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Full text of "A brief history of Butte, Montana, the world's greatest mining camp; including a story of the extraction and treatment of ores from its gigantic copper properties .."

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Gc M. l: 





1833 01066 9205 

a^liu-a l.y IJ.niiicl Dutr 


A BRIEF history'' 









^tintct^ of arhc Jntanft printer 


Copyright, 1900, by H. C. Freeman. 


Illinois Engraving Company The Henry O. Shei 

chk \co chicago 



OUT of the boundless West from time to 
time comes literature of every descrip- 
tion concerning its resources, develop- 
ment, life, grandeur of scenery and every phase 
that can possibly serve as a vehicle to relieve the 
mind. One efifort emanates from the pen of the 
student of events, who sees the unfolding of 
mighty things which shall leave their imprint 
upon the future of a great and growing nation. 
Another purports to be the work of the critic, 
who, after a superficial study of prevailing condi- 
tions, finds much delight in exaggerating the 
primitiveness of its institutions, the roughness of 
its life and the depravity of its public morality, 
with little or no thought as to the obstacles which 
have been overcome, the rapidity with which 
events have followed one another nor the influ- 
ences which have been thrown about them. Still 
another is of a commercial character, inspired by 
the demand for sensational nonsense upon the 
part of the great newspapers of the East, who still 
find profit in stigmatizing this new country as 
abnormally " wild and woolly " in contra-distinc- 
tion to the " civilized and effete East." The " cat- 
tle king," the " copper king," the " silver king " 
and a dozen other titles are still forced upon the 
credulity of the uninformed to assist in throwing 
an air of mystery and awe about this bovmtifully 
endowed country and to strengthen the stories of 
fabulous wealth popularly supposed to be found 
beneath every rock and along every stream 

Some writers studiously adhere to the path of 
truthfulness ; others assume that truthfulness is 
the last element required. The result can be but 
one. The average mind is confused and clouded. 
The resources of the country are admitted, but 
the state of society is too unattractive. Large 
opportunities are conceded, but it means a 
divorcement from all civilizing influences to 
grasp them. The delightful healthfulness of its 
climate is recognized, but the weather is too rigor- 
ous. Educational institutions are crude, plodding, 
and partake nothing of the higher standards. 

Religiou.s life is stunted and warped, and a 
thoughtful pulpit and a comfortable church home 
are impossible of attainment. A thousand things 
are lacking which are necessary and another thou- 
sand are present which must be eliminated to 
make the country tenable. And thus doth the 
imagination today perform the functions that 
should rest with certain knowledge, as much as 
was the case forty or forty-five years ago, when 
stories of Western exploration and discovery were 
beginning to work themselves from thence. At 
tliat time but little was known of true conditions. 
From California had come stories of great wealth 
and, in due course of time, the bones of many a 
hardy adventurer lay bleaching along the over- 
land trails to guide other courageous spirits 
toward the setting sun. Fremont's expedition had 
added a little cumulative testimony to that of dar- 
ing explorers who had previously sought the 
source of the great Missouri, but which still left 
to the imagination the task of adding all the 
details in arriving at any given fact concerning 
the whole West. The Mormons had shut them- 
selves in along the banks of the Jordan and about 
the shores of Great Salt Lake, and details of their 
fanatical crimes ofttimes carried with them mea- 
ger facts concerning the country contiguous, but 
to imagination was left the duty of setting the 
frame. As it was then, so it is now to almost as 
great an extent. 

Misinformation has erected an average opinion 
concerning the Great West quite as much at vari- 
ance with the true conditions as lack of informa- 
tion in the past has done. The West has devel- 
oped so rapidly and transition from condition to 
condition has so speedily followed one another 
that today a new West is presented while the 
world is still wrestling with the traditions and the 
legends of the old. While the East is straining 
its eyes to catch a glimpse of some evidence of a 
higher degree of civilization, the unsatisfied trav- 
eler is wearing himself out in a vain search for 
lingering relics of primitive life. 

Yet all seems to be the part of God's economy. 


and logic approves of the enveloping of true con- 
ditions in a certain mystery, which shall be dis- 
pelled by slow stages of discovery and develop- 
ment in the working out for the whole nation of a 
destiny palpably intended for it. It furnishes not 
only a school to the brawn and brain of coming 
generations, as in the past, but, equally as neces- 
sary, perhaps, it supplies a reserve of treasure 
which shall be at the disposal of the whole nation 
when most needed. 

Step by step have the borders of civilization 
been pushed from the banks of the Mississippi and 
the shores of the Pacific until they have merged 
into one. Gradually have the agricultural, graz- 
ing and mineral resources of the Western plains, 
valleys and mountains been developed until today 
they are the great producers of raw materials for 
the gigantic industries of the East. And, so 
surely, in due time will the industries of the East 
come creeping westward to utilize these materials 
at the point of production, while in their wake will 
come the people of a congesting East. But it will 
all come in God's time. It will come when an 
increasing national vigor is vitally necessary. 
When the voice of power of a great nation in the 
events of the world must needs be reinforced by 
the best manhood, by the highest industrial attain- 
ment, by the greatest material wealth and by the 
broadest civilization. How better could this end 
be reached than by the methods which at present 
obtain? What better school for the development 
of the sturdiest, the best that manhood should 
know for the strenuous struggle for supremacy of 
a whole nation than the trials and hardships con- 
sequent upon the settlement of a great expanse 
like our West ? It was the same school where was 
learned the spirit of the Revolution which gave us 
the Republic, and which perpetuated the Republic 
in the Civil War, and it is the same school which 
will develop the youth of coming generations 
who shall stand as sponsors for the Republic's 
integrity for all time. 

There they will go on, seeking out the dangers 
and the hardships, redeeming the dark, forbidding 
places, developing and expanding the resources of 
the country until the East shall know no line of 
distinction, can see no flaw in its institutions and 
its civilization, and the best in customs and mor- 
ality of the one shall be engrafted into the lives 
and the minds of the people of the other; when 
the East sliall be more Western and the West 
more Eastern. It is a consummation much to be 

desired, a condition some day certain of realiza- 
tion. It is the most pregnant promise that is pre- 
sented to its people at the dawn of the new cen- 
tury of a continued survival and growth of the 
Republic unto the time when its voice shall be the 
most potent and its influence the most far reach- 
ing of all the nations of the earth. All honor to 
the West from whence beckoneth the star of 
empire to the youth of the East and the whole 
world — not to an empire where royalty reigns, 
but to a free country where brain and brawn are 
kings and where determination to do is a more 
priceless treasure than much fine gold. 

That which follows is a story touching upon 
one of the great landmarks of the West. Here 
and there others have been erected which, in slight 
measure only, point what the future has in store. 
Many States of the great West enjoy such land- 
marks. They indicate the slow, certain develop- 
ment of the great industries of that great expanse. 
Still other States are but awakening to a realiza- 
tion of latent possibilities. A generation or so 
hence thousands, aye millions, of acres of arid 
lands, rendered, it once seemed, useless, will be 
reclaimed and put to the plow by the agency of 
irrigation, and Kansas and the Dakotas will be 
met by lusty rivals in new grain-bearing States. 
Stretching along the great Rockies from border to 
border discoveries are fast being made which tend 
to identify the whole range as a vast storehouse of 
mineral wealth. Great camps have sprung into 
existence whose futures for long years to come 
are assured. Some are gold camps, others silver, 
but that of which our story deals is a copper camp. 

If the same elements had controlled the devel- 
opment of Butte as have shaped the destinies of 
other equally promising mining-camps, its end 
would, no doubt, have been as inglorious. 
Denuded, as it seemed, of all the wealth that 
nature had hidden beneath its surface and ren- 
dered unattractive as a source of further treasure, 
it seems nothing short of marvel Dus that the camp 
was not abandoned for at least a long cycle of 
years — perchance forever — unmarked save by 
the tell-tale ruins of its early exploitation. 

Situated in an almost inaccessible valley, shut 
in by an alirupt curve of the Rocky Mountains 
anil off-running spurs and foothills, it most cer- 
tainly would have been least sought in the pursuit 
of all the engagements of the human race but for 
that one industry which has made its fame world- 
wide as tlie greatest citv of its kind on earth. 


namely, mining. Mineral wealth was there and in 
abundance. God seems even to have allowed the 
scale of equal distribution to go sadly out of hori- 
zontal in his endowment of that small area of hills 
which surround Butte proper, from which have 
been taken the riches of an empire and which are 
yet but in the babyhood of their development. 
But upon their discovery hinges the most remark- 
able feature of the story of Butte, aside from the 
unequaled story of its wonderful development 
and growth and its present wealth and pregnant 

It is with regret that the following contents are, 
of necessity, confined to the one city of Butte. So 
great are the other resources of the whole State 
of Montana that a recital of them all would 
immeasurably add to the value of the work in dis- 
pelling erroneous ideas concerning the common- 
wealth in particular and the whole West in gen- 
eral and create a more healthful opinion of the 
same in the minds of the uninformed. The great 
sheep-raising industries of the State surpass over- 
whelmingly those of any other State in the Union ; 
consequently this is true of wool. On a thousand 
ranges are fattened the cattle whose delicious 
qualities the whole world knows, and herein is 
presented an industry closely rivaling any other 
State, and so advantageously endowed is the State 
in this respect that a matter of a few years will 
place it at the head in this industry. No richer 
agricultural lands can be found the country over 

than along many of the valleys of the State, and 
especially is this true of the Gallatin and Bitter 
Root valleys, whose fame has crossed the borders 
of the State, which present opportunities of the 
greatest magnitude. Irrigation is rapidly reclaim- 
ing large portions of the State for agricultural 
purposes and, when the fact is realized that the 
products of the State from this source are wholly 
inadequate to supply the needs of home consump- 
tion, the advantages here presented are palpable. 
Mining is being largely developed along the whole 
length of the Rockies and off-running ranges 
throughout the State and opportunities in this 
direction have but had their surface pricked. 

In compiling the matter for this work the idea 
has been to create a healthful opinion and erect a 
curiosity for a deeper knowledge of the subject 
treated and present to the people of the city and 
State something that will adequately do justice to 
one phase of Montana's resources and prospects. 
To accomplish this it has been considered wise to 
depart from too dry details and wearisome statis- 
tics, seeking to encourage the reader to peruse its 
entire contents so that, at its conclusion, he may 
be forced to the admission that something new has 
been revealed and a desire excited for further 
facts concerning the great West. To this end the 
following humble effort is respectfully submitted. 

Butte, Montan.\, November 17, 1900. 









Total OvTPiT, 
Lead and Zinc. 


$ 720,000 







2, 371, ,882 

















California . 



14. 191.557 






















.South Dakota 


















Total U. S., including ) 
remaining States ... \ 







A classification of iron ore production can not be made, further tlian that southern and western States produced 
$62,144,458, as ai;aiust the remainder, whicli was all produced in the Lake Superior district. To Michigan is credited 
the entire Lake Superior output of this mineral, though, doubtless, a portion should be allotted to Minnesota and 
Wisconsin. This fact, howexer, could in nou ise materially change the positions of respective States as shown above. 

Lead ,iiid zinc are not shown, the products from tliese lieiiig of uuicli smaller figures and of no hearing on tliis 
table, the totals in each case being credited to the .States included in the table. 


IVE miles east of the 
present city of Butte 
rises the extreme apex 
of the eastern and 
western watersheds of 
the Rocky Mountains. 
Waters governed by 
the levels thus estab- 
lished start upon their 
widely separating 
courses, those descending the western slope fol- 
lowing their devious ways — under the successive 
names of Silver Bow creek, and Deer Lodge, Mis- 
soula, Flathead, Pen d'Oreille, Clarke's Fork and 
Semiacquitaine rivers — into the Willamette river, 
below Portland, Oregon, and thence to the Paciiic 
Ocean ; while the waters descending the eastern 
slope, in like manner, under different names of 
creeks and rivers, finally complete their flow at the 
junction of the Mississippi with the Gulf of Mex- 
ico. To Silver Bow creek belongs the distinction 
of being the stream whose rise is further east than 
that of any other stream whose waters eventually 
reach the Pacific 

About twelve miles southwest from the apex 
or watershed divide and at a point where the 
waters of this creek have ceased their precipitous 
flow and have entered into the level of the valley, 
with an altitude of S./OO feet above sea level, rests 



toda\ the ruins of Silver Bow village, a drowsy 
lelic of Its former boom days. 

In the summer of 1864, four prospectors — 
P.udd Paiker, P. Allison, and Joseph and James 
Esler — unmindful of the rich discoveries the pre- 
\ lous yeai m Alder Gulch, at Virginia City — left 
that camp and pushed on across the main range of 
the Rockies, striking alluring placers along the 
banks of Silver Bow creek. It is worthv of notic^ 


that Silver Bow village ranks with Helena, or, as 
it was then more familiarly known, Last Chance 
Gulch, in point of discovery, as one of the pioneer 
mining settlements of the State, though never at 
any time so rich in placer deposits. Bannack was 
easily the pioneer of them all, followed closely by 
Virginia City, they being located in 1862 and 
1863, respectively. 

The point selected by these prospectors is 
" upon a bend of the stream, which forms a per- 
fect figure of a gracefully curved Indian bow, and, 

Alder Gulch and speedily a stampede set in and, 
like all mining-camps of easily opened and pro- 
ductive placers, the section sprang up rapidly. 
Prospecting was extended along the creek in 
either direction and, during the winter following, 
or i864-'65, had proceeded to within six miles of 
its mouth — within the present site of Butte, on 
Town Gulch. This same winter several wooden 
structures were erected at Silver Bow and one 
store was erected in Butte. 

On February 6, 1865, a commission, of which 


f Schatzleiti Paint Co. 

from the mountain peaks which surround the val- 
ley, the glistening waters of the ' silver bow ' 
etched in a shimmering sheen upon a dark ground 
of furzy grass, form a striking feature of the 
landscape." Thus was born the name of Silver 
Bow, which name was given to both village and 

While the advent of these adventurous prospec- 
tors marked the beginning of mining activity in 
this district, it is related that a party of prospec- 
tors, headed by Caleb E. Irvine, traveling through 
the section as early as 1856, found evidences of 
prehistoric mining. 

News of rich strikes soon communicated to 

Hon. Granville Stuart was a member, was 
empowered to lay out the town of Silver Bow. 
Silver Bow was made the county seat of Deer 
Lodge County in this year and on July 10 the first 
court was held. The village also enjoyed for a 
short time the distinction of being the capital of 
the young territory, but was soon removed by no 
other warrant than physical force to the village of 
Deer Lodge. 

In the latter part of June of the same year the 
Democrats held at Silver Bow the first political 
convention of Deer Lodge County, and at the first 
election, upon September i following, the county 
seat followed the capital to Deer Lodge village. 


By 1866 the entire creek channel from Silver 
Bow to Butte was worked by a company of four 
or more men to every two-hundred-foot claim. 
These toilers lived almost exclusively in tents or 
brush shanties adjoining their labors, worked 
faithfully six days of the week and generally 
showed up in one of the two towns on the seventh. 
This was the business day of the week. Gambling 
flourished, the merchant then made his weekly 
clean-up and the dance-house keeper panned out 
more than the richest placer. Prosperity was uni- 
versal ; every one was emplo3'ed. Wages were $6 
to $7 per day. 

One writer at this time describes the style of 
architecture of the two towns as follows : " We 
should judge the prevailing style of architecture 
to be the Pan-Doric — a heathenish one of many 
evils. The material used is wood. Speaking of 
buildings, in Butte and Silver Bow, seven miles 
apart, year about houses are torn down in one 
and removed to the 
other. Last year 
houses were hauled 
from Silver Bow to 
Butte : this year the 
movement is re- 
versed," concluding 
sarcastically: "This 
was to save timber, 
we suppose, as there 
is not more than a 
million or two acres 
of good timber in 
this immediate vi- 

A decline in min- 
ing activity began in 
this vicinity in 1870 
and even the revival 
of 1 874-' 75 did not 

strike the pioneer village of the county, and in 1880 
the population had so dwindled that the census 
enumerators made no mention of the historic camp. 

The early-day history of Silver Bow and that of 
Butte, which follows, is replete with the names of 
men who, at one time or another, became promi- 
nent in the affairs of the State. A great many 
have crossed the " Great Divide," while others 
have drifted to other parts in search of new dis- 
coveries. A few are still alive, some of whose 
names and faces have gone beyond the borders of 
the State and are found in the larger affairs of the 

nation. They were men who came to Montana, as 
did hundreds of others, by ox-team and on horse- 
back, blazing the trail through an untraveled wil- 
derness — over snow-clad mountains, across 
treacherous, unbridged streams and through val- 
leys and passes infested with unfriendly tribes of 
savage Indians. Men who bore the hardships of 
the miner's life and discomforts of the primitive 
shack ; who harbored their treasure, profited by 
frontier conditions and assured for themselves 
futures of plenty and comfort, and in many cases, 
of gigantic wealth, or, yielding to the lax moral 
conditions of the mining-camp, squandered their 
all in riotous living, and, in no few cases, are pub- 
lic 'charges today upon the charity of the city 
whose future they in part made possible. It is a 
story of a race for all — the survival of the fittest. 

Hon. Granville Stuart, whose very faithful 
portrait is shown on a preceding page, is at pres- 

■ A relic of bygone days." 

ent a most honored citizen of the city of Butte. 
.Mr. Stuart antedates any living pioneer of the 
Silver Bow district, if not of the entire State, 
having, in company with his brother and a party 
of prospectors, passed through the section in 
1858. Mr. Stuart, after having held responsible 
positions in municipal and State affairs at various 
times during his long residence in the State, 
more recently represented the Government as 
general consul to the Argentina Republic under 
President Cleveland, with distinguished ability. 
His recollections of early days are very vivid. 


many of them liaving been reduced to print, and 
are worthy of careful perusal. 

Meanwhile, in 1864, the same year of the orig- 
inal discoveries at Silver Bow village, William 
Allison, Jr., and G. O. Humphreys had pushed on 
up the stream and pitched their camp at the pres- 
ent site of Butte. At the time of their advent 
there were no stakes nor signs of mining having 
been previously prosecuted, save on what is 
known as the Original lode, where a hole four or 
five feet in depth was found. Indications pointed 
to the hole having been dug years before — by 
whom will probably never be known. No doubt 
it is the same hole reported to have been discov- 
ered by Caleb E. Irvine in 1856, and in all likeli- 
hood is attributable to the work of the native 

Hon. Granville Stuart and others most inti- 
mately acquainted with early-day history are 
authority for the statement that the valley to the 

The initial settlers above mentioned were 
shortly followed by Dennis Leary and H. H. Por- 
ter. Rich placers were rapidly uncovered and a 
marked influx of goldseekers from Silver Bow 
and Alder Gulch resulted. So important were the 
discoveries and large the influx that in this year 
the first mining district was formed and the old 
town was located on Town Gulch and the name 
of Butte was given it. This name was derived 
from the majestic butte which reared its peak to 
the northwest of the new mining-camp, like a 
grim and lonely sentinel guarding the approach to 
the encircled valley within, rich in that vast treas- 
ure of mineral stores, the extent of which to this 
day — thirty-six years hence — has not been com- 

In this year G. W. Newkirk, coming on from 
Alder Gulch, joined with Dennis Leary, T. C. 
Porter and the Humphrey Brothers in the erec- 
tion of the first wooden house within the town, 
located on what is now Ouartz street, and, until 

east and south of the new camp and running west 
to the Deer Lodge valley was the scene of much 
large game before the advent of the white man. 
Countless buft'alo here found excellent grazing 
and were hunted by the various tribes of Indians 
adjacent to the region. It is likewise learned that 
many conflicts arose between these several tribes 
as to which should enjoy the supreme right to 
these hunting-grounds and many a hapless band 
of braves, separated from the main tribe by pre- 
mature snows filling the passes of the divide, felt 
the sharp sting of cliastisement for their presump- 
tuous trespass. 

recently destroyed by fire, was occupied as a por- 
tion of the Girton house. 

Even at this early date quartz-mining was 
receiving some attention, the first lead of this 
nature probably being the old Deer Lodge mine, 
now the Black Chief, this lead having been dis- 
covered by Charles Murphy and others in 1864. 

The next authentic record of quartz-mining of 
an important nature is not found until 1867, at 
which time "Joe " Ramsdell, known, of all men, 
as the father of quartz-mining in this camp, struck 
a good character of ore in the Parrot lode and a 
company composed of himself. W. J. Parks, Den- 



nis Leary, T. C. Porter and others was formed. 
A small arastra smelter was subsequently built 
by Charles E. Savage to handle the silver ore 
from this mine, but, owing to the insurmountable 
olistacles encountered, it was abandoned and all 
traces of the smelter almost immediately disap- 
peared. Some ore from this mine was also taken 

wholly effaced, though cause therefor has long 
years since disappeared. 

This element, immune from the rapid methods 
of apprehension common to well-settled communi- 
ties, driven from one section, found perfect safety 
for short sojourns within the confines of others, 
and it was of this class that the population of 


to Swansea, but the enterprise presented too many 
drawbacks and active work was soon abandoned. 

In the meantime the placer operations along the 
creek and up a portion of Missoula Gulch to the 
west of the city were booming, as was also the 
camp of Rocker, situated midway between Butte 
and Silver Bow. 

In 1865 and 1866 the moral character of the 
town was probably the most deplorable of its 
placer days. It is said that at this time no man 
was safe without a brace of revolvers in his belt 
and a bowie-knife tucked in his bootleg. No 
small percentage of the numbers who had flocked 
to the district were of that daring, lawless type 
whose greatest pleasure was found in pastimes 
similar to " shooting up the town," which type 
has given to the entire West a name of " wild and 
woollv.'" and which name to tliis dav has not been 

Butte at this time was in no small measure com- 
posed. The conditions thus erected were, no 
doubt, in a measure responsible for the establish- 
ment of the jNIountain Code, which obtained 
throughout the territory about this time, and for 
the issuance in the year 1865 of an edict from the 
highest tribunal of this peculiar court — the ter- 
ritorial Vigilance Committee — serving notice 
upon wrong-doers of swift punishment wherever 
apprehended. That this notice was something 
other than a mere formality all old-timers will 
gladly testify, and early-day history abounds with 
accounts of many a hard-fought battle between 
outlaws and vigilantes. 

The year 1866 was, all things considered, the 
most prosperous experienced by the camp as a 
placer-producer, and marked the advent of several 
settlers who afterward acquired a wide reputa- 



tion, some of whom today are among the most 
substantial citizens of Butte, possessed of large 
holdings of real and mining property. Prominent 
among these settlers were A. W. Barnard, John 
Noyes, William Owsley, W. L. Farlin, W. J. 
Parks, A. J. Davis, David N. Upton and others. 
Mr. Upton, writing of Butte at this time, says : 
" There were no buildings where the town site is 

esses known to the camp, there had not been one 
instance up to this time of a quartz strike which 
promised even a meager reward to its persever- 
ing owners and the hopelessness of failing confi- 
dence well nigh completed the desolation felt at 
the placer outlook. 

Notwithstanding this overcasting prospect and 
subsequent events, the demand for schooling 


now located, but in Buffalo Gulch, near the pres- 
ent site of Centerville, there were about forty men 
and five women engaged in placer-mining with 
rockers who were doing pretty well." 

During this year, however, and the succeeding 
one appeared signs only too visible to all, which 
cast a most forlorn horoscope for the future of the 
camp. Placer claims had about reached the cli- 
max of their productiveness and new fields were 
less frequently found and of inferior richness, 
and the spirit of uneasiness stalked unfeelingly 
about the camp. On the other hand, though there 
were many who had never faltered in their confi- 
dence in rich quartz deposits and who religiously 
picked away for unfound leads or who uncovered 
ores impossible of treatment by the limited proc- 

pressed itself upon the attention of the more seri- 
ous minded of the camp, and in the winter of 
i866-'67 the first school of Butte was established 
and was taught by Colonel Wood. Its life was 
short, but in the following winter a second one 
was opened, and since that time there has been at 
least one term of school each year. 

The decadence of Butte as a placer camp, which 
began in 1866, became most pronounced the suc- 
ceeding year, and before the close of this year the 
placers had given out completely. It was a blow 
that almost without exception has tolled the doom 
of every camp, which, prior or subsequent thereto, 
has owed its existence to placer-mining. Nearly 
every one left the district, disposing of their 
belongings to the stalwart few remaining, and 



each succeeding year for eight long years painted 
a more gloomy picture. 

Notwithstanding the crushing experience thus 
sustained, there were a few whose confidence 
required a still further shock before their faith in 
Butte could be destroyed, for in this year the 
town site was laid out. 

Now follows a dreary repetition of heroic 
efforts and almost invariable failure, the only sur- 
viving works being a mill erected by Harvey Bay, 
Jr., and Charles Hendrie, in 1868, and later 
known as the Davis mill. An important failure 
the same year was that of a furnace erected by 
Dennis Leary and Porter Brothers for the pur- 
pose of smelting ores from the Parrot lode. A 
bellows was used for a blast, but. ignorant of 

ing with incidents that illustrate the tenacity with 
which the remaining little band of heroes clung to 
tiie latent possibilities of the camp as a quartz-pro- 
ducer. Pathetic experiences, culminating invari- 
ably in blasted hopes, were both the woof and the 
warp of the whole fabric of life during each suc- 
ceeding day for these many long years. And yet 
the little handful that now composed the camp 
hung grimly on. 

The labors of William J. Parks through these 
dark days are characteristic of the unyielding per- 
severance of these few. This tireless man, almost 
single-handed and alone, commenced work on his 
claim on the Parrot lode, alternately working for 
a short time for wages with which to secure a 
" grub-stake " and then returning to the mine and 

By C. M. Russell. 


proper methods by which to flux the ores, they 
were compelled to abandon the effort. 

The succeeding years of 1869 to 1874, inclusive, 
were uneventful ones, each one emphasizing a lit- 
tle more the downward progress of the camp, 
although representation work was unwaveringly 
performed upon the Parrot, Original, Gray Eagle 
and Mountain Brilliant claims and many others. 

Of this period chapters might be written deal- 

continuing his labors until his resources were 
exhausted. By this persistent policy, when at a 
depth of 155 feet, his labors and sacrifices were 
rewarded by the striking of pay ore. While thus 
toiling single-handed, it is related that a few 
well-to-do owners of claims on the same lode 
stood idly by and left it to this one man to develop 
the wealth of the whole lode. Thomas C. Porter, 
Dennis Learv and Henrv H. Porter also ventured 



their all in developing the camp, coming from dis- 
tant points yearly to represent their claims. 

A particularly affecting story is told of James 
Gilchrist, one of nature's noblemen, beloved and 
honored by his contemporaries, who, after sinking 
shafts on the Original, Gambetta and Colusa 
lodes, was about to realize his dreams of wealth 
when his health completely failed him and he was 
forced to return to the East, where he soon died. 

And thus might be written in different keys the 
experiences of nearly every individual who went 
to make up the little band of toilers. A few others 
who stand out conspicuously as having possessed 

tion of insufficient fluxes rendered all their labors 
alike unprofitable. 

There is a strange coincidence between this par- 
ticular portion of the history of Butte, however, 
and that of many other camps and even of many 
individual mines of whatsoever section. While 
hopes had reached the lowest ebb and the future 
seemed most barren, there was hidden away in the 
uncovered levels of events, toward which Father 
Time was daily hastening, an epoch which was to 
revolutionize the whole future of the camp and 
proclaim it the greatest of its kind the world over. 
Some time previous to the date reached by this 

Copyrighted. Printed by k 

of Mrs. Simon Hausw 

an unshaken faith in the future of the camp were 
Capt. Nick Wall, William Berkins, Joseph Town- 
send, Capt. J. H. Rodgers and A. J. Davis, these 
members of the small roll of honor, year by year, 
performing their necessary representation work 
despite all sacrifices and all hardships. The 
efforts of all these early prospectors were directed 
toward the quest of quartz ores, but the old ques- 

sketch, William Farlin, one of the early arrivals 
during the prosperous placer period of the camp, 
had left the district for other parts, taking with 
him specimens of the ores removed from several 
of the quartz leads about the camp. Journeying 
to Owyhee, Idaho, he had these specimens sub- 
jected to assay analysis and found that they were 
rich in the precious metals and carried some cop- 



per. He also acquired some beneficial informa- 
tion concerning the treatment of these ores. 

Returning to Butte in the year 1874 he wisely 
retained his secret, plying his efforts ostensibly in 
the quest of copper ore, and patiently awaited the 
arrival of January i of the succeeding year, at 
which time became operative the new Congres- 
sional act relative to the forfeiture to the LTnited 
States of unrepresented claims. At twelve o'clock 

" Waiting for the Stage Coach," which buildings 
at that time were probably the most pretentious of 
the city. The postoffice is shown at the left of the 
three structures in the larger picture ; Simon 
Hauswirth's hotel — the only one at the time — 
occupies the center, and a saloon the one to the 
right. It was located on the corner now occupied 
by Clark Brothers' bank — Main and Broadway. 
Main street runs directlv across the center of the 

" PI")"!" ' ^ ' ' '"^" ' 



on the night of the last day of 1874 Farlin placed 
notices of relocation on the Trevona and other 
lodes since made famous, these lodes falling under 
the conditions of the new act. By this action Far- 
lin may be numbered as one of the first, if not the 
original, pioneer in a practice which has since 
become a universal one in mining sections, 
namely, the jumping of claims, the law going into 
effect at that time being practically the same as the 
one in existence at present. 

The illustration herewith shown of " Butte in 
1875 " gives a most satisfactory idea of its gen- 
eral character at that period. In it will be seen the 
buildings shown in another illustration entitled 

picture from right to left. Those acquainted with 
present Butte will be able to trace out the sites of 
many present landmarks. A short distance to the 
right from the structures mentioned, along Main 
street, will be found where Granite street now 
crosses Main and upon respective corners of 
which are at present located the mammoth stores 
of the D. J. Hennessy Mercantile Company and 
the M. J. Council Company. Tracing this imag- 
inary street toward the bottom of the picture, run- 
ning to the left, may be found the present site of 
the Noyes homestead. Continuing up Main street 
to the right, at its extreme end, toward the outer 
edge of the picture, will be found the Chastine 
Humphrey home — a white structure — showing 



the only tree which existed within the town site at 
that time. It is by the kindness of Mrs. Simon 
Hauswirth that we are permitted to present these 
two rare pictures, copyrighted copies of which are 
in her possession. 

Now followed an exposure of the true facts 
concerning the value of the ores of the camp and 
the news spread like wildfire far and near, and 
newcomers flocked in in great number. Old loca- 
tions were renewed and new ones made in rapid 
succession. The discovery of the Alice, La Plata, 
Burlington, Late Acquisition, Great Republic and 
other less famous mines followed quickly, and the 
movement toward Butte resolved itself into a 

The town had become metamorphosed. From 
the hopeless, abandoned camp of a year before, it 

unknown. Smelters for the proper handling of 
the various ores of the camp were begun in this 
year, the Centennial and De.xter being especially 
notable among them. 

Following this period is a story of a steady 
growth and development in all directions. In 
1878 the erection of smelters was being prose- 
cuted vigorously. In this year a postoffice was 
created. By 1880 the population of the camp had 
reached 3,000. In the following year, under 
authority of a legislative act, the southern town- 
ships of Deer Lodge County were detached and 
organized under the name of Silver Bow. 

On December 21 of this year was witnessed 
an event quite as pregnant with promise of a 
greater future for the camp as was the discovery 
of quartz. At 11 o'clock p. m. of that day the 
Utah & Northern connected Butte with Ogden, 


was now tJie Mecca of all who could possibly 
reach it and its growth was magic-like. The char- 
acter of the new arrivals was a marked improve- 
ment upon a large portion of those attracted to 
the camp during placer days. The permanency 
guaranteed the camp by quartz-mining encour- 
aged many to bring their families with them, and 
the town took on an air of stability theretofore 

L'tah, by a narrow-gauge railroad, which since 
has been widened into a standard gauge and has 
been a most potent element in the development 
of the city. 

Mining was now being conducted over a large 
range of territory. In the Travona district, to 
the southwest, numerous mines were producing 
good returns and the Centennial and Dexter 



mills in the same district were being worked to 
their full capacity. The presence of water near 
the surface, however, made efforts in this local- 
ity difficult. 

Running- in a general way from north to south- 
east of the camp, with jagged spurs and erratic 
dips, was a foothill of commanding proportions, 
which common consent had dubbed " the hill." 
A mile or more to the north of the town proper, 
on the western slope of the " hill," the little town 
of Walkerville had sprung into existence upon 
the discovery of promising silver properties at 
this point, and at this time the Alice and Lexing- 
ton had developed into enormous proportions, 
exceeding the wildest hopes of their owners. 
These easily were the most promising mines at 
this period. 

Scattered on either side along the hill in its 
southeasterly course from Walkerville, until hill 
and valley merge into one, some two miles dis- 
tant, were numerous mines of good promise. 
The Original, Parrot, Clark's Colusa, Ramsdell's 
Parrot, Mountain Consolidated and numerous 
other less noted mines were obtaining most satis- 
factory results. Smelters had been erected ai 
convenient places over this large area to ham He 
the ores from these many mines. Silver at tln^ 
time was the metal exclusively sought, due to ilu- 
presence of such large quantities of this character 
of ore in the Walkerville properties and the i i\rr 
whelming proportion of silver found in the orr> 
being mined in the other properties. Copper was 
encountered in no great quantity except in one 
instance. This exception was Clark's Colusa. 
In the early 70's W. A. Clark shipped a carload 
of ore from this mine carrying over thirty-five 
per cent of copper, to Baltimore, IMd., by means 
of wagon trains to Corinne, Utah, and from 
thence by rail, but the excessive expense entailed 
prevented further shipments and work on the 
mine was discontinued. 

Montana people generally will be pleased to 
find the accompanying very excellent likeness of 
Charles T. Meader, who did so much at this 
period to further mining in this section. By 
some he is yet known as the true father of cop- 
per-mining in the whole West, and is a fine 
type of the early settler. He was one of the 
original " forty-niners " to go to California by 
way of Cape Horn, and as early as 1865 erected 
a copper blast furnace in Calaveras County of 

that State, shipping the matte to Swansea, Wales, 
for final treatment. J\Ir. Meader came to 
Butte in 1876, purchasing the then undeveloped 
East and West Colusa claims. In 1881 he 
erected the Bell smelter. It was for Mr. Meader 
that the present suburb of Meaderville was 

named. Mr. Meader is at present eighty-two 
years of age and is located at Chewelah, Wash- 
ington, where he is engaged in the pursuit of his 
old love, that of mining. 

The following year, or 1882, will ever stand as 
one of the great landmarks in the record of events. 
In that year occurred the discovery of the great 
copper body of the Anaconda mine. Its effect 
was revolutionary and it was this event which 
finally and completely established the perma- 
nency of the camp. The peculiarities of the ores 
of the Butte section had utterly failed to prepare 
the most visionary mind for such a wonderful 
deposit of the red metal and the discovery came 
as a tremendous surprise to all alike. 

The advent of the railroad the year previous 
had removed all obstacles theretofore presented, 
and with the revelation that underlying all the 



mines operating along the " hill," outside of the 
Walkerville district, was an enormous deposit of 
copper, came Butte's second transition to a camp 
of a new character, which doubled and trebled the 
importance of the previous one, and old scenes 
were reenacted upon a larger scale. 

Other properties which had been working on 
a reduced scale or had closed down, lying adja- 
cent to the Anaconda, renewed their efforts with 
great vigor and, with each succeeding success- 
ful strike, there gradually dawned the truth that 
" the hill " was a veritable mountain of copper. 
Both the western and eastern slopes of the hill 
were now subjected to more careful scrutiny, and 
many mines sprang into existence. At the east- 
ern extremity of the hill, as it descends into the 
valley and disappears, had sprung up the town 
of Meaderville. Almost without exception it 
was discovered that in the mines of " the hill " 
proper, or that portion lying south of Walker- 
ville, the surface ores were richer in silver, but, 
as depth was gained and the water level passed, 
their character was changed overwhelmingly to 

In 1883 was emphasized the great importance 
to Butte of the copper discoveries in the Ana- 
conda. While in 1882 the entire camp produced 
12,093,750 fine ounces of gold, 2,699,296.38 fine 
ounces of silver and 9,058,284 fine pounds of cop- 
per, in the succeeding year gold gained but about 
twenty-five per cent, silver a trifle less than that 
percentage, and copper gained over 250 per cent. 

The year 1884 was marked by no great inci- 
dent save the increasing mining activity. The 

payroll of the mines and smelters for that year 
aggregated $620,000. with the Anaconda contrib- 
uting $150,000, the ^Montana $65,000, the Lex- 
ington $50,000, and the Alice $50,000. 

The following year was equally uneventful, 
unless that it more thoroughly established the 
preeminence of copper. The assessed valuation 
of the city at this time was about $7,500,000 as 
against $4,106,767 in 1881, and the gains in all 
directions of public growth over the latter year 
had been tremendous. From a turbulent, un- 
settled population, Butte had developed into a 
well-established city of 14,000, possessed of all 
manner of civilizing influences. The character 
of the buildings had increased with the growth 
of the town, and at this time many substantial 
structures of brick and stone had been erected, 
and many more were in course of construction. 
All lines of business had been introduced and 
from this time forward the garb of a typical min- 
ing town was gradually laid aside. 

As a historical fact, it should be recorded that 
at this period placer mining was revived by the 
hydraulic process along Missoula Gulch. The 
gulch parallels Main street about one-third of a 
mile to the west, and from the accompanying 
illustration it will be seen how little the city had 
progressed in this direction at that time. 

The principal mines of this period were the 
Anaconda, Original, Parrot, Colusa Parrot, 
Ramsdell Parrot, Bell, Mountain Consolidated, 
St. Lawrence, Mountain View and Colusa — 
all copper mines — and the Alice, Lexington and 
Moulton — exclusively silver. 


TEPPING forward to 
the dawn of the 
twentieth century, 
one stands amazed 
at Butte's wonder- 
ful development. 
Where, in 1S85, 
rested a thriving 
mining camp of 
14,000 souls — 
though even then 
recognized as the greatest of all mining camps 
on earth — there now stands a metropolis. Like 
an engulfing wave, progress and growth have 
placed their mark upon every nook of the city 
and entered into every cranny of its environ- 

.\ population of about 65,000 people at present, 
or a 50.000 increase in fifteen years, tells its own 

ties of former days. In their place commodious 
streets, flanked on either side by business blocks 
and residences of the most modern types, disre- 
garding in most instances the cowpath irregu- 
larity of hallowed days, cross each other at uni- 
form intervals and run far into the valley on the 
south, to the hills on the west or the mining 
suburbs to the north and east. 

From Walkerville south to Centerville, and 
from thence to Butte proper, one now passes as 
through one city. Meaderville, on the east, is 
rapidly being absorbed by the greater city. To 
the west, past Missoula Gulch and to the very 
base of " Big Butte," the city has pushed itself, 
and a mile south of the old town South Butte 
has been added to the city's suburbs and is as of 
the city itself. 

Beautiful residences are the rule in new con- 
struction. Handsome church edifices and school 

story of growth in point of number. This 
lueans a logical growth in the city's limits. Where 
were once the humble shacks of the early settlers, 
there now remains but an occasional grim ruin, 
like a mocking skull, to conjure up the humani- 

structures are seen in every portion of the city 
and their influence is percolating the whole pub- 
lic mind. 

Main street, once the sole thoroughfare, is the 
main street still, but what a change. Starting 




from the soutliern limits of Centerville, it runs 
well nigh to South Butte, the greater portion of it 
rebuilt with modern blocks. Paralleling Main 
street on the east and west for varying distances 

thoroughfares of much older and more preten- 
tious cities of the East. 

It is excessively mild to say that no city in 
the whole West can boast of such scenes of 
bustling, crowding humanity as congest the main 
channels of trade from early morning until far 
into the night as may be seen in Butte on any 
day of the week. It is the marvel of every 
stranger and the result of Butte's wonderfiU 
growth — - a growth which has received added 
significance in the past year by an increase of 
over 6,000 in population. A happy commentary, 
liy way of an aside, is that the city has absorbed 
this tremendous influx with no apparent effort, 
and there is probably a smaller number of unem- 
ployed per capita among those who would work 
than any city in the country. 

With the growth of the city has increased the 
morale of the people. Elevating influences 
everywhere have deeply implanted themselves 
and are rapidly becoming a powerful agencv for 

IS in baikKiouii 

are a half dozen less impurtant Inisiness thor- 
oughfares, while these, in turn, are crossed from 
east to west by as many more, equally as impor- 
tant as and vieing with Alain for supremacy, far 
exceeding in architectural apjiearance the main 

good. The time has long passed when the li- 
cense of the saloon and the variety playhouse 
found approbation in the best public mind. 
Though still in evidence, the latter has found its 
level in the lower portions of the city, frequented 



only by a degenerate class common to all like 

communities, while the saloon boasts of as high 

a character as that traffic can boast wheresoever. 

When it is considered that the personnel of 

ment a city whose earlier antecedents were the 
manifold licenses of every new border town, the 
wonder is that there is any public morality. Yet, 
under such strenuous conditions, a public moral- 

Butte's population is in part made up of a floating- 
element, gathered from all the nations of the 
earth, some of whom find employment in the 
luines and are colonized in cheap boarding- 
houses, unrestrained by elevating influences, and 
many never having known such influences in 
their whole lifetime, and havin? for their environ- 

ity, stable and sure, is most certainly extending 
its leaven through the minds of the community. 
Elocjuent testimony to the improved morale of 
the labor employed in the mines is found in the 
rapidly increasing number of homes being erected 
Ijy this class. Pretty little cottages of four and 
five rooms, built of wood and brick, are being 




erected in every portion of the city. In most 
cases tliese are convenient to the place of employ- 
ment, although the instinct of thrift and invest- 
ment, taught by the successes of earlier settlers, 
has inspired many to seek the best portions of the 
city in the hopes of future enhancement of prop- 
erty. Oftentimes a double house is built, the 
rentals of one assisting the thrifty home-builder 
in the payment for both. 

Many pungent object lessons are found 
throughout the city in structures of different 
periods belonging to one owner, showing a mod- 
est beginning in an old log shack, an expanding 

ing. the influences springing therefrom will, of 
their own force, speedily work out a like condi- 
tion for all. 

The city at present is most pronouncedly cos- 
mopolitan. Nothing of which another metrop- 
olis may boast, in the way of up-to-dateness, is 
here lacking. Its public institutions are models 
of their kind. Twenty-eight schools and an- 
nexes are distributed throughout the city and its 
suburbs, attended the current year by 6,307 pu- 
pils and employing 170 teachers. Both curricu- 
lum and structures are of the most modern type. 
Gymnasiums and manual training are features 


means in a more pretentious cottage, and the final 
attainment of an independent state in a pretty 
home, a business block or other like material 
evidences. With the growth of such instincts, a 
growth in other elevating attributes logically fol- 
lows. Cleanly home surroundings, a higher 
standard of home life, assimilation of better 
ideals and more prominent participation in the 
city's affairs all have their l)eneficial effect, lend- 
ing a responsibility to the individual, which is 
leaving its imprint upon the mining class and 
raising it to the plane of loftier citizenship. To 
the very small minority now belongs the objec- 
tionable element and. with tliis condition obtain- 

of the system, while training-classes for the 
teachers assure a constant introduction of new 
normal methods, and military organizations and 
school teams in many of the sports add the touch 
of completeness to an otherwise broad learning. 
For the first time in its history, Butte is but be- 
ginning to experience the benefits which must ac- 
crue to a public morality from the quickened im- 
pulses and higher ideals which are knit into the 
mind of the student of a city's free schools and. 
in turn, become the uplifting heritage of that 
city's economy. The untold benefits which this 
new condition assures must prove a potent ele- 
ment in Butte's future life, as each succeeding 



generation injects a new morality into the place 
of the lingering old. Besides these institutions, 
opportunity for special instruction is found in the 
new School of Mines, and a half dozen or more 

ment branches. A beautiful courthouse adds its 
quota to the enhancing architectural excellence 
of Butte's structures, and the city government 
is comfortably housed in an attractive city hall. 


private schools of different character, teaching 
music, languages, etc. 

The city is amply supplied with churches of a 
high order, twenty-eight church organizations 
telling their own story of religious activity. A 
public library, erected at a cost of $100,000 and 
containing 25,000 volumes, but emphasizes the 

Clubs of every description and organized for 
every purpose are making their influence felt in 
the regeneration of social and literary conditions, 
the Montana club supplying a public necessity 
as a club home for professional and business men 
and a place of entertainment for the city's guests, 
and is a model in its furnishinsrs. 

I m^ 




trend of public improvement. Plans are about 
completed for the erection of a new federal build- 
ing at a cost of $250,000, to accommodate the 
growing requirements of the postoffice service, 
with its six sub-stations, as well as other govern- 

The theater has felt the uplifting influence of 
succeeding events and is patronized by the most 
critical of publics, who both exact and are fur- 
nished with the best in opera and drama that is 
known to the American stage. 



Of newspapers there are many. The Butte 
Miner and the Anaconda Standard, the latter 
published in Anaconda, twenty-eight miles dis- 
tant, but with headquarters in this city, are daily 
morning papers, enjoying an eighteen-hour 
leased wire service of the Associated Press, and 
are of a much higher order than cities of twice 
the size in the East generally know. The Inter 
Mountain is an afternoon paper published six 

ville water system, there recently has been com- 
pleted a system which gives much promise to the 
city's future, when it shall have become the lead- 
ing manufacturing center of the State, which its 
logical location and prominence assure it. Some 
thirty miles distant from the city the Big Hole 
river — an exceptionally sanitary mountain 
stream — has been dammed and the electric 
power generated by this dam has been brought 

days in the week, and supplies the same high 
class of newspaper excellence as do the morning 
publications, it also enjoying the leased wire 
service of the Associated Press. In addition to 
these are nine weeklies, devoted to different pur- 
poses, ranging from mining news to religious 

The city is provided with power, water and 
light supplies sufficient for a city four times its 
size. Besides the old system of water-works, 
which supplies the city proper, and the Walker- 

into the city, solving for all time the question of 
sufficiency of power. The water of the Big Hole 
is also piped into the city and large reservoirs are 
being prepared for its reception, which, in due 
time, will be connected with the city's present 

Railroads connect the city with all sections of 
the State and the whole country as well. The 
pioneer line, the Utah and Northern, is now a 
part of the Oregon Short Line system, connect- 
ing the city with the South and tapping the 

West slope of ■■hill." 



Union and Central Pacifies at Ogdeii. and the 
Oregon Railroad and Navigation system in Ore- 
gon. The Northern Pacific penetrates the exact 
center of the State from east to west, giving 
Butte a direct line to the Pacific, and, with St. 
Paul connections, to the Atlantic, and is easily 
Montana's leading railroad. The Great North- 
ern reaches the city from Great Falls over the 
Montana Central Railway and handles the great 
quantities of ore shipped daily to the smelters 
of that city from the Butte mines. In addition 

has a most enviable record in saving property 
from that element. 

Within the last few years the system of pave- 
ments has been extended along all of the princi- 
pal business streets of the city. The material 
used is granite blocks, scientifically laid, and an 
extreme longevity is assured. The system is 
being pushed in every direction and is now reach- 
ing toward the residence portions. 

Rapid transit, too, has felt the hand of im- 
provement. Electric lines now connect the city 


to these roads, general agencies of the Chicago 
Great Western, the Burlington, Missouri Pacific, 
Oregon Railroad and Navigation, Rio Grande 
Western and Union Pacific have been established 
in the city, thus making Butte the center of rail- 
road activity in the Northwest, as well as of com- 
merce and mining. 

The city has police and fire departments of 
unusually high standards. The former numbers 
a force of some forty patrolmen and detectives, 
is equipped with patrol wagon and is well disci- 
plined, while the latter is supplied with all mod- 
ern apparatus for fighting fire and, divided by 
sub-stations throughout the city and suburbs. 

proper with every outlying district, including 
Aleaderville, Centerville, South Butte, the West 
Side and the Columbia Gardens, while the cur- 
rent year will doubtless see Walkerville added 
to the list. A close schedule maintained on these 
many lines permits a free flow of traffic to any 
point and gives the city as a whole a system not 
enjoyed by many larger cities. 

Electric lights are, of course, a conspicuous 
part of the city's public improvements, the sys- 
tem contemplating not only the lighting of every 
section of the city, but also its extremest environ- 

Of hotels there are many of a high standard. 







The }iIcDermott and LUitte are first-class Ameri- 
can and European hostelries, respectively, while 
a new home for the traveling wayfarer, in the 
Thornton hotel, is in course of construction, and 
promises to be one of the finest of its kind in the 
Northwest. Private apartment houses, con- 
nected with up-to-date cafes, are becoming pop- 
ular v,ith Butte's people who prefer the quiet 
which they afford, and many of these provide 
elegant homes for this class. 

Both the telephone and the telegraph, it seems 
quite needless to say. have long since reached the 

a potent deterrent to many prospective home- 
seekers from other States who might otherwise 
look Montanaward. 

Without hesitation and without equivocation, 
it can not be too heartily emphasized that no State 
in the Union enjoys so healthful a climate as does 
Montana. Its altitude, while not being excessive 
in any case, removes it from the blighting effects 
common to lower sections and provides for it an 
atmosphere which is pure and sweet and beneficial 
to the last degree. No water remains upon the 
surface to gather infectious germs, but finds its 


perfection mark. The latter is taking on the last 
improvement necessary to make it thoroughly 
cosmopolitan, in the acquisition of the district 
messenger service, while the former has just 
completed the recent innovations of the East, to 
wit. the abandonment of the bell system and the 
introduction of the electric light for call pur- 
poses, and the installment of long-distance serv- 
ice for all subscribers in place of older instru- 

One word should lie said of climatic conditions 
in Butte, which, in a general way, applies to all 
of Montana. It is a question upon which rests 
much ignorance, and which, dispelled, removes 

way immediately to running streams which carry 
it entirely away. The extreme dryness of the 
air secured by the altitude renders it far less pene- 
trating than is the case with damp-laden air, and 
it is no conceit to say that thirty degrees colder 
weather is felt less acutely than in sections of 
lower altitude. In other words, one is less con- 
scious of what ought to be the bitter cold of 
thirty degrees below zero in Montana than he is 
of zero weather in lower sections. An erron- 
eous impression should not be created by reason 
of this statement, for, if the thermometer ever 
reaches that point, it is never for more than 
twenty-four or forty-eight hours throughout an 



entire winter, and many winters pass without that 
point being reached. Its snows, too, do not 
acquire the depth popularly attributed to them. 
What would be rains in lower altitudes are often 
snows here, but they are short-lived and, once 
fallen, do not remain long upon the ground, being 
dissipated by the warm winds from the Pacific, 
which bare the ground as one sleeps. The holi- 
days have usually passed before the ground is 
covered bv a snow which survives one day of 

Butte, as a center of mining industry, does not 
exhaust its virtues. The prestige which its great 
wealth of mineral affords makes it the logical 

No more fruitful subject is presented to the 
progressive mind for consideration than are the 
manufacturing opportunities which e.xist, not 
only in Butte, but throughout the State. Al- 
though one of the greatest producers of raw ma- 
terials of any State in the Union, Montana thus 
far has consented to the importation of a large 
portion of the materials necessary to satisfy the 
needs of its people, whether it be for the cover- 
ing of the body, the feeding of mouths or for the 
purposes of construction, or for materials used 
in the larger industries of the State. In Butte 
alone $1,000,000 a month is paid in wages to the 
]ieople working in the mines and smelters, to say 


center of capital, commerce, politics, and a leader 
of social life throughout the State. Its capital 
is doing much, not only in developing other sec- 
tions of the State, but also the rapidly opening 
sections of contiguous States as well as of Brit- 
ish Columbia. This fact has not robbed the city, 
however, of the blessings of this agency, and 
great institutions which are reaching out into the 
whole State and attracting the trade thereof to 
Butte have been established in all lines of 
commerce. Wholesale establishments of every 
character, as well as general agencies of large 
concerns of the East, are rapidly centering in the 
city. Manufacturing, too, is beginning to find 
encouragement by reason of new conditions 
throughout the State and many ventures have 
found in Butte the most logical site for their 

nothing of the large sums paid out monthly to 
thousands of others elsewhere employed, there 
being a total of 24,000 wage-earners in the city. 
Yet the production of a large majority of the sup- 
plies necessary to meet their demands is left to 
others foreign to the State. 

With the vast amounts of wool, of hides and 
pelts and of mineral products of all kinds which 
Montana produces and the unequaled opportu- 
nities offered agriculturally, there exist advan- 
tages of which but few States can boast, and the 
wonder is that the present shall reserve to com- 
ing generations the task and profit of utilizing 
the great bulk of these raw materials where they 
may be obtained the cheapest, content to let in- 
terests wholly uninterested in Montana's devel- 
opment grow rich upon opportunities offered its 
own people. Yet this question, as well as many 




others, will undoubtedly be met, as have the 
questions of the past. The city is too large and 
its industries, as well as those of the whole State, 
are too great for them to be held back by these 

For the city a great future is in store, and the 
prediction is well founded that four or five years 
hence will witness a city as easternlike, as mod- 
ern, and of as high a public morality as the mis- 

ter, covering one generation — yet today it stands 
the peer in wealth and prospects of any inland 
Western city. 

Mining activity of wider range but increases 
the belief that the supply of mineral is limitless, 
and that, as time shall unfold, works of greater 
magnitude covering an immensely larger field 
will take the place of those which today seem in- 
credibly great and point the truth that Butte is 


guided East can expect or the most exacting de- 
mand. What it will be in point of number con- 
jecture alone can prophesy and events prove. 
That it will approximate a total of 100,000 is a 
conservative statement. Such a total would be 
in harmony with its present ratio of increase and 
every sign would point to an abnormal increase 
over present ratios rather than a recession there- 
from. History records but few parellels to Butte 
— with such unpromising nucleus, rapid transi- 
tions, undesirable hordes, marvelous growth, 
whose Genesis to Revelations is but as one chap- 

not yet out of its swaddlings in greatness nor 

True, it is not a haven for the unemployed of 
a whole nation, and it is not for the purpose of 
attracting the unemployed to this particular city 
that these statements are made. More specific- 
ally is it intended to show the general conditions 
which exist in the whole West, and point the 
thought that what exists in Butte today will 
exist elsewhere tomorrow, and that these gen- 
eral conditions are an invitation to a sturdy class 
of people who would carve out for themselves a 



future in a land where large opportunities exist. 
No more uninviting spot in the world could be 
found for profligacy than in the great West. No 
more tempting a field is ofifered for sobriety. 

ability and business acumen. It has ever been the 
graveyard of the indolent and ne"er-do-well, the 
goal of success for energy, pluck and persever- 


An unpardonable slight would mark our effort 
to reflect true conditions if prominent attention 
were not drawn to the miners and smeltermen as 
a class, as upon them rests no li.ght mantle of 
honor. For they are primarily the ones whose 
efforts really make Butte great. They are the 
men whose lives are jeopardized in the perilous 
duty of wresting riches from the bowels of the 
earth and of refining it, and it is the wealth so 
produced by them upon which a few are enabled 
to mount to positions of great power and influ- 
ence. While the raw material produced by their 
efforts is shipped to the East and converted into 
dividends for the mine owners, their wages, 
amounting to a million or more a month, goes to 
increase the prosperity of the city. No factor 
which enters into the life of Butte as a metropolis 
stands so conspicuously in relief as a guarantee 
for greater things than does the enormous pay- 
roll of the wage-earners, alwa}-s excepting the life 
of the mines themselves, and in the case of the 
mines of Butte, years of increasing productive- 
ness are assured for them. 

Too little thought is apt to be the portion of this 
courageous, honest, hard-working class of men. 
Not only does the miner, who goes beneath the 
ground to delve in semi-darkness, subject himself 
to accidents of every description, any one of which 
may render him a cripple for life or lay him cold 
in death, with a large family dependent upon him 
for support, but it is equally true of the smelter- 
man, whose task at all times is a most hazardous 
and a dangerous one. 

From eight to ten hours a day is the miner 
engaged at his perilous task, with giant-powder 
and deep, cavernous shafts as his work-fellows, 
with not the best of ventilation, subjected to the 
dampness common to deep levels, and, in no few 
cases, working in deep mire by reason of the pres- 
ence of water, perspiring like a stoker, with hol- 
low, unnatural noises as the only sounds to reach 
his ear, and shot to the surface or dropped to the 
bottom, thousands of feet below, day after day, 
with onlv a cable or steel belt between him and 

certain death, "^'et he goes cheerfully to his task 
that he may meet the responsibilities of life like a 
man, educate his children to lives of usefulness 
and provide for his family in a manner fitting and 
appropriate. He is a hero, every inch of him, and 
he heroically performs a daily task from which a 
strong man might well quail and shrink back in 

The smelterman, too, does not escape the haz- 
ard consequent upon the production of the " red 
metal." Though working in the bright light of 
day, or by artificial light, which makes his voca- 
tion less dangerous, his task is not for children or 
weak-hearted men. Dangers are his, every 
moment of the day, and one has but to spend the 
briefest of time in witnessing the progress of his 
eiforts in order to lend assent to this statement. 
As the furnaces are tapped and throw out their 
myriads of sparks of molten matter, which mer- 
cilessly burn to the bone whenever human flesh is 
touched, and as the larger volume comes splutter- 
ing out, the smelterman stands closely at his post 
of duty, conveying the burning liquid to converter 
and back to furnace again, if necessity requires, 
subject at any moment to direful accidents which 
may horribly mutilate him or cost him his life. 
.\11 honor is due to the class of men who will con- 
sent to follow a vocation so dangerous — an 
honor as lasting and as exalted as was ever 
extended to the pioneer. 

No less than thirteen thousand men are em- 
ployed in the mines and smelters. Their pay runs 
from $3.50 to $4 per day, and, in some cases, still 
higher, and a finer aggregation of wage-earners 
can not be found the length of the land. They 
are an extremely intelligent class, differing in this 
respect from those of many other mining sections, 
and among them will be found the student of 
every profession, the musician, the thinker, the 
mining expert, the orator and the political leader. 
Many of the leading professional and business 
men of the city are graduates from the mining 
and smelting classes, and their success denotes the 
character of the men engaged in these vocations. 






The nationalities represented amono- these two 
classes are principally American, English and 
Irish, although other nationalities are encountered 
in smaller numbers. The vast majority of the 
thousands following the respective vocations are 
thrifty, have built pretty homes, own bank 
accounts, attire their families in the warmest and 
best and are raising their children in such a way 
as to make them aggressive and independent, giv- 
ing them good educations in the public schools 
and, in a large number of cases, providing them 
with higher advantages. Unlike mining sections 
of other States, no class distinction is drawn 
between those working in the mines in Butte and 
the general public, either socially or otherwise, it 
being recognized that some of the best types of 
citizens are thus employed. 

The miners and smeltermen, as well as every 
other branch of labor in the city, have their labor 
organizations, which have done much to improve 
the conditions and morals of the entire class. One 
lodge alone of the Miner's Union numbers some- 
thing over six thousand members, and the union 
as a whole is the parent organization of all organ- 
ized mining labor throughout the West, the lodges 
or branches of the larger organization, until a 
short time ago, if not at present, receiving their 


charters from the Butte body. Many of the offi- 
cers of this larger body are, or until recently were, 
employed in the mines of the city and are recog- 
nized as the foremost advocates of organized labor 
in the entire West. 


To the miners of Butte has been reserved the 
proud distinction of furnishing the finest musical 
organization in the State. It seems quite unneces- 
sary to state that this organization is the Boston 
and Montana Band, the entire State for many 
years having recognized this truth. 

Prof. S. H. Treloar is the organizer of the band, 
which took place so long ago as December 22, 
1887, and for these many years the band has had 
no successful competitor for first place. 

The band was encouraged by a former manager 
of the Boston and Montana mines, Capt. Thomas 
Couch, himself an ardent admirer of high-class 
band music, and, as the original members, num- 
bering six men, were employed by the Boston and 
Montana Company, the organization took the 
name of that company for its own. For over a 
year and a half after organization, the band did 
not make a public appearance, confining itself 
to careful study and gradually increasing its 
membership, until it numbered eighteen. Its first 

appearance was met with an enthusiastic welcome 
and its popularity slowly increased, until the 
whole State learned to seek its services when a 
high order of music was required. When it is 
remembered that many of the military posts had 
their crack musical organizations, the palm thus 
yielded to the Boston and Montana Band receives 
added significance. 

In June, 1890, the band was installed as the 
regimental band for the Montana National Guard 
and its presence did much to enhance the inter- 
est taken in the State encampments of that mili- 
tary organization. 

In May, 1892, the band was incorporated and at 
this time numbered twenty-one members. The 
band henceforth began to receive engagements 
from all parts of the State and was oftentimes 
taken beyond the borders. In 1896 it was taken 
to Chicago by the Montana delegation to be in 
attendance upon the national Democratic conven- 
tion. The press notices of the Eastern papers 









were extremely flattering', much surprise being 
expressed that so high class a nuisical organiza- 
tion could be assembled so far West and among a 
class of men who went beneath ground to earn 
their daily bread. So great was the interest felt 
in the band throughout the East that, while 
returning, the band was met at the depot in Min- 
neapolis by a large committee and made to leave 
the train and become the guests of the citizens of 
that city. The continued success of the band has 
never faltered and, including this year's engage- 
ments, it has realized about $60,000. The current 
year has been by far the most successful one of 
its existence, something over $12,000 having 
been turned into its treasury as a result of the 
year's engagements. The band now comprises 
about thirty members, who are well equipped with 
the very latest instruments. They own their own 
headquarters hall and are most zealous in their 
practice and technical study. The men are all 
practical miners, engaged in different duties about 
the mines, and are a fine body of men. 

They were in attendance upon the national con- 
vention of the Democratic party at Kansas City 
the current year and to them was accorded the 
high honor of adding the keystone to an otherwise 

spectacular scene during that convention. Ameri- 
can flags had been lowered over a portion of the 
stage during the proceedings of the convention 
and behind them had been placed an heroic-sized 
bust of Hon. W. J. Bryan. When the proper 
moment arrived and the flags were drawn aside 
amid tremendous excitement, it was the Boston 
and Montana Band that came down the center of 
the aisle playing " Dixie " as a fitting climax to 
the impressive scene. 

The great success of the band lies largely in the 
fact that, while every one is an artist unto himself, 
their occupation is such as to more largely develop 
their lung capacity and thereby give greater zest 
and tone than is possible in many other musical 
organizations, its flattering prominence at Kansas 
City being largely due to this fact. 

The band has had no little part in eliminating 
baneful class distinctions throughout the city, its 
entire personnel having long ago demonstrated 
that as high culture can work below ground as 
above it. 

Professor Treloar is still at the head of the 
great organization, and this fact in itself is a 
standing promise of the perpetuation of the previ- 
ous high standard of the band. 


Before passing to new subjects, a pause is 
mandatory for the review of a few of the men 
who, as actual residents of the city, have done 
the most to develop its wonderful resources by 
bringing it to its present high position and assur- 
ing for it a future still more exalted. Many per- 
sons might be brought under this head with the 
greatest propriety, did space but permit, and, in 
confining the number to a few, regret is felt that 
a fuller justice can not be done to scores who 
have builded so well and so unremittingly. 
What the city is today is the result of the united 
efforts of many, who, crowned by success, have, in 
turn, transmitted a measure of their success to 
the upbuilding of the whole community. 

M. J. Connell, D. J. Hennessy, A. J. Davis 
(deceased), A. W. Barnard, William Owsley, 
John Noyes, Hon. Lee Mantle, William Thomp- 
son (deceased), and others, all have had their 
place in Butte's history, and all of these who sur- 
vive are among the most prominent citizens and 
business men of the citv to-dav. Scores of others. 

in varying degrees of prominence, have Ijeen iden- 
tified with the large things of Ilutte's rlevelop- 
ment, and failure in their mention in imwise is a 
slight upon their worth. Other works extant deal 
most interestingly of these men. The nature of 
this effort precludes their treatment in a like 

Rutte, and ^Montana as well, for many years 
has enjoyed the distinction of being the scene of 
the largest operations of two giants of national 
repute — William A. Clark and Marcus Daly. 
Each was supreme in his given field, Mr. Clark, 
as the largest individual mine owner in the 
world, and Mr. Daly, as easily, as the largest 
manager of mines. Their fields of action have 
never lieen the same, when carefully studied, 
although both were identified with a common 
object, the mining industry. As owner, .Mr. 
Clark's activity tended always to the acquisition 
of properties as a personal investment. As 
manager, Mr. Daly was associated with co-own- 
ers for the purpose of developing their properties. 



Each, in his respective function, became a giant 
among men, and the life of either is a most fit- 
ting example of what an unswerving will and 
determination will do in the grappling with and 
bending of events as they present themselves in 
the course of human life. Opportunit}- they both 
had. but it was not so much the opportunity as 
the determination to grasp it which characterized 
their lives. 

Both men started from the bottom rung and re- 
lied upon their own faculties and own resources to 
work out their careers. While both became im- 
mensely wealthy wholly by their own efforts, 
thus weaving an example for others who would 
emulate them, the more commendable fact re- 
mains that they also builded for themselves a 
character which, as citizen, as man of affairs, as 
husband, father and son, enabled them to reflect 
some of the noblest traits which mankind can 
own. Both have ever been men among men, 
counting their friends by the thousands and scat- 
tered through every State of the Union, though 
to Montana has fallen the heritage which their 
genius has wrought. 

Perfections were never embodied in any hu- 
man, and, if varying degrees of success have 
marked their lives, natural causes have worked 
them. Different temperaments, qualifications 
of mind and body widely at variance, opportu- 
nities springing from dift'erent events, environ- 
ments, associations and the dozen other influences 
which are responsible for every life have all 
worked their part, and the memories of both will 
ever be reverenced by the people of Montana. 
Both were supernaturally endowed, and have 
easily proven themselves the superior in genius 
of their fellow creatures. Only as the older 
resident pioneer of the section treated, preced- 
ence, in point of order, is given to Mr. Clark. 


The subject of this sketch was born near Con- 
nellsville, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, in 1839. 
His father was a farmer, and, while working 
summers on the farm, Mr. Clark attended the 
public schools during the winter months until 
fourteen years of age. He then entered Laurel 
Hill Academy for a short time. In 1856, he, 
with his father, moved to Iowa, where he worked 
on the farm for one season, teaching school the 
following winter. The following term he at- 
tended an academy at Birmingham, thereafter 

spending one term at the University at Mount 
Pleasant. Following this he began the practice 
of law at the latter place, which profession he 
prosecuted for two years. In 1859-60 he taught 
school in Central Missouri. 

Two years later, or in 1862, was born the idea 
in Mr. Clark's mind to go West, and, when but 
twenty-three years of age, he mounted the seat 
of an overland wagon and started out into that 
great expanse in quest of fortune. The country 
was wild and dangerous, and " blazing the trail " 
presented obstacles sufficient to deter an older 
and stronger heart. 

He arrived in South Park, Colorado, in due 
time, and for a year worked in the quartz mines 
of that place, little thinking that in this humble 
capacity he was laying the groundwork for a 
career which would eventually stamp him as the 
■' largest individual mine-owner on earth." While 
thus engaged, stories of the discovery of large 
gold deposits on Grasshopper Creek, at Bannack, 
Montana, determined Mr. Clark to emigrate 
hence. After sixty-five days of severe hardships, 
traveling by slow-going ox-team, he arrived at 
Bannack on the 7th of July, 1863. The charac- 
ter of the man finds eloquent testimony in Mr. 
Clark's first act upon his arrival and reveals the 
secret of his repeated subsequent successes — his 
promptitude to act wisely on the instant. Though 
weary with travel, he joined a stampede party on 
the same night and secured a placer claim on 
Horse Prairie. The wisdom of the step succeed- 
ing events proved. 

After working his claim until the close of the 
season, Mr. Clark found himself possessed of his 
first thousand dollars, which amount served as 
the basis for his present immense fortune, his 
wealth thenceforward being marked by a steady 
increase over this sum. With the coming of 
winter and the cessation of mining operations 
until spring, Mr. Clark's shrewd business in- 
stincts discovered opportunities for increasing 
his small means. Purchasing a mule, he set out 
for Salt Lake, where he stocked himself with 
much-needed provisions, which he sold on his re- 
turn at extraordinarily high prices. In the 
spring he again resumed mining, continuing his 
operations until fall. 

With his means thus enhanced by mining and 
trading, he now sought larger opportunities. 
Selling his mining interests at Bannack, he again 
returned to Salt Lake, where he purchased a 
larger supply of merchandise of a general charac- 



ter and freighted it to Virginia City, arriving 
there in the winter of 1864-65. It was during 
this winter that the great flour famine, which 
spread over the entire State, occurred, and flour 
sold at from $1 to $1.50 per pound. Riots en- 
sued, all flour that could be found was seized, and 
many persons were compelled to live exclusively 
on meat and beans for a long time. While Mr. 
Clark did not hold his flour, as did many others, 
at prohibitive prices, he nevertheless received 
large legitimate prolits by reason of its great 

From now on, for the next three years, Mr. 
Clark availed himself of his greatly enhanced 
means in conducting mercantile enterprises on 
a much larger scale. Bv bold freighting expedi- 
tions from distant points, some even so far as San 
Francisco, into sparsely settled sections where 
comforts were scarce, he rapidly accumulated a 
fortune of considerable size. In one tobacco 
transaction alone he netted many thousands. 

By 1868 his enterprises covered a large range, 
including sub-contracting of mail routes, Mr. 
Clark at this time having Helena as his head- 
quarters. In 1870 he entered into partnership 
with Mr. S. E. Larabie and others and a banking 
house was established at Deer Lodge by the 
firm, a general mercantile business also being 
conducted. The latter interests were disposed of 
in the summer of this year and exclusive atten- 
tion was paid to banking by the firm. In 1872 
they organized a national bank, Mr. Clark being 
elected its president. The purchase and ship- 
ment of gold dust formed a leading feature of the 
institution's transactions, this alone amounting 
each season to over a million dollars. In 1878 
the charter was surrendered and the business 
was continued under the previous firm style. A 
branch at this time was also established at Butte. 
In 1884 Messrs. Clark and Larabie purchased the 
interests of the firm, and for some time afterward 
continued this partnership, though it was finally 

Meanwhile, as far liack as 1872, ]\Ir. Clark 
had turned his attention to quartz-mining in the 
Butte district, purchasing an interest in the Orig- 
inal. Colusa, Mountain Chief and Gambetta 
mines. In these acts is fdund a culmination of 
the benefits which he acquired many years previ- 
ous in his quartz-mining experiences in Colorado. 
Not content, however, with his crude knowledge 
of this character of mining, gained from practical 
experience, Mr. Clark recognized the necessity 

of a more exact science, and, during the winter 
following, studied assaying at the School of 
Mines. Columbia College. New York City. 

With the discoveries of the Trevona and other 
silver properties in 1875. Mr. Clark entered 
quite extensively into prospecting for and the 
purchasing of mines of this character. The Dex- 
ter smelter mentioned previously was completed 
with funds furnished by Mr. Clark, this smelter 
being the first successful silver stamp mill oper- 
ated in the camp. In 1875 Mr. Clark located 
the Moulton mine at Walkerville, arranging with 
a syndicate to improve the same, including the 
sinking of an 800-foot shaft, at a total cost of 
$400,000. In May. 1879, he organized the Colo- 
rado and Montana Smelting Company. 

By 1885 Mr. Clark was part or entire owner in 
no less than forty-six paying silver or copper 
properties, many of which have since been aban- 
doned, while a number of others have developed 
into enormously rich copper mines. 

Mr. Clark has from time to time relinquished 
his holdings in properties in which he held a 
minority interest, retaining those in which he was 
entire or major owner, thereby displaying one of 
his strongest characteristics — a desire to be in- 
dependent in all of his investments. The same 
shrewd business acumen which had character- 
ized his operations from the first quite naturally 
was displayed at such times as these holdings 
were released, and Mr. Clark never allowed any 
great time to elapse before utilizing the means 
thus secured in investments equally promising in 
returns. These investments covered every re- 
source of the rapidly growing territory, and 
gradually extended over the most promising sec- 
tions of the whole West, including not only min- 
ing, but the development of great plantations, 
such as coffee and sugar beet, and the construc- 
tion of railroads. 

His United Verde copper mine at Jerome. Ari- 
zona, is. perhaps, the richest mine of its kind in 
the world, producing an enormously high per- 
centage of ore, which is mined literally by quarry- 
ing, without the counter expense of timbering, 
etc., incident to other mines of like mineral prop- 
erties. He has also erected in the East large re- 
fining plants for the final treatment of ores from 
his many mines. 

Mr. Clark, though an unusually active man in 
the conducting of his rapidly growing and di- 
versified interests, has found time for the grati- 
fication of various other doniinatin"- instincts, 


artistic, scholastic, social and political activity all 
having their quota of time and thought. He is a 
gentleman almost delicate in appearance, refined 
and cultured, and capable of versatile conversa- 
tion on subjects of wide range. Whether as a 
humble wage-earner, as a man of growing means 
and larger ideas or as a giant in the mining 
world, he has ever been the same frank, courteous 
gentleman, easy of approach, considerate of the 
feelings of others, and always ready to lend his 
generous aid and kindly counsel to movements 
which promised good for the State or for the 
people thereof. 

Mr. Clark was married in 1869 to Miss Kath- 
erine Stauffer, of his native town, Connells- 
ville, Pennsylvania, and, though deceased for 
many years, there still survive her a host of 
friends who never tire in extolling her beautiful 
character, sweet disposition and womanly love- 
liness. Six children were the fruits of this happy 
union, four of whom, now grown, still survive. 
Two sons, Charles W. and William A., Jr.. reside 
at Butte, and are identified with many of the 
largest institutions of the city, conducting their 
own affairs and promising to follow in their 
father's footsteps as men of large ability and 
executive attainments. 

Mr. Clark maintains a beautiful home in Butte, 
where he spends a large portion of his time. A 
beautiful residence is in course of erection on 
Fifth avenue. New York, if. indeed, it is not al- 
ready completed, to be occupied by his two mar- 
ried daughters, who reside in that city. His 
mother is living and resides at Los Angeles, 
California, and is visited very frequently by Mr. 
Clark, who has surrounded her with every luxury 
in her old age. Mr. Clark is vigorous and in- 
tensely active, and Alontana will doubtless enjoy 
many additional benefits from his generous 
hands, as in the past, before that unfortunate 
da}- when he shall join that large body of pio- 
neers who, in proportion to their abilitv, have 
helped to work out a great destiny for the young 

Mr. Clark is variously reputed to be worth 
from $50,000,000 to $100,000,000. Whether the 
first or last figure is more nearly correct Mr. 
Clark himself probably could not state, intrinsic 
antl income valuations always differing so widely. 
A statement oftentimes made and never disputed, 
however, is that INlr. Clark's annual income ranges 
from $5,000,000 to $6,000,000, or five to six per 
cent on $100,000,000. 


In presenting a brief sketch of Mr. Daly's 
wonderful career, so closely identified with the 
large things of the whole State as it was, it be- 
comes the sad duty to also chronicle its sad close. 
When a portion of the sketch which follows was 
first prepared, Mr. Daly was in full possession 
of all the powers which his wonderful genius 
had wrought for him, and, though suffering 
from the malady which finally brought his la- 
mentable end, no one dreamed that the mortal 
coil had so nearly unwound. To him Montana has 
erected a monument more beautiful and more 
lasting than could be hewn from the granite 
which today is being extracted from the deep 
levels of the Great Anaconda — the masterpiece 
of his great genius. For an immortal column 
that reaches to heaven, bound with ties of love 
and affection, lingers in the minds of the people 
of this great commonwealth, whose memory 
runneth back over the score of years just ending, 
recalling his modest advent, his rapid ascent to 
places of power and wide influence, his love of and 
faith in the great commonwealth, his devotion to 
friends of every degree and walk of life and 
countless acts which will endear him in their 
memory, until the grave shall claim them, and 
whose children's children will ever preserve a 
tender place in their hearts for this great giant 
among men, who builded so well and died so 

Of 'Sir. Daly's early life and many important 
facts throughout his whole career knowledge is 
lacking to a most lamentable extent. He was 
born in a hamlet on the edge of Ballyjamesduff, 
County Cavan, Ireland, in about the year 1841. 
He is supposed to have spent an uneventful boy- 
hood upon the farm. Educational advantages, it 
is well known, were wholly denied him, and, 
when he secretly decided, at the age of fifteen, to 
seek new fortunes in America, he was reinforced 
by nothing that could possibly aid him in rising 
in the world save an indomitable will, which 
ever characterized him, and a strong physique. 
He first found employment in Brooklyn as a 
dockhand, but the work was severely hard for his 
young years and a desire for further travel soon 
possessed him. 

Deciding to emigrate to San Francisco, he lived 
frugally and saved his means until he had accu- 
mulated sufficient to pay his passage by way of the 
Horn. He eventualh- arrived in the latter city 




in rather straitened circumstances, but in what 
year all record seems to be lacking. Here he 
found it difficult to secure employment, and for a 
time he earned a livelihood by various means, 
having no trade to assist him. His earlier farm- 
ing experience, however, played him a good 
service here and he was enabled to obtain fre- 
quent employment as a farm or garden helper. 
At other times he secured subordinate positions 
about the adjacent placer camps. He finally ob- 
tained permanent occupation in the quartz mines 
of Utah, after having drifted between this State 
and California a number of times. It was dur- 
ing this period that Mr. Daly became acquainted 
with George Hearst, afterward the California 
millionaire, who at that time was an ardent pros- 
pector, though then possessed of little means. 
This acquaintance afterward proved of large 
benefit to him. 

Mr. Daly continued in his position in the quartz 
mines until the year 1876, nothing of event trans- 
piring, though he was naturally absorbing the 
principles of this character of mining and laying 
the foundation for a future which ripened him 
into its greatest exponent, perhaps, the world 
over. In this year he decided to cast his for- 
tunes with the mining operations of the rejuve- 
nated Butte. The previous year had occurred the 
discovery of the Travona and other promising 
properties, and Mr. Daly's advent was at a time 
when many others were stampeding in the same 

Many persons who are most familiar with Mr. 
Daly's life at this time assume that Mr. Daly 
came as the representative of the Walker Broth- 
ers of Salt Lake, and that he acquired an interest 
in the Alice mine, which was owned by them, as a 
part consideration in his assuming control of that 
property. Others say to the contrary, claiming 
that Mr. Daly arrived without means, but subse- 
quent events would seem to disprove their con- 
tention. This counts for little, however, save to 
rob a most wonderful career of a little color of 
romance and to cloud the real event whereby he 
acquired the foundation for his future wealth. 
Suffice to say, Mr. Daly was soon in complete 
charge of the Alice mine, and it vas Mr. Daly's 
tremendous success in this capacity that earned 
for him the recognition as the ablest practical 
mining man in the camp, as well as a leading ex- 
pert throughout the whole West. 

In another place it has been shown that the 
Alice soon became the richest silver property in 

the camp, having in its day produced many 
millions for its owners. It was here that Mr. 
Daly demonstrated his large ability as a developer 
of mining properties, displaying almost super- 
human shrewdness and oftentimes proceeding 
against the unanimous counsel of the best ex- 
perts of the camp, but invariably proving the 
correctness of his position. It is not too broad, 
perhaps, to state that, but for, him, many of the 
adjacent silver properties, afterward made fa- 
mous, would never have been developed on so 
enormous a scale but for the shrewd mining 
judgment displayed by Mr. Daly in establishing 
the value of the Alice lode. 

But a larger field was destined for Mr. Daly. 
While engaged in the management of the Alice, 
other properties had been developing on a mod- 
erate scale, and among these was the Anaconda, 
which was producing a good quality of silver 
ore. Realizing that this new mine had a large 
future before it, he relinquished his connection 
with the Alice property for the purpose of iden- 
tifying himself with the Anaconda. Here again 
arises the contention as to whether Mr. Daly was 
enabled to receive a cash consideration upon his 
severance of relations with the Walker brothers, 
but, as Mr. Daly was eventually a large holder of 
Anaconda stock, the assumption seems logical 
that he must have had ineans at this time with 
which to procure the same. 

A deal was finally completed, however, through 
the agency of Mr. Hearst, whereby that gentleman 
and Mr. Daly, together with Messrs. Haggin and 
Tevis, became joint owners of the Anaconda 
property for the consideration of $30,000. Mr. 
Daly, by the terms of the deal, passed to the head 
of the mine in the management of its active opera- 
tions, and shortly the strike was made which so 
wonderfully revolutionized the character of the 
camp from a silver to a copper one. 

The demands for larger smelter accommoda- 
tions now presented themselves, and Mr. Daly 
was given instructions to locate an available site 
for their erection. After considerable study of 
the situation, Mr. Daly finaly decided upon Ana- 
conda — thirty miles distant — as the most prac- 
ticable location, and work was begun upon the 
construction of smelters, which, in time, grew to 
be the largest, probably, of any smelting plant in 
the world. With the growth of not only the 
original Anaconda property, but also numerous 
other mines acquired by the company at Butte. 
including the St. Lawrence, the growth of the 




citv of Anaconda kept pace, until, today, that 
city is one of the handsomest in the State, with a 
population of about 13,000. 

To better facilitate the handling; of ores from 
these many mines an independent railroad was 
constructed, known as the Butte, Anaconda & 
Pacific, which is one of the finest equipped sys- 
tems to be found an\'where for both passenger 
and freight traffic. The demands upon the 
smelters at Anaconda grew to such gigantic pro- 
portions that a second immense smelting plant 
soon became necessary and, more recently, still 
another has been started, and is in course of erec- 
tion at Anaconda, which will double the capacity 
of the old smelters. Mr. Daly, as its founder 
and most enthusiastic patron, was closely identi- 
fied with everything which had for its object the 
improvement of Anaconda, erecting an elegant 
hotel, which is probably the finest in the State, 
establishing a newspaper of the very first class, 
and in every way bringing the city up to the 
highest standard. 

The Anaconda mine, under Mr. Daly's shrewd 
management, soon grew into a colossal system, 
including many new mines lying adjacent to the 
original one, until today it is of tremendous pro- 
portions, employing thousands of men and having 
diversified interests all over the State. 

Besides his interests in this property, Mr. Daly 
was responsible in great measure for the develop- 
ment of the great agricultural possibilities of the 
Bitter Root valley, in Western Montana, where 
he established his famous Bitter Root stock 
farm, as well as putting countless acres under 
cultivation, and today his stock and fruit ranch 
in that valley is one of the handsomest and most 
complete in the entire country. He was a great 
fancier of blooded racing stock and his colors 
have led the way in many of the large Derbys of 
the East for many years past. Mr. Daly was 
also interested as large stockholder in many of 
the leading mercantile establishments of both 
Butte and Anaconda, besides many manufacturing 
enterprises scattered throughout the State. No 
instances are known where he engaged in mining 
operations on an independent basis, although the 
Washoe Mining Company's stock was largely 
held by him. The constantly enhancing values 
of the great Anaconda properties, however, 
yielded him a princely fortune, to say nothing of 
his other immense holdings. 

Mr. Daly has made his home at Anaconda in 
recent years, although spending a portion of his 

time in the East in consultation with other large 
stockholders of the Anaconda, and on his Bitter 
Root ranch with his family, who have made it 
their permanent headquarters for some time. 

Mr. Daly was married at Salt Lake, in 1872, to 
Miss Margaret Evans, who survives him, and has 
a circle of friends larger than the borders of the 
State, who mourn with her in her dark days of 
affliction. Four children also survive Mr. Daly 
— Misses Margaret, Mary and Hattie, and a son, 

He was an enthusiastic lover of Montana, and 
had he been spared for further years would have 
been an invaluable agency in bringing forward 
the resources of the whole commonwealth, as he 
so loyally did in the past. Mr. Daly's fortune 
has been variously estimated at from $15,000,000 
to $50,000,000, but it is believed that the first 
figure is more nearly correct, though the broaden- 
ing of his opportunities and the working out of 
])lans known to have been formulated by him 
previous to his death, in a few years would have 
added immensely to this amount. 

To few men is given the privilege of gather- 
ing around him so many warm friends as Mr. 
Daly possessed, who saw in him the personifica- 
tion of many virtues, of which not the least was 
his kindly consideration of friends of early days, 
many of whose widows today have reason to bless 
his memory. Mr. Daly was an extremely mod- 
est and retiring gentleman, who aspired to no 
elective or appointive political preferment, and 
seemed happiest in the pursuit of his business 
duties or in the quiet of his home. 


When the present shall have become crystallized 
into the past and a more accurate view of events 
shall permit, few names will stand out in such 
relief as will that of the late Patrick A. Largey, 
in connection with Butte's development. Born 
of modest parentage, he took into life the ster- 
ling f|ualities of integrity and business ability, and 
with these wrought out for himself a handsome 
heritage, besides leaving behind him throughout 
that life — thirty-three years of which were spent 
in Montana — a path of kindly deeds and en- 
nobling examples. 

Mr. Largey was born in Perry County, Ohio, 
in 1848, and, as a young man, engaged in mer- 
cantile pursuits in Iowa. In 1865 he crossed the 
plains at the head of a wagon train of sixty 



wagons, having as a business associate John A. 
Creighton, at present a large property-holder in 
Montana and a resident of Omaha, Neb. 

Arriving at Virginia City, Mr. Largey became 
engaged in merchandising and invested quite 
extensively in placer properties adjacent to that 
famous camp, which he operated for many years. 
He continued in business in Virginia City until 
1879, and in 1881 adopted Butte as his future 
home. Meanwhile, Mr. Largey had broadened 
his field of activity and usefulness, and in the 
year 1878 constructed overland a telegraph line 
from Virginia City to Butte and hence, by way 
of the Deer Lodge valley, to Helena and Boze- 
man, thereby preceding the railroad by three 
years, and aflfording the isolated people of the 
State the first opportunity for rapid communica- 
tion with the outside world. Hon. Lee Mantle 
was at this time engaged as telegraph operator 
in Mr. Largey's service, and, to his connection 
with Mr. Largey and the benefits arising there- 
from, Mr. Mantle's later success in life is, doubt- 
less, no little due. 

Mr. Largey's interests developed rapidly and 
his entire fortune, as well as thought, were loaned 
to the city's development. Both mercantile and 
mining pursuits received his attention. In the 
former he was associated with many men who 
were at the head of different mines of the local- 
ity, and in this manner opportunity was offered 
him to secure valuable properties. It is said by 
many of his old associates that he was the pos- 
sessor of more patented mining claims than any 
other man in the LTnited States. The most valu- 
able of his mining acquisitions was undoubtedly 
the Speculator mine, and the returns therefrom 
are supposed to have made him one of the largest 
operators in the State. With two other gentle- 
men, Mr. Largey established the first electric 
light plant in the city. He also established the 
Butte Inter Mountain, and for many years was 
the president of the company publishing that 
journal, and was stockholder in many other 
leading establishments of the city. 

Mr. Largey's most useful and successful career 
was brought to a sad termination on January 11, 
1898. Some three years previous had occurred 
the direful explosion of giant powder which re- 
sulted in the death of some three-score persons. 
Many others were injured and much ill-directed 
feeling was engendered thereby. Mr. Largey 
was least responsible for the explosion and its 
calamitous results than, possibly, any man in the 

city, yet he went far beyond the most exacting 
requirements of duty or public spirit in appeasing 
the suffering caused thereby. He was especially 
annoyed by one Thomas J. Riley, who repeatedly 
called upon and demanded assistance from Mr. 
Largey, after the latter, in connection with 
others, had contributed $1,500 to compensate 
Riley for the loss of a leg in the explosion. 
Riley's demands at last became threats and, 
while engaged in his duties as president of the 
State Savings bank upon the day mentioned, Mr. 
Largey was cruelly shot down by the former as a 
revenge for his injuries — injuries for which Mr. 
Largey never was in any way responsible. 

Mr. Largey left a widow, formerly Miss Lulu 
Sellers of Chicago, to whom he was married in 
1877, who accompanied him in those rugged early 
days wherever his interests took him, and who 
today is administering his affairs where his in- 
terrupted life laid them down. Four children 
also survived him. To the stricken family, how- 
ever, was not confined the grief caused by his 
death. Not only the city, but the whole State 
recognized and mourned the loss of one of the 
best types of the men to whom all time must ac- 
cord the honor of having achieved the develop- 
ment of the great West, as well as a man, who, 
with a few others, made Butte's future possible 
and attracted to Montana the causes and events, 
which, in their unwinding, are making and will 
continue to make it one of the greatest States of 
the Union. 


The last, though not least, of the prominent 
characters to whom special mention is due as one 
who has done much to develop Butte's wonder- 
ful resources and who, as one of the large owners 
of its mining properties, stands as joint sponsor 
for a still greater future, is F. Augustus Heinze. 

Some eleven years ago Mr. Heinze came to the 
city as a mere boy — about twentv years of age. 
Of means or resources he had but little, so far as 
is known, although he had the advantage of the 
subjects of the preceding sketches in that he had 
received an advanced education in the very 
things necessary to successful mining operations. 
He was well versed in metallurgy, geology and 
the other essentials to mining, and to this learn- 
ing was added the keenest of intellects and 
shrewdest of natures. 

Mr. Heinze first entered the mining field in a 
moderately humble capacity — that of mining 

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engineer for the lioston and Montana Mining 
Company — but his quick perception soon dis- 
covered the larger possibilities which were pre- 
sented to him, and he concluded to try for higher 
things. Before a year had passed he had a most 
thorough knowledge of the intricate mineral 
formations of the entire mining district, and was 
so sure that there was room for him in this great 
industry that he shortly returned to New York 
to facilitate matters. Even at this extremely 
youthful age, before a year had passed he had 
succeeded in enlisting capital sufficient to erect a 
large smelter at Butte for the purpose of reducing 
ores from some of the independent mines not 
provided with such plants. 

A company was formed under the style of the 
Montana Ore Purchasing Company, and Mr. 
Heinze passed to its official head and directed its 
operations. Old heads looked askance at Mr. 
Heinze's temerity in venturing upon apparently 
so hopeless a course, but before the smelter was 
completed he had leased a mine and had begun 
operations therein. Powerful influences were 
brought to bear in the hope of eliminating Mr. 
Heinze from the field as a competitor for smelter 
business, but his young genius was not easily 
balked. Obstacles, seemingly overpowering, 
were met by bolder enterprises until he soon had 
acquired sufficient mining property to keep his 
smelter running to its full capacity independent 
of business from other sources. 

Slowly it dawned upon the mining magnates of 
the camp that the Montana Ore Purchasing Com- 
pany was a permanent factor in the field, and that 
Mr. Heinze was a Richmond who had come to 

stay. Mr. Heinze has commanded the admira- 
tion of a host of the citizens of not only the city 
of Butte, but of the whole State, by his nerve and 
daring, and, though many years behind the pio- 
neers in his advent upon the scene, they see in 
him the kind of material of which the hardiest 
early settlers were made. 

Mr. Heinze, as before stated, is a collegiate 
graduate, is cultured and refined, and has in him 
the promise of becoming one of Montana's great 
benefactors. He is unmarried and spends the 
greater portion of his time in Butte looking after 
the affairs of the company, living modestly and 
without the ostentation common to many upon 
whom fortune has so lavishly rained success. 

.\ few years ago Mr. Heinze embarked quite 
extensively upon operations in the Rossland dis- 
trict of British Columbia, but the antagonism of 
the Canadian Government, through the instru- 
mentality of subsidized corporations of that 
country, made his efforts extremely hazardous 
and he retired from the field, but not, however, 
before he had enhanced his wealth to a most sat- 
isfactory extent. 

Mr. Heinze's wealth is not accurately known, 
but, as the largest owner of Montana Ore Pur- 
chasing Company stock, he unquestionably is 
many times a millionaire, and in his meteor-like 
elevation lies but another demonstration of what 
unwavering will and pluck will work out. Like 
his successful predecessors and contemporaries, 
Mr. Heinze has a large place in his heart for his 
old associates, and in this respect reflects the cus- 
toms of his adopted State quite as happily as 
ever have those whose names precede this sketch. 


For the past year a pleasure resort of the very 
first class has been accessible to the people of 
Butte. Across the valley and three miles east 
of the city one of the numerous caiions com- 
mon to the Rockies has been utilized for this 
purpose. It has been preserved almost as na- 
ture made it, with additions only of such char- 
acter as would enhance its inviting rusticity. 

As the waters from the springs and melting 
snows high up the mountain side start upon 
their downward course, they join with others 
coming from different directions, and long be- 
fore the bed of the canon is reached a delight- 

ful stream babbles along over pebbly bottoms 
and gurgles over an occasional rock into inviting 
pools below. • Luxuriant foliage fringes the 
banks of these tributary streams long ere their 
junction in the more level sweep below, and, as 
they emerge into one, a perfect Eden of green is 
massed about them, hiding, from a distance, the 
winding stream completely from the eye. Closer 
approach, however, but enhances the picture, and, 
as detail is added to detail, the withered soul 
creeps slowly out of its musty cave and breathes 
anew the joys of childhood. Willows and alders, 
with here and there a lonely pine, strayed from 



its mountain side, have entwined themselves into 
inciting bowers and cozy nooks. Here nature 
has been aided for the comfort of man by the 
supplementing of rustic seats, the creation of 
shaded parks, by the clearing away of under- 
growth, and the building of queer little bridges 
and aimless paths, while fountains for swans and 
goldfish add to the enchantment of this quiet re- 
treat. Proceeding further, the trees terminate 
abruptly, and in all directions spread away before 
the view every conceivable device which may de- 
light the heart, the mind or the soul of both old 
and young. Great rows of swings and merry- 
go-rounds attract the little ones like flies to mo- 
lasses, while the more sedate mind has had every 
wish anticipated. 

A great pavilion occupies a commanding posi- 
tion in the center of the grounds. Within its 
walls are cafe, banquet-room, smoking-room, re- 
freshment booths of all kinds, and a dance floor 
of gigantic proportions and of ethereal surface, 
with its balconies for guests and orchestra, while 
surrounding the whole structure are broad prom- 
enade verandas and open-air band-stand. 

The landscape gardener has given his touch 
of completeness to the scene by the creating of 
beautiful flower beds. Designs of striking like- 
nesses have been worked out inside of odd- 
shaped plots created by the broad paths which 
wind about through the grounds. Still further 
toward the mouth of the cafion irregular paths 
lead through rustic ways, dotted by little pago- 
das of oriental style, to a delightful body of 
water, whereon glide lazily many boats at the 
will of idle pleasure-seekers. 

The resort is peculiarly charming by reason of 
tlie fact that the citizens of Butte are deprived of 

a close communion with nature, due to the an- 
tagonism of the mineral nature of the soil to 
vegetation, and who, but for this beautiful re- 
treat, would be denied the hallowing influences 
so necessary to the softening of natures and the 
expansion of the souls of men. Not only the 
thousands belonging to the laboring classes, but 
those of high estate have been quick to accept the 
privilege presented them to enjoy the pleasures 
of this bountifully endowed mountain retreat, 
so gratuitously thrown open to them, at no 
further cost than car fare, and immense picnic 
parties composed of people of both high and low 
degree are becoming daily sights within the 
grounds. Many excursions from about the State 
are scheduled for the coming year. 

The gardens are under the control of the City 
Railway Company, but to Hon. W. A. Clark 
is entitled the honor for having provided so 
necessary a public institution, that gentleman, 
as president of the system, having been its in- 
stigator and enthusiastic patron. Something 
like $50,000 has been spent within the year in 
adding to the general improvement of the 
grounds. Electric light, fire, sewerage and 
water systems have been extended about the en- 
tire forty acres comprising the gardens, the first- 
mentioned system rendering the grounds as at- 
tractive by night as by day. In addition to these 
improvements a fine botanical garden and zoo- 
logical collection are planned for the near future 
to supplement those already started, and which 
will be free to the public. Over 80,000 plants 
have been taken from the hothouses operated 
upon the grounds and have been placed in the 
numerous beds, and many rare trees comprise 
those which line the walks and paths. 

scnooL or /Hines. 

The Montana State School of Mines is lo- 
cated on an eminence just west of the city limits 
of Butte. The building is constructed of brick 
and stone in the Renaissance style of architec- 
ture. It is practically fireproof and has been 
considered the finest public structure in the 
State. It was erected in 1896-98, and has re- 
cently been supplied with $15,000 worth of fur- 
niture and apparatus. Everything that goes to 
make up this furnishing is of the best quality 
and of modern construction. The illustrations 

here given are all half-tones taken from photo- 
graphs and will give a correct idea of the style of 
the building and its equipment. 

The institution was opened for the reception of 
pupils on September 11, 1900, and at that time 
freshman and sophomore classes were formed. 
The courses of study adopted require four years 
for their completion and lead either to the de- 
gree of Mining Engineer or Electrical Engineer, 
according to the lines of topics chosen by the 
student. The requirements for admission and 



for graduation corre- 
spond closely to those of 
similar institutions in 
other States. 

This school is under 
the control of the State 
Board of Education and 
a local Board of Trus- 
tees. The members of 
the local board are : 
John E. Rickards, ex- 
governor of the State ; 
James W. Forbis, W. Y. 
Pemberton, ex-chief jus- 
tice : George E. Moul- 
throp and Joseph \'. 
Long. The members of 
the faculty are : Nathan 
R. Leonard, president 
and professor of mathe- 
matics ; William G. King, 
professor of chemistry 
and metallurgy ; Alexan- 
der X. Wincheli, profes- 


Lecture Room of Laboratoi 
Lecture Room, Physics Depart 



of this commonwealth. 
It is hoped that in a com- 
paratively short time this 
institution will be in pos- 
session of very large and 
valuable collections of 
minerals, mine models, 
etc., illustrating the re- 
sources of the State and 
the latest and best meth- 

sor of geology, nunmg 
and mineralogy, and 
Charles H. Bowman, pro- 
fessor of mechanics and 
mining engineering. 

The Act of Congress 
providing for the organ- 
ization of the State 
granted 100,000 acres of 
land for the establish- 
ment of a School of 
Mines. The legislature 
of the State located the 
school at Butte, and has 

made liberal appropriations for its equipment 
and current expenses. 

The large mineral resources of Montana and 
the vast amount of capital employed in their de- 
velopment have made mining the chief industry 
of the State. The School of Mines is therefore 
an object of the greatest interest to the people 


ods in the extraction and treatment of ores. 
The City of Butte is the greatest mining center 
in America. The thousands of trained super- 
intendents, engineers, metallurgists and practical 
miners here employed constitute an environment 
that will prove of inestimable value to the School 
of Mines. 


" To help the worthy poor to help them- 
selves " was the motto adopted by a little band 
of charitable women one fall day in 1897. About 
three years later, or upon Friday evening, Nov- 
ember 16, 1900, there was formally opened, by 
an unqualifiedly successful charity ball, the Paul 
Clark Home as a fitting monument to their un- 
tiring labors, and but for which this beautiful 
structure would, perhaps, never have been 

So generously did their motto and the high 
standing of the organizers appeal to public sen- 
timent that success followed success rapidly un- 
til their organization — the Associated Chari- 
ties — soon became the recognized leader in 
charitable work in the city. The charter mem- 
bers of the infant organization numbered about 
fifty, but, so enthusiastic have been their efforts, 
that in the short years since its incorporation the 
membership has increased to nearly 200 — ex- 



clusively of ladies — most of whom are leaders 
in social and religious life in the city. The first 
officers and trustees of the organization are en- 
titled to distinct mention, together with all honor 
that might go with it, for upon the proper shap- 
ing of the association's affairs at its inception 
rests, in large measure, the credit for subsequent 
successes. Their names are: President, Mrs. 
J. M. White; first vice-president, Mrs. John 
Noyes ; second vice-president, Mrs. A. S. Chris- 
tie ; secretary, Mrs. Irene Morshead ; treasurer, 

the assisted to help themselves. In the language 
of its noble president, Mrs. J. M. White: "To 
put one family beyond the necessity of charity is 
more useful than to tide twenty over into next 
week's misery." 

Truths are often best left unsaid, but it is felt 
to be the fact, concurred in by every one and 
whose relation is a pleasure to all, that if a canvass 
were made for an explanation of the large meas- 
ure of success which has attended the associa- 
tion's history, the unanimous reply would be 


Mrs. A. M. Wethey ; trustees, Mrs. J. M. White, 
Mrs. C. W. Clark, Mrs. Annie E. Hammond, 
Mrs. Jennie H. Moore, Mrs. Sarah Broughton, 
Mrs. Ruth Burton and Mrs. John Noyes. Aside 
from its membership, nearly every business and 
professional man of note in the city is numbered 
among the association's list of donors. 

The objects of the association are: To help 
the worthy poor to help themselves, to visit and 
assist the poor, relieve their distress by providing 
physicians, nurses, food, clothing, fuel and what- 
ever may be necessary in their particular cases. 

A home was secured where those seeking em- 
ployment and without means could remain tem- 
porarily, the end sought in all cases being to help 

" Mrs. White." While a score of others have 
loaned their every thought to the upbuilding of 
the association and sacrificed their personal com- 
forts in ministering to the wants of others, yet 
undoubtedly is due to Mrs. White the credit for 
the growing success of this ennobling work. 
Hers is the genius, the tact, the farsightedness, 
the generalship, which, combined with a sweet, 
pure woman's heart, has tided the association 
over the dark places and brought to its support 
assistance which otherwise might not have been 

Mrs. John Noyes has always been a most able 
lieutenant, making light the many burdens and 
lending her best efforts at all times, and not in- 



frequently of her large means, for the success 
cf the association. 

Another earnest worker, as well as donor, is 
Mrs. C. W. Clark, who. as one of its first trus- 
tees, has been identified with the work from its 
start and has ever been willing with her means 

wherein its plans might be worked out unham- 
pered. The suggestion, seemingly, took root in 
Mr. Clark's mind, and some months later, while 
in the East, he notified Mrs. White to confer 
with architects in the drafting of plans for a 
building to cost some $20,000. His communica- 


and kindly personal eft'ort to further the best 
interests of the association. 

Scores of others might be mentioned who have 
loaned both effort, thought and means to the 
success of this God-given task, whom many a 
hungry, dejected soul has learned to bless from 
a touched and softened heart. 

As the association grew in age and stature, its 
needs rapidly multiplied and the small frame 
building originally occupied by it proved wholly 
inadequate to meet them. The burning question 
of how to meet this new demand with the lim- 
ited funds at its command lay heavily upon the 
hearts of more than one zealous member for 
many days before its solution was reached. 

Meanwhile, Mrs. White, anticipating events, 
had taken the matter up quite seriously with 
Hon. W. A. Clark, suggesting to him the neces- 
sity for an ample home for the association. 

tion also stated that his immediate family would 
supply the furnishings for the institution in all 
details. This was supposed to represent an ad- 
ditional outlay of $10,000. 

Plans were drawn and work begun, and, as 
construction and furnishing progressed, the orig- 
inal sums appropriated became exhausted many 
times and, as often as this occurred, new appro- 
priations were generously made until the build- 
ing completed represents a total cost of not less 
than $50,000. The only condition imposed upon 
the association was that the name of the insti- 
tution should be the Paul Clark Home, in mem- 
ory of Mr. Clark's youngest son, who. during his 
lamentably short life, devoted so much to deeds 
of charity. 

Mrs. White, at the request of Mr. Clark, as- 
sumed complete control of the plans, material, 
furnishings, etc., and, so great a burden did this 



impose upon her, she was forced to withdraw 
from active charge of the Associated Charities, 
and, for the last two years, has given her entire 
thought and time to her new duties. 

The completed structure, both exterior and in- 
terior, is a most beautiful adornment to the city 
and a lasting monument to Mr. Clark's public- 
spiritedness. As it shall become better known, 
its usefulness will impress more deeply the citi- 
zens of Butte and a still keener appreciation of it 
is in store. That it will immeasurably facilitate 
the work of the Associated Charities is palpable, 
and it is predicted that untold sutTering and dis- 
tress will be relieved by its agency. 

The building is constructed of rustic brick 
with granite facings and arched entrance, and fin- 
ished inside w-ith highly polished oak and ar- 

into two large wards. Connecting the main 
building and the hosjiital is a large sun parlor, the 
sides of which are composed almost wholly of 
glass. The illustration but faintly shows what 
a great boon this feature will prove to the con- 
valescing patient. 

The first floor of the main building is com- 
prised of office, reception, writing, reading and 
dining rooms, day nursery, wardrobe, soup-room, 
pantries and kitchen. On the second floor are the 
sleeping-room for the day nursery, seven single 
and three double bedrooms, matron's room, two 
large linen-clnsets and hath and toilet rooms, 
fitted up with every cnn\cnience. The third floor 
has six single and two double bedrooms and a 
trunk-room. Each room has its convenient 
closets. The basement contains a large laun- 


tistic red brick fireplaces, and all the latest de- 
vices for perfect ventilation. Its furnishings 
are in perfect accord with the purposes for which 
they are to be used, and, as shown by accompany- 
ing illustrations, are simple but elegant. 

The main building is three stories in height, 
with a large, well-lighted basement. In the rear 
is a hospital building one story high and divided 

drv, drying-room, four large rooms for indus- 
trial purposes, bath, toilet-rooms, wash-rooms, 
fumigating closets, store-rooms, furnace-room 
and large fuel compartments. 

While the Paul Clark Home was originally 
built for the purpose of serving as an auxiliary to 
the .\ssociated Charities in the prosecution of a 
larger work, the idea has more recentlv been ad- 



vanced with considerable reason that it presented 
untold opportunities complete in themselves. 
Many of those most actively interested in its 
future feel that a great economic benefit may be 
worked by converting the institution into an in- 
dustrial home. In so doing opportunity will be 
given many worthy persons for fitting themselves 
to become independent, thereby carrying out on a 
larger scale the idea of " helping the worthy poor 
to help themselves." Even this course, how- 
ever, would not deprive the Associated Charities 
of the benefits originally sought in the erection 
of the Home, the only result gained being a 
broadening of the institution's possibilities. 

A feature which will be adopted in any case 
will serve as a great blessing to many dependent 
women of large families, who at present are re- 
strained from earning the means necessary for 

their support. A nursery has been provided 
for the care of the children of these women who 
are of too tender an age to be left at their homes, 
and by this means their mothers will be enabled 
to seek employment otherwise denied them, 
thereby being relieved of " next week's misery." 
Even within the institution, if present plans are 
carried out, opportunity will be granted a limited 
number of these mothers to gain a livelihood by 
performing work from which the institution may 
derive a revenue, and, so far as possible, the 
children will be given an opportunity to learn 
vocations whereby they may make themselves 
self-supporting. It is a grand work and both 
the donors of the institution and those most 
closely interested in its direction may be sure of a 
full measure of reward for their liberality and 
Christian charitv. 


The widespread growth encountered through- 
out every other portion of Butte is multiplied by 
a much larger number with respect to the mines. 
True, the old Travona district, the first active 
scene of quartz-mining, to the southwest of the 

same uncouth desolation in which the last pick 
left it — eloquently pleads for reverence. 

Walkerville, to the extreme north, too, has its 
mournful tale. There, gaunt in their deserted 
grandeur, stand the gigantic mine and smelter 

Stack of Centennial Smelter. 

city, is deserted. An occasional weed-grown 
shack sheds the elements for some wayfarer, but 
mining is dead, and the old surface structures, 
fast crumbling to decay, are uncanny in the mem- 
ories they conjure in the mind. Missoula Gulch, 
though fast losing its identity northward under 
the hand of new improvements, here — in the 

structures of the Lexington, Moulton and Alice, 
the two former never to resume their lives of use- 
fulness, and the latter probably doomed to the 
same destiny. The Magna Charta, Valdemere. 
and other once important, though less noted, 
mines, also, in their crumbling state, but add to 
the truth that mining in this section is fast 

exington Mine. 

Lexington Smelt 

Alice Mine. 



le and Smeller. 

Alice Smelter. 


Magna Charta 



laeconiing a lost industry. Some three miles west 
from the city's limits, the Blue Bird and other 
noted silver properties, contemporaries and lusty 
rivals of the larger ones in Walkerville, have 
yielded up the ghost and are being demolished. 

But here ends the list of decline and decay. 
Overwhelmingly outbalancing it, is the list of in- 
crease and growth in mining activity elsewhere. 
" The hill " is tlie old hill still, but a greater mys- 

into the respective valleys. So well grounded is 
this idea that there are many who hold that, as the 
many leads are extended under the hill, thev will 
take their owners completely under the city to the 
south or across the valley to the east and into the 
main range of the Rockies. Color is given this 
theory by discoveries, while excavating, of several 
most important leads in the very heart of the 
business and residence sections of the citv, as well 


tery. Hundreds of claims, under the control of 
a few owners, cover every available inch of this 
wonderful spot from a point immediately south- 
east of Walkerville to Meaderville. But the list 
does not stop here. Not a square inch of ground 
is there within the city's limits and running be- 
yond, to east, south and west, but what is a pros- 
pective mining claim, titles to which are almost 
universally exempted in all deeds of conveyance 
transferring surface rights. In other words, the 
instance is rare indeed where a transfer of surface 
rights by sale does not exclude the mineral de- 
posits beneath such surface, so impressed is the 
whole community with the idea that copper de- 
posits on " the hill " do not end at its borders, but 
extend downward on either side of the same, and 

as in the lowest levels of the valley to the east. 
Even beyond and along the opposite side thereof 
and up the main pass through the divide, some 
five miles east, important operations are being 
prosecuted. The Homestake property is an im- 
portant member of this group and promises new 
and important fields in entirely new quarters. 

Not one of the dozens of mines which honey- 
comb " the hill " from either side has failed to 
retain its " lead " at whatever depth it has sunk 
its shaft and the general tendency of such lead is 
to widen as greater depth is reached. As previ- 
ously stated, copper is the ore primarily sought in 
the whole Butte district, and the precious metals 
are but by-products. In some cases these latter 
furnish sufficient revenue to maintain the o]5era- 


tioiis of the entire property and the copper 
liecomes a net profit to its owners. 

In all there are some 225 mines in the immedi- 
ate environments of the city, though many, it is 
true, are but infantile in their proportions and 
their owners are only performing their legal " rejj- 
resentation " work. In the neighborhood of 13.- 
000 men are employed in these mines and smelters 
of this city. It may be added, in this connection, 
that two other cities — Anaconda and (jreat Falls 
— owe their existence to the smelters, which are 
owned and operated at those points by the mine 
owners of Butte. The largest institutions of 

district today is the most important, from a min- 
ing view, of any district on earth. For Mon- 
tana's reputation as a great mining State, Butte 
is almost wholly responsible. In fact, the state- 
ment is often made that " Butte is Montana." 
Though increased mining activity is beginning to 
develop throughout other portions of the State 
and many old sections are holding their own, the 
gross output therefrom at present is insignificant 
compared with the Butte section. 

The relation of this section to outside sections 
is shown in the following table of outputs for 











( )utside 


Totals . .. . 






which this country at least can boast of that char- 
acter are shuated in these three cities and give 
employment to thousands of men. 

To enumerate in detail all of the numberless 
phases of the mining conditions existing through- 
out the district would be in turn an endless task 
and a tiresome repetition. Suffice to say that tiie 

Too much importance can not be attached to 
the fact that in this year the output of the State 
increased just thirty-three per cent over the 
previous year. 

With Butte's mineral preeminence in Montana 
established, its relation to the entire country and 
to the world as a copper-producer is worthy of 


't: M 






consideration. Perhaps nothing that could be 
said upon the subject would speak more elo- 
quently than a short excerpt from the annual 
report of Hon. E. B. Braden, United States As- 
sayer in Charge for Montana, which reads as fol- 
lows : 

" Previous to 1882, 80 per cent of all the cop- 
per of the United States came from the mines 
bordering on Lake Superior. In the following 
year the Lake Superior region produced 51.6 
per cent, Arizona 27 per cent, and Butte 21.4 
per cent of the domestic copper. The percentage 
of the Butte output continued to increase stead- 
ily, and in 1887 it became greater than the yield 
from the Lake Superior district. This lead has 
ever since been advanced until, in 1898, when 60 
per cent of all the world's copper was supplied 
by the United States, Butte furnished 41 per cent. 
Lake Superior 30 per cent, and Arizona 21 per 
cent of all the domestic production. Butte thus 
practically furnishes a quarter of the copper prod- 
uct of the world." 

The ratio of growth in mineral output in Sil- 
ver Bow district during the period of 1882- 1899 
is shown in the subjoined table from Mr. Braden's 
report : 

Gold, Silver, Copper, 

Vear. Fine Ounces. Fine Ounces. Fine Pounds. 

1SS2 12,093,750 2,699,296 9,058,284 

1883 14,560,875 3,480,468 24,664,346 

1884 21,776,006 4,481,180 43,093,1)54 

1885 13,838,297 4,126,677 67,797,864 

18S6- 31,223,450 5,924,180 57,611,485 

1887 48,175,743 6,958,822 78,700,000 

188S 44,320,062 8,275,768 98,504,000 

1889 31,652,325 6,560,038 104,589,000 

1890 25,704,730 7,500,000 112,700,000 

189I 29,395,356 7,985,089 112,383,420 

1892 36,222,560 8,311,130 158,413,284 

1893 33.807,877 6,668,730 159,875,490 

1894 36,768,015 7,561,124 185,194,385 

1895 41,493,363 10,051,760 197,190,650 

1896 59.815,755 11,120,731 228,886,962 

1897 54,198,037 10,710,815 236,826,597 

1898 55.038,589 8,996,555 216,648,077 

1899 62,038,377 9.855.831 245,245,908 

T(-)tal 652,368,167 131,268,203 2,337,382,824 

To the above may be added the fact that the 
world's output for the following year, or 1899, 
showed a slight increase over the preceding one, 
so divided as to maintain the percentage deduced 
by Mr. Braden. 

Figuring copper at the price prevailing during 
the year of its production, the revenue from this 
commodity represents a gross sum of $284,331.- 

746. If the same price had been enjoyed during 
these years, as will doubtless maintain, if not in- 
crease, in the future, the copper output to date 
would have represented a gross revenue of about 

It is doubtful if the people of this, or any 
other, section fully comprehend the importance of 
Montana as a mining State. It has been more 
generally classed as one of the States of the 
" mining West," many other States enjoying the 
same general reputation that should specifically 
apply to Montana first — placing even the much 
boasted Colorado mineral wealth well into second 
position. From the table shown on page 6 it is 


Discov ered within the \ear in heart of city, while excavating, 

and sold for half a million. 

believed that the true relation of Montana to the 
mining industry, not only of the West, but to the 
whole country, will be universally recognized for 
the first time. In this table it is impossible to 
show the precise value of iron production. This 



kind of ore is treated or reduced to pig iron at 
points foreign to the mine, and no credits are 
given to the producing section, values being 
placed upon the pig iron after treatment of the 
ore. Of the three sections producing iron ore, 
the Lake Superior region produces approximately 
three-fourths, the Southern States two-thirds of 
the remainder, and all other States but one-third. 
As the Lake Superior region undoubtedly is syn- 
onymous with Ll'pper Michigan as regards the 
iron industry, for purposes of calculation. Michi- 

only leads the entire West, but will be a competi- 
tor for first place as the greatest mining State of 
the Union. 

As for Butte's part in the State's great future, 
precise prediction would appear presumptive. 
That it will continue its present tremendous lead 
no competent authority doubts. That it will en- 
joy the steady growth of the past, trebled and 
quadrupled by virtue of increased mining activ- 
ity, aided no little by a logical growth along com- 
mercial and manufacturing lines, seems modest 

gan is credited with three-fourths of the total 
value of pig iron production in the table. This, 
no doubt, is greatly in excess of the true value of 
the crude ore, but hardly sufficient to change the 
relative positions of the States as named. 

It will be seen that Montana is easily the third 
wealthiest in point of production of all the min- 
ing States of the country. Michigan leading, with 
Pennsylvania second. In copper production 
Montana leads all other States, approximately 
40 per cent of the nation's output coming from 
Butte. First place in silver production also be- 
longs to Montana, the greater percentage of 
which comes from Butte as a by-product in cop- 
per mining. Gold, coal and lead make a most 
creditable showing, especially in the two latter, 
considering the brevity of operations in those 

With the prestige thus enjoyed and with the 
prosecution of extensive development work all 
along the line throughout the whole State, the 
prediction seems quite permissible that Montana 
will not only continue to hold her own. but will 
forge ahead each succeeding vear. until she not 

enough to predict ; but, without infallibility, a 
prediction less optimistic would seem absurd, and 
every sign but reinforces its truth. 

A more detailed reference to the principal mines 
of the city, located, without exception, upon or 
contiguous to " the hill." together with smelters 
operated in connection therewith, lying along the 
valley to the south, follows, and verifies elo- 
quently many statements preceding, which, but 
for such corroboration, may have been open to the 
charge of too much zeal. 

It has been shown elsewhere that the large ma- 
jority of the mines and smelters of the Butte 
district are controlled by a few large mining 
corporations. These companies control in over- 
whelming proportions all of the mineral rights 
underlying " the hill " on either side from Walk- 
erville to Meaderville and. in most cases, the sur- 
face rights as well. 

The corporations thus referred to are the Ana- 
conda Copper Mining Company. Colusa Parrot 
Mining Company (Clark interests), Boston and 
Alontana JNIining Company, Butte and Boston 
Mining Company, Montana Ore Purchasing 


Company, Colorado Mining and Smelting Com- 
pany, Parrot Mining Company and the Largey 
estate interests. 

Smelters are operated in Butte in connection 
with the Colusa Parrot, Butte and Boston, Mon- 
tana Ore Purchasing, Colorado Mining and 
Smelting and Parrot Mining Companies' prop- 
erties, while the Anaconda mines send their ores 
to their smelters at Anaconda over their own 
railroad — the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific — 
and those of the Boston and Montana are sent to 
their Great Falls works over the Montana Cen- 
tral Railroad for reduction. 

In addition to these corporations there are any 
number of smaller ones and, in many cases, of 
individual owners whose properties are scat- 

finality a work of twice the thickness would be 

All through the area most generously endowed 
are hundreds of shafts, marked by gallows frames 
and dumps of various sizes, which mark the 
varying progress of different claims, all of such 
an identical appearance that no distinctive fea- 
ture could be shown, save in the name. This is 
true of many sections of the city itself, and the 
instance is not rare of mining operations on a lim- 
ited scale being conducted in vacant lots lying 
between two dwellings, stores, etc. 

The order observed in the following illustra- 
tions, it is thought, will give a clearer idea of the 
general mining situation in connection with the 
distribution of the mines according to district 

tered throughout the same area covered by the 
larger corporations and which are developing 
into first-class propositions. The ores from 
these mines are sent to the various smelters above 
enumerated for reduction. 

In making specific reference to the mines of 
Butte by means of illustration, the method thus 
employed of reinforcing Butte's claims to first 
position among the mining districts of the world 
presented such an endless task, so characterized 
by a seemingly tireless repetition, that the neces- 
sity of confining the list to the larger interests 
appeared mandatory. If taken through to a 

than if classification were made under heads of 
tlie various corporations. The idea has been to 
pick up the thread of the earlier portion of this 
chapter, and by illustration show where active 
mining operations begin as compared to the de- 
cay in other sections. It will thus be seen what 
is meant by the overwhelming increase of the 
new over the old. The list begins at Walkerville, 
proceeds thence to Centerville along the south- 
ern and western slopes of " the hill " as it zig- 
zags in its southeasterly direction until Meader- 
ville is reached, and thence north along the eastern 
slope until operations ]iracticallv cease. 


Anaconda property. Southwest slope of Hi 

iistrict. Depth, i, 600 feet. Emplo 

Weekly output, 500 tons. 


Anaconda property. South slope of Hill. Center^ille district. Depth, I, Soo feet. Employs 300 men. Weekly output, 2,500 tons. 



-/fei:^'.^^ -- 

r^^fi^(l^<W'^^ ' 





UnderleasetoM.O. p. Co. Ce: 

pth, 400 feet. Employs 50 r 




naconda property. Crest of Hill. Center\ ille district. Depth, 2.200 feet. Employs 550 men. Weekly output, 6,000 tons. 



•Anaconda Hill." Largest mine in city. Scene of ^^^ °=''>''^ <^='''^.^f";;''" "I, " 
Depth, 1,800 feet. Employs 1,400 men. W eekly output, 9, 

icleus of all .\naconda properti^ 

elow ground. Southwest of .Xnaconda mine. A. C. M. Co. property. 
Employs 600 men. Weekly output, 4,500 tons. 


South of Neversweat. Named for Joe Ramsdell. A. C. M. Co. property. Depth, 600 feet. Emplo 

Weekly output, 1,600 t 

West of Ranisilcll Parrot. Clark's property. Depth, 1,600 feet. Employs 350 r 


Before destruction by fire the 
St year. Depth, 1,300 feet, 
iiployed 350 men. West of 
• lusa Parrot. 

Clark property. Depth, 1,100 feet. Employs 


On lode where was found a hole dug presumably by Indians. Siiulli 
Depth, 1,300 feel. Employs 200 mei 



Adjoining Origin 

Col. M. & S. Co. property. Depth, i.Soo feet. Employs 

Anaconda Hill in background to the t 





-!i n, n ii 5 ^^[n 

***'"'•- ""'r^S-JW|^ 

''V^^^ , ^^ft ^^^0^ . 

■^K|fe^ >■■"' >^- "^ A/'^ ■' 

Washoe property. South side Anaconda Hill. Depth, 1,500 feet. Employs 350 r 

Depth, 1,600 feet. Empl 



stabled OH 400 level 




B. & B. property. South of Hill. Ee 

city. Depth, 500 feet. Employs 50 i 

&M. property. Highest point on Anaconda Hill, f.iiiiig Mtadenille. Depth, 1,750 feet. Employs 125 men. Has 14 < 



M. O. P. Go's property. First mine acquired by F. Aug. He 

East slope of Hill. Meade 

) district. Employs 250 men. Depth, 1,100 feet. 



.& M. property. East side of Hill. Meaderville District. Depth, 1.370 feet. Employs 

, & M.iiropertv. Bas 

.slope of Hill. Meaderville district. Depth, Soo feet. Empio 


Weekly output, 1.200 tons. 


argey estate property. East slope of Hill. Farthest north in Meaderville i 
Depth, r,20o feet. Employs 70 n 

One of the best equipped 1 

East slope of Hill. MeaderN ilk- district. Scene of Heinzes initial operations. Employs 350 r 



Southeast slope of Hi 






HE mechanical 
steps, as fol- 
lowed in a 
general way 
t h r o u ghout 
the various 
( le V e lopments 
iif a mine, 
from its in- 
ception to a 
stage which surpasses the imagination and 
makes description impossible, can not fail of a 
lively interest. 

It has already been stated that the mineral 
right underlying every available inch of surface 
ground for a large area is firmly held by virtue 
of location, purchase or otherwise, oftentimes 
by parties other than the surface owners. That 
these rights are subject to purchase is as true, 
in a majority of cases, as is the fact that the 
surface right may be bought for sufficient con- 

Whoever is fortunate enough to own the 
mineral right of a particular portion of this 


wonderful area has made an important start. 
Failing this, he is compelled either to purchase 
such right or to " lease and bond " the same. 
By the terms of the latter agreement the lessee 
undertakes to develop such claim to a certain 
depth, to employ a given number of men. to tim- 

ber all shafts and drifts, and to pay the lessee a 
royalty on all ores extracted from the claim. 
The lessor, on his part, agrees and undertakes 
to sell such claim to the lessee within the time 
stipulated in the lease at a price agreed upon 
therein. Thus the lessee becomes the nominal 
owner for the time being, with the right to pur- 
chase. By this process he either takes up the 
work where the owner or a previous lessee has 

laid it down, or starts at the very beginning 
and breaks ground for the first time upon the 
claim. In the latter case a " prospect hole " is 
the first step taken and the thing sought is pal- 
pably a " lead." If the lead is found and a 
vein of sufficient value is uncovered to warrant 
it work is continued. 

As the vein becomes more clearly defined and 
the prospect hole deepens, excavation by the 
usual methods employed in digging a hole or 
ditch becomes impracticable, and the first sur- 
face structure, a " windlass," is erected over 
the opening or the mouth of the hole, and the lat- 


ter is thenceforth designated as a " shaft." At 
this juncture, to prevent shifting of the earth 
from the sides of the shaft, heavy timbers are 
installed to brace the side walls, and in this 
manner the shaft is boarded in on all sides as it 
deepens. A large bucket is lowered from or 
raised to the surface by means of the windlass, 
and as the excavated matter is hauled to the sur- 
face it is " dumped " into a primitive ore bin if 
it carries ore values, otherwise onto the waste 
dump and there to remain. 

It is the practice of all mines in this section to 
establish a " level " at every hundred feet of the 
shaft, and when this important stage is reached 

many instances this order of things is not found 
expedient, and the gallows frame is erected at the 
very outset. The bucket, too, has gone the way of 
the windlass, and the whim and a steel skeleton- 
like contrivance known as the " cage " is intro- 
duced as the vehicle for hoisting purposes, the ore 
cars being run upon them and car and cage raised 
to the surface. A more pretentious ore bin, too, 
has been constructed and tracks are run both to it 
and to the waste pile or dump. To one of these 
the cars are taken and unloaded, propelled by 
either man or horse power. 

As the drift extends new leads are encountered 
and new drifts or " crosscuts " are established. 


the mine takes on a new significance. While 
work continues to be prosecuted at the " sump " 
end or bottom of the shaft to secure greater 
depth, a " drift " or tunnel is also started at a 
right angle to or in a horizontal direction from 
the shaft and approximately in the direction of 
the ore body. Thus is established the first or 
" one hundred " level. Tracks are now laid 
along the floor of the drift, and along these 
" ore cars " are run from the point of operations 
to the " station " at the shaft end of the drift. 

Meanwhile the surface structure has taken on 
a new aspect. The windlass has outlived its 
usefulness, as greater hoisting power is re- 
quired, and in its place a horse " whim " is 
erected. This is soon followed by a more sub- 
stantial though diminutive hoisting device known 
as the " gallows frame," made of heavy timbers, 
and steam power is substituted for horse. In 

By the time this stage of development has been 
reached, if not previously found necessary, al- 
though it ordinarily has been from the very outset, 
the rebellious nature of the ground has compelled 
the use of other implements than pick and shovel, 
and resort is made to giant explosives in breaking 
the way. Before these explosives can be used, 
deep holes are first necessary and, for the purpose 
of making them, a drill team of two men is put to 
work, one of the team holding the drill — a cold 
chisel sort of device — while the other wields his 
sledge, pounding the drill deeper and deeper into 
the face of the rock. 

No more machine-like exhibition can be found 
anywhere than is displayed by this class of miner. 
Every stroke is in perfect rhythm, the sledge strik- 
ing the drill squarely upon the head with uner- 
ring precision. Whether swung from above, be- 
low or either side, the result is alwavs the same, 


the sledge always finding the mark. As the first 
drill, by reason of its inferior length, renders its 
holding dangerous to the hand, it is neatly extri- 
cated, while yet the sledge is in motion for the suc- 
ceeding stroke, and another inserted of greater 
length, and the blow falls as before, squarely upon 
the head of the new drill and not a motion or a 
second wasted. Likewise with the changing of 
positions of the two inen. As the sledge descends 

dozen or more have been drilled into the face of the 
rock. Then is inserted the explosive, a fuse is at- 
tached and all withdraw to safe distances until the 
report tells them to return. Thus foot by foot 
and yard by yard the drift is pushed further and 
further along toward or through the ore body, 
cars speedily removing the debris to the station 
and thence to the surface, while new tracks con- 
stantly keep apace with the progress of the drift. 



upon the drill and begins to describe a new circle 
for another blow the member of the team who 
previously held the drill grasps the sledge without 
so much as a pause in its course, the other member 
grasps the drill and the blow descends as before, 
squarely upon the head of the drill and not a mo- 
tion or a second wasted. 

Thus turn about, first one and then the other 
wields the sledge until the hole is complete. An- 
other hole and still another follows, until a half 

jNIeanwhile the ore body is attacked along the 
ceiling of the main drift by the " stoping " proc- 
ess, great quantities of ore being blasted away 
from the top of the drift and, falling to the floor 
thereof, are carried to the surface. If the charac- 
ter of the ground through which the drift is run 
is of a yielding nature common to earth formation, 
as the drift progresses its sides are timbered by 
strong beams and boards, and, as the stoping 
process continues, a timbered roof is built to the 


drift, which becomes the first floor of the stope. 
In many cases the character of the ground worked 
is of such a nature that very little or no timbering 
is required, the safety of the mine or miners in 
nowise being jeopardized by the absence of the 

Skeleton frames of powerful scafifolding are 
erected, however, from the floor of the drift, even 
in this class of ground, in order to permit of the 
laying of additional floors in the stope above. 
Stoping operations are exclusively followed, in 
working from one level to another, larger quan- 
tities of earth being more easily dislodged by 
working from the ceiling, and the drift floors are 






first few levels, which follow in regular order of 
one hundred feet as the shaft descends, the stop- 
ing process does not constitute so large a portion 
of the operations, the vein at this depth not hav- 
ing developed sufficient width nor value to war- 

thus kept intact for the rapid transit of cars to 
and from the station. In many mines of Butte 
these stoping chambers are three hundred or more 
feet wide, but the presence of so much timbering 
renders their illustration impossible. Along the 


rant it. As greater depths are reached, however, 
the mine expands in every direction. 

Then comes the widening of the shaft. From 
a " one compartment " shaft, admitting of the 
passage of but one cage, it graduates into a two- 
compartment shaft and another cage is intro- 
duced, each operated separately from the other. 
A third compartment is also found necessary in 
most cases, for the running of all manner of pipes 
and wires necessary to the successful operation of 
the mines. Unlike many other kinds of mining, 
no gases are encountered in the mines of Butte. 
Notwithstanding this fact, every care is taken to 
supply all levels with a constantly changing air, 
thus overcoming in short order the bad effects 
caused by blasting, etc. Immense engines for this 
purpose are installed at a convenient point near 
the mouth of the shaft, and are most carefully in- 
spected. Water, too, is an element to be figured 
upon no little in the operation of the mine, large 
quantities of it seeping through the sides and 
roofs of the respective drifts, and upon its im- 
mediate elimination from the workings very 
much depends. 

Compressed air for the operation of the air- 
drills throughout the mines is also found neces- 
sarv with the introduction of this class of drill in 



substitution for the hand drill. These drills are 
many times more efficacious than the more primi- 
tive drill heretofore described, operating much the 
same as an auger, boring their way into solid rock 
with the ease that that instrument would into a 
pine board. Power to operate them is furnished 
in compressed air, and when it is realized that no 
less than 250 of these machines are being oper- 
ated in one single mine, the Anaconda, this fea- 
ture alone takes on a gigantic significance. 

has the surface appearance undergone a change. 
Still again has the gallows frame proved its in- 
sufficiency. A greater hoisting power has been 
found necessary by reason of increased quanti- 
ties of ore and waste resulting from the exten- 
sion of shaft, drift, stope and crosscut, and with 
this necessity is born the steel gallows frame. So 
popular is this style of frame becoming that 
many of the mines are tearing down their old 
shafthouses, which enclosed the less pretentious 


Aside from the proverbial candle with which all 
miners go armed, a complete system of electric 
lighting is installed in every mine, lights running 
along the roof of all drifts and crosscuts, light- 
ing the dark interiors and permitting of the most 
expeditious prosecution of all branches of opera- 
tions. The lamp is an unknown article below 
ground in this section. 

For these pipes of all kinds, wires, speaking 
tubes, etc., the creation of the third compartment 
in nearly all mines is a most necessary essential. 

But the expansion does not stop here. Again 

wooden affairs, and are erecting these mammoth 
skeletons of steel, securing greater strength and 
longevity and minimizing the possibilities of fire 
being communicated underground in case of the 
burning of the surface works. They are so built 
as to support the greatest weight at the least ex- 
pense to the permanent stability of the structure 
and range in height from no to 125 feet. 

Nicely poised at the top are two immense wheels, 
independent of each other, over which a woven 
belt or cable passes, connecting the cage with the 
hoisting apparatus. This belt is a powerfully 



made arrangement about one inch in thickness 
and about eight in width. So perfect is the ac- 
tion of this belt over the winding drum of the 
hoisting machine and the wheel of the gallows 
frame, and so sure the progress of the cage, either 
up or down, that the latter seems rather to he 

a novice in descending by the cage route, and 
some of the illustrations are products of his first 

In raising and lowering the cages to and from 
the different levels, broad stripes, painted on the 
outer side of the belt described, indicate to the 

dropped to the bottom or shot to the top than to 
be handled like an elevator in our modern busi- 
ness buildings. 

The novice on his first trip can thank his patron 
saint if his heart still beats at the completion of 
the same, providing the same degree of speed is 
given his particular cage as is given those han- 
dling the hardened miners. It will be observed 
that some of the accompanying illustrations of 
scenes below ground are not so good as others. 
The photographer responsible for the same was 

engineer, sitting at his most responsible post, the 
exact location of either cage and permit the pre- 
cise stoppage of the same at whatever level is 
desired. It might be mentioned that safety locks 
are placed at the top of each cage, which auto- 
matically fall out, in the event of the breaking of 
the belt or cable, holding the same and arresting 
its further descent. 

Change is also noted elsewhere. In addition to 
the increase in the number of shafts or compart- 
ments thereto, increase also is made in the nuinber 



of cages to each shaft. Palpably two cages can 
not ascend or descend in opposite directions in the 
same compartment. To obviate further increase 
of compartments, " two decker " and " four 
decker " cages, or what is the same as two or four 
single cages fastened one on top of the other, are 
employed in many of the mines. In still other 
mines but two decks are thus utilized for cages, 
the space devoted in the four decker to the two 
remaining cages being used for a " skip." This 
skip is an arrangement not much different from 
what two cages would be if placed one on top 

taneousiy. Once filled, signals are rung by an 
electric bell system into the engine-room and the 
skip and cages are elevated. 

Arrived at the top, the cars are run off onto 
the tracks at the surface, after which the skip is 
hoisted to about twice its length above the 
surface, and, by an automatic arrangement, 
turns completely over and outward from the 
gallows frame, and empties its contents into 
a temporary bin immediately alongside of the 
structure. This system contemplates the use of 
larger cars, which, propelled by a steam locomo- 

iioo-foot le\'el, Original Mine, i 

of the other with the floor of the upper and the 
roof of the lower one removed and a sheet-iron or 
steel jacket placed on the outside of the whole. 
Thus, both skip or cages or both may be used for 
hoisting ore or waste to the surface while the 
cages may be used in raising and lowering min- 

In filling the skips at the different levels, a 
chute is dug a few feet back from each station in 
the center of the drift, descending for some feet 
and finding an outlet in the side of the shaft. 
Into this chute the ore is dumped and is released 
into the skip at the will of the attendant. In 
this manner both skip and cages are filled simul- 

tive of diminutive size, are backed under the tem- 
porary bin and transfer its contents to the larger 
ore bin. So perfect is the discipline maintained 
in the loading and unloading of cages and skips, 
and so well timed are these operations that almost 
to the second the signals to lower the one cage and 
raise the other are sounded in the engine room. 

With the mine's development and the creation 
of immense tunnels wholly denuded of ore and 
abandoned, the waste matter, which carries no 
ore, is thrown into these deserted workings and 
the necessity of its elevation to the surface is 
obviated. Long before this period is reached, 
however, the waste dump has grown to immense 




*^i,- I* 


Drilling into solid granite. 1,700-loot level, Anaconda Mi 



proportions, towering moimtain high above the 
ground. The plan usually pursued is to erect an 
immense trestle, running off from the lower slope 
of the hill, along which a track is laid and gradu- 
ally the whole trestle loses its shape, buried be- 
neath tons and tons of waste matter dug from the 
bowels of the earth, of no possible value, yet silent 
witnesses to one of the world's greatest industries. 
Extension of these dumps are made from time to 
time, or entirely new ones are erected, running at 
a different angle. 

With development have come other changes in 
the surface workings. New machinery of pow- 
erful capacity, and for every necessity has suc- 
ceeded the old; with the increased demand for 
timber, large sawmills are erected at convenient 
access to the shafthouse or gallows frame, ant! 
millions of feet of lumber are cut into exact sizes 
and sent below to reinforce the battered walls. 

Where once a series of stacks carried away 
the smoke from the mammoth furnaces, the single 
stack, from loo to 125 feet in height, is gradually 
superseding them. And thus the development 
goes on. One mine, older or richer than the 
other, setting a new example and the remainder 
falling into line. 

Below the surface, also, expansion and growth 
follow rapidly. Each day sees the drifts and 
crosscuts extended, the stoping pushed further 
to either side or higher up and the sump sunk 
to a deeper level. So consistently, so persever- 
ingly is the system pursued that oftentimes a 
new shaft is sunk at the farthest opposite boun- 





dary of the claim, and thus the work of digging, 
tearing, blowing out is prosecuted from both ends 
of the vein and the output thereby largely in- 
creased. In such cases or in groups of mines 
operated by one company the machinery of one 
mine is made to do duty for all, supplying fresh 
and compressed air, electricity, etc., to the levels 
of all. 

One remarkable fact not common to all mining 
sections is that one can pass from one mine to an- 
other on the different levels for great distances. 
It is a truth that one can descend a shaft of a mine 
in Walkerville and ascend through the shaft of 
another at Meaderville, two miles or more away, 
without coming to the surface. So convenient 
is this system, due to the establishment of regular 
levels at given depths, that many surface workings 
of large mines have been wholly abandoned, even 
the ore being run into the levels of one mine 



centrally located and all hoisted through the one 

In the case of the recent fire which destroyed 
the surface buildings of the Parrot mine, the 
miners, shut off from the raging flames at the very 
mouth of the shaft, found easy escape through the 
levels and shafts of no less than half a dozen 
different mines. 

It is upon this fact of proximity and continuity 
of veins that so many mining suits of such tre- 
mendous proportions have been based, and which 
has made the term " apex " so common a word in 
the Butte vernacular. The generally recognized 
mining laws hold that the establishment of the 
fact that any given vein " apexes " in any certain 
claim gives the owner of that claim the right to 
work the whole of said vein wherever -it takes 
him, if across the side boundary lines of such 
claim, although estopping him from proceeding 
bevond the end lines. With hundreds of claims, 


if not thousands, paralleling each other, some line 
of one serving as some line of another, the oppor- 
tunity for irreconcilable differences in many in- 
stances at once suggests itself. 

And thus in a general way proceeds the never- 
ceasing search and production of Butte's hidden 
treasures. By day and by night the work goes 
on — once the elusive vein is found — one shift 
following the other and taking up the work where 
it was left off. Each mine has its superintendent 
or foreman, and also its shift boss, whose duties 
include a continuous inspection of the work being 
performed throughout the mine, along the drifts 
and crosscuts, up in the stope and down in the low 
levels of the sump. 

What the great body of men employed, working 
year in and year out, have accomplished for 
these many years the most active imagination 
fails to grasp. What a honeycomb of tunnels and 
shafts shooting in every conceivable direction lies 
beneath the surface of the small area surround- 
ing Butte, braced and supported by millions and 
millions of feet of stanch timbers, no pen can 
describe, no picture show. 

And yet a start only has been made. New ma- 
chinery of greater power is being added to all the 
plants. Hoisting apparatus capable of raising or 

lowering cages from or to a depth of 4,000 or 
5,000 feet are being installed, a depth not yet half 
attained, the average depth of the larger mines 
being about 2,000 feet, with a few reaching to the 
2,300 level. Page upon page could be written of 


specific incidents which would but reinforce the 
truth that the half has never yet been told con- 
cerning the possibilities of the future and increase 
the wonderment as to what the whole will reveal. 

any opera- 
tions enter- 
ing into the 
pro duction 
of copper do 
not end here. 
In fact they 
have but be- 
in a general way, 
:icd beneath the ground, ele- 
vated to the surface and finds its way to the 
dump or to the ore bin. The ore bin, in the 
mine's greater development, is not unlike a large 
grain elevator. On the side opposite from where 
the ore is emptied into it and some ten or twelve 
feet from the ground, large chutes, operated by 
cranks and gears, are raised and lowered and 
through these the ore is removed. 

In most cases, standard gauge tracks have been 
run beneath the chutes, which enable ore cars, 
similar to the ordinary flat car, with sides and 
special unloading devices, to be run alongside, 
propelled by the ordinary switch engine. In 

other cases much smaller cars, propelled by elec- 
tric power are used, and, in rare cases, either ore 
wagons or miniature ore cars, running upon nar- 
row tracks, are utilized, drawn, respectively, by 
two and three teams or by a single horse. In 
cases where standard tracks are used, as the ore 
accumulates the cars are run in and loaded, and 
as rapidly as complete trains are made up they 
are hauled by powerful locomotives to the smelt- 
ers controlled by the respective mining compa- 

So complete has this system of railroad devel- 
opment proceeded that " the hill " is a perfect 
network of lines, running in every conceivable 
direction and at all manner of grades, the hill on 
closer inspection appearing to be terraced at 
every few yards by recurring tracks. Much 
smaller quantities of ore are handled by electric 
cars and never more than four cars constitute a 
train of this character. The amount of ore han- 
dled by horse-power is infinitesimal, and as the 
mine develops sufficiently to justify it steam 
power is substituted. 



Li addition to the numerous smelters oper- 
ated in Butte, immense plants have been erected 
in Great Falls and Anaconda, and still further 
additions are in course of construction in the 
latter city, making that city easily the largest 
smelter town in the country, if not m the world 
Trains consisting of from twenty to ti)it\ t ii ^ 
carrying ore exclusively, are constanth tollnw 
ing each other to the smelters of these lUrs m 
those in Butte, in the former case o\li the luu-. 
of railroad operated by the respectne raihuul 

Arrived at the smelter, the ore is again placed 

Operated through center of 


in receiving bins. There are two kinds of ores, 
in point of quality — first and second class. 
First-class ore, according to the Butte classifica- 
tion, runs not less than seven per cent copper 
and is known as smelting ore or ore that is im- 
mediately melted without preliminary treatment. 
Second-class ore runs from two and one-half to 
seven per cent copper and is known as " concen- 
trating " ore, and is sent to the concentrator. The 
purpose of concentration, plainly, is to eliminate 
a portion of the foreign matter and thus mini- 
mize the burden of the smelting department. As 
the treatment to which this class of ore is sub- 

jected precedes the smelting process, this phase 
will be considered first. 

The principle employed throughout the con- 
centration stages in every case is specific gravity, 
the specific gravity of mineral over the other 
ingredients being utilized to disintegrate the one 
from the other. The ore is first released from 
the bin through a chute and fed into the jaws 
(if a powerful crusher, which reduces the rock 



to the approximate size of a walnut. The ore 
in turn then passes through succeeding sets of 
crushers, each reducing the size of the rock until 
it passes finally between two wheel crushers, the 
wheels revolving in opposite directions, which 
reiluce the rock to about the size of sifted gravel. 
Ilie ore is now run into jigs, at which stage the 
principle of specific gravity first is utilized. 
Water has been combined with the crushed rock 



and all is hydraulically forced through the 
troughs of the jigs, the silica being sufficiently 
light to be carried off, while sieves underneath 
the troughs allow a portion of the minerals, by 
reason of their specific gravity, to pass through, 
the jigs being given a motion similar to that 
which their name indicates to aid this operation. 
The mineral thus abstracted is called " con- 
centrates," and is conducted directlv to the roast- 

undergo exactly the same treatment as in the 
initial one, resulting in the abstraction of some 
mineral and the elimination of some silica. And 
thus on. from one series of jigs to another, one 
a little lower than the other, the middlings arc 
carried from floor to floor, each series perform- 
ing its proportion of work. Finally is reached 
the Huntingdon crusher at the lowermost end 
of the jigs and into this the middlings are run 



ing furnaces, all necessity for further concentra- 
tion palpably being obviated. While some min- 
eral has thus been abstracted and some silica 
has been eliminated from the crushed rock, quan- 
tities of either still remain in the great bulk that 
has passed over the initial jig, and must be fur- 
ther concentrated. That which remains yet to 
be concentrated is called " middlings," and is 
carried on to the ne.xt series of jigs, there to 

and ground into a fine powder, not much coarser 
than flour. 

Emerging from the Huntingdon the ore seems 
to have disappeared and muddy water to have 
been substituted. This is now conveyed to the 
" tables," which, likewise, utilize the principle 
of separation by specific gravity. The " round 
table " is the first to which the muddy water is 
run. It is an immense circular affair, its surface 



Sliowin.e: four floors de\-oled to these 




sloping iinifornily from the center to the outer 
edge, and is given a revolving motion which 
never ceases. Large pipes run separately from 
above the center of the table, carrying, respec- 
tively, the muddy w^ater and clear water. 

The muddy water is released from the center 
upon a given half of the table under a nicely 
adjusted pressure and the clear water likewise 
upon the other half. As the muddy water passes 
downward over the surface of the table, the min ■ 
eral, in its powdered condition, naturally flows 
less rapidly by reason of its greater weight and 

point where the muddy water will be poured 
upon it, a series of small waterspouts arranged 
above the surface of the table from center to 
outer edge, shoot strong streams across the sur- 
face, clearing it of the mineral as the table passes 
under. Thus a clean surface is constantly pass- 
ing under the pipes carrying the muddy water 
and, automatically and without ceasing, the table 
is continually carrying its treasure of mineral 
around to the spouts to be swept ofl^ and treated 
as other concentrates. 

Still another process is necessary, however, 

Showitig separation of niiiieia 

cleaves to the surface, while the water and less 
weighty ground substances How with sufficient 
rapidity to pass completely from off the table 
and into receiving sluices provided therefor. 
.Meanwhile the table, constantly turning, has 
carried the mineral remaining upon the surface 
around to the ojiposite side and over this the 
clear water is allowed to flow, eliminating still 
further ])ortions of foreign matter not carried 
away by separation u])on the initial half of the 

As the table still furlhcr revolves, carrying tiie 
mineral with it. ;uid iust before it reaches the 

before the middlings are deprived of sufficient 
values to warrant a termination of further treat- 
ment by concentration. The middlings that have 
passed over the round table are next conducted 
through sluices to a different type of table, 
known as the Wilfley, in which the principle of 
specific gravity, differently applied, is used. 
These tables are long and narrow, with the foot 
a trifle lower than the head, and with a slight 
slant from side to side. A quick, jerking move- 
ment from end to end, similar to the jigs, is given 
these tables. 

Along the surface from end to end and about 



Showing plo«s cnergins from 







an inch apart are fastened most delicate strips 
of metal of barely perceptible thickness. As the 
middlings or muddy water is rnn from the round 
table it is brought to the Wilfley table and pre- 
cipitated from along the side, near the head. 

Here again the specific gravity of the mineral 
permits it to cling to the surface of the table, 
aided by the strips, while the foreign matter 
passes on over the table and is carried away to 
the final tailings dumps. Eight-tenths to one and 
two-tenths per cent of mineral is carried in these 
tailings anfl no machinery would pay for its oper- 

second-class ore, carrying from two and one- 
lialf to seven per cent, were taken directly to the 
smelter, as is the first-class ore, all of the foreign 
matter disposed of by concentration would have 
to be handled through the succeeding stages. 
Whereas, by eliminating it, the matter abstracted 
and taken to the smelter carries fully two to five 
times as large a percentage of copper. In other 
words, tons of ore turned into the crusher are 
taken away to the tailings dump and the neces- 
sity of smelting this great amount is obviated. 
While much foreign matter has been separated 

k ' ■ ' ^^ff ^^^i: -Id mi 



ation in abstracting values from them. The min- 
eral meanwhile adhering to the surface of the 
table gradually works its way to the foot and is 
held in its place by the strips, while constantly 
running water still further eliminates the foreign 
matter not washed away by the first separation 
of the tailings. As it reaches the end of the 
table, it passes over and, like the previously 
secured concentrates, is taken to the furnaces. 
The average percentage of copper in all the 
concentrates secured front the concentrating 
process by means of the jigs and tables is about 
twelve per cent. It will thus be seen how by this 
process the operations following concentration 
are relieved of a vast amount of work. If the 

from the ore, however, there still remains a great 

The foreign matter in Butte ores consists of 
from forty-five to seventy per cent silica and the 
lialaiice of iron and sulphur. 

The concentrates still contain but nine to four- 
teen per cent of copper, the remainder running 
about twenty to twenty-five per cent silica, forty 
per cent sulphur and the balance in iron and 
other base metals. 

The next step is the elimination of the greater 
portion of the sulphur by roasting, which step 
is the first one encoimtered in the smelter proper. 
The concentrates are run through hoppers upon 
the beds of huge enclosed ovens, under which 



fires are constantly kept burning, the concentrates 
lying about two inches deep. These ovens are of 
a great length and lie usually one above the 
other. As the concentrates drop from the hopper 
into the oven, a plow-like device, with teeth a 
few inches apart, guided by wheels running upon 
tracks at either side of the oven and propelled 
by endless metal belts, scatter them along the 
surface and push them a little farther into the 
oven. At given intervals, other plows appear, 
turning the concentrates, pushing them a little 

eight or nine per cent. This being a sufficiently 
low per cent they are automatically pushed into 
waiting cars at the ends of the oven, and are car- 
ried to the " reverberatory furnaces." 

The roasted ore is now known as " calcines." 
The reverberatory furnace is so called for the 
reason that the flames therein are made to rever- 
berate and whirl. The calcines are dumped into 
hoppers directly above the furnaces and, as a 
slide in the hopper is pulled, the " charge " is 
dropped directly into the flames. The object of 

Drawing of! ck> per cent copper 

further along and, passing on tlirough the oven, 
follow the course of the belt to the oven below, 
performing a like service there. 

Thus the plows continue their endless jour- 
ney from one oven to the other, the concentrates 
gradually being deprived of the greater portion 
of the sulphur therein contained by virtue of the 
inflammable properties of that ingredient and 
the absence of such properties in other minerals. 
By the time the concentrates have been pushed 
through one oven, have dropped into the lower 
one and covered the length of that, the sulphur 
contained in them has been reduced to about 

this process is obvioush' to melt or smelt the 
charge, the time taken in so doing ranging from 
four to si.x hours, according to its size. 

When the charge is thoroughly smelted the 
mineral, by reason of its specific gravity, seeks 
the bottom, while the waste matter, composed 
mostly now of silica and iron, rises to the top. 
This waste matter is called " slag," and is skim- 
med off into immense pots through holes in the 
front of the furnace. The slag pots, when filled, 
are lifted by immense electric cranes at the top 
of the building, deposited on electric cars and run 
to the waste dump. The matter still remaining in 



the furnace is called " matte." This matte is 
drawn off into cast-iron molds or tapped directly 
into the converters. 

The converter is a huge iron pot, composed of 
two half shells. These shells, before using, are 
first lined with a deep bed of clay, some thirty 
inches in thickness, and are then fastened to- 
gether. The crane then carries the converter to 
a point adjacent to the reverberatory furnace and 
is lowered into a hole sufficiently deep to allow 
the molten matter to run into it from the fur- 
naces. The converter is now returned to its 
proper place beneath an exaggerated funnel- 
shaped pipe and compressed air is forced into the 
matte. This process is called " blowing." 

As the blowing proceeds, the iron combines 
with the clay lining, forming a slag, which is 
poured off and the blowing continued ; the sul- 
phur, combining with the air, causes oxidation, 
and, presto, all foreign matter has disappeared 
and ninety-nine per cent pure copper remains. 
This is run off into molds, the bars being called 
copper pigs. These pigs are now too fine in cop- 
per to permit of treatment in local works and are 
shipped East to the refineries. 

As " first-class " ores proceed directly from the 
mine to the smelter, the process to which they are 
subjected begins with the reverberatory furnace 
and their subsequent treatment is identically the 

same as the calcines from the 

id-class ores. 


In submitting this humble effort, kindly thanks 
are publicly due to many who have assisted so 
generously in its production. 

To August Christian, chief engineer of the 
Anaconda properties ; John O'Xeil, superintendent 
of the Anaconda, Neversweat and St. Lawrence 
mines ; W. C. Thomas, superintendent of the 
Butte and Boston smelter, and Thomas Bryant, 
superintendent of the Original mine, special ac- 
knowledgments are due for having assisted in 
securing the most complete collection of mining 
and smelting views that, undoubtedly, has ever 
been assembled under one cover. 

The engravings were made by the Illinois En- 
graving Company, of Chicago, whom we believe 
to be the peers in their line anywhere. 

The paper was furnished by the Dwight Paper 
Company, of Chicago, and its high quality speaks 
for itself. 

The composition, presswork and binding were 

performed by The Henry O. Shepard Company, 
of Chicago, printers of The Inland Printer, who 
require no eulogy from us. 

Mr. Samuel Hamilton, of the Elite Studio, in 
Butte, has reflected his unquestioned ability as 
an artist in the character of the photographs, all 
of which are his handiwork. 

No effort has been spared to provide a publi- 
cation which every Montanian will be proud to 
see go beyond the State, and yet keep its selling 
price within so nominal a range as to make it a 
popular one and within the reach of all. 

This publication may be secured from news- 
dealers and booksellers for $1.50 per copy, or will 
be sent by mail to any address in the United 
States or Canada, carefully wrapped, for $1.75. 

Manager Montana Art View Company. 

Butte, Montan.^, V. S. A. 




Hennessy's, the " Biggest, Best and Busiest 
Store in Montana,'' is located on the southeast 
corner of Main and Granite streets, Butte. It is 
a l^rick building with steel framework and stone 

The building, in its entirety, was put up in the 
most substantial manner possible, and is as near 
fireproof as human skill could construct, cost- 
ing over $ It measures 84 by 192 feet, is 


facings. It is an imposing structure, six stories 
high. The three upper floors, with the exception 
of a few rooms occupied by Hennessy's as store- 
rooms and offices, are rented by many of Butte's 
leading lawyers, physicians and professional men. 
The halls of these floors are covered with inlaid 
marble tiling. Fireproof vaults, for the use of 
tenants, are built in the solid masonry and occupy 
the center of each floor. 

thoroughly lighted by electricity, and furnished 
with all the modern improvements. 

Hennessy's store, about which so much has 
been said and written, occupies the three lower 
floors and the large, well-lighted basement ex- 
tending under the sidewalks of Main and Granite 
streets. This store was first opened to the public 
on Novcmlicr 21. 1898, but the formal opening 
was defcir(.'<l until ^^\>(lI;esdav, I^eccmber 7, some 



two weeks later, and was recognized as the most 
important mercantile event in the history of the 
State, marking the transition of Butte from a 
so-called mining camp to a metropolitan city. 

It engendered confidence in the minds of 
Btitte's citizens, who are now rapidh- improving 
the city hy the erection of handsome and substan- 
tial buildings, in Ijoth the business and residence 

Hennessy's store is the chief attraction in the 
city for shoppers from all ])arts of the State, who 
can save both time and money by the facilities 
furnished for sup- 
plying under one 
roof everything 
that everybody 
can need for 
their homes or 
personal use. 

Heavy French 
plate-glass win- 
dows, framed in 
copper, extend 
the entire length 
and width of the 
building on both 
the first and sec- 
ond floors, fur- 
nishing admira- 
ble light to the 
interiors, and 
giving an oppor- 
tunity for dis- 
playing goods 
that no other 
store in the State 
possesses. These 
windows are a 
sight in them- 
selves. The main 
entrance to the store is on Alain 
eery department 

a good showing in any first-class store in New 
^'ork or other large city, and which surpass any 
that can be seen in the Xorthwest. 

Step to the left and thousands of dollars' worth 
of silks, fresh from the looms of h'rance, Switz- 
erland and domestic points, fill the shelves, cover 
the counters and lend their graceful drapings to 
make a display of rich fabrics that can not be 
matched in the West. 

.\re you wanting an evening gown? There is 
a dark-room handy into which you can step to 
test th.e efl'ect of electric light upon tints lovely 


street. The gro- 
the rear is entered from Gran- 
ite street, and between this and the main portion 
of the store is a handsome hallway entrance for 
the offices above, reached by electric elevator and 
Tennessee marble staircase with solid bronze bal- 
ustrades, etc. The main floor of Hennessy's con- 
tains the silks and dress goods, domestics, notions, 
trimmings, hosiery and gloves, boots and shoes, 
men's clothing, men's hats, men's jewelry and 
furnishing departments, all of which are as com- 
plete in every detail as was possible to make them, 
and filled with stocks of goods that would make 


bv day and more or less so at night. Everything 
new in silks and velvets, imported trimmings and 
hand-made laces can be seen for the asking, and 
readily transformed in the dressmaking depart- 
ment to the richest reception gown that a reign- 
ing society belle could desire. 

Pass on to the dress goods. Do you want a 
French novelty? It's here in a hundred styles. 

Pneumatic tubes of polished brass connect the 
meat market, grjcery and the several departments 
on the secontl and third floors and in the base- 
ment with the cashier's desk and wrapping depart- 
meiUs in the center of the main floor. 



Two passen- 
ger elevators and 
five fi-eight ele- 
vators run b )' 
electricity are 
taxed to their ut- 
most capacity, 
for, come when 
you may, you 
will find this store 
crowded and its 
three hundred 
and more em- 
ployes busy at- 
tending to the 
wants of the 
many customers. 

We said the 
were complete in 
every detail. 
They are, and 
noticeably so. 
As you enter 
from Main street 
you can not help 


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{(itnimifM^/mwt/wn. - ''^"^i^^^HMMiniH 


admiring the 
rich and highly 
polished quarter- 
sawed oak coun- 
ters, fixtures and 
tables, and the 
show-cases of 
finest plate glass, 
showing off to 
the best advan- 
tage silks, laces, 
shoes, shirts or 
what not. 

Do you ad- 
mire the fashion- 
able fabrics of 
finest wool or 
wool and silk for 
a tailormade suit? 
Here are the lat- 
est in Scotch, 
Irish and English 
tweeds, French 
Venetians, broad- 
cloths, zibelines, 



homespuns, goli 
suitings, covert 
cloths, camels' - 
hair serges, 
English diago- 
nals, worsteds, 
and many otiier 
stylish materials 
for that com- 
fortable cos- 
tume. Many a 
swell tailormade 
garment has 
been correctly 
f a s h i o n e d in 
dress- making 
department this 
season. E.xpert 
from New York 
do the work and 
it's the finest. 

Are you a 
Then domestics 

will have some attraction, for pretty Irish linen 
table sets, Barnaby linen towelings, sheetings, 
bedspreads, muslins, English, French, Scotch, 



California and other flannels are shown in the 
greatest variety. Notions, the little things, but 
important. The "Reynier" kid 
gloves, prizewin- 
ners at Paris this 
season, the " P. 
>S: L." and oth- 
ers in kid, silk, 
wool and lisle ; 
hosiery, plain 
and fancy, laces, 
such a lot and so 
many styles. Isa- 
bel C a s s i d y ' s 
toilet prepara- 
tions, soaps, per- 
umery, ribbons, 
belts and a mil- 
ion articles ol 
everyday use are 

Boots and 
shoes — Banis- 
ter's — the best 
shoes made for 
men, shown in 



ll'TTE, ^[^)XTAXA. 

sixteen new 
styles, and Hen- 
nessy's celebra- 
ted EEEE (for 
ease ). Shoes for 
women have 
made this de- 
partment in- 
tensely popular. 
There's a style 
about the fit and 
finish of Hennes- 
sy's shoes that's 
hard to dupli- 
cate, and it shows 
up in the heavy 
walking as well 
as the lightest 
shoes for dress. 
Here are boys', 
misses' and chil- 
dren's shoes, rub- 
ber goods, min- 
ing boots and 
shoes and the 



Friend" and 
' ' Never Sweat ' ' 
shoes, so well 
and favorably 
known through- 
out Montana. 

The south side 
of the main floor 
is devoted to 
men's goods, the 
furnishings de- 
partment, with 
its long row of 
plate-glass show- 
cases, filled with 
shirts, neckwear, 
jewelry, etc. , is 
particularly a t - 
tracti\e. Exam- 
ine the men's 
clothing. Such 
an assortment of 
rich styles in suits 
and overcoats, 
such a stock ol 



serviceable garments for business and working- 
men you will not find elsewhere. The world's 
leading makes in underwear, hosiery, gloves, 
shirts and neckwear have a showing here that 
can not be duplicated, for here is done the biggest 
business in Butte. Kno.x liats and other well- 
known makes are shown in tlie latest shapes 
and tints. 

The second floor contains everything for 
women and children and more too. Ready-to- 
wear costumes, tailor suits, dress skirts, tailor- 
made skirts, golf suits, silk petticoats, dress and 
shirt waists, cor- 
sets, underwear, 
boys' clothing 
and furnishings, 
jackets, capes, 
coats, furs, all 
are here, as also 
are the millinery, 
stationery and 
men's tailoring 
Each is the best 
that money can 
buy or skill pro- 

Then the third 
floor, covering a 
space of o v c r 
16,000 square 
feet, devoted to 
furniture, carpets 
and draperies. 
On this floor are 
sample pieces of 
furniture, h u n - 
dreds of chairs, 
tables and other things, and no two are alike. 

Immense warehouses down town hold the 
stock of furniture of which these pieces are but 
the samples. Hennessy's is the largest, richest, 
handsomest and best stock of furniture in Mon- 
tana, and the biggest business in that line is done 
at Hennessy's. 

When you have looked through the lines of 
carpets you will have noticed the richest Axmin- 
sters, Wiltons, moquettes and body brussels, 
and the lower-priced tapestries, ingrains and 
mattings. Here are lovely rugs from the mills of 
Pennsylvania and New York, and gems of orien- 

tal beauty from the hand looms of antiquity, 
shown in the Moorish room, with teak-wood 
stands, battle-axes, cushions and other requisites 
for cozy corners and home comforts generally. 
Hennessy's are house furnishers in the truest 
sense of the word. Compare the work on draper- 
ies, the fit of carpets or anything else with what 
has been done by others, and every time you will 
find Hennessy's the best. 

Don't miss that art room in the basement ba- 
zaar! It's a gem, ftill of gems in cut-glass, fancy 
china, pretty bric-a-brac, graceful statuary, lovely 


lamps. pedestals, vases, tea and coffee sets, chafing- 
dishes, five o'clock teas and odd pieces of every- 
thing from everywhere. It seems to be the 
ideal spot in which to select a Christmas 
present. New Year's gift, something to beau- 
tify your own home or that of a bride about 
to establisli one. Arranged on tables and 
shelves that meet the eye as you enter this 
section are china and crockery, glassware, 
stoves, heaters, toilet sets, dinner sets, hardware 
and the thousand and one big things and little 
things in house furnishings that every woman 



Then if something really good to eat and drink 
is wanted, there's no place like Hennessy's gro- 
cery for supplying that want. Most of Butte 
people appreciate this, if one can judge by the 
number of teams which deliver the goods to all 
parts of the city. 

If you are a resident of Butte you can appre- 
ciate the advantages of dealing at Hennessy's, 
where goods are marked in plain figures, and 

twenty stores with the largest and best stocks 
in their line, valued at over half a million dol- 
lars, are under one roof, and so displayed as to 
make selections an easy task. 

If you live in another part of Montana send in 
your order by mail. It will be filled promptly and 
carefully, and you will be given the advantages 
of low prices, of new and dependable goods at the 
Biggest, Best and Busiest Store in Butte. 


The Kennedy Furniture Company is one of 
the large commercial establishments of the city. 
It occupies the entire four floors of its retail store 
on West Broadway, and in addition has an im- 
mense warehouse. Both of these buildings are 
crowded with the most complete line of furni- 
ture to be found, probably, in the Northwest. 

Not only do the lines of goods carried contem- 
plate the more necessary articles of furniture 
ordinarily carried by smaller dealers, but extend 
into every branch of house-furnishing. So com- 
plete are these numberless departments that any 
person in any walk of life, from the wage-earner 
to the merchant, the bank-owner and the million- 
aire, can supply every want in the furnishing of 
his home, his office or store with the most minute 
article which could possibly suggest itself to his 

The Kennedy Furniture Company was organ- 
ized on the ruins of the old Northwestern Furni- 
ture Company, in 1894. To the fine line of goods 
carried by this firm, consisting of stoves, ranges, 
crockery, bedding, etc., was added everything 
that possibly could be desired, until in a short 
time it occupied the position which it now enjoys 
— that of the leading furniture house in the 

One of the leading features of the stock car- 
ried by the Kennedy Furniture Company is its 
enormous line of carpets, rugs and tapestries, 
which equals any display that can be found any- 
where, not excepting the large establishments of 
the East. 

The motto of the firm, adopted at its birth, 
" The best goods, at the lowest possible prices, 
with fair, courteous treatment to all," has been 
so religiouslv observed bv this concern that it 








has gained the widest of reputations throughout 
the State for fair treatment, its trade extending 
to the farthest confines of Montana. 

Responsibility is assumed for the statement 
that no better satisfaction can be secured any- 
where in the Northwest, or even by going to the 
extreme East, than can be secured at this institu- 

tion, and the people of Montana are learning that 
they can safely entrust their orders by mail to 
the Kenned}' Eurniture Company and have them 
filled, in cases where more limited stocks of home 
concerns are inadequate, quite as satisfactorily as 
if permitted to deal personally with the ordinary 


Elsewhere has been shown the advantages to 
be gained by coming to the base of production of 
raw materials, both of mining, agriculture and 
sheep and cattle raising, for which Montana is 
growing famous. While a plea has been made 
for a larger activity in this direction, it should 
not be assumed that a start has not been made. 
On the contrary, many manufacturing institutions 
have been quick to see the benefits presented and 
are today receiving a rich reward for their far- 

In no instance is this more true than of the 
Thitte Brewery. While an old landmark of the 
city, its life as an expanding institution is of 
recent birth. .-Mthough the raw materials used 
are not Butte productions they are among the 
many produced throughout the State, and in the 
large success attained by this institution lies a 
pungent mora! which others might well consider. 

The brewery was originally established by 
Henry Muntzer, in the year 1885, on Wyoming 
street, between (h-anite and Quartz, within a 
block of the busiest portion of the city. Eor 
many years Muntzer"s beer enjoyed the highest 
local reputation, but it remained for the advent 
of Mr. J. V. Collins, as the head of the institu- 
tion, to take its name and the excellence of its 
product beyond the city's confines and into the 
furthermost portions of the State. 

Realizing the great future of Butte and the 
grand opportunity presented for greatly increas- 
ing the output of the plant, Mr. Collins, about a 
year ago, purchased the plant outright and imme- 
diately set about enlarging its capacity with the 
idea of making it the largest and most represen- 
tative brewery in the State. That he is meeting 
a full measure of his anticipations is eloquently 
evidenced by the constant increase of output, and 
with the changes continually lieing inaugurated 
llic time is not far distant when his most san- 

guine ideas will have been realized. Experts 
claim that the product now equals, if it does not 
excel, any foreign article, and the logic of such 
a claim is not far to seek. 

All materials used in the making of the Butte 
Brewery's beer are grown either in Montana or 
the Pacific States — the barley in the former and 
the hops in the latter — and the fact that the 
largest brewers of the United States, as well as 
those of Germany, are exerting every effort to 
secure the entire products of these sections as the 
liest of their kind in the world, speaks with elo- 
quent emphasis of their superior qualities. 

A fact which but few beer drinkers know is 
that, before l)eer can be shipped for great dis- 
tances and sulijected to severe handling and con- 
stantly cjiangin;^- temperatures, it is necessary to 
fortify it liy tin- use of unsanitary drugs, else it 
would be undrinkalile at its destination. Equipped 
as the Butte Brewery is with the latest machinery 
and employing ])recisely the same methods as the 
large foreign brewers, it becomes immediately 
apparent wliy the alcove referred to claims are 
unanswerably true, it being palpable that the 
necessity for the use of drugs in this brewery's 
]iroduct is entirely eliminated. By virtue of its 
proximity to its field of distril^ution, it is possible 
to draw it from the cellars to the kegs and for it 
to be consumed in the same day, thus obviating 
its subjection to abnormal temperature changes. 
These facts alone should be sufficient to show the 
unjirejudiced the fallacy of crying for Eastern 

Mr. Collins, the president of the company, is 
an old-time Montanian, having come to Butte in 
the spring of 1884. He was for many years the 
manager for H. L. Frank, and for the past six 
years has conducted a wholesale liquor store and 
the Pabst beer agency in Anaconda. By virtue 
of his extended experience. Mr. Collins is thor- 



oughly equipped tv handle the financial and busi- 
ness affairs of the concern, and in the technical 
details of brewing; he is most ably advised and 
assisted by Mr. E. W. Walsh, a thorough gen- 
tleman and an experienced brewer, who serves 
as secretary-treasurer of the concern, and of 
whom the trade sa}s he is second to none. 

Immediately upon his assumption of the con- 
trol of the ])lant, 'Sir. Collins set about him to 
reconstruct, tear down, build up and increase in 

Plans have been drawn up to entirely rehabilitate 
the old structure, which the next year will see 
coniiileted, and in the place of the old will be 
found an apparently new ins'.itntion, more mod- 
ern, more scientifically constructed and with its 
capacity more than doubled. 

First, there will be a new brewhouse, with a 
capacity of 125 barrels a day. This, of course, 
means an entirely new brew outfit throughdut, 
the present one being wholly inadequate to meet 


every way the possibilities of the brewery, to the 
end that the highest quality of beer might be pro- 
duced. His efforts were not long without re- 
ward, for from the very beginning of his control 
the output of the plant has steadily increased, 
and the fame of the product has worked its way 
over the entire State, until the institution was 
taxed to its utmost to meet the demand. 

Anticipating some time ago the trend of the 
new conditions, Mr. Collins foresaw what this 
all meant and set about to meet the situation. 

even the present demands, to say nothing of the 
growing ones of the future. New cellars, nat- 
nrallv. must follow to meet these new conditions, 
and such additions contemplate a capacity twice 
3s great as those at present in use. A malthouse, 
too. is on the list of improvements, and its new 
capacity will approximate about 10.000 pounds 
per da\-. In fact, an entirel}' new brewery will 
have taken the place of the old before the year 
has rolled around, as large, complete and up to 
date as anv in the State, if not more so. 

Malt room 

Brew kulll 

Fcrmcntini; r. 

Mash tub. 
Cellar, showing chiii casks 


BUTTE, iM(.)NTAi\'A. 

The watchword of the brewery management, 
as it has been since taking up tlie reins of control, 
will be the best brewery in the country and the 
completest plant, conducted upon honest, upright 
methods, and, with the combination of brains 

and business sagacity at its head, it is safe to 
say that when time has a little further elapsed, it 
will become manifest to all that the half has 
never yet been told in point of prophecy concern- 
ing its fu'.urc. 


As elsewhere shown, liutte is adequately sup- 
plied with railroads. There is one among them, 
however, easily occupying the place of prestige, 
and not only Butte, but all Montana, is in accord 
in yielding that prestige to the Northern Pacific 
Railway. While neither terminal of that svstem 
is found within the State, it nevertheless is the 
most distinctively Montana railroad entering the 
city of Butte or tapping the most resourceful sec- 
tions of the State. Following closely the growth 
of the great Xorthwest, from the time its rails 
first connected the Great Lakes with the Pacific 
coast, today finds it one of the completest railway 
systems in the Ignited States. 

Starting from St. Paul, it taps the best agricul- 
tural sections of Minnesota and North Dakota, 
has an absolute monopuh' b\" the time Montana is 
reached, by exclusive!}' touching nearly every 
desirable portion of the State, and, on to Port- 
land, Seattle and Tacoma, runs through the more 
thickly settled sections, giving the traveler a bet- 
ter idea of the resources of the country traversed 
than can be secured by any other route across the 

Its equipment is new and bright ; its roadbed, 
gradually straightened by constant labor, presents 
none of the sharp curves of a few years ago, and 
except where contour of river, valley or moun- 
tain makes it impossible, pursues an air-line course 
for miles and miles. Its rails, too, have increased 
in weight and the rolling stock glides over them 
so easilv as to entirely obviate the nerve-racking, 
bodv-tiring jerks so common to many so-called 
railroads of the first class. 

Science in railroad Iniilding has even gone fur- 
ther. Where once existed many trestles, now is 
found a roadbed and gracefully sloping bank 
identical with the remainder of the road. In 
all cases where the trestle was advantageously 
placed, immense hydraulic apparatus was set in 
operation on the higher side of a gorge and a 
large portion of the mountain washed away, the 

earth being carried by the force of the water to 
the deeper levels of the gorge. Here it settled 
into all the nooks and corners and, accumulating, 
gradually buried the trestle beneath it until the 
last beam had been covered, and a lied, as firm 
as any that nature had built, rested beneath the 
rails. In scores of instances new wooden tres- 
tles have first been erected only to be thus buried 
beneath their load of earth, the result being that 
no railroad in the country todav boasts of a more 
secure roadbed, more free from danger of fire 
or washout, than is the Northern Pacific road. 

Not only is its line the only trans-continental 
line entering directly into the city of Butte, but 
it is also the only one enjoying that distinction 
in nearly every one of the remaining prominent 
cities of Montana. Anaconda, the great smelter 
city : Helena, the capital : ]\Iissoula. in the heart 
of the noted Bitter Root valley ; Bozeman, the 
metropolis of the Gallatin valley, famous for its 
wonderful bar]e\- : Li\ingston, the gateway to 
the matchless ^\H( .w >t(>ne Park, and Billings and 
(jlendive, from whence are shipped the cattle and 
sheep whose delicious qualities have given Mon- 
tana an enviable reputation as a great stock coun- 
try : all these, running midway across the State 
and adjacent to every great industry of Montana, 
know the Northern Pacific as their greatest rail- 
road, in most cases enjoying the presence of no 
other — nor seeking it. 

Recently there has been added to the equipment 
of the system the last feature necessary to destroy 
whatever distinction might have existed between 
the Northern Pacific and its great Eastern con- 
temporaries — the Pennsylvania and the New 
York Central systems. This feature consisted of 
the latest innovation in railroad comfort — the 
Observation car — and made of the " North 
Coast Limited " the most magnificent trans-con- 
tinental express rumiing between the East and 
the \\'est over any line. A more complete and 
detailed description of this great railway achieve- 



ment should lie included in a description of the 
train as a whole. 

Something that will please the overland trav- 
eler as a happy improvement over previous con- 
ditions is the elimination of frequent stops at 
unimportant points. For hours at a time this 
wonderful train pounds across the country, over 
mountain and \alley alike, past village after vil- 
lage, without so much as a slackening of speed, 
drawn by powerful engines, and the impression 
at the conclusion of a journey covering thousands 

experienced. Whatever the cause mav be is not 
known, but the effect is a most pronounced and 
acceptable innovation. It, for the first time, 
loaned realism to the comforts manifestly in- 
tended by the originators of " palace cars." and 
without which one so often wishes he had re- 
mained at home. 

If possible, the sleeping car is an improvement. 
The seats seem more designed for comfort — a 
curve here for the ease of the arm or hand, a 
cushion there for cheek or head prolongs the time 


of miles is that not over half a dozen stops could 
possibly have been made. Another improvement, 
heretofore commonly reserved for the millennium, 
is. by way of an aside, the entire and total absei.ce 
of courteous treatment " for revenue only " upon 
the part of attendants, the writer for the first time 
in a dozen or more similar journeys feeling free 
to command the services of respective attaches 
at will without the spur of financial consideration. 
Tn not a single instance was service rendered in 
any spirit other tiian that the attendant was pres- 
ent to minister to the comforts of the traveler, 
and the feeling that the more desirable comforts 
were reser\ed for the lew was in no instance 

before bodily aches common to long journeys 
present themselves, and the journev, presto, is 
over before the ache is located. The smoothness 
and air line directness of the roadbed, too, lends 
its beneficial eft'ects to architectural comforts and 
accounts largely, no doubt, for this result. 

Electricity has forced its usefulness upon the 
comforts encountered elsewhere and, besides the 
brilliant rays shed from the many chandeliers 
running the length of the train, each berth is sup- 
l)lied with a bulb at either end. The necessity 
which heretofore compelled the traveler to lay 
aside his novel and disrobe amid impenetrable 
darkness at the l)idding of the all-mighty porter 



has gone the way of other early inconveniences 
and the traveler for the first time experiences the 
delights of " reading himself to sleep " aboard 
train. No noise of hilarity nor the fumes of foul 
tobacco now find their way to the ear or nostril of 
the would-be sleeper to disturb his slumbers. The 
smoking-room, formerly used for cards, conver- 
sation and smoking at the far end of the sleep- 
ing car, could be entirely dispensed with now so 
far as its use for any of the purposes originally 
intended are concerned. This is due to the pres- 
ence upon the same train of an innovation so 
much more commodious, comfortable and sani- 
tary as to make the once indispensable smoking- 
room a thing to be avoided, if only by contrast. 
This innovation is the previously mentioned 
observation car, which is attached to the rear 
end of the tram, immediately next to the sleeping 
cars. This car is more, by far, than its name 
implies. It is a combination of 
everything that can lend bodily 
or mental comfort to the travelei 
If he would play cards, two com 
modious rooms, each electric 
lighted, containing a half-dozen 
wicker chairs movable at 
which, in turn, surround a regu 
lation card table, are provided 
for this exclusive purpose. \ 

of comfort rarely encountered upon a train in any 
portion of the country and the first to be seen on 
a Western road. Before him lies a complete bar- 
ber shop, presided over by the best of artists in 
his line and e(|uipped with great lockers of snowy 



complete Iniffet, attended by a willing porter, 
adjoins these rooms, and solid or liquid refresh- 
ments are promptly to be had at any hour of the 
day and part of the night. 

A corridor leading from the train end of this 
car passes these card rooms and, continuing, 
brings the traveler upon a scene and a suggestion 

every instrument and convenience 
jniniiin to a first-class city shop. By a 
se through the open door to the left of the 
shop one experiences a still further sensation 
and promise of comforts to come in the pres- 
ence of the neatest of little bathrooms, 
equipped, as is the shop, with everything pos- 
sil)le to make it complete — perfect seclusion, 
electric lights, hot and cold water, brushes, show- 
ers, the whitest of linen and perfect ventilation. 
Surely the question of comfort seems to have been 

Proceeding along the corridor, however, 
toward the rear, the traveler finds that others 



more thoughtful than himself have studied out 
this question. As the corridor takes a graceful 
turn, he sees before him the embodiment of suffi- 
cient aids to comfort to fill three ordinary cars. 
Coming as he does into the center of the car, he 
finds himself in the coziest of little libraries. 
Here is a bookcase filled with all the latest maga- 
zines bound in soft leather covers, together with 
every conceivable literary work adapted to train 
reading, capable of being picked up or laid down 
at the will of the reader and as diversion demands. 
A delightfully appointed desk is a part of the 
library, which fills a long-felt necessity, and here 
the traveler finds it possible to write in comfort 
with everything at his fingers' ends necessary to 
do so, with the ease and facility enjoyed^Mn his 
home or office. A mail box, even, is provided, 
from which the mail is taken and attended to by 
the omnipresent porter. 

Passing from the library, the traveler encoun- 
ters stationary seats, upholstered in a rich mate- 
rial of soft green hue in harmony with the general 
coloring of the interior of the whole car. Beyond 
these stationary seats one emerges into a parlor 
as exquisitely appointed as those of the modern 
hotel. Soft Wilton rugs cover the fioors, and 
large, inviting wicker chairs, of different sizes 
and shapes, upholstered in harmonious colors, are 
distributed the length of the room and are reve- 
lations of comfort. The windows — huge plate 
glass allairs some four feet square — are hung 
with shades to match and permit of an easy and 
advantageous indoor observation of the fleeing 
landscape not enjoyed from the ordinary car 

But the greatest feature of all remains. Be- 
yond the parlor and through the rear door of the 
car is the observation platform. For a space of 
about seven feet beyond the door and the width of 
the car the floor is extended, and from either 
side around the outer edge a high brass railing 
of artistic design is run. The platform floor is 
covered with some ornamental material resem- 
bling tiling or marble, an electric light is sus- 
pended from an arched dome above and folding 
camp chairs are numerously provided. Here, 
removed from smoke and dust, with the land- 
scape running away from either side of the car, 
one sits for hours enjoying the delicious air, the 
sunshine, the ever changing scenes, quietly smok- 
ing his cigar or pipe, reading his novel or en- 
gaged in conversation, or, totally absorbed in the 
very charm presented, remaining perfectly silent 

and drinking this new cup of happiness to the 
full. Plainly the " sleeping" car has acquired a 
new significance in that; henceforth, it will be 
known and used as the " bed chamber " of a now 
complete train. 

With the refreshing sleep to be obtained from 
the improved accommodations and the absence of 
objectionable features noted in the sleeping car, 
and the invigorated condition created by the 
diversified comforts of the observation car, comes 
the increased appetite. One hesitates in noting 
improvement in the dining cars, for time out of 
mind the fare spread before the traveler on this 
road has far surpassed the most extravagant ex- 
pectations, and but little room for improvement 
existed. One feature most acceptable is the serving 
of breakfast and luncheon a la carte, enabling the 
traveler to satisfy his needs at an expense in pro- 
portion to them, orders costing as little as 25 
cents being served in the same first-class manner 
as the highest-priced meals. Constantly revolv- 
ing electric fans cool the car and keep it at a 
refreshing temperature, while fresh flowers adorn 
the various tables. Here, as elsewhere in the car, 
that remarkable something has been at work, elim- 
inating the " courtesy for revenue only " feature 
of the service and one finds himself as carefully 
looked after as if attended by his personal man- 

Another feature, although of long standing, is 
the tourist sleeping car. A potent deterrent to 
overland travel in the present day is more largely 
due to ignorance concerning the reasonableness 
with which such journeys can be made than, per- 
haps, any other one cause. For the purpose of 
carrying large families, homeseekers of modest 
means, etc., at a much more reasonable figure than 
travel by regular Pullman service entails, the 
Northern Pacific has introduced a rate to espe- 
cially meet these conditions. For the benefit of 
persons so traveling, exact counterparts of the 
Pullman sleeping cars are included in the train, 
the only difference being that the former are fin- 
ished in fine furniture leather rather than in softer 
draperies. A Pullman porter presides over the car 
exclusively and, to the slightest detail, every nec- 
essary comfort enjoyed in the more expensive 
Pullman is here present. The berths are pre- 
pared by the porter and the whitest of linen is 
furnished. Travelers by this car enjoy the privi- 
leges of the Pullman dining car, and the only 
difference between the two methods of travel is 
the reduced rail and sleeping-car fares. 



A first-class day coach is also run upon this 
train as well as the recjulation sniokingf haa;sfage 


and mail cars and, from end to end, the train is 
probably as complete, comfortable and delightful 
as any train running in the United States today, 
and by far and away is this true as concerns any 
train crossing the continent. 

What the home presents and not found here is 
a humane omission, fraught with worry and care 
and not conducive to a pleasure journey; while 
everything that lends comfort to the body, pleas- 
ure to the inner man, rest and quiet to the dis- 
tracted mind and food to the very soul are 
here all present, and the traveler arrives at the 
journey's end, whether it be Seattle or St. Paul. 
rested and invigorated, hardly realizing that 
thousands of miles have been stretched between 
himself and his starting-point. 



Following is an illustrated description of the 
" Great Western Limited," the evening express 
from St. Paul to Chicago over the Chicago Great 
Western, which connects with the North Coast 
Limited at the former city. This train is run 
over the line of the Chicago Great Western Rail- 
way and has a peculiar interest to Alontana read- 
ers in general and those of Butte in particular, 
in that this line has a general agency at 15 West 
Broadway, in Butte, and is therefore a part of 
Butte's institutions. 

To the traveler whose journey's end lies be- 
yond the eastern terminal of the Northern Pacific 
at St. Paul, is presented the new question of a 
route to his destination. With a mind quickened 
with the knowledge of the good things in rail- 
road travel but recently enjoyed on the elegant 
North Coast Limited, and a lingering relish for 
their continued enjoyment, the question's solution 
is freighted with no little need for consideration. 
Five hours of waiting and an all night's ride to 
Chicago confront him in whatever direction he 
turns. What an acceptable five hours for recrea- 
tion and a general stretching of limbs and mus- 
cles preparatory to the continuation of the jour- 
ney, free from all thought concerning this mo- 
mentous question, provided its solution is reached 
in advance. If the experiences of another, like- 
wise situated and keenly anxious to thus employ 
these hours, aids in anv way the solution of this 

question for the traveler, the purpose of this arti- 
cle will have been happily realized. 

Arriving in St. Paul at three o'clock in the af- 
ternoon, the shadows of night will long have fal- 
len before the time of departure eastward. The 
journey then resolves itself not into one of sight- 
seeing, but rather presents the question of how 
best to spend the evening, to secure a refreshing 
sleep and obtain an enjoyable morning meal be- 
fore leaving the train in Chicago. If this be the end 
sought as the happiest solution, then full respon- 
sibility is assumed for the statement that nowhere 
can this consummation be attained so completely 
as by continuing the journey over the evening 
train of the Chicago Great Western line. 

Here are found two complete innovations — 
an elegantly appointed 
buflfet car for gentle- 
men, and a perfect 
revelation of a com- 
partment car — with 
a free chair car to 
supplement the day 
coach of the North 
Coast Limited. The 
compartment car is a 
novelty in palace-car 
construction. It could 
be likened to a living 
floor of a modern 



hotel. A corridor runs its entire length, flanked 
upon one side by a series of staterooms or com- 
partments, each complete within itself and capa- 

ble, like a hotel room, of being entirely shut off 
from all other parts of the car or thrown together 
en suite. Doors connect each stateroom, not only 
with the main corridor, but open upon either side 
into the adjoining compartment through heavily 
mirrored doors. These doors in all instances, 
however, may be locked at the will of the trav- 
eler, or a number of compartments may be thrown 
together for the accommodation of many mem- 
bers of a family or a large jiarty traveling 

The initiated traveler will find in these com- 
partments the embodiment of every essential of 
the drawing-room of the regulation sleeper, with 
toilet, hot and cold water for bathing purposes, 
ice-cfild drinlcinq; water, mirrors, ample floor 

nm.yv |- ^\ 







space for convenient disroliing or dressing, inde- 
pendent of the berth, and the delightful privacy 
which the drawing-room permits. The traveler 
whii prnPits b\- the well-intended suggestion here 

offered will have his confidence rewarded within 
the first five minutes' investigation of this most 
ideal departure in car building, and will have 
nothing but words of praise for the one responsi- 
ble for the suggestion. 

Safely ensconced in his quarters, privilege is 
afforded him to leisurely arrange his luggage to 
suit no one's convenience but his own, to remove 
the effects of dust and heat acquired by his rec- 
reation between trains by a dip in his private 
washbowl, to dress his hair and don fresh linen 
and a more comfortable coat and hat, and, if so 
moved, to light a good cigar without fear of 
restraint from his neighbors. For he is absolutely 
alone and is controlled by nothing save his own 
wishes and his own comforts. A four-burner 
gas chandelier is provided in each compartment 
and a pleasant hour or two may he devoted to 
uninterrupted reading with all the comfort of the 

traveler's own parlor if he so wills. If, perchance, 
the inner man presents sufficient argument to 
entitle him to consideration, the traveler may pass 
through the train and into the buffet car, where 
an obliging waiter will quickly furnish him with 
a most appetizing lunch of cold or potted meats. 
sandwiches and relishes of all kinds. Liquid 
refreshments of the sparkling kind or the more 
domestic cup of coffee may also be had for the 
asking, all of which may either be served at an 
individual table in the adjoining lounging and 
reading room or in his private compartment. 

If accompanied by his wife he may even secure 
all of this by the slightest pressure of a bell at the 
side of his seat in the compartment car, whereat 
nn accommodating porter will do the rest. If he 
elects to enjoy his lunch in the lounging room of 
the buffet car, long before its discussion is com- 
iileted he has become so enamored of the home- 



like atmospliere everywhere surrounding him, 
that it is a safe guess that he will remain and read 
until too sleepy to do so longer. 

Few metropolitan cluhs furnish a more 
delightful corner than does this lihrary- 
buffet car in which to while away the 
hours of an evening, smoking, reading 
or chatting. 

For those who so 
desire, of course, 
the regulation Pull- 
man sleeper is at 
their disposal on this train 
and is as complete and com- 
fortable as those the traveler 
enjoyed on the North Coast 
Limited. On this line, also, 
the roadbed has been 
brought to the highest degree 
of perfection, and the sleep 
enjoyed by the traveler in consequence thereof is 
as refreshing as any strange bed permits, and 
with the coming of the morning he is profoundly 
conscious of an ability to eat the better portion 
of a Afontana beef. If anything is needed to give 
zest to his appetite, it is supplied in the excellence 
of the fare itself. After its full discussion the 
traveler, again finding his way to the Ijuffet car 


his morning paper and after-breakfast 
fully prepared to agree that no trip of 

I and priv 

i .#fr/..J 

a similar character was ever so pleasantly spent; 
and, as he alights at the magnificent Grand Cen- 
tral station in Chicago, 
the Chicago terminal of 
the Chicago Great West- 
ern, an hour later, con- 
scious of having spent 
less than $4 for all the 
privileges enjoyed, he at 
least promises himself a 
repetition of the same in 
the near future. 





Safe deposit 
boxes for rent 
at reasonable 

A cordial 
invitation is 
extended to the 
public to 
inspect our 
new offices 
and vaults. 

A general banking business trans- 
acted in all its branches. 

Accounts of firms, individuals and 
corporations solicited. 

Loans made on collateral and to 
customers whose business war- 
rants such accommodations. 

Certificates of deposit, payable on 
demand, issued for small as 
well as large amounts. 

Drafts drawn on all the leading 
cities in the United States, 
Europe and the Orient. 


Cbe mortbington Pump 


THE cut herewith shown gfivcs an excellent idea of the above named pump. It is one 
an endless line of like machines made for every purpose and of every size and capacity. 
This pump is located at the 1,100 level of the original mine, Butte, Montana, and 
is pumping 200 gallons of water per minute against a vertical head of t,050 feet. It is 
one of the features of deep mining. Too much attention can not be paid to having 
reliable machinery for this work, as a stoppage of the pumps would mean a loss of 
thousands of dollars as well as jeopardizing the safety of the mine and miners. 

This type of an engine is accepted and used in Butte mines generally as repre- 
senting the highest degree of economy and durability. 

The water end is made entirely of phosphor-bronze, which makes the first cost of such an 
engine much larger than those of inferior qualities. The extreme long life of this pump, as well as 
all others manufactured by HENRY R. WORTHINGTON, which this superior material assures, 
more than compensates for first cost in a total absence of supplementary costs which are bound to 
attend an inferior grade. The saving in fuel alone over the regular compound condensing engine 
is very great, while the machine is so simple that it requires no more expensive labor in its care. 

Pumps of this kind can be built for any service and contracts made with guarantee of duty. 
The accompanying cut is significant in that it shows that the Worthington Pump is one that 
gets outside of the warehouse and into active use in the largest fields, where absolutely perfect 
results are required. 

Carlisle Mason, at No. IJO North Wyoming Street, is the Butte Sales Manager for HENRY 
R. WORTHINGTON, the manufacturer of the Worthington Pump. The Home Office is in 
New York City, while Branch Offices are located at Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, Cleve- 
land, Detroit, Atlanta, Pittsburg and New Orleans. 


Montana Music Co. 

119 North Main St., BUTTE, MONTANA, 








Stock of Sheet Music, Instruction Boolis, 
Guitars, Violins, Mandolins, Banjos, Zithers, 
Music Boxes, etc., very complete. 

















J, ROSS CLARK, President. 

ALEX. J. JOHNSTON, Vice-President. 

W. B. HAMILTON, Secretary and Treasurer 
E. H, RENISCH, Manager. 

Montana Hardware Company 

216-218 North Main Street, BUTTE, MONTANA 


Hardware, Mining and Milling Supplies 


Knowles Steam and Electric 
Pumps and Repairs, 
Revere Rubber Go's Belts, 
Hose and Packing, 
Magnolia Metal, King 
Governors, Oil Gity Boiler 
Works' Boilers and Engines, 
Schneider Gandles, 
Miller-Monitor Ranges, 
Broderick & Bascom 
Wire Rope. 


We carry a full 
line of Mining and 
Milling Supplies, 
Engines, Boilers, 
Iron Pipe and 
Fittings of all 
kinds, Iron, Steel, 
Drill and Tool 
Steel, etc. 

Also a full line of 
Builders' and 
Shelf Hardware, 
Macfiinists' and 
Carpenters' Tools 








Itching Scalp ; 
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There'd be 

No Falling Hair, 

No Baldness ; 

And Hair 

Would Grow 


" Destroy the 
Cause, You 
Remove the 





Dandruff is 
Germ Disease 



Herpicide," $1.00 
At All Druggists 





You'll Have 
All Your Life, 
Unless You 
Kill the 
Dandruff Germ. 

You Can't 
Do that Unless 
You Use 


The Only Hair 
That Actually 
Does Kill the 
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Allays Itching. 

Makes Hair 
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