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Full text of "A brief history of Lancaster County"

ZUG MEMORIAL LIBRARY 




Jl 



o 






A BRIEF HISTORY 



OF 



LANCASTER COUNTY, 



WITH SPECIAI. REFERENCE TO THE GROWTH AND DEVEL- 
OPMENT OF ITS INSTITUTIONS, DESIGNED 
FOR THE SCHOOIv AND HOME. 



EV 

ISRAEL SMITH CLARE. 



EDITED BY 

ANNA LYLE, 

Teacher uf History in the MUlersville State Normal School. 



ZUG MEMORIAL LIBRARY 
ELIZABETHTOVVN COLLEGE 
ELIZABETHTOWN, PENNA. 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

ARGUS PUBLISHING COMPANY 

Iv AN CASTER, PA., 

1892. 



Cy -7/./ 



Copyrighted, 1891, by 

THE ARGUS PUBI.ISHING COMPANY, 

I^ANCASTER, PA. 



Preface 



TN teaching the history of the United States, I have 
-*- found that Pennsylvania students are lacking in 
knowledge of their own Commonwealth, and that there 
is even greater lack of intelligence concerning the 
county to which they belong. 

This has enabled me to understand and appreciate 
the demand that has come from the teachers and other 
persons officially connected with the schools of Lan- 
caster county, for a history of the county which shall 
be available for the school and the family. 

Lancaster county is one that demands attention and 
interest, because of its rich material resources, its large 
population, and its historical associations. 

Then, too, being one of the portions of Pennsylvania 
that was earliest settled, when emigration to ' 'the West' ' 
began, the people seemed to feel that the population 
was crowding here ; and with an inherited hardihood 
and enterprise many of them became the pioneers of 
the nearer and more remote Western States, and we 
think it is not exaggeration to say that there is hardly 
a State or Territory included within our great domain 
which has not a representative from this county. 

It is also honorably represented in almost every de- 
partment of art, in almost every industry, in science, 
and in literature. It has had a fair share of able states- 
men and of gallant soldiers, and of hardy naval heroes, 
men who have shed lustre upon its past arid who are 
fit exemplars for the youth of to-day. 



IV PREFACE. 

All these things considered, we have abundant reason 
to expect this county to take and maintain a leadership 
in both material and intellectual affairs. 

A better knowledge of its history we feel assured 
would have a tendency to excite an appreciation of its 
importance, and thus tend to arouse a stronger local 
patriotism, something most devoutly to be wished ; for 
while a man's patriotism should not be hemmed in by 
county or by State lines, but should reach to the utmost 
bounds of his Nation, yet there is due to his narrower 
domain of neighborhood a good share of his patriotic 
devotion. 

It is of these apparently smaller interests that he is 
the special custodian. A fidelity in guarding and car- 
ing for these is fair evidence that he will be faithful in 
guarding larger and greater ones. If the man best fitted 
to fill a township office is elected to fill that office, the 
offices of the county and State will most likely be filled 
with capable men ; and that being so, greater care will 
almost of necessity be exercised in the choice of men 
to fill our National councils. If men in a neighborhood 
are wise enough to elect efficient school directors, they 
can most probably be counted upon to cast an inteli- 
gent vote for the Nation's Chief Magistrate, and thus 
give the people a wise and intelligent National adminis- 
tration. 

This brief preface indicates the object of this book, 
which the editor hopes may contribute something to- 
ward the attainment of the purpose at which it aims. 

Anna I^yle. 

vSTATE NORMAI. SCHOOIv, 

Millersville, Pa., April i, 1892. 



Table of Contents. 



CHAPTER I. 
The Indian.— The Tribes ; Their Character ; Their Wars. i 

CHAPTER II. 
The Indian Trader. — His Character ; His Life 26 

CHAPTER HI. 
First vSetti.ers. — Settlements and Their Progress. ... 45 

CHAPTER IV. 
Early Mode of Life 83 

CHAPTER V. 
Geography 95 

CHAPTER VI. 
Before the French and Indian War. — Organization 

of the County, and Erection of Townships 108 

CHAPTER VII. 
During the French and Indian War. — Dealings With 

the Delawares and Shawanese 135 

CHAPTER VIII. 
During the Revolution 151 

CHAPTER IX. 
After the Revolution 163 



VI TABIvE OF CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER X. 
During thk Civii, War and Since 174 

CHAPTKR XL 
AgricuIvTure. — Indian Farming; Later Farming; The 

Soil i7« 

CHAPTER XII. 

Education. — History of the Early Schools, and of the 

Public Schools and Higher Institutions 195 

CHAPTER XIII, 
Early Printing 230 

CHAPTER XIV. 
ReIvIGion 234 

CHAPTER XV. 
Biography. — Weiser, Ross, Hand,Yeates, Shippen, Mifflin, 
Snyder, Muhlenberg, Ramsay, Fulton, Murray, Bu- 
chanan, Stevens, Reynolds, Heintzelman, Forney, 
Cameron, Bowman, Nevin, Atlee, Burrowes, Beck, 
Haldeman, RathvOn, Wickersham, 240 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Government 271 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Manufactures, Banking, Etc., 275 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
Natural History. — Geology ; Flora ; Fauna 280 

CHAPTER XIX. 
Indian Legends 3^3 



List of Illustrations. 



1. Black Jasper Spear, , 15 

2. Greenstone Pipe, 22 

3. Brown Jasper Arrow-point, 24 

4. Grooved Granite Axe, 25 

5. CoNESTOGA Team, 91 

6. POSTLEWAIT'S TaVERN, II7 

7. House of Martin Mylin, 127 

8. The Old Jail, 145 

9. The Old Court House, 158 

10. Washington Hotel 162 

11. George Ross, 242 

12. Rev. G. H. E. Muhlenberg, 246 

13. Robert Fulton, 249 

14. James Buchanan, 251 

15. Thaddeus Stevens, 252 

16. Gen. J. F. Reynolds 254 

17. Dr. J. L. Atlee, 261 

18. Thomas H. Burrowes, 262 

19. John Beck, 263 

20. J. P. WiCKERSHAM, 268 

21. Locust Borer, 297 

22. Tobacco Moth, Worm, and Chrysalis, .... 299 

1V[APS. 

1. Pennsylvania Before the Organization of 

THE County, 44 

2. Lancaster County, 1892, 94 

3. Lancaster County, 1729, 109 



CHAPTER I. 

THE INDIAN. 

TRIBES IN THE LOCALITY, AND CHIEFS AND SACHEMS. 

T ANCASTER COUNTY is rich in Indian tradi- 
•^ tions. This fertile and well-wooded country, 
wnth its abundance of wild animals in the forests 
and fish in the streams, attracted the Indians to this 
locality. The Sitsqiiehaitnocks^ afterwards called 
Mhigoes or Conestogas^ whose chief seat was in the 
present Manor township, were the most important 
tribe within the limits of the present Lancaster 
county, and their best-known chief was Captain 
Civility. The place where the Conestogas had their 
last home is still called Indiantozvn. The next 
important tribe were the Shaiuanese, who came 
here from the South in William Penn's time, 
lived here half a century, and then moved to the 
West. While in this locality their chief seat was 
Pequehan, where the Pequea creek empties 
into the Susquehanna river. They also had 
two towns on the Octoraro, one a few miles 
above the present village of Christiana, and 
the other several miles below the site of 
that village. The greatest sachem of the Shawa- 
nese while at Pequehan was Opessah. The Conoys 
were a small tribe located at the mouth of Conoy 



Z BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

creek. The Delawares, from the Delaware river, 
and the Nanticokes^ from the eastern shore of Ches- 
apeake bay, roamed over these parts to hunt and 
fish, but had no towns here. 

INDIAN MODE OF LIFE HERE. 

The Indians here lived on the flesh of wild ani- 
mils which they killed in the forest, especially the 
deer and the bear, and on the fish which they 
caught in the streams, as well as on Indian 
corn and the few vegetables which they raised. 
They lived in villages consisting of collections of 
rude wigwams made of poles and covered with 
skins and the bark and leaves of trees. They 
dressed in the skins of beasts during winter, and 
went almost naked in summer. After the whites 
settled among them they changed their mode of 
life slightly, and began to wear clothes and made 
attempts at farming. But they were miserably poor. 
As their hunting-grounds were reduced by the 
white settlements, many of them begged their 
living from farm house to farm house. They sold 
willow baskets and brooms to the white settlers, 
but spent most of the money they earned for rum. 

INDIAN LANDMARKS, AND INDIAN GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES. 

There were Indian burying-grounds in many 
places throughout what is now Lancaster county. 
There are Indian hieroglyphics, or picture-writ- 
ings, on the rocks in the Susquehanna river, a 
little below Safe Harbor. The influence of the 
Indians upon the geographical nomenclature of our 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 3 

county is seen in the names of the streams here, 
large and small. The Susquehanna river derives its 
name from the Susquehannock Indians. The Con- 
estoga and Little Conestoga creeks are named after 
the Conestoga Indians, and the Conoy creek after 
the Conoy Indians. The Pequea creek derived its 
name from the Shawanese town of Pequehan, at the 
mouth of that stream. The Big Chickies and Lit- 
tle Chickies creeks are names contracted from the 
Indian word Chickesalunga^ the name which the 
Indians gave those streams. Octoraro, Conowingo, 
Conewago and Cocalico are also Indian names. 

FIRST CONTACT WITH THE WHITES AND CIVIL AUTHORITIES. 

The first contact of the Indians with the whites 
was when the white Indian traders came among 
them almost two hundred years ago, and when the 
white settlers came here soon afterward. They 
traded with these and with the w^hite settlers, giv- 
ing skins, furs, venison and fish in exchange for 
clothes, bread and other kinds of food. Their first 
contact with the civil authorities was when they 
took part in the Indian treaty with William Penn 
at Shackamaxon, on the site of Philadelphia, in 
1682, and their treaties with Governors Keith and 
Gordon of Pennsylvania, at the Conestoga Indian 
Town, in the present Manor township, at different 
times from 1718 to 1728. 

THEIR ROVING CHARACTER. 

The Indians who occupied the territory em- 
braced within the limits of the present Lancaster 



4 BRIKF HISl'ORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

county were nomadic in their character, as were 
the Indians of every other portion of the United 
States. It has been asserted that no tribe had a 
permanent home in any one place for a period 
of half a century, except, perhaps, the Susque- 
hannocks, who lived at the old Indian town in 
Manor township as early as 1608, when Captain 
John Smith, the celebrated Virginia pioneer, 
entered the mouth of the Susquehanna river. 

THE SHAWANESE. 

The Shawanese, an Algonquin tribe, wandered 
from place to place, like the Arabs, and were a 
brave and warlike race, but perfidious and treach- 
erous. Their base conduct toward other Indian 
tribes and toward the white people caused them to 
be despised and hated wherever they went. They 
migrated from the Ohio to Alabama, theuec to 
Georgia, where they soon became involved in war 
with the Catawbas and the Cherokees. They 
finally came north to save the remnant of their 
nation from total extinction. 

THE SHAWANESE AT PEQUEA. 

The Shawanese came as far north as the Poto- 
mac, whence they sent some of their chiefs to the 
Susquehannock Indians and to Philadelphia to ask 
permission from William Penn to locate near the 
Susquehannocks, who became responsible for their 
good behavior. In 1697 sixty Shawanese families 
came from the Potomac, and the nation gradually 
followed in the same direction, locating near the 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 5 

mouth of thePequea creek, where they remained 
thirty-four years, and where their sachem Opessah 
and his successor resided. 

ON THE OCTORARO AND SHAWANESE RUN. 

The Shawanese did not stay together in one 
place, but split and scattered in various directions. 
There was a Shawanese town in Sadsbury towil- 
ship, on the Octoraro, about two miles above the 
site of Christiana. There was also a Shawanese 
town on the same stream just below the site of 
Christiana. The same nation had a town along 
Shawanese Run, on the site of Columbia, which 
remained until several years after the English set- 
tlers, Wright, Barber and Blunston, had estab- 
lished themselves there. 

THEIR TREACHEROUS CHARACTER. 

The vShawanese mingled with the early settlers, 
and appeared to be on good terms with them ; but 
their small war parties would leave stealthily in 
the night, and travel hundreds of miles to strike 
an enemy in the distant South. They generally 
brought something back with them, often inducing 
negro slaves in Virginia to go with them. When 
the Governor or Council of Pennsylvania, or the 
Conestoga Indians, questioned them about their 
conduct, they professed to be very innocent, assur- 
ing them that they had kept all their treaties with 
" Onas" (William Penn) and with their cousins, 
the Delawares and the Conestogas. The colonial 



6 BRIEF HISTORY OF IvANCASTKR COUNTY. 

authorities and the neighboring Indian tribes pro- 
fessed to believe what the Shawanese said in their 
presence, but were not able to conceal their fears 
when they did not see them. The proprietors of 
Pennsylvania expended vast sums of money to 
win them to their cause, but were unable to do so. 
The Penns could not win these wayward and 
treacherous savages by cajolery, or by promises of 
land, or by constant presents of goods. Many 
years were wasted in trying to secure their friend- 
ship, even after they had murdered many of the 
frontier settlers. 

THE CHARTIERES AND JESSUP. 

Martin Chartiere and Joseph Jessup, French 
Canadian traders, established trading posts with the 
Shawanese Indians at Pequea. Jessup remained 
there only a few years, and then removed more 
than a hundred miles up the Susquehanna; and a 
few Shawanese families moved to the same place 
about the same time. Jessup spoke the Shawanese 
and Delaware languages, and often acted as inter- 
preter at councils when treaties were made with 
these Indians. Chartiere married an Indian squaw, 
probably of the Shawanese tribe. Several years be- 
fore his death, which occurred in 1708, he removed 
his trading-post to a point about a mile above the 
"Indian Fort," in Manor township. His son, 
Peter Chartiere, married a Shawanese squaw, and 
induced the most warlike portion of the tribe to 
join the French against the English during the 
French and Indian War of 1754-1763. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 7 

GOVERNOR EVANS AT PEQUEHAN AND CONESTOGA. 

On June 27, 1707, Governor John Evans, of 
Pennsylvania, with Messrs. French, Mitchell, Biz- 
aillon, Gray and four servants, left New Castle, 
Delaware, and reached the Octoraro creek the next 
morning. The Shawanese met them there and 
presented the Governor with some skins. The same 
night the Governor and his party arrived at Peque- 
han, the Indian town, and were received at Martin 
Chartiere's by Opessah, their sachem, and some 
chiefs, who took them to their town, where they 
were received with a salute of fire-arms. On Mon- 
day the Governor and his party proceeded to the 
Conestoga Indian town, and there met delegations 
of the Shawanese, the Senequois, the Ganawese, 
or Canoise, and the Nanticokes. These Shawa- 
nese were near the Indian town at Pequea, but 
belonged to several towns at the mouth of the 
Juniata and further up that river. 

GOVERNOR EVANS AT PEQUEHAN. 

On the 30th (June, 1707) the Governor re- 
returned to Pequehan, and was there received by 
Opessah, who spoke in behalf of the youth of the 
town. The Governor remained there a few days, 
during which several Shawanese families arrived 
from Carolina, where 450 Flathead Indians had 
besieged their town. Peter Bizaillon, who was 
present, informed the Governor that the Shawa- 
nese in the South had killed several white people. 



5 BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

GOVERNOR EVANS AT CONESTOGA. 

On July ist (1707) the Governor and his party 
went to Conestoga, where they remained all night. 
The next day they went to within three miles of 
Paxtang village. Martin Chartiere, who was with 
the party, went into the town and brought Joseph 
Jessup and James Le Tort back with him. Nichole 
Godin, a French Canadian Indian trader, who had 
no license, was then and there arrested and taken 
to Philadelphia. 

THE GOVERNOR'S OFFER TO THE SHAWANESE. 

In June, 1709, the Governor offered each of the 
young Shawanese warriors a gun if they would 
join an English expedition against the French in 
Canada, but the Shawanese declined his offer. 

OPESSAH'S ABSENCE. -HIS SUCCESSOR. 

In 171 1 Opessah left his tribe, and remained 
absent from them for more than three years. On 
his return he gave out that he had been hunting 
game; but he really was spending his time among 
the Delawares, then located along the Brandywine. 
In October, 17 14, the Shawanese chose a new 
sachem in place of Optssah^named Ca kundawanna. 

OPESSAH'S CHARACTER. 

On June 22, 1715, Opessah appeared before the 
Governor and his Council in behalf of his tribe ; 
but he was never reinstated in his old position, and 
he gradually sunk out of notice. His speeches and 
bearing at several councils showed that he was a 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. \) 

man of some talent. He was frank in speech and 
seemingly friendly to the whites, but he gave bad 
advice to his tribe. 

THOMAS CHALKLEY AND GOVERNOR KEITH VISIT THE 
SHAWANESE AND CONESTOGAS. 

In 1 715 Thomas Chalkley, a Quaker English- 
man, visited the Shawanese and Conestoga towns, 
where he preached to the Indians. Governor Wil- 
liam Keith, of Pennsylvania, visited the Shawa- 
nese and held a conference with them and other 
Indians at Conestoga, July 18, 1717, and also in 
June, 1722. 

JAMES LOGAN AT CONESTOGA. 

James Logan also held a conference with the 
Indians at the same place, in 1720, and denounced 
the French Jesuits for inducing the Indians to take 
sides with the French in their wars against the 
English. Bizaillon, Le Tort, Chartiere and Jes- 
sup — the French Canadian Indian traders — fell 
under suspicion, and were arrested and locked up 
in jail, but upon giving bail for their good behavior 
they were released. 

THE SHAWANESE MOVE WEST. 

The Governor of Virginia often complained to 
Governor Keith of Pennsylvania about the Shawa- 
nese for sheltering runaway slaves. They became 
more restless under the restraints in which they 
were held by the Governor and the Conestogas, 
who had become answerable for their good beha- 
vior. In May, 1728, they killed two of the Cones- 



10 BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

togas. In 1 73 1 that part of the Shawanese tribe 
which lived within the present limits of I^ancaster 
county suddenly stole away at night and encamped 
along the Allegheny river. The Governor of Penn- 
sylvania and his Council, and also the Conestoga 
Indians, were very much alarmed, and tried to coax 
them back. John Wright and Samuel Blunston 
were sent to the Cumberland Valley to survey and 
lay out a reservation for the Shawanese in 1732, 
and told them that no white man but Peter Cliar- 
tiere, whose wife was a Shawanese squaw, was to 
live among them; but the Shawanese could not be 
induced to return. The Pennsylvania authorities 
then tried to prevent the Indian traders from cross- 
ing the Allegheny mountains and trading with 
them, but they also failed in that undertaking. 

THE SHAWANESE AND THE SIX NATIONS. 

In 1735 the Six Nations of Indians in New York, 
who many years before that time had compelled 
the Shawanese along the Allegheny river to 
behave themselves, or leave that hunting-ground, 
tried to urge them to return east of the Allegheny 
mountains, but failed in the effort. As the Six 
Nations were not satisfied with the Shawanese 
they sent out a chief to talk with them. A 
Shawanese tribe, consisting of thirty young men 
and ten old men, and several women and children, 
murdered this chief and fled to the South, the place 
from which they had come to settle on the Poto- 
mac. A few of the Shawanese returned to the 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 11 

the Cumberland Valley. In 1737 there were 130 
Shawanese living along the Susquehanna. 

SHAWANESE WARFARE WITH THE WHITES IN THE WEST. 

For nearly half a century the Shawanese along 
the Ohio were engaged in almost constant war 
with the whites. They were the most active allies 
of the French against the English during the 
French and Indian War, and after the English 
conquest of Canada they joined with the Dela- 
wares in their hostilities, which were only ended 
after General Bouquet's successful campaign in 
1764. The white settlers who crossed the Alle- 
gheny mountains and were pressing forward to 
the Ohio river had to fight the perfidious Shaw- 
anese all the way. Accounts of their bloody 
deeds fill the Western annals. Their losses on 
account of their constant wars were made good by 
recruits from other hostile tribes. The weakness 
of the English colonial authorities in dealing with 
these treacherous savages cost the lives of thou- 
sands of whites. The Shawanese have given their 
name to more places in the United States than 
any other Indian tribe, split into more fragments 
than any other, changed their places of abode 
more frequently, and were the most treacherous of 
all the savage tribes of this country. 

THE GAWANESE OR CONOYS. 

The Gawanese migrated from Piscataway to an 
island in the Potomac river, whence their sachem 
and chiefs went to Philadelphia in 1698 to see 



\2 BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

William Penii and get his permission to settle in 
Pennsylvania. Penn allowed them to do so, and 
they returned and brought their entire tribe with 
them to Conejohala, the site of the present borough 
of Washington, where they built a town on the 
land now owned by Mr. Staman. After remaining 
there several years they asked and obtained 
permission to move farther up the Susquehanna 
river, and settled on the land now owned by John 
Haldeman, a little below the mouth of Conoy creek. 
This tribe was also known as Canoise, or Conoys, 
whence the creek took its name. They were also 
called Nanticokes, and were probably an offshoot 
of the Nanticokes proper, as they came from the 
eastern part of Maryland. This tribe was small, 
and was under the control of the Six Nations. 
They were generally peaceful, and were wholly 
surrounded by Indian traders, who found it profit- 
able to trade with them. Like the Shawanese, 
they were nomadic ; but becoming dissatisfied 
when game became scarce and white settlers in 
Donegal township encroached upon their hunting- 
ground, they asked and obtained permission to 
move farther up the river. In 1743 they removed 
to Shamokin, now Sunbury, and asked the 
proprietors of Pennsylvania to pay them for the 
land which they had given up in Conoy. Treaties 
with the whites were made in their town, and 
their chiefs took part in treaties made with the 
whites at Conestoga, Lancaster and Philadelphia ; 



BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTB^R COUNTY. 13 

but their tribe had little influence, and before 
many years they were heard of no more. 

THE DELAWARES. 

The Delawares carried on a bloody war with the 
Iroquois, or Six Nations ; but being conquered 
they became their dependents. The Six Nations 
selected one of their own chiefs to rule over the 
Delawares. The greatest of these was the Ca- 
vuea chief, Shikellimv, the father of the famous 
Western chief, Logan. Shikellimy was an able 
man, and was a true friend of the whites all his 
life ; but he could not control the whole tribe, 
and they gave much trouble to the whites. 
Penn bought all their lands, but they acted 
as though they were dissatisfied and wanted their 
lands as well as the presents they received for 
them, and were always asking for more. Pem- 
berton and several other English Quakers listen- 
ed to their falsehoods, and this gave the pro- 
prietors of Pennsylvania much trouble. Their 
dealings with the Connecticut people caused much 
trouble all around. The Six Nations treated them 
as women, and did not allow them to be heard 
in their councils. A part of the Delawares located 
along the Brandywine, whence small bands of the 
tribe moved to the streams in the present Lancas- 
ter county, and after staying here several years 
they settled near the Shawanese, with whom they 
traveled on the war-path, partaking of their treach- 
erous character. The Delawares called themselves 
Le7tni Lenapes^ or the "Original People." 



14 BRIK^ HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

THE NANTICOKES. 

The Nanticokes located upon the eastern shores 
of Chesapeake bay. They were quite numerous, 
but were subdued by the more powerful Six 
Nations, who made them their vassals. They 
were allowed to move to Tulpehocken valley, and 
remained there until 1721, when the large settle- 
ment of Germans which came from New York 
made them restless, and many of the tribe moved 
to Cocalico township in lyancaster county, settling 
along "Indian River" at the place known as 
"Indian Town." As late as 1758, there were 
still several scattered families of the tribe along 
the little streams and springs in that vicinity. 
The town covered 500 acres, which came into the 
possession of John Wistar and Henry Carpenter. 
Another part of the Nanticoke tribe had a town 
upon the land now owned by Levi S. Reist, called 
"Ivchoy." That land was also bought from the 
Penn family by John Wistar. The Nanticokes 
understood the English language, and they there- 
fore mingled with the white settlers, with whom 
they were friendly. They afterward moved up the 
West Branch of the Susquehanna. The Nanti- 
cokes and Gawanese spoke a kindred language. 
At the time of their greatest power they were 
constantly obliged to act on the defensive against 
their more powerful neighbors, the Susquehan- 
nocks, afterward called the Conestogas, who sent 
out small war parties to kill the Nanticoke hun- 
ters, whom they found in the woods away from 
their principal towns. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 



15 



THE SUSQUEHANNOCKS. 

The Susquehannocks were once the most power- 
ful and aggressive of 'all the Indian tribes along 
the Susquehanna river and Chesapeake bay. They 
conquered the weaker tribes, but they did not 
absorb them or form a confederation like the Six 
Nations of New York, and force their enemies to 
pay tribute every year or to furnish young war- 
riors to recruit their war parties. The Susque- 
hannocks were strictly a warlike and hunting 
nation, and failed to adapt themselves to agricul- 
ture even after an intercourse with the white set- 
tlers for more than a century and a-half. 

CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH AND THE SUSQUEHANNOCKS. 

Captain John Smith, the celebrated Virginia 
pioneer, during one of his ex- 
ploring tours, reached the head 
of Chesapeake bay, and there 
met a hunting party of Susque- 
hannocks. He described them 
as taller and more muscular than 
any other Indians whom he had 
seen. He made a map of the 
shores of the Chesapeake and 
the streams flowing into it, and 
also drew a picture of a Susque- 
hannock chief. The Indians 

met Smith's party with skins. Black Ja^^^p ear, from 
i_ j^ J 1 -I Manor Township. 

bows, arrows, targets, beads, size, 6x/x2f^ inches, 
spears and tobacco-pipes for presents. 




16 BRIKI^ HISTORY OI^ I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

CAPTAIN SMITH'S DESCRIPTION. 

In describing the Susquehannock chief, Captain 
Smith said that "the calves of his legs were three- 
quarters of a yard about, and all the rest of his 
limbs so answerable to that proportion, and he 
seemed the goodliest man I ever saw." * * * 
"They seemed like giants, and were the strangest 
people in all these countries, both in language and 
attire ; their language well becomes their propor- 
tions, sounding from them as a voice in a vault. 
Their attire is the skins of bears and wolves, some 
have cassocks made of bears' heads, and skins 
that a man's head goes through the skin's neck, 
and the ears of the bear fastened to his shoulder, 
the nose and teeth hanging down his breast, 
another bear's face split behind him, and at the 
end of their nose hung a paw, the half-sleeves com- 
ing to the elbows, where the neck of bears and the 
arms through the mouth, with paws hanging at 
their noses. One had the head of a wolf hanging 
in a chain for a jewel, his tobacco-pipe, three- 
quarters of a yard long, prettily carved, with a 
bird, a deer, or some such device at the great end 
sufficient to beat out one's brains, with bows, 
arrows and clubs suitable to their greatness." 

FINDING LARGE SKELETONS. 

Captain Smith's account of the gigantic stature 
of the Susquehannock.s has been corroborated by 
subsequent discoveries. This tribe had a small 
stockade on the Susquehanna river at the mouth 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 17 

of the Octoraro. The foundations of the bridofe 
across the Octoraro at this point were excavated 
when the Columbia & Port Deposit Railruad was 
constructed, and very large human skeletons were 
then and there found. 

SUSQUEHANNOCK FORT IN MANOR. 

In Captian Smith's time the Susquehannocks 
mustered 600 warriors. They had a stockade fort 
upon the land now owned by John H. Wittmer, 
about halfway between Wittmer's Mill and Strick- 
ler's Run, at the foot of Turkey Hill, in Manor 
township. This fort was large enough to protect 
their entire tiibe, along with their warriors. 

SUSQUEHANNOCK WARFARE WITH THE SIX NATIONS. 

The Susquehannocks roamed over the forests as 
far north as the St. Lawrence river and Lake 
Champlain, and often skirmished with the Iroquois, 
or Six Nations, who protected their towns by 
stockades. After a warfare of a century with the 
Six Nations, the Susquehannocks were conquered 
and their tribe broken up by the Cayugas and Sen- 
ecas, two of the Six Nations. 

FUR TRADE ON THE CHESAPEAKE. 

The Susquehannocks ceded to the English all 
the land on the eastern shore of the Chesapeake 
and about the head of that bay. Very soon the fur 
trade with the Susquehannocks became so great 
and profitable that a number of Englishmen set- 
tled on Kent Island, in the Chesapeake; but wlien 



18 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY, 

they discovered the greed of the English traders 
they refused to trade with them and broke up 
their settlement. 

THE SUSQUEHANNOCKS AND THE MARYLANDERS. 

In 1630 William Clayborne, a member of the 
Virginia Council, established a trading-post on 
Kent Island; but soon afterward a body of Eng- 
lishmen called " Pilgrims " bought the island from 
the Yoacomacoes Indians, who were constantly 
annoyed by the Susquehannocks, who ravaged 
their country. Clayborne instigated the Susque- 
hannocks to make war on the " Pilgrim " settlers. 
The "Pilgrims" made war on Clayborne, who 
had rebelled against Lord Baltimore, the founder 
of Maryland, but who was finally defeated in 1637 
and arrested for high treason. In 1642 he returned 
and recaptured Kent Island and drove Governor 
Calvert, of Maryland, to' Virginia. 

ALLIANCE WITH MARYLAND. 

The Susquehannocks frequently attacked the 
Yoacomacoes and the Massawomekes, another war- 
like tribe along the Chesapeake, and also gave the 
Maryland colony at St. Mary's constant trouble; 
but they were finally obliged to use all their 
strength to defend themselves against the attacks 
of the Six Nations from New York, who invaded 
their country. On July 5, 1652, the Susquehan- 
nocks made a treaty of alliance, offensive and 
defensive, with the Maryland colony, on the site 
of Annapolis, the Susquehannocks ceding to the 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTER COUNTY. 19 

Marylanders all the land from the Patuxent river 
to Kent Island, on the western side of the Chesa- 
peake bay, and from the Choptauk river to the 
northeast branch and to the north of Elk river, on 
the eastern side of the bay. 

WAR WITH THE SENEGAS. 

In 1661 the Susquehannocks were at war with 
the Senecas, one of the Six Nations, who crossed 
the Susquehanna many miles above the fort of the 
Susquehannocks, and robbed and killed some of 
the white settlers. In June, 1664, one of the 
Senecas was captured ; and forty Susquehannocks, 
who were present at his trial, wanted him burned 
as a punishment for his cruelty. In 1664 about 
100 Seneca warriors came to the Chesapeake, and 
killed several of the Maryland settlers and some 
Susquehannocks whom they caught hunting. In 
June of that year the Maryland colony declared 
war against the Senecas, who went on the war- 
path against the Susquehannocks the next year. 
The Marylanders, as allies of the Susquehannocks, 
sent several expeditions against the Senecas, who 
threatened to exterminate both the Susquehan- 
nocks and the English settlers of Maryland. 

DEFEAT OF THE SENECAS— OVERTHROW OF THE 
SUSQUEHANNOCKS. 

After the war between the Susquehannocks and 
the Senecas had gone on for several years, the 
Susquehannocks were hard pressed by their 
enemies. The Marylanders became alarmed for 
their own safety, and sent an expedition under 



20 BRIKF HISTORY 01^ tANCASTE^R COUNTY. 

Colonel Ninian Be^ll to the aid of the Susqiiehan- 
nocks, Avho were besieged in their fort by the 
Senecas. The Marylanders marched np the east 
bank of the Snsquehanna river to the town and 
fort of the Susqnehannocks in Manor township, 
taking several cannon with them. The Senecas 
were badly defeated by the Marylanders, who thus 
rescued the Susqnehannocks from their peril. 
This victory occurred some time between 1675 
and 1682. Several years afterwards the Susqne- 
hannocks suffered so crushing a defeat from the 
Senecas and Cayugas that the tribe was broken 
up and scattered. 

WILLIAM PENN'S VISIT TO THE SUSQUEHANNOCKS. 
THEIR NEW TOW^N. 

When William Penn came to Pennsylvania in 
1682 he visited the Susqnehannocks at their fort. 
After their great defeat and overthrow by the 
Senecas and Cayugas, the Susqnehannocks gath- 
ered their few remaining warriors, their old men 
and their women and children, and left their old fort 
on the banks of the Susquehanna, and located on 
Turkey Hill, four miles southeast of their former 
abode. There was plenty of spring water (it their 
new home, and Penn gave them a reservation of 
500 acres. The Penns were obliged to furnish a 
person to cultivate the land and manage the tribe 
until it became extinct. This tract of land caused 
the Penn family much expense and trouble while 
they owned it. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCAvSTER COUNTY. 21 

AFTERWARD CALLED CONESTOGAS. 

Although their great defeat by the Senecas and 
Cayiigas completely broke their militar}' power, 
the Susqiiehannocks, who were called Conestogas 
from the time of their settlement in their new 
home, continued to exert much influence upon the 
neighboring Indian tribes and upon the colonial 
authorities of Pennsylvania, until they were exter- 
minated in 1763. 

THE PENNSYLVANIA AUTHORITIES AND THE CONESTOGAS. 

Governors Evans, Gookin, Keith and Logan of 
Pennsylvania had conferences with the Conestogas 
at their new town, and William Penn again visited 
them in 1700. In 1710 the tribe was ruled by a 
female. The Conestogas afterwards lived as vaga- 
bonds, begging from farm-house to farm-house. 
Their only articles of trade were brooms and 
willow baskets. All the money they received they 
spent for rum. They were constantly begging 
the colonial authorities for clothing and moccasins. 
They wandered through the community bare- 
footed, and many of them had no clothing except 
a breechclout, while many went to Philadelphia 
naked. To keep them from starving, James 
Wright, who lived in the stone house on Second 
street in Columbia, was appointed by the Gover- 
nor of the colony to furnish them with clothing 
and food — a duty which he performed faithfully. 
He got the clothing in Philadelphia ; and the 
flour which he obtained was made at the "little 



22 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 



stone mill " on Shawanese Run, which was torn 
down many years ago. 

END OF THAT TRIBE. 

The account of the sad and melancholy fate of 
this once powerful tribe will be related in our 
account of the French and Indian War, which 
ended in 1763. 

INDIAN SITES IN LANCASTER COUNTY. 

lyocalities in I^ancaster county where Indian 
relics have been found are very numerous. Along 
the Susquehanna river shore and on the islands of 
the river, along both banks of the Conestoga, the 
Pequea, the Octoraro, the Cocalico and other 
streams, are the evidences of Indian fishing camps 
and burying - grounds. Indian 
burying-grounds also existed on 
the various hills throughout 
the county, as attested by the 
numerous relics of stone, bone, 
shell and clay. Almost every 
township in the county is rich 
in Indian relics. 

The entire Susquehanna shore 
and the islands of the river bear 

Greenstone Pipe, from evidcUCCS of haviug bcCU the 
Strasburg Township. ^^ 

Size, 3Kx2K Inches, sitcs of ludiau villagcs, fishing 
camps or grave-yards. The most important of these 
Indian sites on the river in this county are at 
Locust Grove and Haldeman's quarries, near Bain- 
bridge; at Shoch's Mill, above Marietta; on the 




BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 23 

site of the Shawnee town at Columbia; at several 
places between Washington borough and Turkey 
Hill; at the mouth of the Pequea, and at other 
places along the river. 

Indian relics have been found all along the 
Conestoga, especially opposite the City Mill and 
Water Works, at Fehl's Point and at Rock Hill. 
On the Pequea, about a mile above its mouth, the 
Indians quarried soapstone for pottery and cooking 
utensils. 

Professor Haldeman found many relics in the 
cave on Chickies Rock. The great flood of 1889 
washed out numerous remains in a number of 
places. 

ON THE SITE OF LANCASTER CITY. 

In the center of what is now Lancaster city was 
a favorite hickory tree of the Indians. This tree 
stood in front of Gibson's tavern, which was on 
the site of the First National Bank, on East 
King street. South of Gibson's tavern was a large 
spring, walled in in a rough manner by the Indians, 
and covered with a large flat stone. The site of 
this spring was found in 1882, on Julius Loeb's 
property, on South Queen street. That was evi- 
dently the site of an Indian camping ground. 
Many relics, among which was considerable earth- 
enware, have been found. There were many hick- 
ory trees between the spring and Roaring Brook, 
now W^ater street. The Conestoga Indians mur- 
dered by the Paxton Boys, at the old jail, were 



24 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTKR COUNTY. 



buried on what is now the property of Henry 
Martin, on East Chestnut street. 

CHARACTER OF THE INDIAN RELICS. 

Among the numerous Indian relics are many 
which excite our wonder and interest, because of 
the skill and ingenuity displayed 
in the rude construction of the 
implements and weapons which 
the savage aborigines of this 
^. beautiful county used in their 
everyday life and in their wars 
with their enemies. No part of 
the country is richer in beautiful 
and curious remains of the rude 
art of the Red Man than is this 

Brown Jasp^rrow- GardcU SpOt of thc old KcyStOUC 
Point, from Rapho C^qfp 
Township. '' 

Size, 2%xi>4 Inches. 'Xhe various kinds of stone of 
which many of these relics are composed are flint, 
bluestone and #ther kinds of limestone, granite, 
jasper, quartz, trap, greenstone, iron stone, sand- 
stone, soapstone, slate, etc. 

The most numerous of these relics are flint 
arrow heads. Among other stone relics are axes, 
hammers, tomahawks, cooking vessels, needles, 
drills, drilled ceremonial stones, cutting tools, dig- 
ging tools, beads, dressing stones, pipes, rolling 
pins, grinding and rubbing stones, etc. Soapstone 
pipes and soapstone pots have been found. 

Among other interesting relics are decorated 




BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 



25 



pottery, scalping knives and other implements of 
bone, clay pipes and other clay relics, and copper 
remains. Beads made of elass, 
elks' teeth, bears' tusks, shell, 
bone and stone are also to be 
seen in our Indian collections. 
Cakes of Indian paint have been 
found near Shoch's Mill, above 
Marietta. Such are some of the 
Indian relics collected from every 
ery part of our great county by 
our local antiquarians. These 
Grooved Ax (Granite), interesting rcmaius are jcon- 

from Drumore Township. ^ ' 

Size, 4 by aVg. stautly bciug fouud by those who 
make it their business to look for them. They 
are found along our noble streams, on our wo'oded 
hills, and on freshly plowed ground. They are 
often turned up by the farmer's plow, but are 
unobserved by people in general, and are only 
noticed by those who are interested in the collec- 
tion of such remains of savage art and skill. 




CHAPTER 11. 

THE INDIAN TRADER. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE INDIAN TRADER. 

^"T^HE Indian Trader was one of the early 
frontiersmen who, instead of taking to farming 
or trading in the neighborhood in which he lived, 
would make long and dangerous journeys into the 
wilderness inhabited by the Indians. There, far 
from the settlements of the white man, he went 
for the purpose of exchanging such wares as were 
most likely to take the fancy of the Indian and his 
squaw. The Indian women were very much 
attracted by the showy trinkets and the goods of 
bright colors which the trader would take in his 
wagons and display at the far distant Indian vil- 
lages. These cheap articles they exchanged for 
pelts (skins of all kinds of fur-bearing animals), 
giving a small price for the pelts and making a 
large profit on their goods. The trader nearly 
always carried a liberal supply of rum or whiskey, 
of which the Indians, like all savages, were very 
fond. Some of the red men would readily trade all 
they had for the fire-water. This would oft-times 
cause trouble and bring on a fight in wliich some of 
the savages would be killed. vSometimes the trader 
himself was killed and his stock of goods and 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 27 

wagon were taken by the Indians. For this cause 
many traders would travel together for mutual pro- 
tection ; but even then they were often attacked 
by Indian parties, and pitched battles followed in 
which some on both sides were killed or wounded. 

Many traders went as far as the Ohio long before 
there were any wdiite settlers beyond the Alle- 
gheny mountains. On these trips they traveled 
many hundreds of miles, at the risk of life and 
property, for the sake of the rich profits of the 
Indian trade. 

Some of the most prominent traders of this 
county, and indeed of Pennsylvania, were Scotch- 
Iri^h from w^hat is now Donegal township. These 
were followed closely by the German settlers, both 
of whom established trading-posts beyond the 
white settlements. Many of these posts were 
located at or near Indian villages, along the rivers, 
or on Indian trails or pathways through the for- 
ests. The traders in many cases were the most 
prominent and influential men of colonial times. 

SCOTCH-IRISH IN DONEGAL. 

That adventurous class of whites during the col- 
onial period who were known as Indian traders, 
and wdio established themselves on the outskirts 
of civilization, made Lancaster county a prolific 
field for their operations, and their influence was 
most powerfully felt in moulding popular sentiment 
among the frontier settlers. The region which 
became Donegal township was the nursery of most 



28 BRlKF HISO^ORV 6^ tANCAS'feR COUNTY. 

of these traders, who were mainly Scotch-Irish; 
and Scotch-Irish Presbyterians followed up the 
traders and pressed the Indians beyond the Alle- 
gheny mountains. The Germans of the Lutheran 
and Reformed denominations kept on the right 
flank of the Scotch-Irish from Big Chickies creek, 
where it entered Lebanon township. The left 
flank of the Scotch-Irish pushed across the Sus- 
quehanna river as far south as the Maryland line. 
When the traders moved their stations to the Yel- 
low Breeches Creek and Conecocheague, the van of 
the Scotch-Irish pioneers pressed on and occupied 
the Cumberland Valley. The pioneer Indian tra- 
ders within the territory embraced in the present 
limits of Lancaster county were French Canadians, 
who had first located along the Schuylkill and the 
Brandywine. 

FRENCH CANADIAN TRADERS. 

The CharTierES. — Martin Chartiere, one of 
the most noted of these French Canadian traders, 
and who married an Indian squaw, established his 
permanent residence with the Shawanese Indians 
when they came from the south and settled at Pequea 
creek. He spoke the language of the Delaware 
Indians flueatly, and obtained much influence with 
the savages. The Shawanese chief, Logan, desired 
to be on peaceful terms with him, and tried to 
gain his friendship. The loan commissioners, who 
were the Penns' agents for the sale of their lands, 
gave him a vast tract of land extending from the 
mouth of the Conestoga creek several miles up the 



feRIKF HISTORY OF^ I.ANCASTBR COUNTY. 29 

Susquehanna. He built his trading-post, and at 
last settled upon the farm afterwards owned by 
the Stamans, at or near where they built a saw- 
mill, in Washington borough. He died there in 
1708. A message announcing Chartiere's death 
was sent to Chief Logan, who attended his funeral. 
He left all his property to his only son, Pierre 
Chartiere, who also married a Shawanese squaw. 
Pierre sold his farm in Manor to Stephen Atkin- 
son in 1727, and moved to the mouth of Yellow 
Breeches Creek, thence to Conecocheague, and 
thence to the Ohio. He joined the Shawanese 
Indians against the English during the French and 
Indian War. He gave the English and the pro- 
prietors of Pennsylvania much trouble during his 
whole life. 

BiZAiLLox. — Pierre Bizaillon, also a French 
Canadian, established a trading-post near the 
Schuylkill, but soon settled permanently in East 
Cain township, in Chester county. His trading- 
post was among the Paxtang Indians. In I7i9his 
wife Martha obtained a patent for 700 acres of land 
in Donegal township, a little below Conoy creek, 
adjoining the Conoy Indian town. She sold this 
land to the Brennemans and Hesses. Pierre Bizail- 
lon died in 1740 at a great age. His wife died 
several years later. Both were members of the 
Church of England. 

Le Tort. — Jacques Le Tort, another French 
Canadian, first located on the Brandywine, but 
afterwards established a trading-post at the Conoy 



30 BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANCAvSTER COUNTY. 

Indian town. His wife took up 900 acres of land 
in Donegal township, at Sparks' Mill, which after- 
wards came into the possession of the Groves, the 
Zieglers and the Stehmans. Le Tort moved to the 
spring bearing his name near Carlisle, in Cumber- 
land county. He afterwards moved to the forks of 
the North and West Branches of the Susquehanna, 
where he established a store. Both Le Tort and 
Bizaillon often made trading trips to the Ohio and 
Mississippi rivers, being absent sometimes for a 
year or two. 

ENGLISH AND SCOTCH-IRISH TRADERS. 

The Cartridges. — Edmund Cartlidge and his 
brother John were English Quakers who traded 
with the Indians. Edmund was a Justice of the 
Peace for Chester county several years before the 
organization of Lancaster county. He settled on 
the west side of Conestoga creek near its mouth, 
near the Conestoga Indian town. Several Indian con- 
ferences were held at his house. His brother John 
settled several miles east of the Conestoga. While 
they were at the Monocacy, in Maryland, they 
killed an intoxicated Indian, who had attacked them 
because they refused to give him more rum. They 
were imprisoned for this affair, but were released 
at the intercession of the Indians themselves. They 
never wholly recovered the public confidence, but 
remained at the Conestoga for twenty years. 

James Patterson. — James Paterson, a Scotch- 
Irishman, located a mile back of Martin Chartiere, 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTER COUNTY. 31 

along the northern border of Conestoga Manor, 
in 1717, and there established a trading-post. He 
took up several hundred acres of land in Conejo- 
hera valley, on the west side of the Susquehanna 
river, and there kept the pack-horses with which he 
used to bring the peltries which he bought from the 
Indians along the Potomac river. Some of this 
land was cleared for grazing purposes. Patterson's 
Indian trade west of the river was broken up by 
the border struggle between the Pennsylvanians 
and the ^Marylanders, called Cresap" s War. 

James Patterson died at his home in the ]\Ianor 
in 1735, before the end of these border troubles. 
He gave his son James 300 acres of land along the 
Conecocheague, in the Cumberland Valley, whence 
James moved after his father's death. James was 
the father of Colonel William Patterson, who set- 
tled at Lewistown, on the Juniata, and who was a 
prominent officer in the French and Indian War, 
and also in the War of the Revolution. William's 
son Robert married Sarah Shippen, daughter of 
Robert Shippen. ]\Ir. Patterson, the late superin- 
tendent of the Safe Harbor iron- works, is a descen- 
dant of Robert Patterson. The elder James Pat- 
terson's son Thomas died in his minority. He had 
three daughters — Susanna, who married James 
Lowry, an Indian trader, who lived in Donegal 
township; vSarah, who married Benjamin Cham- 
bers, the founder of Chambersburg; and Rebecca, 
who married John Keagy, who bought the inter- 
est of her mother and sisters in the old mansion 
farm, now the property of Jacob B. Shuman. 



32 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

John Harris. — John Harris, a Quaker and a 
native of Yorkshire, England, was a noted Indian 
trader. He first intended to settle near the mouth 
of Conoy creek, not far from the site of Bainbridge. 
He was the first white settler at Paxton, the site 
of Harrisburg, where he established his trading- 
post in 1 719. He was also the first person who 
introduced the plow on the Susquehanna, within 
the limits of the present Dauphin county. An 
interesting incident occurred in his life at Paxton. 
On one occasion, a band of Indians, who had been 
down the river on a trading excursion, came to his 
house, most of them being intoxicated. They 
asked for more rum; but, as they were already 
very much intoxicated, he refused to give them 
more. They became enraged, and tied him to a 
mulberry tree to burn him alive; but other 
Indians of the neighborhood came to his rescue, 
and released him after a struggle. In remembrance 
of that event, he afterward directed that on his 
death he should be buried under the shade of that 
mulberry tree. He died in 1748, and was buried 
there, as were some of his children. The title to 
the grave-yard, to the extent of fifteen feet square, 
was secured for the family. The Rev. John Elder 
said of John Harris: " He was as honest a man as 
ever broke bread." His son, John Harris, the foun- 
der of Harrisburg, was born on the site of that 
city in 1726, and was the first white child born in 
Pennsylvania west of the Conewago hills. He was 
a colonel in the American army during the Revo- 
lution, and died in 1791, aged 65. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 33 

Peter Allen. — Peter iVllen, an English Indian 
trader, settled on the north side of Chickies creek, 
in 1718 ; bnt several years later sold his land to 
the Rev. James Anderson, a Scotch-Irish Presby- 
terian preacher, who sold it to William Wilkins, 
an English Indian trader, and who moved to the 
the eastern base of the mountains above Harris- 
burg. 

Jonas Davenport. — Jonas Davenport, who 
located at Conoy creek in 1718, was one of the 
first three English Indian traders who crossed the 
Allegheny mountains to trade with the Indians on 
the Ohio. He suffered great losses from hostile 
Indians. He lost many of his old friends by ill- 
treating an apprentice, and finally lost all his 
property and died poor at Patrick Campbell's tav- 
ern, near Conoy creek. 

Robert Wilkins. — Robert Wilkins, an English 
Indian trader, first settled along the Conestoga 
creek, next to Richard Carter, who afterward 
moved farther up the creek. In 1718 Wilkins took 
up 200 acres of land along the Susquehanna river, 
and in 1727 he sold it to the Rev. James x\nderson, 
whose descendants founded the town of Marietta 
upon it. 

William Wilkins.— William Wilkins was first 
"bound out" to Edmund Cartlidge, and was pres- 
ent w^hen Cartledge killed the drunken Indian at 
the Monocacy. Soon afterward he bought the Allen 
tract near Chickies and began to trade for himself 



34 BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

with the Indians of the Shenandoah valley, in Vir- 
ginia. He moved to Peters township, in Cumber- 
land county, where he died, leaving three sons — 
James, Robert and William. 

Janet, the widow of William Wilkins, after- 
wards married her first husband's administrator, 
Nathaniel Lytic, by whom she had a son named 
John. Lytic undertook to convey the Wilkins 
property to his son John ; but the heirs of William 
Wilkins contested the matter in the courts many 
years after their father's death; and Lytic was 
compelled to pay James Wilkins, the eldest son of 
William, to obtain his release. The Pennsylvania 
Assembly passed an act authorizing and legalizing 
a sale made by John Lytic to Andrew Hershey. 
In 1772 John Lytic removed to Upper Paxtang, 
and there established a ferry across the Susque- 
hanna river. 

Thomas Wii^kins. — Thomas Wilkins took up 
150 acres of land on the north side of Robert Wil- 
kins' s tract on the site of Marietta, in 1718. This 
land was afterwards sold to John Lowry, a Scotch- 
Irish Indian trader. 

Thomas Wilkins, son of Robert, moved back 
several miles from the river and settled near Done- 
gal Church. He died in 1746, leaving four chil- 
dren — Andrew, John, Mary and Elizabeth. 

John Wilkins. — John Wilkins, another son ot 
Robert, took up several hundred acres of land 
adjoining Gordon Howard's, now in Mount Joy 



BRIEF HISTORY OP I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 35 

township, on which Nissley's mill is located. He 
was one of the first persons who went with the 
sheriff's posse to arrest Colonel Thomas Cresap, 
but was himself afterward arrested by Cresap, who 
took him to Annapolis, in Maryland, where he was 
imprisoned. He traded with the Indians along 
the Ohio, and died in 1741, leaving two children, 
Rachel and John, the latter of whom was born in 
Donegal, in 1733. John was also an Indian trader, 
and removed to Carlisle in 1763, where he opened 
a store in the Indian trade. He was appointed 
county lieutenant for Cumberland county during 
the War of the Revolution. In 1788 he removed 
to Pittsburg, where he died in 1810. 

Peter Wilkins, another son of Robert, and 
with whom his father lived, died in 1748, and left 
three children — William, James and Margaret. 

Isaac Miranda. — Isaac Miranda, a Huguenot 
Frenchman and an Indian trader, located on the 
east bank of Conoy creek, below Ridgeville, in 
1 71 5, and died in November, 1732, leaving to his 
son George, also an Indian trader, a large tract of 
land along the Rahway river in New Jersey, and 
to his son Samuel 500 acres in Donegal township, 
while to his daughter Mary he left several houses 
in Philadelphia, and to James Hamilton, Esq., w^ho 
laid out the town of Lancaster, he gave several 
thousand acres of land in New Jersey and a large 
amount of personal property, provided he would 
marry his daughter Mary. His brother Joseph 
was steward to the Duke of Tuscany. 



86 BRI^I^ HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

Henry Bealy. — Henry Bealy was one of the 
first English Indian traders who crossed the Alle- 
gheny monntains to trade with the Indians on the 
Ohio. This was in 1727. He died in 1745. 

John Burt. — John Burt, an English Indian 
trader, first located near the Indian town in Manor, 
and traded with the Indians several years before 
he took out a license for that purpose in 1726. 
Thence he moved to Snaketown (now Harrisburg), 
and there established a trading-post and a store. 
On Monday, September 11, 1727, he sold rum to 
a party of Indians at his store, and in their intoxi- 
cation he exasperated them and was forced to flee 
for his life ; but Thomas Wright, a drunken Eng- 
lishman, was killed by the infuriated Indians — the 
first instance of the murder of a white man by the 
Indians in Pennsylvania. Burt became intemper- 
ate himself, and soon afterward located on the 
Ohio. 

Samuel Smith. — Samuel Smith, an English 
Indian trader and a son of James Smith, also lived 
at Conoy, next to Isaac Miranda. He sold his 
property to Patrick Campbell. 

MoSES Combs. — Moses Combs, an English 
Indian trader and a brother of Martha Bizaillon, 
had a trading-post near Conoy, and owned several 
hundred acres of land along the river. He died in 
East Cain township, Chester county. 

John Boggs. — John Boggs, also an English 
Indian trader and son of Andrew Boggs, began to 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 37 

trade with the Indians along the Allegheny and 
Ohio rivers in 1763. In 1784-85 he and Colonel 
^Alexander Lowry were selected to bring the In- 
dians to Fort Mcintosh. He moved to the Cum- 
berland Valley, where he became a prominent citi- 
zen. 

Lazarus Lowry. — Lazarus Lowry, a Scotch- 
Irish Indian trader, settled in Donegal township in 
1729, where he took up 333 acres of land now owned 
by United States Senator James Donald Cameron, 
about two miles from Marietta. He established a 
trading-post, and in 1730 he took out a license to 
trade with the Indians and also to sell liquor "by 
the small." His dwelling is yet standing. He 
was noted for his energy, industry and courage. 
He often made trading trips to the Ohio and Mis- 
sissippi rivers, taking his sons James, John, Daniel 
and Alexander with him. He owmed several small 
farms near his first purchase. His second wife 
had been the widow of Thomas Edwards. He 
died in Philadelphia in 1755, leaving five children 
by his second wife — Lazarus, Thomas, Benjamin, 
William and Martha. 

John Lowry. — John Lowry, son of the preced- 
ing, traded with his father among the Indians west 
of the Alleghenies before 1740. He owned 400 
acres of land along the Susquehanna river, now 
embracing the farms of the late Colonel James 
Duff"y and Benjamin F. Hiestand, the upper part 
of Marietta and the land north of the Mavtown 



38 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

turnpike. He and his father owned the land 
extending from Maytown to the Colebrook road. 
In 1750 he bought 300 acres of land at Carlisle 
from David Magaw, after which he proceeded to 
the Ohio to trade with the Delaware and Shawan- 
ese Indians, who were then bitterly hostile to the 
English and friendly to the French. While he 
was seated near a keg of powder an Indian applied 
a match, and the explosion which followed killed 
him. A French trader was afterwards arrested for 
disobeying the order of the English commander at 
the fort where he traded. He escaped to the Picts, 
who were friendly to the English and who deliv- 
ered him to James Lowry in Donegal township. 
The latter held him as a hostage for several weeks, 
but released him when he found that he could 
not compel the French commander to deliver 
up the Indian who killed his brother John. 

James Lowry. — James Lowry, son of Lazarus 
Lowry and brother of John Lowry, married 
Susanna, daughter of James Patterson, the famous 
Indian trader. He bought from James Logan sev- 
eral hundred acres of land in Donegal township, 
several miles above Marietta, along the Suaquehan- 
na river. This tract was a part of James Le Tort's 
tract of 900 acres. He had great influence with 
the Indians along the Ohio, and he and George 
Croghan prevented some of the tribes from joining 
the French in their war against the English. The. 
French commander at Detroit offered a large re- 
ward for the arrest of these two British Indian 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 39 

traders. Lowry was obliged to transfer his trade 
to the Catawba Indians of the Carolinas. 

CAPTURE AND ESCAPE OF JAMES LOWRY. 

On January 26, 1753, while James lyowry, Jacob 
Evans, Jabez Evans, William Powell, Thomas 
Hyde, Alexander Maginty and Daniel Hendricks, 
all of Lancaster county, were returning from a 
trading journey to the Catawbas, and were 
encamped on the south bank of the Kentucky 
river, about twenty miles from Blue lyick town, 
with a large stock of goods, furs and skins, they 
were attacked and made prisoners by the French 
Caughnawaga Indians. Several were wounded on 
each side. While these prisoners were being taken 
to Detroit, Lowry escaped and returned to his 
home in Donegal township. Jacob Evans and 
Thomas Hyde were taken to France. Jabez 
Evans, Powell and Maginty were placed among 
the Indians in Northern New York. Maginty 
informed the Governor and Council of Pennsyl- 
vania, and Conrad Weiser was sent to Albany to 
secure the release of the captive traders. Weiser 
found that Jabez Evans was adopted by an Indian 
squaw, and he received his release only after some 
trouble. All these traders, except LowTy, were 
financially ruined by their misfortunes. Maginty 
was afterward prominent in the Cumberland Valley. 

INDIAN ATTACK. 

In 1754 the Indians, led by a Mingo Indian 
named John, attacked Lowry' s traders at Gist's, 
killing several of them and taking Andrew Mc- 
Brier, Nehemiah Stevens, John Kennedy and 



40 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

Elizabeth Williams prisoners. Kennedy was shot 
through the leg and left at Fort Duquesne until he 
could be moved, but the others were sent to 
Canada. The Indians demanded a ransom of forty 
pistoles for each prisoner. These traders had been 
employed by James, Daniel and Alexander Lowry, 
and their goods were all destroyed. Because of 
these repeated losses, James Lowry sold his land in 
Donegal township, and moved away in 1758. 

Daniel Lowry — Daniel Lowry owned 300 acres 
of land adjoining Senator Cameron's farm on the 
north. He afterward sold this farm and bought 
the one which his brother John had previously 
owned. He suffered great losses in the West. 
W^hen Colonel James Bard commanded at Fort 
Augusta (Sunbury), in 1757-58, Daniel Lowry had 
a fleet of bateaux and supplied the soldiers with 
provisions. His brother Alexander bought his 
farm on June 5, 1759. Daniel moved to the Juni- 
ata. The late John G. Lowry, of Centre county, 
was his son. 

Alexander Lowry — Alexander Lowry was 
the most prominent of the Lowry brothers. He 
began to trade with the Indians in 1744, and often 
made trips to the Indian country for his father and 
brothers before that year and while he was a minor. 
He easily learned the Indian languages, and was 
able to speak several of them. He soon became a 
great favorite with the Indians, and took part in 
their sports, hunting and trapping with them. He 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 41 

created trading-stations at Fort Pitt and at Carlisle, 
and engaged men to visit different Indian tribes 
and trade for him. He went as far west as the 
French posts of Kaskaskia and Fort Chartres, on 
the Mississippi river. He often went among hostile 
tribes, but was only once molested by the Indians, 
and then saved his life by his courage and his 
swiftness in running. After his father's death he 
bought his mansion, farm, and other property be- 
longing to his estate, and thereafter accumulated 
large tracts of land, and constantly increased his 
wealth, although he suffered great losses from the 
Indians at "Bloody Run." He lost over /'Sooo 
at Bloody Run, and afterward suffered heavy losses 
by advancing money to some of the other sufferers, 
and by expending money to establish a title and 
obtain possession of certain tracts of land in Vir- 
ginia. He traded with the Indians for almost half 
a century, and was long interested with his life- 
long friend, Joseph Simons, an Indian trader who 
resided in Lancaster. When these two traders had 
passed the age of seventy they selected three friends, 
one of whom was Mr. Adam Reigart, to settle 
their transactions, which had covered many years. 
Neither had a written account, and they made a 
verbal statement to these three friends about all 
their dealings with each other. There was no dis- 
pute or difference between them, and then and 
there they made a settlement that their heirs could 
not disturb. 
James Hamilton — Colonel James Hamilton, of 



42 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

Leacock township, a Scotch-Irishman, established a 
trading-post at Conewago, where he owned a farm 
and a large island opposite thereto, owned by the 
late Colonel James Dnffy. He traded with the 
Indians on the Ohio, and established a store in 
that country. 

Joseph Simons — Joseph Simons was one of the 
wealthiest and most noted Indian traders in Penn- 
sylvania. He settled in Lancaster in 1740, and at 
once engaged in the Indian trade. He established 
a store at the south-east corner of Centre Square, 
and another afterward oa the south-west corner. 
He made many trips to the Ohio and Illinois 
country. He also had an interest in several other 
stores in the Indian country with a number of 
partners. He once owned many thousand acres 
of land. He \vas one of twenty-two Indian 
traders who were attacked by the Indians at 
Bloody Run, in 1763, and lost a large stock of 
goods. He died in Lancaster in 1804. 

Thomas Harris — Thomas Harris, an English 
Indian trader, established a trading-post at Cone- 
wago creek, and became one of the richest of the 
Indian traders. He removed from Donegal town- 
ship to Harford county, Maryland, before the 
Revolution, and afterward went to Baltimore. His 
sons became eminent physicians, one in Baltimore, 
another in Philadelphia, and another in New 
Brunswick, New Jersey. Some of his sons were 
prominent officers in the American army during 
the Revolution. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 43 

Barnabas Hughes — Barnabas Hughes, an En- 
glishman, was an Indian trader, and kept a tavern 
at Coney creek, on the site of Elizabethtown. 

The Galbraiths — James Galbraith, Jr., a 
Scotch-Irishman, was an Indian trader for a short 
time. John Galbraith, son of the preceding, 
located on the Susquehanna, at the mouth of 
Conoy creek, where he established a trading-post 
as early as 1760. He removed to the Cumberland 
Valley. 

John Gibson — Colonel John Gibson, who was 
born in Lancaster borough, of English stock, was 
an Indian trader and also an Indian fighter, and 
removed to the Ohio before the Revolution. He 
was an intimate friend of the famous Indian chief, 
Logan, and it has been said that it was to him that 
Logan delivered his celebrated speech about the 
murder of his relatives. He had great influence 
with the indians, but punished them when they 
were g-uiltv of wrong^s to the whites. He was con- 
nected with the American army in the West during 
the Revolution. 

George Gibson — Colonel George Gibson, bro- 
ther of John, was also born in Lancaster, and also 
became an Indian trader and fighter. He married 
a daughter of Francis West, and settled at Shear- 
man's Creek, in Perry county. He commanded an 
American regiment during the Revolution, and 
was in many battles. He was killed at General St. 
Clair's defeat bv the Indians in the Ohio country 



44 BRiBt' HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

in 1 791. He was the father of John Bannister 
Gibson, the able Chief Justice of Pennsylvania. 

John Kennedy — John Kennedy, a Scotch- Irish- 
man, traded for Lazarus Lowry for some years, and 
afterward for himself. He bought from I^azarus 
lyowry the farm upon which May town was built. 
He was wounded and captured by the Indians, but 
afterward raised a company and fought through the 
Indian wars. 

Dennis Suluvan — Dennis Sullivan, also a 
Scotch-Irishman and an Indian trader, once owned 
the farm sold to John Kennedy. He traded to the 
Ohio, and was deprived of everything by the 
Indians. 

James Harris — James Harris, an Englisman 
and an Indian trader, had his post near James lyC 
Tort's, two miles west of May town. 

Gordon Howard — Gordon Howard, an Englis- 
man, was one of the earliest and most prominent of 
the Indian traders. He owned and occupied the 
farm now owned by Mr. Hershey, two miles west 
of Mount Joy. 

Simon Girty — Simon Girty, the famous rene- 
gade and Indian trader, once located in Lancaster 
county, establishing a post on the Conewago, whence 
he moved to Shearman's Creek, and thence to the 
region beyond the Ohio, the scene of his later 
infamy. 




MAP OF 

PENNSYLVANIA, 

BEFORE THE ORGANIZATION OF 
LANCASTER COUNTY. 

BY I. 8. CLARE. 



SCALE OF MILES. 

q ^^0 25 50 75 



'::b 



100 




CHAPTER III. 

FIRST SETTLERS. 

THE QUAKERS AND PENNSYLVANIA. 

TOURING the civil wars in England two cen- 
^^ turies and a-half ago, the extreme Puritan sect 
of Friends, or Quakers, arose. Their founder was 
George Fox. Their fundamental principles were 
"freedom of mind, purity of morals, and universal 
enfranchisement." They condemned war as a 
sin, denounced capital punishment, imprisonment 
for debt, extravagance in living, vanity and 
idle luxury, falsehood in act and speech, opposed 
a paid ministry, and rejected the ordinanes of 
baptism and the Lord's Supper. 

They zealously advocated equal rights for 
women, and regarded the "universal inner light" 
in the heart as the guide of men's thoughts and 
actions. 

The Friends shared in the persecution to which 
all Non-conformists were subjected to in that age of 
intolerance. Many were cruelly beaten, or set in 
the stocks or exposed in the pillory. Many were 
thrust into mad houses, and others condemned to 
life-long imprisonment. Hoping to find a place of 
refuge in the new world, some emigrated to New 
England; but the Puritans, who had gone there to 
establish their own peculiar faith, feared the influ- 



46 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTKR COUNTY. 

ence of the Friendj?, restricted their worship, and 
punished cases of disobedience to their laws with 
exile and even wath death. 

One of the ablest leaders of the society there was 
William Penn, a young man, ardent, brave, wise, 
deeply religious, with well-trained intellectual pow- 
ers, gifted in speech, and a courtier in manner. In 
favor with the king, because of the achievements 
of his father, Admiral Penn, it is not strange that 
Charles II should have granted him a province in 
America. To this province the name of Pennsyl- 
vania was given; and here, in the autumn of 1682, 
Penn landed with a number of English Quakers, 
at the place where the city of Chester now stands. 
In this same year he made a treaty with the 
Indians at Shackamaxon, on the site of Philadel- 
phia. A popular assembly and a Charter of Liber- 
ties were granted to the people, and the "Holy 
Experiment " was thus begun on the banks of the 
Delaware in Pennsyvania. 

Pennsylvania remained in the hands of the Penn 
family until their claims were purchased by the 
Commonwealth, in 1776. Pennsylvania, together 
with Delaware which Penn had purchased, was 
originally divided into six counties, Philadelphia, 
Bucks, Chester, and the present counties of the 
state of Delaware — New Castle, Kent and Sussex. 

THE ORIGINAL CHESTER COUNTY. 

The present Lancaster county was a part ot 
Chester county until 1729. In this year, by an 
act of the Legislature, it was declared that all the 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 47 

lands \vithin the Province of Pennsylvania lying 
to the northwest of Octoraro creek and to the west- 
ward of a line of marked trees running from the 
North Branch of the said Octoraro creek, north- 
easterly to the Schuylkill, be erected into a county, 
named and from henceforth to be called Lancaster 
county. 

FIRST WHITE SETTLERS IN THE PRESENT LANCASTER 
COUNTY. 

The earliest white settlers in what is now Lan- 
caster county were Swiss and German ^Nlennonites, 
French Huguenots, Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, 
Welsh Episcopalians and English Quakers. 

The Swiss and Germans came as early as 1709, 
and settled in the Pequea valley, and on the site 
and in the vicinity of the present city of Lancas- 
ter. 

The Scotch-Irish, who came on the invitation 
of the first proprietor, located themselves on the 
Chickies creek and in Donegal about 1715. The 
French, from Alsace and Lorraine, occupied lands 
in the Pequea valley. The Welsh settled in the pres- 
ent C£ernar\-on township and on the Welsh moun- 
tains. The English Quakers settled in what are 
now Sadsbury and Salisbury townships. 

Before giving an account of these various settle- 
ments, it may be well to briefly state the circum- 
stances that led to their establishment here. 

ORIGIN OF THE MENNONITES IN GERMANY AND 
SWITZERLAND. 

This religious sect was named from IMenno 
Simon. It had its origin in Western Germany, in 



48 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

the region known as the Palatinate of the Rhine, 
during the stirring period of the Reformation, and 
was at first one of the most extreme of the Protes- 
tant sects. Its adherents have always been dis- 
tinguished for simplicity in dress and manners, for 
their aversion to oaths, to military service and to 
the use of law in settling difficulties or disputes. 

On account of their religion and political faith, 
the Mennonites suffered persecutions for almost two 
centuries in the Palatinate and in Switzerland. In 
the latter country the severity of their persecution 
was so great as to call for remonstrances from other 
nations. They were condemned to pull galleys while 
chained to their seats ; they were sold to Barbary 
pirates; they were imprisoned, beaten and beheaded. 

Among those who suffered in Switzerland be- 
tween 1638 and 1643 were Hans Landis, at Zti- 
rich ; Hans Miller, Hans Jacob Herr, Rudolph 
Bachman, Ulrich Miller, Oswald Landis, Fanny 
Landis, Barbara Neff, Hans Mylin and his two 
sons. Martin Mylin, one of these sons, was a 
famous Mennonite preacher and writer, and fled 
for refuge first to the Palatinate, and afterward to 
Alsace, where in 1645 ^^ wrote an account of the 
sufferings of his people. By an edict issued at 
Schaffhausen in 1650, the Mennonites were for- 
bidden the free exercise of their worship in that 
canton. A similar decree was issued by the Prince 
of Neuberg in 1653. These edicts led to a perse- 
cution of such severity that many fled from the 
cantons of Berne, Zurich and Schaffhausen to 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 49 

Alsace above Strasburg, where they remained 
some years, and then emigrated to Pennsylvania. 

The offense for which these people suffered so 
grievously was simply their refusal to hear all 
manner of preaching, they considering it wrong to 
attend public worship with other religious sects. 
Thus they incurred the displeasuse of other denom- 
inations and the wrath of magistrates. 

SUFFERINGS OF THE PALATINES. 

During the series of wars between Louis XIV. 
and the other monarchs of Europe, in the seven- 
teenth century, the Palatinate of the Rhine was 
invaded by the armies of France and ravaged with 
fire and sword — first in 1674, when crops, and 
houses, and farms, and villages, and towns were 
destroyed ; again in 1688, when hundreds of flour- 
ishing villages and no less than forty cities were 
reduced to ashes. 

Among these were Manheim, Heidelberg, Spires, 
Worms, Oppenheim and Bingen. The order of 
the Grand Monarque to "desolate the whole land " 
was most faithfully executed. 

In 1693 Heidelberg was again destroyed ; and 
1,500 men, women and children lost all their posses- 
sions, and fled in terror to the fields for safety. The 
people were induced by the Elector to return and 
rebuild their city, on the promise that they should 
be exempt from taxation for thirty years and 
should be allowed full liberty of worship. The 
Elector's promise was not kept, and a barbarous 
3 



50 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY. 

persecution ensued. Many escaped death by 
means of sudden flight. About 6,000 of these 
found their way to England, where they were 
welcomed by a public proclamation issued by 
Queen Anne in 1708. 

GERMAN AND SWISS EMIGRATION TO AMERICA. 

It was amid sufferings sucli as these that the 
Mennonites of the Palatinate and Switzerland 
resolved to seek a place of safety in America — a 
place, too, where they could worship as their faith 
approved. The Swiss canton of Berne had sent 
out Christopher de Graffenried and Louis Michelle 
to look for vacant lands iu Pennsylvania, Virginia 
and North Carolina. Prior to this time, in 1706 or 
1707, Michelle had been in America, and visited 
the Indians at Conestoga, while in search of some 
mineral or ore. The Quaker colony of Pennsyl- 
vania had already been founded by William Penn, 
whose creed provided freedom of religious worship, 
and here these suffering people were offered an 
asylum. About the same time — 1706 — a number 
of persecuted Swiss Mennonites went to England 
and made a special arrangement with Penn for 
lands in his province. In 1708 many Mennonites 
left Berne and went to London. There they 
pitched their tents around the city and were sup- 
ported at the public expense until they could find a 
way to come lu America. Some of these settled in 
New York, some in Pennsylvania, others in North 
Carolina. In 1709 many of these who were living in 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY. 51 

Strasburg, in iVlsace, whither they had fled from 
the Palatinate, sailed for America. In the same 
year about 3,000 Mennonites, in order to escape 
persecution in the Palatinate, found their way 
to England ; and in 1710 they came to New 
York, some settling in New York City, some in 
lyivings ton's Manor, Columbia county. New York, 
others in Germantown and in the present I^an- 
caster county, Pennsylvania. 

FIRST MENNONITE SETTLERS OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

In 1709 several Swiss Mennonite families whose 
ancestors had settled in the Palatinate emigrated 
to America and settled in what is now Lancaster 
county, Pennsylvania. Public documents and pri- 
vate papers in possession of Abram Mylin and 
others of West Lampeter township seem to indicate 
that this first settlement was made near Willow 
Street, where the Herr's and Mylin' s now reside. 

In the same year, 1709, Hans Mylin and his sons 
Martin and John, Hans Herr, John Rudolph 
Bundely, Martin Kendig, Jacob Miller, Martin 
Oberholtzer, Michael Oberholtzer, Hans Funk, 
Wendel Bowman and others selected 10,000 acres 
on the north side of Pequea creek, in West 
Lampeter and adjoining townships ; and in 17 10 
they obtained a warrant for this land, which they 
divided among them in April, 1711. Martin Ken- 
dig was granted 1855 acres in the present Strasburg 
township. The others, together with Christopher 
Franciscus, were granted tracts in the same region. 



52 BRIKF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

In 1 71 2 Amos Strettle was given 3380 acres in the 
present Strasburg township, and before 1734 he 
sold this part in small lots to a number of pur- 
chasers. Among these were a few English settlers, 
such as Septimius Robinson and John Musgrove, 
and some French Huguenots, Daniel Ferree and 
Isaac lycfevre; but the larger part of those who 
secured lots were Swiss Mennonites. Among the 
latter were Henry Shank, Ulrich Brackbill, George 
Suavely, Christian Musser, John Jacob Hoover, 
Samuel Hess, Samuel Boyer, Christian Stoner and 
Henry Zimmerman (or Carpenter). 

ARRIVAL OF MORE SV/ISS EMIGRANTS. 

A council of the society was held for the pur- 
pose of selecting by lot one of the number to go 
to Europe to bring the families of the settlers to 
their new home. The lot fell upon Hans Herr, 
their venerable preacher. But they could illy 
spare one who stood as a leader among them, and 
Martin Kendig offered to take his place. All 
very readily acceded to this. Martin Kendig at once 
proceeded to Europe, and after the lapse of some 
months returned with the families together with 
many new emigrants. Among these were Jacob Mil- 
ler, PeterYordea, Hans Tschantz, Henry Funk, John 
Houser, John Bachman, Jacob Weber, Venerick, 
Schlegel, Guldin and others. At this time came 
Hans Herr's five sons — Christian, Emanuel, John, 
Abraham and another whose name is unknown. 
Three of Hans Herr's sons settled in what is now 



BRIEF HISTORY OF IvANCASTKR COUNTY. 53 

West Lampeter township, and two in Manor town- 
ship. The Herrs of West Lampeter, Strasburg, 
Manor and other townships are their descendants. 

PROGRESS OF THE SETTLEMENT. 

The settlement now consisted of thirty families. 
With the Indian tribes of the vicinity — the Cones- 
togas, Pequeas and Shawanese — they lived on the 
most friendly terms, mingling with them in hunt- 
ing and fishing. Their annals speak of the In- 
dians as being "hospitable, respectful and exceed- 
ingly civil." 

The little colony improved their lands, planted 
orchards, and erected dwellings and a meeting and 
school house, in which religious worship w^as held 
on Sunday, and reading and writing were taught 
during the week. The same rude building served 
both important purposes for some years. Their 
first preachers were Hans Herr, Hans Tschantz and 
Ulrich Brackbill, the last of whom was accident- 
ally killed while driving his team on the road to 
Philadelphia. 

Around these Swiss Mennonites some Germans 
and French subsequently settled. Among the latter 
were the Ferrees, the Lefevres and some others, of 
whom we shall give some account. After the 
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV., 
in 1685, the Huguenots were the victims of a S3'ste- 
matic and terrible persecution. Some were brutally 
massacred by troops of dragoons. Many were sent 
to the galleys. Everything that bigotry could 



54 BRIKF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

devise was employed to torture and to destroy these 
defenceless people. Half a million fled to Eng- 
land, Holland and Germany, carrying their arts 
and industry with them. Daniel Ferree and his 
wife Mary, with their sons Daniel, Philip and John, 
and their daughters Catharine, Mary and Jane, 
escaped from their home at Lindau, near the Rhine, 
across the river into Germany, where they remained 
two years. Accompanying them in their flight was 
a young man named Isaac Lefevre, whose family 
had been killed by the soldiers. Daniel Ferree 
died, and his widow resolved to go to Ivondon to 
see William Penn with a view of making her home 
in Pennsylvania. Upon arriving in London she 
asked to be be directed to Penn's residence. The 
orentleman who was about to direct her, at that 
moment observed Penn's carriage approaching. 
The carriage was stopped. Penn invited her to a 
seat in it, and drove her to his home. He treated 
her with the greatest kindness, gave her a recom- 
mendation to his agent in Pennsylvania, and intro- 
duced her to Queen Anne, who received her very 
graciously. The Ferree family remained in Lon- 
don six months, and then embarked for America. 
After arriving at New York City they moved up 
the Hudson river to Esopus, where they remained 
two years, then went to Philadelphia, thence to 
the Mennonite settlement in the Pequea valley. 
Queen Anne granted them letters-patent, giving 
them the rights and privileges of English subjects, 
with the right to buy and hold land in their new 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 55 

settlement. Before they left London the queen pre- 
sented them with a variety of farming implements. 
These they used in clearing the land upon which 
they settled. Isaac Lefevre remained as one of the 
family until they arrived in America, when he 
married one of the daughters, Catharine Ferree. 
From this union have descended all the Lefevres 
in Lancaster county, in other parts of Pennsylva- 
nia, and in all parts of the United States. Phillip 
Ferree, one of the sons, lived for one year with 
Abraham Dubois, a French farmer at Esopus, and 
mairied his daughter Leah at the end of that time, 
after which he brought her to the Mennonite set- 
tlement in the Pequea valley. The Ferrees and 
Lefevres settled in what is now Paradise town- 
ship, on a tract of 2,000 acres, which was part of 
the 10,000 acres Martin Kendig had purchased 
from Penn's Commissioners. Philip Ferree located 
on a tract of land on the north side of the Pequea 
creek, in the present Leacok township. 

ORIGINAL CONESTOGA TOWNSHIP. 

In 171 2 all that part of Chester county lying 
west of Octoraro creek, or west of the present Ches- 
ter county, and thus including all of the present 
Lancaster county and that part of Pennsylvania to 
the northward and westward, w^as erected into a 
township called Conestoga^ named after Conestoga 
creek, which derived its name from the Conestoga 
Indians. 

SETTLEMENT OF CONESTOGA TOWNSHIP. 

Settlements had been made among the Indians 
prior to 1 713. In the latter year Christopher 



56 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

Schlegel, a German from Saxony, took up i,ooo 
acres on a stream flowing into the Conestoga, but 
soon transferred his interest to others. 

At this place the English Indian agents, John 
and Edmund Cartlidge, afterward resided. In 

1 715 Benedictus Venerick, also a German, settled 
upon a tract near the Palatines. These were joined 
by some Swiss Mennonites who came in 1715, 

1716 and 171 7. Among these were Hans Mayer, 
Hans Kaigy, Christian Hershey, Hans Graaf (who 
afterwards settled Graaf's Thai), Hans Brubacher, 
Michael Shank, Henry Bare, Peter Leman, Mel- 
chior Brenneman, Henry Funk, Hans Faber, 
Isaac Kauffman, Melchior Erisman, Michael Mil- 
ler, Jacob Landis, Jacob Boehm, Theodorus Eby, 
Benedictus Witmer. In 171 7 Jacob Greider 
(or Kreider), Jacob Hostetter, Hans Frantz, Shenk 
and other Swiss Mennonites settled along the Con- 
estoga. 

PROMINENT SETTLERS AMONG THE SWISS. 

Among the most prominent of these Swiss Men- 
nonite settlers were the well-known brothers, 
Francis Neff and Doctor Hans Heinrich Neff, 
whose descendants are very numerous in Lan- 
caster and Huntingdon counties, Pennsylvania, 
and in Virginia. They had fled from persecution 
in Switzerland to Alsace, whence they emigrated 
to America, and early settled on a small stream, 
Neff''s Run, which empties into the West Branch 
of the Little Conestoga. Here Francis NefF took up 
a large tract of land. Hans Heinrich Neff", famil- 



BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTFR COUNTY. 57 

iarly called the "Old Doctor," was quite eminent 
as a physician. Hans Brubacher located in what 
is now East Hempfield township. His descendants 
are numerous in this and other townships. 

Persecution drove the Kreiders and the Hostet- 
ters from their homes in Switzerland to Wurtem- 
berg. From the latter place they came to America, 
and settled on the north side of Conestoga creek, 
about two miles south of the site of the present 
Lancaster city, and there took up 800 acres of land. 
Jacob Kreider's first home was a tent made of tow 
cloth. This afforded him and his family tem- 
porary shelter until autumn, when he erected a log 
cabin. 

During the winter he was visited regularly by 
the neighboring Indians, who sought shelter in 
his cabin and comfort by his fire. They lived on 
terms of closest friendship with the Kreiders, sup- 
plying them with fish and venison, for which they 
received bread in exchange. Fish were abundant 
in the Conestoga and in the other streams of Lan- 
caster county. The Indians caught them with 
nets made of bark, or speared them with a gig 
made of ash wood. On one occasion when Kreider 
was visited by his Indian neighbors he looked at 
his almanac, for the purpose of regulating his 
clock by its indication of the rising and setting of 
the sun. 

He noticed that the moon w^ould be eclipsed In 
a few weeks. Turning to his Indian visitors, he 
told them that on a certain evening a few weeks 



58 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTBR COUNTY. 

hence the moon would hide her face just as the 
clock would strike a certain hour. They had 
often observed eclipses, but couldn't understand 
how their white neighbor should know this before 
it occurred. At the appointed evening fifty or 
sixty Indians met at the house, and were utterly 
amazed to see the moon's face lessen as soon as the 
clock had struck. One of them then said: "It is 
the white man's God tells him this, else he would 
not know it beforehand." 

ENGLISH SETTLERS AMONG THE GERMANS AND SWISS. 

In 1 715 some English and Welsh settlers came 
and located around Smoketown. The names of 
these were Peter Bellas, Daniel Harman, William 
Evans and James Smith. In 17 16 Richard Carter, 
an Englishman, took up a tract of land between 
the Conestoga and Pequea creeks, near the Sus- 
quehanna river, and therefore in the present Con- 
estoga township. In the same year other English 
settlers took up tracts on the south side of the 
Conestoga — Alexander Bews, Anthony Pretter of 
East Jersey, and John Gardiner of Philadelphia 
county. In 171 7 Joseph Cloud secured 500 acres 
near the Pequea. 

ENGLISH AND SCOTCH-IRISH SETTLERS ON THE OCTORARO. 

In 1717 English Quakers and Scotch-Irish 
Presbyterians settled along the Octoraro creek. 
Among these were William Grimson (constable of 
Sadsbury township), the Cooksons, Jervises, Irwins 
and Mayes. Some years later came the Patter- 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 59 

sons, Darbys, Leonards, Joneses, Steeles, Math- 
ewses, Cowens, Murrays, Millers, Allisons, Mitch- 
ells and others. 

SETTLEMENTS DOWN THE CONESTOGA. 

Between 1716 and 1719 settlements were made 
down the Conestoga creek towards the Susque- 
hanna river. Two English Quakers, John Cart- 
lidge and his brother Edmund, and David Jones, a 
Welshman, took up lands there. Edmund Cart- 
lidge resided in Darby township, Chester county, 
as early as 1698, and in Philadelphia county in 
1711. John Cartlidge was an Indian trader for 
many years. He was appointed Justice of the 
Peace in 17 18. The public records at West Ches- 
ter state that he sold liquor "by the small" among 
his neighbors on the banks of the Conestoga before 
1718. 

Before 1719 Christian and Joseph Stehman and 
Sigismund Landart — all Germans — took up land 
on and near the banks of the Conestoga creek. 
In 1 7 19 Jenkin Davis, a Welshman, secured 
a piece of land on a branch of the Conestoga, and 
George Stewart, a Scotch-Irishman, located near 
the Susquehanna. 

FRENCH CANADIAN SETTLERS. 

James Le Tort, the French Canadian Indian 
trader, was granted 100 acres along the Susque- 
hanna. Martin Chartiere, Peter Bizaillon and Le 
Tort — all French Canadians — had resided among 
the Indians as traders some years before settle- 



60 BRIEJI^ HISI'ORY 01^ tANCASTKR COUNTY. 

ments were made in the present Ivancaster county. 
Martin Chartiere had a trading-post on the site of 
Washington borough before 1704, and in 171 7 he 
was granted 300 acres. This was transmitted to 
his son, Peter Chartiere. Peter Bizaillon had a 
license to trade with the Indians before 1703, and 
in 1 7 14 he was granted a tract on the Susquehanna 
at Paxtanof or wherever he wished to locate. 

SWISS SETTLERS AMONG THE FRENCH. 

In 1 717 and 1718 the French settlement of the 
Ferrees and the Lefevres was increased by a number 
of Swiss Mennonites, among whom were the Slay- 
makers, the Witmers, the lyightners, Bshleman, 
Herr, Hershey, Ksbenshade, Baer, Grofif, Graaf, 
Koenig, Keneagy, Denlinger, Beck, Becker, 
Souder, Ream, Zimmerman and many others. 
The most notable among these new settlers were 
Matthias Schleiermacher (afterward Anglicized as 
Slaymaker) and the Zimmermans. Matthias 
Schliermacher emigrated from Strasburg, in Ger- 
many, to Lancaster county about 17 10. He was 
born and reared in Hesse Cassel. The place he 
settled in America was known as the London 
Lands, a tract of 1,000 acres, in what is now Para- 
dise township, the name Strasburg having been 
conferred by Schleiermacher. One of the broth- 
ers of the latter was Secretary of Legation from 
the German Empire to Great Britain, and another 
was major in the King of Prussia's full regiment. 

Henry Zimmerman (or Carpenter) arrived in 



BRIKI^ HISTORY Oi^ LANCASTER COUNTY. 61 

Pennsylvania in 1698, and afterward returned to 
Europe, and brought his family over in 1706, first set- 
tling in Germantown, and in 171 7 within the limits 
of. the present Lancaster county. His son, Eman- 
uel Zimmerman, born in Switzerland in 1702, was 
a citizen of great influence in Lancaster county. 
He died in 1780. His descendants are numerous. 
Some are called Zimmerman, while others have 
their name Anglicized as Carpenter. There are 
also Carpenters of English descent. 

SURVEYS IN VARIOUS PARTS OF THE COUNTY. 

From 1 7 14 to 1718 surveys of land were made in 
different parts of the present county of Lancaster. 
In the southern part a survey was made for Alex- 
ander Ross, an Englishman, on Little Conowingo 
creek. In 171 7 a survey of 700 acres was made to 
Edward Sleadwell, an Englishman, on the Octo- 
raro creek, in the present township of Little Brit- 
ain. A Maryland grant was made in the same 
township to Mary Graham in 17 15. 

Large tracts were also granted by Maryland to 
Emanuel Grubb in 1716 and 1720; and one to 
Thomas Jacobs in the last-named year, in the same 
township. 

GERMAN AND SWISS SETTLERS NATURALIZED. 

Among the Swiss and German Mennonites who 
came before 17 18 and who had purchased and 
held lands before 1729, and who subsequently 
became naturalized subjects of the King of Great 
Britain, were such common names as Mylin, 



62 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

NefF, Burkholder, Graaf, Funk, Ken dig, Bowman, 
Herr, Brenneman, Brubaker, Nissley, Buckwalter, 
Landis, Mayer, Bare, Erisman, Harnish, Snavely, 
Good, Eshleman, Hess, Boyer, Leaman, Kaiiffman, 
Shultz, Honser, Miller, Zimmerman, Slaymaker, 
Shenk, Hoover, Newcomer, Longenecker, Mussel- 
man, Eby, Stoner, Frantz, Stehman, Ream, Royer, 
Weaver, Lichty, Herman, Schneider or Snyder, 
Brandt. 

CONESTOGA MANOR. 

In 1 718 the Conestoga Manor — afterward Manor 
township — was surveyed for the use of the proprie- 
tary of the province of Pennsylvania, William 
Penn and his heirs and assigns forever, by order 
of the Commissioners of Property, by Jacob Taylor, 
Surveyor General of the province. The Conestoga 
Manor embraced all the land between the Susque- 
hanna river and Conestoga creek as far up the 
river as the land already granted to Peter Char- 
tiere, on the site of Washington borough, and 
thence by a line running east from that river to 
Conestoga creek. There were two Manors in the 
original Chester county — Brandywine Manor and 
Conestoga Manor. The latter was subsequently 
divided and sold to purchasers, among whom were 
many whose descendants still occupy the lands on 
which the original Swiss Mennonites located. The 
principal English landowners in the Manor were 
the Wrights, who had 1,500 acres, and John Cart- 
lidge, who had a large tract between one and two 
miles north-east of the present Safe Harbor. James 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTER COUNTY. 63 

Patterson, a Scotch-Irishman and an Indian trader, 
owned a tract of land about a mile east of Wash- 
ington borough. This is now in the possession of 
Jacob B. Shuman. Another Scotch-Irishman, 
named James Logan, owned a tract a little north 
of Safe Harbor. 414 acres of this land was granted 
to Indian Town, and Blue Rock comprised 800 
acres. Among the Swiss Mennonite settlers here 
we readily recognize many familiar names, such 
as Herr, Kauffman, Witmer, Wissler, Eshleman, 
Kendig, Stoner, Mayer, Stehman, Newcomer, Bach- 
man, Kilhaver, Miller, Charles, Shank, Hostetter, 
Stauffer, Landis, Hershey, Oberholtzer, Lintner, 
Ziegler, Funk and others. 

The Shumans settled near the site of Washing- 
ton borough in 1772. The Manns located a little 
east of this place about the same time. 

HANS GRAAF AND HIS SETTLEMENT. 

In 1718 Hans Graaf settled Graaf's Thai, or 
Groff's Dale, in the eastern part of the present 
West Earl township. Hans Graaf was a very 
prominent man in the early history of the county. 
He was born in Switzerland, and was among those 
who fled from persecution in that country to 
Alsace. In 1695 or 1696 he emigrated to Amer- 
ica. After remaining a short time at Germantown, 
he came to the Swiss settlement in the Pequea 
valley. One day his horses strayed away; and 
while in pursuit of them, in a northerly direc- 
tion, he discovered a fine spring, in a very thickly 



64 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

wooded spot. He at once resolved to settle there. 
After finding his horses he returned to the Pequea 
settlement, merely to inform his friends of his 
"find" and of his determination to locate near 
the spring. To the latter place he then removed 
with his family, and built a cabin under a large 
white oak tree, half a mile distant. In the spring 
of 1718 he took up a large tract of land, and built 
a house near the cabin. The spot where the origi- 
nal house stood is shown to-day. Here he was 
often visited by the Indians, who brought baskets 
and hickory brooms to sell. He had six sons. As 
some of them grew up he formed a partnership 
with them, and opened trade with the Indians liv- 
ing at Harris's Ferry, now Harrisburg. The 
trade consisted of an exchange of blankets and 
other articles, which he purchased in Philadelphia, 
for skins, furs, etc. It is said that he spoke the 
Indian language fluently. The descendants of 
Hans Graaf are very numerous throughout the 
county. The name has undergone various changes 
— Groif, Grove and Graeff being among these. 

One of Hans Graaf s sons — Samuel — was called 
"Graaf der Jaeger" (the hunter). When the 
magistrates and citizens of Lancaster county met 
to settle upon the boundaries and names of the 
townships of the county, June 9, 1729, they named 
the township in which Graaf lived, Earl^ in 
honor of him — the word Earl being the Eng- 
lish word for Graaf. In 1719 Mr. Wenger, a 
Swiss, became one of Hans Graaf s neighbors. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 65 

There are many of his descendants to be found in 
various parts of the county. 

SETTLEMENT OF DUNKERS. 

After 1 718 settlements became very general in the 
county. In 17 19 or 1720 some Germans located 
along Cocalico creek and in other places. In 1708 
the religious sect of the Dii7ikers^ or Tunkers^ or 
First Day German Baptists^ was founded in Ger- 
many by Alexander Mack, of Shriesheim, and four 
men and three women from Schwarzenau, who 
met for religious worship. Like the Quakers and 
Mennonites, the Dunkers were simple in their 
dress and habits, and averse to oaths, to military 
service and the use of law. 

Like the Mennonites, they were severely perse- 
cuted in Germany, in consequence of which they 
fled to Holland and to other parts of the continent. 

The original society, however, removed to Serus- 
tervin, in Friesland, and from there emigrated to 
America and settled in Pennsylvania. Some of 
these settled at Germantown; others at Oley and 
Skippack, near the Schuylkill; and others along 
the Conestoga and Cocalico creeks, in the present 
Lancaster county. x\mong the early settlers along 
Cocalico creek were Conrad Beissel, Joseph Shaef- 
fer, Hans Mayer, Heinrich Hoehn and several 
Landises. 

SETTLEMENT OF LANCASTER AND VICINITY. 

The town of Lancaster might be said to have' 
begun as early as 1721 or 1722, but it was not laid 



66 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

out until 1730. This was done by James Hamil- 
ton, Esq., of Philadelphia. Tradition says that an 
Indian village occupied the site of Lancaster; that 
a hickory tree stood in the centre of the village, 
near a spring; that the Indian councils were held 
under this tree, and that it was from one of these 
councils that a deputation was sent to confer with 
William Penn at Shackamaxon in 1683. This 
Indian nation was called Hickory, and the village 
was called Hickory Town before Lancaster was 
laid out. ' 

George Gibson, a tavern keeper, had a hickory 
tree painted on his sign in 1722. This tavern was 
in the place now occupied by the First National 
Bank, on East King street. Another Indian town 
was situated near the Conestoga, and a poplar tree 
which stood on its bank was the emblem of that 
tribe. 

SQUATTERS WEST OF THE SUSQUEHANNA. 

In the meantime some persons, without any 
legal right, settled on the west side of the Susque- 
hanna river. John Grist, one of these, abused the 
Indians to such an extent that they complained to 
the Governor of the province. John Cartlidge, by 
•the Governor's authority, raised a posse comitatus, 
to destroy the buildings of Grist and his accom- 
plices. Cartlidge, however, simply requested Grist 
and his party to move from the land. This they 
refused to do. The Indians then destroyed some 
of their]cattle. Grist went to Philadelphia to make 
complaint against them, but was lodged in jail. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 67 

from which he was realeased by the Governor's 
council on condition that he would remove from 
the land he was illegally occupying. He returned 
home in August, 1722, and, after gathering in his 
corn, left the place. 

COLONEL FRENCH'S COUNCIL WITH THE INDIANS AT 
CONESTOGA. 

Late in April, 17 19, the Cones toga Indians, by a 
letter to Secretary James Logan, informed Gover- 
nor Patrick Gordon that several of their tribe, 
while hunting near the Potomac, had been at- 
tacked and killed by a party of Virginia Indians, 
who were on the war path against the Five Na- 
tions. Governor Gordon endeavored to quiet their 
fears, without avail. They addressed a letter to 
him early in June. He then sent Colonel French 
to meet them in council at Conestoga. This meet- 
ing took place June 28, 1719. Canatowa, the queen 
of the Conestogas, and Captain Civility, their 
chief, together with sachems of the Conewagas, 
the Shawanese and the Delawares, were present; 
and a treaty was made which re-established peace 
and friendship with them. 

SECRETARY LOGAN'S COUNCIL WITH THE INDIANS. 

At the request of Governor Gordon, Secretary 
James Logan met the Indians at the house of John 
Cartlidge, June 27, 1719. At this council the 
chiefs of the Conestogas, the Shawanese, the Gaw- 
anese and the Delawares were present. Peter 
Bizaillon, the French Canadian Indian trader, 



68 BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

acted as interpreter. Assurances of continued 
peace and friendship were given on both sides. 
Promises of belts of wampum were made, and 
these were sent to Philadelphia without delay, 
and from there to the Indians of Virginia, as 
pledges of good faith. 

SAMUEL ROBINS SENT TO VIRGINIA. 

Governor Gordon and his council sent Samuel 
Robins to Virginia to deliver these wampum belts 
to the Indians there. On his return he brought 
with him two belts from the Virginia Indians, 
which were sent to the Conestoga Indians. He was 
authorized to assure the latter that the Virginia In- 
dians would not in the future pass over the Poto- 
mac river to the eastward or northward, or over the 
Blue Ridge. This was on condition that the Con- 
estogas and the other Indians north of the Poto- 
mac would not cross the Potomac into Virginia to 
the southward or eastward of the Blue Ridge. 
John Cartlidge delivered the wampum belts and 
interpreted the message from the Virgina Indians. 

GOVERNOR KEITH'S COUNCIL WITH THE INDIANS AT 
CONESTOGA. 

The quarrels between the Indians of Pennsyl- 
vania and those ot Virginia about their hunting- 
grounds disturbed the peace of Pennsylvania. 
After a visit to Governor Spottswood of Virginia, 
Governor William Keith of Pennsylvania visited 
the Indians at Conestoga to have them ratify a 
treaty providing that the Indians on the north 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 69 

side of the Potomac and those on the south of 
that river should be confined to their respective 
limits. On the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th of July, 1721, 
Governor Keith held a council with the Indians at 
Conestoga. The Governor's party, beside himself, 
were Richard Hill, Caleb Pusey, Jonathan Dick- 
inson, Colonel John French, James Logan, the 
Secretary, and others. The chiefs or deputies of 
the Five Nations of Indians were also present to 
treat with the Governor. These were Ghesaont 
and Awennool, of the Senecas ; Tannawree and 
Skeetowas, of the Onondagoes ; Sahoode and 
Tchehuque, of the Cayugas. Smith, the Gawanese 
Indian interpreter of the Coaestoga language to 
the Dela wares, was also present. So were John 
Cartlidge and James Le Tort, the last of whom 
was the interpreter of the Delaware language into 
English. Ghesaont made a long speech to the 
Governor's party, expressing great friendship for 
the English, but complained that the w^hites fur- 
nished rum to the Indians, and desired that no 
more be furnished them because it took away the 
senses of their people and caused them to commit 
lawless acts, robberies, etc. He also complained 
that the Indian trade in skins and furs was injured. 
Governor Keith replied, expressing his desire to 
live in peace and friendship with the Indians, and 
advised them not to molest the Virginia Indians. 
The object of the conference on the Governor's 
part was to prevent the Pennsylvania Indians from 
attacking the Indians of Virginia. By the Gover- 



70 BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

nor's direction, Secretary James Logan held a con- 
ference with Ghesaont on the 9th of July. Ghesa- 
ont expressed himself well pleased with Governor 
Keith's treatment of the Five Nations. 

INDIANS DISTURBED BY INTRUDERS. 

Soon after the council with the Indians at Con 
estoga, Governor Keith was informed that persons 
from Philadelphia and Maryland, in search of a 
copper mine, were about to survey and take up 
Indian lands on the west side of the Susquehanna. 
The Governor went to the scene of the threatened 
trouble, and prevented the intrusion. On April 
4th and 5th, 1722, he caused a survey of 500 acres 
on the west side of the river to be made. He then 
returned to Conestoga, where he again met the 
Indians, but the particulars of that meeting were 
never recorded. 

INDIANS ALARMED BY MARYLAND INTRUDERS. 

Soon afterward the Indians were greatly alarmed 
at the threatened encroachments of the Maryland- 
ers. On June 15th, 1722, Governor Keith held a 
council with the Indians at Conestoga, to get their 
consent to the grant of a tract of land to be sur- 
veyed under the name of Spring ett Manor ^ in the 
present York county. The Indians agreed to the 
survey, so that the Governor would have a better 
title to resist the Marylanders. 

ANOTHER COUNCIL "WITH THE INDIANS AT CONESTOGA. 

The murder of an Indian by the brothers John 
and Edmund Cartlidge, in a quarrel, alarmed the 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 71 

white settlers of Pennsylvania, who feared the ven- 
geance of the Indians. An appeal being made to 
Governor Keith, he sent Secretary James Logan, 
Colonel French and the High Sheriff of Chester 
county to the scene of the trouble. Proceeding to 
the house of John Cartlidge, they arrested the 
brothers. A council was held with the Indians 
at Conestoga, March 14, 1722. Civility and sev- 
eral of the older men of the tribe, together with 
Savannah, chief of the Shawanese, Winjack, chief 
of the Gawanese, Tekaachroo, a Cayuga, and 
Oweeyekanowa and Xoshtarghkamen, Delawares, 
were present on this occasion. The Indians were 
satisfied with the action of the council. The Cart- 
lidges were taken to Philadelphia and lodged in 
jail. Satcheecho, an Indian messenger, was de- 
spatched to the Five Nations. Governor Keith and 
two of his council went to Albany, New York, 
and there met representatives of the Five Nations 
and gave them pledges that justice would be done 
to the Indians. These representatives expressed a 
wish that the Cartlidges should not be punished 
with death. The Indian sachem said: "One life 
on this occasion is enough to be lost ; there should 
not two die." Eventually, at the earnest request 
of the Indians, the Cartlidges were set free. 

COUNCIL WITH THE INDIANS AT CONOY TOWN. 

In July, 1722, Governor Keith held a council 
with the Indians at Conoy Town, in Donegal town- 
ship. There were present at this time James 
Mitchell and James Le Tort, the Indian traders. 



72 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

with the chiefs of the Conestogas, the Shawanese 
and the Conoys, and seven chief men of the Nanti- 
cokes; and the former treaty of friendship with the 
English was renewed. 

GERMAN SETTLEMENTS ON THE SWATARA AND TULPE- 
HOCKEN. 

In 1723 a number of German settlers who had 
been living in Schoharie county, New York, emi- 
grated to Pennsylvania and located on the Swatara 
and Tulpehocken creeks. Among these were 
the Weisers, from whom the Muhlenbergs are 
descended. 

SCOTCH-IRISH SETTLERS IN DONEGAL TOWNSHIP. 

The territory between the Big Chickies creek 
and the Susquehanna river was first settled by 
Scotch-Irish. The family names of these were 
Semple, Mitchell, Patterson, Speer, Hendricks, 
Galbraith, Anderson, Scott, Ivowry, Pedan, Por- 
ter, Sterritt, Kerr, Work, Lytic, Whitehill, Camp- 
bell, etc. In 1722 this territory was erected into a 
new township called Donegal^ inasmuch as most 
of these settlers came from Donegal county, in Ire- 
land. James Hendricks and James Mitchell held 
successively the office of Justice of the Peace in 
the settlement. Some of the descendants of these 
Scotch-Irish settlers still own the first possessions 
of their ancestors. 

JOHN HARRIS AT PAXTON. 

John Harris, the Quaker Indian trader, a native 
of Yorkshire, England, first attempted to settle 
near the mouth of Conoy creek, not far from the 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 73 

site of Bainbridge ; but he afterwards located at 
Pax ton, or Paxtang, the site of Harrisburg. His 
son John was the founder of Harrisburg, as before 
noticed. 

SETTLEMENT OF COLUMBIA. 

In 1727 three Quaker Englishmen — John Wright, 
Robert Barber and Samuel Blunston — settled on 
the east side of the Susquehanna, south of the 
Chickies Hill. This was the beginning of the 
present town of Columbia. Barber took 1,000 
acres south of Chickies Hill. Blunston took 500 
acres adjoining that hill. Wright took 250 
acres south of Blunston' s. His descendants have 
since resided in Columbia. These three men were 
active, enterprising and useful citizens ; and their 
names were intimately associated with the earlier 
history of Lancaster county. When they first 
settled there their flour was brought on pack- 
horses from the Darby mills, near Philadelphia, 
through the woods along an Indian path to the 
Susquehanna. Their only neighbors, the Indians, 
often supplied them with meat, and received bread 
and milk in return. The descendants of these 
pioneers have since resided in Lancaster county. 
Swiss and Scotch-Irish soon settled in that 
locality. The land back from the river was settled 
chiefly by Swiss — the Forrys, the Garbers, the 
Stricklers and others. 

SETTLERS IN HEMPFIELD. 

Hempfield township was so called because of the 
great quantities of hemp raised there. The Pat- 
4 



74 BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTER COUNTY. 

tons, who were Scotch-Irish, settled on lands 
adjoining those of Wright and Barber. Patton's 
hill and Patton's current derive their names from 
those families. Tradition states that a party of 
cruel white men, led by a man named Bell, once 
massacred many Indians there. Maay Indian 
graves were said to be in the neighborhood, and it 
was believed that a piece of cannon lay sunk in the 
current. Below this were German and Swiss set- 
tlers — Stehmans, KaufFmans, Herrs, Rupleys and 
others. 

SETTLEMENT OF REAMSTOWM. 

In 1723 or 1724 Everhard Ream, a German, com- 
menced a settlement by taking up 400 acres of 
land. His descendants have since resided in the 
village named after the first settler and proprietor — 
Reamstoivn, When he settled there, the place 
was occupied by Indians. He took his horse and 
wagon into the woods, and unloaded his furniture 
under a large oak tree, under which he took shel- 
ter until he had built a rude log cabin. His 
nearest mill was on the Brandy wine, and the Miil- 
bachers on Cocalico creek were his nearest neigh- 
bors. Other Germans who soon settled around 
him were Bucher, Huber, Keller, Leader, Schwarz- 
walder, Schneider, Killian, Dock, Forney, Rupp, 
Balmer, May, Mayer, Hahn, Ressler, Beyer, Leed, 
Schlott, Graaf, Wolf, Feierstein, Weidman and 
others. 

WELSH SETTLEMENTS. 

In the year that the Pennsylvania colony was 
founded, a number of Welsh Episcopalians pur- 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 75 

chased 40,000 acres of land of William Penti, situ- 
ated west of the Schuylkill. Upon this they made 
a settlement. Their number increased so rapidly 
that in less than ten years — or before 1692 — 
they had settled six townships. Like the Swiss 
and Palatines, the Welsh sent persons to take up 
the land and make the needed preparations for the 
reception of their families. Among these pioneers 
was Thomas Owen, who was sent over by Row- 
land Ellis. In 1686 Ellis and 100 other Welsh 
emigrants came. In 1698 others arrived, among 
whom were William Jones, Robert Jones, Robert 
Evans, Thomas Evans, Owen Evans, Cadwallader 
Evans, Hugh Griffith, John Humphrey and Edward 
Foulke. They bought 10,000 acres of land of Robert 
Turner, in Guinedd township, in Chester county. 
In 1722 or 1723 another Welsh settlement was made 
in the Welsh Mountain region. This extended in 
the direi:tion of and as far as Churchtown. Here the 
principal settlers were E. Davis, Z. Davis, Evans, 
Douglas, Henderson, Morgan, Jenkins, Edwards, 
Robinet, Ford, Torbet, Lardner, Billing and 
Spenger. The Welsh also settled along Alle- 
gheny creek, a small branch of the Tulpehocken. 

SETTLEMENT OF WEAVERLAND. 

In 1723 or 1724 some Swiss and Germans set- 
tled in the region south of the eastern part of the 
Conestoga creek, in the present East Earl town- 
ship. This settlement was called Weber Thal^ or 
Weaver Land^ from the Webers, or Weavers, who 
took up several thousand acres of land here. Jacob 



76 BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

Weber, Heinrich Weber, George Weber and Hans 
Good, who were all Swiss Mennonites, were the 
first settlers adjacent to the Welsh. The plain, or 
thal^ had no timber when the settlement was made. 
Hans Good settled in what is now Brecknock town- 
ship, Lancaster county, where many of his decend- 
ants have since resided. Before they settled here, 
the Webers and Goods had lived for twelve or fif- 
teen years near the site of Lancaster city. Their 
descendants have since became wealthy and num- 
erous. Some have emigrated to the West, and 
others to Canada. The Martins, the Millers, the 
Ruths, the Zimmermans, the Schnaders and other 
Swiss Mennonites soon settled among the Weavers. 

SETTLEMENT OF NEW HOLLAND. 

In 1727 about 1,000 Swiss and Palatine Menno- 
nites came to what is now Lancaster county. The 
Eckmans, the Dififenderfers, the Eckerts, the Bow- 
mans, the Eberlys, the Zugs, the Shultzes, the 
Funks, the Frantzes and the Mayers were among 
them. These people soon after coming subscribed 
to a writing declaring their allegiance to the King 
of Great Britain and fidelity to the proprietary of 
the province of Pennsylvania. Alexander Dif- 
fenderfer settled in Oley, now in Berks county. 
His brother, John Diffenderfer, settled at Saeue 
Schwamm, now New Holland. John's grandsons, 
David Diffenderfer and Jacob DifTenderfer, served 
in the Revolution. Other German families soon 
settled there. Among these we find the names 
of Ranck, Bachert, Beck, Mayer, Brimmer, Koch, 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTER COUNTY. 77 

Hinkel, Schneider, Seger, Stehly, Brubacher, 
Meixel, Diller and others. 

THE GERMANS SUSPECTED BY THE AUTHORITIES. 

Governor Keith was suspicious of the Swiss and 
German settlers, and treated their application for 
naturalization with indifference. They applied 
for naturalization as early as 1721, but the Gover- 
nor delayed granting their request until 1724. A 
bill was then brought before the Assembly of the 
province, which granted them naturalization on 
condition that they obtain from a Justice of the 
Peace a certificate of the value of their property 
and of the nature of their religious faith. 

In 1727 Governor Patrick Gordon, Keith's suc- 
cessor, was informed "that a large number of Ger- 
mans, peculiar in their dress, religion, and notions 
of political governments, had settled on the Pequea, 
and were determined not to obey the lawful au- 
thority of government ; that they had resolved to 
speak their own language, and to acknowledge no 
sovereign but the Great Creator of the Universe." 

REPORT OF THE ASSEMBLY FAVORS THE GERMANS. 

To keep alive the jealousies and to excite sus- 
picion against the Germans, it was reported that 
some thousands were expected to arrive in Penn- 
sylvania in 1727. In all 348 Palatine families, 
numbering 1,240 persons, did come, at the invita- 
tion of the Penn family, to settle and improve the 
country. The report of this emigration was laid 
before the Pennsylvania Assembly at Philadelphia ; 
and William Webb, Samuel Hollingsworth and 



78 BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTKR COUNTY. 

John Carter were appointed a committee to investi- 
gate the charges against these people, and report the 
facts to the next Assembly. This committee did 
so, and in 1728 made a report favorable to the Ger- 
mans and Swiss, who had been invited by William 
Penn to settle in his province. The report stated 
that they had honestly paid for their lands, and' 
w^ere a quiet and industrious people, faithfully dis- 
charging their civil and religious duties. 

TROUBLE WITH THE INDIANS. 

As settlement spread, and the whites came in con- 
tact with the Indians, acts of violence and blood- 
shed sometimes occurred between the two races. 
On September 11, 1727, Thomas Wright, a drunken 
Englishman, was killed by several drunken In- 
dians near the house of John Burt, an Indian trader 
at Snaketown, now Harrisburg. The quarrel was 
caused by Burt's selling the Indians too much rum 
and then insulting them. The colonists of Penn- 
sylvania suffered from outrages and robberies on 
the part of non-resident Indians. 

In the spring of 1728 the whites feared that war 
would break out between several Indian tribes, 
because the Shawanese had killed two Conestoga 
Indians. In the back settlements whole families 
fled from their homes. 

GOVERNOR GORDON'S COUNCIL WITH THE INDIANS 
AT CONESTOGA. 

John Wright informed Governor Patrick Gor- 
don of the condition of affairs, and the Gover- 
nor at once went to the Conestoga Indian town, 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 79 

where he held a council with the Indians, May 26, 
1728. Captain Civility and the other chiefs of the 
Conestogas were present at this council. So were 
the chiefs of the Shawanese, the Qawanese and the 
Delawares. Two Indian interpreters were also 
there, along with Peter Bizaillon, John Scull and 
Nicholas Scull, assistant interpreters. The Gov- 
ernor's object was to preserve peace between the 
whites and the Indians and between the various 
Indian tribes themselves. Assurances of peace and 
good will and desires for continued peace were 
expressed both by the Governor and by the Indian 
chiefs present. After the council the Governor 
returned to Philadelphia. 

FIRST IRON WORKS IN THE COUNTY. 

Hazard's Register states the following: " Kurtz, 
it is supposed, established the first Iron Works in 
1726, within the present bounds of Lancaster 
county. The Grubbs were distinguished for their 
industry and enterprise. They commenced opera- 
tions in 1728. " 

SETTLEMENT OF EPHRATA BY THE SEVENTH DAY 
BAPTISTS. 

In 1725 or 1726 Ephrata was settled by the 
Sieben Taeger (Seventh Day People); so called 
because they kept the seventh day of the week 
(Saturday), instead of the first (Sunday), as the 
Sabbath. This settlement was known by the vari- 
ous names oi Ephrata^ or Kloster^ or Dmikertowii. 
The last name was a nickname of the German word 
Dunker^ or Tunker^ a corruption of the the Ger- 



80 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

man word Taeufer^ meaning Baptists. The foun- 
der of the religious society at Bphrata was Conrad 
Beissel, who seceded from the Dunkers, or German 
Baptists, the religious sect founded in Germany in 
1708 by Alexander Mack of Shreisheim, in the 
Palatinate. Many of the Dunkers emigrated from 
the Palatinate to Pennsylvania in 1720 and 1721; 
and, as we have seen, some settled on the Pequea 
and at Muelbach, or Mill Creek, on the Cocalico 
creek. Among these was Conrad Beissel, who 
located at Muelbach in 1721. In 1729 Alexander 
Mack, the founder of the sect, himself settled at 
Muelbach. Conrad Beissel separated from the 
Dunkers because he believed the seventh day of 
the weeK: to be the true Sabbath. In 1725 he 
retired from the Muelbach settlement, and lived 
for some time like a hermit in a cell on the banks 
of the Cocalico. When his abode became known, 
others who had adopted his views settled around 
him. Thus arose the religious society of the Seventh 
Day Baptists. In 1732 their solitary life was 
changed to a monastic one, and the members lived 
like the monks and nuns of the Roman Catholic 
Church. The brethren adopted the dress of the 
Capuchins, or White Friars, consisting of a shirt, 
trousers and vest, with a long white gown or cowl, 
of woolen stuff in winter, and linen in summer. 
The sisters wore petticoats instead of trousers. The 
brethren and sisters adopted monkish names. Is- 
rael Eckerlein was named Onesimus^ and was made 
Prior. His successor was Peter Miller, who was 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 81 

named /aede^. Conrad Beissel, the founder of the 
society, was called Father^ and was given the mon- 
astic names of Friedsam and Gottrecht^ meaning 
Peaceable and Godright. In 1740 there were thirty- 
six single brethren and thirty-five sisters in the 
cloister; and at one time the society, with the 
members living in the neighborhood, numbered 
three hundred. A meeting-house caled Kedar^ 
and a convent called Zioii^ were erected on a hill 
called Mount Zion. They afterwards built a sis- 
ters house called Saron^ which had a large chapel 
called Saal attached to it for holding Agapas^ or 
Love Feasts. A brothers' house called Bethania 
was also built, and had a large meeting- room for 
public worship. Near by was a printing-house, a 
bake-house, a school-house and other buildings, 
on one of which was the town-clock. The build- 
ings were of singular architecture. The rooms of 
the sisters were hung with large sheets of elegant 
penmanship or ink paintings, many being texts 
from Scripture, in ornamented Gothic letters, called 
in German Fracticr-Schriften. This was done on 
large sheets of paper made at th^ir own mill. 
Many specimens of original poetry were in the 
Fractur-Schriften. Peter Miller was Beissel' s suc- 
cessor as Father. In 1739 Ludwig Hacker came 
to Ephrata from Germany, and was appointed 
teacher of the common school. He soon afterward 
opened a Sabbath school. The community con- 
tinued to flourish for about fifty years, when from 
causes which seem to be unknown it began to 



82 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

decline ; and to-day there is litte but weather- 
stained and crumbling walls, and curious pieces of 
antique workmanship, as traces of this interesting 
people. Their habits of industry, their frugality, 
their simple mode of living and their devoted piety 
doubtless exerted an imperishable influence upon 
the neighborhood in which they lived. 

SWISS AND GERMAN SETTLERS BEFORE 1735. 

Among the Swiss and German settlers who came 
here before 1735, and whose descendants are now so 
numerous in Lancaster county, are such common 
names as Herr, Hess, Harnish, Hershey, Hiestand, 
Landis, Mylin, Brubaker, Brenneman, Witmer, 
Kendig, Stoner, Hochsteter or Hostetter, Zimmer- 
man or Carpenter, Kreider or Greider, Eckman, 
Eckert, Ellmaker, Schleiermacher or Slaymaker, 
Becker or Baker, Bachman, Killhaver orKillheffer, 
ShaefFer, Wenger, Diffenderfer, Graaf, Musser, 
Musselman, Weaver, Good, Eshleman, Kauffinan, 
Hoover, Royer, Boyer, Bare, Bowman, Over- 
holtzer, Garber Nissley, Burkholder, Shank or 
Shenk, Weidler, Weidman, Suavely, Hoffinan, 
Forney, Ritter, Eberly, Gochenaur, Stambach, 
Bomberger, Bassler, Burkhardt, Shiffer, Reist, 
Sensenig, Seldenridge, Shirk, Keyser, Swope, 
Diff'enbach, Westhaver, Sauderor Souder, Sherrick 
or Shirk, Shissler, Rohrer, Stauff'er, Erb, Eby, Eris- 
man, Brandt, Ream, Leaman, Shultz, Houser, 
Miller, Buckwalter, Mayer or Meyer, Funk, New- 
comer, Longenecker, Neff", Brenner, Minnich and 
many others. 



CHAPTER IV. 

EARLY MODE OF LIFE. 

FIRST SETTLERS. 

^npHE occupation of the first white emigrants to 
^ Lancaster county was farming. 

The Swiss and Germans, in looking about for 
land, were attracted by the heavy-timbered por- 
tion. They said: "Where the wood grows 
heaviest, the soil must be best. " Thus they selec- 
ted for settlement the limestone valleys, in which 
were the rich meadows and the heavy forest land. 

The Scotch-Irish class, being accustomed to 
a country with a rugged surface, chose the hill 
country for their homes. There the forests were 
lighter and more easily cleared. 

The Swiss Mennonites — often called Palatinates, 
because they lived in the Palatinate of the Rhine 
for some years after they were driven from Switzer- 
land by persecution — were very intelligent farmers. 
Their contact with the French and Germans in the 
land of their exile had given them an opportunity 
to see some of the best managed and cultivated 
farms in that beautiful agricultural region. Then 
in their journey down the Rhine into Holland they 
saw and learned much that was useful in both 
farming and housekeeping. 

To their native industry and thrift they added 
the knowledge and skill acquired by their contact 



84 BRIKF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY. 

with the Dutch, Germans and French. Therefore 
they came here well prepared for the work before 
them; and the great farms of lyancaster county, 
unrivalled in fertility and high cultivation, are the 
evidences we have to-day of their intelligence and 
success. 

These people brought with them little but the 
seeds they wished to plant. Their implements 
and supplies they obtained in Philadelphia and 
Germantown, where they stopped on landing in 
Pennsylvania. While in Philadelphia they thought 
it best to send out some persons of prudence and 
judgment to select sites for homes. On their 
return with reports of favorable places, immediate 
application was made to the proprietary govern- 
ment of the province of Pennsylvania to have the 
selected tracts surveyed for them. But as the sur- 
veys could not always be made at once, and as they 
were impatient of delay, they often proceeded 
immediately to the places chosen, taking their 
families with them. 

Several families usually made the journey to- 
gether. The most important household goods were 
brought with them from beyond the sea, and con- 
sisted of stuffs which they had spun and woven 
themselves. These were packed in large iron-bound 
chests. These chests, together with household uten- 
sils and provisions, were loaded in covered wagons, 
which were drawn by teams of horses. The latter 
were sometimes the joint property of the parties, and 
sometimes they were hired for the occasion. The 



BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 85 

feeble and the children were placed in the wagons. 
The adults generally went on foot, the strongest 
keeping in advance and with axes removing trees 
and hanging vines that might obstruct the passage 
of the wagons. Notwithstanding, the journey was 
slow and tedious, and taxed severely the patience 
and strength of both men and horses. The site 
selected for the home w^as always near a spring, as a 
matter of convenience. 

The first work of the men and boys was to erect 
a temporary shelter for themselves, the women and 
children dwelling in the wagons until the log 
cabin was ready. The work of building this was 
begun at once. The lofty forest trees yielded to 
the steady and repeated blows of the axe and fell 
crashing to the earth. The trunks of the fallen 
trees were then cut into the necessary lengths, split 
into the required thickness, and dragged to the 
place where the humble cabin was to be erected. 
They were then notched and built into a solid log- 
house, this afterward to be chinked and daubed 
and covered with oaken shingles. Meantime the 
women, in their homespun dresses and plain white 
caps, prepared the family meals in the open air. 
Their hearth consisted of a wall of hastily-collected 
stones. Pots and kettles were hung by chains 
and hooks to cross poles. Sometimes a temporary 
roof of poles and branches of trees was put up to 
prevent the rain from putting out the fire. 

The table on which the meals were served 
usually consisted of the end gate of a wagon, nailed 



SQ BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY 

Upon the stump of a tree, cut the proper height. 
The men generally ate first, and the women and 
children afterward. There was little of mirth or 
levity at the gatherings of families or friends in 
those early days, and neither coarseness nor pro- 
fanity, the historians tell us. 

The children scoured the woods for what was 
new and attractive, and carried the water from the 
spring. 

The boys occasionally shot squinels and wild 
foul or caught fish in the near stream, and thus 
furnished the table with game. 

The women had started a vegetable garden in 
the meanwhile, preparing the beds with spade and 
hoe. The seeds and bulbs brought from their far- 
away homes were then planted. 

The laying out of the farm into fields and build- 
ing fences next occupied the men after the log cabin 
was finished. The old-fashioned wooden plow, and 
a harrow made of a bundle of brush, were used to 
prepare the fields for planting. Strong roots and 
immovable stumps added to the difficulty of culti- 
vating the new-made fields. Patient, constant and 
hard work was the lot of this pioneer farmer. The 
love of family and devotion to his religious faith 
amply sustained him, however, in his toil and 
trials. 

While the crops were growing, temporary stables 
were built for the horses. The barn was considered 
the most important building on the farm, but its 
erection had to be postponed for some years. lycsser 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 87 

improvements were made from time to time. The 
houses being made at first without cellars, a turf- 
covered vault was made in the hillside. 

Pigs were imported from the Eastern settlements. 
Cows and oxen were brouo:ht in. Ditches were due 
for irrigating the land, and thus the growth of 
grasses was vastly increased. The rich meadows 
were considered a valuable part of the farm. When 
the original tracts were divided, the rights to the 
meadows were carefully specified in the title-deeds, 
the use and control of the stream being given to 
the owners of the several tracts a certain number 
of days in each week. 

The summer was given to raising crops of wheat, 
corn, oats, spelt, barley, buckwheat, etc. There 
was no lack of work in the autumn. Then a second 
crop of hay was made, more ditches were dug, 
stones were quarried, firewood for winter was cut, 
the fall seeding was done, trees were felled, rails 
were split, acorns were gathered, and logs were 
hewed for the barn that was to be built. Trips were 
made to the stores farther east for supplies, and to 
the mills for flour or to have grists ground. These 
trips usually lasted several days, as the nearest 
mills were on the Schuylkill and the Brandy wine. 
Several men went together on horseback, carrying 
bags of grain, and bringing flour and meal in 
return. 

The occupation of farming was regarded by these 
people as offering few temptations to worldliness, 
and thus it became a sort of hereditary vocation. 



88 BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

From the allurements of office and worldly honors 
they turned aside. The pleasures of life, and the 
beauties and attractions of art and nature, they 
thought were closely connected with the lusts of 
the eye and sinful pride. They therefore altogether 
rejected them. Many of the older people were 
well educated, but their religion taught them that 
education engendered vanity, and thus there grew 
up among the people a sentiment in opposition to 
liberal education. There were, however, always 
schools, or arrangements made at home, for giving 
instruction in reading, writing and arithmetic. 
Music and dancing were among the recreations 
prohibited, and plainness of dress and simplicity in 
their houses were insisted upon. 

The winter season was an uneventful one. Its 
monotony was occasionally disturbed by vague 
rumors of coming danger from the Indians, or by 
the sudden appearance of a few wild deer in the 
newly fenced grain fields. Hunting and trapping 
were very attractive to the young people, but their 
elders discouraged indulgence in the sports of the 
chase. Coon and muskrat skins nailed against the 
stable doors indicated, however, that the wishes of 
the latter in this matter were not always respected. 

CLOTHING. 

Flax and hemp were largely cultivated by the 
early farmers of the county. From these were 
manufactured linen for wearing apparel and for 
household use. Strength and durability were the 
merits of the material. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 89 

LIVE STOCK. 

Cows and sheep were added to the live stock a 
few years after settlement. The favorite cows were 
a large-sized, clean-limbed breed, with smooth, 
thin, but rather long, horns hooked backward. 
They were generally of a brindled color, and 
were noted for being good milkers and excel- 
lent foragers. 

Short-horned cows were introduced about 1825 
or 1830. Devons were brought later, the Jerseys 
about i860, and the Holsteins in very recent years. 
Sheep were kept largely for their wool. Those 
first introduced were the long-wooled variety. 
Merino rams were imported from Spain in 1810. 
The fine-wooled sheep never came into favor, for 
the reason that their short fleece was harder to 
work and not so serviceable. 

HOUSES. 

After having erected a good barn, the farmer 
usually began to think that a fine house should 
take the place of the log cabin. Sometimes several 
years were occupied in preparing for this. Stones 
had to be quarried and lumber sawed. The earliest 
houses were almost all built of stone, and usually 
two stories in height. According to the German 
style there was a large chimney in the middle of 
the house, and according to the English or Scotch 
style there was a chimney at the gable ends. Many 
of the early houses were very imposing structures, 
with arched cellars, spacious hallways, easy stairs, 
and oak panelled partitions and windows hung in 



90 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

weights. Some of these old houses are still stand 
ing, their walls as solid as they were when first 
erected. Modern alterations in some cases, how- 
ever, have greatly disfigured them. 

FARM WORK. 

The busy times of the year were the hay-making, 
harvesting and fruit-gathering seasons. 

The meadows were mowed earlier than the 
uplands. The hay was dried by spreading and 
turning it in the field during fair weather, or 
putting it in weather cocks if rain was likely to 
occur. Boys and girls did a large part of the 
lighter work in the hay- gathering. Many times, 
the young women, if they could be spared from the 
work in the house, helped in the harvesting. Often 
they worked with a strong, skillful young har- 
vester, who would gallantly take a little more than 
his own half of the work. 

The apple-gathering was usually a merry-making 
time. Gay youths and happy maidens mingled 
with their grave and stately elders in the work of 
putting away the apples for winter use and in par- 
ing them for butter. Then came the apple-butter 
boiling, which was usually a rollicking occasion. 

About the year 1800 red clover and timothy 
were introduced. These were grown on the up- 
lands. The farmer no longer depended on his 
irrigated meadows for hay. The English scythe 
now supplanted the clumsy German scythe, and 
farming implements of all kinds were improving. 
The raising of wheat gradually took the place of 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 91 

barley and spelt, and after 1820 the wheaten loaf 
became the daily bread of the people. The distil- 
ling of the coarser grains — rye, barley and corn — 
into liquors became an industry in early times. 
The wheat was generally ground into hour in the 
mills, and the flour was hauled by the farm teams to 
Philadelphia and to Newport, Delaware. ' ' Store ' ' 
goods, salt and land plaster were brought in 
return. 

CONESTOGA TEAMS. 

While most of the hauling was done in the win- 
ter, some of the farmers had teams on the road all 



the year hauling goods between Philadelphia and 
Pittsburg. These were the well-known "Cones- 
toga Teams," sometimes figuratively called the 
"Ships of Inland Commerce." They were stately 
objects in those days, and the owners and drivers 
alike took great pride in keeping their teams neat 
and trim. The team often consisted of six or eight 
heavy horses, well fed and well cared for, good har- 
ness, and sometimes ornamented with bows of bells 
fitted so as to form an arch above the collars. These 
bells were selected with a view to harmony, and 
formed a sort of chime, from the small trebles on the 
leaders to the large bass upon the wheel horses. 



92 BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

The wagon was made of strong, durable material, 
and was painted red and blue. The cover was of 
strong white linen or hempen material, and was 
drawn tightly over shapely bows fixed to the body, 
.ower nearer the middle and projecting front and 
back something like a bonnet. Taverns or inns 
sprang up along the principal roads for the accom- 
modation of the teamsters and their horses, and 
did a flourishing business. Most of these to-day 
are quiet farm houses, or have been converted to 
other uses. With the coming of the railroad the 
day of the tavern came to an end. 

Drinking was very common in those days. Dis- 
tilleries were numerous and alcoholic liquors cheap. 
Bottles of whiskey or wine were in the field during 
the day, on the table at meal time, and were set 
out during the evening. 

HORSEBACK RIDING. 

Before 1830 very few farmers had pleasure car- 
riages. Those who rode in old-fashioned gigs 
were considered very stylish and proud. Business 
and visiting were done on horseback among the 
well-to-do people. Children were taken along by 
being put in the front on a pillow, and infants were 
carried on the arm tightly wrapped in a shawl or a 
quilt. 

Women became noted as fearless and skillful 
riders, and mothers would often make journeys of 
ten or fifteen miles alone on horseback with infants 
in their arms. 

Young ladies of sixteen or seventeen years were 



BRIKB' HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 9»5 

accustomed to going on horseback to the country 
store where the trading was done, riding often- 
times as many as five or six miles each way. 

THE YOUNG PEOPLE. 

When a farmer's daughter was old enough to go 
into society, she was given a handsome saddle and 
bridle, and was permitted to use a farm horse when 
she went to church-meeting, to singing-school or 
to visit friends. 

The riding-habit of the young ladies w^as usually 
a very trim, close-fitting garment, and this together 
with a beaver hat or scoop-bonnet constituted a full 
outfit. The farmer's boy was a fresh, rosy-faced 
lad. His work consisted of carrying water to the 
men in the field, taking the horse to the black- 
smith shop, hunting the eggs, driving the cows, 
and doing small errands about the farm. When 
he grew older his work was somewhat different. 
Now he split the firewood, began to plow, fed the 
stock. In the winter he had a short term in school. 
There he studied to learn, and in play time played 
to win. 

He was noted for throwing a ball in the game 
with unerring aim and with tremendous force. At 
the age of seventeen or eighteen he was presented 
with a saddle and bridle. At nineteen he took 
charge of the farm team, led the men to harvest, 
and was permitted to have the finest and best 
groomed young horse when he rode out. He 
usually married at an early age. On the marriage 
day the young farmer brought his wife to his 



94 BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTE^R COUNTY. 

father's house, riding by her side in the midst of a 
company of merry friends. The teams, laden with 
her household goods and furniture, followed; and a 
noisy party of drivers brought up the rear driving 
the cows, which were her father's bridal gift. 

His new duties as the head of a household he 
assumed quite seriously. He and his young wife 
lived plainly, worked early and late, were frugal 
as well as industrious, saving all they could with 
the view of buying a farm for themselves. They 
generally joined the church of the parents of one or 
the other, avoided display, shunned worldly attrac- 
tions, saved money to start their children in life, 
lived to a good age, and died worthy and respected. 



V^!m sM 




CHAPTER V. 

GEOGRAPHY. 

LOCATION, BOUNDARIES, AREA. 

LANCASTER county is situated upon the east 
^ bank of the Susquehanna river, in the south- 
eastern part of Pennsylvania. It is bounded on 
the north by the counties of Dauphin, Lebanon 
and Berks; on the east by Chester county; on tne 
south by Cecil county, Maryland; and on the west 
by York county. Its boundary lines are chiefly 
natural ones. From Danphin county on the 
north-west it is separated by the Conewago creek, 
from Lebanon county on the north by the South 
Mountain, from Chester on the east partly by the 
Octoraro creek, from Maryland on the south by 
Mason and Dixon's Line, and from York county on 
the west by the Susquehanna river. Its greatest 
length from east to west is forty-five miles, from 
north to south fort^'-one miles. Central latitude is 
40° 3^ N., longitude 0° 40' east from Washing- 
ton city. The area of the county is 973 square 
miles, and the population by the census of 1890 is 
149,880. 

TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE 

The general slope of the county is toward the 
Susquehanna river on the south-west. Its surface 
is broken and diversified by mountain ridges, hills. 



96 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

fertile valleys and beautiful streams. The princi- 
pal elevations are the South Mountain, along the 
northern boundary; the Welsh Mountain on the 
east, extending some distance into the interior; 
Mine Ridge and the hills of the Octoraro on the 
south-east; and the River Hills along the south- 
west. These ridges have the general direction 
from east to west, and with their outlying ranges of 
hills divide the interior of the county into a num- 
ber of valleys. The longest of these, like the 
Pequea, Conestoga and Chickies, named respec- 
tively after the streams that flow through them, 
extend through the entire length of the county 
from north-east to south-west. Through the cen- 
tral portion, however, the line of division between 
the valleys is so gradual that the whole interior 
may properly be regarded as one large fer- 
tile valley. Numerous streams flow through the 
county ._ ' They all drain into the Susquehanna 
river. ;The north central section is drained by the 
the Conestoga creek, the largest stream in the 
county./ The main branches of this stream are the 
Little Conestoga, Mill Creek, the Cocalico, Hammer, 
Middle and Muddy Creeks. The south central sec- 
tion forms the large and beautiful Pequea valley, 
which is drained by the Pequea and its tributaries. 
The section north of the Conestoga is watered by 
the Big Chickies and Little Chickies creeks. In the 
extreme north-west are the Conoy and Conewago 
creeks; in the south the Conowingo, the Oc- 
toraro and Fishing Creek, with their rugged and 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 97 

romantic scenery. The network of streams fur- 
nishes abundant water-power to the county, and 
gives to every neighborhood an adequate supply 
of excellent running water. 

SOIL AND CLIMATE. 

The fine tracts of heavy timber that are found in 
nearly all the portions of the county show that the 
soil is naturally fertile. In the limestone region, 
which extends across the county from east to west, 
and from the hills in the northern part to those in 
the southern part, the soil is the richest. This 
section occupies nearly one-half of the area of the 
county, and by skillful cultivation has made Lan- 
caster county famous as the "Garden Spot of Penn- 
sylvania," and the greatest agricultural county in 
the United States. The red shale north of the lime- 
stone and the variety of rich clay south of the 
limestone contain some of the finest farms in the 
county. Like the limestone soil, their productions 
include all the cereals and very many of the best 
varieties of small fruit. The climate is compara- 
tively mild and conducive to occupation in active 
pursuits. Before the cold north winds from the 
Upper Mississippi and the Lakes reach the county 
they must cross the Alleghany mountains and the 
Blue Ridge, which largely neutralize the effects oi 
these wintry storms. From the ocean the winds 
have free access, and at brief intervals supply the 
county with an abundant rainfall. Its protection 
from the rigors of winter, its exposure to the ocean, 
its variety of surface, give it a uniform temper- 
5 



98 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

ature, and, with its soil and other physical resources, 
the best conditions to promote and enjoy life. Lan- 
caster county has never had an entire failure of 
crops. 

INDUSTRIES AND PRODUCTS. 

The great fertility of soil has made agriculture 
the leading industry. Large harvests of grain and 
abundant water-power early led our people to erect 
grist-mills and engage in the business of manu- 
facturing flour. Some attention is given to min- 
ing and grazing in the extreme north and south. 
The transportation of products of various kinds is 
quite an important source of revenue. The cotton 
mills of Lancaster city and the furnaces and roll- 
ing-mills at several points of interest employ many 
men and contribute materially to the wealth of the 
county. Besides the usual farm products, special 
attention is given to the raising of tobacco.; ^ Mill- 
ions of cigars are made annually in the small towns 
and villages. Lime is extensively burned in a few 
sections. Creameries are found in nearly every 
neighborhood in the northern and southern por- 
tions of the county, and thousands of tons of butter 
are made and shipped yearly to Baltimore, Phila- 
delphia and New York. Fine building stone are 
quarried and excellent brick burned from native 
clay. Nickel is mined in paying quantities at the 
Gap. The material wealth of the county in round 
numbers, according to the official records, is about 
$113,000,000. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 99 

POLITICAL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 

Lancaster county consists of one city, ten bor- 
oughs and forty-one townships. The city of Lan- 
caster is the'^unty-seat and the only city within 
the limits of the county. The ten boroughs, begin- 
ning with the largest and naming them in the 
order of their population, are Columbia, Marietta, 
Manheim, Ephrata, Mount Joy, Lititz, Elizabeth- 
town, Strasburg, Washington and Adamstown. 
With the exception of Adamstown, all the bor- 
oughs are directly connected by railroad with the 
county-seat. 

LANCASTER CITY. 

Lancaster city, the county-seat, is situated on the 
north-western bank of the Conestoga and about 
eight miles west of the center of the county. Ac- 
cording to the census of 1890 it had a population 
of 32,090. The facilities of the city are not sur- 
passed by any other town in the State. The 
water for the city is obtained from the Conestoga 
by means of high pressure Worthington pumps 
aerated in reservoirs in the eastern limits of the 
city. All portions of the town are lighted by means 
of gas and electric lights and gasoline. A system of 
electric railways on the principal streets extends 
to the four quarters of the town and secures rapid 
transit to all points in the city limits. An electric 
railway also connects the city with the village of 
Millersville, in Manor township, four miles south- 
west from the city. Lancaster is located on the 
main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and is 



100 BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTFR COUNTY. 

therefore in direct communication with all points 
east and west. It is also connected by the Reading 
Railroad with Reading, Lebanon and Quarryville, 
and by a branch line of the Pennsylvania, recently 
completed, with New Holland. Its central posi- 
tion in a rich agricultural section and its excellent 
shipping facilities have made it noted for its mar- 
kets. The general household market is held daily 
in one or several of the five public market-houses 
located in different sections of the city. No town in 
the country has a cheaper and more abundant sup- 
ply of every article of household consumption. The 
thriving character of the shipping and exchange 
market is shown by the ninety or more tobacco 
warehouses in the city, the large number of grain 
warehouses, sale and exchange stables, and houses 
in the wholesale mercantile trade. 

The industrial enterprise of the city embraces 
nearly all kinds of business. x\mong the principal 
may be mentioned a furnace, a rolling-mill, loco- 
motive works, half a dozen large cotton and woolen 
mills employing several thousand workmen, a 
watch factory, coach factories, a large number of 
smaller manufacturing establishments of various 
kinds, large and well-equipped stores, first class 
hotels, and a number of National Banks, some of 
which occupy large and spacious edifices. 

The educational and charitable institutions of 
Lancaster are among the finest in the State. Frank- 
lin and Marshall College, the leading institution of 
the Reformed Church in the United States, is 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 101 

located here. Two High Schools and about 
seventy-five schools of all other grades belong to 
its public school system. A "Children's Home" 
for the orphan and friendless child, and other 
charitable institutions, on the eastern limits of 
the town, reflect the benevolent spirit of the com- 
munity. The town has several parochial schools, 
several commercial colleges, a Linnsean Society 
of Natural Science, four public libraries and four 
daily and six weekly newspapers. 

Its principal public buildings are the Lancaster 
County Court House, near the center of the city; 
the County Almshouse and Hospital, just beyond 
the eastern limits of the city; the Post Office Build- 
ing, erected by the government and completed in 
1891; the City Hall, on Centre Square; the Trust 
Company's Building, on North Queen street; Ful- 
ton Opera House; and the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Station, two blocks from the centre of the city. 
The majority of these buildings are fine structures 
and combine some of the best features in modern 
architecture. 

The social and moral tone of the town is elo- 
quently told in its excellent homes and numerous 
churches. Its places of public worship are fine 
edifices, supplied by able divines, and supported 
by the various Christian denominations. The 
many beautiful homes, tasteful surroundings of 
trees and shrubbery, and pure inland air, have long 
made Lancaster a desirable place of residence. 



102 BRIEJF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTER COUNTY. 
COLUMBIA BOROUGH. 

Columbia is the largest and most important 
borough in I^ancaster county. It is located on the 
Susquehanna river, ten miles directly west from 
Ivancaster city. It had a population of over 10,500 
by the census of 1890, and is a thriving town. A 
railroad bridge, one and one-eighth miles in length, 
crosses the river from Columbia to Wrightsville, on 
the opposite side of the river. The town is on the 
main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and is the 
principal freight station between Harrisburg and 
Philadelphia. Lines of railway also connect it 
with Reading, with points south along the Sus- 
quehanna, and with Baltimore and Washington by 
way of York. Its large round-house, its freight 
yard, its furnaces and rolling-mills, its large traffic 
in lumber, coal and sand, make it quite an indus- 
trial center. The town has a number of fine resi- 
dences, several of the finest churches in the in- 
terior of the State, an Opera House that cost $100,- 
000, and a fine system of general education. 

THE OTHER BOROUGHS OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

Marietta^ on the Susquehanna, three miles 
north-west from Columbia, is the second borough in 
size and population in the county. The census 
of 1890 gives it a population of over 2,400. The 
Pennsylvania Railroad passes through the town. 
The chief industry of the place is in its lumber 
trade and manufacture of enamelled work upon an 
extensive scale. The long river-front and the 



BRIKF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 103 

beautiful scenety of the hills across the river make 
Marietta a delightful town in summer. 

Mount Joy and Eli^abethtoztni boroughs are 
located on the Mount Joy branch of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, connecting I^ancaster with Harris- 
burg, and also on the Lancaster and Harrisburg 
turnpike. Mount Joy borough is within a few 
hundred yards of the Uttle Chickies creek, and 
between Mount Joy and East Donegal townships. 
The town lies twelve miles north-west from Lancas- 
ter, and contains the finest public-school building in 
the county, outside of Lancaster. Elizabethtown is 
situated between the townships of Mount Joy and 
West Donegal, and eighteen miles north-west 
from Lancaster. Within the past few years its 
streets were regraded and macadamized, and im- 
provements were made in buildings. The town 
is one of the best built in the county. 

The borough of Manheim is situated along 
the Reading and Columbia Railroad, and is about 
eleven miles north-west from Lancaster. It is 
bounded on the north-west and south-west by 
Rapho township, and on the east by the Big Chickies 
creek, which separates it from Penn township. 
Manheim, with its railroad connection with Lan- 
caster, Columbia, Reading and Lebanon, has 
grown rapidly in recent years, and is the third bor- 
ough in population, which was almost 2,000 by the 
census of 1890. It has a few of the finest' and 
largest stores of general merchandise in the county. 

The new borough of Lititz is also situated along 



104 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

the Reading and Columbia Railroad. It is wholly 
within the limits of Warwick township, and eight 
miles directly north from Lancaster. Lititz is an 
old Moravian settlement, long noted for its young 
men's academy and young ladies' seminary, for 
its beautiful spring grounds, and as a healthful 
summer resort. 

The new borough of Ephrata is likewise situated 
along the Reading and Columbia Railroad. It is 
entirely within the limits of Ephrata township, and 
is located on Cocalico creek, thirteen miles north- 
east from Lancaster. Ephrata has grown wonder- 
fully in population during recent years, having 
almost 2,000 by the census of 1890. Just east of 
the town are the Ephrata Ridge, with its lofty 
observatory, and the Ephrata Springs, noted as a 
summer resort. 

Strasbiirg borough — wholly within the limits of 
Strasburg township, and eight miles south-east 
from Lancaster — is one of the oldest towns in the 
county. The smallest boroughs in the county are 
Washington and Adamstown. Washington is on 
the Susquehanna, three miles south-east from 
Columbia; being washed by the river on its western 
side, and bounded by Manor township on the 
north, east and south. Adamstown is in the north- 
eastern part of the county, bordering on the Berks 
county line, and between East Cocalico and Breck- 
nock townships. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY. 105 
IMPORTANT VILLAGES. 

There are a number of large and important 
villages or unincorporated towns in Lancaster 
county. The largest unincorporated town in the 
county is the village of Millersville^ in Manor 
township, a few miles south-west from Lancaster, 
with which it is connected by turnpike and an elec- 
tric railway. Millersville is the seat of the State 
Normal School of the Second District of Pennsyl- 
vania, the oldest institution of the kind in the 
State, and which will be described in another part 
of this book. This village has a population of 
over 1,200, and contains five churches. 

The second village of Lancaster county in size, 
population and importance is New Holland^ in 
Earl township, about twelve miles north-east by 
east from Lancaster, with which it is connected 
by turnpike and by the Downingtown and Lan- 
caster Railroad. 

Terre Hill is one of the most thriving villages in 
the county. It is located in the northern part of 
East Earl township, and is connected by mail-stage 
with Lancaster and Reading. Although six miles 
from the railroad, it has a very large shipping trade. 
Its principal industry is the manufacture of cigars, 
for which it is the best equipped town in this sec- 
tion of the State. The village, as its name sug- 
gests, is situated on the brow of an elevated ridge, 
at the foot of which lies the beautiful Conestoga 
Valley, spread out like a vast garden. 

Among villages of lesser size and importance is 



106 BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

Safe Harbor^ on the Susquehanna, at the mouth 
of the Conestoga. This place is situated on the 
Columbia and Port Deposit Railroad, and was 
noted for its iron works, consisting of a furnace 
and a rolling-mill. 

In the south-eastern part of the county, in Sads- 
bury township, is Christiana^ located on the Octo- 
raro creek, just on the line of Chester county. It 
is on the Pennsylvania Railroad, twenty miles 
south-east by east from Lancaster, and has a 
foundry, a machine-shop and several other manu- 
facturing establishments. 

In the southern part of the county, on the line 
of Eden and Bast Drumore townships, is Quarry- 
z>ille, so called from its extensive quarries. This 
place is sixteen miles south-east by south from 
Lancaster, and is connected with Lancaster, Read- 
ing and Columbia by the Quarryville branch of 
the Reading and Columbia Railroad. 

THE TOWNSHIPS. 

The location, boundaries, streams and villages 
of the several townships of the county can be seen 
by reference to the map of the county as at present. 
Pequea has the highest ratio of wealth. Manor is 
the most populous township in the county and has 
the greatest aggregate wealth. It is generally undu- 
dulating, except along the river, in the south-western 
part, where a ridge extends, known as Turkey Hill. 
Among the most fertile, wealthy and populous 
townships are East Donegal, the Hempfields, the 
Lampeters, the Leacocks, the Earls, Manheim, 



BRIKI^ HISTORY OF LA.NCASTER COUNTY. 107 

Penn, part of Rapho, Salisbury, Ephrata, Stras- 
burg and Warwick. These townships all lie, with 
one^exception, in the great limestone valley, a nH~ 
are generally level or onlylTioderately undulating. 
The only hills of considerable size in this section 
are the Welsh Mountains, in the northern part of 
Salisbury; the Ephrata Ridge, in Ephrata township; 
and Chestnut Hill, in the Hempfields. The town- 
ships along the border of the county are more roll- 
ing, but nearly all contain portions of choice farm- 
ing land. West Cocalico is rugged in the northern 
part, but south of Schoeneck it is as level as a floor 
and as fertile as it is beautiful. Brecknock has 
fine meadow lands. Caernarvon is reputed to raise 
a superior quality of tobacco. Sadsbury, Drumore 
and Martic have the finest and most picturesque 
scenery. A trip over the Martic Hills, or along 
Fishing Creek in Drumore, or along the Octoraro in 
Sadsbury, is worth taking at any season of the 
year. Providence has the richest deposit of iron 
ore. The townships in the southern part of the 
county are best adapted to the production of corn, 
those in the northern part to hay, and those in the 
central part to the cultivation of wheat. The 
traveling facilities of the county are excellent, 
the industries varied, and the population honest 
and progressive. 



CHAPTER VI. 

BEFORE THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 

ERECTION OF LANCASTER COUNTY. ^^ 

npHB city of. Chester, on the Delaware river, 
-^ some twelve miles below Philadelphia, was the 
first county-seat of Chester county. Here were 
kept the county records, the wills, the deeds, the 
mortgages and land surveys. The inhabitants of 
what is now Lancaster and adjoining counties were 
on this account obliged to make a journey of over 
one hundred miles whenever they desired to attend 
to any legal business or to discharge their duties 
as jurors, witnesses or public officers. Accord- 
ingly, early in 1729, the settlers living west of the 
Octoraro creek and on both sides of the Susque- 
hanna river petitioned the Governor and his Council 
to make a new county. Governor Patrick Gordon 
and his Council, who were at this time in session 
at Philadelphia, granted the petition in February, 
1729. At the same time a commission of twelve 
prominent and influential men was appointed, who 
were to meet John Taylor, the public Surveyor of 
Chester county, to survey and mark the boundary 
line between Chester and the new county. These 
twelve men — the first six from what is now Chester 
county, and the last six from what is now lyancaster 






-.-.^■-:-:;ni0ff0^- "^ 




MAP OF 





inZHEN ORGT^NIZED, IN 


I. 

1-729. 




- 




BYI. S. CLARE. 











SCALE OF MILES. 

5 10 15 20 


25 


30 










- 





BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 109 

county — were all honest and reputable citizens, 
most of them being Justices of the Peace, and several 
of them members of the Pennsylvania Legislature. 
In May of the same year this commission made its 
report to the Governor and his Council. The 
Governor submitted the report to the Assembly of 
the province; and the Assembly, May loth, 1729, 
passed the act erecting all that part of Chester 
county west of the Octoraro creek and north and 
west of a line of marked trees, from the north 
branch of the said Octoraro creek, north-easterly to 
the river Schuylkill, into a new county to be named 
La7icaster county. * 

The twelve men constituting the commission 
were Henry Hayes, Samuel Nutt, Samuel Hol- 
lingsworth, Philip Taylor, Elisha Gatchel, James 
James, John Wright, Tobias Hendricks, Samuel 
Blunston, iindrew Cornish, Thomas Edwards and 
John Musgrpve. 

THE ORIGINAL LANCASTER COUNTY. 

Lancaster county was the first county of Penn- 
sylvania formed after Philadelphia, Bucks and 
Chester, the first three original counties within the 
present limits of the State. For its first twenty 
years (i 729-1 749) Lancaster county embraced a 
vast region, including beside its present territory 



*The new county was so named by the Quaker John Wright, 
after his native county, Lancaster, or Lancashire, in England. 
He came from England in 17 14 and settled at Chester. In 1726 
he removed to the Susquehanna and settled on the site of 
Columbia. 



110 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY 

all that part of Pennsylvania to the north-east, 
north, north-west and west of the present limits of 
the county. Its first reduction in size was made 
by the erection of York county in 1749. It was 
still further reduced in size by the formation of 
Cumberland county in 1750, Berks county in 1752, 
Northumberland county in 1772, and Dauphin 
county in 1785. lyancaster county was finally 
reduced to its present limits by the erection of 
Lebanon county in 1813. 

THE FIRST COUNTY OFFICIALS. 

On May 8, 1729, the Governor and Council of 
the province of Pennsylvania appointed the follow- 
ing persons Justices of the Peace in the county of 
Lancaster; John Wright, Tobias Hendricks, Samuel 
Blunston, Andrew Cornish, Thomas Edwards, 
Caleb Pierce, Thomas Read and Samuel Jones, 
Esqs. The Governor and Council also appointed 
Robert Barber to the ofiice of Sheriff of the new 
county, and Andrew Galbraith to the ofiice of 
Coroner. 

ORGANIZATION OF TOWNSHIPS. 

The magistrates of the new county called a 
meeting of the leading citizens of the county at 
John Postlethwait's tavern, in Conestoga township, 
near Conestoga creek. This place is the site of 
the old homestead of the Fehl's, in Conestoga 
township. The public meeting was held there 
June 9, 1729, and the names and boinidaries of 
townships of the new county were there agreed 
upon. The magistrates' court met at the same 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. Ill 

place, August 5, 1729, and confirmed the report 
of the citizens' public meeting. 

NAMES OF THE TOWNSHIPS. 

Of the seventeen townships, three were outside 
of the present limits of Lancaster county. Of 
these Derry and Peshtank (now Paxton) town- 
ships are in the present Dauphin county, and 
Lebanon township forms a part of what is now 
Lebanon county. The other fourteen townships — 
all of which were within the present limits 
of Lancaster county — were Drumore, Sadsbury, 
Martock, Conestoga, Hempfield, Donegal, Earl, 
Warwick, Manheim, Lancaster, Leacock, Lam- 
peter, Salisbury and Caernarvon. The boundary 
and original extent of these townships can also be 
seen by reference to the map of Lancaster county 
as it was upon its organization. 

DERIVATION OF THE TOWNSHIP NAMES. 

Of the original townships of Lancaster county, 
Conestoga, Donegal and Tulpehocken had been 
townships of Chester county before the formation 
of Lancaster; and Tulpehocken is now a township 
of Berks county. Conestoga and Tulpehocken are 
Indian names. Donegal was so named because its 
early settlers came from Donegal county, Ireland. 
Hempfield was so named on account of the great 
quantities of hemp raised there. Manheim was 
named after the city of that name in Germany, 
from which many of the early settlers came. War- 
wick was so named by Richard Carter, who came 



112 BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

from Warwickshire, England. Earl was named 
after Hans Graaf, Earl being the English word for 
Graaf. Caernarvon was so named by its early set- 
tlers, who came from Caernarvon county, in Wales. 
Leacock was so named by an early Scotch-Irish 
settler. Lampeter was named after Lampeter, in 
Wales, the native place of a few of the settlers. 
Lancaster was named after Lancaster, England. 
Salisbury and Sadsbury are named after places in 
England, of which the early Quaker settlers were 
natives. Drumore and Martock were named after 
places in Ireland, where the Scotch-Irish settlers 
came from. Lebanon township, now in Lebanon 
county, is a Scriptural name given to the township 
by its early inhabitants. Peshtank, now in Dauphin 
county, was an Indian name, later Paxtang^ now 
Paxtoii. Derry, also now in Dauphin county, was 
so named by its early Scotch-Irish settlers, who 
came from county Derry, Ireland. Cocalico town- 
ship, which was also formed in 1729, but several 
months after the first seventeen were erected, was 
the Indian name of the creek flowing through it. 

The following table shows the names of the 
original townships, with the derivation of their 
names, and the townships into which they have 
since been divided: 



BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 



113 



Original Town- ,_, . ^. ,. ^ , -^ ,r -^«^<' what Townshibs 

f. . : Derivation of Tozvnshtp Names. ^. ^. .^^ 

ships in 1729, , 5^z«c^ Divided. 


T^„^,,,^^^ Named bv Scotch-Irish settlers, 
DRLMORE, . . . ^^^^^ ^ place in Ireland. 


Drumore. 

East Drumore (1886). 
Little Britain (1738), 
Fulton (1844). 


eAr.cnTTDv , So named by Quaker settlers, from 
1 Sa»S«^RY, . . . Sadsbury, England. 


Sadsbury. 

Coleraine (1738). 

Bart (1743). 

Eden (1855). , 


TVTATJTnrir 1 Named by Scotch-Irish settlers, 
Martock, . . . , ^f^^^ ^ pj^^^ .^ Ireland. 


Martic. 
Providence ( 1853) . 


1 CONESTOGA, . . Indian name. 


Conestoga. 
Pequea (1853). 


Wi7n>rT.T7TirT r. So named because much hemp 


E. Hempfield. ) q q 
W. Hempfield, / ^^^^• 
Manor (1759). 


Named by its Scotch-Irish settlers, 
Donegal, . . . who came from Donegal county, 
Ireland. 


E. Donegal. \ ^„,g 
W. Donegal, f ^^3»- 
Rapho (1741)- 
Mount Joy (1759). 
Conoy (1842). 


■ni7Bi»v Named by its Scoth-Irish settlers, 
uisKKY, .... ^^^^ Derry county, Ireland. 


Now in Dauphin Co. 


Peshtank, . , i Indian name. 


Now in Dauphin Co. [ 


I^EBANON, ... Scriptural name. 


Now in Lebanon Co. 


j Named in honor of Hans Graaf, 

Karl, | Earl being the English word 

! for Graaf. 


Earl. 

E. Earl (1851). 

W. Earl (1828). 


So named by Richard Carter, an 
Warwick, . . early settler from Warwickshire, 
England. 


Warwick. 
Elizabeth (1757). 
Clay (1853). 
Penn 1846). 


TvrAT«wT?Tiv/r So named by early settlers, from 
MANHEIM, ... Mannheim. Germany. 


Manheim. 


I^ancaster, . . 

IvEACOCK, . . . 


Named after Lancaster, Eng- 
land. 

So named by a Scotch-Irish set- 
tler, who came from Leacock, 
Ireland. 

So named by a few Welsh settlers, 
after Lampeter in Wales. 


Lancaster township. 
Lancaster city (1818). 
Le acock. 

U. Leacock (1843). 
Strasburg (1759). 
Paradi.se (1843). 


I^ampeter, . . 


E.Lampeter, | „ 
W. Lampeter, ) ^^^i- 


Salisbury, . . 


So named by Quaker settlers from 

Salisbuay," England. 
So named by early settlers from 

Caernarvon county, Wales. 


Salisbury. 


Caern.^rvox, 


Caernarvon. 


COCALICO, . . . 


Indian name. 


E. Cocalico, ) 

W. Cocalico, ^1838. 

Ephrata, ) 


Brecknock, . 


So named by early settlers from 
Brecknock county, Wales. 

Indian name. 


Brecknock, Lane. Co. \ C^, 
Brecknock. Berks Co. \ CT 


TULPEHOCKEN, 


Now in Berks Co. 



114 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 
FIRST ELECTED COUNTY OFFICERS AND COUNTY COURT. 

On the 4th of October, 1729, an election for 
county officers was held. Robert Barber, of 
Hempfield township, and John Galbraith, of Done- 
gal, were chosen as Sheriffs; and Barber was com- 
missioned on the same day. Joshua Lowe was 
elected and commissioned Coroner. At the same 
election four County Commissioners and six 
Assessors were also chosen. "^ 

The first Court of Quarter Sessions was held at 
the house of John Postlethwait, in Conestoga town- 
ship, in August, 1729. John Wright and five asso- 
ciate justices held the court. The first grand juryf 
consisted of sixteen men, four of whom were 
Quakers and the remaining twelve Scotch-Irish. * 
The non-appearance of German names on this list 
seems to indicate that the Mennonites declined to 
serve as jurors. 

The first case tried was that of Morris Cannady, 

^he Commissioners were John Postlethwait and Andrew Cor- 
nish, of Conestoga township ; George Stuart, of Donegal ; and 
John Davis, of Caernarvon. The Assessors were Patrick Camp- 
bell, of Donegal ; Joshua Lowe, of Hempfield ; and Richard HufF, 
John Dearer, John Callwell and Isaac Robinson, of Salisburv 
township. Richard Marsden was the first clerk to the Board of 
Commissioners and Assessors. 

t The first grand jury were : James Mitchell, George Stuart, 
Andrew Calbraith, James Roddy, Patrick Campbell, John Gal- 
braith and Ephraim Moore, all of Donegal ; Edward Smout, 
John and James Hendricks, all of Hempfield; Francis Jones, of 
Sadsbury; Samuel Taylor, of Salisbury ; Edmund Cartlidge, 
Thomas Baldwin and Matthew Atkinson, all of Conestoga ; and 
William Hay, of Paxton. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 115 

who was indicted for larceny. He was accused of 
having stolen fourteen pounds and seven shillings 
from Daniel Cookson, who owned a mill at the 
head of Pequea creek, in Salisbury township. The 
jury* found the defendant guilty; and he was 
sentenced to restore the money stolen, pay an equal 
amount as fine, pay costs of prosecution, pay two 
pounds and eighteen shillings to plaintiff for the 
loss of time in prosecuting the case, and stand com- 
mitted to the Sheriff's custody until all the fines 
and costs were paid. He was further sentenced to be 
publicly whipped "on his bare back with twenty- 
one stripes well laid on. ' ' He received the whipping 
and restored the amount stolen, but was unable to 
pay the fines and costs. He was accordingly kept 
in jail one year, at the end of which the Sheriff was 
ordered by the court to sell him " to the highest 
bidder for any term not exceeding six years, and 



*Tliegrandjurors were John Hendricks and James Hendricks, 
of Hempfield township ; Francis Jones, of Sadsbury ; Samuel 
Taylor, of Salisbury ; James Mitchell, George Stuart, Andrew 
Galbraith, John Galbraith, Ephraim Lloore, Patrick Campbell 
and James Roddy, of Donegal; Edward Smout, of Hempfield; 
Edmund Cartlidge, Thomas Baldwin and Matthew Atkinson, of 
Conestoga ; and William Hay, of Paxton. The first four 
mentioned were Quakers ; the rest were Scotch-Irish, seven of 
them from Donegal township. 

The jury that tried Morris Cannady were John L,awrence, of 
Paxton; Robert Blackshaw and Thomas Gale, of Lampeter ; 
John Mitchell and Joseph Worke, of Donegal ; Joseph Burton, 
Edmund Dougherty, Richard Hough and Joshua Minshall, of 
Hempfield ; Richard Carter, of Warwick ; David Jones, of Con- 
estoga ; and Lawrence Bankson. 



116 BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

that the money thence arising be applied for or 
towards payment of the fine and costs afore- 
said." He was sold by the Sheriff for six years to 
John Lawrence, of Paxton township, for sixteen 
pounds; but only fourteen pounds and five shil- 
lings were collected. 

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE COUNTY-SEAT. 

By the act establishing Lancaster county, John 
Wright, Caleb Pierce, James Mitchell and Thomas 
Edwards were empowered to purchase a site for the 
county court-house and prison. Three sites were 
proposed — Wright's Ferry, now Columbia; John 
Postlethwait's place, now Fehl's, in Conestoga 
township; and Gibson's place, the site of Lancas- 
ter. The Sheriff, Robert Barber, was so certain 
that Wright's Ferry, where he resided, would be 
selected that he built a strong wooden building for 
a county jail, near his residence. The first county 
courts were held at Postlethwait's, from June, 1729, 
to August, 1730; and a temporary wooden court- 
house and jail were erected there. Three of the 
magistrates appointed to select the county-seat — 
Wright, Pierce and Mitchell — agreed upon a piece 
of land for a permanent county-seat; and their 
report was confirmed by the Governor and his 
Council, May i, 1729. This was a lot of land "lying 
on or near a small run of water, between the plan- 
tations of Rudy Mire, Michael Shank and Jacob 
Imble, about ten miles from Susquehanna river." 
Governor James Hamilton, who laid out the town 
of Lancaster, offered two places — "the old Indian 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 117 




118 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

Field, High Plain, Gibson's Pasture, Sanderson's 
Pasture," being one place; the other, ''the Waving 
Hills, embosomed in wood, bounded by Roaring 
Brook on the west." The road from Philadelphia 
to Harris' Ferry (now Harrisburg) passed through 
the center, Gibson resided near a fine spring, with 
a large hickory tree before his door. This was a 
favorite tree of the Indians there, who were called 
"Hickory Indians." The Dark Hazel Swamp 
and the I^ong Swamp were near the center of the 
proposed town, which was laid out in 1730 and 
named Lancaster. 

FIRST LICENSES GRANTED. 

In November, 1730, the county court at Lan- 
caster allowed the petition of thirteen persons who 
asked to be licensened as Indian traders. * At the 
same time permission was given to nine persons to 
keep public houses of entertainment. These per- 
sons were allowed to sell all kinds of spiritous and 
malt liquors, t 

THE KING'S HIGHWAY FROM LANCASTER TO PHILADELPHIA. 

After the erection of Lancaster county and the 
organization of townships, the principal object of 
the inhabitants was the laying out of roads and 



*The Indian traders were James Patterson, Edmund Cartlidge, 
Peter Chartiere, John Lawrence, Jonas Davenport, Oliver Wallis, 
Patrick Boyd, Lazarus Lowry, William Dunlap, William Bes- 
wick, John Wilkins, Thomas Perrin and John Harris. 

t The tavern keepers were John Postlethwait, John Miller, 
Jacob Funk, Christian Stoneman, Jacob Biere, Edmund Dough- 
erty, Samuel Taylor, Francis Jones and Mary Denny. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 119 

the building of bridges. On January 29, 1730, the 
magistrates, grand jury and other inhabitants of 
Lancaster county presented a petition to the pro- 
vincial Council at Philadelphia to lay out a road, 
by way of Postleth wait's, in Conestoga, from the 
Conestoga Indian town to Philadelphia. 

The Council granted a petition and appointed a 
commission of fourteen prominent men, * seven from 
Lancaster and seven from Chester county, to view 
and lay out a road, by way of Postleth wait's, in 
Conestoga, from the Conestoga Indian town to the 
King's high-road in Chester county leading to 
Philadelphia. The viewers made their report Octo- 
ber 4, 1733, and the Council thereupon approved 
and confirmed it, and the road thus laid out was 
declared the King^ s Highway. This is the road 
now passing east from'Fehl's, through Strasburg 
and the Gap, on to Philadelphia. 

QUAKERS IN LANCASTER COUNTY. 

At the time of the erection of Lancaster county 
1,000 Quaker families were settled within its limits, 
their settlements extending from the Octoraro to 
the Susquehanna. 

EXCITING ELECTION CONTEST FOR THE ASSEMBLY. 

In 1732 there was a remarkable political contest 
in Lancaster county for members of the provincial 

*Thomas Edwards, Edward Smout, Robert Barber, Hans 
Graaf, Caleb Pierce, Samuel Jones and Andrew Cornish, of Lan- 
caster county; and Thomas Green, George Aston, William 
Paschal, Richard Buffington, William March, vSamuel Miller and 
Robert Parke, of Chester county. 



120 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANC ASTER COUNTY. 

Assembly. Andrew Galbraith, of Donegal town- 
ship, was the candidate of the Scotch-Irish ; and 
John Wright, of Hempfield township, was the 
candidate of the Quaker English. Mrs. Galbraith 
mounted her favorite mare Nelly, fastening a spur 
to her ankle, and with "her red cloak flowing to 
the wind," she rode off to canvass the county in 
the interest of her husband. Her efforts w^ere 
crowned with success, as Andrew Galbraith was 
elected and returned a member, and took his seat 
in the Assembly. The other members of the As- 
sembly from Lancaster county were George Stuart, 
Thomas Edwards and Samuel Blunston. John 
Wright contested the election of Andrew Galbraith; 
but, after hearing the claims of both at the bar of 
the Assembly, the Assembly resolved "that An- 
drew Galbraith is duly returned a member for the 
county of Lancaster." John Wright was soon 
after elected to the Assembly to succeed George 
Stuart, who had died soon after his election. 

CRESAP'S WAR. 

In 1732 Colonel Thomas Cresap, of Maryland, 
established a ferry and built a cabin close to the 
lands of the Indian trader James Patterson on the 
west side of the Susquehanna. Cresap and his 
Marylanders came for the purpose of driving Pat- 
terson and all of Penn's settlers from their lands 
west of the Susquehanna river and seizing these 
lands for themselves. They shot several of Patter- 
son's horses. Patterson obtained a warrant from 
Justices John Wright and Samuel Blunston, at 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 121 

Wright's Ferry (now Columbia), for the arrest of a 
man named John lyowe, of Cresap's party. Con- 
stable Charles Jones, of Hempfield township, Mr. 
Patterson and his son James, and several others, 
crossed the river and arrested John Lowe and his 
sons Daniel and William in their house at night, 
took them by force over the river on the ice and 
brought them to Lancaster, where he placed them 
in prison. They were afterwards rescued from jail 
b}' a party of Marylanders. This was the begin- 
ning of the border troubles between the Maryland- 
ers and the Pennsylvanians, known as "Cresap's 
War," which entirely broke up Patterson's trade 
with the Indians on the west side of the Susque- 
hanna and caused him great loss. His son James 
was taken prisoner, and kept for a short time in 
"Cresap's Fort." Other unhappy frays followed, 
and the Marylanders committed atrocious outrages 
upon the Pennsylvanians. The Lancaster people 
were aroused to action and called "to arms," and 
the most resolute drove Cresap and his party into 
Maryland. 

NEW TOW^NSHIPS ERECTED WEST OF THE RIVER. 

Settlements had already been made west of the 
Susquehanna, within the limits of what are now 
York, Adams, Franklin, Cumberland and Perry 
counties, then a part of Lancaster county. The 
first authorized settlement in the present York 
county was made in the spring of 1729 by the 
Quakers John and James Hendricks, of Hempfield 
township. The people west of the river petitioned 
6 



122 BRISF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTE^R COlTNTY. 

the Lancaster county court for the erection of 
townships in that region; and in November, 1735, 
the townships of Pennsborough and Hopewell were 
organized. These are now in Cumberland county. 

BORDER CONTESTS WITH THE MARYLANDERS. 

The undefined boundary between Pennsylvania 
and Maryland led to a struggle between the Lan- 
caster people and the Marylanders in 1736. Many 
Germans and others had settled west of the Sus- 
quehanna, in what is now York county, under land 
titles from the Penns, but accepted titles from Lord 
Baltimore in order to escape payment of taxes to 
Pennsylvania. Feeling insecure in their lands, 
they renounced their allegiance to Maryland, and 
sought protection from Pennsylvania. Thereupon 
the Sheriff of Baltimore county, Maryland, with 
300 men attempted to drive the German settlers 
from their lands west of the river ; but Samuel 
Smith, the Sheriff of Lancaster county, led 2. posse 
comitatus^ composed of citizens of this county, 
across the river to protect the German settlers 
there. Sheriff Smith induced the Marylanders to 
withdraw without violence. Before long. Colonel 
Thomas Cresap led a party of about fifty Maryland- 
ers against the Germans west of the river to seize 
their lands, and killed an Englishman named 
Knowles, who resisted them ; but Cresap was at- 
tacked, wounded and taken prisoner by the Lan- 
caster county Sheriff's posse, and was taken to 
the Philadelphia jail. Governor Ogle, of Maryland, 
sent two men to Philadelphia to demand the release 



BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 123 

of Cresap; but Governor Gordon, of Pennsylvania, 
and his Council refused to surrender him. In 
retaliation, by Governor Ogle's order, four German 
settlers west of the Susquehanna were then seized 
and carried prisoners to Baltimore; and a band of 
Marylanders, under Higgenbotham, attempted to 
drive the Germans from their country. By order 
of Governor Gordon's Council, the Sheriff of Lan- 
caster county headed a posse to protect these Ger- 
mans. The Marylanders then retired, but returned 
after he was gone. Captures were made on both 
sides. The German settlers west of the river were 
annoyed constantly, many being driven from their 
farms, and others prevented from tilling their 
lands. In May, 1737, the Council of Pennsylvania 
sent Samuel Preston and John Kinsey to Governor 
Ogle to treat for peace on the border, but their 
mission failed. In October, 1737, Richard Lowder, 
at the head of sixteen daring ]\Iarylanders, broke 
open the jail at Lancaster and released the Mary- 
landers imprisoned there, his brother being one of 
them. An order from the King of England put an 
end to the dispute, and all prisoners on both sides 
were released on bail. 

GERMAN SETTLERS NATURALIZED. 

In 1738 the Pennsylvania Assembly passed an 
act naturalizing as British subjects the German set- 
tlers of Lancaster county who applied for naturali- 
zation. Some of these had come to America in 
1727, but most of them came between 1731 and 1735. 
Among the number was John Bushong, a French 



124 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

Huguenot, some of whose descendants live in Bast 
Lampeter township. * 

REINHOLDSVILLE SETTLED— YORK FOUNDED— LANCASTER 
A BOROUGH. 

Between 1735 and 1740 the neighborhood of 
Reinholdsville was settled by Germans — Hans 
Beelman, Hans Zimmerman and Peter Shumacher, 
large landholders, and others. In October, 1741, 
the town of York was laid out by Thomas Cook- 
son, Deputy Surveyor of Lancaster county, by 
order of the Penns. On May i, 1742, Lancaster 
was incorporated by charter as a borough. 

NEW TOWNSHIPS. 

The Lancaster county court erected the follow- 
ing townships east of the Susquehanna, on petition 
of the inhabitants : Hanover township, out of 
Paxton township, in what is now Dauphin county, 
February, 1737 ; Little Britain, out of the southern 
part ofDrumore, and Coleraine, out of the southern 
part of Sadsbury, in February, 1738 ; Berne town- 
ship, from part of Tulpehocken township, in what 
is now Berks county, in 1738 ; Bethel township, 
from part of Lebanon township, in what is now 
Lebanon county, in 1739 ; Rapho, out of that part 

*Among those who came with him are such well-known Ger- 
man names as Hiestand, Beyer, Frey, Carl, Keyser, Coble, 
Lehman, Lutz, Roth, Schwartz, Weis, Wirtz, Schroder, Bil- 
meier, Horsch and others. Among those naturalized are such 
names as Bender, Miller, Keller, Bare, Becker, Schaeffer, Stump, 
Pickel, Rutt, Klein, Horst, Graff, Bassler, Young, Immel, 
Eichelberger, Schreiner, Ellmaker, Hartman, Witmer, Binkley, 
Buckwalter, Stetler, Harnish, Leman and others. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 125 

of Donegal between the Big Chickies and Little 
Chickies creeks, in May, 1741 ; and Bart, out of 
the western part of Sadsbury, in November, 1743. 
Little Britain was so named because its early set- 
tlers were all from Great Britain. Coleraine and 
Rapho were named after the places where their 
early settlers came from in Ireland. Bart is a 
contraction of baronet, and was so named from 
Governor Sir William Keith, who was a baronet. 
Brecknock township, named by its early Welsh 
settlers after Brecknock county, Wales, was in 
existence in 1740. 

JOHN WRIGHT. 

Under the administration of Governor George 
Thomas, Governor Gordon's successor, the enlist- 
ing of indented or bound servants for soldiers was 
permitted. This was before the British Parlia- 
ment had passed an act for that purpose, k^ this 
was injurious to many citizens and contrary to 
ancient usage, John Wright, the mild but firm 
Quaker of Wright' s Ferr}^ (now Columbia), who 
had for many years been a member of the Pennsyl- 
vania iVssembly from Lancaster county, spoke out 
freely and firmly against the measure. Governor 
Thomas therefore determined to remove him from 
offices of Justice of the Peace and President Judge 
of the Common Pleas. At the May session of the 
Lancaster county court in 1741 he delivered a 
charge to the grand jury denouncing executive 
dictation. He was born of Quaker parents in Lan- 
cashire, England, in 1667, and came to Pennsyl- 



126 BRIE^F HISTORY OI^ I^ANC ASTER COUNTY 

vania in 17 14. He was a member of the Assembly 
for Chester county, and for many years afterward 
for Lancaster county. As a Judge for Ivancaster 
county he was noted for his promptness, honesty, 
candor and inflexible integrity. The people of 
Lancaster county esteemed him so highly that they 
continued to elect him to the Assembly until his 
death. His constant desire was to show his 
good will to mankind, his love of peace and good 
order. He died in 1751, in this same Lancaster 
county, for whose welfare he had labored so dili- 
gently for many years, and whose interests he had 
so long and faithfully served. 

THE MENNONITES AGAIN MISREPRESENSED. 

In 1 741 the German and Swiss Mennonite settlers 
of Lancaster county were again misrepresented to 
the provincial government of Pennsylvania, being 
virtually charged with disloyalty, with being ' ' de- 
termined not to obey the lawful authority of gov- 
ernment — disposed to organize a government of 
their own." The Assembly, in a message to 
Governor George Thomas, vindicated the Menno- 
nites, calling them a "laborious, industrious 
people," and saying that the Assembly had "ad- 
mitted the Germans to partake of the privileges 
enjoyed by the king's natural-born subjects." To 
overcome these imfounded prejudices, the Menno- 
nite bishop, Hans Tschantz, and the elders in a 
church council at Martin Mylin's house, in Lam- 
peter township, kindly reprimanded Mylin for 
building his sand-stone mansion, because the 



BRIKP HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 127 




128 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY. 

'* palace" was too showy for a Mennonite, and 
because it may have excited the jealousies of the 
provincial authorities. 

MR. SERGEANT AND THE SHAWANESE INDIANS. 

In 1 741 Mr. Sergeant, a New England gentle- 
man, undertook to teach the Shawanese Indians 
the Christian religion ; but they rejected his offer. 
They reproached Christianity, judging it by the 
lives of those who professed it. They told him 
that the white traders would lie, cheat and do 
other wicked things. They also said that the 
Senecas had given them their country, and had 
told them never to receive Christianity from the 
English. 

OMISH SETTLERS NATURALIZED. 

In 1742 the Ornish of lyancastei county petitioned 
the Assembly of Pennsylvania for a special act of 
naturalization, as their religion forbade them taking 
oaths, thus preventing their naturalization under 
existing laws. A special act was passed in con- 
formity with their request. 

COUNT ZINZENDORF IN LANCASTER AND WYOMING VALLEY. 

In 1 741 Count Louis Nicholas Zinzendorf, the 
great Moravian missionary, arrived in America ; 
and in 1742 he visited Lancaster and preached in 
the court-house. He made converts wherever he 
went. George Kline adopted his views, and aided 
in advancing the Moravian Church in Lancaster 
county. Zinzendorf 's main object was the Chris- 
tianizing of the Indians ; and for this purpose he 
visited a distant part of what was then Lancaster 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I,ANC ASTER COUNTY. 129 

county — the Wyoming Valley — occupied by the 
Shawanese Indians. The Indians were greatly 
alarmed wnen Zinzendorf and his little company 
set up their tents on the banks of the Susquehanna, 
a little below their town. They could not under- 
stand whv a strano^er would risk the dano;ers of a 
stormy ocean and go 3,000 miles from home for the 
unselfish purpose of showing them the way to 
happiness after death, and that too without asking 
any pay for his trouble. They suspected that he 
wanted to get possession of their lands for his own 
use, to search for hidden treasures, or to examine 
the country with the intention of seizing it in the 
future. They therefore called a council of their 
chiefs, and determined to secretly murder the 
missionary who had come into their midst. Zin- 
zendorf was alone in his tent, sitting on his bed of 
dry weeds and busy writing, when the Indians 
came to assasinate him. It w^as a cool September 
night, and the small fire which he had made for 
his comfort had roused a large rattlesnake which 
lay in the weeds near by. In crawling into the 
tent to warm itself at the fire, the reptile passed 
over one of his legs unseen by himself, but observed 
by the Indians who just then approached the door 
of his tent to do their bloody work. As the Indians 
removed the curtain they saw that the aged mis- 
sionary was too deeply engaged in the subject of 
his thoughts to notice them or the snake which 
lay before him. They shrank from the thought 
of murdering him, and hastily returned to the town 
*6 



130 BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

and told their companions that the Great Spirit 
protected the old man, as they had found that his 
only door was a blanket, and as they had seen a 
large rattlesnake crawl over him without attempt- 
ing to hurt him. This circumstance, and the 
arrival of Conrad Weiser soon afterward, won the 
friendship and confidence of the Indians for Zin- 
zendorf He passed twenty days at Wyoming, and 
then returned to Bethlehem. He returned to 
Europe in 1743, and died at Herrnhut, in Bohemia, 
in 1760. His coffin was carried to the grave by 
thirty-two preachers and missionaries whom he 
had reared, some of whom had labored in Holland, 
England, Ireland, Greenland and North America. 

SCOTCH-IRISH CONDUCT AT AN ELECTION. 

In 1743 there was another bitter political contest 
between the English Quakers and the Scotch-Irish 
in Lancaster county. The Scotch-Irish forced the 
Sheriff to receive such tickets as they approved, 
and to declare elected whom they wished to have 
returned. The Assembly passed resolutions cen- 
suring the Sheriff's act in "assuming to be sole 
judge at the election" as being " illegal, unwar- 
rantable and an infringement of the liberties of the 
people of the province." The Assembly also passed 
a resolution that the Sheriff of Lancaster county be 
admonished by the Speaker of the Assembly. The 
Sheriff appeared before the Assembly and was 
admonished, and promised to observe the law in 
future. He also altered the return, thus giving 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 131 

Samuel Blunstoii, the Quaker candidate, the seat 
to which he was rightfully elected. 

INDIAN TREATY AT LANCASTER IN 1744. 

In 1744 Murhancellin, a Delaware Indian chief, 
murdered John Armstrong and his two servants on 
the Juniata river. He was arrested and imprisoned 
at lyancaster for several months, after which he 
was taken to Philadelphia jail. Governor Thomas 
held a council with the Indians at Lancaster in 
1744, and agents from Maryland and Virginia and 
from the Six Nations of Indians were also present. 
All disputes between the whites and the Indians 
were settled by treaty. The Indians agreed to 
prevent the French and their Indian allies from 
marching through their country to attack the 
English settlements in Pennsylvania, Maryland and 
Virginia. But the encroachments of the white 
settlers, and the conduct of the white traders who 
furnished the Indians with liquor in violation of 
the law, and who cheated them out of their skins 
and wampum when they were drunk, still threat- 
ened trouble. Even Governor Thomas said: ''It 
is not to be wondered at then, if when the Indians 
recover from their drunken fit, they should take 
severe revenge." The Indians committed many 
petty acts to the annoyance of the English. They 
took the bark from the walnut trees belonging to 
John Musser, using it as covering for their cabins. 
Musser complained to the Governor, asking six 
pounds damage; but the Assembly voted him only 
three pounds. 



132 BRI^F HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 
ELECTION FRAUDS. 

In 1749 James Webb complained to the Assembly 
of Pennsylvania that a member of the Assembly 
from Lancaster county had been unfairly elected 
and returned, and asked for redress of the wrong. 
Evidence was given before the Assembly that the 
election had been conducted in a violent and unbe- 
coming manner ; that votes had been received by 
persons unauthorized to receive them, and particu- 
larly two by Christian Herr, one of the inspectors ; 
that many persons had voted as often as four, five, 
six, and even ten times ; that a candidate who was 
elected encouraged them ; and that 2,300 votes had 
been received, although there had been less than 
1,000 persons on the ground. The Assembly con- 
firmed the election, but voted that the election 
officers be censured and admonished by the Speaker 
of the Assembly. The latter executed the order 
with due degree of severity. 

ORGANIZATION OF YORK, CUMBERMAND AND BERKS 
COUNTIES. 

On petition of the settlers west of the Susque- 
hanna river, the Governor and Legislature of 
Pennsylvania erected that part of Lancaster county 
west of the river into a new county called York^ 
August 19, 1749. Cumberland county was erected 
west of the river, north of York, January 27, 1750. 
Berks county was erected out of parts of Lancaster, 
Philadelphia and Bucks counties, March 11, 1752. 

DISPUTES BETWEEN THE SCOTCH-IRISH AND THE GERMANS. 

As there were frequent disputes between the 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTER COUNTY. 133 

Scotch -Irish and the Germans in Lancaster county, \ 
the Penns ordered their agents to sell no more land » 
in York and Lancaster counties to the Scotch-Irish. 
Many of the Scotch- Irish settlers of Paxton and 
Donegal townnhips accepted the liberal offer of the 
Penns and settled in Cumberland county. * 

MORAVIAN SETTLEMENT OF LITITZ. 

The Moravians, or followers of Count Zinzen- 
dorf, settled Lititz in 1755 or 1756. The Moravians 
established a Christain community of their own at 
Lititz, as they had done at Bethlehem, in North- 
ampton county, during the visit of Zinzendorf 
Count Zinzendorf s preaching in Pennsylvania — at 
Bethlehem, at Lancaster and in Berks county — 
infused much religious enthusiasm among his fol- 
lowers. While holding a meeting at Mr. Huber's, 
in Warwick township, George Kline endeavored 
to excite opposition to Count Zinzendorf ; but 
after Kline had followed Zinzendorf to Lancaster 
and heard him preach he became his most- enthu- 
siastic convert and disciple. Moravian preachers 
from Bethlehem afterward visited Kline and his 
neighbors in Warwick township. In 1748 the 
Moravians in Warwick township were granted an 
ordained minister by the Bethlehem conference, 
and in 1755 Kline bestowed his farm of over 600 
acres to the Moravian society, which then and 



^he Works, Moores, Galbraiths, Bells, Whitehills, Silvers, 
Semples, Sterrits, Woods and others— early Scotch-Irish set- 
tlers in the eastern end of Cumberland county — went there from 
Donegal township. 



134 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANC ASTER COUNTY. 

there established a religious community of its own 
like the one at Bethlehem. The village thus 
formed was named Litits^ after a village in 
Bohemia, from which the ancestors of the members 
of the society had emigrated. The Brothers' and 
Sisters' Houses were built in 1758 and 1759. The 
foundations of the famous institutions of learning 
at lyititz — the Young Gentlemen's Academy and 
the Young Ladies' Seminary — were laid in the 
early years of the settlement. These schools were 
built beside the church and the parsonage, and 
were under the direction of the Morvian society 
at Lititz. These schools attained a wide celebrity, 
and were attended by pupils from different parts of 
Pennsylvania and from many other States of the 
Union. Besides its institutions of learning, Lititz 
became noted for its beautiful spring grounds, and 
in the course of years became a summer resort for 
people from various parts of the country. 



CHAPTER VII. 

DURING THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 
MURDERS BY THE DELAWARES AND SHAWANESE. 

LANCASTER county bore an important part in 
the French and Indian War, which broke out 
between the English and French colonies in North 
America in 1754, and which lasted ten years. The 
most important Indian tribes of Pennsylvania that 
aided the French in the war were the Delawares 
and the Shawanese, who committed the most cruel 
murders among the frontier settlements of Penn- 
sylvania. The French incited these Indians by 
promising to restore their lands to them after con- 
quering them from the English. 

INDIAN OUTRAGES AFTER BRADDOCK'S DEFEAT. 

To Oppose the French invasion of Pennsylvania, 
Benjamin Franklin was commissioned to procure 
150 wagons and 1,500 pack-horses. In a few 
weeks all the wagons and fifty pack-horses were 
obtained in Lancaster, York and Cumberland 
counties. The wagons and pack-horses, with the 
necessary provisions, were sent to General Brad- 
dock and met him at Will's Creek, now Cumber- 
land, Maryland. Braddock's defeat and death in 
the battle of the Monongahela, July 9th, 1755, 
produced alarm throughout the English colonies, 
as it exposed the whole western frontiers of Penn- 



136 BRIKF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

sylvania, Maryland and Virginia to the ravages of 
the French and their Indian allies. The Indians 
roamed unmolestedly and fearlessly over the back 
counties of Pennsylvania, committing the most 
dreadful outrages and cruel murders upon the 
white settlers. The savages ravaged on both sides 
of the Susquehanna; destroying the settlements 
at the Great Cove, in Cumberland county, and 
others on the Tulpehocken, in Berks county. 
The Seventh Day Baptists at Ephrata gave their 
cloisters, chapels and meeting-rooms for the shel- 
ter of the white settlers whom the Indians drove 
from the Tulpehocken, in Berks county, and from 
Paxton township, in Lancaster county. 

BLOCK-HOUSE ERECTED AT LANCASTER. 

lyate in 1755 a block-house, or wooden fort, was 
erected at Lancaster, then a town of 2,000 inhabi- 
tants. Two letters from Edward Shippen, a 
leading citizen of Lancaster, to James Hamilton, 
Esq. , of Philadelphia, concerning this block-house, 
show the alarm among the Lancaster people caused 
by the Indian outrages. Some of the Paxton set- 
tlers petitioned the Assembly of Pennsylvania for 
a militia law, and asked that Conrad Weiser be 
sent among the Indians at Shamokin on a mission 
of peace. 

MORE INDIAN OUTRAGES. 

In January, 1756, French and Indian marauding 
parties attacked the English settlements on the 
Juniata river, murdering and scalping such of the 
settlers as did not flee from their homes or were 



brie:f history of i^ancastkr county. 137 

not taken prisoners. The English protected their 
frontiers by erecting a line of forts and block- 
houses, which they garrisoned with militia. The 
authorities of Pennsylvania gathered in the friendly 
Indians from the Susquehanna to Philadelphia, so 
that they would not be mistaken for enemies. 
These did not long remain at Philadelphia. 
Headed by their leaders, Scarroyady and Montour, 
at the risk of their lives, they visited several tribes 
of Indians located along the Susquehanna, to per- 
suade them to live at peace with the white settlers 
of Pennsylvania. 

INDIGNATION OF THE PEOPLE AT THE ASSEMBLY. 

The people of Lancaster county joined with 
those of the frontier counties of Pennsylvania in 
expressing the highest indignation because the As- 
sembly of the province, with its Quaker majority, 
refused to adopt warlike measures to put a stop 
to the horrible Indian massacres. They held pub- 
lic meetings and resolved that they would "repair 
to Philadelphia and compel the provincial authori- 
ties to pass proper laws to defend the country 
and oppose the enemy." The dead bodies of some 
of the murdered and mangled were sent to Phila- 
delphia, and hauled about the streets with placards 
announcing that these were the victims of the 
Quaker policy of non-resistance. 

INDIAN TREATY AT EASTON IN 1756, 

Governor Morris, of Pennsylvania, was preparing 
to wage a vigorous war against the Delaware and 
Shawanese Indians, when he was infonned that Sir 



138 BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

William Johnson, through the medium of the Six 
Nations, had induced these tribes to make peace 
with the English. The Governor then issued a 
proclamation of peace, and in November, 1756, 
held a council with these Indians at Easton. At 
this council Governor Morris succeeded in making 
a treaty of peace with Teedyuscung, the chief of 
the Delawares, and also with the chiefs of the 
Shawanese. 

RENEWAL OF INDIAN OUTRAGES. 

No sooner had the Treaty of Easton been con- 
cluded than white settlers south of the Blue 
Mountains were cruelly murdered by the Indians, 
and the frontier settlers again fled into the interior 
for safety. The Governor and Council of Pennsyl- 
vania raised twenty-five companies, amounting to 
1,400 men, to defend the settlements against the 
savages. Nine of these companies were under the 
command of Lieutenant Colonel Conrad Weiser, 
and were stationed at various points from the Dele- 
ware to the Susquehanna. The other companies 
were under the command of Major James Burd and 
Colonel John Armstrong, and were stationed princi- 
pally west of the Susquehanna. The Delawares 
and the Shawanese, incited and aided by the 
French, kept up their war on the English until 
1757. The French and Western Indians com- 
mitted many murders among the English settle- 
ments. Cumberland, Berks, Northampton and 
Lancaster counties were kept in continual alarm ; 
and Indian scalping parties came to within thirty 
miles of Philadelphia. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTER COUNTY. 139 
INDIAN TREATY AT LANCASTER IN 1757. 

On May 29, 1757, Governor Denny, of Pennsyl- 
vania, held a conncil with the Indian chiefs of the 
Six Nations at Lancaster, and made a treaty with 
them. They presented their grievances, and said 
that the French told them as follows: "Children, 
you see, and we have often told you, how the 
English, your brothers, serve you. They plant 
all the countr}' and drive you back; so that, in a 
little time, 3'ou will have no land. It is not so with 
us. Though we build trading-houses on your lands, 
we do not plant. We have our provisions from over 
the great water. ' ' The famous chief. King Beaver, 
was also present, and made the following speech : 
''When our Great Father came first, we stood on 
the Indian's path. We looked to the sun as he 
rose in the east. We gave the English venison. 
The English gave us many, many good things. 
But the English trod on our toes. We turned our 
faces to the west. The English trod on our heels. 
We walked on. The English followed. We 
walked on, not knowing where to rest. The Eng- 
lish were at our heels. Father, we are weary. 
W^e wish to rest." 

At this meeting the Indians complained of so 
much injustice done them by the English settlers 
that many concessions were made by the coun- 
cilors. This was done to secure the friendship and 
good will of the Indians and to alienate them 
from the French. To strengthen this friendly 



140 BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

feeling, the Pennsylvanians agreed to furnish them 
with cattle, flour and kegs of rum. 

INDIAN TREATIES AT EASTON IN 1757 AND 1758. 

In August, 1757, the Delawares, Shawanese and 
other tribes made a treaty with the authorities of 
Pennsylvania, at Easton. In October, 1758, the 
Governors of PenUvSylvania and New Jersey made 
a definitive treaty with the Delawares under their 
chief, Teedyuscung, and with the Six Nations, 
the Conoys, the Nanticokes and other tribes, at 
Easton. Sir William Johnson and other agents 
were also present. The Indians agreed to a "ces- 
sation of hostilities and to take up arms with the 
English against the French." 

BARRACKS FOR TROOPS AT LANCASTER. 

After the English, under General John Forbes, had 
taken Fort Duquesne [du-kane] from the French, 
in November, 1758, that post was garrisoned by a 
part of Forbes' s expedition under Colonel Hugh 
Mercer ; while the other troops were marched to 
and quartered at Lancaster, Reading and Phila- 
delphia. The citizens of those places complained 
greatly on account of the conduct of the soldiers 
and the oppression of the officers. The Assembly 
of Pennsylvania, after vainly remonstrating against 
these outrages, ordered a barracks for 500 men to 
be erected at Lancaster, in 1759. William Baus- 
man was appointed barracks-master. 

CONTINUED INDIAN OUTRAGES. 

The Shawanese and the Western Indians still 
committed murders and other outrages on the 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY. 141 

frontier settlements of Pennsylvania, Maryland and 
Virginia ; Indian scalping parties marking their 
course with blood and ruin. Another treaty made 
with the Indians at Lancaster, August 9, 1762, 
restored peace for a short time. In 1763 the 
Indians overran Cumberland county and burned 
houses, barns, corn, hay and everything that was 
combustible, and cruelly murdered the settlers. 
Many of the settlers fled to Carlisle and Shippens- 
burg, and others sought refuge in Lancaster 
county. Late in August, 1763, about no volun- 
teers from Lancaster county skirmished with a 
party of Indians at Muncy Hill, near the pres- 
ent site of Muncy, Lycoming county, killing 
twelve of them, and losing four of their own men 
killed and four wounded. In September, 1763, In- 
dians murdered white settlers and burned dwel-. 
lings in Berks county, even in the vicinity of 
Reading. "^ 

INDIAN OUTRAGES IN LANCASTER COUNTY. 

The people of Lancaster county, especially the 
Scotch-Irish settlers of Pax ton and Donegal town- 
ships, suffered terribly from Indian outrages during 
the whole ten years of the French and Indian War. 
Men, women and children were murdered while at 
work in the fields, at their meals, or in their beds at 
night. Sights of horror, scenes of slaughter, bloody 

*riie Indians were proceeding from Great Island, in the Sus- 
quehanna, to the frontier settlements of Pennsylvania, or to the 
Indian villiages of the West. 



142 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

scalps, mangled bodies, hacked limbs — these were 
the evidences of Indian cruelty and barbarity. Such 
horrible sights and fiendish atrocities excited the 
fiercest rage and indignation among the people of 
Paxton, Hanover and Donegal townships; and they 
became desperate in their determination for re- 
venge on the savage butchers of their kinsmen and 
relatives. 

INDIANS CLOSELY WATCHED BY THE PAXTON AND DONEGAL 
RANGERS. 

The Conestoga Indians had never been at war 
with the whites, and had always been classed as 
friendly Indians. But several other friendly 
Indians told the whites that Bill Sock, a well- 
known Conestoga Indian, had committed several 
murders. Colonel John Hambright, Mrs. Thompson 
and Anne Mary I^e Roy, of Lancaster borough, and 
Alexander Stephen and Abraham Newcomer, of 
Lancaster county, made affidavits against Bill 
Sock, saying that he had made threats of murder, 
and that he had been seen acting suspiciously. 
Indians had been traced by scouts to the wigwams 
at Conestoga. The Paxton and Donegal Rangers 
watched the hostile and friendly Indians very 
closely. In September, 1763, the Indians eluded 
their closely searching pursuers. The "Paxton 
Boys " and their neighbors, after vainly asking pro- 
tection from the Governor and provincial authori- 
ties at Philadelphia, determined to strike terror 
into all Indians by exterminating the Conestoga 
tribe, and thus put a stop to Bill Sock's and George 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 143 

Sock's prowling around the country and to their 
dances at Conestoga. 

MASSACRE OF THE INDIANS AT CONESTOGA BY THE PAX- 
TON BOYS. 

On Wednesday, December 14, 1763, a company 
of about sixty men from Paxton, Hanover and 
Donegal townships, called the Paxton Boys^ and 
commanded by Captain Lazarus Stewart, attacked 
the Conestoga Indian town, in Manor township, 
and barbarously massacred the six Indians at 
home, among whom was the old chief Shaheas, 
who had always been noted for his friendship 
toward the whites. The other five victims were a 
son of Shaheas, George, Harry, Sally and another 
old woman. Most of the Indians were absent at 
the time. After slaughtering and scalping the six 
at home, the Paxton Boys burned the Indian huts, 
thus destroying the village. The news reached 
Lancaster the same day through an Indian boy 
who escaped, and a Coroner's jury went to the 
scene of the tragedy. Bill Sock and several other 
Indians, who had gone to Thomas Smith's Iron 
Works in Martic township to sell baskets and 
brooms, fled for protection to Lancaster borough, 
as did the Indians John Smith and his wife Peggy 
with their child, and young Joe Hays, who had 
been at Peter Swarr's, about two and a-half miles 
north-west from Lancaster. The magistrates of 
Lancaster brought the other survivors into town 
to protect their lives, condoled with them on the 
massacre of their kinsmen, took them by the hand 



144 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTBR COUNTY. 

and promised them protection. The Indians were 
placed in the newly erected work-house to insure 
their safety. When the news of the massacre 
reached Philadelphia and the eastern counties of 
Pennsylvania it caused great excitement among 
the Quakers and the colonial authorities; and 
Governor John Penn issued a proclamation, de- 
nouncing the outrage and offering a large reward 
for the arrest and punishment of the murderers. 

MASSACRE OF THE CONESTOGAS AT LANCASTER BY THE 
PAXTON BOYS. 

The Paxton Boys were two much exasperated 
and too terribly in earnest to pay any attention 
to the Governor's proclamation; and as soon as 
they heard that the other Conestoga Indians were 
at Lancaster they proceeded to that town, stormed 
the jail and work-house, and mercilessly massacred 
the fourteen Indians confined there for protection, 
Tuesday, December 27, 1763. The unarmed and 
defenseless Conestogas prostrated themselves with 
their children before their infuriated murderers, 
protesting their innocence and their love for the 
English, and pleading for their lives; but the only 
answer made to their piteous appeals was the 
hatchet. The murderers did their work with' 
rifles, tomahawks and scalping-knives. The vic- 
tims were horribly butchered, some having their 
brains blown out, others their legs chopped off, 
others their hands cut off. Bill Sock and his 
wife Molly and their two children had their heads 
split open and scalped. The other victims were John 



BRIKF HISTORY OF I.ANC ASTER COUNTY. 145 




146 BRI^F HtlSTORY OI^ LANCAST'KR COtTNTV. 

Smith and his wife Peggy, Captain John and his 
wife Betty and their son Little John, the little 
boys Jacob, Christy and Little Peter, and Peggy 
and another little girl. The mangled bodies of 
the victims were all buried at Lancaster. Such 
was the sad end of the Conestoga Indians, the rem- 
nant of the once powerful Susquehannocks, who a 
century before held dominion over all the other 
Indian tribes of the Susquehanna Valley and those 
on the shores of the Chesapeake. Sheriff John Hay, 
of Lancaster county, at once wrote to Governor 
John Penn at Philadelphia, informing him. of this 
second massacre. Thereupon the Governor issued 
another proclamation, denouncing the murderers 
and offering a large reward for their arrest and pun- 
ishment, but without effect. 

THE PAXTON BOYS AT PHILADELPHIA. 

As soon as the Paxton Boys heard that the 
Moravian Indians had been placed for safety in the 
barracks at Philadelphia they proceeded to that 
city and spread terror among its people. Governor 
John Penn fled to Dr. Franklin's house for safety; 
and only the vigorous measures of the inhabitants 
saved the city from the fury of tiie exasperated 
Paxton Boys, who were disposed to wreak venge- 
ance on the authorities and the Quakers who had 
undertaken to protect the Indians. The Paxton 
Boys finally concluded to return peaceably to their 
Jiomes, leaving two of their number, James Gibson 
and Matthew Smith, to present their views to Gov- 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTER COUNTY. 147 

ernor Penn and to lay their grievances before the 
Governor and the A:ssembly of Pennsylvania. 

MASON AND DIXON'S LINE. 

In 1 761 the British government appointed two 
eminent surveyors, George Mason and Jeremiah 
Dixon, to run a line between Pennsylvania and 
Maryland, so as to end the long dispute between 
those two English colonies about the boundary line 
between them. These surveyors finished their 
work in 1767, and the line fixed by them has ever 
since been called Masoii' s and Dixon^ s Line. This 
line forms the southern boundary of Lancaster 
county as well as of the State of Pennsylvania. 

NEW TOWNSHIPS. 

On petition of the inhabitants, the Lancaster 
county court erected the north-eastern part of 
Warwick township into a new township called 
Elizabeth^ from the furnace of that name, in 1757 ; 
and the north-eastern part of Donegal township 
into a new township called Mount Joy^ in 1759. 
During this period, also, Manor township was 
formed out of the Conestoga Manor, which had 
hitherto been the southern part of Hempfield town- 
ship ; and Strasburg township was formed out of 
that part of Leacock township south of the Pequea, 
which then included what is now Strasburg and 
Paradise. 

ADAMSTOWN AND MAYTOWN FOUNDED. 

In 1 761 William Adams laid out Adamstown ; 
and in 1762 Mr. Doner laid out May town, so call- 
ed because it was laid out on May day. 



148 BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 
FOUNDING OF MANHEIM BY BARON STEIGEL, 

In 1760 or 1 76 1 the eccentric German baron, 
Wilhelm Heinrich Steigel, who had managed the 
Elizabeth iron works . for many years when they 
were owned by Benezet & Co., of Philadelphia, 
began his strange career. After purchasing 200 
acres of land from the Messrs. Stedman of Phila- 
delphia, he built a grand chateau, or castle, very 
singular in structure, and afterward laid out a 
town which he named after his native city in Ger- 
many — Manheim. This town was laid out in 1761, 
and in 1762 it had three houses. Andrew Bartruff, 
another German, father of Colonel John Bartruff, 
erected the third house and kept the first grocery. * 

Baron Steigel erected a glass house, where he 
carried on the manufacture of all kinds of glass for 
many years. After him Mr. Jenkins was engaged 
in the same industry in the same house, of which 
nothing now remains. Steigel, who was a baron in 
Germany, was an iron master, a glass manufac- 
turer, a preacher and a teacher, rich and poor, at 
liberty and imprisoned, in America, where he 
died a schoolmaster. The Assembly of Pennsyl- 
vania passed a special act for his relief, December 
24, 1774. During the Revolution he was a Tory, 
siding with the British government, and was vis- 
ited at various times by the British generals. 

*Ainong the first settlers of the town were the Xaumans, 
Minnichs, Wherlys, Kaisers, Longs and Hentzelmans. In the 
vicinity were the Lightners, Reists, Hersheys, Hostetters, Leh- 
mans, Longeneckers, Brandts, Witmers, Hellars and others. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANC ASTER COUNTY. 149 
FOUNDING OF MILLERSVILLE. 

Ill 1 761 John Miller, a blacksmith of Lancaster 
borough, laid out a town in the north-eastern part 
of Manor township, on tracts of land which he had 
purchased. This was first called Millersbiirg^ then 
Millerstow7t^ and lastly Mille7^sville. John Miller 
laid out the town in five-acre lots, subject to an 
annual quit-rent, and laid out streets on the four 
sides of his largest purchases. Several of these 
five-acre lots still remain undivided. Two of these 
lots were early purchased by Abraham Peters, 
father of the late Abraham Peters, who was born 
in the place in 1791, and who remained a resident 
of the village until his death in 1882. 

WORK-HOUSE AT LANCASTER. 

In 1763 a petition from Lancaster county was 
sent to the Assembly of Pennsylvania asking for 
the erection of a House of Correction, or Work 
House, at Lancaster, to be used for the punishment 
and confinement of vagrants and persons guilty of 
drunkenness, profane swearing, breach of the Sab- 
bath, and disturbances of public order. The Legis- 
lature passed the law asked for, and the Work 
House was erected. 

THE SCOTCH-IRISH SELL TO THE GERMAN SETTLERS. 

The severity of the frosts for several successive 
years upon the grain in the low lands and lime- 
stone soil induced many of the Scotch-Irish set- 
tlers of Lancaster county to sell out to the Ger- 
mans in 1763. They then removed to the Chest- 



150 BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY 

nut Glade, along the northern line of what was 
then Lancaster and Chester counties, where there 
was heavy timber. 

LANCASTER COUNTY MEMBERS OF THE ASSEMBLY. 

Before 1776 Lancaster county elected four mem- 
bers of the Pennsylvania Assembly. The mem- 
bers of the Assembly were then elected yearly, as 
they were thereafter until 1874. During the 
earlier years of the county great care was taken 
to elect only men of ability and of local promi- 
nence. * 



*Those frequently elected before the French and Indian War 
were John Wright, Thomas Edwards, Andrew Galbraith, James 
Mitchell, James Hamilton and Arthur Patterson. During the 
same period George vStuart, John Musgrove, John Coyle, Samuel 
Blunston, Thomas Ewing, Thomas Lindley, Anthony Shaw, 
Calvin Cooper and Peter Worrall W' ere each elected several times ; 
and Thomas Reed, John Anderson and Samuel Smith were each 
once elected. Those frequently chosen during the period of the 
French and Indian War, and during the interval between that 
war and the Revolution, were James Wright, James Webb and 
Emanuel Carpenter. Those elected several times during the 
same period w^ere John Douglass, Isaac Saunders, George Ross, 
Joseph Ferree, Matthias Slough and Jacob Carpenter ; and those 
elected but once were William Downing and Isaac Whitelock. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

DURING THE REVOLUTION. 

PUBLIC MEETING AT LANCASTER IN 1774. 

LANCASTER county bore her full share in the 
^ great struggle for American independence, and 
many of her sons were found among the patriots who 
swelled the Continental armies. The patriotic 
indignation excited in all the English colonies in 
North America by the passage of the oppressive 
Boston Port Bill in 1774 was the first occasion 
which called forth public action in Lancaster 
county during the Revolutionary struggle. On 
June 15, 1774, the citizens of Lancaster borough 
held a public meeting at the court-house. This 
was in answer to a call from the Committee of 
Correspondence of the city of Philadelphia, sent by 
their clerk, Charles Thompson, Esq., to William 
Atlee, of Lancaster, and made known by the latter 
to his fellow-townsmen. This meeting adopted 
resolutions censuring the British Parliament and 
expressing sympathy with the Bostonians. It agreed 
to unite with the people of Philadelphia in re- 
fusing to import or export anything to or from 
Great Britain until Parliament repealed the Bos- 
ton Port Bill. A number of prominent citizens 



152 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

were appointed a Coinmittee of Correspondence* 
for Lancaster, to correspond with the General Com- 
mittee of Correspondence in Philadelphia. 

PUBLIC MEETING OF THE CITIZENS OF THE COUNTY. 

In answer to a request from the Philadelphia 
Committee of Correspondence for a meeting of the 
Pennsylvania Assembly at Philadelphia, and a 
meeting of the various county committees of the 
province with the Philadelphia Committee of Cor- 
respondence at the same time and place, the Lan- 
caster committee met July 2, 1774. In connection 
with this business, the Lancaster committee called 
a public meeting of the people of Lancaster 
county. The call for this meeting was signed by 
Edward Shippen, the chairman of the Lancaster 
committee, and printed copies of the call were 
sent out and posted at all the public places in 
the county. In answer to this call, a general 
meeting of the citizens of Lancaster county was 
held at the court-house in Lancaster, July 9, 1774, 
with George Ross as chairman. This meeting 
expressed loyalty to King George III. , but denied 
the right of Parliament to tax the colonies without 
their consent, expressed sympathy with the people 
of Boston and opened a subscription for their relief, 
and called for a close union of all the Anglo- 
American colonies to resist the unconstitutional 

*Edward Shippen, Georire Ross, Jasper Yeates, Matthias 
Slough, James Webb, WilHaiii Atlee, William Henry, Lndwig 
Lauman, William Bausman and Charles Hall formed the com- 
mittee. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY. 153 

and oppressive acts of the British Parliament. 
The committee already appointed for Lancaster 
borough was declared a Committee of Correspond- 
ence, and a county committee* was appointed to 
meet the other county committees of Pennsylvania 
at Philadelphia. 

CONTRIBUTION FOR THE PEOPLE OF BOSTON. 

The sum of 153 pounds was collected in I^an- 
caster borough for the relief of the people of Boston, 
and a considerable sum was collected in the sev- 
eral townships of the county. The entire sum was 
sent by Edward Shippen, the chairman of the Lan- 
caster committee, to John Nixon, Treasurer of the 
city and county of Philadelphia, who sent it to 
Boston along with the other contributions from 
Pennsylvania. 

THE LANCASTER COMMITTEE IN PHILADELPHIA. 

The members of the Lancaster county com- 
mittee met the committees of the other countiesf of 
Pennsylvania at that time, in convention at Phila- 
delphia, July 15-21, 1774. This convention asked 
the Assembly of Pennsylvania to appoint delegates 
to meet with delegates of the other English colo- 
nies in a Continental Congress at Philadelphia. 

*George Ross was chairman of this county committee, and 
the other members were James Webb, Matthias Slough, Joseph 
Ferree, Kmanuel Carpenter, WiUiam Atlee, Alexander Lowry 
and Moses Irwin. 

fPhiladelphia, Bucks, Chester, York, Cumberland, Berks, 
Northampton, Northumberland, Bedford and Westmoreland 
counties. 

*'7 



154 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

The Assembly appointed the delegates ; and the 
Continental Congress met at Philadelphia, Septem- 
ber 5, 1774. 

PATRIOTISM OF THE LANCASTER PEOPLE. 

The patriotic people of Lancaster were very 
much in earnest in the determination which 
they had expressed at their meeting of June 15, 
1774, against the importation of British goods. 
When two merchants — Josiah and Robert Lock- 
hart — were charged with violating the agreement 
made at that meeting by bringing in tea on which 
the duty had been paid, the committee investigated 
the matter, and only acquitted the Lockharts when 
it was proved that no duty had been paid on that 
tea, but that it had been seized at the Philadelphia 
custom-house and bought by the original owner, 
who then sold it. 

COMMITTEE OF OBSERVATION OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

The action of the Continental Congress at Phila- 
delphia was as warmly sustained in Pennsylvania 
as in the other twelve English colonies. On 
November 22, 1774, the committee of the borough 
of Lancaster called upon the freeholders and 
electors of Lancaster county to meet in the court- 
house at Lancaster, December 15, 1774. This 
meeting was to be held for the purpose of electing 
a Committee of Observation, as recommended by 
the Continental Congress to all cities, towns and 
counties in the thirteen colonies. Printed hand 
bills for this call were posted in all public places 
throughout Lancaster county, and an election was 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 155 

held in all the townships of the county for mem- 
bers of the proposed committee. Altogether there 
were seventy-six persons elected as a Committee of 
Observation,'^ of which twenty-one were from 
Paxton, Upper Paxton, Derry, Londonderry and 
Hanover townships, now in Dauphin county, and 
from Heidelberg, Bethel and Lebanon townships, 
now in Lebanon county. The object of this com- 
mittee was to see that the agreement not to import 
to or export from Great Britain any goods was 
fully observed, and not to have any dealings with 
any one who had commercial intercourse with the 
Mother Country — in other words, to "boycott" 
such persons, as well as British goods. The enemies 
of the patriot cause were as closely watched in 
Lancaster county as in any other part of Pennsyl- 
vania or in any of the other twelve colonies. 

ELECTION OF DELEGATES TO A PROVINCIAL CONVENTION. 

The Lancaster county Committee of Observation 
met at the court-house at Lancaster, January 14, 
1775, in answer to a call from the Philadelphia 
committee, to elect delegatesf to a general conven- 

*Among the most prominent uv&n of Lancaster county elected 
members of this Committee of Observation were Edward 
Shippen, George Ross, James Webb, Jasper Yeates, William 
Atlee, Adam Reigart and William Bausman, of Lancaster bor- 
ough ; Bartram Galbraith and Alexander Lowry, of Donegal ; 
Peter Grubb, of Warwick ; Emanuel Carpenter and Anthony 
Ellmaker, of Earl township. 

fAdam Simon Kuhn, James Burd, James Clemson, Peter 
Grubb, SeVjastian Graff, David Jenkins and Bartram Galbraith 
were appointed delegates for Lancaster county in the proposed 
convention of the province of Pennsylvania. 



156 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

tion of the province of Pennsylvania to meet at 
Philadelphia, January 23, 1775. Edward Shippen 
was chosen chairman of the meeting. A * com- 
munication w^as read from the Berks county com- 
mittee urging patriotic action. 

COMMITTEE MEETING AFTER THE NEWS FROM LEXINGTON. 

The news of the first bloodshed in the Revolu- 
tion at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts, 
reached Lancaster on Tuesday, April 25, 1775, six 
days after the occurrence of the momentous event. 
The borough committee met two days later, April 
27, 1775, at the Grape Tavern, the house of Adam 
Reigart, to take any action deemed necessary. Ed- 
ward Shippen presided at the meeting.* This 
meeting called a meeting of the county committee 
at Adam Reigart' s house on Monday, May ist, and 
printed hand-bills of the call were circulated in all 
public places throughout the county. The county 
committee met at the appointed time and place, 
and resolved to form military companies to defend 
their rights and liberties with their lives and for- 
tunes. 

MILITARY COMPANIES FROM LANCASTER COUNTY. 

The warlike action of the county committee was 
followed within a week by the formation of mili- 
tary companies called Associators. The first of 
these Lancaster county companies in the Revolu- 



■'^he other members present were William Atlee, William 
Bausman, William Patterson, Charles Hall, Casper Shaffner, 
Eberhart Michael and Adam Reigart. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 157 

tioti composed the battalion of Colonel Philip 
Greenawalt. These troops fought bravely in 1776, 
^']^ and '78, in the battles of lyong Island, White 
Plains, Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, German- 
town and Monmouth. Three officers from Lan- 
caster borough were in Colonel Thompson's 
Battalion of Riflemen — Colonel Edward Hand and 
Lieutenants David Ziegler and Frederick Hubley. 
This battalion joined Washington's army at Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, in August, 1775. Captain 
Matthew Smith's company, of Lancaster, took part 
in the invasion of Canada in 1775. Lancaster 
furnished a number of companies and soldiers for 
other companies during the war, and many of these 
troops endured the hardships of the encampment 
at Valley Forge during the severe winter of 1777- 
78. The new nth Pennsylvania regiment, under 
Lieutenant Colonel Adam Hubley, of Lancaster, 
formed part of Sullivan's expedition against the 
Indians in 1779. 

MILITARY CONVENTION AT LANCASTER. 

On the very day that the Continental Congress 
declared the thirteen English colonies free and 
independent States — July 4, 1776 — a military con- 
vention was held at Lancaster, composed of dele- 
gates* from the fifty-three Pennsylvania battalions 
of Associators, to form a Flying Cainp^ as directed 



■^ Among the delegates from Lancaster county were Colonels 
George Ross, Curtis Grubb, Peter Grubb, Robert Thompson, 
James Crawford, Timothy Green, John Ferree and Alexander 
lyOwry. 



158 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 




OLD COURT HOUSE. (Centre Square.) 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 159 

by the Continental Congress. Colonel George 
Ross was chosen president of the meeting, and 
Colonel David Clymer secretary. This military 
convention elected Daniel Roberdeau and James 
Bwing brigadier-generals of the Flying Camp. 

BRITISH PRISONERS AT LANCASTER. 

Many British prisoners were confined at Lan- 
caster at different times during the Revolution, 
from October, 1775, to the end of the war. Among 
these prisoners were the Hessians captured by 
General Washington at Trenton, December 26, 
1776, and the British prisoners captured at Prince- 
ton, January 3, 1777. Many of the British and 
Hessians made prisoners by Burgoyne's surrender 
at Saratoga, October 17, 1777, were confined at 
Lancaster and York. Among the prisoners at 
Lancaster at one time was the unfortunate Major 
Andre. In June, 1777, the prisoners at Lancaster 
caused great alarm by threatening to burn the 
town, and Congress took measures to guard them 
more securely. In 1781 there was a daring plot 
among the prisoners at the Lancaster barracks to 
effect their escape ; but the plot was discovered in 
time to prevent its being carried out, and they 
were closely guarded by American troops under 
General Hazen. 

INCIDENTS AT LANCASTER, EPHRATA AND MANHEIM. 

Dr. John Kearsley, Christopher Carter and a 
man named Brooks were arrested in Philadelphia 
on a charge of treason in tr>'ing to induce British 



160 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

troops to invade Pennsylvania and other colonies. 
These men were sent to lyancaster, and were 
there confined during the fall and winter of 1775. 
Over 500 wounded American soldiers from the 
battle-field of Brandy wine, September 11, 1777, 
were brought to Ephrata, where 150 of them died. 

When the British took possession of Philadel- 
phia, September 26, 1777, the Continental Con- 
gress fled from that city to Lancaster ; but after an 
informal meeting here they went over to York, 
where they met September 30, 1777, and remained 
in session until the following June (1778). 

While the British occupied Philadelphia the Con- 
tinental money was printed at Ephrata. American 
soldiers were quartered at the barracks at Lancas- 
ter during the winter of 1777-78, and also in the 
Lutheran and Reformed churches at Manheim. 

COURSE OF THE NON-RESISTANT SECTS DURING THE WAR. 

The only considerable body of people in Lancas- 
ter county who opposed the action of the patriots, 
and who were therefore denounced by the patriots 
as "Tories" and "enemies of America," were the 
non-resistant sects, such as the Quakers, the Men- 
nonites and the Bunkers, whose religion teaches 
them not to bear arms and not to resist constituted 
authority, as St. Paul said: "Resist not the 
powers that be, for they are ordained of God." 
These sects believed it wrong to take up the sword 
or to resist "the powers that be," under any cir- 
stances. Besides this, the Mennonites who had 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 161 

settled here had vowed loyalty to the King of 
Great Britain and to the proprietary of the province 
of Pennsylvania, and they did not want to violate 
that vow. The early Mennonite settlers having 
been naturalized as British subjects, the members 
of that sect desired also to remain submissive to 
the power that naturalized them. 

PROMINENT MEN. 

The prominent men of Lancaster during the 
Revolution were Edward Shippen, Jasper Yeates, 
Adam Reigart and George Ro.ss. George Ross 
was a member of the Continental Congress, and 
was Lancaster's signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. There was also a Colonel George Ross. 
The other prominent men of Lancaster county 
were Bartram Galbraith and Alexander Lowry, of 
Donegal township, and Emanuel Carpenter, of 
Earl township. The last of these was President 
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas during the 
last twenty years of his life (i 760-1780).* 



*The delegates from Lancaster county to the State convention 
at Philadelphia, in July, 1776, which framed the first vState Con- 
stitution for Pennsylvania, were Crcorge Ross, John Hubley, 
Henry Slayniaker, Philip Marsteller, Thomas Porter, Joseph 
Sherer, Bartram Galbraith and Alexander Lowry. The dele- 
gates from Lancaster county to the State convention at Phila- 
delphia which framed the vState Constitution of 1790 were Gen- 
eral Edward Hand, Robert Coleman, Sebastian Graff, William 
Atlee, John Hubley and John Brackbill. The deiegates from 
Lancaster county to the State convention at Philadelphia, near 
the end of 1787, which ratified the Constitution of the United 
States, were vStephen Chambers, Robert Coleman, Sebastian 
Graff, John Hubley, Jasper Yeates and John Whitehill. 



162 BRIEF HISTORY OF IvANCASTKR COUNTY, 




l^TASlllA KTGl^ 'ilOTEI.1 




I^^IM^^^_i^/-v/V./^ 



CHAPTER IX. 

AFTER THE REVOLUTION. 

ERECTION OF DAUPHIN AND LEBANON COUNTIES. 

TN 1785 Harrisburg was founded on the site of 
^ Harris' Ferry by John Harris, son of John Har- 
ris, the pioneer Indian trader; and in the same year 
the Pennsylvania Legislature, on petition of the 
inhabitants, erected all that part of Lancaster 
county north of the Conewago creek, with part of 
Northumberland county, into a new count}^ called 
Dauphin. In 1813 the State Legislature, on peti- 
tion of the inhabitants, erected a new county 
called Lebanon^ out of Lebanon, Bethel and 
Heidelberg townships, Lancaster county, with part 
of Dauphin county, thus reducing Lancaster 
county to its present limits. 

LANCASTER THE STATE CAPITAL.— LANCASTER CITY. 

Lancaster was the capital of Pennsylvania from 
1799 to 181 2, when the State capital was removed 
to Harrisburg. On petition of the citizens, Lan- 
caster was incorporated as a city by a charter 
granted by act of the State Legislature in 1818. 
Two of Pennsylvania's Governors are buried at 
Lancaster — Thomas Wharton, who died there in 
1778; and General Thomas Mifflin, [who had been 



164 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

Governor twelve years, and who had also been 
president of the Continental Congress. He died 
there while a member of the Legislature, and his 
remains lie buried at the Trinity Lutheran Church, 
on South Duke street. 

BOROUGHS OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

Samuel Wright, son James Wright and grand- 
son of John Wright, the pioneer settler of Wright's 
Ferry, laid out the town of Cohimbia on its present 
site in 1787. This place was one of three sites 
proposed in Congress in 1790 as the place for the 
permanent capital of the United States — the other 
two being Philadelphia and the site of the 
present capital. Columbia was incorporated by 
act of the State Legislature in 1814. James An- 
derson laid out the town Waterford at Anderson's 
Ferry in 1804, next to »the town of New Haven, 
which had been laid out by David Cook in 1803. 
In 1 81 2 those two towns were incorporated as a 
borough, called Mai^ietta^ by act of the State 
Legislature. The village of Strasbitrg^ founded 
before 1740, was incorporated as a borough by act 
of the Legislature in 1816. 

In 1807 the village of Woodstock was built on 
the river, in Manor township, a few miles south of 
Columbia. In 181 1 Jacob Dritt laid out the town 
of Washington on the site of this village ; and in 
1814 Joseph Charles laid out Charleston, just north 
of Washington. In 1827 ^^^^ ^wo towns were in- 
corporated by act of the State Legislature as the 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 165 

borough of Washingto7i, Manheim and Elisabeth- 
toii'Ji^ both of which had existed before the Revolu- 
tion, were incorporated by acts of the State Legis- 
lature as boroughs in 1838. Adamstoivn, laid out 
by William Adams in 1761, was incorporated as a 
borough by act of the State Legislature in 1850. 
In 18 1 1 Jacob Rohrer laid out a town at first 
called Rohrerstown, but afterwards named Mount 
Joy; and in 1814 the town of Richland, just to the 
west, was laid out. In 1851 Mount Joy and Rich- 
land were incorporated as Mount Joy borough by 
act of the State Legislature. This town, soon 
after its incorporation, was a thriving manufactur- 
ing place, having several founderies and agricul- 
tural implement manufactories. It also had a 
flourishing young men's academy, whose buildings 
were bought by the State in 1865 and used for 
a Soldier's Orphan School until 1890. Just below 
the borough, on the opposite side of the Little 
Chickies creek, was Cedar Hill Female seminary, 
of which Rev. Nehemiah Dodge was principal and 
proprietor for many years, and which had students 
from various parts of the country. The seminary 
buildings were destroyed by fire in 1891. At the 
time of their destruction they were no longer used 
for school purposes. 

NEW TOWNSHIPS. 

Since the Revolution, mainly between the years 
1818 and 1855, a number of new townships have 
been formed. This was done chiefly by the divi- 



166 BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

sion of the larger townships into two, in order to 
secure better township government and to provide 
better school facilities. * 

TURNPIKES AND' RAILROADS. 

About a century ago great attention was paid to 
turnpike roads in Pennsylvania. The turnpike 
leading from Lancaster to Philadelphia was erected 
in 1792, and is the oldest turnpike in the United 

*In 1 8 18 Hempfield township was divided into two townships, 
called respectively East Hempfield and West Hempfield. 
In 1827 the western part of Earl township was formed into a 
new township called West Earl. In 1838 Cocalico township 
was divided into three new townships, named respectively East 
Cocalico, West Cocalico and Ephrata. In the same year (1838) 
Donegal township was divided into two new townships, called 
respectively East Donegal and West Donegal. In 1841 Lam- 
peter township was divided into two new townships, named re- 
spectively East Lampeter and West Lampeter. In 1842 the 
half of West Donegal • township bordering on the river was 
erected into a new township called Conoy. In 1843 that part of 
Ivcacock township north of Mill Creek was formed into a new 
township called Upper Leacock. In the same year (1843) the 
eastern half of Strasburg township was erected into a new town- 
ship called Paradise. In 1844 the western half of Little Britain 
township was formed into a new township named Eulton, in 
honor of Robert Fulton, who was born within its limits. In 
1846 the western part of Warwick township was formed into 
a new township called Penn, in honor of William Penn. In 
1851 the eastern half of Barl township was erected into a new 
township named East Earl. In 1853 three new townships were 
created — the eastern part of Martic being erected into a new 
township called Providence ; the eastern half of Conestoga into 
a new township named Pequea ; and the eastern half of Eliza- 
beth into a new township called Clay, in honor of Henry Clay. 
In 1855 the western part of Bart township was formed into a 
new township called Eden. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 167 

States. The other turnpikes in the county were 
afterward constructed. The Philadelphia and 
Columbia Railroad w^as completed about 1835. 
This railroad was afterward extended from Colum- 
bia to Harrisburg. The Harrisburg and Lancaster 
Railroad, by way of Mount Joy and Elizabethtown, 
united with the other railroad at Dillerville and 
near Middletown, making two railway routes from 
Lancaster to Harrisburg. These became part of 
the great Pennsylvania Railroad, completed in 
1854, thus establishing one continuous railway line 
between Philadelphia and Pittsburg. 

LANCASTER COUNTY DURING THE WAR OF 1812. 

During the second war between the United 
States and Great Britain, in 1812 — 1815, Lancaster 
county furnished a large number of soldiers for the 
United States service ; but no companies sent from 
this county took part in any battle. Captain John 
Hubley commanded a company from Lancaster. 
During the British invasion of Maryland and attack 
on Baltimore, in 1814, Governor Simon Snyder 
called out the militia of Lancaster and the neigh- 
boring counties, in all about 5,000 men, to rendez- 
vous at York. The capture and burning of Wash- 
ington brought out* many volunteers from Lancas- 
ter county; but none of the militia and volunteers 
from this county w^ere called to meet the enemy, 
as the British retired from Maryland after their 
repulse at Baltimore. 



168 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

LANCASTER COUNTY DURING THE WAR WITH MEXICO. 

During the war between the United States and 
Mexico, from 1846 to 1848, Lancaster county fur- 
nished a considerable number of volunteers for the 
armies of Generals Scott and Taylor ; but no com- 
pany was organized in this county for that service, 
and the volunteers who went from here joined dif- 
ferent commands at Harrisburg, Philadelphia and 
other places. Among those from Lancaster city 
was H. A. Hambright, afterwards a colonel in the 
Civil War. Some of the Lancaster county volun- 
teers served under General Taylor at Palo Alto, 
Resaca de la Palma, Monterey and Buena Vista; 
and others served under General Scott at Vera 
Cruz, at Cerro Gordo and at the battles before the 
City of Mexico. 

SLAVERY AND THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD. 

In 1780 the Pennsylvania Legislature passed an 
act for the gradual abolition of slavery in the 
State. The Quakers were very active in their 
opposition to slavery. Slaves were held in many 
parts of Lancaster comity. The old iron-masters 
were the principal slave-holders in this county, 
Curtis Grubb being the largest owner of slaves. 
While the Pennsylvania Legislature was discussing 
the act of 1780, Colonel Alexander Lowry, of 
Donegal township, then a member from Lancaster 
county, although himself a slave-holder, urgently 
appealed to the Legislature to insert a clause in 
the law to prevent slave families from being 
divided and sold to different masters. There were 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 169 

many cases of hair-breadth escapes and captures 
of fugitive slaves at Columbia, where runaway 
slaves often crossed the river at the bridge. Their 
masters often followed them, and arrived there 
before their slaves and returned them to slavery. 

William Wright, of Columbia, son of James- 
Wright and grandson of the pioneer John Wright, 
was an old-time Abolitionist and a very aggressive 
opponent of slavery, doing all he could in the 
interest of the runaway negroes and against the 
institution of slavery. He was once assaulted 
with a rawhide by Charles S. Sewell, a Mary- 
lander who had settled in Manor township, on the 
old homestead of the pioneer Indian trader, James 
Patterson, after having married Patterson's grand- 
daughter. Miss Catharine Keagy, in 1804. Sewell 
was forced to discharge his slaves by order of the 
Lancaster county court made on application of 
W^right. This so enraged Sewell that he made an 
assault upon Wright near Mountville. Both at 
the time were on horseback en their way to Co- 
lumbia. Sewell found few friends in Lancaster 
county, and soon after moved back to Maryland. 

William Wright was perhaps the first person 
who suggested a system and concert of action 
among the friends of the slaves to help such 
negroes as escaped from slavery in the South to 
freedom in the North. This system and concert 
of action among the friends of the slaves led to 
the establishment of a number of "stations" 
along a route where the friends of the escap- 



170 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

iiig slaves could direct and pass the fugitives 
from one friend to another. The principal of 
these "stations" in Lancaster county were Co- 
lumbia and Daniel Gibbons' s place, one mile west 
of Bird-in-Hand. Sometimes half a dozen or more 
runaway slaves were placed in the care of these 
s^ret agents. This was done so secretly that 
very few were ever discovered and prosecuted, and 
for this reason this secret concert of action was 
called the "Underground Railroad." This caused 
much ill feeling between the people of the Free 
States and those of the Slave States. 

THE CHRISTIANA RIOT. 

The first conflict and bloodshed in the United 
States caused by the Fugitive Slave Law, passed 
by Congress in 1850, occurred at Christiana, Lan- 
caster county. A gang of kidnappers in the vicin- 
ity of the Gap had been in the habit of catching 
free negroes and selling them as slaves in the 
South. The negroes and their white friends in 
Sadsbury township put themselves on their guard, 
secretly arming themselves and keeping watch 
against surprise from strangers and suspicious 
characters. On September 9th and loth, 1851, 
Samuel Williams, a colored man, reported that he 
had seen a number of strangers. There were three 
runaway slaves in the house of William Parker, a 
colored man living near Christiana. These were 
claimed by Edward Gorsuch, a Maryland slave- 
holder, who obtained a warrant for their arrest 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 171 

from the United States Commissioners in Philadel- 
phia. United States Deputy Marshal Henry H. 
Kline was handed the warrant. Kline and a few 
assistants from the neighborhood, accompanied by 
Edward Gorsnch, the claimant, and his son, Dick- 
inson Gorsuch, and several relatives, J. M. Gor- 
such, Joshua Gorsuch and Dr. Thomas Pearce, and 
several other men, appeared at Parker's house 
before daylight on September ii, 1851, and 
attempted to take away the runaway slaves by 
force. The report of a gun and the blowing of a 
dinner-horn by the inmates aroused the neighbor- 
hood, and the friends of the runaway slaves has- 
tened to the place. Deputy Marshal Kline hid 
himself in a corn-field, and Gorsuch and his party 
retired a short distance. Castner Hanway, Elijah 
Lewis and Joseph Scarlet came to the rescue, and 
advised the slave-owners to leave; while colored 
people, armed with guns, scythes and clubs, were 
coming from all directions. Edward Gorsuch 
again approached the house, saying: "I will have 
my property dead or alive." His sons and 
nephews followed him, but the negroes fired 
upon the party. Edward Gorsuch was niortally 
wounded, and one of his slaves split his head with 
a cornstalk-cutter. His son, Dickinson Gorsuch, 
was badly wounded. Joshua Gorsuch and Dr. 
Pearce were also wounded. The latter only saved 
his life by taking Castner Hanway' s advice and 
riding away on his horse. As he left, a shower of 
missiles was sent after him. This event caused a 



172 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

great sensation throughout the country, and led to 
the defeat of William F. Johnston for Governor by 
several thousand votes. The negro Johnson, who 
shot his master, arrived safely in Canada by the 
the ' ' Underground Railroad. ' ' Constables from 
Lancaster terrorized the neighborhood, and took 
many colored men to jail. Castner Hanway, 
Elijah Lewis, Joseph Scarlet and many colored 
men were arrested, and indicted for treason in the 
United States Court at Philadelphia. Hanway 
was first tried, and was acquitted. The others 
were not brought to trial. There were three 
jurors from Lancaster county on this noted case — 
Peter Martin, of Ephrata township; James M. Hop- 
kins, of Drumore township; and James Cowden, of 
Columbia. 

OPERATIONS OF THE FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW AT COLUMBIA 

The first return of a fugitive slave to his master 
under the Fugitive Slave Law occured at Colum- 
bia in the fall of 1850, when William Baker, a 
runaway slave, was arrested and returned to his 
master. The colored people of Columbia after- 
ward bought his freedom. The first martyrdom 
under the Fugitive Slave Law also occurred at 
Columbia, April 30, 1852. Albert G. Ridgely, a 
slave-catcher from Baltimore, and a one-armed 
man named Snyder, arrested a colored man named 
William Smith, claiming him as a slave owned by 
George W. Hall, of Harford county, Maryland. 
The colored man broke away from his captors, 
whereupon Ridgely shot him, killing him instantly. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 173 

Ridgely escaped across the bridge and safely 
reached Baltimore, although the Sheriff of York 
county and his posse were watching for him south 
of York. The kidnappers were never tried. 

Thaddeus Stevens was council for Mr. Kauff- 
man, of Cumberland county, who was tried in the 
United States Court in Philadelphia for violating 
the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 by caring for run- 
away slaves. Mr. Kauffman was not found guilty 
because the two jurors from Lancaster county 
— Edward Davies, of Churchtown, and Abraham N. 
Cassel, of Marietta — held out for six weeks against 
the other jurors and finally prevented a verdict 
of guilty. 



CHAPTER X. 

DURING THE CIVIL WAR AND SINCE. 

LANCASTER COUNTY DURING THE CIVIL WAR. 

A S in every other part of the loyal States, the 
'^-^ attack on Fort Sumter, in April, 1861, 
aroused the patriotism of the people in Lancaster 
county ; and noble responses were made to Presi- 
dent Lincoln's calls for troops. Though this 
county was the home of President Buchanan, dur- 
ing whose administration the plans of the Rebell- 
ion were prepared, it was also the home of Thad- 
deus Stevens, who was the leader of the majority 
in the National House of Representatives which 
assisted in devising measures for the suppression 
of the Slaveholder's Rebellion. The regiment 
composed wholly of volunteers from Lancaster 
county was the well-known 79th Pennsylvania, 
commanded by Colonel Hambright, which took 
part in the battle of Chickamauga, and in Sher- 
man's Atlanta campaign and his march through 
Georgia and the Carolinas. The Pennsylvania 
Reserves had their due share of men from Lan- 
caster county, many of whom lost their lives in 
defense of the L^nion on the many battle fields of 
the Rebellion. Soldiers from Lancaster county 
were found in greater or less number in about 
sixty other regiments from Pennsylvania which 



BRIEF HISTORY OF IvANCASTER COUNTY. 1 75 

served for longer or shorter periods during the war, 
as well as in several militia regiments called out 
for a few months during the Confederate invasions 
of Maryland and Pennsylvania in 1862 and 1863. 
The 47th regiment of Pennsylvania militia of 1863, 
commanded by Colonel James Pyle Wickersham, 
principal of the Millersville State Normal School, 
had among its members the students of that insti- 
tution, which closed its session for several months 
in consequence of the invasion. 

ALARM CAUSED BY THE CONFEDERATE INVASIONS. 

The invasion of Maryland by the Confederate 
army under General Lee in September, 1862, 
caused great alarm in Lancaster county, as well as 
in all the border counties of Pennsylvania ; but 
this alarm subsided after Lee's defeats at South 
Mountain and Antietam, and his retreat into Vir- 
ginia. The people of Lancaster and the other 
southern counties of Pennsylvania were again 
greatly alarmed when General Lee's army inarched 
north in June, 1863, and invaded Maryland and 
Pennsylvania. Thousands of farmers froLi Frank- 
lin, Cumberland, Adams and York counties fled 
into Lancaster county with their horses, and 
remained during the invasion. The alarm increased 
as the invaders came nearer, and when they occu- 
pied Gettysburg, Hanover and York, shelled Car- 
lisle and threatened Harrisburg, the people of 
Lancaster county, as well as those of other counties, 
warmly responded to the calls of President Lin- 
coln and Governor Curtin for troops for the defense 



176 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

of Pennsylvania against the invaders. Companies 
of Lancaster county militia, under Colonel Emlen 
Franklin, were at all the ferries and towns of the 
Susquehanna from the Dauphin county line to the 
borders of Maryland. When a Confederate detach- 
m.ent under General Early occupied York, June 27, 
1863, a brio^ade of militia was sent to hold the 
bridge at Columbia. Less than 1,500 men crossed 
the river to Wrightsville, and fortified themselves 
on the heights back of the town, but were soon 
driven from their position by a Confederate de- 
tachment and forced to recross the river to Colum- 
bia. In order to prevent the invaders from cross- 
ing the river. Colonel Frick caused the bridge to 
be burned down that evening, Sunday, June 28, 
1863. All alarm passed away with the great defeat 
of Lee's army at Gettysburg a few days later, and 
the retreat of the invaders from the State. 

THE PATRIOT DAUGHTERS OF LANCASTER. 

Among the many societies organized by women 
throughout the loyal States to minister to the 
wants of the soldiers, the first was at Lancaster. 
On April 22, 1861, ten days after the attack on 
Fort Sumter, the ladies of Lancaster held a meet- 
ing at the court-house and formed an association 
called the Patriot Daughters of Lancaster. The 
officers of this association were : Mrs. R. Hubley, 
president; Mrs. E. E. Reigart, vice president; 
Miss Annie A. Slaymaker, secretary; Mrs. J. F. 
Long, treasurer. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 177 
THE SOLDIERS' AND SAILORS' MONUMENT. 

The Patriot Daughters and other ladies of Lan- 
caster took the first step to raise funds for the erec- 
tion of a monument to the memory of the soldiers 
and sailors of Lancaster county who lost their lives 
in defence of the Union. It was not until nine 
years after the war that the monument was erected. 
In compliance with the demand of public senti- 
ment, it was placed in Center Square, in the city. 
This beautiful granite structure — surrounded with 
four emblematic statues and capped with a figure 
of the Goddess of Liberty — was unveiled with 
imposing ceremonies in the presence of a great 
multitude, on the 4th of July, 1874. 

OTHER FACTS. 

The Reading and Columbia Railroad was com- 
pleted in 1863 ; and the branch of the road from 
the Junction to Lancaster was finished in 1866, and 
was extended to Quarryville in 1875. The Columbia 
and Port Deposit Railroad was completed in 1876. 
The Lancaster branch of the Reading and Colum- 
bia Railroad was extended to Lebanon in 1886; 
and the branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad from 
Conewago to Cornwall, Lebanon county, was fin- 
ished about the same time. In 1890 the New Hol- 
land and Honeybrook branch of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad was completed. The eastern part of 
Drumore was erected into a new township called 
East Driimore^ in 1886. Lititz was incorporated 
as a borough in 1887, and Ephrata in 1891. 
-8 



CHAPTER XL 

AGRICULTURE. 

INDIAN FARMING IN LANCASTER COUNTY. 

^T^HE Indians were the first farmers in Lancaster 
county. Among them the farm work was 
done largely by the squaws. After the trees had 
been girdled and trimmed down by the men, they 
scratched the ground with crooked sticks, and 
leveled it with shells and sharp stones. Their 
crops were generally corn and beans. The corn 
stalks and weeds were burned to the ground in the 
fall of the year. The object of this was to prevent 
the sprouting of the forest trees. There was one 
variety of trees — a most persistant grower, a kind 
of scrub-oak — that baffled all their efforts. Even 
fire would not kill it. These scrub-oaks, after 
alternate burning and sprouting, formed thick 
knotted clumps on the surface of the ground, thus 
making the tilling of it very difficult for the white 
people, who afterward became its possessors. There 
usually remained some uncultivated land, which, 
after the burning stopped, was soon overspread 
with young forest trees. To these the name 
of "Grubenland" was given — a name derived 
from the word "grub," meaning in the German 
language "a small tree." A great number of 
these Indian fields were found in Lancaster county. 
One lay just west of the present borough of Lititz. 
Another and larger one was in Ephrata township, 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 179 

between Middle Creek and the Cocalico. The 
forests in these sometimes became so dense that 
cattle straying into them were hard to find. Bells 
were, for this reason, pnt on some of them to in- 
dicate the whereabouts of the herd. To the same 
end, bells were put on horses that were turned out 
to pasture during the night. 

The Indians had also their deer pastures. These 
were the natural meadows where in early times the 
grasses had grown into a sod too close for the seeds 
of trees to lodge. These meadows the white set- 
tlers enlarged and irrigated, in this way convert- 
ed them into valuable pasture lands. Thus when 
the first white settlers came to what is now Lan- 
caster county they found three kinds of land — 
the limestone portion, mainly covered with heavy 
timber ; the shale and sandstone ridges in the 
southern belt, covered with light timber ; and the 
meadow lands, interspersed with swamps. 

EARLY FARMING IN LANCASTER COUNTY. 

The staple farm products of Lancaster county in 
early days were spelt, barley, oats, rye, corn, buck- 
wheat, flax, hemp and a variety of garden vege- 
tables. Wheat subsequently took the place of bar- 
ley and spelt. Orchards were soon planted, and the 
farmer had abundant crops of fruit. The imple- 
ments used in farming in the very early times 
were the German scythe, the sickle and the flail. 
These were supplanted later by the English scythe 
and the grain cradle. Ploughs were early intro- 
duced, but were very rude and cumbrous. 



180 BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

In 1 814 forty State banks were established in 
Pennsylvania. Speculation ran wild, the price of 
farm land advancing to $200 an acre. The panic 
that came on a little more than twenty years after, 
as a consequence of the failure of these banks, 
affected the price of these farm lands greatly, bring- 
ing it down in a short time to $50 an acre. Many 
persons who had purchased lands at high prices, 
without sufficient money to pay their full value, 
found themselves bankrupt. These were palmy 
days for the Sheriffs, who became very rich. In 
these times the jails were filled with debtors, the 
law of imprisonment for debt not having yet been 
abolished in this State. 

New lands were now taken up by some persons, 
and the timber upon them cut and sold, some- 
times for fire- wood. Sometimes the saw-millers and 
wagon-makers bought it, and in other cases the 
iron-master purchased it and converted it into 
charcoal for furnace use. 

The land cleared in this manner was farmed 
usually for several years until it was worn out, and 
then was abandoned. Many of these barren tracts 
existed in Lancaster county, and have been since 
reclaimed and cultivated. To fertilize these bar- 
ren fields, land-plaster was first used. The far- 
mer generally sowed it broadcast on the grass 
fields, and sprinkled it on the young corn and the 
the garden vegetables in the early spring. x\bout 
1820 lime was introduced as a fertilizer, and by its 
judicious i;se many of these "light" or worn-out 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 181 

lands were made productive. One of the prac- 
tices of the farmer was to rotate his crops. This 
probably began about 1820. The rule was gener- 
ally two years in grass of mixed clover and timothy, 
one year in corn, one in oats, and then two in 
wheat ; the land being enriched from time to 
time with lime and other fertilizers. 

The rotation of crops has been interfered with 
considerably by tobacco farming in later years. 

FARM MACHINERY. 

The first threshing-machines used in the county 
were stationary. About 1832 William Kirkpatrick 
began manufacturing portable machines. Some 
of the latter class were brought into the county 
from Milton, a town on the Susquehanna river. 
All these machines had spiked cylinders working 
into spiked concaves, connected by strap and 
pulley with a horizontal cast-iron geared horse- 
power, to which four or more horses could be 
hitched. There were afterward added to these 
carrying and separating attachments. 

The beater machine was introduced from Maine 
and used to some extent. This had a cylinder 
and concaves of iron bars in place of spikes. This 
machine was not able to compete successfully with 
the others, and soon went out of use. 

The threshing-machine was an inestimable boon 
to the farmer, enabling hi'm to do in a few days as 
much as it had taken him months to accomplish 
before. 

The left-handed plow, which was introduced at 



182 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

an early time, is still used in this county, but has 
been greatly improved. Instead of the bulky drag 
with wooden mould-board, it is now a light, easy- 
running implement with smooth ground chilled- 
iron and steel working parts. 

The first horse-rakes were very simple. In 1830 
the double-tooth tumbling grain-rake was intro- 
duced. This has more lately been supplanted by 
the wire-toothed sulky rake, which, with one man 
and a horse, can do as much work as formerly 
required six men in the same length of time, and 
certainly with much less expense of muscular 
power. 

The preparation of the ground for wheat was no 
small task in the early days. The wheat-ground 
was plowed twice, the second time merely on the 
surface. The farmer then walked over the field, 
scattering the seed broadcast. The field was then 
harrowed in the same direction in which it had 
last been plowed. Thus the grain grew in rows, 
and was much less affected by freezing. 

About 1842 the grain-drill was brought into the 
State. This sowed the grain in lows, and rendered 
unnecessary the second plowing. 

In these modern days the farmer delights in 
working with improved cultivators, harrows, roll- 
ers, etc., and puts his ground in order with great 
ease, and in a short time. 

In 1 85 1 the first McCormick reapers were 
brought into the county. Many improvements 
have been made in this reaper since that time, as 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 183 

for instance the wooden cutter-bar has been re- 
placed by one of steel. Various kinds of self-rakers 
have been added, and these have been followed by 
self-binders. The enterprising Lancaster county 
farmer is ever on the alert to secure the latest and 
best mechanical aids to do his work, and at pres- 
ent there are in general use machines for loading 
hay on the wagon, patent hay forks, steam thresh- 
ers and separators, ete. 

LATER FARMING. 

The farmer of Lancaster county had other diffi- 
culties than trees and stumps to encounter. Weeds 
and insects were numerous and destructive in many 

places. 

The granary weevil was an insect th^ infested 
barns and frequently ate out the grain after it was 
housed. The only remedy for this pest was star- 
vation. By stacking the wheat in the fields for 
some years, keeping the barns entirely empty, the 
farmers could eveatually rid themselves of this in- 
sect. 

The potato-beetle in later years has tried the 
patience and ingenuity of the farmer to a con- 
siderable degree ; and, so far as we know, nothing 
but Paris green has been found effectual as a 
remedy, and this must be administered in repeated 

doses. 

It has been observed that sometimes a vegetable, 
a kind of grain or a variety of fruit will flourish 
for a time, and then appear to run out. The prac- 
tice has been among intelligent farmers in the 



184 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

county to plant something else, trying sometimes 
many different things until the proper one is found. 
When the apple and the plum have either wholly 
or partially failed, their place has been supplied by 
the strawberry, the pear and the improved native 
grape. Western wheat some years ago came into 
disastrous competition with the home-raised wheat, 
and as a consequence Lancaster county farmers 
turned their attention to the cultivation of tobacco. 
The latter industry has proved to be very success- 
ful and lucrative. The profits of the farm are not 
derived wholly from the great fields and orchards. 
The products of the dairy, of the poultry-yard and 
the truck patch, are also very remunerative. For 
these there is a good home market in Lancaster 
city and the larger towns of the county. Market- 
day in these places is characterized by great bustle 
and business, and processions of wagons may be 
seen along the principal roads leading to these 
towns on the great market days. The farmers' 
wives and daughters give to these a peculiar and 
interesting picturesqueness. 

The market-wagon of long ago and that of 
to-day are in striking contrast. The former was a 
heavy white-covered, four-horse wagon, and in 
those days came to market once or thrice a year. 
The latter is a light, easy-running, one-horse 
spring wagon, drawn by an active, well-fed trot- 
ting horse, and now carries the market products to 
the citv once or twice a week. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 185 

TOBACCO CULTURE. 

The culture of tobacco has received a great deal 
of attention during the last fifty years in the 
county, and" has developed into one of its leading 
industries. There were objections made to it at 
first by many of the farmers. Some opposed it on 
moral grounds; others because they thought it 
would impoverish the soil, as it was believed it 
had done in many other parts of the country. 

The cultivation of tobacco in the county began 
in the year 1825. ^^^^ market for it at first was 
entiiely local. In fact, in the early days, the 
grower made his crop into cigars for his own use, 
or for neighboring cigar-dealers. No special li- 
cense was then required to deal in the article, and 
it was entirely exempt from internal revenue tax. 
All this has changed. A large part of the annual 
crop is now carried into foreign markets. It brings 
millions of dollars annually into the county which 
is spent here, and by this means all kinds of trade 
and business are greatly stimulated. There can be 
no question in regard to the advancement of the 
material wealth of the county because of this indus- 
try; but there is a question as to whether it has 
not interfered with the educational advancement 
of the people, for the reason that much of the 
work in the tobacco-field can be done by children, 
who are thus employed when they should be attend- 
ing school, besides taking away the winter leisure 
that the farmer formerly had for profitable reading 
or study. 



186 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 
SOILS AND SUBSOILS. 

The various states, in establishing and eqiiip- 
ing surveys for the thorough study of the geology, 
had for their object the development of their agri- 
cultural and mineral wealth. The reltaion of 
geology to good farming is intimate. But yet it 
is doubtful whether those to be benefitted always 
realize this. Successful tillage, and at the same 
time improvement of the soil, depend largely upon 
a thorough knowledo^e of the soils and subsoils 
to be operated upon. Their nature, origin and 
substance must be understood. Knowing the natute 
and origin of the soil, the means by which it may 
be most cheaply improved may be determined. 
Then again the increase in the average of the 
arable surface must be made to keep pace with 
the increasing population and needs of the State. 
This involves the use of fertilizers, and they must 
be of such a mineral character as to be adapted to 
the nature of the soil and to supply its wants. 

COMPOSITION AND HOW FORMED. 

Soils and subsoils are composed of variable mix- 
tures of sand and clay with considerable propor- 
tions of vegetable mold and iron oxide. They also 
contain salts of lime and magnesia and some alka- 
lies, as potash and soda, with phosporic acid. They 
have been produced mainly by the decay and wear 
of the rock surface, through the action of water. 
The union of the oxygen of the water with some 
of the constituents of the rocks forms new com- 
pounds and breaks up the residue. This action is 



BRIKF HISTORY OP I.ANCASTER COUNTY. 187 

often facilitated by the roots of trees. Growing 
into the crevices with increasing size, they force 
the rocks apart and furnish larger surface for the 
action of chemical agents. 

ACTION OF WATER. 

Water in the form of ice and frost is the most 
important factor in the production of the soils. 
Nearly always present in the rocks, it, by its expan- 
sion in freezing, splits them and gradually reduces 
them to small particles. These moved by running 
water rubbing against another, and scoring the 
surface over which they are carried, are active 
agents in erosion. The process goes on year after 
year until what were once large angular rocks be- 
come fine sand and mud, the silts that make up 
the soils and sub-soils of the earth's surface. 

CLASSES OF SOIL. 

Soils may therefore be the result of decomposi- 
tion of the rocks above which they lie, and conse- 
quently of the same character ; or they may be 
produced in the same manner, but removed by 
water to other sections or reo^ions. The latter 
are called soils of transportation^ the former'soils 
of disintegration. South of the 39th parallel in 
the Eastern United States most of the soils belong 
to the latter class ; north of that parallel to soils 
of transportation, carried by the great glaciers 
that once existed there. By disintegration the 
most important soils are the sandstone, the shales 
and soft clays, the limestones, granitic, and that 



188 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

resulting from breaking up of trap and other vol- 
canic material. 

Shales and soft slates whenever they contain a 
large amount of argillaceous matter form heavy 
and compact soils. Though they have a great deal 
of retentiveness, yet they are difficult to till suc- 
cessfully, and therefore undesirable. When, how- 
ever, the clayey elements are mixed with a suffi- 
cient amount of sand they form light and loamy 
lands easy of tillage, and sufficiently retentive of 
water and fertilizers. On the other hand, soils 
derived from the breaking up of sandstoiie are not 
so desirable. They are so open and porous that 
moisture is rapidly evaporated from them. This 
makes them subject to extremes of temperature, for 
a dry sandy soil under direct sunlight becomes 
greatly heated. Then, too, it rapidly loses its heat 
by radiation at night. Sandstones cemented to- 
gether with clayey material by disintegration form 
somewhat better soils, more retentive of fertilizing 
agents. On the whole, however, the sandstone 
soils are of low grade. 

The Ihnesione soils are of high grade. Most of 
them have been produced by the breaking up of 
limestone rocks by the action of water, which, at 
the same time, dissolves out the lime.* Heavy, 
clayey soils are thus produced. Usually, however, 
thev contain sufficient sand to make them lighter 



^Linie is present in such soils, however, in sufficient quantities 
to supply that ingredient for a long time to the most exhaustive 
among common crops — tobacco. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 189 

and more easily tilled. With the deep compact 
subsoil lying below, they have great capacity for 
sustaining strong growth during times of drought. 
Sometimes they are cold, impermeable and diffi- 
cult to till. They are, however, usually of such 
character that proper cultivation constantly im- 
proves their texture and enhances their fertility. 

Soils made by the .decomposition of granitic 
material are usually thin. Should they contain 
other elements, as calcareous matter, iron under- 
going rapid change or decay, they may be brought 
to a fair state of fertility. On the contrary, soils 
resulting from the disintegration of trap^ or other 
volcanic material^ contain all the more necessary 
elements of plant growth, and in an available con- 
dition. 

THE REAL SOIL-MAKERS. 

A soil may contain all the elements necessary to 
support plant growth, but yet may not be fertile. 
To be fertile the materials for the sustenance of 
plants must be available; that is, they must be in 
such conditions that the plant can get hold of 
them and assimilate them. Hence, the mechani- 
cal agents of decay wear, and disintegration can 
not make a fertile soil. The elements, after these 
forces have done their work, must be made soluble. 
The fine rock particle must be acted upon by the 
real soil-makers — chemical agencies — mainly the 
atmosphere. 

CONDITIONS OF FERTILITY. * 

Here good farming comes in. By proper tillage 
the soils are turned over to the action of sun, wind 



190 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

and rain. The capillarity is increased, and ferti- 
lizers of the proper character are made to aid the 
process. These are made to induce the four con- 
ditions of fertility — (i) easy penetrability by roots, 
(2) retentiveness, (3) color, and (4) texture. The 
last two are essential conditions in the absorption 
of the solar heat. 

The renewal of the soil is secured by both nat- 
ural and artificial means. As shown by Darwin by 
experiment and a long series of observations, earth 
worms do a great deal for the farmer. The worms 
burrowing through the soil loosen it up. They 
feed upon earth containing some vegetable mold; 
and this, in passing through their bodies, is made 
more available for plant. They, as well as the 
expansion caused by freezing, give greater capil- 
larity to the soil. 

These natural agents are largely aided by the 
artificial means — by the hoe, the harrow and the 
plow. Then further, the renewal may be aided by 
deep tillage, by subsoiling, and by the use of ferti- 
lizers. 

The soils of Lancaster county are all chiefly soils 
of disintegration, and therefore partake of the 
nature of the rocks upon which they lie. The 
southern belt, comprising mainly the lands lying 
in the six lower townships, has soils derived for the 
greater part from gneisses and mica-schists. They 
are not nearly so fertile as those of the belt just 
north of it, but in some sections the cultivation 
of grain and tobacco is carried on with good success. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 191 

The limestone soils, the most productive in the 
county, are in the central valley, and occupy an 
area of about 300 square miles. They have re- 
sulted not alone from decay of the rocks beneath, 
but have been further enriched by detritus brought 
from other areas. In a large part of the valley, 
therefore, the soil has the texture and fertility of 
the best of bottom lands. 

The breaking-up of feld-spar and thorough mix- 
ing with sand and some other ingredients has further 
enriched this belt, and has at the same time pro- 
duced extensive beds of brick-clay. 

Just north of the limestone lands is a belt of 
shales stretching east and west for some distance 
through the county. The belt is broken, and oc- 
cupies different ridges, often separated by valleys 
with entirely different soils. 

The sandstone soils cover the mesozoic rocks of 
the northern border. They are very variable in 
color, texture and thickness, and often difficult to 
work. They lack retentiveness, but with skillful 
cultivation good crops have been raised. Though 
not producing so great a yield of grain per acre, 
the weight per bushel is heavier than that grown 
in limestone sections. 

WOODLANDS ON THE DIFFERENT SOILS. 

The primitive forrests of the central valley 
must have been stately and beautiful. Now only 
isolated woodlands remain, with stately oaks, wal- 
nuts and shell-barks, majestic elms and the beau- 
yful ash in localities favorable to their g-rowth. 



192 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

In the other geological belts the trees are of some- 
what smaller size, because of slower growth. But 
their wood is of finer grain. 

SPRINGS. 

The beautiful streams of Lancaster county are 
fed by springs that are abundant in nearly all sec- 
tions. The character of the springs and of their 
waters vary with the geological formation. They 
are most abundant in the shale lands, where they 
are small and their waters soft. In the limestone 
belt the springs are of deeper origin, the waters 
are clearer and impregnated with carbonate of 
lime, which gives them their hardness. In this belt 
there are many beautiful springs, of strong flow and 
pure water. The Lititz Springs, in these respects, 
are justl}^ celebrated. Others are no less remark- 
able, but lack the surroundings and the historic 
interest attached to Lititz. 

The energy of the people in connection with the 
richest natural endowments of soil and climate has 
made Lancaster county preeminently the greatest 
agricultural section in the L^nited States. With 
a total land-area of 622,720 acres, no less than 
525,000 acres is under skillful and profitable cul- 
tivation. This leaves about 15 per cent, of the 
total area unproductive. But much of this, proba- 
bly more than one-half, is forest land of high value, 
being covered with majestic oaks. 

The county contains about 10,000 farms, thus 
making the average size of each farm about 523^ 
acres of improved land. The residences and farm- 



fiRIKF HISTORY OI^ tANCASTKR COUNTY. 193 

buildings are large and tastefully built. An air of 
comfort pervades the whole rural community. The 
houses are commodious, and in many cases artis- 
tic in structure and surroundings. 

The value of farm property is about $80,000,000. 
Adding to this the value of live stock, imple- 
ments and utensils, the agricultural wealth of the 
county must be over $100,000,000. This, with the 
$30,000,000 at interest and money in bonds and 
invested in manufacturing in the towns, will make 
the entire wealth in this great county at least 
$250,000,000. 

Farming is carried to a high degree of perfec- 
tion. The elements of plant-growth, as they have 
been taken from the soil by exhaustive tillage, 
have been restored by the use of good fertilizers, 
and so judiciously that the farms show constant 
improvement. After the thirty years of tobacco 
culture, the soil shows higher capabilities of pro- 
duction than prior to i860. During these years 
over 400,000,000 pounds of tobacco have been 
marketed, worth over $35,000,000. The annual 
crop is estimated at nearly 25,000,000 pounds. 

The estimated value of all agricultural pro- 
ducts is about $10,000,000. And of this, the 
value of corn, wheat and oats forms no small part; 
since about 2,250,000 bushels of wheat are raised 
annually, with 3,250,000 bushels of corn and 1,500- 
000 bushels of oats. The corn and o^ats are largely 
used for home consumption. Cattle and horses are 
fattened upon it for the city markets, and the reve- 

9 



194 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

nue from this industry exceeds $500,000 every year. 
Another important source of income is the dairy, 
producing about 4,000,000 pounds of butter. 
With only one city market to supply with milk 
and butter, the county still ranks high in dairy 
production. The report of the Commissioner of 
Agriculture at Washington, in 1878, stated that 
the best farming in the United States is done in 
this region, and the census of 1880 showed that 
this county produced fifty per cent, more agri- 
cultural products than any other county in the 
Union. 



I 



CHAPTER XII. 

EDUCATION. 

EARLY MENNONITE SCHOOL IN PEQUEA VALLEY. 

N 1712 the Swiss Mennonite settlers in the 
Pequea valley, near the site of Willow Street, 
in the present West Lampeter township, erected a 
log structure to serve the two-fold purpose of a 
meeting-house for religious worship on Sunday, 
and for secular instruction during the week. The 
latter consisted chiefly in teaching the children to 
read and write. Such teaching was in accordance 
with the precepts of Menno Simon, the founder of 
the Mennonite sect, who advised his followers to 
teach their children to read and write, to spin and 
to do other necessary and proper labor suited to 
their ages and persons. The schools in the Pequea 
and Conestoga valleys are now among the best in 
the county. 

SCHOOLS OF THE SEVENTH DAY BAPTISTS AT EPHRATA. 

In 1733 the Seventh Day Baptists established a 
school at Ephrata. This school was successfully 
conducted for many years. Among the branches 
taught were the classics, German and music. 
Much attention was devoted to a very peculiar 
kind of vocal music. Penmanship is believed to 
have been taught by two women who made some 
fine chirographical charts, or ink-paintings, which 



1ih; I'.Rii'i' HISTORY oi' i<ANCAsri<:k countv. 

arc still in cxislciicc. 'I'liis scliool was attc-ii(lc(l 
by pupils from abroad, and was oiu- of tlic first 
boardiii)^ scliools in America. 

The first tcaclicrs of tliis I'4)hrata school were 
Conrad Ik'isscl and Ijidwi^ I lacker. Heissel was 
tlie founder and leader of the Seventh Day P>ap- 
tists, and was a j^mxxI teacher and an expert in 
ninsic. He died in iy()H. I lis successor, John 
i'c-ter MillcT, translated the Declaration of Inde- 
])cndence into Wvl- diflerent lanj^iiaj^es lor the 
United vStates ( lovernnient, and could speak Latin 
llnently. 

In 17/p) Ivudwi<^ I lacker formed a plan of hold- 
in<^ a school on vSatnrday afternoon, the vSabbath 
of the vSeventh Day Haptists. 'Phis was the first 
Sabbath scdiool recorded in liistory. Ijidwij^- 
Hacker conducted the school successfully thirty- 
seven years, until ySeptember, 1777, wlien the 
bnil(lin<^s were j^iven to the United vStates (lovern- 
ment for a hospital. ( )ver S'>'> wounded American 
soldiers from the battle-field of l>ran(l\wine were 
cared lor there. The vSab1)alli school was discon- 
tinued from that lime, 'i'lu- noted old classical 
school was also finally closed. 

HAKLY MORAVIAN SCHOOLS. 

In I /IS the Moravians established a school near 
keamstown. The teachers occupied the scliool- 
house, and wc-re instructed to teach the children 
of the community and to <^ive relij.;ious instruc- 
lion to tlu- parents on vSnnd.iN' whenever the rej^ular 
ministir was absent. 



T^RIKK ITISTOkY OF I.ANCASTKK COUNTY. 107 

III ly/j'S llic Warwick church and school-house 
were dedicated, 'i'his scliool ojx-ned in 1749, with 
the Kev. Leou.ird vSehnell as teacher, and with 
four l)()\'s and three twirls as ])U])ils. In 1762 this 
scliool was removed to the viilaj^e of Lititz, and 
was for nian\' years conducted successfully hy the 
Rev. Ik'rnhard A. (irnhc-. As there- was no scliool 
within four miles of IJtitz, tliis school was at- 
tended 1)\' the children of the adjacent country. 
The chihhtn of the Moravian vSocicty at Lililz 
were tan;;hl in a school founded hy the society, in 
the villa^a-, about the year 1758.* (irube's school 
for the boys from the country was afterward con- 
ducted by Christian vSc^iropp. In 1S15 John lUck 
took charj^e of this school, ;nid .soon ;^avc it tin- 
reputation which it so lon<^ lu'ld as John /irrk\K 
School /or Hoys. John I>eek remained in (^har<^f of 
that institution until iSOc;, a full half cenlurw 

In 1750 the Moravians built a church and .school- 
house near Centreville, Mount Joy township. This 
church is yet standinj^^, thouj^h the school-house is 
not in e.vistence. In 1750 the Moravians also 
built a school-house in Lancaster. 

In 1794 the Mora\ians at IJtit/. established their 
celel/rated scliool for j^irls, l.indrn Ilall ScifiiiKirv^ 
in that village. This institution soon ranked with 
the best ladies' seminaries of Pennsylvania, and 
has ever since remained in a flourishing condition. 

'* III 17.SS tlif Moravians l»uilt a school house ;il Lilil/ (or the 
children of I heir socii'ly in the \illa).(e. 



198 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 
EARLY SCHOOLS OF LANCASTER CITY. 

As early as 1746 schools were established in Lan- 
caster borough by German Protestants belonging- 
to the Lutheran and German Reformed churches. 
These schools were at first intended only for the 
children of members of those churches. The 
teachers were the organists of the churches. As 
organists they were paid salaries by the church. 
As teachers they were paid by those who were able 
to pay, while the children of the poor were taught 
free of cost. These schools were very successful; 
and from 1745 to 1784 they afforded almost the 
only opportunities for education in the county, 
except the schools of Ephrata and Lititz and the 
classical school at the Pequea Presbyterian church 
in Salisbury township. 

The highest ecclesiastical bodies of the Lutheran 
and German Reformed churches manifested great 
interest in these church schools of Lancaster city. 
The Reformed Synod of Amsterdam, in Holland, 
sent teachers and books here and elsewhere. In 
1746 that synod sent the Rev. Michael Schlatter 
to establish schools. He succeeded very well in 
Lancaster. In 1752 the provincial authorities of 
Pennsylvania appointed a commission to establish 
schools in the province. Among the members of 
this commission were Governor James Hamilton, 
of Pennsylvania, Benjamin Franklin and Conrad 
Weiser. 

In 1750 the Moravians of Lancaster built a par- 
sonage and school-house on the corner of Orange 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 199 

and Market streets. These buildings are yet 
standing, though the school has been discontinued 
for many years. In 1750 this Moravian school was 
taught by George and Susan Ohneberg. 

In 1760 the Reformed church had a school in 
Lancaster, taught by Mr. Stoy, and attended by 
sixty pupils. The early teachers of this school 
were sent there by the Reformed church in Hol- 
land, and the reports of the school were kept among 
the proceedings of the church there. 

About 1780 an academy for boys was established 
in Lancaster by Jasper Yeates and others. The 
Yeates Academy was at first very successful, but 
was subsequently supplanted by Franklin College, 
which was opened in 1787, and was conducted 
under that name until 1821. 

OLD SCHOOL IN CAERNARVON. 

As early as 1750 the Bangor Church School was 
in operation in Caernarvon township. This was 
conducted under the auspices of the Bangor Epis- 
copal church. In 1790 George Hudson and Na- 
than Evans left legacies to the Bangor church, 
minister and school. This school afterward be- 
came a private subscription school, but has long 
ago ceased to exist. 

OLD SCHOOL IN SALISBURY. 

As early as 1760 a noted classical school existed 
near the Pequea Presbyterian church, in Salisbury 
township. This school was founded and taught 
by the Rev. Robert Smith, D. D., and was a clas- 



200 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

sical and theological institution of the highest 
character. Latin was the only language allowed 
to be spoken in the school-room, and any one who 
spoke a w^ord in any other language was marked as 
a delinquent. One of the teachers who aided Rev. 
Dr. Smith was James Waddell, afterward the cele- 
brated blind preacher of Virginia, the subject of 
William Wirt's composition entitled The Blind 
Preacher. Among the Rev. Dr. Smith's pupils 
were th^ee of his sons — Samuel Stanhope Smith, 
John Blair Smith and William Smith. Samuel 
Stanhope Smith was the first president of Hamp- 
den Sidney College, Virginia. 

The most eminent of Rev. Dr. Smith's pupils 
was John McMillan, D. D., the apostle of Presby- 
terianism in the West, and the founder of Jefferson 
College at Cannonsburg, Washington county, 
Pennsylvania — the famous preacher and teacher 
of theologv^ in his log cabin. The Rev. Dr. Mc- 
Millan sent more men into the ministry than any 
other man in America before the time of theo- 
logical seminaries. Among others who attained 
prominence was an early Governor of Pennsyl- 
vania. Rev. Dr. Smith's school ended with his 
death, in 1793. 

EARLY SCHOOLS OF EARL TOWNSHIP. 

As early as 1765 a log school-house was standing 
at Laurel Hill, in Earl township. The same 
ground is still used for school purposes. In 1772 
a school-house was built in Weaverland. About 
1783 one was built in Hinkletown. In the same 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 201 

year Jacob Carpenter taught a school at Bolmar- 
town. These school- houses were all built by the 
voluntary contributions of the citizens. 

In 1786 the Rev. Mr. Melzheimer and other 
public-spirited citizens established an English and 
German free school in New Holland: This school- 
house was built and furnished by contributions of 
money, building materials and personal services. 
It was a two-story log structure, and was formally 
dedicated December 26, 1787. 

On the morning of that day the scholars, minis- 
ters, trustees, elders and church wardens of the 
Lutheran and German Reformed churches, sli^ 
the members of those churches and members of 
other churches, both English and German, as- 
sembled at the parsonage, whence they marched 
in procession to the school-house. More than 
seven hundred persons were present. The dedica- 
tion services on that occasion consisted of vocal 
music, an appropriate prayer, a suitable oration, 
and finally an eloquent discourse. 

After 1838 the school directors of Earl township 
used the school-house for public school purposes. 
In 1857 the building was sold by authority of an 
act of the State Legislature, which directed that 
one-half of the proceeds should be given to the 
Lutheran church, and that the other half should 
be put on interest until the latter should amount 
to one thousand dollars. After that the income 
from the amount was to be used to support 
one or more schools in New Holland, during the 
*9 



202 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

time when the common schools were not in session. 
In accordance with that act, schools have since 
been in session dnring the summer. 

OLD SCHOOL IN DONEGAL. 

It is known that as early as 1772 a log school- 
house stood near the old Donegal Presbyterian 
church, which had been erected in 1722, full half 
a century before. In this log edifice a parochial or 
church school was kept. This school-house 
was constructed of hewn oak ; roof, floor 
and furniture consisting of that material. 
Here the common branches and the doc- 
trines of the Presbyterian church were taught. 
A night school was also held once a week for those 
who were not able to attend the day school. This 
old Donegal school was supported by subscriptions, 
and the teachers "boarded round." The county 
court appointed trustees to visit the school once 
in six months. The school was discontinued when 
the public free schools came into existence. 

EARLY SCHOOLS OF STRASBURG BOROUGH. 

As early as 1790 a family school existed in 
Strasburg borough. This school was taught by 
the Rev. Nathaniel W. Sample, who received a 
number of students into his house. Mr. Sample's 
chief object was to aid young men to prepare 
themselves for the ministry. Some of his pupils 
afterward become very prominent Presbyterian 
clergymen. 

About 1800 John Whiteside established a clas- 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 203 

sical school in Strasburg borough, in which Latin, 
Greek and Hebrew were taught. 

In 1808 a celebrated classical academy was 
established in Strasburg borough by the Rev. 
Robert Elliott, who was afterward a cli^plain to 
Congress. This academy was attended by pupils 
from Delaware and Maryland, as well as from 
Pennsylvania. It was afterward conducted by Xeal 
McCloy. 

OLD SCHOOL IN LITTLE BRITAIN. 

The Eastland school, in Little Britain township, 
was in existence as early as 1796. 

THE SCHOOLS OF LANCASTER COUNTY FROM 1809 TO 1834. 

Under the law of 1809, embracing the period 
from 1809 to 1834, little was done to educate the 
cliildren of the mass of the people. There were few 
good teachers, except in the city, the boroughs 
and their vicinities. The furniture was rude; and 
there was no apparatus, no suitable text-books, 
no classification. The schools were called "pau- 
per schools," and were despised by the rich and 
shunned by the poor. Under the law of 1809 the 
schooling of the poor children was paid for by the 
county, and such children were classed as "poor 
scholars" or "county scholars." Thus the law 
created an unpleasant feeling of caste in the 
school and in the community. Many parents 
would keep their children at home, rather than 
say to the township assessor: " Put me on the poor 
list,^'' Many poor children refused to go to school, 



204 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

because they were taunted with the remark: '' Oh, 
you are a county scholar." 

Under the law of 1809 the expense of building 
school-houses was paid by voluntary contributions. 
Whenever a community desired a school-house, 
one was built at some point convenient to those 
who contributed toward its erection. The patrons 
of the school selected trustees, whose duty it was to 
take charge of the school property and to select a 
teacher for the school. If the teacher whom the 
trustees selected was able to obtain pupils enough 
to pay for his teaching, he would open the school. 
If not, he would look for a school elsewhere. The 
teacher was paid by his patrons, if they were able 
to do so; if not, the tuition of the children was 
paid by the county — bills for that purpose being 
presented by the teacher to the County Commis- 
sioners. The amount of pay for each pupil was two 
dollars per quarter, or three cents per day. The 
pupil's outfit cost one dollar, and consisted of an 
English Reader or a New Testament, a Comly's 
or Byerly's Spelling Book, a Pike's or Rose's Arith- 
metic, a slate and pencil, six sheets of foolscap 
paper stitched together, a small ink bottle in a 
broad cork stand, and a goose quill. 

Next to the academies, the faiJiily schools were 
the best schools of that period. They were far better 
than the trustees' schools. The most enlightened 
and progressive school sentiment at this time 
exists in the localities where those family schools 
existed. 



BRIEF HISTORY OP LANCASTER COUNTY. 205 

ACTION OF CITIZENS OF STRASBURG IN FAVOR OF FREE 
SCHOOLS. 

About 1829 or 1830 some enterprising and pub- 
lic-spirited citizens of Strasburg borough organized 
a movement to secure free schools. These were 
George Hoffman, Alexander Hood and Henry 
Spiehlman. They called a special meeting of the 
citizens in the Jackson street school-house to peti- 
tion the State Legislature for a system of free 
schools. The petition was presented to the Legis- 
lature. This was the only action taken in this 
direction at this time in the county, except in the 
city of Lancaster. 

In 1835 a public meeting was held at the same 
place to protest against the proposed repeal of the 
free school law of 1834. Samuel Spiehlman and 
B. B. Gonder were appointed a committee to go to 
Harrisburg to present the protest to the Legisla- 
ture. The people of Strasburg and its vicinity 
were always very active in every movement in 
favor of free schools. Among those citizens who 
made earnest and effective efforts in that direction 
were George Hoffman, Alexander Hood, Henry 
Spiehlman, sr., Benjamin Herr, Joseph Bowman, 
James McPhail and others. 

THE FREE SCHOOL LAW OF 1834. 

The greatest event in the educational history of 
Pennsylvania was the passage by the State Legis- 
lature of the free school law of 1834. This bene- 
ficent act provided for the establishment of public 
free schools throughout the State wherein the 



206 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

children of all parents, rich and poor, might be 
educated at the public expense. Each city, bor- 
ough and township was to constitute a separate 
school district, whose schools were to be main- 
tained by general taxation. Each district was to 
have a board of school directors for the manage- 
ment of its school affairs, the employment of 
teachers, etc. Each township was given six 
directors, and each city and borough a certain 
number in proportion to population. The direc- 
tors were to be elected for a term of three years by 
the voters at the yearly city, borough and township 
elections; one-third of the directors of each district 
being elected each year. 

THE FREE SCHOOLS FROM 1834 TO 1851. 

Under the school laws of 1834 and 1836 the 
public schools of Lancaster county increased in 
numbers and efficiency. At the end of tliese 
twenty years there were some good schools in 
Lancaster city and in the various boroughs of the 
county. There were also some good schools in 
some of the townships.* But in many the modes 
of teaching were very defective. Teachers were in- 
different and incompetent, classification was want- 
ing, and little attention was given to the young 
pupils. There were, however, some very excellent 
teachers. Some of the directors also took great 
interest in the schools. 



*In those of Manor, East Donegal, the Henipfields, the Lam- 
peters, Pequea, Conestoga, Strasburg, Paradise, Earl, Bart and 
several others. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 207 
THE FREE SCHOOLS SINCE 1854. 

The school law of 1854 provided for a County 
Superintendent of Common Schools for each 
county in Pennsylvania, to be elected every three 
years by the directors of the county. The duties of 
the County Superintendents are to examine those 
who apply for positions as teachers in the cfommon 
schools, to visit these schools each term, to hold 
an annual County Teachers' Institute and to report 
yearly the educational progress of the county. Under 
the County Superintedency the common schools 
have been gradual h' advancing in every respect. 
The Normal School law of 1857, which brought 
into existence the State Normal Schools, has been 
the means of supplying most excellent teachers. 
The County Superintendency and the State Nor- 
mal Schools are the agencies to which the progress 
of the common schools is indebted. The following 
have been the County Superintendents of Com- 
mon Schools of Lancaster county : 

James P. Wickersham, from 185410 1856, when he resigned. 

John C. Crumbaugh, from 1856 until his death in January, 

1859. 
David Evans, from 1859 to 1872. 
B. F, Shaub, from 1872 to 1883, when he resigned. 
Milton J. Brecht, since 1883. 

ACCEPTANCE OF FREE SCHOOLS BY THE SCHOOL DISTRICTS. 

The present free school system was accepted by 

the various school districts of Lancaster county, as 

follows : 

In 1834. 

East Donegal, Marietta borough, West Hempfield, 

East Hempfield, Manor, Washington borough, 

Strasburg borough, Bart, Drumore, 

Caernarvon, and four others. 



208 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 





In 1836. 




Columbia borough, 


Conestoga, 


Conoy, 


West Donegal, 


Lampeter, 


Little Britain, 


Strasburg township. 


Salisbury, 


Martic, 


Coleraine, 


Rapho, 


Manheim borough, 


Earl, 


In 1838. 
Lancaster city. 

In 1842. 





Mount Joy township. 

In 1843 AND 1844. 
Lancaster township, Ephrata township, 

Sadsbury and Elizabeth town borough. 

In 1846. 
Bast Cocalico. 



Leacock, 



Brecknock, 
Manheim towmship, 
Penn, 



In 1847 AND 1848. 
West Earl, 
Warwick, 



In 1868. 
West Cocalico. 



Elizabeth township, 
Upper Leacock. 



The new townships and boroughs which have 
been founded since the passage of the free school 
law have all accepted the free school system since 
their formation, so that the beneficent system ex- 
ists in every district. 

FIRST TEACHERS' MEETING— SCHOOL JOURNAL. 

The first teachers' meeting in Lancaster county 
was held in Lancaster, in June, 1850, about twenty 
teachers being present. At a subsequent meet- 
ing this society adopted the name of the Lan- 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 200 

caster County Educational Society^ which lasted 
until i860. At a meeting of this society, in Jan- 
uary, 1852, it was resolved to establish a monthly 
educational publication to be edited by Thomas 
H. Burrowes. This was the origin of the Penn- 
sylvania School Journal^ which first appeared in 
February, 1852. 

ORIGIN OF TEACHERS' INSTITUTES. 

In November, 1852, the Lancaster County Edu- 
cational. Society met at Strasburg, and resolved to 
hold Institutes for the special improvement of 
teachers in the branches of study and in methods 
of teaching. This w^as the first move to organize 
a Teachers' Institute in Lancaster county. At this 
meeting the society appointed seven delegates to the 
Educational State Convention which met in Har- 
risburg, December 28, 1852. The first Teachers' 
Institute in Lancaster county, which was also the 
first one held in Eastern Pennsylvania, met in 
Lancaster, in January, 1853, with 169 members 
present. 

ORIGIN OF THE NORMAL SCHOOL AT MILLERSVILLE. 

At the first Teachers' Institute, just referred to, 
Professor J. P. Wickersham offered a resolution in 
favor of the establishment of County Superinten- 
dents and of State Normal Schools. This resolu- 
tion was adopted unanimously and was sent to the 
State Legislature. The second meeting of the In- 
stitute, in September, 1853, took similar action. 



210 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

The third meeting of the Institute, at Hinkletown, 
in November, 1854, adopted a resolution calling 
upon the County Superintendent to call a County 
Teachers' Institute to remain in session three 
months. The County Superintendent, Professor J. 
P. Wickersham, declared his willingness to hold 
such an Institute if he could find suitable build- 
ings. The trustees of the Millersville Academy 
offered their building to the County Superinten- 
dent, and agreed to pay $1,000 toward the expenses 
of the Institute. This offer was readily accepted; 
and the three months' Institute was held in the 
Millersville Academy, in the summer of 1855, 
under County Superintendent Wickersham's direc- 
tion. The school was called the Lancaster County 
Nonual Institute. Its wonderful success induced 
the trustees to continue the school as a permanent 
institution; and it became the Lancaster County 
Normal School^ on November i, 1855, with John 
F. Stoddard as principal. In the fall of 1856 
Professor Wickersham resigned the office of County 
Superintendent, and became principal of the new 
County Normal School, which became the first 
State Normal School oi Pennsylvania on December 
2, 1859. 

DISTRICT INSTITUTES. 

The first District Teachers'" Institute in Lancaster 
county was held in the Jackson street school-house, 
in Strasburg borough, by the teachers of Strasburg 
borough and township, July 12, 185 1. Among the 
leaders in the movement were D. S. Kieffer, Amos 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 211 

Row, E. Lamborn and T. K. White. This Insti- 
tute adopted eight progressive resolutions, and 
elected five delegates to the Lancaster County 
Teachers' Convention held in Lancaster, August 
2, 1851. There have since been District Institutes 
in various townships of the county. 

UNDER THE ACT OF i8og. 

Franklin College closed in 1821 for some years, 
as did also the private classical academy some 
time afterward. Under the law of 1809 a number 
of schools were opened in Lancaster city for the 
education of poor children, but the teachers were 
incompetent. 

UNDER THE ACT OF 1822. 

On April i, 1822, the Pennsylvania Legislature 
passed an act to provide for the education of the chil- 
dren of the city and boroughs of Lancaster county 
at the public expense. Under this law the Court 
of Common Pleas of Lancaster county appointed 
twelve directors each year, and the expenses of the 
schools were paid out of the county treasury. A 
large school-house was erected on the south-east 
corner of Prince and Chestnut streets, and was 
opened for the instruction of boys and girls in 
1823. 

General Lafayette visited this school in 1824 
and addressed the children. The girls were taught 
needle-work. This school lasted until 1838, when 
the present free school system was adopted by Lan- 
caster city. The building is now used for school 
purposes by the city school board- 



212 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 
LANCASTER COUNTY ACADEMY. 

In April, 1827, ^^^^ Pennsylvania Legislature 
passed an act incorporating the Lancaster County 
Academy. This academy lasted until May 15, 
1839, when the buildings were conveyed to the 
trustees of Franklin College, which again opened 
and used those buildings until 1853, when it was 
consolidated with Marshall College under the name 
of Franklin and Marshall College. 

THE ABBEVILLE INSTITUTE. 

The Abbeville Institute was incorporated in 1835, 
and was an academy of high rank. Its leading 
founders were Dr. John L. Atlee, Bishop Samuel 
Bowman and Honorable A. L. Hayes. This insti- 
tution lasted only a few years. 

LADIES' SEMINARY. 

In 1843 ^ ladies' seminary was conducted suc- 
cessfully in Lancaster by James Damant. 

YEATES INSTITUTE. 

The Yeates Institute of Lancaster was incor- 
porated August 18, 1857, for tlie education of 
young men in all the customary branches of a 
thorough academical course of learning. The in- 
stitution was named after Miss Catharine Yeates, 
who liberally endowed it. The school was once 
closed, but reopened September i, 1878. In 1880 
it was removed to the present building at the north- 
east corner of Duke and Walnut streets, which 
had just been erected on a lot purchased the'year 
before. 



BRIEI^ HISTORY OF tAKCASTER COt'NTY. 213 
ACADEMIES IN SALISBURY TOWNSHIP. 

In 1822 an academy was in operation north of 
the Gap, in Salisburg township, taught by John 
Dickinson, father of the celebrated Miss Anna 
Dickinson. In 1842 Bellevue Academy was in 
operation in Salisbury township, taught by the 
Rev. Mr. Timlow. 

ACADEMIES AND SEMINARIES AT MARIETTA. 

x\n academy for boys was established in Marietta 
borough in 1833 by the Rev. Timothy Simpson, 
but it was soon discontinued. In 1836 a female 
seminary was established in Alarietta, but this in- 
stitution finally became a public school. In 1836 
Susquehanna Institute was established by a joint 
stock company. Edwin A. Leiker, an accom- 
plished scholar, was principal of this institution. 
Honorable John J. Libhart, James Mehaifey and 
A. N. Cassel were prominent trustees. The insti- 
tution proved a financial failure, and the building 
in which it w^as held afterward became a private 
residence. In 1845 Marietta Academy was estab- 
lished, with James Pyle Wickersham as principal, 
and was in successful operation until May, 1854, 
when Professor Wickersham was elected the first 
County Superintendent of Lancaster county. Both 
sexes were admitted to this Academy, and much 
attention was given to preparing teachers for their 
work. The library had over 500 volumes. The 
building was afterward used for a boarding-house. 

EPHRATA ACADEMY. 

In 1814 the few remaining members of the 



214 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

old society of the the Seventh Day Baptists 
at Ephrata were incorporated by the State Leg- 
islature. In 1837 this corporation founded the 
Ephrata Academy. This institution was in opera- 
tion until 1855, when the building was leased to 
the school board of Ephrata township, and it has 
ever since been used for public school purposes. 

INSTITUTIONS AT MT. JOY. 

In 1837 Cedar Ui'Il Female Sej)it?taiy ^2iS ts\.2ih- 
lished near Mount Joy by Rev. Nehemiah Dodge, 
an enthusiastic teacher and an active worker 
in every good cause. This seminary became a 
flourishing and celebrated institution, and at var- 
ious times was attended by young ladies from ele- 
ven different States. In 1874 Professor David Den- 
linger became principal, and both sexes were ad- 
mitted to the institution, the name being changed 
to Cedar Hill Seminary. This institution under 
Professor Denlinger's charge lasted several years, 
and belonged to the estate of its founder. In 1838 
Mount Joy htstitute for boys was established by J. 
H. Brown as principal, but was not long in opera- 
tion. In 185 1 MotiJtt Joy Academy W2is chartered. 
E. Iv. Moore and J. W. Simonton were associate 
principals of this institution, which flourished for 
some years, but was after a time discontinued. In 
1865 the building was purchased by the State for 
a Soldiers' Orphan School, and was used for that 
purpose until 1889. 

STRASBURG ACADEMY. 

In 1839 the Strasburg Academy was founded by 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 2l5 

tlie Rev. David McCarter. This was one of the 
most flourishing academies in the county for many 
years, and was attended by students from all the 
States from the Great Lakes to the Gulf. Mr. Mc- 
Carter was principal until 1853, and three assistant 
teachers were employed. This academy lasted 
until 1858, and the building was afterward sold 
and converted into a private residence. The pub- 
lic high school of Strasburg borough now fills the 
place made vacant by the discontinuance of the 
academy. 

INSTITUTIONS AT PARADISE. 

In 1842 the Paradise Academy was in operation, 
with Enos Stevens as principal. In 1854 the 
Young Ladies^ Seminary at Paradise was founded 
under the principalship of the Rev. Dr. Killi 
Kelly, but was soon closed on account of financial 
troubles. The building was used awhile for a 
Soldiers' Orphan School, and since fcr a private 
residence. Another Paradise Acadefny was founded 
by a stock company in 1859, and flourished for 
several years under the management of E. J. 
Rogers, but w^s discontinued in 1865. The build- 
ing was sold, and has since been used for a private 
residence. 

CHESTNUT LEVEL ACADEMY. 

The CJiestmtt Level Academy was founded in 
1852. P. W. Housekeeper, Esq., donated an acre 
of land and $150 for its use, and others contributed 
sums of $75 each. The trustees then borrowed 
money to erect a large boarding-house, thus in- 



216 BRIEI^ HISl'ORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

volving them in debt. The buildings were sold 
at Sheriff's sale to Sanders McCullongh, who pre- 
sented them to the Presbyterian Church, which 
still owns them and now leases them for school 
purposes. The citizens of the surrounding country 
still liberally patronize the academy. 

CHURCHTOWN ACADEMY. 

The Presbyterian Church established the Clmrch- 
town Academy^ in Caernarvon township, in 1854, 
with James E. Giffin as its first principal. The 
trustees afterward leased the building to Thomas 
H. Reifsnyder, who conducted the academy until 
1872, when it was finally closed. The buildings 
are yet standing. 

UNION HIGH SCHOOL IN COLERAINE. 

The Union High School^ in Coleraine township, 
was founded in 1859 t>y James W. Andrews, who 
became its first principal. This was designed for 
the education of both sexes. 

WAGNER'S ACADEMY. 

In 1874 Wagner' s Academy for boys was estab- 
lished in Lancaster township, just outside the limits 
of Lancaster city. J. H. B. Wagner was principal 
of this academy, which was under Catholic con- 
trol, and which was attended by students from 
abroad. 

PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS. 

There are several parochial schools in Lancaster 
city, connected respectively with the three Catho- 
lic churches, with Zion\s Lutheran church, and 
with St. James' Episcopal church. There is a 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 217 

Catholic parochial school in Marietta borough. In. 
1877 a kindergarten school was established in Lan- 
caster city by the Misses Gleim, of lycbanon. The 
Children'' s Home Schooliwrmsh^s excellent school 
privileges to the poor, friendless children of that 
institution. 

SOLDIER'S ORPHAN SCHOOLS. 

In 1864 and 1865 the Pennsylvania Legislature 
passed bills providing for the establishment of 
Soldiers^ Orpha7i Schools in the State. On June 
16, 1864, Honorable Thomas H. Burrowes was 
commissioned Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphan 
Schools. 

AT STRASBURGAND MOUNT JOY. 

On December 20, 1864, a Soldiers' Orphan 
School was opened at Strasburg, with Professor J. 
R. Carothers as principal. In 1865 the State 
bought the academy buildings at Mount Joy, and 
removed the school from Strasburg to that place 
the same year. The Mount Joy Soldiers' Orphan 
School prospered until it was closed in 1889. On 
December i, 1867, Professor Jesse Kennedy be- 
came principal, having bought the buildings. Pro- 
fessor Kennedy remained in charge until Sep- 
tember, 1877, when State Senator George W. 
Wright, of Mercer county, Pennsylvania, bought 
the buildings and took charge of the school. 

AT PARADISE, 

A Soldiers' Orphan School was for some time 
held in the old academy building in Paradise, but 
this school has been closed for some years. 



218 BRISF HISTORV OF LANCASTER COXmTY. 
YOUNG LADIES' SEMINARY AT LITITZ. 

(linden hall.) 

Linden Hall Seminary^ at Lititz, was opened in 
1794. It was first conducted partly in the Sister^ s 
House and partly in an adjacent house. The new 
building, built expressly for school purposes, was 
first occupied in 1804. It is 100 feet long, 60 feet 
wide, and three stories high. In the basement is 
a large dining-room. In the first and second 
stories are the school rooms, principal's residence, 
and a chapel designed for religious devotion. The 
third story consists of a domitory and a sick room. 
In the rear of the building is a large yard, with a 
pavilion, seats, swings, etc., for the pleasure and 
amusement of the pupils. The institution has an 
extensive library. The course of instruction is de- 
signed to afford a practical education to young 
ladies. Considerable attention is given to instruc- 
tion in music, and ornamental needle-work is 
taught with rare success. Each school-room is 
constantly under the supervision of a teacher, who 
has a watchful eye over her respective pupils. The 
principal is aided in his work by a vice-principal. 
This institution of a century has enjoyed an unin- 
terrupted career of prosperity, and has during this 
entire period ranked with the best ladies' semi- 
naries of Pennsylvania. It is conducted on a plan 
adopted several centuries ago in Europe, and 
has had students from almost every State of the 
Union. 



BRISF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 219 

YOUNG GENTLEMEN'S ACADEMY AT LITITZ. 
(JOHN BECK'S SCHOOIv.) 

As we have seen, there were two schools at 
Lititz in the early days of the village — the War- 
wick school for children from the surrounding 
country not belonging to the Moravian society, 
and the one belonging to the society and conducted 
by the Rev. Bernhard A. Grube. As Warwick 
township became more settled, the country chil- 
dren were no more sent to school in the village. 
The village school for boys was conducted for 
many years by Christian Schropp. In 1815 John 
Beck took charge of the school, which he conduct- 
ed for fifty years, until he resigned in 1865. John 
Beck was one of the most famous and successful 
teachers of his time. His school for boys, or Young 
GentlemerC s Academy^ obtained a wide reputation, 
and was attended by students from many States 
and from Canada and the West Indies. When 
Mr. Beck took charge of the school it was held in 
an old building. In 1822 the present brick build- 
ing was erected on the same spot, and as the num- 
ber of pupils increased each year the large build- 
ing formerly called the Brother'' s House was used 
for the school. As the school increased, Mr. Beck, 
as principal, was assisted by other teachers. The 
institution remained in active operation about 
twenty years after Mr. Beck's retirement. 

SUNNYSIDE COLLEGE FOR YOUNG LADIES. 

This institution was established in 1863 by Rev. 



220 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

J. T. Beckler, who died in 1876, when the institu- 
tion was closed permanently. 

ABRAHAM BECK'S FAMILY SCHOOL FOR BOYS. 
(AUDUBON VILLA.) 

This school was established in 1865 by Abraham 
Beck, and is still in successful operation. 

ORIGIN OF FRANKLIN AND MARSHALL COLLEGE. 

This institution — the leading college of the Re- 
formed Church in the United States — owes its 
origin to the consolidation or union of two older 
institutions, Franklin College at Lancaster, and 
Marshall College at Mercersberg, which consolida- 
tion took place in 1853. 

LANCASTER HIGH SCHOOL. 

The Lancaster High School^ founded by Jasper 
Yeates and other gentlemen about 1780 for the 
education of their sons, and which closed several 
years later on account of the teacher's violent 
temper, suggested the establishment of another. 

FRANKLIN COLLEGE. 

On March 10, 1787, the Pennsylvania Legisla- 
ture passed an act incorporating an institution at 
Lancaster named Franklin College^ in honor of Dr. 
Benjamin Franklin. This institution was under 
the management of a board of trustees. The act 
of incorporation provided that the youth should be 
taught in the German, English, Latin, Greek and 
other learned languages, in theology, in the useful 
arts, sciences and literature. The College was 
endowed with ten thousand acres of land. It was 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 221 

opened in 1786 as a Grammar School, with a pro- 
fessor of the Latin and Greek languages and a pro- 
essor of mathematics. A German named Mels- 
heimer was the first principal. Franklin College 
prospered until 182 1, when it was closed, being 
not reopened until 1839. 

LANCASTER COUNTY ACADEMY AND FRANKLIN COLLEGE 

As already noticed, the State Legislature incor- 
porated the Lancaster County Academy April 14, 
1827, ^^^ granted a donation of $3,000 to the insti- 
tution as a gift from the State on the condition 
that at least four poor children should always be 
educated there free. As also noticed, the trustees 
bought a lot on North Lime street, Lancaster, 
where they erected the academy in 1828. The 
academy was opened with a competent teacher, 
and prospered until 1839, when, in persuance of 
an act of the State Legislature authorizing the 
arrangement, the academy buildings were con- 
veyed to the trustees of Franklin College, which 
was reopened as a respectable classical academy. 

FRANKLIN AND MARSHALL COLLEGE. 

In 1835 Marshall College was established by 
the Reformed Church at Mercersburg, Frank- 
lin county, Pennsylvania, to which place the 
Theological Seminary of the Reformed Church 
in the United States was removed from York in 
1837. The Reformed Church bought out the Lu- 
theran interest in Franklin College ; and in April, 
1850, the Pennsylvania Legislature passed an act 



222 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTBR COUNTY. 

for the consolidation of Franklin College with Mar- 
shall College, the latter institution being thus re- 
moved from Mercersburg to lyancaster, thus ending 
its history as a separate institution. The two col- 
leges thus became a united institution at Lancaster, 
under the name of Franklin and Marshall College. 
The new college charter went into effect when the 
board of trustees first met in January, 1853. '^^^ 
college opened in May, 1853 ; and the event was 
formally solemnized by a public celebration in 
Fulton Hall in the evening of June 7, 1853. 

The college was conducted in the Franklin Col- 
lege building on North Lime Street until April, 
1856. The city and county of Lancaster raised a 
fund of $25,000, which was used in purchasing a 
fine tract of ground on the west side of the city and 
erecting a college building thereon. The new 
building was dedicated with appropriate cere- 
monies. May 16, 1856. Each of the two literary 
societies of the college erected a large, beautiful 
and commodious hall. The hall of the Goethean 
Literary Society is on the south side of the col- 
lege building, and that of the DiagJiothian Lit- 
erary Society is on the north side. These two 
halls thus hold the relation of wings to the college 
edifice, and were formally opened on Tuesday, 
July 28, 1857. Since then Franklin and Marshall 
College has had a wonderful career of prosperity. 

Franklin and Marshall College is under the im- 
mediate care of the Reformed Church, but one- 
third of its board of trustees are members of other 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 223 

religious denominations. It is thus a public in- 
terest in the full sense of the term — an interest in 
which the State is as much concerned as the 
Church. There is a great deal of local interest and 
pride felt in the institution. It thus holds a double 
relation to the Reformed Church and to the 
community around it. It is the leading college 
of the Reformed Church in the United States. The 
centennial of the establishment of Franklin Col- 
lege was held in June, 1887. The college com 
mencement is always held early in June of each 
year. The anniversaries of the literary societies of 
the college are held shortly before the commence- 
ment. The president of the college now is Dr. 
John S. Stahr. 

FRANKLIN AND MARSHALL ACADEMY. 

In 1853 the trustees of Franklin and Marshall 
College founded Franklin and Marshall Academy, 
designed as a preparatory school for the college, 
and under the supervision of the college faculty, 
but being no part of the college proper. 

REFORMED THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

The Theological Seminary of the Reformed 
Church in the United States has been at I^an- 
caster since 1871, and uses the buildings of Frank- 
lin and Marshall College. This theological semi- 
nary was founded at Carlisle in 1825 5 removed 
to York in 1829 5 ^^ Mercersburg, in Franklin 
county, in 1837 > ^^^^ ^^ Lancaster in 187 1. It is 
the oldest educational institution of the Reformed 



224 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

Church in the United States, and is open to stu- 
dents of all Christian denominations. 

LANCASTER COUNTY NORMAL INSTITUTE. 

This flourishing institution owed its origin 
directly to the influence of the first County Super- 
intendent of Lancaster County, J. P. Wickersham. 
During a visit to Millersville, Professor Wicker- 
sham alluded in a public lecture to the project of 
founding a Normal School for the training of teach- 
ers. The trustees of the new building designed 
for an academy at Millersville offered this building 
to the County Superintendent without charge. 
He accepted their offer, and opened the Lancaster 
County Normal Institute at Millersville in April, 
1855, with 135 students, the term being three 
months. 

LANCASTER COUNTY NORMAL SCHOOL. 

The trustees at once enlarged the buildings for 
a permanent Normal School, and the Lancaster 
County Normal School opened about November i, 
1855, with Professor John F. Stoddard as principal. 
In 1856 Mr. Stoddard resigned, whereupon the 
trustees elected County Superintendent Wicker- 
sham as principal. Mr. Wickersham then re- 
signed the County Superintendency, and took 
charge of the Normal School, which he launched 
on an unbroken career of prosperity. From 1855 
to 1859 the institution, under the title of the Lan- 
caster County Normal School^ was wholly in private 
hands ; but was virtually doing the work of a 
State Normal School, as its students came from all 



BRIEF HIvSTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 225 

parts of Pennsylvania, and its special aim was to 
train teachers. 

THE FIRST STATE NORMAL SCHOOL. 

The Normal School Law of Pennsylvania, pre- 
pared by the Honorable Thomas H. Burrowes, 
became a law May 20, 1857. On December 2, 
1859, th^ Lancaster County Normal School at 
Millersville became a State Normal School — the 
first institution of that kind in Pennsylvania. The 
State has ever since granted it appropriations, 
and incurred the expense of supplying certificates 
and diplomas. In i860 the ladies' building was 
erected, in the lower story of which were the 
rooms of the Model School. The pupils in this 
department were taught by students of the Normal. 
M. D. Wickersham, brother of J. P. Wickersham, 
was principal of this school until the fall of 1861, 
when he was succeeded by John V. Montgomery, 
who remained its principal for a number of years. 

The number of students attending the State 
Normal School continued to increase yearly for a 
number of years, and it was the largest institution 
of the kind in the United States for a time. In 
1875 the number of students in attendance was 
about 650. Under Professor Wickershan-a's man- 
agement the institution was put on a firm founda- 
tion of prosperity. 

In the fall of 1866 Professor Wickersham resign- 
ed the principalship, to accept the office of State 
Superintendent of Common Schools, to which he 
had been appointed by Governor Curtin. Pro^ 
10* 



226 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

fessor Edward Brooks, who had been connected 
with the school since 1855, ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 
time its popular professor of mathematics, then be- 
came principal, and remained in this position sev- 
enteen years. In 1869 a large addition was made 
to the ladies' building. The great growth of the 
school made larger accommodations necessary, and 
a new building was erected in 1874. The building 
consists of library halls, chapel, recitation rooms 
and a large dining-room. 

In 1875 an additional story was put on the gen- 
tlemen's building. Dr. Edward Brooks retired from 
the principalship in the fall of 1883, and was suc- 
ceeded by Professor B. F. Shaub. In the fall of 
1887 Professor Shaub retired from the principal- 
ship, and was succeeded by Dr. E. O. Lyte, a grad- 
uate of the institution, and who had been a teacher 
and professor in the school for twenty years. Under 
Dr. Lyte's able management the school has taken 
new strides. In 1890 a gymnasium building was 
erected. 

MECHANICS' LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. 

The Mechanics^ Library Association^ founded in 
1829 by some mechanics of Lancaster city for the 
benefit of their fellows and of apprentices, is the 
oldest literary organization in Lancaster county. 
This association has now a large circulating library, 
and deserves credit for introducing serial lectures 
and night schools into Lancaster city. 

LYCEUM OF NATURAL SCIENCES AT MARIETTA. 

A Lyceum of Natural Sciences was organized at 
Marietta in 1837, through the efiforts of Josiah Hoi- 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 227 

brook. In 1874 the Marietta Lyceum of Natural 
History was incorporated. This society has a large 
collection of specimens and a fine library. 

ATHENiEUM AND HISTORICAL, AGRICULTURAL AND ME- 
CHANICAL SOCIETY. 

In 1857 '^^^ Historical^ Agricultjiral and Me- 
chanical Society was organized in Lancaster city ; 
and in 1858 the Athenceujn was also organized in 
the city.. In i860 the two societies were consoli- 
dated into one association, called the AthencFeum 
and Historical^ Agricultural and Mechanical So- 
ciety. This society has not been in active opera- 
tion for some years. 

LINNiEAN SOCIETY. 

In 1862 Professor S. S. Rath von, the noted en- 
tomologist, and other citizens organized the 
Li7incFan Society in Lancaster city. This associa- 
tion has since been one of the molst important 
scientific societies in Eastern Pennsylvania. It 
has a very large and valuable collection of speci- 
mens in almost every department of natural science. 
It also has papers and books of rare value. 

AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

In 1867 th^ Agricultural a7id Horticultural So- 
ciety of Lancaster County was organized. During 
its earlier years it published a monthly paper called 
the Lancaster Farmer. 

LANCASTER COUNTY LYCEUM. 

The Lancaster County Lyceum was organized in 
1836 ; and John Beck, the well-known teacher of 
Lititz, was its first president. It did not last long. 



228 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 
EASTLAND LYCEUM. 

The Eastland Lyceum^ in Little Britain town- 
ship, was organized in 1841, mainly through the 
efforts of Mary Fell. The lyceum erected a hall 
in 1844, but has not been in active operation since 
i860. 

LANCASTER CITY LYCEUM. 

The Lancaster City Lyceum was established in 
1852, but soon discontinued, and its valuable col- 
lection of apparatus was placed in the city high 
school. 

LITITZ LYCEUM. 

The Lititz Lyceum^ founded in 1870, soon had a 
librar}^ and reading-room. 

PIONEER LITERARY SOCIETY. 

The Pioneer Literary Society^ in West Donegal 
township, was founded in 1872. It built for itself 
Pio7ieer Hall^ costing about $1000, and collected a 
large library. 

OTHER LYCEUMS. 

During the winter season lyceums are in active 
operation in various parts of the county. 

JULIANA LIBRARY. 

The Juliana Library was founded in Lancaster 
in 1765 by Thomas Penn, and was named in honor 
of his wife, Juliana Penn. It was merged into 
another library which was finally sold. 

MECHANICS' LIBRARY. 

The Mechanics'* Library was founded in Lancas- 
ter in 1829 ^y t^^^ Mechanics' Library Association. 

ATHENiEUM LIBRARY. 

The Athe7iceum Library was founded in Lancas- 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 229 

ter in 1859 by two associations, one called the 
AthencBuin^ and the other named the Historical^ 
Agricultural and Mechanical Society. 

Y. M. C. A. LIBRARY AND FREE READING ROOM. 

The library and free reading room of the Young 
Men's Christian Association of Lancaster was es- 
tablished in 1872. 

WORKINGMENS LIBRARY. 

The Workingmen^ s Library was established at 
Lancaster in 1890, by Hamilton Assembly, Knights 
of Labor. 

PUBLIC SCHOOL LIBRARIES. 

In 1873 a Public School Library was established 
at Strasburg, through the exertions of the school 
board of that borough, in accordance with the pro- 
visions of the school law. A Public School Li- 
brary had existed for some years in the borough of 
Columbia. Within the last few years public school 
libraries have sprung up in all parts of the county. 



CHAPTER XII I. 

EARLY PRINTING. 

^T^HE Solitary Brethren of the community at 
^ Ephrata possessed as early as 1743 or 1744 such 
facilities for printing as existed nowhere else in the 
county. They owned a rude printing-press, and 
operated a paper-mill and book-bindery. In 1745 
a book, entitled Apples 0/ Gold in Vessels of Silver^ 
Beautiful Words and Truths Necessary to Salva- 
tioji^ was issued from their press. It was followed 
by many books and pamphlets, in number about 
100, one of the most noted of which was the 
Chronicoii Ephratcnse^ published in 1786. 

The rarest of their publications at the present 
time are some of t^xe pamphlets. One of these was 
on a Cornet^ and was designed to show that the 
comet was sent as a warning. 

This community took the initiative in issuing 
school-books. As early as 1786 they had pub- 
lished a Kiirz Gefasztes^ 2nd edition, which was 
used in their own schools. The book corresponds 
to a speller and reader combined, grading from 
a primary to about a secondary schooh reader. 

In 1747 the Brethren entered into a contract to 
translate from the Dutch language into German, 
and to print the Mennonites' Great Book of Mar- 
tyrs. The first volume appeared in 1748, and the 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 231 

second in 1749. The next copy in the German 
languag^e in America was published in Lancaster 
in 1814. Subsequently it was translated by Rupp, 
and issued with imprint near Lampeter Square, in 
1837, but actually printed in Lancaster. This work 
did not appear in America again until 1889. 

No Bible was ever issued from the Ephrata 
press, but in 1787 they printed a New Testament 
in the German language. 

Most of the publications of the Ephrata Brethren 
were on theological subjects and music. They 
wrote all of their own hymns and set them to a 
peculiar music. Some of these were published, 
while others remained in manuscript, embellished 
with ornamental figures and letters. 

In Lancaster printing was begun about 1747 by 
James Coulter, who issued first a pamphlet. An 
almanac was printed in 1751 by James Chattin. 

It is generally understood that there existed in 
Octoraro a press contemporary with the one at 
Ephrata. Nothing definite, however, is known 
except that from it there probably was issued a 
small local paper. 

EARLY NEWSPAPERS. 

Before and during the Revolution there were sev- 
eral newspapers published in Lancaster county in 
both the English and German languages. The 
first one ever printed in Lancaster city was the 
Lancaster Gazette. This was issued in 1752 by 
S. Miller and S. Holland, and was a bi-weekly 
newspaper. It had but a transient existence, the 



232 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

last issue being that of June, 1753. After that, 
until 1778, there was no newspaper published. In 
that year Die Pennsylvanische Zietiuig was issued. 
The Supreme Executive Council being then in 
session in Lancaster, five hundred copies were sub- 
scribed for by them and circulated gratuitously. 
This was at the time the British were in possession 
of Philadelphia. On their withdrawal in the sum- 
mer of that year to New York, the Council returned 
to Philadelphia ; and with that event the publica- 
tion of the paper ceased. Numerous other news- 
papers were started, seemed to flourish for a short 
season, then collapsed. In 1808 a German paper 
was issued in this city under the name of Der 
Volksfrund iind Beobachter. The first editor was 
William Hamilton. It in now published by John 
Baer's Sons. 

On the 8th day of August, 1787, appeared the 
first number of the Neu Unparthejiische Lancaster 
Zeititng mid Ai^ozeige Nochriechter. This paper, 
under different names, was issued for a number of 
years. The present Laiicaster Intelligencer may 
be said to have been begun in 1794, under the 
name of the Lancaster Journal. This was after- 
ward united with the Daily Advertiser^ and after 
several changes of editorship, took the name of the 
Lancaster Intellige^icer^ imder which name it is 
published to-day. 

The first daily newspaper in Lancaster was the 
Express^ founded in 1856. This continued to 
exist for twenty years. The other daily and 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 233 

weekly journals of Lancaster city and of the other 
towns of the county have mostly been founded 
within the last fifty years. 

It is not necessary to name all the numerous 
papers which have at different times risen and 
fallen in Lancaster city, nor would it be interesting. 

Besides the Lancaster papers, there are weekly 
papers published in the principal towns of the 
county. There are three at Columbia. Marietta, 
Mount Joy, Manheim, Lititz and Christiana each 
have two. Elizabethtown, Ephrata, New Holland 
and Denver have one each. 

The four dailies of Lancaster supply their readers 
with all the latest local and general news. The six 
weeklies, two in German, have a large circulation 
throughout the county. 

Steam and electric presses have taken the place 
of the old hand presses. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

REI.IGION. 

RELIGION IN THE COUNTY. 

AMONG the early emigrants to Pennsylvania 
-^^ almost every Protestant sect was represented. 
We have learned that many of these people came 
here to escape persecntion in Europe. Among 
them were numerous representatives of non-resist- 
ant sects, such as the German and Swiss Mennonites. 
These people, of plain and simple tastes and habits, 
found here that freedom of conscience which was 
denied them in their own country. In Pennsyl- 
vania there never existed a union of church and 
state. Thus their religious faith and practice was 
never interfered with by colonial or State authority, 
and the adherents of other churches exercised only 
toleration toward them. The Golden Rule as 
practiced in letter and spirit among all religious 
denominations in this State greatly augmented 
the influence of the generous, wise and friendly 
policy of its founder. 

VARIOUS RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS. 

In Lancaster city and county we fiad well estab- 
lished churches with large congregations, of Roman 
Catholics, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Lutherans, 
Methodists, Baptists and Reformed. The Evan- 
gelical Association, Church of God, the Moravians, 



BRIKF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 235 

the Winebrennarians, the Swedenborgians, are 
also represented here. 

The Quakers have meeting-houses in the southern 
and south-eastern parts of the county. The Men- 
nonites, the Reformed Mennonites, the Amish 
and the Dunkers have numerous places of wor- 
ship in the rural parts of the county. In the 
north-western part are found the River Brethren, 
who hold their religious services largely in the 
houses of the members. Few places of public 
worship exist among them. In Lancaster city the 
Hebrews have a synagogue. 

Among the early German settlers of Jhe county 
were a great many Lutherans, and the Trinity 
Lutheran church was organized as early as 1733. 

Here the Rev. Dr. Henr>' Melchoir Muhlenberg 
occasionally officiated. His son, the renowned Dr. 
Henry Ernest Muhlenberg, was pastor of the con- 
gregation from 1780 until his death in 1815, a 
period of thirty-five years. A German Reformed, 
now Reformed, church was established here by 
the Rev. Michael Schlatter, of St. Gall, Switzer- 
land. This sect increased in numbers very rapidly, 
many of the early German settlers of the county 
holding to that faith when they came to i\m erica. 

The Moravians built a church and school-house 
on Orange and Market Streets, in Lancaster, very 
early in the history of the city. 

The school-house, which was once used as a par- 
sonage, still stands. 

The oldest Methodist church in the county is 



236 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

known as Boehm's Chapel. It is situated one mile 
south of Willow Street. This was built in 1780, 
and named after the Rev. Henry Boehm, who died 
as late as 1875 at the advanced age of one hundred 
years and a few months. He was born in 1775. 

One of the churches that has interesting histori- 
cal associations is the St. James' Episcopal in Lan- 
caster city. The first congregation here was or- 
ganized in 1717 by the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 

In 1744 the parish was organized and a church 
soon built. Thomas Cookson and James Postle- 
thwaite were wardens at that time. In 1745 they 
received a special license from the provincial gov- 
ernment to carry on a lottery to provide funds for 
the erection of the church. The first rector of im- 
portance was Thomas Barton, who had charge of 
the church from 1759 until after the Revolutionary 
War. During the w^ar service here was suspended 
for the reason that the rector and many members 
of the congregation were Tories. The present 
church was built in 1820. The style is unique, 
being in character Lombardic. The edifice is 
noted for beautiful and costly memorial windows, 
and in the church yard are buried many persons of 
distinction, among others the noted Jasper Yeates. 

We have already called attention to the plain 
sects of religious people who early came to the 
county. It might not be amiss to particularize 
these as their influence has extended far and wide 
through the county and the State. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 237 
THE MENNONITES. 

The Mennonites throughout the county are the 
descendents of the Swiss Palatines who settled here 
early and effected the first organization of a relig- 
ious body in the county. 

In 1 791 and 1792 there was a secession from this 
organization. Many joined at that time a new sect 
known as the United Brethren. 

THE REFORMED MENNONITES. 

In 181 1 a large number of Mennonites under the 
leadership of John Herr, of Strasburg, left the 
established Mennonite organizations and formed 
congregations. They gave as their reason for the 
step they took, that the existing organizations had 
departed from the faith and practices of their 
founder. 

Their doctrine and discipline are very strict. 
Members of the church are not permitted to vote 
or hold office or to serve as jurors. They refuse to 
bear arms, and will never use law to settle disputes. 
They have great reverence for the Scriptures, 
and bind themselves by the rigid literal interpre- 
tations of them. 

THE AMISH. 

The Amish, or Omish, another branch of the 
Mennonites, resemble the latter very closely, dif- 
fering slightly in the character of the dress they 
wear, this being even plainer than that presented 
by the Mennonites. They accept the tenets of the 
Mennonite church, and their forms of worship 
closely resembles those of the present organization. 
They, however, have few meeting-houses ; their 



238 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

services being generally conducted in the houses of 
members. The name is derived from Jacob Amen, 
of Amenthal, Switzerland, a rigid Mennonite 
preacher of two centuries ago. 

THE DUNKERS. 

The Dunkers, or Tunkers, also known as German 
Baptists, call themselves Brethren. They settled 
in this county before 1721, and formed a congrega- 
tion, with Peter Becker as preacher. They may be 
found to-day in almost all the German sections of 
the county. 

The church prescribes a very rigid discipline, 
and requires baptism by immersion, declaring it 
the only true method of administering that ordi- 
nance. In many points they resemble the Men- 
nonites. As for example, simplicity of dress and 
manners, opposition to war, refusal to appeal to 
law, and refusal to vote or to hold office. 

THE SEVENTH DAY BAPTISTS. 

This sect was founded by Conrad Beissell at Eph- 
rata in very early times. The name arose from the 
fact that they observe Saturday, the seventh day 
of the week, as the Sabbath, thus differing from 
most Christian sects, who keep the first day, Sun- 
day, as the Sabbath. These people seceded from 
the Dunkers, or German Baptists. They are to-day 
few in number, and these are found in or near the 
orginal place of settlement. 

THE RIVER BRETHREN. 

These people are so called, it is said, because the 
sect originated near the Susquehanna River. Their 



BRIEI^ HISTORY OF LANCASTE^R COUNTY. 239 

founder was Jacob Engle, a Mennonite, who organ- 
ized a congregation in 1776. They are mainly found 
to-day in Conoy and the Donegal townships. Their 
creed prohibits them from wearing the dress of the 
fashionable world. It imposes non-resistance, and 
prescribes that all disputes shall be settled among 
them by chosen arbitrators. Like the Quakers 
and Mennonites, they have no paid ministry. 



CHAHTER XV. 

BIOGRAPHY. 
CONRAD WEISER. 

A MONG the prominent men in the early history 
-^-^ of Lancaster county was Conrad Weiser, the 
famous interpreter. He was born in Germany in 
1696. In 1709, when he was thirteen years old, he 
went with his father and seven brothers and 
sisters and several thousand other Germans to Eng- 
land, whence they sailed to New York, where they 
arrived June 13, 1710. In the fall of the same 
year Conrad's father and hundreds of these German 
families were removed, at Queen Ann's expense, 
to Livingston's Manor, in Columbia county. New 
York, where many of them remained until 1713. 
In that year about 150 of these families moved to 
Schoharie, to occupy lands which a Mohawk chief 
presented to Queen Anne for the benefit of these 
Germans. While there Conrad Weiser's father 
became acquainted with Quagnant, a Mohawk 
chief. This chief proposed to the father to take 
Conrad with him into his country and teach him 
the Mohawk language. The father consented, and 
Conrad went with the chief to his home in the fall 
of 1 714. There he suffered dreadfully from hunger 
and cold, and his life was often threatened by 
drunken Indians. Many times he saved himself 
by hiding until the Indians became sober. After 



SRIEI^ mSl^ORY OI^ LANCASTER COUNTY. 24 1 

Spending eight months with the Mohawks and 
learning their language, he returned to the German 
colony and became an interpreter. On account of 
a defect in their land titles, many of these German 
settlers moved from Schoharie, New York, to the 
Swatara and the Tulpehocken, in Pennsylvania. 
TheWeisers settled on Tulpehocken in 1723, though 
Conrad did not go there until 1729, when, with his 
wife and four children, he took up a tract of land 
near the site of Womelsdorf, in the present Berks 
county. He was a man of wonderful activity and 
energy, and was repeatedly called upon by the 
Governor and provincial authorities of Pennsyl- 
vania to act as interpreter between the whites and 
the Indians. Governor Patrick Gordon called 
upon him to perform that duty as early as 1731. 
He was appointed Justice of the Peace, and inter- 
preter to the provincial government of Pennsyl- 
vania. He suffered great hardships on a mission 
from the Governor and proprietor of Pennsyl- 
vania to the Six Nations, in 1736. He acted 
as interpreter when Count Zinzendorf preached 
to the sachems of the Six Nations at Tulpe- 
hocken, August 14, 1752. In September of 
that year he acted as interpreter between Count 
Zinzendorf and the Indians at Shamokin, a popu- 
lous Indian town on the site of the present town or 
Sunbury. He acted as interpreter at all the princi- 
pal Indian treaties for more than twenty-five years. 
In 1752 he was appointed a trustee of the public 
schools at Lancaster, York, Reading, New Han- 
II 



242 BRI^F HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY. 



over, Skippack and Goshenhopen. During the 
French and Indian War he was lieutenant-colonel, 
commanding the Second Battalion of the Pennsyl- 
vania regiment, consisting of nine companies. He 
died July 13, 1760, and his remains were interred 
two days later near Womelsdorf. 

GEORGE ROSS. 

Lancaster' s signer of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence was George Ross. He was born at New Cas- 
tle, Deleware, in 1730, 
and was admitted as an 
attorney -at -law in the 
courts of Lancaster coun- 
ty in 1750. He was a 
member of the Colonial 
Assembly of Pennsylva- 
nia from 1768 to 1776. 
In 1774 he was chosen 
one of the seven dele- 
gates to represent Penn- 
sylvania in the Conti- 
nental Congress at Philadelphia. He remained 
a member of the Continental Congress until Jan- 
uary, 1777, when he retired on account of ill 
health. Lancaster county offered him the sum 
of 150 pounds for his services in the Continen- 
tal Congress, but he refused to accept it. He 
was a member of the Pennsylvania convention in 
1776, which adopted the first State Constitution. 
On April 14, 1779, he was appointed Judge of the 
Court of Admiralty. He died at Lancaster from 




GEORGE ROSS. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 248 

a sudden attack of the gout, in July, 1779, and was 
buried in the graveyard of St. James' Episcopal 
church. 

EDWARD HAND. 

The most prominent military man of Lancaster 
county during the Revolution was General Edward 
Hand. He was born in King's county, Ireland, 
December 31, 1744. He came to America in 1767, 
and settled at Lancaster in 1774. x\t the begin- 
ning of the Revolution he was made lieutenant- 
colonel of the First Battalion of Pennsylvania 
Riflemen. He afterwards became brigadier-gen- 
eral, and later he was made adjutant-general on 
Washington's staff. He practiced medicine before 
and after the war. He died at his farm, Rockford^ 
near Lancaster, September 3, 1802. 

JASPER YEATES. 

Among the prominent men of Lancaster during 
the period of the Revolution was Jasper Yeates. 
He was born in Philadelphia in 1745, and settled at 
Lancaster in 1764. He was a great lawyer and 
judge, and took a prominent part in public affairs 
at Lancaster during the Revolution. He was ap- 
pointed Judge of the Supreme Court of Pennsylva- 
nia in 1 791, and passed twenty-five years of his life 
upon the bench. He died at Lancaster in 181 7, and 
his remains were interred in St. James' Episcopal 
churchyard. 

EDWARD SHIPPEN. 

Among the leading men of Lancaster of the Rev- 
olutionary period was Edward Shippen, a grandson 



244 BRIEF HISTORY OP LANCASTER COUNTY. 

of the Edward Shippen who emigrated from York- 
shire, England, to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1668, 
and moved to Philadelphia in 1693. He was born 
at Boston, July 9, 1703. He became a merchant 
in Philadelphia, was a Councilman of that city 
for many years, and was finally elected Mayor 
in 1744. In 1752 he removed to Lancaster, and 
was appointed Prothonotary of Lancaster county, 
and continued in that office until 1778. He was 
paymaster for supplies for the British and provin- 
cial troops during the French and Indian War. 
He was also a county Judge for Lancaster county, 
under the provincial and State governments of 
Pennsylvania. He was also one of the founders of 
the New Jersey College at Princeton, and was one 
of its trustees for twenty years, until 1767. He died 
at a great age at Lancaster, and his remains lie in 
the churchyard of St. James' Episcopal church. 
His son, Edward Shippen, became Chief Justice of 
the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania in 1799. One 
of his daughters married Benedict Arnold in 1778. 

THOMAS MIFFLIN. 

One of the most active Pennsylvanians during 
the Revolution was General Thomas Mifflin. He 
was born at Philadelphia in 1744. He was a mem- 
ber of the Continental Congress in 1774. Although 
he was a Quaker, he. joined the patriot army in 
1775, and soon rose to the rank of major-general. 
After the war he again became a member of the 
Continental Congress, and was president of that 
body at Annapolis, Maryland, when Washington 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 245 

resigned his commission of commander-in-chief, in 
1783. In 1787 he was a member of the national 
convention which formed the Constitution of the 
United States. In 1788 he was elected President 
of the Supreme Execative Council of Pennsylvania, 
and was the first Governor of Pennsylvania under 
the State Constitution of 1790. He was Governor 
of the State for about nine years. He died at 
Lancaster in 1800, and his remains lie at the 
Trinity Lutheran church on South Duke street, 
close by the remains of Governor Thomas Wharton, 
who died in Lancaster in 1778. 

SIMON SNYDER. 

Simon Snyder was born at Lancaster, in No- 
vember, 1759. He was a member of the State con- 
vention which framed the State Constition of 1790. 
In 1797 he was elected to the Legislature of Penn- 
sylvania, and was reelected so often that he served 
for eleven years. In 1802 he was chosen Speaker 
of the House of Representatives. Most of the time 
that he was in the Legislature, Lancaster was the 
capital of Pennsylvania. In 1808 he was elected 
Governor of the State, and w^as reelected in 181 1, 
and again in 1814, so that he was Governor nine 
years. During his administration the State capital 
was removed from Lancaster to Harrisburg. He 
died in 1820. 

GOTTHILF HENRY ERNST MUHLENBERG. 

Among the families that ranked high for patriotic 
services to the colonists during the Revolution 
none stood higher than that of Muhlenberg. Emi- 



246 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 




REV. G. H. E. MUHLENBERG. 



grating from Germany, the family was founded in 
this country by Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, the 
great teacher, divine, and patriarch of the German 
IvUtheran Church in America. The unassuming 
and distinguished services 
of his sons, John Peter Ga- 
briel, the patriot-preach- 
er, and Frederick Augus- 
tus Conrad, the minister- 
statesman, won fbr them 
no mean place in Amer- 
ican History. Not less 
eminent for his services to 
science was their brother, 
Gotthilf Henry Ernst, who 
was born at New Providence, Montgomery county, 
in 1753. He, with other brothers, was sent at 
a proper age to Halle, in Germany, to be educated ; 
and there he graduated in 1770. Returning to 
America, he was at once ordained a minister. 
For the next nine years he was engaged in min- 
isterial work in Philadelphia and New Jersey, part 
of the time acting as his father's assistant. 

In 1780 he received a call from a church in Lan- 
caster. This he accepted, and filled its pulpit until 
his death in 1815. Though faithful and distin- 
guished as a minister, yet it was chiefly because of 
his scientific attainments that he became noted. 
His contributions to botany, while in Lancaster, 
placed him in the front rank of men eminent for 
scientific erudition. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 247 

He corresponded with all the o-reat scientific 
writers of that day, among them Humboldt and 
Bonpland, both of whom visited him. A man of 
varied attainments and profound scientific judg- 
ment, he was a prominent member and corres- 
pondent of all the important philosophical and sci- 
entific societies of that time, in both Europe and 
America.. 

His works, characterized by clearness, precision 
and faithful description, are standards among 
writers of science. Written in Latin, they are not 
so w^ell known as later English works. 

Though he wrote on many scientific subjects, yet 
his service to the science of botany was the most 
important. He left in manuscript a work entitled 
Flora Lancastriensis^ from which most of our 
knowledge of the rich and varied indigenous flora 
of Lancaster county has been obtained. 

His brother, Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg, 
was Speaker of the House of Representatives of the 
First and Third Congresses, but did not represent 
this Congressional District, though he was after- 
ward a resident of Lancaster. 

DAVID RAMSAY. 

The first great iVmerican historian was Dr. 
David Ramsay, who was born in Drumore town- 
ship, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, April 2, 
1749. The house in which he was born is still 
standing. He graduated at Princeton College, New 
Jersey, in 1765, and at the Medical College of Phila- 
delphia in 1772. He removed to CharlCvSton, South 



248 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

Carolina, in 1773. He was a member of the South 
Carolina Legislature during the Revolution, and 
took an active part in the patriot cause. He was 
also a member of the Privy Council, and was 
banished to St. Augustine, Florida, by I^ord Corn- 
wallis. In 1782 he was elected to the Continental 
Congress, and was reelected to that body, and was 
chosen president pro tempore during the illness of 
John Hancock. He resumed the practice of medi- 
cine, and was quite a distinguished physician. He 
became a great historian, and was the first person 
who took out a copyright under the laws of the 
United States. His historical works were : a 
History of the Revolution in South Carolina^ pub- 
lished in 1785 ; a History oj the American Revolu- 
tion^ published in 1790 ; a Life of Washington^ 
published in 1801 ; a History of South Carolina^ 
published in 1808 ; a Universal History ; and a His- 
tory of the United States. He was mortally wounded 
by a maniac, and died May 7, 1815. 

ROBERT FULTON. 

The man who first successfully applied steam to 
navigation — Robert Fulton — was also a native of 
Lancaster county. He was born in 1765, in that 
part of the township now named after him, but 
which was then a part of Little Britain township. 
At a suitable age he was apprenticed to a jeweler 
at Lancaster, where he accidentally caught a taste 
for painting. At the age of seventeen he went to 
Philadelphia, where he practiced drawing and por- 
trait-painting with skill and profit for several years. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 



249 



In 1786 he went to London, where he devoted him- 
self to painting under the tuition of the great Ben- 
jamin West, who was a native of Chester county, 
Pennsylvania, and who was then President of the 
Royal Academy. Sev- 
eral years afterward Ful- 
ton turned his attention 
to the mechanic arts and 
civil engineering. He 
conceived the idea of us- 
ing steam as a motive- 
power, and in 1793 he 
engaged in a project of 
steam navigation. He 
invented a machine for 
spinning flax and anoth- 
er for making ropes, and 
obtained patents for them in England. In 1796 he 
published in London a Treatise 011 Canal Naviga- 
tion. At Paris he resided with the American poet, 
Joel Barlow, from 1797 to 1804, where he displayed 
his ingenuity in various projects and inventions, 
and in the study of the sciences and modern lan- 
guages. He was the proprietor of the first pano- 
rama exhibited in Paris. He invented a torpedo 
or submarine boat for naval warfare, and induced 
Napoleon Bonaparte, as First Consul of France, to 
appoint Volney, Laplace and Monge as a commis- 
sion to examine it. In 1801 he made an experi- 
ment in the harbor of Brest, when he remained 
oae hour under water and guided the boat with 




'S/zi. ^^^ 



ROBERT FULTON. 



250 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

ease. Other experiments at the expense of the 
French government were partly successful, but 
that government at last refused to patronize the 
scheme. In 1804 Fulton accepted an invitation 
from the British government, which appointed a 
commission and made trials with his torpedo. In 
1806 Fulton returned to New York, where, with 
Robert R. Livingston's help, he perfected his great 
project of steam navigation. In 1807, his boat, 
the Clermojit^ was launched at New York, and 
made the trip to Albany in thirty-two hours. This 
vessel made regular voyages from New York to 
Albany in fifteen hours, but this rate was soon 
increased by improved machinery. The number 
of steamboats rapidly multiplied on American 
rivers. Several other larger vessels were built 
under Fulton's direction. In 1806 he married 
Harriet, daughter of Walter Livingston. He died 
in New York City, in February, 181 5. 

LINDLEY MURRAY. 

Lindley Murray, the English grammarian, was 
born in 1745, near the Swatara, in what was then 
a part of Lancaster county, but is now in Dauphin 
county. His Grammar of the English Language^ 
issued in 1795, was for many years the best author- 
ity on that subject. After making considerable 
money in mercantile pursuit, he went to England 
on account of impaired health, where he died on 
his estate at Holdgate, near York, in 1826. 

JAMES BUCHANAN. 

James Buchanan, the fifteenth President of the 
United States, was a citizen of Lancaster county. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANC ASTER COUNTY. 



251 




JAMES BUCHANAN. 



He was born near Mercersburg, Franklin county, 
Pennsylvania, April 23, 1791, of Scotch-Irish 
parentage. His father, 
James Buchanan, had em- 
igrated to Franklin coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, from 
Donegal county, Ireland, 
in 1783. Young James en- 
tered Dickinson College, 
at Carlisle, in 1805, ^"^ 
graduated there with high 
honors in 1809. He stud- 
ied law with James Hop- 
kins at Lancaster, and was admitted to the bar 
there in 1812. In the War of 1812 he enlisted 
in Captain Henry Shippen's company. He was 
elected to the Lower House of the Pennsylvania 
Legislature in 1814, and again in 1815. In 1820 
he was elected to the Lower House of Congress 
from the Lancaster district, and was reelected 
every two years until 1830. At first he was a 
Federalist, but in 1828 he became a Democrat. 
In 1831 President Jackson appointed him LTnited 
States Minister to Russia. In 1834 he was elected 
United States Senator from Pennsylvania to fill 
a vacancy, and was reelected in 1837, and again 
in 1843 '•> b^t h^ resigned in 1845, when President 
Polk appointed him Secretary of State. In 1849 
he retired to private life, and in 1853 President 
Pierce appointed him United States Minister to 
England. In 1856 he was elected President of 



252 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 



the United States as the Democratic candidate, 
over Colonel John Charles Fremont, the first Re- 
publican candidate, and over ex-President Mil- 
lard Fillmore, the candidate of the "American" 
or "Know Nothing" party. In 1861 Mr. Bu- 
chanan retired to his farm at Wheatland, half a 
mile west of Lancaster. He died there June i, 
1868, and his remains lie buried in Woodward 
Hill Cemetery, Lancaster. 

THADDEUS STEVENS. 

The great leader in the House of Representa- 
tives, or Lower House of Congress, during the Civil 

War, and for several years 
thereafter, was the Repre- 
sentative from Lancaster 
county — Th.addeus Ste- 
vens, the "Great Com- 
moner. ' ' He was born at 
Danville, Caledonia coun- 
ty, Vermont, April 4, 1792. 
His early education was 
obtained in the common 
schools and at Peacham 
Academy. His parents 
were poor, and he taught school during vacation 
in order to get money to finish his education. In 
1810 he entered the Vermont University at Burling- 
ton, but when that institution closed on account 
of the War of 1812, he went to Dartmouth College, 
where he graduated in i8i4with high honors. He 
then studied law with Judge Mattocks. In 1851 




THADDEUS STEVENS. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 253 

he moved to York, Pennsylvania, where he con- 
tinued the study of law and taught in Dr. Perkins's 
academy. In 1816 he was admitted to the bar as a 
lawyer at Bel i\ir, Harford county, Maryland. 
Subsequently he opened a law office at Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania. In 1833 he was elected to the Penn- 
sylvania Legislature as an Anti-AIason from Adams 
county, and was reelected every year until 1840. 
He was a great friend of the common school system, 
which was adopted in 1834. The school law was 
so unpopular that the Legislature of 1835 was about 
to repeal it ; but that action was prevented by 
Mr . Stevens, who made a great speech in favor of 
the law, thus defeating the motion to repeal it. 
This speech Mr. Stevens himself ever afterward 
considered the most effective of his life. In that 
speech he pleaded the cause of the poor, and highly 
praised his political opponent. Governor George 
Wolf, for his efforts in behalf of popular education. 
Mr. Stevens was a member of the State conven- 
tion of 1838 which framed a new State Constitu- 
tion. As that Constitution denied colored men the 
right to vote, he refused to sign it, and opposed its 
ratification by the people of the State. Mr. Ste- 
vens suffered great losses in the iron business, and 
in 1842 he moved to Lancaster, and there practiced 
law. In 1848 and 1850 he was elected to Congress 
from Lancaster county. He then declined reelec- 
tion until 1858, when he was again elected, and 
was reelected thereafter every two years until his 
death ten vears later. He was the leader of the 



254 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTKR COUNTY. 

Republican majority in the House of Representa- 
tives during the Civil War and thereafter until his 
death. He died at Washington, D. C. , August ii, 
1868. As the other cemeteries excluded colored 
persons from burial within their limits, he was, at 
his request, buried in the small cemetery on West 
Chestnut street, Lancaster. 

GENERAL JOHN F. REYNOLDS. 

Lancaster's great hero in the Civil War was 
Major-General John Fulton Reynolds, who was 

killed at Gettysburg, 
July I, 1863. He was 
born at Lancaster, Sep- 
tember 21, 1820. He 
was taught in the schools 
of his native city, and 
in 1837 became a cadet 
at the West Point Mil- 
itary Academy, where 
^„^. he o:raduated with hon- 

GKN. J. F. REYNOLDS. Or lU I84I. HC WaS 

then appointed a lieutenant in the Third United 
States Artillery, which was stationed at Balti- 
more, St. Augustine and Charleston until the 
war with Mexico broke out. In 1846 he was bre- 
veted captain for bravery at Monterey, and in 1847 
he was breveted major for gallantry at Buena Vista. 
After the war with Mexico he was stationed in com- 
mand of various posts throughout the United States 
until the breaking out of the Civil War in 1861. 
In August of that year he was appointed briga- 




BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 255 

dier-general of volunteers, and was given the com- 
mand of the First Brigade of the Pennsylvania Re- 
serves. He took part in the campaign of the iVrmy 
of the Potomac on the Virginia peninsula and in 
the Seven Da3's' Battles near Richmond, in 1862. 
He also fought in General Pope's army during that 
general's disastrous campaign, in August, 1862. 

On September 12, 1862, he was appointed to 
command the 75,000 militia called out by Governor 
Curtin of Pennsylvania to defend the State against 
Lee's invasion ; but after Lee's defeat at Antietam, 
Reynolds rejoined the Army of the Potomac. He 
captured the Confederate works on the left at 
the battle of Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 
After the battle he was appointed military governor 
of Fredericksburg. 

He led the advance of the Union army and 
opened the fight at Gettysburg, where he lost his 
life in defense of the Union and of his native State 
against invasion, July i, 1863. His remains were 
brought to Lancaster, July 4, 1863, and were in- 
terred in Lancaster Cemetery, where they rest be- 
neath a neat monument. He is also honored with 
a fine monument at Gettysburg, and with an eques- 
trian statue in Philadelphia. 

General Reynolds was one of our country's 
greatest soldiers. His troops had the warmest 
affection for him. He shared their hardships, their 
toils and the dangers of the camp, the march and 
the field. He was devoted to his profession, and 
was ever actuated by those noble and lofty prin- 



256 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

ciples which make an American soldier worthy to 
become the defender of his country. He fell at the 
beginning of the great and bloody conflict, leading 
a corps of brave and determined patriots, who fol- 
lowed him in fighting the great decisive battle of 
the Civil War. He died fighting gallantly for the 
Union, and in defense of the homes of his neigh- 
bors and kinsmen. 

GENERAL SAMUEL PETER HEINTZELMAN. 

Samuel Peter Heintzelman, a major-general in 
the Union army during the Civil War, was born at 
Manheim, this county, about 1807. He graduated 
at West Point in 1826. He served as colonel in the 
first battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, and soon 
afterward became brigadier-general. He com- 
manded a corps in the Seven Days' Battles before 
Richmond, June 25 — July i, 1862, and took part in 
the second battle of Bull Run, August 30, 1862. 
He died at Washington, D. C, in 1880. 

JOHN W. FORNEY. 

John W. Forney, a celebrated journalist and 
politician, was born at Lancaster, in 1S.17. He 
began to edit the Lancaster Intelligencer about 
1838. In 1845 ^^^ removed to Philadelphia, where 
he edited the Pennsylvaniait^ a daily journal, 
for many years chief organ of the Democratic 
party in Pennsylvania. He was Clerk of the United 
States House of Representatives from 1852 to 1855. 
Through his eflforts James Buchanan carried Penn- 
sylvania and was thus elected President in 1856. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 257 

In Atig^ust, 1857, he established the Philadelphia 
Press^ which became the organ of the Douglas 
Democrats, as opposed to the Buchanan Democracy. 
He was again chosen Clerk of the United States 
House of Representatives in December, 1859. He 
supported Stephen A. Douglas for the Presidency 
in i860. About the end of that year he left the 
Democratic party and joined the Republican party. 
He became Secretary of the United States Senate 
in 1861, and held that position until 1868. In the 
meantime he established the Washington Chronicle. 
In 1874 he was appointed United States Centennial 
Commissioner to Europe, and remained abroad for 
several years. In 1880 he returned to the Demo- 
cratic party and supported General Hancock for 
President. He died in December, 188 1. 

SIMON CAMERON. 

Simon Cameron, one of Pennsylvania's noted 
politicians, was born at Maytown, this county, in 
1799. He learned the printer's trade, and edited 
a Democratic newspaper at Harrisburg about 1822, 
after which he acquired a fortune by operations in 
banking, railroads, etc. In 1845 ^^ was elected 
United States Senator as a Democrat by the Penn- 
sylvania Legislature, and served until March 5, 
1849. He left the Democratic party in 1855, and 
joined the newly formed Republican party in 1856, 
when he supported John C. Fremont for President. 
At the end of 1856 he was again elected United 
States Senator by the Pennsylvania Legislature. 
On March 4, 1861, President Lincoln appointed 



258 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

him Secretary of War ; but he resigned in January, 

1862, when the President appointed him Minister 
Plenipotentiary to Russia. He returned home in 

1863, and was a third time elected United States 
Senator by the Pennsylvania Legislature in 1866. 
He was reelected in 1872. He resigned in 1877, 
and retired to private life. He died in 1889, at the 
age of ninety. 

SAMUEL BOWMAN. 

The Right Rev. Samuel Bowman, D. D. , Bishop 
in the Protestant Episcopal church, was the fourth 
child of Captain Samuel Bowman, an officer of 
the American army during the Revolution, who 
settled at Wilkesbarre, this State, at the close of 
that war. Bishop Bowman was born at Wilkes- 
barre, May 21, 1800. He was educated at the 
academy there, after which he studied law in 
Philadelphia. He soon abandoned the practice of 
law, and took holy orders in the Protestant Epis- 
copal church. Bishop White admitted him to the 
diaconate in 1823, ^^^ ^^ ^^e priesthood in 
1824. I^^ 1823 ^^^ began his ministry at St. 
John's church at Pequea, in Salisbury township, 
this county, where he remained two years. He 
next had charge of Trinity church at Easton, this 
State, for a short time. He then returned to his 
first charge at Pequea, and remained there until 
1827, when he took charge of St. James' church at 
Lancaster, which post he retained until his death. 
In 1845 the clergy elected him Bishop of the Diocese 
of Pennsylvania, but the laity refused to concur, 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 259 

and he then declined the honor. In 1848 he was 
elected Bishop of the Diocese of Indiana, but he 
refused the position. In 1858 he was chosen and 
consecrated Asssitant Bishop of the Diocese of 
Pennsylvania. He died suddenly August 3, 1861, 
in Allegheny county, while on his way to the Oil 
Region. His remains were brought to Lancaster 
and inferred in St. James' Episcopal churchyard. 

JOHN WILLIAMSON NEVIN. 

John Williamson Nevin, D. D. , LL. D., president 
of Franklin and Marshall College, and the leading 
divine and theologian of the German Reformed 
Church in the United States, was born in Franklin 
county, Pennsylvania, February 20, 1803. His 
ancestry was Scotch- Irish, and was conspicuous 
in statesmanship and literature. His maternal 
grandmother was a sister of Hugh Williamson, 
one of the framers of the United States Constitu- 
tion, and a noted literary man. He was born and 
reared a Presbyterian. His father, a farmer, was 
a graduate of Dickinson College, at Carlisle, in 
this State. In 1827 ^^^ subject of this sketch en- 
tered Union College, New York, where he gradu- 
ated with honor in 1821. In 1823 he entered the 
Theological Seminary at Princeton, New Jersey. 
In 1826 he temporarily filled the chair of Oriental 
and Biblical Literature in that institution, during 
which he wrote his Biblical Anliqitities^ which had 
a large circulation in America and Europe. In 
1828 he was licensed to preach by the Presbytery 
of Carlisle, held at Philadelphia. In 1829 ^^^ ^^' 



260 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

came professor of Biblical Literature in the new 
theological seminary at Alleghany, this State. 
He held that position ten years, during which he 
preached regularly at Braddock's Field and occa- 
sionally at other places, contributed articles to the 
Presbyterian Christian Herald^ and edited The 
Friend^ in the interest of the Young Men's Society 
of Pittsburg and vicinity. He did much for the 
Western Theological Seminary, now such a power 
in the Presbyterian Church. In his sermons and 
lectures, and with his pen, he was an uncom- 
promising opponent of slavery, infidelity, fashion- 
able amusements, ladies' fairs and theatrical enter- 
tainments. In 1840 he entered the Reformed 
Church by accepting the professorship of theology 
in the Reformed Theological Seminary at Mercers- 
burg, Franklin county, Pennsylvania ; and in 1841 
he became president of Marshall College at the 
same place. He was editor of the Mercersburg 
Review from 1849 ^*^ ^^SS- During this period he 
wrote many theological works, and contributed 
articles to the Reformed CJmrch Messenger. He 
resigned his professorship in the Reformed Theo- 
logical Seminary in 1851, and the presidency of 
Marshall College in 1853, when the latter institu- 
tion was removed to Lancaster. He still preached 
and wrote. In 1861 he became professor of his- 
tory and aesthetics in Franklin and Marshall Col- 
lege at Lancaster, and in 1866 he became presi- 
dent of that institution, which position he held ten 
years, resigning in 1876. His numerous theo- 



BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 



261 



logical and ecclesiastical works gave him his great 
reputation as a divine and theologian. He died 
June 6, 1886, in the eighty-fourth year of his age. 



He 



JOHN LIGHT ATLEE. 

One of the most noted physicians and surgeons 
of Lancaster county was John Ivight Atlee. 
was born in Lancaster 
November 2, 1799. He 
was graduated at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania 
in 1820. After gradu- 
ation he opened an office 
in his native city, and be- 
fore long his skill as a 
physician became known. 
He was a very success- 
ful practitioner, especial- 
ly in surgery. While at- 
tending to his profession- dr. j. l. atlee 
al duties, he took an active part in advancing the 
interests of his city and county. He was one of 
the founders of the Lancaster City and County 
Medical Society in 1843, ^^^ ^^ the Pennsylvania 
Medical Society in 1848. He was twice president 
of the former, and became president of the latter in 
1857. He was also one of the organizers of the 
American Medical Association in Philadelphia, and 
became its president in 1882. In 1853, when 
Franklin and Marshall Colleges were united, he 
became professor of anatomy and physiology, which 




262 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 



position he held until 1869. He was an enthu- 
siastic supporter of the public schools, and served 
his city in the capacity of school director for 
forty years. He proved himself an efficient mem- 
ber of the boards of trustees of many public institu- 
tions. He died October i, 1885. 

THOMAS H. BURROWES. 

The father of the free school system of Pennsyl- 
vania was Thomas H. Burrowes, a native and resi- 
dent of I^ancaster county. 
He was born at Stras- 
burg,Noveniberi6, 1805. 
He was educated at Que- 
bec, Canada, and at Trin- 
ity College, Dublin, Ire- 
land, wdiere his parents 
resided for some years. 
In 1831 and 1832 he was 
elected to the House of 
Representatives of the 
Pennsylvania Legislature as a Whig. In 1835 Gov- 
ernor Joseph Ritner appointed him Secretary of 
the Commonwealth, which was the beginning of 
his labors in the cause of popular education. When 
Governor Ritner' s term ended, in 1839, Mr. Bur- 
rowes retired to his farm near Lancaster. He re- 
turned to his profession as a lawyer in 1845. He 
presided over an educational convention at Harris- 
burg in January, 1850. In 185 1 he commenced the 
publication of the Pennsylvania School Journal^ to 
which he devoted much of his time and attention 




THOMAS H. BURROWES. 



BRIEI^ HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 



263 



until a few years before his death. By act of the 
State Legislature, in 1855, the Pen7isylvania School 
Journal was made the organ of the school depart- 
ment of the State. In 1854 Mr. Burrowes prepared 
for the State descriptive matter for Peiutsylvania 
School Architecture^ a volume of 276 pages. He 
wrote nearly all the important school laws passed 
by the Pennsylvania Legislature after 1836, and his 
great act in this particular was the drafting of the 
Normal School law. In 1858 he was elected Mayor 
of Lancaster, and in i860 he was appointed State 
Superintendent of Common Schools. In 1864 Gov- 
ernor Curtin appointed him Superintendent of 
Soldiers' Orphan Schools, and he established these 
institutions in different parts of the State. In 1869 
he was elected president of the Pennsylvania Agri- 
cultural College. He died March 25, 1871. 

JOHN BECK. 

John Beck, the well-known principal of the 
Young Men's Academy at Lititz, was born in Grace- 
ham, Maryland, June 
16,1791. Soon after his 
birth his parents moved 
to Mount Joy, this coun- 
ty. He received his edu- 
cation in the Moravian 
school at Nazareth, this 
State, and at the age 
of fifteen, in obedience 
to the wishes of his pa- 
rents, learned shoemak- 
ing with a worthy man john beck. 




264 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTEiR COIJNTY. 

in Lititz, to whom he had been apprenticed. His 
employer said he was the best and quickest work- 
man he ever had, and when his trade was com- 
pleted he gave him a fine suit of clothes and 
fifty dollars. The people of Ivititz, after some 
persuasion, induced him to take charge of their 
school. He occupies a prominent place in the his- 
tory of popular education in this county. He died 
February ii, 1873. 

S. S. HALDEMAN. 

Samuel Stehman Haldeman, the noted natur- 
alist and linguist, was born at Locust Grove, a 
family homestead on the Susquehanna, in what is 
now Conoy township, Lancaster county, August 12, 
1812. 

He was educated in the public schools, and after- 
ward at a classical academy in Harrisburg and 
at Dickinson College, Carlisle. He left college 
in two years, at the age of eighteen, without 
graduating, and afterward educated himself, pass- 
ing most of his time in his library. He attended 
lectures in the Pennsylvania University, in Phila- 
delphia, in 1833 and 1834. 

He had already made large collections of speci- 
mens in natural history, and had also collected a 
scientific and linguistic library. 

He next assisted his father in a saw-mill at 
Chickies, where he built his residence after marry- 
ing. He was also a partner in a blast furnace then 
erected at Chickies, and afterward entered into the 
iron business as a silent partner with his brothers, 



BRIKF HISTORY O^ LANCASTER COUNTY. 265 

Dr. Edwin Haldeman and Mr. Paris Haldeman. 
He wrote articles on anthracite furnaces for Si'/h'- 
man^ s JouruaL 

In 1835 he wrote for the Lancaster Journal a 
refutation of Locke's Moon Hoax. Thenceforth 
his life was devoted to science ; and for forty-five 
years he spent most of his time in his library, often 
working sixteen hours a day, though he accepted 
several professorships and delivered a number of 
courses of lectures. 

In 1836 he was assistant on the State Geological 
Survey of New Jersey, and in 1837 he was assistant 
on the Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. 

He became professor of zoology in the Franklin 
Institute of Philadelphia in 1841 ; chemist and 
geologist of the Pennsylvania Agricultural Society 
in 1852 ; professor of natural history in the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania from 1850 to 1853; professor 
of natural history in Delaware College at Newark, 
Delaware, from 1855 to 1858 ; and professor of com- 
parative philology in the University of Pennsyl- 
vania from 1876 to the time of his death. This 
university conferred upon him the degree of Doctor 
of Laws. 

He wrote 150 different works, of which 120 were 
on natural science, and 30 on language. His 
works on natural science were mainly on zoology, 
entomology, geology, etc. 

He visited Europe at different times in quest of 
knowledge. He studied the languages of our 
Indian tribes, and of the various nations and tribes 



266 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

of Other parts of the world. He often lectured be- 
fore Lyceums and Teachers' Institutes. He took 
a prominent part in scientific conventions in this 
country. He was a member of many scientific so- 
cieties in America and Europe, and was president 
of the American Philological Association. 

He corresponded w^ith Noah Webster, who credi- 
ted him with many words and definitions in his 
Dictionary. He was also engaged on the National 
Dictionary^ on Worcester's Dictionary and on 
Johnson's Cyclopaedia. He also helped to organize 
the Spelling Reform Association. 

In 1844 he wrote a paper on Species and their 
Distribution^ which was highly praised by the great 
English naturalist, Charles Darwin, in the preface 
of his work, the Origin of Species. In 1858 he 
issued the Trevelyan Prise Essay ^ which was pub- 
lished in i860 as Analytic Orthography^ and which 
contains specimens of about seventy languages and 
dialects as heard from the lips of the natives them- 
selves. For this work Professor Haldeman gained 
a prize offered by Sir Walter Trevelyan, of Eng- 
land, over sixteen competitors, who were among 
the best European philologists. Dr. Haldeman 
died September 10, 1880, at the age of sixty-eight. 

S. S. RATHVON. 

Simon Snyder Rathvon, the noted Lancaster 
entomologist, was born at Marietta, April 24, 1812. 
He was a resident of Lancaster from 1848 until his 
death. He was a scientist whose entomological 
researches extended througfhout the world. He 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 267 

was a corresponding or honorary member of all 
the important associations of entomologists in this 
country and in Europe. 

From 1827 until within a month of his death 
he worked almost continuously at the tailor's 
bench. During his sixty-four years as a tailor, 
Mr. Rathvon devoted his nights to study and 
scientific research. He had enormous capacity 
for work, giving from eighteen to twenty hours 
each day to his trade and to his researches. 

His work attracted the attention of scientists. 
He was made professor of entomology in the Penn- 
sylvania Horticultural Society, and corresponding 
member of the Academy of Natural Sciences in 
Philadelphia, and of the American Entomological 
Society. Numerous foreign societies honored him 
with medals and membership. He was one of the 
founders of the Linnsean Society in Lancaster. In 
1878 Franklin and Marshall College conferred 
upon him the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

He wrote a great deal for the newspapers and for 
scientific and agricultural journals. He was editor 
of the Lancaster Farmer from 1869 until its sus- 
pension in 1884, a period of fifteen years. He had 
a large stock of information on almost all subjects 
of human interest ; but during all his long life 
after the age of fifteen he was obliged to make a 
livelihood by working at his trade, attending to its 
duties diligently while attaining his great reputa- 
tion as a naturalist, especially as an entomologist. 



268 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 



Dr. Rathvon died in lyancaster, March 19, 1891, in 
the 79th year of his age. 

JAMES PYLE WICKERSHAM. 

Among the great educators of Pennsylvania and 
of the United States was James Pyle Wickersham, 

who was born of Quaker 
parentage on a Chester 
county farm, March 5, 
1825. His ancestors, who 
came from England two 
hundred years ago, were 
among the early Quaker 
settlers of Chester coun-. 
ty. He was educated at 
theUnionville Academy, 
Chester county, with the 
famous Bayard Taylor 




J. p. WICKERSHAM. 



and others. 



He founded the Marietta Academy, in Lancaster 
county, in 1845, when he was only twenty years 
old. He conducted that institution successfully 
until 1854, when he was elected the first County 
Superintendent of the schools of Lancaster county. 

He resigned the County Superintendency in 
1856, to become Principal of the Lancaster County 
Normal School at Millersville, which became 
the first State Normal School of Pennsylvania, 
December 2, 1859. He remained principal of that 
school until 1866, and his ten years' principalship 
placed that institution upon the firm foundation of 
its wonderful prosperity. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 269 

In 1866 Governor Cur tin appointed him ^tate 
Superintendent of the Common Schools of Penn- 
sylvania, to which office he was successively reap- 
pointed until 1881, so that he held the position 
fifteen years. 

For many years Professor Wickersham had borne 
the degree of A. M. ; and in 1871 Lafayette College, 
at Easton, Pennsylvania, conferred upon him the 
title of LL. D. 

In 1882 President Arthur appointed him to the 
post of United States Minister to Denmark ; but 
he remained in Copenhagen only a few months, 
and then returned to Ivancaster. 

He thereafter lived at his home in Lancaster, to 
which he had moved his family in 1867 ; and his 
last years were spent in literary and business pur- 
suits. He was president of the Inquire Printing 
and Publishing Company for some years. 

Dr. Wickersham was editor of the Pennsylvania 
School Journal for some years. He was also 
author of School Economy and Methods of Ins true- 
tio7i^ standard educational works, which have been 
translated into various European and Asiatic lan- 
guages. After his return from Denmark he wrote 
and published a large History of Education in 
Pennsylvania. 

He was a member of the Boards of Trustees of 
Franklin and Marshall College and other edu- 
cational institutions, and of the Lancaster School 
Board. He was also at different times President 
of the State Teachers' Association of Pennsylva- 



270 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

nia,"''and was twice President of the National Teach- 
ers' Association. He was an active Grand Army 
man, and was prominent in Grand Army circles. 

Dr. Wickersham's greatest work, and that for 
which he will be longest remembered, was in the 
cause of popular education. To this he was thor- 
oughly and most enthusiastically devoted. No 
man did more for the success of the common 
school system of Pennsylvania than he, and no 
other gave it such whole-souled and enthusiastic 
devotion. 

He was a public-spirited and enterprising citizen. 
He took an active interest in literary and business 
enterprises, and encouraged every measure designed 
for the public welfare. He died suddenly March 
25, 1891, at the age of sixty-six years. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

GOVERNMENT. 

CIVIL OFFICERS. 

T)ENNSYIvVANIA had from its beginning the 
county system. In this it served as a model 
for many of the other States of the Union. The 
county officers have been for some years elected by 
the people, thus giving the government a truly rep- 
resentative character. 

COUNTY OFFICERS. 

The county officers are two Judges of the Courts, 
the Sheriff, Prothonotary, Register of Wills, Re- 
corder of Deeds, County Treasurer, Coroner, three 
County Commissioners, three County Auditors, two 
Jury Commissioners, District Attorney, Clerk of 
Quarter Sessions, Clerk of Orphans' Court, County 
Solicitor, County Surveyor, Prison Keeper, six 
Directors of the Poor, six Prison Inspectors — all 
elected by the voters of the county for three years, 
except the Judges, who are elected for ten years. 

The Sheriff's duty is to execute the State laws 
in the county. He or his deputies execute civil 
and criminal processes in the county. He attends 
the courts and has charge of the prisoners while 
attending court, and keeps the peace. 

The Prothonotary is the chief clerk of the Court 
of Common Pleas. He enters and enrolls all dec- 
larations, pleadings, judgments, etc. ; makes out 



272 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

judicial writs and exemplifications of records, 
enters recognizances, etc. 

The Register of Wills keeps records of wills and 
letters of administration. 

The Recorder of Deeds keeps records of deeds 
and mortgages. 

The County Treasurer has charge of the county's 
money received from taxes, and pays the county's 
debts, expenses, etc. 

The Coroner's duty is to inquire into the causes 
of violent death. 

The three County Commissioners legislate for 
the county, transact the general business, levy 
taxes, say what new improvements shall be made, 
bridges built, etc. 

The three Auditors audit the public accounts of 
the county. 

The two Jury Commissioners draw the lists of 
those to serve as Jurors from names presented to 
them for that purpose. 

The District Attorney is the counsel and advo- 
cate of the Commonwealth in prosecuting criminal 
cases in the Court of Quarter Sessions. 

The Clerk of Quarter Sessions and the Clerk of 
Orphans' Court are the chief clerks of those respec- 
tive courts. 

The County Solicitor is the attorney and legal 
advisor of the County Commissioners. 

CITY OFFICERS. 

The government of Lancaster city is like that 
of other cities of its class in Pennsylvania. The 



BRIKF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY. 273 

Mayor is the executive and judicial officer, and is 
elected every two years by a vote of the citizens. 
The city legislature is composed of the Select and 
Common Councils^ each ward electing one Select 
Councilman and three Common Councilmen. The 
School Board \^ also elected by popular vote. The 
City Treasurer^ City Solicitor^ Sicperijitendent of 
Water Works^ Chief of the Fire Departme7tt 
and Street Commissioner are the city officials 
elected by the City Councils. The city police are 
appointed by the Mayor, and confirmed by the 
Select Council. Lancaster city is divided into 
nine wards ; each of which, according to the State 
laws, has its own Alder^nan^ who acts as Justice of 
the Peace, and its own Constable^ Assessor^ etc. 

BOROUGH AND TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

There are ten boroughs in Lancaster county, the 
largest of which is Columbia. * In Pennsylvania 
the officers of each borough are a Burgess^ a Bor- 
ough Council with more or less members according 
to size, Treasurer^ Cojistables^ fustices of the Peace^ 
School Board^ Auditor and other local officers — all 
elected by popular vote, most of them yearly. Each 
township likewise has its own officials, such 2ls fns- 
tices of the Peace ^ Constable^ Assessor^ Auditor^ Su- 
pervisors^ six School Directors^ Township Clerk and 
Tax Collector — all elected by popular vote, some 



*The other nine are Marietta, Manheim, Mount Joy, Eliza- 
bethtown, Lititz, Ephrata, Strasburg, Washington and Adams- 
town. 



274 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

for one year, some for three years, and Justices of 
the Peace for five years. 

NATIONAL AND STATE OFFICERS FROM LANCASTER COUNTY. 

I^ancaster county sends one member to the 
House of Representatives of the United States 
Congress, and comprises the Tenth Congression- 
al District of Pennsylvania. The county sends 
eight members to the Pennsylvania lyCgislature, 
two State Senators and six members of the House 
of Representatives, or lower house of the State 
IvCgislature — all elected by the voters, the Senators 
for four years, and the Representatives for two years. 
The county is divided into two State Senatorial 
Districts, and three State Representative Districts. 
The Northern District elects one Senator and three 
Representatives to the State Legislature. The 
Southern District, including Lancaster city, elects 
one Senator to the Legislature. The Southern 
District, without Lancaster city, elects two Rep- 
resentatives to the Legislature. Lancaster city 
elects one Representative of its own, and thus 
comprises a separate Representative District. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

MANUFACTURES, BANKING, INSURANCE, ETC. 

IRON WORKS. 

^npHE pioneer iron-masters in Lancaster county 
-*- were generally Welsh. We find among- these 
such names as David Jenkins, David Caldwell, 
James Old and Cyrus Jacobs. These were from 
time to time the proprietors of the old forges in Caer- 
narvon and Elizabeth townships. Curtis Grubb, 
a Welshman, was the founder and original owner 
of the Cornwall furnace, now in Lebanon county. 
Robert Coleman, a Scotch-Irishman, and one of 
the most prominent of the old iron-masters of this 
county, afterward became one of the owners of the 
Cornwall furnace and of the furnace and forges in 
Elizabeth township. The Grubbs, the Freemans 
and the Colemans are to-day the most noted iron- 
masters in Lancaster and Lebanon counties. There 
were also among the first iron-masters of the county 
two Germans — ^Jacob Huber, the founder of Eliza- 
beth furnace, and Baron Stiegel, the founder of 
Manheim. On the Conowingo and the Octoraro 
there were formerly several furnaces and forges, 
but they have not been in operation for many years. 
Marti c forge and Colemanville forge and rolling- 
mill, both located on the Pequea, were in operation 
until a recent period. The old charcoal furnaces, 



276 BRIKF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

which at one lime were quite numerous, have 
ceased to exist since the development of the an- 
thracite coal mines ; and to-day we find flourish- 
ing anthracite furnaces and rolling-mills at Lan- 
caster, Columbia, Marietta, Chestnut Hill and Safe 
Harbor. * 

PAPER-MILLS. 

There was a paper-mill established at Ephrata 
about 1820 ; and one was in operation on the West 
Branch of the Octoraro, in Bart township. In 



*The old forges were : Windsor, Pool and Spring Grove, in 
Caernarvon township ; Speedwell and Hopewell, in Elizabeth 
township ; Martic, in Martic township ; Colemanville, in Cones- 
toga township ; Sadsbury, in Sadsbury township ; line Grove, 
White Rock and Black Rock, in Little Britain township ; and 
Mount Vernon, in West Donegal township. 

The old charcoal furnaces were : Those of Cornwall and 
Colebrook, now in Lebanon county ; Elizabeth, in Elizabeth 
township ; Martic, in Martic township ; Conowingo, in what is 
now East Drumore township ; Mount Hope, in Rapho town- 
ship ; Mount Vernon, in West Donegal township ; Mount 
Eden, in what is now Eden township ; and Black Rock, in 
Little Britain township. 

The anthracite furnaces have been : Sarah Ann, in Rapho town- 
ship ; Safe Harbor, in Conestoga township ; Conestoga, in Lan- 
caster city ; Chickies, at the mouth of Big Chickies creek, in 
West Hempfield township ; Cordelia, in West Henipfield town- 
ship ; Shawnee, St. Charles and Henry Clay, in Columbia ; and 
Donegal, Marietta, Vesta and Eagle, near Marietta. 

The rolling-mills have been : Chickies, near the mouth of Big 
Chickies creek, in East Donegal township ; Safe Harbor and 
Colemanville, in Conestoga township ; Conowingo, in what is 
uow East Drumore township ; Rohrerstown, in East Hempfield 
township ; Penn Iron Company's in Lancaster city ; and Shaw- 
nee and Susquehanna, in Columbia. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 277 

J855 one was established at Eden, Manheim town- 
ship. This was operated there for ten years, until 
1865, when it was removed to Slackwater, in Con- 
estoga township, where it is to-day ; and under its 
present enterprising management, until within a 
year, it was very prosperous. 

From 1855 to 1862 a paper-mill was conducted 
at Camargo, Eden township, by the Camargo 
Manufacturing Company. In the fall of 1865 the 
newspaper proprietors of Lancaster, and others, 
established the Printers' Paper Mill at Binkley's 
Bridge, in Manheim township. This was operated 
successfully until November 25th, 1882, when it 
was burned down. 

OTHER MANUFACTURERS. 

There are half a dozen cotton-mills in Lancaster 
city ; and besides these there are locomotive works, 
a number of foundries and machine-shops, a watch 
factory and some other manufacturing establish- 
ments. There are also foundries and machine- 
shops at Columbia, jMarietta, Mount Joy, Chris- 
tiana and other places in the county. Besides, in 
every part of it, we find grist-mills and saw-mills, 
located at convenient distances from the centers of 
population. 

BANKS. 

Another striking evidence of the immense wealth 
of Lancaster county is the number of banking in- 
stitutions. There are twenty-five National Banks 
in the county, besides a number of private banking 



278 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY. 

houses. * The Lancaster Trust Company of Lan- 
caster city, established in 1890, is the first and only 
institution of the kind in the county. 

INSURANCE. 

The great fire-insurance companies of America 
and Europe are represented in Lancaster city. 
There are a number of farmers' mutual fire insur- 
ance companies in existence throughout the county, 
which insure most of the property of our agricul- 
tural population. According to the mutual plan, 
the members of each of these are joined together 
by agreeing to pay their respective shares of losses 
sustained by their neighbors belonging to their 
association. Our various large metropolitan life- 
insurance companies also have agencies in Lan- 
caster city and other large towns of the county, and 
have a large number of policy-holders throughout 
the county. 

CHARITABLE AND PHILANTHROPIC INSTITUTIONS. 

Besides the County Aims-House and Hospital 
there are several private charitable institutions. 
The Orphan Asylum of Lancaster^ an incorporated 
institution, cares for female orphans between the 
ages of six and ten. The Bishop Bozvman Church 



*Of the twenty-five National Banks seven are in Lancaster 
city, three in Columbia, two in Mount Joy, two in Manheim, and 
one in each of the following eleven places : Marietta, Eliza- 
bethtown, Lititz, Ephrata, Lincoln, New Holland, Strasburg, 
Gap, ^ Christiana, Quarry ville and Mountville. Lancaster city, 
Columbia, Marietta and Elizabethtown have each a private 
banking establishment. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 279 

Home, for the aged and infirm, was founded by- 
Bishop Samuel Bowman, and is supported by vol- 
untary contributions. The Home /or Friendless 
Children was established in 1859 by the efforts and 
contributions of Miss Mary Bowman and other 
benevolent persons, and was incorporated by act 
of the State Legislature in i860. St. Marfs Hos- 
pital^ a Roman Catholic institution, was estab- 
lished in recent years. 

SECRET AND BENEFICIAL ORDERS. 

The Free Masons, Odd Fellows, and the various 
other secret orders whose objects are of a philan- 
thropic and beneficial character, have organizations 
in Lancaster city and in the various large and 
small towns throughout the county. The Grand 
Army has a number of posts in various parts of 
the county. The various new secret orders have 
rapidly established themselves in different portions 
of the county. The strength of these associations 
here, as well as the number of religious societies, 
shows that our county is not behind the age in 
anything that tends to the advancement and happi- 
ness of our fellowmen. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

NATURAL HISTORY. 
GEOLOGY. 

^ I ^HE rock structure of Eaucaster county, though 
comparatively simple, is yet interesting. The 
rocks belong in the main to the older formations and 
present no evidence upon the surface of great 
changes of position. They have not been folded, 
bent, or contorted as in other regions where geo- 
logical forces have been more active. But if fold- 
ing forces have not been active, erosion has been an 
important factor in shaping the surface features and 
adding to the potential wealth of the county. This 
it has done in the formation of the soil, and in 
bringing to the surface the valuable series of rocks 
in the main limestone valley of the county. Per- 
haps thousands of feet of rock strata have been worn 
away by this ever active force. 

THREE AGES. 

In its surface features Lancaster county presents 
three well-marked series of rocks that run entirely 
across the county from east to west. The series 
form broad parallel belts of nearly equal width. 

MESOZOIC SERIES. 

The most northern of the belts is of the Meso- 
zoicor Middle-life series, composed mainly of sand- 
stone and argillite, a thin slaty rock like shale. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 281 

Near the mountains of the northern boundary they 
attain their greatest thickness, but the series thin 
out as you approach the next belt. The surface 
here presents more folding than that of the next 
belt, and the hills present angular or broken out- 
lines. In two places basins of rocks that form the 
next lower horizon are enclosed by the Mesozoic 
sandstones as though tongues of the sandstones 
were run out to enclose the lower series. The 
basins are those limestone valleys in which Eph- 
rata and Lititz are situated. 

ORIGIN 

The Mesozoic rocks, here as everywhere else, 
are of lake and river formation. At some time in 
the past geological history of the earth when the 
rainfall was abundant, the rivers and smaller 
streams were the mills that ground up the harder 
granites and quartzes, and thus furnished the ma- 
terials from which the Mesozoic sandstones were 
made. The waters rushing down mountain and 
hillside tore great gullies in their faces, and aided 
by the detritus tore up even their rocky framework 
and carried the gravel and silt out toward the level 
plain. Here by means of pressure and the action 
of water, perhaps this material was consolidated 
into solid beds of rock. 

NOT RICH IN FOSSILS. 

They are not rich in fossil remains probably 
because of their weathered condition, or it may be 
on account of the condition under which they were 



282 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

laid down. Their thinning out as we approach 
the next belt indicates that after they were bedded 
the elements rapidly disintegrated them. The 
eroded material from them was carried away to 
furnish components for other beds, or for the soils 
of other sections. 

POSITION. 

The Mesozoic sandstones here lie directly upon 
the Trenton limestones, though the latter belongs 
mainly to the older Palaeozoic series. The latter 
dips directly under the former and was at one time 
completely covered by it, as is shown by the fact 
that the higher hills are yet crowned with sand- 
stones. 

PALAEOZOIC ROCKS. 

The Trenton series, which forms the middle belt 
of rocks through the county, is by far the most 
important. The action of the air and the water 
upon its surface has produced that deep rich soil 
for which this section is famous. All of the best 
farms lie in this belt. The rocks are laid down 
along a great synclinal axis and form, therefore, 
a wide, trough-shaped valley. I They must be of 
great thickness, perhaps thousands of feet. Owing, 
however, to their position and the small number 
and extent of the outcroppings of the edges of the 
rocks, their depth cannot be exactly ascertained. 
They have not been subjected to any great flexing 
and folding, hence the section is comparatively 
level. The undulations present only gentle swells 
with long slopes. Occasionally along the Cones- 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 283 

toga Creek an outcrop presents complicated fold- 
ings that are evidences of the wonderful power of 
those subterranean forces that in times long past 
made and contorted our mountains. They are 
evidences too of the plastic state of the beds of 
sediment when originally laid down. 

EFFECT OF EROSION. 

A.n nearly the middle line of the belt a large part 
of the Trenton limestones has been carried away 
by the action of rains and the streams. This, in 
three sections — Chickies, NefFsville and the Welsh 
Mountains — has exposed rocks of an earlier age. 

COMPOSITION. 

The limestones of this belt are bluish or grayish 
and are composed mainly of carbonate of lime, 
though some contain a large proportion of magne- 
sium. Toward the southern side of the belt in 
many quarries the limestone contains much schist, 
either disseminated all through the strata or as an 
incrustation. When burned, the carbonate of lime 
forms good quicklime or oxide of lime. In burn- 
ing, a suffocating gas, carbon dioxide, is driven oflf 
and the quicklime remains. 

ORIGIN. 

They are made up almost entirely of the shells 
of minute animals that at one time existed in 
countless numbers in the sea. Like the coral 
polyp, they were simple in organization and secured 
their food and materials to build up a shell cover- 
ing from the sea water. 



284 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTE:r COUNTY. 
THE ARCH^AN BELT. 

South of the Trenton belt is the last and lowest 
of the three important series in Lancaster county. 
The rocks belong to the Archaean era and mainly 
to the Eozoic or first life age. Schistose slates, or 
those slates in which the cleavage is into thin lam- 
inar plates, are the predominant rock^J Here the 
contractile force of the earth's cooling is more evi 
dent, and shows itself in the contorted character of 
the strata, in their bent and folded positions, and 
also in the greater complication of the surface 
features. Instead of the long swells and gentle 
undulations characteristic of the limestone belt, 
the hills present steep slopes, sharper angles and 
broken crests. 

I INTRUDED ROCKS. 

Not only are the Eozoic rocks represented in 
this section, but other series seem to be pushed into 
the predominant rocks. Gneisses, mica-schists 
and serpentines crop out along the bases of many 
hills. Ivike all rocks so low down, they contain a 
great deal of iron disseminated through them. The 
only outcrops of industrial value is the Peach 
Bottom roofing-slate, or true Argillite. 

THE POTSDAM FORMATION. 

Running into the Trenton limestone from the 
west is a well-marked area, in the form of a wedge, 
of what is known as Chickies quartzite. The rock 
is an old sandstone and has been referred to the 
Potsdam age. The outcrops occur at Chickies, 
from which place the formation extends eastward 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 285 

forsome distance along the north side of Chestnut 
Hill. After the quartzite disappears beneath the 
limestone, it does not come to the surface except 
at two places — on the hills south of Neflfsville and 
in the Welsh Mountains. 

POSITION OF ROCKS AT CHICKIES. 

The Trenton formation at Chickies seems to dip 
right down under the quartzite ; but, of course, 
this is due to the folded character of the rocks. 
Chickies' bold escarpment toward the Susquehanna 
is a great double fold that has placed rocks of a 
lower series above those that originally were far 
above. Were we to mark out the limestone strata 
we would have a great bend of this formation over 
the quartzite, reaching to a height represented by 
the thickness of the Trenton belt. All of this 
may have been carried by erosion. 

TRAP-DYKES. 

In several sections of the county sharp angular 
ridges exist with great masses of hard rock lying 
exposed upon the surface. The stone known as 
trap^ shows a conchoidal fracture, great toughness, 
and gives a metallic ring when struck, due to the 
presence of a large amount of iron. 

DISTRIBUTION. 

Trap-dykes are common in Ivancaster county — 
one extending clear through the northern belt 
of sandstones from the Welsh Mountains to the 
Susquehanna. In the Eozoic of the South there 
are several outbreaks of this basaltic material, and 



286 BRIEF HISTORY OF tANCASTER COUNTY. 

one mile west of Millersville there is a local out- 
crop of about a mile in length and a few yards in 
width. Great blocks of the dolerite are nearly 
always scattered over the surface along the line 
of outbreak. 

ORIGIN OF TRAP. 

The rocks are evidently of igneous origin, and 
have been forced up through fissures in the 
earth's crust. As the earth cooled off, the 
outer crust became too small for the intensely 
heated part within ; hence fissures would be formed 
and the molten material within forced out. But 
as the crust grew thick and the part within radi- 
ated its heat, the interior would become too small 
for the crust, and the latter would adjust itself 
to the contracting mass. Hence the crust would 
be thrown into folds, and perhaps fissured when 
bent a great deal. The heavy outside shell press- 
ing inward gradually forced basaltic materials 
upward into the fissures and thus caused the trap- 
dykes. These are most common in the Mesozoic 
sandstones. 

ORIGIN OF ORE DEPOSITS. 

The Chestnut Hill iron mines are situated in a 
series of rocks of the Cambrian age, under-bedded 
with very old white sandstones. Slaty rocks, rich 
in iron particles and in masses of iron pyrites, in 
some forms called jackstones, and known, also, as 
fool's gold, overlaid the series. Water, in leaching 
through the slate rocks, combined with the iron to 
form iron oxide. Carried down through the per- 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 287 

meable rocks by the water, the solution gradually 
saturated the rocks above the white sandstone and 
formed the rich deposits of hematite. The posi- 
tion of the impermeable sandstones was admirably 
adapted in every way to favor the formation. * 

THE GAP NICKEL MINES. 

According to the traditions of the neighborhood, 
the Gap copper mines were discovered about the 
year 1718. From about this time until 1800 they 
were irregularly worked by various companies, 
none of which were able to procure copper in pay- 
ing quantities. After lying idle for about fifty years, 
or in 1849, ^ company was formed to engage in cop- 
per ore mining, which they continued until 1852. 

At this time miners in the United States knew 
nothing of nickel. The nickel ore at these mines 
was, therefore, all the time being thrown out as 
worthless material. They thought it merely ' ' Sul- 
phuretof Iron." In that year Captain Doble came 
to work as a miner. He had an intimate knowledge 
of practical mining, and at once announced that 
the so called iron pyrites was not that material. 



^Minerals. — There are iron ore mines in East Donegal town- 
ship, near Marietta; on Chestnut Hill, in West Hempfield towri- 
ship ; on Turkey Hill, in Manor township ; in Conestoga a 
township, near Safe Harbor and Shenk's Ferry ; in Pequea 
township, near Pequea Valley ; in Providence and Eden town- 
ships, near Quarryville ; on both sides of Beaver Creek, in 
Providence and Strasburg townships ; in Strasburg township, 
near Mine Ridge ; at several places in Bart township ; in Fulton 
and Little Britain townships ; and in several places in Caernarvon 
township, on the Welsh Mountains. 



288 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

Specimens were sent to several chemists, one of 
whom, Dr. F. A. Geuth, a skillful chemist of 
Philadelphia, made a satisfactory analysis pro- 
nouncing the ore nickel, and giving the percentage. 
The name of the mines was now changed to Gap 
Nickel Mines, and were operated for some years by 
several companies, but with little financial success. 
Joseph Wharton, the present owner, however, by 
skillful mining and business tact in disposing of all 
the products* has made the mines pay. 

The nickel ore which is found in the form of 
millerite, or nickel sjilphide, forms an incrustation 
on hornblende, or lies in contact with schistose 
rocks. The mines, situated in Bart township, are 
near a trap-dyke in the Eozoic belt of rocks. The 
region is surrounded by limestones. The horn- 
blende is in a large lenticular or wedge shaped 
mass, imbedded in the schists. 

FLORA. 

But few portions of the United States have a 
more varied and more luxuriant flora than Lancas- 
ter county. Its position in latitude, its great rain- 
fall, its protection by mountains on the north, its 
many springs, creeks and rivers, as well as its 
great fertility of soil, unite to give large growth 

*The refinery at Camden, New Jersey, is called the "Ameri- 
can Nickel Works" The crude material after smelting at the 
mills is known as matte. At the refinery from the matte is made 
pure nickel, nickel oxide, nickel alloys, nickel castings, nickel 
salts, pure cobalt, cobalt oxide, cobalt alloys, cobalt castings, 
cobalt salts, copper, blue vitriol, etc. 



BRIBF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 289 

and unusual vitality to all native and naturalized 
plants. It has a great variety of soil. There are 
a number of large swamps with black, loamy bot- 
toms; of woody thickets, damp forests, rocky hill- 
sides and dry sandy river hills. Plants of entirely 
different natures find, on this account, all the con- 
ditions of soil necessary for their healthy growth. 
There are, accordingly, over one thousand species 
or kinds of native flowering plants, and at least 
two hundred species that have been introduced 
into the county and have become naturalized. 
This number includes only trees, shrubs and 
plants producing flowers and true seeds. There 
are also in the county hundreds of species of flow- 
erless plants propagated by spores, as ferns and 
mosses. 

TROUBLESOME WEEDS. 

Nearly all the weeds that cause the husbandmen 
any trouble have been brought here from Europe. 
Many of these came over as packing in boxes and 
barrels, containing chinaware and hardware ; and 
for this reason the counties near Philadelphia have 
more weeds than those farther away from the sea- 
shore. 

The Canada thistle, perhaps our most formidable 
pest, was brought here from Europe early in the 
last century. It found a congenial climate and a 
soil suitable to its growth, and soon spread over 
large areas of fertile lands. 

By reason of its subterranean branches, which 
grow far down into the deep soil and project them- 
13 



290 BRIBF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

selves in every direction, it strenuously resists 
almost every effort made to destroy it. 

The farmers, however, stimulated by a recent 
legislative enactment, imposing heavy fines upon 
all land-owners who permit these plants to blos- 
som and ripen seed, have vigorously attacked them 
with scythe and hoe, and have made such decided 
progress against them that the land area usurped 
by them is yearly growing less. 

The wild carrot is of later introduction. It is a 
very hardy and vigorous plant, spreading rapidly 
in lands devoted to the growing of grasses. Here 
it materially lessens the value of the hay crop, 
and greatly interferes with the pasturing of cattle. 

Toad flax, wild garlic, chamomile and burdock, 
all imported from Europe, are found in many 
of the cultivated districts, but are kept under con- 
trol by the persistent efforts of the farmer. 

The ox-eyed daisy, while found in a few places 
in the county, is not as troublesome here as it is 
in some of the neighboring counties. The high 
state of cultivation in which most of the lands 
have been kept has tended to destroy and exter- 
minate all weeds that interfere with successful 
farming. 

FORESTS AND FORESTRY ASSOCIATIONS. 

Before the discovery of anthracite coal, when 
the people depended upon wood for fuel, forests 
were better cared for and better preserved than 
when coal took the place of wood. 

The iron-works at first used charcoal, thus also 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 291 

inducing economy in wood. Entire forests were 
cut down for such purposes and then permitted to 
grow up again. South Mountain, the Martic 
Hills and other woodeS districts were held in 
large tracts by iron-masters, who thus preserved 
them and secured several successive growths of 
timber. 

Farmers at that time pursued the same course, 
cutting an acre of woodland for fuel every year, 
and then letting it grow again. 

As the population increased and the consumption 
of coal became greater all this was changed. 
Whenever timberlands were cleared the lands 
were placed under cultivation, thus rapidly reduc- 
ing the area of forest. 

From this time some people noticed a change in 
climate. The rainfall became more irregular, espe- 
cially during the seasons of plant-growth. There 
seems to be greater uncertainty in the raising of 
crops, some seasons being very wet while others 
are very dry, on account of the destruction of the 
forests. The effects of erosion have become more 
marked. During times of heavy rainfall the 
smaller streams rapidly unite to flow into the 
larger ones, which in turn are swelled into impetu- 
ous and devastating floods. The rush of the 
smaller streams down the hillsides rapidly denudes 
them of earth and vegetation and soon removes 
most of the soil, rendering them incapable of sup- 
porting vegetable growths of any character. The 
forest, by means of its roots and masses of inter- 



292 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

woven. rootlets, holds the soil and prevents erosion. 
Then, too, with its layer of decaying leaves over 
the surface of the earth it holds a large amount 
of water. Evaporation goes on more slowly than 
in the open fields ; hence the moisture is more 
evenly distributed to the air throughout the 
season. The water in the soil passes more slowly 
from the wooded hillside to lower levels ; springs 
remain constant, and streams are not subject to so 
great variations in volume. 

Since the wholesale destruction of forests, 
cyclones and storms, accompanied with hail, have 
become more frequent and destructive. 

Some years ago a pamphlet was published call- 
ing attention to these physical changes and recom- 
mending the replanting of timber in available 
places. 

Governor Hartranft, of this State, directed the 
attention of the Legislature to the necessity of 
reforesting the timberlands, and recommended leg- 
islation to prevent the unnecessary destruction of 
pine forests in the lumber regions of Pennsylvania. 

In May, 1879, a law was passed by the State 
Legislature encouraging the planting of trees 
along roadsides. A law was afterward passed 
allowing a reduction of tax on land where trees 
were planted. In June, 1887, a law was passed 
encouraging forest culture and providing penalties 
for injury and destruction of forests. 

In 1882 the American Forestry Association was 
established. In June, 1886, the Pennsylvania 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 293 

Forestry Assoctattojt was formed as a branch of 
the American Association, with its headq.uarters 
at Philadelphia. On March 28, 1890, the Laficas- 
ter County Forestry Association was formed as a 
branch of the Pennsylvania Association, with 
Simon P. Bby as president. 

ARBOR DAY. 

By the law of March 17, 1885, Governor Pattison 
was reqnested to appoint a day, to be called Arbo? 
Day^ to be devoted to tree planting along public 
highways and school-grounds throughout Penn- 
sylvania. Governor Pattison issued a proclama- 
tion appointing April 16, 1885, as Arbor Day. 
Dr. E. E. Higbee, then State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, issued circulars to the Super- 
intendents of schools throughout the State, re- 
questing them to have Arbor Day observed by the 
public schools of the State by the planting of trees. 
Arbor Day has ever since been observed through- 
out Pennsylvania. There is a spring Arbor Day 
and a fall Arbor Day, the latter occurring in Sep- 
tember. 

RARE FLOWERING PLANTS. 

Among the rare flowering plants found in the 
county are the pitcher plant (Sarracenia Purpurea), 
which grows in the swamp between Christiana and 
Georgetown. The leaves of this plant take the 
form of pitchers, are partly filled with water, and 
are provided with sharp prickles extending down 
toward the water. 

Flies and other insects, when once in the pitcher, 



294 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

cannot rescue themselves. They fall into the water, 
slowly decompose, and nourish the plant. This 
plant has a large and beautiful flower. It blossoms 
in June. Related to this in its habits is the Sun 
Dew (Drosera rotundifolia), a small plant growing 
in the swamp at Dillerville and near Smithville. 

This plant has round leaves, which are armed 
with sticky glands. The leaf closes when an insect 
lights upon it, and with the aid of the glands the 
insect is held until it is decomposed and used by the 
plant. 

/ A very beautiful autumn flower is the fringed 
gentian (gentiana crinita), which grows along the 
Little Conestoga, south of Millersville. 

The American cowslip (Dodecatheon Meadia) is 
a rare and very pretty flower. It is found on Media 
Hill, near Lancaster, and on the rock along the 
Little Conestoga. 

The interesting and much admired family of 
flowers called the orchids are well represented in 
Lancaster county. Nine species of habenaria (in- 
cluding the beautiful ciliaris), four species of spi- 
ranthis and three of cypripedium, are found in dif- 
ferent parts of the county. Liparis lilifolia grows 
in the Neffsville hills, and Pogonia verticillata in 
the oak woods near Strasburg. Besides these men- 
tioned, there are many other rare orchids, as well as 
rare plants of other families. 

The varied abundant flora of this county was 
among the first to receive the attention of botanists. 
Here was the home of the distinguished Muhlen- 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 295 

berg, who did so much for American botany. He 
analyzed and classified most of the native' plants in 
the beginning of the present century. Dr. Thomas 
C. Porter, from 1853 ^^ 1866, lived here and care- 
fully examined all the species accessible to him in 
those years. He classified the plants of the county, 
and gave in his summary 841 species of exogenous 
phaenogamus, 328 species of endogenous phaeno- 
gamus, or 1169 species of flowering plants in the 
county. 

Besides this he analyzed and classified 199 species 
of cr3^ptogamus, making the entire flora of the coun- 
ty consist of at least 1368 species. 

FAUNA— HOW INFLUENCED. 

In all its varied forms, the animal life native to 
any region constitutes its fauna. Many of the lower 
forms of animals feed upon vegetable matter, and 
nearly every plant has its enemy that slowly saps it 
life or stunts its growth. Hence where vegetation 
is luxuriant there will be a large number of species 
of animals. The fauna thus depends directly upon 
the flora ; and as the latter is determined by cli- 
mate, position, and such local influences as soil and 
present or former geographical features, the animal 
life is distributed in zones, or faunal realms. Lan- 
caster county, situated in the north temperate fau- 
nal realm, is rich in native plants, and therefore had 
a varied animal life. Of course, many of the larger 
and destructive animals have disappeared with the 
settlement of the county, and those forms only that 



296 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTKR COUNTY. 

are not readily displaced by agricultural develop- 
ment remain abundant. 

INSECT LIFE. 

The injury done by insects is every year more no- 
ticeable. Civilization and cultivation have changed 
the conditions of life for the native insects. By the 
clearing away of forests and the destruction of her- 
baceous plants -in tilling the soil, insects have been 
deprived of their natural food, and they have in 
many cases adapted themselves to a new diet of cul- 
tivated plants. This in some cases has been very 
favorable to their multiplication, and their ravages 
have therefore become sources of great loss to the 
farmer and fruit-grower, and science has thus been 
called in to devise means of. checking their depre- 
dations. 

An insect, so named because its body is cut into 
sections by cross-lines, passes through three stages 
of growth, the larva or infant period, the pupa or 
chrysalis stage in which it is usually quiescent, and 
the imago or adult stage. The science of insects and 
insect life is called Entomology. * 

INJURIOUS INSECTS. 

The Locust Borer is one of the most destructive 
of our insect pests, destroying one of the most val- 
uable trees, the locust. A line of young locusts 
may frequently be observed with rough scarred bark 



^he most noted entomologists of the county have been Dr. S. 
S. Rathvon and Prof. S. S. Haldeman. Mr. Samuel Auxer, of 
Ivancaster, has a very fine collection of insects. 




BRIKF HISTORY OP I^ANCAST^R COUNTY. 297 

and of stunted growth. Examination will show 
that all has been caused by the perforations through 
the bark and trunk made by the Lo- 
cust Borer. Great numbers of the 
beetles may be found in September on 
the golden rod. Of a bright golden 
yellow color, crossed by black velvety locust borer. 
lines, they are not easily distinguished from the 
flower, and the insect is thus an example of protec- 
tive " mimicry." 

The Hickory Girdler, a beetle that attacks the 
hickory and also the pear, does a great deal of dam- 
age by girdling or cutting off the twigs of these 
trees. The female deposits her eggs in a small twig, 
and then proceeds to make a deep incision all round 
the branch on the side toward the trunk. This 
causes the death of the twig and affords food of a 
suitable character for the larva. They are only 
periodically abundant, not annually so. 

The Peach Flat- Headed Borer originally was an 
insect enemy of the Beech tree. Now, however, it 
is found almost entirely upon the peach and cherry, 
and sometimes upon the cultivated maples. In 
some sections, and in certain kinds of soils, it is al- 
most impossible to cultivate the peach on account 
of its ravages. The larva bores into the roots and 
lower body of the tree and soon causes the prema- 
ture death of the tree. 

CUT-WORMS. 

Corn, tobacco, cabbage and several other plants, 
are frequently cut off just below the surface of the 
13* 



298 BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 

soil. The work is done by subterranean caterpil- 
lars, the larva of several species of moths. Each 
plant probably has its own enemy, though it may 
be that the same caterpillar cuts the corn and the 
tobacco-plant. The moth of the cabbage cut- worm 
has the "fore wings of a dark-ashen gray color," 
with a lustre like satin." In expanse it is about 
one inch and three-fourths ; in length about three- 
fourths of an inch. 

SPHINXES. 

The Sphinxes are moths so named by Linnaeus, 
the great Swedish botanist, because he fancied a re- 
semblance between the larva or caterpillars in cer- 
tain postures and the great Egyptian Sphinx. 
Their attitudes are, indeed, remarkable. The fore 
part of the body is held erect for hours at a time. 
The larva of the Sphinxes are nearly all large cat- 
erpillars and quite voracious. The different species 
attack different plants, usually devouring the leaves 
completely or cutting them full of holes. Each 
species seems to be confined in its ravages to a single 
plant or to the plants of a single genus, or some- 
times to a family of plants. 

Many of the moths are large and fly rapidly from 
flower to flower in the morning and evening twi- 
light. Their movements are so rapid, and so con- 
trolled that they can poise themselves before a 
flower and extract its honey. To secure the nectar, 
they are provided with a long tongue, varying 
from one inch to three in length. This they carry 
rolled up in a groove on the under side of the head. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 299 

From their movements they are known as htim- 
ming-bird and hawk-moths. 




TOBACCO MOTH. 




TOBACCO WORM. 



CHYRSALIS. 



Some of the Sphinxes look like bees and wasps, 
and fly with great rapidity. The members of the 
group are known as Algerians and are diurnal in 
their habits. 

Others again are nocturnal and also very slow in 
their movements. All are injurious, and prominent 
among destructive ones are the tobacco-worm and 
the elm caterpillar, both larva of hawk-moths. 



300 BRI^F HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY. 
CURIOUS AND RARE INSECTS. 

The Burying-beetle is one of the most interesting 
insects, not only on account of its habits, but also 
because of its acute sense of smell. It is to the in- 
sect world what the vulture is to bird-life — a true 
scavenger. 

A small animal or bird, dead and decaying, is sel- 
dom seen about the fields or in the woods, simply 
because they have their grave-diggers. No sooner 
has a field-mouse, for example, died and begun to 
decay than the burrying-beetles drop in upon it 
from all sides to bury it. Crawling under the ani- 
mal, they begin to undermine. Excavating the hole 
deeper and deeper, the animal is soon made to dis- 
appear beneath the surface, covered by the earth as 
it is thrown out by the beetles and rolls back over 
the animal. Here beneath the surface the beetles 
consume the decaying flesh. 

The Tiger-beetle, sometimes known as the sand- 
fly, is of interest because of its beautiful colors and 
predatory habits. On warm bright days they may 
be seen along sunny, sandy roads, quietly awaiting 
the approach of some hapless insect. Should one 
approach near enough it would be pounced upon, 
quickly seized in the strong jaws of the Tiger-beetle, 
and killed. They are among the most beautiful 
and active beetles, and fly as swiftly as a wasp. 

FISHES AND FISHERIES. 

Fishes rank lowest in the scale of vertebrate life, 
and include some low forms which it is difficult to 



BRI^P HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 301 

locate in the great series of animal life. Fishes are 
characterized by small brain, low nervous organi- 
zation, and incomplete ossification of the bony sys- 
tem, especially of the skull bones. 

Fishes are not only interesting on account of their 
habits and beauty and perfection of form, but are 
valuable for food. Among the food fishes of the 
county the only one of commercial importance is 
the shad. Coming up the Chesapeake bay from 
the ocean, it enters the Susquehanna for the pur- 
pose of spawning, and "runs" in large numbers as 
far as Columbia. The young shad, after it is hatch- 
ed, returns to the sea, where it remains until fully 
developed. 

The shad-fisheries of the Susquehanna are exten- 
sive and valuable, and extend the whole length of 
the river below Columbia. The shad caught at 
and near Columbia and Safe Harbor are especially 
noted. 

The Blind-fish (sometimes miscalled the eyeless 
fish) has been taken in the county where some sub- 
terranean streams enter the Susquehanna. The 
eyes are present, though rudimentary, and therefore 
useless. 

Among other noted fish are the wall-eyed pike 
(often miscalled salmon) of the Susquehanna, and 
the bass found in nearly all the streams. The for- 
mer attain a length of from two to three feet, and 
the latter a weight of from two to four pounds. 

In local streams fish native to the Atlantic coast 
streams are found. The catfish and the sunfish are 



302 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY. 

among those most abundant and widely distributed . 
Trout and pike occur only in clear cold streams. 

FISH FARMING, 

The German carp are of two kinds, scale and 
leather. A cross between these two has produced 
a third called the mirror carp. These fish have 
been raised in Germany for several centuries in arti- 
ficial ponds. They are greatly esteemed there, as 
well as here, as an article of food, because of their 
fine flavor, the cheapness of production and the 
little attention they require. They were introduced 
into this country from Germany in 1877. 

A properly constructed pond 100 feet square will 
accommodate from 400 to 500 carp. A steady 
stream of pure water is necessary, also a drain and 
overflow pipe. 

As carp feed only on vegetation, living in their 
native waters on cresses, lilies, grass, moss and other 
water plants, fish farmers should sow their ponds 
thickly with wild rice, and plant water cress around 
the banks of the pond, just at the water's edge. 
Roast potatoes, beans, cabbage, or any succulent 
vegetable may be fed to them ; but great care must 
be taken not to overfeed the fish, and no more 
should be fed them than what they eat promptly. 

The best time to ship carp is during the spring 
and fall. As they are very tenacious of life, they 
may be shipped great distances in cool weather by 
packing them in wet moss or placing in cans. 

The ponds of the Doctors Davis are beautifully 
situated one mile north of Lancaster city. They 



BRIBF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTKR COUNTY. 303 

consist of four ponds, the largest of which contains 
two acres and a half of water surface, with an island 
in the center. There is a dwelling for an overseer 
and a fish-house loo by 24 feet. 

REPTILES. 

Reptiles are air-breathing, cold-blooded verte- 
brates, distinguished from birds by having the ex- 
ternal covering of scales or horny plates, and from 
amphibians by never breathing by means of gills. 
They include snakes, lizards, turtles and crocodiles. 

In the more thickly settled parts of the county 
the venomous snakes have almost disappeared. 
Formerly the copperhead and the rattlesnake were 
abundant. Now the only places in which rattle- 
snakes exist are in the northern and southern hills. 

Two species of garter snake, a harmless snake, 
are found all over the county. One, the riband 
snake, is not common, and may be distinguished 
from the common garter snake by its three broad, 
well-defined stripes and its slender shape. The 
common garter snake is beneficial, and probably 
should nevei- be disturbed. It feeds mainly upon 
insects and injurious rodents. 

A great deal of superstitious prejudice exists 
everywhere against snakes. No question is ever 
thought of as to beneficial character when one meets 
a snake. Human beings and snakes seem instinc- 
tive enemies, and the result is the weaker must die. 

The racer, the pine snake and the blowing viper 
all benefit the farmer by destroying a great many 
injurious insects and rodents ; but, from our natural 



304 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTE)R COUNTY. 

antipathy, they are destined to disappear entirely. 
They are not abundant now. 

The milk snake, or house snake, is a common 
ophidian of a grayish color, with three series of 
brown, round blotches bordered with black stretch- 
ing in a dorsal line. It is entirely harmless, though 
generally thought to be venomous. The water 
snake is abundant in damp places and in streams. 
It feeds upon fish, frogs, and insects. The green 
snake is found, though rarely, in the wooded por- 
tions. It is a most exquisite little creature. 

BIRDS, NUMBER OF SPECIES. 

About one hundred and fifty species of birds breed 
regularly in Pennsylvania. Of this number proba- 
bly one hundred and ten may be found in Lancas- 
ter county. Many migrants pass through the State 
during the spring and fall migrations, in all proba- 
bly one hundred species, some coming in autumn 
from the shores of Greenland, some from I^abrador, 
and others from the region situated ajound Hudson 
Bay and away northward of that to the bleak and 
desolate shores of the islands of the Arctic Archi- 
pelago. 

The county, situated near the line separating 
the north and south avifaunal belts of the United 
States and protected on the north by mountains, and 
not far from the head of the littoral waters of Chesa- 
peake bay, is favorably located for the entrance of 
stragglers. These come from the North and from 
the South, from the mountains and from the sea. 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 305 

When the winters of the North are of exceptional 
severity, many of the birds, resident in the far North, 
are driven toward the South, not so much on ac- 
count of the cold as from the scarcity of food. 
Among those thus influenced are the Arctic owl, 
the Bohemian Waxwing, the Shore I^ark, the last of 
which we frequently see at such times along our 
roads, and the great northern Shrike, or Butcher 
bird. 

From the South, especially with the wave of mi- 
gration that vernally sweeps northward, come birds 
of the South that seem borne along by the wave. 
Then again, with every fall storm from the ocean, 
many species, especially of the I^aridae, or Gulls and 
Terns, and an occasional Petrel, are driven inward 
from the Atlantic. 

FINCHES AND SPARROWS— BENEFICIAL BIRDS. 

At least twelve species of the Fringilline family, 
which includes the finches, the buntings, and the 
sparrows, are found in the county. The most com- 
mon of the finches are the American Goldfinch, or 
Salad bird, the Purple finch, and the Pine finch ; 
and of the buntings and sparrows, the Song spar- 
row. Indigo bunting. Bay- winged bunting, and the 
Chipping sparrow. Examine the bills of these birds, 
and you will find them strong, stout, and conical 
in shape ; therefore adapted to a diet of seeds. The 
sparrows and buntings are terrestrial in their habits, 
inhabit the fields and feed mainly upon noxious 
seeds. The finches are chiefly arboreal, and feed 
upon buds as well as seeds. 



306 BRIEF HISTORY OF I.ANCASTER COUNTY. 
SWALLOWS. 

Six Species of swallows, of course excluding the 
chimney swallow, popularly so-called, though in- 
correctly, for it is a Swift, are generally distributed 
in favorable localities. Their food consists mainly 
of soft-bodied, two- winged insects ; and they conse- 
quently restrict the ravages of such insects as the 
Hessian fly, gnats and mosquitoes. Sociable and 
gregarious in their nesting habits, they are always 
pleasing. 

WARBLERS. 

The great Warbler family contains some little 
gems of bird-life, the most attractive of all our birds. 
The happy Vireos ; the rollicking chat ; the summer 
warbler, passing in and out among the foliage of 
our shade trees like a flash of beautiful sunlight ; the 
Maryland yellow-throat, who constantly tells you, 
should you approach their swamp abode, that there 
are "witches here, " area few only of this large 
family. All of them are eminently beneficial. 

Many of our common beneficial birds are gifted 
with the power of song. Among these may be 
named the Robin, the Brown Thrush, and most gift- 
ed of all, the Wood Thrush, that with its clear bell- 
like voice, makes its woodland haunts ring. The 
Mocking-bird too, though rarely, is found in the 
county near the southern border. 

FLY CATCHERS. 

An interesting family of the great order of Pas- 
seres, or sparrows, is that of the non-melodious Ty- 
rant Flycatchers. The Bee Marten and the Pewit 



BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 307 

are the best known of the group. Another, not so 
well known, is the Great Crested Flycatcher, dis- 
tinguished for spirit, daring and a singular nest- 
building habit. No nest with them is complete un- 
less lined with cast off snake-skins, or even dead 
reptiles. The object of this peculiar habit is not 
known. 

RAPTORIAL BIRDS. 

The State, by the repeal of the "scalp act," im- 
plied that most raptorial birds are beneficial. With 
a few exceptions, the hawk and owls do a vast 
amount of good. Prominent among the owls here 
are the Screech owl, whose diet is mainly insects, 
the Barn owl, whose prey consists of injurious mam- 
mals, and the Short-eared and Barred owls. A 
few hawks are abundant, prominent among which 
during the winter is the Red-tailed Buzzard hawk, 
and at all times the Sparrow hawk. 

INJURIOUS BIRDS. 

Very few of the indigenous birds are altogther 
injurious. The crow probably has more on his 
"account" of harm than good. The "English" 
sparrow, introduced into the United States in 1874, 
since which it has spread over nearly the entire 
country, is a true sparrow and therefore granivor- 
ous. It is not only widely distributed but very 
abundant and pugnacious. Directly destructive 
itself, it is also indirectly a source of great injury, 
for it drives other birds away from the farm and 
the garden. Enemies like the screech owl are 
probably growing up, which, if fostered, will 
restrict its depredations. 



308 BRIEF HISTORY OF I^ANCASTER COUNTY. 
GAME BIRDS. 

The Quail, the Ruffed Grouse, and the Upland 
Plover are found in some sections of the county, 
though not abundantly. Wild Ducks, Snipes, and 
Woodcocks, at certain seasons, may be seen along 
the streams. 

The Bird Laivs of Pennsylvania afford protec- 
tion to beneficial birds of all kinds by absolutely 
prohibiting (except for scientific purposes) their 
destruction or the robbing of their nests. Game 
birds by the same law are not to be molested in 
any way during the breeding season. 

MAMMALS. 

Mammals, or animals that bring forth their 
young alive and nourish them with milk, are the 
highest vertebrates. They breathe by means of 
lungs ; and the heart is, in all cases, divided into 
four chambers. 

When the county was wild, forest-clad, and in- 
habited by the Indians and the few early white 
settlers, wolves, panthers, bears and deer were 
found. These animals became the prey of the 
white hunter as well as of the Indian, but as the 
county became more settled by the whites this 
larger game gradually disappeared. 

THE FOX AND FOX CHASES. 

Two species of foxes, the red fox and the gray 
fox, are found in this fanual realm. The former is 
most abundant in the northern and the latter in 
the southern part of the fanual belt. Both are 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 309 

characterized by their shyness, cunning and sus- 
picious of anything new to them. Both have acute 
sense of sight, smell and hearing, and great speed 
in running. The red fox, however, does not run 
a great distance, and is seldom hunted by dogs and 
hounds. It visits the farm-yard and seizes poultry 
for its prey, but feeds mainly upon animals of the 
rodent family and upon fish. It is said to run 
swiftly for a hundred yards or more, but is easily 
overtaken by a wolf or a mounted man. The grey 
fox is not as rapacious as the red fox, and preys 
upon quail, grouse and small birds just as a pointer 
will do, and runs down the rabbit like a dog. 
When pursued by hounds in open woods it will 
often climb a tree. 

Fox-hunting in Amerca in its origin is a Southern 
sport, and was originally confined mainly to the 
South, from Maryland to Florida, and westward 
to Louisiana. The grey fox is always used at fox 
chases, as he possesses more cunning than the red 
fox, leaves less scent, and is capable of running a 
long distance. When chased he doubles on his 
trail, winds in and out of thickets, and around hills 
in a way that frequently baflfles the hounds and se- 
cures his escape. Large crowds indulge in the pas- 
time in looking on at these fox-chases. 

THE RABBIT. 

On account of the agricultural development of 
the county, the Gray Hare or Rabbit is abundant. 
Like all hares, and unlike other rodent animals, it 



310 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

has more than two front or cutting teeth. Its 
slow motions are awkward and clumsy; but when 
at full speed as it dashes past you, it seems won- 
derfully graceful and fleet, and can in the wildest 
race make turns of almost incredible quickness. 
It is taken in snares and traps, dug or drowned out, 
and hunted by dogs and shot. Its flesh is delicate 
and palatable; and its skins are used to make hats, 
and are dyed to imitate more expensive furs. 

In its habits it is mainly nocturnal, hiding in the 
thickets, "forms," and in hollow logs during the 
day. It is fond of succulent plants; consequently it 
visits the garden, the clover and the corn-field, and 
nurseries of young trees. During winters in which 
snow covers the * ground for a month or more, it 
is likely to do a great deal of damage to young 
trees by "barking" them to a considerable height 
above the ground. 

THE GROUND-HOG, OPOSSUM AND SKUNK. 

The Wood-chuck, Pouched-marmot, or Ground- 
hog, is a squirrel-like rodent animal, adapted in 
its thick body and short legs to burrowing habits. 
It digs its home in fields, hillsides, or under rocks, 
where it passes the winter in a torpid state, and dur- 
ing the summer may be seen sitting in an erect 
posture, basking in the sunshine or eating its food. 
The head is short and conical, with short rounded 
ears covered with a thick growth of hair, eyes of 
moderate size and whiskers numerous. The fore- 
feet have four toes and a rudimentary thumb; the 
hind-feet five toes. It is active and no mean an- 



BRIKF Hist OR Y OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 311 

tagonist in defending itself. It is with some people 
the object of a ridiculous superstition. 

The Opossum is a marsupial animal, about the 
size of a large cat. Its thumbs are opposable and 
without nails, and the tail bare, and prehensile for 
its terminal half or more. The brain is small, and 
the jaws are provided with fifty teeth. In its 
feeding habits it is almost omnivorous. When 
hard pressed by hunger it will feed greedily upon 
dead and decaying animals. When caught it 
feigns death and will bear torture without flinch- 
ing, all the time watching for an opportunity to 
escape. When caught by a limb in a steel trap it 
will liberate itself by cutting off the limb with its 
sharp teeth. Though tenacious of life. Vet it 
usually dies by such self-amputation from loss of 
blood. 

The Skunk is an American carnivorous mam- 
mal, closely related to the weasel, the otter, and 
the mink. It is provided with a very effective 
means of defence in the form of glands which 
secrete an oily acrid fluid of a very offensive odor. 
The glands are controlled by strong muscles by 
means of which the animal is able to project a 
stream of the horrible fetid fluid to the distance 
of fourteen feet. The animal is in bad repute 
among all classes of people, and the farmer especi- 
ally, as it destroys large numbers of eggs and 
sometimes visits the poultry-yard. It burrows a 
gallery in a straight line about two feet in diame- 
ter beneath the surface to a length of seven or 



^ 



312 BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

eight feet. This ends in a large excavation, in 
which is placed a bulky nest of leaves. Here in 
winter it remains from December until March. 

DOMESTICATED ANIMALS. 

The domesticated animals, all of which were 
introduced from the Old World by the early white 
settlers, have a very great aggregate value. The 
county, since it is mainly an agricultural region, 
of course pays a great deal of attention to the 
production of fine stock. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

INDIAN LEGENDS. 

TN conversation not long ago, with a gentleman 
^ widely read in the history of the Indian, he re- 
marked that there was probably at one time in 
Lancaster county a native population equal to two- 
thirds of the present white inhabitants. 

As proof of this assertion, he referred to the vast 
number of Indian relics found about the sites of 
their ancient villages and fishing camps. It would 
thus seem tliat our county was a favorite dwelling 
place of these children of the forest, but 

" Alas for them their day is o'er, 
Their fires are out from shore to shore. 
No more for them the wild deer bounds, 
The plough is on their hunting grounds. 
The pale man's axe rings through their woods, 
The pale man's sail skims o'er their floods. 
Their children — look, by power oppressed, 
Beyond the mountains of the West — 
Their children go — to die ! " 

Anything pertaining to them, however, ought to 
be of interest to us who have succeeded to their 
domain. This is our reason for appending a few 
legends and stories that reflect their character, and 
that to a degree evince their friendship, however 
remote it may be, with other people. 

Among the tribes of the great Algonquin family, 
to which the Lancaster county Indians belonged, 



314 BRIEF HISTORY OP LANCASTER COUNTY. 

the legendary origin of man was akin to that pres- 
ented by the myths of all savage nations. This 
origin they ascribed to a union of Earth and 
Heaven. Earth the mother, and Heaven the 
father. The language of their myths is often so 
fanciful and seemingly absurd that the trend is 
difficult to understand. One tradition of man's 
early existence was that his dwelling place was 
under a great lake, that he was fortunately extri- 
cated from this dismal abode by the discovery 
made by some one of a hole by means of which he 
ascended to the surface. While walking about 
here he found a deer. This he carried to his sub- 
terranean home and killed. He and his com- 
panions finding the flesh good, they decided to 
leave their habitation of darkness and remove to a 
place where they could enjoy the 'Might of heaven 
and have game in abundance." 

In all the legends of savage people there is a ten- 
dency toward the deification of animals. The ser- 
pent, the bat, the owl, the eagle, the turtle, are all, 
in mythical tales, objects of worship, and are always 
of super-terrestrial origin. In the legends and stories 
of the Indian, this reference to his connection with 
animals is a conspicuous feature. For instance, 
the rabbit and the ground-hog were rejected as arti- 
cles of food on the ground of their being related 
to them. 

The rattlesnake, he said, was grandfather to the 
Indian, and every one was strictly forbidden to in- 
jure it. The warning given on one occasion to a 



BRIKF HISTORY OF I^ANC ASTER COUNTY. 315 

white man, who was about to kill one, was: " If you 
do that you are declaring war against them. They 
are a very dangerous enemy. Take care you do 
not irritate them in our country. They and their 
grandchildren are on good terms, and neither will 
hurt the other." 

They have a story of the Deluge which is spread 
throughout the New World, from one pole to the 
other. The version of it varies slightly in different 
tribes. One of these is that in remote a^es the 
waters invaded the land as a punishment for the 
crimes of men. A few people were spared, and they 
retired to a wooden house on the top of a mountain. 
The sun interfered and hid them there. When the 
waters began to go down they let loose some dogs, 
which came back wet. A few days later they were 
sent forth a second time, and this time came back 
soiled with mud. At this sign they knew that the 
waters had retired. Then they left their retreat, 
and their posterity peopled the country. 

Among the interesting stories found in the 
"Algic Researches" is one giving the origin of 
the robin. It runs thus : In order to secure 
through life a guardian genius, it was necessary 
for a young man to fast for some time as a prep- 
aration. If a father was ambitious that his son 
should excel all others, this fast must be quite 
long. 

Thus it is said that an old man had a son named 
ladilla. He was desirous that this son should be 
renowned for prowess and wisdom. He therefore 



316 BRIKF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 

doomed him to a fast of twelve days, after which he 
was to receive food and the blessing of his father. 
A little lodge was prepared for him, on the floor 
of which was placed a new, clean mat. Upon this 
the young man was to lie down. Here, day after 
day, he lay in perfect composure, his face covered, 
awaiting the mystic visitation which was to seal 
his fortune. His father visited him every morning, 
always encouraging him to be patient and perse- 
vere, and telling him of the renown awaiting him 
if he fasted the prescribed period. The boy never 
replied, but lay silent, never murmuring. On the 
ninth day, however, he spoke thus to his father : 
'' My father, my dreams forbode evil. May I break 
my fast now, and at a more propitious time make 
a new fast?" The father answered: "My son, 
you know not what you ask. If you get up now, 
all your glory will depart. Wait with patience 
three days longer. It is for your own good." The 
son assented, and lay until the eleventh day, when 
he repeated the request. The father again refused, 
but added that the next day he would prepare his 
first meal and bring it to him. This he did. On 
coming to the door of the room with the report for 
his son, he was surprised to hear him talking to 
himself. He stopped, and looked through a small 
aperture, and found the young man painted with 
vermilion all over his breast, and in the act of 
finishing his work by laying the paint as far back 
on his shoulders as his hands could reach, saying to 
himself while working: "My father has destroyed 



BRIEF HISTORY OF LANCASTER COUNTY. 317 

my fortune as a man. He would not yield to my 
requests, but I shall be forever happy in my new 
state, for I have been obedient to my parent. He 
alone will be the sufferer, for my guardian spirit is 
a just one. He has g^iven me another shape, and 
now I must go." The father exclaimed: *'My 
son, my son, I pray you leave me not." But the 
young man, with the speed of a bird, had flown to 
the top of the lodge and perched himself on the 
highest pole, having been changed into a beautiful 
robin redbreast." 

Of this romantic lore there was abundance among 
the Indian tribes. It is perhaps meet that we should 
perpetuate some knowledge of it and transmit the 
"short and simple annals" of these "children of 
nature" to coming generations, that they may 
know how to appreciate and cherish memories of 
the original and almost forgotten owners of Lan- 
caster county's rich forests, fertile lands, pictur- 
esque hills and beautiful streams. 




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