
afisifietv "^pvata j^aXiceitJv to exchange golden for brazen. 
KtKOicrde . . . fi)]Ceruc av xepdovg tci kolvo. rwc EAa.jjvwj' 

TvpoiaQai ye have determined that for no gain would 

ye abandon the common interests of the Greeks. 
noaov Tifidrai; how much is it worth? 
TifxcLTai fiat b ai'))p davarov he fixes my penalty at death. 
davarov £<)tW-£ he brought a capital charge, 
we eIxoj' ra-^ovQ Avith all the speed they could. 
^■Xpri/juru)!' tv i'jKovTtQ being Avell off for money. 
fjizrpiwc i-x £u ' typev&v to be fairly intelligent. 
7rwc k'x^c ti]q yvwfirjQ ; what do you think ? 
irioQ ayuii'OQ tjeofiev] how does the contest stand with us? 
6 <p6fioQ run' TroXe/jiiiov the fear of the enemy (i.e. which 

they feel ; subjective genitive). 
This genitive of relation is common in English ; e.g. ' 'Tis pity of 
him.' — Meets, for Meets, ii. 3. ' Roses are fast flowers of their smells.' — 
Bacon, Ess. 

48. This last instance may also mean ' the fear about the 
enemy,' i.e. with respect to them. This is often called the 
objective genitive. It may sometimes be regarded as causal ; 
but it usually belongs rather to the ablative meaning of the 
genitive than to its meaning of relation. Other instances of 
the so-called objective genitive are Xvtrtc davarov deliverance 

p. 148. Compare the Italian piu ricco di me,' more rich than I ; ' meno 
graiide delta citta,' less large than the city, &c; ' in comparison of.' 
Judg. viii. 2. 

* Here the 81a is a quasi superlative ; compare Milton's ' sovran, 
virtuous, precious of all trees in Paradise.'— P. L. ix. 795. Virg. Mn. 
iv. 576 : ' Sequimur te, setnete Deoiiim.' ' praestans animi juvenis.' 

f Compare the Italian ' antico di sangue, nobile di costumi,' Boc- 
caccio ; and the Spanish ' agudo de ingenio,' acute of intellect ; ' ancho de 
boca,' wide of mouth, &c. Similar too are such genitives as ' holy and 
humble men of heart,' ' Ancient of Days' and in Chevy Chase — 
' For a better man of heart, nare of hande 
Was not in all the north countree.' 
e 2 


from death, afoppfi epytop a stimulus to deeds, aKoaraGiQ tu>i> 
'Adrivaiwv defection from tlie Athenians, ttoOoq vlov desire i'elt 
by a son (subjective), or desire felt towards or in respect to a 
son (objective). This possibility of a genitive being either 
objective or subjective (amphibologia) leads occasionally to 
uncertainty, e.g. tbayytXiov tov Xpiarov may be either the 
Gospel about Christ (objective), or which emanated from 
Christ (subjective). The objective genitive is common in 
Hebrew; and in Latin after injuria, metus, &c. Nor is it 
unknown in English ; cf. Rom. x. 2, ' a zeal of God.' Addison 
has 'such of my readers as have a taste of \j=for~\ fine 
writing.' 'II ayairrj tov Qenv i"PrP flintf amor Dei, 1' amore 
di Dio, l'amour de Dieu, all involve the same ambiguity.* 

49. Very frequently we find a double genitive after a Avord, 
as Zfiir, bar avOpwirmv rctuirjc TroXifxoio rirvicrai Zeus who is 
the arbiter of war for mortals. — II. iv. 84. For instances of 
accumulated genitives see Rom. viii. 21, Rev. xvi. 19. 

50. The Genitive Absolute properly falls under the caused 
use of the genitive, as bpQiv tov vwplov \u\ettov ovtoq tovq 
rpir)pap)(pvG • ■ • airoKvoui'Tag seeing the captains hesitating 
because the place teas steep. It is therefore a genitive of 
ablation, and so resembles the Latin ablative absolute. It is 
used also however to express time and circumstance, as kj.uw 
KadtvZovTOQ while I was sleeping, rovnou (,vth>q kyovrtav such 
being the case, <ra\7n'£o)Toc. while the trumpeter was blowing. 
It derives its temporal and other meanings from the participle 
with which it is joined. 

51. This construction is less frequent than the ablative 
absolute, because Greek possesses past participles active, and 
Latin does not, e.g. ravra ei-ovteq cnryjisv his clictis egredie- 
bamur; this could not be in Greek tovtwv XeyQivTtav, which 
could only mean when this had been said by others. (Madvig ; 
see too Nagelsbach, Lat. Stylist ik, § 97.) 

52. This genitive absolute is found in German, in such 
phrases as ' stehenden Fusses' (Curtails). In Modern Greek 
the nominative absolute has superseded it, as 'A-otimorrag u 
^EiOKp/iTng 6 UXuTojinc srjjye t'c "'}'' Alyvirro Socrates beinj 
dead Plato went away into Egypt. So too in English we us ) 
the nominative absolute y where the Greek would require tit i 

* Crombie, Elym. and Synt. p. 34. 

f The absolute objective case is much more rare in modern English, as 

' Mm destroyed, 
Or won to what may work his bitter loss.' — Milton. 


genitive, and the Latin the ablative ; as ' I being in the ivay, 
the Lord led me,' Gen. xxiv. 27. But this nominative is due 
to the loss of case-endings, i.e. it is not, properly speaking, a 
nominative, although in uninflected languages it has the same 
form, e.g. 

' And by her side there sate a gentle paire 
Of turtle doves, she sitting in an y vory chair.' — Spenser. 

THE DATIVE (Aotik,)). 

53. The fundamental conception of the dative case is juxta- 
position. It corresponds both in the sing, and plur. to the 
Sanskrit locative. The t, which is its characteristic suffix, 
is used to indicate permanence in space and time, and is the 
root of the demonstrative pronoun (Bopp, §§ 177, 201). 

Hence the dative is diametrically opposed to the genitive, 
of which the fundamental conception is ablation. Thus the 
dative is used with tV, avv, tni; the genitive with ei, caro. 

a. The dative signifies proximity, the genitive separation ; as 
IfoXucparei wiuiXnas. he associated with Polycrates; 

but iraXiv rpu7r£&' vlog solo he turned back from his son. 

b. The dative denotes addition, the genitive subtraction ; as 
?id(t)/jii aot tci \PW ara ^ S^ ve *^ e mone y 1° 7 ou > 

but ofxpfiai aov ra ■^pr/fiara I receive the money from you. 

c. The dative expresses equality or sameness, the genitive 
comparison of things different ; as 

cvtqq limy 6 avrog eKEtpo) this man is the same as that. 
iTnari]jj.ri ETricrriifiriQ CuKpopog one science differs from 

53 (bis). It will be seen from the following remarks that 
the dative is an eminently syncretistic case (see § 37), being 
both dative, instrumental, locative, and comitative. 

The him here is a dative ; the Anglo-Saxon having no ablative, used 
instead the dative absolute ; e.g. wp-a-sprungenre sunnan, the sun 
having risen. See Latham, The Engl. Language, ii. 437. So we find in 
Wielifs Bible (Matt, viii.), ' and h/m seen, thei preiden hym that he 
shulde pass fro her coostis,' which becomes in Tyndale's Bible, ' when 
they sawe him.' This dat. absolute is of constant occurrence in 
Wiclif, ' And hem gadrid togidre, ho seide to hem.' — Mark iii. 23 ; 
vi. 20, &c. 

* Donaldson's Gr. Gram. p. 486. Horace imitates this use of the 
dative with idem — ' Invitum qui servat idem faeit occidenti,' which 
m'-ght be in Greek ravrb tzoifi tb kt^vovti. Burnouf, p. 257. 


54. Hence the dative expresses accidents, accessories, cir- 
cumstances, instruments ; as 

1. Place. We have already seen traces of the locative case 
in the dative, in such phrases as Mapadui)'i at Marathon, o'ikoi 
at home. Thus we find in the poets — 

7-o£' wjxoktlv £'x w '' having his bow on his shoulder. 

aidipi va'niiv dwelling in the sky. 

fiijxvEi aypu> he is staying in the country. 

But in prose, and even in poetry, the preposition iv is usually 
added to express place. 

2. Time. Though kv is not so frequent with the locative of 
time, it may be used ; as 

rrj rpirn vp-tpa on the third day. 

rrj vov\xr\via on the first of the month. 

kv tu> TvapovTi in present circumstances. 

3. The manner of a thing, i.e. limit, specification, accom- 
paniment, resemblance ; as 

ftia etriirai to enter by force (so (movdfi, cnyij, epy«, tu 

ovti, Icia). 
ykvEi "EXXrjv by race a Greek. 
vavalv layyeiv to be strong in ships. 
KaTE<TTparoTrE()£vaaTo T(o tte£u) he encamped with the foot. 
to'iq icaKolq bfii\u>i> associating with the bad. 
ciowAw eotKCLQ you are like a slave. 

N.B. The dative of accompaniment is more usually expressed 
by avr, except when avroc is used; as 

r?}X' uvrrj TrriXnia Kapn /3ct/\e he flung away the head 

helmet and all. 
fjilav vavv 'iXa(3ov avrolg avZpaaiv they took one ship 
crew and all. 

And avv may be used even with avroc, as avopovatv 'AyiX- 
Xevc avrf] avv <f>6pfiiyyi uprose Achilles, harp in hand. 

4. Instruments of all kinds, as kcluviiv v6aa>, narucrcrEii 
puphio, wOe'ii' rate ^epaiv, ttoXe'^uw TrpoaKracrQai. 

Hence with such verbs as xpijodat, alayyveaBai, XvivE'icrQai, 
TEKixalpEcrdai, &C. 

N.B. The English ' with ' is also both instrumental and 
comitative, e.g. ' I went with him,' ' I cut with a knife.' 
—Schleicher, Compend. p. 577. 

5. Agents, as being in one point of view instruments ; thus 


after passive verbs we may have either hiro with the genitive, 
or the dative ; as 

TrpomruXotc <j>v\a<r<reTcn he is guarded by attendants. 
Taiira XeXektol fjfuv these things have been said by us* 

(or vij)' ijf.iioy'). 
-i TTETvpciKTat role aXXoic ; what has been done by the 
others? (or vno tu>v ciXXwi> ; just as in Latin poetry, 
' Non intelligor ulW or ah ullo ; ' cui non sunt auditte,' 
or a quo, &c). 
6. General reference, advantage, and disadvantage. 
Hence with such verbs as diZwfii, vTria^, Triarevu), elfil, 
api'jyw, vTraKoiiw, "|" vTri]p£rw, fiyov/jat, ua^Ojuat, ttoXe/aw, &C. ; 
after each verb it expresses the remote or indirect object. 
sari fuoi I have. J 

kyio (ticottw rw2e; am I to hold my tongue for this fellow? 
tuce o oi^ofjiai as far as he is concerned, I am dead. 
Si^aro ol aiaiirrpov he received at his hand the sceptre. 
£7r' apiGTEpa £(T7r\f'o)Ti to the left as one sails in. 
ava^iai yap iraaiv e<tte hvarvveiv ye are unworthy of 
misfortune in the judgment of all. — Soph. 0. G. 1446. § 

* Burnouf compares the French ' 6 est bien dit a vous.' 

f The verb 'to obey' used to take a dative in English, no less than 
in Greek and Latin ; e.g. ' That as a harp obeyeth to the hand.' — Chaucer, 
Legend of Women. ' Yet to their general's voice they soon obeyed.' 
— Milton, Par. Lost, i. 337. Comp. Spenser, F. Q. in. xi. 35. In fact, 
verbs of advantage, disadvantage, &c. govern a dative in English no less 
than in Greek and Latin, only in English the datival inflection has 
disappeared. ' If you please ' is really as much a dative as ' si tibi 
placet.' Cf. rethinks with So/ce? fioi, and the Anglo-Saxon post 'Se seotfum 
mislicao" with '6 airapeffKet ffoi. The following are instances : ' Beleve 
yee to the gospel,' Wiclif, Mk. i. 15 ; ' thretenyde to hym,' id. v. 25 ; 
' commaundith to unclene spirits,' id. 27 ; ' the wind and the see obey- 
ghen to hym, iv. 40 ; 'pleside to Eroude,' vi. 22, &c. Even in our ver- 
sion we read ' answered him to never a word.' — Matth. xxvii. 14. 

\ Thi.s the dative as well as the genitive may be used to express pos- 
session. In Hebrew 7 ' to ' is used for possession, and the Gascon says 
' la fille a, Mr. N.' instead of de. In Greek such a phrase as tj /ce<£aArj 
t£ avQpdnzwiov tov avBpomov was called the crx^Ma KoAocpccvioi'. Lesbonax 
irepl 2x l ?/ i ^ Ta " / > P- 181. The collocation is rather clumsy, but similar 
phrases are common, as avaipefftv reus vacpois, Time. vi. 18; avadrijxara 
Kpoiffcp, Hdt. ii. 113. 

§ Cf. &i,iov yap 'E\\dSi ! Ar. Ach. 8 ; rjfuv 5' 'Ax'AAei/s a£ws Ti/xf/s, 
yvvai, Eur. lice. 313; and many other instances in Bernhardy, Gruch. 
Sy?it. S. 78. Under this head fall such phrases as nl Trpefffivrepoi avro'is 
tuv ev'Sa.ifj.Svwv, Time. i. 6. avTaj is frequently used in this way in Thue. 
and Plato ; and sibi has a somewhat similar redundancy in some Latin 


This is especially found with various participles ; as 

e'i aoi ftovXofiiro) inr\ if you please (cf. Tac. Agric. 18, 

' Quibus bellum volentibus erat'). 
avreXom ciirtiv to speak briefly. 
epol le tcev aa\xiv<x> e'irj I should be glad of it. 
BeXorri Kafiol tovt av i)v I too should have wished for 

Cq ipol, or we y efiol Kpiri] meo quidem judicio. 

56. To this dative of reference belongs what is called the 
ethic (i.e. emotional) dative ; the apparently superfluous intro 
Uuction of personal pronouns to show the speaker's or hearer's 
interest in what is said ; as 

fit] fioi ye, ni) [iot, f.u) %iarri;av<5iKiar]e don't, dont't, / beg 

of you, dose me with cabbage. 
w fiijrep, tog kuXoq [xot b -na-n-KOQ bless me ! mother, how 

handsome my grandfather is. — Xen. Cyr. i. 32. 
a\\a /xol errQieper i;al irirefiev but eat, I pray you, and 

6'cT eiu iyu) aoi tce'ivog look you, I am that famous man. 

N.B. a. The same use is found in Modern Greek, where 
however the dative case has disappeared and resigned its 
functions to the genitive, as crov top irivaZav era KaXo pafiiL 
they thrashed him soundly — / knoiv yon are pleased to hear it. 
See Sophocles, Mod. Gr. Gram. p. 151. 

(3. This ethic dative is common in other languages ; as 

' At tibi repente . . . venit ad me Caninius r lo you of a 
sudden comes Caninius to me ! ' — Cic. 

Quid mihi Celsus agit ? what is my Celsus doing ? — Hor. 

Non mihi bellus homo es / don't think you a good- 
looking person. 

Es lief mir ein Hund tiber den TVeg there ran me a dog 
across the road.* 

1 Ann qu'il fut plus frais et de meilleur debit 

On lui lia les pieds, on rows le suspendit.' — Fenelon, 
Fables, iii. 1. 

y. It was extremely common in English, e.g. 

' Look how this river comes me cranking in.'— Henry IV. 

* ' Einen Apfel schiesst der Vater dir vom Baum auf hundert Schritte.' 
My father shoots you an apple from a tree at a hundred yards. — Schiller 


* This scull has lain you in the ground these three years.' 

— Hamlet.* 
' Your serpent of Egypt is lord now of your mud,' &c. — 

Ant. and Chop. ii. 7. 

It is not unknown even in modern writers ; e.g. in Taylor's 
' Philip von Artevelde ' we have 
' Mount me a messenger.' 
1 Gag me this gray beard.' 
' And twinkling me his dagger in the sun.' 
' I might eat four hoofs of an ox yet my stomach would 
flap you, look you, and droop you, look you, like an 
empty sail.' 

This latter phrase, ' look you ' (or ' for you '), is the most 
common modern substitute for the Ethic Dative. 


56. i. The accusative is probably, next to the vocative, the 
oldest of the cases, as is seen from the fact that its charac- 
teristic suffix m appears even in the nominative of pronouns, 
as aham iyutv, tvam Bceot. rovr, idem, &c. This suffix pro- 
bably acted the part of an article, i.e. it called attention to the 
word to which it was attached. See Ferrar, Comp. Gram. 
p. 211. 

ii. The ovc of the accus. plur. is a relic of vg, which is 
preserved in Gothic, vidians, sununs, &c. (cf. tvtttov(ji-= 
tvktovti). It was preserved in the Cretan and Argive dialects,, 
tovq (Goth, thans) ; and in Borussian deiwans = deos (Breal, 
Bopp, ii. 55 ; Ahrens, De Dialect, ii. § 14, 1). 

56 (bis). The fundamental conception of the accusative is 

* In the Taming of the Shrew, Act i. sc. 2, Grumio affects to mis- 
understand it. 

'Petr. Villain, I say, knock me here soundly. 
Grum. Knock you here, sir ; why, sir, what am I, sir, that I should 

knock you here, sir ? 
Petr. Villain, I say, knock me at this gate 

And rap me well, or I'll knock your knave's pate.' 

f Varro renders this ' accusandei casus' deriving it from ahidofj-cu 
I accuse ; but more probably it comes from alria, a cause. Hence Pris- 
cian calls it causativus. See Trendelenburg, Act. Soc. Grac. 1836, i. 119 
seqq.; Lersch, Sprachphil. d. Alien, ii. 186. The characteristic suffix of 
the accusative is in Greek v, in Sanskrit and Latin in ; for its pronominal 
origin, see Bopp, § 156. 

e 3 


motion towards, and therefore also extension over space. It in 
the case To which,* and is therefore put after transitive verbs 
to express the end of the motion or action; as rvirru) uvtov I 
strike him, i.e. the direction of my blow is towards him. It 
also expresses the action itself, as tvtttw irXnyi]!' I strike a 
blow. Three accusatives may occur after one verb, in each 
of which this fundamental conception is discernible, as vxncra 
dyyiXovQ 'AOfjvaQ tire fiirer he was sending messengers all 
night long towards Athens. (Compare ' docere aliquem phi- 
losophiam alicpuot annos.') 

57. In accordance therefore with the idea of the case (motion 
towards^ and extension over) it expresses 

1. Space, as diriyti ive.rTi]KorTa aradiovQ it is fifty stades 

2. Time, as rpelg firjvae efietvev he stayed three months. 

3. Any notion cognate to, i.e. connected in meaning J with 
that of, the verb, even when the verb is neuter, as KciKiarnv 
covXeiar idovXevae he served the worst slavery. 

This cognate notion is capable of a very considerable ex- 
tension, as in 

aTel\E yvctQ go to the fields. — Eur. Med. G68. (Comp. Go 
home ; but even this phrase has become analytic in the 
American ' Go to home,' and the Cornish ' Is she to 
home ? ') 
§7ro\\ove dywrag £*£<«»' going out for many contests. — 
Soph. Tr. 185. 

* Donaldson connects the form Se in accusatives like OtiAvfxirSi'de 
■with Suo, just as in English two, too, to, are different stages of the same 

t The particle eth which so often precedes the accusative in Hebrew 
signifies towards. The same fact is well illustrated in Spanish, where, 
by a strong extension of the analytic tendency, the preposition a usually 
precedes the accusative if it expresses a person ; e.g. ' Amar a Dios,' to 
love {to or towards] God ; ' Cain ma to a Abel,' Cain killed Abel, &c. 

\ This form of the cognate accusative {■n6Xifj.ov 7roA.ejU.e1V, &c.) is called 
Figura etymologica. See Lobeek, Paralip. Gram. Grcec. dissert, viii. 

§ Cf. the Latin exsequias, suppetias, infitias ire ; and see Lobeck's 
note to Soph. Aj. 290, and Curtius's Erlauterungcn, 163. Milton, who 
has left few classical idioms unadapted, even ventures on the cognate 
accusative after a neuter verb of motion : 

' Upborne with indefatigable wings 
Over the vast abrupt, ere he arrive 
The happy isle.' — Par. Lost, ii. 410. 

And 'Whatever creeps the ground, Insect or worm.' — Id. vii. 475. Early 
English admitted a wider use of the accusative than modern ; e g. we 


ofxvvjj.1 rove Oaovg I swear by the gods. 

vikcLv 'OXvfiiria to win in the Olympic games. 

p\£ireii> vawv, 6/.i(j)aKaQ, vav(bpa.Kroy to look mustard and 

cress, sour grapes, a three-decker.* 
ypa<j>i)v Stw/ceiv to bring an action. 
tl lT\ra TroiiivaiQ Tiji'd' iTrefiwirrrei finaii' ; why did he thus 

rush striding (= Efureartbt' /3«iVa) on the flocks ? — Soph. 

Aj. 42 {jola and x £ 'i° a are frequently thus used).j" 

4. It defines or localises the action of the word to which it 
is joined, i.e. in strict accordance with the idea of the case, it 
expresses the extent affected by the word on which it depends. 

a\yw n)v KE(pa\i)i' I have a headache. 

rovrov fxaXkov r>)v (pvmi' tori its nature is rather of this 

kind. — Arist. Meteor, iv. 4. 
irvpirrjQ ti)v Te-^yi]v a smith by trade. 
KaXoQ r'a 6jd/j.aTa with beautiful eyes. 
dtirol fj.a-)(i]i' skilled in battle, 
ovcelg airavTa trocpog no one is wise in everything. 

These and similar instances used to be explained by the 
ellipse of /card ; the fact is however the very reverse, since the 
case expresses these conceptions by its own natural force and 
meaning, and when icara is expressed it is due to the analysing 
tendency of all language in its progress from its original con- 
dition. The superfluous preposition only shows that the true 
meaning of the case is a little worn out. 

find in Wiclif's version of the Bible, ' Blossid be thei that hurigren and 
thirsten right ioisnesse ; ' and in Milton, ' I gazed the ample sJcy.' 

* This is a favourite idiom of Aristophanes ; he even uses it with a 
neuter participle, as k\4tttov /3Ae7rei he looks thievish ; and with an infi- 
nitive, as Tifj.dv /3A.e7ra>. — Ach. 879. Theocritus has the exquisite ex- 
pression eap 6p6co<ra looking spring. — Id, xiii. 45. So we talk of ' look- 
ing daggers,' ' a vinegar aspect.' 

t atffcrai means I rush, yet Sophocles (Aj. 40) has irp6s n SuaXSyiffTou 
55' fii;ev x e 'p a > ' f° r what inexplicable cause did he thus rush (i.e. wield) 
his hand?' This accusative describing the result of the verbal notion 
is common in English ; e.g. ' to walk a horse,' ' to dance a baby,' ' to boil 
a kettle,' &c. Of. Spenser, F. Q. i. i. 17. Such verbs are said to be 
used factitively, and, as in Hebrew, all absolute verbs admit this cau- 
sative use. (Ewald, Hebr. Gram. § 102, and Lobeck, ad Aj. 40.) Latin 
uses the accusative in the same bold manner in apposition with the 
notkm contained in the verb, and expressing the extent affected by it, 
as in ' pedibus plaudunt choreas,' Virg. Mn. vi. 664 ; ' Bacchanalia 
vivunt,' Juv. &c. Comp. Par. Lost, i. 723, ' The ascending pile Stood 
fixed her stately height.' See Abbott, Shaksp. Gram. p. 69. 

e 6 


57 {bis). Curtius, &c, call this cognate accusative, the accus. 
of the inner object. It is either, (i.) immediately cognate, as 
Ha\rii> ifxu^ovTO, or (ii.) indirectly cognate, as tvktetcu 7rAfj- 
y>ip, or (iii.) it defines the verb, as po/tovq icafivsi, or (iv.) 
it gives the result of the verb, as ayyeXitjv iXde'ir. Often 
(especially in poetry) a neuter accus. specialises a verb 
almost like an adverb ; e.g. piyci ipeiicitrai, iraiaov ci-Xijr, 
&c. — Curtius. 

58. As some verbs may have two objects, a nearer and a 
more remote, a person and a thing, an external object and 
an internal, such verbs (especially those of asking, teaching, 
clothing, depriving, doing good or ill to) may take a double 

ihicaEa top Tralca T))p juouaa/;^ I taught the boy music. 
Qr)(3uiovg ^iifxara j/n/aai' they asked the Thebans for 

59. In one large class of instances in which there is ap- 
parently a double accusative, one of the two may be regarded 
as being in apposition with the other, and defines it ; this 
is called the ' whole and part figure,' a-^fia. kciO' oXot> cat 
fxroog, as 

peOeg pe npog deuip \dpa by the gods, let go my hand 

[lit. release ?»e, that is my hand~\. 
T[)h>ag ce -popoQ nh'og vTrijXvde yv'm eicatrroQ dread tremor 

invaded each Trojan's limbs [lit. the Trojans, each one, 

as to his limbs]. 

60. The accusative of the thing still remains when the verb 
itself is the passive, as 

a<pi']pr}ixai top 'ittttop I have been robbed of my horse. 
TrETriaTEvpat to tvayyeXiop I have been entrusted with the 

61. The accusative is sometimes put in apposition to the 
sentence, as 

'EXephv icravwfxev, MeveXew Xvtttjv iriKphv let us kill Helen, 

a bitter grief to Menelaus. 
phpei awd Trvpyov, Xvypor bXedpop you will be flung from 

a tower, a terrible death. 

* In such instances one of the accusatives expresses the object directly 
affected by the verb, and the other expresses some notion cognate to the 
meaning of the verb. 


62. The verb on which an accusative depends is often 
omitted,* as in 

as c>) are rijy vtvouaav Iq tteSov Kapct (sc. Ag'yw). — Soph. 

Ant. 441 (cf. Aj. 1228). fit) rptfihg er'.— Soph. Ant. 

577. ovk etc oXedpou. — 0. R. 415. Finem inquit inter- 

rogandi ! — Cic. 
u\\a rig XP £ ' n a> tpov (sc. t'x £t ) j — Eur. Hec. &7G. 

63. Not unfrequently the nominative of a dependent clause 
is anticipated by being made the accusative of a principal 
clause, as 

Titpfielv to)' tv Trpanaovra pi] ff<ba\ii ttots to dread the 
prosperous man, lest he should slip. 
This is called Ant/ ptosis, and is also found in Latin, as 
' Nosti Marcellum quam tardus sit.' You know Marcellus 

how slow he is. — Cic. 
' Earn veretur, ne pcrlerit.' He fears her lest she should 
perish. — Plant. 
And in English, as 

' I know thee, who thou art.' — Luke iv. 84. 
( Conceal me what I am.' — Shakspeare, Twelfth Night, i. 2. 
' Didst thou not mark the king, what words he spake?' — 
King Richard II. v. 4 (cf. id. iii. 3; Merchant of 
Venice, iv. 1). 
This may be called the accus. of the redundant object. 

64. Sometimes ihis accusative is placed first in the sentence, 
and is called by some the accusativus de quo, as 

tovq tcpirac a KEpcairovai j^(lv\u| L ^ea6 , hjiii' tppuacu the 
judges, what they get, we want to tell you. — Ar. Nub. 

Xaif)£<pu>VTa ai'iipem \pv\\av ottotovq uWoito tovq uvrfiQ 
Trolag ; he asked Chserephon — a flea, how many of its 
own feet it jumped ? 

So in Latin, TJrhem quam statuo vestra est. — Virg. JEn. i. 
577. Cf. Is. i. 7, ' Your land, strangers devour it in your 

65. i. The accusative is used absolutely,! chiefly in the case 

* The verb thus omitted is often some subjective conception, like 
' knowing,' &c. ; e.g. Ti/xeXei cbs auSpotpovov, /cod ou8ev ov Tpay/xa ct km 
oTi-oflaiot. — Plat. Euthyph. 4. d. 

f The accusative absolute, when the expression is not adverbial or 
impersonal, is very rare, as in t4kv* el (pavivT &e\7rra /j.r}Kvvcc \6yov. 


of certain participles, as c~6E,av ravra on this decision, irpaarjicov 
it being fit, e£6v, vapor, whilst it is allowed, &c; and in certain 
neuter adverbial expressions like riva rpoirov; how? irpofaaty 
in pretext, efxrjv x<apiv for my sake, afxtyoTepa both ways, to 
Xolttov for the future, &c. (Cf. the use of wc in Soph. (Ed. 
Tyr. 101 ; (Ed. Col. 407.) 

It is less correct to regard 86£ar, &c. as nominatives abso- 
lute, since, as we have seen already, neuters have, properly 
speaking, no nominative. They are rather adverbial inde- 
clinable expressions, in which however the accusatival con- 
ception of duration may generally be detected. 

ii. o, ft, rovro, ImIj o (like the Latin Quod in adjurations, as 
Quod per te lacrimas oro, &c), sometimes mean wherefore, 
therefore with the same sense as St' o, as in Eur. Hec. 13, &c. ; 
and in the phrase aura ravra iji^io I have come for this very 
purpose. See Pliam. 145, 263 ; Thuc. ii. 40, iii. 12, &c. 

Contrasted Meanings of the Cases. 

66. ' From this examination, the learner may derive brief 
rules as to the meaning of the cases. ■ 

The genitive denotes motion from, and separation. 
The dative ,, rest in, and conjunction. 

The accusative „ motion to, and approach.' — 


67. The so-called ' absolute ' use of the cases springs from 
their simple meanings ; e.g. 

The genitive absolute expresses time as a cause rod k'apog 

eXOovroQ ret cirdrj OaXXei token spring comes the flowers 

The dative absolute represents time considered as a point, 

as nepuovn ru> kiiavru> at the return of the year. 
The accusative absolute, duration in time, as ravrnv ri)v 

rvKra during this night. 

68. A few instances in which the distinctions of the cases 
are brought into prominence or contrast, are added. 

rvKrog during the night; noctu (part.). 

vvKra all night ; ' noctem ; ' answering the question ' how 

long ? ' 
vvkti in the night ; node ; answering the question ' when ? ' 
i]fiepa<: during the day (part.). 
i]fxipai> throughout the day (duration). 
ijfiepa in the day time (limit). 


itei'te fii'tor worth five mina^ as & price (relation). 

irivTt fircug worth five mina3, as an instrument. 

viire fxvaQ five mina? (extension over a certain value). 

iroffov 7rw\f7c ; at how much do you sell? (cause). 

TToaa) iti vel for (= with) how much do you buy (instrument). 

■kooov dvvurui; lwio much is it worth? (extension). 

rifiTrofiuL tovtov I am delighted for this (cause). 

„ tovtu) I am delighted with this (instrument). 

„ tovto I am delighted at this (cognate notion = 

tovtu -^ap/jLa). 
irupa tov fiaoiXEwg from the king (motion). 
■Kapa. r&> fiaaikti with the king (rest). 
irapa tov fiaoiXia to the king (approach). 
vpoopav tov ■KoXif.wv to provide about the war. 

,, raj 7roXe/.io) to provide for the war. 

„ tov iroXefiov to foresee the war. 
fjedirj/xi oe I dismiss you; fiedle/xai oov I let go of you. 
kXafiov oe I caught you; kXafiojxnv aov I seized hold of 


e-^eiv rt to possess a thing; t'^ojucu fipeTEiov I cling to the 

fjxpE jjpo-^ovg he fastened nooses; ijxpaTo tov teL-^ovq he 

grasped the wall. 
u>PeEe Trjv KvXuca he held out the cup ; ov naidog dpe&aro 

he yearned for his sou. 


69. The chief peculiarities in the use of adjectives will here 
be given, and a line of explanation appended when required. 

i. iroXXa re zed kciku eXejev he uttered many reproaches. 
oweiciog airw iroXXa, kcii 7roviipa being conscious of many 
wicked deeds. 

The Greek and Latin idioms require ' many and wicked,' &c. 

ii. TTTavbv tStwy/ia itu\uv winged pursuit of steeds, i.e. pur- 
suit of winged steeds. 

XEVKoirhyEiQ KTviroiyEpwv white-armed clappings of hands, 
i.e. clappings of white-armed hands. 

ypalai 6 crow irrfyal aged fountains of eyes, i.e. tears from 
aged eyes. 

noXidc ttoi'tov dtvoQ of the hoary sea-beach, i.e. beach of 
the hoary sea. 


Compare ' Sansfoye's dead dowry} i.e. the dowry of dead 
Sansfoye. — Spenser, F. Q. i. iv. 51. 

It will be seen from these instances that the adjective is 
liable to a strange inversion* of order, agreeing with the 
wrong word, or rather with the ivhole notion implied. This 
is an instance of the constructio ad- sensum, and is called 
Hypallage. Bold as these inversions are they may be pa- 
ralleled in English by such expressions as ' his all-obeying 
breath,' ' tearfalling pity,' ' the church-going bell.' Words- 
worth's severe criticism of the latter expression was mis- 
placed. (See next page.) 

iii. "ZkvOtjv Iq oijio)' to the Scythian track (— Hffudu'^e). 
r>)>> 'EWaSa (j>wri]p i^ijj.aOov I learned the Greek tongue 
(== EiWtjvimivj. 

Here we see that substantives (especially the names of 
countries) are sometimes used adjectivally, as in the Latin 
Asia prata, Virg. G. i. 883 ; Aquas Baia?, Prop. I. xi. 30 j ; 
and our India rubber, Russia leather, China bowl, Turkey 
carpet, &e. All such phrases, ' a labouring day,' ' a walking 
stick,' ' a riding whip,' ' a fox-hunting country,' fall under the 
same head : the two substantives are in apposition, and one 
qualifies the other. A substantive in apposition often defines 
another in an adjectival way, as arijp ftaaiXtvc, ainjp vuvr-qc, 
ai'9pu>7roc ytwpyoQ, cvc. ; as in the Latin hostes turmaa, Stat. 
Hi. xi. 22 ; Fabuloe manes, Hor. Od. I. iv. 10 ; and our a sailor 
man, a butcher j elloiv, a warrior host, itc. 

iv. Ntarnpin napa vrfi by the Nestorean ship (i.e. Nestor's). 
BepEveixeia duydrnp Bereniceian daughter (i.e. of Bere- 
poartfiof fifxap returning day, i.e. day of return. 

* In Latin we find ' Alexandri P/irygio sub pectore,' Lucret. i. 475, 
and ' Nemeceus hiatus Leonis,' id. 24. We have something like it in 
Ossian, * The hunter's early eye.' Carlyle, in his French Revolution, 
speaks of ' the housemaid uith early broom' 

The genitive may be even involved in the epithet, as o£ux*'P ktvttos 
a sharp clapping of hands. See Lobeck's Aj. p. 63, on epithets in 
general. Often, by a kind of metonymy, the adjective represents the 
general conception or result of the substantive, as 'pallida mors,' x^ u 'P^> v 
Se'os, ' Rngosum piper et pallentis grana cumini,' Pers.; 'vulnera despe- 
raniia' Plin. ; 'As messenger of Morpheus on them cast sweet slom- 
bring deaw,' Spenser, F. Q. i. i. 30 ; ' the sleepy drench Of that forgetful 
lake.'— Milton, P. L. ii. 74, &o. 

t See Jani's Art of Poetry, Engl. Tr. p. 44. 


In all such instances the adjective is used for the genitive 

of the noun ; as in Milton's 

' Above the flight of Pegasean wing.' — Par. Lost, vii. 4 ; 

and in Tennyson's 

1 A Niobeian daughter, one arm out 

Appealing to the bolts of heaven.' — The Princess. 

v. halra ttevovto SeieXtvot they in the evening were preparing 
their meal. 
(tkotoIoc* i]\Qev he came in the dark. 
TETapraloQ cHptKiTo he arrived on the fourth day. 
opkioQ aoi Xiyio I tell you on oath. 

Hence observe that the Greek uses adjectives in many in- 
stances in which we use prepositions with a substantive, and 
that this is especially the case in expressions of time. Compare 
the Latin 

' iEneas se matutinus ngebat ' was bestirring himself in 

the morning. 
Ilesterni Quirites citizens of yesterday. 
Domesticus otior I am at ease in my home. 

We have precisely the same idiom in English, as 

' Gently they laid them down as evening sheep." 1 — Dryden. 
' The nightly hunter lifting up his eyes,' &c. — Words- 
' The noonday nightingales.' — Shelley. 

vi. fa'iXrj i) en on Kara. tnrovC>)i' lyivETO it is still 

evident on the face of it that the building was hurriedly 

ci]\6q Igtiv wc ti Ipaaeiwv KaKov it is evident that he means 

some mischief. 
trripyuv (pui'Epbg i)v ov^evo. it ivas obvious that he loved 

no one. 

The Greeks are much less fond than ourselves of the 
impersonal^ construction ; they substitute the personal con- 
struction for it. (There is no true impersonal in Greek ; either 
the nom. is merely understood, or the sentence is the nom.) 

* Compare Milton's 'As the wakeful bird Sings darkling.' Clyde 
compares Virgil's ' Ibant obscuri.' 

t In fact, the constant use of ' it ' is a strange idiom, in which English 
differs from most languages, ancient and modern ; e.g. It was they who 
did it - ■■ skuvoi iirolnaav, isti fecerunt, Eran cllos los que hicieron, etc. 


vii. Tutv oS>v adipKT(t)y o/jL^iarwy Ti)TO)p.£i>oQ. — Soph. 0. C. 

1200, robbed of thy blinded eyes, i.e. robbed of thine 

eyes so that they are blind. 
tV(\>r\fiov w raXaiva Koifirjarov arofia. — .ZEsch. Ag. 1247, lull 

thy tongue to silence, hapless one. 
tiauKE depfia Xosrpa dEpfxrfvn till he warmed the baths hot. 

This is what is called the proleptic or antieipative* use of 
the adjective. It is found quite as strongly in Latin ; e.g. in 

Submersas obrue puppes overwhelm the ships in the 

Scuta latentia condunt they conceal the shields in hiding. 
Spicula lucida tergunt they wipe their darts bright. 

We also find it in English,']" as 

' The Norman set his foot upon the conquered shore.' — 

1 Heat me these irons hot.' 1 — Shakspeare. 

' Who with our spleens 
'Would all themselves laugh mortal.' — Id. 
' And strikes him dead for thine and thee.' — Tennyson. 

viii. By what is called antimeria the adjective is often used 
where the adverb would be more correct ; as in 

Xiicrav 2' ayopijv ai\p>ipi)v ' they loosed the assembly quick. 1 
Qoav vifjLfav dyayec thou leddest a swift bride, i.e. 

swiftly '(Soph. Tr. 862. Lobeck on Aj. '249). 
Kphi'r) cifdoroQ piovaa a fountain flowing abundantly. 
atTfjLEvoQ vfiug dcov I saw you gladly. 

Similarly in Milton we find 

' Meanwhile inhabit lax (i.e. loosely), ye heavenly powers.' 

— Par. L. vii. 161. 
' Thou didst it excellent." — Shaksp. Tarn, of Shrew ', I. i. 89. 

* Some call it the factitive adjective. For abundant instances, see 
Lobeck, Paralip. Gram. Grcsc. p. 531 seqq., and id. ad Aj. 517. The 
neglect of this has led to strange errors. Tims, in Soph. Ant. 883, rbv 
i/Libv -k6t/j.ov adaKpvTov ovdeis cmva^ei ' no one groans for my tearless 
fate.' Valcknar, not observing that the aoaKpvTov is proleptic of the 
result, makes it = ■KnhvSa.KpvTov, adopting the purely fictitious alpha 

t There is a fine and ghastly instance of prolepsis in Keats' s Pot of 

'So those two brothers, and their murdered man, 
Rode to fair Florence.' 


Compare the Biblical expressions ' Open thy hand icicle,'' 
' Cry shrill with thy voice,' &c. But in English these phrases 
are often due to the obsolescence of the final adverbial -e ; 
e.g. righte = rightly, sothe = truly, &c. (Morris, Specimens of 
Engl. p. lv.). 


70. The following instances illustrate the chief idioms in 
the use of comparatives : — 

i. aypoit:6-£p6i' ecrriv elirelv it is somewhat rude to say. 

afjieivov tan k.t.X. it is as loell to, &c. 
ii. i]i' ol aSeXtytog vTropapyorepog he had a brother rather mad. 

These instances merely express degree. The Avant of two 
forms in Greek, one comparative, and one qualitative, has 
already been pointed out. (See § 44, p. 30.) 

tXutypoTspoi ?*/ cubi'eiorepoi swifter than richer (i.e. rather 

swift than rich).* 
k-Koiriaa ra^vrepa i) aofwrepa more quickly than (more) 


Notice the two comparatives, like the Latin ' Suhtilius quam 
verius.' 1 

Phrases like the following are common with comparatives:— 

iii. arhpeioTtpoQ yiyverui avrog kavrov he grows braver than 

he ever was. 
apfiXvTaTa avrog lavrov apa he sees more dully than ever. 
fiei^ov (poprlov f/ natf avrov a burden too great for him 

(lit. greater than in proportion f to himself). 
KciKa /uei^w ?/ Kara, oa/cpuct or rj ware cciKpvtn' or t) 2. woes 

too big for tears. 
fit'i^ov i] kolt avOpwirov too great for man. 
Xoyov fieli^ou too big for words. 
Qavwv civ etjj /joXXov evrv^iarepug he would be more 

fortunate (literally 'more happier') when dead. 

Compare paXXov avaov, Soph. Ant. 1210, Eur. Hip. 485; 
Hec. 377. 

* ' He was more of a knave than fool,' might be expressed in Greek, 
lioxOypirepos i\v 3) avovirrepos. One way of hinting at a superlative is 
et tis Kal &\\os 'if any one ever was you are,' as elf ns nal aAXos 
vuxppwv el you are the most temperate of men. 

f Ttp6, avrl, and irapa are often used after comparatives. (Cf. Virg. 
iEn. i. 346, 'Pygmalion scelere ante alios immanior omnes.') 


This last phrase shows a tendency to that analytic mode of 
expressing the comparative,* which began in the similar Latin 
phrases ' magis certius,' ' magis dulcius,' &c. So in the Bible 
' The Host Highest ; ' and in King Lear ' I am sure my heart's 
more richer than my tongue.' The gradually analytic tendency 
in comparatives and superlatives may be seen from the fact 
that we should no longer use such terms as grievousest, 
famousest, artificialest, &c, which we find in Bacon, Shak- 
speare, Milton, &c, or even the ' impudentest ' of Gray. Ben 
Jonson calls this ' a certain kind of English Atticism, imitating 
the manner of the most ancientest and finest of the Grecians.' 

iv. On the other hand fiaXKov is sometimes omitted, as 
OavciToi' i) fiiov uipovfjtEt'ni choosing death (rather) than life. 
This is frequent in the New Test., as Mk. ix. 43 ; Lk. xv. 7, 
xvii. 2 ; 1 Cor. xiv. 1 9 ; and in the LXX., as la-^vu gvtoq y 
j/juflc he is stronger than we. — Num. xxii. 6. So in Plaut. 
End. iv. iv. 70, Tacita bona est mulier semper quam loquens; 
Liv. vii. 8, Ipsorum quam Annibalis interest, &c. 

v. Another peculiarity of paWov i) is, that ov is sometimes 
inserted after it, as 

ovSev ri ficiWov eV iifxiuc fjaWov f/ ov tcai Irr' v/jiac, Hdt. 

iv. 118, no whit more against us than against you. 
7ro,\ti' o\rji' Cia<pBtlpai /jfiWoy y ov rove cutiovc, Thuc. iii. 
36, to destroy a wdiole city rather than the guilty. 

[Donaldson compares the English vulgarism ' rather nor;' 
and Clyde the redundant negative after comparisons in Italian, 
as Io scrivo piu che io non parlo I write more than I (lit. 
don't) speak. Still closer is the Spanish parallel, El es mas 
rico que no ella he is richer than she ; mejor es el trabajo 
que no la ociosidad labour is better than idleness.] 

vi. The common Comparatio Compendiaria, or Brachylogy 
of Comparison, should be noticed; as irvpafiic juet'^W irarpoc 
a pyramid larger than [that of) his father. Instances of it 
will be found in the Syntaxis Ornata at the end. 


71. The superlative, like the comparative, sometimes merely 
expresses degree, as tre'io c 'A-^iWtv o'vtic avi)p irpoirapoide 
paKapTciTOQ no one, Achilles, was ever before so very happy as 
you (Keiner war mehr so ganz glilcldicli als du). 

* The analytic comparative begins to appear in later Latin ; e.g. 
' Plus tamen eece mens, plus est formosus Iollas.' — Calpurn. 
The instances from Plautus show that it always existed colloquially. 


72. The Greeks had a peculiar idiom with superlatives. 
Instead of saying ' more beautiful than all others,' they said 
' most beautiful of all others,' as 

N«p£i/c «£ tcaXXiarog uvrjp Ittu IXiav j)A0£j' 
tHiv aXAwr Acuawr. — Horn. II, ii. G70. 
a£joAoywrarof r(Ly •Kpoytytrrip.ivtuii more worthy of narra- 
tion than any that preceded it. 

Milton boldly imitates this inclusive use of the superlative 
in the lines 

' Adam the goodliest of all men since born 
His sons, the fairest of her daughters Eve ; ' 

where not only ignorant critics, but even Addison and Bentley, 
have censured him for making Adam one of his own sons, 
and Eve one of her own daughters ! For an explanation 
of this idiom see supra § 47 vote. Cf. Hor. Sat. i. i. 100: 
' fortissima Tyndaridarum ' brave)' than the Tyndarids ; ' Diana 
. . . comitum pulcherrima ' fairer than all her comrades. 

Nor is Milton the only English writer who has adopted the 
idiom. Shakspeare has ' This is the greatest error of all the 
rest' (Mids. Night's Dream, v. 1); and Sir Thomas Elyot ' A 
young woman, the fairest of all others,' &c. {The Governone). 

73. The following are phrases to strengthen superlatives*: — 
avi}p kv tolq /.taXiara i)'ai'riog rio Cijjxo especially opposed 

to democracy. 
etc avrjp 'itXeIgtov irorov irupuayjov giving more trouble 

than any one. 
irdyov o'lov ceivotutov of the sharpest possible frost. 
owwq tiptara in the best p>ossible way. 
ocrov ra^inra as speedily as possible. 
we oluv re fiiX-iarov in the best possible manner. 
on fxaXiara as much as possible. 
N.B. i. In St. John (i. 15; xv. 18) Trpwrog is used as a 
comparative, — 'efinpnudiv pov yeyortv vtl TrpQroc pov i)v. 

ii. There is sometimes a reduplication of superlatives, espe- 
cially in comic writers, as in the words (.Xa-^itrrorepoc, TipwTia- 
toc, uvtotcitoc (Plaut. ipsissimus) • fiti^oTepwc, 3 John 4. 

* One of the ways of expressing the superlative in Hebrew is by a 
mere repetition of the word, as 'good good '= very good. We find a 
trace of this in Heb. x. 37, en yap yuKphv ocrov '6croy very, very soon. 
There is something like it in '6aov '6<rov o-riK-qv, Ar. Vesp. 213, A tiny 
tiny drop = quantillum. (Winer, Gr. N. T. § 35.) By a similar prin- 
ciple we find fjifyeOei /xeyas - /xeyio-ros in Pausanias. 


PEEPOSITIONS (Upoditrtic). 

74. The prepositions (as we still see in Homer) were 
originally mere local adverbs, i.e. like the case-endings, they 
originally denoted relations of place, but their meaning was 
gradually extended to express all kinds of metaphysical or 
figurative relations. 

75. Cases, without prepositions, are sufficient for languages 
which are at their simplest stage. A reminiscence of the 
previous existence of case-inflections often remains when the 
inflections themselves have disappeared (e.g. Le fds VEm- 
pereur, Ville Hadrien ; cf. Hotel-Dim, Faubourg St.-Antoine, 
Bar le Due, De part le roi, &c). But every language, as it 
advances from synthesis to analysis, develops prepositions, and 
uses them more and more to give precision to the obliterated 
forms and more extended meanings of the case-terminations. 
Moreover as the requirements of language become more and 
more complicated, the quickness of the mind is naturally 
diminished and encumbered. In fact, prepositions become 
more and more necessary to distinctness and accuracy in 
language,* and hence they are often used in prose where they 
would be omitted in poetry. It should then be clearly 
understood that it is the case which indicates the meaning of 
the preposition, and not the preposition which gives the 
meaning to the case. Each preposition has some one distinct 
meaning of its own, varied by the cases with which it is used. 
Tts purpose is only to supplement and to define. Thus a-'u 
xl waning ' from' entirely coincides with the conception of 
ab ation, and hence is used with the genitive only ; iv denotes 

' p >sition in,' and therefore coincides with the meaning of the 
d; rive, and is joined with the dative only; elg indicates 
motion towards, and therefore (naturally) is only joined with 
the accusative. Ilapa means ' alongside of,' and really retains 
this sense with all three cases, 7rapa aov = from (alongside of) 
you ; irapa. uoi at alongside of you = with you ; irapd ae to 
alongside of you = to you. It is therefore not strictly accurate 
to talk of prepositions governing cases ; since in point of fact 
they merely define the exact sense in which the case is used. 
It is the case which borrows the aid of the preposition, not 

* See some excellent remarks on this subject in Burggraff, p. 268 
seqq. As Mr. D'Avcy Thompson expresses it, modern languages have 
all discarded (or nearly so) the tight affixes (or case-endings) of the 
ancient languages for loose prefixes or prepositions. 


the preposition which requires the case. It should be observed 
also that where prepositions appear to change their meanings 
■with the cases Avhich they define, it is really a difference in 
the meaning not of the preposition but of the case. 

76. We are not therefore surprised to find that prepositions 
have nearly superseded cases in Modern Greek and in the 
Romance languages ; and Ave can see the tendency to use them 
(which ended in the final evanescence of case-distinctions), 
on the one hand in the New Testament where they abound ; 
and on the other in the practice of the Emperor Augustus,* 
who was observed to make great use of them in the endeavour 
to speak as perspicuously as possible. Thus he preferred to 
say or speak ' impendere in aliquam rem,' and ' includere in 
carmine,' when most of his cotemporaries would have used 
the phrases ' impendere alicui rei,' and ' includere carmine,' 
or carmini. In doing this he was only a little before his age ; 
but the same tendency is found often enough, as ' ad carni- 
ficem dare,' Plaut. ; ' Fulgorem reverentur ab auroj Virg. ; 
' Genera de ulmoj Plin. ; ' Scribas ad me,' Cic. Alt. xi. 25 ; 
' Offerre se ad mortem,' id. Tusc. Disp. i. 15. 

76 {bis). The same remarks apply to our own language, as 
will appear at once by a comparison of our English version of 
the Bible, first with Tyndale's, then with Wiclif's, and then 
with the Mseso-Gothic fragments of Ulphilas. 

77. Several prepositions (called improper or spurious) are 
also adverbs, as eyyvc, iipa, iroppw, iriXac, ^apir, &c, as in 
English ' before,'' ' after,' &c. This adverbial use of prepositions 
is most frequent, as might have been expected, in the older 

78. The name UpoBiaeiQ prceverbia is due to their use in 
composition with verbs, &c. When they stand alone many of 
them may (especially in poetry) be placed after y the words 

* See Egger, Gram. Comp. p. 195. The very interesting passage in 
Suetonius, which mentions this analysing phraseology of the careful 
emperor, is as follows : Prfecipuam curam duxit sensum animi quam 
apertissime exprimere ; quod quo facilius exprimeret, aut necubi lectorem 
vel auditorem obturbaret ac moraretur, nee prcepositiones verbis addere, 
neque conjunctiones ssepius iterare dubitavit, qua detract® afferunt aliquid 
obscuritatis etsi gratiam augent' The passage might have been used to 
describe the style of Lord Macaulay, and the last clause hints at the 
respective advantages of synthetic and analytic languages, the latter 
gaining in accuracy what they lose in vivid conciseness. 

f In many languages (e.g. Turkish) they are entirely postpositions ; 
in Latin we have mecum, xohiscum, &c. ; in English wherem, -wherewith, 
&c. ; in German Deinetra^e?*, &c. 


they govern. When this is the case, the accent is thrown 
back by what is called anastrophe, as tikvuv nipt, p-d^n £>'', 
&c* Aid and ard are excepted from the law of anastrophe, 
lest they should be confused with the accusative of Ztuc, and 
the vocative of araj;. 

79. There are eighteen prepositions, of which four, unu, 
f£, ujvt, 7Tj0o, govern the genitive ; two, iv and vvv, the dative; 
one, aid, the dative and accusative; three, an, Kara, v-ip, 
the genitive and accusative; and seven, aju0t, irspi, eVi, juera, 
rrapd, 7rp.oc, v7ro, take three cases, the genitive, dative, and 
accusative. Besides these there are the improper prepositions. 

SO. Examples will only be given where the meaning is 
peculiar or not obvious; and those usages which are very 
rare or quite abnormal, are omitted ; for completeness in treat- 
ing of the prepositions cannot be combined with brevity. In 
all languages the usages and phrases connected with preposi- 
tions are too numerous to be briefly exhausted. For instance, 
in English the same prepositions may even have opposite 
meanings, as ' I fight with you,' which may either mean ' at 
your side and for you,' or ' against you ' ; so in Latin we may 
have ' pugnare cum hostibus,' and ' ire cum sociis ' ; and 71710c 
tivoq may mean either against or for a person, according to 
the context, &c. The reason of this is that even the com- 
monest matters may be viewed under many aspects; compare, 
■!br instance, the phrases ' to talk about a thing, Xiyetr jrepi 
twos dicere de aliqua re, 3 "l3' r t uber etwas sprechen.' 'Here 
we and the Greeks regard the object spoken of as something 
encompassed; the Latins as a whole of which part is supplied ; 
the Hebrew as a ground to stand on ; the Germans as a ground 
to be gone over' 1 (Winer, Gram. iV. T. ii. § 47). Besides, 
when mental and metaphysical relations have to be figuratively 
expressed by words and cases which originally had only a 
local meaning, it is obvious that the metaphor must be of so 
very general a character that the same relation may be ex- 
pressed with equal propriety in several ways. It is generally 
easy with a little thought and care to trace the metaphysical 
meaning directly from the physical, but, as the explanation 

* But otherwise irdpa, exi, /xe'ra, trept, viro, tvi (notice the accents), 
stand for TrapecrTf, tweart, &c., and &va for avd<TTr)8i stand up! or for the 
vocative of i.vdt, (in Homer). A change of meaning is iu all languages 
naturally accompanied by a change of accent, or spelling; thus in 
English ' sith ' is a causal particle, but si?ice (sithens) is also a preposi- 
tion and an adverb. 


would require an entire treatise, and as views differ on the 
subject, this is best left to the student himself. 

81. The student should accustom himself to notice the 
manner in which the meaning of a verb alters according to 
the prepositions with which it is compounded ; e.g. 

$idu)[ii I give ; EK^idovai to disembogue ; ivdiciovai to 
yield ; iirttiiftovai to increase ; irapaSiCovai to hand 
down; irpohiduvai to betray; cnrocitdoadai to sell, &c. 

Tti\t(jjj.a a fort; oiartiyiayLa a partition; iiriTEi^iTna a 
fort built in an enemy's country ; Trapareixifffxa a cross- 
wall ; Trporel\icrfia a bulwark ; irspiTel-^iaixa a line of 
circumvallation, &c. 

iotjj/u I place ; avviarnni I introduce ; t^i'nrj^ut I drive 
mad ; KaQitrrrifii I establish. 

'itjfii I send; avtivat to remit; ttpdvvu to give up to; 
fjediirai to relax, &c. 

t%u) I have; aviytiv to continue, to rise up; Qeyjtiv to 
project; Tvpoaiyiiv to attend; Kari-^Eiv appellere, to 
touch at a shore; v-nepi-xtiv to excel; avTEyeiv to 
resist; Eiri)(Eiv to wait for; (Jxre\e ku\ Trapeze ' beai 
and forbear '). 

fftt'w I shake ; irpoaeiu) I threaten, or entice by waving ; 
£7tkt£«w I hark on, &c. 

epXP/jutt I come; tcaTEp-^ofiai I return from exile; /jert'p- 
■XOfiai I go after, &c. 

Prepositions which govern the Genitive. 

82. These are : 

i. dvri opposite to, contra', then instead of, for. (Compare 
the words ama, ayriji', avriKp'v, ivarriog, ante.) 

avT 'tfiov instead of me. 

avff ov on account ofivhich. 

a\\a.TT£ada.i avrl ^pvcrov to change for gold. 

\apiv avrl \apLTQQ grace for grace, i.e. unceasingly re- 

ii. irpo (pro?) before, both of time, place, and preference. 
It is closely connected with, but slightly more general 
than, avrl', hence avr 6<f>da\/dCjy = Trpu rwv 6<p6a\fiu>v. 

iii. £c, ii, ' from out of extrinsecus. 

Ik 7rat'<W from boyhood (cf. ' of a child,' Mk. ix. 21 ; 
' Being of so young days,' Haml. ii. 2). 



ek often = after, as 

yEkav zk ^aKpvwv to laugh after tears. 

ek detirvwv virroQ tfivg sweet is sleep after dinner. 

TvfXds ek ctdopKOTOQ blind after seeing. 

Ik KV[xaTU)i' yaXijv opiu I see after storms a calm. 

Compare the Latin ex : e.g. Scriba ex quinqueviro ; ex 
homine factus est Verres (Cic. Div., Verr. 17 f.). 

Our of is used in just the same way by Milton, as 

' I of brute, human, ye of human, gods.' — Par. Lost, 

ix. 712. 
' How cam'st thou speakable of mute V — Id. ix. 563. 
1 Is of a, king become a banished man.' — Shakspeare, 

3 Henri/ VI. iii. 3. 

iv. u7to (a, ab, abs, off) 'from'' ; cnro means ' from the out- 
side,' £*£ from the inside of a thing; as uiro TaXiXaiac, 
tic iroXewg Na^aper. — Luke ii. 4. It expresses place, 
time, and cause ; also sometimes the agent, as i-n-paxOrj 
an avrwv ov?ev kpyov a^ioXoyov. 

Besides these four, the spurious prepositions avev without, 
a\pi, ju^xP 1 until, ju£ra£u between, h>eica and e/cart for the sake 
of, svOv straight towards, 7rX;)v except, rpoirov and ?/kiji> like, 
and x"P iy f° r the sa ^ e °f> g ov ern a genitive. 

N.B. eiidvg = immediately, ei/dv with the gen. = straight 
towards ; fisra^v by a curious ellipse sometimes omits one of 
the two things between which another is placed, as fi£TaE,v 
rwv 'Ji'ovc (Ar. Ach. 434) between those of Ino {and the ones 
last mentioned). Compare our word ' flight,' i.e. twixt light 
(and darkness). Cf. Par. Lost, ix. 50, and Shilleto, Dem. de 
F. Leg. § 181. peraEv Eeiirvwv = lohilst dining. 

Prepositions with the Dative, iv, avv. 

83. i. iv (in with the ablative) of place and time ; also of 

the instrument and manner, as 
iv or avv rayti with speed. 
iv 6(pdaXfio~ii: opuiv seeing with the eyes. 
■fiv iv toIq 'lepocroXvfioic {place), ev rw iraa^ci (time), iv rrj 

eoprrj (circumstance). — 2 Cor. vii. 16. 

ii. Ivv {ivr, cum) ivith. It implies a closer union than 
[XEra. See Soph. Ant. 115. 7ro\Awv ^/£0' ottXwv, avv 6' i-mro- 
KofioiQ Kopvdtaeri (Donaldson), avv tivi implies coherence; 
pera tivoq coexistence (Winer). 

2w, sis, a>s, Sid. 99 

N.B. Iivv is by no means coextensive with the English 
' with ; ' thus ' they fought with him,' would be not avv avriji 
but irpog civtov. 

With the Accusative, etc, tig. 

84. i. etc {in with accusative), into, of place. Also up to, 
of time, as etoq etc krog year by year, etc tiKoai jiaXio-ra up to 
about twenty. Also of purpose, as etc rode tftcoftev for this 
purpose we have come. 

etc into stands in the same relation to irpog towards, as e£ 
out of does to and away from. 

etc sometimes, in the tragedians, means ' as regards ; ' wc 
ourtc ardpwv etc finravr tvZaifxovti since no man is happy in 
all respects (cf. Eur. Phosn. 619, 1645 ; Or. 529). 

etc is often used with ellipses, as ee SitWcaXou into the 
teacher's (house), ee "Ailov to (the realm of) Hades, &c. 

ii. a»c ' to ' only with persons, or words that involve per- 
sons, as 

£TT£/j.\pey avrbv we j3aai\ea he sent him to the king, 
wc tcmtBs x £ t|° a c to these hands of mine. 

Probably it is a merely elliptic expression for wc ^pog, we 
eVt, &c, which we frequently find ; e.g. etc <&a>K£ag, wg irpog 
(Tv^/ia-^ovg. — Demosth. (cf. Acts xvii. 14). Constructions like 
wg "Aj3vSov l to Abydos,' are very rare. 

With the Genitive and Accusative, dia, Kara, vn-ep. 

85. i. Sta through (connected with cuo ; eSt' Ik = right 
through ; cf. Engl, between with twain). 

a. With genitive = per.* 

Si ayy£\m> by means of messengers. 
Si'a tCjv 6(pda\fxu)i' opupev we see with our eyes. 
ota x£ptoi> e^eiv to have in hand. 
Sia (ptXlag Uvai to be on friendly terms, f 
Ziix (TTOjiarog £X eLV ^° ^ an ^ about. 
Sta /jiaicpov after a long interval. 

dia Sixa eVaAiiewv irvpyoi towers at intervals of ten battle- 

* Aia. with the genitive is rarely used of the direct agent (which is 
(nib or irapa with the genitive) ; di' ov is not ' by whom,' but ' by whose 
means,' per quern not a quo. 

f Cf. &yeiv Sia <ppovri5os curare, Sib. /xv-fi/xri^ mentionem facere, 8t' 
aidovs venerari, Si' evxys in votis habere, &c. 

F 2 

100 A BttlEF GfiEEK SYNTAX. 

/3. With the accusative, through or about (poet.), as ha 
hop:ara. Also on account of = propter, as 'i-^io yap a^w ha as. 
Thus Zia rijo-ov Uvat would be to pass through an island ; 
$ia vrfaov Uvai would be in poetry to make a tour through an 
island ; and we should say Sia Tztliov ipa^ero he was fighting 
all about the plain, but Sia nehov eSpauev he ran through the 
plain. 1 Cor. xi. 9, ovk tKriadr] avijp Sta T))v yvva'ttca ' for the 
sake of; id. vers. 12, 6 avi)p hia rrjg yvraiKog ' by means of.' 
it ov ra iravra Ka\ hi ov ra Tvavra, Heb. ii. 11, for 

whose sake, and by whose means all things exist. 
ha aov per te, by your means ; avrog ci kavrov ewoit. 

he was doing it by himself, sua unius opera. 
$ia ae propter te, because of you ; el pr\ It avrov but for 

ha Tovrtav by means of these things, per ho3c. 
ha raiira wherefore, propter Ii03C 

N.B. ha vvktoq and ha vvktu differ very little ; the former 
calls attention to the fact that a thing lasted till next morning, 
the latter that it occupied all night long. 

ii. rani ' down.' 

a. With genitive, down from; also against, as \iyeiv Kara 
tivoq to speak against any one. 

/•>. With accusative, along, about, according to, in re- 
ference to.* 

Kara poor down stream. 

Kara rov avrov -xporop about the same time. 

Kara yvuypnr ti)i> e/j/)*' according to my notion. 

70 Kara Mapicoi> tuayyiXtov the gospel according to Mark. 

Compare the following : | Kara with the genitive, vertical 
motion ; — ■ =>- Kara with the accusative, horizontal motion. 
ol Kara x^oroc the dead. 
ol Kara, -xfdova the living. 

car' QvXvfiiroio Kapi)vu)v down from the crest of Olympus. 
Kara QaXaaaav inoptvaro he went by sea. 

iii. virep over. 

a. With the genitive, position over, super ; also on behalf 
of,\ as in virtp aov a-KOKpivovnat I will answer on your behalf. 

* Hence both Kaff eavrSv, and Si' kavrov, mean ' by himself? scorsum ; 
but the former implies ' in reference to' the latter ' by means of.' 

f Both inrlp and irpb with the genitive mean ' on behalf of,' because a 

Kara, ava. 101 

/3. With the accusative, over and beyond, ultra ; as pinTetv 
vxep top Bofior to fling over the house. 

"With the Dative and Accusative. 

'Ara ' up.' 

a. With the dative, only in Epic and lyric poetry, on. 
tvfiti o ava oKaTTTU) ±ibc aleTog and the eagle slumbers on 
the sceptre of Zeus. 

/3. With the accusative, up, throughout, &c. 
dvd poov up stream. 
diet izoLv etoq quotannis. 
dm wav to 'irog throughout the year. 

N.B. i. 'Avd, tcara, are probably the origin of the hypo- 
thetical particles dr, Key. 

ii. They are used in constant contrast, as avta kcltu) up and 
down, sursum deorsum; ara Kara ultro citroque, di'tp/y he 
went inland, Kariflr) he went to the sea, drec^v it rose, tcaridv 
it set, cwavevu) I throw back the head in token of dissent, 
Karavtvu) I nod assent. 

iii. And yet, since up and down are but two ways of re- 
garding motion along the same line, it is often indifferent 
which of the two we use;* hence we find either Kara or dm 
KpaToc forcibly; Kara or did a-parov throughout the army; 
Kara or did or op? t\ity to talk about, /card or drd rirrapng 
by fours (also enl rerrapwi'), Kara or aid noXcig about the 

With Genitive, Dative, or Accusative, 'Afstpi, irtpi, ini, 

pera, irapu, icpog, vtto. 

86. i. aiMpi (Lat. amb-, apud, German urn). ' It is mostly 
confined to Ionic Greek f and to poetry, and it is the only pre- 

champion in battle stood in both positions, as ftif 6vi\o-)£ inrlp toOS* 
avSpSs, ov8' iya irpb aov. — Ale. 690. (Donaldson.) 

* We must not suppose because two prepositions are interchangeable, 
even "with different cases (as e7rl Terrdpoiv and ava rirrapas) that they 
mean the same thing. The explanation is that the same relation may be 
regarded from two entirely different points of view. In German Auf die 
Bedingung and Unter der Bedingung both mean ' on the condition,' but 
auf ' on' is not — unter, 'under.' (Winer, iii. § xlvii.) 

f In Later Greek (e.g. in Plutarch and Lucian), by a wild extension of 
the dislike to all directness or personality of speech, ol &/j.<pi TIAoTwa 
simply means Plato! In Herod, i. 62, ol a/x<p\ XletcriuTpaTov . . . onriKvetTai 
is due not to this phrase, but to anacoluthon. 


position which has disappeared in Modern Greek.' (Clyde.) 
As usual, we may trace its comparative insignificance in the 
fact that it never occurs in the New Testament except in com- 

With all three cases it means around or about. 
afj(j)l roy ytijiibva about winter. 
afiifi rove fxvplovg about ten thousand. 
oi a/jKJjl HXciTwra Plato and his school.* 

It is not used with the dat. in Attic prose. 

ii. TvepX around and about (Lat. per-, as adv. -ripi = very. 
Compare our English phrase, ' good all round 1 ). This becomes 
the Gothic faur-, the German ver-, the English for-] e.g. for- 
lorn = verloren = utterly lost, etc. 

a. With the genitive = de, about. Notice the phrases nepl 
epihog pros ira (Horn.), irepl ttoXXuv Icttiv fijiiv it is of much 
consequence to us. 

/3. With the dative,f around, of place, and concerning, as 
dappeiv izepi tlvl to be of good cheer about any one. 

y. With the accusative around, and in regard to, and about, 
as 7T£pt tovtov Tov yjiovov about this time. 

In these two prepositions the distinctions of meaning with 
the different cases are not at all distinctly marked. Hence we 
find in the same sentence evcppaireii' 6vp.oi> aufi tivi, and afupi 
Tiva, and in the same sentence of Herodotus, vii. 61, irepl [iev 
rrjai KetyaXijcri tl^ov riapag . . . iripl ci to trtDjua Kidu/vac. 
And ' both are used with vague indications of time or number.' 
— Donaldson. 

iii. £7rt upon. It has various meanings, which can gene- 
rally be deduced from its adverbial sense, and the meaning of 
the case Avith which it is joined. Thus with the genitive it 
implies partial superposition ; with the dative absolute super- 
position, or rest upon ; and with the accusative motion with a 
view to superposition (Donaldson). 

a. With the genitive — 

e<f "iifKuv oyjuoQcu to ride on horseback. 

TrXelv £7rt Sa/Lzou to sail towards Samos. 

eVt Aapeiov kyeveTo it happened in the time of Darius.J 

i(j>' ljjuuiv in our days. 

* See note f on preceding page. 

f irepl and imb are never used with the dative in the New Testament. 

\ This temporal meaning of eVl is partly derived from the participles 

"Ett/, fisra, irapd. 10S 

|8. With the dative — 

£7ri ry daXaaai] oiKtiv to live near the sea (i.e. wpora the 

£7rt tovtolq thereupon, or besides. 
k(f oig re on condition that. 
i-irl di'ipa or kirl di'ipav k£iivai to go a hunting. 
£7rt 7ck"o<£ SaveLfciv to lend on interest. 
ro £7ri ow as far as you can ; nearly = to fVt as quantum 
in te est. 

y. With the accusative, motion towards — 
avajjaiveiv i(f imrov to mount on horseback. 
arpaTs-vtadai eiri AvSovq to go on an expedition against 

the Lydians. 
to £7rt <7(pa.Q uvai as far as depended on them.* 

iv. MtTo. with (connected with piaog, German inii) implies 
separable connection. 

a. With the genitive = with, (Lat. cum) accompanied by 
(but never our ' with ' in the sense of an instrument, as ' with 
a sword '). 

/3. With the dative = among (only in poetry). 

y. With the accusative = ' after,' either in space or time ; 
e.g. (dtj c>£ }xet 'ldofj.Evrju he went after (i.e. in quest of) Ido- 
meneus; /.lera Tavra after these things. 

Our * after ' has the same two meanings, for we say (collo- 
quially), ' To send ajter a person, a book,' &c. Succession in 
■place and time are constantly confused, as in the word ' inter- 
val,' used of time, but properly a space between two ramparts. 

v. ■Kapa beside (apud). 

a. With the genitive, from, iXde'tv irapa. tlvoq = venir de 
chez quelqu'un. 

/3. With the dative, near, 7]v irapa t£ flcMnXel he was with 
the king. 

y. With the accusative, towards. All its shades of meanings 
with the accusative are derived from the notion of ' motion 
near, or with a view to conjunction.' 

lirat irapa vrjag to go to the ships. 

irapa diva duXtKrarjg along the sea beach. 

with which it is generally joined ; we use a very similar phrase when 
we say ' upon this ' = when this happened ; ' Upon his coming to the 
throne,' &c. 

* In several of its meanings iirl resembles the German avf, which is 
used both of hills and plains ; as eV ipriixlas = aufdem Felde. (Winer.) 


Tcapa. oXov tov piov during one's whole life. 
Trap iXirlda beyond expectation. 
d/xaprwXot 7rapa jravrac sinners beyond all. 
7rapa vop.ov contrary to the law. 
7rapa ravra besides these things. 
7rapo fiticpby within a little. 
7ro|o' iifiap from day to day. 

The causal meaning of irapa, as in irapd ti)v tavrov a/ieXeiay, 
has been compared with our colloquial, ' it's all along of his 
own neglect ; ' in this instance however ' all along ' possibly 
means ' throughout, and of is the preposition denoting the 
source of action. 

irapd aov = apud me a te, i.e. from you ; 7rapa oo\ = apud 
te a me, i.e. with or by you ; 7rapa o~£ a me ita ut apud 
te sit, i.e. towards you. It is however simpler fo ex- 
plain it as meaning from (alongside of) you, near 
(alongside of) you, towards (alongside of) you. 

vi. 7rpoc* (adversus), to. 

a. With the genitive, on the side of, &c, Tpog /Jnrpbc on the 
mother's side (cognati a matre versus me). 

ol npog ci'lfxaTog blood relations. 

npog deu>v by the gods. 

ovSafiuig irpoQ gov Xiyeig you're not talking at all likt 

irpor tivoq Xiytiv to speak for a person. 

/3. With the dative, at, to, besides. 

y. With the accusative, towards, with respect to; ovc'tv 
trpoc Efie it's nothing to me ; 7rpoe |3tav, violently, &c. 

■n-pbg tovtuv in consequence of this (motive). 
irpbc tovtoiq in addition to this (juxtaposition). 
■xpoQ ravra therefore (with reference to this) ' so then.' 
irpoc (te Qeiov alrovpni per te Deos oro : notice the posi- 
tion of the pronoun. 

See Eur. Phcen. 524 ; JEsch. P. V. 992. 

* Since 'from' and ' to 1 may imply motion along the same line, only 
regarded from two different points, we are not surprised to find in the 
s.ime sentence tov fitv irpbs fSopiw karfSna rbv Sh irpbs v6rov one standing 
from (i.e. towards) the north (as in Latin ' ab oriente ' — versus orientem), 
tho other towards the south. — Herod, ii. 121. 

'Ttto. 105 

vii. vtto under. The physical meanings of Wo are very dis- 
tinct ; thus 

a. With the genitive =.from under (motion from), 

vtto TTTspUti' oTvaaaQ dragging from under the wings. 
(3. With the dative ={at) under (position), 

KaXrj vtto TrXara vierra under a fair plane tree, 
y. With the accusative =to under (motion to), 

W'lXiov H>pro sped under (the walls of) Ilium. 

vtto with the genitive is the commonest method of expressing 
the agent after passive verbs, as 

kdXu) vtto tu>v 'E\\i)yu)v it was taken by the Greeks. 
Notice the phrases, 

VTO vuKra=sub noctem, about nightfall. 

vtto aaXiriyyoQ Trirtiv to the sound of the trumpet. 

87. Donaldson quotes an interesting passage of Philo Judasus 
(i. 162), in which he says that the efficient cause or agent 
(v(f>' ov) in creation was God ; the material cause (t£ ov) was sub- 
stance (tj vX-q) ; the instrument (Zt ov) was the Word ; the final 
cause or reason for it (Jii 6) is the goodness of God. 

Prepositions in Composition. 

88. In compounds, the use of the prepositions is generally 
obvious ; but the following may be noticed. Sometimes a7ro 
has a negative force, as in diroipn^i nego, airapiaica) displiceo ; 
ava resembles the Latin re- in retracto, livafiaXXw 
rejicio ; o"ia has a reciprocal force, as in ha^aypvTai they fight 
together; IttI means besides, as kmyafitiv to marry a second 
wife ; 7rapa=male, &c. as irapatypovtlv to be mad, irapaicpovf.iv 
to cheat; i/7ro= secretly or slightly, as viroyeXdv subridere, 
vir6Xt.vKOQ "whitish, vireKTrifnreiv to send out secretly. 

Common Constructions with Prepositions. 

89. i. The agility of intellect among the Greeks, and their 
love of terseness, led them to a frequent use of what is called 
the constructio pr&gnans (one of the forms of the constructio 
Kara avvtaiv or ad sensuni), by which they put a preposition 
implying rest with a verb implying motion, or vice versd, so 
that two clauses are compressed into one, as 

ityavr] XIq . . . elg ofSoV a lion appeared into the road (i.e. 

came into and appeared in), 
ol Ik Tfje dyopaQ airecpvyov those who were in the forum 

fled from it. 


Kadrified' axpwv Ik 7raytuv we sat (on and looked) from 

the hill tops. 
aria-' k'£ Ow\u/i7ro;o standing (on and looking) from 

itpoQ to nip Kadryievot; sitting to the fire (i.e. going to and 

sitting at). 
<t>iA.i7T7TO£ fie ebpidq elg " A£(i>tov Philip was found into 
( =at) Azotua * 
ii. So in Latin we find 

In amicitid receptus. — Sail 
In aquani macerare. — Cat. 
Responde ubi cadaver abjeceris. — Tac. 
And in English, ' To place a thing in {—into) his hands ;' ' to 
hang something from (=o») a peg;' ' ivhere {=ivhither) are 
you going ?' But our instances are fewer and far less strongly 
marked. f Chaucer, however, has, ' Whan Scipio was come In 
Africke.' — Assembl. of Fowles (see Bible Word Booh, p. 263). 

90. In poetry, if there be two substantives the preposition 
is often put with the last only, as 

f/ Nt'iXpy fj VI Mififiv. — Anacr. 

7/ d\6s rj ini yrJQ.—Od. i. 247. 

'LQi vaoue, 'id i irpbg /3w/ioyc. — Eur. Hec. 146. 
It is the same in Latin as 

' Quas nemora, aut quos agor in specus ? ' — Hor. 
' Baias et ad Ostia currant.' — Juv. 

91. On the other hand, the preposition is omitted from the 
second of two verbs, as 

Trpofiare flare. — (Ed. Col. 859. 

Karrjyev, fjyev, 1]ytv, £C /J-iXav iticor. — Eur. Bacch. 1018. 
So, too, in Latin — 

'Retinete, tenete.' — Pacuvius in Niptris, Cic. 

* In the New Testament this occurs all the more frequently from its 
also being a Hebrew idiom, as 2 N-12 elcrepxeo-dai iv. (Winer.) Compare 
• Ye shall be beaten into (els) the synagogues.' — Mark xiii. 9. In Col. iv. 
16, tV e/c Aao5ucelas iiriaroK^v means the letter written to L. and sent 
thence to you ; not ' from L.' as it has been erroneously taken by those 
who were not aware of this constructio prcsgnans. Winer, § Lsvi. 6. 
Cf. Ps. lxxxix. 39. 

t The strongest instance I have found is in the ballad of Sir Patrick 
Spens — 

' And lang lang may the ladies sit, 
With their kaims into their hands ; ' 

unless this be a Scoticism. 


92. Two prepositions are often used with the same word for 
the sake of greater distinctness, as 

a/j.(j)l govveku, Soph. Phil. 554. 
i't7ro fiofis evekci, Thuc. viii. 92. 
fit) npog la^vog j^apiv } Eur. Med. 538. 

And we find compounds such as vkekk i etv, eZaTtdtydeifttiy, 
TTfj07rpol3ia(ea6ui, &C. 

Various Instances of the Use of Prepositions. 

93. The prepositions are often varied in the same clause, 
which shows how often the shades of difference between their 
meaning are very slight ; as uvte kiri yi\v oi/re Eia OaXdaaijc, 
Thuc. ; tFjq etrl n)v 'Arrucqv bhov ku\ tt)q eIq TLkhjoirovvrjtrov, 
Demosth. ; /j.ij irepi tCjv IikciLidv fxrjh' vitEp tuiv e^io Trpayfiartov 
etvai oijv {juvXi'iv, id.; EK te tJjq KepKvpag i:al ano rijc ljitEipov, 
Thuc. vii. 33 ; lie irokifiov [xev . . . ucf //iru^'ae St, Thuc. i. 124. 

94. i. We find the same variety in the New Testament, as 

5e SlICaiUHTEl Tt)y TTEpiTOjJ.))v EK 7TL(TrE(i)Q (the SOUrCe) Kal T7)V 

aKpofivirriap <5ta tT]g TvlarEwe (the means), Rom. iii. 3U. uiro 
and ec are synonymous in John xi. 1 ; Rev. ix. 18. 

ii. We might say 

XpioTOG vTrep aaE^iov airidavE, Rom. v. 6, 8, xiv. lb ; 
or ZovvaiTi]v ipvxf)V avroii \vrpov avrl ttoX\H> v,Matt. XX. 28; 
or alfia to irepi ■n-oWwv EtcyyvoiiEvov, Matt. xxvi. 28. 

In all these passages we might use l for ' in English, but vwep 
means in behalf of , avrl instead of (loc), and nEpl on account 
of us, as the cause. Yet the difference of meaning is so slight 
that the readings often differ, as in Gal. i. 4. 

iii. The variation of prepositions to present the thought 
from all points of view is very common in St. Paul, as 

airoaroXoG ovk air' dvdpioiruv (as the source) ovle St af- 
dpuTrov (as the intermediate authority) dkXa did. 'h]aov 
XpiffTov, Gal. i. 1. 

t£ avTov {from him), ku.\ hC avrov (by his means) koX etc 
clvtov (to him as their end) to. navTa, Rom. xi. 36. 

95. Notice the phrases, 

i. Kad' ijfjLEpay day by day, singulis diebus. 

p.E& rjfjiipav in the day time, interdiu (properly after 


77-00' Tifiipav during the day, per diem ; also = fifiipa 

Trap' i]j.tipav from day to day, alternis diebus. 
dva Traauv lipipav daily, quotidie. 

ii. hciTu to avrb eodem tempore. 
1/71-0 to av-6 sub idem tempus. 

iii. Ammianus (Antliol. xi. 231) says to Marcus — 

di]pwv ei Ka-'a ypafijia Kai ardpujiroQ $ia ypafifia 


96. The Personal Pronouns, being involved in the finite 
verb, are only expressed when emphatic, as iyio p.kv SilaoKu), 
en) Se nalfetg I am teaching, but you are playing.* As might 
have been expected, they are more common in later than in 
earlier stages of the language ; e.g. they abound in the New 

97. Avtoq when placed first is emphatic, as avrbv Itv\Iev he 
struck him (and no one else), but erv\pei' avrov merely 'he 
struck him ;' avrbg wapeyiyov ; were you present in person ? 

aliTol aa/dsi' we are (by) ourselves, i.e. alone. 
Teraproc, Tzi^irTOc avrog with three, four others, &c\ 
avTOQ t$r\ the master said it. 

98. i. Possessive Pronouns are sometimes put for personal, 

abg Trodog regret for you. 

eq rr\v kfxffv dva^rnatv in memory of me. — Luke xxii. 19. 

ru> v/dtTepa) e\iet the mercy shown to you. — Rom. xi. 31. 

ii. They are placed after the article, as 6 crbg vlog ; whereas 
the genitives of the personal pronoun are placed after the 
noun, as 6 v'wg ctou.| 

iii. The attraction of a personal into a possessive pronoun, 
as in 

Tana <iv(TTi]vov team the woes of me unhappy, 
e/jo. Kridta Ovfiov the cares of my mind, 

* A pronoun is sometimes emphatically inserted in the latter of two 
clauses, as fJTOi navels t) <5ye aircnrXr]KTbs yev6p.evos, Herod, ii. 173. 
Nunc dextra ingeminans ictus nunc ilk sinistra, Virg. 

f Cf. II allait lui cinquiemc. 

\ In Soph. Aj. 572, 6 Av/j-fwu e/ is at any rate a very rare expres- 
sion for 6 \v/xeii)t/ ov^6s ; but probably the reading should be iuol, See 
§ 21, 


is very common ; and is closely paralleled by the Latin ' meas 
praesentis preces,' ' nomen meum absentis.' It is also found 
in German, as ' An meiner Schwelle, des armen Mannes.' — 
Schiller, Tell. 

iv. The form ajxhs - rj/xeTepos is sometimes found in the tragedians. 
When it stands for ifibs some would write it without the aspirate. 
Brunek says, a/xbs Doricum pro rj/jLerepos, a/xhs Atticum pro ifn6s. See 
Eur. Hel. 531 ; Iph. Aid. 1455; JEsch. Cho. 428. 

v. As Greek has no possessive pronoun for the 3rd person 
(' his, 1 &c), avrov is used for ' his,'' lavrov for ' his own ;' e.g. 
fi£TEirif.t\paro t>)v lavrov dvyaripa xal tov 7ru7?a avrrjg arces- 
pivit suam filiam, ejusque filium. 

' His ' in English till Shakspeare's time meant also ' its,' just like the 
Greek avrov. See Craik, Engl, of Shaksp. p. 97 seqq. 

vi. 2<pETepoQ is exclusively reflexive =their own. 

The Reciprocal and Reflexive Pronouns. 

99. The reflexive pronouns (those implying ' -self or 
' own ') give to Greek and Latin a clearness absolutely unat- 
tainable in English ; e.g. if we say, ' he laid the wounded man 
on his own bed,' it is impossible to mark in English whether 
' his own ' refers to the subject ' he ' or to the accusative ' the 
man.'* In Greek and Latin, ig to lavrov \i\og 'in suo lecto,' 
would at once show clearly when the former was intended. 
Similarly, such sentences as 'Quis profitetur suum esse dicere?' 
' Suum Csesari gladium restituit,' could only be rendered in 
French or English, unequivocally, by a long periphrasis. See, 
too, Eve's German Syntax, p. 36. 

N.B. i. ov, e, are not found in Attic prose ; oi is rare in 
the orators. 

ii. The reflexive is often used when the thoughts of another 
are referred to, as keXevei $e oi o-vfixifixpai avh'pa.Q and bids 
them to send him(se(/') men. 

iii. The dramatic and graphic tendency of Greek writers is 

* As a specimen of the utter confusion thus introduced into English, 
Uke this sentence of Goldsmith : ' He (Philip) wrote to that distinguished 
philosopher in terms the most polite and flattering, begging of him 
(Aristotle) to undertake his (Alexander's) education, and to bestowupon 
him (Al.) those useful lessons which Ms (P.'s) numerous avocations 
would not allow him (P.) to bestow.' See Dalglish, Engl. Gram. p. 116. 
There are several inaccuracies in the common usage of the English 
reflexives. See Latham, Engl. Gram. p. 150, 


generally sufficient to account for any apparent inaccuracy in 
the use of the pronouns. 

iv. There is no reciprocal pronoun in Latin ; its absence is 
supplied by such phrases as inter se, invicem, alius alium, &c. 
(See Nagelsbach, Lot. Stylistik, § 89.) 

Compare erv\pav dWi'iXovg verberavit alius alium (ilss'entre- 
frapperent, or ils se frapperent l'un l'autre). 

The Greek aW-hXow is only a reduplication of &\\o-, and is therefore 
a synthetic form for the quasi-parathetic alius alium. (For the i\ com- 
pare e(|/7jA.a from ty6.K\w, &c.) 

100. Keflexive pronouns are often substituted for re- 
ciprocal, as 

khov\(>)Qy]aa.v obic afivvovrtQ acpiinv avro'ig they were en- 
slaved, not defending themselves (=one another). 

SieXeyo/ueQa iffiiv aiiro'ig we conversed with ourselves 
(i.e. with one another). 

i.e. the reciprocity is extended into identity, just as in the 
German ' Wir sehen mis wieder,' ' we see one another again,' 
and in the French se battre, s' entendre, se disputer, &c. : ' lea 
r^publiques italiennes acharnees a se detruire.' So in Italian, 
' S' amano 1' un 1' altro,' they love each other. — Boccaccio. 
In Spanish, se aman, they love one another. The case is 
reversed in this sentence of the Spectator, ' The greatest 
masters of critical learning differ among one another ' (reci- 
procal, instead of 'among themselves,' reflexive).* 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

101. i. lids hicce, ovtoq hie, ille,^ ziceivoQ iste; compare the 
Spanish este hie, ese ille, aquel iste ; and the Italian questo, 
cotesto, quello. 

ii. oli like questo is often used of the first person ; in the 
tragedians dvrip oc£=£yu>. 

iii. So 6l£=ifiOQ, Soph. Ant. 43, tl top vwpbv aw rijet 
Kovfule x f P' with my aid. 

The avoidance of the personal pronoun as being too posi- 
tive and self-assertive, leads to the most curious page in the 
history of language ; e.g. the use of the first person plural by 

* Dr. Latham has adduced many instances of reflexive pronouns 
becoming reciprocal and vice versa. Philolog. Trans. 1844. So the 
Hebrew Hithpahel or middle voice is often reciprocal, as hishtakshak, to 
run to and fro among one another. Ewald, Hebr. Gram. § 243. 

■f 6SI oinoffl &c. are still more emphatic forms. 


royal personages, the editorial 'we,' &c. ; the invariable substi- 
tution of the second person plural for the second person 
singular, ' you ' for ' thou,' until in modern languages to 
' duzen ' or ' tutoyer ' a person is either a great familiarity or an 
insult.* In Spanish, instead of thou and you, we have listed, 
Ustedes (written Vmd.) which are contractions of Vuestra 
Merced, &c. your honour. In German we have sie= l they,' 
and in Italian ella ' she,' agreeing with vostra signoria under- 
stood. The use of a demonstrative (as ovtoq, ode for iyw) is 
carried to most extravagant lengths in Chinese, where a person 
speaking of himself to a superior says, ' this thief,' or ' this 
little dog,' ' this pigeon,' &c. Cf. p. 28. 

iv. ode also ushers a new character on the stage = cevpo or 

o'iW 7/3' ovraduiy Ik do^wp tiq ep-^erai but lo i one of the 
attendants is coming hither from the palace. 

v. ovtoq often calls a person (cf. Heus tu !); as 

<3 ovtoq ovtoq OtcSnrouc, ri piWoftev ; what ho! CEdipus, 
why are we lingering? — (Ed. C. 1627. 

vi. koX Tavra—and that too ; ical ravra dr) roiavra so much 
then for that. 

vii. ravra and roiavra usually refer to what goes before, 
race and roiade to what is coming ; as 

el firi ravra. eanv, ovde if it isn't that, neither is it 

this. — Plat. Phced. 76 E. 
brav rovro Xiyiofxev, rode \eyojiev when we say that, we 

say as follows. 
rovro /i£v (ri) Xeyeic, nap iifiu/v d dwayyeXXe race so you 

say, but announce our reply as follows. 
dia riji'de alriav for the following reason. 

viii. EKtivog has the sense of ' the famous] like the Latin 
ille ;f as 

* ' All that Lord Cobham did was at thy instigation, thou viper, for 
I thou thee, thou traitor.' — Coke to Sir "Walter Raleigh. ' If thou thou'st 
him some thrice, it shall not be amiss.'— Twelfth Night. An extract 
from the Journal of G. Fox might show that the change took place in 
his lifetime (1624-90); but even Ben Jonson says, 'The second person 
plural is used for reverence to a singular thing.' Compare too the rude 
' What trade art thou ? ' with the polite ' You, sir, what trade are you ? ' 
— Julius Ccssar, i. 1. See De Vera, Studies in English, p. 242 seqq. 
Guesses at Truth, i. 163-190, &c 

t Cf. Cic. Tusc. Qucest. v. 103, ' Hie est ilk Demosthenes.' ' Hcec ilia 
Charybdis,' &c, Virg. Mn. iii. 558 


ocf elfi eyw aoi keIpoq look, I am that famous man. 
tovt ekeIvo, Krdffd' kraipovQ this is the well-known 
proverb ' get friends.' 

ix. avroQ = he himself; as 

avrbg 6 apfjp the man himself. 
but 6 avrbg avi)p the same (or self-same) man. 
ravra ra. ■xpi) naTa these things. 
ra avra "^pi]fiara the same things. 

x. The supposed distinction between avrug ' likewise ' and 
avTojQ ' in vain ' is a mere fiction of the grammarians. They 
are one and the same word passing through various phases of 

Relative Pkonouns. 

102. i. It has already been pointed out that 6'e, »/, 6, was 
originally a demonstrative, not a relative pronoun, and was 
probably another form of o, >'/, ro'.f Hence such phrases as 
ml og and he, ?) cT bg said he, &c. 

bg fitv tteivcj bg £>£ fiedvei one man is hungry, another 

drunken. — 1 Cor. xi. 21. 
by fikv ihtipav, by Ze airiKreivav. — Matt. xxi. 35. 

ii. bg = who (definite), ootiq whoever, referring to a class 
(indef.) ; oaitep the very person who, referring to a distinct 
person, as 

tariv cIktjs d(/)0aX/ioe, og ra TrayQ' opq. there is an eye of 

justice, which sees all things. 
<pevyeiv \itv ovv -^pi) iroXtfiov oarig em (ppovEl nay rather, 

any one who (quicunque) is wise should avoid war. 
ijjxEic: KTevov[iEv o'tTTEp iE,E<pv(TafiEv I, the very person who 
bore them, will slay them. 

iii. But Bang does not always retain this indefinite sense ; 
as fj rroXig ijTiq ev Ae\0o7c ktiCetui. 

iv. The demonstrative is often pleonastic, or merely em- 
phatic, after the relative, as 

5>v b fi£v avrwr of which one of them. 

* See Hermann, Annot. de Pronom. <xvt6s, § xv. In such phrases as 
avr$i irpbs avr^y sola mecum, tois aiirbs avrov irfi/j.atrti' fiaptiverai, &c, the 
aspirate shows that avrfy, &c, are contractions for cases of the reflexive 
kavrov, &c. 

t Sanskrit offers a remarkable analogy to this dropping of the final s; 
see Monier Williams, Sanskr. Gram. § 67. 


dig OXvpTTioi 8eoi (IoTe'i' ttot avrolg, k.t.X. 
to whom may the Olympian gods grant in their own 
persons, &c. 
From the frequency of this idiom in Hebrew, Ave find it 
constantly in the LXX. and N. T. See 1 Pet. ii. 24, &c. 

This is precisely analogous to the English vulgarism ' which 
it's a shame ; ' see especially Hdt. iv. 44, ' the Indus, which 
it's the second river that,' &c. In Chaucer we find such ex- 
pressions as ' Crist which that is to every wound triacle.' — 
Man of Lawe's Tale. 

V. Sane, oirolog, oiroaog, Strug, ottov, &c* are used in 
indirect (or repeated) questions and sentences, for rig ; -rrolog ; 
7raJc; &c. Thus 

rig iicoitiiTEV ; who did it? oi/k olc' oarig i)v I don't know 

who it was. 
ovrog tl noie'ig ; you sir, what are you doing ? oti irouZ ; 

what, quotha? 
iruig dr], (f>pa(Ti0 kylo. "Oirwg ; <pn<rei How then, / shall 
say. How, quotha ? he will say, &c. 

vi. The contemptuous use of iro'iog, especially with the 
article in repeated questions, should be noticed, as 

■koIov tqv fivBov hirreg ; what manner of speech is this of 

thine ! 
K. ol irpiaflug ol ivapa paaiKiwg. A. nolov (iaaikiwg ; Her. 
The ambassadors from the king. Die. Fine king for- 
sooth ! — Ar. Ach. 62; cf. 157, &c. 

vii. Pronouns (and especially relatives) are peculiarly liable 
to attraction, as 

fiE/jiyjjode ov ofuofioicare remember the oath which you 

■XpiZ/jai olg tyjii) fiifiXioic 1 use the books I have. 
avrpov ac Matcpac kikXijctko/jiev a cave which we call Macrse. 

In English, by a reverse process, the antecedent is sometimes 
attracted into the case of the relative ; as ' When him we 

* These being mere luxuries, not necessaries of language, have for 
the most part disappeared in the New Testament ; and, as usual, in 
Modern Greek. When the question is not repeated out of any surprise, 
irony, misapprehension, &c, then these forms are not used ; e.g. 

II. Kal ttSis eV &VTpc*> ira78a obv Kiiriiv €t\tjs ; 
Kp. it Sis 8'; — Ion, 958. 

And how didst thou endure to leave thy child in the cave ? Cr. Ah I 
how indeed ! [' You may well ash how.'] 


serve's away.' — Ant. and Chop. iii. 1 ; cf. Coriol. v. 5. This 
resembles the Latin ' Eunuchum, quern dedisti nobis, quas 
turbas /eci*.'— Ter. Eun. iv. 3. Cf. Virg. jEn. i. 573. 

viii. Notice the phrases, 
ovk toO' ottov nowhere. 
ovk zgtiv ottioq nullo modo. 
ovi: eo-d' ottljq ov most certainly. 

c <T e^rjXwaag i/fiag quant a ce que vous nous portez envie, 
' as for your jealousy of us' (cf. quod in Latin). 
Lx. Notice the following pronominal adverbs : 

vws ; how ? quomodo 1 ttws, somehow ; aliquo modo. 

irov ; where ? ubi ? irov, somewhere ; alicubi. 

■nij ; which way ? qud ? ttti, some way ; aliqua. 

irSre ; when ? quando ? ttot4, at some time ; aliquando. 

trot; whither? quo 1 irol, somewhither; aliquo. 

The forms '6wov, bnire, &c, are used in indirect sentences ; trot, irfj, are 
the dative masculine and feminine of an obsolete pronoun ir6s (as $ 
from '6s). 

Indefinite Pronouns. 

103. i. rig ; = who ? rig enclitic = a, or a certain. - 
i] rig v ovdelg scarcely any one. 
TptlQ tlviq some three, ' one or two.' 

ii. The indefinite is sometimes politely put for the definite, 
as we say ' some one shall smart for it ' = you ; Kvifa riva 
I'm annoying some one = you. 

iii. The indefinite rig resembles our ' one,' the German man, 
the French on, as 

tovto h'i rig airoKpivair ay on pourrait r^pondre, cela ; 

hoc juste responderis. 
irol rig Tp£\per<ii; whither shall one turn oneself? 

iv. 6 Suva ' a certain person,' ' so and so,' some one whom 
we do not know, or do not choose to name. 

6 Selva rat 6 fieiva— ' John Doe and Richard Roe,' ' Brown, 

Jones, and Robinson ; ' compare the Latin ' Caius et 

v. Observe the phrases, 

ri wadwy; from what cause? "1 

H fxadojy ; on what inducement ? > = why ? 

ti i^iav ; with what reason ? J 

tI yap ; why then ? tva ti ; why ? 

ti fii']v , of course ! why not ? 

VERBS. 115 

Distributive Pronouns. 

104. i. "AXXoc alius, another ; trepog * the othei of two, 
alter; E/cqoroc unusquisque, EKuripuQ uterque. 

ciXXoi = others ; ol aXXui the rest, cceteri. 

ol erepoL the opposite party, pars altera ; eT£p6(f>daXpnQ 
having lost one eye. 

usTaTideade . . . £<e erepov evayyiXiov, b ou/c torn 1 ciXXo, 
Gal. i. 6, Ye are changed to a quite different Gospel, 
which is not another of the same kind (Clyde). 

ii. By a curious apposition of aXXoe with its substantive, Ave 
get the common Greek form of expression, ' sheep and other 
camels ' = sheep, and other animals, viz. camels ; as 

biro twv iroXiTuii' Kal tCjv aXXwi' £e')'wi', Plat. Gorg. 473 c, 

by the citizens and the rest, viz. foreigners. 
iiyovro o~£ cat krtpoi dvo KnKOvpyoi ovv avra> avaipeOffvcii, 
Luke xxiii. 32, And two different persons, viz. male- 
factors, were led to be crucified with him (not as in 
the Eng. Ver. ' two other malefactors '). 

N.B. "AXXo kui ciXXo one thing after another. 

ctXXoc dXXo Xiysi one man says one thing, another another. 
Cf. ' Alia ex aliis in fata vocamur,' JEn. iii. 496, We are 

summoned into one destiny after another. 
' Alii alio intueri,' Liv. ix. v. 8. 

It will be seen how much more awkward is the English 


105. i. The very name Verb (pijfia verbum) implies that it 
is the word, the most important word, in the sentence (see 
§ 69). 

ii. The forms of verbs may be tabulated thus : 


Transitive. Intransitive. 

Active. Deponent. Neuter. Passive. 

* erepos, Sanskrit antaras, Germ, cinder, &c. 


Voices (ciadiaeic). 

106. A Greek verb has three voices, active, passive, and 

107. Active Voice. — We have already seen that the reason 
why so many transitive verbs have also an intransitive mean- 
ing, is that the latter is the older meaning out of which the 
other was developed. 

108. Deponent Verbs have only a middle form, and it i& 
probable that they were all originally reflexive. It is not 
surprising that many deponents have also tenses of a passive 
form (e.g. tSeSajujj*' excepi, ici^drji' exceptus sum; £/3ta<rajuijv 
coegi, i/3id(T0?jj/ coactus sum, &c.) ; or that their tenses are 
used in a passive sense,* as is so commonly the case with the 
future middle (ap£o^tcu, Ti/jn'jrjofiai, ^r/Xwcro/iat, Xe^o/iai, Ki)pv- 
^0/, uA«ffo/iat, &c). 

109. i. Passive Voice. — The passive form implies that the 
subject of the proposition is not the agent ; the agenfis usually 
expressed by vtto with the genitive, or, in verbs which imply 
comparison, by the genitive alone ; also by ek (poet.), and 
-rapii (more rarely by n-poc and euro) with the genitive ; and, 
especially after the perf. pass., by the dative case ; as e/joi 
TtiirpaKTai Tovpyov the deed has been done by me. 

ii. Even those verbs which govern a genitive or dative may 
in Greek be used passively, and this genitive or dative may 
become the subject of the passive verb; e.g. airorifivEiv tlvoq 
T))y KefaXriv, and in the passive ol arparriyo\ airorfx-qdivrts rat; 
ke^ciXcxc ; ttkttevu) TivL ti, and in the passive Trnrlarevfiai ti 
1 have been entrusted with something. 

N.B. Notice the difference between the Greek and Latin 
idiom in ipEvarrjQ ov TncrrevErai mendaci rum creditur. 

110. Middle Voice. — The middle voice always refers to 
self in some relation or other, which may be expressed a. by 
the genitive, b. dative, c. accusative, or d. by a pronominal 
adjective ; as 

a. tiTruxrafxEroQ pushing away from myself. 

b. 7rnpa<7K-Evu£o/jai I prepare for myself. 

* Just as, on the other hand, some passive forms are used in the 
sense of neuters, as iropevdrivat to march, Koturjdrjvcu to sleep, <po$ri6riva.i, 
airaWayrjvai, &c. In later Greek, the middle is often used in a passive 
sense. Such peculiarities cause no practical confusion ; in French the 
reflexive verb is often passive, as in ' Votre heureux larcin ne se peut 
plus celer.' — Racine. 


c. cnrayt,acrQai to hang oneself. 

d. Tvirrofiai ri\v Kitya\i)v I beat my oivn head. 

In later Greek a reflexive pronoun with the active is often 
used instead of the middle, as ^wvvvelv kavTov, John xxi. 18 ; 
and this reflexive pronoun is even added to the middle, as 
Sufizpicrai'To eavrolg, John xix. 24. The gradual obsolescence 
of the middle in the New Testament appears from its being 
sometimes used indifferently with the active (cf. oruy/caXfT, 
Luke xv. 6, with avyKa\u-at, id. 9). 

111. There are four chief uses of the middle. 
i. Simply reflexive, as Xovofiai I wash myself. 

ii. Causative, as 7raparifapcu rpcnre^ar I get a table spread 
for me; SiZaaKOjuai rbv vlur I get my son taught (do- 
cendum euro). This is like the German reflexive 
(sich) lassen. 

iii. Indirect or appropriative, as TrapamcEva^oftai ra ETriri'i^Eia 
apparo mihi commeatum ; KarEarpiil/aTo tqv Mt/cov he 
subdued the Mede to himself; TrparTO/jiat -^pi'ifxaTa I 
get myself money. 

iv. Reciprocal, as TUTrrovTcit they strike each other ; w<m- 
ovvrai they jostle each other ; kiXevovtcii they exhort 
each other ; ^iojua^o»'-cit they fight each other. (Cf 
the Latin deponents convicior, cohortor, &c.) 

Sometimes too a distinctly reflexive middle takes an accusa- 
tive of the object affected by the state, as in Jrlomer, t'iwsp at 
avroi' SevojvTai racist; te kvveq even though swift dogs should 
stir themselves in pursuit of him; ekotttovto avrrjv (Luke viii 
52) they beat their breasts for her. Cf. Aristoph. Lys. 397. 

112. Notice the difference of Otlrat iv/mvc of a despot ; 
diffdai vofiovg of a legislator who will himself be bound by the 
laws he makes. 

Bt'ivai oikUiv to mortgage a house ; Oiadm oiKiav to take 

a house on mortgage. 
Xvoai to set free ; Xvaaadcu to ransom. 
■Xpijcrai to lend (or give an oracle) ; y^piiaaaBai to borrow 

(or consult an oracle). 
ZavtiCw I lend; (Sa^Ei^o/iai I borrow. 
Xavddru) I lie hid; Xavdaro/JLai I forget. 
(f>oj3iu) I frighten ; <^>o/3ovjucu I fear. 
Tvavb) I make to cease ; Tvavo^ai I cease. 
alpidj I take ; a'tpovfxui I choose. 
(3ovXev<jj 1 counsel ; fiovXtvofxai I consult. 


ctTrodido)fxi I restore ; cnrodidofiai I sell. 

7r£(Oi£t'(5w/zi I give round ; 7repic)<c!o/icu I wager. 

ypafd) I enrol ; ypatyofini I indict. 

<ppa£ti) I speak ; (ppai^o/jai I think. 

fiitrdw I let ; fiLirdovfiai I hire. 

7rf/0w I persuade ; Trtidofxai I obey. 

ap^u) I rule ; apypfxat I begin. 

errikXu) I send ; oteWo^icu I set out. 

ya^iw eZwco uxorem (of a man); yct/iov/jim nubo (of a 

(nrivhtj I pour a libation ; rnrivho}iai I make a truce. 
rrKOTru) I look ; amTTov/jiai I look mentally, I consider. 
7roiw Xoyov I compose a speech ; iroiovfxat Xoyov I make 

a speech. 
ttoXitevu) I am a citizen ; iroXtTEvojiai I live as a citizen. 

The last two instances are typical of many others. 

113. The following passages will illustrate some uses of the 
middle : 

'Avipa rig Xnroyviov virep rwroio \iiravy))g 

rjys, 7ro2ac xpi'inag, ojijxara -ypxinafxevoc (Anthol.) a blind 
man was carrying on his back a lame man, lending his 
feet, borrowing his eyes. 

exeIvoq ok eyqfiev d\\' kyiffiaro (Anacr. 84) he didn't 
marry her, but she married him (of a henpecked hus- 
band ; comp. Martial's ' uxori nubere nolo mea?,' I don't 
want my wife to marry me). 

tov re Iletov a.vtOiaaa.[ti\v Kai toy (TTparonehap-^qv 'iawaa 
(Dion H. iv. 2088) I saved my eagle and saved the 

aiTELTt Kai ov Xafijjarere, diori itaKwg aiTelade (Jas. iv. 2) 
Ye ask and receive not, because ye ask for yourselves 

114. It will be observed that the active form of verbs is 
often used when the meaning is simply physical, the middle 
when some action of the mind is involved ; compare, for in- 
stance, voi&v dw/jLo. and Troislerdai avapoXr]V f fipo-^ovg airrziv 
and aipacrdai ttIttXwv (sc. in supplication), tipefc kvXiko. and 
TraidoQ (bpeEaro. 

N.B. i. The Hebrew middle voice (Hithpael) is closely analogous to 
the Greek, and is similarly reflexive, indirect, and reciprocal. (Ewald, 
Hebr. Gram. § 243.) 

ii. The middle voice exists in Latin, though not developed to the same 
extent as in Greek ; e.g. accingi, tr gird oneself ; provolvi ad pedes, to 


roll oneself at a person's feet ; misceri, to mix with others ; mutari, to 
change ; vertor, versor, volvor, plane/or, circumfundor, &e. 

iii. There is no middle voice in English ; in such sentences as ' the 
book reads badly,' ' the doors open at six,' &c, the verbs are merely 
transitives used intransitively. The same remark applies to many 
Latin verbs, such as muto, &c. 

iv. The name Middle is clearly defective, since it is as active as the 
Active ; it is also a name of little meaning (see Clark, Comparat. Gram. 
p. 182). 

Tenses (xpo^oi)- — Comparison of the Greek, Latin, and 
English Verbs. 

115. A tense (tempus -^povoc) is properly speaking a form 
of the verb which by its termination (or inflection) expresses 

116. There are two main classes of tenses, primary and 

Since there are only three primary modes of regarding time, 
viz. present, past, and future,* the three primary tenses are 

1. Present (6 iveorwg ^poroc). 

2. Perfect (or past, perfecturn= finished) (o TrapaKelfierot;). 

3. Future (6 fitXXwv). 

All the other tenses are called historical,! Y1Z - aor i st {aopiaroq), 
imperfect {TrapaTariKoo), and pluperfect (vTrspavvTeXiKog). 

117. Observe that the 3rd pers. dual of the primary tenses 
(and also of the subjunctive mood) ends in ov ; but the 3rd 
pers. dual of the historical tenses (and of the optative mood) 
ends in t\v. 

Besides this difference, simple reduplication belongs mainly 
to the primary, and the pure augment only to the historical 

118. Since any action can only be regarded as either 
1. present, 2. past, or 3. future; and since every action may 
be o. finished, or perfect; /3. going on, i.e. unfinished, or 
imperfect ; and y. indefinite ; it is clear that any verb, to 
be faultlessly synthetic, would provide nine tenses | in the 

* Hence the inscription on the veil of the mystic Isis, ' I am that 
which is, hath been, and shall be.' — Plut. Isid. ix. 

f This distinction of primary and historic tenses applies mainly to 
the indicative, and ■with far less precision to the other moods ; e.g. in 
the imperative \4£ov is as much a primary tense as \4ye. 

J The number of tenses varies greatly in different languages. In 
Sanskrit there are six, in Hebrew only two, in French five, in English 



indicative mood, viz. three past tenses, three present tenses, and 
three future tenses ; or, which is another way of expressing 
the same thing, three tenses (past, present, and future) to ex- 
press that an action is, was, or will be going on ; three (past, 
present, future) to express that it is, has been, or will be 
finished ; and three (past, present, future) to express that it is, 
has been, or will be indefinite. ['Nulla dum temporis habitd 
ratione, res quceque potest tripliciter significari, et ut futura, 
et ut inchoata, et ut absoluta. Jam tempus in universum tri- 
plex est, prceteritum, instans, futurum.' 1 — Reizius.] 

119. These tables may be tabulated thus, and a thorough 
mastery of their classification is essential to a right under- 
standing of tenses. It is easy to master, and when once 
mastered, cannot well be forgotten :* 


a. Finished or per- "^ 

feet ... .J 
#. Unfinished or~l 

imperfect . .} 
y. Indefinite or~| 

aorist . . ._/ 

a. Finished or per- ~^ 
feet ... .J 

£. Unfinished or^ 
imperfect . .J 

y. Indefinite cr~) 
aorist . . .J 

Three present tenses 

I have (sc. now) dined 

I am dining. 

I dine. 

, Three past tenses- 
I had dined. 
I was dining. 
I dined. 

Greek and Latin, 
f 5i5e'nryr]Ka 
f Senryai 
\ cceno. 

f [wanting both in 
^ Greek and Latin] .f 

f tStSenrvfiKeiy 

1_ emiaveram. 

f iSelirvovv 

\ canabam. 

f iSeiwvriffa, 

\ [wanting in Latin]. 

two, &c. It will be observed that I confine the name tense to actual 
inflected forms of the verb, and do not include in it compound tenses, 
i.e. expressions formed by auxiliaries. 

* Harris, in his celebrated Hermes, has the credit of originating (by 
improvements on the hints of the Stoics and Varro) this very lucid and 
philosophical view of the tenses. It is admirably developed in a useful 
book of Mr. F. Whalley Harper's — Powers of the Greek Tenses. An 
inferior but ingenious tabulation had been previously given in S. Clarke's 
note on Horn. It. i. 37, which Wolf called the best note in his edition. 
For a vast amount about the whole subject, see Herm. Schmidt, Doctrina 
Temporum verbi Grceci et Latini, 1836. It was partially, but indepen- 
dently, elaborated by Reizius, Dissert, de temporibus et modis verbi. 
Lips. 1766. Burnoufs classification, adopted by Donaldson and others, 
appears to me much less accurate and philosophical. 

t The unfinished present or present-imperfect, $enrvu>, cceno, used 



Finished or per- *1 

feet . . . .J 

Unfinished or 1 

imperfect . . / 

Indefinite or ~| 

aorist . . ./ 

3. Three future tenses — 
I shall have dined. 
I shall be dining. 
I shall dine. 

Greek and Latin, 
f [wanting] 
\ canavero. 

f [wanting both in 
^ Greek and Latin].* 
f Setirvriffu 
\ ccenabo. 

120. Or we may have the same scheme reversed, and as it 
is very important that it should be understood, let us give 
it in the reverse order, as follows : 

a. Three finished or perfect tenses — 





1. Present . . 

2. Past . . . 

3. Future . . 

1 have (now) dined 

I had dined 

I shall have dined 




0. Thi 

•ee unfinished or 

imperfect tens* 

58 — 

1. Present . . 

2. Past . . . 

3. Future . . 

I am dining 
I was dining 
I shall be dining 







y. 1 

.hree indefinite o 

r aorist tenses- 

1. Present . . 

2. Past . . . 

3. Future . . 

/ dine 
I dined 
I shall dine 



* "Ecrofiat Senrvcoy (comp. New Testament, Matt. xxiv. 9 ; Kcreade fwrui- 
Htvoi, Luke i. 20, v. 20) would be admissible for the future-imperfect 
' I shall be dining; ' and this is an approach which the Greek verb makes 
to the use of auxiliaries for the purpose of conjugation. But the instances 
are not common, as TreiroivKus Icro/tai I shall have done it. — Isoc. ir. avriS. 
§317. ovk.4t' in Ka\vixfj.dTuv | f errai SeSopKws. — ^Esch. Ag. 1178. yeypafj.- 
uivos faQa you were painted. Of course we find the auxiliary in the 
moods of the perfect passive rervufieuos 3>, &c. Another instance of this 
tendency ib the occasional resolution of a future into 64\u or fieWv with 
the infinitive, an analytical proceeding which has ousted the synthetic 
future from modern Greek ; as 6a ■rroXiixwfiev we shall be fighting ; 6a 
fX"> I shall have. Such forms as aTt/xdcras ex € '> Soph. ; ijre izdffxovres 
TaSt, Eur., are not mere auxiliaries, but periphrases adopted to imply 
continuance (cf. Ps. exxii. 2 ; Heb. Matt. vii. 29) ; and the same remark 
applies to the ffxypa Xa\Ki8iKbi> (or Oropism) of rvyxdvu, virdpxv, &c, 
with various participles (cf. Mark i. 4). 



Or the same aiTangement might be tabulated as follows : 

(i.e. tenses of the Indicative, expressive of facts). 





I dine. 


I dined. 


I shall dine 

Finished, or 

Unfinished, or 

I have dined 

Past. Future. Present. Past. Future. 

«SeSei7ri/7J/ceii' [wanting] Seiwva iSeinvovv [wanting] 

I had dined I shall have I am dining I was dining I shall be 
caenaveram dined cceno. coenabam. dining ecro/*<u 

ccenavero. 8cnrvS>v ceena- 

turus sum. 

121. This scheme of tenses suggests several important 
remarks and inferences. 

1. Observe that it offers us a means of comparing the 
Greek, the Latin, and the English verb, and that taking the 
word ' tense ' to mean an inflected verbal-form significant ot 
time, there are 

In Greek six of the nine tenses ; 
In Latin six ,, ,, 

In English two „ ,, 

The six Greek tenses are not however the same as the six Latin, 
for Greek has a separate aorist {eliinrnna) which Latin has 
not ; * and Latin has a future perfect (ccenavero) which Greek 
has not (except in rare forms like Iotj'/Sw, r£0j'»/£w). The 
only tense which is wanting both in Greek and Latin is the 
aorist-prcsent or indefinite-present ('/ dine'), which strange 
to say is one of the only tivo tenses which English possesses; 

* It has been said that ' the superiority of the Greek verb to the 
Latin, consists in the possession of another voice, another mood, another 
tense, and a much greater variety of participles.' This judgment is by 
no means correct. We shall see hereafter that Latin is not destitute 
of a middle ; that the optative is no mood at all, but merely a name for 
past tenses of the subjunctive, and that Latin has an optative ; that if 
it has no separate form for the past-aorist [1 dined, iSeiirvTicra) it has 
on the other hand in the active a future-perfect (ccenavero, I shall have 
dined), which Greek has not ; and that, although it has fewer parti- 
ciples, it has gerundives and supines which are wanting to Greek. 


the other English tense, the aorist-past or indefinite-past 
(' i" dined '), being also wanting in Latin, though it exists in 
Greek (kZ(.'nrrr]ua). 

The other so-called tenses of the English verb (I have dined, 
I shall dine, &c.) are not properly speaking tenses at all, not 
being formed by inflection, but by a mere use of the auxiliary, 
which is much less neat and expressive than the synthetic or 
inflectional forms of Greek and Latin. 

2. Observe particularly that, whenever strictly and properly 

tvwtm is not ' I strike,' but ' I am striking.'* 
Tvirrofiai is not ' 1 am struck,' but ' I am being struck.' 

In other words, they are unfinished (imperfect) tenses ; and if 
the tenses were at all correctly named, ru7i-rw, rvirTOfiai would 
not be called presents (as though there were only one present 
in each voice, whereas as we have seen there are three) but 
present-imperfects. Thus deiKwrat tclvtci is, 'these things are 
being proved,' but most boys would render it quite wrongly, 
' these things are proved,' which would be the rendering (not 
of iSeLicvvTcn but) of cehiKTQ.L. Frequently indeed, just as the 
Greeks have no present-aorist, and sometimes use the present- 
imperfect for it (i.e. they say hnri'to ' I am dining' when they 
mean ' I dine '), so we translate their present-imperfect by our 
present-aorist; thus 

2rp. TTpulTOV jJLEV OTl Zpq.Q aVTlfiokZ KUTEITE f-101. 

2w/.'p- aepofiarw /cot ireptfpovu) rot' ij\ioi\ 
This has been racily rendered 

Streps. First tell me, I implore, what are you doing ? 
Socr. I tread the air and circumspect the sun. 

But literally it is, ' I am treading the air,' &c, which is much 
more vivid in Greek ; it would also be more vivid in English, 
but for' the intolerable awkwardness of the English periphrasis 
('lam' with the present-participle) for the Greek present- 

The translators of our English Version have failed more 
frequently from their partial knowledge of the force of the 
tenses than from any other cause, and their neglect of the 
continuous meaning of the present often loses us lessons of 
profound significance ; e.g. in Col. iii. 6, St' a epj(ETCu r/ opyr) 

* So that in this respect Greok is the reverse of German, which has, 
like the English, a present aorist (ich lese, I read), but no present imper- 
fect, ' I am reading,' for which they must use ich lese jetzt or eben. 



rov Qeov £7rt tovq v'u'iq tTjq airttOtiue. on which account tllG 
wrath of God is ever coming upon, &c, i.e. by a process of 
natural laws; Matt. xxv. 8, 'at XafiiraZsQ i^iii' o-ftiyvvvrnt our 
lamps are going out, are being quenched, not ' are gone out.' 

3. Clearly then the present nomenclature of tenses is very 
misleading unless we are specially careful to see through it, 
and not suffer it to mislead us ; it is of course far too deeply 
rooted to be superseded, but any one who has understood the 
above tables will see that 

The so-called present is & present-imperfect : 

' I am dining ; ' i.e. an action is going on, which is not 
yet finished. 
The so-called imperfect is a past-imperfect : 

' I was (at some past time) dining ' (and the action 
was not finished). 
The so-called perfect is a present-perfect : 

' I have (at this moment) dined.' 
The so-called pluperfect is a past-perfect : 

' I had (at some past time) dined,' or ' finished dining.' 
The so-called aorists (1st and 2nd) are past-aorists : 

' I (at some time or other not specified) dined.' The 
Greek has no present-aorist, ' I dine.' 
The so-called future is a future-aorist : 

' I shall (at some time or other not specified) dine.' 

4. It may be asked why in the above scheme no notice is 
taken of the second aorist? Simply because the first and 
second aorists, when both exist, arc merely two different forms 
to express the same* meaning. 

122. The terms first and second aorist are misleading; 
indeed the second aorist is always the older form of the two ; f 
for the second aorist is formed directly from the stem, thus 
preserving the simplest form of the verb, and its most un- 
qualified meaning (e.g. etvttoi' from tvtt), Avhereas the first 
aorist is formed not only by the prosfix of an augment, but 

* The same remark applies to t^o first and second perfect, except 
that in this case it is disputed among grammarians which of the two 
forms is really the older. The grounds on which Donaldson decides in 
favour of the second perfect being a younger and mutilated form, seem 
to mo very unconvincing. (New Crat. p. 566.) 

f Few verbs have both the first and second aor. in use. The exist- 
ence of two forms, one older and more recent, side by side, may be 
paralleled by the English, as in clomb climbed, squoze squeezed, clave 
cleft, &c. The archaic forms clomb, squoze, clave, &c, are analogous to 
the Greek second aorist (so-called). 


also by the suffix of the letter a (which is no doubt connected 
with ia-fii, itr-rt), denoting futurity. 

The reason why the first and second aorist have the same 
meaning is because the second aorist (e.g. trvTroy) by simply 
prefixing the augment to the pure stem of the verb, implies a 
momentary action in the past. And the first aorist by pre- 
fixing the augment (which indicates past time) and suffixing o-, 
which indicates future time, implies an action which ivas future 
and is past, i.e. an indefinite past action, which thus coincides 
in meaning with the second aorist.* (Clyde, Gk. Syntax.') 

123. The student should avoid rendering the aorist by 
1 have,' which is the sign of the present-perfect. It is indeed 
true that the Greeks sometimes used the aorist indicative 
where we use the perfect, and in this case we must substitute 
our idiom for theirs ; but this does not obliterate the distinc- 
tion between the aorist and perfect (see note f, next page). 

124. Whatever difference there is in English between 
I dined (e.g. ten years ago at Home) 


I have dined (this evening),f 
the same difference exists in Greek between 

IdeiTrvTjara = I dined. 
$£deiin'i)<Ta = I have dined. 

It is one of the main defects of the indicative of the Latin 
verb, that it is obliged to use one form coenavi for these two 
very different meanings. In fact the existence of the aoristic 
termination in such perfects as vix*', scrip-sz', &c. shows clearly 
that in Latin verbs there is sometimes a perfect, formed by 
reduplication, and sometimes an aorist substituted for it. Thus 

* Curtius calls the second the strong, and the first the weak aorist, 
because the latter is formed by extraneous additions to the stem. Thus 
in English ' I took ' is a strong aorist, being formed from ' I take ' by a 
modification of the vowel (called by Pott a qualitative change, as in 
Hebrew, and named by German philologists laut, and by the French 
apophonie, as in sing, sang, sung) ; but ' I loved ' is a weak aorist, being 
I love-d = I love-did, and thus being formed by an auxiliary. In fact 
the strong aorist Zrvwov differs from the weak eTui^a hardly more than 
\4\vrat does from solutus est. 

f Burnouf says, ' Le parfait exprime une action accomplie, mais dont 
l'effet subsiste au moment ou Ton parle ; tandis que l'aoriste presente 
Taction comme simplement passee;' e.g. if I say 'he has lived well,' I 
can only be speaking of some one yet alive, or just dead ; if I say ' he 
lived well,' I may be referring to any one since the days of Adam. 


the Latin perfect has both meanings, but is more often an aorist 
than a perfect. This accounts for the fact that veni ut videam 
and veni ut viderem are both right ; the former meaning ' I 
have come that I may see,' the latter ' I came that I might see.' 
It is extremely probable that a slight difference in pronuncia- 
tion may have helped to distinguish between the meanings.* 

125. The aorist, which most English boys look upon as some 
unknown Greek monster, ought to be the most familiar tense 
of all, because the only tenses in their own language are aorists ; 
' I dine ' (the present aorist), ' I dined ' (the past aorist). 

126. The word aorist, which is first found in Dionysius 
Thrax, simply means indefinite,! being derived from a not, 
and bpi£b) I limit (whence comes our word horizon, the bound- 
ing line). A boy usually takes ' I dine,' ' I strike,' &c, for pre- 
sents, and ' I dined,' ' I struck,' &c, for perfects ; yet in answer 
to the question ' what are you doing ? ' he would not dream 
of using the aorist 'I dine,' but the present ' I am dining;' 
nor when leaving the table would he say ' I dined,' but ' I 
have dined.' 

127. Thus it will be seen that the aorist, as the tense of 
narration, the tense in which all history is written, is one of 
the most necessary tenses of all ! Consequently it is more 
important and more frequently used than the perfect, which 
belongs to the present rather than to the past. Hence in 
Modern Greek the aorist has almost superseded the perfect, 
and the so-called Latin perfect is far more frequently aoristic 
in sense. 

128. Very rarely indeed we are compelled by the English 
idiom to introduce the present-perfect (or perfect with ' have '•) 
in rendering the aorist (especially the aorist participle) ; \ but 

* Burggraff suggests that when the aorist meaning was intended, the 
word may have been pronounced slightly more rapidly. (Principes de 
Gram. Gen. p. 373.) 

t It is the same word as ' infinitive,' which also means 'indefinite,' 
being a form of the verb not limited to any subject. Curiously enough 
the aorist is called in French ' le preteri defini ' (e.g. j'ecrivis). The 
reason is that it is definite with reference to some other action which 
may be in the mind; e.g. 'A Varrivee du rnessager j'ecrivis unelettre.' 
Greek often uses it when no other term to mark time is employed ; but 
French does not. E. Burnouf, Grammaire grecque, § 60. 

\ ' xpw iK °- iin^p7)ix.a.ra aoristo conjungi solent ; &prt iirolrjira, iroWaius 
edaifiacra, &c. ; unde naturam perfecti quodam modo induere videtur. 
Shilleto on Demosth. De Fals. Legat. § 228. Mr. Cope (Pre/, to his 
edition of the Gorgias, p. xvi.) quotes £<pvyov ko.k6v, ei/pov iutuvv, the 


the rule is f never translate the aorist by ' have. 1 The past- 
aorist must often be rendered by a present aorist, because the 
Greek uses it in this sense, having, as we have seen, no special 
form for the present aorist ; e.g. ' many things happen contrary 
to experience,' would be in Greek iroXXa irapa yv(»^ir\v etteo-e. 

129. Unless the student is alive to the true nature of the 
aorist, and the fact that it is often used with imperfect tenses 
to express the contrast between momentary and continuous 
actions, he will miss half the beauty and picturescpieness of 
the best Greek authors. 

Take some instances : 

Kpoloog a AXvi- <3ia/3ac fXEyaXrjv ap-)(ijv KaraXvaei not 

' having crossed the Halys,' but ' Croesus on crossing 

the Halys will ruin a great kingdom.' 
TruOtov ci te i>'i7tioq tyvbt ' even a child learns by suffering 1 

not ' having suffered. ' 
yeXaaag sine not ' having laughed,' but ' he exclaimed, 

laughing,' or ' he burst out laughing, and said.' 

130. In our English version of the Bible the aorist is often 
wrongly rendered by have, and the picturesque difference 
between aorists and imperfects lost ;* e.g. 

Luke viii. 23 : 

Karifti] Xa'iXa^j . . . cat ovvEirXr)poi>vTo there came down a 
gust of wind and they (not ' were filled,' but) began to 
6e filled. 

Mark vii. 35 : 

sXvdi] 6 deafioQ rijg yXwaoTjQ avroii, Kal eXaXet 6pdu>g the 
string of his tongue was loosed, and he began to speak 

John vii. 14 : 

dvifii] . . . Kal e^iSatrtcev went up, and began to teach. 

exultant cry of the newly-initiated, as an instance of the aorist where we 
should use the perfect. All such cases prove, not any identity of mean- 
ing between the tenses, but a different intellectual stand-point; the aorists 
here (as in Modern Greek) express merely a finished past action, with nu 
reference to the time of completion. And the same is true of the gnomic 
aorist (§ 154); e.g. in such a line as ' Qui ne sait se borner ne sut jamais 
ecrire' (Boileau), either 'ne sait pas,' or 'n 'a jamais su' would have done 
equally well ; but this does not prove any identity between the tenses. 
As we have no aorist participle or infinitive, we must, of course, some- 
times use the auxiliary ' have ' in rendering those forms. 

* German, like Latin, has no aorist ; it therefore uses the imperfect 
regularly in its place. 


John xii. 13 : 

t£rj\doi> . . . rat EKpa£oi> went out, and kept crying. 
John xiii. 27 : 

TroifiQ iToi-qaov do (at once) what you are about. 
Acts xi. 6 : 

axEviaag Karevoovv kcu elBov gazing, I began to distinguish 

(impf.), and saw (aor.), &c. 
Kptiooov yaprj/rai ») irvpuiKrOai it is better to marry (once 

for all) than to be burning. 

In Matt. iii. 7, 8, 7roo'/erar£ rove Kapirovg is not ' bring 
forth,' but ' have done bringing forth,' i.e. do it once for all. 
See, too, John vii. 8, 24, xii. 6, xvii. 12. 

131. In classical Greek take one or two further instances : 
Nub. 233 : 

e'tTTtp fiaWei Tovg kniopKovg irwg ov^l liifiwy ItETrprjae ; 
' If his way is to strike the perjured, why does he not 
blast Simon ? ' 

01 "JL\\t)i>£q ETraiavi^ov . . . Kctl a/jct to. Sopara Kaduaav' 
ivravQa ovketi eBec,uvto ol TroXtfiioi uXX' ethevyov the 
Greeks began the war song, and at the same moment 
levelled their spears ; whereon the enemy no longer 
awaited them, but began to fly. 

Jph. Tour. 1306 : 

dvuXoXv^e Kal rarj/c't ' She raised her voice, and began to 

Plat. Parmen. 127 : 

ifiatiiZofiev xai KaTeXafiofiev tov 'Avrufr&vra we were walk- 
ing and overtook Antipho. 

■)(aXE7rbv to Ttoiflv to ?£ tceXivaat padiov it is difficult to 
carry out a thing, but to give the order is easy. 

firj tvttte do not be striking (a general prohibition) ; /«j) 
rv\png do not strike (a special prohibition).* 

iar rig Ka/j.vt] rwr oIketuiv should any of the servants be 
sick [_ tcafir] = should Jail sick] TrapaKaXtlg iarpovg owu)g 
fit] diroQat'Tf. 

tovtov ifpielc <po(3(i>fji6a ; are we to be afraid of him ? tov- 
tov f]fiE~ig (poflnawiJEtia ; are we to take alarm at him ? 

* Donaldson points out that in John xx. 17, m^J M " ainov is not 
' touch me not ' (which would be £ij/j?), but ' do not be clinging to me ' — 
a most important difference. 


132. Owing to the use of the past-aorist [e.g. ehtirt'tjcra'] 
bo supply the absence of any present-aorist [' I dine '] in 
Greek, many past-aorists have permanently acquired a present 
tense, as ijrcaa I praise, aTriirTvaa I hate, idav^atra I wonder, 
iltE,afiriv I accept, &c. For a list of such expressions see 
Hermann in Vigemm, 162. Dr. Clyde thinks that the usage 
may have gained ground because a personal statement becomes 
less obtrusive if put into a past tense (cf. odi, novi, &c). 

133. The same scheme of tenses might of course be made 
for the passive, the only difference being (which is curious) 
that in the passive the Latin has not and the Greek has a 
future-perfect. What anomaly it was which gave the Greek 
a form for ' I shall have been struck,' and no form for ' I shall 
have struck' cannot be explained.* 

In the passive, therefore, we have 

Three finished tenses, or perfects. 
Present. I have been struck . . rervfifiai verberatus sum. 
Past. I had been struck . . £-£ru/ijU7jv verberatus eram. 
Future. I shall have been struck reTv^ofiai verberatusfuero. 

Three unfinished tenses, or imperfects. 
Present. I am being struck . . rvTrrofiai verberor 
Past. I was being struck . . Itvtzto^v verberabar. 
Future. I shall be being struck . [wanting] [wanting]. 

Three aorist tenses, or indefinites. 
Present. I am struck .... [wanting] [wanting]. 

(jiTVjjLjiai and verberatus sum 
used instead). 
Past. I was struck .... [wanting] [wanting]. 
Future. I shall be struck . . . rv<pd))(TOfxui verberabor. 

To complete therefore oiir comparison of the indicatives of 
the Greek, Latin, and English verb, we see that of the nine 
possible tenses, in the passive, 

Greek has six tenses, 

Latin has three tenses only, and 

English has no tenses. 

The only passive form in English is that of the participle 
(' struck'=having been struck). 

* One or two Greek verbs have an active future-perfect, as ecxr^w, 
redrfiZw. Deponents have to make their future-perfect by the auxiliary, 
as tlpr/acfuivos tffojxcu. The comparative want of future-forms may be 
due to the fact that men care to speak with less precision of the unknown 
future than of the past, 


Chief Idiomatic Uses of the Tenses. 

134. When a language has a peculiar form or mode of 
expression this is called the idiom of the language (idiwpa 
from t^ioc ' private,' 'peculiar'); and these idioms are what 
specially need to be learned and remembered ; for the ordinary 
meanings and uses present no difficulty. 

The Present and Imperfect. 

135. The present, used dramatically in narratives in order 
to represent the events narrated as going on before the eyes, is 
called the historical present;* and the imperfect is used in 
the same way for the same reason ; as 

kcu ETriTrj^tQ (re oi)K i'lytipov iVa wq ijdi<TTa diayne I was not 
awaking you on purpose, that you may be going on as 
pleasantly as possible. 

ip^erai irpbq tovq padnrag /cat evpiaKU aiirovg tcadevoovrac 
he cometh to the disciples and findeth them sleeping. 

The historic present, in the sequence of tenses, is treated as 
an historical tense, and is therefore followed by the optative. 

136. Both the present and the imperfect are used to express 
an attempt (conatus rei efficienda?) : 

Bta tto'iov avrwv tpyov XiOai^eri fie ; for which work of these 

are you for stoning me ? — John x. 32. 
Kvpie, (tv pov v'nrTtig rove Trofiac ; Lord, dost Thou mean 

to wash my feet ? — John xiii. 6. 

* The historical present, seldom used except colloquially in English, 
is very common in German ; and tolerably so in French, as in the lines 
of Eacine : 

' «Fai vu, seigneur, j'ai vu votre malheureux fils, 
Traine par les chevaux que sa main a nourris. 
II veut les rappeler, et sa voix les effraie. 
lis courent. Tout son corps riest bientofc qu'une plaie.' 

Of English writers Carlyle uses it most frequently ; e.g. ' Far down in 
their vaults the seven prisoners hear muffled din as of earthquakes ; their 
turnkeys answer vaguely," &c. In one passage of Milton, the historical 
present is powerfully used for the future : 

' If from this hour 
Within those hallowed limits thou appear, 
Back to the infernal pit I draff thee chained 
And seal thee so,' &c. — Par. Lost, iv. 965. 

Comp. JEn. iii. 367. So far as I am aware no such usage is found in 
classical Greek. 


IkoXovv avro . . . Za-%apiav they wished to call him 

Zacharias. — Luke i. 59. 
6 $e 'Iii)cii>vt)q hieicwXvev avTov John tried to prevent him, 

— Matt. iii. 14. 
QavExiopu to. riprifiiva he tried to back out of his words. 

— Time. iv. 28. 

In all these instances ' Vere incipit actus, sed ob impedimenta caret 
eventu.' — Schaefer, Eur. Phcen. 79. 

The constant substitution in the New Testament of a parti- 
ciple and auxiliary (e.g. i\v raiojueVq, Luke xxiv. 32) shows 
that when the continuance required to be emphasised, the 
simple imperfect was no longer sufficient. 

137. Hence the impf. alone is often, rhetorically, used 
where the impf. with a.v would have been more regular, as 

riq poi <pvXa£, i)v el aii avfxtyopag tv^oiq ; (Eur. JBacch. 612) 
who were my guardian (=would have been) should 
you have met with a misfortune ? 

This suppression ofay is very common in conditional sen- 
tences, as 

ovk e'f)(£Q ilovaiav . . . el ju>; you would not have had 

power, unless, &c. — John xix. 11. 
KaXov i)v avrli) el ovk eyevviidt) it were well for him if he 
had never been born. — Matt. xxvi. 24. 

A similar potential use of the impf. is not unknown in 
Latin ; as 

Eespublica poterat esse perpetua, si patriis viveretur in- 
stitutis. — Cic. de B. P. iii. 29. 

138. The present is used with izaXai ' long ago,' &c. ; as 
enr' apxiJQ fier kjiov iare ye are (=have been) with me 

from the beginning. — John xv. 27. 

yrj i'oael waXat the land has long been sick. — Eur. 
So in Latin : 

Jampridem cupio Alexandriam visere. — Cic. 

And in German : 

' Fiinf Jahre trag' ich schon den gliih'nden Hass.' — 
Schiller, Turandot. 

And in French : 

' II y a longtemps que je suis ici.' 
1 Je le regarde depuis longtemps.' 


And very rarely in English. Mr. Boyes quotes from Hey- 
wood : 

4 '2Ys dinner-time at least an hour ago.' 
And in Walpole's letters : 

' Lord Dalkeith is dead of small-pox in three days.' 

' 'Tis now a nineteen years agone at least.' — Ben Jons., 
Case is Altered. 

1 He is ready to cry all this day.' — Ibid., Silent Woman. 

139. kXvu), clkovu), fiavddi'o), ytyvwaKu) (verbs of perception), 
and those which indicate an abiding result (as vikw, (pevyio), 
are used in the present where we use the perfect ; as 

apTL yiyvuerKftc rode ; have you only just learnt this ? 
a7rayyf\\£7"£ on yfie'tQ viKQfiev fiamXia answer that we 
have conquered the king. 

140. The imperfect expresses incompleteness, continuance, 
and (especially with av) repetition. Rarely it is used as 
giving a more emphatic meaning, where we should use the 
present ; as 

oq ice Otolg ewnruBnTai /juXa r ecXvov avrav whosoever 

obeys the gods, him they ever hear (cf. II. i. 418). 
' Tempus eraV (Hor. Od. i. 37) 'Tis full time. 

141. Uti, Expijv, eIkoq i'jv, w(peXoi' imply dissatisfaction, and 
a wish that something else had happened ; as 

£<KO£ i]V vjiuq [it) /jiaXaKwc, wiirep vvr, avfiuayelv you 

ought not in all fairness to prove yourselves such 

feeble allies as you do. 

Here ' it was right' means ' it would have been right,' and is 

equivalent to elkoc ae i)r, precisely as in these two English 

sentences : 

1 Was man like his maker ... I should be for allowing,' 

&c. (Addison) [ = zyman had been]. 
1 It were well for the insurgents ... if the blood that was 
now shed had been thought a sufficient expiation for 
the offence' (Goldsmith) [= it would have been well 
uyaOov av >/)'].* 
So in Latin : 

' Si mihi omnes, ut erat a;quum, faverent.' — Cic. de Div. 
iii. 10. 

* Compare ' Gold were as good as twenty orators ' ( = would be), 
Obserye however that ' were' is the English subjunctive. 


142. Notice the graceful and modest use of the imperfect in the 
inscriptions used by old artists, Ho\vK\eiros iirolet ; this implied how 
far they felt themselves to fall short of ideal perfection, ' tamquam inchoatd 
semper arte et imperfecta ' (Plin. Nat. Hist. i. 20), and it showed them 
to be imbued with the highest spirit of art. 

143. Sometimes the imperfect expresses what was but is not, as Eur. 
Troad. 585, irplv ttot' ?ifj.€v we once -were (but are no longer) ! Compare 
Fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium, Virg. 2En. iii. 325. After the execution of 
the Catilinarian conspirators, Cicero said of them, Vixerunt. ' Pro- 
bablement a midi faurai vecu, pour parler le langage romain.' — Letter 
\f Charlotte Corday. There is a fine instance in Dante, Inf. x. 67, 

Di subito drizzato grido : Come 

Bicesti egli ebbe ? non viv' egli ancora ? 

The Future. 

144. The future active answers to our shall and will, even 
in its imperative use ; as 

sIeiq uTpiyictQ ; will you keep quiet ?* 

ioioQz ovv vfie'ig teXeiol be ye therefore perfect ! 

145. The periphrases of piXXw, 6eXo), fiovXojjai with the 
infinitive are by no means ' periphrastic futures,' as they are 
sometimes called, but differ from the simple future in mean- 
ing, by emphasising the purpose or wish to do a thing. They 
show however the dawnings of an aim at analytic precision 
(see Herod, i. 109). 

N.B. ~ou)/tu) I will do, faciam ; piXXu) ■xou](jziv I am on 
the point of doing (cf. the Italian sono per lasciarti I am on the 
point of leaving you) ; piXXw itou'iv I intend to do. 

146. Few verbs have all the four -fiat forms of the future 
in use (rvtydt'iaopcu, Tvirijaof-uu I shall be struck, rvxpoyiai I 
shall strike myself, -irv^oiucti I shall have been struck). 

147. The future-perfect f (6 ^er' oXiyov fjiXXtov, paullo- 
post-futurum) , as its name implies, mingles the future and 
the perfect both in form and meaning (as in English ' I shall 
have been struck'). It also expresses rapidity; as 

<t>pa£e Kat Treirpu^erai speak and it shall be done at once ; ^ 

* Both in English and Latin the future is a polite substitute for the 
imperative ; e.g. Valebis et sal vebis = vale et salve! 

' Tu interea non cessabis.' — Cic. Eptp. ad Fam. v. 1 2. 

' Inter cuncta leges et percunctabere doctos.' — Hor. Epp. I. xviii. 26. 

f Being a mere luxury of language, it occurs but once in the New 
Testament (Luke xix. 40), KeKpd^ovrai, and there, only because the 
simple future of Kpd£o/ is not used. The name Futurum exactum was 
invented by Pomponius Lsetus (1497). 

\ Cf. Cicero, Ep. — ' Tu invita mulieres, ego accivero pueros.' 


and a continued result ; as 

ovlttg Kara aTrovcac fieT.eyypaAtiersrai, 

aXX' wrnrtp tjv to irpuTOV Ey-/£ypa\pETai 

1 No one shall be transferred to another list by favour, 

but shall remain inscribed as he was at first.' 
KXndiiaETcii he shall be called; KEtcXrjcrerat he shall bear 
the name. 

148. Since fjii/jLvrj/jLcu, KEKrv/jai, &c. have the sense of pre- 
sents, /jLE/j-yi'iffopaL I shall remember, KEKrijao/juL 1 shall possess, 
&c, are simple futures. 

The Perfect. 

149. The perfect corresponds to the English perfect with 
'have'; it is a present-perfect, e.g. 'I have struck' means 
' I have now struck,' or ' I struck and the effect continues.' 1 * 
Hence it is substituted for the aorist (which is the ordinary 
tense in which events are narrated) to describe past events of 
which the result remains ; as 


f/vayKaae it has made us poorer (and we still are so), 
and it compelled us to undergo many dangers. 

150. This explains such meanings as KEKT-nnai I possess, 
TEdavpKitca I wonder, KEKXrjpai I am called, Eppw^iat I am 
strong,^ &c. ; and it is curiously paralleled by the German 
idiom (see Clyde, Greek Syntax, p. 69). In the same way 
such a phrase as ' I have often wondered ' generally implies 
that the effect still continues. For another view of these 
perfects with a present sense, see p. 49, note *. 

The Aorist. 

151. The nature of this tense ought to be clear, from all 
that has been said about it in the previous section. Its vitality 
is accounted for by its importance. It is the regular tense of 
narration, as it is in English, because it has no relation to the 
present. Take any sentence from a history, such as ' William 
Rufus died from the wound inflicted by an arrow ' ; here 

* This use of the perfect in Homer is very common ; e.g. in describing 
a chariot he says, kp.<p\ 5e TrewAot HfTrravrai tapestries hang around it. 
B. v. 195. (Exigua tantum ratione habita prseteriti temporis, quo stragula 
ilia expansa fuerunt, sed praesentis praecipue, quo expansa sunt. — 
Schmidt, Doctr. Te?np. ii. 10.) 

f Compare the Italian ho capito I understand. — Clyde. 


died ' is an aorist, naridavEv, and we could no more substitute 
an imperfect (' was dying '), a perfect (' has died '), or a plu- 
perfect (' had died ') in English than we could in Greek. 

N.B. — The aorist with av sometimes expresses iteration, as 6-k6tc 
■xpoafSXtyeU riva r6re fj.ey elirev &v, k.t.A. ' whenever he saw any one, 
then he would say,' etc. ; and sometimes is equivalent to the Latin 
pluperfect subj., as oiiSiv au eirpa£ev nihil feeisset. Thus «A.e|ej/ ap may 
. mean ' he used often to say,' or ' he would have said,' according to 

152. There is an obvious connection in form between the 
aorists and the future,* as we see at a glance : 

TV\po) TVipdricrofiai rvTrrjaojiaL rv\po 

ervipa tTV(bdr]v ztvtzt)v Itv^/o.jj.t]i'. 

And there are one or two cases in which either future or 
aorist is admissible ; f e.g. 

api)p trotyvc; rag crvficpopac; pq.ov o'ltret tuiv aXkuv a wise 

man will bear his misfortunes more easily than the rest 

of mankind. 

It would be just as good Greek to say fjveyice bore, and just as 
good English to use the present-aorist ' bears ' ; and we find 
the aorist subj. in the same clause with the future ind. ; | as 

£i7rw/x£v rj aiyiofxey ; r) ri Xi^o/iev ; are we to speak, or be 
silent, or what shall we say ? 

153. Obviously what has taken place (especially if it be 
frequently) in the past, will probably recur in the future, § so 
that either aorist or future may be used, for instance, in com- 
parisons, and so far there is a connection between the tenses. 
Further than this no theory has ever established what was 
the historical connection between these tenses, except that 

* Besides this, the first aor. subjunctive is Tityw, which is the same 
'form as the future active. In Latin there is no difference in form 
between the future perfect and the perfect subjunctive (except in the 
first person), and very little in meaning. See Roby's Lat. Gram. p. xv. 

f Similarly in John xv. 6, iav p.i\ tis pelvy £v t/J.ol, efi\j)dri e£a>, the 
future Pef3\-fi<Terai would have given the same sense. 

| In such a line as ov yap iro> roiovs IBov avepas ovSe iScofiai never saw 
I nor shall I see such men, the aor. subjunctive fficofiai is practically a 

§ Burnouf s view that the future expresses posteriority relative to the 
present moment, and the aorist, posteriority with reference to some other 
(unspecified) time, does not seem to me free from objection ; e.g. his 
explanation of the aorist in the line 'Je chantele heros qui regna sur 
la France,' seems to me impossible on his own principles. 


the a of both aorist and future is derived from the auxiliary 
verb ' as ' to be (iopiv, iari). 

154. The aorist is used in proverbs, &c. (gnomic aorist), to 
express what once happened, and has thereby established a 
precedent for all time ; as 

ttoXXU izaph yvu)fir]v 'iiztat many things fall out contrary 
to expectation.* 
In Eev. iv. 10 the future is used in this gnomic sense, as in Gaelic. 

The Pluperfect. 

155. This tense is comparatively neglected in Greek, f the 
aorist being substituted for it in many instances where it 
would be used in Latin, and even in English ; e.g. 

we riKovaav tovc Xoynvg . . . ZinTtopovv when they (had) 
heard the words, they began to doubt. 

Its chief idiomatic use is to express rapidity ; as 

ou?' airldncre 
[ivffy AdtjvainQ' f] 3' OvXvfnroj'Se flt(ij]KEL 
nor did he disobey the order of Athene ; but she had 

already vanished heavenwards. — //. i. 221. 
Ore oi ovujiayoi kirXnaia^oy, ol 'Adnva'toi tovq TlipaaQ 
kvtvi>d]icEoai> when the allies were approaching, the 
Athenians had already conquered the Persians. 

MOODS ('Eyjc\/«ie). 

156. In coming to treat of the moods, we have reached by 
far the most difficult part of Greek syntax. The clumsy 
analytic periphrases of our own and most modern languages 
are quite inadequate to represent the delicate accuracy and 
beauty of those slight nuances of thought which the Greek 
reflected in the synthetic and manifold forms of his verb. 
One of the chief reasons for the study of Greek is the fact 
that it presents us with the most perfect instrument for the 
expression of thought. Our own language is singularly noble, 
powerful, and splendid, but its points of excellence differ 
entirely from those of Greek. 

* The Latin aorist has a similar use, as ' Hinc apicem rapax Fortuna 
cum strirlore acuto Sustulit,' Hor. Od. i. 34, = solet tollere. N on tarn 
prsecipites bijugo certamine campum Corripuere. — JEn. v. 145. 

t The form of the pluperfect in tj (4ytypd<pr], &c.) is older than that in 
ttv, and more Attic, ea = t-<rafx. = eram. 


But the study of Greek would not be valuable as a mental 
discipline if it presented no difficulty. There is no royal road 
to anything worth acquiring; -^aXtirh to. naXa. Yet after a 
thoughtful and careful study of the following pages, the 
student ought at least to have some clear notions which will 
serve as a guide to further study. 

157. The moods express the aspects or modes under which 
the action is regarded, and are three in number, viz. : 

The indicative, which deals with facts, certainties, direct 
questions, &c, i.e. it is the objective mood; and therefore the 
tense-distinctions exist mainly in this mood. 

The imperative, which deals with commands. 

The subjunctive and optative, which deals with suppositions, 
uncertainties, contingencies,* &c. The subjunctive connects 
such modes of conception with the present or future; the 
optative connects them with the past. The two together form 
but one subjective mood. 

158. The infinitive is no mood at all, since it represents the 
verb absolutely, in no particular aspect, and with no relation 
to any subject (tysXtdtc cnrapiju(j>aroc^' 

159. It will be convenient to treat of the moods first as they 
occur in simple sentences, and afterwards in compound. 

But we may observe at once that the names of the moods 
are as unsatisfactory as those of the tenses. | The indicative 
mood, or mood of declaration, does not declare at all in inter- 
rogative or conditional sentences. The optative, or wishing 
mood, does indeed sometimes express a wish, but this is a very 
small part of its meanings, and it is quite as much subjoined 
as the so-called subjunctive, of which, as we shall see, it forms 
a part. 

The Indicative. 

160. The indicative mood (i'ycXto-ic optartKr)) denotes an 
actual, or (in the future tense) a certain state. In treating of 
the separate tenses we have given all its most distinctive 

* ' Indications res per se, seu nude positas, conjunctivus autem res ex 
mente &g&a.t\s spectatas (yelut luminis radios vitro fractos) vel in cogita- 
tionem inclusas notat.' — Be Formis dictorum conditionalium, F. Ellendt. 
Konigsb. 1827. The illustration is an exceedingly good one, but the 
treatise itself is not very clear. 

t See F. Whalley Harper On the Powers of the Greek Tenses, p. 137. 


The Imperative. 

161. The imperative mood (jrpoaTaKTiici)) commands,* and, 
with negatives, prohibits. As all commands must refer to the 
future, we see that the temporal meanings of the indicative 
tenses vanish in the imperative ; the distinctions between the 
tenses in the imperative not being those of time. 

162. fxi) irpaTTE don't be doing it (of continuous or recurring 
actions, and of actions already begun = leave off doing 

fxrj Ttpabjc don't do it (of momentary or single actions). 
Xa/3e ras fxuprvpiaQ kcu avayiyi wcr/ce take the depositions 

(aor. imp.=an instantaneous act), and read them (pres. 

imp.=a continued act). 

163. The perfect imperative denotes the permanence of the 
result; as 

ridradi lie dead J=K£~i<to redvr]KioQ. 

tig tov UvpicpXeyidoYTa EfifitfiXi'io-dd) let him be flung (at 
once, and for all) into Phlegethon ! 

164. Other ways of expressing command are 
a. By the infinitive ; as 

fit) <$// fioi awowpodev 'iu-^epey 'Lttitovq do not I pray you 
rein the horses at a distance from me. 

/3. By the optative with av ; as 

yiapolc clp e'iaco like our 'perhaps you would go in. 1 
y. By the subjunctive ; as 

'i(vp£i> let us go 
<J. By various periphrases; as 

olad' ovv o cSpdow ; do then — kuow'st thou what?f i.e. 
dost thou know what thou must do ? 

olad'' we Tfuinaov ; do — know'st thou how ? 

o;rwe uvdpee tatade see that ye be men (sub. opclre). 

* In Sanskrit the imperative has a, first as well as a second and third 
person. This is also the case in English, though only in poetry and in 
the plural, as ' Leave we the theme.' ' Charge we the foe.' — New Crat. 
p. 593. 

f Mr. Boyes quotes a close parallel from Chaucer : 

' And deemith you, what ye shall do therefor ? 
Go thanketh now my lady there, quoth he.' 

We find the same idiom in Latin; ; Tange, sed scin quomodo?' — Plaut. 
Rudent. in. v. 18. 


<pipe S>) avayvw rag jiaprvpiaq come now let me read you 
the evidence. 

fir) IrjT a$iKT]d{o let me not be injured. — Soph. 0. C. 174; 
cf. Tr. 802. ' Prima conjunctivi persona sic usurpatur 
ut admonitio ad secundam spectet.' — Herm. . 

The Subjunctive (vtto6etiki)) and Optative (svtcriMi). 

165. ' The subjunctive is a byforni of the future, the optative 
a byform of the aorist.' * 

We have already seen the points of connection between the 
future and the subjunctive,^ and in fact the notion of futurity 
is essentially involved in the subjunctive, since that which is 
contingent and dependent must necessarily be analogous to 
what is future. Hence the student must not be misled by 
such names as perfect subjunctive, &c. to suppose that the 
forms of the subj. and opt. express time in the same way as 
their cognate indicative tenses. 

166. The subjunctive and optative are not two moods, but 
one subjective mood,\ which expresses not facts and realities, 
but suppositions and contingencies ; the subjunctive forms are 
the present or future tenses of this mood, and the optative 
forms its past tenses. In other words, the optative is merely 
the subjunctive of the past or historic tenses. It carries with 
it a reference to the past. 

Everything that we say about these moods will illustrate 
and explain this fundamental fact, which the student is urged 
to master and to keep steadily in mind throughout the follow- 
ing observations. 

167. The Greek subjective mood furnishes seven separate 
forms, usually called tenses; e.g. 

pres. subj. Senrvw, aor. subj. htnrvi]aio,perf. sub. Be^enrvijico), 
pres. opt. denrvoir/v, aor. opt. hsnrvijaaipi, per/, opt. 3e- 
Senrvi'iKOtfit, fut. opt. denryriaoi/Ji.^ 

* ' The subjunctive and optative are by-forms of the future and aorist.' 
— Don. p. 546. The connection is indicated by a similarity of form. 

f We see it also in Latin, where dicam is both future indicative and 
present subjunctive, the termination -m being a relic of the old -jut form 
of verbs. In Gothic Ulphilas often renders Greek futures by the 

f In treating this part of the subject, I have on the whole received 
more assistance from Mr. F. Whalley Harper and Dr. Clyde's Greek 
Syntax, than from any other of the numerous treatises which I have 

§ Some verbs have also second aorist optatives and subjunctives, but 


168. And Latin offers four, as coenem, ccenarem, ccenaverim, 


We shall find that on examination these forms evaporate 
considerably ; but before discussing them let us try to under- 
stand them in the form of a table. 

We have already tabulated the actual and possible Indicative tenses ; 
the table of the Subjective tenses should be compared with it, although 
it will be seen immediately that these tense-forms are in reality evan- 
escent, and in part illusory. 

(i.e. Tenses of the Subjective Mood, expressive of suppositions, &c.) 





1 1 
Present. Past. 


Perfect, or 



Imperfect, or 





1 1 1 1 

Future. Present. Past. Future. 

[wanting] Sfinvai. Sciirvoujv. [wanting] 

On this table we have to remark — 1. That very little stress must be 
laid on the exactness of any direct English or Latin equivalents ; the 
idiomatic uses of Greek being very strongly marked in the use of the 
moods. Even the French equivalents, as \vcru que j'aie deli6; \vaoifii 
que j'eusse delie, are quite inadequate. 2. Observe however that the 
English may is the best general representative of the Greek subjunctive, 
might of the optative. 3. Two of the future forms are wanting; and the 
other future form, although it occurs, is merely a chose de luxe, because 
the whole mood involves futurity, so that the present forms serve instead. 
4. The past tenses of the Latin subjunctive are equivalent to the Greek 

169. Further : of the seven Greek forms, three are very 
rarely used, viz. the perfect subj., the perf. optative, and the 
future optative. We may in fact dismiss those three forms, 
Avith the remark that the perfect forms are only used where 
something is specially to be marked out as completed; and 
the future opt. only in oratio obliqua (or reported speech), 
and that very rarely, to represent the future indicative. Thus, 
in direct speech : 

livivvEo-iq XiXoure ra axpa Syennesis has left the heights; 

these being merely other forms of the same tense, are not noticed ; e.g. 
in English no one regards hung and hanged as two separate tenses. 


in reported speech : 

tXettv on 2u£r>'£(7(c \e\onriog e'lt] to. uKpa he said that 
Syennesis had left the heights. 

Direct speech : 

»/ 6<5oc carat 7Tf)ug (jaaiXia our march will be to the great 

Reported speech : 

tXtyey on // 61oq teroiro npog (Saaikia he kept saying that 
their march would be to the great king. 

We may then draw this conclusion : the tenses of the optative 
only retain a tense-meaning in oratio obliqua. 

170. But it may be asked how come we to have an aorist 
subjunctive hnrviiaw, if the subjunctive be merely the form 
assumed by the primary tenses in the subjective mood ? for the 
aorist is an historical and not a primary tense, and therefore 
its form in the subjective mood ought to be only deinvjiaaipi. 

The answer to this very natural objection appears to be 
that the past aorist is necessarily sometimes used in Greek for 
the present aorist ('I dined ' for 'I dine '), as we have seen 
already (§ 126) ; and it is perhaps this use of the past aorist 
so frequently as a present that accounts for the existence of 
such a form as ctnrvrioti). And in full accordance with this 
hypothesis we find that the present and aorist forms of the 
subjective mood are in many sentences used interchangeably 
and almost indifferently. 

171. We have then considerably reduced the importance 
of the number of tenses in the subjective mood, by showing 
that in practical use three of them at least are nearly eliminated. 
Further than this, as we have just observed, the differences 
between ^EiiryHj ZtnrrijiTw, and between Setirvoiijv tiearvfiiraipi, 
are very slightly marked, and are not distinctions of time ; the 
present forms merely imply that the result continues, the aorist 
forms draw no attention to more than the momentary fact. 
Thus we may say almost indifferently 

anovZa^u) Ira pavQcirw or jjuOu). 
(airovCu£ov 'iva pavdavoipi or /jadoipi. 

172. And since these are the only forms in constant use, 
it will be seen that the subjective mood for all ordinary 
practical purposes contains (as in Latin) but four tenses, viz. 
a present and an aorist form which follow the primary tenses ; 


and a present and an aorist form which follow the historical 


173. Then, further, notice that this so-called optative mood 
(which we have, as far as any frequent use is concerned, re- 
duced to a present and an aorist form, differing but little from 
each other in meaning, and used as the dependent and sub- 
jective form of the historical tenses) was itself a refinement of 
language but little needed ; and therefore that it gradually 
fell into desuetude, and in Modern Greek nearly disappears, 
the few forms in which it appears (such as /ui) yivotro) being, 
as Dr. Clyde says, 'merely the coffin of the dead optative.' 

174. Even by Attic writers the distinction between subjunc- 
tive and optative was (if we may believe the MSS. rather than 
the editors) very negligently observed ; in the New Testament 
and in later Greek writers the optative in final sentences (seeinf. 
§ 179) almost disappears ; j" and it is very probable that in the 
speech of the vulgar the optative hardly existed at all, being too 
delicate in its distinctions for daily use. Possibly the very 
existence of such a mood may have been practically disre- 
garded by an Athenian cobbler. Observe too that whereas 
(owing to the dramatic principle which led the Greeks to omit 
the reference to the past, and to represent past things as still 
going on before the eyes) the subjunctive is often used where 
the optative would be more regular, the reverse of this is never 
the case, i.e. we never find the optative for the subjunctive. 

175. We shall continue to use the names subjunctive and 
optative, but it must not be forgotten that by optative we do 
not mean a different mood from the subjunctive, but only a 
name for those subjective forms which correspond to the 
historical tenses of the indicative. 

The Subjunctive in Simple Sentences. 

176. 1. Used absolutely, the subjunctive in Homer differs 

* It has already been pointed out that the third person dual of the 
subpractive (like that of primary tenses) ends in ov ; and of the optative 
(like that of the historical tenses) in r\v. 

f The past tenses of the French subjunctive (which correspond to the 
Greek optative) are disappearing in the same way. In English, the 
whole subjunctive mood is very rapidly disappearing, and its evanescence 
is much to be regretted ; by all our best writers it was, and still is, used 
regularly after all caxisal and hypothetical conjunctions ; but in common 
conversation it is now rarely heard. See some admirable remarks on 
this subject in Craik's Engl, of Shaksp. p. 104. 


but little from a future,* as is also the case with the subjunctive 
aorist after ov jji) in strong negations ; as 

ov /j.i] Trou'itTU) I certainly won't do it ; ov fxi) $>uyj/c you 
certainly ivill not escape. 

2. It is used (in the aor. 2nd per. sing, and plur.) in 
prohibitions; as 

fit) K\e\pi]Q don't steal (this or that). 

3. Deliberatively (1st pers. sing, and plur.) ; as 

7r£ /3w ; whither am I to go ? ttov o-tw ; where am I to 

stand ? 
ri <pu> ; what am I to say ? f 

4. Hortatively (1st pers. sing, and plur.); as 

"taper let us go ; kyKtiv&jxEV let us exert om-selves ; espe- 
cially with feps, aye, Wi, elite, &C. 

5. It is often used elliptically after fiovXei, deXetc, k.t.X.; as 
OiXere 6i]paijojjj,eda ; do you wish that we should hunt? 

—Eur. Bacch. 719. 
QeXeig fielvw/jitv avrov ; do you wish that we should re- 
main on the spot ? — Soph. El. 80. Compare Ov. Met. 
ix. 734, Vellem nulla forem. 

6. In Plato and Demosthenes the subjunctive is often used 
with av='eav, ?'/r. Thus: 

clv (Toxppovrj. — Phced. 61 B ; etc Bebq ediXn.— Id. 80 D. 

[This is curiously analogous to the obsolete English ' an ' with 
the subjunctive, ' an God be willing,' &c] 

The Optative in Simple Sentences. 

177. ' L'optatif n'est point reellement un mode a part ; c ? est 
une simple denomination sous laquelle on a range les temps 
secondaires du subjonctif.' — Burnouf. 

The distinctive sign of the optative is derived from ya to go. See 
Max Miiller, Stratific. of Lang. p. 30. 

1. The optative gains the credit of being a separate mood, 
as well as its name (tyicXio-tc evKriKii), simply because when 
u ed absolutely it often expresses a wish ; as 

* e.g. in 27. vi. 459, ko.1 ttot4 tis etirricri corresponds to &s ttot4 tls epeet 
a little further on. Cf. 27. i. 262 ; dd. xvi. 437, vi. 201. 

f Cf. ovk ia> ; shall I not go ? which resembles the Latin quin with 
the present indicative. Quin redimus 1 — Plaut. Menmchm. n. i. 22. 


w 7rat, yevoio Trarpog evTv^iarepoQ, 

to. 2' aW ouoiog' kcu yivoC av ov kokoq. — Soph. AJ. 550. 

' Boy, mayest thou (lit. mightest thou be) more fortunate 

than thy father, but like him in all else, and then thou 

wouldest be noble.' 
out' av Ivvai^nv ui]T E7utjTaifir)v \eyeiv (Soph. Ant. 

682) I could not, and may I never know how to say. 

We express wishes by ' mayst thou,' &<?., using the suhjwncti ve, which, 
by referring to the present time, hints at the possibility of the thing 
becoming realised ; the Greek, more accurately, uses a rnood which refers 
altogether to the past* and therefore can be regarded as a wish, and a 
wish only. "VVe however use ' might ' after ' would that ; ' and probably 
the wishing-power of the optative is merely due to an ellipse f of one of 
those frequent formulas which are used with it, as el, ei yap, tide, &<pe\ov, 
irws av, etff SxpeXov [which, in the case of impossible wishes, are used 
with past tenses of the indicative, as etde ao\ r6rt o-vveyevd/x-qv would I 
had then been with you !] In ZeD ndrep, ws XaAvficcv -nav anr6\oiTo yivos, 
Callim. (Jupiter, ut Chalybum omne genus pereat, Cat. lxiii. 54), every 
one would at once recognise an ellipse ; is there any less reason for the 
ellipse, if us be omitted ? 

N.B. — Mij is used (not ov) in negative wishes, as M7j yevoiro would 
that it might not be ! God forbid ! [/x}) yivoiro utinam ne fiat 1 /u.7/ 
ytvtffOai jubeo ne fiat! ^77 yivyrai cavendum ne fiat!] 

i>fxlv 8e TOiovro fxtv ovSev o£>t' ?)V ^t« yevono tov Xonrov but in your 
case nothing of the kind ever happened, and may it never happen 
2. If it be correct to suppose that this votive force of the 
opt. is merely due to an ellipse, the name '■optative' 1 becomes 
more unfortunate than ever. No separate name for it is needed, 
because, as we have seen, it consists merely of the past tenses 
of the subjunctive ; but, if it must be named, potential would 
perhaps be better, since it not only regularly expresses poten- 
tiality {could, might, &c.) with av (which makes the possibi- 
lity depend on conditions), but even without it, especially in 
poetry. If this view be correct, the prevalence of av with 
the optative was due to the analytic tendency of all advancing 
language. This potential use of the optative without av would 
not be so rare as it is, if the MSS. had not been repeatedly 
altered by scholars who wished to square them with their own 
views. The following are instances : 

vtoyvoQ avdpwTrujv /ia8oi a mere child might understand 
it,— iEsch. Ag. 1163. 

* Latin uses both subjunctive and optative, the former for possible 
wishes, as Utinam dives fiam ; the latter for impossible, as Utinam Deus 
eesem. ' The subjunctive gives a notion of the realisation of the proposed 
ond; the optative represents it as a mere possibility.' — Jelf, § 809. 

f Just as in the Italian volesse Iddio— plut a Dieu. — Clyde. 


iv e'iicofft iraai f.iadoiQ viv you might know him among a 
score. — Mosch. 

7T£(0rn' av tl irddoi\ aTrtiBoing 2' "mtui: (iEsch. Ag. 1048) 
comply (a mild imperative) if thou wouldst comply, 
but perhaps 'thou wouldst not comply (sc. under any 
circumstances). See Paley's notes to .ZEsch. Ag. 535, 
1133, 1847 ; and Jelf, 426, 1. 

to o ttroQ ovi^touj rava 
ijcoio ftii'j Twe 8' ov/c av, atr^/iWoig c' "igoc, — Soph. 0. T. 

' you might possibly rejoice at what I am about to say — 

how should you not? — but you might be grieved.' 

Some however woiild understand the av (from the previous 
clause) in the clause where it is not expressed ; as in Xen. 
Hier. ii. 11 : 

ov fiuvov (piXoi av, aWa kcu tpwo. 

3. With av the optative is often used as a milder future, or 
less positive assertion. This is due to the refinement and 
sensitiveness of the Greek intellect, and their dislike of what 
is blunt, and downright, and uncontingent ; as 

cue ar airiXBoifi aWa Ko\pu} t>)v dvpav I won't go away 

but I'll knock at the door. 
vvk av tywyt BtoTcnv tnovpaviotdi fxayoiunv Twill not fight 

with heavenly gods. 
ovk av (pdai'oig \iyu)v ; quantocius dicas ! quin statim 

loquere ? speak at once ! 
ovk olS 1 av tl TTEiffaifii I doubt whether I could persuade. 

—Eur. Med. 941. 
ovk av o?8' tl cwaifirjv I doubt whether I should be able. 

—Plat. Tim. p. 26. 

In the last two examples the av belongs to the optative, but 
is merely transposed by a spurious hyperbaton ; as 

ovk oIS' £i = I doubt whether, tvtiaaiix av = 1 could per- 
suade him. 
ovk oitf tl—haud scio an. 

4. In polite commands, the optative is often used with av 
which points to a suppressed protasis ; as 

XwpoTc av eirroj go in, please ! (literally, ' you would go in 

if it should please you.') 
'iploi ne i)v tKaaros tlhiij ri-^vr]v=ne sutor ultra cre- 




ciXXa tcivtci juev kcu tydoru av elirouv (Herod, ix. 71) but 
people might say this even out of envy (so. el eittolev if 
they were to say it). 

5. It expresses a sort of hopeless wish (hopeless because the 
optative throws it in connection with things past) ; as 

tto'i tic fvyoi (Ar. Plut. 438) whither could one fly? 

7rot tiq ac <pvyoi ' whither in the world' 1 

is more common, and irol tiq (j>vyri. 

6. The optative is often used in sentences which imply 
iteration, or indefinite frequency ;* as 

ovo-e Trpo(r(3\E\pEiE TLva whenever he saw any one. 
^eivotutov hk i]v >/ advfxia ottote tiq alcrdorio Kafivwv but 
most terrible was the despair whenever any one felt 
that he was falling ill. 
This is also the case in English where ' might ' is used to 
express recurrence, as in Shelley : 

1 The sweet nightingale 
Ever sang more sweet as day might fail.' 

7. What is called the correspondence of optatives should be 
noticed, where the principal verb in the optative seems to 
attract the dependent verb into the same mood ; as 

yevoluav k.t.X. ottwq izpoaEiizoiyiEV 'AdavciQ (Soph. Aj. 
1217) would that I were, &c, that we might address 
oXoio firiTru) Tplv TT&Qoifji (Soph. Phil.) may you perish — 
not till I have learnt. 
N.B. It may be as well to repeat, that as an all but invariable 
rule el takes the optative, ear, fjv the subjunctive; ay by itself 
the optative. 

Tue Moods in Compound Sentences. 

178. Of the different kinds of possible sentences, those 
which chiefly need elucidation are : 

1. Final sentences (' in order that'). 

2. Declarative sentences (oratio obliqua). 

o. Conditional or hypothetic (' if,' &c, ' then,' &c.). 
-1. Temporal ('when, until,' &c). 

* Not that the mood of itself necessarily involves this conception. 
Burggraff acutely remarks, 'L'emploi d'un temps dans telle ou telle 
circonstance et son emploi pour exprimer cette circonstance, sont deux 
choses differentes que les grammairiens ont soiwent confondus.' — p. 412. 


Final Sentences. 

179. A final sentence is one -which expresses a purpose, 
motive, or end (finis). In English it is generally expressed 
by ' to,' but never by the infinitive in Latin prose, and not 
properly in Greek. 

It may sometimes appear to be expressed by the infinitive ;* 

■?l\dev adiKeiv or we, wore aduceiv he came to do wrong. 
< ijpvuii'oc chosen to be a general. 
fti] §' liv'ai he started to go. 

But here it is rather a, fact or consequence which is indicated ; 
and Avhen the final sentence appears to be expressed by a 
future participle it is really temporal ; as 

i)\Qev aliKi]ab)v he came to do wrong. 
'ipyouai typauuv I come to tell. 

180. After verbs of sending, coming, &c, 6'e, forte are 
used with the future indicative (whereas in similar Latin in- 
stances qui requires the subjunctive) ; as 

7T£jU7r£iy TtVClQ . . . OLTIVEQ KaT1iy0p!]a0V(7L TWl> TCI ^tXllTTTOV 

irpciTTovTuv (Demosth. De F. Leg. § 849) to send some 
to accuse Philip's faction. 
Ki/pvKa TrpacnrecrTeiXa-e clone >/yu t r airelaeTai (Id. § 189) 
ye sent a herald before us to make a truce for us. 

N.B. '"Oc cum conjunctiva nuncaiam ponitur post verba 
mittendi, veniendi, similia.' — Shilleto. 

181. Sentences really final, or expressive of purpose, are 
expressed by iVa, oirwc, wq in order that (always ivith fxf) not 
ov in negative clauses) ; and the rule about them both in 
Greek, Latin, and English is, that they are followed by the 
subjunctive after primary tenses, and by the optative after the 
historical tenses ; as 

ypa<j>io, ypci^w, yiypatya "iva fj.avBa.rriQ or fiaOng 
scribo, scribam, scripsi (perfect) ut discas 
I am writing, will write, have written that you may be 
learning, or may learn ; 

'iypa(j>oi', kypa\pa, eytypcKpr] 'Ira [xavdavoig or padoig 

scribebam, scripsi (aorist), scripseram ut disceres 

I was writing, wrote, had written that you might learn. 

* But see Jelf, § 669, p. 300, and supra. 


182. This rule is constantly violated in the New Testament, 
and by later writers (e.g. Lucian ), because the optative fell 
out of general use. When it is violated by any Attic writer, 
the reason is the same as that which leads to the use of the 
imperfect tenses (historic present, &c), namely, a desire to be 
graphic (rrpo oppdnov ivoifiv) by representing the event as 
passing under the eyes ; e.g. 

KTsivei pe yjwouv tov TaXa'nrwpov ^dpiv 

£ivo£ TTCLTpwOC, KO.I kTOl'Wl' EQ olZfJL ClXoQ 

jue6)?/x' "iv avTuc "xpvabv ev dopoig e^v. 

1 My father's friend slays me, unhappy that I am, for the 
sake of gold, and after slaying, he filing me into the 
sea-wave, that he may be having (=may keep, the 
effect being represented as present and continuous) 
the gold in his house.' — Eur. Hec. 

183. i. The historic present is syntactically regarded as an 
aorist, and may therefore be followed by the optative. 

ii. The subjunctive and imperative, as they connect the 
action with the future, are regarded as primary tenses, and 
are therefore regularly followed by the subjunctive. 

184. When the final particles wc, iva, ottmq are used with 
past tenses of the indicative, they imply an impossible or un- 
fulfilled result; as 

ti fx ov Xafiidv 
tKTEivaq evBiiq Cjq ehei^a pijirors, k.t.X. — 0. T. 1393. 
4 why didst thou not seize and slay me instantly, that I 
might never have shown? &c. 

el c a.KOvovtjr]Q er ~i\v 

Trnyfjg Si' wrwr fpaypoc, ovx etc e&^ojujjv 

to fii) 'TTOKXelaat tovllov ddXiov Cepac, 

"iv i)v TvtyXoG re ical kXvwv pn^ev. — 0. T. 1389. 

1 had there been besides any stoppage of the fount of 
hearing, I had not restrained myself from closing up 
my wretched frame, that I might have been both blind 
and hearing nothing.' 

£^?'/r7j<T£v dv pe . . . 'ira Linger ciKaiov Xeyeiv eSoKovv he 
would have sought me . . . that I might have appeared 
to be saying nothing just. — Dem. 

N.B. These passages are sometimes rendered ' in which 
case I should have,' &c. ; the negative pi) shows that such a 
rendering is incorrect. 


185. Sometimes in Thucydides and other writers the imme- 
diate and certain result is in the subj., the remoter and less 
certain in the opt. ; as 

Trspl yap <5t£ TTOi^ieyi \auiv 
p.{] ti Trddrj fxeya ?>e aipeag uiroff(j»'iXeie -kovoio. 
for he feared greatly for the shepherd of the people, lest 
he may suffer harm, and might so greatly thwart them 
in their toil. — 11. v. 567.* 
•xapav'iayov <j>pvKTOvg ottwq aaatyr} ra crn/dela To'ig TroXefiloig 
t) ical fii) joondolev they kept raising counter fire-signals, 
that the signs may be unintelligible to the enemy, and 
they might not come to the rescue. — Thuc. iii. 32. 

Eelative Sentences. 

186. The rule about final clauses holds also in correlative 
sentences ; as 

ovk £X W > *£ w > £0X T l Ka o'"" 01 rpdirupat. 
ovk el^ov, *- a X 0V °' ir0L Tpairolfinv. 

187. In relative sentences dv follows the relative when the 
subjunctive is required; as 

ov dv 'idn Ko\a£ti he punishes whomsoever he sees; 

ov idoi eKo\a£ev he kept punishing every one whom he 

saw (i. e. as often as he saw them, — the opt. implying 


The reason of this is obvious ; it is here due to the futurity 

involved in the subjunctive, which requires an a v to qualify it. 

188. And here we may add the important rule that ug ac, 
oVwe iiv, og dv, orav, kireildv, el dv (Jtiiv), &a, go regularly 
with the subj. ; in the rare cases in which dg, dang, wc, ottwc, 
el, followed by dv, occur with an optative, the ay belongs, not 
to them, but to the verb ; as 

ovk eari tovtov dang dv Ka-ciKTavoi there is no one who 

would killhim. [not 6'otig dv whoever, but ovtiq who dv 

KTavoi would kill]. 
ovk eariv o,rt dv Tig \ie~iC,ov tovtov kukov TcdQoi there is no 

evil which (o,n) one could suffer (civ ttddoi) greater 

than this. 

* See Arnold, ad Thuc. iii. 22. Other instances of this succession of 
consequences, indicated first by the subjunctive and then by the optative, 
are Thuc. viii. 17; Herod, ix. 51 ; Eur. See. 1120 ; El. 56 ; and in Latin, 
Virg, Mn. i. 298. 


itrifiikovrtti we av fieXnarTOi elev oi iroXirai they take 
pains how (we) the citizens might be (av elev) most 

ovK-oida-y '-el <pQait]Q-av I almost doubt whether you will 
be in time {(pdairjg ai')=Ym afraid you won't. 

N.B. The general rule is that the relative, when definite, 
takes the indicative, as ove eleev those whom he saw; when 
indefinite the optative, as ovc "iSoi those whom he might see; 
when combined with ur, invariably the subjunctive, as ovg av 
'idy whomsoever he may see. 


189. In oratio obliqua (indirect assertion, reported speech), 
when it is not expressed by the accus. and inf., the indicative 
may be used with we or on, 

i. when the exact words of another are quoted ; or 
ii. when the statement is vouched for as a fact ; or 
iii. when some special emphasis attaches to one part of the 
sentence ; as 
i. Xeyet otl 6 avfjp dyrjroQ ecrri he says that 'the man is 
(j>a.Q £7rt ^wpjyy ci^elv vQev ypvaoi' diaovrai saying that 
he will lead them against a country from which they 
will (for a certainty) win gold. 
ii. eXeyov otl Kiipoe [xi]i> TeQvr)£ev, 'Apialoc ^e 7T£0ei;ywe 
kv too araBpto eh], rat Xiyot oft irepipevELev aV avrovc 
el peXXoiev ijkelv they said that Gyrus was dead [a 
fact], and that Ariasus having fled was in his camp, 
and that he said he would wait for them if they 
intended to come [assertions which might be true 
or not], 
iii. ekeXeve tijq Ilovtov ^wprje oIkeeiv okov ftovXovrai (Herod, 
i. 136) he bade them live in his own country where- 
ever they prefer. 
Qavfiu^ovrec ottol ttote Tpi^ovrai oi 'ILXXni'eg Kal t'l ev 
rtji eyoiev wondering whither the Greeks ivill turn 
themselves, and what their purpose possibly could be. 

In Latin, this opinion as to the truth or doubtfulness of what is 
reported cannot be shown by the form of the sentence, because the 
accusative and infinitive is their only form for indirect assertions ; * nor 

* The reason of this is that Latin has no equivalent to the Greek on 
with the indicative merely stating a fact ; ut is a final conjunction in 


can it be shown in English. But in German the distinction is just the 
same as in Greek, i.e. the indicative is used of certainties (Er sagt er ist 
gefailen), the subjunctive of uncertainties (Er sagt er sei gefallen). 

190. The optative however is the ordinary mood for oratio 
olliqua after historical tenses (including the historical pre- 
sent); as 

iipsro el aiadavoiTO he asked Avhether he felt it. 

This use of the optative in oratio obliqua once existed in 
English, e.g. Sir I. Newton, in a letter to Hadley, writes: 
' Since my writing this I am told how that Mr. Hooke should 
make a great stir,' &c. 

This subjunctive is only used irregularly when the reporter 
involuntarily slips back into the oratio recta, generally from 
some allusion to the future ; as 

eXeyov, <bg XP^I 1 ' vp-u£ tvXafis'iadai /i>) inr' i/xov ktairaTi]BriT£ 
I kept telling you that ' you ought to be on your guard 
that you may not be deceived by me.' 

191. The same rule holds good of indirect interrogation. 9 

192. The tenses used are those which would be used in 
oratio recta, or direct speech ; thus the three assertions ' he 
did it,' ' he has done it,' ' he will do it,' would be respectively 
in oratio obliqua, 'iXeyov on Trou'jaeie, ireTroiriKWQ sir], ■kou]<joi. 

193. The accusative and infinitive may always be used in 
oratio obliqua ; as 

tfyyeiXav rbv Kvpov vlkclv they announced that Cyrus 
was victor. 

Conditional Sentences. 

194. Every complete conditional sentence consists of two 
clauses, of which the clause which contains the condition 
(' if) is called the protasis, and the clause which expresses 
the inference or consequence is called the apodosis. 

195. Since, in these sentences, Greek is able to express 
very numerous shades of thought (modified even by the pass- 
ing emotion of the moment), which English does not, and 
often cannot idiomatically (i.e. in accordance with the ordinary 
use of the language) express ; and since, in consequence of 
this, the apodosis often places the statement in a slightly 

Latin. The difference between '6ri and tus in declarative sentences is 
slight, but of the two frri implies rather ' the fact that/ and &s the asser- 
tion that. 


different point of view from that on which the protasis is 
framed, it will be convenient to treat the forms of protasis and 
apodosis separately, and then to give instances of them in 

196. A categorical proposition declares that something 
actually took place ; a conditional proposition only states a 
connection between two events of which one depends on the 

The Protasis. 

197. The common way of expressing the protasis is by el 
or lav. 

Et,* ' if is derived by Donaldson from the dative of the 
pronoun '/, gen. ov. It would therefore mean ' on this condi- 
tion.' It is joined with the indicative (generally the imperfect 
or aorist), and the optative ; very rarely with the subjunctive. 

'£ai' = a fii', and may be compared with our pleonastic 
' an if\ it invariably takes the subjunctive. 

198. The protasis may imply : I. Possibility, or mere 
assumption (sumptio dati). II. Slight probability. III. Un- 
certainty, or mere supposition. IV. Impossibility (sumptio 
ficti) ; as in the following typical sentences to which the 
English and Latin equivalents are appended : 

199. I. Possibility (the condition being assumed) ; as 
e'i ri eyei if he has anything, si quid habet. 

el Xeyei rovro if he says this, si hoc dicit. 

el yeyiiaerai \ ravra if this shall happen, si ha?c accident. 

el rovro eTreirpayei if he had done this (the result still 

continuing) : this is a nuance of meaning which Ave 

cannot express in English. 

We see then that el with the indicative implies a mere 
assumption ; and is equivalent to our ' assuming that.' It is 
purely neutral, and expresses no opinion either way. 

N. B. In this sense ft may go with any tense of the indica- 

* €i also = 8rt ' that; ' for which it is a politer form, after verbs im- 
plying disapprobation; and verba affeciuum generally (Oavfidfa, ayarrdu), 
}>eiv6v iffn, &c). It also has the sense of num.? si? whether? in in- 
direct questions. 

f el, si, 'if,' with the future is comparatively rare in all three lan- 
guages. Notice tho difference between el D'et ve<pn tart, if it is raining 
there are clouds, and d vaei viK^ffo/xef, if it rains (at some future time) 
we shall wiu. 


tive ; it only indicates impossibility (or that a thing is not the 
case) when it is followed by the indicative with Liv, e.g. 

ei irori toi yapievT fVt vr)bv £pe\pa 

. . . toBe poi Kpi]r}\>ov eiXSwp. — II. i. 39. 

* If ever I reared for thee a beauteous fane . . . accom- 
plish for me this my desire.' 

et rig Kal tot£ uipyt^ero pot . . . arairuQioBio (Time. vi. 
89) if then any one was angry with me ... let him 
now change his opinion. 

ffol ei 7TJJ aXXrj (tiSoKTai \£y£ if you have come to any 
different conclusion, tell me. 

200. II. Slight probability ; as 

lav Tt t'xj? if he have* anything, si quid habeat. 
iav tovto \iyn if he say this, si hoc dicat. 
iav yivrjrai Tuiira if this happen, si hsec accidant (or 
'Ear is a compound of ft and av, and calls attention to some 
condition; it is invariably joined to the subjunctive; hence it 
differs from I. because it must always refer to future time."]" 

201. III. Complete uncertainty (the condition being purely 
imaginary) ; as 

£l ti t)(0£ if he were (or, should be) having anything, si 
quid habeat. 

* The English subjunctive, in this phrase, implies the same shade of 
prohability ; whereas ' if he has,' like el e\ei, expresses no probability 
■whatever, but merely ' assuming that, then,' &e. Yet the difference 
between the two is so slight that both may be used in the same clause. 
(Herod, iii. 36.) 

f Ei (as well as iav) may, very rarely, be joined even in good writers 
with the subjunctive. (See Hermann, ad Soph. Aj. 491, de particuld av, 
p. 96.) The distinction between the very rare el yevrjrai and the common 
correct construction iav yevr\rai can hardly be expressed in English or 
Latin, except by using ' forte ' ' perhaps ' in the latter case. Thus 
we have — 

1. el yevrio-erai ravra assuming that this will happen (possibility). 

2. iav yev-qrai ravra if perchance this happen (probability). 

3. e! yevrirat ravra if this happen (apart from any conditions). 

4. el yevoiro ravra if this should happen (uncertainty). 

It will be seen that the nuances of meaning here conveyed are too deli- 
cate to be expressed except by periphrases in Latin or English, and barely 
even by them ; in fact, even high authorities (e.g. Eost) deny the exist- 
ence of any perceptible difference between 1 and 3, and Liddell and 
Scott between 2 and 3. Certainly, el with the subjunctive is rare and 
archaic ; one would but rarely require to say ' if — leaving all conditions 
out of sight — not implying the probability or even the possibility of the 



el tovto Xeyoi if he were (or, should he) saying this, si hoc 

el yivoiro tcivto. if this were to (or, should) happen, si haec 


Both the EngHsh c were ' and the Greek optative strictly 
belong to the past, but in these instances the supposition refers 
to the present (if he were now to, &c). This form of protasis 
might also be correctly rendered in English by ' If he had,' 
1 if he said,' &c; but this, though more idiomatic, would not 
be strictly correct or accurate. 

Latin makes no distinction between this and II., using the 
pres. subj. for both ; or else employing ' si quid haberet,' &c. 
for both this and IV. 

N.B. When el is used with the optative, the sense varies 
with the tense; e.g. 

el ravra noioi if he should be doing this (now), 
„ „ itoa\(joi if he should do this (hereafter), 
„ ,, Troiricrete if he did this. 

202. IV. Impossibility (the condition being denied). 

a. e'i tl e\yev if he were (or had been) having, si quid 

/3. e'i ti 'ia^ev if he had had, si quid habuisset. 

a. el tovto eXeyev if he were (or had been) saying this, 

si hoc diceret. 
/3. el tovto eXeyev if he had said, si hoc dixisset. 

a. el eyiyveTo raura if this were (or had been) happening, 

Bi haec acciderent. 
/3. el eyivero ravra if this had happened, si haec acci- 


N.B. When these sentences are set in examination papers, 
as is so frequently the case, the student should give an accurate 
English translation, even at the expense of our ordinary idiom ; 
and therefore e'i ti el-^ev ehihov av should not be rendered ' if 
he had anything he would give it' (as in Arnold, Dr. Donald- 
son, &c), but by these two formularies (either of which is 
correct, and both of which should be given) : 
a. ' If he were having anything,' 

he would be giving it ' 
or b. 'If he had been having any- I si quid haberet, daret. 

thing, he would have 

been giving it ' 


This is a literal translation of the Greek which is required ; 
but, no doubt, neither sentence is in idiomatic English, which 
would require for 

a. ' If he had anything, he would give it,' for 

b. ' If he had had anything, he would have given it ;' 

which last would be expressed in Greek by e'i ti Itf^fev, eSwkev 
ay. The very fact that a study of Greek enables us to appre- 
ciate shades of thought so subtle as to be scarcely capable of 
being expressed in our own language, adds to its value as an 
educational instrument. 

203. The reason why the student will constantly see dif- 
ferent English forms used to render these expressions, is the 
practical inaccuracy of the English language in neglecting all 
these shades of thought. We have tried to use the most 
accurate English equivalents ; but, practically, English en- 
tirely neglects the distinction between continued and single 
actions in conditional sentences ; and thus, though e'i n eI-%£i> 
means ' if he were (or had been) having,' and e'i tl 'LayEv means 
'if he had had, 1 and although these forms convey clearly 
distinct meanings, yet ordinary English would use ' if he had 
had' for all three. 

Dr. Collis, in a letter to me, writes : ' We in English should 
say, If you took that money, you are a thief. We do not 
stop to weigh whether the stealing is a habit, or a repeated 
single act, or in what degree of uncertainty, possibility, or 
probability it may be predicated ; nor whether the result is 
that with such or such a degree of contingency you will be, 
or may be, or may be considered to be always, or in that one 
particular instance a thief; we simply say, with a thump on 
the table, You are a thief.' 

N.B. — Notice the use of eWe, el (like the Latin si) in wishes ; as eWe 
rovro eyiyvero utinam hoc fieret ; eWe eyevero utinam factum esset ; 
el yap yevono utinam fiat ! In unfulfilled wishes, eWe, el yap, are used 
with the imperfect (of continuous) and aorist indicative (of single acts), 
as elf? fjaOa Swarbs tovto Spau would that you had been able to do this ; 
eWe ce \iiynoT el^6\x.i\v would I had never seen you ! 

The Apodosis. 

204. The same Protasis may have different Apodoses ac- 
cording to the meaning required. The commonest forms of 
apodosis are 

a. The imperative. 

/3. Some tense of the indicative. 


y. The optative with av which is the commonest of all, 
and may follow any protasis, because being more 
polite and indirect the Greeks preferred it to the 

I. When the no/i-fulfilment of the condition is implied, a 
past tense of the indicative with av. 

And here Ave again meet the distinction between the aorist 
and the imperfect with av, which may indeed be unidiomati- 
cally expressed in English, but which for the most part we 
neglect ; thus 

air£Qvn<TKEv av means ' he would be dying,' or ' he would 

have been dying ; ' 
awidavEv av ' he would have died ; ' * 
iredvijicu av he would have been dead. 


205. I. Possibility, or mere assumption, Avith no expression 
of uncertainty. 

et ti t-x E h 2i'2wffi si quid habet, dat. If he has anything, 

he gives it. 
ti tovto \£%£ig, afiapri'ioei si hoc dices, errabis. If you 

say this, you will be in the Avrong. 

206. II. Slight probability. 

kav 71 k'x>/, Stocrei si quid habeat (or habebit), dabit. If he 

have anything, he will give it. 
lav ravra XtEy, apapravei si hoc dicat, errat. If he say 

this, he errs. 

207. III. Uncertainty, or mere supposition.^ 

ti tl eyot, Solri ai'| si quid habeat, det (rare in Latin). 

If he were (or should be) having anything (sc. noAv), 

he would give it. 
ti ravra Xtyoi, auapravoi av si haec dicat, erret. If he 

were (or should be) saying this, he Avould be erring. 

* Some scholars maintain that aTredavev i.v may mean ' he would die,' 
as well as ' lie would have died ; ' but this is exceedingly questionable, 
and therefore I have taken no notice of it. 

f Or indefinite frequency ; as ft irov e£eAaiWi Trepirjye rhv Kvpov when- 
ever he went out riding he used to take Cyrus about with him. 

J This is the favourite apodosis, and is often put with one of the other 
protases; e.g. t&jU iav 6e\r)s (wtj KKiiwv Se'xecflai . . . 'AXktjv Xafloisav 
(Soph. 0. T. 216) if yoxi be willing to listen to and obey my word . . . 
you would gain help (whero \dfiots &e is politely indefinite for Xytyet). 


208. IV. Impossibility, or the implied nonfulfilment of the 

a. ei ti elver, tcfiov av* si quid haberet, daret. If he 
were (or had been) having anything (which is not the 
case) he would be (or have been) giving it. 
eI TavTa 'iXeytv f/fJiapravEP av si hffic diceret, erraret. 
If he were (or had been) saying this, he would be (or 
have been) in the wrong. 

/3. et ti 'iaytVi £$uk£v av si quid habuisset, dedisset. If 
he had had anything, he would have given it. 
ti raur' eXe&v ijjj.apT(.v av si hsec dixisset, errasset. If 
he had said this, he would have been in the wrong. 

209. It mil be seen at once, as already stated, that the 
chief difficulty in understanding the use of conditional sen- 
tences arises from the fluctuating and uncertain use of the 
English equivalents, since our ordinary idiom often prevents 
us from representing the accurate meaning of the Greek ; yet 
we may in English accurately render 

I. by ' if with the indicative. \ 
II. by ' if with the subjunctive. 

III. by ' if with ' were to' or ' should.' 

IV. (d. by ' if with the pluperfect, and by ' would have ' 

in the apodosis. 

210. The main difficulty is with IV. a. Many scholars 
translate et ti e~ix £, 'i «5#bw ay by ' if he had anything, he 
would give it ; ' others, declaring this to be inaccurate and 
unphilosophical, render it ' if he (were, or) had been having 
anything, he would (be, or) have been giving it.' It is clear 
that in many sentences, such periphrases would be intolerable 
in classical English, although they are correct, and discri- 
minate well such sentences as 

a. el u!) tot etvovovv, ou/c av vvv Evcppaivourjv had I not 
then been toiling, I should not now have been rejoicing. 

/3. el tovt etto'lei fj-iyu ue w^eXe! av if he had been acting 
this, he would have been doing me a great service. 

Clearly ei tovt ettoiei, and therefore the apodosis dependent 

* Compare the French S'il avait, il donnerait. 

t The protasis of every one of these four may be represented by 
%X U " t»; and that of I. by t e% f ' ; of II. by t av %XV > of III. by a ex ' 1 
of IV. o. by a ilx €V j °f IV. #. by a ^axev. 


on it, sometimes refers to the present,* sometimes to the 
past; e.g. 

el rov <&i\nrirov to. oiicatcl TrpaTTorra euputv, afocpa av 
QavjJLCHjTov ijyovfirfv avruv if I but saw Philip acting 
with justice, my opinion of him would be that he is 
very admirable. 
ovtoq cl i)v TrpofiirrjQ eyivcjtrKev av if he were a prophet, 
he would be aware. 

'211. The Greek love for dramatic imperfects, expressive of 
continuous acts, going on as it were before the eyes, leads 
them to a constant use of this form of the conditional sen- 
tence; e.g. 

ovk av TrpoeXeyev el /uy) ento-Tevev aXridevaeiv he would not 
have been in the habit of saying so beforehand, had he 
not been confident that he would be speaking truth. 
ovk dV ovv viiawv ktcparei, el uj; tl rat vuvtikov el^ev he 
would never, then, have held sovereignty over the 
islands, had he not been in possession of some fleet 

212. To sum up then what has been said about IV. a., the 
context only can determine exactly whether in the particular 
instance any such sentence as 

el ravr' eyiyvero, airidvticrKev av means 
If these things were taking place, he would be dying ; 
or, If these things had been taking place, he would have been 

213. One or two instances of conditional sentences, both 
Greek and Latin,! are added, in some of which the apodoses 
are varied J from the regular construction. In the light of 

* Dr. Donaldson cannot be right in making it refer to the present 
only. (Gr. Gram. p. 540.) In the same way, 'Si quid haberet, daret,' 
may mean either ' if he had been having anything, he would have been 
giving it.' Vellem = ^ov\6fj.r\v &j> lit. I should have been wishing, or 
' I should be wishing,' sc. if it were, or had been, possible. In English 
however we should use neither of these imperfects to express the con- 
tinuous action, but merely ' I could have wished.' 

f I borrow some of these from a difficult, but careful little treatise on 
The Theory of Conditional Sentences, by Mr. E. Horton Smith (Mac- 
millan). Many Latin instances are given by Jani in his Art of Poetry 
(Engl. TV.), p. 52. 

\ Such a change in the apodosis of a sentence is regarded as an 
inaccuracy in English (however frequently it may occur); e.g. Buch a 
sentence as Steele's, ' If you please to employ your thoughts on that 
subject, you would easily conceive,' &c, where ' you will,' &c, would 


what has gone before they will be easily understood by the 
attentive student; their occasional irregularities are all due 
to the triumph of the dramatic tendency over formal grammar. 

I. Possibility (condition assumed). 

E'i /.t' edeXeig Tro\£/.ii£eiy,"A\\ovQ [aev Kadieroi> if you want 

me to fight, make the rest sit down. — II. iii. 67. 
ij KaXov, i]v V eyw, rf%)')j/ia KCKf^trat, tnrep K£Krr)(Tcti in 

truth, said I, a fine contrivance you have acquired, if 

you have but really acquired it. — Plat. Prot. p. 319 A. 
el fiev Oeov ?)r, ovk i)v, Qijaofiei', cucr^po/c£pS//c if he was 

the son of the god, he was not, we shall say, basely 

avaricious. — Plat. Rep. 408 C. 
Erras, si id credis, et me ignoras, Clinia, you are mistaken 

if you think so, and don't know me, Clinia. — Ter. 

Heaut. I. i. 53. 
Si quod erat grande vas laeti afferebant, if there was any 

large vessel, they would bring it to him with exultation. 

— Cic. II. Verr. iv. xxi. 47. 

II. Slight probability. 

Nioc av 7rov>]a-r]g -yijpciQ e£uq evOaXeg si juvenis labora- 

veris, senectutem habebis jucundam. 
Kal fjv apa f.n) -n-po^(b)pi]m] 'iuov eiccmjtu} 'ej(pvri aireXde^y, 

TTuXti' TroXen))aoj.tEy and if by any chance things proceed 

not smoothly for each side to separate on equal terms, 

we will go to war again. — Thuc. iv. 59. 
Nunquam labere, si te audies You will never slip, if you 

listen to your own guidance. — Cic. ii. ad Fam. vii. 1. 
Pol si istuc faxis (=feceris) haud sine poena feceris Faith 

if you do so, you will not have done it with impunity. 

— Plaut. Capt. in. v. 37. 

have been more regular ; but in Greek, which submitted less tamely to 
formal rules, and allowed more for the passing play of thought, such a 
sentence would have been regarded as quite admissible. It is the same 
in French, where one might have either ' Si vous aviez fait le contraire 
il aurait mieux valu, il valait mieux, or il vaudrait mieux.' 

I collect one or two English instances of conditional sentences with 
varied apodoses from an excellent pamphlet by the Key. E. Thring, ' On 
Common Mood Constructions.' They will show that Greek is not in 
this respect one whit more irregular than our own language. 

1 III speak to it though hell itself should gape.' 

' Thou wrongst thyself, if thou shouldst choose to strike.' 

' If I answer not you might haply think 
Tongue-tied ambition yielded.' 

' An I might live to see thee married once 
I have my wish.' 


III. Uncertainty (condition imaginary). 

STP. yvvaiKu (jxipfiaKih' el Trpiafierog GerraXjj*', 
KadeXoim ri]v treXfivrjv, elra ce . . . . 
.... Kqra TTjpoirjV e-^wv, • • • 
2£2. ri 2?Jra tovto a il)(j)eXriueiey a' ; 2TP. ci',ri ; 
el jutjkeV apareXXoL aeXi]vri /jridafxov 
ovk civ airofiolrjv tovq tckovq. — Ar. Nub. 749.* 
Str. If purchasing a Thessalian witch I should draw 
doiviff the moon {single act), .... and then 
keep it in my own possession {continued act) . . . 
Soc. Why, what good would that do you ? 
Str. What good, quotha ? why if the moon should no 
longer be rising {continued act) I should not pay 
{single act) the interest on my debts. 

IV. Impossibility (condition denied). 

a. and /3. (combined). HXutojv irpoc riva tH>v ■Ka.tiwv 

Mt/iaor/ywiTo ay, 'etyn, el fit/ (hpyi^o^i-ny Plato exclaimed 

to one of his slaves, ' You would have been flogged, 

were I not in a passion.' 
el eweiadriv ovi: ay I'lppwarovv had I then taken your 

advice I should not now have been suffering from 

Si has inimicitias cavere potuisset, viveret had he been 

able to avoid this enmity, he would now be living. — 

Cic. p. Rose. vi. 17. 
Si possiderem (regnum) ornatus esses ex tuis virtutibus 

were I in possession of it, you would have been 

decorated in accordance with your merits. — Ter. Adel. 

ii. i. 214 
fievoifi &V ydeXov 3' av Iktos ujv rvyelv (Soph. Aj. 88) 

I suppose I must stay ; but I should have wished (lit. 

been wishing) to be out of the Avay. [Here the 

protasis ' had it been possible" 1 el fivvarbv i]v is (as often) 


* Several idioms occur in this instructive example ; e.g. the difference 
of present {rripolrjv, &c.) and aorist (Ka64\oifii) tenses ; the use of tLe 
relative '6,ri in repeating a question, &c. 

f ' His mother -was a 'witch, and one so strong 

She could controul the moon.' — Shaksp. Tempest. 

' While the labouring moon 
Eclipses at their charms.' — Milton. 

{ For other instructive Latin instances, see Mn. iv. 19, ii. 55, xi 12 ; 
Ov. Trist. v. v. 42, &c. 



214. In sentences which indicate time by means of any of 
the particles of time, as ore, i'wc, eke!, irp'iv, jiE-xpie, &c, the 
general rule is that a. the Indicative is used when facts are 
stated; ft. the Subjunctive Avith av (as in orav, iizeihav, &c.) 
after primary tenses, when anything future and uncertain 
is mentioned ; and y. the Optative (without av) in oratio 
obliqua, and after historical tenses, frequently implying re- 
currence; as 

a. The indicative of facts. 

£7Tfl $e (piyyoQ iiXlov KaritjtdiTO but when the light of the 

sun waned. 
ova i)v uXi^tj/j. 1 ovc'ev itpiv y eyil) rrcptcriv k^et^a, k.t.X. there 

was no remedy till I showed them, &c. — iEsch. P. V. 

■kivei ewq iiUpfitiv 1 avrov afupipaoa <fXo£ he drank till the 

pervading name warmed him. — Eur. Ale. 757. 
E<pvyo)> ore 7]\dov ol>i when the allies came, they 


ft. The subj. with av of things future and uncertain. 

orav a j£pr) iroiiiang evtv)(ii(teiq whenever you do your 

duty you will prosper, quum officia tua expleveris, 

felix eris. 
exelcciv enravra uKovarjre, Kpivare whenever you have 

learnt all, judge. 

y. The opt. (generally without av) after historical tenses, 
often of indefinite frequency. 

vitEpioov ei\ev ottot lv iiaTEi Ctarpifioi he used to occupy 

an upper-room as often as he was staying in town. 
■^EpiEjikvoiiEv eojq avoi-^Qtii] to deffniorijptov Ave used to 

wait about, until the prison should be opened.* 
ovk ijftovXovro /j.a-)(r]v ■KoieT.aQai 7rp\v ol criififxa^OL napayi- 
voivto they did not wish to fight till the allies should 
have come up. 

* Sometimes, but rarely, av is added to law, &c, with the optative, as 
ill Soph. Trach. 684, crw(eiv (iiceXeuev) ecos av apTixpuTTOV app.6a-at/j.i irov 
he bade me keep it until (should occasion arise) I might perchance use it 
fresh-spread. Cf. Ar. Eq. 133. Hermann accounts for this anomaly by 
saying that where irplv &v, &c, would have the subjunctive in oratio 
recta, the av may still be retained in oratio obliqua, although there the 
optative is substituted for the subjunctive. 


Special Uses of irpiy, 'tug, &c. 

215. Notice these facts about the uses of rrpiv 'before,' and 
ewq 'until? 

i. "xp\v av is never used unless a negative, or something 
equivalent * to a negative precedes, as 

ov ttoli]it(i) ravra rrp\v av keXevptic noil hfec faciam, prius- 
quam jubeas. 

ii. 7rplv is only used with the optative in oratio obliqua, or 
when there is reference to the thoughts or words of another. 

ovk i'ldsXov 7T0ifjaai ravra rrplv keXevoeiuq antequam ju- 

cnrijyopEVE p.r)diva fiaXXEtv irplv KvpoQ EfMirXijcrdEir] he 

forbade any one to shoot until Cyrus was satisfied 

[referring to his own words]. 
ovk eBeXev (pEvyEiv 7rp(v TTEiptjiTatT 'Aj^iXfjoc he did not 

wish to fly till he had made trial of Achilles [referring 

to his thoughts]. 

iii. Sometimes (as we have already noticed § 177, 7) an 
optative after irp\v is due to the attraction of a previous opta- 
tive, as 

oXoio fii'iircj vp\v /mdoifiL (Soph. Phil. 961) mayst thou 
perish ! Yet no, not till I learn. 

Here we should have expected the infinitive, but compare 
0. T. 505. 

iv. irpiv, 'icjg, with the subj. differs from n-p\v ar, eu>q av, by 
being only used in poetry when something certain to happen is 
spoken of; e.g. an actually dying man should not say fxip.ver£ 
t(i)g av davio but fxiuvETE ewc davu). 

fjti) arirafc, nrp\v fxaOrjg (Soph. Phil. 917) do not groan 
till you have learnt (which will be the case imme- 
diately) ; 

e<i>g 3' av siefiadys t'x' ^ 7rl '^ a till you have learnt (which 
you may or may not do) keep hope. 

* e.g. a question, or such words as ftcppasv, &c. In fact, rrplv very 
rarely occurs before the optative or subjunctive at all without a nega- 
tive preceding. (Jelf, § 848, obs. 8.) For a few trifling exceptions or 
irregularities, see Shilleto, Bern, de F. Leg. § 235. 

USES OF irpiv. 1G3 

Usually* however tic is added, because the Greeks disliked 
talking of future certainties, and ' amant omnia dubitantius 

v. We find a similar fact ■with cos, Zirm, which (in Attic poets) are 
used alone with the subjunctive of things certain, as ctAA.' cos tc$5' eiS-fjs 
ivveiru aa<picnepov but I tell you more plainly that you may know it 
(which of course you will do, when I have told you) ; but aradw^v 
(KiroSct)!', cos av fxa.801 let us stand aside, that I may (sc. if possible) learn. 

Thus we find them in the same passage, iEsch. Chocph. 983 — 

e/creiVaT' avrbv . . . . co s j5j? iraryp, 
oi>x ovfxbs aAA.' 5 ■ko.vt' iircnnevcov rdSe 
"HAtos &vayva /Arjiphs ipya rrjs ifiTJs ' 
cos &f irapfj fioi fxdprvs iv S'tKr) ttots 
cos t6vV iylh iier7j\Qov evS'iKoos fiopov 

10V p.T)Tp6s. 

Unfold it that .... the sun may see (which of course will be the case) 
the unhallowed deeds of my mother, so that perchance he may here- 
after be my witness (of the fact) that I justly wrought this fate of my 

N.B. i. The infinitive with irplv may be substituted for 
any other mood. 

ii. irpiv Ieittveiv before dining, priusquam cos?iem. 

irpiv Senrvijaai before having dined, 'priusquam 

irpiv hhnrvrjKevai before having finished dinner, 
priusquam a ccena surrexero. 

iii. The following sentences will illustrate the com- 
monest uses of irpiv. 
eirolrjora ravra irpiv £KiXevo-a^ anteO 

quam iubebas , , . 

, „ a ( ~ ~ v > or irpiv as KeXevaai, 

ov/v - rjUEAov iron/crai ravra irpiv l ' 

Ke\£v<T£MQ antequam juberes J 

7T0t;/(rw irpiv as. keXevgui. 

ov irori]aio ravra irp\v av KeXedarjc. 

On these sentences we may observe : a. That irpiv may 

* e'eos &v, -with the subjunctive present, often implies duration, = so 

long as. 
(ricoirare e'eos av KaOevSy as long as he continues sleeping, be still. 
\4yeiv xpv * ws & v s&gw ol 'Adrjvaioi, Plato, Phced. 85 a, one must 

continue speaking as long as the Athenians permit. 

It is easy to see that the av is here used because of the uncertainty of 
the duration alluded to; but xpv^fJ-o^ iwjret e'eos KaOevSei, At. Eq. 110, 
bring the oracles while he is asleep (where no av is needed — his sleep 
being a fact). 


always go with the accusative and infinitive, except where a 
negative statement is limited by a future contingency, ft. It 
takes the indicative when certain facts are spoken of in the 
past. y. It takes the optative in oratio obliqua, and after 
another optative. 2. It is rarely used at all, and with the sub- 
junctive or optative never, unless a negative notion precedes. 

The Infinitive (Hy/cXiing aTrapifx^aroo). 

216. The Infinitive can hardly be considered as a mood ; 
it is rather a noun expressive of action, and therefore it can 
take the article. Hence some grammarians call it ' the noun 
of the verb' (ovofia rov pfifiaros). It resembles however the 
verb in having tenses, in governing cases, in being used with 
av, and in being qualified by adverbs, not by adjectives, as 
koXSiq dm'iaiceu', but naXog Quvarog. 

217. The connection between the infinitive and the abstract 
noun accounts for the fact that in many languages — for in- 
stance in Arabic and in Modern Greek — there is no infinitive 
mood. We shall see that in most languages infinitives with 
the article may be used as substantives; e.g. in French le 
savoir, le toucher, &c. 

218. The uses of the infinitive in Greek are far more rich 
and varied than its vises in Latin ; e.g. 

Tie <frl\nnroi> kuXvitei levpo ftadli^eiv; quis Philippum 

impediet quominus hue veniat? 
To~ig Aiyivfiratg 'iloaav Qvptav oiKtiv dederunt Thyream 

rravreg airovvrai rov Qeov rayada. cuSdj'cu omnes homines 

precantur Deum ut bona largiatur. 
ciKovaai fxaXQaKa dulcia ad audiendum. 
(poftepde opdv horribilis aspectu. 
alia uirodtlacrOai digna quss quis accipiat. 

219. Most of the idioms in which the Greek infinitive is 
employed closely resemble those of English, as will be seen 
by the following instances, in which the infinitive completes 
or qualifies the meaning of various words ; as 

licavoe 7jv eiireiv he was able to speak. 
Qdav aviuoiaiv v/joIt] like the winds to run. 
eerrt -xoa KadifcaOai there is grass to sit down upon. 
fieya kui f.iraoj.iivoi(Ti irvOiadai great even for posterity to 
hear of. 



t)o«7e u/jcif)Tely you seem to have erred. 
oi»x »/2u 7rcXXovc ex^povg e^eiv it is not pleasant to have 
many enemies. 
For some good remarks on the English infinitive see Prof. 
Whitney's Lectures, p. 119 ; Abbott, Shaksp. Gram. p. 81. 

220. The Greek infinitive is even used, as in English (but 
never in Latin prose*), to express a fact or consequence 
almost resembling a purpose, where the Latin supine would 
be used : 

liarddruv iJKOfiei' we have come to learn. 

Sevodiwv to ij/Jiav rod uTparev^iaTOQ KtiriXlire <f>v\arrttv 

to arpaTOTTECoi' Xenophon left half the army to guard 

the camp. 
yXIfafiEv irpo<TKvrT]<jai avrw we have come to worship him. 

Matt. ii. 2. 

221. It is often qualified by various conjunctions, ware, etf 
o>, &c, and by ?/ after comparatives ; as 

IXtticci Si oi) t'iv eyoyiev, ware ujj dai'&v; but what hope 

then have we of escaping death ? 
to yap vo<t?7/<ci f.iel(ov 7} fipe.iv the disease is too great to 


222. In such instances as -^aXe-wov ebpe'ir, ijcv ukovew, Oeletv 
api<TToe, ctstoc dav/da^ecrdai, &c, the infinitive is called epexe- 
getic, because it defines or limits the notion of the adjective 
with which it is joined. f This infinitive is not uncommon 
after BiStofii. 

223. It is used in various adverbial phrases, as 
eku)v eh'aL ' not if I can help it' (after negatives). 
efiol doKe~tv in my opinion. 

(iirov y tfi iiZivai so far as I know. 
we elttelv so to speak. 
to vvv eivai at present, at all events. 
Kara tovto elrai in this respect. 
oXiyov he'tv almost, &c. 

* Latin poets however allow themselves to use a similar idiom with 
Verts of going, sending, coming ; as 

' Non nos . . . Libycos populare Penates 
Venimus.' — Virg. i. 527. 
' Vultisne eamus visere ? ' — Ter. Phorm. i. ii. 52 ; • ibis fraenare 

cohortes.' — Stat. Sylv. iv. iv. 61. 
'Legati veniunt specularV — Liv. xlii. 25-8 ; Prop. i. 1-12, &c. 

t The Latins copy the Greek epexcgetic infinitive in such phrases as 


224. In commands,* prayers, laws, expressions of wonder, 
&c, it is used elliptically, generally with a sententious or 
dictatorial tone (Jebb, Soph. El. 9). 

vaipeiv TvoWa tov avlpa Qvuviyov good morning, Thyoni- 
chus ! (sc. keXevuj ^at'pfiv). 

rove Qpa-^ag a-mivai irapEivai c etc evt\v the Thracians to 
go away, and appear the day after to-morrow. 

fir} fie Sovkeiag Tvy^ilv (grant) that I may not be en- 
slaved ! 

yvjiruv oe (xwelpsip yvjj.vbv ce (3ou)te~iv (lies. Opp. 889) 
nudus ara, sere nudus. 

tovtov vfipifeir,' Se that this fellow should be 
insolent, and that he should be alive ! 

So in Latin : 

' Men' incepto desistere victam?' — Virg. JEn. i. 41. 
' Adeone hominem . . . infelicem esse ut ego sum.' — Ter. 
Andr. I. v. 11. 

225. After verbs of declaring, feeling, &c, the tenses of the 
infinitive are used in their proper meaning ; as 

r/vayicacTE tovq padt]ra.g kf-ifirjvai e\q to tt\o~iov Kal irpo- 
ayEiv avrov he made the disciples embark on the ship 
(single action), and go before him (continued action). 
—Matt. xiv. 22. f 

226. The subject of the infinitive is put in the accusative, 
not in the nominative as in the case of a finite verb, as 

6 Kvpog h'lKrjaE, but 
i'lyyeikav tov K.vpov 7'iKfjuai. 

Aevnhs iSuv niveus videri, Hor. Od. iv. 2, and also the infinitive in appo- 
sition to the meaning of the sentence ; compare Sap' adavaruv ola Sidovffiv 
e'xeiJ', Theogn. 1164, with 'Illo suo nioriens dat habere nepoti,' Mn. ix. 
362, and Bwicev ave/xois (pepecrdai with ' dederatque comam diffundere 
ventis,' Virg. Mn. i. 323. ' And give him to partake Full happiness 
■with me.' — P. L. ix. 818. ' Une seule remarque reste a /aire.' — 

* This use of the infinitive as an imperative is found in other lan- 
guages. In Hebrew the infinitive and imperative are generally the 
same in form. In Provencal Non temer Maria = fear not Mary. In 
English military commands, ' Left division to march,' &c. 

f The very frequent use of the infinitive with tov to express purpose 
in the Now Testament (e.g. dffrj\6e tov jxeivai ovv avrols, Luke xxiv. 29) 
is neither an ellipse of evena, nor a Hebraism, but may be paralleled in 
classical Greek (see Winer, Gram. N. T. § xliv.), and arose from the 
meaning of the genitive. It is however used in a lax and extended 
manner, especially by St. Luke. 


227. This use of the accusative and infinitive in good 
classical English is very much more rare, although it is not 
unknown ; e.g. I hear you sing, I bid you go. — Clyde. It 
is really due to what is called antiptosis, i.e. to that pro- 
lepsis of the subject of the dependent clause, which has been 
already explained in § 60; e.g. 

eXeyov ort 6 Kvpog ridynKs they said that ' Cyrus is 

may become 

kXtyov tov Kvpov ot'i riOvijKe* 
which is the same as 

eXeyov tov Kvpov TeQvntcivai. — Curtius. 

228. Instead of the accusative and infinitive after verbs 
of declaring, 6Vt may be used with the indicative where we 
should use inverted commas to show that we are quoting a 
person's exact words, as 

they said l Cyrus is dead' ; 

but where the narrator does not wish to vouch for the fact 

stated, we with the optative is used, as 

5ia/3dAXei tov Kvpov npoq tov adeX<poy a»e kiriflovXtvoi 
uvtg) he accused Cyrus to his brother, alleging that 
he was plotting against him (compare the English 
vulgarism ' saying as /Jow?'). 

229. If the subject of the infinitive is the same as that of 
the finite verb, the nominative and infinitive f are used, as 

E(j)r] ovk avrog d\\' IkeTvov arpaTrjyelv he said that not he 

(himself), but that Nicias was general. 
6 ' AXiZuvdpoe 'i<paoicet> elvat Aloq vlog Alexander alleged 
that he was a son of Zeus. 
[So too with participles; as 'iadi avor\Tog S>v know that you 
are foolish.] 

* And this construction with Sri being more precise, becomes more 
frequent in later writers (e. g. in Hellenistic Greek). Accordingly, we 
are (once more) not surprised to find that the infinitive has vanished 
from Modern Greek, being replaced by va (='lva) and a finite verb ; just 
as in French, que with a verb is often used where the infinitive would 
have been used in Latin, because in later Latin quod or quia with the 
finite verb is substituted for it. 

t This is really a case of brachylogy, i.e. a shortened form of expres- 
sion, for a.lnhs ovk e<prj eavrbv (nparriyuv. In Latin, and sometimes in 
Greek, the full construction is used, as ofouai ifiavrbv ay-apruv credo me 


It is the same in Latin ; as 

1 Rettulit Ajax 
Esse Jovis pronepos.' — Ov. M. xiii. 141. 

230. ' Predicative qualifications referring to a genitive or 
dative may be in these cases.' — Clyde. 

kliovTo avTov Etvai Trpodvpov they besought him to be of 

good cheer. 
i^tari fioi yeviadai evSaifiovi licet mild esse beato. 

231. English differs from Greek and Latin in taking a 
present instead of a future infinitive after verbs of promising, 
&c. ; as 

iXiri^u) ivTv^ativ spero me beatum fore I hope to be 

happy. Swoeiv ttepte [xvag promisit se quinque minas 

daturum he promised to give five minas. 

232. The infinitive with the article becomes a declinable 
substantive, and may be used in any case (to tvttteiv striking, 
7ov tvttteiv of striking, &c), thus answering to the Latin 
gerund ; as 

Nom. to a^iapTaveiv ut'OpojTTOVQ vvtuq ohokv QavfiaoTov 

i to err is human.' 
Gen. ETudvfiia tov TTitiv desiderium bibendi. 


he has conquered by going first against the 

233. Accus. uvto to utto6)')'i(jkeli' oiotic (pnfid-ai no one fears 
the mere dying. Even without the article the infinitive is 
often substantival ; as 

Ce'i Xiyew it is necessary to say. 

a^ato ae ■n-nc'ciy I will stop your leaping. 

of dat>E~w ippvaa/j-np whom I saved from death. 

234. This substantival use of the infinitive is common to 
most languages ; e.g. it is found in Hebrew : 

In Latin : Matris lallare recusas, you refuse your mother's 
lullaby. — Persius. Multum interest inter dare et ac- 
cipere. — Sen. Benef. v. 10. 
In German : 

Und ihr Leben ist immer ein ewiges Gehen und 

Oder ein Heben und Tragen, Bereiten und Schaffen 
fiir Andre. — Goethe, Ilerm. und Dorothea. 


In French : II en a perdu le boire et le manger. 

In Italian : Non era 1' andar suo cosa mortale. — Petrarch. 

In Spanish : El mucho estudiar, too much study. 

In English : 

For not to have been dipped in Lethe's stream 
Could save the son of Thetis from to die. — Spenser.* 

The Participle ^t-oyji). 

235. The Participle f has affinities with the adjective, as the 
infinitive has with the noun. Hence Voss calls the participles 
mules, ' because they partake alike of the noun and the verb, as 
the mule of the horse and the ass.' Its essential force is attri- 
butive, and hence it always refers to some substantive expressed 
or understood. The present participle in Sanskrit was origin- 
ally an ablative (or genitive) of the verbal root ending in at ; 
the nasal addition of n is non-essential, though it appears in 
the Greek termination wv and the Latin ns. Thus the parti- 
ciple would be analogous to our participial forms a (i.e. on) 
hunting, a fishing, &c. We have already seen in the instance 
of the adjective that it is a common practice inmost languages 
to form new declinable expressions by adding case-endings to 
some oblique case of a noun ; e.g. in German the adjective 
vorhandener is obviously formed by declining a dative case. 

236. In the use of the participle, as in that of the infinitive, 
English and Greek are more rich and varied than Latin or 
German. In consequence of their frequent use of the parti- 
ciple, one of the grammarians calls the Greeks ^iko^iiToypi. 

237. Like the infinitive, the participle may express 

I. Either the necessary accessories of the verbal notion ; as 
ya'ipu) no narpi eXdom I rejoice at my father's arrival. 


II. ' It expresses notions of time, cause, manner, which are 
the mere accidents of the verbal notion ; J as 

* ' Our English infinitive is the mutilated form of the dative of a 
gerund. Rask says that the present infinitive is never used in Anglo- 
Saxon with the particle to as in Modern English, though the gerund 
always requires to.' — New Crat. p. 603. 

t Meroxfl iffri A.e'£is fierexovcra ttjs twv pTj/xdraiu Kal ttjs twv ovofidTW 
ISlSttjtos, Dionys. Thrax, § 19 ; i.e. it is so called from participating in 
the nature both of verbs and nouns. 

i Jelf, § 6S0. 



te\evtu>v eitve at last lie said. 

\i]i'C6p.ivoL '(wai they live by plunder. 

■^aipwv with impunity. 

k\cuW to your sorrow, &c. 
238. I. It completes the verbal notion by expressing the 
exact circumstances under which the action took place ; as 

6pu> ai'dpbJTTOV Tpe^ovTa. 

UKovb) Swjcparowc Xtyovroc. 
In such cases it is really equivalent to a separate clause 
introduced by on, and when the subject of both these clauses 
is the same, the participle is attracted into the nominative, 
e.g. ' / know that / am mortal,' becomes in Greek olca dvrjrbe 

The verbs which take this construction are a. Verbs of 
physical or mental perception, b. Verbs of emotion, c. Verbs 
of pointing out. d. Verbs which express a state or condi- 
tion ; as 

a. advvaroi dp&UEV ovteq irEpiyEviadai we see that we are 

unable to conquer. 
irpdg (ivSpoG ijgBet ^iKrjfiivr} she perceived that she 

had been injured by her husband. 
ETTEihhv yvtixjiv cnriarrovfiEvoL when they know that 

they are distrusted. 

b. ol OeoI ^aipovai rifj-ufXEvoi the gods rejoice in being 

6 tSe <ppEirl rtjOTrer' aKovwv he rejoiced in heart to 
hear it. 

c. KatcoQ wv akiGKETcu. he is convicted of being base. 
h~]\6e kvTiv &c ti dpa(T£iu)i' kokov it is evident that he 

intends to do some mischief. "j" 
aripyiov Se (bavEpoc jxev i)i> ovdiva it was obvious that 
he loved no one. 

d. tic etw^e TrapayEvonzvoQ ; who happened to be present ? 
ovk avs^ofxai %Cocru I will not endure to live. 

iravoai Xiyovaa cease saying. 

iip£,ai'To ohodofjiovvTEQ they began building. 

SluteXeI f.i£ aycnrwv he continues loving me. 

* With crvvoiSa, crvyyiyi/doaicu) i/xavTcp ' I am conscious of,' the nomina- 
tive or dative may be used, as awoiBa i/j.avr^ crocpbs &v, or crocpip ovri, 
N.E. olSa aya6bs &v I know that I am good ; but 61/xai ayadbs elvat I 
think that I am good. 

f Notice the 'personal construction of Kiya/xai, SrjXos, <pai'ep6s, Slitaios 
eiiu, unlike the English idiom 'it is evident that,' &o. 


We find the same idiom in Latin ; as 

Sensit medios delapsus in hostes, he perceived that he had 
slipped into the midst of foes. — Virg; JEn. ii. 377 
(=pr70£ro kp.TTE<jb)v). Video cleceptus ab illis, I see that 
I have been deceived by them (aladuvofiai i'S,r]-ari)- 

And it has been imitated by Milton (Par. Lost, ix. 792) : 

' She engorged without restraint, 
And knew not eating death,' 

i.e. that she was eating death. Cf. Oppian, Halieut. ii. 106 : 
ou3' ivorjvav kbv (nrtvdovTEQ oXedpov. 

239. With the infinitive some of these verbs express an 
entirely different meaning ; e.g. 

iiriarafiai itoi&v I know that I am doing it ; eKiara/ 

•iroiziv I know how to do it. 
olhi ayadbg wv I know that I am good ; oTSa ayadoe 

elvai I know how to be good. 
[ii/jLvrjao avdptjjiroe wv remember that you are mortal ; 

fiEfjiyijadLo arijp ayadug elvai let him remember to be a 

brave man. 
tbaivofiai wv it is obvious that I am; tyaivoftat ilvat I 

appear to be. 
aio-)(yvonai Xiyuiv I am ashamed though I say it; alayy- 

voifir\v av eIttziv I should be ashamed to say. 
apyopai ZilaGKwv I enter on the position of a teacher ; 

apypnai otcairKeiv I begin to teach. 
\e£ae t'xfi he has declared ; e'^w Xiyeiv I have something 

to say. 

240. <J>5ajw and \avQa.vw may have two constructions, as i-jroiiiae 
(pddcras (or avvaas) he did it beforehand or quickly ; airb rdxeos a\ro 
\adhv he leapt from the wall unnoticed ; or l<pdrj ire£bs i&p he was before- 
hand going afoot, e\a6e (pevyew he escaped notice in his flight. It is 
equally correct to say cpddaov iroiuv or Troirjaov (pddcras. 

241. II. The participle expresses the accidents of the verbal 
notion, — time, cause, manner; as 

amp teal apy6p.Evog eIttov as I said at first. 
Xrj'i^6[.iEyoi X&aiv they live by plunder. 
t'i uadu))', rl iradiov Tavra STroirjaac, cur haec fecisti? 
ovk earw ap^eiv fii) Eidovra fiiadov one cannot rule if cm& 
does not pay. 

i 2 


242. In this way the participle serves as a substitute for 
the Latin gerund, as in 

dprivtiv £7rw?ac 7rpoe rojuwrrt 7r>;juari to shriek charms 
over a cutting wound, i.e. one that requires to be cut. 

OTU.V Tig ££ JrXcOl' 7r£<77/ TOV OiXoVTOQ. 

243. Participles tend to compact sentences together, and to 
supersede that constant necessity for conjunctions which exists 
in English, as 

'AM* avaoTavTiQ Kara\pi](f>iaaiTde But now rise and con- 
demn me. 
The sentences of the Greeks, it has been observed, were like 
their earliest buildings, Cyclopean in structure, — dispensing, 
as far as possible, with mortar. 

244. "R\uiVj <pipu)t>, c'tywj,* \iy<i)r, yjpu)fitroQ, airiwv, are 
used where we use 'with,' as 

iinrov ayu)v -fjXdei', t,i(j>OQ f£pu)i> Trpocn'jXatTE, te-%vt) ^wfin'oc 


'YLyjav is sometimes colloquial and superfluous, as 

rl Xriptlg, ({>Xvape'iQ t-^wv ; why do you trifle so ? &c. 

245. The uses of the genitive and accusative absolute (e/iov 
tJifScioxorroc while I am teaching, titoj/ it being my duty, &c.) 
are explained under the heads of those cases. 

246. Various adverbs are used to add distinctness to parti- 
ciples, as 

a/xci tytvyovTEQ whilst flying. 

fitTaiv hnriwi> during dinner. 

evdvg Iciuv on seeing (a person). 

are tcoiq S)v inasmuch as he Avas a boy. 

a-^jvpiEt'OQ Trep though grieved. 

Kaiirep eI<56te<: though knowing. 

N.B. Notice the difference between such phrases as 

koXcikevovteq inraTwai they deceive by flatten/, 

ol KoXaKtvovres cnrarijoi flatterers deceive ; 

iirointre ficHnXtvuv he did it during his reign, 

b ftaoiXEvwv i-Ko'ir\<j(.v the reigning sovereign did it. 

* "Ayeiv Ka\ <pepeiv ' to harry and carry,' the former of animate, the 
latter of inanimate things. 


Verbals in -teoq. 

247. Verbal adjectives are a kind of participles passive. 
They are found in -riog or -rog, and when derived from transi- 
tive verbs may be used either 

i. Personally, as 

a(TKr)Tea aoi ioriv >/ itpETr) you must practise virtue: 

ii. Impersonally,* as 

itaK^TEov IotL aoi r>/v aperriv. 

EwiOvfxnrEov iori (tol rfjg iipeTijg. 

248. They are frequently used in the neuter plural, as 

ovg ov TrupaSoTEa ro'ig 'Adrjvaloig eotiv whom we must not 

give up to the Athenians. 
ywaiKog ovEaniog fjtr<Tt)ria we must by no means be 

worsted by a woman. 

249. Verbal adjectives in -rag usually imply possibility ; 
those in -riog necessity ; as 

Xvrbg one who is loosed, or able to be loosed ; Xvriog one 

who is to be loosed. 
TroiTjroi' what may be done ; ttomjteov what must be 


The Particle *Aj> with the Moods. 

250. The very important particles av, and epic ke, kcl, are 
supposed to be derived respectively from ava and Kara, 
' according to,'' and to be connected with the Latin an, and 
quam. They always imply a verb and a condition,^ but have 
no exact equivalent in any language. Their chief use is to 
articulate, analyse, give prominence or emphasis to the con- 
ditionally of a notion. 

* This resembles the use of the Latin participle in -dus, in such 
phrases as ' pacem Trojano a rege petendam,' Virg. Mn. xi. 230 {our-miov 
tifi\vr)v). Cf. Lucr. i. 111. Canes paucos et acres habendum. — Varro. 

f The particles re, irov, teas, av express ascending degrees of uncer- 
tainty; viz.: i. surely, ii. very likely, iii. possibly, iv. contingently, or 
on certain conditions. The very existence of this unparalleled particle 
shows how intensely the Greeks realised the conception of contingency, 
and their general dislike to positive directness. On its derivation see 
Pott, Etymolog. Forsckungen, i. 420. In some of its usages (&v=idv) it 
offers a curious fortuitous analogy to the now obsolete ' an,' which indeed 
might often be used in rendering it. ' An,' and ' and,' in the sense of 


251. ,x Aj; is used with three moods, the indicative, optative, 
and (when combined with other ivords) the subjunctive ; and 
also Avith the infinitive and participle. But it is never found 
with the imperative. 

252. In the indicative, it is generally found with the im- 
perfect (of continued acts), the aorist (of momentary acts), and 
less frequently the pluperfect (of abiding results) ; but not 
with the present and perfect, and very rarely (if ever) with 
the future.* 

253. Its potential meaning is always clear ; thus 
(midvriaKtv he ivas dying ; 

enredartv he died ; 
IteQv{]kei he had died; 

cnridvnaKEv av he would be, or have been, dying; 
enridavev av he u'ould have died ; 
ETEdvi'jKei av he would have been dead ;f 

i.e. in each case 'he would, if so and so had happened ;' and 

' if I were once common, as ' an it please you,' ' an I should catch 
you,' &c. 

1 "What knowledge could we have of ancient things past, and historie 
were not? ' — Lord Berncrs, Preface to Froissart. 

' To glut up, and you could, your wasting hunger.' — Sir John Cheeke. 

See Craik, Engl, of ShaJcsp. p. 114; Abbott, Shaksp. Gram. p. 29. 

* The best scholars (Hermann, Porson, &c.) decide against av with 
the future ; there is indeed no reason in the nature of things against such 
an idiom (since what wi'l be may be supposed to depend on conditions), 
and Ke is used freely with the future in Epic ; but as it is certain that a 
people ' qui amaiit omnia dubitantius loqui,' would have used this formula 
if it had not grated against their sense of fitness, it is better to attribute 
to carelessness or corrupt readings the few cases which do occur. 

t The position of av i? always nearest to the word which colours the 
sentence. Sentences like ovk oiS' av el irelffaijxi, Eur. Med. 941, Ale. 48, 
vereor ut suadeam, I fear I shall not persuade, are mere instances of a 
spurious hyperbaton, meaning ovk-oW -el = kaud scio an, ireiaaiiJ.i-&v ; for 
eav in Attic is never resolved into el &v, and never takes the optative 
(or the indicative), ovic oib' av el Swddfajvssl fear I shall not be able 
— <po^ov/xaL-/j.^ ou-8viia>nat. 

It is true that in late Attic eav is found with the optative (e.g. twice 
in Lueian) ; in Thuc. iii. 44, the reading tfv re Ka] "xovres n crvyyvd>p.t)s 
tlev is probably wrong, or else the expression is a mere solcecism, such 
as is found even in the best winters. Thomas Magister lays down the 
rule, fyv ae\ fxera roiv inrorainiKwv itapa. rots aKpifSeorarais, t)v is always 
found with subjunctives in the most accurate writers ; and then alluding 
to this passage of Thucydides as an exception, he adds a\\' ov 5«? (riAovv 
-rb $7ra£ fadey isolated exceptions should not be imitated. 

USES OF av. 1 75 

av always implies a protasis of this kind, even where such 
protasis is not expressed. 

ra yap routvra ovr eyiyrero ovr av eyirero for such 
things neither were taking place, nor could have taken 
place (sc. on any conditions). 
On dV with the imperfect see Mr. Jebb's Electra, 1. 328. 

254. But, besides this potential usage, av with the imperfect 
is also used frequentatively, to mean 'you did so as often as 
such and such circumstances recurred; 1 and sometimes it can- 
not be certainly known which of the two meanings is intended. 

■*■ us o,-i padoifi eicaarore 

eTre\avdav6f.u]v av evdiig vivo TrXt'jdovQ etuiv (At. Nub. 831) 
but whatever I learnt on each several occasion, I used 
to be forgetting directly in consequence of my old 

WC Trporov 
ovde)g evpiar av Spiwavov ovds xoWvfiov may be either 
'since previously, no one used to be buying a sickle 
even for a farthing,' or, l no one would have been bay- 
ing one,' i.e. if it had been for sale. 

255. This double use of av with the imperfect (potential 
and frequentative) is closely paralleled by the English ' would,'' 
which not only implies a condition, but also indefinite re- 
currence ;* as 

' Pleased with my admiration, and the fire 
His words struck from me, the old man would shake 
His years away,' &c. — Wordsworth. 

256. In Epic ke is found both with the present and future 
indicative ; but in Attic Greek, dV with these tenses is so ex- 
tremely exceptional, that it must be regarded as due to mere 

257. *Av becomes rarer in the New Testament and in later 

258. We have seen that the optative by itself has a potential 
force ; and thus we find both 

7to7 tlq fvyoL ; whither can one fly ? — Ar. Plat. 488 ; 

iro'i tlq av <pvyoi ;j" whither could one fly ? — Eur. Or. 

* F. Whalley Harper On the Greek Tenses. 

t In toI Tis <pvyrj ; the subjunctive expresses a sort of hopeless delibe- 


But when the optative is potential in meaning, it is generally 
accompanied by av, as 

tovto yivoir av this might happen. 

Hence it is used to soften the asperity i. of commands ; ii. of 
inferences ; and iii. direct assertions ; as 

i. %wpo~iQ av ticru) you might go in=be so good as to 

ii. ouc apa (Tuxppovvvr) av t'irj citciwc it seems then that 

sobriety and modesty could not be synonyms. 
iii. vdXelt,' awepp', ovk av hiha^uipiiiv a en you talk non- 
sense; get away; I couldn't [=will not] teach 
you any more. 
av /J.EV KOjjii^oiq av aeavrov 7) deXeig you then may 
convey yourself where you like. — Soph. Ant. 444. 

N.B. Expressions like the last being in form conditional 
(though really polite imperatives), are negatived by ov, not 

by f»i- 

259. In negative sentences the omission of av with the optative makes 
the negation stronger, by denying the potentiality absolutely and inde- 
pendently of all conditions, as 

70 yap i/Kpves otSr' aldtov aXiiirrj^ ovr' ipifipojAoi Xeovres SiaWd^aivro 
?)6os neither tawny fox nor loudly-roaring lions could change their 
inborn nature. — Pind. 

irZs av ; ris av ; are used with the optative in wishes. 

260. *Av does not properly go with the subjunctive ;* but it 
often qualifies ei, oc, o'ioq, irpiv, ewe, &c, and often coalesces 
with some other particle, as in ea»', orav, en-eidav, &c. ; and 
these combinations always take the subjunctive. In such 
cases therefore av does not belong to the verb, but modifies the 
particle* or relative ; thus oc who ; oe av whoever', 'Iva where ; 
1 va av wheresoever ; ore when ; orav whensoever ; npiv ere ; 
irp\v av or ever, &c. 

ration, ' whither is one to fly ?' N.B. You can say irol ris (pvyr) ; because 
this is equivalent to iroi tpvyce; whither am I to fly? but you cannot 
Bay vol <pvyr> without the ris, 

* As Hermann briefly states it, ' you cannot say \4yy &v ; and in 
phrases like ts &v ^tyy, <5rav ^7V> 6 '"" ^TVi & c -> the particle modifies, 
not the verb but, the preceding relative. Not av therefore, but its com- 
bination with the preceding word, is correctly said to be construed with 
the subjunctive ; for ts &v Keyy gives a meaning, and so does ts av who- 
ever, but av \4yri combines into no meaning at all. Hence we always find 
ts av Ae'7]7, never ts Xeyy av.' The rule for beginners, says Dr. Donaldson, 
ip • Belativa ct particulce relative cam $.v subjunctivum exigunt,' 

USES OF III'. 177 

oe trcu'i he who does ; oc av ttuiij whosoever may do. 

ovq iilev those whom he saw ; ovq av 'ifoj whomsoever he 

lva where ; 'lva av wheresoever ; as 7rarp«e yap tan i:<la tv 
av irpctTTri rig tv for every land is one's country where- 
soever one fares well (tva av alway s = ubicunque). 

261. We get therefore this rule : Whenever an indefinite 
sense is not required for 6'e, oartc, ore, kirti, &c, the optative 
is almost always used ; when an indefinite sense is required, 
they are combined with av and followed by the subjunctive.* 

262. If however any such combination of a conjunction 
with av is found in the same clause with the optative, the av 
then belongs to the verb and not to the conjunction, as 

eadrjra oV tjv av fiaXtara >/ &pa cta\a.fnrot dress such as 
through it her beauty might best shine (a.v-dia\au7coi) ; 

but if it had been c~ia\auTrr) it would mean through whatever 
dress (2t i)v av) her beauty may best shine. 

So too 

ovK-iyui-oTTUQ av-aiTKTToiriv I know not how i-could- 
possibly- disbelieve. 

rt'c 2 ovTU)Q arouc 
oc vfjii Ka-Trpiairo. — Ar. Ach. 720. 

N.B. Compare 

ooovq slfav as many as he saw (on some past occasion). 
octovq "icoi as many as he saw (i.e. ' from time to time ') 

(the optative being iterative = happened to see). 
Strove av tc*H as many as ever he sees. 

263. *Av with the infinitive f and participle gives them a 
potential or hypothetic meaning ; | as 

* "We have already seen that '6s, '6re, «, &c, may be joined ■with the 
subjunctive 'without av in those very rare cases in which it is intended to 
exclude all notion of any possible condition. 

t In Latin we cannot express the distinction between the aorist and 
the present ; so that -we get 

ypdipeiv av = scripturum esse Y _ , , ^ „. , 
yeypatyevai av = scripturum fuisse J ~ W*** 1 av ' <-Iyae. 

\ In Thuc. iv. 24, we have rois 'A6r)vaiois re ovk av elvai itpopnetv kuX 
rod iropQfxov Kparetv ' In that case they thought that it would be im- 
possible for the Athenians to lie at anchor there, and that they them- 
selves would remain masters of the strait,' where the av with ilvai 
implies that that result is slightly less probable than the other. 

i 3 


Kvpoc tl efilojcrev apiaroq av doicel apyuv yeviadcu Cyrus, 
had he lived, would I think have been a consummate 
general (= o/'«at on av eye veto). 

Svvnde'ig av avrog 'iyEiv cnridioKEv though he might have 
kept it, he gave it back (= edvrijdr) av). 

264. Practically it is not used with the future infinitive or 
participle. The few apparent cases in which this occurs are 
so rare, that they must be due to carelessness. 

285. Just as 

ravr av iyiyvtro = these things would be taking place, or 
would have been taking place ; 

eft) ravr av yiyvecQai = he said that these things would 
be, or would have been taking place. 

And as 

ravr av iyiviro = these things woidd have taken place ; 

'i(j>r] ravr av yerecrdat = he said that these things would 
have taken place. 

266. With the participles we have 

to. yiyvofiBva the things which are taking place; ra av 
yiyvofiEva the things which would be (or, would have 
been) taking place. 

ra ytvoutva the things which took place ; ra av ysrofiEva 
the things which would have taken place. 

267. Demosthenes often uses the phrase 

TToWa. 2' av e\o)v tlireiv though I should have plenty to 
say, &c. 

N.B. i. The verb belonging to av is often omitted, as in 
Plato's phrases 

7rwc yap av, ttuiq ovk iiv ', 
and in 

ra% av, uxTiTEp av eI. 

ol b" oitcirai piyKovaiv ct\\ ova av irpb rov and the servants 
are snoring, but they would not have been heretofore. 
<pipe t'i lr\r av ; come then what would you have done ? 

ii. On the other hand av itself is sometimes omitted where 
it can be easily understood, and this is the usual way of 
explaining such phrases as 


ireldot av d ivddot, aivEiQoiiiQ ci' t<rai£ obey if thou wouldst 
obey; perhaps thou wouldst disobey, iEsch. Ag. 1049 
(where however, as Ave have already seen, § 177, 2, u.tvei- 
boii]Q may be potential without av being understood). 

iii. av is sometimes repeated with the optative, partly 
for rhetorical effect,* and partly to emphasise tivo words in 
the same conditional sentence, of which one is often the nega- 
tive; as 

fdavotg § av ovk av to'ktIe crvyKpvirTCJV Sifiag you could 
not possibly be too soon in clothing your person with 
these arms (i.e. do it with all speed). 

rj5 yap av koI [xd£ovi 
Xi^aiu' av tj aoi ; for to whom in the world even greater 
than thyself could I possibly say it? — Soph. 0. T. 112. 

ovk av yevolfirjv 'HpaicXijg av I shouldn't at all like to be 
Hercules (ich mag nicht etiva Hercules werden). 

iv. av is sometimes misplaced, by hyperbaton, as in 

ovk olh" av el TrEiaaijXL I think it doubtful whether (ovk 
olb" el haud scio an) I could persuade {jrEicraifx 1 av). 

v. av as a conjunction means if= lav, ijv, as is often the case 
in Plato (but not in the poets). It may be distinguished from 
the particle «V by its standing first in the sentence, which the 
particle av never does. This usage of aV closely resembles 
the obsolete English ' an,'' as 

av 6foc idiXn an God will. 

vi. av may sometimes be rendered ' otherwise ' (pointing to 
a suppressed clause), as 

iniffrevofinv vwo rwv AaKE^aij-iovlwv' ov yap uv /ie EivEfi- 
irov I was trusted by the Lacedaemonians, otherwise 
they would not have sent me. 


268. Final Conjunctions are those which express an end or 
purpose, viz. we, w7rwe, 'iva, and in Epic ofpa. 

We have already seen that after primaiy tenses they 
regularly take the subjunctive (where we use may), and after 
historical tenses the optative {might). 

* The first av is called by the grammarians Sw-qriKhv ' effective,' and 
the second irapa.TrAripamaTiKbi> ' complementary.' 


269. When this rule is violated, it is from a desire to be 
graphic (71-00 6/' iroielv) ; as in the following sentence of 
Lysias (de Ccede Eratosth. ix. 2) : 

iirtihij he. to iraiZiov kyivETO »/ft7r, 1) ft'/r^o avru kdfiXa^ev, 
iVa c)£ jui], oirore Xoveabai oioi, klvZwevv caret rrje 
KXlfiaKUQ tcarafjaivovaa, kyii) fitv avu) c'tr/rwftT/y, at Be 
yvvdliceg Karw . . . jjeto. Ce to SeJttvov to 7T(tto7ov i/3oa 
teal kdvaicoXcui'EV vxo TTJc d£pairaivr]Q kniTrj^EQ XvTrovfxe- 
vov iVa tclvto. tv oii] . . . but when our boy was born, 
the mother used to nurse it. But that she may not 
run a risk by descending down the stairs whenever it 
wanted washing, I used to live upstairs, and the women 
below. And after dinner the child used to cry and 
fret, being pinched on purpose by the nurse that he 
may be doing so, &c. 

It will here be seen at once that kivSwevoi ' might run no 
risk,' and ttoio'i might do so, would have been the regular con- 
structions; and that the subjunctives are only dramatically 
substituted for them, to represent the events as going on 
before the hearer's eyes. 

270. On similar principles oVwc is constantly joined with 
the future indicative ; * as 

didoi^ oTTwg /J.01 i^r/ Xiav (f>ave7 ao<pii I fear that you will 
seem too wise to me (cf. the vulgar English ' I fear as 

KU\ TO /J.EV KoXUlQ £"XpV 

07rwe yj>ovl'£ov ev fj.Ei'E~t (SovXevteov (iEsch. Ag. 846) and 

we must take measures whereby all which now is well, 

shall long continue so. 
d\\' oVwc jxi] V rote rpi(3(0<Tiv kyKadrjPTai ttov Xidoi see 

that there are not stones lying anywhere in your cloaks. 

— Ar. Ach. 343. 

271. vttwq with the future constantly means ' see that,' ' take 
care that,' ' I fear that,' &c. 

o7rwc f») (tcivtov oIktuIq ttote take care that you will not 
have some day to pity yourself. — iEsch. P. V. 68. 

vvv oif oVwc (TUHTstc p? eweI KcnrwXeaaQ now then see that 
you save me, since you too destroyed me. — Ar. Nub. 

* This is less frequently the case with 'Lva; and when it is, tva. may 
always have its quasi-local meaning of where— in which case. 


272. With the past tenses of the indicative we, oVwc, Iva 
imply that something has not occurred, — an impossible or un- 
fulfilled result. It is often rendered ' in which case,' but such 
a rendering is unnecessary, and in the third of the following 
examples would have required ovkote not fii'jiroTE. 

ovkovv E\pT]v at Tlqyaaov £ev£cll Trrepov, 
ottwq efaivov role; deolg rpayiKujrepog. — Ar. Pax, 135. 
Ought you not to have, &c, that you might have appeared 
to the gods more tragic-looking ? 

£i TTJg aKovovarjQ et jjv 

TTTjyiJQ <5t' wruj' <ppayfj.6g } ouk av ea^ofiTjv 

-6 urj 'TroxXtiacu rov/dbv adXiov di/iag, 

'Lv l\v rvfXog re Kat kXvwv fXTjSiv. — Soph. 0. T. 1386. 

If there had been any further means of stopping the 
fount of hearing through the ears, I would not have 
abstained from closing up my wretched frame, that I 
might have been both blind and deaf. 

ri ix ov Xafitjv 
EKTEivaq Evdvg, djg E$£l£a fx{]7rOTE 

Efiavrbv avOpuTrotaiv evBev i)v ysywc ; — Soph. 0. T. 1393. 

Why didst thou not take, and slay me at once, that I 

might ne'er have shown to men whence I was sprung ? 

273. We may thus briefly sum up the uses of we, oVwc, 
iva : 

I. (ie=as; [we=thus; except when we follows the word 
which it compares, as Trarrip we like a father.] 

we is the adverb of og fj o ; when we=as, we ac means ' in 
whatever way.' 

a. It is used with superlatives, as 

we ra-^iara quam celerrime as quickly as possible. 

b. Like the Latin ut, we sometimes means when. 

c. It is sometimes used declaratively for on quod when 

we intend to express an assertion rather than a fact. 

d. we as a final conjunction=m order that; uig av* in 

order that perhaps ; the former used, as we have 

* In one or two instances only, ws av appears to mean ' so long as ; ' 
e.g. Soph. Aj. 1096, 

rod Se ffov ty6<pov 
ovk $lv crrpacpelriv &is av fis ol6s irep el but I will not swerve because 
of thy clamour, so long as thou art what thou art. (Comp. 
Eur. Ton, 77, Hco. 330.") 


seen, when the result is certain ; the latter when 
less certain (but only in poetry ; we civ is never used 
of a purpose in Attic prose). 

II. a. oirwe how stands to ttwq in the same relation as oarig 
to Ti k , &c, as has been already explained. 

N. KaiTToir] A. ottojq', N. How then? D. How quotha? 
ttwq ; how ? ovk oW ottioq I don't know how. 

"When 07rwc=how, oirwg av=howsoever ; as 

aijtwv avTio te iZelvat SiaXiyeaBai ottuq fiovXeTat, kcii aoi 
otrwg av av av (3ov\rj claiming the right for himself to 
discourse how he likes, and for you too however you 
like.— Plat. Prot. 336 B. 

b. Like the English how, oVwc comes to mean that, and in 
many sentences either translation may be used.* 

c. When 07rwc=in order that, ottcoq ay=m order that 

III. a. "iva— where ; as 

ov\ bpac iV el kukov ; see you not in what evil plight (lit. 
where of evil) you are ? 
Iva a v = wheresoever (sicubi, ubicunque). — Soph. (Ed. Col. 

b. As a final conjunction, 'lva=whereby, i.e. in order that. 
But in this meaning it differs from <bg, okioq in two respects : 
i. It is never combined with av. 
ii. It is never found with the future indicative. 


274. The Greek language has two classes of negatives, ob 
and its compounds ovci, ovte, ovSelc, ovfia/jLuie, &c. ; fiij'f with 
its compounds /ztjcV, /uijre, /uncWe, itvjSa/xwc, &c. The differences 
between them are simple and definite. 

* 'How' and ' that' are interchanged throughout the whole of Cole- 
ridge's beautiful poem of Genevieve ; and Johnson quotes as an instance 
of this sense the following sentence, ' Thick clouds put us in some hope 
of land, knowing how that part of the South Sea was utterly unknown,' 
&c. — Bacon. [Harper, p. 117.] 

t Naturally the subjective negation ^ is too refined and luxurious for 
some dialects of Modern Greek ; accordingly in Tzaconian we find only 
the negatives Slv ( = ou5eV), and 6 ( = ov). See Suidas, s.v. <pt\6£et>os, 
Athen. Deipnos. xi. v. p. 466 ; Farrar, Chapters on Language, p. 91. 


275. The main distinctions between ov and fit) are as 
follows : ' ov negat, juj) vetat ; ov negat rem, fxij conceptionem 
quoque rei.' — Herm. In fact, as Madvig observes, ov is always 
used when some specific rule does not require the use of ju»/. 

i. ov denies, as 

ovk £<m rcixira it is not so. 
fir) forbids, as 

fit] kXettte do not steal. 

ii. oil is objective and categorical, i.e. it negatives facts and 

fir/ is subjective and hypothetical, i.e. it negatives concep- 
tions, thoughts, &c. 

iii. ov is the negation of the judgment; juj) of wishes and 

ov . . . ; expects the answer Yes; as apa ov;=nonne1 ov 
fXEViic • quin manes ? Won't you stop ?=stop ! 

«}/...; expects the answer No ; apa fi{]=/j.wv ; (u>) ovv)= 
num ? fii) TiQvrjKEv 6 7ra-/jp ; I hope my father is not dead, num 
mortuus est pater ? 

276. Mij is used 
i. With the hypothetical participle, as 

jji) dpuiv if he does not do it. 
ii. After el, eav, iiteibav, orav, as 

el firj Xe'yae unless you say. 
iii. After final particles, 'Ira, ottuq, &c, as 

TrapaKaXst larpov, ottujq /xt) anoQavr\ summon a physician 
that he may not die. 

iv. After all hypothetical, indefinite, or causal relatives, eg 
oV, uttoToq &v, &c. 

v. In all wishes, as 

fit) yivoiTO God forbid ! 
vi. In all prohibitions, as 

firj K\i\pyG tovto do not steal this. 

M»)^£te ayecjfiirprjToe klvlfci let no one untrained in 
geometry enter. 

* In Hebrew ?X al=fn.i\, is? lo = ov. 


vii. With the hortative and deliberative subjunctive, as 

fifj ypa<j>u)fiEP let us not write. 

fxrj a.TvoKpivu)fiai ; am I not to answer you ? 

viii. With the infinitive* (except after verbs declarandi et 
sentiendi, because then the infinitive=the indicative with on), 

aroi to fiy) aiyijcrai Aoi7rov 7)v it remained for you not to be 

ix. With questions which expect the answer no ; as 

fit] apxiTEKTtov [3ov\ei yeviadcu you don't want to become 
an architect, do you ? 

Hence juwr ;=p) olv \=num ? 

It will be seen at once that every one of these uses of firj 
springs from its character as a subjective or hypothetical 

277. An apparently superfluous /lo) is found after verbs 
which involve a negative notion, e.g. verbs of refusing, fear- 
ing, j" doubting, denying, hindering, &c, as 

* Sxrre when followed by the indicative requires oh, when by the infi- 
nitive /utj. Thus 

ovrais &<pp<tiv fy Sxrre I adeo stultus fuit ut I he was so foolish that 
ovk i]fiov\eTo I noluerit, J he did not wish 

(expressing the fact). 

oStws &<ppwv %v Here I adeo stultus fuit ut I he was so foolish as 
1$ f3ov\eadai I nollet, i not to wish 

(expressing the natural consequence). 

The former construction is the more oratorical and picturesque. 

Sometimes, when the negative belongs to a single word, ob with the in- 
finitive follows wffre, and sometimes by an apparent irregularity as in 
Soph. El. 783. See Shilleto on Bern, de F. Leg. App. c. 

f <pol3ov( fi}) =forsitan, ovk oIS' ei = hand scio an, which signifies less 
probability. Notice the distinction between the following, 

SeSoiKo fii) iroijjs vereor ne facias, I fear that you maybe doing it. 

— irorficreis — facturus sis, I fear that you will do it. 

But for Sf'SoiKa ju)j noius, iiroiets, eVoiTjcras, Treirolvaas I fear you are, were 
doing, did, or have done it (where no doubt is expressed, and the SeSotKa 
is merely due to courtesy), there is no exact Latin equivalent, since in 
Latin the subjunctive must be used. See Shilleto, Demosth. de F. Leg. 
App. a. Hearing a person soliloquise on the spelling of a word I might 
6ay 5e'S. pr) afiapTavjis, but if I saw him beginning to spell it wrong, I 
should say 8e'5. /xi) ajxaprdveis. — Jebb's Electra, I. 581. 


(j)o/3ov/j.aL [II] afMpoTEpuv iij-iapri'itcafjEy I fear we have missed 

ijvavTiuidrtv avrw firjder iroiiiv irnpa tovq vo^lovq j'empechai 

qu'il ne fit rien contre les lois. 
ovk av k^apvog yivoto jut) ovk Efioq viog tivat tu ne nieras 

pas que tu ne sois mon fils. 
firi \aj3elv lEapvovfievog denying that he received them. 

278. In all these instances the pi) is merely a repetition of 
the negative implied in the verb ; e.g. 

iipvovvTo fit) TTtir-wKEvai they made a denial to the effect 
that ' they had not fallen.' 

After verbs of fearing and considering fiq = lest, as 

BeSotKa fxi) davri vereor ne moriatur, I fear lest he die, i.e. 
that he will die. 

This pleonastic negative is common in modern languages, 
In English : 

' First, he denied you had in him no right.' — Shakspeare, 

Comedy of Ewors, iv. 2. 7. 
' If any of you know . . . just impediment why these two 

should not be joined together.' — Prayer-book. 
i Can any man forbid water that these should not be 
baptised . . . ? — Acts x. 47. 
In French : 

Je crains que sa maladie ne soit mortelle, I fear his disease 
is fatal. 
In Italian : 

Guardarsi di non credere, be on your guard against 
In Spanish : 

Temia no entrara, I feared he might come in. 

Por poco no me caigo, haud multum abfuit quin caderem. 


279. ov is the proper negation of the indicative, and of all 
forms that can be directly resolved into the indicative ; e.g. 
in Homer of the subjunctive, where it scarcely differs from a 
future (see § 176); of the optative in oratio obliqua (after 
on and wg), where it merely represents the indicative of the 
oratio recta ; and of the optative with av, which is merely a 
milder future or imperative. 


280. ov has a property, not possessed by fi{f } of coalescing 
with single words, like the privative a ; as 

ret ov ira\a inhonesta ; ov% i'lKwra decidedly ; ov 0>j/.u 
nego ; ov% vTTLer^ioiifiai I refuse ; ov aripyio I hate. 

Hence such sentences as 

d toxic, davoi'TUQ ou'/c t£c Oci-iT-eiv if you prevent the burial 
of the dead, 

£t hi tol ov Swan if he shall refuse it to you, 

are no violations of the rule that /.n) should be used after con- 
ditionals, because ovk tw = veto, ov £w<7«— recusabo ; and so of 
all similar cases. Such expressions are due to the figure of 
speech called litotes, by which less is said than is meant ; e.g. 
' Shall I praise you for these things ? I praise you not ' 
=1 do anything but praise you.* 

281. The same thing sometimes occurs where eI=oti after 
verbs of disapprobation, &c, an indirect form due to Attic 
politeness ; as 

davfia^ii) el ravTa ov ttouIq I wonder that you do not act 

but here /.u) is more usual Tsee Jelf, 804, 8]. 

282. Similarly verbs declarandi et sentiendi may be followed 
by ov with the infinitive, as 

bjxoKuyw ov Kara MiXrjroi' Kal Avvtov eirai pij-wp I confess 
that I am not an orator after the fashion of Meletus and 

283. ov is redundant after *j than generally in negative 
sentences, as 

•KoXtv okrjv dia(j>9elpcu /idXXoy y ov tovq airiovQ (Thuc. iii. 
36 ) to destroy a whole city rather than the guilty ; 

so in French • 

On meprise ceux qui parlent autrement qu'ils ne pensent. 
II n'ecrit pas mieux cette annee-ci qu'il ne faisait l'annee 
passed.— Jelf, § 749, 3. 

284. A few contrasted and mixed instances of ov and [irj 
will illustrate the principles here laid down, which are 
sufficient to meet every case which occurs in good Greek. 

* This is a common idiom in Hebrew with fcO = ' anything but.' See 
Hos. i. 9 ; Ps. i. 4. 


et ft}) Taiira £ort, ovdi tuEe (Plat. Phced. 76, e) if that is 

not true, neither is this. 
fxi] dvija^ vwep tovB' ui'fipoc, ou'ci' iyu> irpo <tov (Eur. Ale. 

690) die not on my behalf, nor {will I die) for thee, 
tyw c" oiru)Q (tv fiij Xiyeic, opduiQ 

ovk ar Bvj'ai[jr)P /i//r' kiviaTaifxiiv Xeyeiv (Soph. Ant. 682) 
but I could not say, and may I never know how to 

say, that you are not right in what you say. 

[/uj) \iyeig because it follows the indefinite relative oirug ; ovk 
av Zvvaifxt]v because av Zvvaijir\v is a mild future ; fir'ir tTTtarai- 
fir)v because this is a wish.] 

6 Trtoreviov elg avrov ov KplvErat, 6 Se ju>) ttkttevwv ?'/?/} 

KEKpiTUl, OTL fit] TTETTlOTEVkEV K.T.\. (John hi. 18) he that 

believeth on him is not condemned, but if any one 
believeth not he has been condemned already, because 
he hath not believed, &c. 

[ov KpivETai is a, fact; 6 firj tziotevuv is an hypothesis=if any 
one does not; otl p) because this depends on the former 

e^£(ttl Krjvffov dovvai ?) ov ; Sa>f.uv ?) fiff ^uijjirjv ; (Mark xii. 
14) is it lawful to give tribute, or (is it) not ? [direct 
question with ov,] are we to give, or are we not to 
give ? [deliberative subjunctive with /jj';.] 

ovk eariv ev rote J"') KaXoTc fiovXev fxainv 

ovc-' eXttiq.— Soph. Tr. 727. 

there is not even hope in any plans if they be not 

6 ov wmttevu)}' is qui non credit. 

6 /j.7] izinTEVbiv si quis non credat. 

6 a.Xrid}]Q ra /u?) bvra wg ovk ovtci Xiyei he who is true re- 
presents whatever things are not f/iq = an indefinite con- 
ception] as not-being (or as non-entities). 

fi ovk Efjureipia the actual want of experience. 

f/ /uj) EfnrEipia want of experience if, or wherever it may 

to ovk ayadov that which is bad ; to jxt] ayadov whatever 

may not be good. 

vg ov 7rou1 Tavra qui non facit hsec. 

oe p») ttole'i Tavra qui hffic non faciat, or si quis, &c. 

a ovk olca certain things which I do not know; & p) 

olEa whatever things I may not happen to know. 


irponiraoaaXtxHTU) . . . iV ovre <p<i)Pi]i> ovre tov fiop<pi]v (iporuti 

6\p£t. — iEsch. Prom. 20. 
I will nail thee to a spot where thou shalt never see, &c. 

(of a definite place). 

fiiXXovai yap a el ruii'de u?) Xri&ie yuuv 

kvravQa tteh^jiiv evda jji'i ttoO 1 fiXiov 

(p6.oc Trpouoxpei. — Soph. Elect. 379. 

for they are about to send thee, unless thou wilt cease 
from these complaints, to some (unknown) region 
where thou shalt never gaze on the sun's light. 

outoi 0j'Xa rex yu») (j>iX% <3 Kopai (Eur. Troad. 4G8) truly 
things are not acts of friendship, if they be not pleasant, 

encore yap fxoi fit) Xlyeiv a jji) -eXut (iEsch. Eum. 859) 
for it rests with me not to mention anything which I 
shall not carry out. 

a /i>) (ppovw yap ovkot a£iG) Xiyeiv I never think fit to 
speak anything which I do not think (a ov (pporw would 
be any definite things). 

285. Ov and pi] are frequently combined in the same sen- 
tence, as in the following examples : 

ov a~iya ; finely tS>vV tptlg Kara tttoXiv silence ! mention 
none of these things throughout the city. — ^Esch. 
Sept. c. Theb. 250. 

oh aly 1 avifci, jujj^e SeiXiav apelc ; keep silent, and as- 
sume not cowardice ! — Soph. Aj. 75. 

ovy\ ovyKXiiatLQ aropa, 
cat utj fiedijaeiQ avdic alayiarovQ Xoyovg ; 
close thy mouth, and utter not again most disgraceful 
words !* — Eur. Hipp. 498. 

aXX* tiaiB'' ov aoi ui) jjLsdixpopai ttote but enter ; I shall 
certainly never follow after you. — Soph. EL 1052. 

* Of the two very difficult lines — 

£yu 5' ov (if) irore 
7&/i ws av (lira) fi)] -ret a' iK<pi)vw Kaicd, Soph. 0. T. 329, 

one can only say ' Quot viri tot sententise.' Donaldson supposes that 
H^] is repeated before the verb, because the ov fii) is separated from it. It 
would then mean 'Never will I, for the sake of uttering my own pre- 
dictions, never will I reveal thy woes.'— New Grot, p. 587. 


These passages are usually and simply explained by under- 
standing the ov before the following fxrj in the manner illus- 
trated in § 290 infra. Some scholars however put the inter- 
rogation after each clause of the sentence, and maintain that 
fir} with the future is admissible in prohibitions. We believe 
that in point of theory this is correct, although the actual 
instances are so few, that the idiom must never be imitated.* 

286. Two negatives only destroy each other when they 
belong to different predicates, as 

ovhlg ootiq ov yikaGETaL there is no one who will not 
laugh, i.e. every one will ; 

otherwise they only strengthen the negation. In fact it may 
be laid down as a rule that all men have a tendency to 
strengthen negation by adding negative ivords to each accessory 
of the sentence ;f as 

fj{]TroT aotfikq [iitftv finds avoaiov [itjte TtoirjanrE fiijre 
fiovXevanre neither do, nor plan anything either im- 
pious or unholy. — Xen. Cyr. vm. vii. 22. 
ov ovic i]v ovhiww ovdelc KEt/jLerog wherein never man had 

yet been laid. — Luke xxiii. 52. 
ciKovei £' ovdev ovceig ovdivog no one obeys any one in 

* M$) vvv fxoi ve/ieo-tiffer 'OAu/x7ria Sd/j-ar' txoVTfs. — II. xiv. 

vfaovo' 'Axatolj.— Soph. Aj. 572. Cf. Ant. 84. 

The other instance sometimes quoted (Eur. Med. 882, Ac'|ei$ Se fiyo'iv, 
k.t.A..) is perhaps not to the point ; but Elmsley's attempt to change as 
many of such instances as possible into subjunctives, was one of those 
premature applications of a priori reasoning which have done so much 
to injure scholarship. Dawes' restriction of the use of ov /tnj with the 
subjunctive to the second aorist only is another instance. 

+ ' No sonne were he never so old of yeares might not marry.' — 
Ascham, Scholemaster. ' Not nohow,' said the landlord, thinking that 
where negatives were good, the more you heard of them the better. — 
Felix Holt, ii. 198. Whatever may be said of the genius of the English 
language, yet no one could have misunderstood the query of the London 
citizen, ' Has nobody seen nothing of never a hat not their own ? ' The 
addition of words like ypv in Greek, hilum in Latin (ne hilum, nihil), 
-pas and point in Erench, jamas and nada in Spanish, &c is due to the 
same tendency. ' And cared not for God or man a point.' — Spenser, 
F. Q. ii. 12. 

Two negatives are often found in Hebrew also (IK. X. 21 ; Zeph. ii. 2 ; 
Is. v. 9, ' without no inhabitant,' &c). So we have ovde iroWov Se* 
minime gentium, far from it, after negatives. 


287. Old German and Old English both agreed with Greek 
in this idiom, and have only lost it from the influence of 
Latin ; * thus we find in Chaucer — • 

1 He never yet no vilanie ne sayde 

In all his life unto no manner wighte.' 
' His horse was good, but he ne was not gaie.' 
1 There ne was none him like,' &c. 

And even in Queen Elizabeth's time the idiom prevailed, for 
we find her writing to King James, 

'Jf I had meant it, I would never lay it on others' 

shoulders, no more will I not damnify myself that 

thought it not.'' 

And, in the same letter — ■ 

' but as not to disguise fits not the mind of a king.' 

The latter instance is illogical though the meaning is clear; 
it shows how prevalent was the iise of the double negative. 

Hence Dr. Clyde correctly observes that ' I don't know 
nothing' 1 is simply the relic of a once classical idiom ; and this 
is true, it may be added, of many vulgarisms and colloquial 
forms of speech. They are frequently relics of the old infantine 
pleonastic condition of all languages at their commencement. 

Hickes says that before the Conquest we often find as many 
as four negatives combined : 

' He is fre of hors that ner nacle non' (=never had one). 
— Hendyng's Proverbs (circ. 1300). 

288. The first of two negatives is sometimes omitted ; as 
liaptg ovre ttoXiq neither Paris nor the city. — iEsch. Ag. 

Xiyovaa fxrjde ZpUxja. — Eur. Hec. 374. 

* In Latin however the rule is sometimes broken; e.g. Nulla nee 
exustas habitant aninialia terras. — Tib. iv. i. 164. Absonti nemo ne 
nocuisse velit ( = ne quis). — Prop. n. xix. 32. Cf. Luc. n. xix. 32, &c. 
The Romance languages have not imitated the pedantic purism of Latin 
in this matter. Thus in Latin nonnullus = someone, non nemo=some- 
body ; but in Italian 'Non dice nulla' 'non v'e niuno,' are negatives. 
So in Provencal, ' Nuls horn non pot ben chantar sens amar ' is ' no man 
can sing well without loving.' — Sir G-. C. Lewis, Homan.ce Languages, 
p. 238. So in Spanish no lo sabe nadie nobody knows it ; no lo he visto 
jamas I have never seen it. In fact in Latin the colloquial instinct was 
often too strong for grammatical nicety. Thus in Plautus, Mil. Glor. v. 
v. 18, we find ' Jura te non nociturum esse ho?ni?iide hac re nemi?ii,' and 
even Cicero has (Vcrr. ii. 57) 'Non mihi prsetermittendum videtur ne 
illud quidem genus,' &c. See Jaui, A. P. p. 236. 

Ov fllj. 191 

As in Milton — 

' Fearing God nor man ; ' 

and Shakspeare — 

' Tongue nor heart cannot conceive nor name thee.'— 
Macb. ii. 8 ; 

and in Carew — 

' Give Lucinda pearl nor stone ; ' 

' Gums nor spice bring from the East ;' 

and in Gifford — 

' Pallas nor Licinus had my estate.' 
So too in Latin — 

' Qua fornace graves, qua non incude catena? ? ' — Juv. 

Ov pi). 

289. i. ov fifj with the 2nd person of the future, is a strong 
prohibition] as 

ov pi) TroiTjaeiQ ; do not do it ! 

ii. ov pi) with the aorist subjunctive and with other persons 
of the future, is a strong negation ; as 

ov pi) ■holi](ti]q you certainly shall not do it. 

Instances of i. are 

ov pij (pXvapi'iatis 'iywv ; don't keep playing the fool. — 
Ar. Ran. 202. 

ov pi) 7rpoaol(T£iQ ^elpa, /SaK^evcxELQ 3' iwi', 
pi'lff kt,op6p£ei pupiav n)v ai)v tpoi; — Eur. Bacch. 343. 
put not forth thy hand, but go play the bacchanal, and 
wipe not off thy folly on me. [The ov is understood 
both before fiaK^evasig and before p'/o' t£,op6p£,ei.~\ 

cv pi) TrpoaoiaeiQ X e ~ L P c h fffi a\pei ttettXiov ; put not forth 
thy hand, nor grasp my robes! — Id. Hipp. 601. 

290. These are usually explained by the interrogative ; 

ov pi) Trpoo-oicrELQ ; = will you not not -put- forth ? 

= will -you -not abstain - from -putting 

forth ? 
= put not forth ! 

Undoubtedly this explanation is open to the serious objection 


that it attributes to pi) that power of coalescing with, and so 
reversing, the meaning of a word which properly belongs to ov 
only. It is far better to explain the idiom thus : 

ov Trou'i<T£ig • — [xri ; i.e. you will not do it — will you? 
=do not do it ! * 

Instances of ii. are 

ov trot fit) fi£di\pofiai nore. I will never follow after thee. — 

Soph. El. 1052. 
ov ri /U17 Xn(p0& £o\« I shall certainly not be caught by 

craft.— ^Esch. Sept. 88. 
aW ov fxi) oIoq r i)Q but you certainly will not be able, 

—Plat, Hep. 341 c. 

291. These are usually explained by the ellipse of cieoe or 
Eeirov (' There is no fear lest, &c.'), which are often expressed, 
as in Ar. JEccles. 646 : 

ou'xi diog jj(] ere (piXijcrn there's no fear of his kissing you. 
So in Latin : 

'Non rnetus officio ne te certasse priorem Pceniteat,' — 
jEn. i. 548. 

This is a simple explanation, and is certainly admissible. It 
may however be doubted whether these idioms, arising from 
the union of an objective and subjective negative, do not owe 
their prevalence to that accumulation of negative words towards 
which there is an instinctive tendency in all languages. 

Ml) ov. 

292. After negatives, verbs expressive of negative notions 
(fear, doubt, shame, disapprobation, &c), and in indirect 
questions, /i>) ob=ne non, or vt, is used.f The /ji) really 

* I have never met with any formal explanation of this idiom which 
satisfied me ; I feel convinced that these idioms are simply due to the 
tendency to accumulate negatives for the sake of emphasis. 

f Verbs of fearing in Attic poetry are also followed by Situs = vereor 
tit, I fear that not ; and Situs /utj = vereor ne, I fear that. Se'Soi/ca Situs 
e\6r) I fear that he will not come ; 84Souca. Situs /j.^ e A.0j? I fear that he 
will come ; as 

Sidoix 'Situs 
fxri 'k rr\s (Tiuirris ttjcS' avapp-fi^ei KaKa. — Soph. O.H. 1047. 'I fear 
that calamities will burst forth from this silence.' [Literally, ' I fear 
how lest,' &c] Here again the French idiom resembles the Greek, ' Je 
crains que vous ne m'abandonniez ' I fear you will abandon me ; ' Je 
crains quelle soit heureuse ' I fear that she is not happy. — Clyde, 
p. 185. 

Mr) ov. 193 

belongs to the previous words, and expresses that their general 
result and effect is negative. 

<Ji$oiKu-fn) ovk inrodar)] I fear he will not die, vcreor tit 

cidoiKn-j.u) ok t\6)j I fear that he will not come, vcreor 

tit veniat. 
adpei fii) ov Tovro t) tu aya&bv consider whether thia be 
not ' the good.' 

293. M>) ov with the infinitive often has the sense of quin, 
quo7ninus, after negatives, or quasi-negativea ; after verbs of 
preventing, denying, &c; and after ceivov, ataj(p6r } altr^vvrj, 
tort, &e. ; e.g. 

ouBer kwXvel n>) ovk a\i}diQ strut Tovro nihil impedit 
quominus id verum sit, nothing hinders this from being 

rt £fjnrocu)v fit) ovk a^oQcire'tv £f.ii ; quid impedit quominus 
moriar ? what prevents me from dying ? 

[ii] 7rap]e to fit) ov (ppdaai do not omit saying it. 

ovdev £\Xel\pu) to fii] ov 
iratrav nvQeadat rwro' aXijOsiav Ttipi 
nihil prsetermittam quin verum cognoscam, I Avill leave 
no stone unturned to discover the whole truth respect- 
ing these matters. — Soph. Tr, 88. 

trei( yap ov 
TOfTovrov ov^ei' &n~i jxi) oh Qavelv KaXwc 
for I shall suffer no penalty so great as to prevent my 
dying nobly. — Soph. Ant. 96. 

ov-% o\6q te etfil /j.}) ov Xiyai' non possum quin dicam, I 
cannot but say. 

294. Mr) ov with the participle follows negative expressions, 
and means unless ; as 

SvaaXyrjTOQ yctn av 

e"lT]V TOlCll'CE fit) OV Ka.TOlKTE.tpwV 'iopav 

I should be ruthless [a negative motion] if I did not pity 
such a suppliant posture. — Soph. 0. T. 12. 

at te ttoXelq .... ■%a\£iFoii Xaflelv .... fit) ov xpurw the 
cities are difficult (=not easy) to take except by time. 
— Dem. de F. Leg. § 135. 



295. Distinguish between ovttu), fx{]iro) nondum, not yet. 

ovK£Ti t firjiciri non amplius, no 

ovre=nec, ov$e=ne quidem. 
ov rt=not a whit. 
ovx on—not only. 
fir) ori=nedum, ne dicani, not to mention.* 

These two phrases however, like ovx ^wr, ov\ <hoi>, often 
mean * not only not ;' as 

fxi) ottwq opxtiadcu n\\' oik)' opdovadai IhvvarrQi. you were 
not only unable to dance, but even to stand upright ; 
so too ov\ °i° y i as 

ovx 0L0V &<l>{\itv hvrai-^ ar, aXXa fii}6 avrrjv ogj£eiv not 
only unable to assist, but even to save herself. 

i. ouio e<70' oTtb)c,=nullo modo. 

cvk £<t0' oirwq Xi^ai/dt rh \pivcf] KctXh I could not possibly 
call lies honourable. — iEsch. Ag. 620. 

ii. ovk t'ffQ' oVwe ov non fieri potest quin, it cannot be but 
that.— Soph. El. 1479 ; Ar. Eq. 426. 

iii. offov oh, fxovov ov all but, tantum non. 

oaov ovx fidi] uttj/AOej' he has only just gone, il ne fait 
que de partir. 

iv. ov [xi)v aXXa ' not but what, 1 ' however.' 

ov fxrjv uXXh kwifiEivev o Kvpoc fioXiQ 7rwc not but what 
with some difficulty Cyrus kept his seat. 

v. f.i>) TToXXciKig in Plato means ' lest perchance.'' 

vi. ovre fiiyn ovte /jttKpbv nothing whatever (cf. 1 Kings xxxii. 
21, fight neither with small nor great, &c). 

vii. ovIev x^p 01 ' ' *' is just as tcell to." 1 

ovcev ce x { ~'P 0V v^ofxvrjGdijvai teal Eu7roAir)oc. one may 
just as well mention Eupolis also. 

viii. ovblv olov there is nothing like (doing so and so) ; as 

ovdev yap olov ukoveiv avrov rov vo/jov car il vHy a rien 
de tel que d'entendre la loi meme. 

* As a.xpi\<TTov kou ywcul-l, /.a] on avSpdcri useless even to women, not 
to mention (or muchmovo to) men ; so in Italian ' i fortissimi uomini non 
chele tenere donne' the bravest men, not to mention delicate ladies, &c. 
Clyde, p. 175. 



Mj) vEjieaa paiolai, \apig fiaioiiffiv oizrihtT. 

296. A perfect knowledge of the particles in which Greek 
abounds can only be obtained by extensive reading.* The 
manner in which, especially in Homer, ' they sustain and 
articulate the pulses of emotion ' is in itself a fruitful and valu- 
able study. By them alone we can perceive that Greek was 
the language of a witty, refined, intellectual, sensitive, and 
passionate people. It would be impossible in any book to 
tabulate the delicate shades of meaning, the subtle intricate 
touches of irony or pathos, the indescribable grace and power 
which the particles lend to many of the grandest passages in 
ancient literature. Indeed these can often be only felt at all 
by a scholarlike appreciation of the entire context, and of the 
circumstances which dictated the particular expression ; so 
that in very many instances, not in Greek only but in German, 
and in most languages to a greater or less degree, the force of 
the particles cannot be accurately transferred into a foreign 
version. In short they are often untranslatable, and can only 
be approximately represented by some look, gesture, emphasis, 
or tone of the voice. Thus /jet and ce, two of the commonest 
Greek particles, correspond to the English ' on the one hand,' 
1 on the other hand ;' but to substitute these long and heavy 
periphrases j" for them in all cases would be utterly unidiomatic, 
and would not in any way represent their force and meaning 
in Greek. 

It would be out of the question to attempt here anything 
approaching to a comjjlete treatment of the conjunctions, which 
Apollonius DyskolusJ and Priscian arrange logically under 
no less than eighteen heads. All that avc shall here attempt 
will be to give one or two notes and suggestions, which can 
be amplified by each student for himself. 

* Hence even the New Testament, though it represents the spoken 
Greek of its day, yet being Greek written by foreigners, is comparatively 
poor in the use of particles. 

f The attempt to translate a particle exactly leads to curious results. 
Dr. Cyril Jackson used always to render TpcSe'y pa by ' the Trojans, God 
help them!' and a former head-master of Eton always distinguished 
between (roi Sir, to you, and toi at your service (Coleridge, Gk. Classic 
Poets, p. 221). 

\ Egger, Apollon. Dysc. p. 209. On the other hand, Dionysius Thras 
only recognised eight classes of conjunctions. 

k 2 


297. Copulative Conjunctions.* — Koi=et, -£=quc. In 
poetry Ave have i)ce, ?2e=atque. Often rat is used to mean 
also, even ; and sometimes ' and yet,' as 

ay Aiuq 'i(j<vc . • • Ka'i la^rj ai) iidiKOQ and yet thy utterance 
is unjust !— Eur. HeJ. 1147 ; cf. Here. F. 296. 
Occasionally not nearly means ' when* as 

i'ldn ?/wc ai(patrs kciI Ik aKpwrrjpih) tyevouzBa. — Herod. 

vii. 217. 
i'jhi re ijv 6\pe .... Kal oi HLoplvQiai Trpvjivav EKpovoi'ro. — 
Thuc. i. 50. Cf. Soph. 0. T. 717; Herod, iii. 108; 
iv. 139, 181 ; Hebr. viii. 8 ;| Luke xix. 43. 
ku\ rauru=and that too. 

fjuKpa kcu ovCe)' little or nothing (literally, i and even 
nothing '). 
After tcoc, oj-iowc, 6 uvroc, and words of likeness generally, 
Kal = ' as,' like the Latin similis et, ac ; 'lira Kal=a i que ac. 

ou\/ vjxo'uoq TTtivouiKaat Kal"Q^iT)poc; they did not act in the 

same way as Homer. — Plat. Ion, p. 500 d. 
et tig *-' r <' aWog more than any one (by litotes). 
aXXuig re Kal especially, 
/cat h) well, suppose, or granted ; fac ita esse. 

Kal Avith 7rwc, &c, often expresses surprise, &c. It is used too 
in eager appeals, as 

Kal /dot £oe Ti]v x £ ~'P a ' gi ve me trien your hand.' 
j) Kal roiav-aQ rwo' eirippoi^stQ (j)vyuQ ; dost thou too really, 
&c— iEsch. Eum. 424. 
It often seems to connect the speaker's first words with a long 
train of his thoughts. One of Lord Lytton's tales begins with 
the Avord ' and ' — ' And the stars sat each upon his ruby throne, 
and looked Avith sleepless eyes upon the Avorld.' — Pilgr. of the 

1 And,' says Ben Jonson {Engl. Gram. p. 82), 'in the 
beginning of a sentence serveth for a mark of admiration.' 
' What, quoth shee, and be ye Avood 1 
And Avene ye for to doe good, 
And for to have of that no fame V 

Chaucer, Man of Lawe's Tale. 
kuI el etiam si, even if; el kuI quamquam, even though 
(ivenn audi). 

* The Hebrew 1 ' and ' means a hook, and resembles a hook in shape, 
f So in the Latin et : • Nox media, et dominse mihi venit epistola 
nostra.' — Prop. m. xiv. 1. 


Negative clauses are coordinated (united together) by ovrenec, 
uvii ne quidem, etc. 

ovte followed by te=so far from . . . that. 

298. Disjunctive Conjunctions. — J) . . . i) ; ei-e . . . tire. 

299. Adversative Conjunctions. — jisv ' indeed,' ' on the 
one hand,' the old neuter from tie, |t«'a', tv = ' one thing.' 

Se ' but,' ' on the other hand,' derived from dels = dvo = 
'two things.' fj,ev is always (regularly) followed by li, or, 
less accurately, by some other adversative particle, as ciXXa* 
av, fiirroi, &c. jxiji', ci), are lengthened forms of /tin*, Be. 

kciI-ol = ' and yet,' ' although,' verum, sed tamen. tcat-rep 
1 although ' is used with the participle ; kuitol with the finite 
verb, as Kairoi ayadog ))r, KCtiirep ayaOog &v. 
afiojQ ' nevertheless,' nihilominus ; as 

ijKovaa Kaycb -);Xo'0ei' jdir, a\\' 6/.iwg I heard it from a 

distance, indeed, but still I heard it.f — Eur. El. 753. 
Die. c't/W' EKKVKXridqr. Eur. dX\' udvraroy. Die. a\V 


D. Now do be wheeled out. N. Nay I can't. D. Nay 

but do !— Ar. Ach. 401. 
Kciyoj a licvovfxat, kui yur>'/ irep ova op,u)g and I too beseech 

thee, though but a woman, still ! — Eur. Or. 671. 

300. Conjunctions of Comparison. — we, &mrep, Sate, Horn. 

we = as, we thus ; but when we as follows its word it 
receives an accent; as XtW we like a lion. 

301. Temporal Conjunctions. — ore, ottote quando, quum. 
Horn. aire. 

ixei, E7r£ivri, fur, 'tare, &XP l > H-^XP 1 ' "V 5 "'* irapos [see Tem- 
poral Sentences, § 214 seqq.J. 

aiirina immediately, is used by Plato to mean 'for instance.* 

302. Causal Conjunctions. — on, Sum, 'ivem, yap, &c. 
yap is derived from ye and apa. yap in animated style often 
points to a suppressed sentence. 

7rd)e yap ov ; of course ! J 

ri yap ; how so ? ri yap kuicou ettoii](T£ ; why, what evil 
hath He done ? 

* 'AAAa v\) Aia = but some one will say, at enim. 

t Compare the position of tamen in ' Perfida, sed quamvis perfida, cara 

J Cf. Ital. perclib no ? = certainly ! 


ti yap utinam. 

ov yap iiWa however. 

7j yap teOvtikev ovrog ; what ! is this man dead ? 

yap also may express indignation, as 

ArpeiSi] KvStrrrE, (j)i\oKreavu>rarE ttcivtwv, 
trwg yap tol tioaovat yipag fiEyddvpioi 'A^aio/; — II. i. 122. 
Aidpec 'Ecjievioi, rig yap kartv dvdpioirog og ov yiyrwotcei, 

k.t.X. (Acts xx. 35), Ephesians ! why what person is 

there who is not aware, &c. 

Like the Latin nam, as 

Nam quis te, juvenum confidentissime, nostras 

Jussit adire domos? — Georg. iv. 445 (cf. JEn. ii. 373). 

303. Inferential Conjunctions.— "Apa (Ep. dp and pa) 
often expresses surprise, emotion, like ' it seems, ' after all,' 
&c. So that the Dean (see note f p. 195) was not so far wrong 
when he translated Tpwse I'tpa ' the Trojans, God help them ' 
(Neio Crat. p. 335) ; as 

ravra aKovrrag 6 Ivipog liraicraTO apa rov [irjpov when 
Cyrus heard this, he smote on his thigh. 

IXj) ov 
(boveuQ lip ti,iitviv(sag ; 
by whose murderous blade after all you died. — Soph. 

Aj. 1025. 
i\\dsv el apa Eupi'wei ti iv air?] he came if haply he might 

find anything thereon. — Mark xi. 13. 
(5 ttoaZec, wg apa E(j>\vapovp.Ev boys, how we were triflin 
after all ! 

This is like the Latin ergo, as in 

' Ergo Quintilium perpetuus sopor ivrget ' 
so then the sleep that knows no end is weighing down 

Quintilius ! — Hor. Od. i. xxiv. 5. 
apa . . . ; = ne, 
dpa ov . . . ; = nonne, 
apa fit) . . . ; = num ? 

ovv then, ovkovv not then, ovkovv therefore. In this sense the 
vvk becomes simply otiose (see § 103, and Herm. Vig. n. 261). 
fjiev ovv nay rather, mono. 
7«(5' dv Siicaliog i]v, vnepo'iKbjQ }aev ovv this would have been 

justly done, nay more than justly. — JEsch. Ag. 1363. 
kyu) ov <p>im; tf>r]fxl fxlv ovv tyioye do I deny it? nay on 
the contrary, / assert it. — Plat. 


In the Knights of Aristophanes when Kleon proposes that 
Demos, the personified Great Public, should wipe his nose on 
— but we must leave the line untranslated, Eq. 910 : 

a.TrofiVL,afi£j'og, u> Af/yit', tpuv irpog r^v Ke<pa\rjV ('nro\pui, 

the sausage-seller feeling that he cannot beat that proposal, 
cries out 

Efiov per ovv, epov pev ovv nay rather on mine, on mine ! 

Particles of Emphasis. 

304. Te ' at least ' is used to modify various words ; as 
og ye quippe qui, ' seeing that he.' 
eyioye equidem, I for my part. 
e'i y£ since, 
ye pi]v however. 

Often ironical, as 

ev ye Krjeeveig noXw good care you (forsooth) take of the 

iravaai ye do cease ! 

The exclamation pij a'v ye oh do not! is often used with 
great pathos by Euripides, as in 

prj SiJTa, Ovpe, fxi] av y' epyaai] rude. — Med. 1056. 
flovXei . . . aa-)(rijxorT](Tai t ek viov fipa^iovoQ 
airaaQeld ', a velvet' fit) av y' • ov yap &%iov. — Ilec. 405. 

See too Ion, 439, 1334; Phcen. 531 ; Iph. Aul. 1460. 

■kov often expresses surprise, ovti -kov * not, I presume ; ' 
ov (Hjttov ' not, I suppose ; ' e.g. 

icG)£l ovti nov aco (paayat'o) plov arepeig; — Eur. Hel. 95 

[cf. 475, 541, 'or 1510].' 
oil ri nov minantis et indignantis est, ov di'iirov suspicantis. 
— Stallbaum. 

yovv at any rate. 
Zi) ' certainly : ' 

kui rore o») even then ; ovtw d>) then at last. 

vvv opart di) now of course you see. 

peyiarog $t} far the greatest [compare avrog 2?) i-dem, 
irp\v ^rj jyri-dem, dye o} age du?if\. 

Often hke drjirov l of course,' ' forsooth,' with a shade of sarcasm. 
<c<u ?») often means fac ita esse ; as 


Kctt 5ij redvacri' -<V jie Zi^tTcu tvoXiq ; well, suppose them 
dead ; what state then will receive me ? — Eur. Med. 
886; lid. 10GG. 
Sometimes it implies quid turn? as in Hel. 101 ; El. 655. 

fi\t\jjoy kutu) look downwards. 

Kcii dr] /3/\tVw well, I am looking — what then ? 

o*xzc6v tl ' it may perhaps be said ' also expresses great 
irony; as 

ayeliov tl pupa) fiiopiai' 6(j>\iaKai'iii (Soph. Ant. 470) perhaps 
it is a fool at whose hands I incur the charge of folly. 

t jj-ci is a lengthened form of en ; e.g. 

o'lK-eipe o' I'lpag .... oiKTEipE ojjra but pity us — ay, do 

pity us. — Eur. El. 678. 
Vw 'tw crjr woe ! ay, woe !— Soph. 0. R. 541. 
ZijBev 'naturally enough;' or, as they alleged, 'scilicet,' 

mostly in an ironical sense. — Hdt. i. 59 ; Time. i. 92. 
h'lTTovdei' ' I should hope.' 

firjv ' verily,' ' truly,' vero, a lengthened form of jaev — 
-i fjn)i-; why not? of course; what then? 
e-ov fxjjv do follow. 
uX/V ecttI j-irji' ohi]TOQ well, it certainly is inhabited. — Soph. 

(Ed. Col. 29. 
cat fiq enimvero, moreover. 

jua a form of adjuration, generally in negative oaths, as 
ov pa A/a no by Zeus ! 
ov pa rode GKTjTTTpnv never by this sceptre ! 

TrEp a shortened form of nEpi; in its adverbial sense of 
' exceedingly ' it increases the force of words, like per in Latin, 
as ' pergr&tvm, perque jucundus.' 

iav trip even if. 

ayaQuQ irEp very good ; compare our colloquial expression 
'good all round,'' and the French tres, which is derived 
from trans, so that tres bon = thoroughly good ( = good 

Often it comes to mean ' although," 1 as 
yeryaloQ irEp liot' though noble, &c. 
tol ' ay,' as 

ff£ toi, <7£ Kphb) you, ay, you. — Soph. El. 1445, 

Probably the toi in Toiyap ' therefore ' is derived from t$ since 
it may begin a sentence, as in Soph. Tr. 1249 ; Ant. 594. 



305. Interjections being, as their name implies, passionate 
exclamations thrown in to the sentence, are for the most part 
unsyntactical. The Greeks did not even regard them as 
forming separate parts of speech, but classed them with ad- 
verbs. The Roman grammarians first treated them separately. 
Their claim to be separately considered, and their high lin- 
guistic importance, I have vindicated elsewhere (Chapters on 
Language, pp. 88-103). Their antiquity and their truthfulness 
have justified grammarians so eminent as Scaliger and Destutt 
de Tracy in regarding them as words par excellence. 

(3 the sign of the vocative (lipdpov KXnriicfjs 7rrw<rewe) is an 
interjection in all languages, and is in reality the same as w 
the interjection {iivipprifia (r-^e-Xtaa yiiou). 

Interjections may be followed either by the causal genitive 
(as oifxoi twv KaKujv) ; or, more rarely, by the accusative of 
the object. 

The tragedians often have interjections extra metrum ; i.e. 
they do not take them into the scansion of the line. 


306. A sentence is arranged in the natural oi'der when the 
subject with all that belongs to it is placed first, and then the 
predicate with all that belongs to it, the copula being either 
expressed between the two, or understood, or involved in 
some inflection. 

307. Thus in all languages such a sentence as 

Alexander conquered Darius 

is expressed in the natural order ((pvaiKrj Tufa) ; and it would 
usually be so expressed in Greek, as 

6 ' AXs^ai'dpog iviKnffs top Aapelov. 

But owing to the inflection of the accusative in Greek and 
Latin, the order may be altered in those languages in every 
possible way (7rXay<ao-juoe), without any modification of the 
sense, — the subject, the verb, or the accusative being placed 
first, according as it is requisite to make any one of them em- 
phatic ; whereas in English or French any variation of the 
order destroys the sense, and if it were necessary to bring 
Darius into prominence we should be obliged to adopt some 
entirely different turn of sentence, as 

Darius was conquered by Alexander. 

K 3 


808. We can indeed use a rhetorical inversion in English 
poetry (though but rarely in prose), and often with the finest 
effect ; as 

And over them triumphant Death his dart 

Shook, but delayed to strike. — Milton. 

Under a coronet his flowing hair 

In curls on either cheek played ; wings he wore, &c. — Id. 

But our power of doing this is extremely limited, as must 
always be the case in a flexionless language ; and it is impos- 
sible to read a page of Demosthenes, or Cicero, or Virgil, 
without seeing the immense rhetorical power which they are 
able to command by a mere variation in the order of construc- 
tion. It is almost impossible to render in an analytical Ian ■ 
guage the matchless force of such expressions as 

iv Zz (j)aet. teal oktoeov, 

Me, me, adsum qui feci, in me convertite ferrum, 
O Kutuli ! 

And although the rich and powerful vocabulary of English 
renders it one of the noblest of all languages, yet in harmony, 
precision, elasticity, variety, grace, and force, it must yield an 
easy victory to the Greek. 

309. We may here mention one or two of the figures, 
rhetorical and idiomatic, which are of the most constant occur- 
rence in Greek. It will be seen that many of them are due to 
that agility and acuteness of the Greek intellect which enables 
them readily to sacrifice the grammar of a sentence to its logic, 
or in other words its form to its meaning. Hence arose the 
many forms of the sense-figure (ff^^a irpoq to o-jj/iau'djutcov 
construct™ ad sensum) ; e.g. 

i. When the concord is only a concord of the sense,* as 

<pi\e tekvov ; varium et mutabile semper Fceniina ; Atoe 

TtKOQ i]T£ /iOt alei, &C. 

ii. When the expression is shortened by the suppression of 
a clause or word (Brachylogy, breviloquentia), as 

heua. /3oai', sc. fioij/jara, rvirrofxai 7ro\\ag, sc. 7r\?jya£. 

* Cf. the Italian Corsevi le sorelle ; (each of) the sisters ran thither. — 



Of this there are several varieties, as 

a. Constructio pr&gnans, where two clauses are compressed 
into one ; as 

<bi\nriroQ ivpWr] eig" ' Afarov P. was carried to Azotus, and 
found there. 

b. Zeugma, where two nouns are joined to a verb, which 
only suits one of them, but suggests the other verb, which may 
often be even opposite in sense ; as 

yaXa v^uq iir oriaa, ov jopwjia I gave you milk to drink, 
not meat. — 1 Cor. iii. 2. 

KuikvovTuv yafxeiv, aTre^etrdat fipu/jiaTwv preventing from 
marriage, (ordering to) abstain from meat (where the 
positive kiKev6vt<i)v is understood out of the negative 
kwXvovTU)'.). — 1 Tim. iv. 8. 

1 See Pan with flocks, with fruits Pomona crowned' 
(where from ' crowned' Ave must understand ' sur- 
rounded' in the first clause). — Pope. 

This figure of speech is very rare in English, and illustrates 
more than any other the Greek quickness of apprehension. 

c. Syllepsis, often confounded with Zeugma,* where the 
same word is applied to different nouns but in a different 
sense ; as 

iXev S' OIvo/aclov j3iav irapdii'ov re gvvevvov he subdued 
the might of (Enomaus, and [won] the virgin as his 
bride.— Pind. 01. i. 88. 

1 Quas et aquas subeunt et auras ' under Avhich the waves 
and breezes flow. — Hor. 

In English the chief instances are comic, as 

' This general is a greater taker of snuff as well as of 
towns.' — Pope. 

' And there he left his second leg, 
And the forty-second foot.' — Hood. 

' Miss Bolo went home in a flood of tears and a sedan- 
chair. ' — D ick ens. 

1 He flung his powerful frame into the .saddle and his 
great soul into the cause.' — Earl of Carlisle, Siege of 

* On the distinction between the two, see Lobeck, ad Soph. Aj. p. 429 


d. Comparatlo Compendiaria, or Brachylogy of comparison ; 

i;o[.uu ~S.apiTi.aaLv dfjLo'iai hair like (that of) the Graces. — 
_ //. xvii. 51. 
elx £ Kepara dvo 6/j.olul apiitp he had two horns like (those 

of) a ram. — Bev. xiii. 11. 
TTvpa/jLic TrarpoQ ixsl^tov a pyramid loftier than (that of) 

his father. 
' His ascent is not so easy as those who,' &c. — Shakspeare, 

Coriolanus, ii. 2. 

e. Ellipsis, the omission of a word easily understood, as 

elg qOOV, US fladvi' EKOlfit]dt]C SC. VTTYOP, £Q KOpClKClG SC. £/3jOF, 

•KOTijpiov -l/v^pov sc. vdaroQ, calida sc. aqua, &c 
' To whom thus Eve in few? — Milton. 

This is common in all languages, as Avhen we say a coach and 
six (sc. horses), a bottle of port (sc. wine), to St. Paul's (sc. 
church), he sat on the right (sc. hand), &c. 

f. Anakoluthon, or non-sequence ; when the sentence begins 
with one construction, and continues in another. This is very 
common in Greek, which is a language eminently swayed by 
emotion, and one in which the syllogism of passion often super- 
sedes and transcends the syllogism of logic. It is found in 
writers who adopt a naive, simple, childlike style, as Herodotus; 
in those profound and powerful writers whose thoughts flow 
more rapidly than their words, as Thucydides, Pindar, yEschy- 
lus, and St. Paul ; and in those who, like Plato, adopt the 
informal and easy style of common life.* 

Sometimes, a., they are common sense-constructions; some- 
times, /3., rhetorical ; and sometimes, y., merely due to care- 
lessness or accident. 

a, (Co^e toIq 'A7tootJA.oi£ . . . ypaxparrtg. — Acts xv. 22. f 

/3. Under this head fall the instances oioratio variata, where 
for the avoidance of monotony, the phrase is altered, as 

Crikovre. rci7i "eu/ian/;a jiidWoc Be'ira irpo<py)-£vr)TE. — 1 Cor. 
xiv. 1 ; 

* See Jelf, § 901. 

t Cf. a.Tni)yy4\r) alrr^ XfySuroof, Luke viii. 20, and 6imilar idioms in 
the LXX. passim. 


and the frequent transition from oratio obliqua to oratio recta ; 

7ritpl)yyEi\tv airw uqocvi tiirEir iiW a7T£\0w)' }eIl,ov k.t.X. 

he bade him to tell no one, but departing shew thyself, 

&c. — Luke v, 14; cf. Acts xxiii. 22; Ps. lxxiv. 16 

eeqq.; Virg. JEn. viii. 291. 

This is sometimes used with fine effect in poetry, as in Milton 

(Par. Lost, iv. 721) : 

' Both turned, and under open sky adored 
The God that made both sky, earth, air, and heaven . . . 
And starry pole. Thou also madest the night, 
Maker Omnipotent, and thou the day,' &c.* 

See Stebbing's Longinus, pp. 102, 103. 

y. Careless anakolutha are found even in the best writers ; as 
0£wpw, 6'rt pira vjipewQ .... hIWelv kcreadcu tov ttXovv. 

Acts xxvii. 10. 
.' Those ivho he thought true to his party.' — Clarendon. 
The sun upon the calmest sea 
Appears not half so bright as thee. — Prior. 

rj. Aposiopesis, the passionate suppression of the latter part 
of a sentence ; as 

nay (lev Tvoir\Gr] Kapirov . . . el ce /i»yye. — Luke xiii. 9 (for 
other instances see Luke xix. 42 ; xxii. 42 ; Acts 
xxiii. 9). Here, as Winer finely observes, ' sorrow has 
suppressed the apodosis.' 
fii) av y\ — Eur. Hec. 405. f 

Quos ego — sed motos pnestat componere ventos.^-Virg. 
JEn. i. 135. 
Compare the German Warte, ich will dich . . . ! 
' Bertrand is — what I dare not name !' — Scott. 
310. Among other figures of speech we may mention 

verbi transgressio, the rhetorical misplacement of a word, as 
2> nal ZtKarnv 'Afipacifi 'Hukev Ik rwv cucpodtviuii', 6 Trarpt- 
dpxns to whom even Abraham gave a tithe of his first- 
fruits, the patriarch. — Heb. vii. 4 ; cf. Mark xi. 10. 

* For similar instances see Forbiger, Virg. JEn. ii. 182, iii, 185. 

t See 11. i. 340. 

\ The word, which first occurs in Plato {Protag. p. 343 e) was pro- 
bably borrowed from him by the scholiasts. See Weil, De Vordre des 
mots dans les langues anciennes, p. 8. 


This is not uncommon in Elizabethan English. 

1 More than ten criers and six noise of trumpets.' — Ben 
Jonson, Sejanus, v. 7. 

Under this head we may range, 

«. Antiptosis, the transposition of the subject from one 
clause to another, as 

ov ei$t£ iii'Spa ovtoq ianv. Cf. Acts xxi. 16 ; Rom. vi. 
_ 17. 

o\V i)v kOpe^ey 'Ep/.u6vr]i' }J.i}Tr}p ifii). — Eur. Or. 1117. 
Urbem quam statuo vestra est. — jE'ti. i. 572. 

Him I accuse 
The city gates by this hath entered. — Shaksp. Ant. ana 

Chop. iii. 1. 
' And God saw the light that it was good.' — Gen. i. 4. 
See p. 78. 

b. Chiasmus, when words are arranged cross-wise like the. 
letter X, as 

UaKfJUV \V7TT]1> TlKTEl. 

This is very common in Latin, where the arrangement 

Eatio consentit, repugnat oratio (Cic. de Fin. iii. 3) 

is more elegant and forcible than ratio consentit, oratio repug- 
nat. Something like it is found in English, as 

' He hath fed the hungry — the rich he hath sent empty 

' Foreknowledge, "will, and fate, 
Fixed fate, free will, foreknowledge absolute. 1 

Milton, Par. Lost, ii. 560. 

c. HYSTERON Proteron (irpwduarepov) or Last-first, as 

rag fiiv apa dp£\paoa rsKovad re. — Od. xii. 134. 

' Moriamur et in media arma ruamus.' — Virg. 2En. ii. 353. 

' In Africam redire atque ex Italia decedere.' — Cic. Cat. 

iv. x. 21. 
' Is your father ivell, the old man of whom ye spake, is 

he yet alive ? ' — Gen. xliii. 47. 
4 / die, I faint, I fail.' — Shelley. 


d. ITvpallage, an attraction of the adjective to a substan- 
tive with which it does not properly agree, or more generally 
a change of case (Enallage, as dare classibus Austros, for 
classem Austris). 

oyKov 6)'vf.taroQ finrpioov motherly boast of a name=boast 
of a mother's name. — Soph. Tr. 817. 

Nee purpurarum sidere clarior 
Delenit usus. — Hor. Od. ill. i. 42. 

1 Holy and humble men of heart ' = men of holy and 
humble hearts. Cf. Isaiah. 

' With the innumerable sound 
Of hymns and sacred songs.' — Par. Lost, iii. 147. 


the principle of avoiding all strong or unpleasant forms of 
expression. This tendency has exerted a most powerful in- 
fluence over the Greek language,* and leads to the use of such 
terms as lav ti nadr) for ' if he die,' evfidrjQ for ' silly,' ourij/ia 
for ' prison,' &c. (See Abbott, ShaksjJ. Gram. p. 75, and some 
remarkably beautiful lines of Faber, quoted in Reed's Led. on 
Eng. Lit. p. 90.) We may range under this head 

a. Irony {■y\Evaap.6c, very different from the Greek tlpwveia 
of which the style of Plato is so perfect an example), Persiflage 
{■yapuvTiafioo), complimentary expressions (bar tin poo), &c, 
which need no special illustration. 

b. HypoKORissu, the use of exaggerated terms of endear- 
ment, and the veiling over of that which is disagreeable or 
vicious by specious glosses (see Chapters on Language, pp. 

c. Litotes (smoothness), the suggestion of a strong notion 
by the use of an over- weak form of speech, as 

ov narv = omnino non, ovy_ r/'/ctora = yuaXtora.j" 

ovdi ke fiiv Tig 
yqdiio-euv Ihtjv. — II. 

* In fact euphemism is woven into the very structure of Greek, and 
explains many of its words and idioms. Hence av with the optative for a 
polite imperative, and an indirect future ; the use of the optative as the 
most indirect mood in wishes ; the use of the indefinite rts for a personal 
pronoun (as in English ' one ' — ' it's enough to enrage one,' &c). See 
Ckapters on Language, p. 278. 

t This particular use of the negative, as when we say of a poor man 
' he's not rich,' of a short man ov (j-eyaa, &c. is called Meiosis. 


Illaudati Busiridis aras. — Virg. Georg. iii. 5. 
' Shall I praise you for those things ? I praise you not? 
1 Narcissa's nature tolerably mild 
To make a wash would hardly stew a child.' — Pope. 

d. Antiphrasis, the suggestion of a word by the use of its 
opposite, as £u'wj'vp;c and apiarepoq for the ill-omened left. 

e. Ambiguity, the use of a formula to dismiss an unpleasant 
subject ; * as 

o yiypa^a yiypatya what I have written I have written 
(cf. ' If I perish, I perish ; ' ' If I be bereaved of my 
children, I am bereaved,' &c). — 0. T. 1376, &c. 

He is that he is, I may not breathe my censure. — Othello. 
Among other figures we may briefly mention 


or the use of words apparently superfluous, as in 

7ro\f/uov TToXtpeT.!', fxzyldiL peyae, 'Karvararov oq kovttot 1 
avdtg aii 7ra\iy, ecpr] Xiyior, cursim currere, ' we have 
seen with our eyes,' &c.f 

This is an important tendency in language, and admits of a 
very wide range of illustration, which cannot here be given. 
Under this head we may range two out of many rhetorical 
figures (such as Epanaphora, Anadiplosis, Palillogia, &c), e.g. 

* Hanc formulam et similes adhibcnt ii qui rem clarius exponere aut 
nolunt, aut neqxieunt. — Seidler. 
f • Pistol. He hears with his ears. 

Sir Hugh. The tcvil and his tam ! what phrase is this, " He hears 
with ear ? " Why it is affectations.' — Shaksp. Merry Wives of 
Windsor, i. i. 

Lobeck has treated the subject with his usual exhaustive learning, 
Paralip. Gram. Grcec. 61 seqq. and Dissert. 8; and on Aj. v. 140, 866; 
see too Id. pp. 181-185. It is a special characteristic of immaturity, 
and therefore of children ; hence it is very common in colloquial usages, 
and in infant literatures. One very common form of pleonasm, espe- 
cially in the tragedians, is the repetition of a participle after the principal 
verb ; e.g. ureluet Kpeovra ko\ Kravwv &px €t x^ ov ^ s - — Eur. Here. F. 33. 
Cf. Hec.25, Phaen. 22, &c. There is an instance of pleonasm in Pope's 
Odyssey, which Lord Macaulay used to call ' the very worst line in the 
English language,' viz. : 

• To the rock he clung 
And stuck adherent, and suspended hungV 

See Origin of Language, p. 16S. 


a. Periphrasis, or circumlocution ; a3 

f.iiya XPiiP 11 o^oc,* /3/ij 'lIpac\»}oc, trdirog "EiCTopoe, lept} 
?G TijXeilavoiiij k.t.X. 

Compare : 

' When once the service of the fort is gangrened.' — Shaksp. 
' The high promotion of his Grace of Canterbury, 
Who holds his state at door with pursuivants.' — Hen. 
VIII. v. 2. 

Milton — 

' where the might of Gabriel fought 
And with fierce ensigns pierced the deep array 
Of Moloch, furious king.' — Par. Lost, vi. 345. 

and Gibbon — 

' The youth and inexperience of the prince declined a 
perilous encounter.' 

and Schiller — 

' Zu Aachen in seiner Kaiserpracht, 
Im alterthllmlichen Saale, 
Sass Konig Rudolphs heilige Ufacht 
Beim festlichen Kronungsmahle.' 

Der Graf von Ilabsburg. 
See Stebbing's Longinus, p. 108. 

b. Polyptoton, the collocation of different cases or tenses 
of the same word, as 

coaiv KaKav KanCiv kcikihq. — jEsch. Pers. 1035. 

Clipeus clipeis, umbone repellitur umbo, 

Ense minax ensis, pede pes, et cuspide cuspis. — Stat. 

Dart follows dart, lance lance. — Byron. 

Alive they shall not take him ; not they alive, him alive. 

— Carlyle, French Rev. i. 282. 
' Both stricken strike, and beaten both do beat.' — Spenser, 

F. Q. v. 7. 


the use of two nouns to convey one notion, as 

/3oro koi Xelav = plundered booty. — Soph. Aj. 145. 
Pateris libamus et auro = with golden cups. — Virg. Georg. 



See Bernhardy. Griech. Syntax, S. 52. 


See Lobeck ad loc. p. 112. He distinguishes four kinds of 
hendiadys : 

1. Where the second word is explanatory, as 
irvp't xal arepoira'ig l with lightning flames.' 

2. Where the dependent notion precedes, as 
alfia cat (jToXay^xov ' a drop of blood.' 

3. Where two entire synonyms are united, as 

\ijye jjoiov cat Trave (compare ' I am a widow woman, 
and my husband is dead,' 2 Sam. xiv. 5 ). 

4. When words of similar origin are joined, as 

CTTpofiu KCtl (TTpt(f)ETCll. 


the omission of conjunctions, as Abiit, excessit, evasit, erupit. 
There is a fine instance in Eur. Hipp. 352, expressive of the 
most violent emotion. Many epithets are often thus joined 
(irvpyuaiQ emdirun'), as in Homer, 11. xi. 82 :* 

cifuptfiporrjv TroXvdalSaXov ao^t^a Bovpiv caAij*'. 
Thus we find in Shakspeare — 

Unhouseled, unanointed, unanealed. 
and Milton — 

Among innumerable false, unmoved, 

Unshaken, unseduced, unterrified, 

His loyalty he kept, his love, his zeal. — P. L. v. 501. 


the juxtaposition of words of similar sound, which is especially 
frequent in proverbs, and proverbial expressions, as 

iradi'ipara yua0//aara, bear and forbear, changes and 
chances, giving and forgiving, &c. 

In Eom. i. 29, 31 Ave have iropreiq, 7ror7jp/a, tpdovov fovov t 
atTvi'iTOVQ cKTvydirovg. 

1 Quam fenis et vere ferreus ille fuit.' — Tibullus. 

' Fear the fierceness of the boy.' — Ben Jonson. 

* In iEschylus we have six epithets to one noun, Ag. 155, 
fii/xvet (pofiepa, iraXivopros, 
oli<oi>6fAos, SoA.1'0, [ip&pxeit jitTjm t(kv6ttoivos. 

f This subject is treated at some length (being a very important one 
in the history of language) in Chapters on Language, p. 260. 


Such assonances form the staple ornament of Arabic prose (see 
Families of Speech). They were very popular in euphuistic 
style : 

* Who can perswade where treason is above reason, and 
might ruleth right, and it is had for laivfull whatsoever 
is lustfully and commotioners are better than com- 
missioners, and common woe is named common- 
ivealthV — Sir John Cheeke. 

Under this head fall the numerous plays on names and words* 
found in writers of every age and every language ; and under 
the same general division fall such figures as, 

a. Onomatopoeia, the imitation of the sense by the sound ; 
whether in words, as rrivtWq the sound of a harpstring, 
taratantara the blast of a trumpet, &c, or in lines, as 

ceiv7) c)£ KXayyr] ytVer' apyvpsoio fiioto (of a twanged bow- 

TroXXa £' avarra, Ka.Ta.vra, Traparrd re, tSovjuta r i)\dop 
(of galloping horses). 

Quamquam sunt sub aqua sub aqua maledicere tentant 
(of the oroaking of frogs). — Ovid. 

Quadrupedante putrem sonitu quatit ungula campum. — 
Virg. jEn. viii. 596. 

' Shocked like an iron-clanging anvil banged 
With hammers.' — Tennyson, The Princess. 

Und es wallet, und siedet, und brauset, und zischt, 

Wie wenn Wasser mit Feuer sich mengt, 
Bis zum Himmel spritzet der dampfende Gischt, &c. 

Schiller, Der Toucher. 

This figure abounds in the best poets of every age.f 

* It is particularly common in Tennyson ; as 

' Every soldier waits 
Hungry for honour, angry for his king.' 

' the sea-wind sang 
Shrill, chill with flakes of foam.' 

' To break my chain, to shake my mane.' 

f It is a principle of immense importance. See Origin of Language, 
chap. iv. ; Chapters on Language, p. 168 and passim. 


b. Alliteration, as 

Swerog cat 2jw<xw 2,u>~£ip)] ripo' ai'idrfKuv 

2w(T0£ fier aiodelg Sajcrw o art SiDeroc tcnod)]. — Simonides. 

1 O Tite, tute, Tati, tibi tanta, tyranne, tulisti.' — Ennius. 

' Alliteration adds its artful aid ' very commonly in our own 
poets, and is, as alternate alliteration, used very subtly in the 
following examples : 

Her dainty Zimbs did lay. — Spenser. 

His 7?eavy-sAotted /tarnmock-sAroud. — Tennyson. 

c. Oxymoron is the juxtaposition of opposite words, as 

yapoQ aya/.wc, \apiQ ci^aptQ. 

Funera ne-funera ' living deaths' (Catull. lxiv. 83), 
sjnendidc mendax, &c.,* insaniens sapientia, impietate 
pia est (Ov.), strenua nos exercet inertia (Hor.). 

1 His honour rooted in dishonour stood, 
And faith unfaithful kept him falsely true.' 1 

Tennyson's Idylls, p. 192. 

' Shall make the name of Danton famous infamous in 
every land.' — Carlyle. 

d. Antithesis, the contrast of opposite conceptions, as 

Infelix Dido, nulli bene nupta marito, 

Hoc fugiente peris, hoc pereunte fugis. — Auson. 

KTaadai fiEv we xputo, j^pijcrOcu $e wc Tt/Moro to obtain that 
he might use, and to use that he might be honoured. — ■ 
Ar. Bhet. iii. 9. 

This sentence illustrates both antithesis, parisosis (balancing 
of clauses), and paromoiosis (assimilation of endings). 

The irapa ypctfi^ia aKCo^ijia or sudden pun, referable to anti- 
thesis, is frequent in Aristophanes. A good example of this 
aKu>p}xa is the verse 

in. tcvfiariov yap avdir ctv yaXfju opu/.'\ 

So in English, 

' Here the first < > oscs of the year shall blow.' 

* Hor. Od. in. xi. 35 ; cf. i. xxxiv. 2, in. xvi. 28. 

f Thelinein Euripides (Orcst. 279) i\\nya\v,v =ya\riva 'calm' — 'offer 
storm I see a calm,' but the actor did not pronounce so as lo allow for 
the elision, and it became a standing joke at Athens — ' out of the waves 
I see — a weasd ! ' 


Zfif-ta waph irpuacoKuiv corresponds in some measure to 
sasantry by surprise ' of the (miscalled) Augustan age 

The aKwf 
the ' pies 
of English literature ; as 

'ioTEi\t §' eyw vttu noaai . . . ^iuer\a lie was walking, 
having under his feet — chilblains. — Ar. Arist. Rim. 
iii. 6. 

' Where thou, great Anna, whom three realms obey, 
Dost sometimes counsel take, and sometimes — tea!' 


e. Rhyjie, The secret of the pleasurableness of Ehyme was 
not unknown to the ancients, and it is found in many pas- 
sages, as 

iliirf t&Yfct tlai fi(.\iaaait>y acivatov, 

HirpjjQ ek yXacjivprjc ahi viov ipy^o^tvawv. — Horn. II. ii.87. 

Ccelum nitescere, arbores frondescere, 

Vites Irctifica? pampinis pubescere, 

Kami baccarum ubertate incurvescere. 

Ap. Cic. Tusc. Quccst. i. 69. 

f. Rhythms. Occasionally an accidental verse, or a sentence 
with the cadence of a verse, occurs in good writers, but this is 
as much a defect as the blank-verse style of English prose. 

7ra«ra loaie uyad)} kcu ttup ^wpn^ia tIXewj'. — James i. 17. 
Kal rpoxuic opddc TvotljrraTe toiq -kog\v v^iUjv. — Heb. xii. 13. 
Auguriis patrum et prisca formidine sacram. — Tac. 

Germ. 39. 
Urbem Eomam a principio reges habuere. — Tac. Ann. c. 1. 
Cnsei Pompeii veteres fidosque clientes. — Sail. Cat. 19. 

It will be readily understood that many figures of speech 
are here designedly passed over as of secondary importance, 
but the subject is one which will bear examination, and is 
essential to the study of language as illustrating psychological 


[I am entirely indebted for this Index to the ready kindness of two former 
Pupils — Mr. Walter Leaf (Harrow), Scholar of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge ; and Mr. H. M. Swindells (Marlborough), of Brasenose 
College, Oxford.] 

Accusative, the, 81 

absolute, 86 

cognate, 82 

double, 84 

fundamental notion of, 82 

in apposition, 84 

of definition, 83 

of inner object, 84 

of redundant object, 85 

with infinitive, 167 

with prepositions, 99, 101, etc. 
Active Voice, the, 116 
Adjectives, 29 

Genders of, 30 

Personal use of SJjAos, etc., 89 

Proleptic, 50 

terminations of, 30 

used for Adverbs, 90 

uses of, 87-93 
Adverbs, 36 
^olic dialect, 19 
Agglutination, 2 
Alexandrian grammarians, 21 
Alliteration, 212 
Allophylian languages, 1 
Alphabet, the, 8, 11 

Ionian, 10 

of Euclid, 10 
Ambiguity, 208 
Anaeoluthon, 204 
Analysis of words, 3-6 
Analytic languages, 2 
Anastrophe, 96 
Antimeria, 90 
Antiphrasis, 208 

Antiptosis, 85. 167, 206 
Antithesis, 212 
Acrist, the, 124, 134 

connected with future, 135 

gnomic, 136, 127 note 

in Ka, 47 

meaning of, 126 

strong and weak, 125 note 

Subjunctive, 141 

used like Perfect, 126 note 

uses of, 127 

with &v, expressing frequency, 135 

with present sense, 129 
Aphteresis, 18 
Apocope, 18 
Apodosis, 155 
Apollonius Dyscolus, 
Aposiopesis, 205 
Article, the, 55 

convenience of, 57 

distributive, 62 

generalising, 58 

gradual development of, 56 

order of, 60, 61 

special idioms of, 62, 64 

specific use of, 58 

used for possessive, 60 

uses of, 58-64 

•with infinitive, 63 

with names, 59 
Aryan languages, 1 
Aspirates, concurrence of, avoided, 

Asyndeton, 210 
Attraction, 113 



Augment, rules of, 44, 45 
Auxiliary Conjugation, 121 

Brachylogy, 202 

I3rachylogy of Comparison, 92, 204 
Burggraff, quoted, 21, 146 note 
Burnouf, quoted, 3, 143, 125, 135 

Cadmus, meaning of, 8 
Cardinals, 35 
Cases, 21-23 

contrasted meanings of, 86, 87 

evanescence of, G8 

local view of, 67 

origin of, 67 

syncretistic, 77 
Chiasmus, 206 
Chinese, 2 

Classification of languages, 1 
Clauses, co-ordinate and subordi- 
nate, 55 
Clyde, quoted, 56 

Command, ways of expressing, 138 
Comparatio Compendiaria, 92, 204 
Comparatives, 91, 92 

pleonasm of, 91 
Comparison, degrees of, 30, 91 
Compounds, synthetic and para- 

thetic, 45, 50-53, 105 
Concord, 64 
Conditional sentences, 151 

table of, 156 

in English, 155 

irregular, 159 
Conjugations, 39 
Conjunctions, 196 

adversative, 197 

causal, 197 

comparative, 197 

copulative, 196 

disjunctive, 197 

inferential, 198 

temporal, 197 
Constructio ad Sensum, 61, 8S, 202 
Constructio Prsegnans, 105, 203 
Copula, the, 54 
Copulative Verbs, 69 
Crasis, 17 

Dative Case, the, 77-81 

syncretistic, 77 

comrnodi et incommodi, 79 

Echic, 80, 81 

instrumental, 78 

of Manner, 78 

of Place, 78 

of Time, 78 

with al/rus, 78 

with Prepositions, 98, 101, et 
Declensions, 21, 28 
Deponents, 41, 116 
Dialects, 18 
Digamma, the, 9 
Doric dialect, 19 
Dramatic Tendency of Greeks, 130. 

142, 158, 180 
Dual number, 23, 24, 40 

evanescenco of, 65 

Ecthlipsis, 17 

Elements, pronominal, 22 

Ellendt, quoted, 137 

Ellipsis, 204 


Erasmus, quoted, 19 

Euclides, archonship of, 10 

Euphemism, 207 

Euphony, laws of, 15 

Families of languages, 1 
Eerrar, quoted, 7, 10, 16 
Figures : 

Figura Etymologica, 80 

(T^fjfia 'AhKixayiicSv, 66 note 

<TXVi ua 'Atti/co^, 65 

(Tx%ia HaS' o\ov leal /.(.epos, 66, 84 

0"X7J|Ud XlivtapiKov, 65 

crxjiixa rpbs rb (Tii,u.aiv6fAtvov, 64, 

cxTj/m XclAkiSikSv, 121 

vcrrepov irpdrtpov, 206 
Final Conjunctions, 179 
Final Sentences, 147 
Future, the, 47, 133 

Attic, 47 

iEolic, 47 

Doric, 47 

Irregular, 47 

Middle with Passive meaning, 48 



Middle with Active meaning, 48 
Perfect, 133 

periphrastic, 129 note, 133 
a polite imperative, 133 note 

Garnet*, quoted, 10, 22, 30, 34, 36 

Genders, origin of, 25, 26 

rules of, 27, 28 
Genitive Case, 70-77 

absolute, 76 

attributive, 6C 

causal, 71 

double, 76 

name a mistake, 70 

objective, 75 

of Ablation, 71 

exclusion, material, etc., 72 

Partition, 73 

Perception, 73 

Relation, 74 

three main conceptions of, 71 
Gnomic Aorist, 136 

in Latin, 136 note 
' Go,' future, 47 
Greek language, 1 

connection with Latin, 19 note 

immense range of, 8 

reasons for learning, 7 

rhetorical advantages of, 202 

synthetic nature of, 3 

Hebrew, 3 

Hellenistic Greek, 20 
Hendiadys, 209 
Heterochtes, 29 
Hitzig, quoted, 11 
Home Tooke, quoted, 37 
Hypallage, 88, 207 
Hyperbaton, 205 

spurious, 145, 179 
Hypokorisma, 207 
Hysteron Proteron, 206 

Idiomatic use of Tenses, 130 
Idioms, paradigmatic, 54 
Imperative Mood, 138 
substitutes for, 1 38 
Tm perfect, the, 130 

graceful use of, 133 

expressing what has ceased to bo, 

idiomatic uses of, 132 

in conditional sentences, 154, 157 

in conditional sentences in Latin, 
158 note 
Indicative Mood, the, 137 

in final sentences, 147 

with Sirws, 148, 180 
Infinitive, the, 164 

epexegetic use of, 165 note 

in Latin and English, 164 

in Adverbial phrase?, 165 

Subject of, 166 

Tenses of, 166 

used as Imperative, 166 

used as Latin Supine, 165 note 

used elliptically, 166 

with Article, 167 
Inflecting languages, 2 
Inflections, origin of, 4, 7, 22, 39 
Interjections, 201 
Ionic Dialect, 18 
Irony, 207 
Irregular Verbs, 49 
Itacists, 13 

Knowing, verbs of, 17' 
Koppa, 11 

Languages, 1, 2 

analysing tendency of, 3, 20, 9tJ 
Letters, as numerals, 12 

classification of, 14 

names of, 9 
Litotes, 207 
Locative case, 22, 28, 68 

Metathesis, 18 
Middle Voice, 41, 116 

altering meaning of verb, 117, 

four meanings of, 117 

in English, 119 

in Hebrew, 118 

in Latin, 119 
Modern Greek, 3, 56-, 80 



Moods, nature of, 45, 136 
in compound sentences, 146 

Negatives, fii\ and ov, 182 
destroying one another, 189 
first of two omitted, 190 
phrases, 194 
pleonastic, 185, 189 190 

Neuter plural with sing, verb, 65 

Nominative, 68 
absolute, 68 
with copulative verbs, 69 

Nouns, 21 

Numbers, 23-25 

Numerals, 12, 35, 36 

Onomatopoeia, 211 

Optative Mood, the, 139, 143 
correspondence of Optatives, 146 
in conditional sentences, 153, 156, 

in conditional sentences express- 
ing frequency, 156 
in Oratio Obliqua, 151 
in temporal sentences, 146, 161 
in temporal sentences of indefinite 

in wishes, 144, 146 
Potential use of, 144, 175 
Potential use of with &v, 176 
uselessness of, 142 
with &y = a, mild Future, 145 
with &v = a. polite Imperative, 145 

Oratio Obliqua, 150 

Order of words, 201 

Ordinals, 36 

Oxymoron, 212 

Palamedes, 10 

Parathetic compounds, 45, 50 

Paranomasia, 210 

Participles, 169 

completing verbal notion, 170 
expressing accidents of verb, 1 7 1 
like Latin Gerund, 172 
to compact sentences, 172 
with Article, 172 

Particles, 195 
of emphasis, 199 

Parts of Speech, 22 
Passive Voice, 116 

origin of the term, 40 note 
Paullo-post-futurum, 133 
Perception, verbs of, 

peculiarity of, 132 

with Participle, 170 

with Infinitive, 171 
Perfect, the, 48 

Imperative, 138 

Middle (so-called), 41 

with Present sense, 49 note, 133 
Periphrasis, 209 
Person, the word, 32 note 
Philoxenus, 9 
Pindaric figure, 65 
Pleonasm, 208 
Pluperfect, the, 136 
Plural, the, 65 

of excellence, 66 

some peculiarities of, 66, 67 
Polyptoton, 209 
Predicate, the, 60 

tertiary, 61 
Prepositions, 94-108 

constructions of, 97-108 

due to analysis, 95 

eighteen, 96 

idioms of, 107, 108 

in composition, 97, 105 

nature of, 94 

spurious, 95 

varied, 107 
Present, the, 130 

expressing attempt, 130 

for Future (Milton), 1 30 note 

for Perfect, with Kkvw, iu;caco, 
etc., 132 

historical, the, 130 

with iraKcu, etc., 131 
Prolepsis, 90 
Promise, verbs of, construction of, 

Pronouns : 

attraction of, 113 

demonstrative, 110 

demonstrative pleonastic, 112 

distributive, 115 

idioms of, 114 

indefinite, 1 1 4 

nature of, 30-31 

possessive, 34, 108 



reflexive, 33, 109 

relative, 35, 112 

relative, with &v, 149, 176 
Pronunciation, 13 
Proper names with Article, 59 
Proposition, structure of, 54 
Protagoras, the first to distinguish 

Moods, 45 
Protasis, 152 

Puns (crKcifx/xaTa), use of, in Greek 
and English poetry, 212 

Eeduplication, 42, 43 

of aspirates, 16 
Eelatives, 36, 112 
Relative sentences, 149, 157 note, 

Rhetorical Imperfect, use of, 131 
Rhetorical inversion, 202 
Rhyme, 213 
Rhythm, 213 
Romance languages, 3 
Roots, 6 

'San,' 11 

Schaefer, quoted, 131 
Schleicher, quoted, 5, 6, 17 
Semitic languages, 1 
Sense-figure, the, 64, 202 
Sentence, structure of, 54 
Sentences, 151, 156 

conditional, 147 

final, 149 

relative, 149 

temporal, 161 
Stems, 7 
Stoics, the, 21 
Subjective Mood, the, 137-139 

in Latin, 140 

table of Tenses of, 1 40 
Subjunctive Mood, the, 139, 142 

connected with future, 139, 143 

deliberative use of, 175 note 

for Optative in final sentences, 148 
Substantives, used as Adjectives, 88 
Superlative, 92, 93 

inclusive, use of, 93 

phrases used to strengthen, 93 
Supine, 40 note 
Syllepsis, 203 
Synseresis, 17 
Synalcepha, 17 
Syncope, 18 
Syncretistic cases, 68 
Syntax, 54 

Synthetic languages, 2 
Synthetic compounds, 51 

' Telegram,' the word, 53 

Tenses, the, 119, 130 

nomenclature of, 124 

tables of, Active, 120 

table of, Passive, 129 

Tertiary Predicate, 61 

Verbs, 37 

classes of, 46, 49 
inflections of, 39 
ia-fu, 37, 46, 115 
in -«, 46 
nature of, 38 
Verbal Adjectives, 47 
Vocative, the, 69 
Voices, the, 40, 116 

Writing, 12 note 

' We ' for * I,' ' you ' for ' thou,' m 

Yod, an obsolete spirant, 1 1 
Zeugma, 203 

'Aya66s, comparison of, 31 
"Aytev, meaning ' with,' 1 72 
'AX\a v)} Ala, 197 note 
'AXXfaav, 110 
'AWos, 115 

'A|U(fr, 119 

'Afi<t>i, 102 

"Av, 173 

HvvwtmSv, etc., 179 note 
for Zav, 143, 173 note, 179 

i 2 



in phrases, 178 

in conditional sentences, 156 

in final sentences, 181 

in temporal sentences, 161 

meaning ' otherwise,' 179 

misplaced, 174 

omitted with Optative, 176, 178 

omitted with Imperfect, 131 

position of, 174 note 

repeated, 179 

with Aorist, 135 

with Future, 174 note 

with Indicative, 175 

with Imperfect, frequentative, 175 

with Infinitive and Participle, 177 

with Optative, 176 

with equal polite Imperative, 145 

with trpiv, ews, etc., 161 note, 162 

with Eelatives, 149, 176 
W, 101 
'Am, 97 
"Apa^Apa, 198 

&pa fx-fj, 198 

&p' ov, 198 

like ergo, 198 
AxitIko, 197 
AvtSs, 35 

BoucTTpo(/)7j5oV writing, 13 

rdp, 197 

expressing indignation, 198 

like ' nam,' 198 

pointing to suppressed sentence, 
Te, 199 

pi] crv -ye, 199 
Toxiv, 199 

Ae, 197 

Aelva, 114 

A4j, dfaov, 199 

At}\os, etc., construction of, 170 note 

Ar/ra, 200 

Aid, 99, 100 

A'tKaios, construction of, 170 note 

'Ecu/, 152 

with Optative, 174 note 

"E8et, 132 
El, 152 

with Subjunctive, 153 note 

in wishes, 155 

other uses of, 152 note 
El6e, 155 
Ehos fy, 132 
Els, 99 
'Ek, 97 
'EKelvos, 111 
'Ev, 98 

"Eire*, 161, 197 
'EttI, 102, 102 
"Erepos, 115 
'E X pw, 132 
"Exaiv = with, 172 
"Eais, 161 

special uses of, 162 

0e', with Infinitive, 133 

"I, 33 note 

"Iva, 179 

final, 145, 147 
summary of uses of, 181 
with Past Indicative, 181 

"laics, 173 note 

Kal, 196 

expressing surprise ; also in Eng 
lish, 196 
Kal 54?, 199 
Kalmp, Kalroi, 197 
Kal Tairra, 111 
KawcJs, comparison of, 31 
Kara, 100 
Ke, 173 

Aavddvw, 171 

Ae'yojitai, personal construction of, 

Ma, 200 

Mera, 103 

MeAAco, with Infinitive, 133 

M«/ . . . 5e, 197 

Mhv olv, 198 



Me'xpu, 161 
Mi';, uses of, 183 

after verbs of fearing, etc., 184 

pleonastic, 185 
Ufa, 200 
M?; ov, 192 

like 'quin,' 193 

with Participles, meaning ' un- 
less,' 193 
McDj/, 184 

N i<pe\KvffTiK6i>, 17 

"OSe, 110 
'Oficos, 179, 197 

like 'tamen,' 197 note 
"Ottcos, 179 

final, 147, 148, 163, 174 
summary of uses of, 181 
with &v, 177 
with Future, 180 
"Os, 35 

"Os &v, etc., 176 
"Oo-tis, 35, 112, 113 
"Ore, 161, 197 
"On, causal, 192 

difference from &s, 150 note 
in Oratio Obliqua, 167 
Ou, 185 

coalescing, 186 
redundant after %, 186 
with Infinitive, 186 
OS, 109 

Ov and fii\, differences, 183 
in same sentence, 188 
mixed examples of, 187 
Ovkovv, ovkovv, 198 
Ov pi,, 188, 189, 191 
Ovv, 198 

Ofce . . . T6, 197 
Ovtos, 11 

napd, 103 

Ilep, 200 

Tlept, 102 

XlXaritaa/xos, 19 

VloTbs, 113 

Tlov, 173 note, 199 

Uplv, 161 note 

special uses of, 162 
U P 6, 97 
Upos, 164 
n&s &v, in wishes, 176 

tbv, 98 
ScpeVepos, 109 
Sxeorf^ Tt, 200 

Tavra, opposed to ra5e, 
Teos, verbals in, 173 
Te, 173 note, 196 
Tls, ris, 114 
Tls &v, 176 

'TTrb, 105 

QavepSs, 170 «ofe 
$epwv=witk, 172 
$Qdvw, construction of, 171 

'O, 200 

'As, comparative, 197 

final use of, 147, 148, 163, 179 

in reported speech, 67 

summary of uses of, 181 
'as &v, 149, 163, 181 
"Oavep, 197 
"ao-re, 184 note 

comparative, 197 




By the same Author, 

Eleventh Edition, in 8vo. price Is. Qd. 




' The Greek Grammar Eules drawn up for the use of Harrow School 
by a Harrow Tutor (the Rev. F. W. Farrar) are at once simple and 
exhaustive. Seldom could a more apposite publication be found.' 

John Bull. 

' Mr. Farrar has managed to compress his Rules into the fewest 
possible words, and at the same time to keep them free from ambi- 
guities and technicalities. The examples seem well chosen ; the Editor 
seems to have chosen the correct mean between too much and too little ; 
and we thiuk his tractate will be found an excellent companion and 
guide to the ordinary Greek grammars in our public schools.' 

Educational Times. 

' Mr. Farrar has hit upon an exceedingly happy idea in this little 
book, and has carried it out with great skill. In teaching Latin or 
Greek, the master's first concern should be to imprint the main inflexions 
and the rules of syntax indelibly on the memory. Exceptions will be 
easily remembered if the regular forms and laws are so thoroughly 
learned that they cannot be forgotten, and the pupil can have no hesi- 
tation in regard to them. If he is not absolutely and entirely master 
of these regular forms the exceptions will perplex and confuse him. 
And indeed the secret of success lies in selecting from the mass of 
grammatical details just those points which form, as it were, the back- 
bone of the grammar. Mr. Farrar's work is a model of the kind of 
book which should be thoroughly mastered. He gives as much of Greek 
syntax as, if perfectly learned, will form a first-rate foundation. Nothing 
essential is omitted. The Rules are arranged in natural order, and 
explanations are given which will rivet them on the memory. The 
work bears traces, as might be expected, of a thorough knowledge of 
comparative philology, and Mr. Farrar employs his rare knowledge of 
English literature and modern languages to throw light on the Greek 
idioms. The book deserves a hearty welcome from teachers and 
scholars.' Museum. 

London LONGMAN'S & CO. 

Works by the same Author. 

The Influence of Classical Studies on English Literature. 

The Le Bas Prize Essay. 1856. 

The Christian Doctrine of the Atonement. 

The Norrisian Prize Essay. 1857. 

Eric; or, Little by Little. 

Tenth Edition. 1857. 

Julian Home. 

Fourth Edition. 1857. 

St. 'Winifred's ; or, the "World of School. 

Fourth Edition. 1862. 

The Origin of Language, based on Modern Researches. 


Chapters on Language. 


Greek Grammar Rules 

Seventh Edition. 1870. 

The Fall of Man, and other Sermons. 

Preached before the University of Cambridge, &c. 1868. 

Seekers after God. 

(Sunday Library. 186S.) 

On Some Defects in Public School Education.. 

A Lecture delivered before the Royal Institution. 1867. 

Essays on a Liberal Education. 

By Various Writers. Edited by the Eev. F. W. Farrar. Second 
Edition. 1868. 

Families of Speech ; 

Four Lectures delivered before the Royal Institution of Great Britain 
in March 1869, and published by request. 

39 Paternoster Row, E.C. London, February 1878. 





Messrs. LONGMANS and CO. 

iSSf* The School-Books, Atlases, Maps, &c. comprised in this Catalogue 
aiay be inspected in the Educational Department of Messrs. Longmans 
and Co. 39 Paternoster Row, E.C. London, where also all other works 
oublished by them may be seen. 

English Reading-Lesson Boohs. 

Bilton's Infant Primer for School and Home use, 18mo ~_.~ Sd. 

— Infant Reader, Narratives and Fables in Monosyllables, 18mo. _. id. 

— First Reading Book, for Standard I. 18mo. „ 6d. 

— Second Reading Book, for Standard II. 18mo. S<2. 

— Third Reading Book, Boys' Edition and OirW Edition, fcp. 9d. each 

— Fourth Reading Book, Boys' Edition and OirW Edition, fcp. Is. each 

— Fifth Reading Book, or Poetical Reader, fcp. „ „, Is. Sd. 

Isbister's First Steps in Reading and Learning, 12mo „ „ lg. 6d. 

— Word-Builder, First Standard, Sd. Second Standard, 8d. 

— Sixth Standard Rea der, 12mo „. „ „ „ „ „ „ lg. 

Laurie £ Morell's Graduated Series of Reading-Lesson Books :— 

Morell's Elementary Reading Book or Primer, 18mo. 2d, 

BookI.pp.144 Sd. I Book V. comprehending Read- 
Book II. pp. 254 1*. Sd. ings in the best English 

3ook III. pp. 312 ls.6d. Literature, pp. 496 2«.6d. 

Book rv. pp. 440 2*. i 

SI'Leod's Reading Lessons for Infant Schools, 30 Broadside Sheets „._„ St. 

— First School-Book to teach Reading and Writing, ISmo. „. ed. 

— Second School-Book to teach Spelling and Reading, 18mo. „„.„ 9d. 
Stevens's Domestic Economy Series for Girls :— 

Book I. for Girls' Fourth Standard, crown 8vo. _ „.„. 2g. 

Book II. for Girls' Fifth Standard, crown 8vo „ „. , 2s. 

Book III. for Girls' Sixth Standard, crown 8vo. „ ,„._. 2s. 

Stevens & Hole's Introductory Lesson-Book, 18mo. _. _ 6^ 

Stevens & Hole's Grade Lesson-Book Primer, crown 8vo. ...„_._.„„_„„ Sd, 
Stevens & Hole's Grade Lesson Books, in Six Standards, 12mo. : — 

The First Standard, pp. 128 ... 9d. I The Fourth Standard, pp. 224 „ lg Sd 

The Seoond Standard, pp. 160 9d. The Fifth Standard, pp. 224 lg Sd 

Tne Third Standard, pp. 160... 9d. \ The Sixth Standard, pp. 260 l*!6df. 

Answers to the Arithmetical Exercises in Standards I. II. and III. price id. in 
Standard IV. price id. in Standards V. and VI. id. or complete, price 1*. 2d. 
Stevens & Hole's Useful Knowledge Reading Books :— 

Boys' First Standard, 12mo. ... 9d. 

— Second Standard, 12mo... 1». 

— Third Standard, 12mo. _. lg. 

— Fourth Standard, 12mo.„. Is. Sd. 

— Fifth Standard, 12mo Is. 8<J. 

— Sixth Standard, 12mo . . ... lg. 6d. 

Girls' First Standard, 12mo. ... 9d. 

— Second Standard, 12rno. ... lg. 

— Third Standard, 12mo. . . „. lg 

— Fourth Standard, 12mo. „. Is. Sd. 

— Fifth Standard, 12mo. l». Sd. 

— Sixth Standard, 12mo. ^,_ i s ! Gd. 

London, LONGMANS & CO. 

Jones's Secular Early Lesson-Book, 18mo. 6d. 

— Secular Early Lesson-Book. Part II. Proverbs id. 

— Advanced Reading-Book ; Lessons in English History, ISmo lOd. 

Marcet's Seasons, or Stories for Young Children, 4 vols. 18mo each 2». 

Sullivan's Literary Class-Book ; Readings in English Literature, fcp 2s. 6d. 

Writing Books. 

Combes, Stevens, and Hole's Complete Writer ; a Set of 16 Graduated Copy- 
Books, on Fine Paper, price 4s. 6d. per Dozen to Teachers. 

Johnston's Civil Service Specimens of Copying MSS. folio 2s. Sd. 

M'Leod's Graduated Series of Nine Copy-Books each Sd. 

MiUhauser's Writing Books, 2s. 3d. per Dozen to Teachers. 

Tie Ready Writer, a Course of 18 Graduated Copy Books each Sd. 

Books I. to VIII. o f the Ready Whiter are printed in Pencil-Ink, 

School Poetry Books. 

Bilton's Poetical Reader for all Classes of Schools, fcp Is. Sd. 

Byron's Childe Harold, annotated by W. Hiley, M.A. fcp. 8vo is. 6d. 

Cook's First Book of Poetry for Elementary Schools, 18mo 9d. 

Goldsmith's Deserted Village, by Stevens & Morris, fcp. id. sewed or ed. cloth. 

— Traveller, by Stevens & Morris, fcp. 8vo. 9d. sewed or Is. cloth, 

Gray's Elegy, edited by Stevens & Morris, fcp. id. sewed or ed. cloth. 

— Poems, with Notes by G. Candy, M.A., fcp. 8vo 2s. ed. 

Hughes' Select Specimens of English Poetry, 12mo S«. 6d. 

Hunter's 85 Plays of Shakespeare, with Explanatory Notes, each Play I*. 

All's Well that ends 

Antony and Cleopatra. 
As Vou Like it. 
Comedy of Errors. 

Henry TV. Part I. 
Henry TV. Part II. 
Henry V. 
Henry VI. Part I. 
Henry VI. Part II. 

Henry VI. Part III. [ Much ado about 
Henry VIII. Nothing. 

Julius Cffisar. j Othello. 

King John. | Richard II. 

King Lear. \ Richard III. 

Love's Labour's Lost. Romeo and Juliet 

Macbeth. . Taming of the Shrew. 

Measure for Measure. ! The Tempest 

Merchant of Venice. TimoD of' Athens 

Merry Wives of Troilus and Cress'ida. 

Windsor. Twelfth-Night. 

Midsummer Night's Two Gentlemen of 

Dream. Verona. 

Winter's Tale. 
Johnson's London and Vanity of Human Wishes, by Fleming, fcp. Svo. 1* ed 

M'Leod's First Poetical Reading Book, fcp. Svo ,"."" ' $$' 

— Second Poetical Reading Book, fcp. Svo \s Sd' 

M'Leod's Goldsmith's Deserted Village, and Traveller, each Poem, 12mi>i Is' 6d' 

Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, annotated by Wagner, fcp. Svo „' ' 2s' 

Milton's Lycidas, by Stevens & Morris, fcp. id. sewed, or &d. cloth! 

— Samson Agonistes, by Fleming, fcp _ 2s 

— — — and Lycidas, by Hunter, 12mo .'.'"""'" 1» 6d" 

— L'Allegro, by Stevens & Morris, fcp. id. sewed or 6d. cloth. 

— II Penseroso, by Stevens & Morris, fcp. id. sewed or 6d. cloth, 

— Comus, L'Allegro and II Penseroso, by Hunter, 12mo Is 6<J 

— Paradise Lost, by Hunter, I. & II. Is. Gd. each ; III. to V. is. each. 

— Paradise Regained, annotated by Jerram, fcp. Svo ' 2s 6d 

Pope's Select Poems, annotated by Arnold, fcp. 8vo '..'.'.'.'.'.'.!!' 2*' ed' 

Scott's Lady of the Lake, Canto I. by Stevens & Morris, fcp. 9d. sewed! i» cloth' 

— — — Cantos I. and II. by Jeaffreson, fcp *2« 6d' 

Thomson's Seasons, Spring and Summer, by Morris, fcp. 8vo 2Y 6d' 

— — Autumn and Winter, by Morris, fcp. Svo 2s' 6d' 

Twells* Poetry for Repetition, comprising 200 short pieces, ISmo. ..........'„'."' 2s.' 6d'. 

English Spelling-Books. 

Johnson's Civil Service Spelling Book, fcp 1,. 3^ 

Sewell's Dictation Exercises, First Series, ISmo. Is. Second Series.......'.'.'.'.'.' 2t'.6d' 

Sullivan's Spelling-Book Superseded, 18mo , \ S- 4^' 

— Words Spelled in Two or More Ways, ISmo ! \od. 

London, LONGMANS & CO. 

Grammar and the English Language. 

Arnold's Manual of English Literature, crown 8vo 7s. 6d. 

— Beowulf (Text and English Translation), with Notes &c.8vo 12s. 

Bain's First or Introductory English Grammar, 18mo Is. id. 

— Higher English Grammar, fcp.8vo 2s. 6d. 

— Companion to English Grammar, crown 8vo 3s. 6d. 

Brewer's Guide to English Composition, fcp. 8vo 5«. 6d. 

Edwards's History of the English Language, with Specimens, 18mo 9d. 

Farrar's Language and Languages, crown Svo 6s. 

Ferrar's Comparative Grammar, Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Vol. I. 8vo 12*. 

Fleming's Analysis of the English Language, crown 8vo ~ 5s. 

Gostwick's English Grammar, Historical and Analytical, crown 8vo 10s. 6d. 

Graham's English, or the Art of Composition Explained, fcp. Svo 5«. 

Hiley's Child's First English Grammar, 18mo Is. 

Abridgment of Hiley's English Grammar, 18mo Is. 9d. 

Hiley's English Grammar and Style, 12mo. „ ~ Ss. 6d. 

— Exercises adapted to his English Grammar, 12mo 2s. 6d. Key 4s. 6d. 

— Practical English Composition, Part 1. 18mo. ... Is. 6d. Key 2s. 6d. 

— — — — Part II. 18mo 3s. Key is. 

Hunter's Text-Book of English Grammar, 12mo. _._ „ 2s. 6d. 

— Manual of School Letter- Writing, 12mo. ........ -. Is. 6d. 

Isbister's English Grammar, 12mo._ ~ „ ~ Is. 6d. 

— First Book of Grammar, Geography, and History, 12mo. _ 6d. 

Johnston's English Composition and Essay- Writing, post 8vo 3s. 6d. 

Latham's Handbook of the English Language, crown 8vo 6s. 

— Elementary English Grammar, crown 8vo 3s. 6<J. 

— English Grammar for Classical Schools, fcp. 8vo. „ 2s. 6<J. 

— Outlines of Philology, crown Svo Just ready. 

— Rules and Principles for the study of English Grammar, 18mo. Is. 
Lowres's Grammar of English Grammars, 12mo. ~ 3s. 6d. 

— Companion to English Grammar, 12mo 2s. 6d. 

M'Leod's Explanatory English Grammar for Beginners, 18mo 9d. 

— English Grammatical Definitions, for Home Study, 18mo Id. 

Marcet's Willy's Grammar for the use of Boys, 18mo „.....- 2s. 6d. 

— Mary's Grammar, intended for the use of Girls, 18mo. ~.~ 2s. 

Morell's Essentials of English Grammar and Analysis, fcp. Svo. „....„ 8d. 

Morgan's Learner's Companion to the same, post 8vo. „ 6d. 

Morell's Gra mm ar of the English Language, post 8vo. 2s. or with Exercises 2s. 6d. 

— Graduated English Exercises, post 8vo. Sd. sewed or 9d. cloth. 

Morgan's Key to Morell's Graduated Exercises, 12mo ~.~. is. 

Mnller's (Max) Lectures on the Science of Language, 2 vols, crown 8vo. ...16s. 

Murison's First Work in English, fcp.Svo....™ 3s. 6d. 

Roget's Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases, crown 8vo 10s. 6dt. 

The Stepping-Stone to English Grammar, 18mo -. Is. 

Sullivan's Manual of Etymology, or First Steps to English, 18mo lOd. 

— Attempt to Simplify English Grammar, 18mo »... 1*. 

Wadham's English Versification, crown 8vo „ „.„.„ is.Gd. 

Weymouth's Answers to Questions on the English Language, fcp.8vo 2s. Sd. 

Paraphrasing, Parsing, and Analysis. 

Hunter's Introduction to Precis-Writing, 12mo 2s. 

— Johnson's Rasselas, with Notes &c. 12mo 2s. Sd. 

— Paraphrasing and Analysis of Sentences, 12mo Is. 3d. Key Is. 3d. 

— Progressive Exercises in English Parsing, 12mo Sd. 

— Questions on Paradise Lost, I. & II. & on the Merchant of Venice Is. 

London, LONGMANS & CO. 

4 General lists of School-Books 

Johnston's Civil Service Pre"cis, 12mo 8s. 6d. 

Lowres's System of English Parsing and Derivation, 18mo 1«. 

Morell's Analysis of Sentences Explained and Systematised, 12mo 2s. 

Morgan's Training Examiner, First Course, id. Second Course, Is. 

Dictionaries ; with Manuals of Etymology. 

Black's Student's Manual of Words derived from the Greek, 18mo Is. 6d. 

— — — — Latin, ISmo 2s. 6d. 

— Student's Manual, Greek and Latin, complete, 18mo 3s. 6d. 

Graham's English Synonyms, Classified and Explained, fcp. 8vo 6s. 

Latham's English Dictionary, founded on Dr. Johnson's, i vols. 4to. price £7. 

— Abridged English Dictionary, 1 vol. medium Svo 248. 

Maunder's Scientific and Literary Treasury, fcp. 8vo „ _ 6s. 

— Treasury of Knowledge and Library of Reference, fcp. Svo 6s. 

Sullivan's Dictionary of the English Language, 12mo 8s. 6d. 

— Dictionary of Derivations, or Introduction to Etymology, fcp.... 2s. 
Whately's English Synonyms, fcp. Svo 8*. 


Bilton's Repetition and Reading Book, crown Svo 2*. 6d. 

Hughes's Select Specimens of English Poetry, 12mo 3s. 6d. 

Isbister's Illustrated Public School Speaker and Reader, 12mo 3s. 6d. 

— Lessons in Elocution, for Girls, 12mo la. 6d. 

— Outlines of Elocution, for Boys, 12mo Is. 6d. 

Millard's Grammar of Elocution, fcp. 8vo 2s. 6d. 

Rowton's Debater, or Art of Public Speaking, fcp. 8vo 6s. 

Smart's Practice of Elocution, 12mo is. 

Twells's Poetry for Repetition, 200 short Pieces and Extracts, ISmo 2s. 6d. 

The London Series of English Classics. 

Bacon's Essays, annotated by E. A. Abbott, 2 vols, fcp 6s. 

Ben Jonson's Every Man in his Humour, by H. B. Wheatley, F.S.A 2s. 6d 

Macaulay's Essay on Lord Clive, annotated by H. C. Bowen, M.A 2s. 6d. 

Marlowe's Dr. Faustus, annotated by Wilhelm Wagner, Ph.D 2s. 

Milton's Paradise Regained, annotated by C. S. Jerram, M.A _. 2s. 6d. 

Selections from Pope's Poems, annotated by T. Arnold, M.A 2s. 6d. 


Anderson's Book of Arithmetic for the Army, 18mo.„.„ „....„ Is. 

Calder's Familiar Arithmetic, 12mo. is. Sd. or with Answers, 5s. 6d. the 

Answers separately, Is. the Questions in Part II. separately...™ „.„. Is. 

Calder's Smaller Arithmetic for Schools, ISmo „ 2s. 6d 

Colenso's Arithmetic designed for the use of Schools, 12mo is. 6d. 

Key to Colenso's Arithmetic for Schools, by Rev. J. Hunter, M.A. 12mo 6s. 

Colenso's Shilling Elementary Arithmetic, ISmo. Is. with Answers Is. 6d. 

— Arithmetic for National, Adult, and Commercial Schools : — 

1, Text-Book,18mo 6d. I 3. Examples, Part II. Compound Arithmetic id. 

2. Examples, Part I. Simple 4. Examples, Part III. Fractions, Decimals 

Arithmetic id. | Duodecimals 4d. 

5. Answers to Examples, with Solutions of the difficult Questions ... Is. 

Colenso's Arithmetical Tables, on a Card Id. 

Combes and Hines' Standard Arithmetical Copy-Books, Nine Books, 4d. each. 
Combes and Hines' Complete Arithmetical Copy-Books ; in Nine Books, on 
Fine Paper, id. to 6d. each. Price 4s. 6d. per dozen to Teachers. 

London, LONGMANS & CO. 

General Lists of School-Books 5 

Harris's Graduated Exercises in Arithmetic and Mensuration, crown 8vo. 

2*. 6<2. or with Answers, 3s. the Answers separately, 9(2 Full Key 6s. 

Hiley's Recapitulatory Examples in Arithmetic, 12mo. „ Is. 6(2. 

Hunter's Modern Arithmetic for School Work or Private Study, 12mo.3s.6d.Key, 58. 

Hunter's New Shilling Arithmetic, 18mo Is. Key 2s. 

[sbister's High School Arithmetic, 12mo. Is. or with Answers.. Is. 6(2. 

Johnston's Civil Sendee Arithmetic, 12mo 3s. 6(2. Key 4s. 

— Civil Service Tots, with Answers and Cross-Tots „ 

Liddell's Arithmetic f cr Schools, 18mo. Is. cloth ; or in Two Parts, Sixpence 

each. The Answers separately, price Threepence. 
Lupton's Arithmetic for Schools and Candidates for Examination, 12mo. 
2s. 6(2. or with Answers, 8s.6(2. the Answers separately Is Key 6s. 

— Examination-Papers in Arithmetic, crown 8vo „ Is. 

M'Leod's Manual of Arthmetic, containing 1,750 Questions, 18mo 9d. 

— Mental Arithmetic, I. Whole Numbers, II. Fractions each Is. 

— Extended Multiplication and Pence Tables, 18mo 2(2. 

Merrifield's Technical Arithmetic and Mensuration, small 8vo. 3s. 6<2. Key 3s. 6(2. 
Moffatt'3 Mental Arithmetic, 12mo. Is. or with Key, Is. 6(2. 

Fix's Miscellaneous Examples in Arithmetic, 12mo 2s. 6(2. 

Thomson's Elementary Treatise on Algebra, 12mo 5s. Key is. 6d. 

Book-keeping and Banking. 

Hunter's Exercises in Book-keeping by Double Entry, 12mo. ...Is. 6(2. Key 2s. 6d. 

— Examination-Questions in Book-keeping by Double Entry, 12mo. 2s. 6(2. 

— Examination-Questions &c. as above, separate from the Answers Is. 

— Ruled Paper for Forms of Account Books, 5 sorts ... per quire, Is. 6(2. 

— Self-Instruction in Book-keeping, 12mo 23. 

Isbister's Book-keeping by Single and Double Entry, 18mo 9(2. 

— Set of Eight Account Books to the above each 6(2. 

Macleod's Elements of Banking, Third Edition, crown 8vo 7s. 6(2. 


Boucher's Mensuration, Plane and Solid, 12mo 3s. 

Hiley's Explanatory Mensuration, 12mo „ 2s. 6(2. 

Hunter's Elements of Mensuration, 18mo Is. Key 9(2. 

Merrifield's Technical Arithmetic & Mensuration, small 8vo. 3s. 6(2. 

Nesbit's Treatise on Practical Mensuration, by Hunter, 12mo. 3s. 6(2. Key 5». 


Colenso's Algebra, for National and Adult Schools, 18mo Is. 6(2. Key 2s. 6(2. 

— Algebra, for the use of Schools, Part I. 12mo 4s. 6(2. Key 5s. 

— Elements ofAlgebra, for the use of Schools, Part II. 12mo. 6s. Key 5s. 

— Examples and Equation Papers, with the Answers, 12mo. 2s. 6(2. 

— Student's Algebra, crown 8vo 6s. Key 6s. 

Colenso and Hunter's Introductory Algebra, 18mo 2s. 6(2. Key is. 6(2. 

Griffin's Algebra and Trigonometry, small 8vo 3s. 6(2. 

— Notes on Algebra and Trigonometry, small 8vo „ 3s. 6(2. 

Lund's Short and Easy Course of Algebra, crown Svo 2s. 6(2. Key 2s. 6(2. 

Reynolds's Elementary Algebra for Beginners, 18mo. 9(2. Answers, 3d. Key Is. 

Tate's Algebra made Easy, 12mo 2s. Key 3s. 6(2. 

Wood's Algebra, modernised by Lund, crown 8vo _ 7s. 6(2. 

Geometry and Trigonometry. 

Booth's New Geometrical Methods, 2 vols. 8vo 36». 

Colenso's Elements of Euclid, 18mo. 4s. 6(2. or with Key to the Exercises ... 6*. M. 

— Geometrical Exercises and Key 3s. 6(2. 

— Geometrical Exercises, separately, 18mo la. 

— Trigonometry, 12mo. Part 1. 3s. 6(2. Key 3s. 6(2. Part II. 2s. 6(2. Key 5s. 

[London, LONGMANS & CO. 

Hawtrey's Introduction to Euclid „ cloth 2«. 6d. 

Hunter's Plane Trigonometry, for Beginners, 18mo 1*. Key 9d. 

— Treatise on Logarithms, 18mo 1*. Key 9d. 

Isbister's School Euclid, the First Two Books, 12mo. Is. 6d. & Books I. to TV. 2s. 6d. 
Jeans' Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, 12mo. 7s. 6<Z. or 2 Parts, each 4*. 

— Problems in Astronomy &c. or Key to the above, 12mo 6». 

Potts's Euclid, University Edition, 8vo 108. 

— — Intermediate Edition, Books I. to IV. 3s. Books I. to III. 2s. Sd. 

Books I. II. Is. 6d. Book I. 1*. 

— Enunciations of Euclid, 12mo 6d. 

Tate's First Three Books of Euclid, 18mo „ 9<J. 

— Practical Geometry, with 261 Woodcuts, ISmo 18. 

— Geometry, Mensuration, Trigonometry, &c. 12mo 3s. 6d. 

Thomson's Euclid, Books I. to VI. and XI. &XII. 12mo 5s. 

— Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, 8vo 4s. 6d. 

— Differential and Integral Calculus, 12mo 5s. 6d. 

Watson's Plane and Solid Geometry, small 8vo 3s. 6d. 

Williamson on Differential Calculus, crown 8vo. _ 10s. 6<J. 

— on Integral Calculus, crown Svo, _ 10s. 6d. 

Willock's Elementary Geometry of the Bight Line, crown Svo 5s. 

Wright's Elements of Plane Geometry, crown 8vo 5s. 

Land Surveying, Drawing, and Practical Mathematics. 

Binns's Orthographic Projection and Isometrical Drawing, 18mo Is. 

Ember's Mathematical Course for the University of London, Svo 12*. 

Part I. for Matriculation, separately, Is. 6d. Key, in 2 Parts, 5s. each. 

Nesbit's Practical Land Surveying, 8vo 12«. 

Pierce's Solid or Descriptive Geometry, post 4to. - 12s. 6d. 

Salmon's Treatise on Conic Sections, 8vo ...12s. 

Winter's Mathematical Exercises, post 8vo 6s. 6d. 

Winter's Elementary Geometrical Drawing, Part I. post Svo. 3s. 6d. Part II. 6s. 6d. 
Wrigley's Examples in Pure and Mixed Mathematics, Svo. Ss. 6d. 

Musical Works by John Hullah, LL.D. 

Chromatic Scale, with the Inflected Syllables, on Large Sheet Is. 6d. 

Card of Chromatic Scale, price Id. 

Exercises for the Cultivation of the Voice. For Soprano or Tenor 2s. 6<2. 

Grammar of Musical Harmony, royal Svo. Two Parts each Is. 6d. 

Exercises to Grammar of Musical Harmony „ „ „ _._. Is. 

Grammar of Counterpoint. Part I. super-royal Svo „ 2s. 6<J. 

Hullah's Manual of Singing. Parts I. & II. 2s. 6<J. or together „ 5s. 

Exercises and Figures contained in Parts I. & II. Books I. & II each 8d. 

Large Sheets, containing the Figures in Part I. Nos. 1 to 8 in a Parcel... 6s. 
Large Sheets, containing the Exercises in Part I. Nos. 9 to 40, in Four 

Parcels of Eight Nos. each _. per Parcel 6s. 

Large Sheets, the Figures in Part II. Nos. 41 to 52 in a Parcel . 9s. 

Hymns for the Young, set to Music, royal 8vo Sd. 

Infant School Songs „ 6<J. 

Notation, the Musical Alphabet, crown Svo _. 6<J. 

Old English Songs for Schools, Harmonised „ _ 6d. 

Rudiments of Musical Grammar, royal 8vo „._ 3». 

School Songs for 2 and 3 Voices. 2 Books, 8vo. „ „._ „ each 6d. 

Time and Tune in the Elementary School, crown 8vo 2s. 6d. 

Exercises and Figures in the same, crown Svo. Is. or 2 Parts, 6d. each. 
Helmore's Catechism of Music, based by permission on Dr. Hullah's 

Method, crown 8vo Just ready. 

London, LONGMANS & CO. 

Political and Historical Geography. 

Burbury's Mary's Geography, ISmo. 2s. Gd. „. Questions Is. 

Butler's Ancient andModern Geography, post8vo 7s. 6d. 

— Sketch of Modern Geography, post 8vo 4s. 

— Sketch of Ancient Geography, post8vo 4s. 

Hiley's Child's First Geography, 18mo. „ „.„ 9d, 

— Elementary Geography for Beginners, 18mo Is. 6<i. 

— Compendium of European Geography and History, 12mo Ss. Gd. 

— Asiatic, African, American and Australian Geography, 12mo Ss. 

Hughes's Child's First Book of Geography, 18mo. „ ......... 9d. 

— Geography of the British Empire, for Beginners, ISmo. _.„ 9d. 

— General Geography, for Beginners, 18mo „.„ „._. 9<j. 

Questions on Hughes's General Geography, for Beginners, 18mo. 9d. 

Hughes's Geography of British History, fcp. 8yo 5s. 

— Manual of Geography, with Six Coloured Maps, fcp. 8vo Is. Gd. 

Or in Two Parts :— 1. Europe, Ss. Gd. II. Asia, Africa, America, &c.„ is. 

Hughes's Manual of British Geography, fcp. Svo 2*. 

Keith Johnston's Gazetteer, or Geographical Dictionary, 8vo 42s. 

Lupton's Examination-Papers in Geography, crown 8vo „ Is. 

M'Leod's Geography of Palestine or the Holy Land, 12mo Is. 6<j. 

Maunder's Treasury of Geography, fcp. 8vo 6s. 

The Stepping-Stone to Geography, 18mo. „ „.„ „.„. is. 

Sullivan's Geography Generalised, fcp. 2s. or with Maps, 2s. Gd. 

— Introduction to Ancient and Modern Geography, ISmo Is. 

Physical Geography and Geology. 

Butler's Text Book of Physical Geography Intheprsss. 

Hughes's (E.) Outlines of Physical Geography, 12mo. 3s. Gd. Questions, Gd. 

— (W.) Physical Geography for Beginners, 18mo Is. 

Keith's Treatise on the Use of the Globes. 12mo 6s. Gd. Key 2s. Gd. 

Maury's Physical Geography for Schools and General Readers, fcp. 8vo 2s. 6d. 

Nicols's Puzzle of Life (Elementary Geology), crown 8vo Ss. Gd. 

Proctor's Elementary Physical Geography, fcp. 8vo „ is. Gd. 

Woodward's Geology of England and Wales, crown 8vo \ig. 

School Atlases and Maps. 

Butler's Atlas of Modern Geography, royal Svo 10s. Gd. 

— Junior Modern Atlas, comprising 12 Maps, royal 8vo 4s. Gd. 

— Atlas of Ancient Geography, royal 8vo 12 9 . 

— Junior Ancient Atlas, comprising 12 Maps, royal 8vo 4s. 6d. 

— General Atlas, Modern & Ancient, royal 4to 22*'. 

Public Schools Atlas of Ancient Geography, 25 entirely New Coloured Maps, 

imperial Svo. or imperial 4to. 7s. Gd. cloth. 
Public Schools Atlas of Modern Geography, 31 entirely New Coloured Mapa, 
imperial 8vo. or imperial 4to. 5s. cloth. 

Natural History and Botany. 

Lindley and Moore's Treasury of Botany, Two Parts, fcp. Svo _ 12«. 

Maunder's Treasury of Natural History, revised by Holdsworth, fcp. Svo. 6s. 
Owen's Natural History for Beginners, 18mo. Two Parts 9d. each, or 1 vol. 2s. 

The Stepping-Stone to Natural History, 18mo 2s. Gd. 

Or in Two Parts.— I. Mammalia, Is. II. Birds, Reptiles, and Fishes Is. 

London, LONGMANS & CO. 

General Lists of School-Books 

Wood's Bible Animals, 8vo 14*. 

— Homes without Hands, 8vo 14*. 

— Insects at Home, 8vo 14*. 

— Insects Abroad, 8vo 14». 

— Out of Doors, crown 8vo 7«. Gd. 

— Strange Dwellings, crown 8vo 7*. 6<J. 

Chemistry and Telegraphy. 

Armstrong's Organic Chemistry, small 8vo 8*. Gd 

Crookes's Select Methods in Chemical Analysis, crown 8vo 12*. Gd. 

Culley's Practical Telegraphy, 8vo 16*. 

Miller's Elements of Chemistry, 3 vols. 8vo. 

Part I.— Chemical Physics, Sixth Edition, 16*. 

Part II. — Inorganic Chemistry, Fifth Edition, 21*. 

Part III.— Organic Chemistry, Sixth Edition in the press, 

— Introduction to Inorganic Chemistry, small 8vo 8*. Gd. 

Odling's Course of Practical Chemistry, for Medical Students, crown 8vo... 6*. 

Preece and Sivewright's Telegraphy, crown 8vo „ 3*. 6d. 

Tate's Outlines of Experimental Chemistry, 18mo 9d, 

Thorpe's Quantitative Chemical Analysis, small 8vo 4*. Gd. 

Thorpe and Muir's Qualitative Chemical Analysis, small 8vo. 8*. Gd. 

Tilden's Theoretical and Systematic Chemistry, small 8vo S«. Gd. 

Natural Philosophy and Natural Science 

Bloxam's Metals, their Properties and Treatment, small 8vo. „ 88. Gd. 

Day's Numerical Examples in Heat, crown 8vo 1*. Gd. 

— Electrical & Magnetic Measurement, 16mo - 2*. Gd. 

Downing's Practical Hydraulics, Part I. 8vo„ „ _ 5*. Gd. 

Ganot's Physics, translated by Prof. E. Atkinson, large crown 8vo 15*. 

— Natural Philosophy, translated by the same, crown 8vo _ 7s. Gd. 

Helmholtz' Popular Lectures on Scientific Subjects, Svo. „.„.„.„ , _.12*. Gd. 

Irving's Short Manual of Heat, small Svo „ _.... 2*. Gd. 

Jenkin's Electricity & Magnetism, small 8vo _ „ Ss.Gd. 

Marcet's Conversations on Natural Philosophy, fcp.8vo 7*. Gd, 

Maxwell's Theory of Heat, small 8vo „ „.„„ 3*. Gd. 

Minchin's Treatise on Statics, crown Svo 10*. Gd, 

Tate's Light& Heat, for the use of Beginners, 18mo Qd. 

— Hydrostatics, Hydraulics & Pneumatics, 18mo „ 9d. 

— Electricity, explained for the use of Beginners, 18mo 9d. 

— Magnetism, Voltaic Electricity & Electro-Dynamics, 18mo 9d. 

Tyndall's Lesson in Electricity, with 58 Woodcuts, crown Svo. „...„.„ 2*. Gd. 

— Notes of Lectures on Electricity, 1*. sewed, 1*. Gd. cloth. 

— Notes of Lectures on Light, 1*. sewed, 1*. Gd. cloth. 

Weinhold's Introduction to Experimental Physics, 8vo 81*. Gd. 

Text-Books of Science, Mechanical and Physical. 

Abney's Treatise on Photography, small 8vo 3s. Gd 

Anderson's Strength of Materials 8*. Gd.» 

Armstrong's Organic Chemistry 3*. Gd. 

Barry's Railway Appliances i S». Gd. 

Bloxam's Metals 3*. Gd. 

Qoodeve's Elements of Mechanism 8*. Gd. 

— Principles of Mechanics Ss.Gd. 

Gore's Art of Electro-Metallurgy „.„ „ 6s. 

Griffin's Algebra and Trigonometry 8*. Gd. 

London, LONGMANS & CO. 

Jenkin's Electricity and Magnetism Ss. 6d. 

Maxwell's Theory of Heat .. 3». 6d. 

Merrifield's Technical Arithmetic and Mensuration Ss. 6<i. 

Miller's Inorganic Chemistry Ss. 6<J. 

Preece & Sivewright's Telegraphy „ ~ Ss. 6d. 

Shelley's Workshop Appliances ~ 8». 6d. 

Thomi's Structural and Physiological Botany _ ~ 6s. 

Thorpe's Quantitative Chemical Analysis - *«. 6d. 

Thorpe & Muir's Qualitative Analysis Ss. 6d. 

Tilden's Chemical Philosophy — 8s. 6d. 

Unwin's Elements of Machine Design - -.- - - -. 3s. 6d. 

Watson's Plane and Solid Geometry Ss. 6<J. 

*** Other Text-Books in active preparation. 

The London Science Class-Boohs, Elementary Series. 

Algebra, by G. Henrici, Ph.D. F.R.S, Fcp. 8vo Nearly ready. 

Astronomy, by R. S. Ball, LL.D. F.R.S Is. 6d. 

Botany, Morphology and Physiology, by W. R. McNab, M.D Is. 6d. 

— the Classification of Plants, by W. R. McNab, M.D Nearly ready. 

General Biology, by J. G. McKendrick, M.D Nearly ready. 

Thermodynamics, by R. Wormell, M.A. D.Sc Is. Gd. 

Zoology of Vertebrate Animals, by A. McAlister, M.D , Is. 6d. 

Zoology of Invertebrate Animals, by A. McAlister, M.D Nearly ready. 

*** Other Class-Books in active preparation. 

Mechanics and Mechanism. . . 

Barry's Railway Appliances, small 8vo. Woodcuts Ss. 6d. 

Goodeve's Elements of Mechanism, small Svo Ss. 6d. 

— Principles of Mechanics, small 8vo _._._ Ss. 6d. 

Haughton's Animal Mechanics, Svo _ 21«. 

Magnus's Lessons in Elementary Mechanics, small 8vo „... 3s. 6d. 

Shelley's Workshop Appliances, small Svo. Woodcuts 3s. 6d. 

Tate's Exercises on Mechanics and Natural Philosophy, 12mo 2s. Key Ss. 6d. 

— Mechanics and the Steam-Engine, for Beginners, 18mo 9<J. 

— Elements of Mechanism, with many Diagrams, 12mo Ss. 6d. 

Twisden's Introduction to Practical Mechanics, crown Svo 10s. 6<J. 

— First Lessons in Theoretical Mechanics, crown 8vo. „ 8s. 6d. 

Willis's Principles of Mechanism, Svo 18s. 

Engineering, Architecture, &c. 

Anderson on the Strength of Materials and Structures, small 8vo Ss. 6d. 

Bourne's Treatise on the Steam-Engine, 4to 42s. 

— Catechism of the Steam-Engine, fcp. 8vo 6s. 

— Recent Improvements in the Steam-Engine, fcp. 8vo 6s. 

— Handbook of the Steam-Engine, fcp. 8vo 9s. 

Downing's Elements of Practical Construction, Part 1. 8vo. Plates 14s. 

Fairbairn's Useful Information for Engineers. 8 vols, crown 8vo Sis. 6d. 

Gwilt's Encyclopaedia of Architecture, 8vo 52s. 6d. 

Main and Brown's Marine Steam-Engine, 8vo 12s. 6d. 

— — Indicator & Dynamometer, 8vo 4s. 6d. 

— — Questions on the Steam-Engine, 8vo 5s. 6d. 

Mitchell's Stepping-Stone to Architecture, 18mo. Woodcuts Is. 

Moseley's Mechanical Principles of Engineering and Architecture, 8vo....24s. 

London, LONGMANS & CO. 

10 General Lists of School-Books 

Popular Astronomy and Navigation. 

Brinkley's Astronomy, by Stubbs & Briinnow, crown 8vo 6s. 

Evers's Navigation & Great Circle Sailing, 18mo Is. 

Herschel's Outlines of Astronomy, Twelfth Edition, square crown 8vo 12s. 

Jeans's Handbook for the Stars, royal Svo is. 6d. 

— Navigation and Nautical Astronomy, Part I. Practical, 12mo 5s. 

— — — Part II. Theoretical, royal 8vo. 7s. 6<J. 

Laughton's Nautical Surveying, small Svo „ „ 6s. 

Merrifield's Magnetism & Deviation of the Compass, ISmo Is. 6(2. 

Proctor's Lessons in Elementary Astronomy, fcp. 8vo 1*. 6d. 

— Library Star Atlas, folio 15s. 

— New Star Atlas for Schools, crown 8vo _ 5s. 

— Handbook for the Stars, square fcp. 8vo 5s. 

The Stepping-Stone to Astronomy, 18mo Is. 

Tate's Astronomy and the use of the Globes, for Beginners, 18mo 9<J. 

Webb's Celestial Objects for Common Telescopes, 16mo 7s. 6d. 

Animal Physiology and Preservation of Health. 

Bray's Education of the Peelings, crown 8vo 2s. 6d. 

— Physiology and the Lawsof Health, 11th Thousand, fcp. 8vo. _ Is. 6d. 

— Diagrams for Class Teaching per pair 6s. 6<2. 

Buckton's Health in the House, small 8vo ... 2s. 

Hartley's Air and its Relations to Life, small 8vo. „ 6s. 

House I Live In ; Structure and Functions of the Human Body, 18mo. 2s. 6d. 

Mapother's Animal Physiology, 18mo Is. 

General Knowledge. 

The Stepping-Stone to Knowledge, 18mo Is. 

Second Series of the Stepping-Stone to General Knowledge, 18mo Is. 

Sterne's Questions on Generalities, Two Series, each 2s. Keys each i». 

Chronology and Historical Genealogy. 

Cates and Woodward's Chronological and Historical Encyclopaedia, 8vo. ...42s, 

Crook's Events of England in Rhyme, square 16mo Is. 

Slater's Sentential Chronological, the Original Work,12mo Is. 6d. 

— — — improved by Miss Sewell, 12mo Ss. 6d. 

Mythology and Antiquities. 

Becker's Gallus, Roman Scenes of the Time of Augustus, post 8vo 7s. 6d. 

— Charicles, illustrating the Private Life of the Ancient Greeks ... 7s. 6d. 
Cox's Manual of Mythology, in Question and Answer, fcp. Svo 3». 

— Mythology of the Aryan Nations, 2 vols. 8vo __„.28s. 

— Tales of Ancient Greece, crown 8vo 6s. 

Ewald's Antiquities of Israel, translated by Solly, 8vo 12s. 6d. 

Goldziher's Mythology among the Hebrews, translated by Martineau, Svo. 16». 

Hort's New Pantheon, ISmo. with 17 Plates 2». 6d. 

Rich's Hlustrated Dictionary of Roman and Greek Antiquities, post Svo.... 7s. 6d. 


Cates's Dictionary of General Biography, 8vo „ „ 25s. 

Macaulay's Clive, annotated by H. C. Bowen, MA. fcp. Svo 2s. 6d. 

Maunder's Biographical Treasury, re-written by W. L. R. Cates, fcp. Svo. 6s. 
The Stepping-Stone to Biography, ISmo Is. 

Epochs of Modem History. 

Church's Beginning of the Middle Ages, fcp. Svo. Maps „ 2s. 6d. 

Cordery's French Revolution to the Battle of Waterloo Nearly ready. 

London, LONGMANS & CO. 

Cox's Crusades, fcp. Svo. Maps _. 2s. Gd. 

Creighton's Age of Elizabeth, fcp. 8vo. Maps „ 2«. 6d 

Gairdner's Houses of Lancaster & York, fcp. 8vo. Maps 2s. 6d 

Gardiner's Thirty Years' War, 1618-1618, fcp. Svo. Maps „ _. 28. Gd. 

— First Two Stuarts and the Puritan Kevolution, fcp. Svo. Maps 2s. Gd. 

Hale's Fall of the Stuarts, fcp. Svo. Maps 2s. 6d. 

Johnson's Normans in Europe, fcp. 8vo. Maps „ „ 2s. 6d. 

— Lawrence's Early Hanoverians In the press. 

— Longman's Frederick the Great and the 7 Years' War In the press. 

Ludlow's War of American Independence, fcp. 8vo. Maps „ 2s. Gd. 

Morris's Age of Anne, fcp. Svo. Maps _.... 2s. Gd. 

Seebohm's Protestant Revolution, fcp. Svo. Maps . 2s. Gd. 

Stubbs's Early Plantagents, fcp. 8vo. Maps 2s. 6<2. 

— Empire under the House of Hohenstaufer In preparation. 

Warburton's Edward the Third, fcp. Svo. Maps „ 2s. Gd. 

Epochs of English History. 

Browning's Modern England, from 1820 to 1876 In the press. 

Cordery's Struggle against Absolute Monarchy, 1603-16S8, fcp. Maps 9d. 

Creighton's England a Continental Power, 1066-1216, fcp. Maps 9d. 

— Tudors and the Reformation, 1485-1603, fcp. 8vo. Maps 9d. 

Powell's Early England up to the Norman Conquest, fcp. Svo. Maps Is. 

Rowley's Rise of the People and Growth of Parliament, 1215-1485, fcp. Maps. 9d. 

— Settlement of the Constitution, 1688-1778, fcp. Maps 9d. 

Tancock's England during the Revolutionary Wars, 1778-1820. „ 9d. 

British History. 

Armitage's Childhood of the English Nation, fcp. 8vo. „.„. 2s. Gd. 

Bartle's Synopsis of English History, fcp. 8vo „. 3s. 6d. 

Cantlay's English History Analysed, fcp.8vo „.:..„. 2s. 

Catechism of English History, edited by Miss Sewell, 18mo Is. Gd. 

Gleig's School History of England, abridged, 12mo 6s. 

— First Book of History— England, 18mo. 2g. or 2 Parts each 9d. 

— British Colonies, or Second Book of History. 18mo Is. 

— British India, or Third Book of History, 18mo 9d. 

— Historical Questions on the above Three Histories, 18mo 9d. 

Littlewood's Essentials of English History, fcp. Svo 8s. 

Lupton's Examination-Papers in History, crown 8vo Is. 

— English History, revised, crown Svo 7s. Gd. 

Morris's Class-Book History of England, fcp. 8vo 3s. Gd. 

The Stepping-Stone to English History, ISmo 1«. 

The Stepping-Stone to Irish History, 18mo Is. 

Turner's Analysis of English and French History, fcp. 8vo 2s. 6d. 

Epochs of Ancient History. 

Beesly's Gracchi, Marius and Sulla, fcp. 8vo. Maps 2s. 6d. 

Capes'sAgeof the Antonines, fcp. 8vo. Maps 2s. Gd. 

— Early Roman Empire, fcp. 8vo. Maps 2s. Gd. 

Cox's Athenian Empire, fcp. 8vo. Maps „._. 2s. Gd. 

— Greeks & Persians, fcp. 8vo. Maps „ 2s. Gd. 

Curteis's Rise of the Macedonian Empire, fcp. Svo. Maps 2s. Gd. 

Ihne's Rome to its Capture by the Gauls, fcp. Svo.Maps .. 2s. Gd. 

Merivale's Roman Triumvirates, fcp. Svo. Maps „._ 2s. Gd. 

Sankey's Spartan and Theban Supremacies, fcp. Svo. Maps 2s. Gd. 

Smith's Rome and Carthage, the Punic Wars ...„ In the press. 

London, LONGMANS & CO. 

History, Ancient and Modern. 

Browne's History of Greece, for Beginners, 18mo 9d. 

— History of Rome, for Beginners, 18mo 9d. 

Cox's History of Greece, Vols. I. & II. 8vo 36*. 

— General History of Greece, crown 8vo. Maps 7s.6d. 

— School History of Greece, fcp. 8vo. Maps „ 3s. 6<2. 

Gleig's History of France, 18mo 1*. 

Ihne's Roman History, Vols. I. to III. Svo 45s. 

Mangnall's Historical and Miscellaneous Questions, 12mo 4s. 6d. 

Maunder's Historical Treasury, with Index, fcp. Svo 6s. 

Merivale's History of the Romans under the Empire, 8 vols, post 8vo 4S«. 

— Fall of the Roman Republic, 12mo 7s. 6d. 

— General History of Rome, crown Svo. Maps 7s. 6d. 

Puller's School History of Rome, abridged from Merivale, fcp. Maps 3s. 6<Z. 

Rawlinson's Sixth Oriental Monarchy (the Parthians), Svo. Maps &c 16s. 

— Seventh Oriental Monarchy (the Sassanians) 8vo. Maps &c. ...28s. 
Sewell's Ancient History of Egypt, Assyria, and Babylonia, fcp. Svo 6s. 

— Catechism of Grecian History, 18mo „ _. Is. 6d 

— Child's First History of Rome, fcp. Svo 2s. 6(2. 

— First History of Greece, fcp. 8vo S». 6d. 

— Popular History of France, crown 8vo. Maps „ „ 7s. 6<2. 

The Stepping-Stone to Grecian History, ISmo Is. 

The Stepping-Stone to Roman History, 18mo Is. 

Taylor's Student's Manual of Ancient History, crown Svo 7s. Gd. 

— Student's Manual of Modern History, crown 8vo 7s. 6d. 

— Student's Manual of the History of India, crown 8vo 7s. 6<2. 

Turner's Analysis of the History of Greece, fcp. Svo 2s. 6<j. 

— Analysis of Roman History, fcp. 8vo 2s. 6d. 

Scripture History, Moral and Religious Works. 

Ayre's Treasury of Bible Knowledge, fcp. Svo 6s. 

Boultbee's Commentary on the Thirty-Nine Articles, crown Svo 6s. 

Browne's Exposition of the Thirty-Nine Articles, 8vo 16s, 

Examination Questions on the above, fcp. Svo Ss, 6d. 

Conybeare and Howson's Life and Epistles of St. Paul, 1 vol. crown 8vo. ... 9s. 
Gleig's Sacred History, or Fourth Book of History, ISmo. 2s. or 2 Parts, each 9d. 
Kalisch's Commentary on the Old Testament; with a New Translation. 

Vol. I. Genesis, 8vo. 18s. or adapted for the General Reader, 12s. Vol. II. 

Exodus, 15s. or adapted for the General Reader, 12s. Vol. III. 

Leviticus, Part 1. 15s. or adapted for the General Reader, 8s. Vol. IV. 

Leviticus, Part II. 15s. or adapted for the General Reader, 8s. 

Norris's Catechist's Manual, 18mo Is, sd. 

Potts's Paley's Evidences and Horse Paulinee, 8vo 10s. 6d. 

Pulliblahk's Teacher's Handbook of the Bible, crown 8vo. „._.„.„ 3s. 6d. 

Riddle's Manual of Scripture History, fcp. Svo 4s. 

— Outlines of Scripture History, fcp. Svo 2s. 6d. 

Rogers's School and Children's Bible, crown Svo „ 2s. 

Rothschild's History and Literature of the Israelites, 2 vols, crown 8vo 12s. 6d. 

— — — — — Abridged, fcp. 8vo... Ss. 6d. 

Sewell's Preparation for the Holy Communion, 32mo Ss. 

The Stepping-Stone to Bible Knowledge, ISmo Is. 

Whately's Introductory Lessons on Christian Evidences, 18mo 6d. 

Young's New Concordance to the Bible, imperial 8vo „ In the press. 

Mental and Moral Philosophy, and Civil Law. 

Amos's Science of Jurisprudence, 8vo 18*. 

— Primer of English Constitution and Government, crown 8vo 6*. 

London, LONGMANS & CO. 

General Lists of School-Books 18 

Bacon's Advancement of Learning, analysed by Fleming, crown 8vo 3*. 6<2. 

— Essays, with Annotations by Archbishop Whately, 8vo 108. 6d. 

— — annotated by Hunter, crown 8vo Ss. 6d. 

— — annotated by Abbott, 2 vols. fcp. 8vo « 6s. 

_— — with Eeferences and Notes by Markby, fcp. 8vo ls.Sd. 

Bain's Bhetoric and English Composition, crown 8vo is. 

— Mental and Moral Science, crown 8yo 10s. 6a. 

Hume's Treatise on Human Nature, by Green and Grose, 2 vols. 8vo 28«. 

— Essays, by the same Editors, 2 vols. 8vo 28s. 

Lewes's History of Philosophy from Thales to Comte, 2 vols. 8vo 82*. 

Lewis's Influence of Authority in Matters of Opinion, 8vo _ 14s. 

Mill's System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive, 2 vols. 8vo 258. 

Killick's Student's Handbook of Mill's System of Logic, crown 8vo Ss. 6d. 

Morell's Handbook of Logic, for Schools and Teachers, fcp. 8vo 2s. 

— Introduction to Mental Philosophy, 8vo 12s. 

Sandars's Institutes of Justinian, 8vo 18s. 

Swinbourne's Picture Logic, crown 8vo. „... 5s. 

Thomson's Outline of the Necessary Laws of Thought, post 8vo 6s. 

Ueberweg's Logic, translated by Lindsay, 8vo 16s. 

Whately's Elements of Logic, 8vo. 10s. 6d. crown 8vo is. 6(2. 

— Elements of Rhetoric, 8vo. 10s. 6d. crown 8vo Is. 6d. 

— Lessons on Reasoning, fcp. 8vo Is. 6d. 

Principles of Teaching, tyc. 

Gill's Systems of Education, fcp. Svo 2s. 6dt. 

— Art of Religious Instruction, fcp. 8vo In the press. 

— Artof Teaching to Observe and Think, fcp. Svo 2s. 

Johnston's (Miss) Ladies' College and School Examiner, fcp, Is. 6c?. Key 2s. 6o". 
Johnston's (R.) Army and Civil Service Guide, crown 8vo 5s. 

— Civil Service Guide, crown 8vo : 3s. Gd. 

— Guide to Candidates for the Excise, 18mo Is. 6d. 

— Guide to Candidates for the Customs, 18mo Is. 

Lake's Book of Oral Object Lessons on Common Things, 18mo Is. 6d. 

Potts's Liber Cantabrigiensis, fcp. 8vo 5s. 6d. 

— Account of Cambridge Scholarships and Exhibitions, fcp. Svo Is. 6d. 

— Maxims, Aphorisms, &c. for Learners, crown 8vo. „ Is. 6o\ 

Robinson's Manual of Method and Organisation, fcp. 8vo Ss. 6<2. 

Sewell's Principles of Education, 2 vols, fcp. Svo 12s. 6d. 

Sullivan's Papers on Education and School-Keeping, 12mo 2s. 

The Greek Language. 

Bloomfield's College and School Greek Testament, fcp. Svo 5s. 

Bolland & Lang's Politics of Aristotle, post8vo 7s. 6<2. 

Builinger'B Lexicon and Concordance to Greek Testament, medium Svo.. ..30s. 
Collis's Chief Tenses of the Greek Irregular Verbs, Svo Is. 

— Pontes Classici, No. II. Greek, 12mo 3s. 6d. 

— Praxis Graaca, Etymology, 12mo 2s. 6d. 

— Greek Verse-Book, Praxis Iambica, 12mo 48.6a". 

Congreve's Politics of Aristotle, translated, Svo. _ 18s. 

Earrar'a Brief Greek Syntax and Accidence, 12mo 4s. 6d. 

— Greek Grammar Rules for Harrow School, 12mo Is. 6d. 

Fowle's Short and Easy Greek Book, 12mo 2s. 6d. 

— Eton Greek Reading-Book, 12mo Is. 6d. 

— First Easy Greek Reading-Book, 12mo 5». 

— Second Easy Greek Reading Book, 12mo 5s. 

Grant's Ethics of Aristotle, with Essays and Notes, 2 vols. 8vo 32*. 

Green's Birds and Peace of Aristophanes, crown 8vo each Ss. 6d. 

Hewitt's Greek Examination-Papers, 12mo la, 6^. 

London, LONGMANS & CO. 


General Lists of School-Books 

Isbister's Xenophon's Anabasis, Books I. to III. with Notes, 12mo 3s. 6d. 

Kennedy's Greek Grammar, 12mo „. 4s. 6d. 

Liddelland Scott's Larger Greek-Lexicon, crown 4to 36«. 

— — — Greek-English Lexicon abridged, square 12mo 7s. 6d. 

Linwood's Sophocles, Greek Text, Latin Notes, 4th Edition, 8vo 16*. 

— Theban Triology of Sophocles literally explained, crown 8vo. ... 7s. 6d. 

Mahnffy's History of Greek Classical Literature In thepress. 

Morris's Greek .Lessons, square 18mo Part I. 2s. 6d. Part II. Is. 

Parry's Elementary Greek Grammar, 12mo 3s. 6d. 

Sheppard and Evans's Notes on Thucydicies, crown 8vo 7*. 6d. 

Thucydides' Peloponnesian War, translated by Crawley, 8vo 10s. 6d. 

Valpy's Greek Delectus, improved by the Rev. Dr. White, 12mo. 2s. 6<J. Key 2s. 6d. 
White's Four Gospels in Greek, with English Lexicon, square 32mo 5s. 

— Xenophon's Expedition of Cyrus, with English Notes, 12mo 7s. 6d. 

Wilkins's Manual of Greek Prose Composition, crown 8vo 7s. 6d. Key 5«. 

— Exercises in Greek Prose Composition, crown 8vo. 6d. Key 2s. 6d. 

— Progressive Greek Delectus, 12mo 4s. Key 2s. 6d. 

— Progressive Greek Anthology, 12mo 5s. 

— Scriptores Attici, Excerpts with Englisn Notes, crown 8vo 7s. 6d. 

— Speeches from Thucydides translated, post 8vo 6s. 

Williams's Nicomachean Ethics of Aristotle translated, crown 8vo „.„. 7s. 6d. 

Wright's Plato's Phaedrus, Lysis and Protagoras, translated, fcp. 8vo 4s. 6d. 

Yonge's Larger English-Greek Lexicon, 4to 21s. 

— English-Greek Lexicon abridged, square 12mo 8s. Gd. 

Zeller's Plato and the Older Academy, by Alleyne & Goodwin, cr. 8vo 18s. 

— Socrates, translated by Reichel, crown 8vo 10s. 6<i. 

"White's Grammar-School Greek Texts. 

iEsop (Fables) and Pakephatus 

(Myths), 32mo Price Is. 

Homer„Iliad,Book I Is. 

Lucian, Select Dialogues Is. 

Xenophon, Anabasis, Book I.... Is. 6d. 
— — Book II. Is. 

St. Matthew's Gospel Price 2s. 6d 

St. Mark's Gospel _. is. Cd. 

St. Luke's Gospel „ 2. , (■< . 

St. John's Gospel ls.6d, 

St. Paul's Epistle to the Ro- 
mans Is. 6d. 

The Four Gospels in Greek, with Greek-English Lexicon. Edited by John T. 
White, D.D. Oxon. Square 32mo. price 5s. 

White's Grammar- School Latin Texts. 

Ceesar, Gallic War, Book I. Price Is. 

Caesar, Gallic War, Book II 1«. 

Caasar, Gallic War, Book III.... 8d. 
Caesar, Gallic War, Book IV. ... 9d. 

Csesar, Gallic War, Book V Is. 

Caesar, Gallic War, Book VI. ... Is. 

Cicero, Cato Major Is. 6d. 

Cicero, Lselius Is. 6d. 

Eutropius, Roman History. 

Books I. and II _. Is. 

Eutropius, Roman History, 

Books III. & IV Is. 

Horace, Odes, Book I Is. 

Horace, Odes, Book II Is. 

Horace, Odes, Book III Is. 6d. 

Horace, Odes, Book IV 1». 

Nepos, Miltiades, Cimon, Pau- 
sanias, Aristides Price 9d. 

Ovid, Selections from Epistles 
and Fasti is. 

Ovid, Select Myths from Meta- 
morphoses 9d. 

Phasdrus, Select Easy Fables ... 9d. 

Phaedrus, Fables, Book I. & II. It. 

Sallust, Bellum Catilinarium ... Is. 6d. 

Virgil, Georgics, Book rv It. 

Virgil, iEneid, Book I It. 

Virgil, JEneid, Book II is. 

Virgil, ^neid. Book III l». 

Virgil, ^Sneid. Book IV Is. 

Virgil, iEneid, Book V l». 

Virgil. .iEneid, BookVI Is. 

Livy, Books XXII. and XXIII. The Latin Text with English Explanatory 
and Grammatical Notes and a Vocabulary of Proper Names. Edited by 
John T. White, D.D. Oxon. 12mo. price 2s. 6d. each Book. 

London, LONGMANS & CO. 

The Latin Language, 

Bradley's Latin Prose Exercises, 12mo Sg. 6d. Key 5g 

— Continuous Lessons in Latin Prose, 12mo 5g. Key as. 6d 

— Cornelius Nepos, improved by White, 12mo ... Sa 6d 

— Ovid's Metamorphoses, improved by White, 12mo. is Gd 

— Select Fables of Ph^edrus, improved by White, 12mo .............. 2g" 6d 

— Eutropius, improved by White, 12mo 2s' 6d 

Collis's Chief Tenses of Latin Irregular Verbs, 8vo Is' 

— Pontes Classici Latini, 12mo 3s' Sd 

Conington's .ZEneid of Virgil, translated into English Verse, crown 8v'o. 9g ' 

Fowle's Short and Easy Latin Book, 12mo i' St g^ 

— First Easy Latin Reading-Book, 12mo Ss! Gd 

— Second Easy Latin Reading-Book, 12mo ...'............'.. Sg' Gd 

Hewitt's Latin Examination-Papers, 12mo ..'.'.'.'.'."'.'.'.'.'.'.'. Is' 6d 

Isbister's Caesar, Books I.— VII. 12mo. is. or with Reading Lessons is' 6d 

— Csesar s Commentaries, Books I.— V. 12mo 3g" Gd 

— First Book of Caesar's Gallic War,12mo ........ Is 6d 

Jerram's Latine Reddenda, crown 8vo lg 

Kennedy's Child's Latin Primer, or First Latin Lessons, 12mo. 2s" 

— Child's Latin Accidenee, 12mo -....'..'.'...... Is" 

— Elementary Latin Grammar, 12mo 3g Gd 

— Elementary Latm Reading-Book, orTirocimumLatinum,12mo. 2g. 

— Latin Prose, Palaestra Stili Latini, 12mo ' g g " 

— Subsidia Primuria, Exercise Books to the Public School Latin 
Primer, I. Accidence and Simple Construction, 2*. 6d. II. Syntax, . Sg 6d 

Key to the Exercises in Subsidia Primaria, Parts I. & II. price 5*"" 
Kennedy's Subsidia Primaria, III. the Latin Compound Sentence, 12mo 1» 

— Curriculum Stili Latini, 12mo. is. Gd. Key, 7s. Gd. 

— Palaestra Latina, or Second Latin Reading-Book, 12mo 5g, 

Kenny's Caesar's Commentaries, Book I. 18mo. Is. Books II. & IIL Is' 

— Virgil's iEneid, Books I. II. III. & V. 18mo each Book Is' 

Moody's Eton Latin i Grammar, 12mo. 2s. 6tZ. The Accidence separately Is" ' 

Parry's Origines Romance, from Livy, with English Not9S, crown 8to. 4s' 

The Public School Latin Primer, 12mo "'.'." 2g* Gd 

— — — — Grammar, by the Rev. B.H. Kennedy,©. I). p.Svo. Is Gd 

Prendergast's Mastery Series, Manual of Latin. 12mo „.. ..' 2g" Gd 

Rapier's Introduction to Composition of Latin Verse, 12mo....3s. Sd." Key is' Gd 
Riddle's Young Scholar's Lat.-Eng. & Eng.-Lat. Dictionary, square 12mo. ...10s". 6d 
Qot^o+oItt } Tiie Latin-English Dictionary, 6s. 

separately , Tne English-Latin Dictionary, ss. 

Riddle and Arnold's English-Latin Lexicon, 8vo 21s 

Sheppard and Turner's iids to Classical Study, 12mo 5s. Key~6g" 

Simcox's History of Latin Classical Literature j n the press 

Valpy's Latin Delectus, improved by White, l2mo 2g Gd 

Virgil's "Works, edited by Kennedy, crown 8vo ,.' !.'. "lOg'jw 

Wallord's Progressive Exercises in Latin Elegiac Verse, 12mo. 2g.6d. Key 5s' 

White and Riddle's Large Latin-English Dictionary, 1 vol ito 28s' 

White's College Latin-English Dictionary (Intermediate size ), medium Svo I5g* 
White'3 Junior Student's Complete English-Latin & Latin-English 

Dictionary, square 12mo jo, 

Honaratolir ' Ttie Latin-English Dictionary, price 7s. 6d. 

separately -, The English-Latin Dictionary, price 5s. Sd. 

— Middle-Class Latin Dictionary, square fcp.8vo s s 

— Cicero's Cato Major and Laelius, 12mo Ss' fid 

— Livy, Books XXII. & XXlII. with English Notes, each Book".'.'.'.'.' 2s. 6d 
WilMns's Progressive Latin Delectus, 12mo .' ->^ 

— Easy Latin Prose Exercises, crown 8vo. 2s. 6d ...Key 2g Gd 

— Manual of Latin Prose Composition, crown Svo 5s. 6d. Key 2s' Gd 

— Latin Prose Exercises, crown 8vo is.6d. Key 5s' 

— Rules of Latin Syntax, 8vo 2g 

— Latin Compound Sentence, 8vo .......'.."... ]g" 

— Notes for Latin Lyrics (in use in Harrow, 6c.) 12mo is' Gd 

— Latin Anthology, for the Junior Classes, 12mo is' Gd 

Yonge's Odes and Epodes of Horace, School Edition, 13mo ... ..... u td 

— Satires and Epistles of Horace, School Edition, 12mo ........ 5».' 

— Library Edition of the Works of Horace, Svo 21g" 

— Latin Gradus, post Svo. 9s. or with Appendix ............... 12#, 

London, LONGMANS & CO. 

The French Language. 

Cassal's French Genders, fcp. Nearly ready. 

Cassal & Karcher's Modern French Anthology, Part I. 3s. fid. Part II. 68. 

— — GraduatedFrench Translation Book, Part I. Ss. 6d. Part II.5». 
Contanseau's Practical French and English Dictionary, post8vo 78. 6d. 

— Pocket French and English Dictionary, square 18mo 38. 6d. 

— Premieres Lectures, 12mo 2s. 6d. 

— First Step in French, 12mo 28. fid. Key 8s. 

— French Grammar, 12mo is. Key 8*. 

Contanseau's Middle-Class French Course, fcp. 8vo. 

Accidence, Sd. 

Syntax, Sd. 

French Conversation-Book, Sd. 

First French Exercise-Book, 8d. 

French Translation-Book, Sd. 
Easy French Delectus, Sd. 
First French Reader, Sd. 
Second French Reader, Sd. 

Second French Exercise-Book, 8c?. | French and English Dialogues, Sd. 
Contanseau's Guide to French Translation, 12mo 38. fid. Key 8e. 6d. 

— Prosateurs et Poetes Francais, 12mo 5s. 

— Precis de la Litterature Francaise, 12mo Ss. fid. 

— Abre^ de l'Histoire de France, 12mo 8s. 6d. 

Merlet's French Grammar, fcp. Svo 5s. fid. 

— French Pronunciation and Accidence, fcp. 38. 6d It™ _j„h. «..» 

— Syntax of the French Grammar, fcp. 3». 6d j- is.ey, price ds. 6d. 

— Le Traducteur, fcp. 8vo. 5s. 6d. 

— Stories for French Writers, fcp. 8vo. 28. 

— Apercu de la Litte>ature Francaise. fcp. 8vo 2s. fid. 

— Exercises in French Composition, fcp. 8vo 8s. fid. 

— French Synonymes, fcp. 8vc 2s. fid. 

— Synopsis of French Grammar, fcp. 8vo 2s-6ci. 

°rendergast's Mastery Series, French, 12mo 2s. fid. 

Sewell's Contes Faciles, crown Svo „. 3s. 6d. 

Che Stepping-Stone to French Pronunciation, 18mo Is. 

^ouvestre's Philosophe sous les Stievenard. square 18mo 18. fid. 

Stievenard's Lectures Franchises from Modern Authors, 12mo 4s. fid. 

— Rules and Exercises on the French Language, 12mo Ss. 6d. 

Tarver's Eton French Grammar, 12mo „ 6s. fid. 

German, Spanish, Hebrew, Sanskrit, 

Benfev's Sanskrit-English Dictionary, medium 8vo 52s. 6<J. 

,'ilackiey's Practical German & English Dictionary, post 8vo 7s. 6d. 

Buchheim's German Poetry, for Repetition, 18mo Nearly ready. 

Oollis's Card of German Irregular Verbs, 8vo „ .. 2s. 

Fischer-Fischart's Elementary German Grammar, fcp. 8vo 2s. fid. 

Just's German Grammar, 12mo Is. 6d. 

— German Reading Book, 12mo _ 8s. fid. 

Kalisch'6 Hebrew Grammar, Svo Part 1. 12s. fid. Key 5s. Part II. 12s. fid. 

Longman's Pocket German & English Dictionary, square 18mo. .. 5s. 

Milne's Practical Mnemonic German Grammar., crown Svo Ss. fid. 

Miiller's (Max) Sanskrit Grammar for Beginners, royal 8vo. 15s. 

Naftel's Elementary German Course for Public Schools, fcp. 8vo. 

German Accidence, 9d. I German Prose Oomposition Book, Sd. 

German Syntax, 9d. First German Reader, 9d. 

First German Exercise-Book, Qd. Second German Reader, 9d. 

Second German Exercise-Book,9cJ. I 
Prendergast's Handbook to the Mastery Series, 12mo 2s. 

— Mastery Series, German, 12mo 2s. fid. 

— Manual of Spanish, 12mo 2s. 6d. 

— Manual of Hebrew, crown 8 vo 2s.6<J. 

Wintzer's First German Book for Beginners, fcp. 8vo 88. fid. 

Wirth's German Chit-Chat, crown 8vo 2s. fid. 

London, LONGMANS & CO. 

SpoiHsiroode & Co., Printers, New-street Square, London,