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Copyright, 191°. '^y 

EDWARD S. EL Lib anu 


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Revised to 1912. 

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It is the aim of the following pages to make known the 
most important events in the history ot New Jersey, from 
the first settlement to the present time. With so great an 
array of authorities at command, the task has been largely 
that of grouping and condensing the work of others. 

The question that faced us at the beginning was whether 
to write merely a brief sforj that would give a general 
knowledge of the history of the State, or to*add names, 
dates, and other particulars. In the latter case the work 
not only would furnish interesting reading, but also would 
serve for instruction. After consulting with many in 
whose judgment we have faith, we adopted a middle course. 
The body of the work aims to inform as well as to enter- 
tain ; but such statistics as are given appear in the Ap- 
pendix. If there can be no excellence without labor, then 
children and adults cannot learn history simply by being 
entertained with a story which omits the names and dates 
that are necessary for a comprehension of real history. 

We consider ourselves fortunate in the help that we 
have received in our labor. Henry C. Buchanan, State 
Librarian, John Cotton Dana, of the Newark Free Library, 
and E. W. Miller, of the Jersey City Free Library, not 
only placed all the resources of their libraries at our dis- 
posal, but also aided us with wise suggestions. The New 



Jersey Historical Society has kindly given us access to 
its many valuable documents and volumes. Specially 
helpful have been Francis Bazley Lee's *' New Jersey as 
a Colony and as a State," and the Revolutionary re- 
searches of the late Adjutant General Stryker. 

Acknowledgments are due, also, to Hon. C. J. Baxter, 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction ; to Alfred 
Reed, Justice of the Supreme Court ; to Sumner C. Kim- 
ball, Superintendent of the Life-saving Service; and to 
various city clerks and county superintendents. 

E. S. E. 
H. S. 




I. Early Settlements 9 

II. East and West Jersey 22 

III. To THE Close of Colonial Rule .... 32 

IV. Material Progress of New Jersey to 1775 • • 47 


THE REVOLUTION (1775-1783) 

V. "The War Path of the Revolution" ... .61 

VI. The Battle of Trenton 76 

VII.* The Battle of Princeton 93 

VIII. A Harried State 105 

IX. The Battle of Monmouth Court House . .111 

X. Striking Incidents of Monmouth Court House . 121 

XI. Closing Events of the Revolution . . . .128 



XII. Peace, Progress, and War . . . . 138 

XIII. Pioneer Canals and Railways 148 

XIV. Governors under the First Constitution . .156 




XV. The New Constitution 167 

XVI. War with Mexico, the Civil War, War with 

Spain 171 

XVII. The Leading Cities of New Jersey . . .181 

XVII I. The Life-saving Service 197 

XIX. Public School Education 208 

XX. Colleges and Libraries 215 


I. Geography and Industries 225 

II. System of Government 227 

III. Constitution of New Jersey . .... 236 

IV. Formation of Counties 257 

V. English Governors of Province of New Jersey . 257 

VI. Governors under the Constitution . . . 258 

VII. United States Senators from New Jersey . . 259 

VIII. Bibliography 261 

Index 264 





The Half Moon 

The first permanent settle- 
snt made by the English in 
e New World was at James- 
town, Virginia, in May, 1607. 
At that time, so far as is 
known, no white man had ever 


set foot in the present State of New Jersey. The only 
people who roamed through the solitudes were the Indi- 
ans. Their camp fires gleamed in the silent depths of 
the woods, and they hunted and fished and sometimes 
fought with one another. They numbered less than two 
thousand, and belonged to the Delaware or Lenni Lenape 
tribe, who were members of the great Algonquin family. 

One mild day in September, 1609, the little Dutch 
ship Half Moo7i, with a crew of less than twenty men, 
entered the harbor of New York, passed round to the 
mouth of a large river on the north, and began sailing up 
the stream. The captain of the Half Moon was an Eng- 
lishman named Henry Hudson. For a long time after 
the discovery of America, nearly every one believed it 
was only a strip of land, across which it would be easy to 
pass to the vast continent of Asia beyond. Hudson was 
in the employ of the Dutch East India Company, and had 
been sent out to search for the northwest passage to India. 
The river which he discovered was named after him — the 
Hudson River. 

The quaint Dutch ship sailed so slowly that it took 
a week for it to reach the site of the present city of 
Albany. Indians peeped out from among the trees at the 
strange visitors, or paddled alongside the vessel in their 
canoes, just as the dusky natives did at San Salvador, more 
than a hundred years before, when the three small caravels 
of Columbus crossed the Atlantic and anchored near the 

The discovery of Henry Hudson gave the Dutch a claim 
to the region, which they called New Netherland, although 
England insisted that the whole continent belonged to her, 



across the Hudson by Governor Kieft and acting under 
his orders, attacked at night a large band of Indians, who 
had been driven southward by northern tribes and, relying 
on the friendship of the white settlers, had encamped in 
that part of Communipaw now known as Lafayette. The 
soldiers massacred eighty of the Indians, without regard to 
age or sex. This brutal act precipitated an Indian war in 
which all the houses and farms in Pavonia were destroyed 
and all the settlers either killed or driven out. After peace 
was restored, the settlers returned ; the settlements in- 
creased in number and extended farther from the Hudson. 
Another outbreak occurred in 1654, when Pavonia was 
again laid waste. In order to satisfy the Indians, Gov- 
ernor Stuyvesant purchased from them the land compris- 
ing nearly all of what is now Hudson county. To protect 

.-• "rt-- 

the settlers from further attacks 
he required them to concentrate 
in towns and villages. In ac- 
cordance with this order the vil- 
lage of Bergen (now a part of 
Jersey City) was founded in 
1660. The origin of the name 
is doubtful, but the village was 
probably so called because of its 
location {berg meaning hill). 

New Jersey formed a part of 
New Netherland, which be- 
longed to Holland. That country, in 1623, placed a col- 
ony near Gloucester and built Fort Nassau. Sweden 
in 1638 sent over a company under the command of Peter 
Minuit, who had been director-general of New Netherland. 


Dutch and Swedish 



This company built Fort Christina (at Wilmington). Other 
expeditions, in which a large number of Finns were in- 
cluded, followed in the years 1640 to 1647. The Swedes 
purchased from the Indians the land extending along both 
shores of Delaware Bay and on the west side of the Dela- 
ware River to a point opposite Trenton. They called the 
country New Sweden. 

For years the Dutch and Swedes were hostile to each 
other. When grim old Peter Stuyvesant became governor 
of New Amsterdam, he stamped about on his wooden leg, 

swung his cane, and 
threatened to do 
dreadful things to the 
intruders; but the 
Swedish governor 
Printz was as big 
physically as he, and 
was not afraid of him. 
Finally, in 1655, a 
Dutch fleet came up 
the river and captured 
everything that be- 
longed to Sweden, 
whose rule in Amer- 
ica thus came to an end. The Swedes quietly accepted the 
change of masters, and, to all intents and purposes, became 
fully as Dutch as if their ancestors had been born and had 
lived all their lives on the banks of the Zuyder Zee. 

The Swedes were not the only ones with whom the 
Dutch had trouble. Of all the English colonies, the wealth- 
iest was that at New Haven. One of the members of 

Dutch capturing Swedish Fort 



this colony was trafficking down the coast in the winter of 
1638-39, when he discovered that the Swedes and Finns 
had built up a brisk trade on the Delaware Bay with the 
Indians. He hurried back to New Haven with the news. 
His townsmen met in 1640, formed the " Delaware Bay 
Company," and sent another captain to the region to buy 
all the land he could. He was told not to meddle with 
the Dutch, but in his greed he purchased wherever chance 
offered. He thus gained a claim to nearly all the south- 
west coast of New Jersey, with a tract of land called Pas- 
sayunk, on the present site of Philadelphia. 

The Dutch and Swedes, in the face of this new danger, 
stopped wrangling and joined in driving out the English, 
who reluctantly straggled back to New Haven. They 
would not give up the scheme of settling in the fine Dutch 
territory, and in 1651 sent another expedition thither. 
Everything went well until the ships reached New Amster- 
dam, when Governor Stuyvesant made them turn about 
and go back to New Haven. 

New England shared the indignation of New Haven, 
and made ready to punish New Amsterdam. Soon after, 
war broke out between England and Holland. On August 
29j 1664, New Netherland was captured by an English 
fleet, and the name of New Amsterdam was changed to 
New York. This event opened an era in the history of 
New Jersey. 

Charles H. at that time was king of England. He re- 
garded this continent as his personal property, and granted 
the new territory to his brother, the Duke of York, after- 
ward James H. In the same year the Duke granted all 
that portion lying between the Hudson and the Delaware 



to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. The re- 
gion was called Nova Caesaria or New Jersey, in honor 
of the brave defense of the island of Jersey, made in 1649, 
by Sir George Carteret, against the forces of Cromwell. 

Berkeley and Carteret gave New Jersey a constitution 
which remained in force until 1676. Philip, a distant rela- 
tive of Sir George, was commissioned as governor of the 
province, and arrived in the summer of 1665, with thirty 

Philjp Carteret's Journey to Elizabethtown 

emigrants. Placing himself at their head, and with a hoe 
resting on his shoulder, he led the way inland to a spot 
where he decided to begin a settlement. He named it 
Elizabethtown, in honor of the wife of Sir George Carteret. 
We must remember that there were several small scat- 
tered settlements in New Jersey, before the arrival of 
Governor Carteret. Several of these have already been 
mentioned. In addition, the Dutch were quite numerous 
along the western shore of Newark Bay, and a few Swedish 



farmers were living in the present counties of Gloucester 
and Burlington. The colonial history of no other State 
has so many tangled skeins as that of New Jersey. In 
order to untangle these threads, we must keep a number 
of facts in mind. 

As soon as the Dutch surrendered New Netherland, 
the EngHsh governor, Nicolls, took charge, acting as the 
agent of the Duke of York. Not knowing of the trans- 
fer to Berkeley and Carteret, he named the province 
Albania and began to colonize it. With his approval, a 
large section, bordering on Newark Bay, was bought from 
the Indians by a few New England Puritans, who settled 
there in 1664. In the spring of 1665 a similar grant of 
territory included the land lying between the mouth of the 
Raritan and Sandy Hook. All this was done before Gov- 
ernor Nicolls learned of the transfer to Berkeley and Car- 
teret, and was the cause of much trouble for half a century 

Thus matters stood when Philip Carteret became gov- 
ernor. He made EHzabethtown, with its three or four 
cabins, the capital. The Proprietors offered tracts of lands 
varying from sixty to one hundred and fifty acres, accord- 
ing to the date of arrival of the settlers and the number of 
their bond servants and slaves. (A bond servant differed 
from a slave in that his bondage ended after a certain 
number of years, while that of a slave endured for life.) 
No quit rent was to be paid until 1670, when it was to 
be at the rate of one halfpenny an acre. The legislative 
assembly was to consist of a governor, a council of twelve, 
nominated by the Proprietors, and the same number of 
representatives chosen by the people. All laws passed 


were subject to the approval of the Proprietors, and free- 
dom of conscience and worship was guaranteed to all. 

Agents were sent abroad to set forth the attractiveness 
of the province to settlers, and they met with marked suc- 
cess. Immigrants came from New England, from Long 
Island, and from England. Elizabethtown, Middletown, and 
Shrewsbury, all founded 'before Carteret came, flourished, 
as did Piscataway and Woodbridge, settled in 1666 by colo- 
nists from New England. Some of the men who came from 
New England to examine New Jersey selected land near 
the present city of Burlington. On their return, they met 
Governor Carteret at Elizabethtown, and he persuaded 
them to settle on the Passaic River. In May, 1666, thirty 
families came from Connecticut and bought one half of the 
present county of Essex from the Indians for goods and 
wampum worth $740. They named their new abode 
Newark, in compliment to their minister, Abraham Pier- 
son, whose home in England bore that name. Although 
most of these immigrants were from a single town, three 
other settlements were represented. Their leader was 
Captain Robert Treat, afterward governor of Connecti- 
cut, who showed so much ability as an organizer and 
director that he is regarded as the father of Newark. 
More land was bought from the Indians, but Newark grew 

At this time the white population of New Jersey was 
scarcely three thousand. Philadelphia was a straggHng 
village, and neither Trenton nor New Brunswick had been 
founded. The whole province remained a wilderness. In 
going from Elizabethtown and Bergen Point to the Dela- 
ware, settlers had to follow the old Indian trails, or the 


paths made by bears, wolves, and deer in passing to and 
from the springs. 

The first New Jersey assembly met at Elizabethtown, 
May 26, 1668, and remained in session four days. In this 
assembly, Bergen, Elizabethtown, Newark, Woodbridge, 
Middletown, and Shrewsbury were represented. The 
New England code was mainly copied, and it was decreed 
that twelve specified crimes should be punishable with 
death. The first ripple of trouble appeared six months 
later. Shrewsbury and Middletown refused to pay certain 
taxes imposed by the assembly. Although these towns 
were represented in the popular branch, their members 
would not take the oath of allegiance and were not per- 
mitted to sit in the second assembly. 

The cause of this action by the two towns named has been 
explained. Since they were in existence before Carteret 
became governor, they denied his authority over them. 
The discontent came to a head in March, 1670, when the 
quit rents fell due and payment was demanded. The older 
towns, with some justice, claimed that having paid for the 
lands in full to the Indians, they owed nobody else for 
them. They refused absolutely to pay the quit rent, and 
a number of settlers who had come at a later date united 
with them. The turmoil lasted for two years and then 
came anarchy. 

Finally, in May, 1672, the rebellious settlers chose anew 
assembly, turned out Phihp Carteret, and elected James 
Carteret, a worthless son of Lord Carteret, as governor. 
Finding himself defied on every hand, Philip Carteret took 
ship for England to get redress. He left John Berry as 
his deputy. The king confirmed the authority of Philip 

HIST. N.J. — 2 


Carteret, and declared that the governor and council had 
the sole right to approve such representatives as were nomi- 
nated by the several towns, and to regulate the sessions of 
the legislature. The payment of quit rents was postponed 
until 1676. 

It took James Carteret but a brief time to prove his 
utter unfitness to rule. In May, 1673, he was turned adrift, 
and John Berry acted as governor. When Carteret left 
town, it was thought that was the last that would be seen 
of him ; but several years later he returned to beg his 
food from door to door as a common tramp. 

In August, 1673, the Dutch recaptured New York, but 
in the next year returned it to England. Since this shift 
of authority seemed to throw some doubt on the Duke of 
York's title, he obtained a new one from the king and 
commissioned Edmund Andros as governor of New York 
and its dependencies. The Duke also renewed the title 
of Sir George Carteret to one half the province. He 
selected the northern portion, leaving the southern part to 

Again we must carefully note events in order to under- 
stand their connection and the results flowing therefrom. 
Lord Berkeley had grown old and was disappointed by the 
failure of his colonizing schemes. On March 18, 1673, he 
sold his half of New Jersey to John Fenwick and Edward 
ByUinge for a thousand pounds. The two buyers were 
Quakers, but disagreed over the purchase. They showed 
their good sense, however, by asking WiUiam Penn to ar- 
bitrate their differences. He gave Fenwick one tenth and 
Byllinge nine tenths of the purchase. Then BylHnge 
failed and transferred all his interest for the benefit of his 


creditors to William Penn, Gawen Laurie, and Nicholas 
Lucas. With the consent of Fenwick, these trustees 
divided all the property into one hundred shares, of which 
the ninety owned by Byllinge were offered for sale. Later 
Fenwick's one tenth passed under the control of the same 
three trustees. 

In 1675 Fenwick, with a large number of emigrants, 
sailed from London in the ship Griffin. After a pleasant 
voyage, they entered the Delaware Bay, landing near the 
site of an old Swedish fort. They were so pleased with 
the place that they began a settlement, which they named 
Salem, meaning "peace." The Griffin was the first 
English vessel to bring immigrants to New Jersey. Fen- 
wick apportioned the land among the settlers and assumed 

On July I, 1676, the province was divided by a line run- 
ning from Little Egg Harbor on the seacoast to latitude 
41° 40' on the Delaware. All territory north and east of 
this line was called East Jersey, while all south and west 
of the line was West Jersey. This distinction is preserved 
to some extent to this day, especially that of **West 



We are now to study the history of New Jersey during 
the period wlien it was divided into the two provinces 
known as East Jersey and West Jersey. The separation 

lasted from 1676 to 1702, and the 
close of the period saw all the origi- 
nal colonies settled with the excep- 
tion of Georgia, in which the first 
settlement was planted in 1733. 

The year 1676 was an eventful 
one both to the north and south of 
New Jersey. New England was 
engaged in a furious war with 
King Philip, leader of several pow- 
erful Indian tribes, while the re- 
bellion of Nathaniel Bacon, in 
Virginia, threatened the overthrow of the tyrant, Sir 
William Berkeley, who was recalled to England the fol- 
lowing year. 

Sir Edmund Andros was governor of New York from 
1675-168 1. He was a stern, honest, and tyrannical ruler, 
jealous of his rights and devoted to his royal patron, the 
Duke of York, who became King James II. in 1685. The 
following year Andros was made governor of the northern 
colonies, including New England and New York. The 

Sir Edmund Andros 



overthrow of James II. led the people of Boston to turn 
out Andros in 1689. He was afterward governor of Viv- 
ginia. This remarkable man was very aggressive and 
was closely connected with the colonial history of New 

William Penn framed the original plan of government, 
and the Proprietors approved it March 3, 1676, as "The 
Concessions and Agreements of the Proprietors interested 
in the Province of West Jersey in America." It granted 
absolute freedom of conscience, and surrendered all au- 
thority to commissioners. These were first appointed by 
the Proprietors, but afterward their appointment was 
turned over to resident Proprietors and inhabitants. The 
election took place annually, and the system was the purest 
form of democracy. 

The commissioners sailed from London with a large num- 
ber of settlers in the summer of 1677, on the ship Ken^. 
After a trying voyage, the ship dropped anchor within 
Sandy Hook, and the commissioners called upon Governor 
Andros, to pay their respects. He received them cour- 
teously, and asked whether they had any warrant from the 
Duke of York. They were obliged to say they had not, 
whereupon he told them he would not recognize their 
authority. He gave them a warrant, however, from him- 
self until the dispute should be settled by the Duke. 

The main company of colonists meanwhile sailed up the 
Delaware, and bought from the Indians tracts of lands 
extending to the falls of Trenton. They laid out a town 
in 1677, which was first named New Beverly, then Brid- 
lington, and finally Burlington. The Indians treated 
the white people very kindly and gave them plenty of 



corn and venison. The colony throve and received many 

Matters did not go so well in East Jersey, however. 
Governor Carteret tried by every means to add to the pros- 
perity of the province. One step was to open direct trade 
with England without the payment of custom. Governor 

Carteret dragged frOxM Bed 

Andros forbade any ship to land on the Jersey shore until 
after it had paid an impost duty at Manhattan. Upon 
the death of Sir George Carteret, in 1679, Andros claimed 
authority over the province, and ordered Governor Carteret 
to give way. He indignantly refused. In April, 1680, 
Andros sent a squad of soldiers to Elizabethtown, who 
dragged Governor Carteret from bed late at night, and 
took him to New York, where he was placed on trial 



before Andros himself. The jury were ordered to find the 
prisoner guilty, but sturdily refused to do so. Carteret was 

kept in custody for some time until 
the question could be decided in 

Andros did not neglect West 
Jersey. He had imprisoned Fen- 
wick, the founder of Salem, in 1676, 
but liberated him on his promise not 

to assume authority in that province. 

Seal of East Jersey a j j t. • r i. 1 • 1 • 

■' Andros accused him of breakmg his 

word and arrested him again two years later. Besides 
this, Andros collected a duty on all English goods im- 
ported into New Jersey. The Proprietors appealed to the 
Duke of York, who referred the question to the eminent 
lawyer. Sir William Jones. He declared the tax illegal. 
In 168 1 the Duke made a new grant of West Jersey to the 
trustees, to whom were given the territory and government 
without reserve. 

The effect of this action was excellent. Immigrants, 
chiefly Quakers, came to the prov- 
ince, and affairs moved smoothly. 
Byllinge, the newly appointed gov- 
ernor, chose to stay in England, and 
made Samuel Jennings his deputy. 
Jennings called the first legislative 
assembly together at Burlington, 
November 21, 1681, and a number 
of needed laws were passed. In the ^^^ °^ ^^ jersey 
following May Burlington became the capital of the prov- 
ince, and that town and Salem were made ports of entry. 


By this is meant that each town had a custom house, where 
vessels could load and unload their cargoes as the law 

Although Byllinge had insisted upon and had used the 
right of naming the deputy governor, his authority for 
doing so was questioned. The assembly amended the con- 
stitution, and, in accordance with its provisions,' elected 
Jennings governor. He was afterward sent to England 
to argue the matter with Byllinge. Before he left, he 
nominated Thomas Olive as his deputy, who, being elected, 
served until September, 1685. 

Byllinge would not yield his claim, though he granted 
a more liberal charter. He died in 1687, and his interests 
were bought by Dr. Daniel Coxe of London, who clung 
to the same rights that had been claimed by Byllinge. 
Grave trouble would have followed, but for interference 
from an unexpected cause. 

The decision of Sir William Jones transferrect East 
Jersey again to Governor Carteret, but the quarrel over 
quit rents broke out once more. The trustees of Sir 
George Carteret then lost patience and offered the territory 
for sale. William Penn and eleven associates bought East 
Jersey for the sum of ;^3400. The enterprise was too 
great to be handled by twelve persons, so each sold one 
half his interest to another. Among the new partners 
were a number of eminent men, such as the Earl of Perth, 
Lord Drummond, and Robert and David Barclay. They 
were mostly Scotchmen, and each owned one twenty- 
fourth of the territory, which was inheritable, divisible, 
and assignable. Thus it stands to-day. The legislature 
of New Jersey has nothing to do with unappropriated land, 


all of which belongs to the Proprietors. They alone can 
dispose of it. Only a trifling amount, however, remains 
in their hands. A new and final patent was granted to 
the twenty-four Proprietors by the Duke of York, March 
14, 1683. 

Robert Barclay, the distinguished Quaker scholar, who 
was one' of the Proprietors, was appointed governor of East 
Jersey for life. He never crossed the ocean, but was 
allowed to act through a deputy. He chose an able 
London lawyer named Thomas Rudyard, who came over 
in November, 1682. His work for a time was satisfactory. 
At the first session of the assembly of East Jersey, soon 
after, the province was divided into the four counties of Ber- 
gen, Essex, Middlesex, and Monmouth. In May, 1688, the 
county of Somerset was formed from Middlesex. The 
boundaries of these and other counties have been changed 
from time to time as the necessity arose. 

Rudyard quarreled with Groome, the surveyor-general, 
and suspended him from office. The Proprietors thereupon 
turned Rudyard out and elected Gawen Laurie, a Scotch 
Quaker, in his place. He arrived early in 1684. His aim 
was to build up a port that would rival New York. He 
named the new metropolis Perth Amboy, in honor of his 
friend, the Earl of Perth. He strove hard with his favorite 
project, but as we know, his dream was never realized. 

The bitter persecution of Scotch Presbyterians caused 
many to emigrate to this country, both under Charles H. 
and James H. With a view of encouraging such people, 
the Proprietors made Lord Neill Campbell deputy 
governor in 1686. He stayed only a short time, and, 
upon sailing for England, in March, 1687, left Andrew 


Hamilton to act in his place. About this time, King 
James II. showed a disposition to break the pledges he had 
made when Duke of York. He meant to get back New 
Jersey, because of the large sum it would add to his rev- 
enues. All vessels going to the province were compelled 
to pay duties at New York. The collector complained 
that the law was evaded, and the English ministry ordered 
the issue of a writ of quo warranto against the Proprietors. 
By this was meant an official inquiry into the warrant for 
the authority used by the Proprietors. The result would 
have been the stripping of all power from them. Cer- 
tain of what was coming, they surrendered in 1688 their 
claims to the jurisdiction of East Jersey, on condition 
that they kept their rights of property in the soil. A 
writ of quo warrajtto had already been issued against 
West Jersey, and in October she took the same action as 
East Jersey. 

You remember that Edmund Andros was made gov- 
ernor of the northern colonies, including New England and 
New York, in 1686, and once more he tried to interfere in 
New Jersey affairs ; but his triumph was brief, for, before 
the necessary papers were drawn up and signed, the Eng- 
lish revolution of 1688-89 drove James II. from the throne. 
In East and West Jersey the Proprietors resumed author- 
ity, and matters went on as before. 

In East Jersey, Andrew Hamilton had been confirmed as 
the deputy governor of Andros. In the general overturn he 
was so confused as to his duties that he sailed for England 
in August, 1686, to get instructions from the Proprietors. 
From that date until 1692 East Jersey had no government 
except that by her town and county officers. The Proprie- 


tors sent a governor to the province in 1690 and another the 
following year, but the people rejected both. Hamilton 
was accepted in 1692 and was commissioned as governor 
of West Jersey also, inasmuch as Coxe had abandoned the 

Several years of comparative quiet followed. All might 
have gone well but for the endless quarrel over quit rents. 
The provincial courts decided against those who fell back 
upon their Indian titles, and the royal council reversed the 
decision. No governor could have used more tact than 
did Hamilton, but unfortunately the Proprietors were com- 
pelled to remove him in 1697, because of a new law which 
prevented all Scotchmen from holding offices of public 
trust and profit. 

This disastrous change brought forward Jeremiah Basse. 
He claimed to have a commission as governor with the 
king's approval, but this was soon proved to be untrue, 
and he did not have enough Proprietors' names to make 
his warrant valid. After Basse was rejected, he tried to 
get the better of his enemies by joining those who had 
opposed the proprietary government. His character, how- 
ever, was such that he gained very few friends. 

At this critical juncture. New York made matters worse 
by renewing her claim of jurisdiction and ordered a duty 
to be paid on all East Jersey exports. Payment of such 
duty was refused, with the result that for a time it looked 
as if war would break out between New York and New 

By this time Basse had made himself the most disliked 
man in the community. When he was angered into throw- 
ing an opponent into jail, a mob promptly broke in the 



doors and released the defiant prisoner. The officers act- 
ing for Basse were assaulted, and the situation became so 
intolerable that he hastily took ship for England in the 
summer of 1699. 

Mob liberating Prisoner 

The Proprietors hoped 
to mend matters by reap- 
pointing Hamilton as gov- 
ernor, but the situation 
had passed beyond control. 
His authority was defied; 
judges were driven from 
court ; sheriffs were beaten 
while in the discharge of their duties; and anarchy reigned. 
The real cause was the continual dispute over quit rents. 
The Proprietors claimed sole ownership of the soil, under 
the grants of the Duke of York, and refused to recognize 
any title derived from the Indians. The actual revolt, 
therefore, was against the Proprietors. 

When these owners of the Jerseys were asked by the 
royal council to transfer their authority to the crown, they 
were glad to do so. The Proprietors were fortunate in 
securing their property in the soil, and the payment of 
the quit rents. Thereupon, on the 17th of April, 1702, 
they resigned all right of government both in East and in 
West Jersey. 



Edward Hyde, known as Lord Cornbury, was appointed 
by Queen Anne governor in chief of New York and New 
Jersey. He called the New Jersey assembly together at 
Perth Amboy, November 10, 1703. The body cbnsisted 
of twenty-four members, and met alternately at Perth 
Amboy and Burlington. When the legislators were assem- 
bled before him, the governor told them in his lofty 
manner that their only business was to raise money, and 
prepare bills for the queen's consideration. The first gov- 
ernor of the reunited Jerseys was not only a man with- 
out a redeeming virtue, but one who was proud of his 

In June, 1704, the legislature was called to meet at Bur- 
lington to provide means for building a fort at Navesink, 
as a protection against the French, and to form a militia 
system. Thinking some of the members showed an inde- 
pendent mind, the governor dissolved the body and called 
another whose members were afraid to go contrary to his 
wishes. They voted him £600 out of the ;^2000 which 
they proposed to raise by taxation. Three of the legisla- 
tors who said they thought the people ought to have some 
share in the government, were instantly expelled, at the 




command of the governor. Lord Cornbury became more 
and more tyrannical. He also committed many follies un- 
befitting the dignity of his office. He actually paraded in 
public dressed as a woman. When reproved, he replied 
with a laugh that his masquerade was in honor of Queen 
Anne, who was his 


■-^ ♦!.,■• . 

1 ■ y^p'^i 

Ml!'., 1 

cousin. None but a 
monarchical govern- 
ment would have 
given such a man 
authority over his 
fellowmen. Finally, 
in 1707, the people 
gained a majority 
and took action 
against their infam- 
ous ruler. So strong 
were the protests 
sent to the queen 
that she recalled him in 1708 
and appointed Lord John Love- 
lace, baron of Hurley, as his 

Cornbury's vices and crimes 
had involved him so heavily in 
debt that his creditors thrust 
him into prison. There he 

stayed till his father's death made him Earl of Clarendon. 
As no member of the peerage could be arrested for debt, 
Cornbury walked out of jail a free man. Many of his 
creditors were among the poorest people. 

Lord Cornbury in Female 



The notable measures of his rule were : the denial of 
liberty of conscience to Roman Catholics, the encourage- 
ment of the slave trade, and the forbidding of the printing 
of anything whatever without permission of the governor. 
This strangling of a free press was one of the evil inherit- 
ances from the feudal ages, when the " right of birth," ex- 
ercised by the peerage, trampled in the dust the natural 
rights of man. 

Lord Lovelace, the new governor, summoned the coun- 
cil to meet him at Bergen, December 30, 1708. He 
made a pleasing impression by his address, and proved 
himself a wise ruler. He died, however, a few months 
after taking office. 

His successor, Richard Ingoldsby, was soon superseded 
by Robert Hunter. An index of this Scotchman's fine 
character is found in his speech to the assembly : " If 
honesty is the best policy, ' plainness ' must be the best 
oratory. Let every man begin * at home ' and weed the 
rancor out of his own mind and the work is done. All 
power except that of doing good is a burden." 

Queen Anne's War was between the English on one 
hand and the French and Spanish on the other. It began 
in 1702 and closed in 171 3. In the campaign for the con- 
quest of Canada, the New Jersey assembly ordered the 
levy of a regiment and appropriated ;£"30CO for the ex- 
penses of the expedition. This was the first issue of what 
may be called paper currency in New Jersey. It was all 
redeemed within the following fifty years. A disaster to 
the English fleet, in June, 171 1, at the mouth of the St. 
Lawrence, when eight hundred men were drowned, caused 
the abandonment of the campaign. 



Growing tired of the cares of office, Governor Hunter 
resigned in 1719, and was succeeded by William Burnet, 
son of the celebrated bishop. He had been lieutenant 
governor of Virginia in 1705. Burnet, who was a man of 
great culture, made a good governor, though unfortunately 
he and the assembly did not always agree. In 1728 he 
was transferred to Massachusetts, where he died two years 
later. His successor was John Montgomerie, who held 
office until his death in 1731. 

Lewis Morris, as president of council, acted as governor 
until 1732, and was followed by William Cosby, who held 
office down to 1736. He was the last regular governor of 
New York and New Jersey, but John 
Anderson, and after him, John Ham- 
ilton (son of Andrew Hamilton), as 
presidents of council, brought affairs 
to the year 1738. In that year, New 
Jersey became entirely free from New 
York and chose her own governor. 
Her selection was Lewis Morris. 

Morris at that time was the most 
popular man in the province. He was born, probably, in 
167 1 upon the estate of Morrisania, founded by his father, 
who died soon after and left the property to his brother, 
Colonel Lewis Morris, who removed thither from Bar- 
bados. Colonel Morris purchased 3540 acres in what is 
now Monmouth county, and from him the tract passed to 
his adopted son, who subsequently became governor. 

There were considerable disturbances in that section, 
and once Morris was taken prisoner and confined in a log 
house. A party of his friends, however, lifted up one corner 

HIST. N.J. — 3 



of the house and the governor crawled out. Quick to 
penetrate the character of the vicious Lord Cornbury, 
Morris resolutely opposed him from the first. He drew 
up the complaint against him and was made the bearer of 
it to the queen. He was a member of the council, judge 

Release of Lewis Morris 

of the supreme court, and had been chief justice of New 
York and New Jersey. He was the second chancellor for 
New Jersey, named in Lord Cornbury's instructions; was 
suspended by him ; restored by the queen and suspended 
a second time in the same year (1704). He was chosen to 
the assembly in 1707, again in 1708, suspended in 1709 
by Lieutenant Governor Ingoldsby, appointed again the 
following year, continuing until 1738, when he was made 
governor of New Jersey.^ 

1 Three men, each named Lewis Morris, were connected with the early history 
of Monmouth county. The first was the uncle, as has been stated, of the governor, 
and the third was the talented son of the latter. These facts have caused confusion 
on the part of historians, due partly to the additional fact that no authentic informa- 
tion of the date of the governor's birth is obtainable. 


The highest hopes were felt for his administvation ; but, 
among all the governors of New Jersey, Lord Cornbury 
was the only one who was more unpopular than Morris 
made himself. The chief cause for this strange fact was 
his increasing years. He was an old man, and he became 
so soured and quarrelsome that it seemed as if every one 
turned against him. It was impossible for him and the 
assembly to agree, and that body defeated many good 
measures simply because the governor favored them. 

When King George's War broke out in 1744, between 
England and France, Governor Shirley of Massachusetts 
asked the other provinces to join in a plan to capture 
the French fortress, Louisburg, one of the strongest in 
the world. The New Jersey assembly refused to organize 
the militia, or to vote supplies, until the governor accepted 
several measures which they wished to become laws. He 
stubbornly refused. The assembly gave ^2000 toward 
the Louisburg expedition, but would not order a levy to 
raise funds with which to pay the governor's salary. In 
the midst of the quarrel Governor Morris died in May, 
1746. The feeling against him was so intense that the 
assembly refused to pay the widow the arrears due on his 
salary. The only honor he received in the latter years 
of his life was the naming of one of the counties for him. 

John Hamilton, president of the council, now became gov- 
ernor. He, as well as his successor, John Reading, served 
only a short time when Jonathan Belcher, formerly of 
.Massachusetts, was appointed to the office by the king. 
He arrived in 1747, and held the office for ten years. He 
was tactful, able, and honest, but he found more than one 
troublous task on his hands. Many prominent persons 


had secured large tracts of land, ^nd claimed their titles 
as vaHd above the titles of those who had previously paid 
the Indians for the same lands. It was the same old 
quarrel over quit rents, which threatened to trouble the 
province forever. The men who had bought last had writs 
of ejectment issued against the earlier owners and began 
suits for the recovery of the quit rents. The occupants 
of the lands resisted, and many fierce fights took place. 
Once they broke into the Essex county jail and released 
one of their number. Everybody except the later owners 
sympathized with the men who were persecuted, and for a 
long time the authorities were powerless. , 

Governor Belcher did his utmost to soothe the turbu- 
lence, but for a long time the task was beyond his power. 
In 1 75 I England ordered a commission of inquiry, but the 
Elizabethtown claimants clung to their property, and so 
long as they were able to do that, the victory really lay 
with them. The troubles did not end for years. 

We now approach the period of the French and Indian 
War, that tremendous struggle between England and 
France for mastery in the New World. Braddock's defeat 
in 1755 spread consternation among the colonies, for the 
whole western frontier was left open to the danger of In- 
dian forays. Governor Belcher hastily called the assem- 
bly together, but the members dallied for months before 
obeying his call. The Indians, who had always been 
friendly, were caught in the swirl of excitement. After 
spreading death and desolation along the western borders 
of Virginia and Pennsylvania, they crossed the Delaware 
and rushed into New Jersey. 

Colonel John Anderson gathered four hundred men in 



Essex county and hurriedly marched to Easton. There 
he did good service in holding the Indians in check. 
Numerous forts and blockhouses were built amono- the 
mountains and near the Delaware. Sir William Johnson, 
the Indian superintendent, persuaded the Delawares at 
Easton to make a treaty of peace, but for some time after- 
ward the settlements in the northwestern part of New 
Jersey suffered greatly from Indian depredations. 

In 1758, when the elder Pitt was at the head of affairs 
in England, a marked improvement took place in the 
prosecution of the war. New Jersey called for a thou- 
sand soldiers, paid a bounty of ^12 for each recruit, and 
voted ^50,000 for their support. Barracks were built at 
Elizabethtown, Perth Amboy, New Brunswick, and Tren- 
ton. The help of New Jersey in bringing about the triumph 
of England was of the highest value. She had kept her 
troops in the field at an expense of ;£300,ooo. 

Fully thirty thousand colonists had given their lives to 
sustain the British empire in America. Of the ;£"3, 000,000 
expended by them in the last great struggle, an amount 
large for those times, less than one third was returned by 
the English Parliament. 

The ease with which the American colonies did their 
part led England to think well of their resources. She 
decided to impose a tax upon them to help obtain the vast 
revenue she needed. To the Americans the proposal of 
the English Parliament to tax them without allowing them 
to have any member to represent them in that body was 
irritating to the last degree. It was the unpopular doctrine 
of ''taxation without representation" which had so much 
to do in bringing on the Revolution. 


The French and Indian War was of great aid to the 
colonies, for it taught them their own strength. They be- 
came acquainted with one another ; they were trained in 
the principles and discipline of war ; a number of their 
leaders, among them the immortal Washington, developed 
marked military ability ; and here and there the momentous 
question was whispered : " Can we not govern ourselves 
better than a country three thousand miles away, which 
has no real sympathy for us ? '* It has been truly said that 
the French and Indian War was the West Point of the Revo- 
lution for the Americans. 

It was the time for the highest wisdom on the part of 
England, but she failed to meet the call. Deaf to protests 
and arguments, and blind to the ominous warnings plain to 
all in America, her Parliament, in March, 1764, passed the 
hated " Stamp Act." At the same time the " Quartering 
Act " was enacted. This empowered England to main- 
tain a standing army in the colonies, and the different 
provincial assemblies were ordered to provide her garri- 
sons with fuel, lights, vinegar, salt, bedding, cooking 

utensils, and liquors. The anger of the 
colonies passed all bounds, and a Na- 
tional Congress was called to meet in 
New York in October. 

The last royal governor of New Jer- 
sey was William Franklin, only son 
of the famous philosopher, Benjamin 

Franklin. He was appointed in 1762, 

William Franklin ,, rTuc*.*.*.^^ 

upon the urgency of John Stuart, the 

unpopular third Earl of Bute and prime minister of Eng- 
land. Franklin, who was a bitter loyalist or supporter of the 



crown, held back New Jersey for a time, but the repre- 
sentatives gathered at Perth Amboy and appointed three 
delegates to the Congress. 

Twenty-eight delegates were present at the Congress, 
representing Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, South Carolina, Delaware, New 
Jersey, and New York. New Hampshire and Georgia 
sent pledges to stand by the action of the delegates. 
The Congress adopted a Declaration of Rights, avowing 
loyalty to England, 
but declaring that 
the people would 
never submit to tax- 
ation without repre- 

To show the deep 
feeling at that time, 
it may be said that 
Joseph Ogden, 
speaker of the as- 
sembly, and one of 
the New Jersey dele- 
gates, declined to 
sign the declaration, 
on the ground that 
it ought first to be 
approved by the re- 
spective assemblies. 
He was denounced, 
burned in effigy, and compelled to resign his office as 
speaker of the assembly. 

Ogden burned in Effigy 



The New Jersey assembly unanimously approved the pro- 
ceedings of the First Colonial Congress and added its pro- 
test against the late Act of Parliament. Governor Franklin 
sharply reproved the body and immediately prorogued or 
adjourned it. We all know of the storm that was raised 
in the colonies by the passage of the Stamp Act. Agent 
Coxe of New Jersey, like most of the other agents, threw up 
his commission and refused to handle the unpopular stamps. 
England repealed the law two years after its passage. 
. Great was the joy caused by this action. Many thought- 
• ful men, however, saw that the trouble was merely post- 
poned, for England would 'not yield her rigJit to tax her 
colonies. The Quartering Act was as intolerable as the 
Stamp Act. The assembly of New Jersey refused full 
compHance, declaring it to be another form of taxation. 

In June, 1767, Parliament passed a bill placing custom- 
house taxation on glass, paper, paints, and tea. Protests 
were as vigorous as before. " Freemen cannot be taxed 
but by themselves or their representatives," declared the 
New Jersey assembly. Most of the colonies renewed their 
agreement not to import any of the articles taxed. New 
Jersey had few imports, but she did all she could to 
encourage her neighbors. When some New York traders 
appeared in New Brunswick and Woodbridge to sell their 
goods, the citizens mobbed them with so much vigor that 
they thought themselves lucky to escape with their lives. 

England, in April, 1770, repealed the tax upon all arti- 
cles except tea. She made that so Hght that tea was 
cheaper in America with the tax than in England without 
it. The mother country, however, would not give up the 
principle that she had the right to tax her colonies, with- 



out giving them a representation in Parliament, or her 
law-making body, and the Americans were just as resolute 
in holding to the opposite principle. 

About this time and for several years after, New Jersey 
suffered greatly from a period of financial distress. The 

Mob driving Judges from Bench 

cost of military operations is enor- 
mous. Consequently a vast debt is 
usually piled up by the government. 
Trade, commerce, and all the indus- 
tries are paralyzed; oppressive taxes 
are a necessity, and the burdens 
imposed upon an impoverished people are almost in- 
tolerable. It became well-nigh impossible in New Jersey 
to collect debts, and creditors were fiercely resisted. 
It was a harvest time for the lawyers, and the indig- 
nation of the people was turned against them. In 
January, 1770, a mob drove the judges from the bench 
in Monmouth Court House (later called Freehold) and 
made a similar attempt, but failed, in Newark. Laws 
were passed forbidding excessive costs in the recovery 
of debts, and finally the excitement calmed down. 



Meanwhile, in March, 1770, a collision occurred in Bos- 
ton between the citizens and a squad of British soldiers, in 
which five of the former were killed and a number wounded. 
At New York and Philadelphia the ships loaded with tea 
were not allowed to land their cargoes, and in Charleston, 
the tea was stored in damp cellars, where it soon molded. 
In December, 1773, some fifty men, painted and disguised 
as Indians, boarded three vessels in Boston Harbor and 
emptied all the tea into the bay. 

New Jersey applauded these acts. That is to say, the 
Whigs did, while the Tories upheld the English gov- 
ernment. It was nearly a year after the famous Boston 
Tea Party, that an English vessel, the Greyhound, laden 
with tea and bound for Philadelphia, came timidly up the 
Delaware River. The captain anticipated the reception 
that awaited him at Philadelphia and was afraid to go 
there. So he turned into Cohansey Creek and dropped 
anchor at the little town of Greenwich, in Cumberland 
county. He thought he could land the tea there and 
then have it taken overland to Philadelphia. He found 
no trouble in placing it in the cellar of a house near the 

The news soon spread, and the Whigs met to decide 
what they should do. The fragrant herb was there, but 
they determined that it should never leave the town. So 
about forty young men, disguised, as in Boston, like Indians, 
broke open the storehouse, brought out the boxes, split 
them apart, and burned every particle of tea they contained. 
In such a small place all the young men were well known, 
and they were threatened with prosecution. A generous 
sum of money was subscribed to hire lawyers for their 



defense, but the grand jury refused to indict them, although 
ordered by the presiding judge to do so. More important 
matters soon filled the public mind, and the tea burners of 
Greenwich were never called to account. 

Greenwich "Tea Party" 

England was so incensed with Massachusetts that she 
closed the port of Boston. This caused much distress, 
and the other provinces went to her aid. None gave more 
generously than New Jersey. With the first present from 
Monmouth county went a message, urging the New Eng- 
landers not to yield, and promising more food whenever 
needed. Elizabethtown did the same, and the little town 
of Salem presented ;£i5o to the needy ones in Boston. 
A common persecution was fast bringing the provinces 
into a closer union. 


On September 5, 1774, delegates from all the colonies, 
except Georgia, met at Philadelphia. After earnest dis- 
cussion they a.dopted an address to the people of the colo- 
nies, a petition to the king, a declaration of rights, a 
memorial to the English nation, and an address to Can- 
ada. These proceedings were laid before the New Jersey 
assembly, in January, 1775, and, despite the determined 
opposition of Governor Franklin, were approved with- 
out an opposing vote, although the Quaker members ob- 
jected to the portion which hinted at forcible resistance. 
But opposition became as light as air. The torrent of 
American liberty burst all bounds, overbore every ob- 
struction, and swept onward with resistless power. Less 
than three months later, at Lexington, was " fired the shot 
heard round the world," and the tremendous struggle for 
American independence was opened. 


We have studied the poHtical history of New Jersey 
from its first settlement to the dawn of the Revokition. It 
is a record of strife and peace, of many changes in the forms 
of government, of good and ill fortune, of discourage- 
ment and hope, of alternate wrangling and tranquil policies, 
but none the less of progress. The tangled skeins were 
unwound, and the glow of brighter days appeared on the 

No state was settled by more diverse nationalities than 
New Jersey. The pioneers in the north were the Dutch, 
sturdy, thrifty, domestic, and law-abiding. Their neighbors 
were the Puritans, stern and God-fearing, who brought 
with them some of the rigor of New England ; but the shell 
of intolerance soon broke apart, and left them foremost in 
charity and good works. In the east clustered the Scotch, 
clannish, patient, and conscientious. To both Jerseys, espe- 
cially to Salem, came a number of French Huguenots. Re- 
fined, cultivated, and religious, they belonged to the highest 
type of manhood and womanhood. They had been made 
exiles by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, to the irrep- 
arable loss of the land that did not appreciate their worth. 
There remained, too, a few of the resolute toilers from 



Sweden and Denmark, and in time came the happy, merry 
Irish and, in a lesser degree, other peoples. And here, 
there, and everywhere, leavening the whole lump, moved the 
Friends, gentle, peaceful, spiritually minded, and worldly 
wise. They clung to the Golden Rule in every walk of 
life, and founded across the Delaware a commonwealth 
based on truth, charity, and love, which may well serve as a 
model through the ages to come. 

The blending and fusing of these elements, in varying 
degrees, evolved a stock that mentally, morally, and physi- 
cally has never been surpassed. No braver soldiers ever 
faced death on the field of battle ; no wiser statesmen ever 
sat in the councils of the nation or guided the destinies 
of a State; no more learned or stainless judiciary ever 
honored the bench. In philanthropy, education, religion, 
science, art, literature, and in all that makes a people 
truly great. New Jersey stands in the front rank. No star 
among the immortal thirteen shines with brighter luster 
than hers. 

The population of New Jersey on the eve of the Revolu- 
tion was about eighty thousand, including nearly five thou- 
sand slaves. West Jersey contained some twenty-five 
hundred more people than East Jersey. A sixth of .the 
people were Quakers, who were more numerous in West 
Jersey. The counties had increased to thirteen. ^ Slavery 
was lawful from the first in all the colonies, and was 
guarded by royal patronage. In 1696, the Quakers joined 
their brethren in Pennsylvania in the agreement not to 
import or employ slaves. The institution, however, lasted 
for many years afterward. 

J A list of these counties and of the different governors is given in the Appendix. 


In the early days the province contained a number of 
" redemptioners," — people who, being too poor to pay 
their passage to this country, agreed to work a certain 
time for those who loaned them the money. The employ- 
ers tried to get all the labor they could out of the redemp- 
tioners, whose lot was often worse than that of the slaves. 

The Indians lived 
in their wretched 
huts in the pines, and 
fished, hunted, and 
sometimes worked 
for their white 
neighbors. The men 
were lazy and made 
their squaws do all 
the hard work, while 
they rested, smoked 
their pipes, and 
drank bad whisky 
procured from the 
white men. Many 
of the Indians were 
so degraded by drink that laws were passed forbidding its 
sale to them. It is to New Jersey's credit that she never 
cheated the Indians out of a penny, but paid them full 
value for every acre acquired by the State from them. 

The passing years brought to light the richness of the 
soil and its mineral deposits. A freestone quarry was 
opened in 1721, and a year later a forge was set up at 
Dover, in Morris county. In 1768 the remarkable value 
of the marl in Monmouth county as a fertilizer was dis- 

Selling a Redemptioner 


covered, and it is still in great demand. This substance is 
composed of carbonate of lime, clay, and sand in varying 
proportions and almost inexhaustible quantities. Iron 
was made at Troy bloomery, Morris county, and at Oxford, 
Warren county, in 1741. The works are still running. 
Iron mining was carried on in what is now Mercer county, 
previous to 1720. As early as 1676, Colonel Lewis Morris, 
as we recall, owned 3540 acres at Shrewsbury, where sixty 
negroes were employed in smelting. 

The province had considerable commerce in the early 
days. Produce was sent to the West Indies ; furs, skins, 
and more or less tobacco to England ; and oil and fish to 
Spain, Portugal, and the Canary Islands. Whales appeared 
so frequently off the coast and in Delaware Bay that the 
hunting of them formed an important industry until after 
the Revolution. Rice was cultivated to somQ extent among 
the marshes in 1698, At that time also tar, turpentine, and 
whale oil were among the productions of the province. 

The southeastern section was covered with extensive 
stretches of pine forest, of which thousands of acres re- 
main. The sandy soil is held cheap, though irrigation and 
the use of fertilizers produce splendid fruit and certain 
crops. The timber in the north was mainly oak and hick- 
ory, and in the south, pine, stunted oak, and cedar. The 
abundance of marl, and innumerable seashells, prove that 
a large portion of New Jersey, in the remote past, formed 
a part of the bed of the ocean. 

The first specie used in the colony was the wampum or 
shell money of the Indians. For many years gold, silver, 
and copper coins were scarce. Laws were made at different 
times, fixing the rate of exchange. Copper pieces, which 


probably came from Ireland, were issued by Mark New- 
brie, under the authority of an act of the legislature of May, 
1682, but his death the following year ended the experi- 
ment of securing separate coinage. To-day the 
numismatists pay two dollars for a copper, and 
seven dollars for a silver farthing of that date. 
This piece shows on the obverse side, Charles I. 
as King David playing on a harp, with a crown 
above and the inscription ** Floreat Rex." On 
the reverse, St. Patrick, holding a double cross, 
is driving out the reptiles. The coin was milled, 
and in the background w^is a church with the 
inscription, " Quiescat Plebs." 

There was not a newspaper published in 
New Jersey until the Revolution. The first 
issue of the N^ezv Jersey Gazette was on Decem- 
ber 3, 1777. Isaac Collins of Burlington was 
the publisher. It was a folio sheet, twelve by 
eight inches, and ceased publication in 1786. 
The earliest periodical was TJie American Maga- 
zine, which appeared in January, 1758, at Wood- 
bridge, Middlesex county, where James Parker 
had set up a printing house seven years before. 
Lack of patronage caused the magazine to stop 
publication in March, 1760. 

Stoves were unknown. The huge fireplaces 
might be heaped high with blazing logs of wood, but most 
of the heat went up the yawning chimney. You could 
stand or sit so near the roaring flames that your face would 
be scorched, while the other side of your body was chilled. 
All the boiling, frying, baking, and stewing were done in 

HIST. N.J. 4 





the enormous fireplaces. No one thought of screens. The 
Hghts were tallow dip or wax candles, and when a family 
was too poor to buy or make them, it used pine knots. 
Well-to-do men wore cloaks, but overcoats were unknown. 

Fireplace, Washingtoin's Headc^uarters, Morristown 

When the cold was severe, a person put on more clothes. 
The sight of a man or a boy waddling along incased in 
several coats or pairs of trousers was not uncommon on a 
cold day. 

Previous to 1676 New Jersey had but two roads. One 
of these, little more than a bridle path, connected New 
York with the settlements on the Delaware, and ran from 
Elizabethtown Point to the site of New Brunswick, where 
the river was forded at low water. Thence the course was 
to the Delaware above Trenton, at which point that stream 
was also forded. This was the " upper road." The " lower 
road " turned off five or six miles from the Raritan, and led 
to Burlington, the two roads being the only routes between 


New York and Philadelphia. At Salem, Burlington, and 
Little Egg Harbor shipbuilding had become the leading 
industry as early as 1683. 

In 1754 post offices were opened at Trenton, Perth 
Amboy, and BurHngton. For twenty-five years before, a 

Newark Stage for New-York. 

A FOUR HORSE STAGE <will Jea^ve Archer Gif- 
ford^s, in Neiuarky e'very morning (except Sunday) 
at half f aft fi*ve o* clock y and njj'tll leawe Fondles Hook at 5 
0* clock in the afternoon for Nenxiark — This arrangement 
gia/es time for doing hufiiufs in the city, and the coo left 
hours for tra*veUing, Paffengers choofing this con'veyance 
mcty apply for feats to John Bond at A. Gifford^s. 

\tf y. N. Cumming. 

Early Stage Coach 

weekly mail in summer and a semi-monthly one in winter 
was carried between New York and Philadelphia. In 
1764 the postboys made the trip tri-weekly in twenty-four 
hours. The first through line, by way of Bordentown, 
began operation in 1734. Ten years later, stages ran 
twice a week between New Brunswick and Trenton. In 


1750 a boat left New York every Wednesday for Perth 
Amboy, the passengers going the next day by stage to 
Bordentown, where boat was taken to Philadelphia. Two 
years later this trip was made semi-weekly. In 1756 the 
stage, by way of Perth Amboy and Trenton, was three 
days on the route. In 1766 two days in summer and 
three in winter were enough, and then the proud travelers 
called the stages " flying machines." 

Our immediate ancestors knew very little of modern 
comforts. The houses along the shore were of wood, but 
there were some brick dwellings on Delaware Bay and 
River. Most of the bricks were made in the province, but 
many were brought across the ocean as ship ballast. 
Beyond the limits of tidewater the Dutch houses w^ere 
sometimes stone and again brick. Very rarely w^as a 
curtain or carpet or any wall paper seen. Long years 
were to pass before the inventors began dreaming of the 
varied uses of steam and electricity, of the sewdng machine, 
the typewriter, and a score of other useful things that have 
become necessities in modern civilization. 

In the earliest times oiled paper was used for window 
panes. The housewife read the time of day by the sun 
dial or by the shadow cast on a certain mark on the wall or 
the floor. When the sun did not shine, she used her skill 
in guessing. The owner of one of the old-fashioned 
** bull's eye" watches was almost as much an object of 
curiosity and envy as he who had crossed the Atlantic. 

New Jersey contained a considerable number of towns 
and villages in 1775. Newark, although more than a hun- 
dred years old, had only one thousand inhabitants. The 
first settlement of Trenton was made by Friends, at the 


Falls of the Delaware, probably in 1679. The settlers 
suffered much from the ravages of a form of maUgnant 
fever in 1687. 

In 1700 others who had bought land from the first Pro- 
prietors joined the pioneers. Most of the deeds bear dates 
from 1699 to 1710. In August, 1714, Mahlon Stacy sold 
eight hundred acres, lying on both sides of the Assanpink 
Creek, to Colonel William Trent of Philadelphia. He had 
been speaker of the house of assembly of Pennsylvania, 
and, in September, 1723, was chosen to the same office in 
New Jersey. He died the following year. 

Neither Mahlon Stacy nor Colonel Trent was the 
founder of the capital of the State, which was named in 
honor of Trent. The real founders were there when 
Stacy and Trent joined them. The two were simply the 
leading citizens of the little town. Colonel Trent gave 
the lot on which the courthouse was built to the county 
(Hunterdon) in 1720, and the place was properly named 
for him. In 1719 the courts, which had met alternately at 
Lawrenceville and Hopewell, changed to Trenton. The 
town had few buildings until after 1735, and during the 
Revolution the houses numbered a hundred or possibly 
a few more. In 1750 Trenton surrendered the provisions 
of the charter granted in 1745, and the village became a 
part of the township of the same name. 

In 1700 the site of New Brunswick was " Prigmore's 
Swamp." For years Daniel Cooper was the lone ferry- 
man and the only inhabitant. About 1730 several Dutch 
families from Albany settled there and the town received a 
royal charter. During the Revolution it was generally re- 
ferred to as " Brunswick." The first buildings in Rahway 


were put up in 1720, the settlers coming from Elizabeth- 
town. (This name was afterward shortened by dropping 
the last syllable.) Plainfield was scantily settled in 1735. 
In 1750 it had its first grist mill, and a year later its first 
schoolhouse. Hackensack contained thirty houses in 1775. 

Scotch Plains received its name from the Scotch emi- 
grants who settled there in 1684. In the same year the 
site of Camden was laid out, and a ferry to Philadelphia 
began running in 1695. Bordentown and Crosswicks were 
founded in 1781, while Tuckerton dates back to 1699. 
We have learned of the formation of the old towns of 
Bergen, Middletown, Shrewsbury, and Woodbridge, long 
prominent among the early settlements. German Valley, 
Newton, Oxford, Deckertown, and a number of other 
towns became prosperous during the first half of the 
eighteenth century, and since then many others have 
grown to importance. Paterson was not founded until 
1 791, while Jersey City remained Paulus Hook until well 
into the nineteenth century. 

It seems strange to read that New Jersey during colonial 
days was shaken now and then by earthquakes. In 
November, 1720, there was an alarming trembling of the 
ground, which was repeated in the following September. 
A more violent shock, on the night of December 7, 1737, 
sent the scared people of Trenton leaping from their beds. 
Doors were flung open, bricks fell from the chimneys, and 
furniture was overthrown, but fortunately no lives were lost. 
The shock of the awful Lisbon earthquake of November, 
1755) was distinctly felt on this side of the Atlantic. 

Between 1734 and 1750 occurred the memorable reli- 
gious revival known throughout the colonies as the " Great 


Awakening." The direct cause was the burning eloquence 
of Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield. Their 
preaching roused a whirlwind of agitation and enthusiasm, 
and made thousands of converts. Edwards had a parish 
at Northampton, Massachusetts, until 1750. He preached 
to the Indians at Stockbridge from 1751 to 1758, dying in 
the latter year. He was one of the greatest theologians 
born in America. 

Whitefield first visited this country in 1738, as a friend 
of John and Charles Wesley, the founders of Methodism, 
and of Governor Oglethorpe, the father of Georgia. He 
made seven visits to America, and in 1740 passed for 
the first time through the colonies. He won an immense 
number of converts by his wonderful appeals, which often 
were irresistible. He preached in Burlington and New 
Brunswick on his way to New York, and again at Eliza- 
bethtown. New Brunswick, and Lawrenceville on his 
return. His audiences often numbered more than five 
thousand. The good results of the work of this fervid, 
persuasive evangelist, who, Benjamin Franklin said, sur- 
passed in some respects any orator to whom he had ever 
listened, were seen for many years. Reverend Gilbert 
Tennent gave great help to Whitefield, while John Wool- 
man, of the Society of Friends, and Brainerd, the mission- 
ary to the Indians, did a service for humanity and 
religion whose value is beyond estimate. 

The famous " Log College " was built in 1726, by Rev- 
erend William Tennent, and his two sons, from the logs of 
trees which lined the banks of a stream emptying into the 
Delaware at Bristol, Pennsylvania. The cabin has been 
called the forerunner of Princeton University, which, as a 



college, was chartered by John Hamilton, acting governor, 
in 1746. Its beginning was at Elizabethtown, under Rev- 
erend Jonathan Dickinson. The first classes met in the 
old academy, which was burned during the Revolution. 
Mr. Dickinson and the usher were the only teachers, and 
the students numbered about a score. Mr. Dickinson died 
a year later, and the students passed to the care of Aaron 
Burr the elder, who was the first president. A removal 
was made to Princeton, in October, 1756. The students 
had increased to seventv, and Nassau Hall was built. 
Rutgers was chartered in 1766, by George HI., as Queen's 
College, but lack of funds postponed its opening until 

The Dutch and Swedes brought their schools with 
them. The Collegiate Church School, founded in 1633 
at New Amsterdam, still exists, the oldest institution of 
its kind in America. The first school in New Jersey, of 
which we have authentic record, was opened in the village 
of Bergen in 1662, when the first schoolmaster was 
selected. Engelbert Stuynhuysen was licensed as clerk 
and schoolmaster, October 6, 1662. He was required to 
procure a convenient place to keep school. The first 
schoolhouse was erected about 1664. Woodbridge selected 
a schoolmaster in 1669, and Newark had one as early as 
1676. In 1693 the East Jersey legislature authorized the 
selection at town elections of three citizens who had the 
right to hire teachers and fix their salaries, which, it hardly 
need be said, were very meager. This law opened the 
way for a marked improvement in schools. 

The Friends were prompt in providing for the educa- 
tion of their youth. In 1682 the assembly at Burlington 


set apart the island of Matinicunk, near by in the Delaware, 
for the support of a school. The revenues from this island 
are still used for that purpose. 

The instruction in most schools was very elementary 
and largely religious. Scant attention was paid to the 
higher branches, but, even at that early day, the Friends 

A School of Early Times 

favored industrial education, and gradually added more 
advanced studies to the school course. Sad to say, many 
of the traveling pedagogues were men of weak character, 
and so injurious to morals, that Governor Bernard, in 
1788, was instructed by the assembly to forbid the em- 
ployment in New Jersey of any teacher from England 
who did not have a license from the Bishop of London. 
The native teachers were obliged to obtain the governor's 


The schools of the early days could bear no comparison 
with those of the present time. " Spare the rod and spoil 
the child " was their basic principle. Boys and girls were 
cruelly punished for a slight violation of the " rules." The 
text-books were almost worthless, blackboards and maps 
were unknown, the sessions were long, holidays were few, 
the schoolrooms were badly ventilated, and the instruction 
was crude to the last degree. Since in these conditions 
brute strength was a prime necessity, the teacher was 
rarely a woman. 

As proof of the incredible ignorance of some of the old- 
time teachers, you can see to-day, in the Essex Institute, 
at Salem, Massachusetts, a receipt for salary paid, about a 
century ago, to which the instructor signed " her mark," 
being unable to write her own name. 




It has been said that the American Revolution was the 
work of an aggressive minority. Had a free vote been 
taken in the thirteen colonies at any time before the 
Declaration of Independence, or at more than one period 
thereafter, the majority probably would have decided 
against the war. This majority, however, had less vigor 
than the minority and was overborne by it. Even those 
who took up arms did so at first with the aim of forcing 
the mother country to grant just terms to the colonies. 
Had England allowed them to send their representatives 
to Parliament, in which body they would have had a voice 
in the making of laws that affected the Americans, 
and had she been fair in her treatment of them, there 
would have been no armed revolt. The Revolution would 
have been postponed for a long time and then most Hkely 
it would have been a peaceful separation. 

But never were people more justified in rebelling than 
our forefathers. Their pleas were so reasonable that 
many of the leading men in England favored them. 
Thus there was a cleavage in the parties on both sides of 
the ocean. King George III., personally good and con- 
scientious, was bigoted to the last degree. He was a 




firm believer in the theory that kings rule by "divine right" 
and are not accountable to their subjects for their acts. 
Could the unfortunate monarch have freed himself of this 
fatal error, the course of history would have been changed. 
Moreover, the American Revolution was to teach Great 
Britain an impressive lesson that she has never forgotten. 
She learned the art of governing her colonies. Rarely 
since then has she committed the woeful blunder of deny- 

(From an old print) 

ing to any of her children the measure of self-government, 
of liberty, conceded to those around her own hearthstone. 
This was the crux of modern liberty, and New Jersey was 
its arena. Our struggle for independence was as much a 
battle for civilization as was the affair at Runnymede. 

On June 11, 1774, a meeting of citizens was held at 
Newark, and they agreed to address letters to every county 
in the province, urging each to appoint a committee of 
correspondence. It was decided also to hold a convention 



at New Brunswick, on July 21. Similar action on the 
part of the other colonies furnished the members of the 
First Continental Congress, which met in Philadelphia, 

September 5, 1774, with 

representatives from all 
the colonies except 
Georgia, where the loy- 
alist governor prevented 
the election of dele- 
gates.i The proceed- 
ings were laid before 
the New Jersey assem- 
CoNTiNENTAL PAPER MONEY, 1776 \^\y ^ Januarv 24, 1775, 

and, despite the violent opposition of Governor Franklin, 
were unanimously approved. 

The Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia, 
May 10, 1775, about a month before the battle of Bunker 
Hill. It voted to issue $3,000,000 in paper money for 
carrying on the war, and to raise a force of twenty thou- 
sand men. George Washington was appointed commander 
in chief. 

Governor Franklin convened the assembly at Burling- 
ton, May 15. The committee of correspondence, named 
by the convention at Newark, directed the chairman to call 
a second provincial convention at Trenton, May 23, 1775. 

This body met on the date named, styHng itself *'The 
Provincial Congress of New Jersey," and assumed supreme 
authority over the province. A provincial congress was 

iThe members of the New Jersey general committee of correspondence were: 
William Peartree Smith, John Chetwood, Isaac Ogden, Joseph Borden, Robert 
Field, Isaac Pierson, Isaac Smith, Samuel Tucker, Abraham Hunt, and Hendrick 



a convention held within a province or colony, and its 
functions were confined of necessity to that particular 
province. An assemblage of representatives from all the 
colonies, called together to act for the general good, 
formed a continental congress. A message was sent to 
the Continental Congress, sitting in Philadelphia, that the 
Jerseymen pledged themselves to the common cause of 
America and held themselves ready to follow the lead of 

City Hall, Philadelphia 

the greater Congress. Steps were taken to organize the 
militia, and the issue of ;£ 10,000 in bills of credit was 
ordered. In August the Provincial Congress arranged 
for a more effective organization of the militia and the 
collection of taxes. Fifty-four companies, of sixty-four 
men each, were formed into ten battalions, and Philemon 
Dickinson and William Livingston were appointed briga- 
dier generals to command them. A Committee of Safety 
and a provincial treasurer having been chosen, the Con- 
gress adjourned. 


The Provincial Congress met again October 3, and 
ordered the enhstment of two regiments of regulars, one 
to be commanded by William Maxwell, and the other by 
William Alexander, more generally known as Lord Stirling. 
To meet the expenses thus incurred, provincial bills to the 
amount of ^30,000 were issued. The legislature was con- 
vened by Governor Franklin, November 16, but, without 
transacting any important business, he prorogued it the fol- 
lowing month, to meet January 3, 1776. It never came to- 
gether again, and thus ended royal authority in New Jersey. 

The leading part taken by our State in the War for In- 
dependence, and the decisive battles fought on our soil, 
make it necessary to keep the features of the great strug- 
gle itself in mind. The location of New Jersey has caused 
it to be called " The W^ar Path of the Revolution." Open- 
ing in Massachusetts, the scene of the conflict moved south- 
ward, shifting to New York and then to New Jersey, with 
the final triumph in Virginia. Thus our State became the 
highway of the armies, and the enemy were to meet their 
first real check between the Hudson and the Delaware. 

At Cambridge, on July 3, 1775, Washington took com- 
mand of the poorly armed and discipHned patriots. He 
pressed the siege of Boston so closely that General Howe 
withdrew from the city in the following March. In June, 
1776, a British attack upon Charleston was repulsed, and 
the fourth of July, amid the ringing of bells and the 
shouts of joyous thousands, saw the adoption of the im- 
mortal Declaration of Independence. The New Jersey 
signers of the instrument were : Richard Stockton, Abra- 
ham Clark, John Hart, Francis Hopkinson, and John 



Signers of Declaration op^ Independence 

As proof that the motive of the revolt at first was to 
gain justice rather than independence from England, it is 
to be noted that the Provincial Congress of New Jersey, 
while taking control of affairs, did not wholly cast off royal 
authority. The new Congress met at Burlington in June, 
and in response to petitions, a committee reported the form 
of a constitution, which was adopted. Its last article pro- 
vided that it should become void when the king righted 
the wrongs of his American subjects. The greater Dec- 
laration, however, at Philadelphia, struck fire in the hearts 
of the Jerseymen, as it did among all the other colonies. 
The Provincial Congress took the title of " The Conven- 
tion of the State of New Jersey," and declared the State 
independent of royal authority. 

HIST, N.J. — 5 


This convention was the State legislature, which now 
took up its work. The general election was ordered for 
August. Every voter was required to renounce under oath 
all allegiance to the king of England and pledge himself 
not to oppose the measures adopted by the Convention of 
the State or by the Continental Congress, but to be loyal 
to the government established by the people. Wilham 
Livingston was chosen governor and was elected annually 
thereafter until his death in 1790. 

New Jersey, like every State, was harassed by Tories. 
This caused continuous violence and bloodshed. The loca- 
tion of the State helped the woeful events. From the 
/ opening of the war to its close there were hostile armies, 
or powerful bands, within its borders, and neighbors fought 
neighbors with the ferocity shown in the border States 
during the Civil War. Moreover, the Quakers, from prin- 
ciple, were opposed to violence, and the situation became 
distressing to the last degree. 

Governor Franklin was at the head of the virulent loyal- 
ists. When he called the legislature together to take 
measures to stem the rising tide of rebellion, that body 
replied by declaring him an enemy of the country. He 
was arrested and refused to give his parole that he would 
not assume authority in the province. His arrest was re- 
ported to the Continental Congress. Still defiant, he was 
sent to Governor Trumbull of Connecticut, who took his 
parole. He then sailed for England, where he died in 18 13. 
He had proposed a reconcihation with his illustrious father, 
who refused it. 

For a time, New Jersey was generous to her domestic 
enemies. By resolution of the Provincial Congress, efforts 


were made to convince these people of their wrongful 
course. These efforts having failed, the Tories were dis- 
armed, and when unable to give sureties, were put under 
arrest. In the northeastern part of the State and on Long 
Island they organized, openly avowed their purpose of aid- 
ing the British in their conquest of the country, and wel- 
comed the invaders. The enemy offered protection to all 
who would take the oath of allegiance within sixty days, 
and promised relief of their grievances. 

These measures nearly quenched the patriotic fires in 
the northern part of the State. The only troops which 
offered any real opposition to the enemy were several com- 
panies of militia, first commanded by General Wilson and 
afterward by General Dickinson. When the Tories banded 
together, pledged not to pay any taxes, and not to obey 
the orders of the provincial government, the latter, follow- 
ing the fable, stopped throwing grass and used stones. 
The militia of the different counties were ordered to arrest 
all who actively aided the enemy. Some of the offenders, 
when brought before the Committee of Safety, repented 
their course and were released. While a check was thus 
placed upon these enemies, they were not wholly repressed. 
More than once the militia had to be called upon to put 
down armed insurrections. 

The legislature, when organized under the constitution, 
acted sternly toward the Tories. Heavy fines and impris- 
onment, and even the pillory, were the punishments in- 
flicted for persistent breaking of the laws. Later, the act 
of June, 1777 confiscated the property of all who joined 
the enemies of the State. The following year the county 
commissioners were ordered to seize the property of every 



person who had gone into the lines of the British army or 
given any help to it. Nothing could surpass the ferocity 
of the Tory refugees who raided New Jersey from Staten 
Island, where they were under shelter of the enemy. They 
made forays among their former neighbors, and the latter, 

Putting down Tory Insurrections 

in self-defense, organized against them. The fights be- 
tween the factions were merciless. 

Knowing that the enemy meant to attack New York, 
Washington did all he could to strengthen its defenses. 
He gathered some twenty-seven thousand men, but they 
were badly equipped and poorly disciplined, with no more 
than half of them fit for duty. The British numbered 
thirty-two thousand well-armed and highly trained troops. 


One fourth were Hessians, so called because they came 
from Hesse Cassel, in Germany, from whose ruler the 
king of England had hired them to help conquer his 
American colonies. 

Near the close of August, 1776, the British commander 
crossed the Narrows to Long Island. The Brooklyn forti- 
fications reached from Gowanus Bay to Wallabout, where 
nine thousand men were stationed under General Sullivan 
and Lord Stirling. General Greene, the next in military 
abihty to Washington, was ill, and the fiery Putnam was 
sent by the chief to direct the defense. Two or three 
miles to the south were three roads, any one of which would 
have served the enemy. By a fatal oversight one of these 
was left open. The British swarmed over it, and the pa- 
triots were badly routed, with the loss of six hundred killed 
and a thousand prisoners, among whom were Generals 
Sullivan, Woodhull, and Lord Stirling. Had Howe shown 
any vigor, he would have captured the whole American 
army, including Washington, and thus stamped out the 
American Revolution at the beginning. But he was one of 
the most indolent of men, and felt so certain of victory, that 
he decided to wait and save the lives of many of his soldiers. 

The adverse wind held back the enemy's fleet. A dense 
fog settled over Brooklyn, though it remained clear on the 
New York side. Hidden by this screen, the Americans 
stole out of Brooklyn unnoticed. The defeat on Long 
Island was the first of a series of disasters which threat- 
ened to destroy the American army. With his wretched 
inferior force, it was impossible for Washington to hold 
New York, and he fortified Harlem Heights. His army 
began crumbling to pieces. The short terms of enlistment 



of many of the men ended, while hundreds who had still 
a few months to serve deserted. 

In October, Howe, with a large force, many of whom 
were Hessians, marched against Washington, who called 
a council of war. It was so plain to every one that a 
battle was hopeless that all the troops were withdrawn, ex- 
cept the garrison of Fort Washington. Howe and Clinton 
attacked the position at White Plains. A brave resistance 
was made, but Washington was driven back to North- 
castle Heights. His assailants then turned and advanced 
against Fort Washington. With unutterable anguish, the 
chief saw that post forced to surrender, with two thousand 
soldiers of the Continental line and six hundred of the 
militia. Less than a week later, General Greene was 
forced out of Fort Lee, on the west bank of the Hudson. 
So hurried was his retreat to the main army at Hacken- 
sack that his men were able to take only their ammunition 
and firearms. 

What was left of the patriot army was under the direct 
command of Washington, who had less than four thousand 
men fit for duty, with that number rapidly decreasing. 
The icy winds that howled through the Highlands set 
their rags fluttering and their teeth chattering. Blankets, 
shoes, and stockings were few, and those who shivered by 
the camp fires were gaunt with hunger. No successful 
defense could be offered, and while making a feint of 
throwing up intrenchments, the chief was getting ready to 
retreat upon the approach of the enemy. 

The marvel is how this great man and his few devoted 
leaders kept heart amid circumstances that were enough 
to sink one into the depths of despair. Desertions never 


stopped. General Schuyler, at Ticonderoga, was ordered 
to send aid to Washington, but most of his men had nearly 
completed their terms of enlistment and refused to serve 
longer. The same was true of General Mercer at Bergen 
Neck. General Charles Lee was still at White Plains, but 
by order of Washington he crossed the river on his way to 
join the main army. 

The dismal retreat through New Jersey began Novem- 
ber 21, with Lord Cornwallis and his much superior force 
in close pursuit. Arriving at Newark the next evening, 
Washington posted his troops, sent the sick to Morristown, 
and put forth every effort to add to his fast dissolving 
army. In response to his appeal the New Jersey legis- 
lature provided for the organization of four battalions of 
State troops, but they were not put into the field in time to 
take part in the historic events that were at hand. Con- 
gress urged enlistments, and nothing was left undone that 
could add to the strength of the forlorn band of patriots. 

That no form of discouragement should be lacking, an 
urgent appeal came from Monmouth county, where there 
was a dangerous uprising of Tories. Colonel David For- 
man, whose home was in that section, was sent thither 
with his battalion, and was in such a state of rage that he 
stamped out the revolt with remorseless energy. 

On the morning of November 28 Washington left New- 
ark, with the enemy's advance guard entering at one end 
of the town, while he was passing out at the other. The 
Continentals divided into two columns, one going by way 
of EHzabethtown and Woodbridge, and the other through 
Springfield and Scotch Plains. The second column 
reached New Brunswick the next day and was joined by a 



small force under Lord Stirling (exchanged a short time 
before), sent thither to guard the Raritan at that point, and 
the vicinity of Perth Amboy, against British incursions. 

At this crisis, when the enemy in large numbers were 
known to be within striking distance, the militia of the 
flying camps of Maryland and New Jersey, whose terms of 
enhstment expired December i, demanded their discharge. 
They would listen to no appeals and nearly every man 
went home. This action, with the endless stream of 
desertions, reduced the American army to less than three 
thousand effective men. The legislature at Princeton, 
learning of the approach of the enemy, adjourned to 
Trenton, then to Burlington, and finally decided to re- 
pair to their respective homes. 

Upon reaching New Brunswick, Washington sent a force 
in advance, with orders to collect all the boats along the 

Delaware River and 
to hold them on the 
Pennsylvania bank 
opposite Trenton. A 
second detachment 
followed on the same 
errand. When the 
British column ap- 
peared across the 
Raritan, the Ameri- 
cans crippled the 
bridge, and withdrew under cover of a sharp artillery fire. 
Washington entered Princeton on the morning of De- 
cember 2, and at noon was in Trenton. There he learned 
that Cornwallis had halted at New Brunswick, in obedience 


Washington's Headquarters, New 


to orders from the sluggish Howe, who did not join him 
with his strong regiment until four days later. A force of 
fourteen hundred men under Lord Stirling was posted at 
Princeton to watch the enemy and to cover the passage of 
the Delaware by the main army. General Greene joined 
Stirling with twelve hundred men, and a few days later all 
the troops were at Trenton. 

Before it was light on the morning of December 7, 
Howe marched from New Brunswick in two columns, one 
under Lord Cornwallis and the other under Colonel von 
Donop. Princeton was reached on the same day, but the 
columns were several hours apart in arriving. The enemy 
occupied the college buildings and the Presbyterian Church. 
During the several weeks that they stayed they played 
havoc with the houses of the leading patriots, such as the 
Reverend Dr. John Witherspoon, president of the college, 
and Richard Stockton. Both were signers of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and the abuse the enemy heaped 
upon their homes proved that they knew the fact. 

While the desertions never stopped, a few bodies of 
troops from Hunterdon and Middlesex counties joined the 
Continentals. Congress sent about a thousand men to 
Washington while he was at Trenton. He followed his rule 
of delaying his withdrawal as long as possible, first sending 
his sick and disabled men to Philadelphia. No sooner had 
General Howe entered the State than he issued a procla- 
mation, promising a pardon and full protection to all who 
within sixty days would renounce the cause of independence 
and submit to the authority of Great Britain. Probably 
three thousand citizens of New Jersey availed themselves 
of this chance to save themselves and their property. 


The breaking down of the Stony Brook bridge by the 
Americans, as they left Princeton, delayed the pursuing 
British column until the morning of December 8, and pre- 
vented it from gaining the rear of the Continentals. Along 
the bank of the Delaware, at the foot of Trenton, lay the 
boats that had taken the military stores across, and were 
waiting for the troops. Late in the afternoon, with the 
British approaching, the boats began putting out from 
the shore, both above and below the falls. All through 
the cheerless wintry night the work went on until, at dawn, 
the last shivering man leaped out and joined his comrades 
on the Pennsylvania shore. 

There could not have been a narrower escape, for the 
British army were already entering the little straggUng 
town. Their bright uniforms shone in the few streets, and 
the gay music of their bands rolled across the river. As 
soon as they appeared on the bank, the Americans opened 
with grapeshot ; but no damage was done. A division of 
the enemy had gone up to Coryell's Ferry (Lambertville), 
twelve miles above Trenton, to seize the boats at that 
point. But no boats were there to seize and the British 
army had to wait for the river to freeze over. Washington 
stationed guards along the bank for many miles up and 
down stream, prepared to repel any attempt of the enemy 

to cross. 




A force of fourteen hundred men, mostly Hessians, were 
posted at Trenton under Colonel Johann Gottlieb Rail. 
He was a brave officer, who held the Americans in con- 
tempt. He was noted for his fondness for military display 
and martial music, and for his indulgence in pleasures. 
The enemy placed a strong guard 
at Bordentown, and made their head- 
quarters at New Brunswick, from 
which all the supplies of their 
army were distributed. Howe and 
Cornwallis, having arranged matters 
satisfactorily, went back to New 
York to enjoy themselves for the 

Philadelphia, the national capital, 
was the prize which the invaders had 
in view. We know that it was 
doomed to fall, but the mistake made 
by Howe and Cornwallis was in be- 
lieving that its fall meant the collapse 
of the Revolution. So certain did 
Cornwallis feel on this point, that he had asked for and ob- 
tained a leave of absence to visit his home in England, 
when good reasons caused him to change his mind. 

General Charles Lee, second in command, was loitering 
to so provoking a degree on his way from the Hudson 
that Washington sent him repeated orders to hasten, since 
his help was badly needed. These messages failed to reach 
Lee, and he still lagged. He was bitterly jealous of 
Washington, and nursed a scheme of making some brilliant 
dash that would win him the chief command of the Ameri- 

Hessian Soldier 


can army. While at a tavern near Baskingridge, Somerset 
county, Lee was surprised and taken prisoner by a scouting 
party of dragoons. His capture was looked upon as a 
severe blow to the patriot cause, but General Sullivan, the 
next in rank, immediately took command. He marched 
promptly to the Delaware, crossed at Easton, and delivered 
his two thousand men to Washington in the midst of a 
blinding snowstorm. Other reenforcements arrived at 
about the same time. On December 23 six thousand 
effectives were on guard for thirty miles along the Penn- 
sylvania side of the river. 

Washington, who read events and conditions with rare 
wisdom, saw that a blow must be struck at once for 
American liberty. The horizon showed hardly a gleam of 
hope. Thousands of those who had been the most clam- 
orous for war were hurrying to the lines of the enemy 
for protection ; the most ardent declared that it was use- 
less to resist any longer; that it was folly to fight the 
inevitable. Congress, after declaring that it would never 
do such a thing, fled from Philadelphia. 

Washington divided his army into three corps, one of 
which was stationed at Bristol, one at Trenton FSrry, 
opposite the town, and the third under his direct command 
at Yardley's Ferry, eight miles above Trenton. Colonel 
John Cadwalader, at Bristol, had command of about eigh- 
teen hundred men, and General James Ewing was in charge 
from Yardley's Ferry to the ferry at Bordentown. Gen- 
eral Philemon Dickinson, with the New Jersey militia, was 
with Ewing, the two being posted at Yardley's Ferry and 
for a mile south. Leaving a guard over the camp equi- 
page, Washington made preparations for crossing the Dela- 


ware, with twenty-four hundred picked men, and attacking 
the Hessians at Trenton. He had reliable reports from 
his scouts and spies of the strength and disposition of the 

Although repeated reports were brought to Colonel Rail, 
of threatening movements on the part of the Americans, 
he refused to believe there was any cause to fear them. 
He made his headquarters on Warren (then King) Street, 
in a house nearly opposite the Episcopal Church (still stand- 
ing and much enlarged). The Hessian force was scattered 
through the town. Colonel Rail was fond of visiting the 
house of Abraham Hunt, the principal merchant and the 
postmaster of Trenton, who, although a patriot, knew when 
it was prudent to seem neutral. His home was widely 
celebrated for its hospitality. 

Hunt's house stood on the corner of Warren and State 
streets (then King and Second), and there Colonel Rail 
was a guest on Christmas night, i jj^. After a good dinner, 
the two sat for a long time in a comfortable room which 
was the more delightful because of its contrast with the 
cold outside. The sleet and hail rattled against the win- 
dow panes, while the roaring wood fire filled the room 
with golden warmth. Host and guest were in high spirits, 
and were in the midst of a merry time when a sharp 
knock sounded on the door. Hunt's negro servant an- 

1 The most famous of these spies was John Honeyman of Somerset county. 
He was willing to be looked upon by his neighbors as a despicable traitor, to place 
his family in peril, and to incur the risk of the hangman's halter again and again 
that he might get information for Washington, who was the only person that knew 
his real character. Honeyman's services were of the highest value. There is no 
doubt that it was what he told the chief that caused the attack on Trenton. It is a 
pleasure to record that Honeyman, at the close of the war, was fully vindicated, 
and lived, honored and, respected, to his ninety-fourth year. 


swered and saw a well-known Tory farmer, standing out- 
side in the wintry storm. He said he had been searching 
through the town for Colonel Rail, and, learning that he 
was at Abraham Hunt's, demanded to see him at once 
upon most important business. The servant, fearing his 
master's displeasure at interruption by the caller, urged 
the latter to leave his message with him. The farmer 
thereupon stepped under the dim light in the hall, took 
out a piece of paper, and hastily penciled a few lines 
on it. 

"Will you see that Colonel Rail gets that without a 
moment's delay ? " he sharply asked the servant, as he 
folded the paper and handed it to him. 

" I'll give it to him right away, sah," answered the 

" Tell him to read it at once ; the business cannot wait." 

"Yes, sah; I'll tell him." 

The Tory hurried away in the howling night, the serv- 
ant closed the door and walked back into the glowing 
room, where Hunt and Rail were in the midst of an ani- 
mated conversation. In answer to the inquiring looks of 
the two, the servant told what had taken place and 
handed the folded piece of paper to the officer, who care- 
lessly slipped it into his pocket, saying he would read it 
in a few minutes. Absorbed, however, in an interesting 
discussion, the colonel soon forgot all about the note. 
Perhaps Abraham Hunt had also forgotten the little inci- 
dent; possibly, with a suspicion of its meaning, he re- 
membered, but took care not to remind his guest of the 
message. Be that as it may, Colonel Rail kept in his 
pocket unread the note which told him a strong force 


of Americans was rapidly approaching Trenton, and must 
soon reach the town. 

By the middle of Christmas afternoon all the troops 
that were to take part in the attack upon Trenton were in 
motion. It was thought that the infantry and several 
companies of cavalry and artillery, including eighteen 
cannon and howitzers, could be ferried over by midnight, 
which would give time to reach the town by daybreak. 
The river at this point is about a fifth of a mile wide, and 
had been clear of ice until nearly noon on Christmas day. 
Then masses began to appear in the swift current, and the 
weather remained piercingly cold. 

In the dusk of early evening the troops moved down 
the river bank, ready to embark upon the difficult passage. 
Washington sat on his horse, watching each boat as it 
filled and was pushed out into the current. The rushing 
bowlders of ice increased in number and in size. They 
ground and crunched together, and struck the craft so 
violently that they must have been overturned but for 
Colonel John Glover's regiment of sailors and fishermen 
from Marblehead, Massachusetts. These hardy fellows 
displayed a skill that could not have been surpassed. So 
laborious was the passage, that it was three o'clock before 
the whole body of men stood upon the New Jersey shore, 
and another hour passed ere the march was begun to 
Trenton. During these preparations Washington sat on 
an old beehive and watched the movements. 

No scene could have been more dismal. The weather 
was of arctic severity, the ground was covered with snow, 
the roads were slippery with ice, and the sleet, driven by 
the fierce wind, struck the men like fine bird shot. The 





»— I 












soldiers were wretchedly clad, and the shoes of many were 
so tattered that they were but flapping pieces of leather, 
through which the bare feet were cut and wounded by 
the flinty bits of ice. Had any one walked behind that 
patriot band, when light came, he would have seen every 
rod of the journey crimsoned by bloody footprints; for, 
incredible as it sounds, it is a fact that scores of the 
privates had no protection whatever for their feet, at 
a time, too, when the ground was covered with ice and 
snow. But not a man of them was afraid or shrank from 
the work. 

A mile from the river the column reached Bear Tavern, 
and three miles farther came to the hamlet of Birming- 
ham. There a halt was made while the soldiers swal- 
lowed a few mouthfuls of food. Without leaving his 
saddle, Washington gratefully partook of bread and 
meat passed up to him by a hospitable farmer. When, 
a short time after, the order was given to resume the 
march, several hundred of the men lay sound asleep at 
the side of the road. 

The column was now divided and different routes were 
taken to Trenton. Two roads, substantially parallel, lead 
from Birmingham to the town. One closely follows the 
river and enters the lower end of Trenton. This was 
the course taken by General Sullivan, whose division was 
composed of the brigades of General St. Clair, Colonels 
Glover and Sargent, and four battalions. The other divi- 
sion was under General Greene and included the brigades 
of Generals Stephen, Mercer, Lord Stirling, and De Fer- 
noy, with Captain Morris's Philadelphia light horse and 
three batteries. Washington accompanied this division, 

HIST. N.J. — 6 


which kept to the well-known "Scotch Road," that joins 
the highway connecting Pennington and Trenton some 
eight miles apart. This route was a trifle longer than 
that taken by Sullivan and led into the upper end of the 
town, the length of neither road being more than five 

The course of the Scotch Road is nearly at right angles 
to the Pennington pike. As the " ragged Continentals " 
drew near the main highway, signs of dawn began to 
appear. Lights twinkled in the windows of the farmers' 
houses, and the wondering inmates, peeping out, saw 
more than a thousand men straggling briskly over the icy 
road, the mounted officers in the lead, the ponderous 
cannon lumbering over the deep ruts, and the bobbing 
heads of the men bent to the hail, which often stung their 
red faces, but fortunately most of the time struck their 
backs. It was hard on the flapping bits of leather which 
served for shoes, and harder still on the bleeding feet pro- 
tected by neither shoe nor stocking. 

The march of the grim veterans was silent, for this was 
a secret expedition. Every footman and horseman that 
appeared was gathered in, none being allowed to pass the 
little army to carry warning to the Hessians, who as yet 
did not dream of danger. We know, however, that one 

1 Washington had tried to get twelve men to ride on horseback in front of his 
troops, garbed as farmers and without weapons, and to reconnoiter and pick 
up all the information possible about the enemy. Only three volunteered for this 
dangerous service, — David Lanning of Trenton, and John Muirhead and John 
Guild of Hopewell. The following acted as guides and marched with the army: 
Colonel Joseph Phillips, Captain Philip Phillips, and Adjutant EUas Phillips, of 
Lawrenceville, Joseph Inslee, Edon Burroughs, Stephen Burroughs, Ephraim 
Woolsey, and Henry Simmonds, of Hopewell, and Captain John Mott, Amos 
Scudder, and William Green of Trenton. 


Tory had galloped into Trenton hours before with word to 
Colonel Rail, who forgot to read the note upon which 
huna: such momentous issues. 

The bleak morning with its spitting sleet had broken 
when the patriots came out from the Scotch Road into the 
Pennington highway and quickened their pace for the 
town that was only a mile away. When the small wooden 
houses were seen, with wisps of smoke curling upward 
from the chimneys, Washington faced about in his saddle 
and waved his sword : — 

" Yonder, my brave fellows, are the enemies of your 
country ! Remember what you are fighting for! " 

Although Colonel Rail was guilty of gross neglect, his 
pickets, of course, covered every approach to Trenton. 
Those posted on the Pennington road exchanged shots with 
the Americans, and then, discovering the unexpected num- 
bers of their enemies, turned and ran off at full speed. 
A lieutenant and private fell mortally wounded. The 
Continentals, charging the guard, came upon the dying 
officer, lying in the snow at the side of the road. He was 
a handsome, beardless youth, under twenty years of age, 
and was suffering so intensely that many were touched 
at the sight. Captain Morris, of the Philadelphia light 
horse, checked his steed, and looking down at the poor 
fellow asked : — 

*' Cannot something be done for him ? " 

** This is no time for sympathy," sharply reproved 
General Greene; "we have more important business in 

The hurrahing troops went to the head of the town at 
utmost speed. A guard was thrown out to prevent the 



Hessians from escaping to the north, and the Americans 
pressed the attack. General SulHvan, following the river 
road, had halted for a 
short time just beyond the 
town, to give Greene's di- 
vision time to come up. 
As soon as he heard the 

rattle of mus- 
ketry, which told 
him his comrades 
had arrived, he 
dashed forward, 
drove in the Hessian picket, and attacked with vigor. 
Thus the volley firing and the boom of cannon were heard 
from the north and south ends of the town, and the terri- 

Batile of Trenton 


fied Hessians found themselves caught between two fires. 
The confusion was great, but they did all that was possible 
in the circumstances, falling back, and using everything 
they could in the way of' shelter. The Americans, how- 
ever, pushed them so hard, that they were sent skurry- 
ing from one point to another, only to be routed out and 
driven still farther. 

The assailants closed in on every hand, many firing from 
houses at .the panic-stricken enemy, who at first supposed 
they were attacked by only a scouting party. They soon 
saw their mistake ; the flashes of musketry from the fast- 
advancing platoons at the head of Warren and Greene 
streets were quickly joined by the crash of cannon, and 
the same fearful music throbbed to the south. The 
Americans seemed to leap up at every point,, while 
others from the upper windows of the houses helped to 
confuse the Hessians, who were running here, there, and 
everywhere, not knowing whither to turn, but none the 
less putting up a brave fight. 

We left Colonel Rail at the house of the rich merchant, 
Abraham Hunt, in front of the roaring wood fire which 
filled the room with genial warmth, while the shotlike hail 
rattled outside. In the small hours the officer bade his 
host good night, and made his way to his headquarters on 
Warren Street. This was a modest structure, afterward 
known as Wilson's Tavern, standing on the present site of 
the Catholic Cathedral. When the Colonel reached his 
bed, he sank into so deep a sleep, that he was not disturbed 
even by the opening tumult on the Pennington road. His 
adjutant's quarters were in the next building, and he was 
the first officer who heard the firing and suspected its 


meaning. Before this, he had called twice on his superior, 
but found him asleep. Hearing the musketry, the adjutant 
now ran across the street and sent a detachment to the 
help of the picket that had been attacked. Then he 
dashed back to Rail's house and banged on the door. 

An upper window was raised, and the Colonel thrust 
out his head. 

" What's the matter } " 

" Haven't you heard the firing } ** 

" I will be down in a minute," replied Rail, as he van- 
ished from sight. 

There is no questioning the courage of the Hessian 
colonel. Sooner than might be supposed possible, he 
hurried out, buttoning his uniform as he ran, and dashed 
right into the shots that were hurtling down the street 
from the head of the town. His adjutant urged other 
officers to the utmost haste in forming the troops for 
resistance to the attack. Appealed to while mounting 
his horse, Rail directed the formation of a regiment in the 
rear of the English church. He then galloped down the 
street toward the quarters of the regiment, named for 
himself, which was hurriedly forming. He met one of 
the battalions, and wheeling, placed himself at its head. 
The artillery fire at the top of the street scattered the 
guard at the head of Rail's battalion and killed several 

It is not strange that in the confusion Rail was somewhat 
bewildered. The effectiveness of the American aim is 
shown by the fact that among the eighteen Hessians who 
opened fire, eight were killed and wounded before six 
shots were fired, and in addition five horses were slain. 



Although formations were made at different points, the 
Hessians were continually broken and scattered by the 
attack that was pressed from every direction. The de- 
moralizing effect of the American assault caused Lord 
Stirling to order a charge. It was led by Captain Wash- 
ington (no relation 
of the General), and 
a young lieutenant, 
only eighteen years 
old. In a twinkling 
the two brass three- 
pounders of Rail's 
regiment were cap- 
tured and turned 
against the fleeing 
Hessians. Both offi- 
cers were wounded, 
though not severely. 
The name of the lieu- 
tenant was James 
Monroe, afterwards 
President of the 
United States. 

The battle of Trenton, from the driving in of the pickets 
to the surrender, lasted about two hours ; the actual fight- 
ing was probably less than forty-five minutes. When all 
hope was gone, the Rail regiment and another surren- 
dered. The good news was hurried to Washington, who 
was on the high ground at the head of town. Tidings of 
the full surrender quickly followed. 

Colonel Rail was wounded in the hand early in the 

Trenton Monument 


fight. Although the hurt bled a good deal, it did not dis- 
able him, and he continued to gallop hither and thither 
and to urge his men to stand firm. When finally he was 
compelled to order a retreat toward an apple orchard, he 
received two mortal wounds in the side and fell help- 
less from his horse. He lay for a few minutes, and 
then, with the help of two soldiers, painfully arose, and 
with much suffering slowly made his way into the little 
Methodist Church near at hand, where his assistants 
lowered him upon one of the benches. General Washing- 
ton, having been told of the surrender of the remaining 
troops, — except a few Hessians who had escaped in the 
direction of Bordentown, — was riding down Warren 
Street, as Colonel Rail was being carried to his quarters. 

When the attendants were removing the clothing from 
the wounded officer, the note of the Tory, written the 
night before, was brought to light. The Colonel asked 
that it be read to him, " Ah," said he, *' if I had not for- 
gotten that, I should not be here." 

Generals Washington and Greene called some time later 
and offered their sympathy, taking at the same time Rail's 
parole of honor. He begged Washington to treat his 
men kindly, and was reassured on that point. Colonel 
Rail died the following evening. He was buried in the 
graveyard of the First Presbyterian Church on State 
Street, but no stone marks the last resting place of the un- 
fortunate officer. 

The Hessian losses in killed, wounded, and prisoners at 
Trenton were : one colonel, three majors, four captains, 
eight lieutenants, twelve ensigns, two surgeons, ninety- 
two sergeants, twenty drummers, nine musicians, twenty- 


five officers' servants, seven hundred and forty rank and 
file ; total, nine hundred and eighteen. Of these twenty- 
two were killed and eighty-four wounded. Later, a number 
of Hessians, who were concealed by their Tory friends, 
were discovered, so that the list of prisoners was swelled 
to one thousand. The spoils captured were six cannon, 
three ammunition wagons, several wagon loads of baggage, 
forty horses, one thousand arms and accouterments, and 
fifteen army colors. 

Captain Washington and Lieutenant James Monroe 
were the only American officers wounded. Two privates 
were also hurt, but they and the officers fully recovered. 
It is stated by some that besides these four, two men 
were frozen to death, but the statement has never been 

The success was a thrilling one for the patriot cause, 
but Washington and his men were in great danger. A 
powerful British force was at Princeton, only ten miles 
away, and another at Bordentown, still nearer. At a 
council of the officers, therefore, it was decided to return 
to the Pennsylvania shore with the least possible delay. 
The wounded prisoners were paroled and left in Trenton, 
and the Continentals marched up the river road early 
in the afternoon to where the boats were held under 
guard. The passage of the river was safely made, though 
the danger and difficulty seemed greater than before. The 
cutting sleet had hardly ceased for twenty-four hours, and 
the weather was so cold that three soldiers were frozen to 
death on the passage. The next day a thousand men were 
reported unfit for duty. 

Washington's headquarters were in a farmhouse near 


Newtown, five miles from the river. It is an interesting 
fact that many of the Hessian prisoners refused to fight 
any more against the Americans. A considerable number 
escaped to Pennsylvania and settled there. The chief sent 
most of them to Virginia, then far from the seat of war. 
They were quartered in barracks in a fertile section of 
Fauquier county, where they were glad to stay for the 
rest of their lives. They squatted upon the land, married 
girls from the mountain regions, and were fully content. 
The nondescript settlement of several hundred souls is as 
isolated from the rest of the State as if it lay in the heart 
of Africa. As they live wholly to themselves, obeying no 
laws but their own, there is an appropriateness in the name 
** Free State," by which the community is generally known. 


In some respects the victory at Trenton was the most 
important battle of the Revolution. The first glow of 
American patriotism had given place to indifference or 
despair in many quarters. Disasters had followed one 
another with terrifying swiftness, and the ragged Con- 
tinentals were gaunt and weak from starvation. The gloom 
closed in on every hand. It seemed as if all except Wash- 
ington and a few of his comrades had abandoned hope. 
Had the attack at Trenton failed, the war for independence 
no doubt would have stopped then and there. It was a 
decisive victory for the cause of American freedom. 

When the news of the brilliant feat of arms spread 
throughout the young States, they were thrilled with joy. 
Because many of the people in Philadelphia could not 
believe the tidings, Washington convinced them by parad- 
ing a large number of his prisoners on the streets of the 
capital. Congress took heart and hurried recruits to the 
little army that was in sore need of them. 

There are some who even at this late day smile at the 
thought of calling the Trenton affair a battle. It is not 
absolutely certain that any Americans were killed, though 
several were wounded, while about a score of the enemy 
were slain. Such collisions are generally called skirmishes, 
but the importance of a battle rests not upon the number 



slain. The capture of Quebec ranks among the decisive 
battles of history, because it changed the face of a con- 
tinent; although the number killed and wounded among 
the English and French was trifling when compared with 
the losses in many of the engagements of our Civil War, 
which brought no special results. So it is that the fight at 
Trenton must be judged by its momentous effect upon the 
struggle for independence.^ 

As has been stated, Washington recrossed the Delaware 
with his prisoners to Pennsylvania, at the same place where 
he had crossed when on his way to Trenton. He was so 
encouraged by his success that he was hopeful of breaking 
the enemy's line of communication, threatening them at 
New Brunswick, and thus checking their advance upon 
Philadelphia. He therefore came back to Trenton, on 
the 30th of December. This time his men walked over on 
the ice. All was quiet until January 2. Late on the after- 
noon of that day, a strong British force marched down 
from Princeton to attack the Americans. Washington 
drew up his men on the south side of the bridge over the 
Assanpink. The British charged three times, but were 
driven back by the destructive musketry and artillery fire 
of the Americans, and finally gave up the attempt. The 
loss of the British amounted to several score. 

The situation of Washington and his army became criti- 
cal to the last degree. CornwalUs, the best of the British 
generals, was hurrying from Princeton, with a well-dis- 
ciplined and much larger force ; a thaw had caused the 
Delaware to break up and the river was filled with enor- 

iWhen Mercer county was formed in 1838, a leading citizen of Trenton in- 
sisted that it should be called " Pivot County," because, as he declared, within its 
bounds despair and failure swung round to hope and success. 



mous masses of ice, tumbling and crunching over one 
another. The most powerful boat would have been crushed 
before it could have pushed from shore. It was impossible 
to take refuge in Pennsylvania again, and the ragged Conti- 
nentals could not withstand the assault of the veteran 
troops. It looked as if nothing could save the patriots 
from capture or destruction. 

Washington outwitting the British 

All through that still, cold night, the British sentinels, 
pacing to and fro, on one side of the Assanpink, saw the 
American sentinels doing the same on the other bank. 
They noted that the patriot guard had been doubled, and 
by the camp fires' flickering light they caught glimpses 
of shadowy figures throwing up an intrenchment. Seem- 


ingly the Americans were preparing for the last desperate 

The exultant Cornwallis was impatient for the coming 
day. He was sure he had trapped the fox at last, and 
that his furlough had been merely postponed for a few 
weeks. He thought that he would speedily bag his game, 
and that this would be the end of all thought of American 

The morning dawned sunshiny and keen. Hardly had 
it begun to grow light in the east, when the British com- 
mander was startled by the faint boom of cannon. He 
listened. The reports grew more rapid, and, to his con- 
sternation, they came from behind him, that is, from the 
direction of Princeton ! 

Cornwallis knew what it meant. Instead of being just 
across the Assanpink, waiting to be annihilated, Washing- 
ton had made a roundabout march in the night, and was at 
that moment attacking the British post at Princeton. The 
fox had eluded the trap set for him. The chagrined com- 
mander gathered his troops, and set out in hot haste for 
the college town, hoping still to reach- and destroy the 
American army. 

The latter came in sight of Princeton at sunrise. The 
main column pushed on to the town, while General Mercer, 
with some three hundred and fifty men, started to tak^ 
possession of the bridge on the road leading to Trenton. 
His purpose was to head off the fugitives from Princeton 
and to protect the rear of the army against Cornwallis, 
who, it was known, would before long arrive from the 

A brigade of the enemy, under Lieutenant Colonel Maw- 



hood, had quartered in Princeton the previous night, and 
one of the regiments crossed the bridge over Stony Brook 
before it saw the Americans. Mawhood immediately re- 
crossed the bridge, and then observed Mercer and his de- 
tachment marching up the stream towards the bridge a 
fourth of a mile away. 

The two forces raced for the high ground on the right. 
The Americans gained a worm fence first and fired a volley 

Attack on Mercer's Troops at Princeton 

from behind it into the approaching enemy, already near 
at hand. The English returned the fire and charged. The 
patriots fired twice again, but being armed only with rifles, 
broke and ran. 

When he heard the firing, Washington ordered the 
Pennsylvania militia to support General Mercer, and he 
led them in person with two pieces of artillery. The 
enemy had pursued Mercer until they saw, for the first time, 


the approaching Continentals. They halted, brought up 
their artillery, and tried to capture the American battery. 
Before a sharp fire of grapeshot and the advance of an- 
other regiment from the rear of the column, the enemy 
began retreating over the fields to the north of Stony 
Brook. They left their artillery behind, but the captors, 
having no horses, could not carry it off. Two British 
regiments resisted for a short time at • the ravine and 
then fled to the college building. They soon abandoned 
that, losing nearly a hundred men, besides having four 
hundred taken prisoners and wounded. The loss of the 
Americans was only twenty-five or thirty, but among the 
dead were some of the best officers of the army, — Colonels 
Haslet and Potter, Major Morris, and Captains Shippen, 
Fleming, and Neal. 

General Hugh Mercer was a brilliant leader and among 
the bravest of the brave. Upon reaching the rail fence, 
he dismounted from his wounded horse and was thus 
thrown to the rear. While he was trying to rally his men, 
they gave way, and, being surrounded, he put himself at 
bay. Observing his rank, the soldiers shouted : — 

" Call for quarter, you rebel ! " 

Mercer struck at the nearest man, but, being immediately 
bayoneted, he sank to the ground. Believing him dead, 
the enemy hurried on. Mercer lay where he had fallen 
until the battle was over, when two of his aids assisted 
him to the house of Thomas Clark, where he was tenderly 
nursed by Miss Sarah Clark, of the Society of Friends, 
assisted by a colored woman. 

The British having retreated to Princeton, a mile distant, 
and taken refuge in the college and Presbyterian Church, 



which they used for barracks, Washington opened fire 
upon them with cannon. After a few shots, Captain 
James Moore of the miUtia and several men broke in a 
door and called upon the enemy to surrender. They 
instantly did so. Washington knew that Cornwallis was 
hurrying to the town from Trenton and he himself had no 
time to lose. He therefore took the parole of those un- 
able to travel and hurried off with the remainder. Three 
miles out, at the hamlet of Kingston, the general officers 
held a consultation as they sat in their saddles. 

All wished to press on to New Brunswick, attack the 
troops there, and seize the treasure and large amount of 
supplies, but the Americans were utterly worn out. They 
had been fighting at Trenton the day before, had marched 
all night, and fought again, and only a few had eaten any- 
thing for the past twenty-four hours. They were in rags, 
and though it was the dead of winter, many, as we know, 
were shoeless. The limit of endurance had been reached, 
and it was only merciful on the part of the chief when he 
turned the head of his little army toward Rocky Hill. 

The baffled Cornwallis pressed his troops to the utmost, 
and reached Kingston shortly after the Americans had 
left. Not doubting that they were making for New 
Brunswick, he hurried through the hamlet and speedily 
struck the main highway. This was so frozen that it was al- 
most impassable. His baggage wagons broke down, but, in 
his anxiety to save his valuable supplies and large amount of 
treasure, he left the vehicles in charge of a strong guard 
and hurried on. 'When his panting troops reached New 
Brunswick, they learned that not an American soldier had 
been within miles of the town. ^^SQ i Q 

HIST. N.J. — 7 


Late that dark, cold night, the guards in charge of the 
baggage wagons were startled by the flash and reports of 
guns from behind trees, and shouts seemingly from a 
thousand throats. They dashed off in a panic with a few 
wagons, leaving the others to what they beheved was the 
whole American army. As a matter of fact, however, there 
were less than twenty soldiers who had played the clever 
trick upon them. The prize consisted of woolen clothing, 
and nothing could have been more welcome to the shiver- 
ing troops. 

Although elated by his brilliant successes, Washington 
was saddened by the loss of so many brave officers. He 
grieved especially for General Mercer, who had been his 
comrade in the French and Indian War, and whom he held 
in warm regard. Great, therefore, was his relief, when he 
learned that his friend, despite his fearful hurts, was still 
alive. He instantly sent his nephew, Major Lewis, with a 
flag and letter to Lord Cornwallis, asking that all possible 
attention be given to the general, and that Major Lewis 
be permitted to remain with him and minister to his 
wants. Cornwallis complied with both requests, and or- 
dered his staff surgeon to attend General Mercer. We 
quote from " Custis's Recollections": — 

" Upon an examination of the wounds the British sur- 
geon observed that although they were many and severe, 
he was disposed to believe they were not dangerous. Mer- 
cer, bred to the profession of an army surgeon in Europe, 
said to young Lewis : * Raise my right arm, George, 
and this gentleman will then discover the smallest of my 
wounds, which will prove the most fatal. Yes, sir, that 
is the fellow that will soon do my business.' He Ian- 


guished until the 12th and expired in the arms of Lewis, 
admired and lamented by the whole army. During this 
period he exonerated his enemies from the accusation of 
having bayoneted a general officer, after he had surrendered 
his sword and had become a prisoner of war, declaring 
that he only relinquished his sword when his arm became 
powerless to wield it." 

The last of the Continental army reached Somerset 
Court House (Millstone), Somerset county, late at night, 
and lodged their prisoners in jail. To show the forlorn 
and weary condition of the captors it is stated that many 
of them had hardly turned the massive doors upon the 
prisoners, wheit they sank down on the frozen ground, and 
without so much as a blanket, fell into a sound sleep which 
lasted until sunrise. 

The army left Millstone January 4, halted two days at 
Pluckemin, and then marched to the highlands of Morris 
county, where it went into winter quarters. Comfortable 
huts were put up and the recruiting and reorganization of 
the army for the spring campaign was pushed with vigor. 
The army remained in Morristown until the close of the 
following May. 

The strategy and generalship displayed by Washington 
in the winter of 1776 and 1777 have never been surpassed 
in military history. If this sounds extravagant, let us quote 
the words of Von Moltke, the eminent Prussian general and 
the foremost strategist of modern times, as stated by Pro- 
fessor W. M. Sloane : " No finer movement was ever exe- 
cuted than the retreat across the Jerseys, the return across the 
Delaware a first time, and then a second, so as to draw out 
the enemy in a long, thin line, to skirmish at the Assanpink, 


create a feeling of assurance, throw the British general off 
his guard, turn his flank with consummate skill, and, finally, 
with such unequal force, to complete his discomfiture at 
Princeton and throw him back upon his base. Washing- 
ton's military career was marked throughout by preeminent 
qualities as a soldier, but the climax of his power was dis- 
played when, with such scanty resources as had been put 
at his disposal throughout that first campaign, he closed 
it by leaving a numerous and well-equipped enemy boxed 
up in New York, and much concerned, at that, for the 
safety of its precious stores. Great as were Washington's 
later achievements, and remarkable indeed as was his 
conduct of the whole war, he never surpassed his early 
feats of strategy. Of these the affair at Princeton was the 

When Washington, after the battle of Princeton, in 
January, 1777, went to Morristown, he made his head- 
quarters at the Arnold tavern, which has since been 
completely changed in appearance, and now serves as 
a hospital. Returning in the winter of 1779-80, the. com- 
mander in chief occupied the house built by Colonel 
Jacob Ford in 1772. This structure, which has been ad- 
mirably preserved by the patriotic Washington Head- 
quarters Association, contains hundreds of interesting 
souvenirs of Washington. Among the most priceless is his 
original commission as commander of the American army. 
It is dated June 19, 1775, and is signed by John Hancock, 
then president of the Continental Congress. This docu- 
ment was accidentally found by a carpenter, while repair- 
ing the capitol at Richmond, Virginia. Other precious 
heritages are many of Washington's familiar personal let- 












ters to his military friends ; a marble bust by the French 
sculptor Houdon, believed to be absolutely accurate ; glass- 
ware used at Mount Vernon ; uniforms, articles of furni- 
ture, dress, and various bric-a-brac, besides the fine old 
clock in the dining room whose ticking fell upon Washing- 
ton's ears more than a century ago. Nowhere is there a 
finer collection than is gathered in this historic building at 

Mrs. Washington was the companion at times of her 
husband at Morristown. She presided at the table with 
natural grace and dignity, and proved here, as at Valley 
Forge and elsewhere, her sympathy with him and the 
cause to which he had consecrated his life. Visitors were 
often entertained, and though the fare was meager, Virgin- 
ian hospitality was never lacking. Thither went Baron 
Steuben, who after fighting through the war of the Austrian 
Succession and through the Seven Years' War, abandoned 
the position of aide to Frederick the Great in 1778, to help 
the Americans in their struggle for liberty. Congress ap- 
pointed him inspector-general, and his services in drilling 
the troops were invaluable. 


Nowhere, except perhaps in the extreme South, did the 
patriots suffer to such an extent as in New Jersey. Not 
only were both armies encamped for a long time on its 
soil, — and the presence even of a friendly force is always 
a hardship to the people, — but the State was harried by 
Tories. When driven out, gangs of them gathered on 
Staten Island, made swift raids into the State, and not 
only committed shocking atrocities, but kidnaped promi- 
nent citizens. It cannot be wondered at that the patriots 
in their rage retaliated in some instances to the full. A 
civil war is the most merciless of all wars, and the condi- 
tion of New Jersey was at times harrowing beyond imagi- 
nation. To add to the horrors, a number of desperate men 
made their homes in the immense wooded tracts of Mon- 
mouth. They were known as "pine robbers," and robbed 
and killed Tories and patriots impartially, whenever there 
was a chance of gaining aught thereby. 

The good effect of Washington's victories was more 
marked in New Jersey than anywhere else. This was 
due, not only to the reawakened faith in the triumph 
of freedom, but to the fact that those who had taken Brit- 
ish protection found to their cost that it was no protection 
at all. The open enemies of the invaders could not have 
suffered more outrages at their hands than did those who 
Drofessed to be the friends of the British. 




The militia of the State were roused, and until the close 
of the war they proved themselves among the best of 
soldiers. The patriotism of the State was keyed up as 
never before. Washington issued a stern proclamation 
against the plundering of people under the pretense that 
they were Tories. At the same time, he promised to shield 
all who would surrender their protection papers and swear 
allegiance to the United States. By this means, hundreds 
were brought back to the side of the patriots. 

Washington was convinced that Howe would either 
move up the; Hudson to meet Burgoyne's army coming 
down from Canada, or cross to New Jersey to capture 
Philadelphia. The American commander drilled his troops 
and held himself ready to check either movement. On the 
28th of May he left the camp at Morristown and marched to 
Bound Brook, ten miles from New Brunswick. General Sul- 
livan's force at Princeton was steadily increased by the New 
Jersey militia and recruits from the Southern States. Howe, 
hoping to draw the Continental army into the open field, 
where he could overwhelm it, advanced from New Bruns- 
wick in two columns. The first, under Cornwallis, reached 
Somerset Court House the next morning and the second 
kept on to Middlebrook. Washington posted his army in 
line of battle on the heights. The New Jersey militia, in 
large numbers, reenforced General Sullivan, who took posi- 
tion behind the Sourland Hills, in the direction of Flem- 

Finding that Washington could not be lured from his 
position, Howe marched back to New Brunswick. Three 
days later he moved to Perth Amboy and sent his baggage 
trains across to Staten Island on a portable bridge. He 


had decided to waste no more time, but to advance against 
Philadelphia without further delay. Washington read his 
purpose and sent Generals Greene, Sullivan, and Maxwell 
to assail him on the flank and rear. The chief moved his 
army to Quibbletown (New Market), in the direction of 
Perth Amboy, and Lord Stirling marched to Metuchen 
Meeting House. 

These movements drew Howe into another attempt to 
bring on a general engagement, but the American com- 
mander quickly regained his fortifications at Middlebrook. 
Thereupon, Howe passed through Rah way to Perth Amboy, 
and on the last day of June crossed with his army to Staten 
Island. Washington was now convinced that the British 
commander had given up his intention of marching overland 
to Philadelphia and that the attack would be made by sea. 
The chief advanced toward the Delaware, where he posted 
his forces below the city, and strongly reenforced the forts 
at Red Bank on the east side and at Mud Island on the 
western shore. 

Howe landed at Elkton, Maryland, and Washington ad- 
vanced to the Brandywine to give him battle at Chadd's 
Ford. On September 11, 1777, General Maxwell with 
the New Jersey troops was driven across Brandywine Creek 
and Howe's army flung itself against Washington's flank. 
The latter was defeated, but the pursuit of the enemy was 
checked by the division of General Wayne. The American 
guards at the ford hastened off to join the main army, which 
retreated to Chester. In this unfortunate affair the patriots 
lost nine hundred, killed and wounded, and the enemy about 
half as many. 

Washington entered Philadelphia the next day, crossed 



the Schuylkill, and stationed himself on the eastern bank, 
with strong guards at the different fords, where the enemy 
seemed likely to try to pass. The dashing General Wayne 
hid himself and fifteen hundred men in the woods, meaning 
to assail the British in the rear. Their presence was be- 
trayed to the enemy, who attacked them so furiously that 
three hundred men were killed. This sad affair is known 
as the PaoU Massacre. 

Attack at Chew House, Germantown, Pennsylvania 

Having gained command of the Schuylkill, Howe crossed 
with his whole army and occupied Philadelphia. He then 
set out to reduce the forts below the city, so as to allow 
the English fleet to come up the river. It proved a hard 
task, but he succeeded. While he was thus engaged, Wash- 
ington tried to surprise the enemy at Germantown. He 
did so, but a stubborn resistance was met at the " Chew 
House." Being made of stone, it could not be burned, and 


the cannon shot did no damage. A dense fog made it im- 
possible at times to tell friend from foe, and several Con- 
tinental companies fired into one another. The confusion 
became so hopeless that Washington was forced to retreat 
to save his men. He did so without losing a gun, but his 
loss was a thousand, to six hundred of the enemy. The 
humiliating fact was afterward learned that had the fight 
lasted ten minutes longer, Howe would have retreated. 

Congress had fled to York, and Washington went to 
Valley Forge, where the patriots starved and froze, with 
the enemy a few miles away in Philadelphia, living upon 
the fat of the land. But while everything seemed to go 
wrong with the army of the commander in chief, a far- 
reaching victory crowned our arms in the North. With 
the finest equipped foreign force that ever trod American 
soil. General Burgoyne marched down from Canada, in- 
tending to force his army, like a great wedge, between New 
England and the other States. Could the two sections be 
thus split apart, and mutual support excluded, both would 
be so weakened that their conquest would be sure. 

As Burgoyne moved southward, he was invested on 
every hand by the patriots. His supplies were shut off, he 
was continually assailed, and when it became a choice be- 
tween starvation and yielding, he surrendered nearly six 
thousand men with an enormous amount of military sup- 
plies, on October 17, 1777. The victory was the greatest 
triumph, thus far, of the war. More important than that, 
it gave France the excuse for which she was waiting, to 
help the Americans openly and soon after to form a treaty 
of alliance with them. The assistance of France, however, 
amounted to very little until near the close of the war. 


In November, 1777, Congress adopted the "Articles of 
Confederation," which bound the States together in the 
best union that could be formed in the circumstances. The 
Articles could not be binding until first accepted by the 
several States. Much discussion followed, and Maryland 
— the last — did not assent until 1781. The debate was 
under way in the New Jersey legislature, when Governor 
Livingston, in the latter part of May, 1778, told the body 
that two treaties, one commercial and the other defensive, 
had been signed with France. 

Among the New Jersey amendments proposed to the 
Articles were those prohibiting a standing army in time of 
peace, giving Congress the sole power of regulating trade 
with other countries, and authorizing that body to sell 
vacant and unpatented lands for the purpose of paying the 
expenses of the war and for other general purposes. New 
Jersey accepted the Articles in November, 1778. 


The sluggish Sir William Howe, in command at Phila- 
delphia, was displaced by Sir Henry Clinton, who feared 
that the expected French fleet would sail up the Delaware 
and shut off his escape by water, while Washington attacked 
him by land. He decided, therefore, to withdraw from the 
city, march across New Jersey, which as usual lay in the 
path, to Sandy Hook, and thence sail for New York. He 
left Philadelphia, June 17, 1778, with his command of ten 
thousand well-appointed troops. 

Washington was quick to read his opponent's plan. He 
sent Maxwell with the New Jersey brigade, a union having 
been formed with the militia under Dickinson, to break 
down the bridges and to fell trees in front of the enemy. 
This work was done so well that Clinton, clogged by his 
huge baggage train, took six days to reach Imlaystown, 
fourteen miles southeast of Trenton. 

Washington, with the main army, crossed the Delaware 
at Coryell's Ferry, where Lambertville now stands, and 
sent Colonel Morgan and his picked corps of six hundred 
men to reenforce Maxwell, while the commander in chief 
marched toward Princeton. Not knowing the route Clinton 
intended to take, he halted at Hopewell, partly to rest his 
men, for the weather was very hot and rainy. 

When he reached Kingston, his spies brought news 



that made clear the intended course of Clinton. A thou- 
sand troops were sent to help those that were harassing the 
rear of the enemy. They were under the command of 
Lafayette, who was ordered to press Clinton's left. That 
night Washington advanced to Cranbury, and on the even- 
ing of the 26th the front was within five miles of the enemy. 
General Lee, who had been exchanged some time before, 
was hurried forward the next day with two brigades and 
took command of the whole division, now grown to five 
thousand men. This strong force was thus pushed forward 
because it was known that Clinton had placed his best 
troops at the rear. That night Washington encamped 
within three miles of Englishtown, where Lee had paused 
with his advance. 

Clinton had taken a good position on the high ground 
near Monmouth Court House. His right rested on the 
edge of a small wood, and a dense forest sheltered his left, 
while his whole front was shielded by another wood. He 
was anxious to gain the heights of Middletown, only twelve 
miles distant, where he would be safe against any assault. 

The British commander felt no special fear of the Ameri- 
cans, but was concerned for the safety of his immense 
baggage train. It was the season when the days are 
longest, and between three and four o'clock on the morn- 
ing of June 28 he started the train toward the seacoast. 
To avoid crowding it, Clinton waited two hours before 
following. This division was under the immediate command 
of Lord Cornwallis, who, as has been said, was the best 
British general in America. 

Washington was resolute to strike Clinton. He had 
sent a note to Lee some hours before, ordering him to 


watch the enemy closely and not to allow him to slip 
away. Lee was alert. When, in the early dawn, the chief 
learned that his foes were moving, he ordered Lee to push 
on and attack them " unless there should be powerful rea- 
sons to the contrary." Lee was also notified that Wash- 
ington was advancing to support him. 

The most conflicting messages came rapidly to Lee, who 
was sorely perplexed. In the midst of his distraction La- 
fayette arrived with about four thousand men, besides Mor- 
gan's troops and the New Jersey militia. Lee, Wayne, and 
several officers rode out to reconnoiter. They believed 
the force in front of them was the covering party of the 
enemy and could be cut off from the main army. Wayne 
started forward with seven hundred men and some pieces 
of artillery to hold the guard by a moderate attack, while 
Lee gained the rear and captured it. 

It soon became certain that the enemy in front of Lee 
was much stronger than had been supposed, — so strong 
indeed that they advanced against the Americans. This 
brought about the situation which has been described so 
many times. The shifting of one body of our troops was 
believed to be a retreat by the commander of another body, 
who also fell back. The panic quickly spread to all the 
divisions, and in a short time Lee's whole command was 
on the run, with the British in close pursuit. This was 
kept up all the way to the village, when it ceased from a 
cause which has not yet been explained. 

Sunday, June 28, was one of the hottest days ever known 
in the history of New Jersey. The temperature touched 
one hundred degrees and at times passed above that. 
The oppressive heat was disastrous to soldiers fatigued by 




British Soldier 

previous efforts. Men died from sun- 
stroke in the middle of the preceding ' 
and the following night. Amid the 
choking dust and smiting rays, the 
suffering was intense, and over a 
hundred deaths resulted from the 
awful heat. 

The Americans fought with the 
least possible covering for their bod- 
ies ; but as the British always wore 
their uniforms in battle, not a British 
officer or private threw off his coat, 
even when, gasping for breath, he 
sank down on the blistering earth, to 
moan out his life. 
The English regulars wore scarlet coats, faced with 
different colors, according to regi- 
ment, white crossed belts for car- 
tridge boxes and bayonets, hair- 
covered knapsacks, white waistcoats 
and breeches, black gaiters, and 
tall beaver hats. The Grenadier 
Guards wore beaver-skin caps all 
through that unendurable tempera- 

Our own generals wore blue and 
buff, the stars for the epaulettes 
not being adopted until a year later, 
and large black cocked hats, with 
black cockades, similar to the Brit- 
ish pattern. 

American Soldier 


The chief supposed the van of Lee's command would 
strike the rear of the British, and he ordered Greene to go 
to the right with the right wing to prevent the enemy from 
turning that flank, the chief intending to lead the left wing 
to the support of Lee. At this critical moment Washing- 
ton was told that the whole army was retreating. He could 
not believe the astounding news, and spurred his horse to 
a gallop, checking it at the ravine just beyond Tennent 
Church, at sight of his troops coming pellmell toward him. 
Immediately afterwards, he came face to face with Lee, 
who was so occupied that he did not sec his chief until the 
noses of their horses almost touched. 

Washington had drawn his sword, and was in such a 
rage that those who saw the two thought he meant to cut 
down Lee. The latter abruptly saluted, but before he 
could speak, the chief furiously demanded the meaning of 
the retreat. Lee had a passionate temper, but restrained 
himself, and said with biting intensity : " It is the natural 
result of your Excellency's judgment, and the disobedience 
of my orders by your officers, but I will lead the troops 
back and fight to the death." 

" Go to the rear ! This is cowardice or worse ! " 

Lee quivered with passion, but again he checked himself 
and sullenly obeyed his chief. Washington spurred his 
horse among the tumultuous troops, and by his sheer per- 
sonality was rapidly rounding them into form, when Colo- 
nel Hamilton, in a state of consternation, dashed up and 
called out that the British army was within fifteen minutes 
of the spot. 

Instantly Washington became as calm as a summer's 
day. He waited for the rear of the troops to reach him. 

HIST. N.J. — 8 



His eye had been quick to note that the spot was favorable 
for a stand. Turning his head, he saw Lee sitting in his 
saddle, his face pale, but awaiting the commands of his 
chief. Washington was always magnanimous, and the dis- 
tressed countenance touched him. He motioned Lee to 
approach. The latter saluted and obeyed. In an even 
voice, in which there was a tone of consideration, the chief 

Washington reprimanding Lee at Monmouth 

asked: "Will you command on this ground.? If not, I 
will remain ; if you will command, I will return to the 
main body, and form on the next height." 

" It is my highest pleasure to obey your orders," replied 
Lee ; " I shall not be the first man to leave the field." 

With matchless skill Washington re-formed the broken 
ranks of the main army, on the moderate elevation to the 
west of the ravine. Lord Stirling took command of the 
left wing and Greene gained a good position on the right. 


Lee did his duty well. He opened a sharp cannonade in 
reply to that of the enemy, whose light horse made a 
vicious charge upon his right. Despite a desperate resist- 
ance, the Americans were forced back. They withdrew 
slowly across an open field, in front of the ravine, to a 
growth of locust trees known as the " Hedgerow." ^ 

On this spot the most terrific fighting of the day took 
place. Several cannon on an eminence to the rear struck 
down many of the enemy, but the cavalry and a powerful 
force of infantry pressed on, and swept back the patriots. 
Lee led his men across the ravine, and he himself was the 
last to leave. Quickly re-forming them, he galloped up 
to Washington and asked for his orders. The soldiers 
were gasping with exhaustion and the appalling heat. In 
mercy to them, the chief directed Lee to place his troops 
behind Englishtown, while he engaged the enemy with 
fresh men of the second division and the main division. 

The real battle followed. In the formation of the 
new line Greene had the right and Lord Stirling the left. 
Wayne, somewhat in advance, held an elevation in an 
orchard, while several pieces of artillery were posted on 
Combs's Hill, a quarter of a mile away. These guns com- 
manded the hill beyond the Hedgerow, held by the British, 
who were greatly harassed by the fire. Their charges on 
the front being repulsed, the enemy attempted to turn the 
American left, but were checked there also. Then they 
hurled themselves against the right, only to be flung back 
as before, while the battery under Knox, on the elevation 
occupied by Greene, attacked them with great vigor. 

1 A group of locusts still stands upon this spot. Among them are possibly a few 
around which the flame of battle raged more than a hundred years ago. 



Wayne, from his place in the orchard, kept hammering 
the British center. The Royal Grenadiers, under Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Monckton, repeatedly bucked their way 
through the Hedgerow, only to be driven back by the 
Americans, who fought with unsurpassable heroism. The 
struggle was hand to hand, in the very acme of desperation, 

and many sank to the 
ground and died from 
the intolerable heat. 

Then came a brief 
lull, during which the 
troops on both sides 
gathered for the final 
struggle. Wayne 
held the key of the 
American position, 
and Monckton saw 
that success was im- 
* possible until he was 
driven from it. He 
made an impassioned 
appeal to his men, 
exhorting them to do 
their duty. They 
answered with cheers, and eagerly awaited his orders. 
Monckton had a clear voice and he was not only in plain 
sight, but every word he spoke was heard by the Ameri- 

Knowing that the final struggle was at hand, Wayne 
partially sheltered his men behind a large barn that stood 
near and addressed them : " If you are beaten back, the 

Wayne addressing his Troops 


day is lost. Hold your fire till I give the command, which 
will not be till the enemy is very close. Take special aim 
at the officers. If you can bring down Monckton, it will 
be worth a regiment." 

This cruel command was not forgotten. The enemy 
formed in solid column and advanced in such splendid 
order that a single cannon ball from Combs's Hill knocked 
the muskets from the hands of a whole platoon. With 
admirable precision the British moved forward until within 
a few rods of the Americans, when Colonel Monckton 
waved his sword above his head and his shout rang out — 
^^Chat'ge!'' Like an echo of his voice rose the other 
single word — " Fire ! " 

Death mowed down a score, and among the first mortally 
smitten was Monckton, who was caught in the arms of an 
aid, as he reeled from his saddle. The enemy were falling 
back, when the sight of their beloved commander lying 
helpless on the ground caused them to turn and make a 
frenzied effort to recover the body. The two forces 
crashed together, and the climax of the day's fighting took 
place. The Americans won, and the lifeless trophy was 
carried into their lines, the maddened pursuers being flung 
back in their last despairing effort to secure the body. 

The repulse of the Grenadiers caused the British army 
to give way. It retreated to the elevation beyond " Carr's 
House," which had been occupied by Lee that morning. 
The enemy were busy for hours in burying their dead, 
looking after the wounded, and preparing to renew the 
battle on the morrow. Washington meant to attack them 
at once, but the ground was so broken that twilight came 
before he was ready and he decided to wait till daybreak. 


The American troops were in motion at an early hour, 
as eager as their commaader to renew the battle which 
promised the fullest success to them. Clinton, however, had 
had all he wished of fighting, and did not await the coming 
of day before renewing his retreat. His aim was to reach 
Sandy Hook, where he hoped to find Admiral Howe's fleet. 
Fortunately for the commander and his troops, they were 
not disappointed. They were taken aboard the ships and 
in due time landed in New York. 

The battle of Monmouth Court House was a moral vic- 
tory for the patriots, though the object sought was not 
attained. Finding that the enemy had eluded him, Wash- 
ington marched to the Hudson, which he crossed at King's 
Ferry, and once more assumed guard by that stream. His 
purpose was to prevent the British from shutting off com- 
munication between New England and the other States. 
This duty was of such supreme importance that Wash- 
ington never lost sight of it from the beginning to the close 
of the war. 



No battle of the Revolution was marked by more inter- 
esting incidents than that which has been described in the 
preceding chapter. It may be added that regarding no 
event are there more mistaken impressions. 

Monmouth Court House, during the War for Independ- 
ence, and for some years afterward, meant not only the 
dozen straggling buildings clustered around the old court- 
house built in 171 5, and strung along the road to Allen- 
town, Middletown, and to Tennent Church, but the whole 
township. The name of the flourishing county town was 
later changed to Freehold. 

The story of Mollie Pitcher is a part of the battle. It 
is shown on a fine monument, and has been depicted and 
told times without number. " Mollie Pitcher " was the 
nickname given to that remarkable woman, because of her 
task in carrying water to her husband and other soldiers 
during the battle. The facts are as follows : — 

Her name was Mary, and she was the daughter of John 
George Ludwig. She married John Hays, a Pennsylvania 
artilleryman, and, after his death, became the wife of Ser- 
geant George McCauly. She was a woman of powerful, 
masculine frame. On that day of insufferable heat, she had 

her hands full in trying to quench the thirst of her husband. 




He was helping to serve a gun when he was shot down, 
the enemy taking special pains to pick off the gunners 
of the battery that was doing great execution. 

Seeing her husband fall, Mollie caught up the sponge- 
staff, which had dropped from his hands, and continued 
his work throughout the remainder of the battle. It is 
usually said that an officer ordered the gun out of action, 

" AIOLLiE Pitcher " at Monmouth 

because of the death of McCauly, and that he yielded to 
the request of the woman that the piece should be kept in 
service. But every gun was needed by the Americans at 
Monmouth, and nothing can be more absurd than to sup- 
pose that the death of one of the seven men in charge of 
the cannon should make it necessary for the six to aban- 
don their important work. The gun would have been 
kept going without the aid of Mollie, though that fact 
cannot dim the glory of her deed. 



Another universal, though slight, error makes Mollie 
carry the water from a spring. There was no spring any- 
where near her. She brought the water from Wenrock 
Brook, which flowed then as it flows to-day at the base of 
Combs's Hill. Close to the railway, a mile west of Free- 
hold, a post has been set up with the painted words : " Moll 
Pitcher's Well." There is no ground whatever for this 
sign. The well or spring referred to did not appear until 
a half century after the battle, during which no artillery 
was in its neighborhood. 

Another statement often made regarding Mollie is that 
Washington gave her a commission as a lieutenant. There 
is no official record of any 
such occurrence. General 
Greene presented her to the 
chief, who complimented her 
for her bravery and may have 
made her an " honorary" offi- 
cer. Mollie was fond of wear- 
ing a military coat, and no 
doubt she was often called 
" Captain " by her friends, 
who were naturally proud of 
her. She was granted a pen- 
sion by the State of Pennsyl- 
vania and lived in comfort to 
old age. In the cemetery at Carlisle, a neat stone monu- 
ment bears this inscription : " Mollie McCauly, Renowned 
in History as Mollie Pitcher, the Heroine of Monmouth. 
Died Jan., 1833, aged 79 years. Erected by the Citizens 
of Cumberland Co., July 4, 1876." 


I The Hfrffine of MonniCtitK 

[uM/fi * OimberkiiiiLCoiiMu 

Jlily^ 1S70 

Monument to " Mollie Pitcher' 



It is hard to see any special cause for blaming Lee at 
Monmouth. He fought bravely and skillfully, amid con- 
flicting reports and the greatest confusion. But he had a 
peppery temper and, as we know, was very jealous of 
Washington. It was his insulting letters to Washington 
and to Congress which caused his dismissal from the 
service, bee never lost his admiration for British general- 
ship and bravery, and later developments proved that he 
was willing to sell his services to CHnton, who did not think 
them worth buying ; but Lee had none of the mahgnity 
which marked the treason of Arnold. 

Two miles out from Monmouth Court House stood the 
famous Tennent Church, as it stands to-day, strong, attrac- 
tive, and in the best of repair, though it was built a quarter 
of a century before the battle. The numerous graves which 
surround the building show how greatly the dead outnumber 
the living of the congregation. The body of Colonel 
Monckton is buried near the church. 

The attendants came from miles around on each Sab- 
bath to attend the service at the' Tennent Church. On 
June 28, 1778, as may well be supposed, no sermon was 
preached. Pastor and congregation gathered round the 
building, talking with bated breath of the battle tha,t 
seemed to be raging on every hand. They saw the charg- 
ing enemy in their brilliant uniforms, the ragged and 
mostly barefooted Continentals, — some of whom hurried 
past the church several times. The sulphurous clouds 
mixed with the hot dust in the highway and shut hundreds 
of the combatants from view, but the continuous rattle of 
the musketry, the boom of cannon, and the shouts of men, 
with glimpses of soldiers fighting hand to hand, told all 



Tennent Church 

that one of the greatest battles of the Revohition was 
going on around them. 

Twenty feet from the front of the church .was a large 
oak, under which stood a group of men and women, talk- 
ing in awed voices of the fearful scene. A young man, 
named Tunis Coward, folded his arms and partly leaned 
against the trunk of the oak and partly sat upon a sand- 
stone monument about three feet high. In this posture, 
he and the others were gazing toward the Court House, 
where the firing just then was the hottest, when a pecul- 



iar whizzing sound was heard. In the same moment the 
upper half of the headstone flew into fragments, many of 
which rattled against the front of the meeting house and 
stung the faces of several persons. Coward was hurled 

toward the church 
door, with one leg 
loosely flapping, and 
rolled over in a limp 
heap. A cannon ball, 
traveling up from the 
Court House, had just 
cleared the roof of 
the horse sheds, struck 
Coward, and then 
skipped and plowed 
up the field beyond. 
The poor fellow was 
carried through the 
open door and laid in 
one of the pews just 
as he breathed his 
last. The pew is the 
first one on the right 
as you pass through 
the left front door. 
The body of Coward was the only one taken into Tennent 
Church during or after the battle. 

Colonel David Ray of the artillery was riding somewhat 
in advance of a militia regiment, on the morning of the 
battle, when he saw a British dragoon, mounted on a 
superb horse, leave the ranks and come toward him. Ray 

^^^^^S^K^^^Bm^^i. 4 . ./■^■■^■■.\ 

W §■■ J^^^- ''$: ■ 

•*■ ~ i 

Freehold Monument 



was astride a sorry nag, and he determined to capture the 
fine steed of his enemy. He was one of the best shots in 
the army, and when about fifty yards from the other, he 
deliberately aimed his pistol and fired at the dragoon. 
He missed, and, drawing his other weapon, fired with the 
same care, but missed again. The trooper was now 
almost upon him, charging at full speed with drawn sword. 
Ray decided that it was the best time in the world to re- 
treat, and whirling about, he spurred his horse to a dead 
run, heading for a barn near at hand, around which he 
dashed, dodging as best he could the furious blows of the 
dragoon, who kept hard after him. Seeing a door open, 
the fugitive drove his horse into that and out of another 
door. His pursuer did the same, determined that the 
American should not escape him ; and Ray made for his 
regiment, which was hurrying to his help. The dragoon 
was at his heels and struck repeatedly at him, until he was 
within a few rods of the Americans. More than a score of 
shots were fired at the daring fellow, but he was not 
touched. Finally he wheeled about, rode back at an easy 
pace, and was seen to take his place in line. 


In September, 1778, occurred what is known as "The 
Tappan Massacre." A force of Britfsh soldiers, five thou- 
sand strong, went up the Hudson, partly to collect forage 
and partly to draw off attention from an expedition against 
Little Egg Harbor. Washington directed Colonel George 
Baylor, with a detachment of Virginia troopers, consisting 
of twelve officers and one hundred and four men, to watch 
the enemy. Colonel Baylor and his men were surprised 
by the British while asleep, late at night, near Tappan, 
Bergen county. In their attack the enemy displayed the 
utmost brutality. Twenty-eight of the Americans were 
killed or wounded, and thirty-nine were captured. 

The other British expedition landed at Little Egg Har- 
bor, on the night of October 5, 1778, and on the morning 
following burned thirty prize vessels and the village of 
Chestnut Neck, and devastated the neighborhood. Pu- 
laski's legion, which Washington had directed to meet 
the British attack, did not arrive until three days after the 
British. A picket guard of the legion, while in camp near 
Tuckerton, was betrayed by a deserter, and its commander 
and forty men were slain. Pulaski made a fierce pursuit, 
but could not overtake the fleeing enemy. 

The Iroquois, or Six Nations, had their homes in west- 
em New York. They were the most powerful league of 



Indians that ever existed on this continent. Most of them 
joined the Tories and committed such atrocities in the 
Wyoming and Mohawk valleys that all the frontier settle- 
ments were in danger of being destroyed. Washington 
saw that the only way to save them was to retaliate with- 
out mercy. He organized an expedition of five thousand 
Continentals, and placed them under command of General 
Sullivan, with orders to do his work thoroughly. 

The expedition was composed of four brigades, of which 
New Jersey furnished the First. It included also the 
garrison of Fort Sullivan, at Tioga Point, and was com- 
manded by General William Maxwell.-^ The respective 
colonels were Matthias Ogden, Israel Shreve, and Oliver 
Spencer. In addition, our State sent sixty-eight men from 
Colonel Baldwin's regiment and seventy-five dragoons 
from Colonel Sheldon's regiment. The contribution of 
New Jersey was about fifteen hundred men, or nearly one 
third of the entire body. 

The main army, in which was the First Brigade, 
marched from Elizabethtown, in May, and advanced by 
way of Easton. Memorials of this march, in bronze, 
inscribed stone, or masonry, have been erected by New 

1 William Maxwell is believed to have been born in Ireland and brought to this 
country when very young. He entered the colonial service in 1758 and served 
through the French and Indian War. At the opening of the Revolution he became 
colonel of the Second New Jersey Battalion and accompanied the disastrous expe- 
dition to Canada in 1776. In October of the same year he was appointed briga- 
dier general and was with General Schuyler at Lake Champlain. He harassed the 
enemy after the battle of Trenton, and during the winter and spring of 1777 was 
stationed near the British lines at Elizabethtown. He commanded the New Jersey 
brigade at Brandy wine and Germantown, and shivered and starved witli his brother 
patriots at Valley Forge. He pursued Clinton across New Jersey and did valuable 
work at Monmouth, keeping up the pursuit and harassment of the enemy to Sandy 
Hook. Washington said of him : " I believe him to be an honest man, a warm 
friend of his country, and firmly attached to its interests." He died in 1798. 



York, Pennsylvania, and New Hampshire, and it would be 
appropriate for New Jersey to follow their example. The 
decisive battle was fought August 29, at Newtown, near 
Elmira, New York. The great town of the Senecas (the 
leaders in the fierce raids on the settlements) and more 
than a score of other villages were laid in ashes, crops were 
destroyed, and so many warriors were slain that years 
passed before the Iroquois recovered from this crushing 

Paulus Hook 

One of the most brilliant exploits of the Revolution was 
the capture of Paulus Hook, by " Light Horse Harry " 
Lee. Paulus Hook, now in the heart of Jersey City, was 
at that time a marshy island, about sixty-five acres in ex- 
tent. It was separated from the main land by salt mead- 
ows, over which the tide ebbed and flowed. Through these 
meadows ran a tidal creek, and an artificial ditch had been 
dug and a drawbridge constructed. This, with a strong 


abatis, a powerful barred gate, three blockhouses, a chain of 
breastworks, a fort mounting three twelve pounders and 
one eighteen pounder, a redoubt, and minor works, made 
the position seemingly unassailable. 

The valiant Captain Allen McLane of Delaware shares 
with Major Lee the credit for the inception and execution 
of this daring enterprise. Lee was stationed two miles 
from Paramus Church, and began his march on the fore- 
noon of August 18, 1779. His force numbered between 
four hundred and five hundred men. Their guide was 
either ignorant or treacherous, and, in the forests between 
Guttenberg and Union Hill, led the Americans astray. 
They were separated and most of the Virginians deserted, 
so that when Lee emerged from the tangled wood, he had 
only a hundred and fifty men with him. Undaunted, 
however, he pushed on and arrived at the fort between two 
and three in the morning. He entered it in three columns 
and had possession of it before the garrison was fully 
awake. Since the ammunition of the patriots had been 
damaged in crossing the ditch, the blockhouses and forts 
were captured at the point of the sword and bayonet. 
The British commander and his guard fled to the magazine, 
where they were safe. 

Day was breaking, the alarm had spread to the British 
shipping in New York Harbor, and hurried preparations 
were made to send relief to the besieged garrison. The 
Americans were in imminent peril. Nothing but instant 
retreat could save them, and it looked doubtful whether 
even that would avail. Only two had been killed, and 
three wounded, while the loss of the enemy was more than 
a score. Lee had captured a hundred and fifty-nine prison- 

HIST. N.J. — 9 


ers, and along the line of his retreat was the vigilant foe, 
separated only by the Hudson. He strove to place the 
Hackensack between himself and his pursuers, but lack of 
boats prevented. By a desperate dash, and supported by 
the troops sent to his aid by Lord Stirling, Lee finally 
forced his way through to New Bridge, having marched 
eighty miles in three days. In recognition of this briUiant 
exploit Congress ordered a gold medal to be presented to 
Major Lee, — a noteworthy distinction, as only five others 
were ordered during the war, — and distributed ^15,000 
in money among the non-commissioned officers and pri- 

Since it was hopeless to attack New York, Washington 
went into winter quarters at Morristown, on December i, 
1779. His cantonments extended from Danbury, Connect- 
icut, across the Hudson at West Point to Elizabethtown, 
New Jersey. The war kept moving southward, where the 
enemy were to attain. their greatest successes and to meet 
final disaster. In the north the struggle was mainly a 
series of savage skirmishes. 

Although relieved of the presence of an invading army, 
our State suffered greatly from partisan warfare. Tories 
from Staten Island and New York ravaged the eastern 
counties, and showed no mercy to men, women, and chil- 
dren ; while the ** pine robbers," as before, added to the 
horrors by their outrages against both parties. The mili- 
tia hunted down these marauders, whenever possible. 

The winter of 1779-80 was the severest of the eigh- 
teenth century. All mihtary operations were brought to a 
standstill, and the suffering was intense. Washington's 
army at Morristown was so near starvation that he notified 


the counties that unless flour and meat were furnished with- 
out delay, they would be taken by force. The authorities 
acted promptly, and the chief was not driven to this last 

Washington did his utmost to get his troops in readiness 
to cooperate with the French fleet and army that were 
expected with the coming summer. But an ominous spirit 
appeared in the camp at Morristown. With scant food 
and miserable clothing, and part payment only in a cur- 
rency that had become almost worthless, the men grew 
mutinous. News of the state of affairs reached New York 
and led the enemy to seize what looked like a golden 
opportunity. A force of five thousand men under General 
Knyphausen was landed at Ehzabethtown Point, June 6, 
1780, and marched inland. To the astonishment of the 
invaders, however, their reception was like that of the 
British who marched out of Boston to Lexington five 
years before. 

The Hessian commander was brought to a halt at 
Connecticut Farms (now Union), four miles from Elizabeth- 
town. In his anger he burned the village, but fell back 
before the advance of Washington. Among the buildings 
destroyed were the church and parsonage. The wife of 
the pastor. Rev. James Caldwell, was shot while kneeling 
at prayer with her little child. 

In the latter part of June, 1780, Clinton, with six thou- 
sand men, marched toward Springfield, for the purpose of 
attacking the American troops. He was held in check for 
a time by General Greene, but the Americans were forced 
to fall back. It was during this fight that some of the 
militia ran short of wadding. Rev. Mr. Caldwell gathered 



an armful of Bibles and hymn books, tore out the leaves, 
and distributed them among the soldiers, calling out : — 
" Give them Watts, boys ! Give them Watts ! " 
About a year and a half later this "soldier parson," as he 
was called, was slain by an American sentinel, who was 

afterwards hanged 


for the 

Having laid 
Springfield in ashes, 
Clinton returned to 
Elizabethtown Point 
and crossed to 
Staten Island. 

Dark days now 
came to the cause 
of American liberty. 
The French fleet 
with six thousand 
troops on board ar- 
rived in July, only 
to be blockaded at 
Newport Harbor by 
a superior naval 
force. General Gates 
was disastrously defeated in South Carolina, and the black- 
est crime of the war, the treason of Benedict Arnold, sad- 
dened the country. In the latter part of December, 1780, 
the Pennsylvania line near Morristown revolted, because 
they had received little or no pay and were suffering from 
lack of food, clothing, and shelter. Moreover, they con- 

Rev. Caldwell's Ammunition 



tended that, since they had enlisted for three years or the 
war, they should be discharged on the last day of that 
month, when their term would end. The officers insisted 
that the enlistment was for three years and the war, and 
the men must stay to the end of hostilities. 

Mutiny of Pennsylvania Line 

On the first day of the year 1781, thirteen hundred 
mutineers paraded under arms with the avowed purpose of 
marching to Philadelphia, where Congress was in session, 
and compelling that body to right their wrongs. In the 
effort to restrain the rebels an officer was killed and several 
soldiers were wounded. The daring Wayne, with leveled 
pistol, ordered the men to return to duty. In an instant a 
score of bayonets were thrust against his breast. 


" We love you, General," they said, ** but if you fire, 
you are a dead man. We are not goin-g over to the 
enemy, and if they appear, we will fight them under your 
orders, but we are determined to have our rights." 

The men chose their own officers, and with six field 
pieces set out for Philadelphia. Congress was warned 
of their coming, and sent a committee to meet them. 
Clinton dispatched agents among the rebels, who offered 
them liberal pay if they would enter his lines and serve 
him. The patriots turned the agents over to Wayne and 
urged him to hang them. Wayne was compelled to dis- 
appoint his soldiers, for he had them shot. 

The committee from Congress met the mutineers at 
Trenton, where, after a conference, the trouble was 
ended. The promise was given to pay all arrears at the 
earliest possible moment, clothing was furnished on the 
spot, and those whose terms of enlistment had expired 
were allowed to leave. More than half the Pennsylvania 
troops trudged homeward and the others returned to 

This flurry was hardly over, when a part of the New 
Jersey line stationed at Pompton revolted, led to do so 
by the success of their comrades. A committee from the 
legislature offered to examine their claims, if they would 
submit to their officers. A few did so, but the majority 
remained under arms, demanding to be discharged upon 
their oaths, as had been done with the Pennsylvania rebels. 

Washington saw that his army would go to pieces un- 
less this mutinous spirit was stamped out. He ordered 
from West Point a detachment, whom he knew he could 
trust. With these he surrounded the camp and compelled 


the mutineers to surrender. Two of their ringleaders 
were shot, and thus ended all rebellion in the American 

The final campaign of the Revolution was in Virginia, 
where on the 19th of October, 1781, Lord Cornwallis 
surrendered to the combined armies under Washington 
and the French, aided by the French fleet. This was 
the crowning triumph of the struggle. A provisional 
treaty of peace was signed by the English and American 
commissioners in Paris, November 30, 1782. Congress pro- 
claimed a stop to hostilities April 1 1, 1783, and, on Septem- 
ber 3, 1783, the independence of the United States was 
formally acknowledged and ratified. 

The termination of the war was celebrated throughout 
New Jersey, May 19, 1783. In his address to the legisla- 
ture, Governor Livingston said : " Perhaps at no particular 
moment during our conflict with Great Britain was there 
a greater necessity than at the present juncture for unanim- 
ity, vigilance, and exertion. The glory we have acquired 
in the war will resound through the universe. God forbid 
that we should ever tarnish it by any unworthy conduct in 
times of peace. We have established our character as a 
brave people, and exhibited to the world the most incon- 
testable proofs that we are determined to sacrifice both life 
and fortune in defense of our liberties. Let us now show 
ourselves worthy of the inestimable blessings of freedom 
by an inflexible attachment to public faith and national 
honor. Let us establish our character as a sovereign 
State on the only durable basis of impartial and universal 

CONSTITUTION. (1776-1844) 



War in its nature is an appeal to brute force, and 
carries in its train the evils of the vicious side of brute 
nature. Its scars upon the souls of men remain for 
generations. The Revolution had its justification in Eng- 
land's denial to her American subjects of the right to 
life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The thirteen 
States had won their liberty. They had struck dumb the 
autocrats of the world by the spectacle of an " untrained 
rabble," sustained by moral idealism, successfully repulsing 
disciplined veterans of Europe's battlefields. A new light 
dawned on the horizon. Hope was born in the hearts 
of the down-trodden of earth. But the full price of lib- 
erty was not yet paid, and there was no escaping the final 
"squaring of accounts." 

We had gained our independence, and had almost ruined 
ourselves in doing so. Industry was dead, we were in 
the depths of poverty, and when the common danger 
that held the States together vanished, they began drift- 
ing apart. Mutual jealousies sprang up ; armed revolts 
against intolerable taxation broke out, and the ** Articles 



of Confederation," with the coming of peace, lost the 
slight cohesive power they had during the war. About 
all Congress could do was to offer advice to the different 
States, and the States, as a rule, paid very slight heed to 
the advice. 

The colonies, under the "Articles," had to pay the 
penalty for compromise. Compromise may postpone the 
day of reckoning, but it never settles a moral question. 
When the "Articles" were adopted, the leaders in each 
colony had yielded as little as they could to the common 
good in the hope of gaining more than enough local 
advantage to compensate for what they had to sacrifice. 
In the end the struggle was between two distinct divisions 
of political sentiment, the one typified by Hamilton, who 
distrusted the people, and the other by Jefferson, who 
trusted the people and favored the political equality of 
all men. 

It soon became clear to all thoughtful men that without 
a government that really governed, the country would be 
doomed. Anarchy must take the place of law, and the 
United States would become thirteen wrangling " repub- 
lics," like those of South America to-day. There would 
be no security for life and property, and all would be tur- 
moil. But the far-sighted Americans saw the abyss upon 
whose brink they stood, and knowing what ought to be 
done, did it with high courage and rare wisdom. 

A convention composed of delegates from all the States, 
except Rhode Island, met in Philadelphia, in May, 1787, 
to frame a national constitution. In this convention, of 
which Washington was president, the States were repre- 
sented by their ablest men. The delegates from New 



Room in Independence Hall where the Constitution was Framed 

Jersey were : Governor William Livingston, David Brearley, 
William Paterson, Jonathan Dayton, Abraham Clark, and 
WilHam C. Houston. The Constitution was gradually 
molded into form, and has proved to be one of the most 
wonderful instruments framed by the wisdom of men. 
j When the Constitution was sent to Congress, that body 
laid it before the different legislatures, with the suggestion 
that State conventions of delegates, chosen by the people, 
should be called to vote for or against accepting it. The 
New Jersey convention met at Trenton, thoughtfully con- 
sidered each section, and then adopted it without a single 
opposing vote on December 18, 1787. New Jersey was the 
third State to ratify the Constitution, which was soon ac- 
cepted by all, and thus became the supreme law of the land. 



The Ninth MILLAR erected ! 

** The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, (hall be fuffitlent fortheeftablifh^ 
ment of this Conftitution, between the SiaX&s fo ratifying the fame" Art. vii. 


^If it isnoti 
tt will rife. 

The Attraction muft 
be irrefifliblc 

Adoption of the Constitution, 1788 

(From the Independent Chronicle') 

The discussion over the Constitution brouT;ht two great 
political parties into existence. Those who favored a 
strong, central government were called Federalists, while 
those who wished to give all the power possible to the 
States were first called Republicans, and later Democrats. 
Since New Jersey had a small area and population, as 
compared with most of the other States, her natural dis- 
trust of them made her Federal in politics. Later condi- 
tions caused her to shift to the Democracy, and she swung 
from one party to the other, in after years, as the political 
conditions themselves changed. 

Washington was a Federalist, and having been elected 
President of the United States by his grateful countrymen, 
he set out from Mount Vernon to New York, then the 
national capital. It was his wish to make the journey 
without display or ceremony, but every mile became an 
ovation. At Trenton, where he won his brilliant battle 
twelve years before, he saw a triumphal arch, supported 
by thirteen columns, spanning the bridge over the Assan- 
pink. It bore the inscription, ** The Defender of the 
Mothers will be the. Protector of the Daughters." As the 



smiling Father of his Country, with hat in hand, rode under 
this arch (still carefully preserved), he was met by a pro- 






A/ V - 





■f X-'^S 

k^,;V?ta,t?^- "^ .. " 


ft^ \i K t 


^•'i ' f ' : . 1 


i^ ^ ^ i^ 

^^ ^ 




v^V- : J^ ' 





'•'^jt^^ '^ -W^fm 8 

Washington's Arch at Trenton 

cession of matrons and their little daughters, each carrying 
a basket of fragrant flowers. Strewing these in front of 
his steed, they sang : — 

" Welcome, mighty chief ! once more, 
Welcome to this grateful shore ! 
Now no mercenary foe 
Aims again the fatal blow — 
Aims at thee the fatal blow. 

" Virgins fair and matrons grave, 
Those thy conquering arm did save, 
Build for thee triumphal bowers ; 
Strew, ye fair, his way with flowers — 
Strew your hero's way with flowers ! " 


In November, 1790, Trenton was made the capital of 
New Jersey. By the constitution of 1776 the government 
was divided into three departments, — the legislative, ex- 
ecutive, and judicial. The legislative power rested in a 
council and assembly, chosen annually. The legislative 
council — now the senate — was composed of the governor 
and a member from each county ; and the assembly con- 
sisted of delegates from each county, the number based on 
its population. The executive power lay in the governor, 
elected annually by the council and assembly in joint 
meeting, as were the secretary of state and treasurer. 
The judiciary power was vested in the different courts. 
The judges of the supreme court were elected for seven 
years and those of the inferior courts for five years, — all by 
the legislature. The governor was chancellor of the State. 

The population of New Jersey in 1790 was 184,139 
persons, the State standing ninth in that respect in the 
union. The people were widely scattered ; there were no 
large cities and few towns of importance. The inhabitants 
were mostly impoverished, but they were industrious and 
enterprising, and rapidly recovered from the devastating 
effects of the war. There were no railways or canals, 
though some were beginning to think of them, and the 
following half century was to see amazing develop- 
ments in the means of travel and transportation.^ 

1 It is worth noting that in 1792 the postage on letters varied from six cents for 
thirty miles to twenty-five cents for all distances greater than four hundred and 
fifty miles. If the letter weighed more than a quarter of an ounce, the rates were 
doubled. Envelopes were not known, the last page of every sheet of foolscap, 
generally blue in color, being left unruled for the address. The prepayment of 
postage was optional, and stamps were not used until a half century later. In 
T799 the minimum distance was raised to forty miles and the maximum to five 



John Fitch, a native of Connecticut, was an ingenious 
watchmaker, and was engaged in gunmaking in Trenton 
at the outbreak of the Revolution. He enUsted and spent 
the winter with the patriot troops at Valley Forge. In 
1780 he was appointed deputy surveyor of Virginia. Five 
years later he began constructing a boat to be driven by 
steam power. Of his success there is no room for doubt, 
for the New Jersey legislature passed an act on March 18, 
1786, granting to Fitch exclusively the right to navigate 

\ I a 

John Fitch's Steamboat 

the waters of the State by means of boats propelled by 
steam. He built and operated four different boats, the 
last of which made what was then a remarkable spsed of 
a mile in seven and a half minutes. It ran at least two 
thousand miles as a packet boat in 'i 790. Fitch took out 
patents in 1791, sixteen years before Fulton's Clermont 
started up the Hudson and succeeded in running only five 
miles an hour. A committee appointed by the New York 
legislature to inquire into Fulton's claims found that he 
had had access to Fitch's drawings, and that his steamboat 
was substantially the same as Fitch's. Fitch's boats did 
not fully meet expectations, however, and interest in them 
gradually died out. 


In the year 1802 the last remnant of Indians in New 
Jersey, numbering less than a hundred, left the State 
forever. The red man's barbarism rarely fuses with the 
white man's civilization. As is generally the case with 
peoples of inferior intellect, the aborigines had absorbed 
the weaker or vicious strain, and had become indolent and 

They had been living for a long time at Brotherton, 
a small tract or reservation in Burlington county^ One 
day a Stockbridge warrior came to the settlement from 
the home of his tribe, bringing an urgent invitation for 
the New Jersey red men to make their home with the 
tribe on Oneida Lake, New York. The invitation was 
accepted, the Indians removing later to Green Bay, Mich- 
igan. Being very poor, they petitioned our legislature, 
in 1832, for the sum of ^3000 with which to buy agricul- 
tural implements. The gift was freely made, much to the 
delight of the Indians. Their chief had studied at Prince- 
ton College, which he left to fight for the patriot cause in 
the Revolution. In acknowledging the act of simple justice, 
this leader, then eighty years old, wrote : " Not a drop of 
our blood have you ever spilled in battle; not an acre of 
our land have you ever taken without our consent." 

In February, 1804, the legislature passed an act declar- 
ing that all children of slave parents, that might be born 
after the 4th of July of that year, should be free upon 
reaching the age of twenty-five, if they were males, or, if 
females, upon becoming twenty-one years of age. 

In the War of 18 12 both parties were at fault. Great 
Britain was exasperating in enforcing her so-called " right 
of search" upon our vessels, but a Uttle more patience on 


our part and a little more diplomacy might have warded 
off the war. In some respects we are not a patient people, 
though sometimes we submit to injustice when we ought 
to rebel. 

War with Great Britain was declared June 18, 1812. The 
sentiment of the different States was much divided as to the 
wisdom of the step. New England was bitterly opposed to it. 
The ships in Boston hung their flags at half mast, while 
the legislatures of Massachusetts and Connecticut protested 
against the declaration of war. New York, Philadelphia, 
and Baltimore passed resolutions of approval, and a paper 
in Baltimore, which favored peace, was mobbed. Several 
persons were killed during the rioting, and ** Light Horse 
Harry " Lee, who commanded the military that suppressed 
the disorder, received injuries which caused his death four 
years later. 

The Federalists, who opposed the war, won the State 
elections in New Jersey, in 18 12, and passed resolutions 
expressing their sentiments. Since the w^ar was confined 
mainly to the frontiers (where we gained little credit) and 
the ocean (where our glory was great). New Jersey never 
suffered invasion, but she shared in the distress and had to 
help pay the cost of the struggle. Two of her sons won 
illustrious fame: William Bainbridge, a native of Prince- 
ton, who commanded the Constitutioji, when she captured 
the British frigate Java, and the heroic James Lawrence, 
of whom it is said that his dying cry, as he was carried be- 
low from the deck of his defeated Chesapeake, " Don't give 
up the ship ! " gave the motto to the American navy. 

Joseph Bloomfield, as governor, was commander in chief 
of the military forces of the State. He was appointed brig- 


adier general in the United States army and held that rank 
until the close of the war. As chief of the third military- 
district, which included most of New Jersey, he was re- 
lieved several months later by General Armstrong. Gen- 
eral Bloomfield marched to Plattsburg with an expedition 
for the invasion of Canada, and returning in the summer 
of 1 8 14, was given command of the fourth military district, 
with headquarters at Philadelphia. During the war there 
were in the service of the United States from New Jersey, 
395 officers, 808 non-commissioned officers, and 4808 

The treaty of peace signed December 24, 18 14, left the 
dispute between Great Britain and the United States pre- 
cisely where it was before the first gun was fired. Nothing 
was said about the " right of search," but it was under- 
stood that the question was never to come up again, and it 
never did. The War of 181 2 closed the factories of New 
England, ruined trade and commerce, piled up a debt of 
$ 100,000,000, and cost us 1683 vessels and the lives of 
18,000 sailors. 

1 Francis Bazley Lee's " New Jersey as a Colony and as a State." 

HIST. NJ. — 10 



The first constitution served New Jersey for nearly thirty 
years after the close of the War of 1812. During that period 

the State was highly 
prosperous and made 
great advances in 
developing its natu- 
ral resources. The 
population of a quar- 
ter of a million was 
increased by one 
half, and numerous 
and varied indus- 
tries sprang into life 
and added to the 
wealth of the peo- 
ple. It was the pe- 
riod, too, of the 
pioneer canals and 

The oldest canal 
is the Morris, which 
Morris Canal— Early Days was chartered in 

1824 and finished in 1836. The great engineering difficul- 
ties and other causes doomed the enterprise to failure from 




An Early Ferry Ticket 

the beginning. Its terminal points are Jersey City and 
the Delaware at Phillipsburg, and its total length is a 
hundred and three miles. Besides being too small for the 
tonnage of most boats, and having a depth of only five 
feet, it has more than a 
score of inclined planes 
and locks. The total cost 
of the construction and im- 
provements to the present 
time is ^6,000,000. 

The Delaware and Rari- 
tan Canal, as its name im- 
plies, connects the two 
rivers named. Starting at New Brunswick, it extends to 
Bordentown, where it flows into the Delaware. Its length, 
including feeders, is sixty-six miles. It has fourteen locks 
and a navigable depth of slightly more than eight feet. 
Although chartered in 1830, it was not completed until 
eight years later. The total cost of construction and im- 
provements thus far is nearly ^5,000,000. Its charter for- 
bade the digging of any other canal within five miles of 
any point on the Delaware or Raritan without the consent 
of the old corporation. 

The Camden and Amboy Railroad Company threatened 
to become the great rival of the canal, but the two united 
their interests in February, 1831. In lieu of all taxes, the 
railway company bound itself to pay ten cents for every 
passenger and fifteen cents for every ton of merchandise 
carried across the State. These transit duties were to cease 
if the legislature allowed any other road, carrying passen- 
gers between New -York and Philadelphia, to have its 



terminal within three miles of that of the Camden and 
Amboy Railroad. This provision was made absolute in 
1832, when the legislature, which reserved to the State 
the right to buy the road at the end of thirty years, for- 
bade the construction of any railway between the two 
cities named, without the consent of the Camden and Am- 
boy corporation. These transit duties ceased when the 
general railroad law was passed in 1873. 

We are used to hearing it said that the first railway in 
this country was laid in 1826, at one of the granite quarries 
in Ouincy, Massachusetts. It was only two or three miles 
long and the cars were drawn by horses. It is difficult to 
see why this enterprise should be called a railway, in the 
general acceptation of the word, since no steam was used, 
and similar tracks had been laid many times in other 
places. Three English locomotives were unloaded in 
New York, in May, 1829. One was carried by river and 
canal to Honesdale, Pennsylvania, put together three 
months later, and ran on the rails between Honesdale and 
Prompton. This was the first locomotive that turned a 
wheel on a railway track in America. 




An Early Railroad 

The Baltimore and Ohio was the pioneer passenger rail- 
way in this country. The little locomotive Tom TJinnib^ 
built by Peter Cooper in 1829, pulled a car load of people 
at the rate of eighteen miles an hou¥. This was the first 



trip of the first American locomotive. The South Carolina 
Railroad was the first line built with the intention of using: 
steam as a motive force. It began running regular trains 
in 1830, between Charleston and Hamburg, a distance of 
a hundred and thirty miles. 

The next English locomotive shipped to this country was 
\\\Qjokn Bully which was landed at Bordentown and given a 
public trial in November, 183 1. It was successful, and, 
beginning in September, 1833, did good service for thirty 

The railway line between Camden and Perth Amboy was 
completed at the beginning of 1834, and a single track, 
sixty-one miles in length, 
for the first time con- 
nected Philadelphia and 
New York, the water 
portion being the ferry 
at Philadelphia and a 
few miles between Perth 
Amboy and New York. 

The disposition of the 
Camden and Amboy 
Company to experiment 
with locomotives caused the production of a freak engine 

1 The evolution of the locomotive from the John Bull tvpe to the splendid 
exhibition of modern mechanism is interesting. The pilot of the old type projected 
so far in front that it ran on wheels of its own ; the levers on the side of the engineer 
bobbed back and forth, keeping time with the swinging of the piston rods under 
the boiler; the engineer could reverse only on his side, and had to leap across, or 
leave it to his fireman to reverse the other half; a big hogshead served as a water 
tank, and a pile of wood (coal was not used until years afterward) answered for 
fuel. T\\eJohn Bull made the trip from Philadelphia to Chicago and back during 
the Columbian Exposition, under its own steam, and is preserved with care as a 
memento of early railroading days. 

Freak Engine 


which began running in the spring of 1849 3-^d remained 
in use for nearly ten years. It was constructed by Rich- 
ard Norris and Sons, Philadelphia, and named " John 
Stevens." Its most noticeable feature was the driving 
wheels, which were eight feet in diameter. The forward 
end was carried by a six-wheeled truck. The spaces 
between the spokes of the driving wheels were filled with 
wood, an arrangement in use on many other locomo- 
tives. The single pair of drivers placed behind the fire- 
box raised the cab very high. The smokestack was of 
a clumsy pattern, and the whole structure, which burned 
wood, as did all engines in those days, was of unsightly 

These freaks, of which a number were made somewhat 
modified in form, were failures. So little weight rested 
upon the drivers that they slipped. It took a long time for 
them to gain full headway, and they could not handle heavy 
trains. Moreover, they had a strong tendency to jump 
the tracks upon the least provocation. Sometimes they 
would leave the rails without any apparent cause. In favor- 
ing circumstances they could run quite fast. One day one 
of these engines engaged in a race with a running horse 
near Bordentown and easily outdistanced the horse. These 
odd locomotives have long since been displaced by engines 
of modern construction. 

The success of the Camden and Amboy Company 
brought numerous rivals into the field, but the conflicting 
interests were merged, and in 1840 a track was completed 
between Bordentown and Jersey City, which was the first 
railway line to cross the State. In 1871 the united com- 
panies and the Philadelphia and Trenton Company, with 



all their interests, were leased for 999 years to the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Company. The exclusive right to build a 
connecting railway line between New York and Philadelphia 
was held by the Camden and Amboy Company until April 
2, 1873, when the legislature enacted a general railroad 
law, which threw the State open to all railway enterprises. 

One day, somewhat more than a hundred years ago, 
Stephen Vail, an awkward-looking country boy, paying no 
heed to the placard, " Positively no Admittance," strolled 
into the nail factory of Jeremiah H. Pierson, at Ramapo, 
New Jersey. Gazing here and there, he attracted no 
notice at first, but while studying the cut-nail machine, 
Mr. Pierson caught sight of him, and bluntly ordered him 
to leave. The lad apologized and walked out ; but, being 
a natural mechanic, he carried in his head, when he left, a 
perfect picture of the cut-nail machine. Not long there- 
after, a similar one was put up at Dover, which turned out 
enormous quantities of nails at a fine profit. 

Years afterwards Judge Stephen Vail (who acquired 
his title as a lay judge) and Mr. Pierson became friends. 
The latter once remarked that he had often wondered how 
Vail learned to make cut nails, having believed that no one 
besides himself knew the secret, whereupon, to the great 
entertainment of his friend, Judge Vail told of his early 
visit to the Ramapo works. 

In 1804 Stephen Vail became owner of the Speedwell 
Iron Works, which were situated about a mile north of 
Morristown, on the road to Morris Plains at the crossing of 
the Whippany River. Here were made the boiler and shaft 
of the steamship Savannah, which was the first vessel of its 
kind to cross the Atlantic. Here were also manufactured 



the tires, axles, and cranks of the pioneer American locomo- 
tive and the first cast-iron plow. While Professor Samuel 
F. B. Morse was working on his telegraph, he met Alfred 
Vail, a son of Judge Vail, to whom he explained his ideas. 
Alfred became interested in the project and influenced his 
father to furnish the funds to complete the machinery and 
take out the patents. Alfred Vail himself made the machin- 

Speedwell Iron Works 

ery covered' by the patents. The machine was completed 
January 1 1, 1838, and was placed on exhibition in a pattern 
shop, the building of which is still standing on the Vail 
property. It was set on the first floor, and about three 
miles of copper wire, insulated by being wound about with 
cotton yarn, was coiled around the walls of the second 
story. Some of the hooks in the side walls remain, and a 
portion of the wire is preserved. The alphabetical char- 


acters and many of the essential features of the electro- 
magnetic telegraph were the invention of Alfred Vail, who 
was so impressed by the practicability of the crude machine 
when first exhibited, that he agreed to give Professor Morse 
all the aid he needed. Alfred Vail and his brother George 
furnished the impoverished inventor with means, material, 
and labor for experimentation on a larger scale. So help- 
ful was Alfred Vail that Morse assigned to him a one- 
fourth interest in his patent. These two men worked 
together in harmony, and years after Professor Morse 
wrote : " It is especially to the attention and skill and 
faith in the full success of the enterprise maintained by 
Alfred Vail, that is due the success of my endeavors to 
bring the telegraph at that time creditably before the 



New Jersey had fourteen governors under her first con- 
stitution, all of whom were chosen by the legislature. 
Every one was honest, patriotic, and well qualified to fill 
the high office. It is a cause for gratitude and pride to 

every Jersey man that the character of all 
our governors and members of the judi- 
ciary, down to the present time, has been 
almost stainless. Some other States have 
not been so fortunate. The fact is none 
the less remarkable, when we recall that 
New Jersey has been the scene more 
than once of bitter political contests, 
when party spirit ran high and dan- 
ger seemed to threaten. But the skies 
always cleared, and prosperity and ad- 
vancement suffered no check. 

William Livingston, the first governor of the State, 
from 1 776- 1 790, was born at Albany, New York, in 1723, 
and was of Scotch descent. He was graduated from Yale 
at the head of his class, when eighteen years old. He 
became a distinguished lawyer, and removed to Elizabeth- 
town at the age of fifty, having previously bought a tract 
of land in that section. He was appointed as delegate to 
the First Continental Congress, and in 1775, the Provincial 


William Living- 


Congress made him the second brigadier general of the 
militia of the colony. His writings against the wrongful 
measures of England drew wide attention to him. He 
had not received any special military training and gained 
no particular fame in that profession. 

Fortunately Mr. Livingston was transferred to the field 
for which he was best fitted. The first legislature under 

^■^"■' ■-%i: 

4 .^^, ^"::<f/^'^^^>^'/?^" ^,t ^ 

;\^.iaJ>^^%r;?^ I'll" lit*-' 

Liberty Hall, Livingston's Home in Elizabethtown 

the new constitution, which, as we recall, met at Princeton, 
in August, 1776, elected him governor, continuing to do 
so, now and then with slight opposition, until his death in 
•1790. Governor Livingston was very plain in dress and 
habits, possessed no little literary ability, and because of his 
tallness and thinness, he was called by the British the 
" Don Quixote of the Jerseys." He was an earnest Chris- 
tian, and one of the finest patriots of the Revolution. 


William Paterson, who was governor from 1790 to 1793, 
was an Irishman by birth, and was brought to America, 
in 1747, when about two years old. He lived first at 
Trenton, then at Princeton, where he was graduated in 
1763, and finally at Somerville. He studied law and was 
chosen as a delegate to the Provincial Congress in 1775, 
and also to the Congress which met at Burlington in 
June, 1776. When the State government was organized, 
he was made attorney-general, which, during those troub- 
lous times, was a difficult and trying office. He was 
reelected, but when peace came, he resigned the appoint- 
ment and made his home in New Brunswick. He was 
the leader of the delegates sent to Philadelphia in 1787 to 
form a Constitution for the United States. He advocated 
the " New Jersey plan," which aimed to maintain State 
sovereignty, giving to the national government authority 
to provide for the common defense and welfare. The 
result was an excellent compromise. Mr. Paterson was 
chosen as United States senator, with Jonathan Elmer of 
Cumberland county as his colleague, and took his seat in 
March, 1789. He resigned in 1790 upon his appointment 
as governor. He met expectations and was reelected with 
slight opposition. He did an important work in revising 
and remodeling the British statutes, and also in drafting 
such bills as he thought necessary for the consideration of 
the legislature. In 1793 President Washington appointed 
him Justice of the Supreme Court, which office he filled 
with great credit until his death in 1806. 

Richard Howell, governor from 1793 to 1801, was bom 
in Delaware in 1753. When he was fifteen years old, his 
father removed to Cumberland county, near Bridgeton, 


which was the home of the son until his death in 1802. 
He was one of the young men who helped burn the cargo 
of tea on the Greyhotmd, at Greenwich, in 1774. Having 
studied medicine, he served not only as captain and major 
in the New Jersey Continental line, but also as surgeon. 
After removing to Trenton, he was elected clerk of the 
supreme court and chosen governor in 1793. He was 
elected yearly by the Federalists until 1801, when another 
party came into power. The late Mrs. Jefferson Davis 
was a granddaughter of Governor Howell. 

Joseph Bloomfield, governor from 1801 to 1802 and 
from 1803 to 1 8 12, was born at Woodbridge, Middlesex 
county, in 1755. He was licensed as a lawyer at the 
age of twenty, and began practice at Bridgeton. He was 
commissioned as captain in the Third New Jersey Bat- 
talion and in 1776 set out to join the expedition against 
Quebec. Upon reaching Albany, news was received of 
its failure, and the regiment was stationed near Johnston 
Hall on the Mohawk to hold the Indians in check. He was 
appointed judge advocate of the northern army and made 
major, but falling ill, was forced to give up his commission 
in the army. In 1783, when William Paterson resigned 
as attorney-general of the State, Bloomfield was elected 
as his successor. He was reelected in 1788, and resigned 
in 1792. Being made a general of miHtia, he commanded 
a brigade in quelling the Whisky Insurrection in Pennsyl- 
vania in 1794. He was elected governor as a Republican 
in 1801, but a tie prevented his reelection in 1802, during 
which year John Lambert, president of the council, filled 
the office. Bloomfield was elected in 1803 and thereafter 
until 18 1 2. Soon after the declaration of war with Great 


Britain, President Madison appointed him a brigadier gen- 
eral in the army intended for the invasion of Canada. He 
displayed no special military ability and was soon assigned 
to the command of a military district, with headquarters, 
as already stated, at Philadelphia. He served two terms 
in Congress and died in 1823. 

Aaron Ogden, always referred to as ** Colonel," was 
governor for one year from October, 18 12. He was born 
at Elizabethtown in 1756, and was graduated from Prince- 
ton College before he was seventeen years old. During 
the Revolutionary War he entered the army as lieutenant, 
served gallantly, and remained to the close of the war, 
reaching the rank of brigade major and inspector. He 
was twenty-six years of age when he took up the study 
of law with his brother at Elizabethtown, and was licensed 
in 1784. One of the foremost Federalists in the State, 
he was chosen United States senator in February, 1801. 
In 18 1 2 he became commander in chief of the New Jersey 
militia, and for ten years (1829-39) was president of the 
Society of Cincinnati. After his retirement he suffered 
distressing financial reverses, and once was imprisoned for 
debt in New York. The State of New Jersey presented 
him with a tract of land near Jersey City. He was a 
custom-house officer until his death in 1839. 

William Sanford Pennington, governor from 18 13 to 
181 5, was born in Newark, in 1757, and was a farmer boy 
until the breaking out of the Revolution, when he enlisted, 
and by his bravery won a lieutenancy. After the war he 
engaged in mercantile business in Newark and was elected 
to the assembly in 1797, serving for three years. In 1801 
and 1802 he was a member of the council and became a 


prominent Democrat. In 1804 he was chosen associate 
justice of the supreme court and from 18 15 to 1826 was a 
judge of the United States district court. He died in office. 
He was a ''rehable friend, an incorrupt and just judge, 
and an honest man." 

Mahlon Dickerson, governor from 181 5 to 18 17, was 
born in Hanover, NJ., in 1770, was graduated from 
Princeton College in 1789, and practiced law in Pennsyl- 
vania. He was a Democrat and .was active in politics, 
until the death of his father called him to Morris county 
to take charge of the valuable estate left to him. He 
represented that county in the assembly in 18 12 and 18 13, 
and in the latter year was chosen a justice of the supreme 
court. After serving two terms as governor, he was made 
United States senator in 18 17, and retained this office until 
1834, when President Jackson appointed him secretary of 
the navy. He filled that office under Van Buren, but 
soon resigned and retired to private life. He served six 
months as judge of the district court and died in 1853. 

Isaac H. WiUiamson, governor from 18 17 to 1829, was 
born at Elizabethtown in 1767, was licensed as an attorney 
in 1 79 1, as a counselor in 1796, and was called to be a 
sergeant at law in 1804. He gained a lucrative practice 
and attained high rank in his profession. He was admit- 
tedly a great lawyer. In February, 181 7, when Mahlon 
Dickerson became United States senator, Williamson was 
chosen governor. He was reelected with little opposition 
until 1829. Then the Jackson party secured a majority 
in the legislature, and he was displaced by Peter D. Vroom. 
He returned to his profession of law and rapidly regained 
his valuable practice. In 1831 and 1832 he was a member 


of the Council for Essex county, and was unanimously 
chosen, in 1844, president of the convention which framed 
the present constitution of the State. Ill health compelled 
him to resign after a time, and he died before the close 
of the year. 

Peter D. Vroom, governor from 1829 to 183 1 and 
from 1833 to 1836, was born in the township of Hills- 
borough, Somerset county, in Decem- 
ber,- 179 1, and was the youngest son of 
Peter D. Vroom, a respected citizen, 
who served with great credit in the 
Revolution. The son was graduated 
from Columbia College in 1808 and was 
licensed as an attorney in 18 13. He 
became a counselor in 1816 and a ser- 
PeterD. VROOM gg^j^^ .^ jg2g^ He began practice at 

Schooley's Mountain, but after several changes, settled at 
Somerville, where he lived for more than twenty years. 
He took little part in politics, though his sympathies were 
with the Federalists until 1824, when he became an ardent 
supporter of President Jackson, as did his father and 
many leading Federalists. 

Mr. Vroom represented Somerset county in the as- 
sembly in 1826, 1827, and 1829. General Wall having re- 
fused to be the nominee for governor, Mr. Vroom, much 
against his wishes, was induced to accept the office. He 
was reelected in 1830 and 183 1, defeated by the friends 
of Mr. Southard in 1832, but chosen again in 1833, 1834, 
and 1835. Impaired health caused him to decHne a reelec- 
tion in 1836. He resumed practice at Somerville, but served 
as one of the three commissioners, in 1837, appointed by 


President Van Buren to adjust claims to reserves of lands, 
under the treaty made with the Choctaw Indians. He 
entered Congress in 1838, and soon after removed to 
Trenton. As a delegate to the constitutional convention 
of 1844 he took an influential part in the proceedings. In 
conjunction with Henry W. Green, Stacy G. Potts, and 
William L. Dayton, he revised the statutes of the State 
and consolidated the numerous supplements in order that 
they might conform to the new constitution. Governor 
Fort nominated ex-Governor Vroom in 1853 as the suc- 
cessor of Chief Justice Green and the senate confirmed 
the nomination, which, however, was declined by Mr. 

In the same year he was appointed minister to Prussia. 
He resided in Berlin until 1857, when he was recalled at 
his own request. He resumed in Trenton his profession 
as an advocate, his business being confined mainly to argu- 
ments in the higher courts. He was one of the nine New 
Jersey commissioners to the Peace Convention, which met 
in Washington in February, 1861. The late William C. 
Alexander said of him : " He was uniformly kind, gentle, 
and acceptable, and his colleagues naturally and justly re- 
garded him as the Nestor of the delegation, both as re- 
gards age and wisdom." We know that this patriotic 
effort failed, due, as Mr. Vroom said, to the radicals north 
and south. Governor Vroom belonged to the finest type 
of the gentleman of the old school, was an earnest Chris- 
tian, and had long stood at the head of the bar in New 
Jersey, when he died in November, 1873. 

Samuel L. Southard, who was governor from 1832 to 
1833, was born in Baskingridge in 1787. His father 

HIST. N.J. — II 


served for many years in Congress and was a man of 
marked ability. Thie son was graduated from Princeton in 
1804, and spent five years as a tutor in Virginia, during 
which time he studied law. He took up his residence at 
Flemington, the county seat of Hunterdon county,, and 
acquired a good practice. He was elected a member of 
the assembly, and in 181 5 became associate justice of 
the supreme court. Five years later he was chosen 
United States senator, in which office his brilliant talents 
attracted wide attention. In 1823 he became secretary 
of the navy, serving till 1829. He was chosen attorney- 
general of the State in that year, and was governor, as 
stated, in 1833. From that year until 1842 he was again 
United States senator. He died in the latter year. 

Elias P. Seeley succeeded Southard as governor in 1833, 
when the latter was sent to the United States senate, and 
held the office for a few months. He was born in Cumber- 
land county in 1791, and was licensed as an attorney in 
181 5. He was an honest and capable official, but does 
not rank among the distinguished governors of New 
Jersey, though he might have done so had he held the 
office longer. He was chosen several times afterward 
to the legislature and died in 1846. 

Governor Vroom now served for three terms more, 
1 833-1 836, after which, owing to ill health, he declined 

Philemon Dickerson, who was governor from 1836 to 
1837, was a brother of Mahlon Dickerson. He was born 
in Morris county in 1788. He was licensed as an attorney 
in 18 13, and, settling in Paterson, practiced law. In 
1833 he was sent to the assembly. He was two years a 


member of Congress, and was chosen governor in 1836. 
The following year the Whigs prevented his reelection. 
He was elected again to Congress in 1838, but the election 
contest prevented him and others from taking their seats 
till 1840. President Van Buren appointed him judge of 
the district court in 1841. He held the office until his 
death in 1862. 

William Pennington, who was governor from 1837 to 
1843, was the son of Governor William S. Pennington, 
and like him was born in Newark. The date of his birth 
was 1796. He was graduated from Princeton College in 
18 13 and began the practice of law in his native city. He 
represented Essex county in the assembly in 1828. In 
1837 the Whig majority elected him governor and con- 
tinued to do so until 1843, when the Democrats chose 
Daniel Haines. Mr. Pennington's good sense, honesty, 
geniality, and a certain wit made him very popular as the 
foremost Whig leader in the State. He was elected in 
1858 to Congress. A bitter strife arose over the choice 
of Speaker of the House, which ended at the close of two 
months with the election of Mr. Pennington. His fair- 
ness and tact won the respect of his opponents. He died 
in February, 1862, his death hastened, if not caused, by 
an overdose of morphine, given through the mistake of a 

The last governor under the first constitution was 
Daniel Haines, governor from 1843 to January, 1845, and 
from 1848 to 185 1. He was born in the city of New York, 
in 1 80 1. He was graduated from Princeton in 1820, 
admitted to the bar three years later, and settled, in 1824, 
at Hamburg, Sussex county. He served two terms in the 


legislature and refused another reelection. The Demo- 
cratic majority chose him governor in 1843. He did 
much to advance the cause of education, and helped in 
the passage of a law which called a convention to frame 
a new constitution. By virtue of one of its provisions, he 
continued in office until the inauguration of his successor, 
Charles C. Stratton, in January, 1845. In 1847 ^^ ^^'^^ 
made the Democratic nominee for governor and was 
elected by a good majority. He served three years, 
and then resumed the practice of his profession. He was 
once associated with Daniel Webster in trying the Good- 
year Rubber Patent cases. In November, 1852, he took 
his seat as justice of the supreme court and held the 
office till his death in 1877. 

This closes the list of the men who served New Jersey 
as governors under the first constitution, a period of not 
quite threescore and ten years. Nearly every one who 
followed belonged to the same noble stamp. As we have 
said, the record is a cause for pride and gratitude to all 
Jerseymen. It would be interesting to study also the 
lives of the later governors whose achievements have 
increased the prosperity and glory of the State, but in 
this book we can give only their names, which will be 
found in the Appendix. 

STITUTION (1844- ) 



New Jersey had long outgrown the constitution of 1776. 
The organic law had fallen far behind modern ideas, and 
some of its terms had become absurd. Thus, if Queen 
Victoria had notified the authorities of the State, in 1840, 
that she would grant their demands, they, in order to obey 
the constitution, would have had to renew their allegiance 
to Great Britain. Of course such a thing was never likely 
to occur, but the law was as has been stated. 

There were other features almost as distasteful. For 
instance, no man could vote unless he was worth 1^250. 
A similar law caused a rebellion in Rhode Island in 1842. 
Moreover, if an inhabitant of New Jersey declared that 
he was worth the sum named, and had lived for one 
year in the State, he could vote for State and Federal 
representatives without taking the oath of allegiance, 
no matter if he was a slave or even a vicious foreigner. 
Women also voted until November, 1807, when the right 
was taken from them. The governor had more power 
than any officer of the same rank in the United States. 
. The agitation for revision of the constitution became so 
insistent that the legislature called a convention to formu- 
late amendments to it. 


1 68 


Delegates were elected and met in Trenton, March i8, 
1844. They were sixty in number, chosen according to 
the representation of each county in the assembly. 
Among them were the ablest citizens in the State, includ- 
ing men who had been or were to be chief justices and 
justices of the supreme court. United States senators, and 

State Capitol, Trenton (1794) 

governors of the State. The interests of New Jersey could 
not have been placed in safer hands. 

The convention completed its labors June 28, and for- 
mally adopted the constitution as amended. The only 
member who did not vote was a delegate from Burlington 
county, who belonged to the Society of Friends. He was 
excused because of the military features in the proposed 
changes. Not quite two months later the new constitution 
was submitted to the people. Six sevenths of all the votes 



cast were in favor of its adoption. It thus became the 
fundamental law of the State. 

The principal amendments to the old constitution were : 
The election of the governor was taken from the joint 
meeting of the legislature and given to the people; his 
term was made three years, and he could not be chosen a 

Statehouse, Trenton (1910) 

second time, until after another governor had served one 
term ; he was no longer chancellor, that office being filled 
by a person specially appointed. The right to vote was 
given to every male citizen of the United States who had 
lived one year in the State and five months immediately 
before the election in the county where he wished to vote. 
Suffrage was denied to every pauper, idiot, insane person, 
and person convicted of a crime, which excluded him 


"from being a witness, unless he was pardoned, or re- 
stored by law to the right of suffrage." 

The State is one among twenty-nine in which at present 
school suffrage for women prevails in some form. New 
Jersey differs from most of the other States in that its 
judges are appointed by the governor and confirmed by 
the senate, instead of being elected by the people. 

As in the case of the national constitution, it has been 
found necessary from time to time to add amendments to 
the constitution of New Jersey. One of these prohibits 
special legislation and directs that taxable property shall 
be assessed under general laws and by uniform rules, 
based on its actual value. Another amendment forbids 
State grants to any municipal corporation, society, associ- 
ation, or industrial corporation. A later amendment gave 
a death blow to gambling at race tracks. 

Every boy and girl should learn the chief provisions of 
the constitution, and study the questions upon which the 
voters . will be required to cast their ballots. It is the 
duty of all voters to show an active interest in politics 
and public matters. They should strive to gain a right 
view of such questions, and then make sure that, so far 
as possible, honest, trustworthy, and competent persons 
are elected to office. In no other way can politics be 
purified, corruption stamped out, and the blessings of good 
government secured. 




The new constitution of New Jersey was no more than 
fairly in operation, when the United States became in- 
volved in a war with Mexico. The immense but sparsely 
settled region known as Texas belonged to that country. 
Texas declared herself free and, after a hard struggle, won 
her independence in 1836. She was a republic for several 
years, and then asked to be admitted into the American 

The question of the admission of Texas roused bitter 
feeling in the United States. The South favored granting 
the request, because it would add a vast slave area to the 
country. The majority in the North opposed the petition 
for the same reason. Moreover, Mexico refused to ac- 
knowledge the independence of her former province. 
None the less, Texas formally entered the Union at the 
close of 1845, and asked our government to protect her 
against the armed forces of Mexico. 

Fighting began a few months later, and was kept up 
until the surrender of the city of Mexico in the autumn of 
1847. Peace was made soon afterward and an immense 
extent of territory came into our possession. The Mexican 
soldiers of those days could bear no comparison with ours, 
and the campaign in their country was a series of Ameri- 
can victories. 



New Jersey acted a valiant part in the war with Mexico, 
as she has done in all the wars in which our country has 
been engaged. General Stephen Watts Kearny, member 
of a distinguished family of this State, who had served 
throughout the War of 18 12, established a civil govern- 
ment in Santa Fe and fought the battle of San Pasqual, 
the brilliant success of which made him a major general. 
In 1847 he was appointed governor of California. 

Commodore Robert F. Stockton, a still more famous 
Jerseyman, who had also served in the navy in the War 
of 18 12, joined with John C. Fremont in the conquest of 
California. He captured Los Angeles and organized a 

New Jersey favored the Mexican war from the first. 
The presidential call for troops named the quota of the 
State as five companies of infantry, organized as a bat- 
talion. Only four were made ready, and they left New 
York Harbor in time to join in the triumphant advance of 
General Scott from Vera Cruz to the capital of Mexico. 

The conflict with our *' next-door neighbor" and the 
later one with Spain were only skirmishes as compared 
with the stupendous war that raged from 1861 to 1865. 
In that struggle Americans were pitted against Americans, 
and the . contest was the most terrific of modern times. 
Slavery was the cause of the War for the Union. When, 
in 16 19, the little band of negroes was brought from 
Africa to Jamestown, Virginia, and sold to the settlers, the 
seed was sown whose awful har\^est was gathered nearly 
two and a half centuries later. Slavery spread to all the 
colonies and was as legal as the ownership of horses and 
cattle. The climate in the northern States was not favor- 


able to the institution, but in the South it was. So, as the 
years went on, slavery disappeared north of ** Mason and 
Dixon's line." This line, which was run during colonial 
times by two surveyors named Mason and Dixon, marked 
the boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland. After 
a while it served to show the division between the free and 
the slave States. 

These are not the pages in which to tell the story of the 
Civil War. That belongs elsewhere, and we shall merely 
glance at the services of New Jersey in the great struggle, 
whose results will be felt for ages to come. On the second 
morning after the surrender of Fort Sumter, President Lin- 
coln called for seventy-five thousand volunteers with which 
to enforce the national authority. Hardly a man, North 
or South, had the remotest idea of the gigantic nature of 
the impending conflict. 

The quota which New Jersey was first required to furnish 
was 3123 men. More than three times that number were 
eager to volunteer. The funds offered by the banks and in- 
dividuals exceeded half a million dollars. In two weeks the 
four regiments were ready for service. The legislature was 
convened in extra session, April 30, and acts were passed, 
authorizing the chief cities to issue bonds, from whose sales 
the families of volunteers were to be cared for. A State loan 
of $2,000,000 was ordered, and measures were taken for the 
formation of new regiments, river and coast defenses, and 
for the purchase of arms and military stores. 

President Lincoln's first call was for three months' vol- 
unteers. The New Jersey brigade was mustered into the 
United States service at Trenton, May i, 1861, and was 
the first to reach Washington, which was then in danger 



of capture by the Confederates. During the disastrous 

battle of Bull Run (July 21, 1861) the brigade was held 

in reserve ; but it was mustered out ten days later, without 

having taken part in the hostilities. 

The second presidential call for troops, issued May 3, 

1 86 1, demanded men to serve for three years or the war. 

The quota of New Jer- 
sey was three regiments. 
When the government 
asked for them, Gov- 
ernor Olden replied that 
they were ready and 
awaiting orders. A bat- 
tery and another regi- 
ment were added in July 
to the three regiments, 
the whole being known 
as the first New Jer- 
sey brigade. It served 
throughout the war and 
took a gallant part in 
many of the hardest 
fought battles. General 
Philip Kearny, who 

served with distinction in many of the campaigns of the 

Civil War, was for some time commander of this brigade. 
The second brigade was raised under the third call (July 

24, 1 861), and included four regiments of infantry and a 

battery, which also saw severe service. 

About a year later, the President called for three hundred 

thousand more volunteers to serve for three years or until 

General Philip Kearny 



the close of the war. New Jersey's quota of five regiments 
was furnished with the same promptness as before. In 
addition she placed a regiment of cavalry in the field. So 
quick was our State to provide all the volunteers called 
for, that there was no draft, as there was elsewhere, to 
meet the demands of the national government. Moreover, 
thousands of Jerseymen enlisted in other States. Of the 
troops whose service ranged from four years to one hun- 
dred days, New Jersey provided 79,348, with 8957 addi- 
tional men not credited to her. The total call was 78,248, 
and the whole number furnished was 88,305.^ 

The State never paid any bounty, but townships, muni- 
cipal authorities, and counties gave millions of dollars for 
volunteers. No soldiers displayed greater bravery in the 
field. To gain a true idea of what these troops did for 
their country, one must read the full history of the great 
war itself. The character of the patriots was shown by 
the declaration of General Philip Kearny. A desperate 
enterprise had been intrusted to him. He asked the privi- 
lege of selecting the men who were to undertake the dar- 
ing work. His superior officer inquired what troops he 

*' Give me Jerseymen," he said ; " tJicy ne'-oer fliiicJi ! " 
Joel Parker was the "War Governor" of New Jersey. 
Like many of his fellow-Democrats, he strongly opposed 
hostilities until the firing on Fort Sumter. He then bo- 
came one of the most ardent supporters of the national 
government. He was elected governor in 1862 and served 
until 1866. During the Confederate invasion of Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1863, he sent several organized regiments thither 

1 Francis Bazley Lee's " New Jersey as a Colony and a State." 



for the protection of the State, and was so prompt and 
vigorous in aiding the administration that President Lin- 
coln warmly thanked him. He estabhshed a method of 
settling the war debt by which not a bond of New Jersey 
sold for less than par, and when peace came, the State 
treasury had a surplus of 3200,000. 

Born in Freehold in 18 16, Governor Parker was the 
finest type of Jerseyman. He was physically large, genial, 

and patriotic, and was regarded with 
affection throughout the State. Few 
men were as widely esteemed as he. 
He was proud of New Jersey, and 
delivered addresses many times on its 
Revolutionary history. In 1868 the 
New Jersey delegation to the Demo- 
cratic national convention unanimously 
Joel Parker supported his nomination for the presi- 

dency. He was governor again in 1870, and at the close 
of his term became attorney-general. He was appointed 
justice of the supreme court in 1880 
and reappointed in 1887, having de- 
clined, in 1883, a third nomination for 
governor. He died in 1888. 

With the surrender of Lee at Ap- 
pomattox in April, 1865, the chapter of 
warfare and disunion came to an end and 
the beginnings were made of a Union 
that is destined to last as the hope of 
the world through the coming centuries. 

General George B. McClellan, at one time commander 
of the Army of the Potomac, was always popular in New 

General George B. 



Arranging Lee's Surrender 

Jersey. He was elected governor by a large majority in 
1879 2.nd served with great acceptability, dying at his 
home on Orange Mountain in 1885. 

The United States remained at peace for a generation 
following the close of the War for the Union. Small 
threatening clouds appeared once or twice in the sky, but 
quickly dissolved and left the sunlight as clear as before. 
Then came a war of a kind rarely heard of among nations, 
for it was waged solely in behalf of suffering humanity, 
and without a selfish thought on the part of the United 

The Spanish rule in Cuba was so cruel that the world 
was horrified. The beautiful, fertile island lies so near our 
doors that our sympathy was deeply stirred. It is, how- 
ever, doubtful whether our government ever would have 
intervened, except for an incident which roused Americans 


to irrestrainable rage. That incident was the blowing up 
of the battleship Maine^ in the harbor of Havana, on the 
night of February 15, 1898. The shattered warship went 
down in a few minutes, carrying 266 officers and men to 
their deaths. An investigation seemed to point directly to 
the Spaniards, or their sympathizers, as the perpetrators 
of this crime. It is only just to say, however, that their 
guilt in this matter has never been established as a certainty. 

Our government notified Spain that she must withdraw 
her land and naval forces from Cuba at once, on pain of 
having them driven out. Spain refused, and the war which 
followed lasted about three months and a half. The 
Spanish forces were overwhelmingly defeated on land and 
water, and Spain had no choice but to surrender Cuba and' 
the Philippines. 

In this insignificant struggle President McKinley asked 
for one hundred and twenty-five thousand volunteers to serve 
for two years. The quota of New Jersey was three regi- 
ments of infantry, each organized into three battalions of 
four companies each. All were mustered into service by 
May 15. A later demand required another New Jersey 
regiment of twelve companies. 

Before the beginning of the war, but when it was cer- 
tain to come, the Navy Department called upon the Naval 
Reserves to furnish seamen to serve on the vessels of the 
navy. In accordance with a general plan, the Montank 
was refitted at League Island, Philadelphia, for duty off 
Portland, Maine. Several detachments of officers and 
men reported for duty on the Montauky but she was not 
fully ready until the latter part of April. 

Meanwhile the government had asked Governor Voor- 



hees for a detachment of men, who served on the Resolute. 
In the destruction of Admiral Cervera's fleet, the Resolute 
was under fire from a shore battery. Afterward, she 
carried prisoners from the C0I071, and then sailed for New 
York, where she received nurses and stores for the sick 
and wounded. She joined the U.S.S. Newark in bom- 


barding Manzanillo, but before the bombardment was com- 
pleted, the assailants were notified that the protocol of 
peace had been signed. 

A strong battalion of the East was mustered into the 
United States service in May and soon sailed on the 
Badger for Provincetown, Massachusetts, to report for duty 
with the North Atlantic patrol squadron. She next went 
to Key West and to Havana, where she helped in blockad- 
ing that port. Then she joined the blockading fleet off 
Nuevitas. The Badger was the flagship of Commodore 
Watson for a few days. At the conclusion of hostilities, 

HIST. NJ. — 12 


she sailed north and the detachment was mustered out of 

Cuba was freed from the oppressive rule of Spain, and 
the United States, having seen the Republic established, 
withdrew its authority from the island on May 20, 1902. 
Our flag was hauled down at the Government Palace, 
Havana, and that of Cuba took its place. Thus we 
showed the world that we were honest in our declara- 
tion that our sole purpose in intervening was to relieve the 
suffering people from their oppressors. 

Political disturbances in Cuba, however, became so 
serious in 1906 that our government was obliged to inter- 
vene in the interests of law and order. The military occu- 
pation begun at that time continued until March 31, 1909, 
when the island was evacuated by American troops. Dur- 
ing the occupancy benefits were conferred upon Cuba which 
will be felt for generations to come. 



At the opening of the twentieth century New Jersey 
had seven cities, each with more than sixty thousand in- 
habitants, viz. Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, Trenton, 
Camden, EHzabeth, and Hoboken. Although half the 
State is uncleared forest land, Massachusetts and Rhode 
Island are the only States that are more densely populated. 

Newark leads all the other cities with a population, in 
1910, of 347,469. Founded in 1666, less than half a cen- 
tury after the landing 
of the Pilgrims at 
Plymouth, it is one of 
the oldest towns in the 
country. When the lit- 
tle band from Connecti- 
cut put up their huts on 
the marshy lowlands, 
New Jersey was a wil- 
derness, through which 
roamed wild animals and 
equally wild Indians. 

One of the first things done by those pioneers was to 
build a small church which stood nearly opposite the pres- 


First Church, Newark 



Early View of Newark and the Passaic River 


ent First Presbyterian Church. Two men with loaded 
guns kept watch in the cupola during service for the In- 
dians who never came, and one fourth of the male adults 
brought their weapons to church, just as they had been 
accustomed to do in New England. 

If the village grew slowly, it was prosperous from the 
beginning. At the end of ten years, it had, in addition to 
the church, an inn, a grist mill, and a stanch boat which 
carried the produce to Elizabethtown and New York and 
brought back the purchases made in those places. Gov- 
ernor Carteret wrote home glowing praises of the Newark 
cider. John Catlin opened a school in 1676. The parents 
of those who attended had to pay for the privilege. Al- 
though new settlers came from Connecticut, the malaria 
from the marshes kept others away. One hundred years 
after the first cabin was put together, Newark contained 
less than a thousand people. The first charter was granted 
in 1712. 

The awakening came early in the last century. The 
little town was well known for its excellent shoes, harnesses, 
wagons, and carriages, all of which were in wide demand. 
Moses Combs was the first manufacturer in Newark. His 
boots and shoes were popular in the South, and he grew 
wealthy. Then Seth Boyden arrived at the close of the 
War of 18 1 2; and did a service for the town and for the 
country itself, which will always be remembered with grati- 
tude. He was a genius in the way of invention. His 
foundry produced the finest of tools and machines. He 
invented a method of casting malleable iron. He discov- 
ered that electricity not only descends from the sky to the 
earth, but often passes from the earth to. the sky. 



Seth Boyden was the first man to make patent leather. 
He also experimented with the little wild strawberry, until he 

evolved the big, luscious 
deUcacy that is a delight 
to everybody. 

While on the high 
tide of prosperity, New- 
ark was smitten by the 
''hard times" of 1837. 
It looked for a while as 
if the town were doomed 
to ruin. Men who were 
wealthy one day dropped 
to the depths of poverty 
the next day. Gaunt, 
famishing workmen 
tramped up and down 
the streets, vainly look- 
ing for the mxeans to earn 
the price of a loaf of 
bread. It was years before Newark recovered from the 
staggering blow. When it did rally, however, its prosperity 
was greater than before. 

The first step had been taken in 18 13 to furnish free pub- 
lic schools for the children of the poor. In 1833 legislative 
permission was obtained to divide the city into four wards, 
and in 1836 the present school system was established. 
It was in April of the latter year that Newark became a 
real city, and began lighting its streets with oil lamps. 
Ten years later gas took their place. In 1840 the popula- 
tion was 17,000. It doubled in the next ten years, and 

Monument to Seth Boyden 


in the following ten years doubled again. At the opening 
of the War for the Union, its inhabitants numbered 75,000. 
With its population of about 350,000 in 19 10, it ranks as 
the fourteenth city in the United States. 

The coming of the thread manufactories, varnish factories, 
chemical manufactories, jewelry and electrical shops added 
to the wealth of the city. The leather industry had much 
to do with Newark's growth, and the making of machinery, 
wearing apparel, and small metal articles was largely carried 
on: The manufacture of jewelry naturally caused that of 
silverware and watch cases. Newark supplies a large part 
of the world's watch cases. 

Emperor William of Germany pronounced the silverware 
made at the Newark plant of Tiffany and Company the 
finest exhibition of workmanship of its kind ever produced 
in any country in the world. It was in Newark that 
Thomas A. Edison established his first large workshop, 
although his later experiments were conducted at Menlo 
Park, NJ. The 765 manufacturing plants of i860 have 
become 1800, and the capital invested in industry has 
grown from $14,000,000 to nearly $160,000,000, while 
the value of the yearly marketed product has increased 
from $28,000,000 to more than $200,000,000. 

The schools of Newark are among the best in the Union, 
its houses of worship are so numerous that it has been called 
the " City of Churches," and its public buildings are beauti- 
ful and impressive. Among them is the Free Library, 
one of the finest in the State. Its principal charitable in- 
stitutions are the City Reform School, the Orphan Asylum, 
the Home for the Friendless, and St. Barnabas and St. 
Michael hospitals. 



Jersey City, with a population in 191 o of 267,779, ranks 
second in New Jersey. It contains the sites of the earhest 
settlements. Jersey City, as at present constituted, was 
formed by the consolidation of Bergen, Hudson City, and 
Greenville with the original and smaller Jersey City, in the 
years 1869-73, and includes within its boundaries Paulus 
Hook, Communipaw, and Harsimus, places prominent in the 

Early View of Communipaw 

early history of the section. All these were included in the 
tract granted to Michael Pauw in 1630 and called Pavonia, 
As we have seen, settlements were begun at Bergen and 
other parts of Pavonia about the time that Manhattan Is- 
land was first occupied, or soon thereafter. These settle- 
ments were rendered insecure by reason of troubles with 
the Indians. After the land lying between the Hudson 
River on the east and Newark Bay and the Hackensack 
Riv^er on the west had been purchased from the Indians 
by Governor Stuyvesant and the Council of New Nether- 


land in 1658, the settlers petitioned for permission to estab- 
lish a village on the land behind Communipaw. The peti- 
tion was granted on August 16, 1660. Bergen was accord- 
ingly founded as a village in 1660, and was laid out by 
Jacques Cortelyou, the first surveyor of New Amsterdam. 
It had the form of a square, each side being 800 feet long, 
and was fortified by a stockade, erected on the sides of the 
square. In the middle of the square an open space 225 
feet long and 160 feet wide, was reserved. The remaining 
space was divided into lots and allotted to the settlers. 
Although their farms, which were called "buytentuyn," 
extended for some distance beyond the village, the settlers 
were required to have their homes within the stockade, so 
that they might be able to protect themselves against the 
attacks of the Indians. The plan of the village is still pre- 
served. In place of the stockade we have city streets, and 
the open space in the middle is retained as Bergen Square. 
A local court of justice was estabhshed September 5, 1661. 

A site for a village was also surveyed by Cortelyou 
in 1660 at Communipaw and a palisade was afterwards 
erected. In order that the settlers of Bergen and Com- 
munipaw might be able to reach New Amsterdam more 
easily, a ferry was established at Communipaw in 1661. 

That the founders of Bergen were solicitous about the 
education of their children is shown by the fact that when 
the village was laid out, one plot was reserved as a site for 
the village school. This is the first site in the State used 
for school purposes, and on it is located the present im- 
posing School No. II, the fifth, probably, to be erected on 
this plot. Soon after the founding of Bergen, the first 
school was established in 1662, under the charge of Engel- 

1 88 


bert Stuynhuysen. He was the first teacher in New Jersey 
of whom there is any record. The first school building was 
erected in 1664. 

The Dutch settlers of Bergen were also the first to or- 
ganize a church, in 1660. The first church building was 

erected about 1662. In Bergen, 
therefore, were established the 
first municipal government, the 
first church, and the first school 
of the State. 

On September 22, 1668, Gov- 
ernor Carteret granted a new 
charter to the town of Bergen. 
The settlement grew rapidly. 
The inhabitants were industri- 
ous, and devoted themselves 
earnestly to clearing and cul- 
tivating their lands. They found 
a ready market for their crops in 
New York, and enjoyed the prosperity of a peaceful and 
successful farming community to the time of the Revolu- 
tionary War, during which they were loyal to the cause of 
the colonies, and suffered much from the frequent raids of 
British soldiers. The town of Bergen was rechartered 
March 24, 1855. It was chartered as a city in April, 1868. 
The original and smaller Jersey City included at first 
only Paulus Hook, but was subsequently enlarged to include 
all the lowland immediately adjacent to the Hudson River, 
and extending to Bergen. The location, directly opposite 
the metropolis of the country, marked it as the site of one 
of the future great cities of the country. Paulus Hook, 

. .-■••*Y---''<'''N/r*''^*'' 

Church at Bergen jn 1680 


for over a century, had been owned by a single family, — 
the Van Vorsts. A ferry, erected before the Revolution 
(in 1764), connected it with New York, and it was the 
starting point of the stage line to Philadelphia. A score 
of stages entered and left Paulus Hook daily. 

The tract, containing 117 acres, was conveyed to 
Anthony Dey in March, 1804. Cornelius van Vorst 
was to receive in payment, six thousand "Spanish-milled 
dollars," secured by an irredeemable mortgage. This tract 
was inclosed by the Hudson River, Harsimus Bay, Commu- 
nipaw Bay, and a straight line running between the two 
bays. The population of Paulus Hook at that time did 
not number twenty persons. 

In January, 1820, the City of Jersey was incorporated by 
the legislature. Another charter was granted in 1829, a 
better system of government was organized, and new indus- 
tries were brought into the town. In 1838 the city was 
incorporated as Jersey City, with a mayor and common 

Hudson City and Greenville originally formed parts of 
Bergen and as such are associated with its eventful history. 
They were established as separate municipalities in April, 
1855 and March, 1863, respectively. As has been stated, 
Jersey City, Bergen, Hudson City, and Greenville were 
consolidated into a greater Jersey City. 

The charter of the consolidated city has undergone 
many changes, but its growth has been amazing. It is the 
terminal of the leading railway lines of the country ; it 
contains the docks of important transatlantic steamship 
companies; and is connected with New York by numerous 
steam ferries and by tunnels. There are plans for span- 



ning the Hudson by a great bridge similar to those which 
now join Manhattan and Brooklyn. 

The generosity of New Jersey in providing for education 
is strikingly illustrated in Jersey City. All the schools are 
sanitary structures of the finest type. The High School 
building recently completed cost $520,000. It is sur- 


Columbian Academy, erected in Bergen in 1790 

rounded by ten acres of ground, which, at an expense of 
$100,000, has been converted into a public park. The 
Free Public Library is a beautiful building, containing 
one of the largest collections of books in the State. 

Jersey City ships a vast amount of grain, and its manu- 
factures include foundry and machine products, railroad 
cars, refined sugar and molasses, dressed meats, tobacco, 
rubber and silk goods, chemicals, lumber, malt liquors. 


watches, iron, steel, brass, zinc, pencils, soap, and candles. 
The population passed the quarter-million mark before 
1910 and is steadily increasing. 

Paterson, with a population in 19 10 of 125,600, ranks 
third. It owes its existence to the Passaic Falls, which 
afford the finest water power in the State. Alexander 
Hamilton saw the possibilities of the section, and, in 1791, 
secured from the New Jersey legislature an act incorpo- 
rating a society, which by means of elaborate plans in- 
tended to develop the water power and lay the foundations 
of an important city. The scheme, however, made no 
headway until 1831, when Paterson, — named for Governor 
William Paterson, who signed the act incorporating the 
city, ^was cut off from the old township of Acquackanonk. 
The city was incorporated in 1851. 

Paterson has prospered to a remarkable degree. It 
was long famous for the manufacture of locomotives. Its 
superb triumphs of mechanism have gone to every part of 
the globe. When Commodore Perry made his first visit 
tg^ Japan, in 1853, he laid a short railway track, over which 
a small locomotive and cars were run. The Japanese were 
filled with admiring wonder, for never before had they 
seen anything of the kind. The engine had been specially 
ordered for this exhibition from Paterson. 

In 1902 a conflagration destroyed the business center 
and a large portion of the residential district of Paterson. 
The year following, a flood desolated the city, and in the 
year succeeding that, a cyclone spread death and destruc- 
tion on every hand. The property loss from these visita- 
tions amounted to ^12,000,000. The sympathy of the 
whole country, and of peoples across the ocean, was stirred. 



All the kind offers of help, however, were gratefully but 
sturdily declined. Paterson set an example for munici- 
palities elsewhere by refusing to receive any aid from out- 
side sources. With splendid vigor, courage, and wisdom, 
the city repaired its waste places, and upon the ruins of 
the old, erected a greater city than existed before. 

Silk Mill,^ Paterson 

The city leads all others in the Union in the silk industry 
and ranks fifth in manufactures. Its principal products 
are those of the foundry and machine shop, cotton and 
linen thread, flax, hemp, and jute goods, paper, and chemi- 

Trenton, the fourth city in point of population, had 96,815 
inhabitants in 19 10. We have learned in previous pages 
of the early history of Trenton. As the capital of New 



Jersey, it contains the most important State institutions. 
The first Capitol or State House was buih at a cost of less 
than $20,000, but it has since been improved, added to, 
beautified, and rebuilt, until it is one of the finest struc- 
tures of its kind in the Union. 

The State Arsenal was erected in 1797 and was used for 
a time as the State Prison. Among its interesting relics 

Trenton Pottery 

are a French bronze gun of the date of 1758, a gun cap- 
tured at the battle of Trenton, and two taken at Yorktown. 
The Lunatic Asylum, known as the State Hospital, was 
opened for the reception of patients in May, 1848. Its 
capacity has been increased from time to time and it now 
accommodates about 1 500 patients. Its location, two miles 
north of the city, was chosen because of a large spring 
of the purest water. The legend is that when General 
Sullivan and his command were on their way to Trenton, 


to take part in the battle of December 26, 1776, they 
halted and slaked their thirst at this famous fountain. 

Trenton leads all other cities in the country in the pro- 
duction of pottery, and its iron rolling and woolen mills 
have long been important. Rubber manufactures have of 
late years assumed great prominence. The city contains 
the Normal and Model Schools (see pages 209, 210), the 
State Home for Girls, the State Prison, and the School for 
Deaf Mutes. 

Camden, with a population in 1910 of 94,538, ranks fifth 
among the cities of New Jersey. Its situation as regards 
Philadelphia is similar to that of Jersey City in relation to 
New York. For more than a century Camden was a 
drowsy hamlet, content to slumber in the shadow of the 
city across the river, that had once been the most populous 
in the Union and the capital of the young Republic. But 
the construction of the Camden and Amboy railroad, the 
West Jersey system, the Camden and Atlantic, and other 
railway lines gave an impetus to settlement and enterprise, 
and Camden soon took rank among the most prosperous 
cities in the State. It has extensive iron works, shipyards, 
cotton and woolen mills, and many manufacturing interests. 
It was chartered in 1828, when its population was less than 

Elizabeth, the sixth city, had in 1910 a population of 
73,409. Much of the early history of this city has been 
recorded in previous pages. It was settled in 1664 by a 
company from Long Island, being then known as Eliza- 
bethtown. It was chartered as the borough of Elizabeth in 
1789, incorporated as a town in 1796, chartered as a city 
in 1855, and rechartered in 1863. It is an important rail- 


road junction and coaling port. It has the most extensive 
sewing machine works in the world and is also known for 
its large industries in cars, cordage, pumps, foundries, and 

Hoboken, the seventh city in rank, had a population in 
1910 of 70,324. It was only a short time after the Revo- 
lution that John Stevens bought the site of the present city 
of Hoboken. He saw its future ; but when he divided the 
ground into building lots, and offered them for sale in 
1804, Paukis Hook proved the greater attraction. He 
knew, however, that his reward would soon come. The 
great city of New York overflows in all directions, and the 
ever increasing army of commuters make their homes 
among the outlying towns on both sides of the river. 
Hoboken was chartered as a city in 1855. The growth of 
Hoboken has been almost unparalleled. The city contains 
extensive iron foundries, a large coal and iron trade, and is 
the terminus of several important steamship lines. Edwin 
A. Stevens, through his will, richly endowed the Stevens 
Institute of Technology in Hoboken, and it was opened in 
1871. The institution ranks among the foremost of its 
kind in the United States. 

Bayonne, with its immense coal docks and petroleum 
refineries, is growing rapidly, and the number of inhabi- 
tants in 1910 was 55,545. Bayonne and Union townships 
were organized in 1861, and the city of Bayonne in 1869. 
Its population at that date was barely one tenth of what it 
is to-day. 

New Jersey has long been the watering place of the na- 
tion. The seashore resorts are crowded every summer, and 
many of them have a large resident population. Long 
msT. N.J.— 13 



Branch, Cape May, Asbury Park, Ocean Grove, Avon, 
Bay Head, and Atlantic City are the most popular. The 
growth of the last-named city has been phenomenal. 

Beach at Atlantic City, New Jersey 

Every possible attraction is provided there, and visitors are 
drawn thither from every part of the Union. 

The climate is so invigorating and equable that it has 
become a favorite winter resort. Thousands who have 
been accustomed to spend the cold months in Florida and 
the South have found Atlantic City so much superior that 
they are glad to seek health and strength in this enterpris- 
ing city by the sea. 


The United States has one of the longest Hnes of coast 
in the world. Including the Great Lakes, it is more than 
ten thousand miles in extent, and no coast is more danger- 
ous than the shore of New Jersey. It is said that if all the 
vessels wrecked between Sandy Hook and Little Egg Har- 
bor could be placed end to end, the line would not show 
a break anywhere between those points. 

Two causes make the approach to New York so peril- 
ous. The coasts of Long Island and New Jersey con- 
verge toward the metropolis, so that a ship, when caught 
in one of the tempests that sometimes sweep across the 
ocean, has to. choose upon which shore it will be stranded. 
Again, a bar runs parallel with the beach at a varying 
distance therefrom of two hundred yards to half a mile. 
The water on this bar is about two feet deep, so that a 
vessel driven toward shore strikes long before it can get 
within reach of the anxious people on the beach. 

Scores of wrecks on the Jersey coast have been of a 
thrilling character. We shall tell about one, as it was 
told to us by "Uncle Tommy Cook," well remembered by 
those who used to visit Squan Beach — now Point Pleasant 
— a generation and more ago. His memory ran back to the 
opening of the last century, and a part of the house in 
which he lived was built before the Revolution. 



" One stormy night in February," said the old man, 
*' I was awakened by the rocking of my bed and the sway- 
ing of the room. I put on my tarpaulins, made everything 
about my clothing secure, lit a lantern, and plunged into 
the storm. 

" It was snowing heavily, and again and again I was 
pushed back several paces. It was a fourth of a mile to the 
beach, and the hurricane drove the blinding flakes hori- 
zontally through the air. When halfway to the sea, I 
turned and backed the rest of the distance. It was like 
shoving against a loaded wagon to force my way over the 
sandy bluff. When I did so, I caught glimpses of a dozen 
men who were there before me. 

" Day was breaking when I arrived at the beach. The 
mountainous waves were charging up the shore and send- 
ing the spray far inland, with a fury which no one can 
describe. Peering seaward, through the swirl and storm, 
we dimly traced the outlines of a ship that had struck on 
the bar and was pounded by the surges that raced over her 
deck. As the light increased, we saw that she was crowded 
with people, many of whom begged us by signs to help them. 

*' How glad we should have been to do so ! It was 
before the wreck gun was used. Again and again we tried 
to start a boat, but were hurled back like a ball in the 
hands of a boy. As is often the case at such times, a 
tremendous current swept along the shore with the speed 
of a racehorse. Once we were carried two hundred yards 
in the space of a few seconds, as it seemed, and then cap- 
sized and flung high up the beach. It was beyond human 
power to do anything except to stand idly by and watch 
the woeful sight. 


" Just beyond the stranded vessel I saw a schooner, her 
sails blown away, speeding down the coast like a locomo- 
tive. She was carried by the resistless current and struck 
the bar only a little way below where we stood. She ap- 
peared to crumble like a house of cards and, of the four or 
five men who composed the crew, not one escaped. 

" Hardly an hour later, a third vessel, farther out than 
the second, shot into view and out again as she too raced 
southward. She struck two miles below, without any one 
being able to raise a hand to help those on board. I am 
sure that all or nearly all on the three vessels would have 
been saved, had we possessed the means now at command. 

" It was the John Minttim that was pounding on the 
bar off Squan Beach. About the middle of the forenoon 
it stopped snowing and the weather turned intensely 
cold. The men, women, and children could be plainly 
seen, and we continually signaled to each other. I spe- 
cially noticed a mother at the bow with a babe in her arms. 
She seemed to be kneeling in prayer, as were many of 
those around her. All had seen long before that the hun- 
dreds on the beach could give them no help. We made 
several attempts to launch a boat, but we might as well 
have tried to row up the side of a mountain. 

" Late in the afternoon the wreck began breaking up. 
More than thirty bodies came ashore. Many of them had 
been frozen stiff for hours. It was a pitiable sight, when 
nearly all of these were washed up the beach and left in 
a sitting posture. Some of my neighbors thought they 
were alive and spoke to them. When I saw the mother 
sitting on the sand with her babe clasped to her breast, I 
ran to her with encouraging words. Laying my hand on 


her shoulder, I found that she and her little one had been 
frozen to death long before. The exposure would have 
been fatal to all, even had they not been overwhelmed by 
the sea." 

Among those who were impressed by the dreadful loss 
of life every year on the New Jersey coast was Dr. Wil- 
liam A. Newell, a young physician, who 
lived in Monmouth county, and who 
afterward became governor of the State. 
He witnessed several wrecks and saw 
how easily many lives could have been 
saved with proper appliances. He knew 
that the first step in that direction had 
been taken by Massachusetts, as long 
William A. Newell ^^^ ^^ 1/86, when she organized the 

Humane Society. A number of huts were put up on 
the Massachusetts coast, and, in 1807, the first boat station 
was built at Cohasset. The society had to depend wholly 
upon volunteer crews, which did such good service that 
after a time they were given aid by the State and the gen- 
eral government. In 1847 Congress appropriated $5000 
toward providing lighthouses on the Atlantic coast, and 
for the help of shipwrecked mariners. The money was 
never used for that purpose and was turned over to the 
Massachusetts Society at Cape Cod. 

Dr. Newell served in Congress from 1848 to 185 1. He 
secured, during his first year as a member of that body, 
an appropriation of $10,000 for "the protection of 
life and property from shipwreck on the coast between 
Sandy Hook and Little Egg Harbor." What stronger 
proof could be asked of the practical humanity of this step 


than quickly followed in the case of the Ayrshire f She 
was wrecked on Squan Beach, in January, 1850, and by 
means of the life car, 201 passengers were safely landed. 
The only man drowned was one who refused to enter 
the Hfe car and tried to swim through the surf. 

Congress increased the appropriation, and twenty-two 
stations were placed on the coasts of Long Island and New 
Jersey. No braver men ever lived than these life-savers, 
but Congress, while appropriating hundreds of thousands 
of dollars annually for different purposes, felt that the 
country was too poor to pay day wages to these heroes. 
Although they saved hundreds of lives and scores of 
vessels at imminent risk to themselves, they received no 
compensation. Now and then a life-saver was drowned 
while on duty, and his widow and children had to depend 
upon the charity of their neighbors, or live as best they could. 

Gradually, however, Congress came to a sense of its duty. 
Local superintendents were appointed in 1854, a keeper 
was put at each station, to whom were given crews, and all 
received scant wages. Then the chief of the Revenue 
Marine Bureau of the Treasury Department took charge 
of the life-saving stations, and by years of hard work the 
present admirable service was brought into operation. 

To-day the ocean and lake coasts of the United States 
are picketed by an army of life-savers. Every night 
during the winter, while we are asleep, these ten thou- 
sand miles are traversed by keen-eyed men, on the alert 
for the first sign of needed help. Each patrolman car- 
ries a lantern and a supply of " Coston Signals." The 
more violent the tempest, the greater is the need for his 
watchfulness, which is never relaxed. If he catches sight 



of a ship in peril, he burns the Coston signal. Those on 
the vessel instantly read its meaning: " Keep good heart; 

we will relieve 


The patrolman 
makes all haste to 
the station, which 
may be a mile or 
more away, and re- 
ports that a ship 
is in extremity. If 
the surfboat is re- 
quired, the carriage 
supporting it is run 
out of the building: 

and the 
crew join 
in drag- 
ging it to 
the spot 
where it 
is needed. 
It is esti- 
mated that 
a strong man 

Copyright by I'nderwood & linderwood, New York 

Life-saving Station and Lifeboat 

can draw a hun- 
dred and fifty pounds over a level turnpike, but, in the 
absence of horses, he has to drag a hundred and eighty 


pounds as a life-saver, through the heavy sand and in the 

teeth of the howling gale. 

Then with all possible haste the lifeboat is launched. 
The keeper, standing at the steering oar, guides the craft 
through the roaring breakers. The surfmen keep their 
eyes on him, obeying every signal, and bend to their oars, 
with a coolness and courage that cannot be surpassed. 
Sometimes the surf will balance the boat on its stern, with 
its bow pointing straight upward ; or the boat may be cap- 
sized in the breakers. Little do the surfmen care ; for 
their cork life belts protect them from drowning. Strug- 
gling to the beach, they secure and right their boat and 
try again and again to reach the wreck. Arrived there, 
they must display great judgment and skill to prevent the 
lifeboat from being smashed against the hull, which may 
be breaking up. The surfmen must dodge the falling 
spars and wreckage, and take off the passengers and crew, 
who are likely to be in a panic and who would sink the 
boat by overcrowding, unless they were held in check. 

If the patrolman reports that the surf boat cannot be 
used, the mortar boat is dragged to the spot. The gun is 
loaded, the shot line box is properly placed, the hauling lines 
and hawser are fixed for running, the breeches buoy is 
attached, the tackles are prepared for hauling, and a trench 
is dug, so that the sand anchor will hold. Each man has 
his appointed task and there is no confusion, as all toil in 
the shrieking tempest by the glow of the beach lantern. 

Now the gun is fired. There is a rattling whirr, and the 
elongated shot, with the thin line trailing after it, curves 
upward in the gale and drops into the sea beyond the 
stranded vessel. This causes the line to fall across some 


spar or object, where it is seized by the waiting crew. In 
the same instant they shout at the top of their voices, and 
the favoring hurricane carries the sound to the listening 
ears on the beach. The life-savers next fasten the endless 
Hne or " whip," the tail block, and tally board to the shot 
Hne, which those on the wreck rapidly haul aboard. There 
the end of the tail block is made fast, as directed by the 
words painted on it (these directions may be in several 
languages), and a signal of what has been done is made to 
those on the beach. 

By hauling on one part of the whip, the surfmen send 
out, fastened to the other part, the hawser and second 
tally board. Upon this are painted instructions to the 
sailors as to how and where the end of the hawser should 
be secured on the wreck. The surfmen haul upon the 
tackles, which connect the sand anchor and the shore end 
of the hawser, until it is drawn taut. As will be noted, the 
wreck and shore are now connected by a strong rope. 
The bridge has been built over which the endangered ones 
are to cross. 

There are two methods of bringing the shipwrecked 
ones to land. The first is the breeches buoy. This is 
made of strong canvas, with two openings through which 
the legs are thrust. The canvas wraps about the hips, 
and is secured to the circular buoy which passes around 
the body under the arms. Thus the man to be rescued 
takes a standing position. He is brought to shore by the 
surfmen who pull upon the guiding line, tied to the block 
which runs over the hawser, above the head of the person 
in the buoy. In the picture on p. 205 the man with the 
breeches buoy is rescuing a woman. 

Breeches Buoy 


This method does not serve so well for invalids, women, 
or children, nor when haste is necessary in bringing a 
large number ashore. For these the life car is the saving 
agent. It is a covered boat of sheet iron, and when 
closed ready for the passage, is air tight. The inmates 
would smother if kept there long, but they are never shut 
in long enough for that. The life car is drawn ashore by 
the same means as the breeches buoy, though it is some- 
times permitted to float on the waves. It will carry six 
adults, and has brought in nine large children at a time. 
It has also been used in saving specie. 

The official records show that since Superintendent 
Kimball organized the bureau in 1871, the life-savers have 
worked upon about 18,000 wrecks, in which 125,000 people 
and ^350,000,000 worth of property were imperiled. Two 
thirds of the property and fourteen out of every fifteen 
persons were saved. In addition, these brave men have 
rescued hundreds of flood victims, would-be suicides, luna- 
tics, reckless bathers, skaters, children who have fallen 
from docks, persons who have fallen into sewers, or have 
been caught upon breakwaters, lost in blizzards, stranded 
in automobiles, or endangered by runaway horses. 

During the ten years ending with 1907, about twenty 
gold medals and half that number of silver medals were 
awarded to rescuers of drowning persons in New Jersey 
waters, a few of the rescues being made by men uncon- 
nected with the life-saving service. In the same period, 
vessels were stranded at forty-four different places on the 
coast of the State. The varied nature of the work of these 
noble life-savers is shown by their discovery and extinguish- 
ment of a burning dwelling, their picking up of an immense 


fishing net drifting a mile off shore, their caring for suffer- 
ing wanderers in storms, and their taking of officers out to 
their vessels, when the weather was too tempestuous for it 
to be done by the vessels' own crews. 

District superintendents are paid salaries ranging from 
;^ 1 900 to $2200 yearly. The keepers of life-saving stations 
receive only $1000 per annum, and each is entitled to a 
ration a day, or he can commute therefor at the rate of 
30 cents per ration. 

The only relief for disabled keepers and surfmen, who 
are injured in the line of duty, is a continuation of 
pay during disability for a period not exceeding a year. 
If the case is exceptional and is approved by the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, this pay may be continued for two 
years. Efforts have been made, thus far without success, 
to provide pensions on retirement from service, similar to 
those granted in the army and navy. The present law 
only gives the widow and minor children, or dependent 
mother, of a keeper or surfman, who dies in the line of 
duty, a sum equal to two years' wages of the deceased 


We have learned of the steps taken by New Jersey 
during the colonial period, in the interests of common 
school education. Shortly after the close of the Revolu- 
tion these steps became more definite. A number of pri- 
vate schools and academies came into existence, and, as a 
rule, they were well supported. In 1816 the legislature 
set aside the sum of $15,000 to be invested in a permanent 
educational fund. In the following two years, this sum 
was increased to $113,238.78. A law in 1824 added a 
tenth of the State tax to the school fund. Previous to this 
each township was authorized to raise money by taxation 
to pay for the education of the children of poor parents. 
This authority was increased in 1828, so as to include the 
building and repair of schoolhouses. A year later 
520,000 was apportioned among the different counties, and 
provision was made for the election of a committee in each 
township, with the authority to divide it into districts, to 
examine and license teachers, and to report each year to the 
governor. Three trustees were to be chosen, who were to 
decide for how many months the school should be kept 
open, to provide schoolhouses, and to report the census of 
the school children in the district, as a basis for the distri- 
bution of the State money. 

In 1837, jiJst before the distressing ''hard times" which 
afflicted the country at large, as it has never been afflicted 



before or since, the United States was believed to be so 
prosperous that the surplus revenue in the national Treas- 
ury was distributed pro rata among the various States. 
The sum paid to New Jersey was ^764,670.61. In some of 
the States the gift was added to the school fund. Gov- 
ernor Dickerson recommended the same course in this 
State, but his advice was not followed. Instead, the fund 
was divided among the counties in proportion to the State 
tax paid by them. A proof of the growing interest in 
common schools was given in 1838, when the legislature 
increased the annual appropriation to $30,000. The new 
constitution of 1844 contained a provision that the school 
fund should never under any pretext be diverted from its 
legitimate object. Essex and Passaic counties each secured 
a school superintendent, and in 1846 this provision was 
made general. 

In 1846 every township was required to raise the same 
amount that was contributed by the State, and township 
superintendents were authorized. The State appropria- 
tion was increased in 1851 to $40,000. In 1854 the leg- 
islature appropriated $iOQ annually for each teachers' 
institute held during the year. 

A self-evident fact had long impressed all thoughtful 
people : this was the need of a training school for teach- 
ers. . Many of those intrusted with the instruction of 
children had slight fitness for the work. The best among 
them required suggestion, direction, and help. The year 
1855 brought an epoch in the educational history of the 
State, when. the first State Normal School was opened in 
Trenton. The principal was Professor William F. Phelps, 
who came from the Experimental School at Albany, New 



York. He was the man of all others best equipped for the 
important duty. He was energetic, aggressive, and pro- 
gressive, and had a magnetic personality that filled the 
students with an ardor for their work. The impetus which 

State Normal and Model Schools, Trenton 

Professor Phelps gave to common school education in New 
Jersey was far-reaching and is manifest to-day throughout 
the State. 

A great advance was made in 1867, when the entire 
school system was revised and placed on a sound basis. 
This admirable law provided for the continual maintenance 
of the Normal and the Model School ; for the examination 
and licensing of teachers; for raising the State educational 
fund to the right amount ; for uniting State and local con- 
tributions ; and for defining the f-unctions of district '^nd 
township trustees, of the city boards of education, of the 
county superintendents, of the State superintendent, and 
of the State Board of Education. 


Free scholarships in the State College of agriculture and 
the mechanic arts were established by the legislature in 
1890, and^ appropriations for their maintenance by the 
State were provided for at the same time. Reference to 
this 'college will be made hereafter. 

In 1 88 1 the legislature passed an act which encouraged 
the establishment of schools for industrial education and 
provided for the appropriation each year to any district, 
which maintained such a school, of a sum of money equal 
to that raised in the district, not exceeding $5000. At 
present the maximum appropriation is $7500. In 1888 the 
act which stimulated the introduction of manual training 
into the public schools was passed. In accordance with 
this act, each school district, which maintains this kind of 
instruction, receives from the State annually an amount 
equal to that which it raises, but not more than ^5000. 
As a result of these wise provisions several industrial 
schools have been estabUshed and courses in manual train- 
ing are found in the schools generally throughout the State. 

In New Jersey women can vote at school meetings for 
all purposes except the choice of members of the board 
of education, and they are eligible to membership in such 
boards. The law requires that appropriate exercises shall 
be held in all public schools on Arbor Day, set apart for 
the planting of trees, and on the school day before each of 
the following : Decoration Day, when the graves of the 
patriot dead are decorated, Thanksgiving Day, the Fourth 
of July, and Washington's Birthday. ^ As yet New Jersey 
has not adopted any State flower. 

1 Nfew Jersey has eleven legal holidays : New Year's, Lincoln's Birthday, Wash- 
ington's Birthday, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Fourth of July, Labor Day, Anni- 
versary of the Discovery of America, Election Day, Thanksgiving, and Christmas. 
^IIST. N.J. — 14 


In 1896 a law was enacted which provides for a Retire- 
ment Fund, supported by contributions from the salaries of 
teachers, by means of which annuities are paid to teachers 
retired on account of age or disabiUty. In 1905 an act 
was passed which provides for the payment of pensions by 
the school districts to teacliers retired after a service of 
thirty-five or more years in the State, and twenty or more 
years in the district which grants the pension. These an- 
nuities and pensions amount in the former case to six 
tenths and in the latter to one half the average annual 
salary paid during the last five years of service. 

The general school act of 1 871 first made our public 
schools free. The township school tax gave place to a 
compulsory tax of 2 mills per dollar on ratables, and the 
Riparian Commissioners were required to pay over to the 
trustees of the School Fund all moneys received from 
the sale or rental of land under water belonging to the 
State. The amount at present is about $5,000,000, which 
yields $200,000 a year for the support of free schools. 

In 1894 all school districts in the State, except cities 
and boroughs, were abolished; the small and weak neigh- 
borhood districts were united, and text-books were fur- 
nished free to the pupils. In 1900 the State was given 
supervision of schoolhouse plans, thus insuring the con- 
struction of sanitary buildings. In 1901 the State school 
tax was changed from $5.00 per pupil of school age to 2% 
mills per dollar of ratables. The amount thus insured for 
the year ending June 30, 1909, was $4,318,077.70. 
. The year 1903 is most notable in the history of school 
legislation, because in that year the legislature made a 
complete revision and codification of the school law. 



Among many important changes it gave city school dis- 
tricts the power to change the method of selecting boards 
of education, and made all boards corporations, independ- 
ent largely of local municipal government. It created 
"boards of school estimate" in cities and authorized them 
to fix the amount of money to be raised for the main- 
tenance of the schools. 

In 1904 the State Board of Education established a 
system of High Schoolinspection. In 1906 the legislature 
ordained that most of the moneys received from the tax on 
first-class railroad property should be devoted to the sup- 
port of the public schools. 

The steady advance mad6 by New Jersey in providing 
the means for training teachers was shown in 1906, when 

State Normal School, Upper Montclair 

the legislature appropriated $275,000 for the building and 
equipping of a new State Normal School, which was 
opened in Upper Montclair in September, 1908, 

In 1909 the security of teachers in their employment was 
established by a law which requires that after three con- 
secutive years of service in the same district, their term of 
service shall be during good behavior and efficiency. 


The school law provides for the compulsory attendance 
of children at school and for the appointment of officers to 
enforce it, for the transportation of pupils whose residences 
are remote from the schools which they are required to 
attend, and for the protection of the health of children by 
requiring medical inspection. It enables every boy and 
girl in the State to secure a high school education by requir- 
ing school districts to pay the tuition of their pupils, or a 
part of it, in a high school of another district, if they have 
no high schools of their own. 

The total number of pupils in the pubhc schools in 1910 
was 424,534, with 11,235 teachers and an average attend- 
ance of 309,661 pupils. It was decided in 191 2 to estab- 
lish a new normal school. 

A radical change in the school law went into effect in 
191 1. The office of State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction was abolished and the terms of all the members 
of the State Board of Education closed June 30, 191 1. A 
new board consisting of eight members was appointed by 
the Governor, to whom was assigned the duty of nominat- 
ing a Commissioner of Education. His term of five years, 
with an annual salary of $10,600, began June 30, 191 1. 
The Commissioner in turn appointed four assistants, one 
to represent himself, while to the others was respectively 
assigned charge of the secondary, the elementary, and the 
industrial schools. 

Calvin N. Kendall of Indianapolis, a highly successful 
educator of wide experience, was appointed as the first. 
Commissioner of Education and promptly entered upon 
the discharge of his duties. 



The opening years of the eighteenth century saw only 
three institutions of higher learning in the American col- 
onies : Harvard (1636) in Massachusetts, the College of 
William and Mary (1693) in Virginia, and Yale(i70i)in 

In 1746 the Synod of New York obtained a charter for 
the establishment of a college in the middle colonies, which 
was intended to rank with her elder sisters. In 1747 Jona- 
than Belcher, the newly appointed governor of New Jersey, 
arrived in the colony and showed a deep interest in the 
project. The original charter not being wholly satisfactory, 
Governor Belcher granted a second, which passed the seal 
of the province, September 14, 1748. It was renewed and 
confirmed after the Revolution by the State legislature. 

The first term of the infant college, of which Reverend 
Jonathan Dickinson had been made president, was opened 
in the house of that gentleman in Elizabethtown, in April, 
1747. President Dickinson died six months later and was 
succeeded by Reverend Aaron Burr. At the same time 
the college was removed to Newark. The credit for the 
organization of the curriculum, the disclipine, and the cere- 
monies of the college belong to President Burr. 

The first commencement was held in Newark, November 
9, 1748, and was a memorable one in the history of the 




college, President Burr's inaugural address was a plea for 
a broad and liberal education as the surest foundation 
for the commonwealth. The graduating class numbered 
six. Thus far the college had possessed only temporary 
quarters, and the trustees now cast about for a permanent 
home. Princeton was found to be an ideal location, and the 
removal thither was voted September 27, 1752. 


Nassau Hall, Princeton College 

Ground was broken July 29, 1754, and the corner stone 
was laid soon after. Governor Belcher had proved so warm 
a friend of the institution that the trustees wished to name 
it in his honor, but he declined and asked that it should be 
called Nassau Hall as expressing " the honor we retain in 


this remote part of the globe to the immortal memory of 
the glorious King William III, who was a branch of the 
illustrious house of Nassau." The governor's request was 
complied with and the name Nassau Hall was adopted. 

On completion of the building, in the autumn of 1756, 
the students removed thither from Newark. The structure 
at that time was the largest of its kind in the colonies, and 
the expense was so great that two agents were sent to Great 
Britain to solicit funds. They were successful and brought 
back a liberal sum. 

President Burr died in September, 1757, ^^^ ^^s suc- 
ceeded by the Reverend Jonathan Edwards of Stockbridge, 
Massachusetts. Of him a distinguished authority said: 
" He ranks with the brightest luminaries of the Christian 
church, not excluding any country or age since the apos- 
tolic." He was a master of dogmatic theology and the 
most powerful defender that Calvinism ever had. 
' President Edwards arrived in Princeton, February 16, 
1758, and died a few weeks later of smallpox. Reverend 
Samuel Davis succeeded to the presidency, and under him 
and those who followed, the college steadily grew and pros- 
pered. The most distinguished head of Princeton during 
its early years was John Witherspoon, D.D., LL.D., of 
Paisley, Scotland, who was inaugurated in the summer of 
1768 and presided with remarkable success until his death 
in 1794. 

The shadow of the coming Revolution was lengthening 
over the land when this great Scotch divine and scholar 
came to Princeton. He was ardently patriotic and power- 
fully influenced the Scotch and Scotch-Irish to support the 
cause of American independence. He was a member of 


the Continental Congress from 1776 to 1779, and from 1780 
to 1783, and a signer of the Articles of Confederation and 
the Declaration of Independence. 

Princeton College suffered severely from the Revolution. 
The town was desolated by the presence first of one army 
and then of the other. Nassau Hall was wrecked, the li- 
brary scattered and destroyed, and the valuable philosophi- 
cal apparatus ruined. Yet during those "days that tried 
men's souls," only one commencement was missed — that 
of 1777. The seven graduates received their degrees a 
few months late, and were credited to that year. 

Among the students who sat under the instruction of 
President Witherspoon were James Madison, Aaron Burr, 
Henry Lee, Morgan Lewis, and Philip Freneau. The last 
named was^ born in New York in 1752, and entered the 
sophomore class at Princeton at the age of sixteen. He 
was one of the founders of the American Whig Society, 
and while still a young man won a wide reputation for liter- 
ary and especially poetic ability. He was an ardent patriot 
and wrote many poems and pamphlets that glowed with 
love for his country. "Rq was also a bitter controversialist, 
and while employed in the office of Secretary of State 
Jefferson, wrote such sharp attacks upon Hamilton, in the 
Natio7tal Gazette, that the latter retaliated not only upon 
Freneau, but upon Jefferson as the power behind the 

Several editions of Freneau's poems have been published. 
Some of them show marked skill, though he cannot be 
ranked as a poet of the first order. After withdrawing 
from the stormy field of politics, he settled at Mt. Pleasant, 
near Freehold. While returning home from the town one 



night in December, 1832, he was caught in a blizzard which 
caused his death. 

In October, 1896, Princeton College celebrated the one 
hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the first 
charter of the College of New Jersey, and assumed the 
title of Princeton University with the title of the corpora- 
tion as now constituted, " The Trustees of Princeton Uni- 
versity." It is one of the best-equipped institutions of its 
kind in the world, and numbers among its alumni some of 
the greatest statesmen, scholars, scientists, and thinkers of 
the age. 

The second college town in New Jersey is New Bruns- 
wick, now a flourishing city noted for its manufactures 
and rubber goods, its foundries and machine shops, and 
the production of knit work and cigars. At the close of 
the seventeenth century it was simply a ferry station on the 
Raritan River. It was first called "Prigmore's Swamp," 
after the owner of the section. On December 2, 1697, 
John Inian and his wife were given permission to ferry 
passengers across the stream, and for eighteen years the 
place was known simply as "Inian's Ferry" or "The 

Quite a settlement sprang up in a few years, a number 
of families removing thither from Albany, New York. 
Vessels from Perth Amboy and New York made regular 
trips, and a brisk trade was established. Upon the acces- 
sion of the House of Brunswick to the British throne in 
1 7 14, the loyal Dutch inhabitants named the village New 
Brunswick. It suffered a good deal during the Revolution, 
the British army occupying it during the winter of 1776- 
1777. The town was incorporated in 1784. 



Queen's College was founded November lo, 1766, under 
a royal charter granted by George III. A second charter, 
slightly amending the first, was given by Governor William 
Franklin, March 20, 1770, for "the education of youth in 
the learned languages, liberal and useful arts and sciences, 
and especially in divinity." The college has had three dif- 
ferent sites in New Brunswick. The charter requires the 

Rutgers College 

president to be a communicant of the (Dutch) Reformed 
Church in America, but no sectarian religious instruction 
is given, and its students are of various denominations. 

The college has suffered at times from financial stress, 
and during the Revolution activities were removed to 
neighboring villages. In 1808 the present campus was 
acquired, and the erection of a college hall begun. In 
1825 it received a generous gift from Colonel Henry Rut- 
gers of New York, and its name was changed in his honor. 


Since then it has steadily prospered. In 1863 a scientific 
department was organized under the name of Rutgers 
Scientific School. 

In April, 1864, the legislature of New Jersey declared 
the department known as "Rutgers Scientific School to 
be the State College for the benefit of agriculture and the 
mechanic arts." With such colleges the United States in 
March, 1887, associated a department known as the "Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station." The congressional act au- 
thorizes the apportionment of ;^ 15,000 annually for the 
support of agricultural experiment stations in connection 
with the colleges which were established in the several 
States, "for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic 
arts," by the act of Congress, July 2, 1862. In March, 
1906, Congress authorized an appropriation of $5000 for 
•the year ending July i, following with a yearly increase 
thereafter of ;^2000 up to a maximum of $15,000 per year. 
The legislature designated the trustees of Rutgers College 
as the party to whom the appropriations named should be 

Thus a course of training in scientific agriculture was 
estabUshed at Rutgers with the most valuable results to 
the State. Bulletins are furnished free to the farmers. A 
large farm, connected with the agricultural college, is de- 
voted to experiments upon cattle and with crops and fer- 
tilizers. Scholarships in the State College were founded in 
1890, the students of which are chosen by competitive ex- 
amination. The knowledge with which tillers of the soil 
have been equipped by this admirable institution has added 
and continues to add unmeasured wealth to farms and 


John Stevens, who, in 1784, bought the land on which 
Hoboken is situated, possessed inventive talents of the 
highest type. In 1798 he built a steamboat which plied 
the Hudson. He invented the tubular boiler in 1803, and 
was the first to use it in constructing a locomotive, in 1826. 
He invented the first steam ferryboat, which began its 
trips between New York and Hoboken in 181 1. In 1808 
he designed the steamboat PJioeiiiXy which was built by his 
son Robert and which was the first vessel propelled by 
steam to navigate the ocean. He published a treatise in 
1812, on "The Superior Advantages of Railway and Steam 
Carriages over Canal Navigation." 

Two of his sons, Edwin A. and Robert L. Stevens, were 
joint inventors of many improvements in railway tracks 
and rolling stock. Robert built the first iron-clad vessel 
ever constructed. Edwin, by will, April 15, 1867, be-- 
queathed a block of ground in the city of Hoboken, worth 
1^150,000, for the erection of buildings thereon "suitable 
for the uses of an institution of learning," and also $500,000 
as an endowment fund for its support. 

A charter for the institution was obtained in 1870, and 
Professor Henry Morton was chosen president of the 
"Stevens Institute of Technology." He was a brilliant 
scholar, who had published a translation of the hiero- 
glyphic text of the Rosetta Stone, conducted an expedi- 
tion to study a total solar eclipse in Iowa, and at the time 
of his appointment to Stevens Institute was professor of 
chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania. His admin- 
istration was highly successful. His enthusiasm in his 
work was shown by his gifts of $80,000 to the endowment 
fund of the Institute. 



In 1875 a mechanical laboratory was established and 
placed in charge of the eminent Professor Robert H. 
Thurston. President Morton died in 1902, and was suc- 
ceeded by Professor A. C. Humphreys, who had been grad- 
uated from the Institute in 1881. Professor Thurston died 
in 1903. 

Stevens Institute, Hoboken 

Stevens Institute of Technology is essentially a school 
of mechanical engineering alone, and it gives but a single 
course of study, which requires four years for completion. 
It grants the degree of mechanical engineer to those who 
finish the course and has bestowed honorary degrees of 
doctor of philosophy and of science. Its instruction is 
thorough, and its graduates (now numbering about fifteen 
hundred) have every advantage that a perfectly equipped 
institution of that nature can impart. 

Since public libraries have a high educational value, it 



is interesting to know that the oldest one in the State is 
that of Princeton University, which was founded in 1748. 
It contains also the greatest number of volumes, 262,756. 
The other Ubraries established during the eighteenth cen- 
tury are Burlington, 1757; Cleosophic Society, Princeton, 

The Public Library, Newark 

1765; Rutgers College, 1766; and the New Jersey State 
Library, Trenton, 1796. The public library at Newark, 
established in 1888, and that at Jersey City, established in 
1889, are among the finest in the State. The present 
number of libraries in the State is 150, with a total of more 
than a million and a half volumes. 



The land and water area of New Jersey is 8224 square 
miles. The State is inclosed on every side by water, except- 
ing 48 miles on the northern boundary. In the northwest 
the country is hilly, and in the southeast low and sandy. 
The " Pines " include most of Ocean, Atlantic, the eastern 
part of Cumberland, and the northern part of Cape May 
counties, besides parts of Burlington, Camden, Gloucester, 
and Salem. Many of the swamps produce valuable crops 
of cranberries, the total being one half the crop raised in 
the United States. Nearly one half of the State is un- 
cleared forest land. 

Because of the ocean the climate along the coast is less 
severe than in the interior. The shore and mountains are 
favorite summer resorts, and attract visitors from every 
part of the country. The fire clays and potters' clay in Mid- 
dlesex and Mercer counties have made the State the second 
in the manufacture of pottery ware, of so fine a quality that 
large quantities are exported. In some portions the soil is 
very fertile, and when sandy, it can be made highly pro- 
ductive by means of marl and fertilizers. Pine and cedar 
are found in the south, and oak, maple, chestnut, beech, 
hickory, and other varieties of trees abound in the north. 
Large crops of corn, wheat, rye, and buckwheat are raised. 

New Jersey has long been famous for its luscious fruits 
and excellent vegetables, which find a ready market in New 
York and Philadelphia, and it is often called " The Garden 




State." In the northwest are iron ore, gneiss, marble, 
limestone, and sandstone. Sussex county contains rich 
zinc mines. Until a comparatively recent date this mineral 
was found nowhere else in the United States. In Cum- 
berland county the quality of the sand has rendered glass- 
making an important industry. 

Hudson Tunnel 

Manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and fishing, in the 
order named, are the chief occupations of the people. The 
principal manufactures are silk goods (in which the State 
leads all others), foundry products, refined petroleum, 
copper, iron and steel, pottery, chemicals, leather, malt 
Hquors, rubber, cotton and woolen goods, and many minor 

The situation of New Jersey makes it one of the leadir 
highways of the nation. Most of the trade between tJ 


city of New York and the coal, grain, and cotton regions of 
the west and southwest, of necessity crosses the State. New 
Jersey now has about twenty-five hundred miles of railway. 
In addition, there are two important water routes, previously 
described, the Delaware and Raritan Canal, and the Morris 
Canal. The railway and water facilities are continually 
increasing. A direct ship canal across the State will prob- 
ably be constructed soon, and will shorten the water dis- 
tance by nearly two thirds. Tunnels have been dug under 
the Hudson River, which connect the city of New York, 
Jersey City, and Hoboken. Trains also pass beneath the 
Hudson to New Jersey from the great terminal station of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad in New York. 


Every State has a constitution of its own, and a law-mak- 
ing body named the legislature. As in the national con- 
stitution, provision is made for di- 
viding the powers of government 
into three departments : legislative^ 
executive, judiciary. The legislative 
power is vested in a senate and a 
general assembly, the executive 
power in a governor, and the judi- 
ciary power in the various courts. 

There are two parts or branches 
of the legislature, called the senate and assembly. Every 
State is divided into counties, or parishes, or districts. A 
certain division has the right to choose a man by vote to 
be a member of the senate. In some States a county 
forms a senatorial district, while in other States a different 
plan is followed. In New Jersey the former plan prevails. 

HIST. N.J. — 15 


We have twenty-one counties and, therefore, the same 
number of State senators. 

We must remember that the number of senators in a 
State does not depend upon the population of the several 
counties or districts which elect them to office. In New 
Jersey one of the counties has ten times as many people 
as each of certain other counties, but it would make no 
difference if it had a hundred times as many. The most 
populous county can never, under the present constitution, 
have more than one member in the State senate. If the 
number of senators were based on the population, the 
smaller counties would be at the mercy of the larger ones. 
In principle, the national government serves as a model for 
the State governments. 

Still it is right that population shall have due weight. 
Consequently the law allows each county to base the 
number of its members in the assembly, or lower branch 
of the legislature, upon its population. The people, 
therefore, are fully represented in the assembly, but the 
members of that branch are held in check by the equal 
representation in the senate. The chief officer elected by 
the people in each State is the governor. The duties of 
the governor of New Jersey are mentioned in the constitu- 
tion. (See pp. 245-248.) 

Let us now see how each State makes its laws. When 
a member of the legislature wishes a certain bill passed, 
he writes out its terms and offers it in the branch to which 
he belongs. The name or title of the bill is read in a loud 
voice by a clerk, so that every member may know what it 
is. The bill is then placed in the hands of a committee, 
by whom it is closely examined. If the committee offers 
it again, every word of the bill is read aloud. All the 
members have the right to ask for such changes as they 



think proper. It is necessary that a majority, that is, more 
than one half, shall vote for such changes in order to make 
them a part of the bill. It is then read a third time, and 
if a majority of the members vote for it, the presiding officer 
signs the bill, which shows that it has passed that branch 
of the legislature. 

The bill is next sent to the other branch, where the same 
course is followed. If the second branch makes further 
changes or amendments in the bill, it is returned to the 
first branch, which accepts or rejects the changes as it 
thinks best. Having passed both branches, the bill is next 
sent to the governor. If he believes the measure a proper 
one, he signs it and it becomes the law of the State. 
If, however, the governor does not favor the measure, he 
sends it back to the branch of the legislature where it 
was first offered, giving his reasons in writing for doing so. 
This action on the part of the governor is called vetoing a 
bill. In most of the States it takes the votes of two thirds 
of the members to pass a measure over the governor's 
veto. In New Jersey a majority vote is sufficient to do so. 

It is possible that a bill contains terms which are con- 
trary to the State or the national constitution. If so, the 
fact is generally discovered by some member of the legis- 
lature or by the governor, when it is placed before him. 
If there is doubt, it is referred to the attorney-general, 
and his opinion is accepted as to the constitutionality of 
the measure. If any question afterward arises, it is settled 
by the supreme court. 

The third branch of the State government is the judi- 
ciary, which is composed of certain courts. The following 
explanation of their scope is given : — 

Justice's Court. — The lowest court, with common law 
and criminal jurisdiction, is that of justice of the peace. 



This may be presided over by one, two, or three justices. 
Suits involving no more than $200 may be tried in this 
court, which has civil power for the recovery of penalties. 
As a criminal court, a justice of the peace is a high con- 
stable, and can place felons and inferior criminals under 
bail to await action of the grand jury ; he can commit 
tramps, convict and imprison disorderly persons, and has 

Courthouse, Trenton 

power concerning acts of immorality and vice, cruelty to 
children, and forcible entry and detainer. Should either 
party to a suit feel aggrieved, he may appeal to the court 
of quarter sessions, or, if that court has no jurisdiction, he 
can carry his case to the supreme or circuit court. 

Police Coiu't. — This court is composed of a police 
justice, or a justice of the peace appointed by him. He 
tries cases of violation of city ordinances for the recovery 
of a fine or penalty. His criminal jurisdiction in the city 



for which he is appointed is the same as that of a justice 
of the peace. Appeal from his court is to the court of 
common pleas, or quarter sessions, or to the supreme or 
circuit court. 

District Court. — The presiding ofificer of this court may 
be the judge of any other district court, or any judge of 
the court of common pleas. The county in which the 
court is held is the limit of its jurisdiction. It has authority 
in all suits of a civil nature, where the amount involved 
does not exceed ^500 exclusive of costs, as well as over 
disputes between landlords and tenants, and replevin and 
attachment cases. Appeals are to the supreme court. 

Court of Quarter Sessions. — This court, as one of 
common law jurisdiction, can hear only appeals from the 
justice's courts and the police courts. As a criminal 
court, it has jurisdiction over all offenses of an indictable 
nature, within the county, except indictments for treason 
and murder. Appeal is to the supreme court. 

Court of Common Pleas. — This court holds three stated 
terms each year, and special terms when so directed by the 
supreme court. The presiding ofificer is a judge appointed 
to that office, and the justice of the supreme court, hold- 
ing the circuit court within the county, is ex-officio judge 
of this court. It has original jurisdiction in all personal 
actions, not involving the freehold ; it can change on petition 
the name of any town or village in the county, or of any 
person at his request, and has sole jurisdiction in cases 
relating to insolvency, roads, and wrecks; it can attach 
property of absent or absconding debtors ; it hears applica- 
tion for exemption from military duty, and decides suits 
against' constables who neglect to execute tax warrants. 
It grants hcenses and can try cases referred to it by the 
circuit court, and certify the same to the supreme court. 



Circuit Court. — In each county the circuit court holds 
three stated terms annually, and any justice of the supreme 
court may order in addition a special term. It is presided 
over by one or more justices of the supreme court, though 
the presiding judge of the court of common pleas may 
sit when requested to do so by the supreme court judge 
holding the circuit of that district. It has concurrent 
jurisdiction with the supreme court except in criminal 
cases. It hears contested election cases, petitions for the 
change of names of persons or newspapers, cases concern- 
ing legacies, the adoption of children, the enforcement of 
mechanics' lien claims, and it has authority to try supreme 
court issues. Appeals from this court may be taken to the 
court of errors and appeals. 

Supreme Coui't of Judicature. — The chief justice and 
eight associate justices compose this court, and it may be 
held by any one of the nine justices. It meets in Trenton, 
on the third Tuesday in February, and the iirst Tuesdays 
respectively of June and November. Special terms may 
be ordered by the chief justice, or any two associate 
justices. The supreme court has jurisdiction over all real, 
personal, or mixed actions at common law, legacies, re- 
moval of trustees in certain cases, the naturalization of 
aliens, sales of mortgaged premises, suits on sheriffs* 
bonds, perfection of title deeds when lost or stolen, 
matters of taxation ; and it has power to declare laws and 
joint resolutions void, when not duly passed and approved. 

The supreme court can review the proceedings of other 
courts, which power cannot be taken from it by the legis- 
lature. The only appeal is by writ of error to the court 
of errors and appeals. The business before the supreme 
court has grown to so great magnitude that it is divided 
into the main court (presided over by the chief justice 


and two associates); the branch court (presided over by 
three associate judges); and the sub-branch (presided 
over by three associate judges). 

Court of Errors and Appeals. — This court is composed 
of the chancellor, the justices of the supreme court, and six 
specially appointed justices. The chancellor when pres- 
ent presides; in his absence the chief justice acts, and, 
if both are absent, the senior justice assumes the chair. 
Being the highest tribunal in the State, there is no appeal 
from its decisions. The court meets in Trenton on the 
first Tuesday in March, and the third Tuesdays respectively 
of June and November. It hears appeals from all the 
other courts, including cases in the court of chancery and 
the prerogative court and appeals on writs of error brought 
from the supreme court. 

Court of Chancery. — This is composed of a chancellor 
and seven vice chancellors. Three terms are held in 
Trenton, on the first Tuesday in February, and the third 
Tuesdays respectively of May and October. The vice 
chancellors sit in Newark, Jersey City, Trenton, Camden, 
and Paterson to hear motions and to try cases. The chan- 
cellor may call special terms when he deems it necessary. 
The purpose of the court of chancery is to afford such re- 
lief as is not given by the common law courts, and appeal 
is had to the court of errors and appeals. 

Surrogate Court. — Each county in the State has a sur- 
rogate, whose duties relate mainly to will cases. When as- 
signments for the benefit of creditors are made, he accepts 
and files the valuation of the estate, the inventory and bond 
prepared by the assignee ; admits wills to probate and 
grants letters testamentary thereon. Appeals are made to 
the orphans* court of the county. 

Orphans' Court. — This court is held by the judge of 



the court of common pleas, the justices of the supreme 
court being judges ex-ofificio. The court hears all disputes 
concerning the existence of wills, inventories, allowance of 
the accounts of executors, administrators, guardians, or 
trustees ; the idiocy and lunacy of persons who have been 
or may be in the miHtary, naval, or marine service of the 
United States ; the recovery of legacies and distribution 
of shares where the will has been proved, the division of 
estates, etc. 

Prerogative Court. — The chancellor is the judge or 
ordinary of the prerogative court, which holds a session 
in Trenton at each stated term of the court of chancery, 
and at such times as the chancellor may appoint. The 
court has authority to grant the probate of wills, letters of 
administration, guardianship, and the settlement of dis- 
putes relating thereto. It hears appeals from the orphans* 
court, and its own decisions may be appealed to the court 
of errors and appeals. 

Court for the Trial of Impeachments, — The senate con- 
stitutes this court. The assembly alone can impeach the 
governor, or any officer of the State, for misdemeanor in 
office, while holding such office, or for two years there- 
after. A two-thirds vote of the senate is necessary to 
convict, and there is no appeal from the verdict. The 
only punishment provided for conviction is removal from 
office, or disqualification to hold any office of honor, profit, 
or trust under the State. 

Court of Pardons. — The governor, chancellor, and the 
six judges of the court of errors and appeals constitute 
the court of pardons. A majority of the court, of whom 
the governor must be one, may remit fines and forfeitures, 
grant pardons after conviction in all cases, except impeach- 
ment, and commute sentences of death to imprisonment at 


hard labor for life or for a stated number of years. The 
court meets at such times as the governor may direct. 
Its judgment is final. 

Court of Oyer and Terminer. — This court is made up 
of any supreme court justice and the judge of the court 
of common pleas. The former must be present and pre- 
side, and he may hold the court alone. In counties having 
three hundred thousand inhabitants, the judge of the court 
of common pleas may hold this court. It meets in the 
respective counties, and has jurisdiction over all crimes and 
offenses of an indictable nature, and it can fine justices 
of the peace and coroners for neglect of duties. Appeal 
from this court is to the supreme court. 

Co2U't for the Trial of Juvenile Offenders. — With the be- 
neficent object of reforming rather than punishing young 
criminals, this court has been organized. The judge of 
the court of common pleas constitutes the court. The 
magistrate, before whom any boy or girl under the age of 
sixteen years is brought, may hold him or her for trial, or 
parole the offender to await trial on such terms as the 
magistrate may prescribe, complaint being sent to the court 

Coroner's Conrt. — The coroner inquires into the causes 
of any death in prison, or concerning such death as may be 
attended by apparently suspicious circumstances. There 
is no appeal from the verdict of a coroner's jury. 



A Constitution agreed iipott by the delegates of the people of New 
Jersey^ in convention begun at Trenton on the fourteenth day of 
May, and continued to the twenty-ninth day of June, in the year 
of our Lord otie thousand eight hundred atid forty-four, ratified 
by the people at an election held on the thirteenth day of A?igust, 
A.D. 1844, and amended at a special election held on the seventh 
day of September, A.D. 1875, and at another special election 
held on the twenty-eighth day of September, A.D. 1897. 

We, the people of the State of New Jersey, grateful to Almighty God 
for the civil and religious liberty which He hath so long permitted us 
to enjoy, and looking to Him for a blessing upon our endeavors to 
secure and transmit the same unimpaired to succeeding generations, do 
ordain and establish this Constitution: 



1. All men are by nature free and independent, and have certain 
natural and unalienable rights, among which are those of enjoying and 
defending life and liberty ; acquiring, possessing and protecting prop- 
erty, and of pursuing and obtaining safety and happiness. 

2. All political power is inherent in the people. Government is 
instituted for the protection, security and benefit of the people, and 
they have the right at all times to alter or reform the same, whenever 
the public good may require it. 

3. No person shall be deprived of the inestimable privilege of 
worshiping Almighty God in a manner agreeable to the dictates of his 
own conscience ; nor, under any pretense whatever, to be compelled to 
attend any place of worship contrary to his faith and judgment ; nor 
shall any person be obliged to pay tithes, taxes or other rates for 



building or repairing any church or churches, place or places of wor- 
ship, or for the maintenance of any minister or ministry, contrary to 
what he believes to be right, or has deliberately and voluntarily en- 
gaged to perform. 

4. There shall be no establishment of one religious sect in preference 
to another; no religious test shall be required as a qualification for any 
office or public trust ; and no person shall be denied the enjoyment of 
any civil right merely on account of his religious principles. 

5. Every person may freely speak, write and publish his sentiments 
on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right. No law 
shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech or of the 
press. In all prosecutions or indictments for libel, the truth may be 
given in evidence to the jury ; and if it shall appear to the jury that 
the matter charged as libelous is true, and was published with good 
motives and for justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted ; and the 
jury shall have the right to determine the law and the fact. 

6. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, 
papers and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall 
not be violated ; and no warrant shall issue but upon probable cause, 
supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place 
to be searched and the papers and things to be seized. 

7. The right of a trial by jury shall remain inviolate; but the legis- 
lature may authorize the trial of civil suits, when a matter in dispute 
does not exceed fifty dollars, by a jury of six men. 

8. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall have the right to a 
speedy and public trial by an impartial jury ; to be informed of the 
nature and cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with the witnesses 
against him ; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his 
favor, and to have the assistance of a counsel in his defense. 

9. No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense, unless on 
the presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases of im- 
peachment, or in cases cognizable by justices of the peace, or arising in 
the army or navy ; or in the militia, when in actual service in time of 
war or public danger. 

10. No person shall, after acquittal, be tried for the same offense. 
All persons shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, 
except for capital offenses, when the proof is evident or presumption 

1 1 . The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, 
unless in case of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it. 


12. The military shall be in strict subordination to the civil power. 

13. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house 
without the consent of the owner ; nor in time of war, except in a man- 
ner prescribed by law. 

14. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war 
against it, or in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. 
No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of 
two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. 

15. Excessive bail shall not be required, excessive fines shall not be 
imposed, and cruel and unusual punishments shall not be inflicted. 

16. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just 
compensation ; but land may be taken for public highways as hereto- 
fore, until the legislature shall direct compensation to be made. 

17. No person shall be imprisoned for debt in any action, or on any 
judgment founded upon contract, unless in cases of fraud ; nor shall 
any person be imprisoned for a militia fine in time of peace. 

18. The people have the right freely to assemble together to consult 
for the common good, to make known their opinions to their represen- 
tatives, and to petition for redress of grievances. 

19. No county, city, borough, town, township or village shall here- 
after give any money or property, or loan its money or credit, t6 or in 
aid of any individual association or corporation, or become security for 
or be directly or indirectly the owner of any stock or bonds of any 
association or corporation. 

20. No donation of land or appropriation of money shall be made by 
the State or any municipal corporation to or for the use of any society, 
association or corporation whatever. 

21. This enumeration of rights and privileges shall not be construed 
to impair or deny others retained by the people. 



I . Every male citizen of the United States, of the age of twenty-one 
years, who shall have been a resident of this State one year, and of the 
county in which he claims his vote five months, next before the elec- 
tion, shall be entitled to vote for all officers that now are, or hereafter 
may be, elective by the people ; provided^ that no person in the military, 
naval or marine service of the United States shall be considered a resi- 


dent in this State, by being stationed in any garrison, barrack, or mili- 
tary or naval place or station within this State ; and no pauper, idiot, insane 
person, or person convicted of a crime which now excludes him from be- 
ing a witness unless pardoned or restored by law to the right of suffrage, 
shall enjoy the right of an elector; and provided further ^ that in time 
of war no elector in the actual military service of the State, or of the 
United States, in the army or navy thereof, shall be deprived of his 
vote by reason of his absence from such election district; and the 
legislature shall have power to provide the manner in which, and the 
time and place at which, such absent electors may vote, and for the 
return and canvass of their votes in the election districts in which they 
respectively reside. 

2. The legislature may pass laws to deprive persons of the right of 
suffrage who shall be convicted of bribery. 



I. The powers of the government shall be divided into three distinct 
departments — the legislative, executive and judicial ; and no person or 
persons belonging to, or constituting one of these departments, shall 
exercise any of the powers properly belonging to either of the others, 
except as herein expressly provided. 



Section I 

1. The legislative power shall be vested in a senate and general 

2. No person shall be a member of the senate who shall not have 
attained the age of thirty years, and have been a citizen and inhabitant 
of the State for four years, and of the county for which he shall be 
chosen one year, next before his election ; and no person shall be a 
member of the general assembly who shall not have attained the age 
of twenty-one years, and have been a citizen and inhabitant of the State 
for two years, and of the county for which he shall be chosen one year 
next before his election ; provided^ that no person shall be eligible as a 


member of either house of the legislature, who shall not be entitled to 
the right of suffrage. 

3. Members of the senate and general assembly shall be elected 
yearly and every year, on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in 
November ; and the two houses shall meet separately on the second 
Tuesday in January next after the said day of election, at which time of 
meeting the legislative year shall commence ; but the time of holding 
such election may be altered by the legislature. 

Section II 

1. The senate shall be composed of one senator from each county 
in the State, elected by the legal voters of the counties, respectively, for 
three years. 

2. As soon as the senate shall meet after the first election to be held 
in pursuance of this constitution, they shall be divided as equally as 
may be into three classes. The seats of the senators of the first class 
shall be vacated at the expiration of the first year ; of the second class 
at the expiration of the second year ; and of the third class at the ex- 
piration of the third year, so that one class may be elected every year ; 
and if vacancies happen, by resignation or otherwise, the persons elected 
to supply such vacancies shall be elected for the unexpired terms only. 

Section III 

I. The general assembly shall be composed of members annually 
elected by the legal voters of the counties, respectively, v»'ho shall be 
apportioned among the said counties as nearly as may be according to 
the number of their inhabitants. The present apportionment shall con- 
tinue until the next census of the United States shall have been taken, 
and an apportionment of members of the general assem.bly shall be made 
by the legislature at its first session after the next and every subsequent 
enumeration or census, and when made shall remain unaltered until an- 
other enumeration shall have been taken ; proznded^ that each county 
shall at all times be entitled to one member; and the whole number of 
members shall never exceed sixty. 

Section IV 

I. Each house shall direct writs of election for supplying vacancies, 
occasioned by death, resignation, or otherwise ; but if vacancies occur 
during the recess of the legislature, the writs may be issued by the gov- 
ernor, under such regulations as may be prescribed by law. 


2. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns and quali- 
fications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a 
quorum to do business ; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to 
day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent mem- 
bers, in such manner, and under such penalties, as each house may pro- 

3. Each house shall choose its own officers, determine the rules of 
its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with 
the concurrence of two thirds, may expel a member. 

4. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time 
to time publish the same ; and the yeas and nays of the members of 
either house on any question shall, at the desire of one fifth of those 
present, be entered on the journal. 

5. Neither house, during the session of the legislature, shall, without 
the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any 
other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. 

6. All bills and joint resolutions shall be read three times in each 
house, before the final passage thereof; and no bill or joint resolution 
shall pass unless there be a majority of all the members of each body 
personally present and agreeing thereto; and the yeas and nays of the 
members voting on such final passage shall be entered on the journal. 

7. Members of the senate and general assembly shall receive annually 
the sum of five hundred dollars during the time for which they shall 
have been elected and while they shall hold their office, and no other 
allowance or emolument, directly or indirectly, for any purpose whatever. 
The president of the senate and the speaker of the house of assembly 
shall, in virtue of their offices, receive an additional compensation, equal 
to one third of their allowance as members. 

8. Members of the senate and general assembly shall, in all cases ex- 
cept treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest 
during their attendance at the sitting of their respective houses, and in 
going to and returning from the same ; and for any speech or debate, in 
either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place. 

Section V 

I. No member of the senate or general assembly shall, during the 
time for which he was elected, be nominated or appointed by the gov- 
ernor, or by the legislature in joint meeting, to any civil office under the 
authority of this State which shall have been created, or the emolu- 
ments whereof shall have been increased, during such time. 


2. If any member of the senate or general assembly shall be elected 
to represent this State in the senate or house of representatives of the 
United States, and shall accept thereof, or shall accept of any office or 
appointment under the government of the United States, his seat in the 
legislature of this State shall thereby be vacated. 

3. No justice of the supreme court, nor judge of any other court, 
sheriff, justice of the peace nor any person or persons possessed of any 
office of profit under the government of this State, shall be entitled to 
a seat either in the senate or in the general assembly ; but, on being 
elected and taking his seat, his office shall be considered vacant ; and 
no person holding any office of profit under the government of the 
United States shall be entitled to a seat in either house. 

Section VI 

1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of assem- 
bly ; but the senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on 
other bills. 

2. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but for appropriations 
made by law. 

3. The credit of the State shall not be directly or indirectly loaned 
in any case. 

4. The legislature shall not, in any manner, create any debt or debts, 
liability or liabilities, of the State which shall, singly or in the ag- 
gregate with any previous debts or liabilities, at any time exceed one 
hundred thousand dollars, except for purposes of war, or to repel in- 
vasion, or to suppress insurrection, unless the same shall be authorized 
by a law for some single object or work, to be distinctly specified therein ; 
which law shall provide the ways and means, exclusive of loans, to pay 
the interest of such debt or liability as it falls due, and also to pay and 
discharge the principal of such debt or liabihty within thirty-five years 
from the time of the contracting thereof, and shall be irrepealable until 
such debt or liability, and the interest thereon, are fully paid and dis- 
charged ; and no such law shall take effect until it shall, at a general 
election, have been submitted to the people, and have received the 
sanction of a majority of all the votes cast for and against it at such 
election ; and all money to be raised by the authority of such law shall 
be applied only to the specific object stated therein, and to the payment 
of the debt thereby created. This section shall not be construed to re- 
fer to any money that has been, or may be, deposited with this State by 
the government of the United States. 


Section VII 

1. No divorce shall be granted by the legislature. 

2. No lottery shall be authorized by the legislature or otherwise in 
this State, and no ticket in any lottery shall be bought or sold within 
this State, nor shall pool-selling, book-making or gambling of any kind 
be authorized or allowed within this State, nor shall any gambling de- 
vice, practice or game of chance now prohibited by law be legalized, or 
the remedy, penalty or punishment now provided therefor be in any 
way diminished. 

3. The legislature shall not pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto 
law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or depriving a party of 
any remedy for enforcing a contract which existed when the contract 
was made. 

4. To avoid improper influences which may result from intermixing 
in one and the same act such things as have no proper relation to each 
other, every law shall embrace but one object, and that shall be ex- 
pressed in the title. No law shall be revived or amended by reference 
to its title only ; but the act revived, or the section or sections amended 
shall be inserted at length. No general law shall embrace any provision 
of a private, special or local character. No act shall be passed which 
shall provide that any existing law, or any part thereof, shall be made 
or deemed a part of the act, or which shall enact that any existing law, 
or any part thereof, shall be applicable, except by inserting it in such act. 

5. The laws of this State shall begin in the following style: " Be it 
enacted by the Senate and General Assembly of the State of New 

6. The fund for the support of free schools, and all money, stock and 
other property which may hereafter be appropriated for that purpose, or 
received into the treasury under the provision of any law heretofore 
passed to augment the said fund, shall be securely invested and remain 
a perpetual fund ; and the income thereof, except so much as it may be 
judged expedient to apply to an increase of the capital, shall be annually 
appropriated to the support of public free schools, for the equal benefit 
of all the people of the State ; and it shall not be competent for the legis- 
lature to borrow, appropriate or use the said fund, or any part thereof, 
for any other purpose, under any pretense whatever. The legislature 
shall provide for the maintenance and support of a thorough and effi- 
cient system of free public schools for the instruction of all the children 
in this State between the ages of five and eighteen years. 

HIST. N.J. — 16 • 


7. No private or special law shall be passed authorizing the sale of 
any lands belonging in whole or in part to a minor or minors, or other 
persons who may at the time be under any legal disability to act for 

8. Individuals or private corporations shall not be authorized to take 
private property for public use, without just compensation first made to 
the owners. 

9. No private, special or local bill shall be passed unless public 
notice of the intention to apply therefor, and of the general object 
thereof, shall have been previously given. The legislature, at the next 
session after the adoption hereof, and from time to time thereafter, shall 
prescribe the time and mode of giving such notice, the evidence thereof, 
and how such evidence shall be preserved. 

10. The legislature may vest in the circuit courts, or courts of common 
pleas within the several counties of this State, chancery powers, so far 
as relates to the foreclosure of mortgages and sale of mortgaged premises. 

11. The legislature shall not pass private, local or special laws in any 
of the following enumerated cases ; that is to say : 

Laying out, opening, altering and working roads or highways. 

Vacating any road, town plot, street, alley or public grounds. 

Regulating the internal affairs of towns and counties ; appointing 
local offices or commissions to regulate municipal affairs. 

Selecting, drawing, summoning or empaneling grand or petit jurors. 

Creating, increasing or decreasing the percentage or allowance of 
public officers during the term for which said officers were elected or 

Changing the law of descent. 

Granting to any corporation, association or individual any exclusive 
privilege, immunity or franchise whatever. 

Granting to any corporation, association or individual the right to lay 
down railroad tracks. 

Providing for changes of venue in civil or criminal cases. 

Providing for the management and support of free public schools. 

The legislature shall pass general laws providing for the cases enu- 
merated in this paragraph, and for all other cases which, in its judgment, 
may be provided for by general laws. The legislature shall pass no 
special act conferring corporate powers, but they shall pass general laws 
under which corporations may be organized and corporate powers of 
every nature obtained, subject, nevertheless, to repeal or alteration at 
the will of the legislature. 


12. Property shall be assessed for taxes under general laws, and by 
uniform rules, according to its true value. 

Section VIII 

1. Members of the legislature shall, before they enter on the duties 
of their respective offices, take and subscribe the following oath or 
affirmation : 

" I do solemnly swear [or affirm, as the case may be], that I will sup- 
port the constitution of the United States and the constitution of the 
State of New Jersey, and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of 
senator [or member of the general assembly, as the case maybe], accord- 
ing to the best of my abihty." 

And members-elect of the senate or general assembly are hereby em- 
powered to administer to each other the said oath or affirmation. 

2. Every officer of the legislature shall, before he enters upon his 
duties, take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation : " I do 
solemnly promise and swear [or affirm] that I will faithfully, impartially 

and justly perform all the duties of the office of , to the best of my 

ability and understanding ; that I will carefully preserve all records, 
papers, writings or property intrusted to me for safe-keeping by virtue of 
my office, and make such disposition of the same as may be required by 



1 . The executive power shall be vested in a governor. 

2. The governor shall be elected by the legal voters of this State. 
The person having the highest number of votes shall be the governor ; 
but if two or more shall be equal and highest in votes, one of them shall 
be chosen governor by the vote of a majority of the members of both 
houses in joint meeting. Contested elections for the office of governor 
shall be determined in such manner as the legislature shall direct by 
law. When a governor is to be elected by the people, such election 
shall be held at the time when and at the places where the people shall 
respectively vote for members of the legislature. 

3. The governor shall hold his office for three years, to commence on 
the third Tuesday of January next ensuing the election for governor by 
the people, and to end on the Monday preceding the third Tuesday of 
January, three years thereafter ; and he shall be incapable of holding 


that office for three years next after his term of service shall have 
expired ; and no appointment or nomination to office shall be made by 
the governor during the last week of his said term. 

4. The governor shall be not less than thirty years of age, and shall 
have been for twenty years, at least, a citizen of the United States, and 
a resident of this State seven years next before his election, unless he 
shall have been absent during that time on the public business of the 
United States or of this State. 

5. The governor shall, at stated times, receive for his sen-ices a com- 
pensation which shall be neither increased nor diminished during the 
period for which he shall have been elected. 

6. He shall be the commander-in-chief of all the military and naval 
forces of the State; he shall have power to convene the legislature, or 
the senate alone, whenever in his opinion public necessity requires it ; 
he shall communicate by message to the legislature at the opening of 
each session, and at such other times as he may. deem necessary, the 
condition of the State, and recommend such measures as he may deem 
expedient ; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and 
grant, under the great seal of the State, commissions to all such officers 
as shall be required to be commissioned. 

7. Every bill which shall have passed both houses shall be presented 
to the governor : if he approve he shall sign it, but if not, he shall 
return it, with his objections, to the house in which it shall have origi- 
nated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and pro- 
ceed to reconsider it ; if, after such reconsideration, a majority of the 
whole number of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, 
together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall like- 
wise be reconsidered, and if approved of by a majority of the whole 
number of that house, it shall become a law ; but in neither house 
shall the vote be taken on the same day on which the bill shall be re- 
turned to it ; and in all such cases, the votes of both houses shall be 
determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for 
and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house re- 
spectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the governor, within 
five days (Sunday excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, 
the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the 
legislature by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it 
shall not be a law. If any bill presented to the governor contain sev- 
eral items of appropriations of money, he may object to one or more of 
such items while approving of the other portions of the bill. In such 


case he shall append to the bill, at the time of signing it, a statement of 
the items to which he objects, and the appropriation so objected to 
shall not take effect. If the legislature be in session he shall transmit 
to the house in which the bill originated, a copy of such statement, and 
the items objected to shall be separately reconsidered. If, on recon- 
sideratidh, one or more of such items be approved by a majority of the 
members elected to each house, the same shall be a part of the law, 
notwithstanding the objections of the governor. All the provisions of 
this section in relation to bills not approved by the governor shall ap- 
ply to cases in which he shall withhold his approval from any item 
or items contained in a bill appropriating money. 

8. No member of congress, or person holding an office under the 
United States, or this State, shall exercise the office of governor ; and 
in case the governor, or person administering the government, shall 
accept any office under the United States or this State, his office of 
governor shall thereupon be vacant. Nor shall he be elected by the 
legislature to any office under the government of this State or of the 
United States, during the term for which he shall have been elected 

9. The governor, or person administering the government, shall 
have power to suspend the collection of fines and forfeitures, and to 
grant reprieves, to extend until the expiration of a time not exceeding 
ninety days after conviction ; but this power shall not extend to cases 
of impeachment. 

10. The governor, or person administering the government, the 
chancellor, and the six judges of the court of errors and appeals, or a 
major part of them, of whom the governor, or a person administering 
the government, shall be one, may remit fines and forfeitures, and grant 
pardons, after conviction, in all cases except impeachment. 

11. The governor and all other civil officers under this State shall 
be liable to impeachment for misdemeanor in office during their contin- 
uance in office, and for two years thereafter. 

12. In case of the death, resignation or removal from office of the 
governor, the powers, duties and emoluments of the office shall devolve 
upon the president of the senate, and in case of his death, resignation 
or removal, then upon the speaker of the house of assembly, for the 
time being, until another governor shall be elected and qualified ; but 
in such case another governor shall be chosen at the next election for 
members of the legislature, unless such death, resignation or removal 
shall occur within thirty days immediately preceding such next elec- 


tion, in which case a governor shall be chosen at the second succeeding 
election for members of the legislature. When a vacancy happens, 
during the recess of the legislature, in any office which is to be filled by 
the governor and senate, or by the legislature in joint meeting, the 
governor shall fill such vacancy and the commission shall expire at the 
end of the next session of the legislature, unless a successor%hall be 
sooner appointed ; when a vacancy happens in the office of clerk or 
surrogate of any county, the governor shall fill such vacancy, and the 
commission shall expire when a successor is elected and qualified. No 
person who shall have been nominated to the senate by the governor 
for any office of trust or profit under the government of this State, and 
shall not have been confirmed before the recess of the legislature, shall 
be eligible for appointment to such office during the continuance of such 

13. In case of the impeachment of the governor, his absence from 
the State or inability to discharge the duties of his office, the powers, 
duties and emoluments of the office shall devolve upon the president of 
the senate ; and in case of his death, resignation or removal, then upon 
the speaker of the house of assembly for the time being, until the gov- 
ernor, absent or impeached, shall return or be acquitted, or until the 
disqualification or inability shall cease, or until a new governor be 
elected and qualified. 

14. In case of a vacancy in the office of governor from any other 
cause than those herein enumerated, or in case of the death of the gov- 
ernor-elect before he is qualified into office, the powers, duties and 
emoluments of the office shall devolve upon the president of the senate 
or speaker of the house of assembly, as above provided for, until a new 
governor be elected and qualified, 



Section I 

I. The judicial power shall be vested in a court of errors and appeals 
in the last resort in all causes as heretofore ; a court for the trial of im- 
peachments ; a court of chancery; a prerogative court; a supreme 
court ; circuit courts, and such inferior courts as now exist, and as may 
be hereafter ordained and established by law ; which inferior courts the 
legislature may alter or abolish, as the public good shall require. 


Section II 

1. The court of errors and appeals shall consist of the chancellor, 
the justices of the supreme court, and six judges, or a major part of 
them ; which judges are to be appointed for six years. 

2. Immediately after the court shall first assemble, the six judges 
shall arrange themselves in such manner that the seat of one of them 
shall be vacated every year, in order that thereafter one judge may be 
annually appointed. 

3. Such of the six judges as shall attend the court shall receive, x^- 
spectively, a/^r diem compensation, to be provided by law. 

4. The secretary of state shall be the clerk of this court. 

5. When an appeal from an order or decree shall be heard, the chan- 
cellor shall inform the court, in writing, of the reasons for his order or 
decree ; but he shall not sit as a member, or have a voice in the hearing 
or final sentence. 

6. When a writ of error shall be brought, no justice who has given a 
judicial opinion in the cause in favor of or against any error complained 
of, shall sit as a member, or have a voice on the hearing, or for its af- 
firmance or reversal ; but the reasons for such opinion shall be assigned 

to the court in writing. 

Section III 

1. The house of assembly shall have the sole power of impeaching, 
by a vote of a majority of all the members ; and all impeachments shall be 
tried by the senate ; the members, when sitting for that purpose, to be 
on oath or affirmation " truly and impartially to try and determine the 
charge in question according to evidence ; " and no person shall be con- 
victed without the concurrence of two thirds of all the members of the 

2. Any judicial officer impeached shall be suspended from exercising 
his office until his acquittal. 

\. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend farther than 
to removal from office, and to disqualification to hold and enjoy any 
office of honor, profit or trust under this State ; but the party convicted 
shall, nevertheless, be liable to indictment, trial and punishment 
according to law. 

4. The secretary of state shall be the clerk of this court. 

Section IV 
I. The court of chancery shall consist of a chancellor. 



2. The chancellor shall be the ordinary or surrogate general, and 
judge of the prerogative court. 

3. All persons aggrieved by any order, sentence or decree of the 
orphans' court, may appeal from the same, or from any part thereof, to 
the prerogative court ; but such order, sentence or decree shall not be 
removed into the supreme court, or circuit court if the subject-matter 
thereof be within the jurisdiction of the orphans' court. 

4. The secretary of state shall be the register of the prerogative 
court, and shall perform the duties required of him by law in that 


Section V 

1. The supreme court shall consist of a chief justice and four associ- 
ate justices. The numbers of associate justices may be increased or 
decreased by law, but shall never be less than two. 

2. The circuit courts shall be held in every county of this State, by 
one or more of the justices of the supreme court, or a judge appointed 
for that purpose, and shall, in all cases within the county except in those 
of a criminal nature, have common law jurisdiction, concurrent with the 
supreme court ; and any final judgment of a circuit court may be dock- 
eted in the supreme court, and shall operate as a judgment obtained in 
the supreme court from the time of such docketing. 

3. Final judgments in any circuit court may be brought by writ of 
error into the supreme court, or directly into the court of errors and 

Section VI 

1. There shall be no more than five judges of the inferior court of 
common pleas in each of the counties in this State, after the terms of 
the judges of said court now in office shall terminate. One judge for 
each county shall be appointed every year, and no more, except to fill 
vacancies, which shall be for the unexpired term only. 

2. The commissions for the first appointments of judges of said court 
shall bear date and take effect on the first day of April next ; and all 
subsequent commissions for judges of said court shall bear date and 
take effect on the first day of April in every successive year, except 
commissions to fill vacancies, which shall bear date and take effect 
when issued. 

Section VII 

I. There may be elected under this constitution two, and not more 
than five, justices of the peace in each of the townships of the several 


counties of this State, and in each of the wards, in cities that may vote 
in wards. When a township or ward contains two thousand inhabitants 
or less, it may have two justices ; when it contains more than two thou- 
sand inhabitants, and not more than four thousand, it may have four 
justices ; and when it contains more than four thousand inhabitants, it 
may have five justices ; provided^ that whenever any township not vot- 
ing in wards contains more than seven thousand inhabitants, such 
township may have an additional justice for each additional three thou- 
sand inhabitants above four thousand. 

2. The population of the townships in the several counties of the 
State and of the several wards shall be ascertained by the last preced- 
ing census of the United States, until the legislature shall provide, by 
law, some other mode of ascertaining it. 



Section I 


1. The legislature shall provide by law for enrolling, organizing and 
arming the militia. 

2. Captains, subalterns and non-commissioned officers shall be 
elected by the members of their respective companies. 

3. Field officers of regiments, independent battalions and squadrons 
shall be elected by the commissioned officers of their respective regi- 
ments, battalions or squadrons.- 

4. Brigadier-generals shall be elected by the field officers of their 
respective brigades. 

5. Major-generals, the adjutant-general and quartermaster-general 
shall be nominated by the governor, and appointed by him, with the 
advice and consent of the senate. 

6. The legislature shall provide, by law, the time and manner of 
electing militia officers, and of certifying their elections to the governor, 
who shall grant their commissions, and determine their rank, when not 
determined by law ; and no commissioned officer shall be removed 
from office but by the sentence of a court-martial, pursuant to law. 

7. Iri case the electors of subalterns, captains or field officers shall 
refuse or neglect to make such elections, the governor shall have 



power to appoint such officers, and to fill all vacancies caused by such 
refusal or neglect. 

8. Brigade inspectors shall be chosen by the field officers of their 
respective brigades. 

9. The governor shall appoint all militia officers w^hose appointment 
is not otherwise provided for in this constitution. 

10. Major-generals, brigadier-generals and commanding officers of 
regiments, independent battalions and squadrons shall appoint the staff 
officers of their divisions, brigades, regiments, independent battalions 
and squadrons, respectively. 

Section II 


1. Justices of the supreme court, chancellor, judges of the court of 
errors and appeals and judges of the inferior court of common pleas 
shall be nominated by the governor, and appointed by him, with the 
advice and consent of the senate. 

The justices of the supreme court and chancellor shall hold their 
offices for the term of seven years ; shall, at stated times, receive for 
their services a compensation which shall not be diminished during 
the term of their appointments; and they shall hold no other office 
under the government of this State or of the United States. 

2. Judges of the courts of common pleas shall be appointed by the 
senate and general assembly, in joint meeting. 

They shall hold their offices for five years ; but when appointed to 
fill vacancies, they shall hold for the unexpired term only. 

3. The state treasurer and comptroller shall be appointed by the 
senate and general assembly, in joint meeting. 

They shall hold their offices for three years, and until their success- 
ors shall be qualified into office. 

4. The attorney-general, prosecutors of the pleas, clerk of the su- 
preme court, clerk of the court of chancery, secretary of state and the 
keeper of the state prison shall be nominated by the governor, and 
appointed by him, with the advice and consent of the senate. 

They shall hold their offices for five years. 

5. The law reporter shall be appointed by the justices of the su- 
preme court, or a majority of them ; and the chancery reporter shall be 
appointed by the chancellor. 

They shall hold their offices for five years. 


6. Clerks and surrogates of counties shall be elected by the people 
of their respective counties, at the annual elections for members of the 
general assembly. 

They shall hold their offices for five years. 

7. Sheriffs and coroners shall be elected by the people of their re- 
spective counties, at the elections for members of the general assembly, 
and they shall hold their offices for three years, after which three years 
must elapse before they can be again capable of serving. Sheriffs shall 
annually renew their bonds. 

8. Justices of the peace shall be elected by ballot at the annual meet- 
ings of the townships in the several counties of the State, and of the 
wards in cities that may vote in wards, in such manner and under such 
regulations as may be hereafter provided by law. 

They shall be commissioned for the county, and their commissions 
shall bear date and take effect on the first day of May next after their 

They shall hold their offices for five years ; but when elected to fill 
vacancies, they shall hold for the unexpired term only ; provided^ that 
the commission of any justice of the peace shall become vacant upon 
his ceasing to reside in the township in which he was elected. 

The first election for justices of the peace shall take place at the next 
annual town-meetings of the townships in the several counties of the 
State, and of the wards in cities that may vote in wards. 

9. All other officers, whose appointments are not otherwise provided 
for by law, shall be nominated by the governor, and appointed by him, 
with the advice and consent of the senate ; and shall hold their offices 
for the time prescribed by law. 

10. All civil officers elected or appointed pursuant to the provisions 
of this constitution, shall be commissioned by the governor. 

11. The term of office of all officers elected or appointed, pursuant 
to the provisions of this constitution, except when herein otherwise 
directed, shall commence on the day of the date of their respective 
commissions ; but no commission for any office shall bear date prior to 
the expiration of the term of the incumbent of said office. 



I . The secretary of state shall be ex officio an auditor of the accounts 
of the treasurer, and as such, it shall be his duty to assist the legislature 


in the annual examination and settlement of said accounts, until other- 
wise provided by law. 

2. The seal of the State shall be kept by the governor, or person 
administering the government, and used by him officially, and shall be 
called the great seal of the State of New Jersey. 

3. All grants and commissions shall be in the name and by the 
authority of the State of New Jersey, sealed with the great seal, signed 
by the governor, or person administering the government, and counter- 
signed by the secretary of state, and it shall run thus: "Tlie State of 

New Jersey, to , greeting." All writs shall be in the name of the 

State ; and all indictments shall conclude in the following manner, viz., 
"against the peace of this State, the government and dignity of the 

4. This constitution shall take effect and go into operation on the 
second day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and forty-four. 



Any specific amendment or amendments to the constitution may be 
proposed in the senate or general assembly, and if the same shall be 
agreed to by a majority of the members elected to each of the two 
houses, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be entered on 
their journals, with the yeas and nays taken thereon, and referred to the 
legislature then next to be chosen, and shall be published for three 
months previous to making such choice, in at least one newspaper of 
each county, if any be published therein ; and if in the legislature next 
chosen as aforesaid, such proposed amendment or amendments, or any 
of them, shall be agreed to by a majority of all the members elected to 
each house, then it shall be the duty of the legislature to submit such 
proposed amendment or amendments, or such of them as may have 
been agreed to as aforesaid by the two legislatures, to the people, in 
such manner and at such time, at least four months after the adjournment 
of the legislature, as the legislature shall prescribe ; and if the people at 
a special election to be held for that purpose only, shall approve and ratify 
such amendment or amendments or any of them, by a majority of the 
electors qualified to vote for members of the legislature voting thereon, 
such amendment or amendments, so approved and ratified shall become 
part of the constitution ; provided, that il more than one amendment be 


submitted, they shall be submitted in such manner and form that the 
people may vote for or against each amendment separately and distinctly ; 
but no amendment or amendments shall be submitted to the people 
by the legislature oftener than once in five years. 



That no inconvenience may arise from the change in the constitution 
of this State, and in order to carry the same into complete operation, it 
is hereby declared and ordained, that — 

1. The common law and the statute laws now in force, not repugnant 
to this constitution, shall remain in force until they expire by their own 
limitation, or be altered or repealed by the legislature ; and all writs, 
actions, causes of action, prosecutions, contracts, claims and rights of 
individuals and of bodies corporate, and of the State, and all charters of 
incorporation, shall continue, and all indictments which shall have been 
found, or which may hereafter be found, for any crime or offense com- 
mitted before the adoption of this constitution, may be proceeded upon 
as if no change had taken place. The several courts of law and equity, 
except as herein otherwise provided, shall continue v^^ith the like powers 
and jurisdiction as if this constitution had not been adopted. 

2. All officers now filling any office or appointment shall continue in 
the exercise of the duties thereof, according to their respective commis- 
sions or appointments, unless by this constitution it is otherwise directed. 

3. The present governor, chancellor and ordinary or surrogate-gen- 
eral and treasurer shall continue in office until successors elected or ap- 
pointed under this constitution shall be sworn or affirmed into office. 

4. In case of the death, resignation or disability of the present gov- 
ernor, the person who may be vice-president of council at the time of the 
adoption of this constitution shall continue in office and administer the 
government until a governor shall have been elected and sworn or af- 
firmed into office under this constitution. 

5. The present governor, or in case of his death or inability to act, 
the vice-president of council, together with the present members of the 
legislative council and secretary of state, shall constitute a board of state 
canvassers, in the manner now provided by law, for the purpose of 
ascertaining and declaring the result of the next ensuing election 
for governor, members of the house of representatives, and electors of 
president and vice-president. 



6. The returns of the votes for governor, at the said next ensuing 
election, shall be transmitted to the secretary of state, the votes counted, 
and the election declared in the manner now provided by law in the 
case of the election of electors of president and vice-president. 

7. The election of clerks and surrogates, in those counties where the 
term of office of the present incumbent shall expire previous to the gen- 
eral election of eighteen hundred and forty-five, shall be held at the 
general election next ensuing the adoption of this constitution ; the re- 
sult of which election shall be ascertained in the manner now provided 
by law for the election of sheriflfs. 

8. The elections for the year eighteen hundred and forty-four shall 
take place as now provided by law. 

9. It shall be the duty of the governor to fill all vacancies in office 
happening between the adoption of this constitution and the first session 
of the senate, and not otherwise provided for, and the commissions shall 
expire at the end of the first session of the senate, or when successors 
shall be elected or appointed and qualified. 

10. The restriction of the pay of members of the legislature after 
forty days from the commencement of the session, shall not be applied 
to the first legislature convened under this constitution. 

1 1 . Clerks of counties shall be clerks of the inferior courts of com- 
mon pleas and quarter sessions of the several counties, and perform the 
duties, and be subject to the regulations now required of them by law 
until otherwise ordained bv the legislature. 

12. The legislature shall pass all laws necessary to carry into effect 
the provisions of this constitution. 


Salem, 1675 
Gloucester, 1677, 
Bergen, 1682 . 
Middlesex, 1682, 
Essex, 1682 
Monmouth, 1682, 
Somerset, 1688, 
Cape May, 1692, 
Burlington, 1694, 
Hunterdon, 1 7 14, 
Morris, 1739 

County Seat 
New Brunswick 

Cape May Court House 
Mount Holly 

Cumberland, 1748, 
Sussex, 1753 
Warren, 1824 
Passaic, 1837 
Atlantic, 1837 
Mercer, 1838 
Hudson, 1840 
Camden, 1844 
Ocean, 1850 . . 
Union, 1857 . . 

County Seat 
Mays Landing 
Jersey City 
Toms River 



Philip Carteret . 
Edmund Andros 

I 664-1 676 

1 674-1 676 (New York and New Jersey) 

Philip Carteret . 
Robert Barclay . 
Thomas Rudyard 
Gawen Laurie 
Lord Neil Campbell 
Andrew Hamilton 
Edmund Andros 
John Tatham 
Colonel Joseph Dudley, 
Andrew Hamilton 
Jeremiah Basse . 
Andrew Bowne . 
Andrew Hamilton 


I 676-1 682 

1 682-1 690 (as proprietary governor) 

1682-1683 (deputy) 

1683-1686 (deputy) 

I 686-1 687 (deputy) 

1687-1688 (deputy) 

1 688-1 689 (New York and New Jersey) 

1690 (Rejected) 

1691 (Rejected) 
I 692- I 69 7 
1698-1699 (Rejected) 

1699 (deputy, rejected) 

1 699- 1 702 





Board of Commissioners, 

Edward Byllinge 

Samuel Jennings 

Thomas Olive 

John Skeine 

Daniel Coxe 

Edward Hunloke 

W. J. Society of Proprietors, 1 69 1 

Andrew Hamilton . 1 692-1 697 

Jeremiah Basse . . 1 699-1 702 (East and West Jersey) 



1679-1684 (deputy) 

1 684- 1 685 (deputy) 

I 685-1 687 

I 68 7- I 690 

1690 (deputy) 


Lord Cornbury . 
Lord Lovelace . 
Richard Ingoldsby 
Robert Hunter . 
William Burnet 
John Montgomerie 
Lewis Morris 
William Cosby . 
John Anderson . 
John Hamilton . 
Lewis Morris 
John Hamilton . 
John Reading 
Jonathan Belcher 
John Reading 
Francis Bernard . 
Thomas Boone . 
Josiah Hardy 
William Franklin 

1 702-1 708 (New York and New Jersey) 

1 708- 1 709 (New York and New Jersey) 

1 709-1 710 (Lieut.-Governor) 


1 720-1 728 


1 731-1732 (President of Council) 

1 732-1 736 

1736 (President of Council) 

1 736-1 738 (President of Council) 

1 738-1 746 (Executive separated from New York) 

1746 (President of Council) 

1 746-1 747 (President of Council) 

I 747-1 75 7 

1757-1758 (President of Council) 


1 760-1 761 




William Livingston, 1 776-1 790 
William Paterson, 1 790-1 793 . 
Richard Howell, 1 793-1 801 . 
Joseph Bloomfield, 1801-1802 
John Lambert, 1 802-1 803 (President) 




Joseph Bloomfield, 1803-1812 
Aaron Ogden, 1812-1813 
William S. Pennington, 1813-1815 
Mahlon Dickerson, 1815-1817 
Isaac H. Williamson, 181 7-1829 
Peter D. Vroom, Jr., 1 829-1 831 
Samuel L. Southard, 1 832-1 833 
Elias P. Seeley, 1833 
Peter D. Vroom, 1 833-1 836 . 
Philemon Dickerson, 1836-1837 
William Pennington, 1837- 1843 
Daniel Haines, 1 843-1845 
Charles C. Strattoii, 1845-1848 
Daniel Haines, 1 848-1 851 
George F. Fort, 1 851 -1854 
Rodman M. Price, 1854-185 7 
William A. Newell, 185 7- 1860 
Charles S. Olden, 1 860-1 863 . 
Joel Parker, 1863-1866 . 
Marcus L. Ward, 1 866-1 869 , 
Theodore F. Randolph, 1869-1872 
Joel Parker, 1 872-1875 . 
Joseph D. Bedle, 1875-1878 . 
George B. McClellan, 1878-1881 
George C. Ludlow, 1881-1884 
Leon Abbett, 1 884-1 887 
Robert S. Green, 1887-1890 . 
Leon Abbett, 1 890-1 893 
George T. Werts, 1 893-1 896 . 
John W. Griggs, 1896- 1898 . 
Foster M. Voorhees, 1 898-1 902 
Franklin Murphy, 1902-1905 . 
Edward C. Stokes, 1905- 1908 
J. Franklin Fort, 1908-1911 . 
Woodrow Wilson, 191 1 . 





































Jonathan Elmer, March 4, 1789, to March 3, 1791. 
William Paterson, March 4, 1789, to November 23, 1790. 
Philemon Dickerson, November 23, 1 790, to March 3, 1 793. 
John Rutherford, March 4, 1791, to December 5, 1798. 


Frederick Frelinghuysen, March 4, 1793, to November 12, 1796. 

Richarci Stockton, November 12, 1796, to March 3, 1799. 

Frankhn Davenport, December 5, 1798, to February 14, 1799. 

James Schureman, February 14, 1 799, to February 26, 1801. 

Jonathan Dayton, March 4, 1799, to March 3, 1805. 

Aaron Ogden, February 26, 1801, to March 3, 1803. 

John Condit, September I, 1803, to March 3, 1809. 

Aaron Kitchell, March 4, 1805, to March 21, 1809. 

John Lambert, March 4, 1809, to March 3, 1815. 

John Condit, March 21, 1809, to March 3, 1817. 

James Jefferson Wilson, March 4, 1815, to January 26, 1821. 

Mahlon Dickerson, March 4, 181 7, to March 3, 1829. 

Samuel L. Southard, January 26, 1 82 1, to November 12, 1823. 

Joseph McTlvaine, November 12, 1 823, to August 16, 1826. 

Ephraim Bateman, November 10, 1 826, to January 30, 1829. 

Theodore Frelinghuysen, March 4, 1829, to March 3, 1835. 

Mahlon Dickerson, January 30, 1 829, to March 3, 1833. 

Samuel L. Southard, March 4, 1833, to June 26, 1842. 

Garret D. Wall, March 4, 1835, ^^ March 3, 1841. 

Jacob W. Miller, March 4, 1841, to March 3, 1853. 

William L. Dayton, July 2, 1842, to March 3, 1851. 

Robert F. Stockton, March 4, 1851, to February 1 1, 1853. 

William Wright, March 4, 1853, to March 3, 1859. 

John R. Thompson, February II, 1853, to December, 1862 (died). 

Richard S. Field, December 12, 1862, to January 13, 1863 (vacancy). 

John C. Ten Eyck, March 17, 1859, to March 3, 1865. 

James W. Wall, January 14, 1863, to March 3, 1863 (vacancy). 

William Wright, March 4, 1863, to November, 1866. 

F. T. Frelinghuysen, November, 1866, to March 3, 1869. 

John P. Stockton, March 4, 1 865, to March 27, 1866. 

Alexander G. Cattell, March 27, 1866, to March 3, 1 87 1. 

John P. Stockton, March 4, 1869, to March 3, 1875. 

F. T. Frelinghuysen, March 4, 187 1, to March 3, 1877. 

T. F. Randolph, March 4, 1875, ^^ March 3, 1881. 

John R. McPherson, March 4, 1877, to March :;, 1895. 

William J. Sewell, March 4, 1881, to March 3, 1887. 

Rufus Blodgett, March 4, 1887, to March 3, 1893. 

■James Smith, Jr., March 4, 1893, to March 3, 1899. 

William J. Sewell, March 4, 1895, ^o December 26, 1901. 

John Kean, March 4, 1899, to . 

John F. Dryden, February 4, 1902, to March 3, 1907, 
Frank O. Briggs, March 4, 1907, to March 3, 1913. 
James E. Martine, March 4, 19 11, to . 



Barber and Howe — " Historical Collections of the State of New Jersey." 
Clement — "Historical Sketches Relating to the Early Settlements of West 

New Jersey." 
Davis — '* Battle of Bound Brook." 
Demarest — " Huguenots on the Hackensack." 
Elmer — "Constitution and Government of the Province and State of New 

Ferris — " History of the Original Settlements on the Delaware." 
Gordon — " History of New Jersey from Its Discovery." 
Heston — "Three Hundred Years of New Jersey History." 
Keasbey — "Purchase and Sale of East New Jersey." 
Lee — " New Jersey as a Colony and as a State." 
Mellick — " Hessians in New Jersey." 

« Story of an Old Farm." 

Mills — "Historic Houses of New Jersey." 

New Jersey State — " Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the 

State of New Jersey." 
" Documents Relating to the Revolutionary History of the State of New 

New Jersey State Historical Society — "Proceedings." 
Raum — " History of New Jersey." 
Smith — " History of the Colony of Nova-Caesaria." 
Stockton — " Stories of New Jersey." 
Stryker — "Battles of Trenton and Princeton." 

"General Maxwell's Brigade of the New Jersey Continental Line ; 1779." 

"New Jersey Continental Line in the Virginia Campaign, 1781." 

"Washington's Reception by the People of New Jersey in 1789." 

Sypher and Apgar — " History of New Jersey." 

Whitehead — " East Jersey under the Proprietary Government. " 

"Judicial and Civil History of New Jersey." 

Winfield — " Block House by Bull's Ferry." 




Asbury Park and Long Branch. — Martin — " History of Asbury Park and 
Long Branch." 

Atlantic City. — English — " Atlantic City." 

Bergen and Passaic Counties. — Clayton and Nelson — " History of Bergen 
and Passaic Counties." 

Bloomfield. — HuLiN — " Real and Tdeal Bloomfield." 

Bridgeton. — NiCHOLS — "City of Bridgeton." 

Burlington. — Glmmere — "Friends in Burlington." 

Burlington County. — Stackhouse — " Retrospect of Colonial Times." 

Cape May County. — Stevens — " History of Cape May County." 

Cumberland Comity. — Nichols — " Historic Days in Cumberland County." 

Elizabeth. — HATFIELD — " History of Elizabeth." 
Murray — "Notes, Historical and Biographical" 

Englewood. — Humphrey — " Englewood. " 

Essex County. — Vail — " Essex County, New Jersey." 

Gloucester. — Mickle — " Reminiscences of Old Gloucester." , 

Greenwich. — ANDREWS — " Tea Burners of Cumberland County." 

Hudsoti County. — WiNFiELD — " History of the County of Hudson." 

Jersey City. — McLean — " History of Jersey City." 
Van Winkle — " Old Bergen." 

Monmouth and Ocean Cotmiies. — Ellis — " History of Monmouth County." 
Salter — " History of Monmouth and Ocean Counties." 

Montclair. — DoREMUS — " Reminiscences of Montclair." 

Morris County. — " History of Morris County." 

Morristowji. — CoLLES — " Authors and Writers Associated with Morristown." 
O'DoNNELL — " Morristown, New Jersey." 
Sherman — " Historic Morristown." 

Newark. — Atkinson — " History of Newark." 
Urquhart — "A Short History of Newark." 

New Brunswick. — Wall — " New Brunswick in the Critical Period of the 

Newton. — Clement — " Sketches of the First Emigrant Settlers in Newton." 


Passaic Valley. — Whitehead — " Passaic Valley in Three Centuries." 

Paterson. — Shriner — " Paterson, New Jersey." 

Perth Amboy. — Whitehead — "Contributions to the Early History of Perth 
Amboy and Adjoining Country." 

Princeton. — Paterson — "Glimpses of Colonial Society and the Life at 
Princeton College." 

Somerset County. — Messler — "Centennial History of Somerset County." 
Schumacher — " Somerset Hills." 

Trenton. — Lee — " History of Trenton." 
Raum — " History of the City of Trenton." 
Stryker — "Old Barracks at Trenton.". 

Union County. — Ricord — " History of Union County." 


Abbott — " Stone Age in New Jersey." 

Britton — " Preliminary Catalogue of the Flora of New Jersey." 
New Jersey Geological Survey — "Geology of New Jersey; Final Report 
of the State Geologist." 
"Annual Reports of the State Geologist on Forests." 
Sharp — " Wild Life Near Home." 


Armstrong — " Patriotic Poems of New Jersey." 

Cooley — " Slavery in New Jersey." 

Heston — " Story of the Slave." 

Mills — "Through the Gates of Old Romance." 

Murray — " History of Education in New Jersey." 

New Jersey Legislature — "Manuals 1872-1910." 


Abbett, Gov. Leon, 259. 

Acquackanonk, 191. 

Agricultural Experiment Station, at 

Rutgers, 211, 221. 
Agriculture, in New Jersey, 226. 
Ahasimus (Harsimus), 12, 186. 
Albania (New York), 17. 
Alexander, William, see Stirling, Lord. 
Alexander, William C, 163. 
Algonquins, 10. 
Allentown, 121. 

Amendments to N. J. Constitution, 254. 
American Magazine, 51. 
Anderson, John, president of council, 

35, 38, 258. 
Andros, Gov. Edmund, 22, 24-26, 257. 
Appomattox Court House, 176. 
Armstrong, General, 147. 
Arnold, Benedict, 124, 134. 
Arnold Tavern, Morristown, loi, 102. 
Articles of Confederation, no, 132, 139. 
Asbury Park, 196. 
Assanpink Creek, 55, 94, 102. 
Assembly of New Jersey, approves acts 
of First Cont. Congress, 41, 42. 

at Burlington, 26, ^2. 

declares New Jersey independent, 67. 

defined, 227. 

discusses Articles Confed., no. 

first, 17, 19. 

members of, 240, 241. 

opposes Gov. Morris, 37. 

opposes Tories, 69. 

powers and duties of, 240-242. 

under Constitution of 1776, 143. 
Atlantic City, 196. 
Atlantic county, formation of, 257. 
Avon, 196. 
Ayrshire, wreck of, 201. 

Bacon, Nathaniel, 22. 

Badger, in war with Spain, 179. 

Bainbridge, W'illiam, 146. 

Baldwin, Colonel, 129. 

Baltimore and Ohio Railway, 150. 

Barclay, David, 27. 

Barclay, Gov. Robert, 27, 28, 257. 

Baskingridge, 78. 

Basse, Gov. Jeremiah, rejected, 30. 

terms of office, 257, 25S. 
Bateman, Ephraim, U. S. senator, 260 
Baxter, Supt., 214. 
Bay Head, 196. 
Baylor, Col. George, 128. 
Bayonne, history of, 195. 
Bear Tavern, 82. 
Bedle, Gov. Joseph D., 259. 
Belcher, Gov. Jonathan, 37, 215, 258. 
Belvidere, 257. 
Bergen, first school in, 58. 

history of, 13, 186-188. 

in first assembly, 19. 
Bergen county, formation of, 28, 257. 
Bergen Square, 187. 
Berkeley, Lord John, 16, 20. 
Berkeley, Sir William, 22. 
Bernard, Gov. Francis, 59, 258. 
Berry, John, deputy governor, 19, 20. 
Bibliography, 261-263. 
Bill of rights, 236-238. 
Bills, passage of, 228. 
Birmingham, 82. 

Blodgett, Rufus, U. S. senator, 260. 
Bloomfield, Gov. Joseph, appointed 
brigadier general, 146. 

biography of, 159. 

terms of office, 258, 259. 
Board of Commissioners, 258. 
Boards of school estimate, 213. 
Bond servants, 17. 
Boone, Gov. Thomas, 258. 
Boots and shoes, in Newark, 183. 
Borden, James, 64. 
Bordentown, British guard at, 77. 

railway in, 151, 152. 

settlement of, 56. 
Boston, port closed by England, 45. 
Bound Brook, 106. 
Bowne, Andrew, 257. 
Boyden, Seth, 183, 184. 




Braddock's defeat, 38. 

Brainerd, David, missionary, 57. 

Brandywine, battle of, 107. 

Brass, manufactured in Jersey City, 191 

Brearley, David, 140. 

Breeches buoy, 203, 204, 205. 

Bridgeton, 257. 

Bricilington, sec Burlington. 

Briggs, Frank O., U. S. senator, 260. 

Bristol, 78. 

Brooklyn fortifications, 71. 

Brotherton, 145. 

Bull Run, battle of, 174. 

Burgoyne, General, 106, 109. 

Burlington, assembly at, 32. 

capital of West Jersey, 26. 

post office at, 53. 

settled, 24. 

shipbuilding at, 53. 
Burlington county, 17, 257. 
Burlington Library', 224. 
Burnet, Gov. William, 34, 35, 258. 
Burr, Aaron, 218. 

Burr, Rev. Aaron, first president Prince- 
ton University, 58, 215. 
Burroughs, Edon, 84. 
Burroughs, Stephen, 84. 
"Buytentuyn" (farms), 187. 
Byllinge, Gov. Edward, 26, 27, 258. 

Cabot, John, 11. 

Sebastian, 11. 
Cadwalader, John, 78. 
Caldwell, James, 133, 134. 

Mrs. James, 133. 
Camden county, formation of, 257. 
Camden, 56, 194, 257. 
Camden and Amboy Railroad, 149, 150, 

Campbell, Lord Neill, deputy governor, 

28, 257. 
Canals, pioneer, 148, 149. 
Candles, manufacture of, 191. 
Cape May, 196. 

Cape May county, formation of, 257. 
Cape May Court House, 257. 
Car industr}^ 195. 
"Carr's House," 119. 
Carteret, Sir George, 16, 27. 
Carteret, James, 19, 20. 
Carteret, Gov. Philip 

arrested by Andres, 25, 26. 

Carteret, Gov. Philip. 

dismissed, 19. 

first governor of New Jersey, 16, 17. 
grants charter to Bergen, 188. 
Catlin, John, 183. 
Cattell, Alexander G., 260. 
Cervera, Admiral, 179. 
Chadd's Ford, battle of, 107. 
Chancellor, 233, 234, 249, 250. 
Chancery, court of, 233, 249. 
Chams II., 15. 
CharK -ton, 66. 
Chemic Is, manufacture of, 185, 190, 

• 192, 195, 226. 
Chesapeake, Lawrence's ship, 146. 
Chester, 107. 
Chestnut Neck, 128. 
Chetwood, John, 64, 
Chew House, 108. 
Christina, 14'. 
Churches, early, 181, 188. 
Circuit courts, 232, 250. 
"City of Churches," 185. 
City Reform School, 185. 
Civil officers, 252. 
Civil War, 172-177. 
Clark, Abraham, 66, 140. 
Clark, Sarah, 98. 
Clark, Thomas, 98. 
Cleosophic Society, 224. 
Clermont, 144. 

Clinton, Sir Henry, at Monmouth Court 
House, 112, 120. 

attack at White Plains, 72. 

devastates Springfield, 133, 134. 

leaves Philadelphia, iii. 
Coal industry, 195. 
Codification of school law, 212. 
Cohansey Creek, 44. 
Colleges, 215-223. 
Collegiate Church School, 58. 
Collins, Isaac, 51. 
Colon, in war with Spain, 179. 
Colonial Congress, 40-42. 
Columbian Academy, 190. 
Combs, Moses, 183. 
Combs's Hill, 117, 119. 
Committee of Safety, 65, 69. 
Committees of correspondence, 63, 64. 
Common pleas, court of, 231, 250. 
Communipaw, history of, 13, 186, 187. 
Compulsory attendance at school, 214. 



"Concessions and Agreements of Pro- 
prietors in West Jersey," 24. 
Condit, John, U. S. senator, 260. 
Congress, First Colonial, 40-42. 

First Continental, 46, 64, 65. 

Provincial, of Xew Jerse_v, 64, 66, 67. 

Second Continental, 64. 
Connecticut Farms (Union), 133. 
Constitution captures Java, 146. 
Constitution of New Jersey, first, 16. 

of 1776, 67, 143, 167. 

of 1844, 168-170, 236-256. 
Constitution of United States, 140, 141. 
Continental Congress, 46, 64, 65. 
"Convention of State of New Jersey," 

Cook, "Uncle Tommy," 197. 
Cooper, Daniel, 55. 
Cooper, Peter, 150. 
Copper, manufactures of, 226. 
Cordage industry, 195. 
Combury, Lord, governor, ^2, 33, 258. 
Comwallis, Lord, at Monmouth Court 
House, 112. 

at New Brunswick, 74. 

at Princeton, 75. 

at Somerset Court House, 106. 

pursues Continentals through New 
Jersey, 73. 

returns to New York, 77. 

surrender of, 137. 

Washington eludes, 96. 
Coroner's court, 235. 
Cortelyou, Jacques, 187. 
Corj-ell's Ferr}-, 76, iii. 
Cosby, Gov. Wilham, 35, 258. 
Coston signals, 201, 202. 
Cotton industry, 194, 226. 
Counties, formation of, 28, 257. 
County seats, 257. 

Court for trial of impeachments, 234. 
Court for trial of juvenile offenders, 235. 
Court of chancery, 233, 249. 
Court of common pleas, 231. 
Court of errors and appeals, 233, 249. 
Court of oyer and terminer, 235. 
Court of pardons, 234. 
Court of quarter sessions, 231. 
Courts, 229-235, 248-251. 
Coward, Tunis, 125, 126. 
Coxe, Gov. Daniel, 27, 258. 
Coxe, William, Stamp Agent, 42. 

Cranberry crop, in New Jersey, 225. 

Cranbury, 112. 

Crosswicks, 56. 

Cuba, 178, 180. 

Cumberland county, formation of, 257, 

Currency, 34, 64. 

" Custis's Recollections," 100, loi. 

Danes, in New Jersey, 48. 

Davenport, Franklin, U. S. senator, 260. 

Davis, Samuel, 217. 

Dayton, Jonathan, U. S. senator, 140, 

Dayton, William L., U. S. senator, 163, 

Deckertown, settlement of, 56. 
Declaration of Independence, 66. 
Declaration of rights, 41. 
De Fernoy, General, 82. 
Delaware and Raritan Canal, 149, 227. 
Delaware Baj' Company, 15. 
Democrats, 141. 
Dey, Anthon}-, 189. 
Dickerson, Gov. Alahlon, biography of, 

161, 259. 
term as U. S. senator, 260. 
Dickerson, Gov. Philemon, biography 

of, 164, 165, 259. 
term as U. S. senator, 259. 
Dickinson, Rev. Jonathan, 58, 215. 
Dickinson, General Philemon, 65, 69, 

78, III. 
District court, 231. 
Districts, 227. 
Donop, Col. von, 75. 
Dover, forge at, 49. 
Drummond, Lord, 27. 
Dryden, John F., U. S. senator, 260. 
Dudley, Joseph, 257. 
Dutch, in New Jersey, 11, 14, 47. 
Dutch East India Company, 10. 
Dutch Reformed Church, 220. 
Dutch traders, 11. 
Dutch West India Com^pany, 11. 
Duty, imposed by New York, 30. 

Earthquakes, 56. 
East Jersey, 21, 22-31, 
Easton, 39, 78, 129. 
Edison, Thomas A., 185. 
Education, in New Jersey, 57-60, 184, 
187, 188, 208-224. 



Edwards, Jonathan, 57, 217. 
Electrical shops in Newark, 185. 
Elizabethtown (Elizabeth), aids Boston, 

barracks at, 39. 

capital, 17. 

Continentals march through, 73. 

county seat, 257. 

first assembly at, 19. 

history of, 16, 195. 

Knyphausen at, 133. 

Princeton College at, 215. 
Elmer, Jonathan, U. S. senator, 259. 
England, claim of, to New Jersey, 10. 
English town, 112, 117. 
Errors and appeals, court of, 233, 249. 
Essex county, formation of, 28, 257. 
Ewing, James, 78. 

Executive department, 227, 245, 248. 
Experiment (Agricultural) Station, Rut- 
gers, 221. 

Fauquier county, Virginia, 92. 

Federalists, 141. 

Fenwick, John, 20, 21, 26. 

Ferries, early, 56. 

Field, Richard S., U. S. senator, 260. 

Field, Robert, 64. 

Financial panic, 43. 

Finns, 14. 

Fireplaces, early, 51. 

First Colonial Congress, 40, 41, 42. 

First Continental Congress, 64, 65. 

First Presbyterian Church, at Newark, 

Fisher, Hedrick, 64. 
Fishing in New Jersey, 50, 226. 
Fitch, John, steamboats of, 144. 
Flax, manufactured in Jersey City, 192. 
Fleming, Captain, 98. 
Flemington, 106, 257, 
Ford, Jacob, 102. 
Forge, at Dover, 49. 
Forman, Col. David, 73. 
Fort, Gov. George F., 163, 259. 
Fort, Gov. J. Franklin, 259. 
Fort Lee, 72. 
Fort Sullivan, 128. 
Fort Washington, 72. 
Foundry products, 226. 
Foundry shops, in Jersey City, 190. 
France, assistance to Continentals, 109. 

Franklin, Gov. William, arrest and 
death of, 68. 

convenes legislature, 66. 

grants Queens College charter, 220. 

last royal governor, 40. 

opposes Continental Congress, 64. 

prorogues New Jersey assembly, 42. 

term of, 258. 
Freak engines, 151, 152, 
Freehold (Monmouth Court House), 

43, 111-120, 121-127, 257. 
Free Library, Newark, 185. 
Free Public Library, Jersey City, 190, 

"Free State," 92. 
Freestone quarry, 49. 
Frelinghuysen, F. T., U. S. senator, 260. 
Frelinghuysen, Frederick, U. S. senator, 

Frelinghuysen, Theodore, U. S. senator, 

Fremont, John C, 172. 
French and Indian War, 38. 
French fleet, arrival of, 134. 
Freneau, Philip, 218. 
"Friends," or Quakers, 26, 48, 59. 
Furs, trade in, 50. 

Gates, General, 134. 

General assembly, see Assembly. 

General school act, 212. 

Geography of New Jersey, 225-227. 

George IIL, 61. 

German Valley, 56. 

Germantown, 108. 

Glass, manufacture of, 226. 

Gloucester, colony at, 13. 

Gloucester county, formation of, 257. 

settlement of, 17. 
Glover, John, 81. 
Gneiss, 226. 

Government, of New Jersey, 227-235. 
Governor, election of, 143. 

powers of, 227, 228, 245-248. 
Governors, list of, 257-259. 
Gowanus Bay, 71. 
Grain crops, 225. 
Grain industry, 190. 
"Great awakening," 57. 
Green, Gov. Robert S., 259. 
Green, Henry W., 163. 
Green, William, 94. 



Greene, Gen. Nathanael, at Fort Lee, 

at Monmouth Court House, 115-117. 

at Trenton, 75. 

checks Clinton, 133. 

sent to attack Howe, 107. 
Greenville, 186, 189. 
Greenwich "Tea Party," 44, 45. 
Grenadier Guards, 114. 
Griffin, lands at Salem, 21. 
Griggs, Gov. John W., 259. 
Groome, surveyor-general, 28. 
Guild, John, 84. 
Guttenberg, 131. 

Hackensack, 56, 72, 257. 

Haines, Gov. Daniel, biography of, 165. 

term of office, 259. 
Half Moon, on Hudson, 10. 
Hamilton, Alexander, 139. 
Hamilton, Colonel, 115. 
Hamilton, Gov. Andrew, 29-31, 258. 
Hamilton, Gov. John, 37, 258. 
Hard times, 208. 
Hardy, Gov. Josiah, 258. 
Harlem Heights, 71. 
Harsimus (Ahasimus), 12, 186. 
Hart, John, 66. 
Haslet, Colonel, 98. 
Havana, 180. 
Hedgerow, 117, 118. 
Hemp manufactured in Jersey City, 192. 
Hessians, battle with, 87-91. 

hired by British, 71, 77. 
High School at Jersey City, 190. 
High school inspection, 213. 
Hoboken, history of, 194, 195. 

Institute of Technology at, 222-224. 

.settlement of, 12. 
Home for Friendless, Newark, 185. 
Honesdale, 150. 
Honeyman, John, 79. 
Hopewell, 55, iii. 
Hopkinson, Francis, 66. 
Houdon, bust by, 104. 
Houses, early, 54. 
Howe, Gen. William, at Princeton, 75. 

at White Plains, 72. 

attacks Philadelphia, 107, 108. 

indolence of, 71, 75. 

leaves Boston, 66. 

returns to New York, 77. 

Howell, Gov. Richard, biography of, 

term of office, 258. 
Hudson City, 186, 189. 
Hudson county, formation of, 257. 

trading post in, 11. 
Hudson, Henry, 10. 
Hudson River, 10. 
Hudson tunnels, 226, 227. 
Huguenots, in New Jersey, 47. 
Humphreys, A. C, 223. 
Hunloke, Edward, deputy governor, 

Hunt, Abraham, 64, 79. 
Hunter, Gov. Robert, 34, 258. 
Hunterdon county, formation of, 257. 
Hyde, Edward, see Cornbury, Lord. 

Imlaystown, in. 
Impeachments, court for, 234. 
Independence Hall, Philadelphia, 140. 
Indian outbreaks in New Jersey, 13. 
Indian trails, 18. 
Indians, aborigines, 10. 

customs of, 49. 

gift of New Jersey to, 145. 

leave New Jersey, 145. 
Industrial education, 211. 
Industries, of Camden, 194. 

of Elizabeth, 195. 

of Hoboken, 195. 

of Jersey City, 190, 191. 

of Newark, 183, 185. 

of New Jersey, 226. 

of Paterson, 191, 192. 

of Trenton, 194. 
Ingoldsby, Richard, lieutenant-governor, 

34, 258. 
Inian, John, 219. 
Inian's Ferry, 219. 
Inslee, Joseph, 84. 
Irish, in New Jersey, 48. 
Iron mining and manufacturing, 50, 

183, 191, 194. 195. 226. 
Iroquois, expedition against, 128, 129. 

James II., 15, 29. 
Jamestown, Va., settlement of, 9. 
Java, British frigate, 146. 
Jefferson, Thomas, 139. 
Jennings, Samuel, deputy governor, 26, 
27, 258. 



Jersey City, county seat, 257. 

history of, 1 85-191. 

Public Library, 190, 224. 
Jewelry, manufactured in Newark, 185. 
John Bull, locomotive, 151. 
John Minturn, wreck of, 199. 
John Stevens, engine, 152. 
Johnston Hall, 159. 
Jones, Sir William, 26. 
Judiciary department, 143, 227, 248- 

Justice's court, 229, 250. 
Jute, manufactured in Jersey City, 192. 
Juvenile offenders, court for trial of, 235. 

Kean, John, U. S. senator, 260. 
Kearny, Philip, 174, 175. 
Kearny, Stephen Watts, 172. 
Kent, enters Sandy Hook, 24. 
Kieft, Governor, 13. 
Kimball, Superintendent, 206, 
King George's War, 37. 
King Philip's War, 22. 
King's Ferry, 120. 
Kingston, 99, in. 
Kitchell, Aaron, U. S. senator, 260. 
Knox, General, 117. 
Knyphausen, General, 133. 

Lafayette, Indians in, 13. 
Lafayette, Marquis de, 112, 113. 
Lambert, Gov. John, term as governor, 
159, 258. 

term as U. S. senator, 260. 
Lambertville, 76, in. 
Lanning, David, 84. 
Laurie, Gawen, deputy governor, 21, 

28, 257. 
Lawrence, James, 146. 
Lawrence ville, 55. 
Leather industry, 185, 226. 
Lee, Gen. Charles, at Monmouth 
Court House, 113, 116, 117. 

at White Plains, 73. 

dismissal of, 124. 

jealousy of, 77. 

reprimanded, 115, 116. 

taken prisoner, 78. 
Lee, Francis Bazley, 147, 175. 
Lee, Henry, 218. 

Lee, "Light Horse Harry," 130-132, 

Lee, Gen. Robert E., surrender of, 176, 

Legislative department, 143, 227, 239- 
245 . See also Assembly and Senate. 
Lenni Lenape Indians, 10. 
Lewis, Major, 100. 
Lewis, Morgan, 218. 
Lewiston, Fort, 14. 
Lexington, battle of, 46. 
Libraries, 223, 224. 
Lifeboats, 202, 203. 
Life carriage, 216. 
Life-savers, 201. 
Life-saving service, 197-207. 
Limestone, 226. 
Lincoln, Abraham, 173. 
Liquors, 226. 

Little Egg Harbor, -21, 53, 128. 
Livingston, Gov. William, appointed 
brigadier general, 65. 

biography of, 156. 

elected governor, 68, 258. 

quoted, 137. 
Locomotives, manufacture of, 191. 
"Log College," 57. 
Long Branch, 196. 
Long Island, defeat on, 71. 
Louisburg, expedition against, 37. 
Lovelace, Lord, governor, 33, 258. 
Lucas, Nicholas, 21. 
Ludlow, Gov. George C, 259. 
Ludwig, John G., 121. 
Lumber industry, 190. 

McCauly, George, 121. 

McCauly, MoUie, see MoUie Pitcher. 

McClellan, Gov. George B., 176, 177, 

Machinery, 183, 185, 192. 
Mcllvaine, Joseph, U. S. senator, 260. 
McKinley, WiUiam, President, 178. 
McLane, Allen, 131. 
McPherson, John R., U. S. senator, 260. 
Madison, James, 218. 
Maine, destruction of, 178. 
Malt, 226. 
Malt liquors, 190. 
Manhattan Island, 11. 
Manual training, 211. 
Manufacturing, in New Jersey, 226. 
Manzanillo, 179. 
Marble, 226. 



Marl, 49i 5°. 225. 

"Mason and Dixon's line," 173. 

Matinicunk, school at, 59. 

Mawhood, Lieutenant Colonel, 96. 

Maxwell, William, 66, 107, iii, 129. 

Mays Landing, 257. 

Meats, dressed, 190. 

Mechanical arts, 211, 221. 

Mechanical engineering, 223. 

Medical inspection in schools, 214. 

Menlo Park, 185. 

Mercer county, formation of, 257. 

iron ore in, 50. 
Mercer, General, at Bergen Neck, 73. 

at Princeton, 96, 97, 98. 

death of, 10 1. 
Metuchen Meeting House, 107. 
Mexico, war with, 171, 172. 
Middlebrook, 106, 107. 
Middlesex count}-, formation of, 28, 257. 
Middletown, 18, 19, 112, 121. 
Militia officers, 251. 
Miller, Jacob W., U. S. senator, 260. 
Millstone (Somerset Court House), 10 1. 
Mineral deposits, 49. 
Mining in New Jersey, 226. 
Minuit, Peter, 13. 
Model School, Trenton, 209, 210. 
Mohawk Valley, massacres in, 129. 
Molasses, industry in, 190. 
"MoUie Pitcher" (Mrs. McCauly), 121- 

Moltke, General von, 10 1. 
Monckton, Lieutenant Colonel, 118, 

119, 124. 
Monmouth count}', 28, 257. 
Monmouth Court House (Freehold), 
battle of, 111-120, 121-127. 

mob at, 43. 
Monroe, James, at Trenton, 89, 91. 
Montauk, 178. 

Montgomerie, Gov. John, 35, 258. 
Moore, James, 99. 
Morgan, Colonel, in, 113. 
Morris canal, 148, 149, 227. 
Morris, Captain, 82, 85. 
Morris county, formation of, 257. 
Morris, Gov. Lewis, 35, 36, 258. 
Morris, Major, 98. 
Morristown, county seat, 257. 

museum at, 102, 103. 

mutiny near, 134, 135. 

Morristown, Washington's headquarters 

at, 101-103, 132, 133. 
Morse, Samuel F. B., 154. 
Mortar boat, 203. 
Morton, Henry, 222, 223. 
Mott, John, 84. 
Mount Holly, 257. 
Mount Vernon, 141. 
Mud Island, 107. 
Muirhead, John, 84. 
Murphy, Gov. Franklin, 259. 
Mutiny of Pennsylvania line, 134-136. 

Narrows, 71. 

Nassau, Fort, 13. 

Nassau Hall, Princeton University, 58, 

216, 217, 218. 
Navesink, Fort, 32. 
Neal, Captain, 98. 
New Amsterdam, 11. 
New Beverly, see Burlington. 
New Bridge, 132. 
New Brunswick, barracks at, 39. 

convention at, 64. 

county seat, 257. 

headquarters at, 74, 77. 

history of, 55, 219. 

Howe at, 106. 

retreat through, 73. 

W^ashington at, 74. 
New Haven, expeditions against New 

Jersey, 14, i5- 
New Jersey Gazette, 51. 
"New Jersey Plan," 158. 
New Jersey State Library, Trenton, 224. 
New Market, 107. 
New Netherland, 10, 11, 13, 15. 
New Sweden, 14. 
New York, 15, 141. 
Newark, convention at, 63. 

county seat, 257. 

first school in, 58. 

history of, 18, 19, 54, 181-185. 

mob at, 43. 

Princeton College at, 216. 

Washington at, 73. 
Newark Bay, 16. 
Newark, in war with Spain, 179. 
Newark Library, 224. 
Newbrie, Mark, 51. 
Newell, Gov. William A., 200, 259. 
Newport Harbor, 134. 



Newspapers, 51. 

Newton, 56, 257. 

Newtown, N.Y., battle at, 130. 

Newtown, Pa., Washington at, 92. 

Ni colls. Gov., 17. 

Normal School, Trenton, 194, 209, 210. 

Upper Montclair, 213. 
Northcastle Heights, 72. 
Nova Ceesaria, 16. 

Ocean county, formation of, 257. 

Ocean Grove, 196. 

Ogden, Gov. Aaron, biography of, 160. 

term as governor, 259. ^ 

term as U. S. senator, 260. 
Ogden, Isaac, 64. 
Ogden, Joseph, 41. 
Ogden, Matthias, 129. 
Oil, trade in, 50. 

Olden, Gov. Charles S., 174, 259. 
Olive, Thomas, deputy governor, 27, 

Orphan Asylum, Newark, 185. 
Orphans' court, 233. 
Oxford, 50, 56. 
Oyer and terminer, court of, 235. 

Paoli massacre, 108. 
Paper, manufactured in Jersey City, 192. 
Paper money, 64. 
Paramus Church, 131. 
Pardons, court of, 234. 
Parishes, 227. 
Parker, James, 51. 

Parker, Gov. Joel, biography of, 175, 

term of office, 259. 
Passaic county, formation of, 257. 
Passaic Falls, 191. 
Passaic River, settlements on, 18. 
Passayunk, 15. 

Paterson, Gov. William, biography of, 

terms as governor, 258. 

term as U. S. senator, 259. 
Paterson, county seat, 257. 

history of, 56, 191. 
Patroons, grants to, 11. 
Paulus Hook, capture of, 130-131. 

history of , 12, 56, 186, 188, 189, 
Paulusen, Michael, 12. 
Pauw, Michael, 11, 186. 

Pavonia, 12, 13, 186. 
Pencils, manufacture of, 191. 
Penn, William, 20, 21, 24. 
Pennington, Gov. William, biography 
of, 165. 

term of office, 259. 
Pennington, Gov. William Sanford, 
biography of, 160. 

term of office, 259. 
Pennington road, 84, 85. 
Pennsylvania line, 134, 135. 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company, 153. 
Pensions to teachers, 212. 
Permanent tenure, of teachers, 213. 
Perth Amboy, assembly at, 32. 

barracks at, 39. 

Howe in, 106. 

post-office at, 53. 

settlement of, 28. 
Perth, Earl of, 27. 
Petroleum, 226. 
Phelps, William F., 209, 210. 
Philadelphia and Trenton Railway Co., 

Philadelphia, British designs against, 77. 

Congress flees from, 78. 

Continental Congress at, 65. 

convention at, 139, 140. 
Phillips, Elias, 84. 
Phillips, Joseph, 84. 
Phillips, Philip, 84. 
P has nix, 222. 
Pierson, Abraham, 18. 
Pierson, Isaac, 64. 
Pierson, Jeremiah H., 153. 
Pine forests, 50. 
Pine robbers, 105, 132. 
"Pines," The, 225. 
Piscataway, settlement at, 18. 
Pitcher, Mollie, see Mollie Pitcher. 
Plainfield, settlement of, 56. 
Plattsburg, 147. 
Pluckemin, 10 1. 
Point Pleasant, 197. 
Police court, 230. 
Pompton, 136, 137. 
Population, of Bayonne, 195. 

of Camden, 194. 

of Elizabeth, 195. 

of Hoboken, 194. 

of Jersey City, 186. 

of New Jersey, 18, 48, 143, 148. 



Population, of Newark, i8i, 183-185. 

of Paterson, 191. 

of Trenton, 192. 
Porter, Colonel, 98. 
Postage in 1792, 143. 
Post offices, early, 53. 
Pottery industry, 194, 225, 226. 
Potts, Stacey G., 163. 
Prerogative court, 234. 
Price, Gov. Rodman M., 259. 
Prigmore's Swamp, 55, 219. 
Princeton, battle of, 93-104. 

Howe's forces at, 75. 

Washington enters, 74. 
Princeton College, 57, 58, 215-219. 
Princeton University, 219, 224.. 
Printz, Swedish governor, 14. 
Prompton, 150. 

Proprietors of New Jersey, 16-31. 
"Provincial Congress of New Jersey," 

Public schools in New Jersey, 184, 185, 

190, 208-214. 
Pulaski, legion of, 128. 
Pumps, manufactured in Elizabeth, 195. 
Puritans, in New Jersey, 47. 
Putnam, General, 71. 

Quakers, in New Jersey, 26, 48, 59. 

Quarter sessions, court of, 231. 

Quartering Act, 40. 

Queen Anne's War, 34. 

Queen's College (Rutgers), 58, 220. 

Quibbletown (New Market), 107. 

Quincy railroad, 150. 

Quit rents, 17, 19, 20, 27, 30, 31, 38. 

Rahway, 55, 107. 

Railroad cars, manufacture of, 190. 

Railways, 148-152, 227. 

Rail, Johann G., attack against, 88-91. 

commands Hessians, 77. 

negligence of, 78-81, 85, 87. 
Ramapo, 153. 
Randolph, Gov. Theodore, 259. 

U. S. senator, 260. 
Ray, David, 126, 127. 
Reading, John, 37, 258. 
Red Bank, 107. 
Redemptioners, 49. 
Religious revivals, 56, 57. 
Republicans, 141. 

Resolute, in war with Spain, 179. 

Retirement fund, 212. 

Revolutionary War, 71-137. 

Rice, cultivation of, 50. 

"Right of search," 145. 

Roads, early, 52, 53. 

Rocky Hill, 99. 

Royal Grenadiers, 118, 119, 

Rubber industry, 190, 194, 226. 

Rudyard, Thomas, 8, 28. 257. 

Rutgers College (Queens), 58, 220, 224. 

Rutgers, Henry, 220. 

Rutgers Scientific School, 221. 

Rutherford, John, U. S. senator, 259. 

St. Barnabas Hospital, 185. 
St. Clair, General, 82. 
St. Michael Hospital, 185. 
Salem, aids Boston, 45. 

county seat, 257. 

port of entry, 26. 

settlement of, 21. 

shipbuilding at, 53. 
Salem county, formation of, 257. 
San Pasqual, battle of, 172. 
Sandstone, 226. 
Sandy Hook, iii. 
Santa Fe, 172. 
Sargent, Colonel, 82. 
Savannah, boiler, 154. 
Scholarships, 211. 
School for Deaf Mutes, 194. 
School law, of 1867, 210. 

of 1871, 212. 

of 1903, 212, 213. 
School suffrage for women, 170, 211. 
Schools of New Jersey, 57-60, 183, 184, 

187, 188, 208-224. 
Schureman, James, U. S. senator, 260. 
Schuyler, General, 73. 
Scotch, in New Jersey, 47. 
Scotch Plains, 56, 73. 
Scotch Presbyterians, 28. 
Scotch road, 84. 
Scott, General, 172. 
Scudder, Amos, 94. 
Second Continental Congress, 64, 65. 
Secretary of state, of New Jersey, 143- 
Seeley, Gov. EHas P., 164, 259. 
Senate, of New Jersey, 143, 227, 240. 
Senatorial districts, 227. 
Senators, United States, 259, 260. 





Senecas, 130. 

Sewell, William J., U. S. senator, 260. 

Sewing machines in Elizabeth, 195. 

Sheldon, Colonel, 129. 

Shipbuilding, 53. 

Shippen, Captain, 98. 

Shipyards in Camden, 194. 

Shirley, governor of Massachusetts, 37. 

Shreve, Israel, 129. 

Shrewsbury, 18, 50. 

Silk industry, 190, 192, 226. 

Silverware, manufacture of, 185. 

Simmonds, Henry, 84. 

Six Nations, 128, 129. 

Skeine, Gov. John, 258. 

Slavery, 145, 172, 173. 

Sloane, W. M., loi. 

Smelting works, 50. 

Smith, Isaac, 64. 

Smith, James, U. S. senator, 260. 

Smith, WiUiam P., 64. 

Soap, manufacture of, 191. 

Somerset county, formation of, 28, 257. 

Somerset Court House (Millstone), 10 1. 

Somerville, 257. 

Sourland Hills, 106. 

South Carolina Railroad, 150, 

Southard, Gov. Samuel L., 163, 164, 

259, 260. 
Spain, war with, 177-180. 
Specie, 50. 

Speedwell Iron Works, 153, 154. 
Spencer, Oliver, 129. 
Springfield, 73. 
Squan Beach, 197, 199, 201. 
Stacy, Mahlon, 55. 
Stage routes, 53, 54. 
Stages, from Paulus Hook, 189. 
Stamp Act, 40, 42. 
State Arsenal, Trenton, 193. 
State College, 211, 221. 
State Home for Girls, Trenton, 194. 
State Hospital, Trenton, 193. 
State House, Trenton, 193. 
State Prison, Trenton, 194. 
Staten Island, Howe at, 107. 
Steel, manufacture of, 191, 226. 
Stephen, General, 82. 
Steuben, Baron, 104, 195. 
Stevens, Edwin A., 222. 
Stevens, John, 194, 222. 
Stevens, Robert L., 222. 

HIST. NJ. — 18 

Stevens Institute, 195, 222-223. 
Stirling, Lord (William Alexander), 
aids Major Lee, 132. 

appointed general, 66. 

at Metuchen Meeting House, 107. 

at Monmouth Court House, 116, 117, 

brigade at Trenton, 82. 

forces of, 74, 75- 

taken prisoner, 71. 
Stockton, John P., U. S. senator, 260. 
Stockton, Richard, 66, 75, 260. 
Stockton, Robert F., 172, 260. 
Stokes, Gov. Edward C, 259. 
Stony Brook, 76, 97, 98. 
Stratton, Gov. Charles C, 166, 259. 
Strawberry, New Jersey, 183, 184. 
Stuynhuysen, Engelbert, 58, 187- 
Stuyvesant, Peter, 13, 14, 15. 
Suffrage, right of, 238, 239. 
Sugar refineries, 190. 
Sullivan, Fort, 129. 
Sullivan, General, at Trenton, 78. 

attack on Hessians, 86. 

/attack on Howe, 107. 

attack on Iroquois, 129. 

in Sourland Hills, 106, 

taken prisoner, 71. 
Sumter, Fort, 173. 

Supreme court of judicature, 232, 250. 
Surfboats, 203. 
Surrogate court, 233. 
Sussex county, formation of, 257. 
Swedes in New Jersey, 13, 14, 47. 

Tappan, 128. 

Tar, production of, 50. 

Tatham, John, 257. 

Taxation of glass, tea, etc., 42. 

"Tea parties," 44, 45- 

Teachers' Institutes, 209. 

Telegraph, Morse's, 154, 155. 

Ten Eyck, John C, U. S. senator, 260. 

Tennent, Rev. Gilbert, 57. 

Tennent Church, 115, 121, 124, 125. 

Texas, admission of, 171. 

Text-books, free, 211. 

Thompson, John R., U. S. senator, 260. 

Thread manufactories, 185, 192. 

Thurston, Robert H., 223. 

Tiffany silverware plant, 185. 

Timber, 50, 225. 

Tioga Point, 129. 



Tobacco industrj', 50, 190. 

Tom Thumb, locomotive, 150. 

Tom's River, county seat, 257. 

Tools and machines, 183. 

Tory raids, 68, 69, 70, 73, 105, 132. 

Treasurer, of New Jersey, 143. 

Treat, Robert, 18. 

Trent, William, 55. 

Trenton, barracks at, 39. 

battle of, 76-92. 

capital of New Jersey, 143. 

convention at, 168. 

county seat, 257. 

history of, 54, 55, 192-194. 

post office at, 53. 

State Library at, 224. 

Washington at, 74, 94. 

Washington arch at, 141, 142. 
Trenton Ferry, 78. 

Trenton Normal School, 194, 209, 210. 
Troy, bloomer;' at, 50. 
Trumbull, governor of Connecticut, 68. 
Tucker, Samuel, 64. 
Tuckerton, 56, 128. 
Turpentine, production of, 50. 

Uniforms, American and British, 114. 

Union, 133, 195. 

Union county, formation of, 257. 

Union Hill, 131. 

Upper Montclair Normal School, 213. 

Vail, Alfred, 154, i55- 

Vail, George, 155. 

Vail, Stephen, 153, 154. 

Valley Forge, Washington at, 109. 

Van Vorsts, 189. 

Varnish factories in Newark, 185. 

Vegetables, raised in New Jersey, 226. 

Vera Cruz, 172. 

Veto of governor, 229. 

Voorhees, Gov. Foster M., 179, 259. 

Vroom, Gov. Peter D., 162, 163, 164, 


Wall, Garret D., U. S. senator, 162, 260. 
Wall, James W., U. S. senator, 260. 
Wallabout, 71. 
Wampum, 50, 51. 
War of 1812, 145-147. 
Ward, Gov. Marcus L., 259. 

Warren county, formation of, 257. 
Washington, Captain, 89, 91. 
Washington, George, appointed com- 
mander in chief, 64. 

at Monmouth Court House, 111-120 

at Morristown, 132, 133. 

at Philadelphia, 107. 

at Princeton, 99. 

besieges Boston, 66. 

elected President, 141. 

reprimands Lee, 115, 116. 
Washington Headquarters Assoc., 102. 
Washington, Martha, 104. 
Watches, manufacture of, 185, 191. 
Watson, Commodore, 179. 
Wayne, Gen. Anthony, at Monmouth 
Court House, 113, 117, 118, 119. 

?* Paoli, 108. 

attacked by mutineers, 135, 136. 

checks enemy, 107. 
Wenrock Brook, 123. 
Werts, Gov. George T., 259. 
West Jersey, 21, 22-31. 
West Jersey Society of Proprietors, 258. 
West Point, 136. 
Whale fishing, 50. 
Whale oil, production of, 50. 
Whisky insurrection, 159. 
White Plains, 72, 120. 
Whitefield, George, 57. 
Williamson, Gov. Isaac H., 161, 259. 
Wilson, General, 69. 
Wilson, James J., U. S. senator, 260. 
Wilson's Tavern, 87. 
Witherspoon, John, 66, 75, 217. 
Woman suffrage, 167, 170, 211. 
Woodbridge, 18, 19, 58, 73. 
Woodbury, county seat, 257. 
Woodhull, General, 71. 
Woolen mills, 193, 194. 
Woolman, John, 57. 
Woolsey, Ephraim, 84. 
Wright, William, U. S. senator, 260. 
Wyoming Valley, massacres in, 129. 

Yardley's Ferry, 78. 

York, Congress adjourns to, 109. 

York, Duke of, 15, 28. _^-\ 

Zinc, manufacture of, 191. 




OCT 1 4 1942