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ZUG MEMORIAL LIBRARY
A BRIEF HISTORY
WITH SPECIAI. REFERENCE TO THE GROWTH AND DEVEL-
OPMENT OF ITS INSTITUTIONS, DESIGNED
FOR THE SCHOOIv AND HOME.
ISRAEL SMITH CLARE.
Teacher uf History in the MUlersville State Normal School.
ZUG MEMORIAL LIBRARY
PUBLISHED BY THE
ARGUS PUBLISHING COMPANY
Iv AN CASTER, PA.,
Copyrighted, 1891, by
THE ARGUS PUBI.ISHING COMPANY,
TN teaching the history of the United States, I have
-*- found that Pennsylvania students are lacking in
knowledge of their own Commonwealth, and that there
is even greater lack of intelligence concerning the
county to which they belong.
This has enabled me to understand and appreciate
the demand that has come from the teachers and other
persons officially connected with the schools of Lan-
caster county, for a history of the county which shall
be available for the school and the family.
Lancaster county is one that demands attention and
interest, because of its rich material resources, its large
population, and its historical associations.
Then, too, being one of the portions of Pennsylvania
that was earliest settled, when emigration to ' 'the West' '
began, the people seemed to feel that the population
was crowding here ; and with an inherited hardihood
and enterprise many of them became the pioneers of
the nearer and more remote Western States, and we
think it is not exaggeration to say that there is hardly
a State or Territory included within our great domain
which has not a representative from this county.
It is also honorably represented in almost every de-
partment of art, in almost every industry, in science,
and in literature. It has had a fair share of able states-
men and of gallant soldiers, and of hardy naval heroes,
men who have shed lustre upon its past arid who are
fit exemplars for the youth of to-day.
All these things considered, we have abundant reason
to expect this county to take and maintain a leadership
in both material and intellectual affairs.
A better knowledge of its history we feel assured
would have a tendency to excite an appreciation of its
importance, and thus tend to arouse a stronger local
patriotism, something most devoutly to be wished ; for
while a man's patriotism should not be hemmed in by
county or by State lines, but should reach to the utmost
bounds of his Nation, yet there is due to his narrower
domain of neighborhood a good share of his patriotic
It is of these apparently smaller interests that he is
the special custodian. A fidelity in guarding and car-
ing for these is fair evidence that he will be faithful in
guarding larger and greater ones. If the man best fitted
to fill a township office is elected to fill that office, the
offices of the county and State will most likely be filled
with capable men ; and that being so, greater care will
almost of necessity be exercised in the choice of men
to fill our National councils. If men in a neighborhood
are wise enough to elect efficient school directors, they
can most probably be counted upon to cast an inteli-
gent vote for the Nation's Chief Magistrate, and thus
give the people a wise and intelligent National adminis-
This brief preface indicates the object of this book,
which the editor hopes may contribute something to-
ward the attainment of the purpose at which it aims.
vSTATE NORMAI. SCHOOIv,
Millersville, Pa., April i, 1892.
Table of Contents.
The Indian.— The Tribes ; Their Character ; Their Wars. i
The Indian Trader. — His Character ; His Life 26
First vSetti.ers. — Settlements and Their Progress. ... 45
Early Mode of Life 83
Before the French and Indian War. — Organization
of the County, and Erection of Townships 108
During the French and Indian War. — Dealings With
the Delawares and Shawanese 135
During the Revolution 151
After the Revolution 163
VI TABIvE OF CONTENTS.
During thk Civii, War and Since 174
AgricuIvTure. — Indian Farming; Later Farming; The
Education. — History of the Early Schools, and of the
Public Schools and Higher Institutions 195
Early Printing 230
Biography. — Weiser, Ross, Hand,Yeates, Shippen, Mifflin,
Snyder, Muhlenberg, Ramsay, Fulton, Murray, Bu-
chanan, Stevens, Reynolds, Heintzelman, Forney,
Cameron, Bowman, Nevin, Atlee, Burrowes, Beck,
Haldeman, RathvOn, Wickersham, 240
Manufactures, Banking, Etc., 275
Natural History. — Geology ; Flora ; Fauna 280
Indian Legends 3^3
List of Illustrations.
1. Black Jasper Spear, , 15
2. Greenstone Pipe, 22
3. Brown Jasper Arrow-point, 24
4. Grooved Granite Axe, 25
5. CoNESTOGA Team, 91
6. POSTLEWAIT'S TaVERN, II7
7. House of Martin Mylin, 127
8. The Old Jail, 145
9. The Old Court House, 158
10. Washington Hotel 162
11. George Ross, 242
12. Rev. G. H. E. Muhlenberg, 246
13. Robert Fulton, 249
14. James Buchanan, 251
15. Thaddeus Stevens, 252
16. Gen. J. F. Reynolds 254
17. Dr. J. L. Atlee, 261
18. Thomas H. Burrowes, 262
19. John Beck, 263
20. J. P. WiCKERSHAM, 268
21. Locust Borer, 297
22. Tobacco Moth, Worm, and Chrysalis, .... 299
1. Pennsylvania Before the Organization of
THE County, 44
2. Lancaster County, 1892, 94
3. Lancaster County, 1729, 109
TRIBES IN THE LOCALITY, AND CHIEFS AND SACHEMS.
T ANCASTER COUNTY is rich in Indian tradi-
•^ tions. This fertile and well-wooded country,
wnth its abundance of wild animals in the forests
and fish in the streams, attracted the Indians to this
locality. The Sitsqiiehaitnocks^ afterwards called
Mhigoes or Conestogas^ whose chief seat was in the
present Manor township, were the most important
tribe within the limits of the present Lancaster
county, and their best-known chief was Captain
Civility. The place where the Conestogas had their
last home is still called Indiantozvn. The next
important tribe were the Shaiuanese, who came
here from the South in William Penn's time,
lived here half a century, and then moved to the
West. While in this locality their chief seat was
Pequehan, where the Pequea creek empties
into the Susquehanna river. They also had
two towns on the Octoraro, one a few miles
above the present village of Christiana, and
the other several miles below the site of
that village. The greatest sachem of the Shawa-
nese while at Pequehan was Opessah. The Conoys
were a small tribe located at the mouth of Conoy
Z BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
creek. The Delawares, from the Delaware river,
and the Nanticokes^ from the eastern shore of Ches-
apeake bay, roamed over these parts to hunt and
fish, but had no towns here.
INDIAN MODE OF LIFE HERE.
The Indians here lived on the flesh of wild ani-
mils which they killed in the forest, especially the
deer and the bear, and on the fish which they
caught in the streams, as well as on Indian
corn and the few vegetables which they raised.
They lived in villages consisting of collections of
rude wigwams made of poles and covered with
skins and the bark and leaves of trees. They
dressed in the skins of beasts during winter, and
went almost naked in summer. After the whites
settled among them they changed their mode of
life slightly, and began to wear clothes and made
attempts at farming. But they were miserably poor.
As their hunting-grounds were reduced by the
white settlements, many of them begged their
living from farm house to farm house. They sold
willow baskets and brooms to the white settlers,
but spent most of the money they earned for rum.
INDIAN LANDMARKS, AND INDIAN GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES.
There were Indian burying-grounds in many
places throughout what is now Lancaster county.
There are Indian hieroglyphics, or picture-writ-
ings, on the rocks in the Susquehanna river, a
little below Safe Harbor. The influence of the
Indians upon the geographical nomenclature of our
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 3
county is seen in the names of the streams here,
large and small. The Susquehanna river derives its
name from the Susquehannock Indians. The Con-
estoga and Little Conestoga creeks are named after
the Conestoga Indians, and the Conoy creek after
the Conoy Indians. The Pequea creek derived its
name from the Shawanese town of Pequehan, at the
mouth of that stream. The Big Chickies and Lit-
tle Chickies creeks are names contracted from the
Indian word Chickesalunga^ the name which the
Indians gave those streams. Octoraro, Conowingo,
Conewago and Cocalico are also Indian names.
FIRST CONTACT WITH THE WHITES AND CIVIL AUTHORITIES.
The first contact of the Indians with the whites
was when the white Indian traders came among
them almost two hundred years ago, and when the
white settlers came here soon afterward. They
traded with these and with the w^hite settlers, giv-
ing skins, furs, venison and fish in exchange for
clothes, bread and other kinds of food. Their first
contact with the civil authorities was when they
took part in the Indian treaty with William Penn
at Shackamaxon, on the site of Philadelphia, in
1682, and their treaties with Governors Keith and
Gordon of Pennsylvania, at the Conestoga Indian
Town, in the present Manor township, at different
times from 1718 to 1728.
THEIR ROVING CHARACTER.
The Indians who occupied the territory em-
braced within the limits of the present Lancaster
4 BRIKF HISl'ORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
county were nomadic in their character, as were
the Indians of every other portion of the United
States. It has been asserted that no tribe had a
permanent home in any one place for a period
of half a century, except, perhaps, the Susque-
hannocks, who lived at the old Indian town in
Manor township as early as 1608, when Captain
John Smith, the celebrated Virginia pioneer,
entered the mouth of the Susquehanna river.
The Shawanese, an Algonquin tribe, wandered
from place to place, like the Arabs, and were a
brave and warlike race, but perfidious and treach-
erous. Their base conduct toward other Indian
tribes and toward the white people caused them to
be despised and hated wherever they went. They
migrated from the Ohio to Alabama, theuec to
Georgia, where they soon became involved in war
with the Catawbas and the Cherokees. They
finally came north to save the remnant of their
nation from total extinction.
THE SHAWANESE AT PEQUEA.
The Shawanese came as far north as the Poto-
mac, whence they sent some of their chiefs to the
Susquehannock Indians and to Philadelphia to ask
permission from William Penn to locate near the
Susquehannocks, who became responsible for their
good behavior. In 1697 sixty Shawanese families
came from the Potomac, and the nation gradually
followed in the same direction, locating near the
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 5
mouth of thePequea creek, where they remained
thirty-four years, and where their sachem Opessah
and his successor resided.
ON THE OCTORARO AND SHAWANESE RUN.
The Shawanese did not stay together in one
place, but split and scattered in various directions.
There was a Shawanese town in Sadsbury towil-
ship, on the Octoraro, about two miles above the
site of Christiana. There was also a Shawanese
town on the same stream just below the site of
Christiana. The same nation had a town along
Shawanese Run, on the site of Columbia, which
remained until several years after the English set-
tlers, Wright, Barber and Blunston, had estab-
lished themselves there.
THEIR TREACHEROUS CHARACTER.
The vShawanese mingled with the early settlers,
and appeared to be on good terms with them ; but
their small war parties would leave stealthily in
the night, and travel hundreds of miles to strike
an enemy in the distant South. They generally
brought something back with them, often inducing
negro slaves in Virginia to go with them. When
the Governor or Council of Pennsylvania, or the
Conestoga Indians, questioned them about their
conduct, they professed to be very innocent, assur-
ing them that they had kept all their treaties with
" Onas" (William Penn) and with their cousins,
the Delawares and the Conestogas. The colonial
6 BRIEF HISTORY OF IvANCASTKR COUNTY.
authorities and the neighboring Indian tribes pro-
fessed to believe what the Shawanese said in their
presence, but were not able to conceal their fears
when they did not see them. The proprietors of
Pennsylvania expended vast sums of money to
win them to their cause, but were unable to do so.
The Penns could not win these wayward and
treacherous savages by cajolery, or by promises of
land, or by constant presents of goods. Many
years were wasted in trying to secure their friend-
ship, even after they had murdered many of the
THE CHARTIERES AND JESSUP.
Martin Chartiere and Joseph Jessup, French
Canadian traders, established trading posts with the
Shawanese Indians at Pequea. Jessup remained
there only a few years, and then removed more
than a hundred miles up the Susquehanna; and a
few Shawanese families moved to the same place
about the same time. Jessup spoke the Shawanese
and Delaware languages, and often acted as inter-
preter at councils when treaties were made with
these Indians. Chartiere married an Indian squaw,
probably of the Shawanese tribe. Several years be-
fore his death, which occurred in 1708, he removed
his trading-post to a point about a mile above the
"Indian Fort," in Manor township. His son,
Peter Chartiere, married a Shawanese squaw, and
induced the most warlike portion of the tribe to
join the French against the English during the
French and Indian War of 1754-1763.
BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 7
GOVERNOR EVANS AT PEQUEHAN AND CONESTOGA.
On June 27, 1707, Governor John Evans, of
Pennsylvania, with Messrs. French, Mitchell, Biz-
aillon, Gray and four servants, left New Castle,
Delaware, and reached the Octoraro creek the next
morning. The Shawanese met them there and
presented the Governor with some skins. The same
night the Governor and his party arrived at Peque-
han, the Indian town, and were received at Martin
Chartiere's by Opessah, their sachem, and some
chiefs, who took them to their town, where they
were received with a salute of fire-arms. On Mon-
day the Governor and his party proceeded to the
Conestoga Indian town, and there met delegations
of the Shawanese, the Senequois, the Ganawese,
or Canoise, and the Nanticokes. These Shawa-
nese were near the Indian town at Pequea, but
belonged to several towns at the mouth of the
Juniata and further up that river.
GOVERNOR EVANS AT PEQUEHAN.
On the 30th (June, 1707) the Governor re-
returned to Pequehan, and was there received by
Opessah, who spoke in behalf of the youth of the
town. The Governor remained there a few days,
during which several Shawanese families arrived
from Carolina, where 450 Flathead Indians had
besieged their town. Peter Bizaillon, who was
present, informed the Governor that the Shawa-
nese in the South had killed several white people.
5 BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY.
GOVERNOR EVANS AT CONESTOGA.
On July ist (1707) the Governor and his party
went to Conestoga, where they remained all night.
The next day they went to within three miles of
Paxtang village. Martin Chartiere, who was with
the party, went into the town and brought Joseph
Jessup and James Le Tort back with him. Nichole
Godin, a French Canadian Indian trader, who had
no license, was then and there arrested and taken
THE GOVERNOR'S OFFER TO THE SHAWANESE.
In June, 1709, the Governor offered each of the
young Shawanese warriors a gun if they would
join an English expedition against the French in
Canada, but the Shawanese declined his offer.
OPESSAH'S ABSENCE. -HIS SUCCESSOR.
In 171 1 Opessah left his tribe, and remained
absent from them for more than three years. On
his return he gave out that he had been hunting
game; but he really was spending his time among
the Delawares, then located along the Brandywine.
In October, 17 14, the Shawanese chose a new
sachem in place of Optssah^named Ca kundawanna.
On June 22, 1715, Opessah appeared before the
Governor and his Council in behalf of his tribe ;
but he was never reinstated in his old position, and
he gradually sunk out of notice. His speeches and
bearing at several councils showed that he was a
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. \)
man of some talent. He was frank in speech and
seemingly friendly to the whites, but he gave bad
advice to his tribe.
THOMAS CHALKLEY AND GOVERNOR KEITH VISIT THE
SHAWANESE AND CONESTOGAS.
In 1 715 Thomas Chalkley, a Quaker English-
man, visited the Shawanese and Conestoga towns,
where he preached to the Indians. Governor Wil-
liam Keith, of Pennsylvania, visited the Shawa-
nese and held a conference with them and other
Indians at Conestoga, July 18, 1717, and also in
JAMES LOGAN AT CONESTOGA.
James Logan also held a conference with the
Indians at the same place, in 1720, and denounced
the French Jesuits for inducing the Indians to take
sides with the French in their wars against the
English. Bizaillon, Le Tort, Chartiere and Jes-
sup — the French Canadian Indian traders — fell
under suspicion, and were arrested and locked up
in jail, but upon giving bail for their good behavior
they were released.
THE SHAWANESE MOVE WEST.
The Governor of Virginia often complained to
Governor Keith of Pennsylvania about the Shawa-
nese for sheltering runaway slaves. They became
more restless under the restraints in which they
were held by the Governor and the Conestogas,
who had become answerable for their good beha-
vior. In May, 1728, they killed two of the Cones-
10 BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY.
togas. In 1 73 1 that part of the Shawanese tribe
which lived within the present limits of I^ancaster
county suddenly stole away at night and encamped
along the Allegheny river. The Governor of Penn-
sylvania and his Council, and also the Conestoga
Indians, were very much alarmed, and tried to coax
them back. John Wright and Samuel Blunston
were sent to the Cumberland Valley to survey and
lay out a reservation for the Shawanese in 1732,
and told them that no white man but Peter Cliar-
tiere, whose wife was a Shawanese squaw, was to
live among them; but the Shawanese could not be
induced to return. The Pennsylvania authorities
then tried to prevent the Indian traders from cross-
ing the Allegheny mountains and trading with
them, but they also failed in that undertaking.
THE SHAWANESE AND THE SIX NATIONS.
In 1735 the Six Nations of Indians in New York,
who many years before that time had compelled
the Shawanese along the Allegheny river to
behave themselves, or leave that hunting-ground,
tried to urge them to return east of the Allegheny
mountains, but failed in the effort. As the Six
Nations were not satisfied with the Shawanese
they sent out a chief to talk with them. A
Shawanese tribe, consisting of thirty young men
and ten old men, and several women and children,
murdered this chief and fled to the South, the place
from which they had come to settle on the Poto-
mac. A few of the Shawanese returned to the
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 11
the Cumberland Valley. In 1737 there were 130
Shawanese living along the Susquehanna.
SHAWANESE WARFARE WITH THE WHITES IN THE WEST.
For nearly half a century the Shawanese along
the Ohio were engaged in almost constant war
with the whites. They were the most active allies
of the French against the English during the
French and Indian War, and after the English
conquest of Canada they joined with the Dela-
wares in their hostilities, which were only ended
after General Bouquet's successful campaign in
1764. The white settlers who crossed the Alle-
gheny mountains and were pressing forward to
the Ohio river had to fight the perfidious Shaw-
anese all the way. Accounts of their bloody
deeds fill the Western annals. Their losses on
account of their constant wars were made good by
recruits from other hostile tribes. The weakness
of the English colonial authorities in dealing with
these treacherous savages cost the lives of thou-
sands of whites. The Shawanese have given their
name to more places in the United States than
any other Indian tribe, split into more fragments
than any other, changed their places of abode
more frequently, and were the most treacherous of
all the savage tribes of this country.
THE GAWANESE OR CONOYS.
The Gawanese migrated from Piscataway to an
island in the Potomac river, whence their sachem
and chiefs went to Philadelphia in 1698 to see
\2 BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
William Penii and get his permission to settle in
Pennsylvania. Penn allowed them to do so, and
they returned and brought their entire tribe with
them to Conejohala, the site of the present borough
of Washington, where they built a town on the
land now owned by Mr. Staman. After remaining
there several years they asked and obtained
permission to move farther up the Susquehanna
river, and settled on the land now owned by John
Haldeman, a little below the mouth of Conoy creek.
This tribe was also known as Canoise, or Conoys,
whence the creek took its name. They were also
called Nanticokes, and were probably an offshoot
of the Nanticokes proper, as they came from the
eastern part of Maryland. This tribe was small,
and was under the control of the Six Nations.
They were generally peaceful, and were wholly
surrounded by Indian traders, who found it profit-
able to trade with them. Like the Shawanese,
they were nomadic ; but becoming dissatisfied
when game became scarce and white settlers in
Donegal township encroached upon their hunting-
ground, they asked and obtained permission to
move farther up the river. In 1743 they removed
to Shamokin, now Sunbury, and asked the
proprietors of Pennsylvania to pay them for the
land which they had given up in Conoy. Treaties
with the whites were made in their town, and
their chiefs took part in treaties made with the
whites at Conestoga, Lancaster and Philadelphia ;
BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTB^R COUNTY. 13
but their tribe had little influence, and before
many years they were heard of no more.
The Delawares carried on a bloody war with the
Iroquois, or Six Nations ; but being conquered
they became their dependents. The Six Nations
selected one of their own chiefs to rule over the
Delawares. The greatest of these was the Ca-
vuea chief, Shikellimv, the father of the famous
Western chief, Logan. Shikellimy was an able
man, and was a true friend of the whites all his
life ; but he could not control the whole tribe,
and they gave much trouble to the whites.
Penn bought all their lands, but they acted
as though they were dissatisfied and wanted their
lands as well as the presents they received for
them, and were always asking for more. Pem-
berton and several other English Quakers listen-
ed to their falsehoods, and this gave the pro-
prietors of Pennsylvania much trouble. Their
dealings with the Connecticut people caused much
trouble all around. The Six Nations treated them
as women, and did not allow them to be heard
in their councils. A part of the Delawares located
along the Brandywine, whence small bands of the
tribe moved to the streams in the present Lancas-
ter county, and after staying here several years
they settled near the Shawanese, with whom they
traveled on the war-path, partaking of their treach-
erous character. The Delawares called themselves
Le7tni Lenapes^ or the "Original People."
14 BRIK^ HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
The Nanticokes located upon the eastern shores
of Chesapeake bay. They were quite numerous,
but were subdued by the more powerful Six
Nations, who made them their vassals. They
were allowed to move to Tulpehocken valley, and
remained there until 1721, when the large settle-
ment of Germans which came from New York
made them restless, and many of the tribe moved
to Cocalico township in lyancaster county, settling
along "Indian River" at the place known as
"Indian Town." As late as 1758, there were
still several scattered families of the tribe along
the little streams and springs in that vicinity.
The town covered 500 acres, which came into the
possession of John Wistar and Henry Carpenter.
Another part of the Nanticoke tribe had a town
upon the land now owned by Levi S. Reist, called
"Ivchoy." That land was also bought from the
Penn family by John Wistar. The Nanticokes
understood the English language, and they there-
fore mingled with the white settlers, with whom
they were friendly. They afterward moved up the
West Branch of the Susquehanna. The Nanti-
cokes and Gawanese spoke a kindred language.
At the time of their greatest power they were
constantly obliged to act on the defensive against
their more powerful neighbors, the Susquehan-
nocks, afterward called the Conestogas, who sent
out small war parties to kill the Nanticoke hun-
ters, whom they found in the woods away from
their principal towns.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
The Susquehannocks were once the most power-
ful and aggressive of 'all the Indian tribes along
the Susquehanna river and Chesapeake bay. They
conquered the weaker tribes, but they did not
absorb them or form a confederation like the Six
Nations of New York, and force their enemies to
pay tribute every year or to furnish young war-
riors to recruit their war parties. The Susque-
hannocks were strictly a warlike and hunting
nation, and failed to adapt themselves to agricul-
ture even after an intercourse with the white set-
tlers for more than a century and a-half.
CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH AND THE SUSQUEHANNOCKS.
Captain John Smith, the celebrated Virginia
pioneer, during one of his ex-
ploring tours, reached the head
of Chesapeake bay, and there
met a hunting party of Susque-
hannocks. He described them
as taller and more muscular than
any other Indians whom he had
seen. He made a map of the
shores of the Chesapeake and
the streams flowing into it, and
also drew a picture of a Susque-
hannock chief. The Indians
met Smith's party with skins. Black Ja^^^p ear, from
i_ j^ J 1 -I Manor Township.
bows, arrows, targets, beads, size, 6x/x2f^ inches,
spears and tobacco-pipes for presents.
16 BRIKI^ HISTORY OI^ I.ANCASTKR COUNTY.
CAPTAIN SMITH'S DESCRIPTION.
In describing the Susquehannock chief, Captain
Smith said that "the calves of his legs were three-
quarters of a yard about, and all the rest of his
limbs so answerable to that proportion, and he
seemed the goodliest man I ever saw." * * *
"They seemed like giants, and were the strangest
people in all these countries, both in language and
attire ; their language well becomes their propor-
tions, sounding from them as a voice in a vault.
Their attire is the skins of bears and wolves, some
have cassocks made of bears' heads, and skins
that a man's head goes through the skin's neck,
and the ears of the bear fastened to his shoulder,
the nose and teeth hanging down his breast,
another bear's face split behind him, and at the
end of their nose hung a paw, the half-sleeves com-
ing to the elbows, where the neck of bears and the
arms through the mouth, with paws hanging at
their noses. One had the head of a wolf hanging
in a chain for a jewel, his tobacco-pipe, three-
quarters of a yard long, prettily carved, with a
bird, a deer, or some such device at the great end
sufficient to beat out one's brains, with bows,
arrows and clubs suitable to their greatness."
FINDING LARGE SKELETONS.
Captain Smith's account of the gigantic stature
of the Susquehannock.s has been corroborated by
subsequent discoveries. This tribe had a small
stockade on the Susquehanna river at the mouth
BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 17
of the Octoraro. The foundations of the bridofe
across the Octoraro at this point were excavated
when the Columbia & Port Deposit Railruad was
constructed, and very large human skeletons were
then and there found.
SUSQUEHANNOCK FORT IN MANOR.
In Captian Smith's time the Susquehannocks
mustered 600 warriors. They had a stockade fort
upon the land now owned by John H. Wittmer,
about halfway between Wittmer's Mill and Strick-
ler's Run, at the foot of Turkey Hill, in Manor
township. This fort was large enough to protect
their entire tiibe, along with their warriors.
SUSQUEHANNOCK WARFARE WITH THE SIX NATIONS.
The Susquehannocks roamed over the forests as
far north as the St. Lawrence river and Lake
Champlain, and often skirmished with the Iroquois,
or Six Nations, who protected their towns by
stockades. After a warfare of a century with the
Six Nations, the Susquehannocks were conquered
and their tribe broken up by the Cayugas and Sen-
ecas, two of the Six Nations.
FUR TRADE ON THE CHESAPEAKE.
The Susquehannocks ceded to the English all
the land on the eastern shore of the Chesapeake
and about the head of that bay. Very soon the fur
trade with the Susquehannocks became so great
and profitable that a number of Englishmen set-
tled on Kent Island, in the Chesapeake; but wlien
18 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY,
they discovered the greed of the English traders
they refused to trade with them and broke up
THE SUSQUEHANNOCKS AND THE MARYLANDERS.
In 1630 William Clayborne, a member of the
Virginia Council, established a trading-post on
Kent Island; but soon afterward a body of Eng-
lishmen called " Pilgrims " bought the island from
the Yoacomacoes Indians, who were constantly
annoyed by the Susquehannocks, who ravaged
their country. Clayborne instigated the Susque-
hannocks to make war on the " Pilgrim " settlers.
The "Pilgrims" made war on Clayborne, who
had rebelled against Lord Baltimore, the founder
of Maryland, but who was finally defeated in 1637
and arrested for high treason. In 1642 he returned
and recaptured Kent Island and drove Governor
Calvert, of Maryland, to' Virginia.
ALLIANCE WITH MARYLAND.
The Susquehannocks frequently attacked the
Yoacomacoes and the Massawomekes, another war-
like tribe along the Chesapeake, and also gave the
Maryland colony at St. Mary's constant trouble;
but they were finally obliged to use all their
strength to defend themselves against the attacks
of the Six Nations from New York, who invaded
their country. On July 5, 1652, the Susquehan-
nocks made a treaty of alliance, offensive and
defensive, with the Maryland colony, on the site
of Annapolis, the Susquehannocks ceding to the
BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTER COUNTY. 19
Marylanders all the land from the Patuxent river
to Kent Island, on the western side of the Chesa-
peake bay, and from the Choptauk river to the
northeast branch and to the north of Elk river, on
the eastern side of the bay.
WAR WITH THE SENEGAS.
In 1661 the Susquehannocks were at war with
the Senecas, one of the Six Nations, who crossed
the Susquehanna many miles above the fort of the
Susquehannocks, and robbed and killed some of
the white settlers. In June, 1664, one of the
Senecas was captured ; and forty Susquehannocks,
who were present at his trial, wanted him burned
as a punishment for his cruelty. In 1664 about
100 Seneca warriors came to the Chesapeake, and
killed several of the Maryland settlers and some
Susquehannocks whom they caught hunting. In
June of that year the Maryland colony declared
war against the Senecas, who went on the war-
path against the Susquehannocks the next year.
The Marylanders, as allies of the Susquehannocks,
sent several expeditions against the Senecas, who
threatened to exterminate both the Susquehan-
nocks and the English settlers of Maryland.
DEFEAT OF THE SENECAS— OVERTHROW OF THE
After the war between the Susquehannocks and
the Senecas had gone on for several years, the
Susquehannocks were hard pressed by their
enemies. The Marylanders became alarmed for
their own safety, and sent an expedition under
20 BRIKF HISTORY 01^ tANCASTE^R COUNTY.
Colonel Ninian Be^ll to the aid of the Susqiiehan-
nocks, Avho were besieged in their fort by the
Senecas. The Marylanders marched np the east
bank of the Snsquehanna river to the town and
fort of the Susqnehannocks in Manor township,
taking several cannon with them. The Senecas
were badly defeated by the Marylanders, who thus
rescued the Susqnehannocks from their peril.
This victory occurred some time between 1675
and 1682. Several years afterwards the Susqne-
hannocks suffered so crushing a defeat from the
Senecas and Cayugas that the tribe was broken
up and scattered.
WILLIAM PENN'S VISIT TO THE SUSQUEHANNOCKS.
THEIR NEW TOW^N.
When William Penn came to Pennsylvania in
1682 he visited the Susqnehannocks at their fort.
After their great defeat and overthrow by the
Senecas and Cayugas, the Susqnehannocks gath-
ered their few remaining warriors, their old men
and their women and children, and left their old fort
on the banks of the Susquehanna, and located on
Turkey Hill, four miles southeast of their former
abode. There was plenty of spring water (it their
new home, and Penn gave them a reservation of
500 acres. The Penns were obliged to furnish a
person to cultivate the land and manage the tribe
until it became extinct. This tract of land caused
the Penn family much expense and trouble while
they owned it.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCAvSTER COUNTY. 21
AFTERWARD CALLED CONESTOGAS.
Although their great defeat by the Senecas and
Cayiigas completely broke their militar}' power,
the Susqiiehannocks, who were called Conestogas
from the time of their settlement in their new
home, continued to exert much influence upon the
neighboring Indian tribes and upon the colonial
authorities of Pennsylvania, until they were exter-
minated in 1763.
THE PENNSYLVANIA AUTHORITIES AND THE CONESTOGAS.
Governors Evans, Gookin, Keith and Logan of
Pennsylvania had conferences with the Conestogas
at their new town, and William Penn again visited
them in 1700. In 1710 the tribe was ruled by a
female. The Conestogas afterwards lived as vaga-
bonds, begging from farm-house to farm-house.
Their only articles of trade were brooms and
willow baskets. All the money they received they
spent for rum. They were constantly begging
the colonial authorities for clothing and moccasins.
They wandered through the community bare-
footed, and many of them had no clothing except
a breechclout, while many went to Philadelphia
naked. To keep them from starving, James
Wright, who lived in the stone house on Second
street in Columbia, was appointed by the Gover-
nor of the colony to furnish them with clothing
and food — a duty which he performed faithfully.
He got the clothing in Philadelphia ; and the
flour which he obtained was made at the "little
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
stone mill " on Shawanese Run, which was torn
down many years ago.
END OF THAT TRIBE.
The account of the sad and melancholy fate of
this once powerful tribe will be related in our
account of the French and Indian War, which
ended in 1763.
INDIAN SITES IN LANCASTER COUNTY.
lyocalities in I^ancaster county where Indian
relics have been found are very numerous. Along
the Susquehanna river shore and on the islands of
the river, along both banks of the Conestoga, the
Pequea, the Octoraro, the Cocalico and other
streams, are the evidences of Indian fishing camps
and burying - grounds. Indian
burying-grounds also existed on
the various hills throughout
the county, as attested by the
numerous relics of stone, bone,
shell and clay. Almost every
township in the county is rich
in Indian relics.
The entire Susquehanna shore
and the islands of the river bear
Greenstone Pipe, from evidcUCCS of haviug bcCU the
Strasburg Township. ^^
Size, 3Kx2K Inches, sitcs of ludiau villagcs, fishing
camps or grave-yards. The most important of these
Indian sites on the river in this county are at
Locust Grove and Haldeman's quarries, near Bain-
bridge; at Shoch's Mill, above Marietta; on the
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 23
site of the Shawnee town at Columbia; at several
places between Washington borough and Turkey
Hill; at the mouth of the Pequea, and at other
places along the river.
Indian relics have been found all along the
Conestoga, especially opposite the City Mill and
Water Works, at Fehl's Point and at Rock Hill.
On the Pequea, about a mile above its mouth, the
Indians quarried soapstone for pottery and cooking
Professor Haldeman found many relics in the
cave on Chickies Rock. The great flood of 1889
washed out numerous remains in a number of
ON THE SITE OF LANCASTER CITY.
In the center of what is now Lancaster city was
a favorite hickory tree of the Indians. This tree
stood in front of Gibson's tavern, which was on
the site of the First National Bank, on East
King street. South of Gibson's tavern was a large
spring, walled in in a rough manner by the Indians,
and covered with a large flat stone. The site of
this spring was found in 1882, on Julius Loeb's
property, on South Queen street. That was evi-
dently the site of an Indian camping ground.
Many relics, among which was considerable earth-
enware, have been found. There were many hick-
ory trees between the spring and Roaring Brook,
now W^ater street. The Conestoga Indians mur-
dered by the Paxton Boys, at the old jail, were
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTKR COUNTY.
buried on what is now the property of Henry
Martin, on East Chestnut street.
CHARACTER OF THE INDIAN RELICS.
Among the numerous Indian relics are many
which excite our wonder and interest, because of
the skill and ingenuity displayed
in the rude construction of the
implements and weapons which
the savage aborigines of this
^. beautiful county used in their
everyday life and in their wars
with their enemies. No part of
the country is richer in beautiful
and curious remains of the rude
art of the Red Man than is this
Brown Jasp^rrow- GardcU SpOt of thc old KcyStOUC
Point, from Rapho C^qfp
Size, 2%xi>4 Inches. 'Xhe various kinds of stone of
which many of these relics are composed are flint,
bluestone and #ther kinds of limestone, granite,
jasper, quartz, trap, greenstone, iron stone, sand-
stone, soapstone, slate, etc.
The most numerous of these relics are flint
arrow heads. Among other stone relics are axes,
hammers, tomahawks, cooking vessels, needles,
drills, drilled ceremonial stones, cutting tools, dig-
ging tools, beads, dressing stones, pipes, rolling
pins, grinding and rubbing stones, etc. Soapstone
pipes and soapstone pots have been found.
Among other interesting relics are decorated
BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY.
pottery, scalping knives and other implements of
bone, clay pipes and other clay relics, and copper
remains. Beads made of elass,
elks' teeth, bears' tusks, shell,
bone and stone are also to be
seen in our Indian collections.
Cakes of Indian paint have been
found near Shoch's Mill, above
Marietta. Such are some of the
Indian relics collected from every
ery part of our great county by
our local antiquarians. These
Grooved Ax (Granite), interesting rcmaius are jcon-
from Drumore Township. ^ '
Size, 4 by aVg. stautly bciug fouud by those who
make it their business to look for them. They
are found along our noble streams, on our wo'oded
hills, and on freshly plowed ground. They are
often turned up by the farmer's plow, but are
unobserved by people in general, and are only
noticed by those who are interested in the collec-
tion of such remains of savage art and skill.
THE INDIAN TRADER.
DESCRIPTION OF THE INDIAN TRADER.
^"T^HE Indian Trader was one of the early
frontiersmen who, instead of taking to farming
or trading in the neighborhood in which he lived,
would make long and dangerous journeys into the
wilderness inhabited by the Indians. There, far
from the settlements of the white man, he went
for the purpose of exchanging such wares as were
most likely to take the fancy of the Indian and his
squaw. The Indian women were very much
attracted by the showy trinkets and the goods of
bright colors which the trader would take in his
wagons and display at the far distant Indian vil-
lages. These cheap articles they exchanged for
pelts (skins of all kinds of fur-bearing animals),
giving a small price for the pelts and making a
large profit on their goods. The trader nearly
always carried a liberal supply of rum or whiskey,
of which the Indians, like all savages, were very
fond. Some of the red men would readily trade all
they had for the fire-water. This would oft-times
cause trouble and bring on a fight in wliich some of
the savages would be killed. vSometimes the trader
himself was killed and his stock of goods and
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 27
wagon were taken by the Indians. For this cause
many traders would travel together for mutual pro-
tection ; but even then they were often attacked
by Indian parties, and pitched battles followed in
which some on both sides were killed or wounded.
Many traders went as far as the Ohio long before
there were any wdiite settlers beyond the Alle-
gheny mountains. On these trips they traveled
many hundreds of miles, at the risk of life and
property, for the sake of the rich profits of the
Some of the most prominent traders of this
county, and indeed of Pennsylvania, were Scotch-
Iri^h from w^hat is now Donegal township. These
were followed closely by the German settlers, both
of whom established trading-posts beyond the
white settlements. Many of these posts were
located at or near Indian villages, along the rivers,
or on Indian trails or pathways through the for-
ests. The traders in many cases were the most
prominent and influential men of colonial times.
SCOTCH-IRISH IN DONEGAL.
That adventurous class of whites during the col-
onial period who were known as Indian traders,
and wdio established themselves on the outskirts
of civilization, made Lancaster county a prolific
field for their operations, and their influence was
most powerfully felt in moulding popular sentiment
among the frontier settlers. The region which
became Donegal township was the nursery of most
28 BRlKF HISO^ORV 6^ tANCAS'feR COUNTY.
of these traders, who were mainly Scotch-Irish;
and Scotch-Irish Presbyterians followed up the
traders and pressed the Indians beyond the Alle-
gheny mountains. The Germans of the Lutheran
and Reformed denominations kept on the right
flank of the Scotch-Irish from Big Chickies creek,
where it entered Lebanon township. The left
flank of the Scotch-Irish pushed across the Sus-
quehanna river as far south as the Maryland line.
When the traders moved their stations to the Yel-
low Breeches Creek and Conecocheague, the van of
the Scotch-Irish pioneers pressed on and occupied
the Cumberland Valley. The pioneer Indian tra-
ders within the territory embraced in the present
limits of Lancaster county were French Canadians,
who had first located along the Schuylkill and the
FRENCH CANADIAN TRADERS.
The CharTierES. — Martin Chartiere, one of
the most noted of these French Canadian traders,
and who married an Indian squaw, established his
permanent residence with the Shawanese Indians
when they came from the south and settled at Pequea
creek. He spoke the language of the Delaware
Indians flueatly, and obtained much influence with
the savages. The Shawanese chief, Logan, desired
to be on peaceful terms with him, and tried to
gain his friendship. The loan commissioners, who
were the Penns' agents for the sale of their lands,
gave him a vast tract of land extending from the
mouth of the Conestoga creek several miles up the
feRIKF HISTORY OF^ I.ANCASTBR COUNTY. 29
Susquehanna. He built his trading-post, and at
last settled upon the farm afterwards owned by
the Stamans, at or near where they built a saw-
mill, in Washington borough. He died there in
1708. A message announcing Chartiere's death
was sent to Chief Logan, who attended his funeral.
He left all his property to his only son, Pierre
Chartiere, who also married a Shawanese squaw.
Pierre sold his farm in Manor to Stephen Atkin-
son in 1727, and moved to the mouth of Yellow
Breeches Creek, thence to Conecocheague, and
thence to the Ohio. He joined the Shawanese
Indians against the English during the French and
Indian War. He gave the English and the pro-
prietors of Pennsylvania much trouble during his
BiZAiLLox. — Pierre Bizaillon, also a French
Canadian, established a trading-post near the
Schuylkill, but soon settled permanently in East
Cain township, in Chester county. His trading-
post was among the Paxtang Indians. In I7i9his
wife Martha obtained a patent for 700 acres of land
in Donegal township, a little below Conoy creek,
adjoining the Conoy Indian town. She sold this
land to the Brennemans and Hesses. Pierre Bizail-
lon died in 1740 at a great age. His wife died
several years later. Both were members of the
Church of England.
Le Tort. — Jacques Le Tort, another French
Canadian, first located on the Brandywine, but
afterwards established a trading-post at the Conoy
30 BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANCAvSTER COUNTY.
Indian town. His wife took up 900 acres of land
in Donegal township, at Sparks' Mill, which after-
wards came into the possession of the Groves, the
Zieglers and the Stehmans. Le Tort moved to the
spring bearing his name near Carlisle, in Cumber-
land county. He afterwards moved to the forks of
the North and West Branches of the Susquehanna,
where he established a store. Both Le Tort and
Bizaillon often made trading trips to the Ohio and
Mississippi rivers, being absent sometimes for a
year or two.
ENGLISH AND SCOTCH-IRISH TRADERS.
The Cartridges. — Edmund Cartlidge and his
brother John were English Quakers who traded
with the Indians. Edmund was a Justice of the
Peace for Chester county several years before the
organization of Lancaster county. He settled on
the west side of Conestoga creek near its mouth,
near the Conestoga Indian town. Several Indian con-
ferences were held at his house. His brother John
settled several miles east of the Conestoga. While
they were at the Monocacy, in Maryland, they
killed an intoxicated Indian, who had attacked them
because they refused to give him more rum. They
were imprisoned for this affair, but were released
at the intercession of the Indians themselves. They
never wholly recovered the public confidence, but
remained at the Conestoga for twenty years.
James Patterson. — James Paterson, a Scotch-
Irishman, located a mile back of Martin Chartiere,
BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTER COUNTY. 31
along the northern border of Conestoga Manor,
in 1717, and there established a trading-post. He
took up several hundred acres of land in Conejo-
hera valley, on the west side of the Susquehanna
river, and there kept the pack-horses with which he
used to bring the peltries which he bought from the
Indians along the Potomac river. Some of this
land was cleared for grazing purposes. Patterson's
Indian trade west of the river was broken up by
the border struggle between the Pennsylvanians
and the ^Marylanders, called Cresap" s War.
James Patterson died at his home in the ]\Ianor
in 1735, before the end of these border troubles.
He gave his son James 300 acres of land along the
Conecocheague, in the Cumberland Valley, whence
James moved after his father's death. James was
the father of Colonel William Patterson, who set-
tled at Lewistown, on the Juniata, and who was a
prominent officer in the French and Indian War,
and also in the War of the Revolution. William's
son Robert married Sarah Shippen, daughter of
Robert Shippen. ]\Ir. Patterson, the late superin-
tendent of the Safe Harbor iron- works, is a descen-
dant of Robert Patterson. The elder James Pat-
terson's son Thomas died in his minority. He had
three daughters — Susanna, who married James
Lowry, an Indian trader, who lived in Donegal
township; vSarah, who married Benjamin Cham-
bers, the founder of Chambersburg; and Rebecca,
who married John Keagy, who bought the inter-
est of her mother and sisters in the old mansion
farm, now the property of Jacob B. Shuman.
32 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
John Harris. — John Harris, a Quaker and a
native of Yorkshire, England, was a noted Indian
trader. He first intended to settle near the mouth
of Conoy creek, not far from the site of Bainbridge.
He was the first white settler at Paxton, the site
of Harrisburg, where he established his trading-
post in 1 719. He was also the first person who
introduced the plow on the Susquehanna, within
the limits of the present Dauphin county. An
interesting incident occurred in his life at Paxton.
On one occasion, a band of Indians, who had been
down the river on a trading excursion, came to his
house, most of them being intoxicated. They
asked for more rum; but, as they were already
very much intoxicated, he refused to give them
more. They became enraged, and tied him to a
mulberry tree to burn him alive; but other
Indians of the neighborhood came to his rescue,
and released him after a struggle. In remembrance
of that event, he afterward directed that on his
death he should be buried under the shade of that
mulberry tree. He died in 1748, and was buried
there, as were some of his children. The title to
the grave-yard, to the extent of fifteen feet square,
was secured for the family. The Rev. John Elder
said of John Harris: " He was as honest a man as
ever broke bread." His son, John Harris, the foun-
der of Harrisburg, was born on the site of that
city in 1726, and was the first white child born in
Pennsylvania west of the Conewago hills. He was
a colonel in the American army during the Revo-
lution, and died in 1791, aged 65.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 33
Peter Allen. — Peter iVllen, an English Indian
trader, settled on the north side of Chickies creek,
in 1718 ; bnt several years later sold his land to
the Rev. James Anderson, a Scotch-Irish Presby-
terian preacher, who sold it to William Wilkins,
an English Indian trader, and who moved to the
the eastern base of the mountains above Harris-
Jonas Davenport. — Jonas Davenport, who
located at Conoy creek in 1718, was one of the
first three English Indian traders who crossed the
Allegheny mountains to trade with the Indians on
the Ohio. He suffered great losses from hostile
Indians. He lost many of his old friends by ill-
treating an apprentice, and finally lost all his
property and died poor at Patrick Campbell's tav-
ern, near Conoy creek.
Robert Wilkins. — Robert Wilkins, an English
Indian trader, first settled along the Conestoga
creek, next to Richard Carter, who afterward
moved farther up the creek. In 1718 Wilkins took
up 200 acres of land along the Susquehanna river,
and in 1727 he sold it to the Rev. James x\nderson,
whose descendants founded the town of Marietta
William Wilkins.— William Wilkins was first
"bound out" to Edmund Cartlidge, and was pres-
ent w^hen Cartledge killed the drunken Indian at
the Monocacy. Soon afterward he bought the Allen
tract near Chickies and began to trade for himself
34 BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY.
with the Indians of the Shenandoah valley, in Vir-
ginia. He moved to Peters township, in Cumber-
land county, where he died, leaving three sons —
James, Robert and William.
Janet, the widow of William Wilkins, after-
wards married her first husband's administrator,
Nathaniel Lytic, by whom she had a son named
John. Lytic undertook to convey the Wilkins
property to his son John ; but the heirs of William
Wilkins contested the matter in the courts many
years after their father's death; and Lytic was
compelled to pay James Wilkins, the eldest son of
William, to obtain his release. The Pennsylvania
Assembly passed an act authorizing and legalizing
a sale made by John Lytic to Andrew Hershey.
In 1772 John Lytic removed to Upper Paxtang,
and there established a ferry across the Susque-
Thomas Wii^kins. — Thomas Wilkins took up
150 acres of land on the north side of Robert Wil-
kins' s tract on the site of Marietta, in 1718. This
land was afterwards sold to John Lowry, a Scotch-
Irish Indian trader.
Thomas Wilkins, son of Robert, moved back
several miles from the river and settled near Done-
gal Church. He died in 1746, leaving four chil-
dren — Andrew, John, Mary and Elizabeth.
John Wilkins. — John Wilkins, another son ot
Robert, took up several hundred acres of land
adjoining Gordon Howard's, now in Mount Joy
BRIEF HISTORY OP I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 35
township, on which Nissley's mill is located. He
was one of the first persons who went with the
sheriff's posse to arrest Colonel Thomas Cresap,
but was himself afterward arrested by Cresap, who
took him to Annapolis, in Maryland, where he was
imprisoned. He traded with the Indians along
the Ohio, and died in 1741, leaving two children,
Rachel and John, the latter of whom was born in
Donegal, in 1733. John was also an Indian trader,
and removed to Carlisle in 1763, where he opened
a store in the Indian trade. He was appointed
county lieutenant for Cumberland county during
the War of the Revolution. In 1788 he removed
to Pittsburg, where he died in 1810.
Peter Wilkins, another son of Robert, and
with whom his father lived, died in 1748, and left
three children — William, James and Margaret.
Isaac Miranda. — Isaac Miranda, a Huguenot
Frenchman and an Indian trader, located on the
east bank of Conoy creek, below Ridgeville, in
1 71 5, and died in November, 1732, leaving to his
son George, also an Indian trader, a large tract of
land along the Rahway river in New Jersey, and
to his son Samuel 500 acres in Donegal township,
while to his daughter Mary he left several houses
in Philadelphia, and to James Hamilton, Esq., w^ho
laid out the town of Lancaster, he gave several
thousand acres of land in New Jersey and a large
amount of personal property, provided he would
marry his daughter Mary. His brother Joseph
was steward to the Duke of Tuscany.
86 BRI^I^ HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY.
Henry Bealy. — Henry Bealy was one of the
first English Indian traders who crossed the Alle-
gheny monntains to trade with the Indians on the
Ohio. This was in 1727. He died in 1745.
John Burt. — John Burt, an English Indian
trader, first located near the Indian town in Manor,
and traded with the Indians several years before
he took out a license for that purpose in 1726.
Thence he moved to Snaketown (now Harrisburg),
and there established a trading-post and a store.
On Monday, September 11, 1727, he sold rum to
a party of Indians at his store, and in their intoxi-
cation he exasperated them and was forced to flee
for his life ; but Thomas Wright, a drunken Eng-
lishman, was killed by the infuriated Indians — the
first instance of the murder of a white man by the
Indians in Pennsylvania. Burt became intemper-
ate himself, and soon afterward located on the
Samuel Smith. — Samuel Smith, an English
Indian trader and a son of James Smith, also lived
at Conoy, next to Isaac Miranda. He sold his
property to Patrick Campbell.
MoSES Combs. — Moses Combs, an English
Indian trader and a brother of Martha Bizaillon,
had a trading-post near Conoy, and owned several
hundred acres of land along the river. He died in
East Cain township, Chester county.
John Boggs. — John Boggs, also an English
Indian trader and son of Andrew Boggs, began to
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 37
trade with the Indians along the Allegheny and
Ohio rivers in 1763. In 1784-85 he and Colonel
^Alexander Lowry were selected to bring the In-
dians to Fort Mcintosh. He moved to the Cum-
berland Valley, where he became a prominent citi-
Lazarus Lowry. — Lazarus Lowry, a Scotch-
Irish Indian trader, settled in Donegal township in
1729, where he took up 333 acres of land now owned
by United States Senator James Donald Cameron,
about two miles from Marietta. He established a
trading-post, and in 1730 he took out a license to
trade with the Indians and also to sell liquor "by
the small." His dwelling is yet standing. He
was noted for his energy, industry and courage.
He often made trading trips to the Ohio and Mis-
sissippi rivers, taking his sons James, John, Daniel
and Alexander with him. He owmed several small
farms near his first purchase. His second wife
had been the widow of Thomas Edwards. He
died in Philadelphia in 1755, leaving five children
by his second wife — Lazarus, Thomas, Benjamin,
William and Martha.
John Lowry. — John Lowry, son of the preced-
ing, traded with his father among the Indians west
of the Alleghenies before 1740. He owned 400
acres of land along the Susquehanna river, now
embracing the farms of the late Colonel James
Duff"y and Benjamin F. Hiestand, the upper part
of Marietta and the land north of the Mavtown
38 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
turnpike. He and his father owned the land
extending from Maytown to the Colebrook road.
In 1750 he bought 300 acres of land at Carlisle
from David Magaw, after which he proceeded to
the Ohio to trade with the Delaware and Shawan-
ese Indians, who were then bitterly hostile to the
English and friendly to the French. While he
was seated near a keg of powder an Indian applied
a match, and the explosion which followed killed
him. A French trader was afterwards arrested for
disobeying the order of the English commander at
the fort where he traded. He escaped to the Picts,
who were friendly to the English and who deliv-
ered him to James Lowry in Donegal township.
The latter held him as a hostage for several weeks,
but released him when he found that he could
not compel the French commander to deliver
up the Indian who killed his brother John.
James Lowry. — James Lowry, son of Lazarus
Lowry and brother of John Lowry, married
Susanna, daughter of James Patterson, the famous
Indian trader. He bought from James Logan sev-
eral hundred acres of land in Donegal township,
several miles above Marietta, along the Suaquehan-
na river. This tract was a part of James Le Tort's
tract of 900 acres. He had great influence with
the Indians along the Ohio, and he and George
Croghan prevented some of the tribes from joining
the French in their war against the English. The.
French commander at Detroit offered a large re-
ward for the arrest of these two British Indian
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 39
traders. Lowry was obliged to transfer his trade
to the Catawba Indians of the Carolinas.
CAPTURE AND ESCAPE OF JAMES LOWRY.
On January 26, 1753, while James lyowry, Jacob
Evans, Jabez Evans, William Powell, Thomas
Hyde, Alexander Maginty and Daniel Hendricks,
all of Lancaster county, were returning from a
trading journey to the Catawbas, and were
encamped on the south bank of the Kentucky
river, about twenty miles from Blue lyick town,
with a large stock of goods, furs and skins, they
were attacked and made prisoners by the French
Caughnawaga Indians. Several were wounded on
each side. While these prisoners were being taken
to Detroit, Lowry escaped and returned to his
home in Donegal township. Jacob Evans and
Thomas Hyde were taken to France. Jabez
Evans, Powell and Maginty were placed among
the Indians in Northern New York. Maginty
informed the Governor and Council of Pennsyl-
vania, and Conrad Weiser was sent to Albany to
secure the release of the captive traders. Weiser
found that Jabez Evans was adopted by an Indian
squaw, and he received his release only after some
trouble. All these traders, except LowTy, were
financially ruined by their misfortunes. Maginty
was afterward prominent in the Cumberland Valley.
In 1754 the Indians, led by a Mingo Indian
named John, attacked Lowry' s traders at Gist's,
killing several of them and taking Andrew Mc-
Brier, Nehemiah Stevens, John Kennedy and
40 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
Elizabeth Williams prisoners. Kennedy was shot
through the leg and left at Fort Duquesne until he
could be moved, but the others were sent to
Canada. The Indians demanded a ransom of forty
pistoles for each prisoner. These traders had been
employed by James, Daniel and Alexander Lowry,
and their goods were all destroyed. Because of
these repeated losses, James Lowry sold his land in
Donegal township, and moved away in 1758.
Daniel Lowry — Daniel Lowry owned 300 acres
of land adjoining Senator Cameron's farm on the
north. He afterward sold this farm and bought
the one which his brother John had previously
owned. He suffered great losses in the West.
W^hen Colonel James Bard commanded at Fort
Augusta (Sunbury), in 1757-58, Daniel Lowry had
a fleet of bateaux and supplied the soldiers with
provisions. His brother Alexander bought his
farm on June 5, 1759. Daniel moved to the Juni-
ata. The late John G. Lowry, of Centre county,
was his son.
Alexander Lowry — Alexander Lowry was
the most prominent of the Lowry brothers. He
began to trade with the Indians in 1744, and often
made trips to the Indian country for his father and
brothers before that year and while he was a minor.
He easily learned the Indian languages, and was
able to speak several of them. He soon became a
great favorite with the Indians, and took part in
their sports, hunting and trapping with them. He
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 41
created trading-stations at Fort Pitt and at Carlisle,
and engaged men to visit different Indian tribes
and trade for him. He went as far west as the
French posts of Kaskaskia and Fort Chartres, on
the Mississippi river. He often went among hostile
tribes, but was only once molested by the Indians,
and then saved his life by his courage and his
swiftness in running. After his father's death he
bought his mansion, farm, and other property be-
longing to his estate, and thereafter accumulated
large tracts of land, and constantly increased his
wealth, although he suffered great losses from the
Indians at "Bloody Run." He lost over /'Sooo
at Bloody Run, and afterward suffered heavy losses
by advancing money to some of the other sufferers,
and by expending money to establish a title and
obtain possession of certain tracts of land in Vir-
ginia. He traded with the Indians for almost half
a century, and was long interested with his life-
long friend, Joseph Simons, an Indian trader who
resided in Lancaster. When these two traders had
passed the age of seventy they selected three friends,
one of whom was Mr. Adam Reigart, to settle
their transactions, which had covered many years.
Neither had a written account, and they made a
verbal statement to these three friends about all
their dealings with each other. There was no dis-
pute or difference between them, and then and
there they made a settlement that their heirs could
James Hamilton — Colonel James Hamilton, of
42 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
Leacock township, a Scotch-Irishman, established a
trading-post at Conewago, where he owned a farm
and a large island opposite thereto, owned by the
late Colonel James Dnffy. He traded with the
Indians on the Ohio, and established a store in
Joseph Simons — Joseph Simons was one of the
wealthiest and most noted Indian traders in Penn-
sylvania. He settled in Lancaster in 1740, and at
once engaged in the Indian trade. He established
a store at the south-east corner of Centre Square,
and another afterward oa the south-west corner.
He made many trips to the Ohio and Illinois
country. He also had an interest in several other
stores in the Indian country with a number of
partners. He once owned many thousand acres
of land. He \vas one of twenty-two Indian
traders who were attacked by the Indians at
Bloody Run, in 1763, and lost a large stock of
goods. He died in Lancaster in 1804.
Thomas Harris — Thomas Harris, an English
Indian trader, established a trading-post at Cone-
wago creek, and became one of the richest of the
Indian traders. He removed from Donegal town-
ship to Harford county, Maryland, before the
Revolution, and afterward went to Baltimore. His
sons became eminent physicians, one in Baltimore,
another in Philadelphia, and another in New
Brunswick, New Jersey. Some of his sons were
prominent officers in the American army during
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 43
Barnabas Hughes — Barnabas Hughes, an En-
glishman, was an Indian trader, and kept a tavern
at Coney creek, on the site of Elizabethtown.
The Galbraiths — James Galbraith, Jr., a
Scotch-Irishman, was an Indian trader for a short
time. John Galbraith, son of the preceding,
located on the Susquehanna, at the mouth of
Conoy creek, where he established a trading-post
as early as 1760. He removed to the Cumberland
John Gibson — Colonel John Gibson, who was
born in Lancaster borough, of English stock, was
an Indian trader and also an Indian fighter, and
removed to the Ohio before the Revolution. He
was an intimate friend of the famous Indian chief,
Logan, and it has been said that it was to him that
Logan delivered his celebrated speech about the
murder of his relatives. He had great influence
with the indians, but punished them when they
were g-uiltv of wrong^s to the whites. He was con-
nected with the American army in the West during
George Gibson — Colonel George Gibson, bro-
ther of John, was also born in Lancaster, and also
became an Indian trader and fighter. He married
a daughter of Francis West, and settled at Shear-
man's Creek, in Perry county. He commanded an
American regiment during the Revolution, and
was in many battles. He was killed at General St.
Clair's defeat bv the Indians in the Ohio country
44 BRiBt' HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
in 1 791. He was the father of John Bannister
Gibson, the able Chief Justice of Pennsylvania.
John Kennedy — John Kennedy, a Scotch- Irish-
man, traded for Lazarus Lowry for some years, and
afterward for himself. He bought from I^azarus
lyowry the farm upon which May town was built.
He was wounded and captured by the Indians, but
afterward raised a company and fought through the
Dennis Suluvan — Dennis Sullivan, also a
Scotch-Irishman and an Indian trader, once owned
the farm sold to John Kennedy. He traded to the
Ohio, and was deprived of everything by the
James Harris — James Harris, an Englisman
and an Indian trader, had his post near James lyC
Tort's, two miles west of May town.
Gordon Howard — Gordon Howard, an Englis-
man, was one of the earliest and most prominent of
the Indian traders. He owned and occupied the
farm now owned by Mr. Hershey, two miles west
of Mount Joy.
Simon Girty — Simon Girty, the famous rene-
gade and Indian trader, once located in Lancaster
county, establishing a post on the Conewago, whence
he moved to Shearman's Creek, and thence to the
region beyond the Ohio, the scene of his later
BEFORE THE ORGANIZATION OF
BY I. 8. CLARE.
SCALE OF MILES.
q ^^0 25 50 75
THE QUAKERS AND PENNSYLVANIA.
TOURING the civil wars in England two cen-
^^ turies and a-half ago, the extreme Puritan sect
of Friends, or Quakers, arose. Their founder was
George Fox. Their fundamental principles were
"freedom of mind, purity of morals, and universal
enfranchisement." They condemned war as a
sin, denounced capital punishment, imprisonment
for debt, extravagance in living, vanity and
idle luxury, falsehood in act and speech, opposed
a paid ministry, and rejected the ordinanes of
baptism and the Lord's Supper.
They zealously advocated equal rights for
women, and regarded the "universal inner light"
in the heart as the guide of men's thoughts and
The Friends shared in the persecution to which
all Non-conformists were subjected to in that age of
intolerance. Many were cruelly beaten, or set in
the stocks or exposed in the pillory. Many were
thrust into mad houses, and others condemned to
life-long imprisonment. Hoping to find a place of
refuge in the new world, some emigrated to New
England; but the Puritans, who had gone there to
establish their own peculiar faith, feared the influ-
46 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTKR COUNTY.
ence of the Friendj?, restricted their worship, and
punished cases of disobedience to their laws with
exile and even wath death.
One of the ablest leaders of the society there was
William Penn, a young man, ardent, brave, wise,
deeply religious, with well-trained intellectual pow-
ers, gifted in speech, and a courtier in manner. In
favor with the king, because of the achievements
of his father, Admiral Penn, it is not strange that
Charles II should have granted him a province in
America. To this province the name of Pennsyl-
vania was given; and here, in the autumn of 1682,
Penn landed with a number of English Quakers,
at the place where the city of Chester now stands.
In this same year he made a treaty with the
Indians at Shackamaxon, on the site of Philadel-
phia. A popular assembly and a Charter of Liber-
ties were granted to the people, and the "Holy
Experiment " was thus begun on the banks of the
Delaware in Pennsyvania.
Pennsylvania remained in the hands of the Penn
family until their claims were purchased by the
Commonwealth, in 1776. Pennsylvania, together
with Delaware which Penn had purchased, was
originally divided into six counties, Philadelphia,
Bucks, Chester, and the present counties of the
state of Delaware — New Castle, Kent and Sussex.
THE ORIGINAL CHESTER COUNTY.
The present Lancaster county was a part ot
Chester county until 1729. In this year, by an
act of the Legislature, it was declared that all the
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 47
lands \vithin the Province of Pennsylvania lying
to the northwest of Octoraro creek and to the west-
ward of a line of marked trees running from the
North Branch of the said Octoraro creek, north-
easterly to the Schuylkill, be erected into a county,
named and from henceforth to be called Lancaster
FIRST WHITE SETTLERS IN THE PRESENT LANCASTER
The earliest white settlers in what is now Lan-
caster county were Swiss and German ^Nlennonites,
French Huguenots, Scotch-Irish Presbyterians,
Welsh Episcopalians and English Quakers.
The Swiss and Germans came as early as 1709,
and settled in the Pequea valley, and on the site
and in the vicinity of the present city of Lancas-
The Scotch-Irish, who came on the invitation
of the first proprietor, located themselves on the
Chickies creek and in Donegal about 1715. The
French, from Alsace and Lorraine, occupied lands
in the Pequea valley. The Welsh settled in the pres-
ent C£ernar\-on township and on the Welsh moun-
tains. The English Quakers settled in what are
now Sadsbury and Salisbury townships.
Before giving an account of these various settle-
ments, it may be well to briefly state the circum-
stances that led to their establishment here.
ORIGIN OF THE MENNONITES IN GERMANY AND
This religious sect was named from IMenno
Simon. It had its origin in Western Germany, in
48 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
the region known as the Palatinate of the Rhine,
during the stirring period of the Reformation, and
was at first one of the most extreme of the Protes-
tant sects. Its adherents have always been dis-
tinguished for simplicity in dress and manners, for
their aversion to oaths, to military service and to
the use of law in settling difficulties or disputes.
On account of their religion and political faith,
the Mennonites suffered persecutions for almost two
centuries in the Palatinate and in Switzerland. In
the latter country the severity of their persecution
was so great as to call for remonstrances from other
nations. They were condemned to pull galleys while
chained to their seats ; they were sold to Barbary
pirates; they were imprisoned, beaten and beheaded.
Among those who suffered in Switzerland be-
tween 1638 and 1643 were Hans Landis, at Zti-
rich ; Hans Miller, Hans Jacob Herr, Rudolph
Bachman, Ulrich Miller, Oswald Landis, Fanny
Landis, Barbara Neff, Hans Mylin and his two
sons. Martin Mylin, one of these sons, was a
famous Mennonite preacher and writer, and fled
for refuge first to the Palatinate, and afterward to
Alsace, where in 1645 ^^ wrote an account of the
sufferings of his people. By an edict issued at
Schaffhausen in 1650, the Mennonites were for-
bidden the free exercise of their worship in that
canton. A similar decree was issued by the Prince
of Neuberg in 1653. These edicts led to a perse-
cution of such severity that many fled from the
cantons of Berne, Zurich and Schaffhausen to
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 49
Alsace above Strasburg, where they remained
some years, and then emigrated to Pennsylvania.
The offense for which these people suffered so
grievously was simply their refusal to hear all
manner of preaching, they considering it wrong to
attend public worship with other religious sects.
Thus they incurred the displeasuse of other denom-
inations and the wrath of magistrates.
SUFFERINGS OF THE PALATINES.
During the series of wars between Louis XIV.
and the other monarchs of Europe, in the seven-
teenth century, the Palatinate of the Rhine was
invaded by the armies of France and ravaged with
fire and sword — first in 1674, when crops, and
houses, and farms, and villages, and towns were
destroyed ; again in 1688, when hundreds of flour-
ishing villages and no less than forty cities were
reduced to ashes.
Among these were Manheim, Heidelberg, Spires,
Worms, Oppenheim and Bingen. The order of
the Grand Monarque to "desolate the whole land "
was most faithfully executed.
In 1693 Heidelberg was again destroyed ; and
1,500 men, women and children lost all their posses-
sions, and fled in terror to the fields for safety. The
people were induced by the Elector to return and
rebuild their city, on the promise that they should
be exempt from taxation for thirty years and
should be allowed full liberty of worship. The
Elector's promise was not kept, and a barbarous
50 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY.
persecution ensued. Many escaped death by
means of sudden flight. About 6,000 of these
found their way to England, where they were
welcomed by a public proclamation issued by
Queen Anne in 1708.
GERMAN AND SWISS EMIGRATION TO AMERICA.
It was amid sufferings sucli as these that the
Mennonites of the Palatinate and Switzerland
resolved to seek a place of safety in America — a
place, too, where they could worship as their faith
approved. The Swiss canton of Berne had sent
out Christopher de Graffenried and Louis Michelle
to look for vacant lands iu Pennsylvania, Virginia
and North Carolina. Prior to this time, in 1706 or
1707, Michelle had been in America, and visited
the Indians at Conestoga, while in search of some
mineral or ore. The Quaker colony of Pennsyl-
vania had already been founded by William Penn,
whose creed provided freedom of religious worship,
and here these suffering people were offered an
asylum. About the same time — 1706 — a number
of persecuted Swiss Mennonites went to England
and made a special arrangement with Penn for
lands in his province. In 1708 many Mennonites
left Berne and went to London. There they
pitched their tents around the city and were sup-
ported at the public expense until they could find a
way to come lu America. Some of these settled in
New York, some in Pennsylvania, others in North
Carolina. In 1709 many of these who were living in
BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY. 51
Strasburg, in iVlsace, whither they had fled from
the Palatinate, sailed for America. In the same
year about 3,000 Mennonites, in order to escape
persecution in the Palatinate, found their way
to England ; and in 1710 they came to New
York, some settling in New York City, some in
lyivings ton's Manor, Columbia county. New York,
others in Germantown and in the present I^an-
caster county, Pennsylvania.
FIRST MENNONITE SETTLERS OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
In 1709 several Swiss Mennonite families whose
ancestors had settled in the Palatinate emigrated
to America and settled in what is now Lancaster
county, Pennsylvania. Public documents and pri-
vate papers in possession of Abram Mylin and
others of West Lampeter township seem to indicate
that this first settlement was made near Willow
Street, where the Herr's and Mylin' s now reside.
In the same year, 1709, Hans Mylin and his sons
Martin and John, Hans Herr, John Rudolph
Bundely, Martin Kendig, Jacob Miller, Martin
Oberholtzer, Michael Oberholtzer, Hans Funk,
Wendel Bowman and others selected 10,000 acres
on the north side of Pequea creek, in West
Lampeter and adjoining townships ; and in 17 10
they obtained a warrant for this land, which they
divided among them in April, 1711. Martin Ken-
dig was granted 1855 acres in the present Strasburg
township. The others, together with Christopher
Franciscus, were granted tracts in the same region.
52 BRIKF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY.
In 1 71 2 Amos Strettle was given 3380 acres in the
present Strasburg township, and before 1734 he
sold this part in small lots to a number of pur-
chasers. Among these were a few English settlers,
such as Septimius Robinson and John Musgrove,
and some French Huguenots, Daniel Ferree and
Isaac lycfevre; but the larger part of those who
secured lots were Swiss Mennonites. Among the
latter were Henry Shank, Ulrich Brackbill, George
Suavely, Christian Musser, John Jacob Hoover,
Samuel Hess, Samuel Boyer, Christian Stoner and
Henry Zimmerman (or Carpenter).
ARRIVAL OF MORE SV/ISS EMIGRANTS.
A council of the society was held for the pur-
pose of selecting by lot one of the number to go
to Europe to bring the families of the settlers to
their new home. The lot fell upon Hans Herr,
their venerable preacher. But they could illy
spare one who stood as a leader among them, and
Martin Kendig offered to take his place. All
very readily acceded to this. Martin Kendig at once
proceeded to Europe, and after the lapse of some
months returned with the families together with
many new emigrants. Among these were Jacob Mil-
ler, PeterYordea, Hans Tschantz, Henry Funk, John
Houser, John Bachman, Jacob Weber, Venerick,
Schlegel, Guldin and others. At this time came
Hans Herr's five sons — Christian, Emanuel, John,
Abraham and another whose name is unknown.
Three of Hans Herr's sons settled in what is now
BRIEF HISTORY OF IvANCASTKR COUNTY. 53
West Lampeter township, and two in Manor town-
ship. The Herrs of West Lampeter, Strasburg,
Manor and other townships are their descendants.
PROGRESS OF THE SETTLEMENT.
The settlement now consisted of thirty families.
With the Indian tribes of the vicinity — the Cones-
togas, Pequeas and Shawanese — they lived on the
most friendly terms, mingling with them in hunt-
ing and fishing. Their annals speak of the In-
dians as being "hospitable, respectful and exceed-
The little colony improved their lands, planted
orchards, and erected dwellings and a meeting and
school house, in which religious worship w^as held
on Sunday, and reading and writing were taught
during the week. The same rude building served
both important purposes for some years. Their
first preachers were Hans Herr, Hans Tschantz and
Ulrich Brackbill, the last of whom was accident-
ally killed while driving his team on the road to
Around these Swiss Mennonites some Germans
and French subsequently settled. Among the latter
were the Ferrees, the Lefevres and some others, of
whom we shall give some account. After the
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV.,
in 1685, the Huguenots were the victims of a S3'ste-
matic and terrible persecution. Some were brutally
massacred by troops of dragoons. Many were sent
to the galleys. Everything that bigotry could
54 BRIKF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY.
devise was employed to torture and to destroy these
defenceless people. Half a million fled to Eng-
land, Holland and Germany, carrying their arts
and industry with them. Daniel Ferree and his
wife Mary, with their sons Daniel, Philip and John,
and their daughters Catharine, Mary and Jane,
escaped from their home at Lindau, near the Rhine,
across the river into Germany, where they remained
two years. Accompanying them in their flight was
a young man named Isaac Lefevre, whose family
had been killed by the soldiers. Daniel Ferree
died, and his widow resolved to go to Ivondon to
see William Penn with a view of making her home
in Pennsylvania. Upon arriving in London she
asked to be be directed to Penn's residence. The
orentleman who was about to direct her, at that
moment observed Penn's carriage approaching.
The carriage was stopped. Penn invited her to a
seat in it, and drove her to his home. He treated
her with the greatest kindness, gave her a recom-
mendation to his agent in Pennsylvania, and intro-
duced her to Queen Anne, who received her very
graciously. The Ferree family remained in Lon-
don six months, and then embarked for America.
After arriving at New York City they moved up
the Hudson river to Esopus, where they remained
two years, then went to Philadelphia, thence to
the Mennonite settlement in the Pequea valley.
Queen Anne granted them letters-patent, giving
them the rights and privileges of English subjects,
with the right to buy and hold land in their new
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 55
settlement. Before they left London the queen pre-
sented them with a variety of farming implements.
These they used in clearing the land upon which
they settled. Isaac Lefevre remained as one of the
family until they arrived in America, when he
married one of the daughters, Catharine Ferree.
From this union have descended all the Lefevres
in Lancaster county, in other parts of Pennsylva-
nia, and in all parts of the United States. Phillip
Ferree, one of the sons, lived for one year with
Abraham Dubois, a French farmer at Esopus, and
mairied his daughter Leah at the end of that time,
after which he brought her to the Mennonite set-
tlement in the Pequea valley. The Ferrees and
Lefevres settled in what is now Paradise town-
ship, on a tract of 2,000 acres, which was part of
the 10,000 acres Martin Kendig had purchased
from Penn's Commissioners. Philip Ferree located
on a tract of land on the north side of the Pequea
creek, in the present Leacok township.
ORIGINAL CONESTOGA TOWNSHIP.
In 171 2 all that part of Chester county lying
west of Octoraro creek, or west of the present Ches-
ter county, and thus including all of the present
Lancaster county and that part of Pennsylvania to
the northward and westward, w^as erected into a
township called Conestoga^ named after Conestoga
creek, which derived its name from the Conestoga
SETTLEMENT OF CONESTOGA TOWNSHIP.
Settlements had been made among the Indians
prior to 1 713. In the latter year Christopher
56 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
Schlegel, a German from Saxony, took up i,ooo
acres on a stream flowing into the Conestoga, but
soon transferred his interest to others.
At this place the English Indian agents, John
and Edmund Cartlidge, afterward resided. In
1 715 Benedictus Venerick, also a German, settled
upon a tract near the Palatines. These were joined
by some Swiss Mennonites who came in 1715,
1716 and 171 7. Among these were Hans Mayer,
Hans Kaigy, Christian Hershey, Hans Graaf (who
afterwards settled Graaf's Thai), Hans Brubacher,
Michael Shank, Henry Bare, Peter Leman, Mel-
chior Brenneman, Henry Funk, Hans Faber,
Isaac Kauffman, Melchior Erisman, Michael Mil-
ler, Jacob Landis, Jacob Boehm, Theodorus Eby,
Benedictus Witmer. In 171 7 Jacob Greider
(or Kreider), Jacob Hostetter, Hans Frantz, Shenk
and other Swiss Mennonites settled along the Con-
PROMINENT SETTLERS AMONG THE SWISS.
Among the most prominent of these Swiss Men-
nonite settlers were the well-known brothers,
Francis Neff and Doctor Hans Heinrich Neff,
whose descendants are very numerous in Lan-
caster and Huntingdon counties, Pennsylvania,
and in Virginia. They had fled from persecution
in Switzerland to Alsace, whence they emigrated
to America, and early settled on a small stream,
Neff''s Run, which empties into the West Branch
of the Little Conestoga. Here Francis NefF took up
a large tract of land. Hans Heinrich Neff", famil-
BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTFR COUNTY. 57
iarly called the "Old Doctor," was quite eminent
as a physician. Hans Brubacher located in what
is now East Hempfield township. His descendants
are numerous in this and other townships.
Persecution drove the Kreiders and the Hostet-
ters from their homes in Switzerland to Wurtem-
berg. From the latter place they came to America,
and settled on the north side of Conestoga creek,
about two miles south of the site of the present
Lancaster city, and there took up 800 acres of land.
Jacob Kreider's first home was a tent made of tow
cloth. This afforded him and his family tem-
porary shelter until autumn, when he erected a log
During the winter he was visited regularly by
the neighboring Indians, who sought shelter in
his cabin and comfort by his fire. They lived on
terms of closest friendship with the Kreiders, sup-
plying them with fish and venison, for which they
received bread in exchange. Fish were abundant
in the Conestoga and in the other streams of Lan-
caster county. The Indians caught them with
nets made of bark, or speared them with a gig
made of ash wood. On one occasion when Kreider
was visited by his Indian neighbors he looked at
his almanac, for the purpose of regulating his
clock by its indication of the rising and setting of
He noticed that the moon w^ould be eclipsed In
a few weeks. Turning to his Indian visitors, he
told them that on a certain evening a few weeks
58 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTBR COUNTY.
hence the moon would hide her face just as the
clock would strike a certain hour. They had
often observed eclipses, but couldn't understand
how their white neighbor should know this before
it occurred. At the appointed evening fifty or
sixty Indians met at the house, and were utterly
amazed to see the moon's face lessen as soon as the
clock had struck. One of them then said: "It is
the white man's God tells him this, else he would
not know it beforehand."
ENGLISH SETTLERS AMONG THE GERMANS AND SWISS.
In 1 715 some English and Welsh settlers came
and located around Smoketown. The names of
these were Peter Bellas, Daniel Harman, William
Evans and James Smith. In 17 16 Richard Carter,
an Englishman, took up a tract of land between
the Conestoga and Pequea creeks, near the Sus-
quehanna river, and therefore in the present Con-
estoga township. In the same year other English
settlers took up tracts on the south side of the
Conestoga — Alexander Bews, Anthony Pretter of
East Jersey, and John Gardiner of Philadelphia
county. In 171 7 Joseph Cloud secured 500 acres
near the Pequea.
ENGLISH AND SCOTCH-IRISH SETTLERS ON THE OCTORARO.
In 1717 English Quakers and Scotch-Irish
Presbyterians settled along the Octoraro creek.
Among these were William Grimson (constable of
Sadsbury township), the Cooksons, Jervises, Irwins
and Mayes. Some years later came the Patter-
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 59
sons, Darbys, Leonards, Joneses, Steeles, Math-
ewses, Cowens, Murrays, Millers, Allisons, Mitch-
ells and others.
SETTLEMENTS DOWN THE CONESTOGA.
Between 1716 and 1719 settlements were made
down the Conestoga creek towards the Susque-
hanna river. Two English Quakers, John Cart-
lidge and his brother Edmund, and David Jones, a
Welshman, took up lands there. Edmund Cart-
lidge resided in Darby township, Chester county,
as early as 1698, and in Philadelphia county in
1711. John Cartlidge was an Indian trader for
many years. He was appointed Justice of the
Peace in 17 18. The public records at West Ches-
ter state that he sold liquor "by the small" among
his neighbors on the banks of the Conestoga before
Before 1719 Christian and Joseph Stehman and
Sigismund Landart — all Germans — took up land
on and near the banks of the Conestoga creek.
In 1 7 19 Jenkin Davis, a Welshman, secured
a piece of land on a branch of the Conestoga, and
George Stewart, a Scotch-Irishman, located near
FRENCH CANADIAN SETTLERS.
James Le Tort, the French Canadian Indian
trader, was granted 100 acres along the Susque-
hanna. Martin Chartiere, Peter Bizaillon and Le
Tort — all French Canadians — had resided among
the Indians as traders some years before settle-
60 BRIEJI^ HISI'ORY 01^ tANCASTKR COUNTY.
ments were made in the present Ivancaster county.
Martin Chartiere had a trading-post on the site of
Washington borough before 1704, and in 171 7 he
was granted 300 acres. This was transmitted to
his son, Peter Chartiere. Peter Bizaillon had a
license to trade with the Indians before 1703, and
in 1 7 14 he was granted a tract on the Susquehanna
at Paxtanof or wherever he wished to locate.
SWISS SETTLERS AMONG THE FRENCH.
In 1 717 and 1718 the French settlement of the
Ferrees and the Lefevres was increased by a number
of Swiss Mennonites, among whom were the Slay-
makers, the Witmers, the lyightners, Bshleman,
Herr, Hershey, Ksbenshade, Baer, Grofif, Graaf,
Koenig, Keneagy, Denlinger, Beck, Becker,
Souder, Ream, Zimmerman and many others.
The most notable among these new settlers were
Matthias Schleiermacher (afterward Anglicized as
Slaymaker) and the Zimmermans. Matthias
Schliermacher emigrated from Strasburg, in Ger-
many, to Lancaster county about 17 10. He was
born and reared in Hesse Cassel. The place he
settled in America was known as the London
Lands, a tract of 1,000 acres, in what is now Para-
dise township, the name Strasburg having been
conferred by Schleiermacher. One of the broth-
ers of the latter was Secretary of Legation from
the German Empire to Great Britain, and another
was major in the King of Prussia's full regiment.
Henry Zimmerman (or Carpenter) arrived in
BRIKI^ HISTORY Oi^ LANCASTER COUNTY. 61
Pennsylvania in 1698, and afterward returned to
Europe, and brought his family over in 1706, first set-
tling in Germantown, and in 171 7 within the limits
of. the present Lancaster county. His son, Eman-
uel Zimmerman, born in Switzerland in 1702, was
a citizen of great influence in Lancaster county.
He died in 1780. His descendants are numerous.
Some are called Zimmerman, while others have
their name Anglicized as Carpenter. There are
also Carpenters of English descent.
SURVEYS IN VARIOUS PARTS OF THE COUNTY.
From 1 7 14 to 1718 surveys of land were made in
different parts of the present county of Lancaster.
In the southern part a survey was made for Alex-
ander Ross, an Englishman, on Little Conowingo
creek. In 171 7 a survey of 700 acres was made to
Edward Sleadwell, an Englishman, on the Octo-
raro creek, in the present township of Little Brit-
ain. A Maryland grant was made in the same
township to Mary Graham in 17 15.
Large tracts were also granted by Maryland to
Emanuel Grubb in 1716 and 1720; and one to
Thomas Jacobs in the last-named year, in the same
GERMAN AND SWISS SETTLERS NATURALIZED.
Among the Swiss and German Mennonites who
came before 17 18 and who had purchased and
held lands before 1729, and who subsequently
became naturalized subjects of the King of Great
Britain, were such common names as Mylin,
62 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
NefF, Burkholder, Graaf, Funk, Ken dig, Bowman,
Herr, Brenneman, Brubaker, Nissley, Buckwalter,
Landis, Mayer, Bare, Erisman, Harnish, Snavely,
Good, Eshleman, Hess, Boyer, Leaman, Kaiiffman,
Shultz, Honser, Miller, Zimmerman, Slaymaker,
Shenk, Hoover, Newcomer, Longenecker, Mussel-
man, Eby, Stoner, Frantz, Stehman, Ream, Royer,
Weaver, Lichty, Herman, Schneider or Snyder,
In 1 718 the Conestoga Manor — afterward Manor
township — was surveyed for the use of the proprie-
tary of the province of Pennsylvania, William
Penn and his heirs and assigns forever, by order
of the Commissioners of Property, by Jacob Taylor,
Surveyor General of the province. The Conestoga
Manor embraced all the land between the Susque-
hanna river and Conestoga creek as far up the
river as the land already granted to Peter Char-
tiere, on the site of Washington borough, and
thence by a line running east from that river to
Conestoga creek. There were two Manors in the
original Chester county — Brandywine Manor and
Conestoga Manor. The latter was subsequently
divided and sold to purchasers, among whom were
many whose descendants still occupy the lands on
which the original Swiss Mennonites located. The
principal English landowners in the Manor were
the Wrights, who had 1,500 acres, and John Cart-
lidge, who had a large tract between one and two
miles north-east of the present Safe Harbor. James
BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTER COUNTY. 63
Patterson, a Scotch-Irishman and an Indian trader,
owned a tract of land about a mile east of Wash-
ington borough. This is now in the possession of
Jacob B. Shuman. Another Scotch-Irishman,
named James Logan, owned a tract a little north
of Safe Harbor. 414 acres of this land was granted
to Indian Town, and Blue Rock comprised 800
acres. Among the Swiss Mennonite settlers here
we readily recognize many familiar names, such
as Herr, Kauffman, Witmer, Wissler, Eshleman,
Kendig, Stoner, Mayer, Stehman, Newcomer, Bach-
man, Kilhaver, Miller, Charles, Shank, Hostetter,
Stauffer, Landis, Hershey, Oberholtzer, Lintner,
Ziegler, Funk and others.
The Shumans settled near the site of Washing-
ton borough in 1772. The Manns located a little
east of this place about the same time.
HANS GRAAF AND HIS SETTLEMENT.
In 1718 Hans Graaf settled Graaf's Thai, or
Groff's Dale, in the eastern part of the present
West Earl township. Hans Graaf was a very
prominent man in the early history of the county.
He was born in Switzerland, and was among those
who fled from persecution in that country to
Alsace. In 1695 or 1696 he emigrated to Amer-
ica. After remaining a short time at Germantown,
he came to the Swiss settlement in the Pequea
valley. One day his horses strayed away; and
while in pursuit of them, in a northerly direc-
tion, he discovered a fine spring, in a very thickly
64 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
wooded spot. He at once resolved to settle there.
After finding his horses he returned to the Pequea
settlement, merely to inform his friends of his
"find" and of his determination to locate near
the spring. To the latter place he then removed
with his family, and built a cabin under a large
white oak tree, half a mile distant. In the spring
of 1718 he took up a large tract of land, and built
a house near the cabin. The spot where the origi-
nal house stood is shown to-day. Here he was
often visited by the Indians, who brought baskets
and hickory brooms to sell. He had six sons. As
some of them grew up he formed a partnership
with them, and opened trade with the Indians liv-
ing at Harris's Ferry, now Harrisburg. The
trade consisted of an exchange of blankets and
other articles, which he purchased in Philadelphia,
for skins, furs, etc. It is said that he spoke the
Indian language fluently. The descendants of
Hans Graaf are very numerous throughout the
county. The name has undergone various changes
— Groif, Grove and Graeff being among these.
One of Hans Graaf s sons — Samuel — was called
"Graaf der Jaeger" (the hunter). When the
magistrates and citizens of Lancaster county met
to settle upon the boundaries and names of the
townships of the county, June 9, 1729, they named
the township in which Graaf lived, Earl^ in
honor of him — the word Earl being the Eng-
lish word for Graaf. In 1719 Mr. Wenger, a
Swiss, became one of Hans Graaf s neighbors.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 65
There are many of his descendants to be found in
various parts of the county.
SETTLEMENT OF DUNKERS.
After 1 718 settlements became very general in the
county. In 17 19 or 1720 some Germans located
along Cocalico creek and in other places. In 1708
the religious sect of the Dii7ikers^ or Tunkers^ or
First Day German Baptists^ was founded in Ger-
many by Alexander Mack, of Shriesheim, and four
men and three women from Schwarzenau, who
met for religious worship. Like the Quakers and
Mennonites, the Dunkers were simple in their
dress and habits, and averse to oaths, to military
service and the use of law.
Like the Mennonites, they were severely perse-
cuted in Germany, in consequence of which they
fled to Holland and to other parts of the continent.
The original society, however, removed to Serus-
tervin, in Friesland, and from there emigrated to
America and settled in Pennsylvania. Some of
these settled at Germantown; others at Oley and
Skippack, near the Schuylkill; and others along
the Conestoga and Cocalico creeks, in the present
Lancaster county. x\mong the early settlers along
Cocalico creek were Conrad Beissel, Joseph Shaef-
fer, Hans Mayer, Heinrich Hoehn and several
SETTLEMENT OF LANCASTER AND VICINITY.
The town of Lancaster might be said to have'
begun as early as 1721 or 1722, but it was not laid
66 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
out until 1730. This was done by James Hamil-
ton, Esq., of Philadelphia. Tradition says that an
Indian village occupied the site of Lancaster; that
a hickory tree stood in the centre of the village,
near a spring; that the Indian councils were held
under this tree, and that it was from one of these
councils that a deputation was sent to confer with
William Penn at Shackamaxon in 1683. This
Indian nation was called Hickory, and the village
was called Hickory Town before Lancaster was
laid out. '
George Gibson, a tavern keeper, had a hickory
tree painted on his sign in 1722. This tavern was
in the place now occupied by the First National
Bank, on East King street. Another Indian town
was situated near the Conestoga, and a poplar tree
which stood on its bank was the emblem of that
SQUATTERS WEST OF THE SUSQUEHANNA.
In the meantime some persons, without any
legal right, settled on the west side of the Susque-
hanna river. John Grist, one of these, abused the
Indians to such an extent that they complained to
the Governor of the province. John Cartlidge, by
•the Governor's authority, raised a posse comitatus,
to destroy the buildings of Grist and his accom-
plices. Cartlidge, however, simply requested Grist
and his party to move from the land. This they
refused to do. The Indians then destroyed some
of their]cattle. Grist went to Philadelphia to make
complaint against them, but was lodged in jail.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 67
from which he was realeased by the Governor's
council on condition that he would remove from
the land he was illegally occupying. He returned
home in August, 1722, and, after gathering in his
corn, left the place.
COLONEL FRENCH'S COUNCIL WITH THE INDIANS AT
Late in April, 17 19, the Cones toga Indians, by a
letter to Secretary James Logan, informed Gover-
nor Patrick Gordon that several of their tribe,
while hunting near the Potomac, had been at-
tacked and killed by a party of Virginia Indians,
who were on the war path against the Five Na-
tions. Governor Gordon endeavored to quiet their
fears, without avail. They addressed a letter to
him early in June. He then sent Colonel French
to meet them in council at Conestoga. This meet-
ing took place June 28, 1719. Canatowa, the queen
of the Conestogas, and Captain Civility, their
chief, together with sachems of the Conewagas,
the Shawanese and the Delawares, were present;
and a treaty was made which re-established peace
and friendship with them.
SECRETARY LOGAN'S COUNCIL WITH THE INDIANS.
At the request of Governor Gordon, Secretary
James Logan met the Indians at the house of John
Cartlidge, June 27, 1719. At this council the
chiefs of the Conestogas, the Shawanese, the Gaw-
anese and the Delawares were present. Peter
Bizaillon, the French Canadian Indian trader,
68 BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
acted as interpreter. Assurances of continued
peace and friendship were given on both sides.
Promises of belts of wampum were made, and
these were sent to Philadelphia without delay,
and from there to the Indians of Virginia, as
pledges of good faith.
SAMUEL ROBINS SENT TO VIRGINIA.
Governor Gordon and his council sent Samuel
Robins to Virginia to deliver these wampum belts
to the Indians there. On his return he brought
with him two belts from the Virginia Indians,
which were sent to the Conestoga Indians. He was
authorized to assure the latter that the Virginia In-
dians would not in the future pass over the Poto-
mac river to the eastward or northward, or over the
Blue Ridge. This was on condition that the Con-
estogas and the other Indians north of the Poto-
mac would not cross the Potomac into Virginia to
the southward or eastward of the Blue Ridge.
John Cartlidge delivered the wampum belts and
interpreted the message from the Virgina Indians.
GOVERNOR KEITH'S COUNCIL WITH THE INDIANS AT
The quarrels between the Indians of Pennsyl-
vania and those ot Virginia about their hunting-
grounds disturbed the peace of Pennsylvania.
After a visit to Governor Spottswood of Virginia,
Governor William Keith of Pennsylvania visited
the Indians at Conestoga to have them ratify a
treaty providing that the Indians on the north
BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 69
side of the Potomac and those on the south of
that river should be confined to their respective
limits. On the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th of July, 1721,
Governor Keith held a council with the Indians at
Conestoga. The Governor's party, beside himself,
were Richard Hill, Caleb Pusey, Jonathan Dick-
inson, Colonel John French, James Logan, the
Secretary, and others. The chiefs or deputies of
the Five Nations of Indians were also present to
treat with the Governor. These were Ghesaont
and Awennool, of the Senecas ; Tannawree and
Skeetowas, of the Onondagoes ; Sahoode and
Tchehuque, of the Cayugas. Smith, the Gawanese
Indian interpreter of the Coaestoga language to
the Dela wares, was also present. So were John
Cartlidge and James Le Tort, the last of whom
was the interpreter of the Delaware language into
English. Ghesaont made a long speech to the
Governor's party, expressing great friendship for
the English, but complained that the w^hites fur-
nished rum to the Indians, and desired that no
more be furnished them because it took away the
senses of their people and caused them to commit
lawless acts, robberies, etc. He also complained
that the Indian trade in skins and furs was injured.
Governor Keith replied, expressing his desire to
live in peace and friendship with the Indians, and
advised them not to molest the Virginia Indians.
The object of the conference on the Governor's
part was to prevent the Pennsylvania Indians from
attacking the Indians of Virginia. By the Gover-
70 BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY.
nor's direction, Secretary James Logan held a con-
ference with Ghesaont on the 9th of July. Ghesa-
ont expressed himself well pleased with Governor
Keith's treatment of the Five Nations.
INDIANS DISTURBED BY INTRUDERS.
Soon after the council with the Indians at Con
estoga, Governor Keith was informed that persons
from Philadelphia and Maryland, in search of a
copper mine, were about to survey and take up
Indian lands on the west side of the Susquehanna.
The Governor went to the scene of the threatened
trouble, and prevented the intrusion. On April
4th and 5th, 1722, he caused a survey of 500 acres
on the west side of the river to be made. He then
returned to Conestoga, where he again met the
Indians, but the particulars of that meeting were
INDIANS ALARMED BY MARYLAND INTRUDERS.
Soon afterward the Indians were greatly alarmed
at the threatened encroachments of the Maryland-
ers. On June 15th, 1722, Governor Keith held a
council with the Indians at Conestoga, to get their
consent to the grant of a tract of land to be sur-
veyed under the name of Spring ett Manor ^ in the
present York county. The Indians agreed to the
survey, so that the Governor would have a better
title to resist the Marylanders.
ANOTHER COUNCIL "WITH THE INDIANS AT CONESTOGA.
The murder of an Indian by the brothers John
and Edmund Cartlidge, in a quarrel, alarmed the
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 71
white settlers of Pennsylvania, who feared the ven-
geance of the Indians. An appeal being made to
Governor Keith, he sent Secretary James Logan,
Colonel French and the High Sheriff of Chester
county to the scene of the trouble. Proceeding to
the house of John Cartlidge, they arrested the
brothers. A council was held with the Indians
at Conestoga, March 14, 1722. Civility and sev-
eral of the older men of the tribe, together with
Savannah, chief of the Shawanese, Winjack, chief
of the Gawanese, Tekaachroo, a Cayuga, and
Oweeyekanowa and Xoshtarghkamen, Delawares,
were present on this occasion. The Indians were
satisfied with the action of the council. The Cart-
lidges were taken to Philadelphia and lodged in
jail. Satcheecho, an Indian messenger, was de-
spatched to the Five Nations. Governor Keith and
two of his council went to Albany, New York,
and there met representatives of the Five Nations
and gave them pledges that justice would be done
to the Indians. These representatives expressed a
wish that the Cartlidges should not be punished
with death. The Indian sachem said: "One life
on this occasion is enough to be lost ; there should
not two die." Eventually, at the earnest request
of the Indians, the Cartlidges were set free.
COUNCIL WITH THE INDIANS AT CONOY TOWN.
In July, 1722, Governor Keith held a council
with the Indians at Conoy Town, in Donegal town-
ship. There were present at this time James
Mitchell and James Le Tort, the Indian traders.
72 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
with the chiefs of the Conestogas, the Shawanese
and the Conoys, and seven chief men of the Nanti-
cokes; and the former treaty of friendship with the
English was renewed.
GERMAN SETTLEMENTS ON THE SWATARA AND TULPE-
In 1723 a number of German settlers who had
been living in Schoharie county, New York, emi-
grated to Pennsylvania and located on the Swatara
and Tulpehocken creeks. Among these were
the Weisers, from whom the Muhlenbergs are
SCOTCH-IRISH SETTLERS IN DONEGAL TOWNSHIP.
The territory between the Big Chickies creek
and the Susquehanna river was first settled by
Scotch-Irish. The family names of these were
Semple, Mitchell, Patterson, Speer, Hendricks,
Galbraith, Anderson, Scott, Ivowry, Pedan, Por-
ter, Sterritt, Kerr, Work, Lytic, Whitehill, Camp-
bell, etc. In 1722 this territory was erected into a
new township called Donegal^ inasmuch as most
of these settlers came from Donegal county, in Ire-
land. James Hendricks and James Mitchell held
successively the office of Justice of the Peace in
the settlement. Some of the descendants of these
Scotch-Irish settlers still own the first possessions
of their ancestors.
JOHN HARRIS AT PAXTON.
John Harris, the Quaker Indian trader, a native
of Yorkshire, England, first attempted to settle
near the mouth of Conoy creek, not far from the
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 73
site of Bainbridge ; but he afterwards located at
Pax ton, or Paxtang, the site of Harrisburg. His
son John was the founder of Harrisburg, as before
SETTLEMENT OF COLUMBIA.
In 1727 three Quaker Englishmen — John Wright,
Robert Barber and Samuel Blunston — settled on
the east side of the Susquehanna, south of the
Chickies Hill. This was the beginning of the
present town of Columbia. Barber took 1,000
acres south of Chickies Hill. Blunston took 500
acres adjoining that hill. Wright took 250
acres south of Blunston' s. His descendants have
since resided in Columbia. These three men were
active, enterprising and useful citizens ; and their
names were intimately associated with the earlier
history of Lancaster county. When they first
settled there their flour was brought on pack-
horses from the Darby mills, near Philadelphia,
through the woods along an Indian path to the
Susquehanna. Their only neighbors, the Indians,
often supplied them with meat, and received bread
and milk in return. The descendants of these
pioneers have since resided in Lancaster county.
Swiss and Scotch-Irish soon settled in that
locality. The land back from the river was settled
chiefly by Swiss — the Forrys, the Garbers, the
Stricklers and others.
SETTLERS IN HEMPFIELD.
Hempfield township was so called because of the
great quantities of hemp raised there. The Pat-
74 BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTER COUNTY.
tons, who were Scotch-Irish, settled on lands
adjoining those of Wright and Barber. Patton's
hill and Patton's current derive their names from
those families. Tradition states that a party of
cruel white men, led by a man named Bell, once
massacred many Indians there. Maay Indian
graves were said to be in the neighborhood, and it
was believed that a piece of cannon lay sunk in the
current. Below this were German and Swiss set-
tlers — Stehmans, KaufFmans, Herrs, Rupleys and
SETTLEMENT OF REAMSTOWM.
In 1723 or 1724 Everhard Ream, a German, com-
menced a settlement by taking up 400 acres of
land. His descendants have since resided in the
village named after the first settler and proprietor —
Reamstoivn, When he settled there, the place
was occupied by Indians. He took his horse and
wagon into the woods, and unloaded his furniture
under a large oak tree, under which he took shel-
ter until he had built a rude log cabin. His
nearest mill was on the Brandy wine, and the Miil-
bachers on Cocalico creek were his nearest neigh-
bors. Other Germans who soon settled around
him were Bucher, Huber, Keller, Leader, Schwarz-
walder, Schneider, Killian, Dock, Forney, Rupp,
Balmer, May, Mayer, Hahn, Ressler, Beyer, Leed,
Schlott, Graaf, Wolf, Feierstein, Weidman and
In the year that the Pennsylvania colony was
founded, a number of Welsh Episcopalians pur-
BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 75
chased 40,000 acres of land of William Penti, situ-
ated west of the Schuylkill. Upon this they made
a settlement. Their number increased so rapidly
that in less than ten years — or before 1692 —
they had settled six townships. Like the Swiss
and Palatines, the Welsh sent persons to take up
the land and make the needed preparations for the
reception of their families. Among these pioneers
was Thomas Owen, who was sent over by Row-
land Ellis. In 1686 Ellis and 100 other Welsh
emigrants came. In 1698 others arrived, among
whom were William Jones, Robert Jones, Robert
Evans, Thomas Evans, Owen Evans, Cadwallader
Evans, Hugh Griffith, John Humphrey and Edward
Foulke. They bought 10,000 acres of land of Robert
Turner, in Guinedd township, in Chester county.
In 1722 or 1723 another Welsh settlement was made
in the Welsh Mountain region. This extended in
the direi:tion of and as far as Churchtown. Here the
principal settlers were E. Davis, Z. Davis, Evans,
Douglas, Henderson, Morgan, Jenkins, Edwards,
Robinet, Ford, Torbet, Lardner, Billing and
Spenger. The Welsh also settled along Alle-
gheny creek, a small branch of the Tulpehocken.
SETTLEMENT OF WEAVERLAND.
In 1723 or 1724 some Swiss and Germans set-
tled in the region south of the eastern part of the
Conestoga creek, in the present East Earl town-
ship. This settlement was called Weber Thal^ or
Weaver Land^ from the Webers, or Weavers, who
took up several thousand acres of land here. Jacob
76 BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY.
Weber, Heinrich Weber, George Weber and Hans
Good, who were all Swiss Mennonites, were the
first settlers adjacent to the Welsh. The plain, or
thal^ had no timber when the settlement was made.
Hans Good settled in what is now Brecknock town-
ship, Lancaster county, where many of his decend-
ants have since resided. Before they settled here,
the Webers and Goods had lived for twelve or fif-
teen years near the site of Lancaster city. Their
descendants have since became wealthy and num-
erous. Some have emigrated to the West, and
others to Canada. The Martins, the Millers, the
Ruths, the Zimmermans, the Schnaders and other
Swiss Mennonites soon settled among the Weavers.
SETTLEMENT OF NEW HOLLAND.
In 1727 about 1,000 Swiss and Palatine Menno-
nites came to what is now Lancaster county. The
Eckmans, the Dififenderfers, the Eckerts, the Bow-
mans, the Eberlys, the Zugs, the Shultzes, the
Funks, the Frantzes and the Mayers were among
them. These people soon after coming subscribed
to a writing declaring their allegiance to the King
of Great Britain and fidelity to the proprietary of
the province of Pennsylvania. Alexander Dif-
fenderfer settled in Oley, now in Berks county.
His brother, John Diffenderfer, settled at Saeue
Schwamm, now New Holland. John's grandsons,
David Diffenderfer and Jacob DifTenderfer, served
in the Revolution. Other German families soon
settled there. Among these we find the names
of Ranck, Bachert, Beck, Mayer, Brimmer, Koch,
BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTER COUNTY. 77
Hinkel, Schneider, Seger, Stehly, Brubacher,
Meixel, Diller and others.
THE GERMANS SUSPECTED BY THE AUTHORITIES.
Governor Keith was suspicious of the Swiss and
German settlers, and treated their application for
naturalization with indifference. They applied
for naturalization as early as 1721, but the Gover-
nor delayed granting their request until 1724. A
bill was then brought before the Assembly of the
province, which granted them naturalization on
condition that they obtain from a Justice of the
Peace a certificate of the value of their property
and of the nature of their religious faith.
In 1727 Governor Patrick Gordon, Keith's suc-
cessor, was informed "that a large number of Ger-
mans, peculiar in their dress, religion, and notions
of political governments, had settled on the Pequea,
and were determined not to obey the lawful au-
thority of government ; that they had resolved to
speak their own language, and to acknowledge no
sovereign but the Great Creator of the Universe."
REPORT OF THE ASSEMBLY FAVORS THE GERMANS.
To keep alive the jealousies and to excite sus-
picion against the Germans, it was reported that
some thousands were expected to arrive in Penn-
sylvania in 1727. In all 348 Palatine families,
numbering 1,240 persons, did come, at the invita-
tion of the Penn family, to settle and improve the
country. The report of this emigration was laid
before the Pennsylvania Assembly at Philadelphia ;
and William Webb, Samuel Hollingsworth and
78 BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTKR COUNTY.
John Carter were appointed a committee to investi-
gate the charges against these people, and report the
facts to the next Assembly. This committee did
so, and in 1728 made a report favorable to the Ger-
mans and Swiss, who had been invited by William
Penn to settle in his province. The report stated
that they had honestly paid for their lands, and'
w^ere a quiet and industrious people, faithfully dis-
charging their civil and religious duties.
TROUBLE WITH THE INDIANS.
As settlement spread, and the whites came in con-
tact with the Indians, acts of violence and blood-
shed sometimes occurred between the two races.
On September 11, 1727, Thomas Wright, a drunken
Englishman, was killed by several drunken In-
dians near the house of John Burt, an Indian trader
at Snaketown, now Harrisburg. The quarrel was
caused by Burt's selling the Indians too much rum
and then insulting them. The colonists of Penn-
sylvania suffered from outrages and robberies on
the part of non-resident Indians.
In the spring of 1728 the whites feared that war
would break out between several Indian tribes,
because the Shawanese had killed two Conestoga
Indians. In the back settlements whole families
fled from their homes.
GOVERNOR GORDON'S COUNCIL WITH THE INDIANS
John Wright informed Governor Patrick Gor-
don of the condition of affairs, and the Gover-
nor at once went to the Conestoga Indian town,
BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 79
where he held a council with the Indians, May 26,
1728. Captain Civility and the other chiefs of the
Conestogas were present at this council. So were
the chiefs of the Shawanese, the Qawanese and the
Delawares. Two Indian interpreters were also
there, along with Peter Bizaillon, John Scull and
Nicholas Scull, assistant interpreters. The Gov-
ernor's object was to preserve peace between the
whites and the Indians and between the various
Indian tribes themselves. Assurances of peace and
good will and desires for continued peace were
expressed both by the Governor and by the Indian
chiefs present. After the council the Governor
returned to Philadelphia.
FIRST IRON WORKS IN THE COUNTY.
Hazard's Register states the following: " Kurtz,
it is supposed, established the first Iron Works in
1726, within the present bounds of Lancaster
county. The Grubbs were distinguished for their
industry and enterprise. They commenced opera-
tions in 1728. "
SETTLEMENT OF EPHRATA BY THE SEVENTH DAY
In 1725 or 1726 Ephrata was settled by the
Sieben Taeger (Seventh Day People); so called
because they kept the seventh day of the week
(Saturday), instead of the first (Sunday), as the
Sabbath. This settlement was known by the vari-
ous names oi Ephrata^ or Kloster^ or Dmikertowii.
The last name was a nickname of the German word
Dunker^ or Tunker^ a corruption of the the Ger-
80 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
man word Taeufer^ meaning Baptists. The foun-
der of the religious society at Bphrata was Conrad
Beissel, who seceded from the Dunkers, or German
Baptists, the religious sect founded in Germany in
1708 by Alexander Mack of Shreisheim, in the
Palatinate. Many of the Dunkers emigrated from
the Palatinate to Pennsylvania in 1720 and 1721;
and, as we have seen, some settled on the Pequea
and at Muelbach, or Mill Creek, on the Cocalico
creek. Among these was Conrad Beissel, who
located at Muelbach in 1721. In 1729 Alexander
Mack, the founder of the sect, himself settled at
Muelbach. Conrad Beissel separated from the
Dunkers because he believed the seventh day of
the weeK: to be the true Sabbath. In 1725 he
retired from the Muelbach settlement, and lived
for some time like a hermit in a cell on the banks
of the Cocalico. When his abode became known,
others who had adopted his views settled around
him. Thus arose the religious society of the Seventh
Day Baptists. In 1732 their solitary life was
changed to a monastic one, and the members lived
like the monks and nuns of the Roman Catholic
Church. The brethren adopted the dress of the
Capuchins, or White Friars, consisting of a shirt,
trousers and vest, with a long white gown or cowl,
of woolen stuff in winter, and linen in summer.
The sisters wore petticoats instead of trousers. The
brethren and sisters adopted monkish names. Is-
rael Eckerlein was named Onesimus^ and was made
Prior. His successor was Peter Miller, who was
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 81
named /aede^. Conrad Beissel, the founder of the
society, was called Father^ and was given the mon-
astic names of Friedsam and Gottrecht^ meaning
Peaceable and Godright. In 1740 there were thirty-
six single brethren and thirty-five sisters in the
cloister; and at one time the society, with the
members living in the neighborhood, numbered
three hundred. A meeting-house caled Kedar^
and a convent called Zioii^ were erected on a hill
called Mount Zion. They afterwards built a sis-
ters house called Saron^ which had a large chapel
called Saal attached to it for holding Agapas^ or
Love Feasts. A brothers' house called Bethania
was also built, and had a large meeting- room for
public worship. Near by was a printing-house, a
bake-house, a school-house and other buildings,
on one of which was the town-clock. The build-
ings were of singular architecture. The rooms of
the sisters were hung with large sheets of elegant
penmanship or ink paintings, many being texts
from Scripture, in ornamented Gothic letters, called
in German Fracticr-Schriften. This was done on
large sheets of paper made at th^ir own mill.
Many specimens of original poetry were in the
Fractur-Schriften. Peter Miller was Beissel' s suc-
cessor as Father. In 1739 Ludwig Hacker came
to Ephrata from Germany, and was appointed
teacher of the common school. He soon afterward
opened a Sabbath school. The community con-
tinued to flourish for about fifty years, when from
causes which seem to be unknown it began to
82 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
decline ; and to-day there is litte but weather-
stained and crumbling walls, and curious pieces of
antique workmanship, as traces of this interesting
people. Their habits of industry, their frugality,
their simple mode of living and their devoted piety
doubtless exerted an imperishable influence upon
the neighborhood in which they lived.
SWISS AND GERMAN SETTLERS BEFORE 1735.
Among the Swiss and German settlers who came
here before 1735, and whose descendants are now so
numerous in Lancaster county, are such common
names as Herr, Hess, Harnish, Hershey, Hiestand,
Landis, Mylin, Brubaker, Brenneman, Witmer,
Kendig, Stoner, Hochsteter or Hostetter, Zimmer-
man or Carpenter, Kreider or Greider, Eckman,
Eckert, Ellmaker, Schleiermacher or Slaymaker,
Becker or Baker, Bachman, Killhaver orKillheffer,
ShaefFer, Wenger, Diffenderfer, Graaf, Musser,
Musselman, Weaver, Good, Eshleman, Kauffinan,
Hoover, Royer, Boyer, Bare, Bowman, Over-
holtzer, Garber Nissley, Burkholder, Shank or
Shenk, Weidler, Weidman, Suavely, Hoffinan,
Forney, Ritter, Eberly, Gochenaur, Stambach,
Bomberger, Bassler, Burkhardt, Shiffer, Reist,
Sensenig, Seldenridge, Shirk, Keyser, Swope,
Diff'enbach, Westhaver, Sauderor Souder, Sherrick
or Shirk, Shissler, Rohrer, Stauff'er, Erb, Eby, Eris-
man, Brandt, Ream, Leaman, Shultz, Houser,
Miller, Buckwalter, Mayer or Meyer, Funk, New-
comer, Longenecker, Neff", Brenner, Minnich and
EARLY MODE OF LIFE.
^npHE occupation of the first white emigrants to
^ Lancaster county was farming.
The Swiss and Germans, in looking about for
land, were attracted by the heavy-timbered por-
tion. They said: "Where the wood grows
heaviest, the soil must be best. " Thus they selec-
ted for settlement the limestone valleys, in which
were the rich meadows and the heavy forest land.
The Scotch-Irish class, being accustomed to
a country with a rugged surface, chose the hill
country for their homes. There the forests were
lighter and more easily cleared.
The Swiss Mennonites — often called Palatinates,
because they lived in the Palatinate of the Rhine
for some years after they were driven from Switzer-
land by persecution — were very intelligent farmers.
Their contact with the French and Germans in the
land of their exile had given them an opportunity
to see some of the best managed and cultivated
farms in that beautiful agricultural region. Then
in their journey down the Rhine into Holland they
saw and learned much that was useful in both
farming and housekeeping.
To their native industry and thrift they added
the knowledge and skill acquired by their contact
84 BRIKF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY.
with the Dutch, Germans and French. Therefore
they came here well prepared for the work before
them; and the great farms of lyancaster county,
unrivalled in fertility and high cultivation, are the
evidences we have to-day of their intelligence and
These people brought with them little but the
seeds they wished to plant. Their implements
and supplies they obtained in Philadelphia and
Germantown, where they stopped on landing in
Pennsylvania. While in Philadelphia they thought
it best to send out some persons of prudence and
judgment to select sites for homes. On their
return with reports of favorable places, immediate
application was made to the proprietary govern-
ment of the province of Pennsylvania to have the
selected tracts surveyed for them. But as the sur-
veys could not always be made at once, and as they
were impatient of delay, they often proceeded
immediately to the places chosen, taking their
families with them.
Several families usually made the journey to-
gether. The most important household goods were
brought with them from beyond the sea, and con-
sisted of stuffs which they had spun and woven
themselves. These were packed in large iron-bound
chests. These chests, together with household uten-
sils and provisions, were loaded in covered wagons,
which were drawn by teams of horses. The latter
were sometimes the joint property of the parties, and
sometimes they were hired for the occasion. The
BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 85
feeble and the children were placed in the wagons.
The adults generally went on foot, the strongest
keeping in advance and with axes removing trees
and hanging vines that might obstruct the passage
of the wagons. Notwithstanding, the journey was
slow and tedious, and taxed severely the patience
and strength of both men and horses. The site
selected for the home w^as always near a spring, as a
matter of convenience.
The first work of the men and boys was to erect
a temporary shelter for themselves, the women and
children dwelling in the wagons until the log
cabin was ready. The work of building this was
begun at once. The lofty forest trees yielded to
the steady and repeated blows of the axe and fell
crashing to the earth. The trunks of the fallen
trees were then cut into the necessary lengths, split
into the required thickness, and dragged to the
place where the humble cabin was to be erected.
They were then notched and built into a solid log-
house, this afterward to be chinked and daubed
and covered with oaken shingles. Meantime the
women, in their homespun dresses and plain white
caps, prepared the family meals in the open air.
Their hearth consisted of a wall of hastily-collected
stones. Pots and kettles were hung by chains
and hooks to cross poles. Sometimes a temporary
roof of poles and branches of trees was put up to
prevent the rain from putting out the fire.
The table on which the meals were served
usually consisted of the end gate of a wagon, nailed
SQ BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY
Upon the stump of a tree, cut the proper height.
The men generally ate first, and the women and
children afterward. There was little of mirth or
levity at the gatherings of families or friends in
those early days, and neither coarseness nor pro-
fanity, the historians tell us.
The children scoured the woods for what was
new and attractive, and carried the water from the
The boys occasionally shot squinels and wild
foul or caught fish in the near stream, and thus
furnished the table with game.
The women had started a vegetable garden in
the meanwhile, preparing the beds with spade and
hoe. The seeds and bulbs brought from their far-
away homes were then planted.
The laying out of the farm into fields and build-
ing fences next occupied the men after the log cabin
was finished. The old-fashioned wooden plow, and
a harrow made of a bundle of brush, were used to
prepare the fields for planting. Strong roots and
immovable stumps added to the difficulty of culti-
vating the new-made fields. Patient, constant and
hard work was the lot of this pioneer farmer. The
love of family and devotion to his religious faith
amply sustained him, however, in his toil and
While the crops were growing, temporary stables
were built for the horses. The barn was considered
the most important building on the farm, but its
erection had to be postponed for some years. lycsser
BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 87
improvements were made from time to time. The
houses being made at first without cellars, a turf-
covered vault was made in the hillside.
Pigs were imported from the Eastern settlements.
Cows and oxen were brouo:ht in. Ditches were due
for irrigating the land, and thus the growth of
grasses was vastly increased. The rich meadows
were considered a valuable part of the farm. When
the original tracts were divided, the rights to the
meadows were carefully specified in the title-deeds,
the use and control of the stream being given to
the owners of the several tracts a certain number
of days in each week.
The summer was given to raising crops of wheat,
corn, oats, spelt, barley, buckwheat, etc. There
was no lack of work in the autumn. Then a second
crop of hay was made, more ditches were dug,
stones were quarried, firewood for winter was cut,
the fall seeding was done, trees were felled, rails
were split, acorns were gathered, and logs were
hewed for the barn that was to be built. Trips were
made to the stores farther east for supplies, and to
the mills for flour or to have grists ground. These
trips usually lasted several days, as the nearest
mills were on the Schuylkill and the Brandy wine.
Several men went together on horseback, carrying
bags of grain, and bringing flour and meal in
The occupation of farming was regarded by these
people as offering few temptations to worldliness,
and thus it became a sort of hereditary vocation.
88 BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
From the allurements of office and worldly honors
they turned aside. The pleasures of life, and the
beauties and attractions of art and nature, they
thought were closely connected with the lusts of
the eye and sinful pride. They therefore altogether
rejected them. Many of the older people were
well educated, but their religion taught them that
education engendered vanity, and thus there grew
up among the people a sentiment in opposition to
liberal education. There were, however, always
schools, or arrangements made at home, for giving
instruction in reading, writing and arithmetic.
Music and dancing were among the recreations
prohibited, and plainness of dress and simplicity in
their houses were insisted upon.
The winter season was an uneventful one. Its
monotony was occasionally disturbed by vague
rumors of coming danger from the Indians, or by
the sudden appearance of a few wild deer in the
newly fenced grain fields. Hunting and trapping
were very attractive to the young people, but their
elders discouraged indulgence in the sports of the
chase. Coon and muskrat skins nailed against the
stable doors indicated, however, that the wishes of
the latter in this matter were not always respected.
Flax and hemp were largely cultivated by the
early farmers of the county. From these were
manufactured linen for wearing apparel and for
household use. Strength and durability were the
merits of the material.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 89
Cows and sheep were added to the live stock a
few years after settlement. The favorite cows were
a large-sized, clean-limbed breed, with smooth,
thin, but rather long, horns hooked backward.
They were generally of a brindled color, and
were noted for being good milkers and excel-
Short-horned cows were introduced about 1825
or 1830. Devons were brought later, the Jerseys
about i860, and the Holsteins in very recent years.
Sheep were kept largely for their wool. Those
first introduced were the long-wooled variety.
Merino rams were imported from Spain in 1810.
The fine-wooled sheep never came into favor, for
the reason that their short fleece was harder to
work and not so serviceable.
After having erected a good barn, the farmer
usually began to think that a fine house should
take the place of the log cabin. Sometimes several
years were occupied in preparing for this. Stones
had to be quarried and lumber sawed. The earliest
houses were almost all built of stone, and usually
two stories in height. According to the German
style there was a large chimney in the middle of
the house, and according to the English or Scotch
style there was a chimney at the gable ends. Many
of the early houses were very imposing structures,
with arched cellars, spacious hallways, easy stairs,
and oak panelled partitions and windows hung in
90 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
weights. Some of these old houses are still stand
ing, their walls as solid as they were when first
erected. Modern alterations in some cases, how-
ever, have greatly disfigured them.
The busy times of the year were the hay-making,
harvesting and fruit-gathering seasons.
The meadows were mowed earlier than the
uplands. The hay was dried by spreading and
turning it in the field during fair weather, or
putting it in weather cocks if rain was likely to
occur. Boys and girls did a large part of the
lighter work in the hay- gathering. Many times,
the young women, if they could be spared from the
work in the house, helped in the harvesting. Often
they worked with a strong, skillful young har-
vester, who would gallantly take a little more than
his own half of the work.
The apple-gathering was usually a merry-making
time. Gay youths and happy maidens mingled
with their grave and stately elders in the work of
putting away the apples for winter use and in par-
ing them for butter. Then came the apple-butter
boiling, which was usually a rollicking occasion.
About the year 1800 red clover and timothy
were introduced. These were grown on the up-
lands. The farmer no longer depended on his
irrigated meadows for hay. The English scythe
now supplanted the clumsy German scythe, and
farming implements of all kinds were improving.
The raising of wheat gradually took the place of
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 91
barley and spelt, and after 1820 the wheaten loaf
became the daily bread of the people. The distil-
ling of the coarser grains — rye, barley and corn —
into liquors became an industry in early times.
The wheat was generally ground into hour in the
mills, and the flour was hauled by the farm teams to
Philadelphia and to Newport, Delaware. ' ' Store ' '
goods, salt and land plaster were brought in
While most of the hauling was done in the win-
ter, some of the farmers had teams on the road all
the year hauling goods between Philadelphia and
Pittsburg. These were the well-known "Cones-
toga Teams," sometimes figuratively called the
"Ships of Inland Commerce." They were stately
objects in those days, and the owners and drivers
alike took great pride in keeping their teams neat
and trim. The team often consisted of six or eight
heavy horses, well fed and well cared for, good har-
ness, and sometimes ornamented with bows of bells
fitted so as to form an arch above the collars. These
bells were selected with a view to harmony, and
formed a sort of chime, from the small trebles on the
leaders to the large bass upon the wheel horses.
92 BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY.
The wagon was made of strong, durable material,
and was painted red and blue. The cover was of
strong white linen or hempen material, and was
drawn tightly over shapely bows fixed to the body,
.ower nearer the middle and projecting front and
back something like a bonnet. Taverns or inns
sprang up along the principal roads for the accom-
modation of the teamsters and their horses, and
did a flourishing business. Most of these to-day
are quiet farm houses, or have been converted to
other uses. With the coming of the railroad the
day of the tavern came to an end.
Drinking was very common in those days. Dis-
tilleries were numerous and alcoholic liquors cheap.
Bottles of whiskey or wine were in the field during
the day, on the table at meal time, and were set
out during the evening.
Before 1830 very few farmers had pleasure car-
riages. Those who rode in old-fashioned gigs
were considered very stylish and proud. Business
and visiting were done on horseback among the
well-to-do people. Children were taken along by
being put in the front on a pillow, and infants were
carried on the arm tightly wrapped in a shawl or a
Women became noted as fearless and skillful
riders, and mothers would often make journeys of
ten or fifteen miles alone on horseback with infants
in their arms.
Young ladies of sixteen or seventeen years were
BRIKB' HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 9»5
accustomed to going on horseback to the country
store where the trading was done, riding often-
times as many as five or six miles each way.
THE YOUNG PEOPLE.
When a farmer's daughter was old enough to go
into society, she was given a handsome saddle and
bridle, and was permitted to use a farm horse when
she went to church-meeting, to singing-school or
to visit friends.
The riding-habit of the young ladies w^as usually
a very trim, close-fitting garment, and this together
with a beaver hat or scoop-bonnet constituted a full
outfit. The farmer's boy was a fresh, rosy-faced
lad. His work consisted of carrying water to the
men in the field, taking the horse to the black-
smith shop, hunting the eggs, driving the cows,
and doing small errands about the farm. When
he grew older his work was somewhat different.
Now he split the firewood, began to plow, fed the
stock. In the winter he had a short term in school.
There he studied to learn, and in play time played
He was noted for throwing a ball in the game
with unerring aim and with tremendous force. At
the age of seventeen or eighteen he was presented
with a saddle and bridle. At nineteen he took
charge of the farm team, led the men to harvest,
and was permitted to have the finest and best
groomed young horse when he rode out. He
usually married at an early age. On the marriage
day the young farmer brought his wife to his
94 BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTE^R COUNTY.
father's house, riding by her side in the midst of a
company of merry friends. The teams, laden with
her household goods and furniture, followed; and a
noisy party of drivers brought up the rear driving
the cows, which were her father's bridal gift.
His new duties as the head of a household he
assumed quite seriously. He and his young wife
lived plainly, worked early and late, were frugal
as well as industrious, saving all they could with
the view of buying a farm for themselves. They
generally joined the church of the parents of one or
the other, avoided display, shunned worldly attrac-
tions, saved money to start their children in life,
lived to a good age, and died worthy and respected.
LOCATION, BOUNDARIES, AREA.
LANCASTER county is situated upon the east
^ bank of the Susquehanna river, in the south-
eastern part of Pennsylvania. It is bounded on
the north by the counties of Dauphin, Lebanon
and Berks; on the east by Chester county; on tne
south by Cecil county, Maryland; and on the west
by York county. Its boundary lines are chiefly
natural ones. From Danphin county on the
north-west it is separated by the Conewago creek,
from Lebanon county on the north by the South
Mountain, from Chester on the east partly by the
Octoraro creek, from Maryland on the south by
Mason and Dixon's Line, and from York county on
the west by the Susquehanna river. Its greatest
length from east to west is forty-five miles, from
north to south fort^'-one miles. Central latitude is
40° 3^ N., longitude 0° 40' east from Washing-
ton city. The area of the county is 973 square
miles, and the population by the census of 1890 is
TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE
The general slope of the county is toward the
Susquehanna river on the south-west. Its surface
is broken and diversified by mountain ridges, hills.
96 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
fertile valleys and beautiful streams. The princi-
pal elevations are the South Mountain, along the
northern boundary; the Welsh Mountain on the
east, extending some distance into the interior;
Mine Ridge and the hills of the Octoraro on the
south-east; and the River Hills along the south-
west. These ridges have the general direction
from east to west, and with their outlying ranges of
hills divide the interior of the county into a num-
ber of valleys. The longest of these, like the
Pequea, Conestoga and Chickies, named respec-
tively after the streams that flow through them,
extend through the entire length of the county
from north-east to south-west. Through the cen-
tral portion, however, the line of division between
the valleys is so gradual that the whole interior
may properly be regarded as one large fer-
tile valley. Numerous streams flow through the
county ._ ' They all drain into the Susquehanna
river. ;The north central section is drained by the
the Conestoga creek, the largest stream in the
county./ The main branches of this stream are the
Little Conestoga, Mill Creek, the Cocalico, Hammer,
Middle and Muddy Creeks. The south central sec-
tion forms the large and beautiful Pequea valley,
which is drained by the Pequea and its tributaries.
The section north of the Conestoga is watered by
the Big Chickies and Little Chickies creeks. In the
extreme north-west are the Conoy and Conewago
creeks; in the south the Conowingo, the Oc-
toraro and Fishing Creek, with their rugged and
BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 97
romantic scenery. The network of streams fur-
nishes abundant water-power to the county, and
gives to every neighborhood an adequate supply
of excellent running water.
SOIL AND CLIMATE.
The fine tracts of heavy timber that are found in
nearly all the portions of the county show that the
soil is naturally fertile. In the limestone region,
which extends across the county from east to west,
and from the hills in the northern part to those in
the southern part, the soil is the richest. This
section occupies nearly one-half of the area of the
county, and by skillful cultivation has made Lan-
caster county famous as the "Garden Spot of Penn-
sylvania," and the greatest agricultural county in
the United States. The red shale north of the lime-
stone and the variety of rich clay south of the
limestone contain some of the finest farms in the
county. Like the limestone soil, their productions
include all the cereals and very many of the best
varieties of small fruit. The climate is compara-
tively mild and conducive to occupation in active
pursuits. Before the cold north winds from the
Upper Mississippi and the Lakes reach the county
they must cross the Alleghany mountains and the
Blue Ridge, which largely neutralize the effects oi
these wintry storms. From the ocean the winds
have free access, and at brief intervals supply the
county with an abundant rainfall. Its protection
from the rigors of winter, its exposure to the ocean,
its variety of surface, give it a uniform temper-
98 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY.
ature, and, with its soil and other physical resources,
the best conditions to promote and enjoy life. Lan-
caster county has never had an entire failure of
INDUSTRIES AND PRODUCTS.
The great fertility of soil has made agriculture
the leading industry. Large harvests of grain and
abundant water-power early led our people to erect
grist-mills and engage in the business of manu-
facturing flour. Some attention is given to min-
ing and grazing in the extreme north and south.
The transportation of products of various kinds is
quite an important source of revenue. The cotton
mills of Lancaster city and the furnaces and roll-
ing-mills at several points of interest employ many
men and contribute materially to the wealth of the
county. Besides the usual farm products, special
attention is given to the raising of tobacco.; ^ Mill-
ions of cigars are made annually in the small towns
and villages. Lime is extensively burned in a few
sections. Creameries are found in nearly every
neighborhood in the northern and southern por-
tions of the county, and thousands of tons of butter
are made and shipped yearly to Baltimore, Phila-
delphia and New York. Fine building stone are
quarried and excellent brick burned from native
clay. Nickel is mined in paying quantities at the
Gap. The material wealth of the county in round
numbers, according to the official records, is about
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 99
POLITICAL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY.
Lancaster county consists of one city, ten bor-
oughs and forty-one townships. The city of Lan-
caster is the'^unty-seat and the only city within
the limits of the county. The ten boroughs, begin-
ning with the largest and naming them in the
order of their population, are Columbia, Marietta,
Manheim, Ephrata, Mount Joy, Lititz, Elizabeth-
town, Strasburg, Washington and Adamstown.
With the exception of Adamstown, all the bor-
oughs are directly connected by railroad with the
Lancaster city, the county-seat, is situated on the
north-western bank of the Conestoga and about
eight miles west of the center of the county. Ac-
cording to the census of 1890 it had a population
of 32,090. The facilities of the city are not sur-
passed by any other town in the State. The
water for the city is obtained from the Conestoga
by means of high pressure Worthington pumps
aerated in reservoirs in the eastern limits of the
city. All portions of the town are lighted by means
of gas and electric lights and gasoline. A system of
electric railways on the principal streets extends
to the four quarters of the town and secures rapid
transit to all points in the city limits. An electric
railway also connects the city with the village of
Millersville, in Manor township, four miles south-
west from the city. Lancaster is located on the
main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and is
100 BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTFR COUNTY.
therefore in direct communication with all points
east and west. It is also connected by the Reading
Railroad with Reading, Lebanon and Quarryville,
and by a branch line of the Pennsylvania, recently
completed, with New Holland. Its central posi-
tion in a rich agricultural section and its excellent
shipping facilities have made it noted for its mar-
kets. The general household market is held daily
in one or several of the five public market-houses
located in different sections of the city. No town in
the country has a cheaper and more abundant sup-
ply of every article of household consumption. The
thriving character of the shipping and exchange
market is shown by the ninety or more tobacco
warehouses in the city, the large number of grain
warehouses, sale and exchange stables, and houses
in the wholesale mercantile trade.
The industrial enterprise of the city embraces
nearly all kinds of business. x\mong the principal
may be mentioned a furnace, a rolling-mill, loco-
motive works, half a dozen large cotton and woolen
mills employing several thousand workmen, a
watch factory, coach factories, a large number of
smaller manufacturing establishments of various
kinds, large and well-equipped stores, first class
hotels, and a number of National Banks, some of
which occupy large and spacious edifices.
The educational and charitable institutions of
Lancaster are among the finest in the State. Frank-
lin and Marshall College, the leading institution of
the Reformed Church in the United States, is
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 101
located here. Two High Schools and about
seventy-five schools of all other grades belong to
its public school system. A "Children's Home"
for the orphan and friendless child, and other
charitable institutions, on the eastern limits of
the town, reflect the benevolent spirit of the com-
munity. The town has several parochial schools,
several commercial colleges, a Linnsean Society
of Natural Science, four public libraries and four
daily and six weekly newspapers.
Its principal public buildings are the Lancaster
County Court House, near the center of the city;
the County Almshouse and Hospital, just beyond
the eastern limits of the city; the Post Office Build-
ing, erected by the government and completed in
1891; the City Hall, on Centre Square; the Trust
Company's Building, on North Queen street; Ful-
ton Opera House; and the Pennsylvania Railroad
Station, two blocks from the centre of the city.
The majority of these buildings are fine structures
and combine some of the best features in modern
The social and moral tone of the town is elo-
quently told in its excellent homes and numerous
churches. Its places of public worship are fine
edifices, supplied by able divines, and supported
by the various Christian denominations. The
many beautiful homes, tasteful surroundings of
trees and shrubbery, and pure inland air, have long
made Lancaster a desirable place of residence.
102 BRIEJF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTER COUNTY.
Columbia is the largest and most important
borough in I^ancaster county. It is located on the
Susquehanna river, ten miles directly west from
Ivancaster city. It had a population of over 10,500
by the census of 1890, and is a thriving town. A
railroad bridge, one and one-eighth miles in length,
crosses the river from Columbia to Wrightsville, on
the opposite side of the river. The town is on the
main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and is the
principal freight station between Harrisburg and
Philadelphia. Lines of railway also connect it
with Reading, with points south along the Sus-
quehanna, and with Baltimore and Washington by
way of York. Its large round-house, its freight
yard, its furnaces and rolling-mills, its large traffic
in lumber, coal and sand, make it quite an indus-
trial center. The town has a number of fine resi-
dences, several of the finest churches in the in-
terior of the State, an Opera House that cost $100,-
000, and a fine system of general education.
THE OTHER BOROUGHS OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
Marietta^ on the Susquehanna, three miles
north-west from Columbia, is the second borough in
size and population in the county. The census
of 1890 gives it a population of over 2,400. The
Pennsylvania Railroad passes through the town.
The chief industry of the place is in its lumber
trade and manufacture of enamelled work upon an
extensive scale. The long river-front and the
BRIKF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 103
beautiful scenety of the hills across the river make
Marietta a delightful town in summer.
Mount Joy and Eli^abethtoztni boroughs are
located on the Mount Joy branch of the Pennsyl-
vania Railroad, connecting I^ancaster with Harris-
burg, and also on the Lancaster and Harrisburg
turnpike. Mount Joy borough is within a few
hundred yards of the Uttle Chickies creek, and
between Mount Joy and East Donegal townships.
The town lies twelve miles north-west from Lancas-
ter, and contains the finest public-school building in
the county, outside of Lancaster. Elizabethtown is
situated between the townships of Mount Joy and
West Donegal, and eighteen miles north-west
from Lancaster. Within the past few years its
streets were regraded and macadamized, and im-
provements were made in buildings. The town
is one of the best built in the county.
The borough of Manheim is situated along
the Reading and Columbia Railroad, and is about
eleven miles north-west from Lancaster. It is
bounded on the north-west and south-west by
Rapho township, and on the east by the Big Chickies
creek, which separates it from Penn township.
Manheim, with its railroad connection with Lan-
caster, Columbia, Reading and Lebanon, has
grown rapidly in recent years, and is the third bor-
ough in population, which was almost 2,000 by the
census of 1890. It has a few of the finest' and
largest stores of general merchandise in the county.
The new borough of Lititz is also situated along
104 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
the Reading and Columbia Railroad. It is wholly
within the limits of Warwick township, and eight
miles directly north from Lancaster. Lititz is an
old Moravian settlement, long noted for its young
men's academy and young ladies' seminary, for
its beautiful spring grounds, and as a healthful
The new borough of Ephrata is likewise situated
along the Reading and Columbia Railroad. It is
entirely within the limits of Ephrata township, and
is located on Cocalico creek, thirteen miles north-
east from Lancaster. Ephrata has grown wonder-
fully in population during recent years, having
almost 2,000 by the census of 1890. Just east of
the town are the Ephrata Ridge, with its lofty
observatory, and the Ephrata Springs, noted as a
Strasbiirg borough — wholly within the limits of
Strasburg township, and eight miles south-east
from Lancaster — is one of the oldest towns in the
county. The smallest boroughs in the county are
Washington and Adamstown. Washington is on
the Susquehanna, three miles south-east from
Columbia; being washed by the river on its western
side, and bounded by Manor township on the
north, east and south. Adamstown is in the north-
eastern part of the county, bordering on the Berks
county line, and between East Cocalico and Breck-
BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY. 105
There are a number of large and important
villages or unincorporated towns in Lancaster
county. The largest unincorporated town in the
county is the village of Millersville^ in Manor
township, a few miles south-west from Lancaster,
with which it is connected by turnpike and an elec-
tric railway. Millersville is the seat of the State
Normal School of the Second District of Pennsyl-
vania, the oldest institution of the kind in the
State, and which will be described in another part
of this book. This village has a population of
over 1,200, and contains five churches.
The second village of Lancaster county in size,
population and importance is New Holland^ in
Earl township, about twelve miles north-east by
east from Lancaster, with which it is connected
by turnpike and by the Downingtown and Lan-
Terre Hill is one of the most thriving villages in
the county. It is located in the northern part of
East Earl township, and is connected by mail-stage
with Lancaster and Reading. Although six miles
from the railroad, it has a very large shipping trade.
Its principal industry is the manufacture of cigars,
for which it is the best equipped town in this sec-
tion of the State. The village, as its name sug-
gests, is situated on the brow of an elevated ridge,
at the foot of which lies the beautiful Conestoga
Valley, spread out like a vast garden.
Among villages of lesser size and importance is
106 BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY.
Safe Harbor^ on the Susquehanna, at the mouth
of the Conestoga. This place is situated on the
Columbia and Port Deposit Railroad, and was
noted for its iron works, consisting of a furnace
and a rolling-mill.
In the south-eastern part of the county, in Sads-
bury township, is Christiana^ located on the Octo-
raro creek, just on the line of Chester county. It
is on the Pennsylvania Railroad, twenty miles
south-east by east from Lancaster, and has a
foundry, a machine-shop and several other manu-
In the southern part of the county, on the line
of Eden and Bast Drumore townships, is Quarry-
z>ille, so called from its extensive quarries. This
place is sixteen miles south-east by south from
Lancaster, and is connected with Lancaster, Read-
ing and Columbia by the Quarryville branch of
the Reading and Columbia Railroad.
The location, boundaries, streams and villages
of the several townships of the county can be seen
by reference to the map of the county as at present.
Pequea has the highest ratio of wealth. Manor is
the most populous township in the county and has
the greatest aggregate wealth. It is generally undu-
dulating, except along the river, in the south-western
part, where a ridge extends, known as Turkey Hill.
Among the most fertile, wealthy and populous
townships are East Donegal, the Hempfields, the
Lampeters, the Leacocks, the Earls, Manheim,
BRIKI^ HISTORY OF LA.NCASTER COUNTY. 107
Penn, part of Rapho, Salisbury, Ephrata, Stras-
burg and Warwick. These townships all lie, with
one^exception, in the great limestone valley, a nH~
are generally level or onlylTioderately undulating.
The only hills of considerable size in this section
are the Welsh Mountains, in the northern part of
Salisbury; the Ephrata Ridge, in Ephrata township;
and Chestnut Hill, in the Hempfields. The town-
ships along the border of the county are more roll-
ing, but nearly all contain portions of choice farm-
ing land. West Cocalico is rugged in the northern
part, but south of Schoeneck it is as level as a floor
and as fertile as it is beautiful. Brecknock has
fine meadow lands. Caernarvon is reputed to raise
a superior quality of tobacco. Sadsbury, Drumore
and Martic have the finest and most picturesque
scenery. A trip over the Martic Hills, or along
Fishing Creek in Drumore, or along the Octoraro in
Sadsbury, is worth taking at any season of the
year. Providence has the richest deposit of iron
ore. The townships in the southern part of the
county are best adapted to the production of corn,
those in the northern part to hay, and those in the
central part to the cultivation of wheat. The
traveling facilities of the county are excellent,
the industries varied, and the population honest
BEFORE THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.
ERECTION OF LANCASTER COUNTY. ^^
npHB city of. Chester, on the Delaware river,
-^ some twelve miles below Philadelphia, was the
first county-seat of Chester county. Here were
kept the county records, the wills, the deeds, the
mortgages and land surveys. The inhabitants of
what is now Lancaster and adjoining counties were
on this account obliged to make a journey of over
one hundred miles whenever they desired to attend
to any legal business or to discharge their duties
as jurors, witnesses or public officers. Accord-
ingly, early in 1729, the settlers living west of the
Octoraro creek and on both sides of the Susque-
hanna river petitioned the Governor and his Council
to make a new county. Governor Patrick Gordon
and his Council, who were at this time in session
at Philadelphia, granted the petition in February,
1729. At the same time a commission of twelve
prominent and influential men was appointed, who
were to meet John Taylor, the public Surveyor of
Chester county, to survey and mark the boundary
line between Chester and the new county. These
twelve men — the first six from what is now Chester
county, and the last six from what is now lyancaster
inZHEN ORGT^NIZED, IN
BYI. S. CLARE.
SCALE OF MILES.
5 10 15 20
BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 109
county — were all honest and reputable citizens,
most of them being Justices of the Peace, and several
of them members of the Pennsylvania Legislature.
In May of the same year this commission made its
report to the Governor and his Council. The
Governor submitted the report to the Assembly of
the province; and the Assembly, May loth, 1729,
passed the act erecting all that part of Chester
county west of the Octoraro creek and north and
west of a line of marked trees, from the north
branch of the said Octoraro creek, north-easterly to
the river Schuylkill, into a new county to be named
La7icaster county. *
The twelve men constituting the commission
were Henry Hayes, Samuel Nutt, Samuel Hol-
lingsworth, Philip Taylor, Elisha Gatchel, James
James, John Wright, Tobias Hendricks, Samuel
Blunston, iindrew Cornish, Thomas Edwards and
THE ORIGINAL LANCASTER COUNTY.
Lancaster county was the first county of Penn-
sylvania formed after Philadelphia, Bucks and
Chester, the first three original counties within the
present limits of the State. For its first twenty
years (i 729-1 749) Lancaster county embraced a
vast region, including beside its present territory
*The new county was so named by the Quaker John Wright,
after his native county, Lancaster, or Lancashire, in England.
He came from England in 17 14 and settled at Chester. In 1726
he removed to the Susquehanna and settled on the site of
110 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY
all that part of Pennsylvania to the north-east,
north, north-west and west of the present limits of
the county. Its first reduction in size was made
by the erection of York county in 1749. It was
still further reduced in size by the formation of
Cumberland county in 1750, Berks county in 1752,
Northumberland county in 1772, and Dauphin
county in 1785. lyancaster county was finally
reduced to its present limits by the erection of
Lebanon county in 1813.
THE FIRST COUNTY OFFICIALS.
On May 8, 1729, the Governor and Council of
the province of Pennsylvania appointed the follow-
ing persons Justices of the Peace in the county of
Lancaster; John Wright, Tobias Hendricks, Samuel
Blunston, Andrew Cornish, Thomas Edwards,
Caleb Pierce, Thomas Read and Samuel Jones,
Esqs. The Governor and Council also appointed
Robert Barber to the ofiice of Sheriff of the new
county, and Andrew Galbraith to the ofiice of
ORGANIZATION OF TOWNSHIPS.
The magistrates of the new county called a
meeting of the leading citizens of the county at
John Postlethwait's tavern, in Conestoga township,
near Conestoga creek. This place is the site of
the old homestead of the Fehl's, in Conestoga
township. The public meeting was held there
June 9, 1729, and the names and boinidaries of
townships of the new county were there agreed
upon. The magistrates' court met at the same
BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. Ill
place, August 5, 1729, and confirmed the report
of the citizens' public meeting.
NAMES OF THE TOWNSHIPS.
Of the seventeen townships, three were outside
of the present limits of Lancaster county. Of
these Derry and Peshtank (now Paxton) town-
ships are in the present Dauphin county, and
Lebanon township forms a part of what is now
Lebanon county. The other fourteen townships —
all of which were within the present limits
of Lancaster county — were Drumore, Sadsbury,
Martock, Conestoga, Hempfield, Donegal, Earl,
Warwick, Manheim, Lancaster, Leacock, Lam-
peter, Salisbury and Caernarvon. The boundary
and original extent of these townships can also be
seen by reference to the map of Lancaster county
as it was upon its organization.
DERIVATION OF THE TOWNSHIP NAMES.
Of the original townships of Lancaster county,
Conestoga, Donegal and Tulpehocken had been
townships of Chester county before the formation
of Lancaster; and Tulpehocken is now a township
of Berks county. Conestoga and Tulpehocken are
Indian names. Donegal was so named because its
early settlers came from Donegal county, Ireland.
Hempfield was so named on account of the great
quantities of hemp raised there. Manheim was
named after the city of that name in Germany,
from which many of the early settlers came. War-
wick was so named by Richard Carter, who came
112 BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY.
from Warwickshire, England. Earl was named
after Hans Graaf, Earl being the English word for
Graaf. Caernarvon was so named by its early set-
tlers, who came from Caernarvon county, in Wales.
Leacock was so named by an early Scotch-Irish
settler. Lampeter was named after Lampeter, in
Wales, the native place of a few of the settlers.
Lancaster was named after Lancaster, England.
Salisbury and Sadsbury are named after places in
England, of which the early Quaker settlers were
natives. Drumore and Martock were named after
places in Ireland, where the Scotch-Irish settlers
came from. Lebanon township, now in Lebanon
county, is a Scriptural name given to the township
by its early inhabitants. Peshtank, now in Dauphin
county, was an Indian name, later Paxtang^ now
Paxtoii. Derry, also now in Dauphin county, was
so named by its early Scotch-Irish settlers, who
came from county Derry, Ireland. Cocalico town-
ship, which was also formed in 1729, but several
months after the first seventeen were erected, was
the Indian name of the creek flowing through it.
The following table shows the names of the
original townships, with the derivation of their
names, and the townships into which they have
since been divided:
BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY.
Original Town- ,_, . ^. ,. ^ , -^ ,r -^«^<' what Townshibs
f. . : Derivation of Tozvnshtp Names. ^. ^. .^^
ships in 1729, , 5^z«c^ Divided.
T^„^,,,^^^ Named bv Scotch-Irish settlers,
DRLMORE, . . . ^^^^^ ^ place in Ireland.
East Drumore (1886).
Little Britain (1738),
eAr.cnTTDv , So named by Quaker settlers, from
1 Sa»S«^RY, . . . Sadsbury, England.
Eden (1855). ,
TVTATJTnrir 1 Named by Scotch-Irish settlers,
Martock, . . . , ^f^^^ ^ pj^^^ .^ Ireland.
Providence ( 1853) .
1 CONESTOGA, . . Indian name.
Wi7n>rT.T7TirT r. So named because much hemp
E. Hempfield. ) q q
W. Hempfield, / ^^^^•
Named by its Scotch-Irish settlers,
Donegal, . . . who came from Donegal county,
E. Donegal. \ ^„,g
W. Donegal, f ^^3»-
Mount Joy (1759).
■ni7Bi»v Named by its Scoth-Irish settlers,
uisKKY, .... ^^^^ Derry county, Ireland.
Now in Dauphin Co.
Peshtank, . , i Indian name.
Now in Dauphin Co. [
I^EBANON, ... Scriptural name.
Now in Lebanon Co.
j Named in honor of Hans Graaf,
Karl, | Earl being the English word
! for Graaf.
E. Earl (1851).
W. Earl (1828).
So named by Richard Carter, an
Warwick, . . early settler from Warwickshire,
TvrAT«wT?Tiv/r So named by early settlers, from
MANHEIM, ... Mannheim. Germany.
I^ancaster, . .
IvEACOCK, . . .
Named after Lancaster, Eng-
So named by a Scotch-Irish set-
tler, who came from Leacock,
So named by a few Welsh settlers,
after Lampeter in Wales.
Lancaster city (1818).
U. Leacock (1843).
I^ampeter, . .
E.Lampeter, | „
W. Lampeter, ) ^^^i-
Salisbury, . .
So named by Quaker settlers from
So named by early settlers from
Caernarvon county, Wales.
COCALICO, . . .
E. Cocalico, )
W. Cocalico, ^1838.
So named by early settlers from
Brecknock county, Wales.
Brecknock, Lane. Co. \ C^,
Brecknock. Berks Co. \ CT
Now in Berks Co.
114 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
FIRST ELECTED COUNTY OFFICERS AND COUNTY COURT.
On the 4th of October, 1729, an election for
county officers was held. Robert Barber, of
Hempfield township, and John Galbraith, of Done-
gal, were chosen as Sheriffs; and Barber was com-
missioned on the same day. Joshua Lowe was
elected and commissioned Coroner. At the same
election four County Commissioners and six
Assessors were also chosen. "^
The first Court of Quarter Sessions was held at
the house of John Postlethwait, in Conestoga town-
ship, in August, 1729. John Wright and five asso-
ciate justices held the court. The first grand juryf
consisted of sixteen men, four of whom were
Quakers and the remaining twelve Scotch-Irish. *
The non-appearance of German names on this list
seems to indicate that the Mennonites declined to
serve as jurors.
The first case tried was that of Morris Cannady,
^he Commissioners were John Postlethwait and Andrew Cor-
nish, of Conestoga township ; George Stuart, of Donegal ; and
John Davis, of Caernarvon. The Assessors were Patrick Camp-
bell, of Donegal ; Joshua Lowe, of Hempfield ; and Richard HufF,
John Dearer, John Callwell and Isaac Robinson, of Salisburv
township. Richard Marsden was the first clerk to the Board of
Commissioners and Assessors.
t The first grand jury were : James Mitchell, George Stuart,
Andrew Calbraith, James Roddy, Patrick Campbell, John Gal-
braith and Ephraim Moore, all of Donegal ; Edward Smout,
John and James Hendricks, all of Hempfield; Francis Jones, of
Sadsbury; Samuel Taylor, of Salisbury ; Edmund Cartlidge,
Thomas Baldwin and Matthew Atkinson, all of Conestoga ; and
William Hay, of Paxton.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 115
who was indicted for larceny. He was accused of
having stolen fourteen pounds and seven shillings
from Daniel Cookson, who owned a mill at the
head of Pequea creek, in Salisbury township. The
jury* found the defendant guilty; and he was
sentenced to restore the money stolen, pay an equal
amount as fine, pay costs of prosecution, pay two
pounds and eighteen shillings to plaintiff for the
loss of time in prosecuting the case, and stand com-
mitted to the Sheriff's custody until all the fines
and costs were paid. He was further sentenced to be
publicly whipped "on his bare back with twenty-
one stripes well laid on. ' ' He received the whipping
and restored the amount stolen, but was unable to
pay the fines and costs. He was accordingly kept
in jail one year, at the end of which the Sheriff was
ordered by the court to sell him " to the highest
bidder for any term not exceeding six years, and
*Tliegrandjurors were John Hendricks and James Hendricks,
of Hempfield township ; Francis Jones, of Sadsbury ; Samuel
Taylor, of Salisbury ; James Mitchell, George Stuart, Andrew
Galbraith, John Galbraith, Ephraim Lloore, Patrick Campbell
and James Roddy, of Donegal; Edward Smout, of Hempfield;
Edmund Cartlidge, Thomas Baldwin and Matthew Atkinson, of
Conestoga ; and William Hay, of Paxton. The first four
mentioned were Quakers ; the rest were Scotch-Irish, seven of
them from Donegal township.
The jury that tried Morris Cannady were John L,awrence, of
Paxton; Robert Blackshaw and Thomas Gale, of Lampeter ;
John Mitchell and Joseph Worke, of Donegal ; Joseph Burton,
Edmund Dougherty, Richard Hough and Joshua Minshall, of
Hempfield ; Richard Carter, of Warwick ; David Jones, of Con-
estoga ; and Lawrence Bankson.
116 BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
that the money thence arising be applied for or
towards payment of the fine and costs afore-
said." He was sold by the Sheriff for six years to
John Lawrence, of Paxton township, for sixteen
pounds; but only fourteen pounds and five shil-
lings were collected.
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE COUNTY-SEAT.
By the act establishing Lancaster county, John
Wright, Caleb Pierce, James Mitchell and Thomas
Edwards were empowered to purchase a site for the
county court-house and prison. Three sites were
proposed — Wright's Ferry, now Columbia; John
Postlethwait's place, now Fehl's, in Conestoga
township; and Gibson's place, the site of Lancas-
ter. The Sheriff, Robert Barber, was so certain
that Wright's Ferry, where he resided, would be
selected that he built a strong wooden building for
a county jail, near his residence. The first county
courts were held at Postlethwait's, from June, 1729,
to August, 1730; and a temporary wooden court-
house and jail were erected there. Three of the
magistrates appointed to select the county-seat —
Wright, Pierce and Mitchell — agreed upon a piece
of land for a permanent county-seat; and their
report was confirmed by the Governor and his
Council, May i, 1729. This was a lot of land "lying
on or near a small run of water, between the plan-
tations of Rudy Mire, Michael Shank and Jacob
Imble, about ten miles from Susquehanna river."
Governor James Hamilton, who laid out the town
of Lancaster, offered two places — "the old Indian
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 117
118 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY.
Field, High Plain, Gibson's Pasture, Sanderson's
Pasture," being one place; the other, ''the Waving
Hills, embosomed in wood, bounded by Roaring
Brook on the west." The road from Philadelphia
to Harris' Ferry (now Harrisburg) passed through
the center, Gibson resided near a fine spring, with
a large hickory tree before his door. This was a
favorite tree of the Indians there, who were called
"Hickory Indians." The Dark Hazel Swamp
and the I^ong Swamp were near the center of the
proposed town, which was laid out in 1730 and
FIRST LICENSES GRANTED.
In November, 1730, the county court at Lan-
caster allowed the petition of thirteen persons who
asked to be licensened as Indian traders. * At the
same time permission was given to nine persons to
keep public houses of entertainment. These per-
sons were allowed to sell all kinds of spiritous and
malt liquors, t
THE KING'S HIGHWAY FROM LANCASTER TO PHILADELPHIA.
After the erection of Lancaster county and the
organization of townships, the principal object of
the inhabitants was the laying out of roads and
*The Indian traders were James Patterson, Edmund Cartlidge,
Peter Chartiere, John Lawrence, Jonas Davenport, Oliver Wallis,
Patrick Boyd, Lazarus Lowry, William Dunlap, William Bes-
wick, John Wilkins, Thomas Perrin and John Harris.
t The tavern keepers were John Postlethwait, John Miller,
Jacob Funk, Christian Stoneman, Jacob Biere, Edmund Dough-
erty, Samuel Taylor, Francis Jones and Mary Denny.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 119
the building of bridges. On January 29, 1730, the
magistrates, grand jury and other inhabitants of
Lancaster county presented a petition to the pro-
vincial Council at Philadelphia to lay out a road,
by way of Postleth wait's, in Conestoga, from the
Conestoga Indian town to Philadelphia.
The Council granted a petition and appointed a
commission of fourteen prominent men, * seven from
Lancaster and seven from Chester county, to view
and lay out a road, by way of Postleth wait's, in
Conestoga, from the Conestoga Indian town to the
King's high-road in Chester county leading to
Philadelphia. The viewers made their report Octo-
ber 4, 1733, and the Council thereupon approved
and confirmed it, and the road thus laid out was
declared the King^ s Highway. This is the road
now passing east from'Fehl's, through Strasburg
and the Gap, on to Philadelphia.
QUAKERS IN LANCASTER COUNTY.
At the time of the erection of Lancaster county
1,000 Quaker families were settled within its limits,
their settlements extending from the Octoraro to
EXCITING ELECTION CONTEST FOR THE ASSEMBLY.
In 1732 there was a remarkable political contest
in Lancaster county for members of the provincial
*Thomas Edwards, Edward Smout, Robert Barber, Hans
Graaf, Caleb Pierce, Samuel Jones and Andrew Cornish, of Lan-
caster county; and Thomas Green, George Aston, William
Paschal, Richard Buffington, William March, vSamuel Miller and
Robert Parke, of Chester county.
120 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANC ASTER COUNTY.
Assembly. Andrew Galbraith, of Donegal town-
ship, was the candidate of the Scotch-Irish ; and
John Wright, of Hempfield township, was the
candidate of the Quaker English. Mrs. Galbraith
mounted her favorite mare Nelly, fastening a spur
to her ankle, and with "her red cloak flowing to
the wind," she rode off to canvass the county in
the interest of her husband. Her efforts w^ere
crowned with success, as Andrew Galbraith was
elected and returned a member, and took his seat
in the Assembly. The other members of the As-
sembly from Lancaster county were George Stuart,
Thomas Edwards and Samuel Blunston. John
Wright contested the election of Andrew Galbraith;
but, after hearing the claims of both at the bar of
the Assembly, the Assembly resolved "that An-
drew Galbraith is duly returned a member for the
county of Lancaster." John Wright was soon
after elected to the Assembly to succeed George
Stuart, who had died soon after his election.
In 1732 Colonel Thomas Cresap, of Maryland,
established a ferry and built a cabin close to the
lands of the Indian trader James Patterson on the
west side of the Susquehanna. Cresap and his
Marylanders came for the purpose of driving Pat-
terson and all of Penn's settlers from their lands
west of the Susquehanna river and seizing these
lands for themselves. They shot several of Patter-
son's horses. Patterson obtained a warrant from
Justices John Wright and Samuel Blunston, at
BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 121
Wright's Ferry (now Columbia), for the arrest of a
man named John lyowe, of Cresap's party. Con-
stable Charles Jones, of Hempfield township, Mr.
Patterson and his son James, and several others,
crossed the river and arrested John Lowe and his
sons Daniel and William in their house at night,
took them by force over the river on the ice and
brought them to Lancaster, where he placed them
in prison. They were afterwards rescued from jail
b}' a party of Marylanders. This was the begin-
ning of the border troubles between the Maryland-
ers and the Pennsylvanians, known as "Cresap's
War," which entirely broke up Patterson's trade
with the Indians on the west side of the Susque-
hanna and caused him great loss. His son James
was taken prisoner, and kept for a short time in
"Cresap's Fort." Other unhappy frays followed,
and the Marylanders committed atrocious outrages
upon the Pennsylvanians. The Lancaster people
were aroused to action and called "to arms," and
the most resolute drove Cresap and his party into
NEW TOW^NSHIPS ERECTED WEST OF THE RIVER.
Settlements had already been made west of the
Susquehanna, within the limits of what are now
York, Adams, Franklin, Cumberland and Perry
counties, then a part of Lancaster county. The
first authorized settlement in the present York
county was made in the spring of 1729 by the
Quakers John and James Hendricks, of Hempfield
township. The people west of the river petitioned
122 BRISF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTE^R COlTNTY.
the Lancaster county court for the erection of
townships in that region; and in November, 1735,
the townships of Pennsborough and Hopewell were
organized. These are now in Cumberland county.
BORDER CONTESTS WITH THE MARYLANDERS.
The undefined boundary between Pennsylvania
and Maryland led to a struggle between the Lan-
caster people and the Marylanders in 1736. Many
Germans and others had settled west of the Sus-
quehanna, in what is now York county, under land
titles from the Penns, but accepted titles from Lord
Baltimore in order to escape payment of taxes to
Pennsylvania. Feeling insecure in their lands,
they renounced their allegiance to Maryland, and
sought protection from Pennsylvania. Thereupon
the Sheriff of Baltimore county, Maryland, with
300 men attempted to drive the German settlers
from their lands west of the river ; but Samuel
Smith, the Sheriff of Lancaster county, led 2. posse
comitatus^ composed of citizens of this county,
across the river to protect the German settlers
there. Sheriff Smith induced the Marylanders to
withdraw without violence. Before long. Colonel
Thomas Cresap led a party of about fifty Maryland-
ers against the Germans west of the river to seize
their lands, and killed an Englishman named
Knowles, who resisted them ; but Cresap was at-
tacked, wounded and taken prisoner by the Lan-
caster county Sheriff's posse, and was taken to
the Philadelphia jail. Governor Ogle, of Maryland,
sent two men to Philadelphia to demand the release
BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 123
of Cresap; but Governor Gordon, of Pennsylvania,
and his Council refused to surrender him. In
retaliation, by Governor Ogle's order, four German
settlers west of the Susquehanna were then seized
and carried prisoners to Baltimore; and a band of
Marylanders, under Higgenbotham, attempted to
drive the Germans from their country. By order
of Governor Gordon's Council, the Sheriff of Lan-
caster county headed a posse to protect these Ger-
mans. The Marylanders then retired, but returned
after he was gone. Captures were made on both
sides. The German settlers west of the river were
annoyed constantly, many being driven from their
farms, and others prevented from tilling their
lands. In May, 1737, the Council of Pennsylvania
sent Samuel Preston and John Kinsey to Governor
Ogle to treat for peace on the border, but their
mission failed. In October, 1737, Richard Lowder,
at the head of sixteen daring ]\Iarylanders, broke
open the jail at Lancaster and released the Mary-
landers imprisoned there, his brother being one of
them. An order from the King of England put an
end to the dispute, and all prisoners on both sides
were released on bail.
GERMAN SETTLERS NATURALIZED.
In 1738 the Pennsylvania Assembly passed an
act naturalizing as British subjects the German set-
tlers of Lancaster county who applied for naturali-
zation. Some of these had come to America in
1727, but most of them came between 1731 and 1735.
Among the number was John Bushong, a French
124 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
Huguenot, some of whose descendants live in Bast
Lampeter township. *
REINHOLDSVILLE SETTLED— YORK FOUNDED— LANCASTER
Between 1735 and 1740 the neighborhood of
Reinholdsville was settled by Germans — Hans
Beelman, Hans Zimmerman and Peter Shumacher,
large landholders, and others. In October, 1741,
the town of York was laid out by Thomas Cook-
son, Deputy Surveyor of Lancaster county, by
order of the Penns. On May i, 1742, Lancaster
was incorporated by charter as a borough.
The Lancaster county court erected the follow-
ing townships east of the Susquehanna, on petition
of the inhabitants : Hanover township, out of
Paxton township, in what is now Dauphin county,
February, 1737 ; Little Britain, out of the southern
part ofDrumore, and Coleraine, out of the southern
part of Sadsbury, in February, 1738 ; Berne town-
ship, from part of Tulpehocken township, in what
is now Berks county, in 1738 ; Bethel township,
from part of Lebanon township, in what is now
Lebanon county, in 1739 ; Rapho, out of that part
*Among those who came with him are such well-known Ger-
man names as Hiestand, Beyer, Frey, Carl, Keyser, Coble,
Lehman, Lutz, Roth, Schwartz, Weis, Wirtz, Schroder, Bil-
meier, Horsch and others. Among those naturalized are such
names as Bender, Miller, Keller, Bare, Becker, Schaeffer, Stump,
Pickel, Rutt, Klein, Horst, Graff, Bassler, Young, Immel,
Eichelberger, Schreiner, Ellmaker, Hartman, Witmer, Binkley,
Buckwalter, Stetler, Harnish, Leman and others.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 125
of Donegal between the Big Chickies and Little
Chickies creeks, in May, 1741 ; and Bart, out of
the western part of Sadsbury, in November, 1743.
Little Britain was so named because its early set-
tlers were all from Great Britain. Coleraine and
Rapho were named after the places where their
early settlers came from in Ireland. Bart is a
contraction of baronet, and was so named from
Governor Sir William Keith, who was a baronet.
Brecknock township, named by its early Welsh
settlers after Brecknock county, Wales, was in
existence in 1740.
Under the administration of Governor George
Thomas, Governor Gordon's successor, the enlist-
ing of indented or bound servants for soldiers was
permitted. This was before the British Parlia-
ment had passed an act for that purpose, k^ this
was injurious to many citizens and contrary to
ancient usage, John Wright, the mild but firm
Quaker of Wright' s Ferr}^ (now Columbia), who
had for many years been a member of the Pennsyl-
vania iVssembly from Lancaster county, spoke out
freely and firmly against the measure. Governor
Thomas therefore determined to remove him from
offices of Justice of the Peace and President Judge
of the Common Pleas. At the May session of the
Lancaster county court in 1741 he delivered a
charge to the grand jury denouncing executive
dictation. He was born of Quaker parents in Lan-
cashire, England, in 1667, and came to Pennsyl-
126 BRIE^F HISTORY OI^ I^ANC ASTER COUNTY
vania in 17 14. He was a member of the Assembly
for Chester county, and for many years afterward
for Lancaster county. As a Judge for Ivancaster
county he was noted for his promptness, honesty,
candor and inflexible integrity. The people of
Lancaster county esteemed him so highly that they
continued to elect him to the Assembly until his
death. His constant desire was to show his
good will to mankind, his love of peace and good
order. He died in 1751, in this same Lancaster
county, for whose welfare he had labored so dili-
gently for many years, and whose interests he had
so long and faithfully served.
THE MENNONITES AGAIN MISREPRESENSED.
In 1 741 the German and Swiss Mennonite settlers
of Lancaster county were again misrepresented to
the provincial government of Pennsylvania, being
virtually charged with disloyalty, with being ' ' de-
termined not to obey the lawful authority of gov-
ernment — disposed to organize a government of
their own." The Assembly, in a message to
Governor George Thomas, vindicated the Menno-
nites, calling them a "laborious, industrious
people," and saying that the Assembly had "ad-
mitted the Germans to partake of the privileges
enjoyed by the king's natural-born subjects." To
overcome these imfounded prejudices, the Menno-
nite bishop, Hans Tschantz, and the elders in a
church council at Martin Mylin's house, in Lam-
peter township, kindly reprimanded Mylin for
building his sand-stone mansion, because the
BRIKP HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 127
128 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY.
'* palace" was too showy for a Mennonite, and
because it may have excited the jealousies of the
MR. SERGEANT AND THE SHAWANESE INDIANS.
In 1 741 Mr. Sergeant, a New England gentle-
man, undertook to teach the Shawanese Indians
the Christian religion ; but they rejected his offer.
They reproached Christianity, judging it by the
lives of those who professed it. They told him
that the white traders would lie, cheat and do
other wicked things. They also said that the
Senecas had given them their country, and had
told them never to receive Christianity from the
OMISH SETTLERS NATURALIZED.
In 1742 the Ornish of lyancastei county petitioned
the Assembly of Pennsylvania for a special act of
naturalization, as their religion forbade them taking
oaths, thus preventing their naturalization under
existing laws. A special act was passed in con-
formity with their request.
COUNT ZINZENDORF IN LANCASTER AND WYOMING VALLEY.
In 1 741 Count Louis Nicholas Zinzendorf, the
great Moravian missionary, arrived in America ;
and in 1742 he visited Lancaster and preached in
the court-house. He made converts wherever he
went. George Kline adopted his views, and aided
in advancing the Moravian Church in Lancaster
county. Zinzendorf 's main object was the Chris-
tianizing of the Indians ; and for this purpose he
visited a distant part of what was then Lancaster
BRIEF HISTORY OF I,ANC ASTER COUNTY. 129
county — the Wyoming Valley — occupied by the
Shawanese Indians. The Indians were greatly
alarmed wnen Zinzendorf and his little company
set up their tents on the banks of the Susquehanna,
a little below their town. They could not under-
stand whv a strano^er would risk the dano;ers of a
stormy ocean and go 3,000 miles from home for the
unselfish purpose of showing them the way to
happiness after death, and that too without asking
any pay for his trouble. They suspected that he
wanted to get possession of their lands for his own
use, to search for hidden treasures, or to examine
the country with the intention of seizing it in the
future. They therefore called a council of their
chiefs, and determined to secretly murder the
missionary who had come into their midst. Zin-
zendorf was alone in his tent, sitting on his bed of
dry weeds and busy writing, when the Indians
came to assasinate him. It w^as a cool September
night, and the small fire which he had made for
his comfort had roused a large rattlesnake which
lay in the weeds near by. In crawling into the
tent to warm itself at the fire, the reptile passed
over one of his legs unseen by himself, but observed
by the Indians who just then approached the door
of his tent to do their bloody work. As the Indians
removed the curtain they saw that the aged mis-
sionary was too deeply engaged in the subject of
his thoughts to notice them or the snake which
lay before him. They shrank from the thought
of murdering him, and hastily returned to the town
130 BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
and told their companions that the Great Spirit
protected the old man, as they had found that his
only door was a blanket, and as they had seen a
large rattlesnake crawl over him without attempt-
ing to hurt him. This circumstance, and the
arrival of Conrad Weiser soon afterward, won the
friendship and confidence of the Indians for Zin-
zendorf He passed twenty days at Wyoming, and
then returned to Bethlehem. He returned to
Europe in 1743, and died at Herrnhut, in Bohemia,
in 1760. His coffin was carried to the grave by
thirty-two preachers and missionaries whom he
had reared, some of whom had labored in Holland,
England, Ireland, Greenland and North America.
SCOTCH-IRISH CONDUCT AT AN ELECTION.
In 1743 there was another bitter political contest
between the English Quakers and the Scotch-Irish
in Lancaster county. The Scotch-Irish forced the
Sheriff to receive such tickets as they approved,
and to declare elected whom they wished to have
returned. The Assembly passed resolutions cen-
suring the Sheriff's act in "assuming to be sole
judge at the election" as being " illegal, unwar-
rantable and an infringement of the liberties of the
people of the province." The Assembly also passed
a resolution that the Sheriff of Lancaster county be
admonished by the Speaker of the Assembly. The
Sheriff appeared before the Assembly and was
admonished, and promised to observe the law in
future. He also altered the return, thus giving
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 131
Samuel Blunstoii, the Quaker candidate, the seat
to which he was rightfully elected.
INDIAN TREATY AT LANCASTER IN 1744.
In 1744 Murhancellin, a Delaware Indian chief,
murdered John Armstrong and his two servants on
the Juniata river. He was arrested and imprisoned
at lyancaster for several months, after which he
was taken to Philadelphia jail. Governor Thomas
held a council with the Indians at Lancaster in
1744, and agents from Maryland and Virginia and
from the Six Nations of Indians were also present.
All disputes between the whites and the Indians
were settled by treaty. The Indians agreed to
prevent the French and their Indian allies from
marching through their country to attack the
English settlements in Pennsylvania, Maryland and
Virginia. But the encroachments of the white
settlers, and the conduct of the white traders who
furnished the Indians with liquor in violation of
the law, and who cheated them out of their skins
and wampum when they were drunk, still threat-
ened trouble. Even Governor Thomas said: ''It
is not to be wondered at then, if when the Indians
recover from their drunken fit, they should take
severe revenge." The Indians committed many
petty acts to the annoyance of the English. They
took the bark from the walnut trees belonging to
John Musser, using it as covering for their cabins.
Musser complained to the Governor, asking six
pounds damage; but the Assembly voted him only
132 BRI^F HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
In 1749 James Webb complained to the Assembly
of Pennsylvania that a member of the Assembly
from Lancaster county had been unfairly elected
and returned, and asked for redress of the wrong.
Evidence was given before the Assembly that the
election had been conducted in a violent and unbe-
coming manner ; that votes had been received by
persons unauthorized to receive them, and particu-
larly two by Christian Herr, one of the inspectors ;
that many persons had voted as often as four, five,
six, and even ten times ; that a candidate who was
elected encouraged them ; and that 2,300 votes had
been received, although there had been less than
1,000 persons on the ground. The Assembly con-
firmed the election, but voted that the election
officers be censured and admonished by the Speaker
of the Assembly. The latter executed the order
with due degree of severity.
ORGANIZATION OF YORK, CUMBERMAND AND BERKS
On petition of the settlers west of the Susque-
hanna river, the Governor and Legislature of
Pennsylvania erected that part of Lancaster county
west of the river into a new county called York^
August 19, 1749. Cumberland county was erected
west of the river, north of York, January 27, 1750.
Berks county was erected out of parts of Lancaster,
Philadelphia and Bucks counties, March 11, 1752.
DISPUTES BETWEEN THE SCOTCH-IRISH AND THE GERMANS.
As there were frequent disputes between the
BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTER COUNTY. 133
Scotch -Irish and the Germans in Lancaster county, \
the Penns ordered their agents to sell no more land »
in York and Lancaster counties to the Scotch-Irish.
Many of the Scotch- Irish settlers of Paxton and
Donegal townnhips accepted the liberal offer of the
Penns and settled in Cumberland county. *
MORAVIAN SETTLEMENT OF LITITZ.
The Moravians, or followers of Count Zinzen-
dorf, settled Lititz in 1755 or 1756. The Moravians
established a Christain community of their own at
Lititz, as they had done at Bethlehem, in North-
ampton county, during the visit of Zinzendorf
Count Zinzendorf s preaching in Pennsylvania — at
Bethlehem, at Lancaster and in Berks county —
infused much religious enthusiasm among his fol-
lowers. While holding a meeting at Mr. Huber's,
in Warwick township, George Kline endeavored
to excite opposition to Count Zinzendorf ; but
after Kline had followed Zinzendorf to Lancaster
and heard him preach he became his most- enthu-
siastic convert and disciple. Moravian preachers
from Bethlehem afterward visited Kline and his
neighbors in Warwick township. In 1748 the
Moravians in Warwick township were granted an
ordained minister by the Bethlehem conference,
and in 1755 Kline bestowed his farm of over 600
acres to the Moravian society, which then and
^he Works, Moores, Galbraiths, Bells, Whitehills, Silvers,
Semples, Sterrits, Woods and others— early Scotch-Irish set-
tlers in the eastern end of Cumberland county — went there from
134 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANC ASTER COUNTY.
there established a religious community of its own
like the one at Bethlehem. The village thus
formed was named Litits^ after a village in
Bohemia, from which the ancestors of the members
of the society had emigrated. The Brothers' and
Sisters' Houses were built in 1758 and 1759. The
foundations of the famous institutions of learning
at lyititz — the Young Gentlemen's Academy and
the Young Ladies' Seminary — were laid in the
early years of the settlement. These schools were
built beside the church and the parsonage, and
were under the direction of the Morvian society
at Lititz. These schools attained a wide celebrity,
and were attended by pupils from different parts of
Pennsylvania and from many other States of the
Union. Besides its institutions of learning, Lititz
became noted for its beautiful spring grounds, and
in the course of years became a summer resort for
people from various parts of the country.
DURING THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.
MURDERS BY THE DELAWARES AND SHAWANESE.
LANCASTER county bore an important part in
the French and Indian War, which broke out
between the English and French colonies in North
America in 1754, and which lasted ten years. The
most important Indian tribes of Pennsylvania that
aided the French in the war were the Delawares
and the Shawanese, who committed the most cruel
murders among the frontier settlements of Penn-
sylvania. The French incited these Indians by
promising to restore their lands to them after con-
quering them from the English.
INDIAN OUTRAGES AFTER BRADDOCK'S DEFEAT.
To Oppose the French invasion of Pennsylvania,
Benjamin Franklin was commissioned to procure
150 wagons and 1,500 pack-horses. In a few
weeks all the wagons and fifty pack-horses were
obtained in Lancaster, York and Cumberland
counties. The wagons and pack-horses, with the
necessary provisions, were sent to General Brad-
dock and met him at Will's Creek, now Cumber-
land, Maryland. Braddock's defeat and death in
the battle of the Monongahela, July 9th, 1755,
produced alarm throughout the English colonies,
as it exposed the whole western frontiers of Penn-
136 BRIKF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY.
sylvania, Maryland and Virginia to the ravages of
the French and their Indian allies. The Indians
roamed unmolestedly and fearlessly over the back
counties of Pennsylvania, committing the most
dreadful outrages and cruel murders upon the
white settlers. The savages ravaged on both sides
of the Susquehanna; destroying the settlements
at the Great Cove, in Cumberland county, and
others on the Tulpehocken, in Berks county.
The Seventh Day Baptists at Ephrata gave their
cloisters, chapels and meeting-rooms for the shel-
ter of the white settlers whom the Indians drove
from the Tulpehocken, in Berks county, and from
Paxton township, in Lancaster county.
BLOCK-HOUSE ERECTED AT LANCASTER.
lyate in 1755 a block-house, or wooden fort, was
erected at Lancaster, then a town of 2,000 inhabi-
tants. Two letters from Edward Shippen, a
leading citizen of Lancaster, to James Hamilton,
Esq. , of Philadelphia, concerning this block-house,
show the alarm among the Lancaster people caused
by the Indian outrages. Some of the Paxton set-
tlers petitioned the Assembly of Pennsylvania for
a militia law, and asked that Conrad Weiser be
sent among the Indians at Shamokin on a mission
MORE INDIAN OUTRAGES.
In January, 1756, French and Indian marauding
parties attacked the English settlements on the
Juniata river, murdering and scalping such of the
settlers as did not flee from their homes or were
brie:f history of i^ancastkr county. 137
not taken prisoners. The English protected their
frontiers by erecting a line of forts and block-
houses, which they garrisoned with militia. The
authorities of Pennsylvania gathered in the friendly
Indians from the Susquehanna to Philadelphia, so
that they would not be mistaken for enemies.
These did not long remain at Philadelphia.
Headed by their leaders, Scarroyady and Montour,
at the risk of their lives, they visited several tribes
of Indians located along the Susquehanna, to per-
suade them to live at peace with the white settlers
INDIGNATION OF THE PEOPLE AT THE ASSEMBLY.
The people of Lancaster county joined with
those of the frontier counties of Pennsylvania in
expressing the highest indignation because the As-
sembly of the province, with its Quaker majority,
refused to adopt warlike measures to put a stop
to the horrible Indian massacres. They held pub-
lic meetings and resolved that they would "repair
to Philadelphia and compel the provincial authori-
ties to pass proper laws to defend the country
and oppose the enemy." The dead bodies of some
of the murdered and mangled were sent to Phila-
delphia, and hauled about the streets with placards
announcing that these were the victims of the
Quaker policy of non-resistance.
INDIAN TREATY AT EASTON IN 1756,
Governor Morris, of Pennsylvania, was preparing
to wage a vigorous war against the Delaware and
Shawanese Indians, when he was infonned that Sir
138 BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY.
William Johnson, through the medium of the Six
Nations, had induced these tribes to make peace
with the English. The Governor then issued a
proclamation of peace, and in November, 1756,
held a council with these Indians at Easton. At
this council Governor Morris succeeded in making
a treaty of peace with Teedyuscung, the chief of
the Delawares, and also with the chiefs of the
RENEWAL OF INDIAN OUTRAGES.
No sooner had the Treaty of Easton been con-
cluded than white settlers south of the Blue
Mountains were cruelly murdered by the Indians,
and the frontier settlers again fled into the interior
for safety. The Governor and Council of Pennsyl-
vania raised twenty-five companies, amounting to
1,400 men, to defend the settlements against the
savages. Nine of these companies were under the
command of Lieutenant Colonel Conrad Weiser,
and were stationed at various points from the Dele-
ware to the Susquehanna. The other companies
were under the command of Major James Burd and
Colonel John Armstrong, and were stationed princi-
pally west of the Susquehanna. The Delawares
and the Shawanese, incited and aided by the
French, kept up their war on the English until
1757. The French and Western Indians com-
mitted many murders among the English settle-
ments. Cumberland, Berks, Northampton and
Lancaster counties were kept in continual alarm ;
and Indian scalping parties came to within thirty
miles of Philadelphia.
BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTER COUNTY. 139
INDIAN TREATY AT LANCASTER IN 1757.
On May 29, 1757, Governor Denny, of Pennsyl-
vania, held a conncil with the Indian chiefs of the
Six Nations at Lancaster, and made a treaty with
them. They presented their grievances, and said
that the French told them as follows: "Children,
you see, and we have often told you, how the
English, your brothers, serve you. They plant
all the countr}' and drive you back; so that, in a
little time, 3'ou will have no land. It is not so with
us. Though we build trading-houses on your lands,
we do not plant. We have our provisions from over
the great water. ' ' The famous chief. King Beaver,
was also present, and made the following speech :
''When our Great Father came first, we stood on
the Indian's path. We looked to the sun as he
rose in the east. We gave the English venison.
The English gave us many, many good things.
But the English trod on our toes. We turned our
faces to the west. The English trod on our heels.
We walked on. The English followed. We
walked on, not knowing where to rest. The Eng-
lish were at our heels. Father, we are weary.
W^e wish to rest."
At this meeting the Indians complained of so
much injustice done them by the English settlers
that many concessions were made by the coun-
cilors. This was done to secure the friendship and
good will of the Indians and to alienate them
from the French. To strengthen this friendly
140 BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY.
feeling, the Pennsylvanians agreed to furnish them
with cattle, flour and kegs of rum.
INDIAN TREATIES AT EASTON IN 1757 AND 1758.
In August, 1757, the Delawares, Shawanese and
other tribes made a treaty with the authorities of
Pennsylvania, at Easton. In October, 1758, the
Governors of PenUvSylvania and New Jersey made
a definitive treaty with the Delawares under their
chief, Teedyuscung, and with the Six Nations,
the Conoys, the Nanticokes and other tribes, at
Easton. Sir William Johnson and other agents
were also present. The Indians agreed to a "ces-
sation of hostilities and to take up arms with the
English against the French."
BARRACKS FOR TROOPS AT LANCASTER.
After the English, under General John Forbes, had
taken Fort Duquesne [du-kane] from the French,
in November, 1758, that post was garrisoned by a
part of Forbes' s expedition under Colonel Hugh
Mercer ; while the other troops were marched to
and quartered at Lancaster, Reading and Phila-
delphia. The citizens of those places complained
greatly on account of the conduct of the soldiers
and the oppression of the officers. The Assembly
of Pennsylvania, after vainly remonstrating against
these outrages, ordered a barracks for 500 men to
be erected at Lancaster, in 1759. William Baus-
man was appointed barracks-master.
CONTINUED INDIAN OUTRAGES.
The Shawanese and the Western Indians still
committed murders and other outrages on the
BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY. 141
frontier settlements of Pennsylvania, Maryland and
Virginia ; Indian scalping parties marking their
course with blood and ruin. Another treaty made
with the Indians at Lancaster, August 9, 1762,
restored peace for a short time. In 1763 the
Indians overran Cumberland county and burned
houses, barns, corn, hay and everything that was
combustible, and cruelly murdered the settlers.
Many of the settlers fled to Carlisle and Shippens-
burg, and others sought refuge in Lancaster
county. Late in August, 1763, about no volun-
teers from Lancaster county skirmished with a
party of Indians at Muncy Hill, near the pres-
ent site of Muncy, Lycoming county, killing
twelve of them, and losing four of their own men
killed and four wounded. In September, 1763, In-
dians murdered white settlers and burned dwel-.
lings in Berks county, even in the vicinity of
INDIAN OUTRAGES IN LANCASTER COUNTY.
The people of Lancaster county, especially the
Scotch-Irish settlers of Pax ton and Donegal town-
ships, suffered terribly from Indian outrages during
the whole ten years of the French and Indian War.
Men, women and children were murdered while at
work in the fields, at their meals, or in their beds at
night. Sights of horror, scenes of slaughter, bloody
*riie Indians were proceeding from Great Island, in the Sus-
quehanna, to the frontier settlements of Pennsylvania, or to the
Indian villiages of the West.
142 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
scalps, mangled bodies, hacked limbs — these were
the evidences of Indian cruelty and barbarity. Such
horrible sights and fiendish atrocities excited the
fiercest rage and indignation among the people of
Paxton, Hanover and Donegal townships; and they
became desperate in their determination for re-
venge on the savage butchers of their kinsmen and
INDIANS CLOSELY WATCHED BY THE PAXTON AND DONEGAL
The Conestoga Indians had never been at war
with the whites, and had always been classed as
friendly Indians. But several other friendly
Indians told the whites that Bill Sock, a well-
known Conestoga Indian, had committed several
murders. Colonel John Hambright, Mrs. Thompson
and Anne Mary I^e Roy, of Lancaster borough, and
Alexander Stephen and Abraham Newcomer, of
Lancaster county, made affidavits against Bill
Sock, saying that he had made threats of murder,
and that he had been seen acting suspiciously.
Indians had been traced by scouts to the wigwams
at Conestoga. The Paxton and Donegal Rangers
watched the hostile and friendly Indians very
closely. In September, 1763, the Indians eluded
their closely searching pursuers. The "Paxton
Boys " and their neighbors, after vainly asking pro-
tection from the Governor and provincial authori-
ties at Philadelphia, determined to strike terror
into all Indians by exterminating the Conestoga
tribe, and thus put a stop to Bill Sock's and George
BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 143
Sock's prowling around the country and to their
dances at Conestoga.
MASSACRE OF THE INDIANS AT CONESTOGA BY THE PAX-
On Wednesday, December 14, 1763, a company
of about sixty men from Paxton, Hanover and
Donegal townships, called the Paxton Boys^ and
commanded by Captain Lazarus Stewart, attacked
the Conestoga Indian town, in Manor township,
and barbarously massacred the six Indians at
home, among whom was the old chief Shaheas,
who had always been noted for his friendship
toward the whites. The other five victims were a
son of Shaheas, George, Harry, Sally and another
old woman. Most of the Indians were absent at
the time. After slaughtering and scalping the six
at home, the Paxton Boys burned the Indian huts,
thus destroying the village. The news reached
Lancaster the same day through an Indian boy
who escaped, and a Coroner's jury went to the
scene of the tragedy. Bill Sock and several other
Indians, who had gone to Thomas Smith's Iron
Works in Martic township to sell baskets and
brooms, fled for protection to Lancaster borough,
as did the Indians John Smith and his wife Peggy
with their child, and young Joe Hays, who had
been at Peter Swarr's, about two and a-half miles
north-west from Lancaster. The magistrates of
Lancaster brought the other survivors into town
to protect their lives, condoled with them on the
massacre of their kinsmen, took them by the hand
144 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTBR COUNTY.
and promised them protection. The Indians were
placed in the newly erected work-house to insure
their safety. When the news of the massacre
reached Philadelphia and the eastern counties of
Pennsylvania it caused great excitement among
the Quakers and the colonial authorities; and
Governor John Penn issued a proclamation, de-
nouncing the outrage and offering a large reward
for the arrest and punishment of the murderers.
MASSACRE OF THE CONESTOGAS AT LANCASTER BY THE
The Paxton Boys were two much exasperated
and too terribly in earnest to pay any attention
to the Governor's proclamation; and as soon as
they heard that the other Conestoga Indians were
at Lancaster they proceeded to that town, stormed
the jail and work-house, and mercilessly massacred
the fourteen Indians confined there for protection,
Tuesday, December 27, 1763. The unarmed and
defenseless Conestogas prostrated themselves with
their children before their infuriated murderers,
protesting their innocence and their love for the
English, and pleading for their lives; but the only
answer made to their piteous appeals was the
hatchet. The murderers did their work with'
rifles, tomahawks and scalping-knives. The vic-
tims were horribly butchered, some having their
brains blown out, others their legs chopped off,
others their hands cut off. Bill Sock and his
wife Molly and their two children had their heads
split open and scalped. The other victims were John
BRIKF HISTORY OF I.ANC ASTER COUNTY. 145
146 BRI^F HtlSTORY OI^ LANCAST'KR COtTNTV.
Smith and his wife Peggy, Captain John and his
wife Betty and their son Little John, the little
boys Jacob, Christy and Little Peter, and Peggy
and another little girl. The mangled bodies of
the victims were all buried at Lancaster. Such
was the sad end of the Conestoga Indians, the rem-
nant of the once powerful Susquehannocks, who a
century before held dominion over all the other
Indian tribes of the Susquehanna Valley and those
on the shores of the Chesapeake. Sheriff John Hay,
of Lancaster county, at once wrote to Governor
John Penn at Philadelphia, informing him. of this
second massacre. Thereupon the Governor issued
another proclamation, denouncing the murderers
and offering a large reward for their arrest and pun-
ishment, but without effect.
THE PAXTON BOYS AT PHILADELPHIA.
As soon as the Paxton Boys heard that the
Moravian Indians had been placed for safety in the
barracks at Philadelphia they proceeded to that
city and spread terror among its people. Governor
John Penn fled to Dr. Franklin's house for safety;
and only the vigorous measures of the inhabitants
saved the city from the fury of tiie exasperated
Paxton Boys, who were disposed to wreak venge-
ance on the authorities and the Quakers who had
undertaken to protect the Indians. The Paxton
Boys finally concluded to return peaceably to their
Jiomes, leaving two of their number, James Gibson
and Matthew Smith, to present their views to Gov-
BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTER COUNTY. 147
ernor Penn and to lay their grievances before the
Governor and the A:ssembly of Pennsylvania.
MASON AND DIXON'S LINE.
In 1 761 the British government appointed two
eminent surveyors, George Mason and Jeremiah
Dixon, to run a line between Pennsylvania and
Maryland, so as to end the long dispute between
those two English colonies about the boundary line
between them. These surveyors finished their
work in 1767, and the line fixed by them has ever
since been called Masoii' s and Dixon^ s Line. This
line forms the southern boundary of Lancaster
county as well as of the State of Pennsylvania.
On petition of the inhabitants, the Lancaster
county court erected the north-eastern part of
Warwick township into a new township called
Elizabeth^ from the furnace of that name, in 1757 ;
and the north-eastern part of Donegal township
into a new township called Mount Joy^ in 1759.
During this period, also, Manor township was
formed out of the Conestoga Manor, which had
hitherto been the southern part of Hempfield town-
ship ; and Strasburg township was formed out of
that part of Leacock township south of the Pequea,
which then included what is now Strasburg and
ADAMSTOWN AND MAYTOWN FOUNDED.
In 1 761 William Adams laid out Adamstown ;
and in 1762 Mr. Doner laid out May town, so call-
ed because it was laid out on May day.
148 BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY.
FOUNDING OF MANHEIM BY BARON STEIGEL,
In 1760 or 1 76 1 the eccentric German baron,
Wilhelm Heinrich Steigel, who had managed the
Elizabeth iron works . for many years when they
were owned by Benezet & Co., of Philadelphia,
began his strange career. After purchasing 200
acres of land from the Messrs. Stedman of Phila-
delphia, he built a grand chateau, or castle, very
singular in structure, and afterward laid out a
town which he named after his native city in Ger-
many — Manheim. This town was laid out in 1761,
and in 1762 it had three houses. Andrew Bartruff,
another German, father of Colonel John Bartruff,
erected the third house and kept the first grocery. *
Baron Steigel erected a glass house, where he
carried on the manufacture of all kinds of glass for
many years. After him Mr. Jenkins was engaged
in the same industry in the same house, of which
nothing now remains. Steigel, who was a baron in
Germany, was an iron master, a glass manufac-
turer, a preacher and a teacher, rich and poor, at
liberty and imprisoned, in America, where he
died a schoolmaster. The Assembly of Pennsyl-
vania passed a special act for his relief, December
24, 1774. During the Revolution he was a Tory,
siding with the British government, and was vis-
ited at various times by the British generals.
*Ainong the first settlers of the town were the Xaumans,
Minnichs, Wherlys, Kaisers, Longs and Hentzelmans. In the
vicinity were the Lightners, Reists, Hersheys, Hostetters, Leh-
mans, Longeneckers, Brandts, Witmers, Hellars and others.
BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANC ASTER COUNTY. 149
FOUNDING OF MILLERSVILLE.
Ill 1 761 John Miller, a blacksmith of Lancaster
borough, laid out a town in the north-eastern part
of Manor township, on tracts of land which he had
purchased. This was first called Millersbiirg^ then
Millerstow7t^ and lastly Mille7^sville. John Miller
laid out the town in five-acre lots, subject to an
annual quit-rent, and laid out streets on the four
sides of his largest purchases. Several of these
five-acre lots still remain undivided. Two of these
lots were early purchased by Abraham Peters,
father of the late Abraham Peters, who was born
in the place in 1791, and who remained a resident
of the village until his death in 1882.
WORK-HOUSE AT LANCASTER.
In 1763 a petition from Lancaster county was
sent to the Assembly of Pennsylvania asking for
the erection of a House of Correction, or Work
House, at Lancaster, to be used for the punishment
and confinement of vagrants and persons guilty of
drunkenness, profane swearing, breach of the Sab-
bath, and disturbances of public order. The Legis-
lature passed the law asked for, and the Work
House was erected.
THE SCOTCH-IRISH SELL TO THE GERMAN SETTLERS.
The severity of the frosts for several successive
years upon the grain in the low lands and lime-
stone soil induced many of the Scotch-Irish set-
tlers of Lancaster county to sell out to the Ger-
mans in 1763. They then removed to the Chest-
150 BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY
nut Glade, along the northern line of what was
then Lancaster and Chester counties, where there
was heavy timber.
LANCASTER COUNTY MEMBERS OF THE ASSEMBLY.
Before 1776 Lancaster county elected four mem-
bers of the Pennsylvania Assembly. The mem-
bers of the Assembly were then elected yearly, as
they were thereafter until 1874. During the
earlier years of the county great care was taken
to elect only men of ability and of local promi-
*Those frequently elected before the French and Indian War
were John Wright, Thomas Edwards, Andrew Galbraith, James
Mitchell, James Hamilton and Arthur Patterson. During the
same period George vStuart, John Musgrove, John Coyle, Samuel
Blunston, Thomas Ewing, Thomas Lindley, Anthony Shaw,
Calvin Cooper and Peter Worrall W' ere each elected several times ;
and Thomas Reed, John Anderson and Samuel Smith were each
once elected. Those frequently chosen during the period of the
French and Indian War, and during the interval between that
war and the Revolution, were James Wright, James Webb and
Emanuel Carpenter. Those elected several times during the
same period w^ere John Douglass, Isaac Saunders, George Ross,
Joseph Ferree, Matthias Slough and Jacob Carpenter ; and those
elected but once were William Downing and Isaac Whitelock.
DURING THE REVOLUTION.
PUBLIC MEETING AT LANCASTER IN 1774.
LANCASTER county bore her full share in the
^ great struggle for American independence, and
many of her sons were found among the patriots who
swelled the Continental armies. The patriotic
indignation excited in all the English colonies in
North America by the passage of the oppressive
Boston Port Bill in 1774 was the first occasion
which called forth public action in Lancaster
county during the Revolutionary struggle. On
June 15, 1774, the citizens of Lancaster borough
held a public meeting at the court-house. This
was in answer to a call from the Committee of
Correspondence of the city of Philadelphia, sent by
their clerk, Charles Thompson, Esq., to William
Atlee, of Lancaster, and made known by the latter
to his fellow-townsmen. This meeting adopted
resolutions censuring the British Parliament and
expressing sympathy with the Bostonians. It agreed
to unite with the people of Philadelphia in re-
fusing to import or export anything to or from
Great Britain until Parliament repealed the Bos-
ton Port Bill. A number of prominent citizens
152 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
were appointed a Coinmittee of Correspondence*
for Lancaster, to correspond with the General Com-
mittee of Correspondence in Philadelphia.
PUBLIC MEETING OF THE CITIZENS OF THE COUNTY.
In answer to a request from the Philadelphia
Committee of Correspondence for a meeting of the
Pennsylvania Assembly at Philadelphia, and a
meeting of the various county committees of the
province with the Philadelphia Committee of Cor-
respondence at the same time and place, the Lan-
caster committee met July 2, 1774. In connection
with this business, the Lancaster committee called
a public meeting of the people of Lancaster
county. The call for this meeting was signed by
Edward Shippen, the chairman of the Lancaster
committee, and printed copies of the call were
sent out and posted at all the public places in
the county. In answer to this call, a general
meeting of the citizens of Lancaster county was
held at the court-house in Lancaster, July 9, 1774,
with George Ross as chairman. This meeting
expressed loyalty to King George III. , but denied
the right of Parliament to tax the colonies without
their consent, expressed sympathy with the people
of Boston and opened a subscription for their relief,
and called for a close union of all the Anglo-
American colonies to resist the unconstitutional
*Edward Shippen, Georire Ross, Jasper Yeates, Matthias
Slough, James Webb, WilHaiii Atlee, William Henry, Lndwig
Lauman, William Bausman and Charles Hall formed the com-
BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY. 153
and oppressive acts of the British Parliament.
The committee already appointed for Lancaster
borough was declared a Committee of Correspond-
ence, and a county committee* was appointed to
meet the other county committees of Pennsylvania
CONTRIBUTION FOR THE PEOPLE OF BOSTON.
The sum of 153 pounds was collected in I^an-
caster borough for the relief of the people of Boston,
and a considerable sum was collected in the sev-
eral townships of the county. The entire sum was
sent by Edward Shippen, the chairman of the Lan-
caster committee, to John Nixon, Treasurer of the
city and county of Philadelphia, who sent it to
Boston along with the other contributions from
THE LANCASTER COMMITTEE IN PHILADELPHIA.
The members of the Lancaster county com-
mittee met the committees of the other countiesf of
Pennsylvania at that time, in convention at Phila-
delphia, July 15-21, 1774. This convention asked
the Assembly of Pennsylvania to appoint delegates
to meet with delegates of the other English colo-
nies in a Continental Congress at Philadelphia.
*George Ross was chairman of this county committee, and
the other members were James Webb, Matthias Slough, Joseph
Ferree, Kmanuel Carpenter, WiUiam Atlee, Alexander Lowry
and Moses Irwin.
fPhiladelphia, Bucks, Chester, York, Cumberland, Berks,
Northampton, Northumberland, Bedford and Westmoreland
154 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
The Assembly appointed the delegates ; and the
Continental Congress met at Philadelphia, Septem-
ber 5, 1774.
PATRIOTISM OF THE LANCASTER PEOPLE.
The patriotic people of Lancaster were very
much in earnest in the determination which
they had expressed at their meeting of June 15,
1774, against the importation of British goods.
When two merchants — Josiah and Robert Lock-
hart — were charged with violating the agreement
made at that meeting by bringing in tea on which
the duty had been paid, the committee investigated
the matter, and only acquitted the Lockharts when
it was proved that no duty had been paid on that
tea, but that it had been seized at the Philadelphia
custom-house and bought by the original owner,
who then sold it.
COMMITTEE OF OBSERVATION OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
The action of the Continental Congress at Phila-
delphia was as warmly sustained in Pennsylvania
as in the other twelve English colonies. On
November 22, 1774, the committee of the borough
of Lancaster called upon the freeholders and
electors of Lancaster county to meet in the court-
house at Lancaster, December 15, 1774. This
meeting was to be held for the purpose of electing
a Committee of Observation, as recommended by
the Continental Congress to all cities, towns and
counties in the thirteen colonies. Printed hand
bills for this call were posted in all public places
throughout Lancaster county, and an election was
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 155
held in all the townships of the county for mem-
bers of the proposed committee. Altogether there
were seventy-six persons elected as a Committee of
Observation,'^ of which twenty-one were from
Paxton, Upper Paxton, Derry, Londonderry and
Hanover townships, now in Dauphin county, and
from Heidelberg, Bethel and Lebanon townships,
now in Lebanon county. The object of this com-
mittee was to see that the agreement not to import
to or export from Great Britain any goods was
fully observed, and not to have any dealings with
any one who had commercial intercourse with the
Mother Country — in other words, to "boycott"
such persons, as well as British goods. The enemies
of the patriot cause were as closely watched in
Lancaster county as in any other part of Pennsyl-
vania or in any of the other twelve colonies.
ELECTION OF DELEGATES TO A PROVINCIAL CONVENTION.
The Lancaster county Committee of Observation
met at the court-house at Lancaster, January 14,
1775, in answer to a call from the Philadelphia
committee, to elect delegatesf to a general conven-
*Among the most prominent uv&n of Lancaster county elected
members of this Committee of Observation were Edward
Shippen, George Ross, James Webb, Jasper Yeates, William
Atlee, Adam Reigart and William Bausman, of Lancaster bor-
ough ; Bartram Galbraith and Alexander Lowry, of Donegal ;
Peter Grubb, of Warwick ; Emanuel Carpenter and Anthony
Ellmaker, of Earl township.
fAdam Simon Kuhn, James Burd, James Clemson, Peter
Grubb, SeVjastian Graff, David Jenkins and Bartram Galbraith
were appointed delegates for Lancaster county in the proposed
convention of the province of Pennsylvania.
156 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
tion of the province of Pennsylvania to meet at
Philadelphia, January 23, 1775. Edward Shippen
was chosen chairman of the meeting. A * com-
munication w^as read from the Berks county com-
mittee urging patriotic action.
COMMITTEE MEETING AFTER THE NEWS FROM LEXINGTON.
The news of the first bloodshed in the Revolu-
tion at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts,
reached Lancaster on Tuesday, April 25, 1775, six
days after the occurrence of the momentous event.
The borough committee met two days later, April
27, 1775, at the Grape Tavern, the house of Adam
Reigart, to take any action deemed necessary. Ed-
ward Shippen presided at the meeting.* This
meeting called a meeting of the county committee
at Adam Reigart' s house on Monday, May ist, and
printed hand-bills of the call were circulated in all
public places throughout the county. The county
committee met at the appointed time and place,
and resolved to form military companies to defend
their rights and liberties with their lives and for-
MILITARY COMPANIES FROM LANCASTER COUNTY.
The warlike action of the county committee was
followed within a week by the formation of mili-
tary companies called Associators. The first of
these Lancaster county companies in the Revolu-
■'^he other members present were William Atlee, William
Bausman, William Patterson, Charles Hall, Casper Shaffner,
Eberhart Michael and Adam Reigart.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 157
tioti composed the battalion of Colonel Philip
Greenawalt. These troops fought bravely in 1776,
^']^ and '78, in the battles of lyong Island, White
Plains, Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, German-
town and Monmouth. Three officers from Lan-
caster borough were in Colonel Thompson's
Battalion of Riflemen — Colonel Edward Hand and
Lieutenants David Ziegler and Frederick Hubley.
This battalion joined Washington's army at Cam-
bridge, Massachusetts, in August, 1775. Captain
Matthew Smith's company, of Lancaster, took part
in the invasion of Canada in 1775. Lancaster
furnished a number of companies and soldiers for
other companies during the war, and many of these
troops endured the hardships of the encampment
at Valley Forge during the severe winter of 1777-
78. The new nth Pennsylvania regiment, under
Lieutenant Colonel Adam Hubley, of Lancaster,
formed part of Sullivan's expedition against the
Indians in 1779.
MILITARY CONVENTION AT LANCASTER.
On the very day that the Continental Congress
declared the thirteen English colonies free and
independent States — July 4, 1776 — a military con-
vention was held at Lancaster, composed of dele-
gates* from the fifty-three Pennsylvania battalions
of Associators, to form a Flying Cainp^ as directed
■^ Among the delegates from Lancaster county were Colonels
George Ross, Curtis Grubb, Peter Grubb, Robert Thompson,
James Crawford, Timothy Green, John Ferree and Alexander
158 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
OLD COURT HOUSE. (Centre Square.)
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 159
by the Continental Congress. Colonel George
Ross was chosen president of the meeting, and
Colonel David Clymer secretary. This military
convention elected Daniel Roberdeau and James
Bwing brigadier-generals of the Flying Camp.
BRITISH PRISONERS AT LANCASTER.
Many British prisoners were confined at Lan-
caster at different times during the Revolution,
from October, 1775, to the end of the war. Among
these prisoners were the Hessians captured by
General Washington at Trenton, December 26,
1776, and the British prisoners captured at Prince-
ton, January 3, 1777. Many of the British and
Hessians made prisoners by Burgoyne's surrender
at Saratoga, October 17, 1777, were confined at
Lancaster and York. Among the prisoners at
Lancaster at one time was the unfortunate Major
Andre. In June, 1777, the prisoners at Lancaster
caused great alarm by threatening to burn the
town, and Congress took measures to guard them
more securely. In 1781 there was a daring plot
among the prisoners at the Lancaster barracks to
effect their escape ; but the plot was discovered in
time to prevent its being carried out, and they
were closely guarded by American troops under
INCIDENTS AT LANCASTER, EPHRATA AND MANHEIM.
Dr. John Kearsley, Christopher Carter and a
man named Brooks were arrested in Philadelphia
on a charge of treason in tr>'ing to induce British
160 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
troops to invade Pennsylvania and other colonies.
These men were sent to lyancaster, and were
there confined during the fall and winter of 1775.
Over 500 wounded American soldiers from the
battle-field of Brandy wine, September 11, 1777,
were brought to Ephrata, where 150 of them died.
When the British took possession of Philadel-
phia, September 26, 1777, the Continental Con-
gress fled from that city to Lancaster ; but after an
informal meeting here they went over to York,
where they met September 30, 1777, and remained
in session until the following June (1778).
While the British occupied Philadelphia the Con-
tinental money was printed at Ephrata. American
soldiers were quartered at the barracks at Lancas-
ter during the winter of 1777-78, and also in the
Lutheran and Reformed churches at Manheim.
COURSE OF THE NON-RESISTANT SECTS DURING THE WAR.
The only considerable body of people in Lancas-
ter county who opposed the action of the patriots,
and who were therefore denounced by the patriots
as "Tories" and "enemies of America," were the
non-resistant sects, such as the Quakers, the Men-
nonites and the Bunkers, whose religion teaches
them not to bear arms and not to resist constituted
authority, as St. Paul said: "Resist not the
powers that be, for they are ordained of God."
These sects believed it wrong to take up the sword
or to resist "the powers that be," under any cir-
stances. Besides this, the Mennonites who had
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 161
settled here had vowed loyalty to the King of
Great Britain and to the proprietary of the province
of Pennsylvania, and they did not want to violate
that vow. The early Mennonite settlers having
been naturalized as British subjects, the members
of that sect desired also to remain submissive to
the power that naturalized them.
The prominent men of Lancaster during the
Revolution were Edward Shippen, Jasper Yeates,
Adam Reigart and George Ro.ss. George Ross
was a member of the Continental Congress, and
was Lancaster's signer of the Declaration of Inde-
pendence. There was also a Colonel George Ross.
The other prominent men of Lancaster county
were Bartram Galbraith and Alexander Lowry, of
Donegal township, and Emanuel Carpenter, of
Earl township. The last of these was President
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas during the
last twenty years of his life (i 760-1780).*
*The delegates from Lancaster county to the State convention
at Philadelphia, in July, 1776, which framed the first vState Con-
stitution for Pennsylvania, were Crcorge Ross, John Hubley,
Henry Slayniaker, Philip Marsteller, Thomas Porter, Joseph
Sherer, Bartram Galbraith and Alexander Lowry. The dele-
gates from Lancaster county to the State convention at Phila-
delphia which framed the vState Constitution of 1790 were Gen-
eral Edward Hand, Robert Coleman, Sebastian Graff, William
Atlee, John Hubley and John Brackbill. The deiegates from
Lancaster county to the State convention at Philadelphia, near
the end of 1787, which ratified the Constitution of the United
States, were vStephen Chambers, Robert Coleman, Sebastian
Graff, John Hubley, Jasper Yeates and John Whitehill.
162 BRIEF HISTORY OF IvANCASTKR COUNTY,
l^TASlllA KTGl^ 'ilOTEI.1
AFTER THE REVOLUTION.
ERECTION OF DAUPHIN AND LEBANON COUNTIES.
TN 1785 Harrisburg was founded on the site of
^ Harris' Ferry by John Harris, son of John Har-
ris, the pioneer Indian trader; and in the same year
the Pennsylvania Legislature, on petition of the
inhabitants, erected all that part of Lancaster
county north of the Conewago creek, with part of
Northumberland county, into a new count}^ called
Dauphin. In 1813 the State Legislature, on peti-
tion of the inhabitants, erected a new county
called Lebanon^ out of Lebanon, Bethel and
Heidelberg townships, Lancaster county, with part
of Dauphin county, thus reducing Lancaster
county to its present limits.
LANCASTER THE STATE CAPITAL.— LANCASTER CITY.
Lancaster was the capital of Pennsylvania from
1799 to 181 2, when the State capital was removed
to Harrisburg. On petition of the citizens, Lan-
caster was incorporated as a city by a charter
granted by act of the State Legislature in 1818.
Two of Pennsylvania's Governors are buried at
Lancaster — Thomas Wharton, who died there in
1778; and General Thomas Mifflin, [who had been
164 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
Governor twelve years, and who had also been
president of the Continental Congress. He died
there while a member of the Legislature, and his
remains lie buried at the Trinity Lutheran Church,
on South Duke street.
BOROUGHS OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
Samuel Wright, son James Wright and grand-
son of John Wright, the pioneer settler of Wright's
Ferry, laid out the town of Cohimbia on its present
site in 1787. This place was one of three sites
proposed in Congress in 1790 as the place for the
permanent capital of the United States — the other
two being Philadelphia and the site of the
present capital. Columbia was incorporated by
act of the State Legislature in 1814. James An-
derson laid out the town Waterford at Anderson's
Ferry in 1804, next to »the town of New Haven,
which had been laid out by David Cook in 1803.
In 1 81 2 those two towns were incorporated as a
borough, called Mai^ietta^ by act of the State
Legislature. The village of Strasbitrg^ founded
before 1740, was incorporated as a borough by act
of the Legislature in 1816.
In 1807 the village of Woodstock was built on
the river, in Manor township, a few miles south of
Columbia. In 181 1 Jacob Dritt laid out the town
of Washington on the site of this village ; and in
1814 Joseph Charles laid out Charleston, just north
of Washington. In 1827 ^^^^ ^wo towns were in-
corporated by act of the State Legislature as the
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 165
borough of Washingto7i, Manheim and Elisabeth-
toii'Ji^ both of which had existed before the Revolu-
tion, were incorporated by acts of the State Legis-
lature as boroughs in 1838. Adamstoivn, laid out
by William Adams in 1761, was incorporated as a
borough by act of the State Legislature in 1850.
In 18 1 1 Jacob Rohrer laid out a town at first
called Rohrerstown, but afterwards named Mount
Joy; and in 1814 the town of Richland, just to the
west, was laid out. In 1851 Mount Joy and Rich-
land were incorporated as Mount Joy borough by
act of the State Legislature. This town, soon
after its incorporation, was a thriving manufactur-
ing place, having several founderies and agricul-
tural implement manufactories. It also had a
flourishing young men's academy, whose buildings
were bought by the State in 1865 and used for
a Soldier's Orphan School until 1890. Just below
the borough, on the opposite side of the Little
Chickies creek, was Cedar Hill Female seminary,
of which Rev. Nehemiah Dodge was principal and
proprietor for many years, and which had students
from various parts of the country. The seminary
buildings were destroyed by fire in 1891. At the
time of their destruction they were no longer used
for school purposes.
Since the Revolution, mainly between the years
1818 and 1855, a number of new townships have
been formed. This was done chiefly by the divi-
166 BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
sion of the larger townships into two, in order to
secure better township government and to provide
better school facilities. *
TURNPIKES AND' RAILROADS.
About a century ago great attention was paid to
turnpike roads in Pennsylvania. The turnpike
leading from Lancaster to Philadelphia was erected
in 1792, and is the oldest turnpike in the United
*In 1 8 18 Hempfield township was divided into two townships,
called respectively East Hempfield and West Hempfield.
In 1827 the western part of Earl township was formed into a
new township called West Earl. In 1838 Cocalico township
was divided into three new townships, named respectively East
Cocalico, West Cocalico and Ephrata. In the same year (1838)
Donegal township was divided into two new townships, called
respectively East Donegal and West Donegal. In 1841 Lam-
peter township was divided into two new townships, named re-
spectively East Lampeter and West Lampeter. In 1842 the
half of West Donegal • township bordering on the river was
erected into a new township called Conoy. In 1843 that part of
Ivcacock township north of Mill Creek was formed into a new
township called Upper Leacock. In the same year (1843) the
eastern half of Strasburg township was erected into a new town-
ship called Paradise. In 1844 the western half of Little Britain
township was formed into a new township named Eulton, in
honor of Robert Fulton, who was born within its limits. In
1846 the western part of Warwick township was formed into
a new township called Penn, in honor of William Penn. In
1851 the eastern half of Barl township was erected into a new
township named East Earl. In 1853 three new townships were
created — the eastern part of Martic being erected into a new
township called Providence ; the eastern half of Conestoga into
a new township named Pequea ; and the eastern half of Eliza-
beth into a new township called Clay, in honor of Henry Clay.
In 1855 the western part of Bart township was formed into a
new township called Eden.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 167
States. The other turnpikes in the county were
afterward constructed. The Philadelphia and
Columbia Railroad w^as completed about 1835.
This railroad was afterward extended from Colum-
bia to Harrisburg. The Harrisburg and Lancaster
Railroad, by way of Mount Joy and Elizabethtown,
united with the other railroad at Dillerville and
near Middletown, making two railway routes from
Lancaster to Harrisburg. These became part of
the great Pennsylvania Railroad, completed in
1854, thus establishing one continuous railway line
between Philadelphia and Pittsburg.
LANCASTER COUNTY DURING THE WAR OF 1812.
During the second war between the United
States and Great Britain, in 1812 — 1815, Lancaster
county furnished a large number of soldiers for the
United States service ; but no companies sent from
this county took part in any battle. Captain John
Hubley commanded a company from Lancaster.
During the British invasion of Maryland and attack
on Baltimore, in 1814, Governor Simon Snyder
called out the militia of Lancaster and the neigh-
boring counties, in all about 5,000 men, to rendez-
vous at York. The capture and burning of Wash-
ington brought out* many volunteers from Lancas-
ter county; but none of the militia and volunteers
from this county w^ere called to meet the enemy,
as the British retired from Maryland after their
repulse at Baltimore.
168 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
LANCASTER COUNTY DURING THE WAR WITH MEXICO.
During the war between the United States and
Mexico, from 1846 to 1848, Lancaster county fur-
nished a considerable number of volunteers for the
armies of Generals Scott and Taylor ; but no com-
pany was organized in this county for that service,
and the volunteers who went from here joined dif-
ferent commands at Harrisburg, Philadelphia and
other places. Among those from Lancaster city
was H. A. Hambright, afterwards a colonel in the
Civil War. Some of the Lancaster county volun-
teers served under General Taylor at Palo Alto,
Resaca de la Palma, Monterey and Buena Vista;
and others served under General Scott at Vera
Cruz, at Cerro Gordo and at the battles before the
City of Mexico.
SLAVERY AND THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD.
In 1780 the Pennsylvania Legislature passed an
act for the gradual abolition of slavery in the
State. The Quakers were very active in their
opposition to slavery. Slaves were held in many
parts of Lancaster comity. The old iron-masters
were the principal slave-holders in this county,
Curtis Grubb being the largest owner of slaves.
While the Pennsylvania Legislature was discussing
the act of 1780, Colonel Alexander Lowry, of
Donegal township, then a member from Lancaster
county, although himself a slave-holder, urgently
appealed to the Legislature to insert a clause in
the law to prevent slave families from being
divided and sold to different masters. There were
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 169
many cases of hair-breadth escapes and captures
of fugitive slaves at Columbia, where runaway
slaves often crossed the river at the bridge. Their
masters often followed them, and arrived there
before their slaves and returned them to slavery.
William Wright, of Columbia, son of James-
Wright and grandson of the pioneer John Wright,
was an old-time Abolitionist and a very aggressive
opponent of slavery, doing all he could in the
interest of the runaway negroes and against the
institution of slavery. He was once assaulted
with a rawhide by Charles S. Sewell, a Mary-
lander who had settled in Manor township, on the
old homestead of the pioneer Indian trader, James
Patterson, after having married Patterson's grand-
daughter. Miss Catharine Keagy, in 1804. Sewell
was forced to discharge his slaves by order of the
Lancaster county court made on application of
W^right. This so enraged Sewell that he made an
assault upon Wright near Mountville. Both at
the time were on horseback en their way to Co-
lumbia. Sewell found few friends in Lancaster
county, and soon after moved back to Maryland.
William Wright was perhaps the first person
who suggested a system and concert of action
among the friends of the slaves to help such
negroes as escaped from slavery in the South to
freedom in the North. This system and concert
of action among the friends of the slaves led to
the establishment of a number of "stations"
along a route where the friends of the escap-
170 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
iiig slaves could direct and pass the fugitives
from one friend to another. The principal of
these "stations" in Lancaster county were Co-
lumbia and Daniel Gibbons' s place, one mile west
of Bird-in-Hand. Sometimes half a dozen or more
runaway slaves were placed in the care of these
s^ret agents. This was done so secretly that
very few were ever discovered and prosecuted, and
for this reason this secret concert of action was
called the "Underground Railroad." This caused
much ill feeling between the people of the Free
States and those of the Slave States.
THE CHRISTIANA RIOT.
The first conflict and bloodshed in the United
States caused by the Fugitive Slave Law, passed
by Congress in 1850, occurred at Christiana, Lan-
caster county. A gang of kidnappers in the vicin-
ity of the Gap had been in the habit of catching
free negroes and selling them as slaves in the
South. The negroes and their white friends in
Sadsbury township put themselves on their guard,
secretly arming themselves and keeping watch
against surprise from strangers and suspicious
characters. On September 9th and loth, 1851,
Samuel Williams, a colored man, reported that he
had seen a number of strangers. There were three
runaway slaves in the house of William Parker, a
colored man living near Christiana. These were
claimed by Edward Gorsuch, a Maryland slave-
holder, who obtained a warrant for their arrest
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 171
from the United States Commissioners in Philadel-
phia. United States Deputy Marshal Henry H.
Kline was handed the warrant. Kline and a few
assistants from the neighborhood, accompanied by
Edward Gorsnch, the claimant, and his son, Dick-
inson Gorsuch, and several relatives, J. M. Gor-
such, Joshua Gorsuch and Dr. Thomas Pearce, and
several other men, appeared at Parker's house
before daylight on September ii, 1851, and
attempted to take away the runaway slaves by
force. The report of a gun and the blowing of a
dinner-horn by the inmates aroused the neighbor-
hood, and the friends of the runaway slaves has-
tened to the place. Deputy Marshal Kline hid
himself in a corn-field, and Gorsuch and his party
retired a short distance. Castner Hanway, Elijah
Lewis and Joseph Scarlet came to the rescue, and
advised the slave-owners to leave; while colored
people, armed with guns, scythes and clubs, were
coming from all directions. Edward Gorsuch
again approached the house, saying: "I will have
my property dead or alive." His sons and
nephews followed him, but the negroes fired
upon the party. Edward Gorsuch was niortally
wounded, and one of his slaves split his head with
a cornstalk-cutter. His son, Dickinson Gorsuch,
was badly wounded. Joshua Gorsuch and Dr.
Pearce were also wounded. The latter only saved
his life by taking Castner Hanway' s advice and
riding away on his horse. As he left, a shower of
missiles was sent after him. This event caused a
172 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
great sensation throughout the country, and led to
the defeat of William F. Johnston for Governor by
several thousand votes. The negro Johnson, who
shot his master, arrived safely in Canada by the
the ' ' Underground Railroad. ' ' Constables from
Lancaster terrorized the neighborhood, and took
many colored men to jail. Castner Hanway,
Elijah Lewis, Joseph Scarlet and many colored
men were arrested, and indicted for treason in the
United States Court at Philadelphia. Hanway
was first tried, and was acquitted. The others
were not brought to trial. There were three
jurors from Lancaster county on this noted case —
Peter Martin, of Ephrata township; James M. Hop-
kins, of Drumore township; and James Cowden, of
OPERATIONS OF THE FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW AT COLUMBIA
The first return of a fugitive slave to his master
under the Fugitive Slave Law occured at Colum-
bia in the fall of 1850, when William Baker, a
runaway slave, was arrested and returned to his
master. The colored people of Columbia after-
ward bought his freedom. The first martyrdom
under the Fugitive Slave Law also occurred at
Columbia, April 30, 1852. Albert G. Ridgely, a
slave-catcher from Baltimore, and a one-armed
man named Snyder, arrested a colored man named
William Smith, claiming him as a slave owned by
George W. Hall, of Harford county, Maryland.
The colored man broke away from his captors,
whereupon Ridgely shot him, killing him instantly.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 173
Ridgely escaped across the bridge and safely
reached Baltimore, although the Sheriff of York
county and his posse were watching for him south
of York. The kidnappers were never tried.
Thaddeus Stevens was council for Mr. Kauff-
man, of Cumberland county, who was tried in the
United States Court in Philadelphia for violating
the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 by caring for run-
away slaves. Mr. Kauffman was not found guilty
because the two jurors from Lancaster county
— Edward Davies, of Churchtown, and Abraham N.
Cassel, of Marietta — held out for six weeks against
the other jurors and finally prevented a verdict
DURING THE CIVIL WAR AND SINCE.
LANCASTER COUNTY DURING THE CIVIL WAR.
A S in every other part of the loyal States, the
'^-^ attack on Fort Sumter, in April, 1861,
aroused the patriotism of the people in Lancaster
county ; and noble responses were made to Presi-
dent Lincoln's calls for troops. Though this
county was the home of President Buchanan, dur-
ing whose administration the plans of the Rebell-
ion were prepared, it was also the home of Thad-
deus Stevens, who was the leader of the majority
in the National House of Representatives which
assisted in devising measures for the suppression
of the Slaveholder's Rebellion. The regiment
composed wholly of volunteers from Lancaster
county was the well-known 79th Pennsylvania,
commanded by Colonel Hambright, which took
part in the battle of Chickamauga, and in Sher-
man's Atlanta campaign and his march through
Georgia and the Carolinas. The Pennsylvania
Reserves had their due share of men from Lan-
caster county, many of whom lost their lives in
defense of the L^nion on the many battle fields of
the Rebellion. Soldiers from Lancaster county
were found in greater or less number in about
sixty other regiments from Pennsylvania which
BRIEF HISTORY OF IvANCASTER COUNTY. 1 75
served for longer or shorter periods during the war,
as well as in several militia regiments called out
for a few months during the Confederate invasions
of Maryland and Pennsylvania in 1862 and 1863.
The 47th regiment of Pennsylvania militia of 1863,
commanded by Colonel James Pyle Wickersham,
principal of the Millersville State Normal School,
had among its members the students of that insti-
tution, which closed its session for several months
in consequence of the invasion.
ALARM CAUSED BY THE CONFEDERATE INVASIONS.
The invasion of Maryland by the Confederate
army under General Lee in September, 1862,
caused great alarm in Lancaster county, as well as
in all the border counties of Pennsylvania ; but
this alarm subsided after Lee's defeats at South
Mountain and Antietam, and his retreat into Vir-
ginia. The people of Lancaster and the other
southern counties of Pennsylvania were again
greatly alarmed when General Lee's army inarched
north in June, 1863, and invaded Maryland and
Pennsylvania. Thousands of farmers froLi Frank-
lin, Cumberland, Adams and York counties fled
into Lancaster county with their horses, and
remained during the invasion. The alarm increased
as the invaders came nearer, and when they occu-
pied Gettysburg, Hanover and York, shelled Car-
lisle and threatened Harrisburg, the people of
Lancaster county, as well as those of other counties,
warmly responded to the calls of President Lin-
coln and Governor Curtin for troops for the defense
176 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
of Pennsylvania against the invaders. Companies
of Lancaster county militia, under Colonel Emlen
Franklin, were at all the ferries and towns of the
Susquehanna from the Dauphin county line to the
borders of Maryland. When a Confederate detach-
m.ent under General Early occupied York, June 27,
1863, a brio^ade of militia was sent to hold the
bridge at Columbia. Less than 1,500 men crossed
the river to Wrightsville, and fortified themselves
on the heights back of the town, but were soon
driven from their position by a Confederate de-
tachment and forced to recross the river to Colum-
bia. In order to prevent the invaders from cross-
ing the river. Colonel Frick caused the bridge to
be burned down that evening, Sunday, June 28,
1863. All alarm passed away with the great defeat
of Lee's army at Gettysburg a few days later, and
the retreat of the invaders from the State.
THE PATRIOT DAUGHTERS OF LANCASTER.
Among the many societies organized by women
throughout the loyal States to minister to the
wants of the soldiers, the first was at Lancaster.
On April 22, 1861, ten days after the attack on
Fort Sumter, the ladies of Lancaster held a meet-
ing at the court-house and formed an association
called the Patriot Daughters of Lancaster. The
officers of this association were : Mrs. R. Hubley,
president; Mrs. E. E. Reigart, vice president;
Miss Annie A. Slaymaker, secretary; Mrs. J. F.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 177
THE SOLDIERS' AND SAILORS' MONUMENT.
The Patriot Daughters and other ladies of Lan-
caster took the first step to raise funds for the erec-
tion of a monument to the memory of the soldiers
and sailors of Lancaster county who lost their lives
in defence of the Union. It was not until nine
years after the war that the monument was erected.
In compliance with the demand of public senti-
ment, it was placed in Center Square, in the city.
This beautiful granite structure — surrounded with
four emblematic statues and capped with a figure
of the Goddess of Liberty — was unveiled with
imposing ceremonies in the presence of a great
multitude, on the 4th of July, 1874.
The Reading and Columbia Railroad was com-
pleted in 1863 ; and the branch of the road from
the Junction to Lancaster was finished in 1866, and
was extended to Quarryville in 1875. The Columbia
and Port Deposit Railroad was completed in 1876.
The Lancaster branch of the Reading and Colum-
bia Railroad was extended to Lebanon in 1886;
and the branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad from
Conewago to Cornwall, Lebanon county, was fin-
ished about the same time. In 1890 the New Hol-
land and Honeybrook branch of the Pennsylvania
Railroad was completed. The eastern part of
Drumore was erected into a new township called
East Driimore^ in 1886. Lititz was incorporated
as a borough in 1887, and Ephrata in 1891.
INDIAN FARMING IN LANCASTER COUNTY.
^T^HE Indians were the first farmers in Lancaster
county. Among them the farm work was
done largely by the squaws. After the trees had
been girdled and trimmed down by the men, they
scratched the ground with crooked sticks, and
leveled it with shells and sharp stones. Their
crops were generally corn and beans. The corn
stalks and weeds were burned to the ground in the
fall of the year. The object of this was to prevent
the sprouting of the forest trees. There was one
variety of trees — a most persistant grower, a kind
of scrub-oak — that baffled all their efforts. Even
fire would not kill it. These scrub-oaks, after
alternate burning and sprouting, formed thick
knotted clumps on the surface of the ground, thus
making the tilling of it very difficult for the white
people, who afterward became its possessors. There
usually remained some uncultivated land, which,
after the burning stopped, was soon overspread
with young forest trees. To these the name
of "Grubenland" was given — a name derived
from the word "grub," meaning in the German
language "a small tree." A great number of
these Indian fields were found in Lancaster county.
One lay just west of the present borough of Lititz.
Another and larger one was in Ephrata township,
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 179
between Middle Creek and the Cocalico. The
forests in these sometimes became so dense that
cattle straying into them were hard to find. Bells
were, for this reason, pnt on some of them to in-
dicate the whereabouts of the herd. To the same
end, bells were put on horses that were turned out
to pasture during the night.
The Indians had also their deer pastures. These
were the natural meadows where in early times the
grasses had grown into a sod too close for the seeds
of trees to lodge. These meadows the white set-
tlers enlarged and irrigated, in this way convert-
ed them into valuable pasture lands. Thus when
the first white settlers came to what is now Lan-
caster county they found three kinds of land —
the limestone portion, mainly covered with heavy
timber ; the shale and sandstone ridges in the
southern belt, covered with light timber ; and the
meadow lands, interspersed with swamps.
EARLY FARMING IN LANCASTER COUNTY.
The staple farm products of Lancaster county in
early days were spelt, barley, oats, rye, corn, buck-
wheat, flax, hemp and a variety of garden vege-
tables. Wheat subsequently took the place of bar-
ley and spelt. Orchards were soon planted, and the
farmer had abundant crops of fruit. The imple-
ments used in farming in the very early times
were the German scythe, the sickle and the flail.
These were supplanted later by the English scythe
and the grain cradle. Ploughs were early intro-
duced, but were very rude and cumbrous.
180 BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
In 1 814 forty State banks were established in
Pennsylvania. Speculation ran wild, the price of
farm land advancing to $200 an acre. The panic
that came on a little more than twenty years after,
as a consequence of the failure of these banks,
affected the price of these farm lands greatly, bring-
ing it down in a short time to $50 an acre. Many
persons who had purchased lands at high prices,
without sufficient money to pay their full value,
found themselves bankrupt. These were palmy
days for the Sheriffs, who became very rich. In
these times the jails were filled with debtors, the
law of imprisonment for debt not having yet been
abolished in this State.
New lands were now taken up by some persons,
and the timber upon them cut and sold, some-
times for fire- wood. Sometimes the saw-millers and
wagon-makers bought it, and in other cases the
iron-master purchased it and converted it into
charcoal for furnace use.
The land cleared in this manner was farmed
usually for several years until it was worn out, and
then was abandoned. Many of these barren tracts
existed in Lancaster county, and have been since
reclaimed and cultivated. To fertilize these bar-
ren fields, land-plaster was first used. The far-
mer generally sowed it broadcast on the grass
fields, and sprinkled it on the young corn and the
the garden vegetables in the early spring. x\bout
1820 lime was introduced as a fertilizer, and by its
judicious i;se many of these "light" or worn-out
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 181
lands were made productive. One of the prac-
tices of the farmer was to rotate his crops. This
probably began about 1820. The rule was gener-
ally two years in grass of mixed clover and timothy,
one year in corn, one in oats, and then two in
wheat ; the land being enriched from time to
time with lime and other fertilizers.
The rotation of crops has been interfered with
considerably by tobacco farming in later years.
The first threshing-machines used in the county
were stationary. About 1832 William Kirkpatrick
began manufacturing portable machines. Some
of the latter class were brought into the county
from Milton, a town on the Susquehanna river.
All these machines had spiked cylinders working
into spiked concaves, connected by strap and
pulley with a horizontal cast-iron geared horse-
power, to which four or more horses could be
hitched. There were afterward added to these
carrying and separating attachments.
The beater machine was introduced from Maine
and used to some extent. This had a cylinder
and concaves of iron bars in place of spikes. This
machine was not able to compete successfully with
the others, and soon went out of use.
The threshing-machine was an inestimable boon
to the farmer, enabling hi'm to do in a few days as
much as it had taken him months to accomplish
The left-handed plow, which was introduced at
182 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
an early time, is still used in this county, but has
been greatly improved. Instead of the bulky drag
with wooden mould-board, it is now a light, easy-
running implement with smooth ground chilled-
iron and steel working parts.
The first horse-rakes were very simple. In 1830
the double-tooth tumbling grain-rake was intro-
duced. This has more lately been supplanted by
the wire-toothed sulky rake, which, with one man
and a horse, can do as much work as formerly
required six men in the same length of time, and
certainly with much less expense of muscular
The preparation of the ground for wheat was no
small task in the early days. The wheat-ground
was plowed twice, the second time merely on the
surface. The farmer then walked over the field,
scattering the seed broadcast. The field was then
harrowed in the same direction in which it had
last been plowed. Thus the grain grew in rows,
and was much less affected by freezing.
About 1842 the grain-drill was brought into the
State. This sowed the grain in lows, and rendered
unnecessary the second plowing.
In these modern days the farmer delights in
working with improved cultivators, harrows, roll-
ers, etc., and puts his ground in order with great
ease, and in a short time.
In 1 85 1 the first McCormick reapers were
brought into the county. Many improvements
have been made in this reaper since that time, as
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 183
for instance the wooden cutter-bar has been re-
placed by one of steel. Various kinds of self-rakers
have been added, and these have been followed by
self-binders. The enterprising Lancaster county
farmer is ever on the alert to secure the latest and
best mechanical aids to do his work, and at pres-
ent there are in general use machines for loading
hay on the wagon, patent hay forks, steam thresh-
ers and separators, ete.
The farmer of Lancaster county had other diffi-
culties than trees and stumps to encounter. Weeds
and insects were numerous and destructive in many
The granary weevil was an insect th^ infested
barns and frequently ate out the grain after it was
housed. The only remedy for this pest was star-
vation. By stacking the wheat in the fields for
some years, keeping the barns entirely empty, the
farmers could eveatually rid themselves of this in-
The potato-beetle in later years has tried the
patience and ingenuity of the farmer to a con-
siderable degree ; and, so far as we know, nothing
but Paris green has been found effectual as a
remedy, and this must be administered in repeated
It has been observed that sometimes a vegetable,
a kind of grain or a variety of fruit will flourish
for a time, and then appear to run out. The prac-
tice has been among intelligent farmers in the
184 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
county to plant something else, trying sometimes
many different things until the proper one is found.
When the apple and the plum have either wholly
or partially failed, their place has been supplied by
the strawberry, the pear and the improved native
grape. Western wheat some years ago came into
disastrous competition with the home-raised wheat,
and as a consequence Lancaster county farmers
turned their attention to the cultivation of tobacco.
The latter industry has proved to be very success-
ful and lucrative. The profits of the farm are not
derived wholly from the great fields and orchards.
The products of the dairy, of the poultry-yard and
the truck patch, are also very remunerative. For
these there is a good home market in Lancaster
city and the larger towns of the county. Market-
day in these places is characterized by great bustle
and business, and processions of wagons may be
seen along the principal roads leading to these
towns on the great market days. The farmers'
wives and daughters give to these a peculiar and
The market-wagon of long ago and that of
to-day are in striking contrast. The former was a
heavy white-covered, four-horse wagon, and in
those days came to market once or thrice a year.
The latter is a light, easy-running, one-horse
spring wagon, drawn by an active, well-fed trot-
ting horse, and now carries the market products to
the citv once or twice a week.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 185
The culture of tobacco has received a great deal
of attention during the last fifty years in the
county, and" has developed into one of its leading
industries. There were objections made to it at
first by many of the farmers. Some opposed it on
moral grounds; others because they thought it
would impoverish the soil, as it was believed it
had done in many other parts of the country.
The cultivation of tobacco in the county began
in the year 1825. ^^^^ market for it at first was
entiiely local. In fact, in the early days, the
grower made his crop into cigars for his own use,
or for neighboring cigar-dealers. No special li-
cense was then required to deal in the article, and
it was entirely exempt from internal revenue tax.
All this has changed. A large part of the annual
crop is now carried into foreign markets. It brings
millions of dollars annually into the county which
is spent here, and by this means all kinds of trade
and business are greatly stimulated. There can be
no question in regard to the advancement of the
material wealth of the county because of this indus-
try; but there is a question as to whether it has
not interfered with the educational advancement
of the people, for the reason that much of the
work in the tobacco-field can be done by children,
who are thus employed when they should be attend-
ing school, besides taking away the winter leisure
that the farmer formerly had for profitable reading
186 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
SOILS AND SUBSOILS.
The various states, in establishing and eqiiip-
ing surveys for the thorough study of the geology,
had for their object the development of their agri-
cultural and mineral wealth. The reltaion of
geology to good farming is intimate. But yet it
is doubtful whether those to be benefitted always
realize this. Successful tillage, and at the same
time improvement of the soil, depend largely upon
a thorough knowledo^e of the soils and subsoils
to be operated upon. Their nature, origin and
substance must be understood. Knowing the natute
and origin of the soil, the means by which it may
be most cheaply improved may be determined.
Then again the increase in the average of the
arable surface must be made to keep pace with
the increasing population and needs of the State.
This involves the use of fertilizers, and they must
be of such a mineral character as to be adapted to
the nature of the soil and to supply its wants.
COMPOSITION AND HOW FORMED.
Soils and subsoils are composed of variable mix-
tures of sand and clay with considerable propor-
tions of vegetable mold and iron oxide. They also
contain salts of lime and magnesia and some alka-
lies, as potash and soda, with phosporic acid. They
have been produced mainly by the decay and wear
of the rock surface, through the action of water.
The union of the oxygen of the water with some
of the constituents of the rocks forms new com-
pounds and breaks up the residue. This action is
BRIKF HISTORY OP I.ANCASTER COUNTY. 187
often facilitated by the roots of trees. Growing
into the crevices with increasing size, they force
the rocks apart and furnish larger surface for the
action of chemical agents.
ACTION OF WATER.
Water in the form of ice and frost is the most
important factor in the production of the soils.
Nearly always present in the rocks, it, by its expan-
sion in freezing, splits them and gradually reduces
them to small particles. These moved by running
water rubbing against another, and scoring the
surface over which they are carried, are active
agents in erosion. The process goes on year after
year until what were once large angular rocks be-
come fine sand and mud, the silts that make up
the soils and sub-soils of the earth's surface.
CLASSES OF SOIL.
Soils may therefore be the result of decomposi-
tion of the rocks above which they lie, and conse-
quently of the same character ; or they may be
produced in the same manner, but removed by
water to other sections or reo^ions. The latter
are called soils of transportation^ the former'soils
of disintegration. South of the 39th parallel in
the Eastern United States most of the soils belong
to the latter class ; north of that parallel to soils
of transportation, carried by the great glaciers
that once existed there. By disintegration the
most important soils are the sandstone, the shales
and soft clays, the limestones, granitic, and that
188 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
resulting from breaking up of trap and other vol-
Shales and soft slates whenever they contain a
large amount of argillaceous matter form heavy
and compact soils. Though they have a great deal
of retentiveness, yet they are difficult to till suc-
cessfully, and therefore undesirable. When, how-
ever, the clayey elements are mixed with a suffi-
cient amount of sand they form light and loamy
lands easy of tillage, and sufficiently retentive of
water and fertilizers. On the other hand, soils
derived from the breaking up of sandstoiie are not
so desirable. They are so open and porous that
moisture is rapidly evaporated from them. This
makes them subject to extremes of temperature, for
a dry sandy soil under direct sunlight becomes
greatly heated. Then, too, it rapidly loses its heat
by radiation at night. Sandstones cemented to-
gether with clayey material by disintegration form
somewhat better soils, more retentive of fertilizing
agents. On the whole, however, the sandstone
soils are of low grade.
The Ihnesione soils are of high grade. Most of
them have been produced by the breaking up of
limestone rocks by the action of water, which, at
the same time, dissolves out the lime.* Heavy,
clayey soils are thus produced. Usually, however,
thev contain sufficient sand to make them lighter
^Linie is present in such soils, however, in sufficient quantities
to supply that ingredient for a long time to the most exhaustive
among common crops — tobacco.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 189
and more easily tilled. With the deep compact
subsoil lying below, they have great capacity for
sustaining strong growth during times of drought.
Sometimes they are cold, impermeable and diffi-
cult to till. They are, however, usually of such
character that proper cultivation constantly im-
proves their texture and enhances their fertility.
Soils made by the .decomposition of granitic
material are usually thin. Should they contain
other elements, as calcareous matter, iron under-
going rapid change or decay, they may be brought
to a fair state of fertility. On the contrary, soils
resulting from the disintegration of trap^ or other
volcanic material^ contain all the more necessary
elements of plant growth, and in an available con-
THE REAL SOIL-MAKERS.
A soil may contain all the elements necessary to
support plant growth, but yet may not be fertile.
To be fertile the materials for the sustenance of
plants must be available; that is, they must be in
such conditions that the plant can get hold of
them and assimilate them. Hence, the mechani-
cal agents of decay wear, and disintegration can
not make a fertile soil. The elements, after these
forces have done their work, must be made soluble.
The fine rock particle must be acted upon by the
real soil-makers — chemical agencies — mainly the
CONDITIONS OF FERTILITY. *
Here good farming comes in. By proper tillage
the soils are turned over to the action of sun, wind
190 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
and rain. The capillarity is increased, and ferti-
lizers of the proper character are made to aid the
process. These are made to induce the four con-
ditions of fertility — (i) easy penetrability by roots,
(2) retentiveness, (3) color, and (4) texture. The
last two are essential conditions in the absorption
of the solar heat.
The renewal of the soil is secured by both nat-
ural and artificial means. As shown by Darwin by
experiment and a long series of observations, earth
worms do a great deal for the farmer. The worms
burrowing through the soil loosen it up. They
feed upon earth containing some vegetable mold;
and this, in passing through their bodies, is made
more available for plant. They, as well as the
expansion caused by freezing, give greater capil-
larity to the soil.
These natural agents are largely aided by the
artificial means — by the hoe, the harrow and the
plow. Then further, the renewal may be aided by
deep tillage, by subsoiling, and by the use of ferti-
The soils of Lancaster county are all chiefly soils
of disintegration, and therefore partake of the
nature of the rocks upon which they lie. The
southern belt, comprising mainly the lands lying
in the six lower townships, has soils derived for the
greater part from gneisses and mica-schists. They
are not nearly so fertile as those of the belt just
north of it, but in some sections the cultivation
of grain and tobacco is carried on with good success.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 191
The limestone soils, the most productive in the
county, are in the central valley, and occupy an
area of about 300 square miles. They have re-
sulted not alone from decay of the rocks beneath,
but have been further enriched by detritus brought
from other areas. In a large part of the valley,
therefore, the soil has the texture and fertility of
the best of bottom lands.
The breaking-up of feld-spar and thorough mix-
ing with sand and some other ingredients has further
enriched this belt, and has at the same time pro-
duced extensive beds of brick-clay.
Just north of the limestone lands is a belt of
shales stretching east and west for some distance
through the county. The belt is broken, and oc-
cupies different ridges, often separated by valleys
with entirely different soils.
The sandstone soils cover the mesozoic rocks of
the northern border. They are very variable in
color, texture and thickness, and often difficult to
work. They lack retentiveness, but with skillful
cultivation good crops have been raised. Though
not producing so great a yield of grain per acre,
the weight per bushel is heavier than that grown
in limestone sections.
WOODLANDS ON THE DIFFERENT SOILS.
The primitive forrests of the central valley
must have been stately and beautiful. Now only
isolated woodlands remain, with stately oaks, wal-
nuts and shell-barks, majestic elms and the beau-
yful ash in localities favorable to their g-rowth.
192 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
In the other geological belts the trees are of some-
what smaller size, because of slower growth. But
their wood is of finer grain.
The beautiful streams of Lancaster county are
fed by springs that are abundant in nearly all sec-
tions. The character of the springs and of their
waters vary with the geological formation. They
are most abundant in the shale lands, where they
are small and their waters soft. In the limestone
belt the springs are of deeper origin, the waters
are clearer and impregnated with carbonate of
lime, which gives them their hardness. In this belt
there are many beautiful springs, of strong flow and
pure water. The Lititz Springs, in these respects,
are justl}^ celebrated. Others are no less remark-
able, but lack the surroundings and the historic
interest attached to Lititz.
The energy of the people in connection with the
richest natural endowments of soil and climate has
made Lancaster county preeminently the greatest
agricultural section in the L^nited States. With
a total land-area of 622,720 acres, no less than
525,000 acres is under skillful and profitable cul-
tivation. This leaves about 15 per cent, of the
total area unproductive. But much of this, proba-
bly more than one-half, is forest land of high value,
being covered with majestic oaks.
The county contains about 10,000 farms, thus
making the average size of each farm about 523^
acres of improved land. The residences and farm-
fiRIKF HISTORY OI^ tANCASTKR COUNTY. 193
buildings are large and tastefully built. An air of
comfort pervades the whole rural community. The
houses are commodious, and in many cases artis-
tic in structure and surroundings.
The value of farm property is about $80,000,000.
Adding to this the value of live stock, imple-
ments and utensils, the agricultural wealth of the
county must be over $100,000,000. This, with the
$30,000,000 at interest and money in bonds and
invested in manufacturing in the towns, will make
the entire wealth in this great county at least
Farming is carried to a high degree of perfec-
tion. The elements of plant-growth, as they have
been taken from the soil by exhaustive tillage,
have been restored by the use of good fertilizers,
and so judiciously that the farms show constant
improvement. After the thirty years of tobacco
culture, the soil shows higher capabilities of pro-
duction than prior to i860. During these years
over 400,000,000 pounds of tobacco have been
marketed, worth over $35,000,000. The annual
crop is estimated at nearly 25,000,000 pounds.
The estimated value of all agricultural pro-
ducts is about $10,000,000. And of this, the
value of corn, wheat and oats forms no small part;
since about 2,250,000 bushels of wheat are raised
annually, with 3,250,000 bushels of corn and 1,500-
000 bushels of oats. The corn and o^ats are largely
used for home consumption. Cattle and horses are
fattened upon it for the city markets, and the reve-
194 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
nue from this industry exceeds $500,000 every year.
Another important source of income is the dairy,
producing about 4,000,000 pounds of butter.
With only one city market to supply with milk
and butter, the county still ranks high in dairy
production. The report of the Commissioner of
Agriculture at Washington, in 1878, stated that
the best farming in the United States is done in
this region, and the census of 1880 showed that
this county produced fifty per cent, more agri-
cultural products than any other county in the
EARLY MENNONITE SCHOOL IN PEQUEA VALLEY.
N 1712 the Swiss Mennonite settlers in the
Pequea valley, near the site of Willow Street,
in the present West Lampeter township, erected a
log structure to serve the two-fold purpose of a
meeting-house for religious worship on Sunday,
and for secular instruction during the week. The
latter consisted chiefly in teaching the children to
read and write. Such teaching was in accordance
with the precepts of Menno Simon, the founder of
the Mennonite sect, who advised his followers to
teach their children to read and write, to spin and
to do other necessary and proper labor suited to
their ages and persons. The schools in the Pequea
and Conestoga valleys are now among the best in
SCHOOLS OF THE SEVENTH DAY BAPTISTS AT EPHRATA.
In 1733 the Seventh Day Baptists established a
school at Ephrata. This school was successfully
conducted for many years. Among the branches
taught were the classics, German and music.
Much attention was devoted to a very peculiar
kind of vocal music. Penmanship is believed to
have been taught by two women who made some
fine chirographical charts, or ink-paintings, which
1ih; I'.Rii'i' HISTORY oi' i<ANCAsri<:k countv.
arc still in cxislciicc. 'I'liis scliool was attc-ii(lc(l
by pupils from abroad, and was oiu- of tlic first
boardiii)^ scliools in America.
The first tcaclicrs of tliis I'4)hrata school were
Conrad Ik'isscl and Ijidwi^ I lacker. Heissel was
tlie founder and leader of the Seventh Day P>ap-
tists, and was a j^mxxI teacher and an expert in
ninsic. He died in iy()H. I lis successor, John
i'c-ter MillcT, translated the Declaration of Inde-
])cndence into Wvl- diflerent lanj^iiaj^es lor the
United vStates ( lovernnient, and could speak Latin
In 17/p) Ivudwi<^ I lacker formed a plan of hold-
in<^ a school on vSatnrday afternoon, the vSabbath
of the vSeventh Day Haptists. 'Phis was the first
Sabbath scdiool recorded in liistory. Ijidwij^-
Hacker conducted the school successfully thirty-
seven years, until ySeptember, 1777, wlien the
bnil(lin<^s were j^iven to the United vStates (lovern-
ment for a hospital. ( )ver S'>'> wounded American
soldiers from the battle-field of l>ran(l\wine were
cared lor there. The vSab1)alli school was discon-
tinued from that lime, 'i'lu- noted old classical
school was also finally closed.
HAKLY MORAVIAN SCHOOLS.
In I /IS the Moravians established a school near
keamstown. The teachers occupied the scliool-
house, and wc-re instructed to teach the children
of the community and to <^ive relij.;ious instruc-
lion to tlu- parents on vSnnd.iN' whenever the rej^ular
ministir was absent.
T^RIKK ITISTOkY OF I.ANCASTKK COUNTY. 107
III ly/j'S llic Warwick church and school-house
were dedicated, 'i'his scliool ojx-ned in 1749, with
the Kev. Leou.ird vSehnell as teacher, and with
four l)()\'s and three twirls as ])U])ils. In 1762 this
scliool was removed to the viilaj^e of Lititz, and
was for nian\' years conducted successfully hy the
Rev. Ik'rnhard A. (irnhc-. As there- was no scliool
within four miles of IJtitz, tliis school was at-
tended 1)\' the children of the adjacent country.
The chihhtn of the Moravian vSocicty at Lililz
were tan;;hl in a school founded hy the society, in
the villa^a-, about the year 1758.* (irube's school
for the boys from the country was afterward con-
ducted by Christian vSc^iropp. In 1S15 John lUck
took charj^e of this school, ;nid .soon ;^avc it tin-
reputation which it so lon<^ lu'ld as John /irrk\K
School /or Hoys. John I>eek remained in (^har<^f of
that institution until iSOc;, a full half cenlurw
In 1750 the Moravians built a church and .school-
house near Centreville, Mount Joy township. This
church is yet standinj^^, thouj^h the school-house is
not in e.vistence. In 1750 the Moravians also
built a school-house in Lancaster.
In 1794 the Mora\ians at IJtit/. established their
celel/rated scliool for j^irls, l.indrn Ilall ScifiiiKirv^
in that village. This institution soon ranked with
the best ladies' seminaries of Pennsylvania, and
has ever since remained in a flourishing condition.
'* III 17.SS tlif Moravians l»uilt a school house ;il Lilil/ (or the
children of I heir socii'ly in the \illa).(e.
198 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
EARLY SCHOOLS OF LANCASTER CITY.
As early as 1746 schools were established in Lan-
caster borough by German Protestants belonging-
to the Lutheran and German Reformed churches.
These schools were at first intended only for the
children of members of those churches. The
teachers were the organists of the churches. As
organists they were paid salaries by the church.
As teachers they were paid by those who were able
to pay, while the children of the poor were taught
free of cost. These schools were very successful;
and from 1745 to 1784 they afforded almost the
only opportunities for education in the county,
except the schools of Ephrata and Lititz and the
classical school at the Pequea Presbyterian church
in Salisbury township.
The highest ecclesiastical bodies of the Lutheran
and German Reformed churches manifested great
interest in these church schools of Lancaster city.
The Reformed Synod of Amsterdam, in Holland,
sent teachers and books here and elsewhere. In
1746 that synod sent the Rev. Michael Schlatter
to establish schools. He succeeded very well in
Lancaster. In 1752 the provincial authorities of
Pennsylvania appointed a commission to establish
schools in the province. Among the members of
this commission were Governor James Hamilton,
of Pennsylvania, Benjamin Franklin and Conrad
In 1750 the Moravians of Lancaster built a par-
sonage and school-house on the corner of Orange
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 199
and Market streets. These buildings are yet
standing, though the school has been discontinued
for many years. In 1750 this Moravian school was
taught by George and Susan Ohneberg.
In 1760 the Reformed church had a school in
Lancaster, taught by Mr. Stoy, and attended by
sixty pupils. The early teachers of this school
were sent there by the Reformed church in Hol-
land, and the reports of the school were kept among
the proceedings of the church there.
About 1780 an academy for boys was established
in Lancaster by Jasper Yeates and others. The
Yeates Academy was at first very successful, but
was subsequently supplanted by Franklin College,
which was opened in 1787, and was conducted
under that name until 1821.
OLD SCHOOL IN CAERNARVON.
As early as 1750 the Bangor Church School was
in operation in Caernarvon township. This was
conducted under the auspices of the Bangor Epis-
copal church. In 1790 George Hudson and Na-
than Evans left legacies to the Bangor church,
minister and school. This school afterward be-
came a private subscription school, but has long
ago ceased to exist.
OLD SCHOOL IN SALISBURY.
As early as 1760 a noted classical school existed
near the Pequea Presbyterian church, in Salisbury
township. This school was founded and taught
by the Rev. Robert Smith, D. D., and was a clas-
200 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
sical and theological institution of the highest
character. Latin was the only language allowed
to be spoken in the school-room, and any one who
spoke a w^ord in any other language was marked as
a delinquent. One of the teachers who aided Rev.
Dr. Smith was James Waddell, afterward the cele-
brated blind preacher of Virginia, the subject of
William Wirt's composition entitled The Blind
Preacher. Among the Rev. Dr. Smith's pupils
were th^ee of his sons — Samuel Stanhope Smith,
John Blair Smith and William Smith. Samuel
Stanhope Smith was the first president of Hamp-
den Sidney College, Virginia.
The most eminent of Rev. Dr. Smith's pupils
was John McMillan, D. D., the apostle of Presby-
terianism in the West, and the founder of Jefferson
College at Cannonsburg, Washington county,
Pennsylvania — the famous preacher and teacher
of theologv^ in his log cabin. The Rev. Dr. Mc-
Millan sent more men into the ministry than any
other man in America before the time of theo-
logical seminaries. Among others who attained
prominence was an early Governor of Pennsyl-
vania. Rev. Dr. Smith's school ended with his
death, in 1793.
EARLY SCHOOLS OF EARL TOWNSHIP.
As early as 1765 a log school-house was standing
at Laurel Hill, in Earl township. The same
ground is still used for school purposes. In 1772
a school-house was built in Weaverland. About
1783 one was built in Hinkletown. In the same
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 201
year Jacob Carpenter taught a school at Bolmar-
town. These school- houses were all built by the
voluntary contributions of the citizens.
In 1786 the Rev. Mr. Melzheimer and other
public-spirited citizens established an English and
German free school in New Holland: This school-
house was built and furnished by contributions of
money, building materials and personal services.
It was a two-story log structure, and was formally
dedicated December 26, 1787.
On the morning of that day the scholars, minis-
ters, trustees, elders and church wardens of the
Lutheran and German Reformed churches, sli^
the members of those churches and members of
other churches, both English and German, as-
sembled at the parsonage, whence they marched
in procession to the school-house. More than
seven hundred persons were present. The dedica-
tion services on that occasion consisted of vocal
music, an appropriate prayer, a suitable oration,
and finally an eloquent discourse.
After 1838 the school directors of Earl township
used the school-house for public school purposes.
In 1857 the building was sold by authority of an
act of the State Legislature, which directed that
one-half of the proceeds should be given to the
Lutheran church, and that the other half should
be put on interest until the latter should amount
to one thousand dollars. After that the income
from the amount was to be used to support
one or more schools in New Holland, during the
202 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
time when the common schools were not in session.
In accordance with that act, schools have since
been in session dnring the summer.
OLD SCHOOL IN DONEGAL.
It is known that as early as 1772 a log school-
house stood near the old Donegal Presbyterian
church, which had been erected in 1722, full half
a century before. In this log edifice a parochial or
church school was kept. This school-house
was constructed of hewn oak ; roof, floor
and furniture consisting of that material.
Here the common branches and the doc-
trines of the Presbyterian church were taught.
A night school was also held once a week for those
who were not able to attend the day school. This
old Donegal school was supported by subscriptions,
and the teachers "boarded round." The county
court appointed trustees to visit the school once
in six months. The school was discontinued when
the public free schools came into existence.
EARLY SCHOOLS OF STRASBURG BOROUGH.
As early as 1790 a family school existed in
Strasburg borough. This school was taught by
the Rev. Nathaniel W. Sample, who received a
number of students into his house. Mr. Sample's
chief object was to aid young men to prepare
themselves for the ministry. Some of his pupils
afterward become very prominent Presbyterian
About 1800 John Whiteside established a clas-
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 203
sical school in Strasburg borough, in which Latin,
Greek and Hebrew were taught.
In 1808 a celebrated classical academy was
established in Strasburg borough by the Rev.
Robert Elliott, who was afterward a cli^plain to
Congress. This academy was attended by pupils
from Delaware and Maryland, as well as from
Pennsylvania. It was afterward conducted by Xeal
OLD SCHOOL IN LITTLE BRITAIN.
The Eastland school, in Little Britain township,
was in existence as early as 1796.
THE SCHOOLS OF LANCASTER COUNTY FROM 1809 TO 1834.
Under the law of 1809, embracing the period
from 1809 to 1834, little was done to educate the
cliildren of the mass of the people. There were few
good teachers, except in the city, the boroughs
and their vicinities. The furniture was rude; and
there was no apparatus, no suitable text-books,
no classification. The schools were called "pau-
per schools," and were despised by the rich and
shunned by the poor. Under the law of 1809 the
schooling of the poor children was paid for by the
county, and such children were classed as "poor
scholars" or "county scholars." Thus the law
created an unpleasant feeling of caste in the
school and in the community. Many parents
would keep their children at home, rather than
say to the township assessor: " Put me on the poor
list,^'' Many poor children refused to go to school,
204 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
because they were taunted with the remark: '' Oh,
you are a county scholar."
Under the law of 1809 the expense of building
school-houses was paid by voluntary contributions.
Whenever a community desired a school-house,
one was built at some point convenient to those
who contributed toward its erection. The patrons
of the school selected trustees, whose duty it was to
take charge of the school property and to select a
teacher for the school. If the teacher whom the
trustees selected was able to obtain pupils enough
to pay for his teaching, he would open the school.
If not, he would look for a school elsewhere. The
teacher was paid by his patrons, if they were able
to do so; if not, the tuition of the children was
paid by the county — bills for that purpose being
presented by the teacher to the County Commis-
sioners. The amount of pay for each pupil was two
dollars per quarter, or three cents per day. The
pupil's outfit cost one dollar, and consisted of an
English Reader or a New Testament, a Comly's
or Byerly's Spelling Book, a Pike's or Rose's Arith-
metic, a slate and pencil, six sheets of foolscap
paper stitched together, a small ink bottle in a
broad cork stand, and a goose quill.
Next to the academies, the faiJiily schools were
the best schools of that period. They were far better
than the trustees' schools. The most enlightened
and progressive school sentiment at this time
exists in the localities where those family schools
BRIEF HISTORY OP LANCASTER COUNTY. 205
ACTION OF CITIZENS OF STRASBURG IN FAVOR OF FREE
About 1829 or 1830 some enterprising and pub-
lic-spirited citizens of Strasburg borough organized
a movement to secure free schools. These were
George Hoffman, Alexander Hood and Henry
Spiehlman. They called a special meeting of the
citizens in the Jackson street school-house to peti-
tion the State Legislature for a system of free
schools. The petition was presented to the Legis-
lature. This was the only action taken in this
direction at this time in the county, except in the
city of Lancaster.
In 1835 a public meeting was held at the same
place to protest against the proposed repeal of the
free school law of 1834. Samuel Spiehlman and
B. B. Gonder were appointed a committee to go to
Harrisburg to present the protest to the Legisla-
ture. The people of Strasburg and its vicinity
were always very active in every movement in
favor of free schools. Among those citizens who
made earnest and effective efforts in that direction
were George Hoffman, Alexander Hood, Henry
Spiehlman, sr., Benjamin Herr, Joseph Bowman,
James McPhail and others.
THE FREE SCHOOL LAW OF 1834.
The greatest event in the educational history of
Pennsylvania was the passage by the State Legis-
lature of the free school law of 1834. This bene-
ficent act provided for the establishment of public
free schools throughout the State wherein the
206 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
children of all parents, rich and poor, might be
educated at the public expense. Each city, bor-
ough and township was to constitute a separate
school district, whose schools were to be main-
tained by general taxation. Each district was to
have a board of school directors for the manage-
ment of its school affairs, the employment of
teachers, etc. Each township was given six
directors, and each city and borough a certain
number in proportion to population. The direc-
tors were to be elected for a term of three years by
the voters at the yearly city, borough and township
elections; one-third of the directors of each district
being elected each year.
THE FREE SCHOOLS FROM 1834 TO 1851.
Under the school laws of 1834 and 1836 the
public schools of Lancaster county increased in
numbers and efficiency. At the end of tliese
twenty years there were some good schools in
Lancaster city and in the various boroughs of the
county. There were also some good schools in
some of the townships.* But in many the modes
of teaching were very defective. Teachers were in-
different and incompetent, classification was want-
ing, and little attention was given to the young
pupils. There were, however, some very excellent
teachers. Some of the directors also took great
interest in the schools.
*In those of Manor, East Donegal, the Henipfields, the Lam-
peters, Pequea, Conestoga, Strasburg, Paradise, Earl, Bart and
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 207
THE FREE SCHOOLS SINCE 1854.
The school law of 1854 provided for a County
Superintendent of Common Schools for each
county in Pennsylvania, to be elected every three
years by the directors of the county. The duties of
the County Superintendents are to examine those
who apply for positions as teachers in the cfommon
schools, to visit these schools each term, to hold
an annual County Teachers' Institute and to report
yearly the educational progress of the county. Under
the County Superintedency the common schools
have been gradual h' advancing in every respect.
The Normal School law of 1857, which brought
into existence the State Normal Schools, has been
the means of supplying most excellent teachers.
The County Superintendency and the State Nor-
mal Schools are the agencies to which the progress
of the common schools is indebted. The following
have been the County Superintendents of Com-
mon Schools of Lancaster county :
James P. Wickersham, from 185410 1856, when he resigned.
John C. Crumbaugh, from 1856 until his death in January,
David Evans, from 1859 to 1872.
B. F, Shaub, from 1872 to 1883, when he resigned.
Milton J. Brecht, since 1883.
ACCEPTANCE OF FREE SCHOOLS BY THE SCHOOL DISTRICTS.
The present free school system was accepted by
the various school districts of Lancaster county, as
East Donegal, Marietta borough, West Hempfield,
East Hempfield, Manor, Washington borough,
Strasburg borough, Bart, Drumore,
Caernarvon, and four others.
208 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
Mount Joy township.
In 1843 AND 1844.
Lancaster township, Ephrata township,
Sadsbury and Elizabeth town borough.
In 1847 AND 1848.
The new townships and boroughs which have
been founded since the passage of the free school
law have all accepted the free school system since
their formation, so that the beneficent system ex-
ists in every district.
FIRST TEACHERS' MEETING— SCHOOL JOURNAL.
The first teachers' meeting in Lancaster county
was held in Lancaster, in June, 1850, about twenty
teachers being present. At a subsequent meet-
ing this society adopted the name of the Lan-
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 200
caster County Educational Society^ which lasted
until i860. At a meeting of this society, in Jan-
uary, 1852, it was resolved to establish a monthly
educational publication to be edited by Thomas
H. Burrowes. This was the origin of the Penn-
sylvania School Journal^ which first appeared in
ORIGIN OF TEACHERS' INSTITUTES.
In November, 1852, the Lancaster County Edu-
cational. Society met at Strasburg, and resolved to
hold Institutes for the special improvement of
teachers in the branches of study and in methods
of teaching. This w^as the first move to organize
a Teachers' Institute in Lancaster county. At this
meeting the society appointed seven delegates to the
Educational State Convention which met in Har-
risburg, December 28, 1852. The first Teachers'
Institute in Lancaster county, which was also the
first one held in Eastern Pennsylvania, met in
Lancaster, in January, 1853, with 169 members
ORIGIN OF THE NORMAL SCHOOL AT MILLERSVILLE.
At the first Teachers' Institute, just referred to,
Professor J. P. Wickersham offered a resolution in
favor of the establishment of County Superinten-
dents and of State Normal Schools. This resolu-
tion was adopted unanimously and was sent to the
State Legislature. The second meeting of the In-
stitute, in September, 1853, took similar action.
210 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
The third meeting of the Institute, at Hinkletown,
in November, 1854, adopted a resolution calling
upon the County Superintendent to call a County
Teachers' Institute to remain in session three
months. The County Superintendent, Professor J.
P. Wickersham, declared his willingness to hold
such an Institute if he could find suitable build-
ings. The trustees of the Millersville Academy
offered their building to the County Superinten-
dent, and agreed to pay $1,000 toward the expenses
of the Institute. This offer was readily accepted;
and the three months' Institute was held in the
Millersville Academy, in the summer of 1855,
under County Superintendent Wickersham's direc-
tion. The school was called the Lancaster County
Nonual Institute. Its wonderful success induced
the trustees to continue the school as a permanent
institution; and it became the Lancaster County
Normal School^ on November i, 1855, with John
F. Stoddard as principal. In the fall of 1856
Professor Wickersham resigned the office of County
Superintendent, and became principal of the new
County Normal School, which became the first
State Normal School oi Pennsylvania on December
The first District Teachers'" Institute in Lancaster
county was held in the Jackson street school-house,
in Strasburg borough, by the teachers of Strasburg
borough and township, July 12, 185 1. Among the
leaders in the movement were D. S. Kieffer, Amos
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 211
Row, E. Lamborn and T. K. White. This Insti-
tute adopted eight progressive resolutions, and
elected five delegates to the Lancaster County
Teachers' Convention held in Lancaster, August
2, 1851. There have since been District Institutes
in various townships of the county.
UNDER THE ACT OF i8og.
Franklin College closed in 1821 for some years,
as did also the private classical academy some
time afterward. Under the law of 1809 a number
of schools were opened in Lancaster city for the
education of poor children, but the teachers were
UNDER THE ACT OF 1822.
On April i, 1822, the Pennsylvania Legislature
passed an act to provide for the education of the chil-
dren of the city and boroughs of Lancaster county
at the public expense. Under this law the Court
of Common Pleas of Lancaster county appointed
twelve directors each year, and the expenses of the
schools were paid out of the county treasury. A
large school-house was erected on the south-east
corner of Prince and Chestnut streets, and was
opened for the instruction of boys and girls in
General Lafayette visited this school in 1824
and addressed the children. The girls were taught
needle-work. This school lasted until 1838, when
the present free school system was adopted by Lan-
caster city. The building is now used for school
purposes by the city school board-
212 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
LANCASTER COUNTY ACADEMY.
In April, 1827, ^^^^ Pennsylvania Legislature
passed an act incorporating the Lancaster County
Academy. This academy lasted until May 15,
1839, when the buildings were conveyed to the
trustees of Franklin College, which again opened
and used those buildings until 1853, when it was
consolidated with Marshall College under the name
of Franklin and Marshall College.
THE ABBEVILLE INSTITUTE.
The Abbeville Institute was incorporated in 1835,
and was an academy of high rank. Its leading
founders were Dr. John L. Atlee, Bishop Samuel
Bowman and Honorable A. L. Hayes. This insti-
tution lasted only a few years.
In 1843 ^ ladies' seminary was conducted suc-
cessfully in Lancaster by James Damant.
The Yeates Institute of Lancaster was incor-
porated August 18, 1857, for tlie education of
young men in all the customary branches of a
thorough academical course of learning. The in-
stitution was named after Miss Catharine Yeates,
who liberally endowed it. The school was once
closed, but reopened September i, 1878. In 1880
it was removed to the present building at the north-
east corner of Duke and Walnut streets, which
had just been erected on a lot purchased the'year
BRIEI^ HISTORY OF tAKCASTER COt'NTY. 213
ACADEMIES IN SALISBURY TOWNSHIP.
In 1822 an academy was in operation north of
the Gap, in Salisburg township, taught by John
Dickinson, father of the celebrated Miss Anna
Dickinson. In 1842 Bellevue Academy was in
operation in Salisbury township, taught by the
Rev. Mr. Timlow.
ACADEMIES AND SEMINARIES AT MARIETTA.
x\n academy for boys was established in Marietta
borough in 1833 by the Rev. Timothy Simpson,
but it was soon discontinued. In 1836 a female
seminary was established in Alarietta, but this in-
stitution finally became a public school. In 1836
Susquehanna Institute was established by a joint
stock company. Edwin A. Leiker, an accom-
plished scholar, was principal of this institution.
Honorable John J. Libhart, James Mehaifey and
A. N. Cassel were prominent trustees. The insti-
tution proved a financial failure, and the building
in which it w^as held afterward became a private
residence. In 1845 Marietta Academy was estab-
lished, with James Pyle Wickersham as principal,
and was in successful operation until May, 1854,
when Professor Wickersham was elected the first
County Superintendent of Lancaster county. Both
sexes were admitted to this Academy, and much
attention was given to preparing teachers for their
work. The library had over 500 volumes. The
building was afterward used for a boarding-house.
In 1814 the few remaining members of the
214 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
old society of the the Seventh Day Baptists
at Ephrata were incorporated by the State Leg-
islature. In 1837 this corporation founded the
Ephrata Academy. This institution was in opera-
tion until 1855, when the building was leased to
the school board of Ephrata township, and it has
ever since been used for public school purposes.
INSTITUTIONS AT MT. JOY.
In 1837 Cedar Ui'Il Female Sej)it?taiy ^2iS ts\.2ih-
lished near Mount Joy by Rev. Nehemiah Dodge,
an enthusiastic teacher and an active worker
in every good cause. This seminary became a
flourishing and celebrated institution, and at var-
ious times was attended by young ladies from ele-
ven different States. In 1874 Professor David Den-
linger became principal, and both sexes were ad-
mitted to the institution, the name being changed
to Cedar Hill Seminary. This institution under
Professor Denlinger's charge lasted several years,
and belonged to the estate of its founder. In 1838
Mount Joy htstitute for boys was established by J.
H. Brown as principal, but was not long in opera-
tion. In 185 1 MotiJtt Joy Academy W2is chartered.
E. Iv. Moore and J. W. Simonton were associate
principals of this institution, which flourished for
some years, but was after a time discontinued. In
1865 the building was purchased by the State for
a Soldiers' Orphan School, and was used for that
purpose until 1889.
In 1839 the Strasburg Academy was founded by
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 2l5
tlie Rev. David McCarter. This was one of the
most flourishing academies in the county for many
years, and was attended by students from all the
States from the Great Lakes to the Gulf. Mr. Mc-
Carter was principal until 1853, and three assistant
teachers were employed. This academy lasted
until 1858, and the building was afterward sold
and converted into a private residence. The pub-
lic high school of Strasburg borough now fills the
place made vacant by the discontinuance of the
INSTITUTIONS AT PARADISE.
In 1842 the Paradise Academy was in operation,
with Enos Stevens as principal. In 1854 the
Young Ladies^ Seminary at Paradise was founded
under the principalship of the Rev. Dr. Killi
Kelly, but was soon closed on account of financial
troubles. The building was used awhile for a
Soldiers' Orphan School, and since fcr a private
residence. Another Paradise Acadefny was founded
by a stock company in 1859, and flourished for
several years under the management of E. J.
Rogers, but w^s discontinued in 1865. The build-
ing was sold, and has since been used for a private
CHESTNUT LEVEL ACADEMY.
The CJiestmtt Level Academy was founded in
1852. P. W. Housekeeper, Esq., donated an acre
of land and $150 for its use, and others contributed
sums of $75 each. The trustees then borrowed
money to erect a large boarding-house, thus in-
216 BRIEI^ HISl'ORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
volving them in debt. The buildings were sold
at Sheriff's sale to Sanders McCullongh, who pre-
sented them to the Presbyterian Church, which
still owns them and now leases them for school
purposes. The citizens of the surrounding country
still liberally patronize the academy.
The Presbyterian Church established the Clmrch-
town Academy^ in Caernarvon township, in 1854,
with James E. Giffin as its first principal. The
trustees afterward leased the building to Thomas
H. Reifsnyder, who conducted the academy until
1872, when it was finally closed. The buildings
are yet standing.
UNION HIGH SCHOOL IN COLERAINE.
The Union High School^ in Coleraine township,
was founded in 1859 t>y James W. Andrews, who
became its first principal. This was designed for
the education of both sexes.
In 1874 Wagner' s Academy for boys was estab-
lished in Lancaster township, just outside the limits
of Lancaster city. J. H. B. Wagner was principal
of this academy, which was under Catholic con-
trol, and which was attended by students from
There are several parochial schools in Lancaster
city, connected respectively with the three Catho-
lic churches, with Zion\s Lutheran church, and
with St. James' Episcopal church. There is a
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 217
Catholic parochial school in Marietta borough. In.
1877 a kindergarten school was established in Lan-
caster city by the Misses Gleim, of lycbanon. The
Children'' s Home Schooliwrmsh^s excellent school
privileges to the poor, friendless children of that
SOLDIER'S ORPHAN SCHOOLS.
In 1864 and 1865 the Pennsylvania Legislature
passed bills providing for the establishment of
Soldiers^ Orpha7i Schools in the State. On June
16, 1864, Honorable Thomas H. Burrowes was
commissioned Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphan
AT STRASBURGAND MOUNT JOY.
On December 20, 1864, a Soldiers' Orphan
School was opened at Strasburg, with Professor J.
R. Carothers as principal. In 1865 the State
bought the academy buildings at Mount Joy, and
removed the school from Strasburg to that place
the same year. The Mount Joy Soldiers' Orphan
School prospered until it was closed in 1889. On
December i, 1867, Professor Jesse Kennedy be-
came principal, having bought the buildings. Pro-
fessor Kennedy remained in charge until Sep-
tember, 1877, when State Senator George W.
Wright, of Mercer county, Pennsylvania, bought
the buildings and took charge of the school.
A Soldiers' Orphan School was for some time
held in the old academy building in Paradise, but
this school has been closed for some years.
218 BRISF HISTORV OF LANCASTER COXmTY.
YOUNG LADIES' SEMINARY AT LITITZ.
Linden Hall Seminary^ at Lititz, was opened in
1794. It was first conducted partly in the Sister^ s
House and partly in an adjacent house. The new
building, built expressly for school purposes, was
first occupied in 1804. It is 100 feet long, 60 feet
wide, and three stories high. In the basement is
a large dining-room. In the first and second
stories are the school rooms, principal's residence,
and a chapel designed for religious devotion. The
third story consists of a domitory and a sick room.
In the rear of the building is a large yard, with a
pavilion, seats, swings, etc., for the pleasure and
amusement of the pupils. The institution has an
extensive library. The course of instruction is de-
signed to afford a practical education to young
ladies. Considerable attention is given to instruc-
tion in music, and ornamental needle-work is
taught with rare success. Each school-room is
constantly under the supervision of a teacher, who
has a watchful eye over her respective pupils. The
principal is aided in his work by a vice-principal.
This institution of a century has enjoyed an unin-
terrupted career of prosperity, and has during this
entire period ranked with the best ladies' semi-
naries of Pennsylvania. It is conducted on a plan
adopted several centuries ago in Europe, and
has had students from almost every State of the
BRISF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 219
YOUNG GENTLEMEN'S ACADEMY AT LITITZ.
(JOHN BECK'S SCHOOIv.)
As we have seen, there were two schools at
Lititz in the early days of the village — the War-
wick school for children from the surrounding
country not belonging to the Moravian society,
and the one belonging to the society and conducted
by the Rev. Bernhard A. Grube. As Warwick
township became more settled, the country chil-
dren were no more sent to school in the village.
The village school for boys was conducted for
many years by Christian Schropp. In 1815 John
Beck took charge of the school, which he conduct-
ed for fifty years, until he resigned in 1865. John
Beck was one of the most famous and successful
teachers of his time. His school for boys, or Young
GentlemerC s Academy^ obtained a wide reputation,
and was attended by students from many States
and from Canada and the West Indies. When
Mr. Beck took charge of the school it was held in
an old building. In 1822 the present brick build-
ing was erected on the same spot, and as the num-
ber of pupils increased each year the large build-
ing formerly called the Brother'' s House was used
for the school. As the school increased, Mr. Beck,
as principal, was assisted by other teachers. The
institution remained in active operation about
twenty years after Mr. Beck's retirement.
SUNNYSIDE COLLEGE FOR YOUNG LADIES.
This institution was established in 1863 by Rev.
220 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
J. T. Beckler, who died in 1876, when the institu-
tion was closed permanently.
ABRAHAM BECK'S FAMILY SCHOOL FOR BOYS.
This school was established in 1865 by Abraham
Beck, and is still in successful operation.
ORIGIN OF FRANKLIN AND MARSHALL COLLEGE.
This institution — the leading college of the Re-
formed Church in the United States — owes its
origin to the consolidation or union of two older
institutions, Franklin College at Lancaster, and
Marshall College at Mercersberg, which consolida-
tion took place in 1853.
LANCASTER HIGH SCHOOL.
The Lancaster High School^ founded by Jasper
Yeates and other gentlemen about 1780 for the
education of their sons, and which closed several
years later on account of the teacher's violent
temper, suggested the establishment of another.
On March 10, 1787, the Pennsylvania Legisla-
ture passed an act incorporating an institution at
Lancaster named Franklin College^ in honor of Dr.
Benjamin Franklin. This institution was under
the management of a board of trustees. The act
of incorporation provided that the youth should be
taught in the German, English, Latin, Greek and
other learned languages, in theology, in the useful
arts, sciences and literature. The College was
endowed with ten thousand acres of land. It was
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 221
opened in 1786 as a Grammar School, with a pro-
fessor of the Latin and Greek languages and a pro-
essor of mathematics. A German named Mels-
heimer was the first principal. Franklin College
prospered until 182 1, when it was closed, being
not reopened until 1839.
LANCASTER COUNTY ACADEMY AND FRANKLIN COLLEGE
As already noticed, the State Legislature incor-
porated the Lancaster County Academy April 14,
1827, ^^^ granted a donation of $3,000 to the insti-
tution as a gift from the State on the condition
that at least four poor children should always be
educated there free. As also noticed, the trustees
bought a lot on North Lime street, Lancaster,
where they erected the academy in 1828. The
academy was opened with a competent teacher,
and prospered until 1839, when, in persuance of
an act of the State Legislature authorizing the
arrangement, the academy buildings were con-
veyed to the trustees of Franklin College, which
was reopened as a respectable classical academy.
FRANKLIN AND MARSHALL COLLEGE.
In 1835 Marshall College was established by
the Reformed Church at Mercersburg, Frank-
lin county, Pennsylvania, to which place the
Theological Seminary of the Reformed Church
in the United States was removed from York in
1837. The Reformed Church bought out the Lu-
theran interest in Franklin College ; and in April,
1850, the Pennsylvania Legislature passed an act
222 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTBR COUNTY.
for the consolidation of Franklin College with Mar-
shall College, the latter institution being thus re-
moved from Mercersburg to lyancaster, thus ending
its history as a separate institution. The two col-
leges thus became a united institution at Lancaster,
under the name of Franklin and Marshall College.
The new college charter went into effect when the
board of trustees first met in January, 1853. '^^^
college opened in May, 1853 ; and the event was
formally solemnized by a public celebration in
Fulton Hall in the evening of June 7, 1853.
The college was conducted in the Franklin Col-
lege building on North Lime Street until April,
1856. The city and county of Lancaster raised a
fund of $25,000, which was used in purchasing a
fine tract of ground on the west side of the city and
erecting a college building thereon. The new
building was dedicated with appropriate cere-
monies. May 16, 1856. Each of the two literary
societies of the college erected a large, beautiful
and commodious hall. The hall of the Goethean
Literary Society is on the south side of the col-
lege building, and that of the DiagJiothian Lit-
erary Society is on the north side. These two
halls thus hold the relation of wings to the college
edifice, and were formally opened on Tuesday,
July 28, 1857. Since then Franklin and Marshall
College has had a wonderful career of prosperity.
Franklin and Marshall College is under the im-
mediate care of the Reformed Church, but one-
third of its board of trustees are members of other
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 223
religious denominations. It is thus a public in-
terest in the full sense of the term — an interest in
which the State is as much concerned as the
Church. There is a great deal of local interest and
pride felt in the institution. It thus holds a double
relation to the Reformed Church and to the
community around it. It is the leading college
of the Reformed Church in the United States. The
centennial of the establishment of Franklin Col-
lege was held in June, 1887. The college com
mencement is always held early in June of each
year. The anniversaries of the literary societies of
the college are held shortly before the commence-
ment. The president of the college now is Dr.
John S. Stahr.
FRANKLIN AND MARSHALL ACADEMY.
In 1853 the trustees of Franklin and Marshall
College founded Franklin and Marshall Academy,
designed as a preparatory school for the college,
and under the supervision of the college faculty,
but being no part of the college proper.
REFORMED THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY.
The Theological Seminary of the Reformed
Church in the United States has been at I^an-
caster since 1871, and uses the buildings of Frank-
lin and Marshall College. This theological semi-
nary was founded at Carlisle in 1825 5 removed
to York in 1829 5 ^^ Mercersburg, in Franklin
county, in 1837 > ^^^^ ^^ Lancaster in 187 1. It is
the oldest educational institution of the Reformed
224 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY.
Church in the United States, and is open to stu-
dents of all Christian denominations.
LANCASTER COUNTY NORMAL INSTITUTE.
This flourishing institution owed its origin
directly to the influence of the first County Super-
intendent of Lancaster County, J. P. Wickersham.
During a visit to Millersville, Professor Wicker-
sham alluded in a public lecture to the project of
founding a Normal School for the training of teach-
ers. The trustees of the new building designed
for an academy at Millersville offered this building
to the County Superintendent without charge.
He accepted their offer, and opened the Lancaster
County Normal Institute at Millersville in April,
1855, with 135 students, the term being three
LANCASTER COUNTY NORMAL SCHOOL.
The trustees at once enlarged the buildings for
a permanent Normal School, and the Lancaster
County Normal School opened about November i,
1855, with Professor John F. Stoddard as principal.
In 1856 Mr. Stoddard resigned, whereupon the
trustees elected County Superintendent Wicker-
sham as principal. Mr. Wickersham then re-
signed the County Superintendency, and took
charge of the Normal School, which he launched
on an unbroken career of prosperity. From 1855
to 1859 the institution, under the title of the Lan-
caster County Normal School^ was wholly in private
hands ; but was virtually doing the work of a
State Normal School, as its students came from all
BRIEF HIvSTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 225
parts of Pennsylvania, and its special aim was to
THE FIRST STATE NORMAL SCHOOL.
The Normal School Law of Pennsylvania, pre-
pared by the Honorable Thomas H. Burrowes,
became a law May 20, 1857. On December 2,
1859, th^ Lancaster County Normal School at
Millersville became a State Normal School — the
first institution of that kind in Pennsylvania. The
State has ever since granted it appropriations,
and incurred the expense of supplying certificates
and diplomas. In i860 the ladies' building was
erected, in the lower story of which were the
rooms of the Model School. The pupils in this
department were taught by students of the Normal.
M. D. Wickersham, brother of J. P. Wickersham,
was principal of this school until the fall of 1861,
when he was succeeded by John V. Montgomery,
who remained its principal for a number of years.
The number of students attending the State
Normal School continued to increase yearly for a
number of years, and it was the largest institution
of the kind in the United States for a time. In
1875 the number of students in attendance was
about 650. Under Professor Wickershan-a's man-
agement the institution was put on a firm founda-
tion of prosperity.
In the fall of 1866 Professor Wickersham resign-
ed the principalship, to accept the office of State
Superintendent of Common Schools, to which he
had been appointed by Governor Curtin. Pro^
226 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
fessor Edward Brooks, who had been connected
with the school since 1855, ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^
time its popular professor of mathematics, then be-
came principal, and remained in this position sev-
enteen years. In 1869 a large addition was made
to the ladies' building. The great growth of the
school made larger accommodations necessary, and
a new building was erected in 1874. The building
consists of library halls, chapel, recitation rooms
and a large dining-room.
In 1875 an additional story was put on the gen-
tlemen's building. Dr. Edward Brooks retired from
the principalship in the fall of 1883, and was suc-
ceeded by Professor B. F. Shaub. In the fall of
1887 Professor Shaub retired from the principal-
ship, and was succeeded by Dr. E. O. Lyte, a grad-
uate of the institution, and who had been a teacher
and professor in the school for twenty years. Under
Dr. Lyte's able management the school has taken
new strides. In 1890 a gymnasium building was
MECHANICS' LIBRARY ASSOCIATION.
The Mechanics^ Library Association^ founded in
1829 by some mechanics of Lancaster city for the
benefit of their fellows and of apprentices, is the
oldest literary organization in Lancaster county.
This association has now a large circulating library,
and deserves credit for introducing serial lectures
and night schools into Lancaster city.
LYCEUM OF NATURAL SCIENCES AT MARIETTA.
A Lyceum of Natural Sciences was organized at
Marietta in 1837, through the efiforts of Josiah Hoi-
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 227
brook. In 1874 the Marietta Lyceum of Natural
History was incorporated. This society has a large
collection of specimens and a fine library.
ATHENiEUM AND HISTORICAL, AGRICULTURAL AND ME-
In 1857 '^^^ Historical^ Agricultjiral and Me-
chanical Society was organized in Lancaster city ;
and in 1858 the Athenceujn was also organized in
the city.. In i860 the two societies were consoli-
dated into one association, called the AthencFeum
and Historical^ Agricultural and Mechanical So-
ciety. This society has not been in active opera-
tion for some years.
In 1862 Professor S. S. Rath von, the noted en-
tomologist, and other citizens organized the
Li7incFan Society in Lancaster city. This associa-
tion has since been one of the molst important
scientific societies in Eastern Pennsylvania. It
has a very large and valuable collection of speci-
mens in almost every department of natural science.
It also has papers and books of rare value.
AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.
In 1867 th^ Agricultural a7id Horticultural So-
ciety of Lancaster County was organized. During
its earlier years it published a monthly paper called
the Lancaster Farmer.
LANCASTER COUNTY LYCEUM.
The Lancaster County Lyceum was organized in
1836 ; and John Beck, the well-known teacher of
Lititz, was its first president. It did not last long.
228 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
The Eastland Lyceum^ in Little Britain town-
ship, was organized in 1841, mainly through the
efforts of Mary Fell. The lyceum erected a hall
in 1844, but has not been in active operation since
LANCASTER CITY LYCEUM.
The Lancaster City Lyceum was established in
1852, but soon discontinued, and its valuable col-
lection of apparatus was placed in the city high
The Lititz Lyceum^ founded in 1870, soon had a
librar}^ and reading-room.
PIONEER LITERARY SOCIETY.
The Pioneer Literary Society^ in West Donegal
township, was founded in 1872. It built for itself
Pio7ieer Hall^ costing about $1000, and collected a
During the winter season lyceums are in active
operation in various parts of the county.
The Juliana Library was founded in Lancaster
in 1765 by Thomas Penn, and was named in honor
of his wife, Juliana Penn. It was merged into
another library which was finally sold.
The Mechanics'* Library was founded in Lancas-
ter in 1829 ^y t^^^ Mechanics' Library Association.
The Athe7iceum Library was founded in Lancas-
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 229
ter in 1859 by two associations, one called the
AthencBuin^ and the other named the Historical^
Agricultural and Mechanical Society.
Y. M. C. A. LIBRARY AND FREE READING ROOM.
The library and free reading room of the Young
Men's Christian Association of Lancaster was es-
tablished in 1872.
The Workingmen^ s Library was established at
Lancaster in 1890, by Hamilton Assembly, Knights
PUBLIC SCHOOL LIBRARIES.
In 1873 a Public School Library was established
at Strasburg, through the exertions of the school
board of that borough, in accordance with the pro-
visions of the school law. A Public School Li-
brary had existed for some years in the borough of
Columbia. Within the last few years public school
libraries have sprung up in all parts of the county.
CHAPTER XII I.
^T^HE Solitary Brethren of the community at
^ Ephrata possessed as early as 1743 or 1744 such
facilities for printing as existed nowhere else in the
county. They owned a rude printing-press, and
operated a paper-mill and book-bindery. In 1745
a book, entitled Apples 0/ Gold in Vessels of Silver^
Beautiful Words and Truths Necessary to Salva-
tioji^ was issued from their press. It was followed
by many books and pamphlets, in number about
100, one of the most noted of which was the
Chronicoii Ephratcnse^ published in 1786.
The rarest of their publications at the present
time are some of t^xe pamphlets. One of these was
on a Cornet^ and was designed to show that the
comet was sent as a warning.
This community took the initiative in issuing
school-books. As early as 1786 they had pub-
lished a Kiirz Gefasztes^ 2nd edition, which was
used in their own schools. The book corresponds
to a speller and reader combined, grading from
a primary to about a secondary schooh reader.
In 1747 the Brethren entered into a contract to
translate from the Dutch language into German,
and to print the Mennonites' Great Book of Mar-
tyrs. The first volume appeared in 1748, and the
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 231
second in 1749. The next copy in the German
languag^e in America was published in Lancaster
in 1814. Subsequently it was translated by Rupp,
and issued with imprint near Lampeter Square, in
1837, but actually printed in Lancaster. This work
did not appear in America again until 1889.
No Bible was ever issued from the Ephrata
press, but in 1787 they printed a New Testament
in the German language.
Most of the publications of the Ephrata Brethren
were on theological subjects and music. They
wrote all of their own hymns and set them to a
peculiar music. Some of these were published,
while others remained in manuscript, embellished
with ornamental figures and letters.
In Lancaster printing was begun about 1747 by
James Coulter, who issued first a pamphlet. An
almanac was printed in 1751 by James Chattin.
It is generally understood that there existed in
Octoraro a press contemporary with the one at
Ephrata. Nothing definite, however, is known
except that from it there probably was issued a
small local paper.
Before and during the Revolution there were sev-
eral newspapers published in Lancaster county in
both the English and German languages. The
first one ever printed in Lancaster city was the
Lancaster Gazette. This was issued in 1752 by
S. Miller and S. Holland, and was a bi-weekly
newspaper. It had but a transient existence, the
232 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
last issue being that of June, 1753. After that,
until 1778, there was no newspaper published. In
that year Die Pennsylvanische Zietiuig was issued.
The Supreme Executive Council being then in
session in Lancaster, five hundred copies were sub-
scribed for by them and circulated gratuitously.
This was at the time the British were in possession
of Philadelphia. On their withdrawal in the sum-
mer of that year to New York, the Council returned
to Philadelphia ; and with that event the publica-
tion of the paper ceased. Numerous other news-
papers were started, seemed to flourish for a short
season, then collapsed. In 1808 a German paper
was issued in this city under the name of Der
Volksfrund iind Beobachter. The first editor was
William Hamilton. It in now published by John
On the 8th day of August, 1787, appeared the
first number of the Neu Unparthejiische Lancaster
Zeititng mid Ai^ozeige Nochriechter. This paper,
under different names, was issued for a number of
years. The present Laiicaster Intelligencer may
be said to have been begun in 1794, under the
name of the Lancaster Journal. This was after-
ward united with the Daily Advertiser^ and after
several changes of editorship, took the name of the
Lancaster Intellige^icer^ imder which name it is
The first daily newspaper in Lancaster was the
Express^ founded in 1856. This continued to
exist for twenty years. The other daily and
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 233
weekly journals of Lancaster city and of the other
towns of the county have mostly been founded
within the last fifty years.
It is not necessary to name all the numerous
papers which have at different times risen and
fallen in Lancaster city, nor would it be interesting.
Besides the Lancaster papers, there are weekly
papers published in the principal towns of the
county. There are three at Columbia. Marietta,
Mount Joy, Manheim, Lititz and Christiana each
have two. Elizabethtown, Ephrata, New Holland
and Denver have one each.
The four dailies of Lancaster supply their readers
with all the latest local and general news. The six
weeklies, two in German, have a large circulation
throughout the county.
Steam and electric presses have taken the place
of the old hand presses.
RELIGION IN THE COUNTY.
AMONG the early emigrants to Pennsylvania
-^^ almost every Protestant sect was represented.
We have learned that many of these people came
here to escape persecntion in Europe. Among
them were numerous representatives of non-resist-
ant sects, such as the German and Swiss Mennonites.
These people, of plain and simple tastes and habits,
found here that freedom of conscience which was
denied them in their own country. In Pennsyl-
vania there never existed a union of church and
state. Thus their religious faith and practice was
never interfered with by colonial or State authority,
and the adherents of other churches exercised only
toleration toward them. The Golden Rule as
practiced in letter and spirit among all religious
denominations in this State greatly augmented
the influence of the generous, wise and friendly
policy of its founder.
VARIOUS RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS.
In Lancaster city and county we fiad well estab-
lished churches with large congregations, of Roman
Catholics, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Lutherans,
Methodists, Baptists and Reformed. The Evan-
gelical Association, Church of God, the Moravians,
BRIKF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 235
the Winebrennarians, the Swedenborgians, are
also represented here.
The Quakers have meeting-houses in the southern
and south-eastern parts of the county. The Men-
nonites, the Reformed Mennonites, the Amish
and the Dunkers have numerous places of wor-
ship in the rural parts of the county. In the
north-western part are found the River Brethren,
who hold their religious services largely in the
houses of the members. Few places of public
worship exist among them. In Lancaster city the
Hebrews have a synagogue.
Among the early German settlers of Jhe county
were a great many Lutherans, and the Trinity
Lutheran church was organized as early as 1733.
Here the Rev. Dr. Henr>' Melchoir Muhlenberg
occasionally officiated. His son, the renowned Dr.
Henry Ernest Muhlenberg, was pastor of the con-
gregation from 1780 until his death in 1815, a
period of thirty-five years. A German Reformed,
now Reformed, church was established here by
the Rev. Michael Schlatter, of St. Gall, Switzer-
land. This sect increased in numbers very rapidly,
many of the early German settlers of the county
holding to that faith when they came to i\m erica.
The Moravians built a church and school-house
on Orange and Market Streets, in Lancaster, very
early in the history of the city.
The school-house, which was once used as a par-
sonage, still stands.
The oldest Methodist church in the county is
236 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
known as Boehm's Chapel. It is situated one mile
south of Willow Street. This was built in 1780,
and named after the Rev. Henry Boehm, who died
as late as 1875 at the advanced age of one hundred
years and a few months. He was born in 1775.
One of the churches that has interesting histori-
cal associations is the St. James' Episcopal in Lan-
caster city. The first congregation here was or-
ganized in 1717 by the Society for the Propagation
of the Gospel in Foreign Parts.
In 1744 the parish was organized and a church
soon built. Thomas Cookson and James Postle-
thwaite were wardens at that time. In 1745 they
received a special license from the provincial gov-
ernment to carry on a lottery to provide funds for
the erection of the church. The first rector of im-
portance was Thomas Barton, who had charge of
the church from 1759 until after the Revolutionary
War. During the w^ar service here was suspended
for the reason that the rector and many members
of the congregation were Tories. The present
church was built in 1820. The style is unique,
being in character Lombardic. The edifice is
noted for beautiful and costly memorial windows,
and in the church yard are buried many persons of
distinction, among others the noted Jasper Yeates.
We have already called attention to the plain
sects of religious people who early came to the
county. It might not be amiss to particularize
these as their influence has extended far and wide
through the county and the State.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 237
The Mennonites throughout the county are the
descendents of the Swiss Palatines who settled here
early and effected the first organization of a relig-
ious body in the county.
In 1 791 and 1792 there was a secession from this
organization. Many joined at that time a new sect
known as the United Brethren.
THE REFORMED MENNONITES.
In 181 1 a large number of Mennonites under the
leadership of John Herr, of Strasburg, left the
established Mennonite organizations and formed
congregations. They gave as their reason for the
step they took, that the existing organizations had
departed from the faith and practices of their
Their doctrine and discipline are very strict.
Members of the church are not permitted to vote
or hold office or to serve as jurors. They refuse to
bear arms, and will never use law to settle disputes.
They have great reverence for the Scriptures,
and bind themselves by the rigid literal interpre-
tations of them.
The Amish, or Omish, another branch of the
Mennonites, resemble the latter very closely, dif-
fering slightly in the character of the dress they
wear, this being even plainer than that presented
by the Mennonites. They accept the tenets of the
Mennonite church, and their forms of worship
closely resembles those of the present organization.
They, however, have few meeting-houses ; their
238 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY.
services being generally conducted in the houses of
members. The name is derived from Jacob Amen,
of Amenthal, Switzerland, a rigid Mennonite
preacher of two centuries ago.
The Dunkers, or Tunkers, also known as German
Baptists, call themselves Brethren. They settled
in this county before 1721, and formed a congrega-
tion, with Peter Becker as preacher. They may be
found to-day in almost all the German sections of
The church prescribes a very rigid discipline,
and requires baptism by immersion, declaring it
the only true method of administering that ordi-
nance. In many points they resemble the Men-
nonites. As for example, simplicity of dress and
manners, opposition to war, refusal to appeal to
law, and refusal to vote or to hold office.
THE SEVENTH DAY BAPTISTS.
This sect was founded by Conrad Beissell at Eph-
rata in very early times. The name arose from the
fact that they observe Saturday, the seventh day
of the week, as the Sabbath, thus differing from
most Christian sects, who keep the first day, Sun-
day, as the Sabbath. These people seceded from
the Dunkers, or German Baptists. They are to-day
few in number, and these are found in or near the
orginal place of settlement.
THE RIVER BRETHREN.
These people are so called, it is said, because the
sect originated near the Susquehanna River. Their
BRIEI^ HISTORY OF LANCASTE^R COUNTY. 239
founder was Jacob Engle, a Mennonite, who organ-
ized a congregation in 1776. They are mainly found
to-day in Conoy and the Donegal townships. Their
creed prohibits them from wearing the dress of the
fashionable world. It imposes non-resistance, and
prescribes that all disputes shall be settled among
them by chosen arbitrators. Like the Quakers
and Mennonites, they have no paid ministry.
A MONG the prominent men in the early history
-^-^ of Lancaster county was Conrad Weiser, the
famous interpreter. He was born in Germany in
1696. In 1709, when he was thirteen years old, he
went with his father and seven brothers and
sisters and several thousand other Germans to Eng-
land, whence they sailed to New York, where they
arrived June 13, 1710. In the fall of the same
year Conrad's father and hundreds of these German
families were removed, at Queen Ann's expense,
to Livingston's Manor, in Columbia county. New
York, where many of them remained until 1713.
In that year about 150 of these families moved to
Schoharie, to occupy lands which a Mohawk chief
presented to Queen Anne for the benefit of these
Germans. While there Conrad Weiser's father
became acquainted with Quagnant, a Mohawk
chief. This chief proposed to the father to take
Conrad with him into his country and teach him
the Mohawk language. The father consented, and
Conrad went with the chief to his home in the fall
of 1 714. There he suffered dreadfully from hunger
and cold, and his life was often threatened by
drunken Indians. Many times he saved himself
by hiding until the Indians became sober. After
SRIEI^ mSl^ORY OI^ LANCASTER COUNTY. 24 1
Spending eight months with the Mohawks and
learning their language, he returned to the German
colony and became an interpreter. On account of
a defect in their land titles, many of these German
settlers moved from Schoharie, New York, to the
Swatara and the Tulpehocken, in Pennsylvania.
TheWeisers settled on Tulpehocken in 1723, though
Conrad did not go there until 1729, when, with his
wife and four children, he took up a tract of land
near the site of Womelsdorf, in the present Berks
county. He was a man of wonderful activity and
energy, and was repeatedly called upon by the
Governor and provincial authorities of Pennsyl-
vania to act as interpreter between the whites and
the Indians. Governor Patrick Gordon called
upon him to perform that duty as early as 1731.
He was appointed Justice of the Peace, and inter-
preter to the provincial government of Pennsyl-
vania. He suffered great hardships on a mission
from the Governor and proprietor of Pennsyl-
vania to the Six Nations, in 1736. He acted
as interpreter when Count Zinzendorf preached
to the sachems of the Six Nations at Tulpe-
hocken, August 14, 1752. In September of
that year he acted as interpreter between Count
Zinzendorf and the Indians at Shamokin, a popu-
lous Indian town on the site of the present town or
Sunbury. He acted as interpreter at all the princi-
pal Indian treaties for more than twenty-five years.
In 1752 he was appointed a trustee of the public
schools at Lancaster, York, Reading, New Han-
242 BRI^F HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY.
over, Skippack and Goshenhopen. During the
French and Indian War he was lieutenant-colonel,
commanding the Second Battalion of the Pennsyl-
vania regiment, consisting of nine companies. He
died July 13, 1760, and his remains were interred
two days later near Womelsdorf.
Lancaster' s signer of the Declaration of Indepen-
dence was George Ross. He was born at New Cas-
tle, Deleware, in 1730,
and was admitted as an
attorney -at -law in the
courts of Lancaster coun-
ty in 1750. He was a
member of the Colonial
Assembly of Pennsylva-
nia from 1768 to 1776.
In 1774 he was chosen
one of the seven dele-
gates to represent Penn-
sylvania in the Conti-
nental Congress at Philadelphia. He remained
a member of the Continental Congress until Jan-
uary, 1777, when he retired on account of ill
health. Lancaster county offered him the sum
of 150 pounds for his services in the Continen-
tal Congress, but he refused to accept it. He
was a member of the Pennsylvania convention in
1776, which adopted the first State Constitution.
On April 14, 1779, he was appointed Judge of the
Court of Admiralty. He died at Lancaster from
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 248
a sudden attack of the gout, in July, 1779, and was
buried in the graveyard of St. James' Episcopal
The most prominent military man of Lancaster
county during the Revolution was General Edward
Hand. He was born in King's county, Ireland,
December 31, 1744. He came to America in 1767,
and settled at Lancaster in 1774. x\t the begin-
ning of the Revolution he was made lieutenant-
colonel of the First Battalion of Pennsylvania
Riflemen. He afterwards became brigadier-gen-
eral, and later he was made adjutant-general on
Washington's staff. He practiced medicine before
and after the war. He died at his farm, Rockford^
near Lancaster, September 3, 1802.
Among the prominent men of Lancaster during
the period of the Revolution was Jasper Yeates.
He was born in Philadelphia in 1745, and settled at
Lancaster in 1764. He was a great lawyer and
judge, and took a prominent part in public affairs
at Lancaster during the Revolution. He was ap-
pointed Judge of the Supreme Court of Pennsylva-
nia in 1 791, and passed twenty-five years of his life
upon the bench. He died at Lancaster in 181 7, and
his remains were interred in St. James' Episcopal
Among the leading men of Lancaster of the Rev-
olutionary period was Edward Shippen, a grandson
244 BRIEF HISTORY OP LANCASTER COUNTY.
of the Edward Shippen who emigrated from York-
shire, England, to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1668,
and moved to Philadelphia in 1693. He was born
at Boston, July 9, 1703. He became a merchant
in Philadelphia, was a Councilman of that city
for many years, and was finally elected Mayor
in 1744. In 1752 he removed to Lancaster, and
was appointed Prothonotary of Lancaster county,
and continued in that office until 1778. He was
paymaster for supplies for the British and provin-
cial troops during the French and Indian War.
He was also a county Judge for Lancaster county,
under the provincial and State governments of
Pennsylvania. He was also one of the founders of
the New Jersey College at Princeton, and was one
of its trustees for twenty years, until 1767. He died
at a great age at Lancaster, and his remains lie in
the churchyard of St. James' Episcopal church.
His son, Edward Shippen, became Chief Justice of
the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania in 1799. One
of his daughters married Benedict Arnold in 1778.
One of the most active Pennsylvanians during
the Revolution was General Thomas Mifflin. He
was born at Philadelphia in 1744. He was a mem-
ber of the Continental Congress in 1774. Although
he was a Quaker, he. joined the patriot army in
1775, and soon rose to the rank of major-general.
After the war he again became a member of the
Continental Congress, and was president of that
body at Annapolis, Maryland, when Washington
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 245
resigned his commission of commander-in-chief, in
1783. In 1787 he was a member of the national
convention which formed the Constitution of the
United States. In 1788 he was elected President
of the Supreme Execative Council of Pennsylvania,
and was the first Governor of Pennsylvania under
the State Constitution of 1790. He was Governor
of the State for about nine years. He died at
Lancaster in 1800, and his remains lie at the
Trinity Lutheran church on South Duke street,
close by the remains of Governor Thomas Wharton,
who died in Lancaster in 1778.
Simon Snyder was born at Lancaster, in No-
vember, 1759. He was a member of the State con-
vention which framed the State Constition of 1790.
In 1797 he was elected to the Legislature of Penn-
sylvania, and was reelected so often that he served
for eleven years. In 1802 he was chosen Speaker
of the House of Representatives. Most of the time
that he was in the Legislature, Lancaster was the
capital of Pennsylvania. In 1808 he was elected
Governor of the State, and w^as reelected in 181 1,
and again in 1814, so that he was Governor nine
years. During his administration the State capital
was removed from Lancaster to Harrisburg. He
died in 1820.
GOTTHILF HENRY ERNST MUHLENBERG.
Among the families that ranked high for patriotic
services to the colonists during the Revolution
none stood higher than that of Muhlenberg. Emi-
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
REV. G. H. E. MUHLENBERG.
grating from Germany, the family was founded in
this country by Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, the
great teacher, divine, and patriarch of the German
IvUtheran Church in America. The unassuming
and distinguished services
of his sons, John Peter Ga-
briel, the patriot-preach-
er, and Frederick Augus-
tus Conrad, the minister-
statesman, won fbr them
no mean place in Amer-
ican History. Not less
eminent for his services to
science was their brother,
Gotthilf Henry Ernst, who
was born at New Providence, Montgomery county,
in 1753. He, with other brothers, was sent at
a proper age to Halle, in Germany, to be educated ;
and there he graduated in 1770. Returning to
America, he was at once ordained a minister.
For the next nine years he was engaged in min-
isterial work in Philadelphia and New Jersey, part
of the time acting as his father's assistant.
In 1780 he received a call from a church in Lan-
caster. This he accepted, and filled its pulpit until
his death in 1815. Though faithful and distin-
guished as a minister, yet it was chiefly because of
his scientific attainments that he became noted.
His contributions to botany, while in Lancaster,
placed him in the front rank of men eminent for
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 247
He corresponded with all the o-reat scientific
writers of that day, among them Humboldt and
Bonpland, both of whom visited him. A man of
varied attainments and profound scientific judg-
ment, he was a prominent member and corres-
pondent of all the important philosophical and sci-
entific societies of that time, in both Europe and
His works, characterized by clearness, precision
and faithful description, are standards among
writers of science. Written in Latin, they are not
so w^ell known as later English works.
Though he wrote on many scientific subjects, yet
his service to the science of botany was the most
important. He left in manuscript a work entitled
Flora Lancastriensis^ from which most of our
knowledge of the rich and varied indigenous flora
of Lancaster county has been obtained.
His brother, Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg,
was Speaker of the House of Representatives of the
First and Third Congresses, but did not represent
this Congressional District, though he was after-
ward a resident of Lancaster.
The first great iVmerican historian was Dr.
David Ramsay, who was born in Drumore town-
ship, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, April 2,
1749. The house in which he was born is still
standing. He graduated at Princeton College, New
Jersey, in 1765, and at the Medical College of Phila-
delphia in 1772. He removed to CharlCvSton, South
248 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
Carolina, in 1773. He was a member of the South
Carolina Legislature during the Revolution, and
took an active part in the patriot cause. He was
also a member of the Privy Council, and was
banished to St. Augustine, Florida, by I^ord Corn-
wallis. In 1782 he was elected to the Continental
Congress, and was reelected to that body, and was
chosen president pro tempore during the illness of
John Hancock. He resumed the practice of medi-
cine, and was quite a distinguished physician. He
became a great historian, and was the first person
who took out a copyright under the laws of the
United States. His historical works were : a
History of the Revolution in South Carolina^ pub-
lished in 1785 ; a History oj the American Revolu-
tion^ published in 1790 ; a Life of Washington^
published in 1801 ; a History of South Carolina^
published in 1808 ; a Universal History ; and a His-
tory of the United States. He was mortally wounded
by a maniac, and died May 7, 1815.
The man who first successfully applied steam to
navigation — Robert Fulton — was also a native of
Lancaster county. He was born in 1765, in that
part of the township now named after him, but
which was then a part of Little Britain township.
At a suitable age he was apprenticed to a jeweler
at Lancaster, where he accidentally caught a taste
for painting. At the age of seventeen he went to
Philadelphia, where he practiced drawing and por-
trait-painting with skill and profit for several years.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
In 1786 he went to London, where he devoted him-
self to painting under the tuition of the great Ben-
jamin West, who was a native of Chester county,
Pennsylvania, and who was then President of the
Royal Academy. Sev-
eral years afterward Ful-
ton turned his attention
to the mechanic arts and
civil engineering. He
conceived the idea of us-
ing steam as a motive-
power, and in 1793 he
engaged in a project of
steam navigation. He
invented a machine for
spinning flax and anoth-
er for making ropes, and
obtained patents for them in England. In 1796 he
published in London a Treatise 011 Canal Naviga-
tion. At Paris he resided with the American poet,
Joel Barlow, from 1797 to 1804, where he displayed
his ingenuity in various projects and inventions,
and in the study of the sciences and modern lan-
guages. He was the proprietor of the first pano-
rama exhibited in Paris. He invented a torpedo
or submarine boat for naval warfare, and induced
Napoleon Bonaparte, as First Consul of France, to
appoint Volney, Laplace and Monge as a commis-
sion to examine it. In 1801 he made an experi-
ment in the harbor of Brest, when he remained
oae hour under water and guided the boat with
250 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
ease. Other experiments at the expense of the
French government were partly successful, but
that government at last refused to patronize the
scheme. In 1804 Fulton accepted an invitation
from the British government, which appointed a
commission and made trials with his torpedo. In
1806 Fulton returned to New York, where, with
Robert R. Livingston's help, he perfected his great
project of steam navigation. In 1807, his boat,
the Clermojit^ was launched at New York, and
made the trip to Albany in thirty-two hours. This
vessel made regular voyages from New York to
Albany in fifteen hours, but this rate was soon
increased by improved machinery. The number
of steamboats rapidly multiplied on American
rivers. Several other larger vessels were built
under Fulton's direction. In 1806 he married
Harriet, daughter of Walter Livingston. He died
in New York City, in February, 181 5.
Lindley Murray, the English grammarian, was
born in 1745, near the Swatara, in what was then
a part of Lancaster county, but is now in Dauphin
county. His Grammar of the English Language^
issued in 1795, was for many years the best author-
ity on that subject. After making considerable
money in mercantile pursuit, he went to England
on account of impaired health, where he died on
his estate at Holdgate, near York, in 1826.
James Buchanan, the fifteenth President of the
United States, was a citizen of Lancaster county.
BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANC ASTER COUNTY.
He was born near Mercersburg, Franklin county,
Pennsylvania, April 23, 1791, of Scotch-Irish
parentage. His father,
James Buchanan, had em-
igrated to Franklin coun-
ty, Pennsylvania, from
Donegal county, Ireland,
in 1783. Young James en-
tered Dickinson College,
at Carlisle, in 1805, ^"^
graduated there with high
honors in 1809. He stud-
ied law with James Hop-
kins at Lancaster, and was admitted to the bar
there in 1812. In the War of 1812 he enlisted
in Captain Henry Shippen's company. He was
elected to the Lower House of the Pennsylvania
Legislature in 1814, and again in 1815. In 1820
he was elected to the Lower House of Congress
from the Lancaster district, and was reelected
every two years until 1830. At first he was a
Federalist, but in 1828 he became a Democrat.
In 1831 President Jackson appointed him LTnited
States Minister to Russia. In 1834 he was elected
United States Senator from Pennsylvania to fill
a vacancy, and was reelected in 1837, and again
in 1843 '•> b^t h^ resigned in 1845, when President
Polk appointed him Secretary of State. In 1849
he retired to private life, and in 1853 President
Pierce appointed him United States Minister to
England. In 1856 he was elected President of
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
the United States as the Democratic candidate,
over Colonel John Charles Fremont, the first Re-
publican candidate, and over ex-President Mil-
lard Fillmore, the candidate of the "American"
or "Know Nothing" party. In 1861 Mr. Bu-
chanan retired to his farm at Wheatland, half a
mile west of Lancaster. He died there June i,
1868, and his remains lie buried in Woodward
Hill Cemetery, Lancaster.
The great leader in the House of Representa-
tives, or Lower House of Congress, during the Civil
War, and for several years
thereafter, was the Repre-
sentative from Lancaster
county — Th.addeus Ste-
vens, the "Great Com-
moner. ' ' He was born at
Danville, Caledonia coun-
ty, Vermont, April 4, 1792.
His early education was
obtained in the common
schools and at Peacham
Academy. His parents
were poor, and he taught school during vacation
in order to get money to finish his education. In
1810 he entered the Vermont University at Burling-
ton, but when that institution closed on account
of the War of 1812, he went to Dartmouth College,
where he graduated in i8i4with high honors. He
then studied law with Judge Mattocks. In 1851
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 253
he moved to York, Pennsylvania, where he con-
tinued the study of law and taught in Dr. Perkins's
academy. In 1816 he was admitted to the bar as a
lawyer at Bel i\ir, Harford county, Maryland.
Subsequently he opened a law office at Gettysburg,
Pennsylvania. In 1833 he was elected to the Penn-
sylvania Legislature as an Anti-AIason from Adams
county, and was reelected every year until 1840.
He was a great friend of the common school system,
which was adopted in 1834. The school law was
so unpopular that the Legislature of 1835 was about
to repeal it ; but that action was prevented by
Mr . Stevens, who made a great speech in favor of
the law, thus defeating the motion to repeal it.
This speech Mr. Stevens himself ever afterward
considered the most effective of his life. In that
speech he pleaded the cause of the poor, and highly
praised his political opponent. Governor George
Wolf, for his efforts in behalf of popular education.
Mr. Stevens was a member of the State conven-
tion of 1838 which framed a new State Constitu-
tion. As that Constitution denied colored men the
right to vote, he refused to sign it, and opposed its
ratification by the people of the State. Mr. Ste-
vens suffered great losses in the iron business, and
in 1842 he moved to Lancaster, and there practiced
law. In 1848 and 1850 he was elected to Congress
from Lancaster county. He then declined reelec-
tion until 1858, when he was again elected, and
was reelected thereafter every two years until his
death ten vears later. He was the leader of the
254 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTKR COUNTY.
Republican majority in the House of Representa-
tives during the Civil War and thereafter until his
death. He died at Washington, D. C. , August ii,
1868. As the other cemeteries excluded colored
persons from burial within their limits, he was, at
his request, buried in the small cemetery on West
Chestnut street, Lancaster.
GENERAL JOHN F. REYNOLDS.
Lancaster's great hero in the Civil War was
Major-General John Fulton Reynolds, who was
killed at Gettysburg,
July I, 1863. He was
born at Lancaster, Sep-
tember 21, 1820. He
was taught in the schools
of his native city, and
in 1837 became a cadet
at the West Point Mil-
itary Academy, where
^„^. he o:raduated with hon-
GKN. J. F. REYNOLDS. Or lU I84I. HC WaS
then appointed a lieutenant in the Third United
States Artillery, which was stationed at Balti-
more, St. Augustine and Charleston until the
war with Mexico broke out. In 1846 he was bre-
veted captain for bravery at Monterey, and in 1847
he was breveted major for gallantry at Buena Vista.
After the war with Mexico he was stationed in com-
mand of various posts throughout the United States
until the breaking out of the Civil War in 1861.
In August of that year he was appointed briga-
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 255
dier-general of volunteers, and was given the com-
mand of the First Brigade of the Pennsylvania Re-
serves. He took part in the campaign of the iVrmy
of the Potomac on the Virginia peninsula and in
the Seven Da3's' Battles near Richmond, in 1862.
He also fought in General Pope's army during that
general's disastrous campaign, in August, 1862.
On September 12, 1862, he was appointed to
command the 75,000 militia called out by Governor
Curtin of Pennsylvania to defend the State against
Lee's invasion ; but after Lee's defeat at Antietam,
Reynolds rejoined the Army of the Potomac. He
captured the Confederate works on the left at
the battle of Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862.
After the battle he was appointed military governor
He led the advance of the Union army and
opened the fight at Gettysburg, where he lost his
life in defense of the Union and of his native State
against invasion, July i, 1863. His remains were
brought to Lancaster, July 4, 1863, and were in-
terred in Lancaster Cemetery, where they rest be-
neath a neat monument. He is also honored with
a fine monument at Gettysburg, and with an eques-
trian statue in Philadelphia.
General Reynolds was one of our country's
greatest soldiers. His troops had the warmest
affection for him. He shared their hardships, their
toils and the dangers of the camp, the march and
the field. He was devoted to his profession, and
was ever actuated by those noble and lofty prin-
256 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
ciples which make an American soldier worthy to
become the defender of his country. He fell at the
beginning of the great and bloody conflict, leading
a corps of brave and determined patriots, who fol-
lowed him in fighting the great decisive battle of
the Civil War. He died fighting gallantly for the
Union, and in defense of the homes of his neigh-
bors and kinsmen.
GENERAL SAMUEL PETER HEINTZELMAN.
Samuel Peter Heintzelman, a major-general in
the Union army during the Civil War, was born at
Manheim, this county, about 1807. He graduated
at West Point in 1826. He served as colonel in the
first battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, and soon
afterward became brigadier-general. He com-
manded a corps in the Seven Days' Battles before
Richmond, June 25 — July i, 1862, and took part in
the second battle of Bull Run, August 30, 1862.
He died at Washington, D. C, in 1880.
JOHN W. FORNEY.
John W. Forney, a celebrated journalist and
politician, was born at Lancaster, in 1S.17. He
began to edit the Lancaster Intelligencer about
1838. In 1845 ^^^ removed to Philadelphia, where
he edited the Pennsylvaniait^ a daily journal,
for many years chief organ of the Democratic
party in Pennsylvania. He was Clerk of the United
States House of Representatives from 1852 to 1855.
Through his eflforts James Buchanan carried Penn-
sylvania and was thus elected President in 1856.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 257
In Atig^ust, 1857, he established the Philadelphia
Press^ which became the organ of the Douglas
Democrats, as opposed to the Buchanan Democracy.
He was again chosen Clerk of the United States
House of Representatives in December, 1859. He
supported Stephen A. Douglas for the Presidency
in i860. About the end of that year he left the
Democratic party and joined the Republican party.
He became Secretary of the United States Senate
in 1861, and held that position until 1868. In the
meantime he established the Washington Chronicle.
In 1874 he was appointed United States Centennial
Commissioner to Europe, and remained abroad for
several years. In 1880 he returned to the Demo-
cratic party and supported General Hancock for
President. He died in December, 188 1.
Simon Cameron, one of Pennsylvania's noted
politicians, was born at Maytown, this county, in
1799. He learned the printer's trade, and edited
a Democratic newspaper at Harrisburg about 1822,
after which he acquired a fortune by operations in
banking, railroads, etc. In 1845 ^^ was elected
United States Senator as a Democrat by the Penn-
sylvania Legislature, and served until March 5,
1849. He left the Democratic party in 1855, and
joined the newly formed Republican party in 1856,
when he supported John C. Fremont for President.
At the end of 1856 he was again elected United
States Senator by the Pennsylvania Legislature.
On March 4, 1861, President Lincoln appointed
258 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
him Secretary of War ; but he resigned in January,
1862, when the President appointed him Minister
Plenipotentiary to Russia. He returned home in
1863, and was a third time elected United States
Senator by the Pennsylvania Legislature in 1866.
He was reelected in 1872. He resigned in 1877,
and retired to private life. He died in 1889, at the
age of ninety.
The Right Rev. Samuel Bowman, D. D. , Bishop
in the Protestant Episcopal church, was the fourth
child of Captain Samuel Bowman, an officer of
the American army during the Revolution, who
settled at Wilkesbarre, this State, at the close of
that war. Bishop Bowman was born at Wilkes-
barre, May 21, 1800. He was educated at the
academy there, after which he studied law in
Philadelphia. He soon abandoned the practice of
law, and took holy orders in the Protestant Epis-
copal church. Bishop White admitted him to the
diaconate in 1823, ^^^ ^^ ^^e priesthood in
1824. I^^ 1823 ^^^ began his ministry at St.
John's church at Pequea, in Salisbury township,
this county, where he remained two years. He
next had charge of Trinity church at Easton, this
State, for a short time. He then returned to his
first charge at Pequea, and remained there until
1827, when he took charge of St. James' church at
Lancaster, which post he retained until his death.
In 1845 the clergy elected him Bishop of the Diocese
of Pennsylvania, but the laity refused to concur,
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 259
and he then declined the honor. In 1848 he was
elected Bishop of the Diocese of Indiana, but he
refused the position. In 1858 he was chosen and
consecrated Asssitant Bishop of the Diocese of
Pennsylvania. He died suddenly August 3, 1861,
in Allegheny county, while on his way to the Oil
Region. His remains were brought to Lancaster
and inferred in St. James' Episcopal churchyard.
JOHN WILLIAMSON NEVIN.
John Williamson Nevin, D. D. , LL. D., president
of Franklin and Marshall College, and the leading
divine and theologian of the German Reformed
Church in the United States, was born in Franklin
county, Pennsylvania, February 20, 1803. His
ancestry was Scotch- Irish, and was conspicuous
in statesmanship and literature. His maternal
grandmother was a sister of Hugh Williamson,
one of the framers of the United States Constitu-
tion, and a noted literary man. He was born and
reared a Presbyterian. His father, a farmer, was
a graduate of Dickinson College, at Carlisle, in
this State. In 1827 ^^^ subject of this sketch en-
tered Union College, New York, where he gradu-
ated with honor in 1821. In 1823 he entered the
Theological Seminary at Princeton, New Jersey.
In 1826 he temporarily filled the chair of Oriental
and Biblical Literature in that institution, during
which he wrote his Biblical Anliqitities^ which had
a large circulation in America and Europe. In
1828 he was licensed to preach by the Presbytery
of Carlisle, held at Philadelphia. In 1829 ^^^ ^^'
260 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
came professor of Biblical Literature in the new
theological seminary at Alleghany, this State.
He held that position ten years, during which he
preached regularly at Braddock's Field and occa-
sionally at other places, contributed articles to the
Presbyterian Christian Herald^ and edited The
Friend^ in the interest of the Young Men's Society
of Pittsburg and vicinity. He did much for the
Western Theological Seminary, now such a power
in the Presbyterian Church. In his sermons and
lectures, and with his pen, he was an uncom-
promising opponent of slavery, infidelity, fashion-
able amusements, ladies' fairs and theatrical enter-
tainments. In 1840 he entered the Reformed
Church by accepting the professorship of theology
in the Reformed Theological Seminary at Mercers-
burg, Franklin county, Pennsylvania ; and in 1841
he became president of Marshall College at the
same place. He was editor of the Mercersburg
Review from 1849 ^*^ ^^SS- During this period he
wrote many theological works, and contributed
articles to the Reformed CJmrch Messenger. He
resigned his professorship in the Reformed Theo-
logical Seminary in 1851, and the presidency of
Marshall College in 1853, when the latter institu-
tion was removed to Lancaster. He still preached
and wrote. In 1861 he became professor of his-
tory and aesthetics in Franklin and Marshall Col-
lege at Lancaster, and in 1866 he became presi-
dent of that institution, which position he held ten
years, resigning in 1876. His numerous theo-
BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
logical and ecclesiastical works gave him his great
reputation as a divine and theologian. He died
June 6, 1886, in the eighty-fourth year of his age.
JOHN LIGHT ATLEE.
One of the most noted physicians and surgeons
of Lancaster county was John Ivight Atlee.
was born in Lancaster
November 2, 1799. He
was graduated at the Uni-
versity of Pennsylvania
in 1820. After gradu-
ation he opened an office
in his native city, and be-
fore long his skill as a
physician became known.
He was a very success-
ful practitioner, especial-
ly in surgery. While at-
tending to his profession- dr. j. l. atlee
al duties, he took an active part in advancing the
interests of his city and county. He was one of
the founders of the Lancaster City and County
Medical Society in 1843, ^^^ ^^ the Pennsylvania
Medical Society in 1848. He was twice president
of the former, and became president of the latter in
1857. He was also one of the organizers of the
American Medical Association in Philadelphia, and
became its president in 1882. In 1853, when
Franklin and Marshall Colleges were united, he
became professor of anatomy and physiology, which
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
position he held until 1869. He was an enthu-
siastic supporter of the public schools, and served
his city in the capacity of school director for
forty years. He proved himself an efficient mem-
ber of the boards of trustees of many public institu-
tions. He died October i, 1885.
THOMAS H. BURROWES.
The father of the free school system of Pennsyl-
vania was Thomas H. Burrowes, a native and resi-
dent of I^ancaster county.
He was born at Stras-
He was educated at Que-
bec, Canada, and at Trin-
ity College, Dublin, Ire-
land, wdiere his parents
resided for some years.
In 1831 and 1832 he was
elected to the House of
Representatives of the
Pennsylvania Legislature as a Whig. In 1835 Gov-
ernor Joseph Ritner appointed him Secretary of
the Commonwealth, which was the beginning of
his labors in the cause of popular education. When
Governor Ritner' s term ended, in 1839, Mr. Bur-
rowes retired to his farm near Lancaster. He re-
turned to his profession as a lawyer in 1845. He
presided over an educational convention at Harris-
burg in January, 1850. In 185 1 he commenced the
publication of the Pennsylvania School Journal^ to
which he devoted much of his time and attention
THOMAS H. BURROWES.
BRIEI^ HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
until a few years before his death. By act of the
State Legislature, in 1855, the Pen7isylvania School
Journal was made the organ of the school depart-
ment of the State. In 1854 Mr. Burrowes prepared
for the State descriptive matter for Peiutsylvania
School Architecture^ a volume of 276 pages. He
wrote nearly all the important school laws passed
by the Pennsylvania Legislature after 1836, and his
great act in this particular was the drafting of the
Normal School law. In 1858 he was elected Mayor
of Lancaster, and in i860 he was appointed State
Superintendent of Common Schools. In 1864 Gov-
ernor Curtin appointed him Superintendent of
Soldiers' Orphan Schools, and he established these
institutions in different parts of the State. In 1869
he was elected president of the Pennsylvania Agri-
cultural College. He died March 25, 1871.
John Beck, the well-known principal of the
Young Men's Academy at Lititz, was born in Grace-
ham, Maryland, June
16,1791. Soon after his
birth his parents moved
to Mount Joy, this coun-
ty. He received his edu-
cation in the Moravian
school at Nazareth, this
State, and at the age
of fifteen, in obedience
to the wishes of his pa-
rents, learned shoemak-
ing with a worthy man john beck.
264 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTEiR COIJNTY.
in Lititz, to whom he had been apprenticed. His
employer said he was the best and quickest work-
man he ever had, and when his trade was com-
pleted he gave him a fine suit of clothes and
fifty dollars. The people of Ivititz, after some
persuasion, induced him to take charge of their
school. He occupies a prominent place in the his-
tory of popular education in this county. He died
February ii, 1873.
S. S. HALDEMAN.
Samuel Stehman Haldeman, the noted natur-
alist and linguist, was born at Locust Grove, a
family homestead on the Susquehanna, in what is
now Conoy township, Lancaster county, August 12,
He was educated in the public schools, and after-
ward at a classical academy in Harrisburg and
at Dickinson College, Carlisle. He left college
in two years, at the age of eighteen, without
graduating, and afterward educated himself, pass-
ing most of his time in his library. He attended
lectures in the Pennsylvania University, in Phila-
delphia, in 1833 and 1834.
He had already made large collections of speci-
mens in natural history, and had also collected a
scientific and linguistic library.
He next assisted his father in a saw-mill at
Chickies, where he built his residence after marry-
ing. He was also a partner in a blast furnace then
erected at Chickies, and afterward entered into the
iron business as a silent partner with his brothers,
BRIKF HISTORY O^ LANCASTER COUNTY. 265
Dr. Edwin Haldeman and Mr. Paris Haldeman.
He wrote articles on anthracite furnaces for Si'/h'-
man^ s JouruaL
In 1835 he wrote for the Lancaster Journal a
refutation of Locke's Moon Hoax. Thenceforth
his life was devoted to science ; and for forty-five
years he spent most of his time in his library, often
working sixteen hours a day, though he accepted
several professorships and delivered a number of
courses of lectures.
In 1836 he was assistant on the State Geological
Survey of New Jersey, and in 1837 he was assistant
on the Geological Survey of Pennsylvania.
He became professor of zoology in the Franklin
Institute of Philadelphia in 1841 ; chemist and
geologist of the Pennsylvania Agricultural Society
in 1852 ; professor of natural history in the Univer-
sity of Pennsylvania from 1850 to 1853; professor
of natural history in Delaware College at Newark,
Delaware, from 1855 to 1858 ; and professor of com-
parative philology in the University of Pennsyl-
vania from 1876 to the time of his death. This
university conferred upon him the degree of Doctor
He wrote 150 different works, of which 120 were
on natural science, and 30 on language. His
works on natural science were mainly on zoology,
entomology, geology, etc.
He visited Europe at different times in quest of
knowledge. He studied the languages of our
Indian tribes, and of the various nations and tribes
266 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
of Other parts of the world. He often lectured be-
fore Lyceums and Teachers' Institutes. He took
a prominent part in scientific conventions in this
country. He was a member of many scientific so-
cieties in America and Europe, and was president
of the American Philological Association.
He corresponded w^ith Noah Webster, who credi-
ted him with many words and definitions in his
Dictionary. He was also engaged on the National
Dictionary^ on Worcester's Dictionary and on
Johnson's Cyclopaedia. He also helped to organize
the Spelling Reform Association.
In 1844 he wrote a paper on Species and their
Distribution^ which was highly praised by the great
English naturalist, Charles Darwin, in the preface
of his work, the Origin of Species. In 1858 he
issued the Trevelyan Prise Essay ^ which was pub-
lished in i860 as Analytic Orthography^ and which
contains specimens of about seventy languages and
dialects as heard from the lips of the natives them-
selves. For this work Professor Haldeman gained
a prize offered by Sir Walter Trevelyan, of Eng-
land, over sixteen competitors, who were among
the best European philologists. Dr. Haldeman
died September 10, 1880, at the age of sixty-eight.
S. S. RATHVON.
Simon Snyder Rathvon, the noted Lancaster
entomologist, was born at Marietta, April 24, 1812.
He was a resident of Lancaster from 1848 until his
death. He was a scientist whose entomological
researches extended througfhout the world. He
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 267
was a corresponding or honorary member of all
the important associations of entomologists in this
country and in Europe.
From 1827 until within a month of his death
he worked almost continuously at the tailor's
bench. During his sixty-four years as a tailor,
Mr. Rathvon devoted his nights to study and
scientific research. He had enormous capacity
for work, giving from eighteen to twenty hours
each day to his trade and to his researches.
His work attracted the attention of scientists.
He was made professor of entomology in the Penn-
sylvania Horticultural Society, and corresponding
member of the Academy of Natural Sciences in
Philadelphia, and of the American Entomological
Society. Numerous foreign societies honored him
with medals and membership. He was one of the
founders of the Linnsean Society in Lancaster. In
1878 Franklin and Marshall College conferred
upon him the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
He wrote a great deal for the newspapers and for
scientific and agricultural journals. He was editor
of the Lancaster Farmer from 1869 until its sus-
pension in 1884, a period of fifteen years. He had
a large stock of information on almost all subjects
of human interest ; but during all his long life
after the age of fifteen he was obliged to make a
livelihood by working at his trade, attending to its
duties diligently while attaining his great reputa-
tion as a naturalist, especially as an entomologist.
268 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
Dr. Rathvon died in lyancaster, March 19, 1891, in
the 79th year of his age.
JAMES PYLE WICKERSHAM.
Among the great educators of Pennsylvania and
of the United States was James Pyle Wickersham,
who was born of Quaker
parentage on a Chester
county farm, March 5,
1825. His ancestors, who
came from England two
hundred years ago, were
among the early Quaker
settlers of Chester coun-.
ty. He was educated at
Chester county, with the
famous Bayard Taylor
J. p. WICKERSHAM.
He founded the Marietta Academy, in Lancaster
county, in 1845, when he was only twenty years
old. He conducted that institution successfully
until 1854, when he was elected the first County
Superintendent of the schools of Lancaster county.
He resigned the County Superintendency in
1856, to become Principal of the Lancaster County
Normal School at Millersville, which became
the first State Normal School of Pennsylvania,
December 2, 1859. He remained principal of that
school until 1866, and his ten years' principalship
placed that institution upon the firm foundation of
its wonderful prosperity.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 269
In 1866 Governor Cur tin appointed him ^tate
Superintendent of the Common Schools of Penn-
sylvania, to which office he was successively reap-
pointed until 1881, so that he held the position
For many years Professor Wickersham had borne
the degree of A. M. ; and in 1871 Lafayette College,
at Easton, Pennsylvania, conferred upon him the
title of LL. D.
In 1882 President Arthur appointed him to the
post of United States Minister to Denmark ; but
he remained in Copenhagen only a few months,
and then returned to Ivancaster.
He thereafter lived at his home in Lancaster, to
which he had moved his family in 1867 ; and his
last years were spent in literary and business pur-
suits. He was president of the Inquire Printing
and Publishing Company for some years.
Dr. Wickersham was editor of the Pennsylvania
School Journal for some years. He was also
author of School Economy and Methods of Ins true-
tio7i^ standard educational works, which have been
translated into various European and Asiatic lan-
guages. After his return from Denmark he wrote
and published a large History of Education in
He was a member of the Boards of Trustees of
Franklin and Marshall College and other edu-
cational institutions, and of the Lancaster School
Board. He was also at different times President
of the State Teachers' Association of Pennsylva-
270 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
nia,"''and was twice President of the National Teach-
ers' Association. He was an active Grand Army
man, and was prominent in Grand Army circles.
Dr. Wickersham's greatest work, and that for
which he will be longest remembered, was in the
cause of popular education. To this he was thor-
oughly and most enthusiastically devoted. No
man did more for the success of the common
school system of Pennsylvania than he, and no
other gave it such whole-souled and enthusiastic
He was a public-spirited and enterprising citizen.
He took an active interest in literary and business
enterprises, and encouraged every measure designed
for the public welfare. He died suddenly March
25, 1891, at the age of sixty-six years.
T)ENNSYIvVANIA had from its beginning the
county system. In this it served as a model
for many of the other States of the Union. The
county officers have been for some years elected by
the people, thus giving the government a truly rep-
The county officers are two Judges of the Courts,
the Sheriff, Prothonotary, Register of Wills, Re-
corder of Deeds, County Treasurer, Coroner, three
County Commissioners, three County Auditors, two
Jury Commissioners, District Attorney, Clerk of
Quarter Sessions, Clerk of Orphans' Court, County
Solicitor, County Surveyor, Prison Keeper, six
Directors of the Poor, six Prison Inspectors — all
elected by the voters of the county for three years,
except the Judges, who are elected for ten years.
The Sheriff's duty is to execute the State laws
in the county. He or his deputies execute civil
and criminal processes in the county. He attends
the courts and has charge of the prisoners while
attending court, and keeps the peace.
The Prothonotary is the chief clerk of the Court
of Common Pleas. He enters and enrolls all dec-
larations, pleadings, judgments, etc. ; makes out
272 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
judicial writs and exemplifications of records,
enters recognizances, etc.
The Register of Wills keeps records of wills and
letters of administration.
The Recorder of Deeds keeps records of deeds
The County Treasurer has charge of the county's
money received from taxes, and pays the county's
debts, expenses, etc.
The Coroner's duty is to inquire into the causes
of violent death.
The three County Commissioners legislate for
the county, transact the general business, levy
taxes, say what new improvements shall be made,
bridges built, etc.
The three Auditors audit the public accounts of
The two Jury Commissioners draw the lists of
those to serve as Jurors from names presented to
them for that purpose.
The District Attorney is the counsel and advo-
cate of the Commonwealth in prosecuting criminal
cases in the Court of Quarter Sessions.
The Clerk of Quarter Sessions and the Clerk of
Orphans' Court are the chief clerks of those respec-
The County Solicitor is the attorney and legal
advisor of the County Commissioners.
The government of Lancaster city is like that
of other cities of its class in Pennsylvania. The
BRIKF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY. 273
Mayor is the executive and judicial officer, and is
elected every two years by a vote of the citizens.
The city legislature is composed of the Select and
Common Councils^ each ward electing one Select
Councilman and three Common Councilmen. The
School Board \^ also elected by popular vote. The
City Treasurer^ City Solicitor^ Sicperijitendent of
Water Works^ Chief of the Fire Departme7tt
and Street Commissioner are the city officials
elected by the City Councils. The city police are
appointed by the Mayor, and confirmed by the
Select Council. Lancaster city is divided into
nine wards ; each of which, according to the State
laws, has its own Alder^nan^ who acts as Justice of
the Peace, and its own Constable^ Assessor^ etc.
BOROUGH AND TOWNSHIP OFFICERS.
There are ten boroughs in Lancaster county, the
largest of which is Columbia. * In Pennsylvania
the officers of each borough are a Burgess^ a Bor-
ough Council with more or less members according
to size, Treasurer^ Cojistables^ fustices of the Peace^
School Board^ Auditor and other local officers — all
elected by popular vote, most of them yearly. Each
township likewise has its own officials, such 2ls fns-
tices of the Peace ^ Constable^ Assessor^ Auditor^ Su-
pervisors^ six School Directors^ Township Clerk and
Tax Collector — all elected by popular vote, some
*The other nine are Marietta, Manheim, Mount Joy, Eliza-
bethtown, Lititz, Ephrata, Strasburg, Washington and Adams-
274 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
for one year, some for three years, and Justices of
the Peace for five years.
NATIONAL AND STATE OFFICERS FROM LANCASTER COUNTY.
I^ancaster county sends one member to the
House of Representatives of the United States
Congress, and comprises the Tenth Congression-
al District of Pennsylvania. The county sends
eight members to the Pennsylvania lyCgislature,
two State Senators and six members of the House
of Representatives, or lower house of the State
IvCgislature — all elected by the voters, the Senators
for four years, and the Representatives for two years.
The county is divided into two State Senatorial
Districts, and three State Representative Districts.
The Northern District elects one Senator and three
Representatives to the State Legislature. The
Southern District, including Lancaster city, elects
one Senator to the Legislature. The Southern
District, without Lancaster city, elects two Rep-
resentatives to the Legislature. Lancaster city
elects one Representative of its own, and thus
comprises a separate Representative District.
MANUFACTURES, BANKING, INSURANCE, ETC.
^npHE pioneer iron-masters in Lancaster county
-*- were generally Welsh. We find among- these
such names as David Jenkins, David Caldwell,
James Old and Cyrus Jacobs. These were from
time to time the proprietors of the old forges in Caer-
narvon and Elizabeth townships. Curtis Grubb,
a Welshman, was the founder and original owner
of the Cornwall furnace, now in Lebanon county.
Robert Coleman, a Scotch-Irishman, and one of
the most prominent of the old iron-masters of this
county, afterward became one of the owners of the
Cornwall furnace and of the furnace and forges in
Elizabeth township. The Grubbs, the Freemans
and the Colemans are to-day the most noted iron-
masters in Lancaster and Lebanon counties. There
were also among the first iron-masters of the county
two Germans — ^Jacob Huber, the founder of Eliza-
beth furnace, and Baron Stiegel, the founder of
Manheim. On the Conowingo and the Octoraro
there were formerly several furnaces and forges,
but they have not been in operation for many years.
Marti c forge and Colemanville forge and rolling-
mill, both located on the Pequea, were in operation
until a recent period. The old charcoal furnaces,
276 BRIKF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY.
which at one lime were quite numerous, have
ceased to exist since the development of the an-
thracite coal mines ; and to-day we find flourish-
ing anthracite furnaces and rolling-mills at Lan-
caster, Columbia, Marietta, Chestnut Hill and Safe
There was a paper-mill established at Ephrata
about 1820 ; and one was in operation on the West
Branch of the Octoraro, in Bart township. In
*The old forges were : Windsor, Pool and Spring Grove, in
Caernarvon township ; Speedwell and Hopewell, in Elizabeth
township ; Martic, in Martic township ; Colemanville, in Cones-
toga township ; Sadsbury, in Sadsbury township ; line Grove,
White Rock and Black Rock, in Little Britain township ; and
Mount Vernon, in West Donegal township.
The old charcoal furnaces were : Those of Cornwall and
Colebrook, now in Lebanon county ; Elizabeth, in Elizabeth
township ; Martic, in Martic township ; Conowingo, in what is
now East Drumore township ; Mount Hope, in Rapho town-
ship ; Mount Vernon, in West Donegal township ; Mount
Eden, in what is now Eden township ; and Black Rock, in
Little Britain township.
The anthracite furnaces have been : Sarah Ann, in Rapho town-
ship ; Safe Harbor, in Conestoga township ; Conestoga, in Lan-
caster city ; Chickies, at the mouth of Big Chickies creek, in
West Hempfield township ; Cordelia, in West Henipfield town-
ship ; Shawnee, St. Charles and Henry Clay, in Columbia ; and
Donegal, Marietta, Vesta and Eagle, near Marietta.
The rolling-mills have been : Chickies, near the mouth of Big
Chickies creek, in East Donegal township ; Safe Harbor and
Colemanville, in Conestoga township ; Conowingo, in what is
uow East Drumore township ; Rohrerstown, in East Hempfield
township ; Penn Iron Company's in Lancaster city ; and Shaw-
nee and Susquehanna, in Columbia.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 277
J855 one was established at Eden, Manheim town-
ship. This was operated there for ten years, until
1865, when it was removed to Slackwater, in Con-
estoga township, where it is to-day ; and under its
present enterprising management, until within a
year, it was very prosperous.
From 1855 to 1862 a paper-mill was conducted
at Camargo, Eden township, by the Camargo
Manufacturing Company. In the fall of 1865 the
newspaper proprietors of Lancaster, and others,
established the Printers' Paper Mill at Binkley's
Bridge, in Manheim township. This was operated
successfully until November 25th, 1882, when it
was burned down.
There are half a dozen cotton-mills in Lancaster
city ; and besides these there are locomotive works,
a number of foundries and machine-shops, a watch
factory and some other manufacturing establish-
ments. There are also foundries and machine-
shops at Columbia, jMarietta, Mount Joy, Chris-
tiana and other places in the county. Besides, in
every part of it, we find grist-mills and saw-mills,
located at convenient distances from the centers of
Another striking evidence of the immense wealth
of Lancaster county is the number of banking in-
stitutions. There are twenty-five National Banks
in the county, besides a number of private banking
278 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY.
houses. * The Lancaster Trust Company of Lan-
caster city, established in 1890, is the first and only
institution of the kind in the county.
The great fire-insurance companies of America
and Europe are represented in Lancaster city.
There are a number of farmers' mutual fire insur-
ance companies in existence throughout the county,
which insure most of the property of our agricul-
tural population. According to the mutual plan,
the members of each of these are joined together
by agreeing to pay their respective shares of losses
sustained by their neighbors belonging to their
association. Our various large metropolitan life-
insurance companies also have agencies in Lan-
caster city and other large towns of the county, and
have a large number of policy-holders throughout
CHARITABLE AND PHILANTHROPIC INSTITUTIONS.
Besides the County Aims-House and Hospital
there are several private charitable institutions.
The Orphan Asylum of Lancaster^ an incorporated
institution, cares for female orphans between the
ages of six and ten. The Bishop Bozvman Church
*Of the twenty-five National Banks seven are in Lancaster
city, three in Columbia, two in Mount Joy, two in Manheim, and
one in each of the following eleven places : Marietta, Eliza-
bethtown, Lititz, Ephrata, Lincoln, New Holland, Strasburg,
Gap, ^ Christiana, Quarry ville and Mountville. Lancaster city,
Columbia, Marietta and Elizabethtown have each a private
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 279
Home, for the aged and infirm, was founded by-
Bishop Samuel Bowman, and is supported by vol-
untary contributions. The Home /or Friendless
Children was established in 1859 by the efforts and
contributions of Miss Mary Bowman and other
benevolent persons, and was incorporated by act
of the State Legislature in i860. St. Marfs Hos-
pital^ a Roman Catholic institution, was estab-
lished in recent years.
SECRET AND BENEFICIAL ORDERS.
The Free Masons, Odd Fellows, and the various
other secret orders whose objects are of a philan-
thropic and beneficial character, have organizations
in Lancaster city and in the various large and
small towns throughout the county. The Grand
Army has a number of posts in various parts of
the county. The various new secret orders have
rapidly established themselves in different portions
of the county. The strength of these associations
here, as well as the number of religious societies,
shows that our county is not behind the age in
anything that tends to the advancement and happi-
ness of our fellowmen.
^ I ^HE rock structure of Eaucaster county, though
comparatively simple, is yet interesting. The
rocks belong in the main to the older formations and
present no evidence upon the surface of great
changes of position. They have not been folded,
bent, or contorted as in other regions where geo-
logical forces have been more active. But if fold-
ing forces have not been active, erosion has been an
important factor in shaping the surface features and
adding to the potential wealth of the county. This
it has done in the formation of the soil, and in
bringing to the surface the valuable series of rocks
in the main limestone valley of the county. Per-
haps thousands of feet of rock strata have been worn
away by this ever active force.
In its surface features Lancaster county presents
three well-marked series of rocks that run entirely
across the county from east to west. The series
form broad parallel belts of nearly equal width.
The most northern of the belts is of the Meso-
zoicor Middle-life series, composed mainly of sand-
stone and argillite, a thin slaty rock like shale.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 281
Near the mountains of the northern boundary they
attain their greatest thickness, but the series thin
out as you approach the next belt. The surface
here presents more folding than that of the next
belt, and the hills present angular or broken out-
lines. In two places basins of rocks that form the
next lower horizon are enclosed by the Mesozoic
sandstones as though tongues of the sandstones
were run out to enclose the lower series. The
basins are those limestone valleys in which Eph-
rata and Lititz are situated.
The Mesozoic rocks, here as everywhere else,
are of lake and river formation. At some time in
the past geological history of the earth when the
rainfall was abundant, the rivers and smaller
streams were the mills that ground up the harder
granites and quartzes, and thus furnished the ma-
terials from which the Mesozoic sandstones were
made. The waters rushing down mountain and
hillside tore great gullies in their faces, and aided
by the detritus tore up even their rocky framework
and carried the gravel and silt out toward the level
plain. Here by means of pressure and the action
of water, perhaps this material was consolidated
into solid beds of rock.
NOT RICH IN FOSSILS.
They are not rich in fossil remains probably
because of their weathered condition, or it may be
on account of the condition under which they were
282 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
laid down. Their thinning out as we approach
the next belt indicates that after they were bedded
the elements rapidly disintegrated them. The
eroded material from them was carried away to
furnish components for other beds, or for the soils
of other sections.
The Mesozoic sandstones here lie directly upon
the Trenton limestones, though the latter belongs
mainly to the older Palaeozoic series. The latter
dips directly under the former and was at one time
completely covered by it, as is shown by the fact
that the higher hills are yet crowned with sand-
The Trenton series, which forms the middle belt
of rocks through the county, is by far the most
important. The action of the air and the water
upon its surface has produced that deep rich soil
for which this section is famous. All of the best
farms lie in this belt. The rocks are laid down
along a great synclinal axis and form, therefore,
a wide, trough-shaped valley. I They must be of
great thickness, perhaps thousands of feet. Owing,
however, to their position and the small number
and extent of the outcroppings of the edges of the
rocks, their depth cannot be exactly ascertained.
They have not been subjected to any great flexing
and folding, hence the section is comparatively
level. The undulations present only gentle swells
with long slopes. Occasionally along the Cones-
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 283
toga Creek an outcrop presents complicated fold-
ings that are evidences of the wonderful power of
those subterranean forces that in times long past
made and contorted our mountains. They are
evidences too of the plastic state of the beds of
sediment when originally laid down.
EFFECT OF EROSION.
A.n nearly the middle line of the belt a large part
of the Trenton limestones has been carried away
by the action of rains and the streams. This, in
three sections — Chickies, NefFsville and the Welsh
Mountains — has exposed rocks of an earlier age.
The limestones of this belt are bluish or grayish
and are composed mainly of carbonate of lime,
though some contain a large proportion of magne-
sium. Toward the southern side of the belt in
many quarries the limestone contains much schist,
either disseminated all through the strata or as an
incrustation. When burned, the carbonate of lime
forms good quicklime or oxide of lime. In burn-
ing, a suffocating gas, carbon dioxide, is driven oflf
and the quicklime remains.
They are made up almost entirely of the shells
of minute animals that at one time existed in
countless numbers in the sea. Like the coral
polyp, they were simple in organization and secured
their food and materials to build up a shell cover-
ing from the sea water.
284 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTE:r COUNTY.
THE ARCH^AN BELT.
South of the Trenton belt is the last and lowest
of the three important series in Lancaster county.
The rocks belong to the Archaean era and mainly
to the Eozoic or first life age. Schistose slates, or
those slates in which the cleavage is into thin lam-
inar plates, are the predominant rock^J Here the
contractile force of the earth's cooling is more evi
dent, and shows itself in the contorted character of
the strata, in their bent and folded positions, and
also in the greater complication of the surface
features. Instead of the long swells and gentle
undulations characteristic of the limestone belt,
the hills present steep slopes, sharper angles and
I INTRUDED ROCKS.
Not only are the Eozoic rocks represented in
this section, but other series seem to be pushed into
the predominant rocks. Gneisses, mica-schists
and serpentines crop out along the bases of many
hills. Ivike all rocks so low down, they contain a
great deal of iron disseminated through them. The
only outcrops of industrial value is the Peach
Bottom roofing-slate, or true Argillite.
THE POTSDAM FORMATION.
Running into the Trenton limestone from the
west is a well-marked area, in the form of a wedge,
of what is known as Chickies quartzite. The rock
is an old sandstone and has been referred to the
Potsdam age. The outcrops occur at Chickies,
from which place the formation extends eastward
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 285
forsome distance along the north side of Chestnut
Hill. After the quartzite disappears beneath the
limestone, it does not come to the surface except
at two places — on the hills south of Neflfsville and
in the Welsh Mountains.
POSITION OF ROCKS AT CHICKIES.
The Trenton formation at Chickies seems to dip
right down under the quartzite ; but, of course,
this is due to the folded character of the rocks.
Chickies' bold escarpment toward the Susquehanna
is a great double fold that has placed rocks of a
lower series above those that originally were far
above. Were we to mark out the limestone strata
we would have a great bend of this formation over
the quartzite, reaching to a height represented by
the thickness of the Trenton belt. All of this
may have been carried by erosion.
In several sections of the county sharp angular
ridges exist with great masses of hard rock lying
exposed upon the surface. The stone known as
trap^ shows a conchoidal fracture, great toughness,
and gives a metallic ring when struck, due to the
presence of a large amount of iron.
Trap-dykes are common in Ivancaster county —
one extending clear through the northern belt
of sandstones from the Welsh Mountains to the
Susquehanna. In the Eozoic of the South there
are several outbreaks of this basaltic material, and
286 BRIEF HISTORY OF tANCASTER COUNTY.
one mile west of Millersville there is a local out-
crop of about a mile in length and a few yards in
width. Great blocks of the dolerite are nearly
always scattered over the surface along the line
ORIGIN OF TRAP.
The rocks are evidently of igneous origin, and
have been forced up through fissures in the
earth's crust. As the earth cooled off, the
outer crust became too small for the intensely
heated part within ; hence fissures would be formed
and the molten material within forced out. But
as the crust grew thick and the part within radi-
ated its heat, the interior would become too small
for the crust, and the latter would adjust itself
to the contracting mass. Hence the crust would
be thrown into folds, and perhaps fissured when
bent a great deal. The heavy outside shell press-
ing inward gradually forced basaltic materials
upward into the fissures and thus caused the trap-
dykes. These are most common in the Mesozoic
ORIGIN OF ORE DEPOSITS.
The Chestnut Hill iron mines are situated in a
series of rocks of the Cambrian age, under-bedded
with very old white sandstones. Slaty rocks, rich
in iron particles and in masses of iron pyrites, in
some forms called jackstones, and known, also, as
fool's gold, overlaid the series. Water, in leaching
through the slate rocks, combined with the iron to
form iron oxide. Carried down through the per-
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 287
meable rocks by the water, the solution gradually
saturated the rocks above the white sandstone and
formed the rich deposits of hematite. The posi-
tion of the impermeable sandstones was admirably
adapted in every way to favor the formation. *
THE GAP NICKEL MINES.
According to the traditions of the neighborhood,
the Gap copper mines were discovered about the
year 1718. From about this time until 1800 they
were irregularly worked by various companies,
none of which were able to procure copper in pay-
ing quantities. After lying idle for about fifty years,
or in 1849, ^ company was formed to engage in cop-
per ore mining, which they continued until 1852.
At this time miners in the United States knew
nothing of nickel. The nickel ore at these mines
was, therefore, all the time being thrown out as
worthless material. They thought it merely ' ' Sul-
phuretof Iron." In that year Captain Doble came
to work as a miner. He had an intimate knowledge
of practical mining, and at once announced that
the so called iron pyrites was not that material.
^Minerals. — There are iron ore mines in East Donegal town-
ship, near Marietta; on Chestnut Hill, in West Hempfield towri-
ship ; on Turkey Hill, in Manor township ; in Conestoga a
township, near Safe Harbor and Shenk's Ferry ; in Pequea
township, near Pequea Valley ; in Providence and Eden town-
ships, near Quarryville ; on both sides of Beaver Creek, in
Providence and Strasburg townships ; in Strasburg township,
near Mine Ridge ; at several places in Bart township ; in Fulton
and Little Britain townships ; and in several places in Caernarvon
township, on the Welsh Mountains.
288 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
Specimens were sent to several chemists, one of
whom, Dr. F. A. Geuth, a skillful chemist of
Philadelphia, made a satisfactory analysis pro-
nouncing the ore nickel, and giving the percentage.
The name of the mines was now changed to Gap
Nickel Mines, and were operated for some years by
several companies, but with little financial success.
Joseph Wharton, the present owner, however, by
skillful mining and business tact in disposing of all
the products* has made the mines pay.
The nickel ore which is found in the form of
millerite, or nickel sjilphide, forms an incrustation
on hornblende, or lies in contact with schistose
rocks. The mines, situated in Bart township, are
near a trap-dyke in the Eozoic belt of rocks. The
region is surrounded by limestones. The horn-
blende is in a large lenticular or wedge shaped
mass, imbedded in the schists.
But few portions of the United States have a
more varied and more luxuriant flora than Lancas-
ter county. Its position in latitude, its great rain-
fall, its protection by mountains on the north, its
many springs, creeks and rivers, as well as its
great fertility of soil, unite to give large growth
*The refinery at Camden, New Jersey, is called the "Ameri-
can Nickel Works" The crude material after smelting at the
mills is known as matte. At the refinery from the matte is made
pure nickel, nickel oxide, nickel alloys, nickel castings, nickel
salts, pure cobalt, cobalt oxide, cobalt alloys, cobalt castings,
cobalt salts, copper, blue vitriol, etc.
BRIBF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 289
and unusual vitality to all native and naturalized
plants. It has a great variety of soil. There are
a number of large swamps with black, loamy bot-
toms; of woody thickets, damp forests, rocky hill-
sides and dry sandy river hills. Plants of entirely
different natures find, on this account, all the con-
ditions of soil necessary for their healthy growth.
There are, accordingly, over one thousand species
or kinds of native flowering plants, and at least
two hundred species that have been introduced
into the county and have become naturalized.
This number includes only trees, shrubs and
plants producing flowers and true seeds. There
are also in the county hundreds of species of flow-
erless plants propagated by spores, as ferns and
Nearly all the weeds that cause the husbandmen
any trouble have been brought here from Europe.
Many of these came over as packing in boxes and
barrels, containing chinaware and hardware ; and
for this reason the counties near Philadelphia have
more weeds than those farther away from the sea-
The Canada thistle, perhaps our most formidable
pest, was brought here from Europe early in the
last century. It found a congenial climate and a
soil suitable to its growth, and soon spread over
large areas of fertile lands.
By reason of its subterranean branches, which
grow far down into the deep soil and project them-
290 BRIBF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
selves in every direction, it strenuously resists
almost every effort made to destroy it.
The farmers, however, stimulated by a recent
legislative enactment, imposing heavy fines upon
all land-owners who permit these plants to blos-
som and ripen seed, have vigorously attacked them
with scythe and hoe, and have made such decided
progress against them that the land area usurped
by them is yearly growing less.
The wild carrot is of later introduction. It is a
very hardy and vigorous plant, spreading rapidly
in lands devoted to the growing of grasses. Here
it materially lessens the value of the hay crop,
and greatly interferes with the pasturing of cattle.
Toad flax, wild garlic, chamomile and burdock,
all imported from Europe, are found in many
of the cultivated districts, but are kept under con-
trol by the persistent efforts of the farmer.
The ox-eyed daisy, while found in a few places
in the county, is not as troublesome here as it is
in some of the neighboring counties. The high
state of cultivation in which most of the lands
have been kept has tended to destroy and exter-
minate all weeds that interfere with successful
FORESTS AND FORESTRY ASSOCIATIONS.
Before the discovery of anthracite coal, when
the people depended upon wood for fuel, forests
were better cared for and better preserved than
when coal took the place of wood.
The iron-works at first used charcoal, thus also
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 291
inducing economy in wood. Entire forests were
cut down for such purposes and then permitted to
grow up again. South Mountain, the Martic
Hills and other woodeS districts were held in
large tracts by iron-masters, who thus preserved
them and secured several successive growths of
Farmers at that time pursued the same course,
cutting an acre of woodland for fuel every year,
and then letting it grow again.
As the population increased and the consumption
of coal became greater all this was changed.
Whenever timberlands were cleared the lands
were placed under cultivation, thus rapidly reduc-
ing the area of forest.
From this time some people noticed a change in
climate. The rainfall became more irregular, espe-
cially during the seasons of plant-growth. There
seems to be greater uncertainty in the raising of
crops, some seasons being very wet while others
are very dry, on account of the destruction of the
forests. The effects of erosion have become more
marked. During times of heavy rainfall the
smaller streams rapidly unite to flow into the
larger ones, which in turn are swelled into impetu-
ous and devastating floods. The rush of the
smaller streams down the hillsides rapidly denudes
them of earth and vegetation and soon removes
most of the soil, rendering them incapable of sup-
porting vegetable growths of any character. The
forest, by means of its roots and masses of inter-
292 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
woven. rootlets, holds the soil and prevents erosion.
Then, too, with its layer of decaying leaves over
the surface of the earth it holds a large amount
of water. Evaporation goes on more slowly than
in the open fields ; hence the moisture is more
evenly distributed to the air throughout the
season. The water in the soil passes more slowly
from the wooded hillside to lower levels ; springs
remain constant, and streams are not subject to so
great variations in volume.
Since the wholesale destruction of forests,
cyclones and storms, accompanied with hail, have
become more frequent and destructive.
Some years ago a pamphlet was published call-
ing attention to these physical changes and recom-
mending the replanting of timber in available
Governor Hartranft, of this State, directed the
attention of the Legislature to the necessity of
reforesting the timberlands, and recommended leg-
islation to prevent the unnecessary destruction of
pine forests in the lumber regions of Pennsylvania.
In May, 1879, a law was passed by the State
Legislature encouraging the planting of trees
along roadsides. A law was afterward passed
allowing a reduction of tax on land where trees
were planted. In June, 1887, a law was passed
encouraging forest culture and providing penalties
for injury and destruction of forests.
In 1882 the American Forestry Association was
established. In June, 1886, the Pennsylvania
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 293
Forestry Assoctattojt was formed as a branch of
the American Association, with its headq.uarters
at Philadelphia. On March 28, 1890, the Laficas-
ter County Forestry Association was formed as a
branch of the Pennsylvania Association, with
Simon P. Bby as president.
By the law of March 17, 1885, Governor Pattison
was reqnested to appoint a day, to be called Arbo?
Day^ to be devoted to tree planting along public
highways and school-grounds throughout Penn-
sylvania. Governor Pattison issued a proclama-
tion appointing April 16, 1885, as Arbor Day.
Dr. E. E. Higbee, then State Superintendent of
Public Instruction, issued circulars to the Super-
intendents of schools throughout the State, re-
questing them to have Arbor Day observed by the
public schools of the State by the planting of trees.
Arbor Day has ever since been observed through-
out Pennsylvania. There is a spring Arbor Day
and a fall Arbor Day, the latter occurring in Sep-
RARE FLOWERING PLANTS.
Among the rare flowering plants found in the
county are the pitcher plant (Sarracenia Purpurea),
which grows in the swamp between Christiana and
Georgetown. The leaves of this plant take the
form of pitchers, are partly filled with water, and
are provided with sharp prickles extending down
toward the water.
Flies and other insects, when once in the pitcher,
294 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
cannot rescue themselves. They fall into the water,
slowly decompose, and nourish the plant. This
plant has a large and beautiful flower. It blossoms
in June. Related to this in its habits is the Sun
Dew (Drosera rotundifolia), a small plant growing
in the swamp at Dillerville and near Smithville.
This plant has round leaves, which are armed
with sticky glands. The leaf closes when an insect
lights upon it, and with the aid of the glands the
insect is held until it is decomposed and used by the
/ A very beautiful autumn flower is the fringed
gentian (gentiana crinita), which grows along the
Little Conestoga, south of Millersville.
The American cowslip (Dodecatheon Meadia) is
a rare and very pretty flower. It is found on Media
Hill, near Lancaster, and on the rock along the
The interesting and much admired family of
flowers called the orchids are well represented in
Lancaster county. Nine species of habenaria (in-
cluding the beautiful ciliaris), four species of spi-
ranthis and three of cypripedium, are found in dif-
ferent parts of the county. Liparis lilifolia grows
in the Neffsville hills, and Pogonia verticillata in
the oak woods near Strasburg. Besides these men-
tioned, there are many other rare orchids, as well as
rare plants of other families.
The varied abundant flora of this county was
among the first to receive the attention of botanists.
Here was the home of the distinguished Muhlen-
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 295
berg, who did so much for American botany. He
analyzed and classified most of the native' plants in
the beginning of the present century. Dr. Thomas
C. Porter, from 1853 ^^ 1866, lived here and care-
fully examined all the species accessible to him in
those years. He classified the plants of the county,
and gave in his summary 841 species of exogenous
phaenogamus, 328 species of endogenous phaeno-
gamus, or 1169 species of flowering plants in the
Besides this he analyzed and classified 199 species
of cr3^ptogamus, making the entire flora of the coun-
ty consist of at least 1368 species.
FAUNA— HOW INFLUENCED.
In all its varied forms, the animal life native to
any region constitutes its fauna. Many of the lower
forms of animals feed upon vegetable matter, and
nearly every plant has its enemy that slowly saps it
life or stunts its growth. Hence where vegetation
is luxuriant there will be a large number of species
of animals. The fauna thus depends directly upon
the flora ; and as the latter is determined by cli-
mate, position, and such local influences as soil and
present or former geographical features, the animal
life is distributed in zones, or faunal realms. Lan-
caster county, situated in the north temperate fau-
nal realm, is rich in native plants, and therefore had
a varied animal life. Of course, many of the larger
and destructive animals have disappeared with the
settlement of the county, and those forms only that
296 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTKR COUNTY.
are not readily displaced by agricultural develop-
ment remain abundant.
The injury done by insects is every year more no-
ticeable. Civilization and cultivation have changed
the conditions of life for the native insects. By the
clearing away of forests and the destruction of her-
baceous plants -in tilling the soil, insects have been
deprived of their natural food, and they have in
many cases adapted themselves to a new diet of cul-
tivated plants. This in some cases has been very
favorable to their multiplication, and their ravages
have therefore become sources of great loss to the
farmer and fruit-grower, and science has thus been
called in to devise means of. checking their depre-
An insect, so named because its body is cut into
sections by cross-lines, passes through three stages
of growth, the larva or infant period, the pupa or
chrysalis stage in which it is usually quiescent, and
the imago or adult stage. The science of insects and
insect life is called Entomology. *
The Locust Borer is one of the most destructive
of our insect pests, destroying one of the most val-
uable trees, the locust. A line of young locusts
may frequently be observed with rough scarred bark
^he most noted entomologists of the county have been Dr. S.
S. Rathvon and Prof. S. S. Haldeman. Mr. Samuel Auxer, of
Ivancaster, has a very fine collection of insects.
BRIKF HISTORY OP I^ANCAST^R COUNTY. 297
and of stunted growth. Examination will show
that all has been caused by the perforations through
the bark and trunk made by the Lo-
cust Borer. Great numbers of the
beetles may be found in September on
the golden rod. Of a bright golden
yellow color, crossed by black velvety locust borer.
lines, they are not easily distinguished from the
flower, and the insect is thus an example of protec-
tive " mimicry."
The Hickory Girdler, a beetle that attacks the
hickory and also the pear, does a great deal of dam-
age by girdling or cutting off the twigs of these
trees. The female deposits her eggs in a small twig,
and then proceeds to make a deep incision all round
the branch on the side toward the trunk. This
causes the death of the twig and affords food of a
suitable character for the larva. They are only
periodically abundant, not annually so.
The Peach Flat- Headed Borer originally was an
insect enemy of the Beech tree. Now, however, it
is found almost entirely upon the peach and cherry,
and sometimes upon the cultivated maples. In
some sections, and in certain kinds of soils, it is al-
most impossible to cultivate the peach on account
of its ravages. The larva bores into the roots and
lower body of the tree and soon causes the prema-
ture death of the tree.
Corn, tobacco, cabbage and several other plants,
are frequently cut off just below the surface of the
298 BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY.
soil. The work is done by subterranean caterpil-
lars, the larva of several species of moths. Each
plant probably has its own enemy, though it may
be that the same caterpillar cuts the corn and the
tobacco-plant. The moth of the cabbage cut- worm
has the "fore wings of a dark-ashen gray color,"
with a lustre like satin." In expanse it is about
one inch and three-fourths ; in length about three-
fourths of an inch.
The Sphinxes are moths so named by Linnaeus,
the great Swedish botanist, because he fancied a re-
semblance between the larva or caterpillars in cer-
tain postures and the great Egyptian Sphinx.
Their attitudes are, indeed, remarkable. The fore
part of the body is held erect for hours at a time.
The larva of the Sphinxes are nearly all large cat-
erpillars and quite voracious. The different species
attack different plants, usually devouring the leaves
completely or cutting them full of holes. Each
species seems to be confined in its ravages to a single
plant or to the plants of a single genus, or some-
times to a family of plants.
Many of the moths are large and fly rapidly from
flower to flower in the morning and evening twi-
light. Their movements are so rapid, and so con-
trolled that they can poise themselves before a
flower and extract its honey. To secure the nectar,
they are provided with a long tongue, varying
from one inch to three in length. This they carry
rolled up in a groove on the under side of the head.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 299
From their movements they are known as htim-
ming-bird and hawk-moths.
Some of the Sphinxes look like bees and wasps,
and fly with great rapidity. The members of the
group are known as Algerians and are diurnal in
Others again are nocturnal and also very slow in
their movements. All are injurious, and prominent
among destructive ones are the tobacco-worm and
the elm caterpillar, both larva of hawk-moths.
300 BRI^F HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY.
CURIOUS AND RARE INSECTS.
The Burying-beetle is one of the most interesting
insects, not only on account of its habits, but also
because of its acute sense of smell. It is to the in-
sect world what the vulture is to bird-life — a true
A small animal or bird, dead and decaying, is sel-
dom seen about the fields or in the woods, simply
because they have their grave-diggers. No sooner
has a field-mouse, for example, died and begun to
decay than the burrying-beetles drop in upon it
from all sides to bury it. Crawling under the ani-
mal, they begin to undermine. Excavating the hole
deeper and deeper, the animal is soon made to dis-
appear beneath the surface, covered by the earth as
it is thrown out by the beetles and rolls back over
the animal. Here beneath the surface the beetles
consume the decaying flesh.
The Tiger-beetle, sometimes known as the sand-
fly, is of interest because of its beautiful colors and
predatory habits. On warm bright days they may
be seen along sunny, sandy roads, quietly awaiting
the approach of some hapless insect. Should one
approach near enough it would be pounced upon,
quickly seized in the strong jaws of the Tiger-beetle,
and killed. They are among the most beautiful
and active beetles, and fly as swiftly as a wasp.
FISHES AND FISHERIES.
Fishes rank lowest in the scale of vertebrate life,
and include some low forms which it is difficult to
BRI^P HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 301
locate in the great series of animal life. Fishes are
characterized by small brain, low nervous organi-
zation, and incomplete ossification of the bony sys-
tem, especially of the skull bones.
Fishes are not only interesting on account of their
habits and beauty and perfection of form, but are
valuable for food. Among the food fishes of the
county the only one of commercial importance is
the shad. Coming up the Chesapeake bay from
the ocean, it enters the Susquehanna for the pur-
pose of spawning, and "runs" in large numbers as
far as Columbia. The young shad, after it is hatch-
ed, returns to the sea, where it remains until fully
The shad-fisheries of the Susquehanna are exten-
sive and valuable, and extend the whole length of
the river below Columbia. The shad caught at
and near Columbia and Safe Harbor are especially
The Blind-fish (sometimes miscalled the eyeless
fish) has been taken in the county where some sub-
terranean streams enter the Susquehanna. The
eyes are present, though rudimentary, and therefore
Among other noted fish are the wall-eyed pike
(often miscalled salmon) of the Susquehanna, and
the bass found in nearly all the streams. The for-
mer attain a length of from two to three feet, and
the latter a weight of from two to four pounds.
In local streams fish native to the Atlantic coast
streams are found. The catfish and the sunfish are
302 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY.
among those most abundant and widely distributed .
Trout and pike occur only in clear cold streams.
The German carp are of two kinds, scale and
leather. A cross between these two has produced
a third called the mirror carp. These fish have
been raised in Germany for several centuries in arti-
ficial ponds. They are greatly esteemed there, as
well as here, as an article of food, because of their
fine flavor, the cheapness of production and the
little attention they require. They were introduced
into this country from Germany in 1877.
A properly constructed pond 100 feet square will
accommodate from 400 to 500 carp. A steady
stream of pure water is necessary, also a drain and
As carp feed only on vegetation, living in their
native waters on cresses, lilies, grass, moss and other
water plants, fish farmers should sow their ponds
thickly with wild rice, and plant water cress around
the banks of the pond, just at the water's edge.
Roast potatoes, beans, cabbage, or any succulent
vegetable may be fed to them ; but great care must
be taken not to overfeed the fish, and no more
should be fed them than what they eat promptly.
The best time to ship carp is during the spring
and fall. As they are very tenacious of life, they
may be shipped great distances in cool weather by
packing them in wet moss or placing in cans.
The ponds of the Doctors Davis are beautifully
situated one mile north of Lancaster city. They
BRIBF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 303
consist of four ponds, the largest of which contains
two acres and a half of water surface, with an island
in the center. There is a dwelling for an overseer
and a fish-house loo by 24 feet.
Reptiles are air-breathing, cold-blooded verte-
brates, distinguished from birds by having the ex-
ternal covering of scales or horny plates, and from
amphibians by never breathing by means of gills.
They include snakes, lizards, turtles and crocodiles.
In the more thickly settled parts of the county
the venomous snakes have almost disappeared.
Formerly the copperhead and the rattlesnake were
abundant. Now the only places in which rattle-
snakes exist are in the northern and southern hills.
Two species of garter snake, a harmless snake,
are found all over the county. One, the riband
snake, is not common, and may be distinguished
from the common garter snake by its three broad,
well-defined stripes and its slender shape. The
common garter snake is beneficial, and probably
should nevei- be disturbed. It feeds mainly upon
insects and injurious rodents.
A great deal of superstitious prejudice exists
everywhere against snakes. No question is ever
thought of as to beneficial character when one meets
a snake. Human beings and snakes seem instinc-
tive enemies, and the result is the weaker must die.
The racer, the pine snake and the blowing viper
all benefit the farmer by destroying a great many
injurious insects and rodents ; but, from our natural
304 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTE)R COUNTY.
antipathy, they are destined to disappear entirely.
They are not abundant now.
The milk snake, or house snake, is a common
ophidian of a grayish color, with three series of
brown, round blotches bordered with black stretch-
ing in a dorsal line. It is entirely harmless, though
generally thought to be venomous. The water
snake is abundant in damp places and in streams.
It feeds upon fish, frogs, and insects. The green
snake is found, though rarely, in the wooded por-
tions. It is a most exquisite little creature.
BIRDS, NUMBER OF SPECIES.
About one hundred and fifty species of birds breed
regularly in Pennsylvania. Of this number proba-
bly one hundred and ten may be found in Lancas-
ter county. Many migrants pass through the State
during the spring and fall migrations, in all proba-
bly one hundred species, some coming in autumn
from the shores of Greenland, some from I^abrador,
and others from the region situated ajound Hudson
Bay and away northward of that to the bleak and
desolate shores of the islands of the Arctic Archi-
The county, situated near the line separating
the north and south avifaunal belts of the United
States and protected on the north by mountains, and
not far from the head of the littoral waters of Chesa-
peake bay, is favorably located for the entrance of
stragglers. These come from the North and from
the South, from the mountains and from the sea.
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 305
When the winters of the North are of exceptional
severity, many of the birds, resident in the far North,
are driven toward the South, not so much on ac-
count of the cold as from the scarcity of food.
Among those thus influenced are the Arctic owl,
the Bohemian Waxwing, the Shore I^ark, the last of
which we frequently see at such times along our
roads, and the great northern Shrike, or Butcher
From the South, especially with the wave of mi-
gration that vernally sweeps northward, come birds
of the South that seem borne along by the wave.
Then again, with every fall storm from the ocean,
many species, especially of the I^aridae, or Gulls and
Terns, and an occasional Petrel, are driven inward
from the Atlantic.
FINCHES AND SPARROWS— BENEFICIAL BIRDS.
At least twelve species of the Fringilline family,
which includes the finches, the buntings, and the
sparrows, are found in the county. The most com-
mon of the finches are the American Goldfinch, or
Salad bird, the Purple finch, and the Pine finch ;
and of the buntings and sparrows, the Song spar-
row. Indigo bunting. Bay- winged bunting, and the
Chipping sparrow. Examine the bills of these birds,
and you will find them strong, stout, and conical
in shape ; therefore adapted to a diet of seeds. The
sparrows and buntings are terrestrial in their habits,
inhabit the fields and feed mainly upon noxious
seeds. The finches are chiefly arboreal, and feed
upon buds as well as seeds.
306 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY.
Six Species of swallows, of course excluding the
chimney swallow, popularly so-called, though in-
correctly, for it is a Swift, are generally distributed
in favorable localities. Their food consists mainly
of soft-bodied, two- winged insects ; and they conse-
quently restrict the ravages of such insects as the
Hessian fly, gnats and mosquitoes. Sociable and
gregarious in their nesting habits, they are always
The great Warbler family contains some little
gems of bird-life, the most attractive of all our birds.
The happy Vireos ; the rollicking chat ; the summer
warbler, passing in and out among the foliage of
our shade trees like a flash of beautiful sunlight ; the
Maryland yellow-throat, who constantly tells you,
should you approach their swamp abode, that there
are "witches here, " area few only of this large
family. All of them are eminently beneficial.
Many of our common beneficial birds are gifted
with the power of song. Among these may be
named the Robin, the Brown Thrush, and most gift-
ed of all, the Wood Thrush, that with its clear bell-
like voice, makes its woodland haunts ring. The
Mocking-bird too, though rarely, is found in the
county near the southern border.
An interesting family of the great order of Pas-
seres, or sparrows, is that of the non-melodious Ty-
rant Flycatchers. The Bee Marten and the Pewit
BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 307
are the best known of the group. Another, not so
well known, is the Great Crested Flycatcher, dis-
tinguished for spirit, daring and a singular nest-
building habit. No nest with them is complete un-
less lined with cast off snake-skins, or even dead
reptiles. The object of this peculiar habit is not
The State, by the repeal of the "scalp act," im-
plied that most raptorial birds are beneficial. With
a few exceptions, the hawk and owls do a vast
amount of good. Prominent among the owls here
are the Screech owl, whose diet is mainly insects,
the Barn owl, whose prey consists of injurious mam-
mals, and the Short-eared and Barred owls. A
few hawks are abundant, prominent among which
during the winter is the Red-tailed Buzzard hawk,
and at all times the Sparrow hawk.
Very few of the indigenous birds are altogther
injurious. The crow probably has more on his
"account" of harm than good. The "English"
sparrow, introduced into the United States in 1874,
since which it has spread over nearly the entire
country, is a true sparrow and therefore granivor-
ous. It is not only widely distributed but very
abundant and pugnacious. Directly destructive
itself, it is also indirectly a source of great injury,
for it drives other birds away from the farm and
the garden. Enemies like the screech owl are
probably growing up, which, if fostered, will
restrict its depredations.
308 BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTER COUNTY.
The Quail, the Ruffed Grouse, and the Upland
Plover are found in some sections of the county,
though not abundantly. Wild Ducks, Snipes, and
Woodcocks, at certain seasons, may be seen along
The Bird Laivs of Pennsylvania afford protec-
tion to beneficial birds of all kinds by absolutely
prohibiting (except for scientific purposes) their
destruction or the robbing of their nests. Game
birds by the same law are not to be molested in
any way during the breeding season.
Mammals, or animals that bring forth their
young alive and nourish them with milk, are the
highest vertebrates. They breathe by means of
lungs ; and the heart is, in all cases, divided into
When the county was wild, forest-clad, and in-
habited by the Indians and the few early white
settlers, wolves, panthers, bears and deer were
found. These animals became the prey of the
white hunter as well as of the Indian, but as the
county became more settled by the whites this
larger game gradually disappeared.
THE FOX AND FOX CHASES.
Two species of foxes, the red fox and the gray
fox, are found in this fanual realm. The former is
most abundant in the northern and the latter in
the southern part of the fanual belt. Both are
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 309
characterized by their shyness, cunning and sus-
picious of anything new to them. Both have acute
sense of sight, smell and hearing, and great speed
in running. The red fox, however, does not run
a great distance, and is seldom hunted by dogs and
hounds. It visits the farm-yard and seizes poultry
for its prey, but feeds mainly upon animals of the
rodent family and upon fish. It is said to run
swiftly for a hundred yards or more, but is easily
overtaken by a wolf or a mounted man. The grey
fox is not as rapacious as the red fox, and preys
upon quail, grouse and small birds just as a pointer
will do, and runs down the rabbit like a dog.
When pursued by hounds in open woods it will
often climb a tree.
Fox-hunting in Amerca in its origin is a Southern
sport, and was originally confined mainly to the
South, from Maryland to Florida, and westward
to Louisiana. The grey fox is always used at fox
chases, as he possesses more cunning than the red
fox, leaves less scent, and is capable of running a
long distance. When chased he doubles on his
trail, winds in and out of thickets, and around hills
in a way that frequently baflfles the hounds and se-
cures his escape. Large crowds indulge in the pas-
time in looking on at these fox-chases.
On account of the agricultural development of
the county, the Gray Hare or Rabbit is abundant.
Like all hares, and unlike other rodent animals, it
310 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
has more than two front or cutting teeth. Its
slow motions are awkward and clumsy; but when
at full speed as it dashes past you, it seems won-
derfully graceful and fleet, and can in the wildest
race make turns of almost incredible quickness.
It is taken in snares and traps, dug or drowned out,
and hunted by dogs and shot. Its flesh is delicate
and palatable; and its skins are used to make hats,
and are dyed to imitate more expensive furs.
In its habits it is mainly nocturnal, hiding in the
thickets, "forms," and in hollow logs during the
day. It is fond of succulent plants; consequently it
visits the garden, the clover and the corn-field, and
nurseries of young trees. During winters in which
snow covers the * ground for a month or more, it
is likely to do a great deal of damage to young
trees by "barking" them to a considerable height
above the ground.
THE GROUND-HOG, OPOSSUM AND SKUNK.
The Wood-chuck, Pouched-marmot, or Ground-
hog, is a squirrel-like rodent animal, adapted in
its thick body and short legs to burrowing habits.
It digs its home in fields, hillsides, or under rocks,
where it passes the winter in a torpid state, and dur-
ing the summer may be seen sitting in an erect
posture, basking in the sunshine or eating its food.
The head is short and conical, with short rounded
ears covered with a thick growth of hair, eyes of
moderate size and whiskers numerous. The fore-
feet have four toes and a rudimentary thumb; the
hind-feet five toes. It is active and no mean an-
BRIKF Hist OR Y OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 311
tagonist in defending itself. It is with some people
the object of a ridiculous superstition.
The Opossum is a marsupial animal, about the
size of a large cat. Its thumbs are opposable and
without nails, and the tail bare, and prehensile for
its terminal half or more. The brain is small, and
the jaws are provided with fifty teeth. In its
feeding habits it is almost omnivorous. When
hard pressed by hunger it will feed greedily upon
dead and decaying animals. When caught it
feigns death and will bear torture without flinch-
ing, all the time watching for an opportunity to
escape. When caught by a limb in a steel trap it
will liberate itself by cutting off the limb with its
sharp teeth. Though tenacious of life. Vet it
usually dies by such self-amputation from loss of
The Skunk is an American carnivorous mam-
mal, closely related to the weasel, the otter, and
the mink. It is provided with a very effective
means of defence in the form of glands which
secrete an oily acrid fluid of a very offensive odor.
The glands are controlled by strong muscles by
means of which the animal is able to project a
stream of the horrible fetid fluid to the distance
of fourteen feet. The animal is in bad repute
among all classes of people, and the farmer especi-
ally, as it destroys large numbers of eggs and
sometimes visits the poultry-yard. It burrows a
gallery in a straight line about two feet in diame-
ter beneath the surface to a length of seven or
312 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
eight feet. This ends in a large excavation, in
which is placed a bulky nest of leaves. Here in
winter it remains from December until March.
The domesticated animals, all of which were
introduced from the Old World by the early white
settlers, have a very great aggregate value. The
county, since it is mainly an agricultural region,
of course pays a great deal of attention to the
production of fine stock.
TN conversation not long ago, with a gentleman
^ widely read in the history of the Indian, he re-
marked that there was probably at one time in
Lancaster county a native population equal to two-
thirds of the present white inhabitants.
As proof of this assertion, he referred to the vast
number of Indian relics found about the sites of
their ancient villages and fishing camps. It would
thus seem tliat our county was a favorite dwelling
place of these children of the forest, but
" Alas for them their day is o'er,
Their fires are out from shore to shore.
No more for them the wild deer bounds,
The plough is on their hunting grounds.
The pale man's axe rings through their woods,
The pale man's sail skims o'er their floods.
Their children — look, by power oppressed,
Beyond the mountains of the West —
Their children go — to die ! "
Anything pertaining to them, however, ought to
be of interest to us who have succeeded to their
domain. This is our reason for appending a few
legends and stories that reflect their character, and
that to a degree evince their friendship, however
remote it may be, with other people.
Among the tribes of the great Algonquin family,
to which the Lancaster county Indians belonged,
314 BRIEF HISTORY OP LANCASTER COUNTY.
the legendary origin of man was akin to that pres-
ented by the myths of all savage nations. This
origin they ascribed to a union of Earth and
Heaven. Earth the mother, and Heaven the
father. The language of their myths is often so
fanciful and seemingly absurd that the trend is
difficult to understand. One tradition of man's
early existence was that his dwelling place was
under a great lake, that he was fortunately extri-
cated from this dismal abode by the discovery
made by some one of a hole by means of which he
ascended to the surface. While walking about
here he found a deer. This he carried to his sub-
terranean home and killed. He and his com-
panions finding the flesh good, they decided to
leave their habitation of darkness and remove to a
place where they could enjoy the 'Might of heaven
and have game in abundance."
In all the legends of savage people there is a ten-
dency toward the deification of animals. The ser-
pent, the bat, the owl, the eagle, the turtle, are all,
in mythical tales, objects of worship, and are always
of super-terrestrial origin. In the legends and stories
of the Indian, this reference to his connection with
animals is a conspicuous feature. For instance,
the rabbit and the ground-hog were rejected as arti-
cles of food on the ground of their being related
The rattlesnake, he said, was grandfather to the
Indian, and every one was strictly forbidden to in-
jure it. The warning given on one occasion to a
BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANC ASTER COUNTY. 315
white man, who was about to kill one, was: " If you
do that you are declaring war against them. They
are a very dangerous enemy. Take care you do
not irritate them in our country. They and their
grandchildren are on good terms, and neither will
hurt the other."
They have a story of the Deluge which is spread
throughout the New World, from one pole to the
other. The version of it varies slightly in different
tribes. One of these is that in remote a^es the
waters invaded the land as a punishment for the
crimes of men. A few people were spared, and they
retired to a wooden house on the top of a mountain.
The sun interfered and hid them there. When the
waters began to go down they let loose some dogs,
which came back wet. A few days later they were
sent forth a second time, and this time came back
soiled with mud. At this sign they knew that the
waters had retired. Then they left their retreat,
and their posterity peopled the country.
Among the interesting stories found in the
"Algic Researches" is one giving the origin of
the robin. It runs thus : In order to secure
through life a guardian genius, it was necessary
for a young man to fast for some time as a prep-
aration. If a father was ambitious that his son
should excel all others, this fast must be quite
Thus it is said that an old man had a son named
ladilla. He was desirous that this son should be
renowned for prowess and wisdom. He therefore
316 BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY.
doomed him to a fast of twelve days, after which he
was to receive food and the blessing of his father.
A little lodge was prepared for him, on the floor
of which was placed a new, clean mat. Upon this
the young man was to lie down. Here, day after
day, he lay in perfect composure, his face covered,
awaiting the mystic visitation which was to seal
his fortune. His father visited him every morning,
always encouraging him to be patient and perse-
vere, and telling him of the renown awaiting him
if he fasted the prescribed period. The boy never
replied, but lay silent, never murmuring. On the
ninth day, however, he spoke thus to his father :
'' My father, my dreams forbode evil. May I break
my fast now, and at a more propitious time make
a new fast?" The father answered: "My son,
you know not what you ask. If you get up now,
all your glory will depart. Wait with patience
three days longer. It is for your own good." The
son assented, and lay until the eleventh day, when
he repeated the request. The father again refused,
but added that the next day he would prepare his
first meal and bring it to him. This he did. On
coming to the door of the room with the report for
his son, he was surprised to hear him talking to
himself. He stopped, and looked through a small
aperture, and found the young man painted with
vermilion all over his breast, and in the act of
finishing his work by laying the paint as far back
on his shoulders as his hands could reach, saying to
himself while working: "My father has destroyed
BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 317
my fortune as a man. He would not yield to my
requests, but I shall be forever happy in my new
state, for I have been obedient to my parent. He
alone will be the sufferer, for my guardian spirit is
a just one. He has g^iven me another shape, and
now I must go." The father exclaimed: *'My
son, my son, I pray you leave me not." But the
young man, with the speed of a bird, had flown to
the top of the lodge and perched himself on the
highest pole, having been changed into a beautiful
Of this romantic lore there was abundance among
the Indian tribes. It is perhaps meet that we should
perpetuate some knowledge of it and transmit the
"short and simple annals" of these "children of
nature" to coming generations, that they may
know how to appreciate and cherish memories of
the original and almost forgotten owners of Lan-
caster county's rich forests, fertile lands, pictur-
esque hills and beautiful streams.