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Brief H istory 



FROM HANNIBAL, (See page 160.) 


Brief History 








The required books of the C. L. S. C. are reeommended 
by a Council of six. I^ must, however, be understood that 
recommendation does not involve an approval by the 
Council, or by any member of it, of every principle or doe- 
trine contained in the book recommended. 

Copyright, 1885, by A. S. Barnes & Co. 

Copyright, 1885, by Phillips & Hunt, 805 Broadway, New York. 







THE first part of this book, taken from the Bkief 
History of Ancient Peoples, gives a resume of 
Roman history, manners, customs, arts, literature, architect- 
ure, religion, etc. 

In accordance with the modern method of historical teach- 
ing, the political portion is limited to the important events, 
that room may be made for some account of the life of the 

The divisions on Civilization and Manners and Customs 
are l^y Mrs. J. Dorman Steele. Their aim is to give prom- 
inence to the fact tliat the people of history were men and 
women subject to the same liopes, fears, joys, and sufferings 
as ourselves, and thus to sfudy their v.irious fortunes in the 
spirit of human sympathy, ratlier llian of statisticnl infor- 

The Scenes in Real Life are the result of a careful study 
of the monuments in tlu- London, Paris, and Berlin mu- 
seums, of the ruins in Rome mikI Pomi»eii, and of the 


latest authorities on the domestic life of the peoples of 
other lands and times. 

The second part of this book, also prepared by Mrs. Steele, 
consists of readings, carefully selected from the best writers. 
The guiding thought in choosing these has been, first, to 
impress upon the mind of the reader a few of the most 
important events and characters in Roman history ; and, 
second, to suggest to him the wide range of literature 
bearing upon the subject, hoping thus to beget an in- 
terest that may lead to a familiarity with this field of 

In making these compilations it has often seemed expe- 
dient to combine scattered passages, and to condense, 
interpolate, or modify sentences and paragraphs, in order 
to render each selection complete by itself; the utmost 
care lias been taken, however, to preserve each author's 
peculiar style and mode of expression. 



1. Political History of Eome 

Introduction 14 

Founding of Rome 15 

Sabine Invasion and League 18 

Etruscan Conquest 21 

The Struggle between Patricians and Plebeians 23 

The Gallic Invasion 30 

The War with Pyrrhus 34 

The Punic Wars 37 

The Civil Wars 51 

Imperial Kome ... 65 

Spread of Christianity 73 

Invasion of the Barbarians 75 

Fall of Rome 79 

2. Civilization 80 

Society 80 

The Army 81 

Arms and Mode of Warfare 82 

Literature .... 83 

Libraries and Writing Material 88 

Ediu-atioii DO 

MonnmcntH and Art 91 

3. Manneus and Customs 90 

General Character 90 

Religion 97 

Games and Festivals 100 


Marriage 103 

Burial 104 

Dress 105 

Scenes in Real Life. — I. A Day in Rome. II. A Roman 
Home. III. A Triumphal Procession. IV. The last 

of a Roman Emperor 106 

4. Summary 118 

1. Of the Political History 118 

2. Of the Civilization 119 

3. Reading References 120 

4. Chronology 131 



1. The Origin of the Romans. — Latin Race, Lan- 
guage, Society, Tribal Divisions, Houses, Cit- 
izenship, etc Arnold 123 

3. Causes op Rome's Early Greatness 128 

1. The Campagna and the Tiber Philip Smith 128 

2. The Palatine Hill, the Cradle of Rome Merimle 130 

3. The Seven Hills, and the Power of Political 

Confederacy Ihne 131 

4. The Rapid Growth of the Imperial City Sheppard 134 

5. Rome the Mistress of the Mediterranean Sheppard 135 

3. Roman Ballads, the Source op Roman Leg- 

endary History . . .Macaulay 136 

Battle of Lake Regillus Macaulay 140 

4. Period op the Punic Waks 145 

1. Rome in the Third Century B. c Ihne 145 

S. Hannibal 148 

1. The Genius of Hannibal Arnold 148 

2. Hannibal at the Gates of Rome Livy 149 

8. Hasdrubal at the Metaurus Arnold 153 



4. A Roman Atonement, a Suspense and a 
Thanksgiving. (Before and after the 

battle of Metaurus) Ihne 157 

S. Carthage Edinburgh Review 160 

4. Cato the Censor Plutarch 162 

5. Sumptuary Laws . . .Ihne 164 

Debate between Cato and L. Valerius on 

the Oppian Law Livy 165 

Period of the Civil Wars 170 

1. Rome at the Opening of the Civil Wars 170 

1. The New NobiUty Philip Smith 170 

2. Public Improvements Philip Smith 171 

5. The Gracchi Plutarch 172 

3. Marius and Sulla Beesly 175 

4. Julius Caesar 177 

1. The Man Froude 177 

2. The Soldier Froude 178 

3. The Orator and Author Froude 179 

4. Caesar's Mission Froude 180 

6. Pompey the Great Alfred Church 181 

6. The First Triumvirate Froude 184 

7. Battle of Pharsalia \ ^^^^'^ \. 187 

8. Caesar's Death SMksperc 193 

9. Antony, Octavius, and Cicero ] £''"^/* [ 197 

10. End of Cato the Stoic Church 205 

//. Comparison of Cato and Caesar Sullust 208 

The Augustax Age 209 

1. Rome under Augustus. Edinburgh Reviexc 209 

2. The Personal Augustus Merivnlc 210 

5. Town and Country Life Horace 214 

/f. A Roman Poet's City Home Becker 217 

The F"iust Christian Century 225 

1. Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius. \ tr „ ■ n , » r 225 

' ^ ' / Vflleius Paterculua ) 

2. The Siege of Jernsalem 229 

1. Description of Roman Armies, &c Jonephua 229 



2. How Titus Marclied to Jerusalem Josephus 234 

3. The Destruction of the City Collier 284 

4. The Triumphant Return of Titus Josephus 242 

3. The Colosseum Story 247 

4. The Eruption of Mount Vesuvius Pliny 259 

5. A Satire on Roman Vices Juvenal 264 

8. The Five Good Emperoks 266 

i.Nerva and Trajan ] I w4 ^66 

2. Pliny's Correspondence with Trajan concern- 

ing the Christians . . Pliny 267 

3. Hadrian and Antinous George Taylor 270 

4. Hadrian's Villa at Tibur George Taylor 271 

5. The Good Humor of Antoninus Pius Watson 277 

6. How a Young Roman Prince Spent his Days. 

(Marcus Aurelius to his Tutor.). ... Watson 279 

7. The " Meditations " of Marcus Aurelius Watson 280 

9. The Decline and Fall of Rome 281 

1. The Empire sold to the Highest Bidder White 281 

2. The Removal to Constantinople White 284 

3. The Three Sacks of the Eternal City Kingsley 286 


OP THE Romans 290 

1. Roman Slavery 290 

1. A Slave not a Person, but a Thing 290 

2. Penalty for a Murdered Master Tacitus 290 

2. Roman Superstition 293 

1. Evil Omens, and how they were Averted Livy 293 

2. A Senate Dismayed by the Contumacious 

Liver of an Ox , Licy 295 

3. Roman Jurisprudence 296 

1. Forms and Ceremonies Gibbon 296 

2. Epochs in Jurisprudence " 297 

3. The Parent and the Child " 298 

4. The Tutor and the Pupil " 299 

5. Thefts and Insults " 300 

6. Crimes and Punishments " 300 

7. Voluntary Exile and Death " 802 







Frontispiece — Supplicating the Gods 

The Roman Wolf Statue 15 

The Tarpeian Rock 10 

The Temple of Janus IT 

Roman Fasces 18 

Roman Plebeians of the Early Period 25 

Cincinnatus Receiving the Dictatorship 30 

Hankib.\l Crossing the Alps 41 op Hannibal 41 

Group of Roman Soldiers 50 

Portrait of Caius Julius C.a:sAR 58 

The Roman Imperial Emblem 01 

Coin of Tiberius C^sak 08 

Coin of Nero 70 

Attila, the Hun 78 

Roman Consul and Lictors 80 

The Siege of a City 82 

PoiiTRAiTs of Cicero, Virgil, Horace, and Sallust 80 

I.NTEiiioK of a Roman Library 89 

The Roman Toga 91 

Bridge ok St. Angelo and Hadrian's To.mb 93 

Ri IN8 OF the Colosseum 95 

A Roman Augur 98 

A (Ji.adiatouial Co.mbat 101 

Dkkssino a Hride 103 

Rome in the Time of Augustus ('.tKhar 107 



27. A Roman Lamp 112 

28. Interior of the House op Pansa 114 

29. Plan of the House of Pansa 116 

30. Eoman Tombs along the Appian Way 123 

31. Frontispiece to Part II. — Death of Virginia 123 

32. Battle op Lake Regillus 141 

33. A Roman Home 145 

34. Chariot Race 147 

35. Death of Cesar 193 

36. Death of Cicero 204 

37. The Arch op Titus 252 

38. Destruction op Pompeii 261 


Map of the Roman Empire and its Provinces 1 

Map op the Early Tribes akd Cities op the Italian Pen- 
insula 20 

Map Illustrating the Punic Wars 38 

Map of the Divisions of Italia to the Time op Augustus. 65 

Map or Plan of Ancient Rome 109 


Part I. 


While Greece was winning its freedom on the fields of 
Marathon and Plataea, and building up the best civilization 
the world had then seen ; while Alexander was carrying the 
Grecian arms and culture over the East ; while the Con- 
queror's successors were wrangling over the prize he had 
won ; while the Ptolemies Avere transplanting Grecian 
thought, but not Grecian freedom, to Egyptian soil ; — 
there was slowly growing up on the banks of the Tiber a 
city that was to found an empire wider than Alexander's, 
and molding Grecian civilization, art, and literature into 
new forms, preserve them long after Greece had fallen. 

Contrast between Greece and Italy. — Grecian history 
extended from the First Olympiad (7TG u. c.) to the Roman 
Conquest (146 b. c), a period of six centuries, while its real 
strength lasted only from Marathon to Chseronea, less than 
a century and a half; Roman history reached from the 
founding of the city (754 B. c.) to its downfall (47G a. d.), 

Geoffraphicnl Queffiotit.—^iea mapB, pieoa 20 and fiS. Describe the Tiber. 
Locate Rome. Ostia. AJba I,onga. Veii (Vcji). The Sabinos. The Etruscans. 
Where was Carthaf^e ? New Carthage ? Sagiintiim ? SyracuHo ? Lake Trasiimcnus t 
Capoa ? Carina:? Turenlutn? CiKalpincOiiul ? Iapy:ria (tlie "heel oflialy" reaching 
toward Greece). Bruttium (the " toe of Italy "). What were the llmitri of the empire 
at the time of it? greatcKt extent? Name the principal countries which It then In- 
cluded. Locate Alexandria. Antioch. Smyrna, riiilippi. Byzantium. 

14 ROME. 

over twelve centuries. The coast of Italy was not, like that 
of Greece, indented with deep bays, and hence the people 
were not originally seamen nor colonists. Greece, cut up 
into small valleys, offered no unity ; it grew around many 
little centers, and no two leaves on its tree of liberty were 
exactly alike. But Italy exhibited the unbroken advance of 
one imperial city to universal dominion. In Greece, there 
were the fickleness and jealousies of petty states ; in Italy, 
the power and resources of a mighty nation. Greece lay 
open to the East; she originally drew her inspiration thence, 
and in time returned thither the fruits of her civilization. 
Italy lay open in the opposite direction, and sent the strength 
of her civilization to regenerate barbarian Europe. The 
work of the Greek seems to have been to exhibit the triumphs 
of the mind, and to illustrate the pi'inciples of liberty ; that 
of Rome, to subdue by irresistible force, to manifest the 
power of law, and to bind the nations together for the com- 
ing of a new religion. When Greece fell from her high 
estate, she left nothing but her history, and the achievements 
of her artists and statesmen. When the Roman Empire 
broke to pieces, the great nations of Europe sprang from the 
ruins, and their languages, civilization, laws, and religion 
took their form from the Mistress of the World. 

The Early Inhabitants of Italy were mainly of the 
same Aryan swarm that settled Greece. But they had be- 
come very different from the Hellenes, and had split into 
various hostile tribes. Between the Arno and the Tiber 
lived the Etruscans or Tuscans — a league of twelve cities. 
These people were great builders, and skilled in the arts. 
In northern Italy Cisalpine Gaul was inhabited by Celts, 
akin to those upon the other side of the Alps. Southern 
Italy contained many prosperous Greek cities. The Italians 
occupied central Italy. They were divided into the Latins 



and Oscans. The former comprised a league of thirty towns 
south of the Tiber ; the latter consisted of various tribes liv- 
ing eastward — Samnites, Sabines, etc.* 
Rome was founded f (754 b.c.) by the Latins, perhaps 

♦ Some authorities group the Samnites, Sabines, Umbrians, Oscans, Sabellians, 
etc., as the Umbrians; and others call tliem the UmAro- Sabellians. They were 
doubtless closely related. 

+ Of the early history op Rome there is no reliable account, as the records 
were burned when the city was destroyed by the Gauls (390 B. c), and it was five 
hundred years after the founding of tlie city (A. U. C, anno urbis co?ulitce) before the 
first rude attempt was made to write a continuous narrative of its origin. The names 
of the early monarchs are probably personifications, rather than the appellations of 
real persons. The word Rome itself means border, and probably had no relation to 
the fabled Romulus. The history which was accepted in later times by the Romans 
and has come down to us is a series of beautiful legends. In the text is given the 
real history as now received by the best critics, and in the notes the mythical storiea. 

MsEAS, favored by the god 
Mercury and led by his mother 
Venus, came, after the destiiic- 
tion of Troy, to Italy. There his 
son Ascanius built the Long 
White City (Alba Longa). Uis 
descendants reigned in peace for 
three hundred years. When it 
came time, according to the de- 
cree of the gods, that Rome 
should be founded, 

Romulus and Remus were 
born. Their mother, Rhea Silvia, 
was a priestess of the goddess 
Vesta, and their father. Mars, the 
god of war. Amulius, who had 
nanrpcd the Alban throne from 
their grandfather Numilor, or- 
dered the babes to be thrown 
Into the Tiber. Thoy were, how- 
ever, cast ashore at the foot of 
Mount Palatine. Ilerc thoy were 
nursed by a wolf. One Faustulus 
passing near was struck by the 
Bight, and carrying the children 
home brought them up as his 
own. Romulus and Remus on 
coming to age discovered their 
true rank, slew the usurper, and restored their grandfatlicr Niimitor to his throne. 

Founding op Rf)MK.— Tlic brothers then dr'terminod to found a city near the spot 
where they had been so wonderfully preserveil, imd agreed to watch the flight of 
birds In order to decide which should fix upon the site Rcinus, on the Avenlino 
hill, saw six vultures ; but Romulu'*, on llie Palatine, saw twelve, and was declared 
victor lie accordintrly began to mark out the boundaries with a brazen plough, 
drawn by a bullock and a heifer. As the mud wall arose, liemus in scorn jumped 




a colony sent out from Alba Longa, as an outpost against 
the Etruscans, whom they greatly feared. At an early date 
it contained about one thousand miserable, thatched huts, 
surrounded by a wall. Most of the inhabitants were shep- 
herds or farmers, who tilled the land upon the plain near 
by, but lived for protection within their fortifications on 
the Palatine Hill. It is probable that the hills afterward 
covered by Rome were then occupied by Latins, and that 
the cities of Latium formed a confederacy, with Alba Longa 
at the head. 

over it. WTiereupon Romulus slew him, exclaiming, " So perish every one who may 
try to leap over those ramparts I " The new city he called Rome after his own name, 
and hecame its first king. To secure inhabitants, he opened an asylum for refugees 
and criminals. But lacking women, he resorted to a curious expedient. A great 
festival in honor of Neptune was appointed, and the neighboring people were invited 
to come with their families. In the midst of the games the young Romans rushed 
among the spectators, and each seizing a maiden, carried her off to be his wife. The 
indignant parents returned home, but only to come back in arms, and thirsting for 
vengeance. The Sabines laid siege to the citadel on the Capitoline hill. Tarpeia, 
the commandant's daughter, dazzled by the glitter of their golden bracelets and 

rings, promised to betray the 
fortress if the Sabines would 
give her " what they \\ ore on 
their left arms." As they 
passed in through the gate, 
which she opened for them 
in the night, they crushed her 
beneath their heavy shields. 
Henceforth that part of the 
hill was called the Tarpeian 
Rock, and down its precipice 
traitors were hurled to death. 
The next day after Tarpeia's 
treachery, the battle raged in 
the valley between the Capi- 
toline and Palatine hills. In 
his distress, Romulus vowed 
a temple to Jupiter. The Ro- 
mans thereupon turned and 
drove hack their foes. In the 
flight, Mcttius Curtius, the 
leader of the Sabines, sank 
with his horse Into a marsh, 
and nearly perished. Ere the contest could be renewed, the Sabine women, with 
disheveled hair, suddenly rushed between their kindred and new-found husbands, 
and implored peace. Their entreaties prevailed, the two people united, and their 
kings reigned jointly. As the Sabmes came from Cures, the united people were 
called Romans and Quirites. 




The Government was aristocratic. There were a priest- 
king, a senate, and an assembly. The priest-king offered 
sacrifices, and presided over the senate. The senate had the 
right to discuss, and vote ; the assembly, to discuss only. 
Each original family or house {gens) was represented in 
the senate by its head. This body was therefore composed 
of the fathers (jmtres), and was from the beginning the 
soul of the rising city ; while throughout its entire history 
the intelligence, experience, and wisdom gathered in the 
senate, determined the policy and shaped the public life 

RoMTTLCs, after tlie death of Tatius, became sole king. He divided tlie people into 
nobles and comuious ; ilie former he caXlud patricians, and the VMer plebeians. The 
patricians were separated into three tribes— 7?amwe«, Titles, and Luceres. In each of 
these he made ten divisions or ounce. The thirty curiai foimed the assembly of the 
people. Tlie plebeian^ being apportioned as tenants and dependents among the 
patricians, were called clients. One huudn d of the patricians were chosen for age and 
wisdom, and styled /a^A^srs (patres). After Romuhis had reigned thirty-seven years, 
and done all these things according to the will of the gods, one day, during a violent 
thunder-storm, he disappeared from sight, and was henceforth worshipped as a god. 

Noma Pompii.iu3, a pious Sabine, was the secoud king. Numa was wise from 
his youth, as a sign of which his hair was gray at birth. He was trained by Pythag- 
oras in all the vast knowledge of the Greeks ; 
and was wont, in a sacred grove near Rome, to 
meet the nymph Egeria. who taught liim lessons 
of wisdom, and how men below should worship 
the gods aliove. By pouring wine into the spring 
whence Fannus and Picus, the gods of the wood, 
drank, he led them to tell him the secret charm 
to gain the will of Jupiter. Peace smiled on the 
land during his happy reign, and the doors of the 
temple of Janus remained closed. 

TrLi.T:s IIosTiLius, the third king, loved war 
as Numa did pence. He soon got into a quarrel 
with Alba Longa. As the armies were about to 
fight. It was agreed to decide the contest by a 
combat between the Horatii — three brothers in 
the Roman ranks, and the Curatii— three brothers 
in the Alban. They were cousins, and one of the 
Curntii was engaged to be married to a sister of one of the Horatii. In the fight, 
two of the IToratii were killed, when the third pretended to run. The Curatii, be- 
ranse of their wounds, followed him slowly, and becoming separated, he turned 
about and slew them one by one. As the victor returned laden with the spoils, he 
met his sister, who, catehin? sight of the robe which she had embroidcTcd lor her 
lover, burst info tear". Iloratius. unable to hear her reproaches, struck her dead, 
saying, " So perish any Roman woman who Inmcnts a foe 1 " The inurd'Ter was con- 
demned to (lie, but the peojile spared him because his valor had suvimI Rome. Alba 
enbmitted,but the inhabitants jjrovlng trc'icli'Tou". the city was razed, and the' people 
were taken to Rome and located on the Coeiian hill. The AJbaus and the Rom«ai> 




that made Rome the Mistress of the World. The assembly 
{comitia curiata) consisted of the males belonging to these 
ancient families. The members voted in ten bodies {curice), 
each containing the nobles of ten houses (gentes). 

Sabine Invasion and League. — The Sabines, coming 
down the valley of the Tiber, captured the Capitoline and 
Quirinal hills. There Avere frequent conflicts between these 
near neighbors, but they soon came into an alliance. Finally, 
the two tribes formed one city, and the people were there- 
after known as Rornans and Quirites. Both had seats in 

now became one nation as the Sabines and the Romans had become in the days of 

Romulus. In his old age Tullus sought to find out the will of Jupiter, using the spells 

of Numa, but angry Jove struck him with a thunderbolt. 

Angus Marcitjs, the grandson of Numa, conquered many Latin cities, and, 
bringing the inhabitants to Rome, gave them homes on 
the Aventine hill. He wrote Numa's laws on a white 
board in the Forum, built a bridge over the Tiber, aud 
erected the Mamertine prison, the first in the city. 

Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king, was an Etruscan, 
who came to Rome during the reign of Ancus. As he 
approached the city, an eagle flew circling above his 
head, seized his cap, rose high in air, and then returning 
replaced it. His wife, TanaquU, being learned in augury, 
foretold that he was coming to distinguished honor. Her 
prediction proved true, for he greatly pleased Ancus, 
who named him as his successor in place of his own 
children. The people ratified the choice, and the event 
proved its wisdom. Tarquin built the famous Drain 
(cloaca), which still remains with scarce a stone dis- 
placed. He planned the Great Race-Course (Circus 
Maximus), and its games. He conquered Etruria, and 
the Etruscans sent him " a golden crown, a sceptre, an 
ivory chair, a purple toga, an embroidered tunic, and an 
axe tied in a bundle of rods." So the Romans adopted 
these emblems of royal power as signs of their do- 

Now there was a boy named Servius Tullius brought 
up in the palace, who was a favorite of the king. One 
day while the child was asleep lambent flames were seen 
playing about his head. Tanaquil foresaw from this 
that he was destined to great things. He was hence- 
forth in high favor ; he married the king's daughter, 
and became his counsellor. The sons of Ancus fearing 
lest Servius should succeed to the throne, and being 
wroth with Tarquin because of the loss of their paternal 
inheritance, assassinated the king. But Tanaquil re- 
ported that Tarquin was only wounded, and wished that 

Servius might govern until he recovered. When the deception was found out, 



the senate, and the king was taken alternately from each. 
This was henceforth the mode of Rome's gi'owth ; she ad- 
mitted her allies and conquered enemies to citizenship, thus 
adding their strength to her own, and making her victories 
their victories. 

Alba Longa, the chief town of the Latin league and the 
mother-city of Rome, was herself, after a time, destroyed, 
and the inhabitants were transferred to Rome. The Alban 
nobles, now perhaps called Luceres, with the Sabines (7Y//es), 
already joined to the original Romans (Ramnes), made the 

Servics was flrmly fixed in his seat. He made a league witli the Latins, and, as 
a sign of the union, built to Diana a temple on the Aventine, where both peoples 
offered annual sacrifices for Rome and Latium. He enlarged Rome, enclosing the 
seven hills with a stone wall ; and divided the city into four parts — called tribex, after 
the old division of the people as instituted by Romulus— and all the land about into 
twenty-six districts. The son of a bond-maid, Servius favored the common people. 
This was shown in his separation of all the Romans— patricians and plebeians- into 
five classes, according to their wealth. These classes were subdivided into centuries, 
and they were to assemble in this military order when the king wished to consult 
concerning peace or war, or laws. In the centuriate assembly the richest citizens 
had the chief influence, for they formed eighty centuries, and the knights {equites) 
eighteen centuries, each having a vote; while fewer votes were given to the lower 
classes. But this arrangement was not unjust, since the ^vealthy were to provide 
themselves with heavy armor, and fight in the front rank ; while the poorest citizens, 
who formed but one century, were exempt from military service. 

The two daughters of Seni.m were married to the two sons of Tarquinius the 
Elder. The couples were ill-matched, in each case the good and gentle being mated 
with the cruel and haughty. Finally, Tullia murdered her husband, and Lucius 
killed his wife, and these two partners in crime and of like evil iustincts, were mar- 
ried. Lucius now conspired with the nobles against the king. His plans being ripe, 
one day lie went into the senate and sat down on the throne. Servius hearing the 
tumult which arose, hastened hither. Whereupon Lucius hurled the king headlong 
down the steps. As the old man was tottering homeward the usurper's attendants 
followed and murdered him. Tullia hastened to the senate to salute her husband as 
king. But he, somewhat less brutal than she, ordered her back. While returning, 
her driver came to the prostrate body of the king and was about to turn aside, when 
Bhe fiercely bade him "Go forward !" The blood of her father spattered her dress 
as the chariot rolled over his lifeless remains. The place took its name from this 
horrid deed, and was henceforth knownas the Wicked Street. 

Lucius Tarqui.mcs, who thus became the seventh and last king, was sumamed 
Superbus (the Proud). lie erected ma'-sive edifices, compi'lling (he workmen to re- 
ceive such pitiable wages that many in despair committed suicide. In digging the 
foundations of a tcmplr to .Jupiti-r, a bleeding head (caput ) was discovered. This the 
king took to be an omen that the city was to become thelieadof the world, and so gave 
the name Capitoliue to the teitiplc, and the hill on which it stood. In the vaults of 
this temple were deposited (he Sibylline books, concerning wliirli a singular slory was 
told. One day a sibyl from Cuma; came to the king, ofliTing to mOI him for a fabnloiis 
sum nine books of prophecies. Tarqnin declined to buy. Whereupon she burned 


number of tribes three ; of curiae, thirty ; and of houses, 
(probably) three liundred. 

Etruscan Conquest. — The rising city was, in its turn, 
conquered by the Etruscans, who placed the Tarquius on 
the throne. This foreign dynasty were builders as well as 
warriors. They adorned Kome with elegant edifices of 
Etruscan architecture. They added the adjacent heights to 
the growing capital, and extended around the " seven-hilled 
city" a stone wall, which lasted eight centuries. Eome, 
within one hundred and fifty years after her founding, be- 
came the head of Latium. 

three of the book?, and demancled the same price for the remaining six. Tarquin 
laughed, tliiukiiig her mad. But when she burned three more, and still asked the 
orijjinal amount for the other volumes, the king began to reflect, and finally bought 
the books. They were thereafter jealously guarded, and consulted in all great state 

The Latin town of Gabil was taken by a stratagem. Sextns, the son of Tarquin, 
pretending to have fled from his father's ill-usage, took refuge in that city. 
Having secured the confidence of the people, he secretly sent to his father, asking 
advice. Tarquin merely took the messenger into his garden, and walking to and fro, 
knocked off with his cane the tallest poppies. Sextus read his father's meaning, and 
managed to get rid of the chief men of Gabii, when it was easy to give up the place 
to the Hoinans. 

Tarquin was greatly troubled by a strange omen, a serpent having eaten the sacri- 
fice on the royal altar. The two sons of the king were accordingly sent to consult 
the oracle at Dtlplii. They were accompanied by their cousin Junius, called Brutus 
because of hi« silline-s, which however was only assumed, through fear of the tyrant 
who had already killed his brother. The king's sons made the Delphic god costly 
[ircsents ; Brutus brought only a simple staff, but, unknown to the rest, this was 
hollow and filled with gold. Having executed their commission, the young men 
asked the priestess which of them should be king. The reply was, "The one who 
first kisses his mother." On reaching Italy, Brutus pretending to faU, kissed the 
ground, the common mother of us all. 

As the royal princes and Tarquinius Collatinas were one day feasting in the camp, 
a di^-pute arose concerning the industry of their wives. To decide it they at once 
liasf'iied homeward through thc^ darkness. They found the king's daughters at a 
festival, whilf! Lucretia, the wife of Collatinus, was in the midst of her slaves, distaff 
in hand. Collatinus was exultant ; but soon after Lucretia, stung by the insults 
she received from Sextus, killed her.«clf, calling upon her friends to avenge her 
fate. Brntu'*, casting off the mask of madness, drew forth the daL'ger she used, and 
vowed to kill Sextu" and expel tlie d'-tosted race. The oath was repeated as the red 
blade passed from hand lo !iand. The people rose in indignatir)n, and drove the 
Tarrpiins from the city. TIcncefortli the Romans hated the very name of king. Rome 
now became a free city after it been governed by kings for two hundred and forty- 
five years. The peopU- chose for rulers two ronsnls. elected yearly ; and to offer 
pacriflcea in place of the king, they selected a priest who should have uo power in the 

22 K M E . 

TJie Tdvquins were the friends of the common people 
(plebs), who already began to be ill treated by the nobles. 
In order to help the plebs, Servius divided all the Romans 
into five classes according to their property, and these again 
into one hundred and ninety-three centuries or companies. 
The i^eople were directed to assemble by centuries {comitia 
centuriata), either to fight or to vote. This body, in fact, 
constituted an army, and was called together on the field of 
Mars by the blast of the trumpet. To the new centuriate 
assembly was given the right of selecting the king and 
enacting the laws. The king was deprived of his power as 

Brutus and CoLLATraus were the first consuls. Soon after this the two sons of 
Brutus plotted to bring Tarquin back. Their father was sitting on the judgment-seat 
when they were brought in lor trial. The stern old Roman, true to duty, sentenced 
both to death as traitors. 

Tarquin now induced the Etruscans of the towns of Veil and Tarquinii to aid 
him, and they accordingly marched toward Rome. The Romans went forth to meet 
them. As the two armies drew near, Aruns, son of Tarquin, catching sight of Brutus, 
rushed forward, and the two enemies fell dead pierced by each other's spears. Night 
alone checked the terrible contest which ensued. During the darkness the voice of 
the god Silvanus was heard in the woods, saying that Rome had beaten since the 
Etruscans had lost one man more than the Romans. The Etruscans fled in dismay. 
The matrons of Rome mourned Brutus for a whole year because he had so bravely 
avenged the wrongs of Lucretia. 

Next came a powerful army of Etruscans under Porsenna, king of Clusium. He 
captured Janicnlum (a hill just across the Tiber), and would have forced liis way into 
the city with the fleeing Romans had not Horatius Codes, with two brave men, held 
the bridge while it was cut down behind them. As the timbers tottered, his com- 
panions rushed across. But he kept the enemy at bay until the shouts of the Romans 
told him the bridge was gone, when, with a prayer to fother Tiber, he leaped into the 
strenm. and, amid a shower of arrows, swam safely to the bank. The people never 
tired of praising this hero. They erected a statue in his honor, and gave him as 
much land as he could plow in a day. 

" And still his name sounds stirring 
Unto the men of Rome, 
As the trumpet-blast that cries to them 

To charge the Volscian home. 
And wives still pray to Juno 

For boys with hearts as bold 
As his who kept the bridge so well 
In the brave days of old." 

—Macaulay's Lays. 

Porsenna now laid siege to the city. Then Mucius. a young noble, went to the 
Etruscin camp to kill PorsL-nna. By mistake he slew the treasurer. Being dragge.l 
before the kiiiir and threatened with death if he did not confess his accomplices, he 
thrust his right hand into an altar-fire, and held it there until it was burned to a 


priest, this office being conferred on the chief pontiff. The 
higher classes, aggrieved by these changes, at last combined 
with other Latin cities to expel their Etruscan rulers. Kings 
now came to an end at Eome. This was in 509 b. c. — a year 
lifter Ilippias was driven out of Athens 

The Republic was then established. Two chief magis- 
trates, consuls (at first called proetors), were chosen, it being 
thought that if one turned out Ijadly the other would check 
him. The constitution of Servius was adopted, and the 
senate, which had dwindled in size, was restored to its ideal 
number, three hundred, by the addition of one hundred and 
sixty-four life-members (conscripti) chosen from the richest 
of the knights {equites), several of these being i^lebeians. 

The Struggle between the Patricians and the 
Plebeians was the characteristic of the first two hundred 
years of the repablic. The patricians were the descendants 
of tlie first settlers. They were rich, proud, exclusive, 
and demanded all the offices of the government. Each 
of these nobles was supported by a powerful body of clients 
or depcndantr>. The plebeians were the newer families. 
They were generally poor, forbidden the riglits of citizens, 

crisp. Pon-enna, amazed at his firmness, gave him his liberty. Miicius thereupon 
lold till' kin;; that three hundred Roman youths had sworn to accompli^•h his death. 
I'orscnna, alanned for his life, made peace with Rome. Among the hostages given 
'ly Rome was Cloelia, a noble maiden, who, escaping from the Etruscan camp, swam 
I he Tiber. The Romans sent her back, but Porsenna, admiring her courage, set her 
'. • 'C. 

T.iiqnin next "ccured a league of thirty L;itin cities to aid in his restoration. In 
•.is emergency the Romans appointed a dictator, who should possess absolute power 
; >r six months. .V great battle was fought at Lake Regillu^. Like most ancient con- 
tests, it began with a series of single encounlirs. Fiist, V.irquin and the Roman 
■.Ictafor fought. Then, the Latin dictator aud the master of horse. Finally, 
i he ma'ii armies came to blows. The Romans being worsted, their dictatoi- vowed a 
temple to Castor and Pollux. Si!('d<-:.Iy tlie Twin Brethren, taller and fairer than 
men, on snow-white horses and tiad in r:;re annor, v ere seen flghtiiia- at his side. 
Everywhere the Lilins broke and fl d belore them. Tarfpiin pave up his attempt In 
despair. That night two riders, their h'ir-ps wet with foam and Mood, rode up to a 
fountain before the temple of Vcsia at Roinc, and. .".s tliev ■ n-hed off m the cool 
water the traces of the battle, told horv a fjreat victory liad been won over the Latin 
ho^t. Sec Steele" » New Agtronomy. p. SilT. 

24 ROME. [494 B. c. 

and not allowed to intermarry with the patricians. Obliged 
to serve in the army without pay, during their absence their 
farms remained untilled, and were often ravaged by the 
encm}^ Forced, when they returned from war, to borrow 
money of the patricians for seed, tools, and food, if they 
failed in their payments they could be sold as slaves, or cut 
in pieces for distribution among their creditors. Tlie prisons 
connected with the houses of the great patricians were full 
of plebeian delators. 

Secession to Mons Sacer. — Tribunes (494 b. c). — 
The condition of the plebs became so unbearable that they 
finally marched off in a body and encamped on the Sacred 
]\Iount, where they determined to build a new city, and let 
the patricians have the old one for themselves. The 
patricians,* in alarm, settled the difficulty by the appoint- 
ment of tribunes of the people, whose persons were to be 
sacred, and whose houses, standing open day and night, 
were to be places of refuge. To these new officers was after- 
ward given the power of veto (I forbid) over any law passed 
by the senate and considered injurious to the plebs. Such 
was the exclusiveness of the senate, however, that the trib- 
unes could not enter the senate-house, but were obliged to 
remain outside, and shout the ''veto" through the open 

There were now two distinct peoples in Rome, each with 
its own interests and officers. This is well illustrated in the 
fact that the agreement made on Mons Sacer was concluded 
in the form of an international treaty, with the usual oaths 
and sacrifices; and that the magistrates of the plebs were 

* 01(1 Menenins A^rippa produced a great effect upon the plebeians l)y telling them 
the following fable : Oncu upon a time the various organs of the body becoming I ired 
of supporting the stomach in idleness, '■ struck work." The legs stopped ; tlio hands 
would not carry ; and the teeth would not chew. But after a Utile they all began to 
fail for lack of food, and then they fouod how much they depended on the stomach, 
in Bpite of its apparent laziness. 

494 B.C.] 




declared to be inviolate, 
like the ambassadors of 
a foreign power. 

The three popular 
assemblies which ex- 
isted in Rome, with 
their peculiar organiza- 
tion and powers, mark- 
ed as many stages of 
constitutional growth 
in the state. 

The assembly of curies 
(comitia curiata), the 
oldest and long the 
only one, was based on 
the patrician .=c})aration 

into tribes (Ramnes, Tities, and Luceres). Xo plebeian had 
a voice in this gathering, and it early lost its influence and 
became a relic of the past. The assembly of centuries 
(Liomitia centuriata) came in with the Etruscan kings, and 
was essentially a military organization. Based on classes of 
the entire population, it gave the plebeians their first voice, 
though a weak one, in public affairs. The assembly of iho 
I vibes (comitia tribnta), introduced with the rising of the 
pleb.s, was based on tlie new separation into tribes, /. e., 
v;ards and districts. The patricians were lierc excluded as 
iho plebeians had been at first ; and Home, which began 
witli a purely aristocratic assembly, had now a purely demo- 
cratic one. 

The original number of t!ie local tribes was twenty 
in .'ill — four city wards and sixteen country districts. 
Witli the growth of tiie republic and the acquisition of new 
territory, the number was increased to thirty-five (241 u. c). 

20 ROME, [486 B. C. 

The Eoman citizens were then so numerous and so scattered 
that it was impossible for them to meet at Eome to elect 
officers and make laws ; but still the organization was kept 
up till the end of the republic. 

An Agrarian La^v {ager, a field) was the next measure 
of relief granted to the common people. It was customary 
for the Romans Avhen they conquered a territory to leave the 
owners a part of the land, and to take the rest for them- 
selves. Though this became public property, the patricians 
used it as their own. The plebeians, who bore the brunt of 
the fighting, naturally thought they had the best claim to 
the spoils of war, and with, the assertion of their civil rights 
came now a claim for the rights of property.* 

Spurius Gassius \ (486 b. c), though himself a patrician, 
secured a law ordaining that j^art of the public lands should 
be divided among the ]}Ooy plebeians, and the patricians 
should pay rent for the rest. But the patricians were so 
strong that they made the law a dead letter, and finally, 
on the charge of wishing to be king, put Spurius to death, 
and leveled his house to the gi'ound. The agitation, how- 
ever, still continued. 

The Decemvirs (451 b. c). — The tribunes, through 
ignorance of the laws, which were jealously guarded as the 
exclusive property of the patricians, were often thwarted 
in their measures to aid the common people. The plebs 
of Rome, therefore, like the common people of Athens 
nearly two hundred years before this, demanded that 
the laws should be made public. After a long struggle 
the senate yielded. Ten men {decemvirs) were appointed 

* Property at that early date consisted almost entirely of land and cattle. The 
Latin word lor money, pecunia (cattle), indicates this ancient identity. 

t Spurius was tlie author of the famous League of the Bomatis, Latins, and Her- 
nicaris. by means of which the .^Eqiiians and Volscians were Ion:,' held in check. 
The men of the Latin League fought side by side until after the Gallic invasion. 

'tKUS only C.-„M 1 MAKE THEE FREE." (See page 27.) 


to revise and publish the laws. Meanwhile the regular 
government of consuls and tribunes was suspended. The 
decemvirs did their work well, and compiled ten tables 
of laws that were acceptable. Their year of office having 
expired, a second body of decemvirs was chosen to write the 
rest of the laws. The senate, finding them favorable to the 
plebeians, forced the decemvirs to resign ; introduced into 
the two remaining tables regulations obnoxious to the com- 
mon people; and then endeavored to restore the consular 
government without the tribuneship. The plebs a second 
time seceded to the Sacred Mount, and the senate was forced 
to reinstate the tribunes.* 

The Laws of the Twelve Tables remained as the 
grau'l result of the decemviral legislation. They were 
engraved on blocks of wood or ivory, and hung up in the 

* The account of this transaction given in Livy's History is doubtless largely 
jegeiiilary. Tin- story runs as follows : Three ambassadors were appointed to visit 
Ailiins (tliis was during the "Age of Pericles "), and examine the laws of Solon. On 
tli'ir return the decemvirs were chosen. They were to be supreme, and the consuls, 
tribunes, etc., resigned. The new rulers did admirably during one term, and com- 
pleted ten tables of excellent laws that were adopted by the assembly of centuries. 
Decemvirs were therefore chosen for a second term. Appius Claudius was the most 
popular of the first body of decemvirs, and the only one re-olected. Now, all was 
quickly cliang.-d : the ten men became at once odious tyrants, and Appius Claudius 
chief of all. Eai-h of the decemvirs was attended by twelve lictors, bearing the 
f i^ccs with tlir axes wherever he went in public. Two new tables of oppressive laws, 
confirming the patricians in their hated privileges, were added to the former tables. 
When tlic year expired the decemvirs callel no new election, and held their oftice in 
defiance of the senate and tin' people. Ni> man's life was safe, and many leading 
persons fled from Rome. The crisis soon came. One day, seeing a beautiful maiden, 
Ihe daughter of a plebeian named Virgiiiiu-<, crossing the Forum, Claudius resolved 
to mike her his own. So he directed a client to seize her on the charge that she was 
the child of one of his slaves, and then to bring the case before the decemvirs for 
trial. Claudius, of course, decided in favor of his client. Tliereui>on Virginius drew 
his danirhier one side from the ju(l:,Tneiit--eit as if to bid her farewell. Suddenly 
catching up a butcher's knife from a block near by, he plunged it into his daughter's 
heart, crying, " Thu» only can I make thee free I " Then brandishing the red blide, 
he hastened to the Gimp and roused Ihe soldiers, who marched to the city, breathing 
vengeance. As over the body of the injured Lncretia, so n'.'ain over the corpse of the 
hpDtlesH Virginia the populace swonr that Rome should be fne. The pli-beians flocked 
out once more to the Sacred Mount. The decemvirs w<re forcd to rch-ign. The 
tribunes and consuls were restored lo power. Appius, in rlespair. committed suicide. 
(Tlie ver-ion of this storv given in the text above is tUat of Ibue, the great Oerman 
critic, in his new work on Early liuine.) 

28 ROME. [451 B.C. 

Forum, where all could read them. Henceforth they con- 
stituted the foundation of the written law of Rome, and 
every school-boy, as late as Cicero's time, learned them by 

Continued Triumph of the Plebs. — Step by step the 
plebeians pushed their demand for equal privileges with 
the patricians. First, the Valerian and Horatian decrees 
(449 B. c), so called from the consuls who prepared them, 
made the resolutions j)asscd by the plebeians in the assembly 
of the tribes binding equally upon the patricians. Next, 
the Cannleian decree (445 b. c.) abolished the law against 
intermarriage. The patricians, finding that the plebeians 
were likely to get hold of the consulship, compromised by abol- 
ishing that office, and by choosing, through the assembly of 
centuries, from patricians and plebeians alike, three military 
tribunes with consular powers. But the patricians did not 
act in good faith, and by innumerable arts managed to cir- 
cumvent the plebs, so that during the next fifty years (until 
400 B. c.) there were twenty elections of consuls instead of 
military tribunes, and when military tribunes were chosen 
they were always patricians. Meanwhile the patricians also 
secured the appointment of censors, who were to be chosen 
from their ranks exclusively, and who, besides taking the 
census, were to classify the people and exercise a general 
supervision over their morals. So vindictive was the struggle 
now going on, that the nobles did not shrink from murder 
to remove a promising plebeian candidate.* But the plebs 

* Thug the Fabii, a powerful patrician house (one of the consuls for seven succes- 
sive j'ears was a Fabius"), having taken the side of the plebs, and fluding that they 
could not thereafter live in peace at Rome, left the city and founded an outpost on 
the Cremera, below Veil, where they could still serve their country. This little body 
of three hundred and six soldiers — including the Fabii, their clients and dependants — 
sustained for two years the full brunt of the Veientine War. At length they were 
enticed into an ambuscade, and all were slain except one little boy, the ancestor of 
the Fabius afterward so famous. During the massacre the consular army was near 
by, but patrician hate would not permit a rescue. 

Again, during a severe famine at Rome (440 b. c), a rich plebeian, uamed Spurius 

867 B. c.j 


held firm, and finally secured the famous Licinian Rogation 
(367 B.C.), which ordered, — ■ 

" I. That, in Q&'d of debts on which interest had been met, the sum of the interest 
paid should be deductt'd from the principal, and the remainder become due in three 
eucce.-sive years. This bankrupt law was designed to aid the poor, now overwhelmed 
with del)t, and so in the power of the rich creditor. 

U. That no citizen should hold more than five hundred jugera (about three hun- 
dred and twenty acresi of the public land, and should not feed on the public pastures 
more than a limited number of cattle, under penalty of fine. 

lU. That henceforth consuls, not consular tribunes, should be elected, and that 
one of the two consuls must be plebeian. 

rV. That instead of two patricians being chosen to keep the Sibylline books, there 
should be ten men, taken from both orders." 

For years after its passage the patricians struggled to prc- 
yent the decree from going into effect. But the common 
people finally won. They never lost the ground they had 
gained, and secured, in rapid succession, the dictatorship, the 
censorship, the prastorship, and (300 B. c.) the right to be 
pontiff and angiir. Rome, at last, nearly two centuries 
after the republic began, possessed a democratic govern- 
ment. "Civil concord," says Weber, "to Avhich a temple 
was dedicated at this time, brought Avith it a period of civic 
v-irtue and heroic greatness." 

Foreign Wars. — The fall of the monarchy left Rome in 
weakness, llcr old supremacy over Latiuin was gone, and 
often, while the long and fierce struggle which we have 
just considered was going on within her walls, her armies 
were fighting without, sometimes for the very existence of 
the city. There was a constant succession of wars* with 

Miellu-", Holrl grain to the poor at a very low r.ntc. The patricians, flnding that he 
wa.-* likily to be a Hucc<rsHful candidate for office, accused him of wishing to be king, 
and as he refused to appear before his enemies for trial, Ahala, the master of 
horse, slew 1dm in the Forum, with bin own hand. 

• Variou-* beautiful legend-" duster around these eventful wars, and they have 
attained almost the dignity, though we cannot tell how much they contain of the 
triitli,of hl-<lory. 

CoRioLAinJs.— VVhIlo the Rt^imanH were besieging Corioli, the Volsclans made a 
sally, but wen- defeated. In the eagerness of the pursuit. Cains Mnrcius followed the 
enemy inside ihe gate's, which were closed upon him. But with his good sword he 
hewed his way hack, and let in the Romans. So the city was taken, and the hero 



[390 B. C. 

the Latins, ^quians, Volscians, Etruscans, Veientes, and 

The Gallic Invasion. — In the midst of these contests a 
horde of Gauls crossed the Apennines, and spread hke a 
devastating flood over central Italy. Eome was taken, and 
nearly all the city burned (390 B.C.). The invaders con- 
received the name Coriolanns. Afterward there was a famine at Eome, and grain 
arriving from Sicily, Caius would not sell any to the plcbs unless they would submit 
to the patricians. Thereupon the tribunes sought to bring him to trial, but he fled 
and took refuge among the Volsci. Soon after, he returned at the head of a groat 
army and laid siege to Rome. The city was in peril. As a final resort, his mother, 
wife, and children, with many of the chief women, clad in the deepest mourning, 
went forth and fell at his feet. Unable to resist their entreaties, Coriolanus ex- 
claimed, " Mother, thou hast saved Eome, but lost thy son." Having given the order 
to retreat, he is said to have been slain by the angry Volsci. 


CiNciKNATUS. — One day news came that the ^quians had surrounded the consul 
Minucius ami his army in a deep valley, whence they could not escape. There seemed 
uo one ill Eome tit to meet this emergency except Titus Quinctius, surnamed Cincin- 
natus or the Ciu'ly-haired, who was now declared dictator. The officers who went to 


sented to retire only on the payment of a heavy ransom. 
So deep an impression was made upon the Romans by the 
size, strength, courage, and enormous number of these bar- 
barians that they thenceforth called a war with the Gauls a 
ttnnult, and kept in the treasury a special fund for such a 

The final effect of all these wars was beneficial to Eome. 
The plebeians, who formed the strength of her army, 
frequently carried their point against the patricians by 
refusing to fight until they got their rights. These long 
struggles, too, matured the Roman energy, and developed 

annonnce his appointment found him plowing on his little farm of four acres, 
which he tilled himself. He called for his toga, that he might receive the commands 
of the senate with due respect, when he was at once hailed dictator. Kepairin" to 
the city, he as.«em bled fresh troops, bidding cuch man carry twelve wooden stakes. 
That very night he surrounded the M luians, dug a ditch, and made a palisade about 
their camp. Minucius hearing the Koman war-cry, rushed up and fell upon the 
enemy with all his might. When day broke, the .iEquians found ihemselves hemmed 
in, and were forced to surrender and to pass under the yoke. Cincinnatus, on his 
return, was awarded a golden crown. Having saved his country, he resigned his 
office and went back to his plow aj;aiu, content with the quiet of his rustic home. 

The siege op Veii— the Troy of Roman legend — lasted ten yeara. Before that 
the Roman wars consisted mainly of mere forays into an enemy's country. Now the 
troops remained summer and winter, and, for the first time, received regular pay. In 
the seventh year of the siege. Lake Albanus, though in the heat of summer, over- 
flowed its banks. The Delphic oraci .■ declared ihat Veii would not fall until the lake 
was dried up: whereupon the Roman army cut a tunnel through the solid rock to 
convey the surplus water over the neighboring fields. Still the city did not yield. 
Camillus having been a[>poinIed dictator, dug a passage under the wall. One day the 
king of Veii was about to offiT a sacritlce, when the soothsayer told him that the city 
fhonld belong to him who slew the victim. The Romans, who were beneath, heard 
these words, and, forcing their way through, hastened to the shrine, and Camillus 
completed the sacriflee. The gales were thrown open, and the Romau army rushing 
in, overi)owered all opposition. 

The city op Falerii had aided the Veionfcs. When Camillus, bent on revenge, 
appeared bcifore the place, a schoolmaster secretly brought Into l\w Roman camp his 
pupils, the children f)f the chief men of Falerii. Camillu-, scorning to receive the 
traitor, tied his hands behind his back, ami giving whips to the boys, b:ide them flog 
their master back into the city. Tli'- Kaleiians, moved by such magnanimity, sur- 
rendered to the Romans. Camillus enter<;d Rome in a chariot drawn by white horses. 
and having his face col > red with vermili(m. as was the custom when the gods were 
borne In procession. Unfortunately, ln' offended the plebs by ordering each man to 
restore one-tenth of his booty for an ofleritig to A|>ollo. He was accused of pride, 
and of appropriating to his own use thr; bronze gates of Veii. Forced to leave the 
city, he wont out praying that Rome might yet need his help. That time soon lame. 
Five years after, the GanN defeated the Romans at the 

RiVLii AiAAX. bo great wa.s the slaughter that the anniversary of the battle wa« 

32 ROME. [390 B. c. 

the Roman character iu all its stern, unfeeling, and yet 
heroic strength. 

After the Gallic invasion Rome was soon rebuilt. The 
surrounding nations having suffered still more severely from 
the northern barbarians, and the Gauls being now looked 
upon as the common enemy of Italy, Rome came to be con- 
sidered the common defender. The plebs, in rebuilding 
their ruined houses and buying tools, cattle, and seed, were 
reduced to greater straits than ever before (unless after the 
expulsion of the Etruscan kings) ; and to add to their bur- 
dens a double tribute was imposed by the goyernment, in 

henceforth a black day in the Roman calendar. The wreck of the army took refuge 
in Veil. The people of Rome fled for their lives. The young patricians garrisoned 
the citadel ; and the gray-haired senators, devoting themselves as an offering to the 
god-, put OR their robes, and, sitting in their ivory-chairs of magistracy, awaited 
death. The barbarians, hurrying through the deserted streets, at length came to the 
Forum. For a moment they stood amazed at the sight of those solemn figures. Then 
one of the Gauls put out his hand reverently to stroke the white beard of an aged 
senator, when the indignant Roman, revolting at the profanation, felled him with his 
staff. The spell was broken, and the senators were ruthlessly massacred. 

The siege of the Capitol lasted for months. One night a party of Gauls clambered 
up the steep ascent, and one of them reached the highest ledge of the rock. Just 
then Some sacred geese in the temple of Juno began to cry and flap their wings. 
Marcus Maniius, aroused by the noise, rushed out, saw the peril, and dashed the 
foremost Gaul over the precipice. Other Romans rallied to his aid, and the imminent 
ptril was arrested. The Gauls, becoming weary of the siege, offered to accept a ran- 
som of a thousand pounds of gold. This sum was raised from the temple-treasures 
and the ornaments of the Roman women. As they were weighing the articles, the 
R jmans complained of the scales being false, when Brennus, the Gallic chief, threw 
in his heavy sword, insolently exclaiming, "Woe to the vanquished!" At that 
moment Camillus strode in at the head of an army, crying, " Rome is to be bought 
with iron, not goldl ", drove out the enemy, and not a man escaped to tell how low 
the city had fallen on that eventful day. When the Romans returned to their devas- 
lated homes they were at first of a mind to leave Rome, and occupy the empty dwell- 
ings of Veil. But a lucky omen prevailed on them to remain. Just as a senator was 
rising to speak, a centurion relieving guard gave the command," Plant your colors; 
this is the best place to stay in." The senators rushed forth, shouting, " The gods 
have spoken ; we obey I " The people caught the enthusiasm, and cried out, " Rome 
forever 1 " 

Marcus Maniius, who saved the Capitol, befriended the people in the distress 
which followed the Gallic invasion. One day, seeing a soldier dragged off to prison 
for debt, he paid the amount and released the, at the same time swearing that 
while he had any property left, no Roman should be imprisoned for debt. The patri- 
cians, jealous of his influence among the plebs, accused him of wishing to become 
king. He was brought to trial in the Campus Martius ; but the hero pointed to the 
spoils of thirty warriors whom he had slain ; forty distinctions won in battle ; hi^ 
iu.iumcrable scars ; and, above all, to the Capitol he had saved. His enemies fiudii.^ 


order to replace the sacred gold used to buy off the Gauls. 
But this very misery soon led to the Licinian Rogations, and 
so to the growth of liberty. Thus the plebs got a consul 
twenty-four years after the Gauls left, just as they got the 
tribunes fifteen years after the Etruscans left ; the succeed- 
ing ruin both times being followed by a triumph of 

The capture of Veil (396 B.C.) gave the Romans a foothold 
beyond the Tiber ; and, only three years after the Gallic in- 
vasion, four new tribes, carved out of the Veientine land, 
were added to the republic. 

a conviction in that place impossible, adjourned to a grove where the Capitol could 
not be ceen, and ihere the man who had saved Rome was sentenced to death, and at 
once hurled from the Tarpeian Rock. 

QtTiNTua CuRTifs.— Not lon^' after the Licinian "locations were passed, Rome 
was afflicted by a pla;iue. in which Camillas died ; by an overtlow of the Tiber ; and 
by an earthquake, which opened a great chasm in the Forum. The augurs de- 
clared that the gulf would not close until there were cast into it the most precious 
things. Whereupon Quiutus Ciirtius mounted his horse, and riding at full speed, 
leaped into the abyss, declaring ihat Rome's best riches were her brave men. 

The Battle op Mount Vesuvius (340 b. c.) was the chief event of the Latin 
War. Prior to this enirageraeiit the consul Manlius ordered that no one should quit 
his post under pain of death. But his own son, provoked by the taunts of a Tusculan 
officer, left the ranks, slew his opponent in single combat, and brought the bloody 
spoils to his father. The stern parent ordered him to be at once beheaded by the 
lictor, in the presence of the army. During the battle which followed, the Romans 
were on the point of yieldint;, when Decius, the plebeian cons;il, who had promised, 
in case of defeat, to offer himself to ihe infernal gods, fulfilled his vow. Calling the 
pontifex niaslmus, he repeated the form devoting Ihe foe and himself to death, and 
then wrapping his to^'a about him leaped upon his horse, and dashed into the thickest 
of the flghf. His death inspired the Romans with fresh hope, and scarce one-fourth 
of the Latins escaped from that bloody field. 

Battle of the Caudine Forks.— During the second Samnlte War there arose 
among the Suniniies a famous captain nam(!d Cains Pontius. By a stratagem he en- 
ticeil the Roman array into the Caudine Forks. High nioiinlains here enclose a littlo 
plain, having at each end a pa-sage through a narrow defile. When the Romans were 
foirly in the basin the Sainnitcs suddenly appealed in both gorges, and forced the 
consuls to surrender with four legions. Ponlins, having sent his prisoners under 
the yoke, furnished them with wagons for the wounded and food for their journey, 
and then reli^ased them on certain conditicms of peace. The senate refused to ratify 
the terms, and onlcred the consuls to be delivered up to the Samnites, but diil not 
send back the soldiers. Pontius replied that if the senate would not make peace, 
then it should place the army back in the Caudine Forks. The Romans, who rarely 
scnipledaf anycondnel that promi-cd theiriidvnntage.ef)ntinued the war. Bnt when, 
twenty-nine years lat'T, Pontius was captured by Fiibius Maximus. that brave Sam- 
nlte leader was di«g,acefully put to death as the triumphal chariot of the victor 
aeccndud to the Capitol. 

34 ROME. [337 B.c 

The final result of the Latin War (340-338 B.C.) was, 
in place of the old Latin League,* to merge the cities of 
Latium, one by one, into the Roman state. 

The three Samnite Wars (343-290 b. c.) occupied half a 
century, save only brief intervals, and were most obstinately 
contested. The long-doubtful struggle culminated at the 
great battle of Sentinum. Samnium became a subject-ally. 
Home was noiv mistress of central Italy. She had fairly 
entered on her career of conquest- 
War with Pyrrlms (280-276 B.C.).— The rising city 
next came into conflict with the Greek colonies in southern 
Italy. The Romans had made a treaty with Tarentum, 
promising not to send ships of war past the Lacinian prom- 
ontory. But, having a garrison in the friendly city of Thurii, 
the senate ordered a fleet to that place ; so one day, while the 
people of Tarentum were seated in their theatre witnessing 
a play, they suddenly saw ten Roman galleys sailing upon 
the forbidden waters. The audience in a rage left their 
seats, rushed down to the shore, manned some ships, and 
pushing out sank four of the Roman squadron. The senate 
sent ambassadors to ask satisfaction. They reached Taren- 
tum, so says the legend, during a feast of Bacchus. Postu- 
mius, the leader of the envoys, made so many mistakes in 
talking Greek that the people laughed aloud, and, as he was 
leaving, a buffoon threw mud upon his white toga. The 
shouts only increased when Postumius, holding up his soiled 
robe, cried, " This shall be washed in torrents of your 
blood!" War was now inevitable. Tarentum, f unable to 

* The Latin Loague (p. 26) was dissolved in the same year (338 b. c.) with the 
battle of Ch^rouea. 

+ The Greek colonists retained the pride, though they had lost the simplicity, of 
their ancestors. They were effeminate to the last degree. " At Tarentum there were 
not enough days in the calendar on which to hold the festivals, and at Syharis they 
killed all the cocks lest they should disturb the inhabitants in their sleep." 


resist Lhe " barbarians of the Tiber," appealed to the mother- 
country for help. Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, came over with 
twenty-five thousand soldiers and twenty elephants. For 
the first time the Roman legion (p. 81) met the dreaded 
Macedonian phalanx. In vain the Roman soldiers sought 
to break through the bristling hedge, with their swords 
hewiug off the pikes, and with their hands bearing them to 
the ground. To complete their discomfiture, Pyrrhus 
launched iiis elephants upon their weakened ranks. At 
the sight of that '-new kind of oxen," the Roman cavalry 
fled in dismay. 

Pyrrhus won a second battle in the same way. He then 
crossed over into Sicily to help the Greeks against the Car- 
thaginians. When he returned, two years later, while at- 
tempting to surprise the Romans by a night attack, his 
troops lost their way, and the next morning, when weary 
with the march, they were assailed by the enemy. The 
once-dreaded elephants were frightened back by fire-brands, 
and driven through the Grecian lines. Pjn'rhus was defeated, 
and, having lost nearly all his army, returned to Epirus.* 
The (}reek colonies, deprived of his help, were subjugated in 
rapid succession. 

* Many romantic iticid>-nts are told of this war. As Pyrrhus walked ovei- th3 
battli.'-field and caw llie Konmn;' lyinirail witli wounds in front and tlioircounii'iiances 
s<tern in fleath. hR cried out, "With such f-o!<li<rn I could conquer the world I "— 
Cinea.", whom Pyrrhur* sent to Rome as an ambassador, returned, saying, " the city was 
like a temple of the gods, and the senate an assembly of kings."— Fabricius, who 
came to Pyrrlius's camp on a similar mission, was a sturdy Roman, who worked his 
own farm, and loved integrity and honor more than auL'lit else, save his country. 
The Grecian leader was surprised to find in this haiicbty barbarian that same greats 
ncH.sof soul that had once made the Hellenic character so famous. n(^ offered him 
" more gold than Rome had ever possessed " if lie would enter his service, but Fabri- 
cius replied that " Poverty, with a good name, is better than wealth." .Afterward 
the physician of Pyrrhus offereil to pr)ison lhe king. But the indignant Roman sent 
back the traitor in irons. Pyrrhus, not lo be outrlf)ne in generosity, set free all his 
captives, sayini,', that " it was easier to turn the sun from its course than Fabricius 
from the jialh of honor."— Dentatus, the consul wl:o defeated Pyrrhus, was offered 
by the grateful senate a tract of land. lie replied that be already liad seven acres, 
and that was sufUcieut for any citizen. 

36 ROME. [265 BC. 

Rome loas notv Mistress of penmsular Italy. She was 
ready to begin her grand course of foreign conquest. 

The Roman Grovernment in Italy was that of one city 
supreme over many cities. Rome retained the rights of de- 
claring war, making peace, and coining money, but permitted 
her subjects to manage tlieir local affairs. All were required 
to furnish soldiers to fight under the eagles of Eome. There 
were three classes of inhabitants, Roman citizens, Latins, 
and Italians. The Roman citizens were those who occupied 
the territory of Rome proper, including others upon whom 
this franchise had been bestowed. They had the right to 
meet in the Forum to enact laws, elect consuls, etc. The 
Latins had only a few of the rights of citizenship, and the 
Italians or allies none. As the power of Rome gi-ew, Roman 
citizenship acquired a might and a meaning {Acts xxii. 25 ; 
xxiii. 37 ; xxv. 11-21) which made it eagei'ly sought by every 
person and city ; it was constantly held out, as a reward for 
special service and devotion, that the Italian could be made 
a Latin, and the Latin a Roman. 

The Romans were famous road-builders, and the great 
national highways which they constructed throughout their 
territories did much to tie them together (p. 92). By 
their use Rome kept up constant communication with all 
parts of her possessions, and could quickly send her legions 
wherever wanted. 

A portion of the land in each conquered state was given 
to Roman colonists. They became the patricians in the 
new city, the old inhabitants counting only as plebs. Thus 
little Romes were built all over Italy. The natives looked 
up to these settlers, and, hoping to obtain similar rights, 
quickly adopted their customs, institutions, and language. 
So the entire j^eninsula rapidly assumed a uniform national 



Carthage (p. 160) was now the great naval and colonizing 
power of the western Mediterranean. She had established 
some settlements in western Sicily, and these were almost 
constantly at war with the Greeks on the eastern coast. As 
Sicily lay between Carthage and Italy, it was natural that 
two such aggressive powers as the Carthaginians and the Eo- 
mans should come to blows on that island. 

First Punic War (364-241 b. c). — Some pirates seized 
Messana, the nearest city to Italy, and, being threatened by 
the Carthaginians and the SjTacusans, asked liel]) of Rome, 
in order to retain their ill-gotten possessions. On this 
wretched pretext an army was sent into Sicily. The Car- 
thaginians were driven back, and Hicro, king of Syi'acuse, 
was forced to make a treaty with Eome. Agrigentum, an 
important naval depot belonging to Carthage, Avas then cap- 
tured, in spite of a large army of mercenary soldiers which 
the Carthaginians sent to its defence. 

Rome's First Fleet (260i3. c.).f — The Eoman senate, not 
content with this success, was bent on contesting with Car- 
tilage the supremacy of the sea. One hundred and thirty 
vessels were accordingly built in sixty days, a stranded 
Phoenician galley being taken as a model. To compensate 
tlie lack of skilled seamen, the ships were provided with 
drawbridges, so that coming at once to close quarters their 
di.sciplined soldiers could upon the enemies' deck, and 
decide the contest by a hand-to-hand fight. They thus beat 

• From punlaix, an adjective derived from Poenl, the Latin form of tbe word 

t The Itomann bcijan to construct a fl'-et as early as 838 b. c, and, in 267, we read 
of the finestors of the navy, but the vesscU were small, and Rome was a land-power 
until 200 B. 0. 


the Carthaginians in two great nav^al battles within four 

Romans Cross the Sea.— Under Eegulus the Romans then 
crossed the Mediterranean, and " carried the war into Africa." 
The natives, weary of the oppressive rule of the Carthaginians, 
welcomed their deliverers. Carthage seemed about to fall, 
when the presence of one man turned the tide. Xanthippus, 
a Sj)artan general, led the Carthaginians to victory, destroyed 
the Roman army, and captured Regulus.* 

After this the contest dragged on for several years ; but a 
signal victory near Panorm us, in Sicily, gave the Romans 
the ascendency in that island, and finally a great naval defeat 
off the ^gusa Islands cost the Carthaginians the empire of 
the sea. Carthage was forced to give up Sicily, and pay 
three thousand two hundi-ed talents of silver (about four 
million dollars) toward the expenses of the war. The 
temple of Janus was shut for the first time since the days 
of Numa. 

Rome's first province was Sicily. This was governed, like 
all the possessions which she afterward acquired outside of 
Italy, by magistrates sent each year from Rome. The people, 
being made not allies but subjects, were required to pay an 
annual tribute. 

• It is said that Recrulus, while at the height of his Biiccess, asked pcrmifpion to 
return home to his little farm, as a slave had nin away with the tools, and his family 
was likely to unffer with want diirinsj his absence. After his capture, theCurlha- 
giniauB sent him to Rome with proposalH of peace, making him swear to return in 
cace the conditions were not accfpted. On his arrival, he refused to enter the city, 
saying that he was no longera Roman citizen, but only a Caiihaginian slave. Having 
stated the terms of the proposed peace, to the ainuzeinent of all, he urged their re- 
jection, as unworthy of the glory and honor of Rome. Then, without visiting his 
home, he tunied away from weeping wife and children, and went back to his prison 
again. The enraged Carthaginians cutoff liis eyelids, and exposed him to the burn- 
ing rays of a tropic sun ; and then thrust him into abarrel studded with sharj) nails. 
80 perished this martyr to his word and his country. — Historic research throws 
doubt on the truth of this instance of I'unic cruc^Ity, and asserts that the story was 
invented to excuse the barbarity with wliicli the wife of Regulus treati;d some Car- 
ibaginian ca|>tives who fell into her handn ; but the name uf Regulus livea at) the per* 
BODiflcation of sincerity and patriotic devotiua. 

Second Punic War (218-201 b.c). — During the ensuing 
peace of twenty-three years, Hamilcar (surnamed Barca, 
lightning), the great statesman and general of Carthage, 
built up an empire in southern Spain, and trained an army 
for a new struggle with Eome. He hated that city with a 
perfect hatred. When he left home for Spain, he took with 
him his son Hannibal, a boy nine years old, having first 
made him swear at the altar of Baal always to be the enemy 
of the Romans. That childish oath was never forgotten, 
and Hannibal, like his father, had but one purpose — to 
humble his country's rival. "When twenty-six years of age, 
he was made commander-in-chief of the Carthaginian army. 
Pushing the Punic power northward, he captured Saguntum. 
As that city was her ally, Rome promptly declared war against 
Carthage.* On the receipt of this welcome news, Hannibal, 
with the daring of genius, resolved to scale the Alps, and 
carry the contest into Italy. 

Invasion of Ifahj. — In the spring of the year 218 B. c, he 
set out f from New Carthage. Through hostile tribes, over 
the swift Rhone, he pressed forward to the foot of the Alps. 
Here dangers multiplied. The mountaineers rolled down 
rocks upon his column, as it wearily toiled up the steep ascent. 
Snow blocked the way. At times the crack of a whip would 
bring down an avalanche from the impending heights. The 
men and horses slipped on the sloping ice-fields, and slid 
over the precipices into the awful crevasses. New roads had 
to be cut through the solid rock by hands benumbed with 

* An embassy came to Carthage demanding that Hannibal should be surrendered. 
This being refused, M. Fabius, folding up his toga as if it contained something, 
exclaimed, " I bring you peace or war; take which you will 1" The Carthaginians 
answered, " Give us which you wish ! " Shaking open his toga, the Roman haughtily 
replied, " I give you war 1 " " So let it be ! " shouted the assembly. 

t Before starting on this expedition, Hannibal went with his immediate attendants 
to Gades, and offered sacrifice in the temples for the success of the great work to 
which he had been dedicated eighteen years before, and to which he had been looking 
forward so long. 

218 B.C.] 



cold and weakened with hunger. When at 
last he reached the smiling plains of Italy, 
only twenty-six thousand men were left of 
the one hundred and two thousand with 
whom he began the perilous march five 
months before. 



Bailies of Trehia, 
Tra s I me'nus, atid Can- 
n(u. — Arriving at the 
river Trehia in Decem- 
])('r, ITaiinil)al found 
the Konians, under 
Scmpronius, ready to 
dispute his progress, 
stuimv morning, he sent the 
Nuraidiuu cavalry over to 

42 ROME. [218 B. C. 

make a feigned attack on the enemy's camp. The Eomans 
fell into the snare, and pursued the horsemen back across 
the river. AVhen the legions, stiff with cold and faint 
with hunger, emerged from the icy waters, they found the 
Carthaginian army drawn up to receive them. Undismayed 
l)y the sight, they at once joined battle ; but, in the midst 
of the struggle, Hannibal's brother Mago fell upon their 
rear with a body of men wiiich had been hidden in a reedy 
i^ivine near by. The Eomans, panic-stricken, broke and 

The fierce Gauls now flocked to Hannibal's camp, and 
remained his active allies during the rest of the war. 

The next year Hannibal moved southward.* One day in 
June, the consul Flaminius was eagerly pursuing him along 
the banks of the Lake Trasimcnus. Suddenly, through the 
mist, the Carthaginians poured down from the heights, and 
put the Romans to rout.f 

Fabius was now appointed dictator. Keeping on the 
heights where he could not be attacked, he followed Hanni- 
bal everywhere, J cutting off his supplies, but never hazarding 
a battle. The Eomans became impatient at seeing their 
country ravaged while their army remained inactive, and 
Varro, the consul, offered battle on the plain of Cannw. 
Hannibal drew iip the Carthaginians m the sliajio of a half- 
moon having the convex side toward the enemy, and tijjpcd 

* In the low flooded grounds alon<? the Arno the army suffered fearfully. Hanni- 
bal himself lost an eye by inflammation, and, it was said, his life was saved by the 
last remaining elephant, which carried him out of the swamp. 

t So fierce was this struggle th^it none of the combatants noticed the shock of a 
severe earthquake which occurred in the midst of the battle. 

X While Hannibal was ravaging the rich plains of Campania, the wary Fabius 
seized the passes of the Apennines, through which Hiinnibal must recross into Sam- 
nium with his booty. The Carthaginian was apparently caught in the trap. But his 
min.'l was fertile in devices. Ho fastened torches to the horns of two thousand oxen, 
and sent men to drive them up the neighboring heights. The Romans at the defiles 
thinking the Carthaginians were trying to escape over the hills, ran to the defence. 
Hannibal quickly seized the passes, and marched through with his army. 


the horns of the crescent with his veteran cavaky. The 
massive legions quickly broke through his Aveak center. But 
as they pressed forward in eager pursuit, his terrible horse- 
men fell upon their rear. Hemmed in on all sides, the 
Eomans could neither fight nor flee. Twenty-one tribunes, 
eighty senators, and over seventy thousand men fell in that 
horrible massacre. After the battle, Hannibal sent to Car- 
thage a bushel of gold rings — the ornaments of Eoman 
knights. At Eomo all was dismay. '*' One-fifth of the 
citizens able to bear arms had fallen within eighteen months, 
and m every house there was mourning." All southern Italy, 
including Capua, the city next in importance to the capital, 
joined Hannibal. 

Hannibal's Reverses. — The tide of Hannibal's victories, 
however, ebbed from this time. The Roman spirit rose in 
the hour of peril, and, while struggling at home for exist- 
ence, the senate sent armies into Sicily, Greece, and Spain. 
The Latin cities remained true, not one revolting to the Car- 
thaginians. The Roman generals had learned not to fight 
in the open field, where Hannibal's cavalry and genius were 
so fatal to them, but to keep behind walls, since Hannibal 
had no skill in sieges, and his army was too small to take 
their strongholds. Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal was busy 
fighting the Romans in Spain, and could send him no aid. 
The Carthaginians also were chary of Hannibal, and refused 
liim help. 

For thirteen years longer Hannibal remained in Italy, but 
he was at last driven into Bruttium — the toe of the Italian 
boot. Never did his genius shine more brightly. He con- 
tinually sallied out to protect his allies, or to plunder and 
devastate. Once ho went so near Rome that he hurled a 
javelin over its walls. Nevertheless, and in spite of his 
efforts, Capua was retaken. Syracuse promised aid, but was 

44 HOME. [212 B.C. 

captured by the Eoman army.* Hasdrubal finally managed 
to get out of Spain and cross the Alps, but at the Metaur-us f 
(207 B. c.) was routed and slain. The first notice Hannibal 
had of his brother's approach was when Hasdrabal's head 
was thrown into the Carthaginian camp. At the sight of 
this ghastly memorial, Hannibal exclaimed : " Ah Carthage, 
I behold thy doom ! " 

Hannibal Recalled. — P. Scipio, who had already expelled 
the Carthaginians from Spain, now carried the war into 
Africa. Carthage was forced to summon her great general 
from Italy. He came to her defence, but met the first defeat 
of his life in the decisive battle of Zama. On that fatal field 
the veterans of the Italian wars fell, and Hannibal himself 
gave up the struggle. Peace was granted Carthage on her 
paying a crushing tribute, and agreeing not to go to Avar 
without the permission of Rome. Scipio received the name 
Africanus, in honor of his triumph. 

Fate of Hannibal. — On the return of peace, Hannibal, 
with singular wisdom, began the reformation of his native 
city. But his enemies, by false representations at Eome, 
compelled him to quit Carthage, and take refuge at the 
court of Antioehus (p. 47). When at length his patron 
was at the feet of their common enemy, and no longer able 
to protect him, Hannibal fled to Bithynia, where, finding 
himself still pursued by the vindictive Eomans, he ended his 

* Th:' siege of Syracuse (214-212 b. c.) is famous for the genius displayed in its 
defence by the mathematician Archimedes. He is said to have fired the Roman fleet 
by means of immense burning-glasses, and to have contrived machines that reaching 
huge arms over the walls, irraspecl and overturned the galleys. The Romans became 
BO timid that they would " flee at the sight of a stick thrust out at them." When the 
city was finally taken by storm, Mtrcellus gave orders to spare Archimedes. But a 
soldier rushing into the philosopher's study found an old man, who, not noticing his 
dra\vn sword, bade him "Noli tiirbare circulos meos." Enraged by his indifference, 
the Roman slew him on the spot. 

t This engagement, which decided ths is«ue of Hannibal's invasion of Italy, is 
reckoned among the most important in the history of the world. See Creasy's Fif- 
teen Decisive Battles, p. 96. 


days by taking poison, which he carried with him in a hollow 

Third Punic War (149-146 b. c.).— Half a century 
passed, during which Carthage was slowly recovering her 
former prosperity. A strong party at Eome, however, was 
bent upon her destruction.* On a slight pretence war was 
again declared. The submission of the Carthaginians was 
abject. They gave up three hundred hostages, and surren- 
dered their arms and armor. But when bidden to leave the 
city that it might be razed, they were driven to desperation. 
Old and young toiled at the forges to make new weapons. 
Vases of gold and silver, even the statues of the gods, were 
melted. The women braided their long hair into bow-strings. 
The Romans intrusted the siege to the younger Scipio.f He 
captured Carthage, after a desperate struggle. Days of con- 
flagration and plunder followed. The city, which had lasted 
over seven hundred years and numbered seven hundred 
thousand inhabitants, was utterly wasted. The Carthaginian 
territory was turned into the province of Africa. J 

» Prominont amonsr these was Cato the Censor. This rough, stem man, with Ms 
red hilr, projecting teeth, and coarse robe, was the sworn foe to hixury, and the per- 
Loniflcation of the old Roman character. Cruel toward his slaves and revengeful 
toward his foes, he was yet rigid in morals, devoted to his country, and fearless in 
punishing crime. In the discharge of hi? duty as censor, he criticised the income 
and expenses of all. Rich furniture, jewels, and costly attire fell under his ban. He 
even removed, it is said, the cold-water pipes leading to the private houses. Jealous 
of any rival to Rome, he finished every speech with the words, " Delenda est Car- 
thago ! " 

t (1.) PubliuH Cornelius Scipio Africanm Major (p. 44) was the conqueror of 
Hannibal. (2 ) F>j.blvt8 Vornelim Scipio ^inilianus Afncanm Minor, the one spoken 
1)1 in the text as the destroyer of Carthage, was the son of Lucius ^-EniUius Paidlus, 
the conqueror of Maccdon (p. 40), and was adopted by P. Scipio, tlie son of Af ricanus 
Major. (3.) Luciwi Cornelius Sci/no Asia/icux, who defeated Antiochus (p. 47), and 
hence received the last title, was the brother of Africanus Major. 

J When Scipio beheld the ruin of Carthage, he is said to have burst into tears, and 
turning to Polybius the historian, quoted the lines of Homer: 

" The day will come when Troy shall sink in fire 
And Priam's people with himself expire." 
And, reflecting on the mutationa of time, declared that Hector's words might yet 
prove true of Rume herself. 

46 E M E . [146 B. c. 

Eome was at last victor over her great rival. It was de- 
cided that Europe was not to be given over to Punic civiliza- 
tion and the intellectual despotism of the East. 

Wars in Macedon and Greece. — While Hannibal was 
hard-pressed in Italy he made a treaty with Philip, king of 
Macedon, and a descendant of Alexander. In the First War 
Avhich ensued (214-207 b. c), not much of importance oc- 
curred, but Eome had begun to mix in Grecian affairs, and 
that, according to lier wont, meant conquest by and by. 

The Second War (200-197 b. c.) was brought about by 
Philip's attacking the Roman allies. The consul Flaminius 
now entered Greece, proclaiming himself the champion of 
Hellenic liberty. Transported with this thought, nearly all 
Hellas ranged itself under the eagles of Rome. Philip was 
overthrown at the battle of CynoscepJialce (197 b. c), and 
forced to accept a most degrading peace. 

After Philip's death, his son Perseus was indefatigable in 
his efforts to restore Macedon to its old-time glory. 

TJie Third War (171-168 B.C.) culminated in the battle 
of Pydna, where the famous Roman general Paullus van- 
quished forever the cumbersome phalanx, and ended the 
Macedonian monarchy. One hundred and fifty-six years 
after Alexander's death, the last king of Macedon was led 
in triumph by a general belonging to a nation of which, 
probably, the Conqueror had scarcely heard. 

The results of these wars were reaped within a brief period. 
The Federal Unions of Greece were dissolved. Macedon was 
divided into four commonwealths, and finally, under pre- 
tence of a rebellion, made a Roman province (148 b. c). In 
the same year that Carthage fell, Corinth,* the great seaport 

* Mummius, the consul who took Corinth, which Cicero termed " The eye of 
Hellas," sent its wealth of statues and pictures to Rome. It is said that, ignorant of 
the unique value of these works of art, he agreed with the captains of the vessels to fur- 
nish others in place of any they might lose on the voyage. One cannot but remem- 


of the Eastern Mediterranean, was sacked, and Greece her- 
self, after being amused for a time with the semblance of 
freedom, was organized into the province of Achaia. 

Syrian War (192-190 B.C.). — "Macedon and Greece 
proved easy stepping-stones for Rome to meddle in the affairs 
of Asia." At this time Anti'ochus the Great governed the 
kingdom of the Seleucidae, which then extended from 
the xEgean, beyond the Tigris. His capital, Antioch on the 
Orontes, was the seat of Greek culture, and one of the chief 
cities of the world. He was not unwilhng to measure 
swords with the Eomans, and received Hannibal at his court 
with marked honor. During the interval between the 
second and third Macedonian wars the ^tolians, thinking 
themselves badly used by the Romans, invited Antiochus to 
come over to their hel]). He despised the wise counsel and 
military skill of Hannibal, and, appearing in Greece with 
only ten thousand men, was easily defeated by the Romans at 
Tliermopijloe. The next year, L. Scipio (note, p. 45) fol- 
lowed him into Asia, and overthrew his power on the field 
of 3Ia(jnesia (100 B.C.). 

Tbe great empire of the Seleucidae now shrank to the 
kingdom of S}Tia. Though the Romans did not at present 
assume formal control of their conquest, yet, by a shrewd 
policy of weakening the powerful states, playing off small 
ones against one another, supporting one of the two rival fac- 
tions, and favoring their allies, they taught the Greek cities 
in Asia Minor to look up to the great central power on the 
Tiber just as, by the same tortuous course, they had led 
Greece and Macedon to do. Thus tlie Romans aided Per- 
gamus, and enlarged its territories, because its king helped 
them against Antiochus. Finally, when Attalus III. died, 

ber, however, tliat this ignorant plebeian maintained liis honesty, and liept none of 
the rich cpoils for himself. 

4S ROME. [133 B.C, 

he left that country by will to the Komans. So Eome got 
her first Asiatic province (133 B.C.). 

"War in Spain. — After the capture of Carthage and 
Corinth, Rome continued her efforts to subdue Spam. The 
rugged nature of the country, and the bravery of the inhab- 
itants, made the struggle a doubtful one. The town of 
Numantia held out long against the younger Scipio (note, 
p. 45). Finally, in despair, the people set fire to the place 
and threw themselves into the flames. When the Romans 
forced an entrance through the walls, they found silence and 
desolation within. Spain now became a Roman province — 
the same year of Attains' bequest, and thirteen years aftei 
the fall of Carthage and Corinth. 

The Roman Empire (133 b. c.) included southern 
Europe from the Atlantic to the Bosporus, and a j^art of 
northern Africa ; while Syria, Egypt, and Asia Minor Avere 
practically its dependencies. The Mediterranean Sea was a 
"Roman lake," and Rome was mistress of the civilized ivorld. 
Henceforth her wars were princij)ally with barbarians. 

Effect of these Conquests. — Italy had formerly been 
covered with little farms of a few acres each, which the in- 
dustrious, frugal Romans cultivated with their own hands. 
When Hannibal swept the country with fire and sword, he 
destroyed these comfortable, rural homes throughout entire 
districts. The people, unable to get a living, flocked to 
Rome. There, humored, flattered, and fed by every dema- 
gogue who wished their votes, they sank into a mere mob. 
The Roman race itself was fast becoming extinct.* It had 

* " At the time when all the kings of the earth paid homage to the 'Romans, this 
people was becoming estingnished, consumed by the double action of eternal war, 
and of a devouring system of legislation ; it was disappearing from Italy. The Ro- 
man, passing his life in camps, beyond the seas, rarely retiirnel to visit his iittle field. 
He had in most cases, indeed, no land or shelter at all, nor any other domestic gods 
than the eagles of the legions. An exchange was becoming established between Italy 
and the provinces. Italy sent her children to die in distant lands, and received in 


perished on its hundred battle-fields. Rome was inhabited 
by a motley population from all lands, who poorly filled the 
place of her ancient heroes. 

The captives in these vai'ious wars had been sold as slaves, 
and the nobles, who had secured most of the land, worked it 
by their unpaid labor. Everywhere in the fields were gangs 
of men, whose only crime was that they had fought for their 
homes, tied together with chains ; and, tending the flocks, 
were gaunt, shaggy wretches, carrying the goad in hands 
which had once wielded the sword. 

The riches of Syracuse, Carthage, Macedonia, Greece, and 
Asia poured into Rome. Men who went to foreign wars 
as poor soldiers came back with enormous riches — the 
spoils of sacked cities. The nobles were rich beyond every 
dream of republican Rome. But, meanwhile, the poor grew 
poorer yet, and the curse of poverty ate deeper into the 

A few wealthy families governed the senate and filled all 
the offices. Thus a new nobility, founded on money alone, 
had grown up and become all-powerful. It was customary 
for a candidate to amuse the people with costly games, and 
none but the rich could afford the exi)ense. The consul, at 
the end of his year of office, was usually appointed governor 
of a province, where out of an 02)pressed people he could 
recompense himself for all his losses. To keep the Roman 
populace in good humor, he would send back gifts of grain, 
and, if any complaint was made of his injustice and robbery, 
he could easily bribe the Judges and senators, Avho were 
anxious only for the same cliance which he had. 

comperiBatlon millions of plavec. Thus a new people Piicceodcd to the ahscnt or 
destroyed Roman people. Slaves took the place of masters, i)roudly occupied the 
Fomm, and In tlnir fantastic patunialia governed by tlieir decrees the Liitini' and the 
Italians, who filled the lotion-. It was soon no lonj,'er a question where were the 
plebeians of Rome. They had left their hones on every shore. Campe, urns, and 
immortal roads — tbusc were all that remained of them." — Mlchelet. 



In the early days of tlie republic, the soldier was a citizen 
who went forth to fight his country's battles, and, returning 
home, settled down again upon his little farm, contented 
and hapi)y. Military life had now become a profession. 
Patriotism was almost a forgotten virtue, and the soldier 
fought for plunder and glory. In the wake of the army 
followed a crowd of venal traders, who bought up the booty; 
contractors, who ''farmed" the revenues of the provinces; 
and usurers, who preyed on the necessities of all. These 
rich army-followers were known as knights [equites), since 
in the early days of Eome the richest men fought on horse- 
back. They rarely took part in any war, but only reaped 
its advantages. The presents of foreign kings were no 
longer refused at Eome ; her generals 
and statesmen demanded money wher- 
ever they went. Well might Scipio 
Africanus, instead of praying to the 



gods, as was the custom, to increase the state, beg them to 
preserve it ! 

In this general decadence the fine moral fibre of the nation 
lost its vigor. First, the people left their own gods and took 
up foreign ones. As the ancients had no idea of a common 
god of all nations, such a desertion of their patron deities 
was full of significance. It ended in a general scepticism 
and neglect of religious rites and worship. In addition, the 
Romans became cruel and unjust. Nothing showed this 
more clearly than their refusal to grant the Eoman franchise 
to the Latin cities, which stood by them so faithfully during 
Hannibal's invasion. Yet there were great men in Rome, 
and the ensuing centuries were the palmiest of her history. 


Now began a century of civil strife, during which the old 
respect for laws became weak, .and parties obtained their end 
by bribery and bloodshed. 

Th3 Gracchi. — The tribune Tiberius Gracchus,* per- 
ceiWng the peril of the state, secured a new agrarian law 
(p. 20), directing the pubHc land to be assigned in small 
farms to the needy, so as to give every man a homestead ; 
and, in addition, he proposed to divide the treasures of 
Attalus among those who received land, in order to enable 
them to build houses and buy cattle. But the oligarchs 
aroused a mob by which Gracchus was assassinated. 

* Cornolin, the mother of Tiberius and Cains Gracchns, was the daushter of Scipio 
Afrlcaniii th<! Elder (note, \>. 1.")). Left a widow, phe was offered marria^'f with tho 
kill;,' of EL'ypt, but preferred to devote herself to the edueiitioii of licr children. 
When a rich friend once exhibited to her a cabinet of rare frenis, bIic called in her 
two Hons, saviiiu', " These nrf my jewels." Her statue bore the Inscription l)y which 
Bhe wished to be known, " Tlie mother of the Oracchi,"— Tiberius was the crnind-on 
of thf ronfinerorofllnnnibal, the son-in-law of Appius ClaudluB, and the brother-in- 
law of the Destroyer of Carthage. 

52 ROME, 

[133 B. c. 

About ten years later, his brother Caius tried to carry out 
the same reform, by distributing grain to the poor at a 
nominal price (the "Roman poor-law"), by choosing juries 
from the knights instead of the senators, and by planting 
in conquered territories colonies of men who had no work 
at home. All went well until he sought to confer the 
Eoman franchise upon the Latins. Then a riot was raised, 
and Caius was killed by a faithful slave to prevent his falling 
into the hands of his enemies. 

With the Gracchi perished the freedom of the republic ; 
henceforth the corrupt aristocracy was supreme. 

Jugurtha (118-104 b. c.) having usurped the throne of 
Numidia, long maintained his place by conferring lavish 
bribes upon the senators. His gold conquered every army 
sent against him, and he declared that Eome itself could be 
had for money. Ho was finally overpowered by the consul 
Caius Marius,* and, after adorning the victor's triumph at 
Eome, thrown into the Mamertine prison to perish, f 

The Cimbri and Teutones (113-101 B.C.), the van- 
guard of those northern hosts that were yet to overrun the 
empire, were now moving south, half a million strong, 
spreading dismay and ruin in their track. Six different 
Eoman armies tried in vain to stay their advance. At Orange 
alone eighty thousand Eomans fell. In this emergency, the 
senate appealed to Marius, who, contrary to law, was again 
and again reinstated consul. He annihilated the Teutones 
at Aiz, and, the next year, the Cimbri at Vercellm. In the 
latter engagement, the men composing the outer lino of the 

* Lucius Cornelius Sulla, the Roman qnestor (p. 53), captured Jugurtha by- 
treachery. Clainiiiig that he was the real hero of this war, he had a ring engraved 
which represented Jugurtha's surrender to him. Marius and Sulla were henceforth 
bitter rivals. 

t This famous dungeon is still shown the traveler at Rome. It is an underground 
vault, built of rough stones. The only opening is by a hole at the top. As Jugurtha, 
accustomed to the heat of an African sun, was lowered into this dismal grave, he 
exclaimed, with chattering teeth, " Ah, what a cold bath they are giving mel " 

101 B. c] THE POLITICAL H I S T O K Y . 53 

barbarian army were fastened together with chains, tlie whole 
making a solid mass three miles square. The Eoman broad- 
sword mercilessly hewed its way through this struggling 
crowd. The Gallic women, in despair, strangled their 
children, and then threw themselves beneath the wheels of 
their wagons. The very dogs fought to the death. 

Rome was saved in her second great peril from barbarians. 
Marius was hailed as the "third founder of the city." 

Social War (90-88 b. c). — Drusus, a tribune, having 
proposeil that the Ilalians should be granted the coveted 
citizenship, Avas murdered the very day a vote was to be 
taken upon the measure. On hearing this, many of the 
Italian cities, headed by the Marsians, took up arms. The 
veteran legions, which had conquered the world, now faced 
each other on the battle-field. The struggle cost three hun- 
dred thousand lives. Houses were burned and plantations 
wasted as in Hannibal's time. In the end, Rome was forced 
to allow the Italians to become citizens. 

First Mithridatic War (88-84 b. c.).— Just before the 
close of this bloody struggle, news came of the massacre of 
eighty thousand Romans and Italians residing in the towns 
of Asia Minor. Mithridates the Great, king of Pontus, 
and a man of remarkable energy and genius, had pro- 
claimed himself tlie deliverer of Asia from the Roman 
yoke, and kindled the fires of insurrection as far westward 
as Greece. The war against the Pontic monarch Avas confided 
to Sulla, who stood at the head of the Roman aristocracy. 
But Marius, the favorite leader of the people, by unscrupu- 
lous means wrested the command from his rival. There- 
upon Sulla entered Rome at the head of the army. Fo/ the 
first time, civil war raged within the walls of tlie city. 
Marius was driven into exile.* Sulla then crossed into 

• MariuB, after many romaulic advcnturuB, was thrown iuto prieon at Min- 

54 ROME. [87 B.C. 

Greece. He carried on five campaigns, mainly at his private 
expense, and finally restored peace on the condition that 
Mithridates should give up his conquests and his fleet. 

Return of Marius. — Meanwhile Cinua, one of the two 
consuls at Rome, recalled Marius, and together they entered 
the city with a body of men comjaosed of the very dregs of 
Italy. The nobles and the friends of Sulla trembled at this 
triumph of the democracy. Marius now took a fearful 
vengeance for all he had suffered. He closed the gates, and 
went about with a body of slaves, who slaughtered every 
man at whom he pointed his finger. The principal senators 
were slain. The high-priest of Jupiter was massacred at the 
altar. The consul Octavius was struck down in his curule- 
chair. The head of Antonius, the orator, being brought to 
Marius as he sat at su2:)per, he received it with joy, and 
embraced the murderer. Finally, the monster had himself 
declared consul, now the seventh time. Eighteen days after, 
he died " drunk with blood and wine." (86 b. c.) 

Sulla's Proscriptions. — Three years passed, when the 
hero of the Mithridatic War returned to Italy with his vic- 
torious army. His progress was disputed by the remains of 
the Marian party and the Samnites, who had not laid down 
their arms after the Social War (p. 53). Sulla, however, 
swept aside their forces, and soon all Italy was prostrate 
before him. It was now the turn for the plebeians and the 
friends of Marius to fear. As Sulla met the senate, cries 
were heard in the neighboring circus. The senators sjjrang 
from their seats in alarm. Sulla bade them be quiet, remark- 

turnae. One day a Cimbrian slave entered his ceU to put him to death. The old man 
turned npon him with flashing eye, and ehonted," Darest thou kill Caius Marius I " 
The Gaul, frightened at the voice of his nation's destroyer, dropped his sword and 
fled. Marius was soon set free by the synipathizing people, wherenpon he crossed 
into Africa. Receiving there an order from the prsRtor to leave the province, he sent 
back the well-known reply, " Tell Sestilius that you have seen Caius Marius sitting 
in exile among the ruins of Carthage." 


iiig, "It is only some wi'etcbes undergoing the punishment 
they deserve." The ''wretches" were six thousand of the 
Mtirian party, who were butchered in cold blood. '•' The 
porch of Sulla's house," says Collier, "was soon full of 
heads." Daily proscription-lists were made out of those 
doomed to die, and the assassins were rewarded from the 
property of their victims. Wealth became a crime when 
murder was gain. '" Alas," exclaimed one, " my villa is my 
destruction." In all the disaffected Italian cities the same 
bloody work went on. Whole districts were confiscated to 
make room for colonies of Sulla's legions. He had himself 
declared perpetual dictator — an office unused since the Punic 
Wars. He deprived the tribunes of the right of proposing 
laws, and sought to restore the good old times when the 
patricians held power, thus undoing the reforms of centuries. 
To the surprise of all, however, he suddenly retired to private 
life, and gave himself up to luxurious ease. The civil wars 
of Marius and Sulla had cost Italy the lives of one hundi-ed 
and fifty thousand citizens. 

Sertorius, one of the Marian party, betook himself to 
Spain, gained the respect and confidence of the Lusitanians, 
established among them a miniature Roman republic, and 
for seven years defeated every army sent against him. Even 
Pompey the Great was held in check. Treachery at last 
freed Eome from its enemy, Sertorius being slain at a 

Gladiatorial War (73-71 b. c). — A party of gladiators 
under Spartacus, having escaped from a training-school at 
r'a|)ua, took refuge in the crater of Vesuvius. Thither 
Hocked slaves, peasants, and pirates, until they were strong 
enough to defeat consular armies, and for two years to rav- 
age Italv from Ibc Alps to the peninsula. Crassus finally 
killed the rebel leader in a desperate battle, and put his fol- 

56 ROME. [71 B. c, 

lowers to flight. A body of five thousand, trying to escape 
into Gaul, fell in with Pompey the Great as he was returning 
from Spain, and were cut to pieces. 

Pirates in these troublous times infested the Mediter- 
ranean, so as to interfere with trade and stop the supply of 
provisions at Kome. The whole coast of Italy was in con- 
tinual alarm. Parties of robbers landing dragged rich pro- 
prietors from their villas and seized high officials, to hold 
them for ransom. Pompey, in a brilliant campaign of 
ninety days, cleared the seas of these buccaneers, and restored 

Great Mithridatic War (74-63 b. c.).— During Sulla's 
life the Roman governor iu Asia causelessly attacked Mithri- 
dates, but being defeated and Sulla peremptorily ordering 
him to desist, this Second Mithridatic War soon ceased. 
The Third or Great War broke out after the dictator's 
death. The king of Bithynia having bequeathed his pos- 
sessions to the Eomans, Mithridates Justly dreaded this ad- 
vance of his enemies toward his own boundaries, and took 
up arms to prevent it. The Roman consul, Lucullus, de- 
feated the Pontic king, and drove him to the court of his 
son-in-law Tigranes, king of Armenia, who esj)oused his 
cause. Lucullus next overcame the allied monarchs. Mean- 
while this wise general sought to reconcile the Asiatics to the 
Roman government by legislative reforms, by a mild and 
just rule, and especially by cliecking the exactions of the 
farmers of the revenue. The soldiers of his own army, 
intent on plunder, and the equites at Rome deprived of 
their profits, were incensed against him, and secured his 

Pompey was now granted the power of a dictator in the 
East.* He made an alliance with the king of Parthia, thus 

• Cicero advocated this measure in the familiar oration, Pro Lege ManUia, 

GSb.c] the political history. 57 

threatening Mithridates by an enemy in the rear. Then, 
forcing the Pontic monarch into a battle, he defeated and, 
at last, drove him beyond the Caucasus. Pompey, returning, 
reduced Syria, Phoenicia, and Palestine. 

The spirit of Mithridates was unbroken, in spite of the 
loss of his kingdom. He was meditating a march around 
the Euxine, and an invasion of Italy from the northeast, 
when, alarmed at the treachery of his son, he took poison, 
and died a victim of ingi'atitude. By his genius and courage, 
he had maintained the struggle with the Komans for twenty- 
five years.* On reaching Rome, Pompey received a two-days 
triumph. Before his chariot, walked three hundred and 
twenty-four captive princes ; and twenty thousand talents 
were deposited in the treasury as the spoils of conquest. 
Pompey was now at the height of his popularity, and might 
have usurped supreme power, but he lacked the energy and 

Catiline's Conspiracy (63 b. c). — During Pompey's ab- 
sence at the East, Catiline, an abandoned young nobleman, 
had formed a wide-spread plot to murder the consuls, fire 
the city, and overthrow the government. Cicero, the 
orator, exposed the conspiracy, f Whereupon, Catiline fled, 
and was soon after slain, fighting at the head of a band of 

The chief men of Rome now were Pompey, Crassus, 

• The armor which fitted the gigantic frame of Mithridates excited the wonder 
alike of Aniaiic and Ituliaii. As a runner, he overtoolt tlic fleetest di'cr ; as a rider, 
lie brolte the wildest steed ; as a charioteer, he drove t<ixteen-in hand ; and, us a 
hunter, he liit his game with likliorHc at full i;allup. lie liei)t Greek jioets, historians, 
and philosophers at his court, and gave prizes, not only to tlie greatest euter and 
drinker, but to iU>: merriest jester and the best singer. He rnU-d the; twenty-two 
nations of his realiri williout tlic aid of an interpretcM-. !!(! experimented on poisons 
and Bouglil lo harden his system to their efl'cct. One day he disappeared from the 
palace ami was alj.-i-nt for months. On his return, it appeand that he had wandered 
incofjnilo ihrougli Asia Minor, siuilying the people and countiy. 

t The oi-ations which Cicero jironounced at this tinw against Catiline are master- 
pieces of impatiitioued rhuioric, and are still studied by every Latin scholar. 



[60 B. c. 


Caesar,* Cicero, and Cato 
the Stoic — a great grand- 
son of the Censor. The 
first three formed a league, 
known as the Triumvirate 
(60 B. c). To cement tliis 
union, Pompey married 
Julia, Csesar's only daugh- 
ter. The triumyirs had 
everything their own way. 
CaBsar obtained the con- 
sulship, and, afterward, an 
appointment as governor 
of Gaul : Cicero was ban- 

ished, and Cato sent to Cyprus. 

* was born 100 n. c. (according to Mommsen, 102 e. c). A patrician, he was 
yet a friend of the people. His aunt was married to Mariiis ; liis wife Cornelia was the 
daugliter of Cinna. During Sulla's proscription, he refused to divorce his wife at the 
bidding of the dictator, and only the intercession of powerful friends saved his life. 
Sulla detected the ctiaracter of this youtli of eighteen years, and declared, " There is 
more than one Marius hid in him." While on his way to Rhodes to study oratory, he 
was falien prisoner by pirates, but he acted more like tlieir leader than cajitive, and, on 
being ransomed, headed a party which cn;cifled them all. Having been elected pontifE 
during his absence at tlie East, he returned to Rome. He now became in sticcession 
quasstor, redile, ard pontifex inasimus. His affable manners and boundless generosity 
won all hearts. As nedile, a part of his duty was to furnish amusement to the people, 
and he exhibited three hundred and twenty pairs of gladiators, clad in silver armor. 
His debts became enormous, the heaviest creditor being tlie rich Crassus, to whom 
half tlie senators are said to have owed money. Securing an appointment as proelor, 
at the termination of that office, according to tlie custom, he Cutained a jiroviuce. 
Selecting Spain, he there recruited hi.? wasted fortune, and gained some milit.".ry 
prominence. He then came back to Eo' relinquishing a triumph in order to enter 
the city and stand for the consulship. This gained, his next step was to secure a field 
where he could train an army, by whose help he might become master of Rome. 

It is a strange sight, indeed, to witness this spendthrift, pale and worn with tlic 
excesses of the capital, fighting at the head of his legions, swimming rivers, phingiug 
through morasses, and climbing mountains— the hardiest of the hardy and the bravest 
of the brave. But it is stranger still to think of this groat general and statesman as a 
literary man. Even when riding in his litter or resting, he was still reading or virit- 
ing, and often at the same time dictating to from four to seven amanuenses. Besides 
his famous Commenlcmes, published in the very midst of his eventful career, he 
composed works on rhetoric and grammar, as well as tragedies, lyrics, etc. His style 
is pure and natural, and the polished smoothness of his sentences gives no hint of 
the stormy scenes amid which they were formed. 




C^SAR remained in Ganl 
about nine years. He re- 
duced the entire country, 
crossed the Rhine, carrying 
the Roman arms into Ger- 
many for the first time, 
and twice invaded Britain 
—an island until then un- 
known in Italy except by 
name. Not only were the 
three hundred tribes of 
Transalpinc'Gaul thorough- 
ly subdued, but they were 
made content with Caesar's 
rule. He became their civ- 
ilizer, building roads and 
introducing Roman laws, 
institutions, manners and 
customs. Moreover, he 
trained an army that knew 
no mind or will except that 
of its great general. Mean- 
while, Ctesar's friends in 
Rome, withiheGallic spoils 
which he freely sent them, 
bribed and dazzle<l and in- 
trigued to sustain their 
ma-ter's i>ower. .'ind secure 
hii.) the next consulship. 

Crassus was chosen 
joiut-consul with Porapey 
(56 B. c.) ; he secured the 
province oi Syria. Eager 
to obtain the boundless 
treasures of the East, he 
set out upon an expedition 
asrainst Parthia. On the 
way,he plundered the tem- 
ple at Jerusalem. While 
crossing the scorching 
plains beyond the Eu- 
phrates, not from Char- 
roe (the Haran of the 
Bible), he was suddenly 
surrounded by clouds of 
Parthian horsemen. Ro- 
man valor WIS of no avail 
in that ceaseless storm of 
arrows. During the retreat, 
Crassus was slain. His 
head was carried to the 
Parthian king, who, in de- 
rision, ordered it to be filled 
with molten gold. The 
death of Crassus ended the 

PosTPET, after a time, 
was elected joint-consul 
with Crassus, and, later, sole 
consul ; he obtained the 
province of Gaul, which he 
governed by legates. He 
now rrued Rome, but wa3 
bent on ruling the empire. 
The death of his wife had 
severed the link which 
bound him to the conqueror 
of Gaul. He accordingly 
joined with the nobles, 
who were also alarmed by 
Ciesar's brilliant victories, 
and the strength his suc- 
cess gave the popular party. 
A law was therefore passed 
ordering Coesar to resign 
his office and disband his 
army before he appeared 
to sue for the consulship. 
The tribunes — Antony and 
Cassius — who supported 
Cissar, were driven from 
the senate. They fled to 
his camp, and demanded 

Civil War between Caesar and Pompey (49 b. c.).— 
Csesar at once niarehed upon Rome. Pompey had boasted 
that he had only to stamp his foot, and an army would 
fpring from the ground ; but he now fled to Greece with- 
out striking a blow. In si.xty days, Cassar was master of 
Italy. The decisive stniggle between the two rivals took 
place on the plain of Pharsalia (48 B.C.). Pompey was 
beaten. lie sought refuge in Egypt, where he was treach- 
erously slain. His head being brought to Caesar, the con- 
fjueror wept at the fate of his former friend. 

Ca?sar now placed the beautiful Cleopatra on the throne 
of the Ptolemies, and, marching into Syria, huml)lcd 
Pliamaces, the son of Mithridates, so quickly that he 
could Avrite home this laconic despatch, Veni, Vltii, Vici 
(I came, I saw, I conquered). Cato and other Pompeian 

60 HOME. [46 B.C. 

leaders had assembled a great force in Africa, whereupon 
Csesar hurried his conquering legions thither, and at Thapsus 
broke down all opposition (46 b, c). Cato, in despair of the 
republic, fell upon his sword. The sons of Pompej rallied 
an army i\\ Spain, but, in the desperate conflict at Munda, 
CfBsar blotted the broken remains of their party out of 
existence (45 B.C.). 

Caesar returned to Rome before this final straggle in 
Spain. A four-days triumph reddened the sands of the 
arena with the blood of Avild beasts and gladiators. Every 
citizen received a present, and the populace regaled them- 
selves at a banquet spread on twenty-two thousand tables. 
The joy was unalloyed by any proscription. The adulation 
of the senate surpassed all bounds. Caesar was created dic- 
tator for ten years and censor for three, and his statue was 
placed in the Capitol, opposite to that of Jupiter. 

Caesar's G-overnment. — At Caesar's magic touch, order 
and justice sprang into new life. The provinces rejoiced in 
an honest administration. The Gauls obtained seats in the 
senate, and it was Caesar's design to have all the provinces 
represented in that body by their chief men. The calendar 
was revised.* The distress among the poor was relieved by 
sending eighty thousand colonists, to rebuild Corinth and 
Carthage. The number of claimants upon the public dis- 
tribution of grain was reduced over one-half. A plan was 
formed of digging a new channel for the Tiber and draining 
tlie Pontine marshes. Nothing was too vast or too small 
for the comprehensive mind of this mighty statesman. He 
could guard the boundaries of his vast empire along the 
Ithine, Danube, and Euphrates ; look after the paving of the 

* The Roman year contained only three hundred and fifty-five days, and the mid- 
Bumnier and the mid-winter months then came in the spring and the fall. Julius 
Cfe>ar introduced the extra day of leap year, and July was named after him. See 
Sleek'n New Astronomy, p. 2ffi). 

44 B. c] 



Roman streets ; and listen to the recitation of pieces for 
prizes at the theatres, bestowing the wreath upon the victor, 
with extempore verse. 

Csssar's Assassination (44 b. c). — Caesar, now dictator 
for hfc, was desirous of being king in name as in fact. While 
passing through the streets one day, he was hailed king ; as 
the crowd murmured, he cried out, "I am not king, but 
Caesar." Still, when Mark Antony, the consul and liis inti- 
mate friend, at a festival, offered him a crown, Csesar seemed 
to thrust it aside reluctantly. The hatred of zealous 
republicans was excited, and, under the guise of a love of 
liberty and old Roman virtue, those who were jealous of 
Caesar or hated him, formed a conspiracy for his assassination. 
Brutus and Cassius, the leaders, chose the fifteenth of the 
ensuing March for the execution of the deed. As the day 
approached, the air was thick with rumors of approaching 
disaster. A famous augur warned Caesar to beware of the 
Ides * of March. The night before, his wife Calpurnia was 
disturbed by an ominous 
dream. On the way to the ..<^^^^ 

eenate-house he was handed 
a scroll containing the de- 
tails of the plot, but in 
the press he had no chance 
to read it. When the con- 
spirators crowded about 
him, no alarm was caused, 
•ds they were men wlio owed 
their lives to his leniency and their fortunes to his favor. 

i MI'.l.liM. t 

• In the KoTnanralnndnr, I liP monthrt were divided into fliroe partu— Catenrf*-, fde; 
and Sonn The Cal'Midn roinirienccd on ihe fli-ct of ea''li month, and were reckoned 
hacliWJird Into tlic preiedinf; month lo the Iden. The Noni'M fell on llie cevenlh of 
Marcli. May, July, and October, and on the fifth of the other monthn. The Ides 
cami' on the thlrf-'enlh of all months except thef>e four, when they were the fifteenth. 

+ S. I'. (;. U ^taIldH for HenaluH Popiilus(itie Hom:iiius— the Senate and Hmiian 

62 R >[ E . 

[44 B. c. 

Suddenly, swords gleamed on every hand. For a moment, 
the great soldier defended himself Avith the sharp point of 
his iron pen. Then, catching sight of the loved and trusted 
Brutus, he exclaimed, "Et tu Brute !" (And thou, too, 
Brutus !) and, wrapping his mantle about liis face, sank 
dead at the foot of Pompey's statue. * 

Tlie result was very different from what the assassins had 
expected. The senate rushed out horror-stricken at the deed. 
The reading of Caesar's will, in which he gave every citizen 
three hundred sesterces (over ten dollars), and threw open 
his sj)lendid gardens across the Tiber as a public park, roused 
the popular fury. When Antony pronounced the funeral 
eulogy, and, finally, held up Caesar's rent and bloody toga, 
the mob broke through every restraint, and ran with torches 
to burn the houses of the murderers. Brutus and Cassius 
fled to save their lives. 

Second Triumvirate (43 b. c). — Antony was fast get- 
ting power into his hand, when there arrived at Rome, 
Octavius, Csesar's great-nephew and heir. He received 
the support of the senate and of Cicero, who denounced 
Antony in fiery orations. Antony was forced into exile, 
and then, twice defeated in battle, took refuge with 

* Cassar's brief public life— for only five stirring years elapsed from his entrance 
into Italy to iiis assassination — was full of dramatic scenes. Before marching ui>on 
Rome, it is said (though research stamps it as doubtful) that he stopped at tlie Rubicon, 
the boundary between his province of Cisalpine Gaul and Italy, and hesitated long. 
To pass it, was to make war upon the republic. At last, he shouted, "The die is 
ca^t!" and plunged into the stream.— When he had crossed into Greece in pursuit of 
I'orapey, he became impatient at Antony's delay in bringing over the rest of the 
army, and, disguising himself, attempted to return across the Adriatic in a small boat. 
The sea ran high, and the crew determined to put back, when Ciesar shouted, " Go on 
boldly, fear nothing, thou bearest Ceesar and his fortune ! "—At the battle of Phar- 
salia, he ordered his men to aim at the faces of Pompey's cavalry. The Roman 
knight;-,, dismayed at this attack on their beauty, quickly fled ; after the victory, 
Caisar rode over the field calling upon the men to spare the Roman citizens, and on 
reaching Pompey's tent put his letters in the fire unread. — When Cte^ar learned of the 
death ofCato he lamented the tragic fate of such high integrity and virtue, and ex- 
claimed, "Cato, I envy thee thy death, since thou envifest me the glory of saving thy 
life 1 " 


Lepidus, governor of a part of Spain and Gaul. Octavius 
returned to Rome, won the favor of the people, and, though 
a youth of only nineteen, was chosen consul. A triumvi- 
rate, similar to the one seventeen years before, Avas now 
formed between Antony, Octavius, and Lepidus. The bar- 
gain was sealed by a proscription more horrible than that of 
Sulla. Lepidus sacrificed his brother, Antony his uncle, 
and Octavius his warm supporter, Cicero. The orator's 
head having been brought to Rome, Fulvia thrust her golden 
bodkin through the tongue that had pronounced the Philip- 
pics against her husband Antony. 

Battle of Philippi (42 b. c.).— Brutus and Cassius, who 
had gone to the East, raised an army to resist this new 
coalition. The triumvirs pursued them, and the issue was 
decided on the field of Philippi. Brutus* and Cassius 
were defeated, and, in despair, committed suicide. Octavius 
and Antony divided the empire between them, the former 
taking the West, and the latter the East. Lepidus received 
Africa, but was soon stripped of his share and sent back to 

Antony and Cleopatra. — Antony now went to Tarsus, 
to look after his new possessions. Here, Cleopatra was 
summoned to answer for having supported Cassius against 
the triumvirs. She came, captivated Antony by her charms.f 

* BnitiiK, hfiforo thi« battle, was dii'hoartonprl. The triumvirs had provcrl worse 
tyrant-^ timri he conld ever have feared ('jc«ar would become. He and Cassius qnar- 
rcli'd bitterly. Hi« wife. Portia, had di<d (accordiuj; to pome authorities) broken- 
hearted at the calamities" which hatl befalUn her country. One ni<;ht, as he was sit- 
tiriij alone in his tent, musini;: over the troubled state of iifTairs. lie suddenly per- 
ceived a gigantic figure Htandiiig before him. lie was startled, but exclaimed, " What 
art thou, and for wdiat purpose art thou come?" " I am thine evil >;e"ius,'' replied 
the phantom ; " we shall meet again at Philippi ! " 

t Cleopatra ascended the; Cydnua in a galley with purple sails. Th(! oars. Inlaid 
with cllver, moved to the soft nmsic of flute and pipe. Slie leclined under a gold- 
ppangled canopy, attired as V(aius. and attended by nymphs, cupids. and uraces. 
The air was redolent with perfimies. As she approached Tar-u-, the whole city 
flocked to witneet) the magnificent Higbt, leaving Antony Hitllug aloueiu the tribunal. 

64 ROME. [41 B. C 

and carried him to Egypt. They passed the winter in the 
wildest extravagance. Breaking away, however, for a time 
from the silken chains of Cleopatra, Antony, upon the 
death of Fulvia, married the beantiful and noble Octavia, 
sister of Octavius. But, at the first opportunity, he went 
back again to Alexandria, where he laid aside the dignity of 
a Roman citizen and assumed the dress of an Egyptian 
monarch.* Cleopatra was presented with several provinces, 
and became the real ruler of the East. 

Civil War between Octavius and Antony (31 b.c). — 
The senate at last declared war against Cleopatra. There- 
upon, Antony divorced Octavia and prepared to invade Italy. 
The rival fleets met off the promontory of Ac'tium. Cleo- 
patra fled with her ships early in the day. Antony, basely 
deserting those who were dying for his cause, followed her. 
When Octavius entered Egyjit (32 b. c. ), there was no resist- 
ance. Antony, in despair, stabbed himself. Cleopatra in 
vain tried her arts of fascination upon the conqueror. 
Finally, to avoid gracing his triumph at Rome, she put an 
end to her life, according to the common story, by the bite 
of an asp, brought in a basket of figs. Thus died the last 
of the Ptolemies. 

Result. — Egypt now became a province of Rome. With 
the battle of Actium, ended the Roman republic. Caesar 
Octavius was the undisputed master of the civilized world. 
After his return to Italy, he received the title of Augustus, 
by which name he is known in history. The Civil Wars 
were over. 

* The follies and wasteful extravasance of their mad revels at Alexandria almost 
surpass belief. One day, in Antony's kitchen, there are said to have been eight wild 
boars roasting whole, so arranged as to be ready at different times, that his dinner 
might be served in perfection whenever he shonld see fit to order it. On another 
ofca^ion, he and the queen vied as to which could serve the more expensive banquet. 
Removing a magniticent pearl from her ear, she dissolved it in vinegar, and swal- 
lowed the priceless draught 

31 B. C.J 




Establishment of the Empire. — After the clamor of 
a hundred years, a s-\veet silence seemed to fall upon the 
earth. The temple of Janus was closed for the second time 
since the pious ISTuma. Warned hy the fate of Julius, 
Augustus did not take the name of king, nor startle the 
Roman prejudices by any sudden seizure of authority. He 


Bfi ROME. [31 B. c- 

kept up all the forms of the republic. Every ten years, he 
went through the farce of laying down his rank as chief of 
the army, or imperator — a word since contracted to emperor. 
He professed himself the humble servant of the senate, 
while he really exercised absolute power. Gradually, all the 
offices of trust were centered in him. He became at once 
proconsul, consul, censor, tribune, and high priest.* 

Massacre of Varus (9 a. d.). — Germany, under the 
vigorous rule of Drusus and Tiberius, stepsons of Augustus, 
now seemed likely to become as thoroughly Romanized 
as Gaul had been. [Brief Hist. France, p. 11.) Varus, 
govei'nor of the province, thinking the conquest complete, 
attempted to introduce the Latin language and laws. There- 
upon, Arminius, a noble, freedom-loving German, aroused 
his countrymen, and in the wilds of the Teutoburg Forest 
took a terrible revenge for the wrongs they had suffered. 
Varus and his entire army perished. Dire was the dismay 
at Eome when news came of this disaster. For days, 
Augustus wandered through his palace, beating his head 
against the wall, and crying, "Varus, give me back my 
legions !" Six years later, the whitened bones of these hap- 
less warriors were buried by Germanicus (the son of Drusus, 
and step-son of Augustus), but with all his genius he could 
not restore the Eoman authority in Germany, f 

The Augustan Age (31 b. c.-14 a.d.) was, however, one 
of general peace and prosperity. The emperor lived unos- 

* As consul, he became chief magistrate ; as censor, he could decide who were to 
be senators ; as tribune, he heard appeals, and his person was sacred ; as imperator, 
he commanded the army ; and, as pontifex maximus, or chief priest, he was the head 
of the national religion. These were powers originally belonging to the king, but 
which, during the republic, from a fear of centralization, had been distributed among 
different persons. Now the emperor gathered them up again. 

t Creasy reckons this among the twelve decisive battles of the world. " Had 
Arminius been defeated," says Arnold, " our German ancestors would have been en- 
slaved or exterminated, and the great English nation would have been struck out of 


tentatiouslj in his liouse, not in a palace, and his toga was 
woven by his wife Livia and her maidens. He revived the 
worship of the gods. His chosen friends were men of 
letters. He beautified Eome, so that he could truly boast 
that he ''found the city of brick, and left it of marble." 
There was now no fear of pirates or hostile fleets, and grain 
came in plenty from Egvpt. The people were amused and 
fed ; hence they were contented. The provinces were well 
governed,* and many gained Eoman citizenship. A single 
lanoT-iajjo became a universal bond of intercourse, and Eome 
began her work of civilization and education. "Wars having 
so nearly ceased, and interest in politics having diminished, 
men turned their thoughts more toward literature, art, and 

The Birth of Christ, the central figure in all history, 
occurrcii during the wide-spread peace of this reign. 

The Empire was, in general, bounded by the Euphrates 
on the east, the Danube and the Rhine on the north, the 
Atlantic Ocean on the west, and the deserts of Africa on the 
south. It comprised about a hundred millions of people, of 
perhaps a hundred different nations, each speaking its own 
language and worshipping its own gods. An army of three 
hundred and fifty thousand men held the provinces in check, 
while the Prastorian Guard of ten thousand protected the 
person of the cmporor. The Mediterranean, Avhich the 
Romans proudly called, " Our own sea," served as a natural 
highway between the Avidely-sundered parts of this vast 
region, while the Roman roads, straight as an eagle's flight, 
bound every portion of the empire to its center. Every- 
where, tiie emperor's will Avas law. His smile or frown was 

• One day when Aa^iistus was Hailint; in Hk; Buy of Baite, a Greek nhip wns pasB- 
Ini». The fuilori', pcrccivin;,' the cinpcror. stopped tli'ir vessel, iirraycd tlieniselves In 
white robeu, and going on hoard hi« yaelit, olTetcil siicriflce to him as a god, haying, 
"You have t'ivtii t<j um liappinesH. You have secured to us our lives and our good* " 



[1st cent. a. d. 

the fortune or ruin of a man, a city, or a province. His 
character determined the prosperity of the empire. 

Henceforth, the history of Rome is not that of the people, 
but of its emperors. * In the following pages, a brief account 
is given of the principal monarchs only ; a full list of the 
emperors may be found, however, on page 121. None of 
the early emperors was followed by his own son, but, accord- 
ing to the Roman law of adoption, they all counted as 
Caesars. Nero was the last of them at all connected with 
Augustus, even by adoption, though the emperors called 
themselves Caesar and Augustus to the last. After the death 
of Augustus, 


Tiberius (14 a. d.), his rtep-son, cecured the empire by 
a decree of the senate. The army on the Rhine would have 

* " Of the sixty-two emperors from Coesar to Constantine, forty-two were murdered, 
three committed suicide, two abdicated or were forced to abdicate, one was killed iii 
a rebellion, one was drowned, one died in war, one died it is not known how, and no 
more than eleven died in the way of nature. Between the death of Caesar and the 
accession of Constantine. three hundred and nineteen years elapsed, giving to each 
CiB.3ar an average reiijn of five years and two months. Comparing this rate of im- 
perial mortality against the usual terms of royal lives, the waste appe.irs most strik- 
ing. The thirty-five sovereigns of England (omitting Cromwell as not affecting the 
return) since the Conquest have ' lived in the purple ' seven hundred and eighty-seven 
years— an average of over twenty-two years and five months. The kings of France, 
fio:n Clovis to Louis Philippe, reigned, on the average, twenty-two years and two 
months. The German emperors, from the accession of Arnulf to the accession of 
Francis Joseph, each reigned nineteen years and three months. Even the czars of 
Bussia, from Fedor to Nicholas, ruled for fourteen years and ten mouths each."— Al/i. 

14 A. D.J THE POLITICAL U x S T O R Y . 69 

gladly given the throne to the noble Germanicus, but 
he declined the honor. Jealous of his kinsman, Tiberius, 
it is thought, afterw'ard removed him by poison. The 
new emperor ruled for a time with much ability, yet soon 
proved to be a gloomy tyrant,* and finally retired to the 
island of Caprea?, to practice in secret his infamous orgies. 
His favorite, the cruel and ambitious Seja'nus, prefect of 
the Praetorian Guard, remained at Eome as the real ruler, 
but, having conspired against his master, he was thrown 
into the Mamertine prison and there strangled. Many of 
the best citizens fell \'ictim3 to the emperor's suspicious 
disposition, and all, even the surviving members of his own 
family, breathed easier when news came of his sudden 

The great event of this reign was the crucifixion of Christ f 
at Jerusalem, under Pilate, Koman procurator of Judea. 

Caligula J (3? a. d.) inherited some of his father's virtues, 
but he was weak-minded, and his history records only a 
madman's freaks. He made his favorite horse a consul, and 
provided him a golden manger. Any one at whom the 
emperor nodded his head or jjointed his finger was at once 
executed. " Would," said he, '*' that all the people at Rome 
had but one neck, so I could cut it off at a single blow." 

Nero (54 a. d.) assassinated his mother and wife. In the 
midst of a great fire which destroyed a large part of IJomo, 
he chanted a poem to the music of his lyre, while he 
watched the flames. To secure himself against the charge 
of having at least spread the fire, he ascribed the confla- 

• nis character resembled that of Louis XI. See Brief History of France, p. 94. 

+ Over lii!< crofs was an infcriplioii in tlirec laniniai,'ci», Hitjiiificaiit of ttic three 
b'-Ht development-* then icnown of ilie liuraan race — liuMAN law, Greek mind, and 
Hebrew paito. 

% Cainf. con of f;ormanicu''and Aerippina— ;;mnd-fiaiij»btoror Ancii^tus— rcoivcd 
from the ^-oldiers ttie nickname of C.ilitrnla, by wliich ho i« nlwavH known, 1>ecause 
be wore little boote {callguia) while with his father in camp on the Rhine, 



[1st cent. a. d 

gration to the Christians. These were cruelly persecuted/-' 
St. Paul and St. Peter, according to tradition, being mar- 
tyred at this time. In rebuilding the city, Nero substi- 
tuted broad streets for the winding lanes in the hollow 
between the seven hills, and erected, in place of unsightly 
piles of brick and wood, handsome stone buildings, each 
block surrounded by a colonnade. 


Vespasian (69 a. d.) was made emperor by his army in 
Judea. An old-fashioned Roman, he sought to revive the 
ancient virtues of honesty and frugality. His son Titus, 
after the capture of Jerusalem (p. 234), shared the throne 
with his father, and finally succeeded to the empire. His 
generosity and kindness won him the name of the Delight 
of Manhind. He refused to sign a death-warrant, and jDro- 
nounced any day lost in which he had not done some one a 
favor. During this happy period, the famous Colosseum at 
Rome was finished, and Agricola conquered nearly all 
Britain, making it a Roman province ; but Pompeii and 

* Some were crncifled. Some were covered with the skins of wild beasts, and 
worried to death by dogs. Some were thrown to the tigers and lions in the amphi- 
theatre. Gray-haired men were forced to fight with trained gladiators. Worst of all, 
one nisrht Nero's gardens were lighted by Christians, who, their clothes having been 
smeared with pitch and ignited, were placed as blazing torches along the course on 
which the emperor, heedless of their agony, drove his chariot in the races. 


Herculaneum were destroyed by an eriiptioa of Mount 

Domitian * (81 a. d.) was a second Nero or Caligula. His 
chief amusement was in spearing flies with a pin ; yet he 
styled liimseK •" Lord and God/' and received divine honors. 
He banished the philosophers, and rencAved the persecution 
of the Christians. At this time, St. John was exiled to the 
isle of Patmos. 

The Five Good Emperors (9G-180 a. d.) now brought 
in the palmiest days of Eome. Nerva, a quiet, honest old 
man, distributed lands among the plebs, and taught them to 
work for a living. Trajan, a great Spanish general, con- 
quered the Dacians and many Eastern peoples ; founded 
public libraries and schools in Italy ; and tried to restore 
freedom of speech and simplicity of life, f Hadrian traveled 
almost incessantly over his vast empire, overseeing the gov- 
ernment of the provinces, and erecting splendid buildings. 
Antoninus Pins was a second Numa, by his love of justice 
and religion diffusing the blessings of peace and order over 
the civilized world. Atirelius X was a philosopher and loved 
fjuiet. But the time of peace had passed. The Germans, 
pressed by the Slaves who lived in Eussia, fled before them, 
and crossed the Roman frontiers as in the time of Marius. 
The emperor was forced to take the field in person, and died 
during the eiglitli winter-campaign. 

Decline of the Empire.— The most virtuous of men 
was succeeded by his son Commodus, a weak, vicious boy. 
An era of military despotism ensued. Murder became 

• Domitian Is Mid to have once called together the senate to decide how a fish 
etioulil be cooked for lii.i dinner. 

t Two centiiricH ufterward, at tlie accession of each emperor, (he senate wished 
that hu mi_'ht bi; " more foriniiute than Auj,'ustus, more virtiiotm ihuti Trajan." 

X M. AureliuH wa.s llie adopted son of Anloniiiu.'i, and, ufler llie death &f his 
adoptive father, asBunied bit) uamc, bo that ibis period iu kiiowD as the Age qf thi 

72 ROME. [180 A. D. 

domesticated in the palace of the Caesars. The Praetorian 
Guards put up the iinperial power at auction, and sold it to 
the highest bidder. The armies in the provinces declared 
for their favorite officers, and the throne became the stake 
of battle. Few of the long list of emperors who succeeded 
to the throne are worthy of mention. 

Septimius Seve'rus (193 a. d,), a general in Germany, 
after defeating his rivals, ruled vigorously, though often 
cruelly. His triumphs in Parthia and Britain renewed the 
glory of the Eoman arras. 

Car'acal'lus (211 a. d.) would be remembered only for 
his ferocity, but that he gave the right of Roman citizenship 
to all the provinces, in order to tax them for the benefit of 
his soldiers. This event marked an era in the history of 
the empire, and greatly lessened the importance of Rome. 

Alexander Seve'rus (232 a. d.) deliglited in the society 
of the wise and good. He favored the Christians, and over 
the door of his palace were inscribed the words, ''Do unto 
others that which you Avould they should do unto you." He 
won glorious victories against the Germans and Persians, 
but, attempting to establish discipline in the army, 
was slain by his mutinous troops while he was yet only in 
the bloom of youth. 

The Barbarian G-oths, Germans, and Persians, who 
had so long threatened the empire, invaded it on every side. 
The emperor Decius was killed in battle by the Goths. 
Gallus bought peace by an annual tribute. Valerian was 
taken prisoner by the Persian king, who carried him about 
in chains, and used him as a footstool in mounting his horse. 
The temple at Ephesus was burned at this time by the Goths. 
During the general confusion, so many usurpers sprang up 
over the empire and established short-lived kingdoms, that 
this is known as the Era of the Thirty Tyrants. 


The Illyrian Emperors (268-284 a. d.), however, rolled 
back the tide of invasion. Claudius vanqi^ished the Goths 
in a contest which recalled the days of Marius and the Gauls. 
Aurelian drove the Germans into their native wilds, and de- 
feated Zenobia, the beautiful and heroic Queen of Palmyra, 
bringing her to Rome in chains of gold to grace his triumph. 
F rob us triumphed at the East and the West, and, turning to 
the arts of peace, introduced the vine into Germany, and 
taught the legions to work in -sineyard and field. Diode' tian 
began a new method of government. To meet the swarm- 
ing enemies of the empire, he associated with himself his 
comrade-in-arms, Maximian ; each emperor took the title of 
Augustus, and appointed, under the name of Caesar, a brave 
general as his successor. War raged at once in Persia, 
Egj-pt, Britain, and Germany, but the four rulers vigilantly 
watched over their respective provinces, and the Roman 
eagles conquered every foe. 

In the year 303 A. d., the joint emperors celebrated the 
last triumph ever held at Rome. During the same year, also, 
began the last and most bitter persecution of the Christians,* 
so that this reign is called the Era of the Martyrs. 

Spread of Christianity. — The religion established in 
Jiidca by Christ, and preached during the 1st century by 
Paul and the other Apostles (see Acts of the Apostles), had 
now spread over the western empire. It was largely, how- 
ever, confined to the cities, as is curiously shown in the fact 
tliat the word pagan originally meant only a countryman. 
While the Romans tolerated the religious belief of every 
nation wliich they conquered, they persecuted the Christians 
alone. This w;ia because the latter opposed the national 

* In 306 A. D., both cmperorH resigned the pnrple. Diocletian amused himself by 
workinj; in bin garden, and when Maximian nought to draw him out of his retire- 
ment, lie wrote: " If you could hoc the cabl):i;,'en I Imvo |)laiitud with my own hand, 
yon would never aok me to remount the throne." 

74 ROME. [4th cent. a. d. 

religion of the empire, refused to offer sacrifice to its gods, 
and to worship its emperors. Moreover, the Christians 
absented themselves from the games and feasts, and were 
accustomed to hold their meetings at night, and often in 
secret. They were therefore looked upon as enemies of the 
state, and were persecuted by even the best rulers, as Trajan 
and Diocletian. This opposition, however, served only to 
strengthen the rising faith. The heroism of the martyrs 
extorted the admiration of their enemies. Thus, when Poly- 
carp was hurried before the tribunal and urged to curse 
Christ, he exclaimed " Eighty-six years have I served Him, 
and He has done me nothing but good ; how could I curse 
Him, my Lord and Saviour." And when the flames rose 
around him he thanked God that he was deemed worthy of 
such a death. With the decaying empire, heathenism grew 
weaker, while Christianity gained strength. As early as the 
reign of Septimius Severus, Tertullian declared that if the 
Christians were forced to emigrate, the empire would become 
a desert. 

Loss of Roman Prestige. — Men no longer looked to 
Rome for their citizenship. The army consisted principally 
of Gauls, Germans, and Britons, who were now as good Eo- 
mans as any. The emperors were of provincial birth. The 
wars kept them on the frontiers, and Diocletian, it is said, 
had never seen Rome until he came there in the twentieth 
year of his reign to celebrate his triumph. His gorgeous 
Asiatic court, with its pompous ceremonies and its king 
wearing the hated crovm, was so ridiculed in Rome by 
song and lampoon that the monarch never returned. His 
headquarters were kept at Kicomedia (Bithynia) in Asia 
Minor, and Maximian's at Milan. 

Constantine, the Caesar in Britain, having been pro- 
claimed Augustus by his troops, overthrew five rivals who 


contested the throne, and became sole ruler (324 a.d.). His 
reign marked an era iu the world's history. It was charac- 
terized by three changes : 1. Ohi-istianity became, in a 
sense, the state-religion.* 2. The capital was removed to 
Byzantium, a Greek city, afterward known as Constantinople 
(Constantino's city). 3. The monarchy was made an abso- 
lute despotism, the army being remodeled so as to weaken 
its power, and a court established, with its titled nobility, 
who received tlwir honors directly from the emjaeror, and 
took rank with, if not the place of, the former consul, 
senator, or patrician. 

The First General ((Ecumenical) Council of the church 
was held at Nice (325 A. d.), to consider the teachings of 
Arius, a priest of Alexandria, who denied the divinity of 

Christianity soon conquered the empire. The emperor 
Julian, the Apostate, an excellent man though a pagan 
philosopher, sought to restore the old religion, but in vain. 
The best intellects, repelled from political discussion by the 
tyranny of the government, turned to the consideration of 
theological questions. This was especially true of the Eastern 
church, where the Greek mind, so fond of metaphysical 
subtleties, was predominant. 

Barbarian Invasions. — In the latter part of the 4th 
century, a liust of savage IIun.s,f bursting into Europe, drove 

* According to the legend, when Constantino wa'' marching against Maxentius, 
the rival Augiisdm at Rome, he t^aw in the sl<y at midday a flaming (T()SH,and beneath 
It the words In this conqiiek ! Constantiiie accepii'cl the nrw faith, and asHiimed 
the Htandard of the cross, which was lienceforth borne by tlie Christian emperors. 

t The Iliins were a Turanian race from Asia. They were short, thick-set, with 
flat noHCH, deep-Biink eyes, and a yellow complexion. Their faces were hideously 
pcarred with Blashesto ))revcntthe growliiof the beard. Aliistorian of the time com- 
pared them in their ugliness to the grinning heads clumsily carved on the posts of 
bridges. They built no cilles or houses, and never came under a roof exce|)t in 
HuperstltiouH dread. They were rind in skins, whii:li were never changed until they 
rotted off. They lived on horseback, carrying their families and all their iJOUBOUBions 
Id huge wagona. 

76 ROME. [378 A. D. 

the Teutons in terror before them. The frightened Goths * 
obtained permission to cross the Danube for an asykim, and 
soon a million of these wild warriors stood sword in hand 
on the Roman territory. They were assigned lands in 
Thrace ; but the ill-treatment of the Eoman officials drove 
them to ai'ms. They defeated the emperor Valens in a 
terrible battle near Adrianople, the monarch himself being- 
burned to death in a peasant's cottage, where he had been 
carried wounded. The victorious Goths pressed forward to 
the very gates of Constantinople. 

Theodosius the Great, a Spaniard, raised from a farm 
to the throne, stayed for a few years the inevitable progress 
of events. He pacified the Goths, and enlisted forty 
thousand of their warriors under the eagles of Rome. He 
forbade the worship of the old gods, and tried to put down 
the Arian heresy, so prevalent at Constantinople. At his 
death (395 a. d.), the empire was divided between his two 

Henceforth, the histories of the Eastern or Byzantine and 
the Western Empire are separate. The former is to go on 
at Constantinople for one thousand years, while Rome is 
soon to pass into the hands of the barbarians. 

The 5th Century is known as the Era of the Great 
Migration. During this period, Europe was turbulent with 
the movements of the restless Germans. Pressed by the 
Huns, the different tribes — the East and West Goths, Franks, 
Alans, Vandals, Burgundians, Longobards (Lombards), Al- 
lemanns. Angles, Saxons — poured south and west with irre- 

* The Goths were already somewhat advanced in civilization through their inter- 
course with the Romans, and we read of Gothic leaders who were "judges of Homer, 
and carried well-chosen bool^s with them on their travels." Under the teachings of 
their good bishop Ul'philas, many accepted Christianity, and the Bible was translated 
into their langiia<;o. They, however, became Arians, and so a new element of discord 
was introduced, as they iiated the Catholic Christians of Rome. See Brief History 
of France, p. 14. 


sistible lury, arms in hand, seekiug new homes in the 
crumbling Eoman empire. It was nearly two centuries 
before the turmoil subsided enough to note the changes 
which had taken place. 

Three Great Barbaric Leaders, Alaric the Goth, 
Attila the llun. and Genseric the Vandal, were conspicuous 
in the grand catastrophe. 

I. Alaric having been chosen prince of the Goths, after 
the death of Theodosius, passed the defile of Thermopylae, 
aud devastated Greece, destroying the precious monuments 
of its former glory. Sparta and Athens, once so brave, made 
uo defence. He was finally driven back l)y Stilicho, a Van- 
dal, but the only great Roman general. Alaric next moved 
upon Italy, but was repeatedly repulsed by the watchful 
Stilicho. The Eoman emperor Honorius, jealous of his 
successful general, ordered his execution. When Alaric 
came again, there was no one to oppose his progress. All 
the barbarian Germans, of every name, joined his victorious 
arms. Rome * bought a brief respite with a ransom of " gold, 
silver, silk, scarlet cloth, and pepper"; but the Eternal 
City, which had not seen an enemy before its walls since the 
dav when it defied Hannibal, soon fell without a blow (410 
A. 1). ). No Horatius was there to hold the bridge in this 
honr of i)eril. The gates were thrown open, and at midnight 
the Gothic trumpet awoke the inhabitants. For six days 
the barl>arians held high revel, and then then* clumsy 

* " Koine, at tliU time. contJiiiied probably a millioi. of inbal)ii!iiils, and its wealth 
might well ailract tliL- cui)i(lity of the barbaroug invader. The palaces of the senators 
were filled with t,'old and silver ornaments — the prize of many a bloody eampaijiu. 
Thc! churches were rich with the contributions of pions worshippers. On the; en- 
trance of itio Goths, a fearful scene of pillage ensued. Iloiises were fired to lin;lii the 
streets. Great numbers of citizens were driven off to be sold as slaves ; while others 
fled to Africa, or the Islands of thc M<diicrranean. .Marie being an .Nrian, tried to 
save the churches, as well as the city, from destruction. But now benan that swift 
decay which soon reduced Rome to lieaps of ruins, aud rendered the title 'The 
Eternal City ' a sad mockery." — Smith, 



wagons, heaped high with priceless plunder, moved south 
along the Appian Way. Alaric died soon after.* His suc- 
cessor married the sister of the emperor, f and was styled 
an officer of Eome. Under his guidance, the Goths and 
Germans turned westward into Spain and southern Gaul. 
There they founded a powerful Visigothic kingdom, with 
Toulouse as its capital. 

2. xittila, king of the 
hideous Huns, gathering 
a half million savages, set 
forth westward from his 
wooden palace in Hungary, 
vowing not to -stop till he 
reached the sea. He called 
himself the Scourge of 
God, and boasted that 
, where his horse set foot 
i grass never grew again. 
On the field of Chalons 
(451 A.D.), ^'tius the Ro- 
man general in Gaul, and 
Theodoric king of the 
Goths, arrested this Tu- 
ranian horde, and saved 
ATTiLA. Europe to Christianity and 

Aryan civilization. Burn- 
ing with revenge, Attila crossed the Alps and descended 

* The Golhs, iu order to hide his toml), turned aside a stream, and, digging a 
grave in its bed, placed therein the body, clad in richest armor. They then let the 
water back, and slew the prisoners who had done the work. 

+ During this disgraceful campaign, Honorius lay hidden in the inaccessible 
morasses of Eavenna. where he amused himself with his pet chickens. When some 
one told him Rome was lost, he replied, "That cannot be, for I fed her out of my 
hand a moment ago," alluding to a hen which he called Rome. 


into Italy. City after city was spoiled and burned.* Just 
as he was about to niarcli upon Eorae, Pope Leo came forth 
to meet him, and the barbarian, awed by his majestic mien 
and the glory Avhich yet clung to that seat of empire, agreed 
to spare the city. Attila returned to the banks of the 
Danube, where he died shortly after, leaving behind him in 
history no mark save the ruin he had wrought. 

3. Gen'so.ric, leading across into Africa the Vandals, who 
had already settled the province of FawfZ«?usia in southern 
Spain, founded an empire at Carthage. Wishing to revive 
its former maritime greatness, he built a fleet and gained 
control of the Mediterranean. His ships cast anchor in the 
Tiber, and the intercessions of Leo were now fruitless to 
save Rome. For fourteen days, the pirates plundered the 
city of the Caesars. Works of art, bronzes, precious marbles, 
were rutblessly destroyed, so that the word Vandal became 
synonymous with wanton devastation. 

Fall of the Roman Empire (476 a. d.).— The com- 
mander of the barbarian troops in the pay of Rome now set 
up at pleasure one puppet-emperor after another. The last 
of these phantom monarchs, Romulus Augustulus, by a sin- 
gular coincidence, l)ore the names of the founder of the city, 
and of the empire. Finally, at the command of Odo'acer, 
German chief of the mercenaries, he laid down his useless 
sceptre. The senate sent the tiara and purple robe to Con- 
stantinople, and Zeno, the Eastern emperor, appointed 
Odoacer Patrician of JInhj. So the AVestern empire passed 
away, and only this once proud title remained to recall its 
former glory. 

• Tlif inliiiliitant- iif A<|iiilola and other cities, scokitK,' a rcfiigo in the Isliiiuls 
of th(! Adriatic, founded the city of Venice, Ally named Tlie EldcHt Daughter of the 





Society. — The early Roman social and political organization was 
similar to that of Athens. The true Roman people comprised 
only the patricians and their clients. The patricians formed the 
ruling class, and, even in the time of the republic, gave to Roman 
history an aristocratic character. Several clients were attached to 
each patrician, serving his interests, and in turn, being protected 
by him. 

The three original tribes of patricians (Ramnes, Tities, and 
Luceres) were each divided into ten curios., and each curia theoreti- 
cally into ten gentes (houses, or clans). The members of a Roman 
curia, or ward, like those of an Athenian jjhratry^ possessed many 
interests in common, each curia having its own priest and lands. A 
gens comprised several families,* united usually by kinship and 

* Contrary to the custom in Greece, where family-names were seldom used, and a 
man was generally known by a single name having reference to some personal pecu- 
liarity or private circumstance, every Roman was given three names : the prcenomen 
or individual name, the nomen or clan-name, and the cognomen or family-name. 
Sometimes a fourth name was added to commemorate some exploit. Thus, in th-3 
case of Publius Cornelius Scipio Afiicanus and his brother, Laelius Cornelius ScipiQ 
Asiaticus (note. p. 4.5), we recognize all these titles. 


intermarriage, and bearing the same name. Besides this general 
organization, each family formed a little community by itself, 
governed by its "paterfamilias," who owned all the property and 
held the life of his children at will. The sons dwelt under the 
paternal roof, often long after they were married, and cultivated the 
family estate in common. 

^Iagistrates. — The consuls commanded the army, and executed 
the decrees of the senate and the people. They were chosen annually. 
Tliey wore a white robe with a purple border, and were attended by 
twelve lictors bearing the axe and rods, emblems of the consular 
l)ower. At the approach of a consul, all heads were uncovered, 
seated persons arose, and those on horseback dismounted. Xo one 
was eligible to the consulship until he was forty-three years of age, 
and had held the offices of questor, aidile, and j^raetor. 

The questors received and jjuid out the moneys of the state. 

The CBtliles, two (and, afterward, four) in number, took charge of 
the public buildings, the cleaning and draining of the streets, and 
the superintendence of the police and the public games. 

The jjrcetor was a sort of judge. At first there was only one, but, 
finally, owing to the increase of Roman territory, there were sixteen 
of these oflicers. In the later days of the republic it became custom- 
ary for the consuls and the praetors, after serving a year in the city, 
to take command of provinces, and to assume the title of proconsul 
or propra'tor. 

Tfie two cenaors were elected for five years. They took the cen- 
sus, not only of the names but of the property ol' the Roman citizens ; 
arranged the different classes (p. 22j ; corrected the lists of senators 
and equites, striking out those who were unworthy, and filling vacan- 
cies in the senate; punished extravagance and immorality; levied 
the taxes; and repaired and constructed public works, roads, etc. 

The Army. — Every citizen between the ages of seventeen and fifty 
was subject to military service, unless lie was of the lowest class, or 
had served twenty campaigns in the infantry or ten in the cavalry. 
The drill was severe, and included running, jumping, swimming in 
full armor, and marcliing long distances at the rate of four miles per 
hour. The order of battle, equipment, etc., varied at diflferent times. 
Among the peculiarities were the four classes of foot-soidiers, viz. . 
the veliten, or light armed, who hovered in front ; the hastnti, so-called 
Ijccause they anciently carried spears, and who formed the first line 
of battle; the princijiex, 8o-name<l because in early times tiiey were 
put in fn)nt, and who formed the .second line; and the triarii, 
veterans who composed the third liue, I:^uch legiou coutuiued from 



three to six thousand men. The legions were divided and sub- 
divided into cohorts, companies (manipuli), and centuries. 

Aems and Modk of Warfare. — The national arm of the Romans 
was the p/^M/«, a heavy iron-pointed sjjear, six feet long, and weighing 
ten or eleven pounds. This was thrown at a distance of ten to 
fifteen paces, after which the legionary quickly came to blows with 
his stout, short sword. The velites began the battle with their 
light javelins, and then retired behind the rest. The hastati, the 
principes, and the triarii, each, in turn, bore the brunt of the fight, and, 
if defeated, passed through 
intervals between the man- 
ipuli of the other lines, and 
rallied in the rear.* 


* Later in Roman history the soldier ceased to be a citizen, and remained con- 
otantly with the eagles until discharged. Marine arranged his troops in two lines, 


The Romans learned from the Greeks the use of military engines, 
and finally became experts in the art of sieges. Their principal 
machines were the haUista for throwing stones ; the catapult for hurl- 
iag darts ; the battering ram (so called from the shape of the metal 
head) for breaching walls ; and the movable tower, which could be 
pushed close to the fortifications and so overlook them. 

On the march each soldier had to carry, besides his arms, grain 
enough to last from seventeen to thirty days, one or more wooden 
stakes, and, often, intrenching tools. "\^Tien the army halted, even 
for a single night, a ditch was dug about the site for the camp, and 
a stout palisade made of the wooden stakes, to guard against a 
sudden attack. The exact size of the camp, and the location of 
every tent, street, etc., were fixed by a regular plan common to all 
the armies. 

Literatoire. — For about five centuries after the founding of 
Rome, there was not a Latin author. When a regard for letters at 
last arose, the tide of imitation set irresistibly toward Greece. Over 
two centuries after ^schylus and Soi^hocles contended for the 
Atheuian prize, Livius Andronicvs, a Grecian-born slave (brought 
to Rome about 250 B. c), made the first Latin translation of Greek 
classics, and himself wrote and acted* plays whose insi^iration was 
caught from the same source. His works soon became text-books in 
Roman schools, and were used till the time of Virgil. Imvius, a 
soldier-poet, "the last of the native minstrels,'' patterned after 
Euripides in tragedy, and Aristophanes in comedy. The Romans 
resented the exposure of their national and individual weaknesses 
on the stage, sent the bold satirist to prison, and finally banished 
liim. EnniuH, "the father of Latin song," who called himself the 
Roman '"Homer," and who unblushingly borrowed from his great 
model, decried the native fashion of ballad-writing, introduced 
hexameter verse, and built up a new style of literature, closely 

and Cajnar generally in three, but the terms haptatl, principcw, and triarii lost their 
("igniflcance. The place of the veliteH was taken by Cretan archt'r«, Balearic slinfjers, 
and Gallic and Ocrinan mercenaries. In time, the army was filled wiili forcifjners ; 
the heavy piluin and hreaHtplato were thrown aside ; all trace of Roniau equipment 
and discipline disappeared, and the legion became a thing of the past. 

• For a lonif time, he was the only performer In these dramas. Tie recited the 
dialogues and speeches, and suns; the lyrics to the accompaniment of a flute. So 
favorably was thi- new entertainment received by Roman aiidii-nces, and so often 
was the successful actor enronri, that he lo-t his voice, and was ohlltrod to hire a 
hoy, who, hidden behind a curtain, siin<,' the canlicas, while Livius. in front, made 
the ap|>ropriate geRturcs. This custom afterward became common on the Romau 

84 E O M E . 

founded on the Grecian,* His Annals, a poetical Roman history, 
was for two centuries the national poem of Home. Ennius, unlike 
Naevius, flattered the ruling powers, and was rewarded by liaving 
his bust placed in the tomb of the Sciioios. Plautus (354-184 b. c), 
who pictured with his coarse, vigorous, and brilliant wit the man- 
ners of his day, and Terence (195-159 b. c), a learned and graceful 
humorist, were the two great comic poets of Rome.f They were 
succeeded hj Lueilius (148-103 B.C.), a brave soldier and famous 
knight, whose sharp, fierce satire was poured relentlessly on Roman 
vice and folly. 

Among the early prose writers was Cato the Censor (234-149 b, c), 
son of a Sabine farmer, who became famous as lawyer, orator, 
soldier, and politician (p. 45). His hand-book on agriculture, He 
lie Bnstica, is still studied by farmers, and over one hundred and 
fifty of his strong, rugged orations find a place among the classics. 
His chief work, The Orlgines, a history of Rome, is lost. 

Varro (116-38 B.C.), "the most learned of the Romans," first 
soldier, then farmer and author, wrote on theology, jihilosophy, 
history, agriculture, etc. He founded large libraries and a museum 
of sculpture, cultivated the fine arts, and sought to awaken literary 
tastes among his countrymen. 

To the last century b. c. belong the illustrious names of Virgil 
and Horace, Cicero, Livy, and Sallust. First in order of birth was 

CicerOjl orator, essayist, and delightful letter-writer. Most elo- 

* Ennius claimed that the soul of the old Greek bard had in its transmigration 
entered his body from its preceding home in a peacock. He so impressed his intel- 
lectual personality upon the Romans that they were sometimes called the "Ennian 
People." Cicero greatly admired his works, and Virgil borrowed as unscrupulously 
from Ennius, as Ennius had filched from Homer. 

t It is noticeable that of all the poets we have mentioned, not one was bom at 
Rome. Livius was a slave from Magna Grsecia ; Nsevius was a native of Campania ; 
Ennius was a Calabrian, who came to Rome as a teacher of Greek ; Plautus (meaning 
flat-foot — his name being, like Plato, a sobriquet) was an Umbrian, the son of a 
slave, and served in various menial employments before he began play-writing ; and 
Terence was the slave of a Roman senator. To be a Roman slave, however, was not 
incompatible with the possession of talents and education, since, by the pitiless 
rules of ancient warfare, the richest and most learned citizen of a captured town 
might become a drudge in a Roman household, or be sent to labor in the mines. 

t Marcus Tullius Cicero (106 43 B.c ), son of a book -loving, country gentleman, 
was educated at Rome, studied law and philosophy at Athens, traveled two years in 
Asia Minor, and then settled in Rome as an advocate. Plunging into the politics of 
his time, he soon became famous for his thrilling oratory, and was made, in succes- 
sion, questor, aedile, praetor, and consul. For his detection of Catiline's conspiracy, 
he received the title of Pater Patrias. His subsequent banishment, recall, and 
tMgic death are historical (p. (i8). Cicero was accused of being vain, vacillating, 
osamiable, and extravagant. He bad an elegant mansion on the Palatine Hill and 


quent of all the Romans, bis genius was not exhausted in the rude 
contests of the forum and basilica, but his thoughtful political 
essays, and his gossipy letters, are esteemed as highly as his brilliant 
orations. He studied Greek models, and his four orations on the 
Conspiracy of Catiline rank not unfavorably Av^th the Philippics of 
Demosthenes. Ilis orations were used for lessons in Roman schools 
before he died, and, with his essays, Be Bepuhlica, De Officiis, and De 
Senectute, are familiar Latin text-books of to-day. 

Sallust* a polished historian after the style of Thucydides, holds 
his literary renown by two short works — The Conspiracy of Catiline 
and The Jugurthine TFar, which are remarkable for their condensed 
^dgor and vivid portrayal of character. 

Virgil f and Horace, jjoet-friends of the Augustan Age, are well- 
known to us, Virgil left ten Eclogues or Bucolics, in which 
he patterned after Theocritus, a celebrated Sicilian poet of the 
Alexandrian Age ; The Georgics, a work on Roman agriculture and 
stock-breeding, in confessed imitation of Hesiod's Works and Days; 
and the ^neid, modeled upon the Homeric poems. His tender, 

numerous country villas, his favorite one at Tusculum beinj^ buUt on the plan of the 
Academy at Athens. Here he walked and talked with his friends in a pleasant imi- 
tation of Aristotle, and here he had a magnificent library of handsomely-bound 
volumes, to which he continually added rare works, copied by his skillful Greek 
slaves. HLs favorite poet was Euripides, whose 2/edea, it is said, he was reading 
when he was overtaken by his assassinators. 

* Caius Sailustlus Criepus (86-S4 b. c), who was expelled from the senate for 
immorality, served afterward in the civil war, and was made governor of Numidia 
by Julius Ca;sar. He grew enormously rich on his provincial plunderings, and 
returned to Rome to build a magnificent palace on the edge of the Campus Martius, 
where, in the midst of beautiful gardens, groves, and flowers, he devoted his remain- 
ing years to study and friendship. 

+ The small paternal estate n( PuUius Yirgllius Mara (70-19 b. c), which was 
confi."Cated after the fall of the republic, was restored to him by Augustus. The 
young country poet, who had been educated in Cremona, Milan, and Naples, ex- 
pressed his gratitude for the imperial favor in a Bucolic (shepherd-poem), one of 
Hcveral addressed to various friends. Their merit and novelty — for they were the first 
Latin pastorals — attracted the notice of Miccenas, the confidential adviser of the em- 
peror; and, ])resently, "the tall, slouching, somewhat plebeian figure of Virgil was seen 
among the brilliant crowd of courtiers, statesmen, artists, poets, and historians who 
thronged tlie audience-chamber of the popular minister," in his sumptuous palace on 
the E8quilin<! Hill. Majcenas, whose wealth equaled his luxurious tastes, took great 
delight in encouraging men of letters, being himself well versed in Greek and Roman 
literature, the fine arts, and natural history. Acting upon liis advice, Virgil wrote 
the Clfnrrj\ni. upon whieh he spent seven years. The /Kntid was written to please 
Augustu", whose niice«iry It traces back to the " pious .(Enoas" of Troy, the hero of 
the poem. In his la«t illness. Virgil, who had not yet polished his great work to suit 
his faMfldionx fa«tcs, would have destroyed it but for the entn^aties of Ids friends. 
In arrordaiiee with l)!-* dviiig request, he was burled near Nai)les, where his tomb 
!b still sliown above the Posllippo Grotto. 

86 K M E . 

brilliant, graceful, musical lines are on the tongue of every Latin 
student. The ^neid became a text-book for the little Romans within 
fifty years after its author's death, and has never lost its place in the 



Horace* in his early writings, imitated Archilochus and Lucilius, 
and himself says: 

" The shafts of my passion at random I flung. 
And, dashing headlong into petulant rhyme, 
I recked neither where nor how fiercely I stung." 

-Ocfel. 15. 

* Qidntus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 b. c). " the wit who never wounded, the poet 
who ever charmed, the friend who never failed," was the son of a freedman, who 
gave his boy a thorough Roman education, and afterward sent him to Athens— still 
the school of the world. Here he joined the army of Brutus, but after the defeat at 
Philippi — where his want of bravery was only too conspicuous — he returned to 
Borne to find his father dead, and all his little fortune confiscated. Of this time, 
he afterward wrote : 

" Want stared me in the face ; so then and there 
I took to scribbling verse in sheer despair." 

The proceeds of his poems and the gifts of friends bought him a clerkship in the 
qnestor'a department, and made him modestly independent. Virgil introduced him 


But his kind, genial nature soon tempered this " petulant rhyme." 
His Satires are rambling, sometimes ironical, and always witty, dis- 
courses. Like Virgil, lie loved to sing of country life. He wrote 
laboriously, and carefully studied all liis meta^jhors and pbrases. 
His Odes have a consummate grace and finish. 

Lity* who outlived Horace by a quarter of a century, wrote one 
hundred and forty-two volumes of Roman History^ beginning with 
the fabulous landing of ^neas, and closing witli the death of Drusus 
(8 B. c). Thirty-five volumes remain. His grace, enthusiasm, and 
eloquence make his pages delightful to read, though he is no longer 
accei:)ted as an accurate historian. 

The First Century a. d. produced the two Plinys, Tacitus, Juvenal, 
and Seneca. 

Pliny the Elder t is remembered for his Xatural History, a work 
of thirty-seven volumes, covering the whole range of the scientific 
knowledge of his time. 

Pliny the Younger, the charming letter-writer, and Tacitus^ the 
orator and historian, two rich, eloquent, and distinguished noble- 
men, were among the most famous uitellectual men of their time. J 

to Maecenas, who took him into an almost romantic friendship, lasting through 
life. From this generous patron, he received the gift of the •• Sabine Farm,"' to 
which he retired, and which he has immortalized by his descriptions. He died a 
few months after his " dear knight Maicenas," to whom he had declared nearly a score 
of years before, 

" Ah, if untimely Fate should snatch thee hence, 

Thee, of my soul a part," 
" Think not that I have sworn a bootless oath, 
For we shall go, shall go, 
Hand linked in hand, where'er thou leadest, both 
The last sad road below." 
He was buried on the Esquiline Uill, by the side of his princely friend. 
* Tilus Litius (59 b. C.-17 a. d.). Little is known of his private life except that 
he was the friend of the Cae.sars. So great was bis renown in his own time that, ac- 
cording to legend, a Spaniard traveled from Cadiz to Kome to see him, looked upon 
him, and contentedly retraced his journey. 

+ Of this Pliny's incessant research, his nephew (Pliny the Younger) writes : 
" From the twenty-third of August he began to study at midnight, and tlirough 
the winter he rose at one or two in the morning. During his meals a book 
was read to him, he taking notes while it went on, for he read nothing without 
niaking extracts. In fact be tliouglit all time lost which was not given to study." 
B«'sides his Natural llistorj', Pliny the Elder wrote over si.\ty books on Ilistoiy, 
Rhetoric, Education, and .Military Tactics ; he also left "one hundred and sixty 
volumes of Extracts, written on both sides of the leaf, and in the minutest hand." 
nis cagemess to learn cost him his life, for he |)erishcd in approaching too near 
VcHuvius, In the great eruption which buried Pompeii and Ilerculaneum (TO a.d.). 

X Tacitus was sitting one day in the circus watching the games, when a stranger 
entered into a learned disquiuitiou with bim, and, after a while, inquired, " Are you 

68 feoMie. 

They scanned and criticised each other's manuscript, and became 
by their intimacy so linked with each other that they were jointly 
remembered in people's wills, legacies to friends being the fashion of 
the day. Of the writings of Tacitus, there remain a j^art of the 
Annals and the History of Borne, a treatise on Oermany, and a Life 
of Agrkola. Of Pliny, we have only the Ejnstles and an Eulogium 
upon Trajan. The style of Tacitus was grave and stately, sometimes 
sarcastic or ironical ; that of Plmy was vivid, graceful, and circum- 

Seneca (7 b. C.-65 A. D.), student, poet, orator, and stoic philoso- 
pher, employed his restless intellect in brilliant ethical essays, trag- 
edies, and instructive letters written for the public eye* His teach- 
ings were remarkable for their moral purity, and the Christian 
Fathers called him "The Divine Pagan." 

Juvenal, the mocking, eloquent, cynical satirist, belongs to the 
close of the century. His writmgs are unsurpassed in scathing 
denunciations of vice.f 

Libraries and Writing Materials. — The Roman stationery 
differed little from the Grecian. The passion for collecting books 
was now so great that private libraries sometimes contained over 
sixty thousand volumes.:^ The scrihrn and libmrii, slaves who were 
attached to library service, were an important part of a Roman gen- 
tleman's household. Fifty or a hundred copies of a book were 
often made at the same time, one scribe reading while the others 

of Italy or from the provinces ? " " You know me from your reading," replied the 
historian. " Then," rejoined the other, " you must be either Tacitus or Pliny." 

* Seneca was the tutor and guardian of the young Nero, and in later days carried 
his friendship so far as to write a defence of the murder of Agrippina. But Nero 
was poor and in debt ; Seneca was immensely rich. To charge him with conspiracy, 
sentence him to death, and seize his vast estates, was a policy characteristic of Nero. 
Seneca, then an old man, met his fate bravely and cheerfully. His young wife re- 
solved to die with him, and opened a vein in her arm with the same weapon with 
which he had punctured his own, but Nero ordered her wound to be ligatured. As 
Seneca suffered greatly in dying, his slaves, to shorten his pain, suffocated him in a 
vapor bath. 

t Juvenal's style is aptly characterized in his description of another noted satirist : 
" But when Lucilius, fired with virtuous rage. 

Waves his keen falchion o'er a guilty age, 

The conscious vOlain shudders at his sin. 

And burning blushes speak the pangs within ; 

Cold drops of sweat from every member roll. 

And growing terrors harrow up his soul." 
i Seneca ridiculed the fashionable pretensions of illiterate men who "adorn their 
rooms with thousands of books, the titles of which are the deUght of the yawning 



wrote* Papyrus, as it was less expensive than parchment, was the 
favorite writing material. The thick black ink used in writing was 
prepared from soot and gum ; red ink was employed for ruling the 
colunms. Tlie Egyptian reed-pen {caUmm) was still in vogue. 



• A book was written upon separate strips of papynis. When the work was 
completed, the Htripa were glued together; the last page was fastened to a hollow 
reed, over which the whole was wound; the bases of the roll were carefully cat, 
Binoothed, and dyed ; a small stick was passed through the reed, the ends of which 
were adorned with ivory, golden, or painted knobs (umfAlici) ; the roll was wrapped in 
parchment, to protect it from the ravages of worms, and the title-label was affixed :— 
tlie book was ihen ready for the library shelf or circiiliir rase (wrinitnn). The portrait 
of the author usually appeared on the first page, and the title of the book was written 
both at the beginning and the end. Sheets of parchment were folded and sewed in 
different sizes, like modem books.— An author read the first manuscript of his new 
work before as large an audience as he could command, and judged from its recep- 
tion whether it would pay to publisli. "If you want to recite," says Juvenal, 
" Maculonus will lend you his house, will range his freedmen on the furthest benches, 
and will put in the proper places his strong-lunged friends (these corresponded to our 
modern dar/uftirii or hin-d applauders) ; but he will not give what it costs to hire 
the benche-, set up the gallfries, and fill the stage witli chairs." These readings often 
became a bore, and Pliny writes : "This year lias brought us a great crop of poets. 
AadlenccH come slowly and reluctantly ; even then they do not stop, but go away 
before the end ; somo indeed by etcalth, others with perfect opcnucBB." 

90 ROME. 

There were twenty-nine public libraries at Rome, of which the 
Ulpian, founded by Trajan, was the most important. 

Education. — As early as 450 b. c. Rome had elementary schools, 
where boys and girls were taught reading, writing, arithmetic, and 
music. The Roman boy mastered his alphabet at home, as most 
children do now, by playing with lettered blocks. At school, he 
chanted the letters, syllables, and words in class, after the teacher's 
dictation. His arithmetical calculations were carried on by the aid of 
his fingers, or with stone counters and a tablet ruled in columns — the 
counters expressing certain values according to the columns on which 
they were placed. He learned to write first on wax tablets, 
his little fingers being guided by the firm hand of the master; 
afterward he used pen and ink, and the blank side of second-hand 
slips of papyrus.* Boys of wealthy parents were accompanied to 
school by a slave, who carried their books, writing tablets, and count- 
ing boards, and also by a Greek pedagogue, who, in addition to 
other duties, practised them in his native language. Girls were 
attended to and from school by female slaves. 

Livius Andronicus o])ened a new era in school education. Ennius, 
Nsevius, and Plautus added to the text-books introduced by him, 
and the study of Greek became general. In later times, there were 
excellent higher schools where the master-pieces of Greek and Latin 
literature were carefully analyzed. National jurisprudence was not 
neglected, and every school-boy was expected to repeat the Twelve 
Tables from memory. Rhetoric and declamation were given great 
importance, and boys twelve years old delivered set harangues on 
the most solemn occasions.t As at Athens, the boy of sixteen years 

* The copies set for him were usually some moral maxim, and, doubtless, many a 
Roman school-boy labored over that trite proverb quoted from Menander by Paul, 
and which still graces many a writing-book : "Evil communications corrupt good 
manners." — ^Roman schoolmasters were very severe in the use of the ferula. Plautus 
says that for missing a single letter in his reading, a boy was " striped like his nurse's 
cloak" with the black and blue spots left by the rod. Horace, two centuries later, 
anathematized his teacher as Orbilius jUagosus (.Orbilius of the birch) ; and Martial, 
the witty epigrammatist and friend of Juvenal, declares that in his time " the morn- 
ing air resounded with the noise of floggings and the cries of suflfering urchins." 

t Julius Csesar pronounced in his twelfth year the funeral oration of his aunt, and 
Augustus performed a similar feat. The technical rules of rhetoric and declamation 
were so minute, that, while they gave no play for genius, they took away the risk of 
failure. Not only the form, the turns of thought, the cadences, everything except the 
actual words, were modeled to a pattern, but the manner, the movements, the ar- 
rangement of the dress, and the tones of the voice, were subject to rigid rules. The 
hair was to be sedulously coifed ; explicit directions governed the use of the hand- 
kerchief ; the orator's steps in advance or retreat, to right or to left, were all num- 
bered. He might rest only 60 many minutes on each foot, and place one only so 




formally entered into manlioorl, tlie 
event being celebrated with certain 
ceremonies at home and in the Forum, 
and by the assumption of a new style of 
toga, or robe. He was now allowed to 
attend the instruction of any jjhiloso- 
pher or rhetorician he chose, and to 
visit the Forum and Tribunals, being 
generally escorted by some man of note 
selected by his father. He finished his 
education by a course in Athens. 

Moniiments and Art. — The early 
Itdliaii Temples were copied from the 
Etruscans; the later ones were modifi- 
cations of the Grecian. Round temples 
(Etruscan) were commonly dedicated to 
Vesta or Diana; sometimes a dome* 
and portico were added, as in the 

TJie Basilica, or Hall of Justice, 
was usually rectangular, and divided into three or five aisles by 
rows of columns, the middle aisle Ijeing widest. At the extremity, 
was a semicircular, arched recess (a//.se) for the tribunal, in front of 
which was an altar — all important public business being preceded 
by sacrifice. 

Mofjidficent Palaces were built by the Coesars, of which tlie 
Golden House of Nero, begun on the Palatine and extending by 
means of intermediate structures to the Esquiline, is a familiar 
examjjle.t At Tibur (the modem Tivoli), Hadrian had a variety of 

many inclies before the other ; the elbow mnst not rise above a certain angle ; the 
fliigen* should be t^et off with rings, but not too raany or too large ; and, in raising 
the hand to exhibit them, care must be takou not to disturb the head-dress. Every 
cniotiou had its prescribid gesture, and the heartiest apjilauBe of tlie audience was 
for the perfection of the pantomime. To run Huioothly in all these physical as well 
ac mental grooves of fashion, required incessant practice, and Augustus, it is said, 
" never allowed a day lo pass without spending an hour in declamation, to keep his 
lungs In regular e.xercise and maintain the armory of dialectics furbished for ready"— if?ri/'a/«V liornans. 

• Vaulted domes and large portlroes are characteristic of l?oman architecture. 
Tlic favorite coluiiin was the Corinlhian, for which a new composite capital was in- 
vented. The foundation stone of a templ(! was laid on the day consecrated lo the god 
to whom It was erected, and the building was made to face the point of the sun's 
riming on that morning. The finest specimens of Koman temple architecture are at 
Palmyra and Uaalbec in Syria. 

t A court in front, surrounded by a triple colonnade a mlJe long, coutained tlio 

93 ROME. 

structures, imitating and named after the most celebrated buildings 
of different ^jrovinces, such as the temple of Serapis at Canopus in 
Egypt, and the Lyceum and Academy at Athens. Even the valley 
of Tempe, and Hades itself, were here typified in a labyrinth of 
subterranean chambers. 

In Military Roads, Bridges, Aqueducts, and Harbors, the Romans 
disjjlayed great genius. Even the splendors of Nero's golden house 
dwindles into notliing compared with the harbor of Ostia, the 
drainage works of the Fucinine Lake, and the two large aqueducts. 
Aqua Claudia and Anio Nova.* 

Military Roads. — Unlike the Greeks, who generally left their 
roads where chance or custom led, the Romans sent out their strong 
highways in straight lines from the capital, overcoming all natural 
difficulties as they went ; filling in hollows and marshes, or spanning 
them with viaducts ; tunneling rocks and mountains ; bridging 
streams and valleys; sparing neither time, labor, nor money to make 
them perfect.t Along the principal ones were jDlaced temples, 

emperor's statue, one hundred and twenty feet high. In other conrts were gardens, 
vineyards, meadows, great artificial ponds with rows of houses on their banks, 
and woods inhabited by tame and ferocious animals. The walls of the rooms were 
covered with gold and jewels ; and the ivory with which the ceiling of the dining- 
halls was inlaid was made to slide back, so as to admit a rain of roses or fragrant 
waters on the heads of the carousers. Under Otho, this gigantic building was con- 
tinued at an expense of over $3,500,000, but only to be pulled down for the greater 
part by Vespasian. Tituaerected his Baths on the Esquiline foundation of the Golden 
Palace, and the Colosseum covers the site of one of the ponds. 

* The Lacus Fucinus in the country of the Marsi was the cause of dangerous inun- 
dations. To prevent this, and to gain the bed of the lake for agricultural pursuits, a 
shaft was cut through the solid rock from the lake down to the River Liris, whence 
the water was discharged into the Mediterranean. The work occupied thirty 
thousand men for eleven years. The Aqua Claudia was fed by two springs in the 
Sabine mountain, and was forty-five Roman miles in length ; the Anio Nova, fed 
from the River Anio, was sixty-two miles Jong. These aqueducts extended partly 
above and partly under ground, until about six miles from Rome, where they joined 
and were carried one above the other on a common structure of arches — in some 
places one hundred and nine feet high— into the city. 

t In building a road, the line of direction was first laid out, and the breadth, which 
was usually from thirteen to fifteen feet, marked by trenches. The loose earth be- 
tween the trenches having been excavated till a firm base was reached, the space 
was filled up to the proposed height of the road — which was sometimes twenty feet 
above the solid ground. First was placed a layer of small stones ; next, broken 
stones cemented with lime : then, a mixture of lime, clay, and beaten fragments of 
brick and pottery ; and finally, a mixture of pounded gravel and lime, or a pavement 
of hard, flat stones, cut into rectangular slabs or irregular polygons. All along the 
roads milestones were erected. Near the Arch of Septimius Severus in the Roman 
Forum may still be seen the remains of the " Golden Milestone " (erected by Augus- 
tus)— a gilded marble pillar on which were recorded the names of the roads and 
their length from the metropolis. 



triumphal arches, and sepulcliral monuments. The Appian Way — 
called also Regina Viaruni or Queen of Eoads — was famous for the 
number, beaut}-, and richness of its tombs. Its foundations were 
laid 313 b. c. by the censor Appius Claudius, from whom it was 


....L) H\DK1ANS T0\1L { L j -Lj 

The Roman Brid/jcs and Viodrtds are among the most remarkable 
monuments of antiquity. In Greece, where the streams were nar- 
row, little attention was paid to bridges, which were usually of wood, 
resting at each extremity upon stone piers. The Romans applied 
the arch, of which the Greeks knew little or nothing, to the con- 
struction of massive stone bridges* crossing the wide rivers of their 
various provinces. In like manner, marshy places or valleys liable 
to inundation were spanned by viaducts resting on solid arches. 
Of tiiese bridges, which may still l)e seen in nearly every corner of 
tlie old Roman Empire, one of the most interesting is the Pons 

♦ In onrly time?, tho brl<lc;e<' arrouR tho Tiber worn rosardod an pnrrod, and llieir 
care \v:iM confided to a npccial bodyof pric^'tf, called jKinliflceji (briduo-niakcrK). Tho 
name of PrmH/fX MnHmiix rcinaiii<d attjiclicd lo tlie ni:,'li I'riost, and wat worn by 
the Roman enipiTor. It is now jfiven to tin; Pope. Bridges were Bometimcs made 
of wood-work and mattuury combined. 

94 ROME. 

^lius, now called the Bridge of St. Angelo, built by Hadrian across 
the Tiber in Rome. 

Aqueducts were constructed on the most stupendous scale, and 
at one time no less than twenty stretched their long lines of arches * 
across the Camjjagna, bringing into the heart of the city as many 
streams of water from scores of miles away. 

In their stately Harlors the Romans showed the same defiance 
of natural difficulties. The lack of bays and promontories was 
sujiplied by dams and walls built far out into the sea; and even 
artificial islands were constructed to protect the equally artificial 
harbor. Thus, at Ostia, three enormous pillars, made of chalk, 
mortar, and Pozzuolan clay, were placed upright on the deck of a 
colossal shijJ, which was then sunk; the action of the salt water 
hardening the clay, rendered it indestructible, and formed an island 
foundation. Other islands were made by sinking flat vessels, loaded 
with huge blocks of stone. Less imposing, but no less useful were 
the canals and ditches^ by means of which swamps and bogs were 
transformed into arable land ; and the subterranean sewers in Rome, 
which, built twenty-five hundred years ago, still serve their original 

TriumijJial Arches,'\ erected at the entrance of cities, and across 
streets, bridges, and public roads, in honor of victorious generals or 
emperors, or in commemoration of some gi'eat event, were peculiar 
to the Romans ; as were also the 

AmpJdtheatreSjl of which the Flavian, better known as the Colos- 
seum, is the most famous. This structure was built mostly of blocks 

* Their remains, striking across tlie desolate Campagna in varions directions and 
covered with ivy, maiden-hair, wild flowers, and fig-trees, form one of the mot^t pic- 
turesque features in the landscape about Rome. " Wherever you go, these arches 
are visible ; and toward nightfall, glowing in the splendor of a Roman sunset, and 
printing their leugtheniug sun-looped shadows upon the illuminated slopes, they look 
as if the hand of Midas had touched them, and changed their massive blocks of cork- 
like travertine into crusty courses of molten gold." — Story's Boba dl Boma. 

t Many of these arches stUl remain. The principal cues in Rome are those of 
Titus and Constantino, near the Colosseum, and that of Septimius Severns in the 
Roman Forum. The Arch of Titus, built of white marble, commemorates the de- 
struction of Jerusalem. On the bas-reliefs of the interior are represented the golden 
table, the seven -branched candlestick, and other precious spoils from the Jewish 
Temple, carried in triumphal procession by the victors. To this day, no Jew will 
walk under this Arch. 

X The Roman theatre differed little from the Grecian. The first amphitheatre, 
made in the time of Julius Caesar, consisted of two wooden theatres, so placed upon 
pivots that they could be wheeled around, spectators and all, and either set back to 
back, for two separate dramatic performances, or face to face, making a closed arena 
for gladiatorial shov/s. 



of travertine, clamped with iron and faced with marble ; it covered 
about five acres, and seated eighty thousand persons. At its 
dedication by Titus (a. d. 80), which lasted a hundred days, five 
thousand wild animals were thrown into the arena. It continued 
to be used for gladiatorial and wild-beast fights for nearly four 
hundred years. On various public occasions it was splendidly fitted 
up with gold, silver, or amber furniture. 


Tlie ThermcB (public baths, WteraUy warm wnterii) were constructed 
on the grandest scale of refinement and luxury. The Baths of 
Caracal la, at Rome, contained sixteen hundred rooms, adorned with 
precious marljles. Here were i)ainting and sculpture galleries, 
liijiaries and museums, porticoed halls, open groves, and an imperial 

Tiie arts of Paintinfj, So/l/dure, and Pottery were borrowed first 
from the Etruscans, and then from the Greeks;* in moxaics^ the 

• " Roman art," nays ZerflS, " Is a misnomer ; It Ih Etruscan, Greek, Assyrian, and 
Egyptian art, (Iressefi in an eclectic Roman Rarb by foreign artists. Tlic Pantheon 
coniained a Orecl< statue of Venus, wliicii. it is said, lia(i in one ear tlie half of tlie 
pearl Irlt by Cleopatra. To ornament a Gnck marble stjituc! representing u poddess 
witb part of the carriiiK of au KKyptian priucecs, is highly charactcriBtlc of Roman 
lasic in matters of art." 

96 ROME. 

Romans excelled* In later times, Rome was filled with the mag- 
nificent spoils taken from conquered provinces, especially Greece. 
Greek artists flooded the capital, bringing their native ideality to 
serve the ambitious desires of the more practical Romans, whose 
dwellings grew more and more luxurious, until exquisitely-frescoed 
walls, mosaic pavements, rich paintings, and marble statues became 
common ornaments in hundreds of elegant villas. 


General Character. — However much they might come in con- 
tact, the Roman and the Greek character never assimilated. We have 
seen the Athenian quick at intuition, polished in manner, art-loving, 
beauty-worshipping ; fond of long discussions and philosophical dis- 
courses, and listening all day to sublime tragedies. We find the Roman 
grave, steadfast, practical, stern, unsympathizing ; f too loyal and 
sedate to indulge in much discussion ; too unmetaphysical to relish 
philosophy ; and too unideal to enjoy tragedy. The Spartan deified 
endurance ; the Athenian worshipped beauty ; the Roman was em- 
bodied dignity. The Greeks were proud and exclusive, but not un- 
courteous to other nations ; the Romans had but one word (hostis) for 
strangers and enemies. Ambitious, determined, unfiinching, they 
pushed their armies in every direction of the known world, and, appro- 
priating every valuable achievement of the peoples they conquered, 

* The mosaic floors, composed of bits of marble, glass, and ralnable stones, were 
often of most elaborate designs. One discovered in the so-called House of the Faun, 
at Pompeii, is a remarkable battle scene, supposed to represent Alexander at Issus. 
It is preserved, somewhat mutilated, in the museum at Naples. 

+ What we call sentiment was almost unknown to the Romans. Tlie Greeks 
had a word to express affectionate family love ; the Romans had none. Cicero, 
whom his countrymen could not understand, was laughed at for his grief at the death 
of his daughter. The exposure of infants was sanctioned as in Greece— girls, espe- 
cially, suffering from this unnatural custom— and the power of the Roman father 
oyer the life of his children was paramount. Tet, Roman fathers took much pains 
with their boys, sharing in their games and pleasures, directing their habits, and 
taking them about to^vn. Horace writes gratefully of his father, who remained with 
him at Rome during his school-days and was his constant attendant. (Sat. I. 4.) 

It is not strange, considering their indifference to their kindred, that the Romans 
were cruel and heartless to their slaves. In Greece, even the helot was granted some 
little consideration as a human being, but in Rome the unhappy captive— who may 
have been a prince in his own land— was but a chattel. The lamprey eels in a certain 
nobleman's fish-pond were fattened on the flesh of his bondmen ; and, if a Roman 
died suspiciously, all his slaves— who sometimes were numbered by thousands- 
were put to the torture. The women are accused of being more pitiless than the 
men, and the faces of the ladies' maids bore perpetual marks of the blows, scratches 
and pin-stabs of their petulant mistresses. 


made all the borrowed arts tlieir own, lavishing the precious spoils 
upon their beloved Rome. Their pride in Roman citizenship amounted 
to a passion, and for the prosperity of their cai>ital they were ready to 
renounce the dearest personal hope, and to cast aside all mercy or 
justice toward every other nation. 

Religion. — The Romans, like the Greeks, worshipped the powers 
of Nature. But the Grecian gods and goddesses were living, loving, 
hating, quarrelsome beings, with a history full of romantic incident 
and personal adventure ; the Roman deities were solemn abstractions 
mysteriously governing every human action,* and requiring constant 
propitiation with vows, prayers, gifts, and sacrifices. A regular system 
of bargaining existed between the Roman worshipper and his gods. 
If he performed all the stipulated religious duties, the gods were 
bound to confer a reward ; if he failed in the least, the divine ven- 
geance was sure. At the same time, if he could detect a flaw in 
the letter of the law, or shield himself behind some doubtful techni- 
cality, he might cheat the gods with impunity.f 'ihere was no room 
for faith, or hope, or love — only the binding nature of legal forms. 
Virtue, in our modern sense, was unknown, and piety consisted, as 
Cicero declares, in "justice toward the gods." 

In religion, as in everything else, the Romans were always ready 
to borrow from other nations. Their image-worship came from the 
Etruscans ; their only sacred volumes:]: were the purchased " Sibylline 
Books "; they drew upon the gods of Greece, until, in time, tliey had 
transferred and adopted nearly the entire Greek Pantheon ; i§ Phoenicia 

* The fanner had to satisfy " the spirit of breaking up the land and the spirit of 
plon;;hing it crosswise, the spirit of furrowing and tlie spirit of harrowing, the spirit 
of weeding and the spirit of reaping, the spirit of carrying the grain to the barn and 
the spirit of bringing it out again." The little child was attended by over forty 
pods. Vaticanus taught him to cry ; Fabulinus, to speak ; Edusa, to eat ; Potina, to 
drink ; .'Vbeona conducted him out of the house ; Interduca guided him on his way ; 
Domidtica led him home, and Adcona brought him in. So, also, there were deities 
controlling health, society, love, anger, and all the passions and virtues of men. 

t "If a man offered wine to Father Jupiter, and did not mention very precisely 
that it was only the cup-full which he held in his hand, the god might claim the 
whole year's vintage. On the other hand, if the god nciuired so many heads in 
Bacriflce, by the letter of the bond ho would bo l)ouii<l to accept garlic-heads ; if he 
claimed an animal, it might be made out of dough or wax."— lFi/AJ7i«V Horn. Ant'tq. 

% " Neither Romans nor Greeks had any sacred books. They have loft poetry of 
thf! highest order, but no psalms or hymns, litanies or prayers, as the Egyptians have 
-" largi'ly done."— T?^/!/)'//. 

S Jupiter fZeu") and Vesta fHestia) were derived by Greeks and Romans from 
I heir common ancestor''. Among the other early Italian gods were Mars (afterward 
identine<l with the Orcek Arcs), Hercules fUcrakles). Juno (II<'ra), Minerva (ArhiMia), 
and Neptune (Poseidon). The union of the Palatine Romans with the (/iiirlnal 
Sablncs was celebrated by the mutual worship of Qiiirinus, and a gate called llie 
Janus was erected in the valley, afterward the site of the Forum. This gate waa 



and Phrygia lent their deities to swell the 
list ; and, finally, our old Egyptian friends, 
Isis, Osiris, and Serapis, became as much 
at home upon the Tiber as they had been 
for ages on the Nile. The original religious 
ideas of the Romans can only be inferred 
from a few peculiar rites which character- 
ized their worship. The Chaldeans had 
astrologers ; the Persians had magi ; the 
Greeks had sibyls and oracles ; the Romans 
Augurs. Practical and unimaginative, the 
Latins would never have been content to learn 
the divine will through the ambiguous phrases 
of a human prophet ; they demanded a direct yes 
or no from the gods themselves. Augurs existed 
from the time of Romulus. Without their as- 
sistance no public act or ceremony could be 
performed. Lightning and the flight of birds 
were the principal signs by which the gods were 
supposed to make known their will ; - some 
birds of omen communicated by their cry, others by their manner of 

The Haruspices, who also expounded lightnings and natural phe- 
nomena, made a specialty of divination by inspecting the internal 
organs of sacrificed animals, a custom we have seen common in Greece. 


always open in time of war, and closed in time of peace. All gates and doors were 
sacred to the old Latin god Janus, whose key fitted every lock. He wore two faces, 
one before and one behind, and was the god of all beginnings and endings, all open- 
ings and shuttings.— With the adoption of the Greek gods, the Greek ideas of per- 
sonality and mythology were introduced, the Romans being too unimaginative to 
originate any myths for themselves. But, out of the hardness of their own character, 
they disfigured the original conception of every borrowed god, and made him more 
jealous, threatening, merciless, revengeful, and inexorable than before. " Among the 
thirty thousand deities with which they peopled the visible and invisible worlds, there 
was not one divinity of kindness, mercy, or comfort." 

* In taking the auspices, the angur stood in the center of a con- n 

secrated square, and divided the sky with his staff into quarters (cut); 
he then offered his prayers and, turning to the south, scanned the -^ 
heavens for a reply. Coming from the left, the signs were favorable ; 
from the right, unfavorable. If the first signs were not desirable, 
the augurs had only to wait until the right ones came. They thus 
compelled the gods to sanction their decisions, from which there was afterward no 
appeal. In the absence of an augur, the " Sacred Chickens," which were carried 
about in coops during campaigns, were consulted. If they ate their food greedily, 
especially if they scattered it, the omen was favorable ; if they refused to eat, or 
moped in the coop, evil was anticipated ! 


Their art was never much esteemed by the more enlightened classes, 
and Cato, who detested their hypocrisy, said that "one haruspex could 
not even look at another in the streets without laughing." 

The fnmily worship of Vesta, Goddess of the Hearth, was more 
exclusive in Rome than in Greece, where slaves joined in the home 
devotions. A Roman father, himself the Priest at this ceremony, 
woukl have been shocked at allowing any but a kinsman to be present, 
for it included the worship of the Lares and Penates, the spirits of 
his ancestors and the guardians of his house. So, also, in the public 
service at the Temple of Vesta, the national hearth-stone, the patricians 
felt it a sacrilege for any but themselves to join. The worship of 
Vesta, Saturnus (the god of seed-sowing), and Opo (the harvest-god- 
dess), was under the direction of the 

College of Poatifices, of which, in regal times, the king was high- 
priest. Attached to this priestly college — the highest in Rome — were 
the Flamens^ [flare, to blow the fire), who were Priests of Jupiter, 
Mars, and Quirinus ; and the Vestal Virgins, who watched the eternal 
fire in the Temple of Vesta.f 

The SaMi, or " leaping priests," received their name from the war- 
like dance which, dressed in full armor, they performed every March 
before all the temples. They had the care of the Sacred Shields, which 
they carried about in their annual processions, beating them to the 

* The Flamen DialU (Priest of Jupiter) was forbidden to take an oath, mount a 
horse, or iflaiice at an army. Hi.s hand could touch nothing unclean, and he never 
approached a corpse or a tomb. As he must not look at a fetter, the ring on his 
finger was a broken one, and, as he could not wear a knot, his thick woolen toga, 
woven by his wife, was fastened with buckles. lie was not allowed lo approach a 
trai!<-d vine, or to touch ivy. If his head-dress (a sort of circular ])ill<)w. on 
the top of which an olive-branch was fastened by a white woolen thread) chanced to 
fall off, he was obliged to resign his oflBce. In his belt he carried the sacriflcial knife, 
and ill his hand he held a rod to keep off' the people on his way to sacriflce. As he 
miirht not look on any secular employment, he was preceded by a lictor, who com- 
pelled every one to lay down his work till the Flumen had passed. His duties were 
continuous, and he could not remain for a night away from his house on the Palatine. 
His wife was subject to an equally rigid code. She wore long woolen robes, and 
shoes made of the leather of sacrificed animals, fler hair was tied with a jiiirple 
woolen ribbon, over which was a kerchief, fastened with the bough of a lucky tree. 
She also carried a sacrificial knife. 

t The Veitlal always dres.-^cd in white, with a broad band, like a diadem, round 
her forehead. During sacrifice or in processions, she was covered with a while veil. 
She was chosen for the service when from six to ten years old, and her vows held for 
thirty years, after which time, if she chose, she was released and might marry. 
.\riy offence offered her was jiunishcd with death. In public, every one, iven the 
' "u-ul, made way for the lictor preceding the maid(;n, and she had the seat of honor 
.it all public ganies and priestly hanipiets. If. however, she accidetitJilly suffered the 
sacred flre to go out. she was liable to cnrpore:il punishment by the pontifex niaxi- 
mns; if she brok"' her vows, die was carried on a bier to the Campus Scelerntus, 
l)ealcn with rods, and buried alive. The number of vestal virgins never exceeded 
six at any one time. 

100 ROME. 

measure of an old-time song in praise of Janus, Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, 
and Mars. One of the shields was believed to have fallen from 
Heaven. To mislead a possible pillager of so precious a treasure, 
eleven more were made exactly like it, and twelve priests were ap- 
pointed to watch them all. 

The Fetiales had charge of the sacred rites accompanying declara- 
tions of war, or treaties of peace. War was declared by throwing a 
bloody spear across the enemy's frontier. A treaty was concluded by 
the killing of a pig with a sacred pebble. 

Altars were erected to the Emperors, where vows and prayers 
were daily offered.* In the times of Roman degeneracy, the city was 
flooded with quack Chaldean astrologers, Syrian seers, and Jewish 
fortune-tellers. The women, especially, were ruled by these corrupt 
impostors, whom they consulted in secret and by night, and on whom 
they squandered immense sums. Under these debasing influences, 
profligacies and enormities of every kind grew and multiplied. The 
old Roman law which commanded that the parricide should be 
" sewn up in a sack with a viper, an ape, a dog, and a cock, and then 
cast into the sea," was not likely to be rigidly enforced when a parri- 
cide sat on the throne, and poisonings were common in the palace. 
That the pure principles of Christianity, which were introduced at 
this time, should meet with contempt, and its disciples with bitter 
persecution, was inevitable. 

Games and Festivals. — The Roman public games were a 
degraded imitation of the Grecian, and, like them, connected with 
religion. When a divine favor was desired, a vow of certain games 
was made, and, as the gods regarded promises with suspicion, the 
expenses were at once raised. Each of the great gods had his own 
festival -month and day. 

The Suturwdia, which occurred in December, and which, in later 
times, lasted seven days, was the most remarkable. It was a time of 
general mirth and feasting ; schools were closed ; the senate adjourned ; 
presents were made ; wars were forgotten ; criminals had certain 
privileges ; and the slaves, whose lives were ordinarily at the mercy 
of their masters, were permitted to jest with them, and were even 
waited upon by them at table ; — all this in memory of the free and 
golden rule of ancient Saturn. 

The gymnastic and musical exercises of the Greeks never found 
much favor in Rome ; tragedies were tolerated only for the splendor 
of the costumes and the scenic wonders ; and even comedies failed to 

* " Not even the Ej^yptiatis, crouchinoj in grateful admiration before a crocodile, so 
outraged humanity as did those polite Romans, rendering divine honors to an em- 
peror lilie Aurelius Commodiis, who fought seven hundred and thirty-five times as a 
common gladiator in the arena before liis enervated people." — Zerffi. 



satisfy a Roman audience. Farces and pantomimes won great ap- 
plause ; horse and chariot races were exciting pleasures from the time 
of the kings ; but, of all delights, nothing could stir Rome like a 
gladiatorial or wild-beast fight. At first connected with the Saturnalia, 
the sports of the arena soon became too popular to be restricted, and 
mourning sons in high life paid honors to a deceased father by 
furnishing a public fight, in which from twenty-five to seventy-five 
gladiators were hired to take part, the contest often lasting for davs. 

Oladiatorial Shown were advertised by private circulars or i)ublic 
announcements. On the day of the i)erfornumce, the gladiators marched 
in solemn procession to the arena, wliero they were matched in i)airs,* 

• The ^rlartiators fouglit in pairs or In matched nuinhers. A favorite dnel was 
between a man without armx, but who carried a net in whicli to enfnnre hin opponent 
and a three-pronged fork with which to npenr hitn when caught, and niiotlicr man in 
full armor, whf)-e safety lay in evadin;; hl-^ enemy wliilo he i)iirHucd and killed him. 
"It l.s impoHHibli; to di-^^cribc the aspect of an ampliithcntn! when f;ludiiitors 
fought. The audience became fniitic with cxcilenu'iit ; thi-y roHO from tlii-irwatH; 
they yelled ; they phoutcd their applause n-i a K'>'i"*"y blow w:h di'iill whirli nent the 
life-blood Bpoutini; forth. ' /A<c /«'/'/<<' — ' In; Ikm it' — 'he \\a* it,' burnt from ton 
thouHand tbrualo, oud wau rc-ccbocd, not uuly by u brutalized populace, but by 

102 ROME. 

aud their weapons formally examined. " An awning gorgeous with 
purple and gold excluded the rays of the midday sun ; sweet strains 
of music floated in the air, drowning the cries of deatli ; the odor of 
Syrian perfumes overpowered the scent of blood ; the eye was feasted 
by the most brilliant scenic decorations, and amused by elaborate 
machinery." At the sound of a bugle and the shout of command, the 
battle opened. When a gladiator was severely wounded, he dropped 
his weapons, and held up his forefinger as a plea for his life. This 
was sometimes in the gift of the people ; often the privilege of the 
vestal virgins ; in imperial times, the prerogative of the emperor. A 
turned-down thumb or the waving of a handkerchief extended mercy ; 
a clenched and upright fist forbade all hope. Cowards had nothing to 
expect, and were whipped or branded with hot irons till they resumed 
the fight. The killed and mortally wounded were dragged out of the 
arena with a hook. 

Tlie Wild-Beast Fvjlds were still more revolting, especially when 
untrained captives or criminals were forced to the encounter. Many 
Christian martyrs, some of whom were delicate women, perished in 
the Colosseum. We read of twenty maddened elephants turned in 
upon six hundred war captives, and, in Trajan's games, which lasted 
over one hundred and twenty days, ten thousand gladiators fought, and 
over that number of wild beasts were slain. Sometimes, the animals, 
made furious by hunger or fire, were let loose at one another. Great 
numbers of the most ferocious beasts were imported from distant 
countries for these combats. Strange animals were sought after, and 
camelopards, white elephants, the rhinoceros, and the hippopotamus, 
goaded to fury, delighted the assembled multitudes. Noble game be- 
came scarce, and at last it was forbidden by law to kill a Getulian lion 
out of the arena, even in self-defence. 

Nauil FighU, in flooded arenas, were also popular. The Colosseum 
was sometimes used for this purpose, as many as thirty vessels taking 
l)art. At an entertainment given by Augustus in the flooded arena of 
the Flaniinian circus, thirty-six crocodiles were pursued and killed. 

Marriage was of two kinds. In one, the bride passed from the 
control of her fatlujr into that of her husband ; in the other, the 

imperial lii)s, by purple-clad senators aiitl knights, by noble matrons and cousecrated 
iwaUU.^^—Sheppufcfs Fall of Rome. So frenzied with the eight of blood did the 
spectators become that they would rush into the arena and slay on every side ; and 
so sweet was the applause of the mob that captives, slaves, and criminals were envied 
the monoi)oly of the gladiatorial contest, and laws were required to restrict knights 
and senators from entering the lists. Some of the emperors fonght publicly in the 
arena, and even women thus debased themselves. Finally, such was the mania, that 
no wealthy or patrician family was without its gladintors, and no festival was complete 
without a contest. Even at banquets, blood was the only stimulant that roused the 
jaded appetite of a Roman, 




parental power was retained. The former 
kind of marriage could be contracted in 
any one of three diflerent ways. Of these, 
the religious form was confined to the 
patricians ; the presence of the pontifex 
maximus, the priest of Jupiter, and ten 
citizens was necessary as witnesses ; a 
sacred cake {far) was broken and solemnly 
tasted by the nuptial pair, whence this 
ceremony was termed confarreatio. A 
second manner was by purchase {coemptio), 
in which the father formally sold his 
daughter to the groom, she signifying her 
consent before witnesses. The third form, 
by prescription (usus), consisted simply in 
the parties having lived toorether for a year 
without being separated for three days at 
any time. 

The marriage ceremony proper differed 
little in the various forms. The betrothal 

consisted of the exchange of the words spondeme {do you promise V) 
and upmideo (I promise), followed by the gift of a ring from the 
groom. On the wedding morning, the guests assembled at the house 
of the bride's father, where the auspices — which had been taken 
before sunrise by an augur or a haruspex— were declared, and the 
sf)l<-mii marriage contract was spoken. Tiie bride's attendant then 
laid her hands upon the shoulders of the newly-married pair, and led 
them to the family altar, around which they walked hand-in-hand, 
while a cow, a pig, and a sheep were offered in sacrifice — the gall 
having been first extracted and thrown away, to signify the removal 
of all l>itteriiess from the occasion. Tin; guests having made their 
congratulations, the feast began. At nightfall, the bride was torn 
with a show of force from her mother's arms (in memory of the seizure 
of the Sabine women, (p. 16) ; two boys, whose parents were both 
alive, supported her by the arms; torches were lighted, and a gay 
procession, as in Greece, accompanied the party to the house of the 
gffHjm. Here the bride, having repeated to her spouse the formula, 
" Ubi tn CaiiiH, ibi ego Cuia" (When; thou art Cains, I am Caia), 
anointed the door-]K)stH and wound them with wool, and was lifted 
over the threshold. Having been formally welcomed into the tttrium 
by her husband, tliey both touched fire and water, and she was given 
the keys to the house. The next day, at the second marriage feast, 
the wife brought her offerings to the guds of lier husband's family, of 
which she was now a member, ami a Homan matron. 

104 EOME. 

Burial." — When a Roman died it was the duty of his nearest rela- 
tive to receive his last breath with a kiss, and then to close his eyes 
and mouth (compare ^neid, iv. 684). His name was now called 
several times by all present, and there being no response the last fare- 
well (vale) was said. The necessary utensils and slaves having been 
hired at the temple where the death-registry was kept, the body v/as 
laid on the ground, washed in hot water, anointed with rich perfumes, 
clad in its best garments, placed on an ivory bedstead, and covered 
with blankets of purple, embroidered with gold.f The couch was deco- 
rated with flowers and foliage, but upon the body itself were placed 
only the crowns of honor fairly earned during its lifetime ; these 
accompanied it into the tomb. By the side of the funereal bed, whicli 
stood in the atrmm facing the door, as in Greece, was placed a pan of 
incense. The body was thus exhibited for seven days, branches of 
cypress and iir fastened in front of the house announcing a mourning 
household to all the passers-by. On the eighth morning, while the 
streets were alive with bustle, the funeral took place. Behind the 
hired female mourners, who sang wailing dirges, walked a baud of 
actors, who recited scraps of tragedy applicable to the deceased, or 
acted comic scenes in which were sometimes mimicked his personal 
peculiarities.:]: In front of the bier marched those who personated the 
prominent ancestors of the dead person. They wore waxen masks 
(p. 113), in which and in their dress were reproduced the exact features 
and historic garb of these long-defunct personages. § The bier, car- 
ried by the nearest relatives, or by slaves freed by the will of the 
deceased, and surrounded by the family friends dressed in black (or, in 
imperial times, in white), was thus escorted to the Forum. Here the 
mask-wearers seated themselves about it, and one of the relatives 
mounted the rostrum to eulogize the deceased and his ancestors. After 
the eulogy, the procession reformed, and the body was taken to the 

* The Romans, like the Greeks, attached great importance to the interment of 
their dead, as they believed that the spirit of an unhuried body was forced to wander 
for a hundred years. Hence it was deemed a religious duty to scatter earth over any 
corpse found uncovered by the wayside, a handful of dust being sufficient to appease 
the infernal gods. If the body of a friend could not be found, as in shipwreck, an 
empty tomb was erected, over which the usual rites were performed. 

+ We are supposing the case of a rich man. The body of a poor person was, after 
the usual ablutions, carried at night to the common burial-ground outside the Esqui- 
line gate, and interred without ceremony. 

t At Vespasian's obsequies an actor ludicrously satirized his parsimony. " How 
much will this ceremony cost?" he asked, in the assumed voice of the deceased 
emperor. A large sum having been named in reply, the actor extended his hand and 
greedily cried out, " Give me the money and throw my body into the Tiber." 

§ Frequently, the masks belonginir to the collateral branches of the family were 
borrowed, that a brilliant show mif^ht be made. Parvenus, who belong to all time, 
were wont to parade images of fictitious ancestors. 


spot where it was to be buried or burned, botli forms being used 
as in Greece. If it were burned, the nearest relative, with averted 
face, lighted the pile. After the burning, the hot ashes were drenched 
with wiue, aud the friends collected tlie bones in the folds of their 
robes, amid acclamations to the manes of the departed. The remains, 
sprinkled with wine and milk, were then— with sometimes a small 
glass vial filled with tears— placed in the funeral urn ; a last farewell 
was sp ;ke:i, the lustrations were performed, and the mourners 
separated. When the body was not burned, it was buried with all its 
ornamen s in a coffin, usually of stone* The friends, on returning 
home from the funeral, were sprinkled vriih water, and then they 
ste-ped over fire, as a purification. The house also was ceremoniously 
purified. An offerin<r and banquet took place on the ninth day after 
burial, in accordance with Greek custom. 

Dress. — The toga, worn by a Roman gentleman, was a piece of 
white woolen cloth about five yards long and three and a half wide, 
folded lengthways, so that one edge fell below the other. It was thrown 
over the left shoulder, brought around tlie back and under the right 
arm, then, leaving a loose fold in front, thrown again over the left 
shoulder, leaving the end to fall behind. Much pains was taken to 
drape it gracefully, according to the exact style required by fas'.iion. 
A tunic, with or without sleeves, and in cold weather a vest, or one 
or more extra tunics, were worn under the toga. Boys under seventeen 
years of age wore a toga with a purple hem ; the toga of a senator had 
a broad purple stripe, and that of a knight had two narrow stripes. 
The use of the toga was forbidden to slaves, strangers, and, in im- 
perial times, to banished Romans. 

The pfnnula, a heavy, sleeveless cloak, with sometimes a hood 
attached, and the lacerna, a thinner, bright-colored one arranged in 
folds, were worn out of doors over the toga. The paliidamentum, a 
rich, red cloak draped in pic:uresque folds, was permitted only to the 
military general -in-chief, who, in imperial times, was the emperor 
himself. The nagum was a short military cloak. The synthcm, a gay- 
colored Go&y robe, was worn over the tunic at banquets, and by the 
nobility during the Saturnalia. Poor p('0[)le had only the tunic, and 
in cold weather a tight-fitting wool or leather cloak. When not on a 
journey the Roman, like the Gr.ek, left liis head uncovered, or pro- 
tected it with his toga Rank decided the style of shoe : a consul used 
a red one, a senator a black one with a silver crescent, orlinary folk 
a plain black, slaves and ] oorest people wooden clogs. In the house, 
sandals dniy were worn, and at dinner even these were laid aside. 

• That from A^pc in Lycia wa"* paifl to connntno the ontire body, except the teeth, 
tn forty days: hence it \\&* called sarcophagus (lleHh-ealiug), a name which came IQ 
eland for any coflln. 

106 ROME. 

A Roman matron dressed in a linen under-tunic, a vest, and the 

stola, a long, short-sleeved garment, girdled at the waist and flounced 
or hemmed at the bottom. Over this, when she went out, she threw 
a palla, cut and draped like her husband's toga, or like the Greek 
himation. Girls and foreign women, who were not permitted the stola, 
wore over the tunic a palla, arranged like the old Doric chiton. 
Women — who, like the men, went hatless — protected their heads with 
the palla, and wore veils, nets, and various light head-coverings. 
This led to elaborate fashions in hair-dressiug. A caustic soap im- 
ported from Gaid was used for hair dyeing, and wigs were not uncom- 
mon. Bright colors, such as blue, scarlet, violet, and especially 
yellow — the favorite tint for bridal veils — enlivened the feminine 
wardrobe. Finger-rings were worn in profusion by both sexes, and 
a Roman lady of fashion luxuriated in bracelets, necklaces, and various 
ornaments set with diamonds, pearls, emeralds, and other jewels, 
whose purchase frequently cost her husband his fortune. 


Scene I. — A Day in Rome. — Let us imagine ourselves on some 
bright, clear morning, about eighteen hundred years ago, looking down 
from the summit of the Capitoline hill tipon the " Mistress of the 
World." As we face the rising sun, we see clustered about us a group 
of hills crowned with a vast assemblage of temples, colonnades, 
palaces, and sacred groves. Densely packed in the valleys between 
are towering tenements,* shops with extending booths, and here and 
there a templed forum, amphitheatre, or circus. In the valley at our 
feet, between the Via Sacra and the Via Nova— the only paved roads 
in the whole city fit for the transit of heavy carriages — is the Forum 
Romanum, so near us that we can watch the storks that stalk along 
the roof of the Temple of Concord f This Forum is the great civil and 
legislative heart of the city. Here are the Regia or palace of the chief 
pontiff, with its two adjoining basilicas ; the Temple of Vesta, on 
whose altar burns the sacred flame ; the Senate House, fronted by the 
Rostra, from which Roman orators address assembled multitudes ; 
various temples, including the famous one of Castor and Pollux ; and 

* Ancient authors frequently mention the extreme height of Roman houses, which 
Augustus finally limited to seventy feet. Cicero says of Rome that " it is suspended 
in the air"; and Arlstides, comparing the snccessive stories to the strata of the 
earth's crust, affirms tliat if they were laid out on one level they " would cover Italy 
from sea to sea." To economize lateral space, the exterior walls were forbidden to 
exceed a foot and a half in thickness. 

t Storks were encouraged to build in the roof of this temple, as pecoliar social 
Instincts were attributed to them. (See Steele'' s Zoology y p. 147.) 




fr-lf^..- ,> ^^as^: 42- — 



many beautiful marble arches, col- 
umns, and statues. At our right is 
the crowded district of the Vela- 
l)rum, and beyond it, between the 
Palatine and Aventine hills, is the 
''ircus Maximus, from which the 
A]ipirai Way sweeps to the south-, thi-oufrh the Porta Capena and 
uiidL'r the great Aqua Crabra, a sol- 
idly-paved street, many-days jour- 
ney in extent, and lined for miles 
beyond the city walls with mag- 
nificent marble tombs shaded by 
cypress trees. Amou';' the temples on 
the Palatine stands the illustrious 
one sacred to Apollo, along whose 
porticoes hang the trophies of all na- 
tions, and to whicli is at- 

tn,'1,,Ml ,, i-:,,u,u,< lil.rnrv jf 


108 ROME. 

of Greek and Roman books ; near it is the Roma Quadrata, a square 
mass of masonry believed to be mysteriously connected witli the for- 
tunes of the city, and beneath which certain precious amulets are de- 
posited. Interspersed among these public buildings on the Palatine are 
many isolated mansions surrounded by beautiful gardens fragrant with 
the odors of roses and violets, in which the Romans especially delight. 
There is no arrangement of streets upon the hills ; that is a system 
confined to the crowded Suburra, which adjoins the Roman F<jrum 
at our front and lies at the foot of the Quirinal, Viminal, and Es- 
quiline hills. This district, which was once a swampy jungle and 
afterward a fashionable place for residences (Julius Csesar was born 
in the Suburra), is now tlie crowded abode of artificers of all kinds, 
and is the most profligate as well as most densely po2)ulated part of 

Turning about and facing the west, we see, toward the north, the 
Campus Martins, devoted from the earliest period to military exercises 
and the sports of running, leaping, and bathing. On this side of the 
open meadows stand some of the principal temples, the great Flaminian 
Circus, and the theatres of Pompeius and Marcellus with tlieir groves, 
porticoes, and halls. Precisely in the center of the plain rises the 
Pantheon of Agrippa, and, further on, we see the Amphitheatre of 
Taurus,"'' and the Mausoleum of Augustus. At our front, beyond the 
curving, scnithward-flowing Tiber, is a succession of terraces, upon 
whose heights are many handsome residences. This quarter, the 
Janiculum, is noted for its salubrity, and here are the Gardens of 
CiEsar, and the Naumacliia (a basin for exhibiting naval engagements) 
of Augustus, fed by a special aqueduct, and surrounded by walks and 
groves. Glancing down the river we see the great wharf called the 
P'mporium, with its immense store-houses, in which grain, spices, 
candles, paper, and other commodities are stored ; and, just beyond it, 
the Marmorata, a special dock for landing building-stone and foreign 
marbles. It is j'et early morning, and the streets of Rome are mainly 
filled with clients and their slaves hurrying to the atria (p. 114) of their 
wealthy patrons to receive the customary morning dole.f Here and 

* The whole of this northern district comprehends the chief part of moclcrn 
Rome, and i< now thronged with houses. 

t In early times the clients were invited to feast with their patron in the atrinm 
of liis mansion, but in later days it became customary, instead, for stewards to dis- 
tribute small sums of money or an allowance of food, which the slaves of the clients 
carried away in baskets or in small portable ovens, which kept the cooked meats hot. 
" Wedg"d in thick ranks before the donor's gates, 
A phalanx firm of chairs nnd litters waits. 
Once, plain and open was the feast. 
And every client was a bidden guest ; 
Now, at the gate a paltry largess lies, 
And eager hands and tongues dispute the prize." — Jumnat. 



I. Porta Capena. 

I. P..ri« CapHMH 

5. Valley orKK'-ritt. 

3. Totiib of 

4. Teiii|.l«..fDivu»(;l»iidlu8 

6. Ar<-h i.f CoMBUiiline. 

in. Ihib et Sebafib. 

6. C<ili»i>utn. 

1. Hath. ofTilun. 

8. BbIIki uf Trajnn. 

IV. Via Sacra. 

9. K.rinii of 
10. HiKilirn of Coii.iantln.>. 

V. Esquilinacdm Vim- 


II.Ti.ln|.l« of Jonn. 

VI. Alta Semita. 

12. R« 

of Dlorl..ria 

13. T»iii|il" of Flo 

U. T«ni|>li> ofQiiirlliu.. 

U. Baiha of ( oiiHtantlng. 

VII. Via Lata. 

1«. Arrh of Anrnlliu. 

11. Arch bf CUodliu. 

18. Amphitheatre of Tiiunw. 

19. Column of Anloninu8. 
yO. Cftiiip of Agrippa, 

SI. Temple of UU aud Se- 


Vni. Forum Romanttm. 

S'J. Ciipilolin,- Hill. 

V3. Temple of Jupiter ToiiaUB 

1.'4. An. 

•26. Golden Mlleatono. 

•J6. Roman Forum. 

27. Temple of Ve.lii. 

S8. Vitt.4acrB. 

29. Luperoal. 

30. Tnri.eiiin Rock. 

31. Arcli of Severn.. 

32. Curia (Senate Ilouae.) 

33. Forum of AuKuitut. 

34. Bn.llira Ulpla. 
36. Temple of Jann». 

IX. Cmoufl Flaminius. 

.'<6. Theatre of Mnrrellu.<. 
.n. Port, of Oclariu. and 

38. Cirru. FlamUilu.. 
89. Teniplo of Apollo. 

40. Temple of Bellona. 

41. Septn Julia. 

42. Dlrlbit<irinm. 

43. Baths of AK'ippn. 

44. Port, of l'oni|)ey. 

45. Theatre of Pontpey. 

46. Pantheon. 

47. Hnth» of Nero. 

48. Rnee Course. 

49. MnUHolenni of Anguetn 

X. Palatium. 

BO. Palnr.. of Nero. 
51. Pnliifo of Au^MiKlu.. 

XI. CiRCUB Maximcb. 

62. Velnhruin. 

63. Forum Ollioriuni. 
M. Forum Iloarlum. 
66. Clreu. Muilmu.. 

Xn. Piscina PxmLioA. 

.',6. Kalli. of Antoninua. 

Xm. Aventinus. 

67. Itnln 

I Sur 

XrV. Tranb Tiberih. 

69. TempU uf ^iaculapln*. 

no ROME. 

there a teacher hastens to his school, and in the Suburra the workers 
in metal and in leather, the clothiers and perfume sellers, the book- 
dealers, the general retailers, and the jobbers of all sorts, are already 
beginning their daily routine. We miss the carts laden with mer- 
chandise which so obstruct our modern city streets ; they are forbidden 
by law to appear within the walls during ten hours between sunrise 
and sunset. But, as the city wakes to life, long trains of builders' 
wagons, weighted with huge blocks of stone or logs of timber, bar 
the road, and mules, with country produce piled in baskets suspended 
on either side, urge their way along the constantly increasing crowd. 
Here is a mule \vith a dead boar thrown across its back, the proud hun- 
ter stalking in front, with a strong force of retainers to carry his spears 
and nets. There comes a load drawn by oxen, upon whose horns a 
wisp of hay is tied ; it is a sign that they are vicious, and passers-by 
must be on guard. Now a passage is cleared for some dignified patri- 
cian, who, wrapped in his toga, reclining in his luxurious litter, and 
borne on the broad shoulders of sis stalwart slaves, makes his way to 
the Forum attended by a train of clients and retainers. In his rear, 
stepping from stone to stone* across the slippery street wet by the 
recent rains, we spy some popular personage on foot, whose advance 
is constantly retarded by his demonstrative acquaintances, who throng 
about him, seize his hand, and cover his lips with kisses, f 

The open cook-shops swarm with slaves who hover over steaming 
kettles, preparing breakfast for their wonted customers ; and the tables 
of the vintners, reaching far out upon the wayside, are covered with 
bottles, protected from passing pilferers by chains. The restaurants 
are hung with festoons of greens and flowers ; the image of a goat, J 
carved on a wooden tablet, betokens a milk dejjot ; five hams, ranged 

* In Pompeii, the sidewalks are elevated a foot or more above the street level, 
and protected by curbstones. Remains of the stucco or the coarse brickwork mosaic 
which covered them are still seen. In many places the streets are so narrow that 
they may be crossed at one stride ; where they are wider, a raised stepping-stone, 
and sometimes two or three, have been placed in the center of the crossing. Though 
these stones were in the middle of the carriage-way, the wheels of the biga, or two- 
horsed chariot, could roll in the spaces between, while the loosely harnessed horses 
might step over them or pass by the side. Among the suggestive objects in the 
exhumed city are the hollows worn in these stepping-stones by feet which were for- 
ever stilled more than eighteen hundred years ago. 

+ " At every meeting in the street a person was exposed to a number of kisses, 
not only from near acquaintance, but from every one who desired to show his attach- 
ment, among whom there were often mouths not so clean as they might be. Tiberius, 
who wished himself not to be humbled by this custom, issued an edict against it, 
but it does not appear to have done much arood. In winter only it was considered 
improper to annoy another with one's cold lips." — Becker's Gallus. 

X A goat driven about from door to door, to be milked for customers, is a common 
Bight in Rome to-day, where children come out with gill or half-pint cups to get their 
moFDing ration. 


in a row, proclaim a provision store ; and a mill, driven by a mule, 
advertises a miller's and baker's shop, both in one. About the street 
corners are groups of loungers collected for their morning gossip, 
while gymnasts and gladiators, clowns, conjurors, snake charmers, an J 
a crowd of strolling swine — wlio roam at will about the imperial city — 
help to obstruct the narrow, tortuous highways. The professional 
street-beggars are out in force ; squatting upon little squares of mat- 
ting, they piteously implore a dole, or, feigning epilepsy, fall at thj 
feet of some rich passer-by. Strangers, too, are here, men of foreign 
costume and bearing, come from afar to see the wonders of the world- 
conquering city, and, as they gaze distractedly about, dazed by the din 
of rumljling wagons, shouting drivers, shrill-voiced hucksters, braying 
asses, and surging multitudes, suddenly there comes a lull. The 
slaves, whose task it is to watch the sun-dials and report the expiration 
of each hour, have annoimced that the sun has passed the midday lino 
upon the pavement. Soon all tumult ceases, and for one hour the city 
is wrapped m silence. 

The luxurious siesta over, Rome awakes to now e-ijoyment. Now 
com i the pleasures and excitement of the circus and the theatre, or 
the sports upon the Campus Martius, whither the young fashionables 
repair in crowds, to swim, run, ride, or throw the javelin, watched 
by an admiring assembly of seniors and women who, clustered in 
porticxjt'S, are sheltered from the burning sun. Then follows the luxury 
of the wann and vapor baths, with perfuming and anointing, and every 
refiuement of physical refreshment as a ])reparation for the coming 
cccnti or dinner (p 110). But wherever one may seek enjoyment for 
the early evening, it is well to bo housed before night comes on, for 
tiie streets of Rome swarm with nocturnal highwaymen, marauders, 
and high -blooded rowdies, who set the police at open defiance, and 
keep whole districts in terror. There are other dangers, too, for night 
is the time chosen by the careful hous(jwife to dump the slo])s and 
debris from her upper windows into the open drain of the street below. 
Fi'-es. also, are fre(]uent, and, though the night-watch is provided with 
liatchets and buckets to resist its progress, a conflagration once started 
in the crowded Suburra or Velabrum spreads with fearful rapidity, 
and will soon render hundreds of families homeless.* Meanwhile, 
the carts, shut out by law during the daytime, crowd and jostle one 
another in the eagerness of their noisy drivers t) finish their duties 

• The tencnienlH of tlin lower cliispes in Rome were fo rrowded that often whole 
familic!H were hinlillcd tOL"'lher in one Hin.'ill room. Tho diirtTcnt stories were reached 
by Htairwayw j)luced oil the ontHide of tlic biiildiiiu'f.— There w(;re no ni(-in>iiirar.ce 
companicH, but the piifTererH were rnuiiifirenlly r(;comi»eii8ed by KcneroiiH citizen!<. 
Iheir Ioh- being not only made good in money, but followed by inesents of hordes. 
pietnrcH, Hiatiii--', and elioice mowaic-*, from their zeah)iiM frienflf. Martial ini'imialee 
tbat on thin account parties were somctimcH tempted to Arc their own premises. 

112 EOME. 

and be at liberty for the night, while, here and there, groups of smok- 
ing fl;mibeaux mark the well-armeil trains of the patricians on their 
return from evening banquets. As the night advances, the sights and 
sounds gradually fade and die away, till in the first bours of the new 
day the glimmering lantern of the last wandering pedestrian has dis- 
appeared, and the great city lies under the stars asleep. 

Scene II. — ^1 Roman Home* — We will not visit one of the tall 
lodging-houses which crowd the Suburra, though in passing we may 
glance at the plain, bare, outside Avail, with its few small windows f 
placed in the upper stories and graced with pots of flowers ; and at 
the outside stairs by which the inmates mount to those dizzy heights, 
and under which the midnight robber and assassin often lurk. Some- 
times we see a gabled front or end with a sloping roof, or feel the shade 
of projecting balconies which stretch far over the narrow street. On 
many a flat roof, paved with stucco, stone, or metal, and covered with 
earth, grow fragrant shrubs and flowers. Coming into more aristo- 
cratic neigliborhoods, we yet see little domestic architecture to attract 
us. It is only when a spacious vestibule, adorned with statues and 
mosaic pillars, lies open to the street that we 
have am' intimation of the luxury witliin a 
Roman dwelling. If, entering such a vestibule, 
we rap with the bronze knocker, the unfast- 
ened folding-doors are pushed aside by the wait- 
ing janitor (who first peeps at us through the 
large open spaces in the door-posts),f and we find 
ourselves in the little ostium or entrance hall 
leading to the atrium. Here we are greeted, 
not only by the " saUe " (welcome) on the mosaic 
pavement, but by the same cheerful word chat- 
A ROMAN LAMP tered by a trained parrot hanging above the 

door. We linger to notice the curiously carved 
door posts, inlaid with tortoise-shell, and the door itself, which, instead 

* No traces of ancient private dwellings exist in Rome, except m the ruins of the 
Palace of the Csesars on the Palatine, where the so-called house of Livia, wife of 
Augustus, remains tolerably perfect. It is similar in dimensions and arrangement to 
the best Pompeian dwellings, though far superior in paintings and decorations. The 
" House of Pansa " in Pompeii, the plan of which is described in the test, is consid- 
ered a good representative example of a wealthy Roman's home. 

t Panes of glass have been found in Pompeii, though it was more usual to close 
the window-holes with movable wooden shutters, clay tablets, talc, or nets. 

t In ancient times, the janitor, accompanied by a dog, was confined to his proper 
station by a chain. As it was not customary to keep the door locked, such a protec- 
tion was necessary. In the "Honse of the Tragic Poet," exhumed at Pompeii, a 
fierce black and white dog is depicted in the mosaic pavement, and underneath it is 
the inscription, •' Cave Cauem " (Beware of the Dog). 


of hinges, is provided with wedge-shaped pins, fitting into sockets or 
rings, and then we pass into the atrium, the room about which chister 
the most sacred memories of Roman domestic life. Here in ancient 
times all the simple meals were taken beside the hearth on which they 
were prepared, and by which the sacrifices were daily offered up to the 
beloved Lares and Penates.* Here was welcomed the master's chosen 
bride, and here, a happy matron.f she afterward sat enthroned in the 
midst of her industrious maids, spinning and weaving the houseliold 
garments. From their niches upon these walls, by the side of glistening 
weapons captured in many a bloody contest, the Avaxen masks of honored 
ancestore have looked down for generations, watching the bodies of 
the family descendants as, one by one, they have lain in state upon the 
funeral bier. — But increase of luxury has banished the stewing-pans, 
the busy looms, and the hospitable table to other apartments in the 
growing house. The Lares and Penates ^ave left their primitive little 
closets by the atrium cooking-hearth for a larger and separate sacra- 
rium, and spacious kitchens now send fortli savory odors from turbot, 
ptieasant, wild-boar, and sausages, to be served up in summer or winter 
tricliniuras by a host of well trained slaves.:]: The household dead are 
still laid here, but the waxen masks of olden times are gradually giv- 
ing place to brazen shield-shaped plates on which are dimly -imaged 

• At every meal, the first act was to cast a portion of each article of food into the 
fire that burned upon the hearth, in honor of the household gods. 

t The Roman matron, unlike the Greek, enjoyed great freedom of action, both 
within and without her house, and was always treated with attention and respect. 

X The Romans were fond of amazing their guests with costly dainties, such as 
nightingales, peacocks, and the tongues and brains of flamingoes. Caligula dissolved 
pearls in powerful acids, in imitation of Cleopatra, and sjient $400,000 on a single 
repast. A dramatic friend of Cicero paid over $4,000 for a dish of singing birds ; and 
one famous epicure, after having exhausted the sum of four million dollars in his 
pood living, poisoned himself because ho had not quite half a million left 1 Fish waa 
a favorite food, and the mansions of the rich were fitted up with fish-ponds (piscince) 
for the culture of rare varieties, which were sometimes caught and cooked on silver 
gridirons before invited guests, who enjoyed the changing colors of the slowly dying 
fish, and the tempting odor of the coming treat. Turbots, mackerels, eels and oys- 
ters were popular delicacies, and a fine mullet brought sometimes as much as ^240. 
In game, the fatted hare arid the wild boar, served whole, were ranked first. Pork, 
as in Greece, was the favorite meat, beef and mutton being regarded with little favor. 
Great disi)lay was made in serving, and Juvenal ridicules the airs of the profeBsional 
carver of hia lime, who, he says — 

" Skips like a harlequin from place to place. 
And waves his knife with )>antomiinic trnicc — 
For diflcrent gestures by our curious men 
Arc used for different dishes, har<' and hen." 

In vegetables the Romans had lettuce, cabbage, turnips, and asparagus. Mnsh- 
rooniB were highly prizi'd. The poorer classes lived ou cheap fish, boiled chick-peas, 
beans, lentils, barley bread, and puis or grucL 



features, or to bronze and marble busts* The little aperture in the 
center of the ceiling, which served the double purpose of escape for 
smoke and the admission of sunlight, has been enlarged, and is sup- 
ported by costly marble pillars, alternating with statues ; directly un- 
derneath it, the open cistern reflects each passing cloud and mirrors 
the now-unused altar, which, for tradition's sake, is still left standing 
by its side. When the rain, wind, or heat becomes severe, a tapestry 
curtain, hung horizontally, is drawn over the aperture, and some- 
times a pretty fountain, surrounded by flowering plants, embellishes 
the pool of water. Tapestries, sliding by rings on bars, conceal or 
open to view the apartments which adjoin the atrium. As we stand 
at the entrance-do )r of this spacious room,f with the curtains all 


drawn aside, we look down a long anl beautiful vista; past the 
central fountain and altar ; through the onen tablinum, paved with 
marbles and devoted to the mastei's use ; into the peristyle, a hand- 
some open court surrounded by pillared arcades, paved with mosaics 
and beautified, like the atrium, with central fountain and flowers ; 
and still on, through the large banqueting hall, or family state-room 
(CBCus), beyond the transverse corridor, and into the garden which 
stretches across the rear of the mansion. If we stop to glance into the 
library which adjoins the tablinum, we shall find its walls lined with 

* Pliny speaks of the craving for portrait-statues, which induced obscure persons, 
suddenly grown rich, to buy a fictitious ancestry, there being ready antiquarians 
then, as now, who made it a business to furnish satisfactory pedigrees. 

t The atrium in the House of Pansa was nearly fifty feet long and over thirty 
wide. As this was only a moderate-sized house in a provincial town, it is reasonable 
to suppose that the city houses of the rich were much more spacious. 


cupboards stored with parchment rolls and adorned with busts and 
pictures of illustrious men, crowned by the presiding statues of 
Minerva and the Muses. In general furniture, we notice beautiful 
tripod-stauds holding graceful vases, chairs after Greek patterns, and 
lecti* on which to recline when reading or writing. Occasionally 
there is a small wall-mirror, made of polished metal, and the walls 
themselves are brilliantly painted in panels, bearing graceful floating 
figures and scenes of mythological design. The floors arc paved 
with bricks, marbles, or mosaics, and the rooms are warmed or cooled 
by pipes through which flows hot or cold water. In extreme weather 
there are portable stoves. There is a profusion of quaintly-shaped 
bronze and even golden lamps, whose simple oil-fed wicks give forth 
at night a feeble giimmer.f As we pass through the fauces into the 
peristyle a serpent slowly uncoils itself from its nest in one of the 
alae, which has been made the household sanctuary,:]; and glides toward 
the triclinium in search of a crumb from the midday meal. 

The large triclinium, at the right of the peristyle, is furnished with 
elegantly inlaid sofas, which form three sides of a square about 
a costly cedar or citrus-wood table. § At banquets the sofas are 

* A ledus was neither bed nor sofa, but a simple frame with a low ledge at one 
end, and strung with girth on which a mattress and coverings were laid. Lecti were 
made of bras.s, or of cedar inlaid with ivory, tortoiBo-shell and precious metals, and 
were provided with ivory, gold, or silver feet. Writing-desks with stools were un- 
known ; the Roman reclined on the lectus when he wrote, resting hia tablet upon 
his knee. 

t The Romans were in the habit of making New- Year's gifts, such as dried figs, 
dates, and honey comb as emblems of sweetness, or a little piece of money as a hojje 
for good luck. But the favorite gift was a lamp, and great genius was displayed in 
the variety of elegant designs which were invented in search of the novel and unique. 

X Serpents were the emblems of the Lares, and were not only figured upon the 
altars, but, as a presence of good omen, a particular kind was kept as pets in the 
houses, where they nestled about the altars and came out like dogs or cats to be 
noticed by visitors, and to beg for something to eat. These sacred reptiles, which 
were of considerable size but harmless except to rats and mice, bore such a charmed 
life that their numbers became an intolerable nuisance. Pliny intimates that many 
of the fires in Rome were kindled purposely to destroy their eggs. 

S The citrus-wood tables, so prized among the Romans, cost from $40,000 to 
$50,000 apiece. Seneca is said to have owned five hundreri citrus-wood tables. 
Va^es of murrha— a substance identified by modern scientists with glass, Cliineso 
porcelain. a-„'ate, and fluor spar— were fashionable, and fabulous sums were paid 
for them. An ex-coiiBul under Nero had a murrha wino-ladle which cost him 
$.300,000. and which on his death-bed he dclibrTalely dashed to pieces, to prevent 
its falling into the hands of the grasping tyrant. Bronze and marble statues were 
abundant in the houses and gardens of the rich, and cost from $1.')0 for the work 
of an ordinary sculi)tor to |;30,00) for a genuine Phidias, Reopa", or Praxiteles. To 
RTOtify such ex[)ensive tast(-s, large fortunes wen' neee«-iary, and tlie Uomans— in 
early times averse to anything but arms atid agricullun!— developed shrewd, sharp 
bn«iness qualities. They roamed over foreign conntri(!s in search of speculatitms, 
and turned out swarma of bankerfl and merchants, who amassed enormous sums to 



decked with white hangings embroidered with gold, and the soft wool- 
stuffed ])illo\v,s upon which the guests recline are covered with gor- 
geous i^urple. Here, after his daily warm and vapor bath, the per- 
fumed and enervated Roman gatliers a few friends— in number not 
more than the Muses nor less than the Graces — for the evening supper 
(coena). The courses follow one another as at a Grecian banquet. 
Slaves * relieve the master and liis guests from the most trifling effort, 


(v) The J-^esh'i>n/um, or haW', (i) The Ostiu7n ; (2) The Atriztm, off which are six 
cubicula or sleeping-rooms ; (3) The Imphniiiim, before which stands the 
pedestal or altar, of the household gods ; (4) The Tablinu7n, or chief room ; 
(5) The Pinacotkeca, or library and picture gallery; (6) The Fauces, or corri- 
dor; (7) The Peristylium. or court, with (S) its central fountain; (9) The 
j^ciis, or state-room ; (10) The Triclinium ; (11) The kitchen ; (12) The 
transverse corridor, with garden beyond ; and (13) The Lararium, a recepta- 
cle for the more favorite gods, and for statues of lUustdous personages. 

carving each person's food or breaking it into fragments which he 
can raise to his mouth with his fingers — forks being tinknown — and 
pouring water on his hands at every remove. The strictest etiquette 
prevails ; long-time usages and traditions are followed ; libations are 
offered to the protecting gods ; spirited conversation, which is 
undignified and Greekish, is banished ; and only solemn or caustic 
aphorisms on life and manners are heard. "People at supper," 
says Varro, "should be neither mute nor loquacious: eloquence is 
for the forum ; silence for the bed-chamber." On high days, rules 
are banished ; the host becomes the " Father of the supper," convivial 
excesses grow coarse and absurd, and all the follies and vices of the 
Greek symposium are exaggerated. 

he spent on fashionable whims. (See Business Life in Ancient Rome. Harper's 
Half-hour Series.) 

* There were slaves for every species of service in a Roman household, and their 
number and versatility of handicraft remind one of the retinue of an Egyptian lord. 
Even the defective memory or limited talent of an indolent or over-taxed Roman 
was supplemented by a slave at his side whose business it was to recall forgotten 
incidents and duties, to tell him the names of the pereons he met, or to suggest ap- 
propriate literary aUusions in his conversation. 


Scene III. — A Tririmpkal Procession. — Rome is in her holiday 
attire. Streets aud squares are festively adorned, and incense burns 
on the altars of the open temples. From steps and stands, improvised 
along the streets for the eager crowd, grow loud and louder shouts of 
' lo triumphe," for the procession has started from the triumphal gate 
on its way through the city up to the Capitol. First come the lictors, 
opening a passage for the senate, the city magistrates, and important 
citizens. Pipers and flute-players follow. Then appear the spoils and 
booty ; art-treasures, gold and silver coins, valuable plate, products of 
the conquered soil, armor, standards, models of captured cities and 
ships, pictures of battles, tablets inscribed with the victor's deeds, and 
statues personifying the towns and rivers of the niiwly-subjected 
land, — all carried by crowned soldiers on the points of long lances, 
or on portable stands. Chained kings, princes, and nobles, doomed to 
the Mamertine prison, walk sullenly behind their lost treasures. In 
their wake are the sacrificial oxen with gilt horns, accompanied by 
priests ; and then, preceded Ijy singers, musicians, and jesters, the cen- 
tral object of all this grand parade — the a'ictoriotts general.* Clad 
in a tunic borrowed from the statue of the Capitolino Jupiter, with the 
eagle-topped ivory scepter in his hand and the triumphal crown held 
above his head, the con<iueror proudly stands in his four-horse chariot, 
followed by his equally proud, victorious army. Through the Flami- 
iiian Circus, along the crowded Velabrum and the Circus Maximus, 
by the Via Sacra and tlio Forum, surges the vast procession up to the 
majestic Capitol. Here the triumphator lays his golden crown in the 
lap of Jupiter and makes the impof;ing sacrifice. A of unusual 
sumptuousmss ends the eventful day. 

Scene IV. — TTie last of a Roman Emperor. — "It is the Roman 
habit to consecrate the emperors who leave heirs. The mortal re- 
mains are buried, according to custom, in a sph-ndid manner ; but the 
wax image of the emperor is j)laced on an ivory bed, covered with gold- 
embroidered carpet.", in front of the ])alace. The expression of the 
face is that of one dangerously ill. To the loft side of the bed stand, 
during a greater part of the day, the members of the senate ; to the 
right, the ladies entitled by birth or marriage to appear at court, in the 
usual simple white mourning-dresses without gold ornaments or neck- 
laces. This ceremony lasts sevi'n days, during which time the imperial 
physicians daily approach the bed as if to examine the p.atient, who, 
of course, is declining rapidly. At last they declare the emperor dead. 
The bier is now transported by the highest bom knights and tlie 

♦ Only flictators, ronsalf", praetors, niul. occasionally, Ic^atos were pomiittcd the 
triumpliul entriiijcc. Sometimes the train of wpoiln and ciptivcn wan so (rrcat tliiit 
two, tlirei;, nrnl even fonr (lnyt< wcie reqnirod for the panidc. In later times, tlio 
triumphal proceHBiou was exclusively reserved for the emperor. 

118 ROME. 

younger senators tlirough the Via Sacra to the old Forum, and there 
deposited on a scaffolding built in the manner of a terrace. On one 
side stand young patricians, on the other noble ladies, intoning hymns 
and paeans in honor of the deceased t(j a solemn, sad tune ; after which 
tlie bier is taken up again, and carried to the Campus Martius. A 
wooden structure in the form of a house has been erected on large 
blijcks of wood on a square base ; the inside has been filled with dry 
sticks ; the outside is adorned with gold-embroidered carpets, ivory 
statues, and various sculptures. The bottom story, a little lower than 
the second, sli iws the same form and ornamentation as this; it has 
open doors and windows ; above these two stories rise others, growing 
narrow toward the top like a pyramid. The whole structure might be 
compared to the lighthouses erected in harbors. The bier is placed 
in the second story, spices, incense, odoriferous fruits and herbs being 
heaped round it. After the whole room has been filled with incense, 
the knights move in procession round the entire structure, nnd per- 
form some military evolutions ; they are followed by chariots filled 
wit'i persons wearing masks and clad in purple robes, who represent 
historic characters, such as celebrated generals and kings. After these 
ceremonies are over, the heir to the throne throws a torch into the 
house, into which, at the same time, flames are dashed from all sides, 
which, fed by the combustible materials and the incense, soon l-egin 
to devour the building. At this juncture an eagle rises into the air 
from the highest story as from a lofty battlement, and carries, accord- 
ing to the idea of the Komnns, the soul of the dead emperor to heaven ; 
from that moment he partakes of the honors of the gods." — Herodian. 


1. Political History, — Rome be^an as a single city. The 
growth oi her power was slow but steady. She became head, — first, 
of the neighboring settlements; second, of Latium; third, of Italy; 
and fourth, of the lands around the Mediterranean. In her early his- 
tory, there was a fabulous period during which she was ruled by kings. 
The last of the seven monarchs belonged to a foreign dynasty, and 
upon his expulsion a republic was establisherl. Two centuries of con- 
flict ensued between the patricians and the plebs, but the latter, going 
ofttimes to Mount Sacer, gained their end and established a democracy. 

Meanwhile, wars with powerful neighbors and with the awe-in- 
spiring Gauls had developed the Eoman character in all its sternness, 
integrity, and patriotism. Eome next came in contact with Pyrrhus, 
and learned how to fortify her military camps ; then with Carthage, 
and she found out the value of a navy. An apt pupil, she gained the 

8 U M M A K Y . 119 

mastery of the sea, invaded Africa, and in the end razed Carthage to 
the ground. Turning to the west, she secured Spain — the silver- 
i;ri^duciug country of that age — and Gaul, whose fiery sons filled the 
depleted ranks of her legions. At the east, she intrigued where she 
could and fought where she must, and by disorganizing states made 
them first her dependencies, and then her provinces. Greece, Macedon, 
Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Babylon, were but stepping-stones in her 
jirogrcss until Parthiu alone remained to bar her advance to the Indus 
iinJ the ocean. 

But within her gates the struggle between the rich and the poor 
Etill went on. Crowds of slaves — captives of her many wars- 
thronged her streets, kept her shops, waited in her homes, tilled her 
land, and tended her flocks. The plebeians, shut out from honest 
toil, straggleJ for the patrician's dole. The Civil Wars of Sulla and 
Marius drenched her pavem^'uts with the blood of her citizens. The 
triumphs of Caesar shed a gl^-am of glory over the fading republic, but 
the mis-aimed daggers of Brutus and Cassius that slew the dictator 
struck at the heart of liberty as well. 

Augustus br mght in the (;mpire and an era of peace. Now the 
army gainel control of the state. Weak and wicked emperors, the 
luxury of wealth, the influx of Oriental profligacy, the growth of 
atheism, and the greed of conquest, undermined the fabric of Roman 
greatness. The inhabitants of the provinces were made Romans, and, 
Rome itself bein'f lost in the empire it had created, other cities became 
the sents of government. Amid the ruins of the decaying monarchy 
a new religion supplanted the old, and, liually, Teutonic hordes from 
the north overwhelmed the city that for cjuturics thcjir own soldiers 
had alone u])held. 

2. Civilization. —As in Greece the four r.ncient Attic tribes were 
subdivided into i.hratries, gent'S, and hearths, so iu Rome tlie three 
original i>atrician tribes branched into curije, gmtes, and fanuUcs, the 
paterfamili-is owning all the property, and h dding the life of his 
children at will. 

The civil mufjiHtratet comprised consuls, questors, ajdlles, and 

The army was organized in Legions, cohorts, companies, and cen- 
turies, with four classes of f lot-soldiers, who fought with the piluni 
and the javelin, protected themselves witli heavy breastplates, an 1 
carried on si-ges by the aid f)f l)allista3, battering-rams, catapults, and 
movable towers. In later times, the ranks were filled by foreigners 
and merconaries. 

Roman Htcrnture, cliild of the Grecian, is rich with memorable 
nanu"*. T'shrred in by Liviu.s Androiirns. a Greek slave, it grew wilh 
Najvius, Ennius, Plaulus, Terence, Cato, an 1 Lucilius. The learned 

120 ROME. 

Varro, the florid Cicero, the sweet strained Virgil, the genial Horace, 
tlie eliiquent Livy, and the polished Sallust, graced tlie last century 
before Christ. The next hundred years produced the studious Pliny 
the Elder, the two inseparable friends — Pliny the Younger and Taci- 
tus, the sarcastic Juvenal, and the wise Seneca. 

The monuments of the Romans comprise splendid aqueducts, 
triumphal arches, military roads, bridges, harbors, and tombs. Their 
magnificent palaces and luxurious thermae were fitted up with reckless 
extravagance and dazzling display. All the spoils of conquered 
nations enriched their capital, and all the foreign arts and inventions 
were impressed into their service. 

The proud, dignified, ambitious Roman had no love or tenderness 
for aught but his nati(jnal supremacy. Seldom indulging in sentiment 
toward family or kindred, he recognized no law of humanity toward 
his slaves. His religion was a commercial bargain with the gods, in 
which each was at liberty to outwit the other. His worship was mostly 
confined to the public ceremonies at the shrine of Vesta, and the con- 
stant household ofEerings to the Lares and Penates. \l\s public games 
were a degraded imitation of the Grecian, and he took his chief delight 
in bloody gladiatorial shows and wild-beast fights. 

A race of borrowers, the Romans assimilated into their nationality 
most of the excellences as well as many of the vices of other peoples, 
for centuries stamping the whole civilized world with their character, 
and dominating it by their successes. " As to Rome all ancient history 
converges, so from Rome all modern history begins." 

Finally, as a central point in the history of all time, in the midst of 
the brilliancy of the Augustan Age, while Cicero, Sallust, Virgil, and 
Horace were fresh in the memory of their still living friends, with 
Seneca in his childhood and Livy in his prime, the empire at its best, 
and Rome radiant in its growing transformation from brick to marble 
under the guiding rule of the great Augustus Caesar, there was born 
in an obscure Roman province the humble Babe whose name far out- 
ranks all these, and from whose nativity are dated all the centuries 
which have succeeded. 


Merivale's History of the Eomans. — Ihne's Hiatory of Rome, and Early Rome.— 
Hulory Primers ; Rome, and Roman Antiquities^ edited by Green.— Arnold's His- 
tory of Rome.—Niebuhr''s History of Roms.— Smith's smaller History of Rome.— 
Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. — Guhl and Koner's Life of the 
Greeks and Romans. — Knight's Social Life of the Romans— Plutarch's Lives.— Mil- 
man's History of Christianity .-Mommsen' s History of Rome. — Frovde's Life of Ccesar. 
—Becker's Charicles, and Gallus.—Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome. — Shakspere^s 



JuHus CcEsar, Corioianvs, and Antony and Cleopatra.— For'!yth''s Life of Cicero.— 
X'apoleon's (III.) Life of Casar.— Canina''s Edifices of Ancient Rome.—Fergusson's 
History of Architecture.— Buttcer''s Last Bays of Pompeii, and liiemi The Last of 
the Tribunes.— Michtlet' s Roman Republic— ITeeren's Historical Researches.— Putz's 
Hand-book of Ancient History.— Harems 'Walks in Rome.— Kin gsley''s Hypatia—Lord^s 
Old Roman World. — Mann's Ancient and Mediacal Republics.— Lawrence's Primer 
of Roman Literature. — Collins' Ancient Classics far English Readers (a series 
giving st riking passages from the Greek and Roman classics, with excellent explana- 
tory notes, lives of the authors, etc.). — Dyer's Pompeii. — Herbennann's Business Life in 
Ancient Rome. — Quackenhos' Ancient Literature ya useful resume), — Watson's 
Marcus Aurelius.-Church's Roman Life in the Days of Cicero. 


B. C. 

Rome founded 753 

Republic established 009 

The Decemvirs 451 

Rome taken by Gauls 390 

First Samnite War 343-341 

Great Latin War 340-;33S 

Second Samnite War o2&-3C4 

Third " " 298-290 

Wars with Pyrrhus 2S0-276 

Fir^^t Punic War 2ft4-241 

Second " " 218-201 

Battle of the Trebia 218 

" " Lalje Trasimenus 217 

" " Cannae 216 

Siege of Capua 214-211 

Battle of the Metaurus 207 

" " Zama 202 

Second Macedonian War 230-197 

Battle of Magnesia 190 

Death of Hannibal and Scipio Afri- 

canus 183 

Third Macedonian War 171-108 

Battle of Pydna 168 

Third Punic War 1 19-1 16 

Fall of Cart ha,'c and Corinth 116 

Death of Tiberius Gracchus 1.33 

Jugurthine War 111-104 

Uarius defeated Teutones at Aquaj 

Scxtia; (Aix) 102 

Marlus defeated Cimbri . 101 

Social War 00-H8 

Firet Milhridatic War K^M 

Ma-cacrc by Marius 87 

Second Milhridatic War 83-81 

Sulla's Proncriptif)Ms 83 

Third MItbridatic War 74-63 

War of Spfirtacn-'. . 73-71 

Meditcmiiican Piraten 67 

Conspiracy of CalUine 63 


First Triumvu^te 60 

Cffisar in Gaul 58-49 

" invades Britain 55 

" crosses the Rubicon 49 

Battle of Pharsalia — death of Pom- 

pey 48 

Suicide of Cato 46 

Caesar murdered 44 

Second Triumvirate, death of Cicero 43 
Battle of Pliilippi, death of Brutus 

and Cassius 42 

Battle of Actium 31 

^- TAugustus 31 

Tiberius 14 

Caligula 37 

Claudius 41 

Nero 54 

a Galba 68 

Otho 69 

Vitellius 69 

Vespasian 69 

Titus 79 

Domitian 81 

Nerva 96 

Trajan 98 

IladriaD 117 

Antoninus Pius 138 

M. Aurelius Antoninus 161-180 

L. Vei-ns 161-169 

Commodus 180 

Pertrnax 193 

Didins Julianus 193 

Si-ptiniiu.« SoveiUH 193 

Cararalliis 211-217 

Geta 211-212 

MacriniiH 217 

Elairabalus <thc sun-priest) 218 

Alexander Severus 222 



in. r 



Maximinae. 235 

Gordian I 


Pupienue Masimus \ ogo 

Balbinus ) 

Gordian DI 23&-244 

Philip the Arabian 244 

Decius 249 

Gallus 251 

.(Einilian 253 

Valerian 253 

Gallienus 260 

Claudius II 268 

Aurelian 270 

Tacitus 275 

Florian 276 

Probns 276 

Carus... 282 

CarinusandNumerian .. 283 

Diocletian, with Maximian 284 

Constantius, with Galerius 305 

Constantine I. (the Great), with Ga- 
lerius, Severus, and Maxentius . . . 306 


Constantine, with Licinlns .... 307 

Constantine, with Maximinus 308 

Constantine, alone 323 

Constantine II., Constantius 11., 

Constans 1 337 

Julian the Apostate 361 

Jovian 363 

Valentinian 1 364 

Gratian and Valentinian II 375 

Valentinian n 383 

Theodosius (East and West) 393 

Honorius 395 

Theodosius II. (East and West) 423 

Valentinian ni 425 

Petronius Maximus 455 

Avitns 455 

Majorian 457 

Libius Severus 461 

Anthemius 467 

Olybrius 473 

Glycerins 473 

Julius Nepos 471 

Romulus Augustulus 475-476 


Part II. 



The first question in the history of every people is, What 
was their race and language? and next, What was the 
earliest form of their society, their social and political 
organization ? Let us see how far we can answer these 
questions with respect to Rome. 

The Latin Race and Language.— The language of 
the Romans was not called Roman, but Latin. Politically, 
Rome and Latiuin were clearly distinguished, but their 
language appears to have been the same. This language is 
different from the Etruscan, and from the Oscan ; the 
Romans, therefore, are so far marked out as distinct from 
the great nations of Central Italy. 

On the other hand, the connection of the Latin language 
with the Greek is manifest. Many common words, which 
no nation ever derives from the literature of another, are 
the same in Greek and Latin ; the declensions of the nouns 
and verbs are, to a great degree, similar. It is ]irobablc 
that the Latins belonged to that great race which, in very 
early times, overspread both Greece and Italy, under (be 
various names of Pelasgian, Tyrsenians, and Liculians. It 
may be believed, that the Ilcllenians were anciently a people 
of this same race, bul that some peculiar circumstances 
gave to them a distinct and superior character, and raised 


tlieni so far above their brethren, that, in after-ages, they 
disclaimed all connection with them. 

But in the Latin language there is another element besides 
that which it has in common with the Greek. This ele- 
ment belongs to the languages of Central Italy, and may be 
called Oscan. Further, Niebuhr has remarked, that whilst 
the terms relating to agriculture and domestic life are 
mostly derived from the Greek part of the language, those 
relating to arms and war are mostly Oscan. It seems, then, 
not only that the Latins were a mixed people, partly 
Pelasgian and partly Oscan ; but also that they arose out of 
a conquest of the Pelasgians by the Oscans : so that the 
latter were the ruling class of the united nation ; the former 
were its subjects. 

Differences between the Romans and other Latins. — 
The Latin language, then, may afford us a clue to the origin 
of the Latin people, and, so far, to that of the Eomans. But 
it does not explain the difference between the Komans and. 
the Latins, to which the peculiar fates of the Eoman people 
owe their origin. We must inquire, then, what the Romans 
were, which the other Latins were not; and as language 
cannot aid us here, we must have recourse to other assistance, 
to geography and national traditions. And thus, at the 
same time, we shall arrive at an answer to the second ques- 
tion in Roman history, What was the earliest form of civil 
society at Rome ? 

If we look at the map, we shall see that Rome lies at the 
furthest extremity of Latium, divided from Etruria only by 
the Tiber, and having the Sabines close on the north, 
between the Tiber and the Anio. No other Latin town, so 
far as we know, was built on the Tiber ; some were clus- 
tered on and around the Alban hills, others lined the 
coast of the Mediterranean ; but from all these Rome, by its 


position, stood aloof. Tradition reports tliat as Rome was 
thus apart from tlie rest of the Latin cities, and so near 
a neighbor to the Etruscans and Sabines, its population 
was in part formed on of one of these nations, and many of 
its rites and institutions borrowed from the other. Tradi- 
tion describes the very iirst founders of the city as the 
shepherds and herdsmen of the banks of the Tiber, and tells 
how their numbers were presently swelled by strangers and 
outcasts from all the countries round aljout. We know 
that for all points of detail, and for keeping a correct 
account of time, tradition is worthless. It is very possible 
tiiat all Etruscan rites and usages came in with the 
Tarqninii, and were falsely carried back to an earlier period. 
But the mixture of tiie Sabines with the original people of 
the Palatine hill, cannot be doubted; and the stories of the 
asylum, and of the violence done to tiie Sabine women, 
seem to show that the first settlers of tlie Palatine were a 
mixed race, in wliich other blood Avas largely mingled with 
that of the Latins. 

Tribal Divisions of the Romans. —The people or 
citizens of Rome were divided into the three tribes of the 
Ramnenses, Titicnses, and Luceres, to whatever races we 
may sui)pose tliem to belong, or at whatever time and under 
whatever circumstances they may have become united. 
Each of these tribes was divided into ten smaller bodies 
calk'd curioe; so that the whole people consisted of thirty 
curias; these same divisiotis were in war rcjjresented by the 
thirty centuries which made up the legion, just as the three 
tribes were represented by the three centuries of liorsemen ; 
but that the soldiers of each century were exactly a hundred, 
i.s an unfounded conclusion. 

I have said that each trit)e was divided info ten curijv; it 
would be more correct to say, that the union of ten curiaj 


formed the tribe. For the state grew out of the junction 
of certain original elements ; and these were neither the 
tribes, nor even the curiae, btit the gentes, or houses which 
made up the curicW The first element of the whole system 
was the gens, or house, a nnion of several families who 
were bound together by the joint performance of certain 
religions rites. 

The Houses and their Clients. — The state being thus 
made up of families, and every family consisting from the 
earliest times of members and dependents, all the original 
inhabitants of Rome belonged to one of two classes: they were 
either members of a family, and, if so, members of a house, 
of a curia\ of a tribe, and so, lastly, of the state ; or they 
were dependents on a family, and, if so, their relation went 
no further than the immediate aggregate of families, that 
is, the house. With the curise, with the tribe, and with the 
state, they had no connection. These members of families 
were the original citizens of Eome ; these dependents on 
families were the original clients. 

The Commons, or Plebs. — The idea of clientship was 
that of a wholly private relation ; the clients were some- 
thing to their respective patrons, but to the state they were 
nothing. But wherever states composed in this manner, of 
a body of houses with their clients, had been long estab- 
lished, there grew np amidst, or close beside them, created 
in most instances by conquest, a population of a very dis- 
tinct kind. Strangers might come to live in the land ; or, 
more commonly, the inhabitants of a neighboring district 
might be conquered, and be united with their conquerors as 
a subject people. Xow this population had no connection 
with the houses separately, but only with a state composed 
of those houses ; this, therefore, was wholly a political, not 
a domestic relation ; it united personal and private liberty 


with political subjectiuu. This inferior population j)osscssed 
property, regulated their own municipal as well as domestic 
affairs, and as free men fought in the armies of wliat was 
now their common country. But, strictly, they were not 
its citizens; they could not intermarry with the houses; 
they could not belong to the state, for they belonged to no 
house, and therefore to no curiae and no tribe ; consequently, 
tiiey had no share in the state's government, nor in the 
state's property. What the state conquered in war became 
the property of the state, and therefore they had no claim 
to it ; with the state demesne, with whatever, in short, 
belonged to the state in its aggregate capacity, these, as 
being merely its neighbors, and not its members, had no 

Such an inferior population, free personally, but subject 
politically, not slaves, yet not citizens, was the original 
Plebs, the commons of Eomc. 

Only Members of the Houses -were Citizens. — The 
mass of the Konum comniuii.s were conquered Latins. These, 
besides receiving grants of a portion of their former lands, 
to be held by them as Roman citizens, had also the hill 
Aventinus assigned as a residence to those who removcil to 
Rome. The Aventine was without the walls, although near 
to them ; thus the commons were, even in the nature of their 
abode, like the Pfalburger of the Middle Ages, men not 
admitted to live within the city, but enjoying its protection 
against foreign enemies. 

It will be understoiKl at once, that whatever is i-aid of the 
people in these early times, refers only to the full citizens, 
that is, to the members of the houses. Tiie asseml)ly of the 
people was the assembly of the curia' ; that is, the great 
council of the members of the houses ; while the senate, 
consisting of two hundred senators, chosen in equal num- 


bcrs from tlic two higher tribes of the Rumneuses and 
Titienses, was their smaller or ordinary council. — Arnold. 


The Campagna and the Tiber. — To trace the great- 
ness of Rome from her first beginnings, we must go back to 
a time wlien the Tiber flowed through the open waste of the 
wide Campagna. This plain, a scene so memorable in 
history, extends along the central portion of the western 
shore of Italy, for the length of about ninety miles, having 
an average breadth of twenty-seven miles. A spectator, 
standing on Mount Janiculus, overlooking the site of Eome, 
sees the lower chain of the Apennines across the undulating 
surface of the Campagna at the distance of about ten or 
fifteen miles, and behind it the central ridge, capped with 
snow for half the year. The chief objects of the panorama 
are as memorable for their historical and poetical associations, 
as they are conspicuous for their beauty. To the north-west, 
the plain of the Aro is bounded by the Etruscan hills. On 
tlie north about twenty miles distant, stands out Soracte, 
whose snow-clad summit invited Horace to enjoy the 
pleasures of winter. Eastward, across the Tiber, lies the 
beautiful range of the Sabine Apennines ; and conspicuous 
above the rest the peak of Lucretilis, which slieltered the 
poet's summer retreat. I^Tearer in the foreground, where 
the Anio bursts out of the hills, is Tibur, whose beauties he 
extols above all the most famous sites of Greece. Then 
follow the hills of Latium, with their sterner associations; 
the rocky summit of Prteneste standing out in front of the 
chain, celebrated in medieval as well as ancient history; 
and the isolated volcanic mass of the Alban Mount, tlie 
sanctuary of the Latin race, down the side of which the 


" Long White City " extended to the lake of the same name. 
Its highest summit, crowned of old with the temple of 
Jupiter Latiaris, was visible even to mariners at sea. From 
this point there is an uninterrupted view to the south-east 
over the plain, till it sinks into the sea, which is dis- 
tinguished from the land only by the brighter light reflected 
from its waters. 

The southern extremity of the Campagna forms a dead 
level, opening on to the Gulf of Gtvta, and watered by 
several streams. The ''Pomptinus Ager" as it was called, 
from Pontia (a town which disappeared very early), was 
once celebrated for its fertility, and contained twenty-three 
flourishing towns. But before the middle of the second 
century b. c, the neglect to regulate the water-courses had 
converted it into a pestilential marsh, which was only 
partially drained by Cethegus (b. c. 100) and Julius Caesar. 
The canal, which continued the Via Appia through the 
Pomptine Marshes to the tem])le of Feronia, at the foot of 
the hill of Anxur, furnished Horace with his well-known 
picture of the lazy and extortionate boatmen, and the 
traveler, kept awake by gnats and frogs, singing of his 
mistress till he falls asleep. The drainage works were 
resumed about the end of the eighteenth century, but the 
marshes are still u hot-bed of malaria in the summer. Their 
extent is about twenty-four miles long by eight or ten wide. 

'J'he northern ])art of the Campagna is watered by the 
Tiber and its confluents, of which the Anio is the chief. 
'I'he sacred river of tlie Romans, " Father Tiber," has a 
course of about 200 miles from its source near Tifernum, in 
the Apennines, to its mouth at Oslia. From Ostia the 
Tiber was navigable for the largest shi|)s up to Rome, where 
the river is about ;J00 feet wide, and from 12 to 18 deej). 

The character of the Tiber, as a rapid mountain stream, 


flowing through no lake to regulate its volume and receive 
its alluvial deposits, is summed up in the one line of Virgil, 

" Vorticibus rapidis et multa ilavus arena ;" 

and its turbid water still justifies the frequent epithet of 
the "yellow Tiber." Its rapid eddies, frequent floods, and 
large alluvial deposits, have produced great effects on its 
course through the Campagna and on the site of Kome 
itself. All the engineering skill of the masters of the world 
was unable to protect their city from the inundations of its 
sacred stream. It was not indeed till the Etrascan kings 
executed the great drain, the "Cloaca Maxima,'' that the 
valleys between the hills of Rome were made dry land ; and 
it seems that at no distant time the hills nearer to the river 
were islands. — Philip Smith. 

The Palatine Hill.— The Cradle of Rome.— The 
Romans regarded the Palatine as the cradle of the '' City of 
the Seven Hills." It was from the opposite slope of the 
Janiculum that they delighted to behold the chain of 
eminences which surrounded this central summit, and 
comprehended within its circuit the most interesting sites 
and monuments of their history. The configuration of the 
six exterior heights, from the Capitoline to the Aventine on 
the right, presented an almost continuous ridge of unequal 
elevation, abutting at either extremity on the channel of 
the Tiber. Between the Aventine and the Caelian a small 
stream made its way into the inclosurc, and the ravine in 
this quarter was diligently fortified from an early period. 
But in the depths of antiquity, before the foundations of 
Rome were laid, the single outlet to the waters which 
collected round the base of the Palatine, was choked by a 
desolate morass, and the rank growth of primitive forests 
buried the central eminence in almost impenetrable conceal- 


ment. Such a position was admirably adapted for a i)lace 
of retreat, and offered an impregnable shelter to crime and. 
rapine. It seemed created by nature herself to be the 
stronghold of a people of reserved character and predatory 
habits. It was destined to become the den of the " Wolves of 
Italy." The legend of the foundation of the Eternal City, 
which affirmed that the divine omens decided the contest 
of the brothers and the pretensions of the rival summits, 
furnished a striking illustration of the subsequent fortunes 
of the Eoman people. They chose between a career of con- 
quest and plunder, and of discovery and commerce. 
Romulus founded Eome, Eemus might have founded a 
Carthage. — Merivai.e. 

The Seven Hills and the Power of Political Con- 
federacy.— What was the cause, we may well ask, that gave 
such a superiority to Rome over other cities of Italy? Why 
did not Veil, or Naples, or Syracuse become the nucleus of 
a great empire ? Had Rome an advantage over them with 
regard to soil, climate, or geographical situation ? This 
question must be answered in the negative. The soil in the 
neighborhood of Rome was comparatively sterile, the climate 
unhealthy, the situation unfavorable for commerce. The 
city had no good port, nor was there a large fertile country 
behind it which might have supplied materials for exports 
and markets for foreign goods. 

If Rome had no such advantages, was it to any advantages 
,of race and descent that she owed her eminence? Again 
we must answer in the negative. The pe(){)le of Rome were 
of the same race as their neighbors. Tiiey could l)oast of no 
superiority on the score of descent. The Sabines and liatms, 
who combined to form the fundamental element of the 
Homan people, were offshoots of the Sabellian stock to which 
all the native, or aboriginal population of Italy belong, from 


the Apenuines south of tlie Po to the extreme end of the 
peninsula. It was therefore not superiority of race which 
gave the Romans predominance in Italy. 

Perhaps we may be led to surmise that it was a fortunate 
succession of great men which raised the Eomuus above the 
other Italian communities. But Eome was singularly sterile 
in great men. .She was made powerful and predominant by 
the almost unheeded labor of a vast number of citizens of 
average ability, not by men whose names have the ring of 
Solon, Pericles, Epaminondas, or Alexander. The kings 
and statesmen to whom the establishment of the State and 
the laws is ascribed, such as Eomulns, Numa, Servius, and 
Brutus, belong not to ;:uthentic history, but to jire- 
historic fable; and when politicians arose who exerted an 
influence beyond that of private citizens in the service of 
the State, men who, like Sulla and Caesar, wielded in their 
hands the power of the whole community, the greatness of 
republican Eome had passed away. 

If, then, the first cause of Eoman greatness, the first 
impulse given to national development, is to be found 
neither in the advantages cf soil and situation, nor in the 
superiority of race, nor in the genius of great men, shall we 
be driven to say that it was mere chance, or, in more reverent 
language, Divine Providence, which selected Eome as the 
seat of empire over Italy and the world ? Such a conclusion 
would be but au evasion of the diflBculty and a coufession of 
weakness unworthy of the spirit of historical inquiry. 
Providence does not act contrary to fixed laws, but accord- 
ing to them ; and it is for us to investigate these laws, not 
to ignore them. 

If we compare the site of Eome with the sites of the 
numerous cities which simultaneously with the earliest 
settlement on the Seven Hills covered the plain of Latium 


aud the adjoiuiug hills, we find that each of the other towns 
was built ou some steep, or easily defended hill. Some of 
these hill-towns, such as Praeueste, Avere actually stronger 
than either the Roman Capitol, or the Palatine hill. But 
nowhere do we find, as on the Tiber, a group of hills possess- 
ing each the advantage of defensibility, and yet lying so 
close to one another that the political isolation of each was 
impossible, and that some kind of federation for the main- 
tenance of internal peace became absolutely necessary. 
People who live at a distance from each other may indulge 
in occasional strife ; Imt if by })roximity of habitation they 
are compelled to have daily intercourse with one another, 
they are obliged to agree uj)on some terms of amicable life, 
if they do not prefer the miseries which internecine Avar 
must entail on all. This was the condition of the various 
settlements on the seven hills, which lay so near together 
that nature itself seemed to have destined them to form a 
combined city. There are dim, half-fabulous traditions 
which speak of wars waged between the peoi)le of the 
Quirinal hill and that of the Palatine. But the s:mie tradi- 
tions also report an amicable settlement of the combats, an 
agreement to live in peace, a combined government of the 
respective chiefs ; in fact, they describe a confederation of 
the two peoples, and their combination into one political 

1'hus, then, arose a spirit of political association based 
upon calculations of interest, but sanctioned by the sense of 
right; nor when it had accomplished its first task, the 
security of the Seven hills, did it die awny, but continued to 
work on a large scale when Pome had become great. City 
after city and tribe aftei- tribe were invited, or compelled, to 
join the leading power as allies, until the whole of Italy, 


though hi fact subject to Rome, appeared to Ije only one 
vast coufederacj. 

We have seen that the geographical position of Rome, and 
the peculiarity of race, cannot be deemed to have been the 
first causes of Eoman gTeatness. Now, however, after we 
have discovered the first cause, we may and must admit that 
both these circumstances powerfully contributed to accelerate 
the growth of Eome. The comparative sterility of the 
territory encouraged the warlike spirit of the early Eomans, 
whose frequent wars seem to have been undertaken oftener 
for the sake of booty than in Just self-defence. It is possi- 
ble, too, that the unhealthiness of the surrounding district 
at certain seasons of the year may have served as a barrier 
to ward off attacks, when other resources failed. The 
remoteness of the sea and the want of a good port were a 
protection from the numerous pirates who infested the 
Tyrrhenian waters. But it was especially the situation of 
Rome in the middle of the peninsula, cutting off the 
northern from the southern half, which enabled her to 
divide her enemies and to subdue them separately. Lastly, 
the similarity of race, which bound the Romans by the 
ties of blood and common customs to all the indigenous 
races of Italy, enabled them to repel the invasions of their non- 
Italian enemies, and to appear in the light of champions and 
protectors of Italy. — Iiine. 

The Rapid G-rowth of the Imperial City. — The 
progress of Rome was ruj)id during the Republic; during the 
Empire it became portentous. The city soon climbed to 
the summits of the five remaining hills, and, descending 
their sides, filled the intermediate spaces with piles of 
masonry raised so high that "one story," says Cicero. '• toppled 
over another, and seemed to he suspended in the air." She 
descended to the Tiber, and stretched herself like some 


great monster along its banks, crowning with roofs the 
Janicuhim, and then the Vatican hill, northward to the 
Milvian bridge, and to the soutli in the direction of the 
great port which connected her with the Mediterranean and 
the outer world. In other directions it was tlie same. 
Toward the Tiber and Praeneste, she covered the fields of 
Latium with a cloud of edifices, " like the snow of Homer's 
Olympus," says the rhetorician Aristides, " which veils the 
summit of the mountains, the wide plains, and the culti- 
vated farms of men.'" — Sheppard. 

Rome the Mistress of the Mediterranean. — Atten- 
tion has not perhaps been sufficiently accorded to the cen- 
tral situation of Rome itself among the vast regions over 
which her well-organized executive extended. The Mediter- 
ranean rolled like a great artery through tliis compact body 
of states and countries. This sea has from immemorial ages 
formed the highway of the nations as they passed to and 
fro on the mission of civilization. More has been said and 
sung in its praise than has been said or sung of any other 
portion of tlie earth's surface, not excepting Italy itself. 
''The grand object of traveling," says Samuel Johnson, 
"is to see the shores of the Mediten-aneaii. All our relig- 
ion, almost all our arts, almost all that sets us above savages, 
has come to us from the shores of the Mediterranean." 
Conquest, commerce, civil liberty, and science, all seem to 
have started into life upon its banks, and pushed their 
pathway across its waves. All the great cities of the ancient 
world looked down u])on its waters, or their tributary seas, — 
Tyre, Carthage, Athens, Corinth, Alexandria, Rome, Con- 
stantinople, Marseilles. The tide of conquest was })erpet- 
ually rolling toward its shores. Shalmanescr, Sennacherib, 
Nebucbadtiezzar, sought, one after another, to win the 
Syrian .seaboard. 'J'he great rulers of the Persian dynasty, 


Cyrus, Xerxes, and Darius, precipitated themselves upou 
Ionian and European Greece. Beside its waves, in a pass 
between the sea and the Cilician mountains, Alexander 
smote down the Persian Empire, and returned to found a 
capital for the world at the spot where it receives the waters 
of the Nile. Soon Carthage spread her commerce along its 
southern shore, colonized the coast of Spain, and passed 
upon her adventurous path beyond the Pillars of Hercules. 
Carthage, in her turn, surrendered the central sea, the 
symbol and means of empire, to her rival Eome ; and Rome 
embraced it more completely still, with the encircling arms 
of conquest, from Gades to Byzantium. — Sheppard. 


The Latin literature ivhich has come down to us is of 
later date than the commencement of the second Punic War, 
and consists almost exclusively of works fashioned on Greek 
models. The Latin meters, heroic, elegiac, lyric and dra- 
matic, are of Greek origin. The best Latin epic poetry is the 
feeble echo of the Iliad and the Odyssey. The best Latin 
eclogues are imitations of Theocritus. The plan of the most 
finished didactic poem in the Latin tongue was taken from 
Hesiod. The Latin tragedies are bad copies of the master- 
pieces of Sophocles and Euripides. The Latin comedies arc 
free translations from Demophilus, Menander, and Apollodo- 
rus. The Latin philosophy was borrowed, without altera- 
tion, from the Portico and the Academy; and the great 
Latin orators constantly proposed to themselves as patterns 
the speeches of Demosthenes and Lysias. 

But there was an earlier Latin literature, a literature truly 
Latin, which has wholly perished, which had, indeed, almost 


wholly perished loug before those whom we ara in the habit 
of regarding as the greatest Latin writers were born. 

We can scarcely hesitate to pronounce that the magnifi- 
cent, pathetic, and truly national legends, whicli present so 
striking a contrast to all that surrounds them, are broken 
and defaced fragments of that early poetry which, even in 
the age of Cato the Censor, had become antiquated, and of 
which Tully had never heard a line. 

The early history of Rome is indeed far more poetical than 
anything else in Latin literature. The loves of the Vestal 
and the Grod of War, the cradle hiid among the reeds of 
Tiber, the fig-tree, the she-wolf, the shepherd's cabin, the 
recognition, the fratricide, the rape of the Sabines, the death 
of Tarpeia, the fall of llostius llostilius, the struggle of Me- 
tius Curtius through the marsh, the women rushing with torn 
raiment and disheveled hair between their fathers and their 
husbands, the nightly meetings of Xuma and the Nymph by 
the well in the sacred grove, the light of the three Romans 
and the three Albans, the purchase of the Sibylline books, the 
crime of Tullia, the simulated madness of Brutus, the am- 
biguous reply of tlie Delphian oracle to the Tarquins, the 
wrongs of Lucretia, the heroic action of Horatius Codes, of 
Scaevola, and of Cloelia, the battle of Regillus won by the aid 
of Castor and Polhix, the defence of Cremera, the touching 
story of Coriolanus, tiie still more touching story of Virginia, 
the wild legend about the draining of the Alban lake, the 
combat between Valerius Corvus and the gigantic (Jaiil, are 
among the many instances which will at once suggest them- 
selves to every reader. 

It is not difficult t) trace the process l)y whicli the oUl 
songs were transmuted into the form which they now wear. 
Funeral panegyric and chronicle appear to have been the in- 
termediate links which connected tlic lost ballads with the 


histories now extant. From a very early period it was the 
usage that an oration should be pronounced over the remains 
of a noble Roman. The orator, as we learn from Polybius, 
was expected on such an occasion to recapitulate all the ser- 
vices which the ancestors of the deceased had, from the ear- 
liest time, rendered to the commonwealth. There can be 
little doubt that the speaker on whom this duty was imposed, 
would make use of all tlje stories suited to his purpose which 
were to be found in the popular lays. There can be as little 
doubt that the family of an eminent man would preserve a 
copy of the speech which had been pronounced over his 
corpse. The compilers of the early chronicles would have 
recourse to the speeches ; and the great historians of a 
later period v/ould have recourse to the chronicles. 

It may be worth while to select a particular story, and to 
trace its probable progress through these stages. The de- 
scription of the migration of the Fabian house to Cremera 
is one of the fiiiest of the many fine passages which lie thick 
in the earlier books of Livy. The Consul, clad in his mili- 
tary garb, stands in the vestibule of his house, marshaling 
his clan, tliree hundred and six fighting men, all of the proud 
patrician blood, all Avorthy to be attended by the fasces, and 
to command the legions. A sad and anxious retinue of 
friends accompanies the adventurers through the streets, but 
the voice of lamentation is drowned by the shouts of admir- 
ing thousands. As the procession passes the Capitol, prayers 
and vows are poured forth, but iu vain. The devoted band, 
leaving Janus on the right, marches to its doom through the 
Gate of Evil Luck. After achieving high deeds of valor 
against overwhelming numbers, all perished save one child, 
the stock from which the great Fabian race was destined 
again to spring for the safety and glory of the common- 
wealth. That this fine romance, the details of which are so 


full of poetical truth, and so utterly destitute of all show of 
historical truth, came originally from some lay which had 
often been sung with great applause at banquets, is in the 
liighest degree probable. ]S"or is it difficult to imagine a 
mode in which the transmission might have taken place. 
The celebrated Quintus Fabius Maximus, who died about 
twenty years before the First Punic War, and more than 
forty years before Ennius was born, is said to have been in- 
terred with extraordinary pomp. In the eulogy pronounced 
over his body all the great exploits of his ancestors were 
doubtless recounted and exaggerated. If there were then 
extant songs which gave a vivid and touching description of 
an event, the saddest and most glorious in the long history 
of the Fabian house, nothing could be more natural than 
that the panegyrist should borrow from such songs their 
finest touches, in order to adorn his speech. A few genera- 
tions later the songs would perhaps be forgotten, or remem- 
bered only by the shepherds and vine-dressers. But the 
speech would certainly be preserved in the archives of the 
Fabian nobles. Fal>ius Pictor would be well acquainted with 
a document so interesting to his personal feelings, and would 
insert large extracts from it in his rude chronicle. That 
chronicle, as we know, was the oldest to which Livy had 
access. Livy would at a glance distinguish the bold strokes 
of the forgotten poet from the dull and feeble narrative by 
which they were surrounded, would retouch them with deli- 
cate and j)owerful pencil, and would make them immortal. 

Such, or nearly such, appears to have been the process by 
which the lost ballad-poetry of Rome was transformed into 
history. To reverse that ])rocess, to transform some portions 
of early Roman history back into the poetry out of which 
they were made, is the object of (his work. — Preface to 
"Lays of Anx'ient Rome." — Macaulay. 



* * * But north looked the Dictator ; 

North looked he long and hard ; 
And spake to Caius Cossus, 
The Captain of liis Guard ; 
" Caius, of all the Komans 

Thou hast the keenest sight ; 
Say, what through yonder storm of dust 
Comes from the Latian right ? " 

Then answered Caius Cossus: 

" I see an evil sight ; 
The banner of proud Tusculum 

Comes from the Latian right ; 
I see the plumed horsemen ; 

And far before the rest 
I see the dark-grey charger, 

I see the purple vest ; 
I see the golden helmet 

That shines far off like flame ; 
So ever rides Mamilius, 

Prince of the Latian name." 

" Now hearken, Caius Cossus : 

Spring on thy horse's back ; 
Ride as the wolves of Apennine 

Were all upon thy track ; 
Haste to our southward battle. 

And never draw thy rein 
Until thou find Herminius, 

And bid him come amain." 

So Aulus spake, and turned him 

Again to that fierce strife ; 
And Caius Cossus mounted 

And rode for death and life. 

* * * Herminius beat his bosom, 

But never a word he spake ; 
He clasped his hand in Auster's mane, 
He gave his reins a shake: 



Away, away went Auster, 

Like an arrow from the bow ; 
Black Auster was the fleetest steed 

From Aufidus to Po. 

Mamilius spied Herminius, 

And dashed across the way :— 
' HiTminius, I have sought thee 

Through many a bloody day. 
One of us two, Herminius, 

Shall never more go home ; 
I will lay on for Tusculum, 

And lay thou on for Rome ! " 
All round them paust'd the battle. 

While met in mortal fray 
The Roman and the Tusculan, 

The htjrscs black and grey. 
Herminius smote Mamilius 

Through breast-plate and through breast 
And fast flowed out the purple blood 

Over the purple vest. 
Mamilius smote Herminius 

Through h('ad-f)iece and through head ; 
And side by side those chiefs of pride 

Together fell down dead. 



* * * Fast, fast, with lieels wild s[)uruiiig, 

The dark-giey charger fled : 
He burst through ranks of figlitiug men ; 

He sprang o'er heaps of dead. 
His bridle far out-streaming, 

His flanks all blood and foam, 
He sought the southern mountains. 

The mountains of his home. 
The pass was steep and nagged, 

The wolves tliey howled and whined ; 
But he ran like a whirlwind up the pass. 

And he left the wolves behind. 
Through many a startled hamlet 

Thundered his flying feet ; 
He rushed through the gate of Tusculum 

He rushed up the long white street ; 
He rushed by tower and temple, 

And paused not from his race 
Till he stood before his master's door 

In the stately market-place. 

But, like a graven image. 
Black Auster kept his place, 

And ever wistfully he looked 
In his dead master's face. 

* * * Then Aulus the Dictator 

Stroked Auster's raven mane. 
With heed he looked imto the girths. 
With heed unto the rein. 
" Now bear me well, black Auster, 
Into yon thick array ; 
And thou and I will have revenge 
For thy good lord this day." 

So spake he ; and was buckling 

Tighter black Auster's band. 
When he was aware of a princely pair 

That rode at his right hand 
So like they were, no mortal 

Might one from other know : 
White as snow their armor was ; 

Their steeds were white as snow. 


Never on earthly anvil 

Did sucli rare armor gleam ; 
And never did such gallant steeds 

Drink of an earthly stream. 

And all who saw them trembled 

And pale grew every cheek ; 
And Aulus the Dictator 

Scarce gathered voice to speak. 

* * 

Then the fierce trumpet -flourish 

From earth to heaven arose ; 
The kites know well the long stern swell 

That bids the Roman close. 
Then the good sword of Aulus 

Was lifted up to slay : 
Then, like a crag down Apennine, 

Rushed Auster through the fray. 
But under those strange horsemen 

Still thicker lay the slain ; 
And after those strange horses 

Black Auster toiled in vain. 

Sempronius Atratinus 

Sate in the Eastern Gate, 
Beside him were three Fathers, 

Each in his chair of state ; 
And all around tlie portal, 

And high above the wall, 
Stood a great throng of people, 

But sad and silent all ; 
Young lads, and stooping elders 

That might not bear the mail. 
Matrons witli lips that (piivered, 

And maids with faces jiale. 
Since the first gleam of daylight, 

Sempronius had nf>t ceased 
To listen for the rushing 

Of horse-hoofs from the east. 

The mist of eve was rising. 

The Him was liastening down. 
When he was aware of a princely ]m\T 

Fast pricking toward.s the town. 


So like tliey were, mau never 

Saw twins so like before ; 
Red with gore their armor was, 

Their steeds were red with gore. 

" Hail to the great Asylum ! 

Hail to the hill-tops seven ! 
Hail to the fire that burns for aye, 

And the shield that fell from heaven ! 
This day, l)y Lake Regilhis, 

Under the Porcian height, 
All in the lauds of Tusculum 

Was fought a glorious fight. 
To-morrow your Dictator 

Shall bring in triumph home 
The spoils of thirty cities 

To deck the shrines of Rome ! " 

Then burst from that great concourse 

A shout that shook the towers. 
And some ran north, and some ran south. 

Crying, " The day is ours ! " 
But on rode these strange horsemen. 

With slow and lordly pace ; 
And none who saw their bearing 

Durst ask their name or race. 
On rode thc^y to the Forum, 

While laurel-boughs and flowers, 
From house-tops and from windows, 

Fell on their crests in showers. 
When they drew nigh to Vesta, 

They vaulted down amain, 
And washed their horses in the well 

That springs by Vesta's fane. 
And straight again they mounted. 

And rode to Vesta's door; 
Then, like a blast, away they passed. 

And no man saw them more. 




Rome in the Third Century B. C. — From the Gallic 
conflagration Eome gradually rose to greater splendor. By 
degrees the forum assumed a more imposing appearance. In 

the place of the butcher^' sliops beautiful porticoes were 


erected, where silversmiths and Ijankors carried on their busi- 
ness ;. on festive occasions the columns were ornamented 
with captured arms. The platform for the i)ublic orators 
was decorated Avith the beaks of the ships taken at Antiiim 
(3.38 I?, c). Various works of art and statues were erected 
all around.* In the short space of twelve years, eight new 

• Mo«t of thece, probably, were bought, in Elruria or wore spoils from Etniscan 
and Greek (owns and ufre faNcly given out nn Komnn workf. Noihiiii: was eaxier 
than to give a ntatne a Koman name. Almont any Greek male ntalue might pass fot 
RnmuluH It was cuHtomary to convey nolemnly to Rome the principiil ficity of a 
conquered town, and to tdvc it a name and place in the Roman worHhij). What waa 
more natural than that other workH of art nhould Hhare the name fate ? 


temples are said to have been vowed or built. A large 
portion of the booty made in the wars with the Samnites 
and with Pyrrhus was devoted to the adornment of the 

Care was now taken not only to adorn Eome with works 
of art, but also to make improvements for the convenience, 
health and comfort of the inhabitants. The grandest public 
work of this class was the great sewer, which is stated to 
have been constructed in the Etruscan period under Tar- 
quinius Priscus. Gradually the sediles began to pave a few 
streets from the proceeds of fines inflicted for the violation 
of the Licinian land laws. Ajjpius Claudius constructed the 
first aqueduct, and after the termination of the war with 
Pyrrhus, 2ilanius Curius began to build a second with the 
spoils taken in that war (273 B. c). 

While Rome, in consequence of the extension of the Roman 
dominion, became more and more the seat of industry, trade, 
and art; while increasing wealth banished the old simplicity 
and rustic contentment, and changed the external appearance 
of the city, a greater freedom showed itself in the observance 
of the old customs and in the rules of social and family life. 
The strict laws of the paternal authority were relaxed; the 
political ties which bound together the members of a house 
and of a family were loosened. The solemn form of mar- 
riage by "confarreatio," connected with auspicia and sacri- 
fices, was more and more superseded even in patrician houses 
by a kind of civil marriage. In every way the barriers w^ere 
broken down which in former times had confined the individ- 
ual within the limits of his family, had hampered his free- 
dom of action, and had placed an intermediate authority 
between him and the state. The ancient tribes of Ramnes, 
Titles, and Luceres became things of the past and were sur- 
rendered to oblivion ; the members of the different houses 



ceased to act for common political or social purposes : 
religious ceremonies alone preserved a faint memory of what 
had once been a vigorous institution. 

During the Samnite wars, the great mass of the Roman 
people retained the old simplicity of life in their dress, their 
dwellings, their food and drink. Their recreations and 


rejoicings, their popular festivals and domestic pleasures, 
were essentially the same as before. They were always fond 
of holydays and religious shows. They never tired of public 
processions. The highest aspiration of the most ambitious 
citizen was to enter Rome at the head of a victorious army, 
exhibiting rich spoils and captured enemies ; to pass ahmg 
the Sacred Way and the Forum amidst the acclamations of 
the people dressed in their holyday attire ; to ascend the 
Capitol, and in the temple of Jupiter to render thanks, in 
the name of the people, for the victory which the god had 


vouchsafed to them. Whilst the triumphant consular gen- 
eral ascended^he steps to the Capitol, the captive leader of 
the enemy was led into the dismal dungeon to die. (See in- 
stance of Caius Pontius, p. 33.) 

The triumphal processions were the first public rejoicings 
of the warlike peoj)le of Rome, hut at a very early period the 
so-called Great or Roman games were established, and several 
others in course of time. These games consisted at first of 
chariot racing and boxing, and were celebrated in the great 
race-course, between the Aventine and the Palatine. For a 
long time the Romans were contented with these innocent 
and bloodless exhibitions. But in the beginning of the Punic 
wars, the hideous gladiatorial combats (p. 101) were intro- 
duced. — Ihne. 


The Genius of Hannibal. — The Duke of Wellington 
was of opinion that Hannibal was the greatest of all 
generals. Twice in history has there been witnessed the 
struggle of the highest individual genius against the re- 
sources and institutions of a great nation ; and in both cases 
the nation has been victorious. For seventeen years Hanni- 
bal strove against Rome ; for sixteen years Napoleon Buona- 
parte strove against England: the efforts of the first ended 
in Zama, those of the second in Waterloo. 

It is not merely through our ignorance of the internal 
state of Carthage, that Hannibal stands so prominent in all 
our conceptions of the second Punic war; he was really its 
moving and directing power; and the energy of his coiintry 
was but a light reflected from his own. History therefore 
gathers itself into his single person ; in that vast tempest, 
which from north and south, from the west and the east, 
broke upon Italy, we see nothing but Hannibal. 


But if Hannibal's genius may be likened to the Homeric 
god, who in his hatred of the Trojans rises from the deep to 
rally the fainting Greeks, and to lead them against the 
enemy; so the calm courage with which Hector met his 
more than liuman adversary in his country's cause, is no 
nnworthy image of the nnyielding magnanimity displayed 
by the aristocracy of Eome. The senate which voted its 
thanks to its political enemy, Varro, after his disastrous 
defeat, " because he had not despaired of the Common- 
wealth," and which disdained either to solicit, or to reprove, 
or to threaten, or in any way to notice the twelve colonies 
which had refused their accustomed supplies of men for the 
army, is far more to be honored than the conqueror of 
Zania. Xever was the wisdom of God's providence more 
manifest than in the issue of the struggle between Eome 
und Carthage. It was clearly for the good of mankind, 
that Ilanniltal should be conquered : his triumph would 
have stopped the progress of the world. — Aunold. 

Hannibal at the G-ates of Rome (i). 4^).— Under the 
walls of Cusinuni, Hannibal remained encam})cd for two 
days, ravaging the country all around ; thence he came 
into the Fregellan territory, to the river Liris, where he 
found the bridge broken down by the Fregellans in order to 
impede his progress. A messenger from Fregella, who had 
traveled a day and a night without intermission, arriving 
at Rome, caused the greatest consternation ; and the whole 
city was thrown into a state of alarm l)y the running u\) and 
down of persons who made vague additions to what they 
heard, and thus increjised the confusion which the original 
intelligence created. The lamentations of women were not 
only heard from private houses, but the matrons from every 
quarter, rushing into the public streets, ran up and down 
around the shrines of the gods, sweeping the altars with 


their disheveled hair, tlirowing themselves upou their 
knees and stretching their uplifted hands to heaven and the 
gods, imploring them to rescue the city of Eome out of the 
hands of their enemies, and preserve the Eoman mothers 
and their children from harm. The senate sat in the forum 
near the magistrates, in case they should wish to consult 
them. Some were receiving orders and departing to their 
own department of duty; others were offering themselves 
wherever there might )je occasion for their aid. Troops 
were posted in the citadel, in the Capitol, upon the walls 
around the city, and also on the Alban mount, and the fort 
of^sula. Meanwhile, Hannibal advanced his camp to tho 
Auio, three miles from the city. Fixing his position there, 
he advanced with two thousand horse from the Colline gate 
as far as the temple of Hercules, and riding up, took as near 
a view as he could of the walls and site of the city. Flaccus, 
indignant that he should do this so freely and so much at 
his ease, sent out a party of cavalry, with orders to disi)lace 
and drive back to their camp the cavalry of tlie enem)\ 
After the figlit had begun, the consuls ordered the 
Numidian deserters who were on the Aventine, to the num- 
ber of twelve hundred, to march through the midst of the 
city to the Esquilias, judging tliat no troops were better 
calculated to fight among the hollows, the garden walls, and 
tombs, or in the enclosed roads which were on all sides. 
But some persons, seeing them from the citadel and Capitol 
as they filed off on horseback down the Pul)lician hill, 
cried out that the Aventine was taken. This circumstance 
occasioned such confusion and terror, that if the Cartha- 
ginian camp had not been without the city, the whole 
multitude, such was their alarm, would have rushed out. 
They then fled for refuge into their houses and upon the 
roofs, where they threw stones and weapons on their own 


soldiers as they passed aloug the streets, taking them for 
eiiemies. Nor could the tumult be rejDressed, or the mis- 
take explained, as the streets were througed with crowds 
of rustics and cattle, which the sudden alarm had driven 
into the city. The battle between the cavalry was success- 
ful, and the enemy were diiven away; and as it was 
necessary to repress the tumults which were arising in 
several quarters without any cause, it was resolved that all 
who had been dictators, consuls, or censors, should be 
invested with authority till such time as the enemy had 
retired from the wall. 

The next day Hannibal, crossing the Anio, drew out all 
his forces in order of battle ; nor did Flaccus and the 
consuls dechne to fight. When the troops on both sides 
were drawn up to try the issue of a battle, in which Eome 
was to be the prize of the victors, a violent shower of rain 
mingled with hail created such disorder in both the lines, 
that the troops, scarcely able to hold their arms, retired to 
their camps. On the following day, likewise, a similar 
tempest separated the armies marshaled on the same 
ground ; but after thoy had retired to their camps tlie 
weather became wonderfully serene and traiuiuil. The 
Carthaginians considered this circumstance as a Divine 
interposition, and it is reported that Hannibal was heard to 
say, that ''sometimes he wanted the will to make himself 
master of Rome ; at other times the opportunity." Two 
other circumstances also, one inconsiderable, the other 
important, diiniiiished his hopes. The important one was, 
that while he lay with his armed troo})S near the walls of 
the city, he was informed that troops had marched out of it 
with colors living, as a reinforcement for S])ain ; that of less 
importance was, tliat he \v;i- informed by one of his 
prisoners, that the very ground on which his camp stood 


was sold at tliis very time, without any diminution in its 
price. Indeed, so great an insult and indignity did it 
ai)pear to him tiiat a purchaser should be found at Rome 
fur the very soil which he held and possessed by right of 
conquest, that he immediately called a crier, and ordered 
that the silversmiths' shops, which at that time stood 
around the Eoman forum, should be put np for sale. 
Induced by these circumstances, he retired to the river 
Tutia, six miles from the city, whence he proceeded to the 
grove of Feronia, where was a temple at that time celebrated 
for its riches. The Oapenatians and the people of other states 
in the neighborhood, by bringing here their first fruits and 
other offerings according to their abilities, kept it decorated 
with al)undance of gold and silver. Of all these offerings the 
temple was now despoiled. After the departure of Hanni- 
bal, vast heaps of bniss were found there, as the soldiers, 
from a religious feeling, had thrown in pieces of uncoined 
brass. — Livy. 


At the Metaurus (p. 44). — In order to determine 
HannibaFs movements, Hasdrubal, when he left Pla- 
centia, sent off six horsemen, to say he was marching upon 
Etruria, and that the two brothers were to effect their junc- 
tion in Umbria. With marvelous skill and good fortune 
nasdrul)ars horsemen made their way through the whole 
length of Italy. But Hannibal's rapid movement into Brut- 
tin m disconcerted them : they attempted to follow him 
thither; but mistaking their way, and getting too near to 
Tarentum, they fell in with some foragers of the army of 
Q. Claudius, and were made prisoners. The praetor instantly 
sent them under a strong escort to Nero (the consul). They 
were the bearers of a letter from Hasdrubal to his brother, 


containing the whole plan of their future operations; it 
was written, not in cypher, but in the common Carthaginian 
language and character; and the interpreter read its con- 
tents in Latin to the consul. 

Nero took his resolution on the instant. He despatched 
the letter to the senate, urging the immediate recall of Ful- 
vius with his army from Capua to Rome ; the calling out of 
every Roman who could bear arms; and the marching for- 
ward of the two home legions to Narnia, to defend that nar- 
row gorge of the Flaminian road against the invader. At 
the same time he told the senate what he was going to do 
himself. He j^icked out 7000 men, of whom 1000 were horse, 
the flower of his whole army; he ordered them to hold them- 
selves in readiness for a secret expedition into Lucania, to 
surprise one of Hannibal's garrisons ; and as soon as it was 
dark, he pvit himself at their head, leaving his lieutenant, 
Q. Catius, in command of the main army, and began his 

His march was not towards Lucania. Already before he 
left his camp had he sent forward horsemen on the road lead- 
ing to Picenum and Umbria, witli the consul's orders tliat 
all the provisions of the country should be brought down 
to the road-side, that all horses and draught cattle should 
be led thither also, and carriages for the transport of the 
weaker or wearied soldiers. Life and deatii were upon his 
speed, — the life and death of his country. His march was 
towards the camp of his colleague, before Sena; his hope was 
to crush Hasdrubal with their combined and overwhelming 
for(;es, whilst Hannibal, wailing for that letter which he 
would never receive, should remain still in Apulia. 

When Xero had reached a sufficient distance from Hanni- 
bal, he disclosed the secret of his expedition to his soldiers. 
They felt the glory of their mission, and shared the spirit of 


their leader. Nor was it a little tliiug to witness the uni- 
versal enthusiasm which everywhere welcomed their march. 
Meu and women, the whole population of tlie country, 
crowded to the roadside ; meat, drink, clothing, horses, car- 
riages, were pressed upon the soldiers; and happy was the 
man from whom they would accept them. Every tongue 
blessed them as deliverers; incense rose on hastily built 
altars, where the people, kneeling as the army passed, poured 
forth prayers and vows to the gods for their safe and vic- 
torious return. The soldiers would scarcely receive what 
was offered to them ; they would not halt ; they ate stand- 
ing in their ranks ; night and day they hastened onwards, 
scarcely allowing themselves a brief interval of rest. In six 
or seven days the march was accomplished. Livius had been 
forewarned of his colleague's approach, and Nero entered the 
camp by night, concealing his arrival from Hasdrubal no less 
successfully than he had hidden his departure from Hannibal. 

The new comers were to be received into the tents of 
Livius' soldiers; for any enlargement of the camp would 
have betrayed the secret. They were more than seven thou- 
sand meu, for their numbers had been swelled on their march ; 
vetei'ans who had retired from war, and youths too young to 
be enlisted, having pressed Nero to let them share in his en- 
terprise. A council was held the next morning; and though 
Livius and L. Porcius, the prastor, urged Nero to allow his 
men some rest before he led them to battle, he pleaded so 
strongly the importance of not losing a single day lest Han- 
nibal should be upon their rear, that it was agreed to fight 
immediately. The red ensign was hoisted as soon as the 
council broke up ; and the soldiers marciied out and formed 
in order of battle. 

The enemy, whose camp, according to the system of ancient 
warfare, was only half a mile distant from that of the Ro- 


mans, marched out and formed iu Hue to meet them. But 
as Hasdrubal rode forward t) recouuoitre the Roman army, 
their increased numbers struck him ; and other circumstances, 
it is said, having increased his suspicions, he led back his 
men into their camp, and sent out some horsemen to collect 
information. The Romans then returned to their own camp ; 
and Hasdrubal's horsemen rode round it at a distance, to see 
if it were larger than usual, or in the hope of picking up 
some stragglers. One thing alone, it is said, revealed the 
secret : the trumpet, which gave the signal for the several 
duties of the day, was heard to sound as usual once in the 
camp of the prsetor, but twice in that of Livius. This, we 
are told, satisfied Hasdrubal that both the consuls were before 
him. Unable to understand how Xero had escaped from 
Hannibal, and dreading the worst, he resolved to retire to a 
greater distance from the enemy ; and having put out all his 
fires, he set his army in motion as soon as night fell, and 
retreated towards Metaurus. 

According to Livy, Hasdrubal marched back fourteen 
miles; but his guides deserted him and escaped unobserved 
in the darkness, so that, when the army reached Metaurus, 
they could not find the fords. He began to ascend the river, 
in the hope of passing it easily when daylight came, but its 
windings delayed him ; and as he ascended furtlier from the 
sea, he found the banks steeper and higher. 

Thus Hasdrubal was overtaken by the Romans and 
obliged to fight. It is clear from Polybius that he had 
encamped for the night after his wearisome march; and^ 
retreat being fatal to the discipline of barbarians, the 
Gauls became unmanageable, and indulged so freely in 
drinking, that, when morning dawned, many of them were 
lying drunk in their quarters, utterly unable to move. And 
now the Roman army was seen advancing in order of 


battle;. and Hasclrubal, finding it impossible to continue his 
retreat, marched out of his camp to meet tliem. 

His Gaulish infantry, as many as were fit for action, were 
stationed on his left, in a position naturally so strong as to 
be unassailable in front ; and its flank would probably be 
covered by the river. He himself took part with his Spanish 
infantry, and attacked the left wing of the Roman array, 
which was commanded by Livius (Nero's associate consul). 
Nero was ou the Eoman right, the prietor in the center. 

Between Hasdrubal and Livius, the battle was long and 
obstinately disputed, the elephants being, according to 
Polybius, an equal hindrance to both parties ; for, galled by 
the missiles of the Romans, they broke sometimes into their 
own ranks, as well as into those of- the enemy. Meanwhile, 
Nero, seeing that he could make no progress on his front, 
drew his troops out of the line, and, passing round on the 
rear of the praitor and of Livius, fell upon the right flank 
and the rear of the enemy. Then the fate of the day was 
decided; and the Spaniards, outnumbered and surrounded, 
were cut to pieces in their ranks, resisting to the last. Then 
too, when all was lost, Hasdrubal spurred his horse into the 
midst of a Roman cohort, and there fell sword in hand, 
fighting, says Livy, " with honorable sympathy, as became 
the son of Hamilcar and the brother of Hannibal." 

The conquerors immediately stormed the Carthaginian 
camp, and there slaughtered many of the Gauls, whom they 
found still lying asleep in the helplessness of brute intoxica- 
tion. The spoil of the camp was rich, amounting in value 
to 300 talents: of the elephants, six were killed in the 
action; the other four were taken alive. All the Cartha- 
ginian citizens who had followed Hasdrubal, were cither 
killed or taken ; and 3000 Roman prisoners, Avho were 
found in the camp, were restored to liberty. 


With no less haste than he had marched from Apuha, 
Nero hastened back thither to rejoin his army. All was 
quiet there: Haunibal still lay in his camp, waiting for 
intelligence from Hasdrubal. He received it too soon, not 
.from Hasdrubal, but from Nero. The Carthaginian 
prisoners were exhibited exultiugly before his camp ; tvv^o 
of them were set at liberty, and sent to tell him the story of 
their defeat; and a head was thrown down in scorn before 
his outposts, if his soldiers might know whose it was. They 
took it up, and brought to Hannibal the head of his brother. 
He had not dealt so with the remains of the Koman 
generals: but of this Xero recked nothing; he was as in- 
different to justice and humanity in his dealings with an 
enemy, as his imperial descendants afterward showed them- 
selves towards Rome, and all mankind.* — Arnold. 

An Atonement, a Suspense, and a Thanksgiving. — 
[Before the Battle of Metaurus.] The popular mind, tortured 
by religious terrors, now saw everywhere signs of the divine 
anger, and it gave itself up to horrid delusions, and to the 
cruelty of superstition. Again it rained stones, rivers ran 
blood, and temples, walls, and gates of towns were struck 
by lightning. But more than usual terror was caused by 
the birth of a greatly deformed child. Soothsayers were 
specially sent for from Etruria, and at their suggestion the 
wretched creature was placed in a box and cast into the sea 
far from the coast. Then the pontitices ordained a grand 
national festival of atonement. From the temple of Apollo 
before the town, the procession marched solemnly to the 

♦ Ten yoarn harl papfod sirce Hiiniiibal had lact sazcfl on those features. The 
»on« <:f hml tl)eii planiK^d tlicir pyslciii of warfare a[;ainst Rome, whieli 
Ihey had m> nearly l)nin^'ht to >iiicce>'sftil accoinpli'^hmi'iit Year after year liad 
Hannibal t>een Hiru'.'tdint; in Italy, in the hope of one day hailing the unival of liim 
whom he had li-ft in S|»ain, and of Hcpinc: hin brotherV eye fli.-h with afl'ection and 
pride al the jnnetion of their irreni«til)le hof<tK. He now saw lint eve irlazed in 
dea'li, and in Itn,- a'.'nny of his In-art the ijreat Carthaginian groaned aloud that he* 
ri-co;,Tiiztd his couniryV destiny.— Cbeamy. 


Forum. At its head walked two wliite cows, led by sacri- 
ficial servants; behind them were carried two statues of the 
royal Juno, made of cypress wood ; then followed three 
times nine virgins in long flowing garments, walking in a 
single line and holding on to a rope, singing to the 
measured time of their footsteps, in honor of the goddess, 
a hymn, which Livius Andronicus (p. 83), had composed 
for this special occasion. At the end of the procession 
came the ten officers who presided over sacrificial rites, 
crowned with laurel and clothed in purple- bordered togas. 
From the Forura the procession went, after a short pause, 
up to tlie temple of Juno on the Aventine. Here the two 
cows were sacrificed by the ten sacrificial priests, and the 
statues were put up in the temple of the goddess. — Ihne. 

[After the Battle of Metaurus.] From the moment that 
Nero's march from the south had been heard of at Eome, 
intense anxiety possessed the whole city. Every day the 
senate sat from sunrise to sunset, and not a senator was 
absent; every day the forum was crowded from morning 
till evening, for any hour might bring some great tidings, 
and every man wished to be among the first to hear them. 
A doubtful rumor arose, that a great battle had been fought, 
and a great victory won only two days before : two horsemen 
of Narnia had ridden off from the field to carry the news to 
their home; it had been heard and published in the camp of the 
reserve army, which was lying at Namia to cover the approach 
to Eome. But men dared not lightly believe what they so 
much wished to be true : and how, they said, could a battle 
fought in the extremity of TJmbria be heard of only two 
days after at Eome ? Soon, however, it Avas known that 
a letter had arrived from L. Manlius Acidinus himself, who 
commanded the army at Narnia : the horsemen had cer- 
tainly arrived from the field of battle, and brought tidings 


of a glorious victory. The letter was read first in the 
senate, and then in the forum from the rostra ; but some 
still refused to believe: fugitives from a battle-field miglit 
carry idle tales of victory to hide their own shame : till the 
account came directly from the consuls, it was rash to credit 
it. At last, word was brought that officers of high rank in 
the consuls' army were on their way to Rome ; that they 
bore a despatch from Livius and Nero. Then the whole 
city poured out of the walls to meet them, eager to anticipate 
the moment which was to confirm all their hopes. For two 
miles, as far as tlie Milvian bridge over the Tiber, the crowd 
formed an uuinterrupted mass ; and when the officers 
appeared, they could scarcely make their Avay to the city, 
the multitude thronging around them, and overwhelming 
them and their attendants with eager questions. As each 
man learnt the jo^-ful answers, he made haste to tell them to 
others: "The enemy's army is destroyed; their gen- 
eral SLAIN ; our own legions and both the consuls 
are safe!" So tlie crowd re-entered the city; and the 
three officers, all men of noble names, still followed by the 
thronging multitude, at last reached the senate-house. 
The iieo[)lc pressed after them into the senate-house itself: 
but even at such a moment the senate forgot not its accus- 
tomed order; the crowd was forced back; and the consuls' 
desjtatch was first read to the senatoj-s alone. Immediately 
afterwards the officers came out into the forum; there 
L. Vetnrius again road the despatch ; and as its contents 
were short, and it told only the general result of the battle, 
he himself related the particulars of what he had seen and 
done. The interest of his hearers grew more intense with 
every word ; till at last the whole multitude broke out into 
a universal cheer, and then rushed from the formii in all 
directions lo carry the news to their wives and children at 


home, or ran to the temple to pour out their gratitude to 
the gods. The senate ordered a thanksgiving of three days; 
the prffitor announced it in the forum ; and for three days 
every temple was crowded ; and the Eonian wives and 
mothers, in tlicir gayest dresses, took their children with 
them, and poured forth their thanks to all the gods for this 
great deliverance. The Roman people seemed at last to 
breathe and move tit liberty: confidence revived; and, in 
the joy of the moment, men almost forgot that their 
great enemy with his unbroken army was still in Italy. — 


The emperor Claudius composed a work on Carthage in 
eight books, and to give it every chance of surviving to later 
ages, he built a new lecture-hall adjoining the museum at 
Alexandria, and provided an endowment for having his 
work read publicly every year. In spite, however, of the 
illustrious position of the writer, there is every reason to 
suppose that the "Claudian Headers of Punic History" 
soon found themselves in possession of a sinecure. To the 
best of our knowledge, there is only one allusion to these 
readers in all subsequent time, and none whatever to the 
book they were paid to read. It would seem that with 
nations as with individuals a spiritual vitality is the only 
secret against oblivion. Carthage occupies in history a 
middle place between the gigantic despotisms of Mesopotamia 
and Egypt, and the vigorous political organizations of the 
Hellenic and Italian peninsulas. But it is remarkable that 
this middle place has been won only by contact with the 
last. Eome destroyed her rival and in that act immortalized 

Even in her best davs, Carthage was Avithout any litera- 


ture worthy the name. The only Punic author known was 
a writer on agriculture. Hannibal wrote the history of a 
campaign, but so little did he esteem his own language that 
he composed it in Greek, although, as Cicero tells us, he 
was by no means a master of that fongue. No trace sur- 
vives of a Punic art or architecture. The iVfrican 
millionaire was able by his constant trading-relations with 
the Greeks of Sicily to ornament his house with the works 
of foreign artists to any extent. And when Carthage was 
takan, its dwellings were full of Greek statues, and its 
temples of offerings brought from Sicily, or Southern Italy. 
J5ut Carthage was a commercial community absorbed in the 
pursuit of Avealth. Consequently, irrigation, mining, and 
navigation, were carried to a high pitch ; while the com- 
mercial arrangements necessitated by the extended inter- 
course of modern nations, were to a considerable extent 
anticipated by the Carthaginians. They alone of all the 
ancient peoples possessed a conventional currency. Their 
^' leaf Iter money" — precursor of modern bills of exchange; 
and their 'Uesserce Jiospitales" — the " letters of credit " of 
an early age; as well as their wide-extended trading- 
establishments (factories), show that they had two important 
elements of a commercial character, viz. : enteri)rise and 
good faith. "Fides Piniica" may have conveyed far 
different meanings to a Cornish tin-miner, and a Eoman 

The coasts of the Mediterranean were so thickly strewn 
with Carthaginian settlements that long after Carthage fell 
the best land along the coast of Gaul and Spain was still in 
the hands of men of Punic blood; and, perhaps, even at this 
day a harvest of Punic words could be reaped by a compe- 
tent scholar from the local dialects of Malta, Corsica, Sar- 
dinia, or, may bi-, from the vulgarisms of ('adiz, and Lisbon. 


But while Carthage, from her wide commerce, attained a ma- 
terial prosperity so enormous that the very spoils demoral- 
ized her destroyers, she left no legacy to posterity by which 
mankind has been enriched, except the moral to be drawn 
from her fate, — that a nation which has no higher aim than 
to get rich, is doomed not only to certain destruction, but to 
as certain oblivion. — Edinburgh Review, 


Cato grew powerful by his eloquence, so that he was 
commonly called the Roman Demosthenes ; but hia man- 
ner of life was yet more famous and talked of. He him- 
self says that he never wore a suit of clothes which cost 
more than a hundred drachmas; and that, when he was 
general and consul, he drank the same wine which his work- 
men did ; and that the meat or fish which was bought in the 
meat market for his dinner, did not cost above thirty asses.* 
All which was for the sake of tlie commonwealth, that so his 
body might be the hardier for the war. 

And when he entered upon the government of Sardinia, 
where his predecessors had been used to require tents, bed- 
ding, and clothes upon the public account, and to charge the 
state heavily with the cost of provisions and entertainment 
for a great train of servants and friends, the difference he 
showed in his economy was something incredible. There was 
nothing of any sort for which he put the public to expense; 
he would walk without a carriage to visit the cities, Avith 
only one common town-oflfieer, who carried his dress and a 
cup to offer libation with. Yet though he seemed thus easy 
and sparing to all who were under his power, he, on the 

* The drachma was worth about 18 cents ; the value of the as at this time was 
not far from half a cent. 


other hand, showed most inflexible severity and strictness in 
what related to public Justice, and was rigorous and precise 
in what concerned, the ordinances of the commonwealth ; so 
that the Roman government never seemed more terrible, nor 
yet more mild than under his administration. 

Ten years after his consulship, Cato stood for the oflace of 
censor, which was indeed the summit of all honor, and in a 
manner the highest step in civil affairs ; for besides all other 
power, it had also that of an inquisition into every one's life 
and manners. For the Romans 'thought that no marriage or 
rearing of children, nay, no feast or driuking-l)out, ought to 
be permitted according to every one's appetite or fancy, 
without being examined and inquired into ; being of opinion, 
that a man's character was much sooner perceived in things 
of this sort than in what is done publicly and in open day.* 
They chose, therefore, two persons, one out of the patricians, 
the other out of the commons, who were to watch, correct, 
and punish, if any one ran too much into voluptuousness or 
transgressed the usual manner of life in his country; and 
these were called Censors. They had power to take away a 
horse, or expel out of the senate any one who lived intem- 
perately arid out of ordei-. It was also their business to take 
an estimate of what every one was worth, and to put down 
in registers everybody's birth and quality ; besides many 
other prerogatives. 

His treatment of Lucius, a brother of Scipio, and one who 
had been honored with a triumph, occasioned some odium 

♦ The Romans with their narrow views of life, tlieir ruptic parsimony, and their 
military likinj; for coercive meaciires, di-lijjhted in nieddliiiK in the affairs of private 
life, in prescribintf how many (lute-players Klionld be allowed at a fiiiier'il. how 
miieh filver jdale people should have in their houses, what ornaments they might 
exhibit in their dress. Even in the Twelve Tallies there are tnices of very niinnto 
regulation" of this kind ; and in sjiito of all the teaching of experience and all the 
evidence of the useleusness of sueh resirleiions, ilie Romans coniinued to hope that 
Bach fcarccroWB would keep off immorality.— Iune. 


ao-ainst Cato ; for lie took liis horse from him, and was 
thought to do it with a design of putting an affront on 
Scipio Africnims, now dead. Manilius, also, who, according 
to the public expectation, would have been next consul, he 
threw out of the senate, because, in the presence of his 
daughter, and in open day, he had kissed his wife. But he 
gave most general annoyance, by retrenching people's luxury; 
for though (most of the youth being thereby already 
corrupted) it seemed almost impossible to take it away with 
an open hand and directly, yet, going as it were, obliquely 
around, he caused all dress, carriages, women's ornaments, 
and household furniture, whose price exceeded one thousand 
five hundred drachmas, to be rated at ten times as much as 
they were worth ; intending by thus making the assessments 
greater, to increase the taxes paid upon them. He also 
ordained that upon every thousand asses of property of this 
kind, three should be paid, so that people burdened with 
extra charges, and seeing others of as good estates, but more 
frugal and sparing, paying less into the public exchequer, 
might be tired out of their prodigality. And thus, not 
only those who bore the taxes for the sake of their luxury, 
were disgusted at Cato, but those, too, who on the other 
side laid by their luxury for fear of the taxes. 

However, the people, it seems, hked his censorship 
wondrously well ; for, setting up a statue for him in the 
temple of the goddess of Health, they put an inscription 
under it, not recording his commands in war, or his triumph, 
but to the effect, that this was Cato the Censor, who by his 
good discipline and wise and temperate ordinances, reclaimed 
the Roman commonwealth when it was declining and sink- 
ing down into vice. — Plutarch. 

The Debate of Cato the Censor and Lucius Valerius 
upon the Oppian law (107 b.o.).— Amid the serious con- 


cerus of important Avars, iin incident intervened, trivial to be 
mentioned, but which, through the zeal of the parties con- 
cerned, issued in a violent contest. Marcus Fundanius and 
Lucius Valerius, plebeian tribunes, proposed to the people 
the repealing of the Oppian law. This law, which had been 
introduced by Caius Oppias, during the heat of the Punic 
war, enacted that "no woman should possess more than 
half an ounce of gold, or wear a garment of various colors, 
or ride in a carriage drawn by horses, in a city, or any 
town, or any place nearer thereto than one mile ; except on 
occasion of some public religious solemnity." Marcus and 
Publius Junius Brutus, plebeian tribunes, supported the 
Oppian law, and declared, that they would never suffer it to 
be repealed; while many of the nobility stood forth to argue 
for and against the motion proposed. The Capitol was 
filled with crowds, who favored, or opposed the law; nor 
could the matrons be kept at home, either by advice, or 
shame, nor even by tlie commands of their husbands ; but 
beset every street and pass in the city, l)eseeching the men 
as they went down to the forum, that in the present 
flourishing state of the commonwealth, when the private 
fortune of all was daily increasing, they would suii'er the 
women to have their former ornaments of dress restored,. 
This throng of women increased daily, for they arrived even 
from the country towns and villages ; and they had at 
length the boldness to come up to the consuls, praetors, and 
magistrates, to urge their request. One. of the consuls, 
however, they found especially inexorable — Marcus Porcius 
Cato, who spoke to this effect: — 

"If, HoniMn.-;, every individual among us had made it a 
rule to niuiutain the ])rerogative and authority of a husband 
with respect to his own wife, we should luive less trouble 
with the whole sex. But now, our [nivilcuc-', overixjwered 


at home by female contumacy, are, even here in the forum, 
spurned and trodden under foot ; and because we are unable 
to withstand each separately, we now dread their collective 
body. It was not without painful emotions of shame that 
I just now made my way into the forum through the midst 
of a band of women. Had I not been restrained by respect 
for the modesty and dignity of some individuals among 
them, rather than of the whole number, and been unwilling 
that they should be seen rebuked by a consul, I should have 
said to them, ' What sort of practice is this, of running out 
into public, besetting the streets and addressing other women's 
husbands ? Could not each have made the same request 
toiler husband at home? Are your blandishments more 
seducing in public than in private ; and with other women's 
husbands, than with your own ? Although, if the modesty 
of matrons confined them within the limits of their own 
rights, it does not become you, even at home, to concern 
yourselves about what laws may be passed, or repealed here.' 
Our ancestors thought it not proper that women should 
perform any, even private business, without a director ; but 
that they should be always under the control of parents, 
brothers, or husbands. Now, it seems, we suffer them to 
interfere in the management of state affairs, and to intro- 
duce themselves into the forum, into general assemblies, and 
into assemblies of election. For what are they doing, at this 
moment, in your streets and lanes ? What, but arguing : 
some in support of the motion of the plebeian tribunes ; 
others, for the repeal of the law ? Will you give the reins 
to their intractable nature, and then expect that themselves 
should set bounds to their licentiousness, when you have 
failed to do so ? What will they not attempt, if they now 
come off victorious ? 

"Recollect all the institutions respecting the sex, by which 


our fore|athcrs restrained their iiiidne freedouij and snbjected 
them to their husbauds; and yet, even with the help of all 
these restrictions, you can scarcely keep them within bounds. 
If, then, you suffer them to throw these off one by one, to 
tear them all asunder, and, at last, to be set on an equal 
footing with yourselves, can you imagine that they will be 
any longer tolerable? The moment they have arrived at an 
equality witli you, they will have become your superiors. 

I should like, however, to hear what this important 

affair is which has induced the matrons thus to run out into 
public in this excited manner, scarcely restraining from push- 
ing into the forum and the assembly of the people. Is it to 
solicit that their parents, their husbands, children, and 
brothers, may be ransomed from captivity under Hannibal ? 
By no means: and far be ever from the commonwealth so 
unfortunate a situation. Yet, even when such was the case, 
you refused this, to their prayers. What motive, that even 
common decency wnll allow to be mentioned, is pretended for 
this female insurrection? Whf/, say they, that ice may shine 
in gold and purple ; that, both on festal and common days, 
we may ride through the city in our chariots, triumphing over 
vanquished and al)rogaled law, after having captured and 
wrested from you your suffrages ; and that there may he no 
hounds to our expenses and our luxury ! 

" Often have you heard me complain of the profuse expenses 
of the women — often of tho.^e of the men ; and that not only 
of men in private stations, but of the magistrates: and that 
the state was endangered by two oi)posite vice.-:, luxury and 
avarice ; those pests, which have been the ruin of all great 
emjtircs. These do I dread the more, as the circumsfanccs 
of the commonwealth grow daily more pros])erous and happy; 
a.s the empire increases; as we have now passed over into 
Greece and Asia, — places abounding with every kind of 


temptiitiou can inflame the passions; and as wo have 
begun to handle even royal treasures : so much the more do 
I fear that these matters will bring us into captivity, rather 
than we them. Believe me, those statues from Syracuse 
were l)rouglit into this city with hostile effect. I already 
hear too many commending and admiring the decorations of 
Athens and Corinth, and ridiculing the earthen images of our 
Roman gods that stand on the fronts of their temples. For 
my part, I prefer these gods, — propitious as they are, and as 
I hope will continue to be, if we allow them to remain in 
their own mansions. Within the memory of our fathers, 
Pyrrhus, by his ambassador, Cineas, made trial of the dispo- 
sitions, not only of our men but of our women also, by offers 
of presents. At that time the Oppian law had not been 
made ; and yet not one woman accepted a present. If Cineas 
were now to go round the city with his presents, he would 
find numbers of women standing in the public streets to i-e- 

ceive them Of all kinds of shame, the worst, 

surely, is the being ashamed of frugality or of poverty; but 
the law relieves you with regard to both; since that which 
you have not it is unlawful for you to possess. ' This equali- 
zation,' says the rich matron, 'is the very thing that I can- 
not endure. Why do not I make a figure, distinguished with 
gold and purple ? Why is the poverty of others concealed 
under this cover of a law, so that it should be thought that, 
if the law permitted, they would have such things as they 
are not now able to procure ?' Komansl do you wish to ex- 
cite among your wives an emulation of this sort ? As 

soon as the law shall cease to limit the expenses of your wife, 
you yourself will never be able to do so. Do not suppose 
that the matter will hereafter be in the same state in which 
it was before this law was made. It is safer that a wicked 
man should never be accused, than that he should be acquit- 


ted; and luxury, if it had never been meddled with, would 
be more tolerable than it will be, now, like a wild beast, 
iiTitated by having been chained, and then let loose. My 
opinion is, that the Oppian law ought, on no account, to be 
. repealed. Whatever determination you may come to, I pray 
all the gods to prosper it." 

Then Lucius Valerius spoke in support of the 

measure he had himself introduced : — 

" If this law had been passed for the purpose of 

setting a limit to the passions of the sex, there would be 
reason to fear lest the repeal of it might operate as an 
excitement to them. But the real reason of its being 
passed, the time itself will show. Hannibal was then in 
Italy, victorious at Cann^fi: he already held possession of 
Tarentum, of Arpi, of Caj^ua, and seemed ready to 
bring up his army to the city of Rome. Our allies had 
deserted us. We had neither soldiers to fdl up the legions, 
nor seamen to man the fleet, nor money in the treasury. 
Slaves Avho were to be employed as S(jldiers, were purchased 
on condition of their price being paid to the owners at the 
cud (jfthe war. The farmers of the revcuues had declared 
that they would contract to supply grain and other matters 
wliich the exigencies of the war required, to be paid for at 
the same time. We gave up our slaves to the oar, in num- 
bers proportioned to our i)roperties, and paid them out of 
our own incomes. All our gold and silver we dedicated to 
the use of the puldic. Widows and minors lodged their 
money in the treasury. It was provided by law that we 
should not keep in our houses more than a certain quantity 
of wrought gold or silver, or more than a certain sum of 
coined silver or Itrass. At such a lime as this, were the 
matrons so eagerly cngni^a'd in hixnry and dress, that the 
Oppian law was recpiisilo to rei)ress such practices ? 


Shall we men wear the purple bordered gown in magistracies 
and priests' offices ? Shall our children wear gowns bor- 
dered with purple? Shall we allow the j^rivilege of Avearing 
the toga praetexta to the magistrates of the colonies and 
borough towns, and to the very lowest of them here at 
Eome, even to the superintendents of the streets ; and shall 

we interdict the use of purple to women alone ? 

Elegance of appearance, and ornaments, and dress, these are 
women's badges of distinction; in these they delight and 

gloi'y ; these our ancestors called the woman's world " 

Although all these considerations had been urged against 
the motion and in its favor, the women next day poured out 
into the public in much greater numbers, and in a body 
beset the doors of the tribunes who liad protested against 
the measure of their colleagues; nor did they retire until 
this intervention was withdrawn. Thus was this law an- 
nulled, in the twentieth year after it had been made.— Livy. 




The New Nobility. — While Eome was thus acquiring 
the dominion of the civihzed world, her internal state was 
marked by the decay of the old Roman virtues, the dissolu- 
tion of the bonds of her old constitution, and the beginning 
of new troubles that were to end only with the fall of the 
Republic. The old distinction of patricians, clients, and 
plebeians had vanished. With the admission of the 
plebeians to the higher magistracies, the increasing power of 
wealth to influence elections, and the custom of admitting 
those who had held the offices of state to the Senate, a new 
nobility had arisen, under the names of the Optiraates, and 
a rabble, misnamed plebeian, had grown up by their side. 
The nobility were in possession of the Senate, whose initia^ 
*tive in legislation had grown into the dominant power in 
the state ; and the old equality of the Roman citizens was 
publicly annulled l)y the innovation carried by the elder 
Africanus, in his second consulship (B.C. 194), of assigning 
the front seats in the theater to the senatorial order. The 
curule offices, and consequently the senate, became more 
and more the virtual inheritance of a few great houses, and 
the entrance of a "new man" into the well-fenced circle 
was regarded as an usur])ation, unless he had some close 
personal tie with the noble families. 

Public Improvements. — Meanwhile, the growth of the 
empire itself alisorbod a largL^ proi)ortiou of the new reve- 
nues in roads, bridges, a(|ueducts, and those other works 
which tiie Romans never performed negligently, besides the 


expenses of civil admiaistration. Large sums were ex- 
pended in perfecting the system of roads in Italy itself; and 
the public works in the capital and its neighborhood formed 
some of the best uses of the public wealth. The construc- 
tion of the great system of sewers which ramified beneath 
the city from the Cloaca Maxima,* appears to have been 
contracted for in b. c. 180, Six years later, the streets of 
Eome were paved. 

In B. c. 160, the Pomptine marshes were drained; and 
P. Scipio Nasica, in his consulship in the following year, set 
up a public clepsydra, or water-clock, the city of Eome hav- 
ing gone on for six centuries without any accurate means of 
knowing the time by night as well as day. But the most 
magnificent work of this period was the great aqueduct con- 
structed under the direction of the Senate, in b. c. 144. 
Eome had hitherto been supplied with water by only two of 
the fourteen aqueducts which spanned the Campagna with 
their long line of arches, and of Avhich three still suffice to 
bring into the city a pure and copious stream that puts our^ 
boasted sanitary science to shame. — Philip Smith. 


Tiberius and Caius Gracchus (p. 51) were the sons of 
Tiberius Gracchus, who, though he had been once censor, twice 
consul, and twice had triumphed, yet was more renowned and 

* This immense Sewer, constructed by Tarquin (p. 18) to drain the marshy 
hollows between the hiils, and which astonished the Augustan age in that its 
massive structure had resisted time, earthquakes, and inundations for 600 years, 
BtiU remains "with scarcely a stone displaced." The cleanliness and perfect 
ventilation of these ancient watercourses may be inferred from the fact that the 
public-spirited sedile Agrippa (son-in-law to Augustus Caesar and erector of many 
splendid buildings, including the Pan thf'or) is said to have sailed through them to 
the Tiber in his barge. "An idea of their vastness may be obtained," says Story, 
" from the fact that the mere cleansing of them was on one occasion contracted for 
at no less a sum than 3000 talents " (about $3,000,000).— E. B. S. 


esteemed for his virtue tlian his honors. Upon this account, 
after the death of Scipio who ov<?rthrew Hannibal, he was 
thought worthy to match with his daughter Cornelia, though 
there had been no friendship or familiarity between Scipio 
and him, but rather the contrary. There is a story told, 
that he once found in his bedchamber a couple of snakes, 
and that the soothsayers, being consulted concerning the 
prodigy, advised that he should neither kill them both 
nor let them both escape ; adding, that if the male serpent 
was killed, Tiberius should die, and if the female, Cornelia. 
And that, tlierefore, Tiberius, who extremely loved his wife 
and thought, besides, that it w^as much more his part, who 
was an old man, to die, than it was hers, who as yet was but 
a young woman, killed the male serpent, and let the female 
escape; and, soon after, himself died, leaving behind him 
twelve children borne to him by Cornelia. 

Cornelia, taking upon herself all the care of the household 
and the education of her children, approved herself so dis- 
creet a matron, so affectionate a mother, and so constant and 
noble-spirited a widow, that Tiberius seemed to all men to 
have done nothing unreasonable, in choosing to die for such 
a woman ; who, when king Ptolemy himself proffered lier his 
crown, and would have married her, refused it, and cliose 
rather to live a widow. In this state she continued, and lost 
all her children, except one daughter, who was married to 
Scipio the younger, and two sons, Tiberius and Caius, whose 
lives we are now writing. 

These she brought up with such care, that though they 
were without dispute in natural endowments and dispositions 
the first among the Romans of tiieir time, yet they seemed to 
owe their virtues even more to tlieir education than to their 
birth. And as, in t he statues and pictures made of Castor and 
Pollux, though the brothers reseml)le each olher, yet there 


IS a difference to be perceived in their countenances, between 
the one, who dehghted in the cestus, and the other, that 
was famous in tlie course, so between these two noble youths, 
though there was a strong general likeness in their common 
love of fortitude and temperance, in their liberality, their 
eloquence, and their greatness of mind, yet in their actions 
and administrations of public affairs, a considerable variation 
showed itself. It will not be amiss, before we proceed, to 
mark the difference between them. 

Tiberius, in the form and expression of his countenance, 
and in his gesture and motion, was gentle and composed; 
but Caius, earnest and vehement. And so in their public 
speeches to the people, the one spoke in a quiet, orderly 
manner, standing throughout on the same si)ot ; the other 
would walk about on the hustings, and in tbe heat of his 
orations pull his gown off his shoulders, and was the first of 
all the Eomans that used such gestures. Cains' oratory 
was impetuous and passionate, making everything tell to the 
utmost ; wiiereas Tiberius was gentle, rather, and persuasive, 
awakening emotions of pity. His diction Avas pure, and 
carefully correct, while that of Caius was vehement and rich. 

The same difference that appeared in their diction, was 
observable also in their tempers. The one was mild and 
reasonable, the other rough and passionate, and to that 
degree, that often, in the midst of speaking, he was so har- 
ried away by his passion against his judgment, that his voice 
lost its tone, and he began to pass into mere abusive talking, 
spoiling his whole speech. As a remedy to this excess, he 
made use of an ingenious servant of his, one Licinius, who 
stood constantly behind him with a sort of i:)itch2)ipe, or 
instrument to regulate the voice by, and whenever he per- 
ceived his master's tone alter and break with anger, he 
struck a soft note with his pipe, on heaiing which, Caius 


immediately checked the vehemeuce of his pussion and his 
voice, grew quieter, aiid allowed himself to be recalled to 
temper. Such are the differences between the two brothers; 
but their valor in war against their country's enemies, their 
justice in the government of its subjects, their care and in- 
dustry in office, and their self-command in. all that regarded 
their i)leasure3 were equally remarkable in both. 

Tiberius was the elder by nine years; owing to which their 
actions as public men were divided by the difference of the 
times in which those of the one and those of the other were 
performed. And one of the principal causes of the failure 
of their enterprises was this interval between their careers, 
and the want of combination of their efforts. The power 
they would have exercised, had they flourished both together, 
could scarcely have failed to overcome all resistance. — 


" The mother of the Gracchi cast the dust of her murdered 
sons into the air. and out of it sprung Caius Marius." — 


The father of Marius was a day laborer, and ho himself 
served in the ranks in Spain. Soon made an officer, Marius 
won Scipio's favor as a brave, frugal, incorruptible and trusty 
soldier. On coming home, he was lucky enough to marry 
the aunt of Julius Cassar, whose high birth and wealth 
opened the door to state honors, which to a man of his origin 
was at this time virtually closed. In 119 b. c. he was tribune, 
and had won the reputation of an upright and patriotic 
politiciiin, who would truckle neither to the nobles nor the 
mob. Jn 11.0 he gained the pnetorship, and in Spain the 
next year he showed his usual vigor in putting down brig- 
andage. With the soldiers ho was as jjopular as Xev was 


with Napoleon's armies, for he was one of them, rough- 
spoken as they were, fond of a cup of wine, and never scorn- 
ing to share their toils. While he was with Metellus at 
Utica, a soothsayer propliesied that the gods had great things 
in store for him, and he asked Metellus for leave to go to 
Eome and stand for the consulship. Metellus replied that 
when his own son stood for it, would he time enough for 
Marius. The man at whom he sneered resented sneers. He 
at once set to work to undermine the credit of his com- 
mander with the army, the Roman merchants, and Gauda, 
saying, that he himself would soon bring the war to an end 
if he were general. Gauda and the rest wrote to Rome, 
urging that Marius should have the army. Metellus, with 
the worst grace, let him go just twelve days before election. 
But the favorite of the gods had a fair wind, and traveled 
night and day. The artisans of the city and the country 
class from which he sprang thronged to hear him abuse 
Metellus, and boast how soon he would capture or kill Ju- 
gurtha, and he was triumphantly elected consul for the year 
107. But already there were drops of bitterness in the sweet 
cup of success. It was Metellus who was called Numidicus, 
not he, and it was Sulla (p. 53) whose dare-devil knavery had 
entrapped the king. Marius fumed at the credit gained by 
these aristocrats; and when there was dedicated on the 
Capitol a representation of Sulla receiving Jugurtha's sur- 
render, he could not conceal his wrath. 

Sulla was the very antipodes of Marius in every thing 
except bravery, good generalship, and faith in his star. He 
was an aristocrat. He was dissolute. He was an admirer 
of Hellenic literature. War was not his all in all as a 
profession. If he had a lion's courage, the fox in him was 
even more to be feared. He, like Marius, owed his rise 
partly to a woman, but, characteristically, to a mistress, not 


a wife. If the boorish nature of the one degenerated with 
age into bloodthirsty brutality, the other was from the first 
cynically destitute of feeling. He would send men to death 
with a jest, and the coldblooded, calculating, remorseless 
infamy of his entire career excites a repulsion which we feel 
for no other great figure in history. Sulla's whole soul must 
have recoiled from the coarse manners of the man under 
whom he first won distinction, and, as he saw him gradually 
floundering into villainy, have felt the supreme superiority 
of a natural genius for vice. — Beesly. 


The Man. — In person, Caesar (p. 58) was tall and slight. 
His features were more refined than was usual in Roman 
faces ; the forehead was wide and high, the nose large 
and thin, the lips full, the eyes dark gray like an eagle's, 
the neck extremely thick and sinewy. His complexion 
was pale. His beard and mustache were kei)t carefully 
shaved. His hair was short and naturally scanty, falling 
off toward the end of his life and leaving him partially 
bald. His voice, especially when he sj)oke in public, was 
high and shrill. His health was uniformly strong until his 
last year, when he became subject to epileptic tits. He was 
a great bather, and scrupulously clean in all his habits, 
abstemious in his food, and careless in what it consisted, 
rarely or never touching wine, and noting sobriety as the 
highest of (pialities when describing any new people. He 
was an atlilete in early life, admirable in all manly exercises, 
and especially in riding. In (ianl, as has already been said, 
h(! rode a remarkable horse, which he had bred himself, and 
which would let no one but Cffisar mount him. From his 
boyhood it was observed of him that he was the truest of 


friends, that he avoided quarrels, and Avas most easily 
appeased when offended. In manner he was quiet and 
gentlemanlike, with the natural courtesy of high-breeding.* 

The Soldier. — It was by accident that Ctesar took up the 
profession of a soldier ; yet perhaps no commander who 
ever lived showed gi'eater military genius. The conquest of 
Gaul was effected by a force uhmerically insignificant whicli 
was worked with the precision of a machine. The variety 
of uses to which it Avas capable of being turned implied, in 
the first place, extraordinary forethought in the selection of 
materials. Men whose nominal duty was merely to fight, 
were engineers, architects, and mechanics of the highest 
order. In a few hours they could extemporize an impreg- 
nable fortress on an open hillside. They bridged the Rhine 
in a week. They built a fleet in a month. The legions at 
Alesia held twice their number pinned within tlieir works, 
wliile they kept at bay the whole force of insurgent Gaul, 
entirely by scientific superiority. The machine, which was 
thus perfect, was composed of human l)eings who required 
supplies of tools, and arms, and clothes, and food, and 
shelter ; and for all these it depended on the forethought of 
its commander. Maps there wore none. Countries entirely 
unknown had to be surveyed; routes had to be laid out ; the 
depths and courses of rivers, and the character of mountain 

passes, had all to bo ascertained Ca?sar's greatest 

eucccsses were due to the rapidity of his movements, which 
brought him on the enemy before they heard of his approach. 
He traveled sometimes a hundred miles a day, reading or 
writing in his carriage, through countries without roads, 

♦ Once when he was dininnr somewhere the other gnests foinid the oil too rancid 
for them. Caesar took it without a remark, to eparc his entertainer's feelings. 
When on a journey throush a forest with his friend Onpiu^. he came one nijrht to 
a hnt where there was n single bad. Oppios being unwell, Caesar gave it up to him, 
and slept on the ground. 


and crossing rivers without bridges. Xo obstacles stopped 
him when he had a definite end in view. In battle he 
sometimes rode ; but he Avas more often on foot, bareheaded, 
and in a conspicuous dress, that he might be seen and 
recognized. Again and again, by his own efforts, he recovered 
a day that was half lust. He once seized a panic-stricken 
standard-bearer, turned hnn round, and told him that he 
had mistaken the direction of the enemy. He never misled 
his army as to an enemy's strength, or if he mis-stated their 
numbers it was only to exaggerate. In Africa, before 
Thapsus, when his officers were nervous at the reported 
approach of Juba, he called tliem together and said briefly, 
" You will understand that within a day, King Juba will be 
here with tlie legions, thirty thousand horse, a hundred 
thousand skirmishers, and three hundred elephants. You 
are not to think or ask questions. I tell you the truth, and 
you must prepare for it. If any of you arc alarmed, I shall 
send you home." 

Yet he was singularly careful of his soldiers. He allowed 
his legions rest, though lie allowed none to himself. He 
rarely fought a battle at a disadvantage. He never exposed 
his men to unnecessary danger. "When a gallant action was 
performed, he knew by whom it had been done, and every 
Eoldier, however humble, might feel assured that if he 
deserved praise he would have it. And thus no general was 
ever more loved by, or had greater power over, the army 
which served under him. 

The Orator and Author.— yiost of Caesar's writings are 
lost ; but there remain seven books of commentaries on tho 
wars in Gaul (the eighth was added by another hand), and 
three books upon the civil war, containing an account of its 
causes and history. Of these it was that Cicero said, that 
"fools might think to improve on them, but that no wise 


man ^YOuld try it." In his composition, as in his actions, 
CiBsar is entirely simple. He indulges in no images, no 
labored descriptions, no conventional reflections. The coarse 
invectives which Cicero poured so freely upon those who dif- 
fered from him are conspicuously absent. The facts are left 
to tell their own story. About himself and his own exploits 
there is not one word of self-complacency or self-admiration. 
He wrote with extreme rapidity in the intervals of other 
labor; yet there is not a word misplaced, not a sign of haste 
anywhere. The Commentaries (in which he usually speaks 
of himself as CcBsar), as a historical narrative, are as far 
superior to any other Latin composition as the person of 
Csesar himself stands out among the rest of his contempora- 
ries. His other compositions have perished. There was a book 
on the Auspices, which, coming from the head of the Roman 
religion, would have thrown a light much to be desired on 
this curious subject. In practice, Caesar treated the auguries 
Avith contempt. He carried his laws in open disregard of 
them. He fought his battles careless whether the sacred 
chickens would eat or the calves' livers were of the proper 
color. His own account of such things in his capacity of 
Pontifex woald have had a singular interest. 

Ccesars Mission. — Of Caesar it may be said that he came 
into the world at a special time and for a special object. 
A new life was about to dawn for mankind. Poetry, and 
faith, and devotion were to spring again out of the seeds 
whicli were sleeping in the heart of humanity. But the life 
which is to endure grows slowly ; and as the soil must be pre- 
pared before the wheat can be sown, so before the Kingdom 
of Heaven could throAV up its shoots there was needed a 
kingdom of this world where the nations were neither torn in 
])iece3 by violence, nor were rushing after false ideals and 
spurious ambitions. Such a kingdom was the Empire of the 


Caesars - a kingdom where peaceful men could work, think, 
and speak as they pleased, aud travel freely among prov- 
inces ruled for the most part by Gallios, who protected life 
and jiroperty, aud forbade fanatics to tear each other in 
pieces for their religious opinions. "It is not lawful for us 
to put any man to death," was the complaiut of the Jewish 
priests to the Roman governor. Had Europe and Asia beeu 
covered with independent nations, each with a local religion 
represented in its ruling powers, Christianity must have been 
stifled in its cradle. If St, Paul had escaped the sanhedrim 
at Jerusalem, he would have been torn to pieces by the sil- 
versmiths at Ephesus. The appeal to Cssar's judgment-seat 
was the shield of his mission, and alone made possible his 
success. — Froude. 


At an age when C?esar was still idling away his time, 
Pompey (p. 59) had achieved honors such as the veteran gen- 
erals of Rome were accustomed to regard as the highest to 
which they could aspire The civil war still con- 
tinued to rage, and few did better service to the party of 
the anstocrats than Pompey. Others were content to seek 
their personal safety in Sulla's camp ; Pompey was resolved 
himself to do something for the cause. He made his way to 
Picenum, where his family estates were situated and W'here 
his own influence was great, and raised three legions (nearly 
twenty thousand men), with all their commissariat and 
transport complete, and hurried to the assistance of Sulla. 
Three of the hostile generals souglit to intercept l)im. He 
fell with his whole force on one of them, and crushed him, 
carrying off. besides his victor}', the personal distinction of 


having slain in single combat the champion of the opposing 

A second commander, who ventured to encounter him, 
found himself deserted by his army and was barely able to 
escape; a third was totally routed. Sulla received his young 
partisan, who was not more than twenty-three years of age, 
with distinguished honors, even rising from his seat and 
uncovering at his approach. 

During the next two years, his reputation continued to in- 
crease. He w^on victories in Gaul, in Sicily, and in Africa. 
As he was returning to Eome after the last of these cam- 
paigns, the great Dictator himself headed the crowd that 
went forth to meet him, and saluted him as Pomjiey the 
Great, a title which he continued to use as his family name. 
But there was a further honor which the young general was 
anxious to obtain, but Sulla Avas unwilling to grant, — the 
supreme glory of a trium})h. " No one," said Sulla, " who was 
not or had not been consul, or at least prffitor,could triumph. 
The first of the Scipios, who had won Spain from the Car- 
thaginians, had not asked for this honor, because he wanted 
this qualification. Was it to be given to a beardless youth, 
too young even to sit in the Senate?"' But the beanlless 
youth insisted. He even had the audacity to hint that the 
future belonged not to Sulla, but to himself. " More men," 
he said, "worship the rising than the setting sun." Sulla 
did not happen to catch the words, but he saw the emotion 
they aroused in the assembly, and asked that they should bo 
repeated to him. His astonishment permitted him to say 
nothing more than "Let him triumph! Let him triumph." 
And triumph he did, to the disgust of his older rivals, whom 
he intended, but that the streets were not broad enough to 
allow of the display, still further to affront by harnessing 
elephants instead of horses to his chariot. 


On the 31st of December, B. C. 71, being still a simple 
gentleman — that is, having held no civil office in the State — 
' he triumphed for the second time,* and on the following 
day, bemg then some years below the legal age, and having 
held none of the offices by which it was usual to mount to 
the highest dignity in the commonwealth, he entered on his 
first consulship, Crassus being his colleague. 

Still he had not yet reached the height of his glory. 
During the years that followed his consulship, the pirates 
who infested the Mediterranean had become intolerable. In 
G7 B. c. a law was proposed appointing a commander (who, 
however, was not named), who should have absolute power 
for three years over the sea as far as the Pillars of Hercules 
(the Straits of Gibraltar), and the coast for fifty miles 
inland, and who should be furnished with two hundred 
ships, as many soldiers and sailors as he wanted, and more 
than a million pounds in monc}'. The nobles were furious 
in their opposition, and jirepared to prevent by force the 
passing of this law. The proposer narrowly escaped with 
his life, and Pompey himself was threatened. But all 
resistance was unavailing. The new command was created, 
and, of course, bestowed upon Pompey. The result amply 
justilied the choice. 

A still greater success remained to be won, and, in Gl, 
Pompey returned to Kunie to enjoy a third triumph, and 
tli;it the most splendid which the city had ever Avitnessed 
(|). 5".). The revenue of the State had been almost doubled 
by these conquests. Never before was such a sight seen in 
the world, and if Pompey had died when it was finished, 
iio would have been proclaimed the most fortunate of man- 
kind. Certainly ho wa.s never so great again as he was on 

• Thi- was after llie " QludiutocinI War" (p. W) conccniiii;; which Pompey 
prou'Jly boasted :— '• CraHfus defeated the enemy, but I pulled up the war by the 


that day. When with Caesar and Crassus he divided all the 
power of the State, he was only the second, and by far the 
second, of the three. His influence, his prestige, his 

popularity declined year by year And then his 

young wife, Julia, Ca'sar's daughter, died, and the hope of 
peace was sensibly lessened by her loss. Perhaps the first 
rupture would have come any how; when it did come it 
found Pompey quite unprepared for the conflict. He seemed 
indeed to be a match for his rival, but his strength collapsed 
almost at a touch. "I have but to stamp with my foot," 
he said, "and soldiers will spring up;" yet when Ca^sar 
declared war by crossing the Rubicon, he fled without a 
struggle. In little more than a year and a half all was 
over. The battle of Pharsalia was fought on the 9th of 
August, and on September 29th the man who had triumphed 
over three continents lay a naked, headless corpse on the 
shore of Egypt. — Alfred Church. 

The First Triumvirate (p. 58). — For Pompey to wit- 
ness the rising glory of Caz'sar, aud to feel in his own per- 
son the ascendency of Caesar's character, without an emo- 
tion of jealousy, would have demanded a degree of virtue 
which few men have ever possessed. They had been united 
so far by identity of conviction, by a military detestation of 
anarchy, by a common interest in wringing justice from the 
Senate for the army and people, and by a pride in the great- 
ness of their country, which they were determined to up- 
hold. These motives, however, might not long have borne 
the strain but for other ties, which had cemented their 
union. Pompey had married Caesar's daughter, to whom 
he was passionately attached ; and the personal competition 
between them was neutralized by the third element of the 
capitalist party represented by Crassus, which, if they 
quarreled, would secure the supremacy of the faction to 


which Crassus attached himself. There was no jealousy on 
Caesar's part. There was no occasion for it. Ca?sar*s fame 
was rising. Pompey had added nothing to his past distinc- 
tions, and the glory pales which does not grow iu luster. 
Xo man who had once been the single object of admiration, 
who had tasted the delight of being the first in the eyes of 
his conntrymen, could find himself compelled to share their 
applause with a younger rival without experiencing a pang. 
So far Pompey had borne the trial well. He was on the 
whole, notwithstanding the Egyptian scandal, honorable 
and constitutionally disinterested. He was immeasurably 
superior to the fanatic Cato, to the sliifty Cicero, or the 
proud and worthless leaders of tiie senatorial oligarchy. 
Had the circumstances remained unchanged, the severity of 
the situation might have been overcome. But two mis- 
fortunes coming near upon each other broke the ties of 
family connection, and by destroying the balance of parties 
laid Pompey open to the temptation of patrician intrigue. 
In the j'ear 54 Caesar's great mother Aurelia, and his sister 
Julia, Pompey's wife, both died. A child which Julia had 
borne to Pompey died also, and the powerful if silent 
influence of two remarkable women, and the joint interest 
in an infant who would iiave been Caesar's heir as well as 

Pompey's, were swept away together Then came 

the miserable end of Crassus The one thought of 

the leaders of the Senate was to turn the opportunity to 
advantage, wrest the constitution free from military dicta- 
tion, shake off the detested laws of Cffisar, and revenge 
themselves on the author of them. Their hope was in 
Pompey. If Pompey could be won over from C.Tsar, the 
su-Miy would be divided. Pompey they well knew, unless he 
had a stronger head tliaii his own to guide him. could Ite 
used till the victory was won. and then be thrust aside. 


Csesars time was running out, and when it was 

over lie had been promised the consulship. That consulship 
the faction of the conservatives had sworn that he should 
never hold. Cato was threatening him with impeachment, 
blustering that he should be tried under a guard. Marcellus 
was saying openly that he would call him home in disgrace 

before his term was over The aristocracy had 

watched his progress with the bitterest malignity. When 
he was struggling with the last spasms of Gallic liberty, they 
had talked in delighted whispers of his reported ruin. But 
Cassar had conquered. He had made a name for himself as 
a soldier, before which the Scipios and the LucuUuscs, the 
Syllas and the Pompeys, paled their glory. He was coming 
back to lay at his country's feet a province larger than Spain — 
not subdued only, but reconciled to subjugation ; a nation 
of warriors, as much devoted to him as his own legions. 

If he came to Eome as consul, the Senate knew too well 
what it might expect. What he bad been before he would 
be again, but the more severe as his power was greater. 
Their own guilty hearts, perhaps, made them fear another 
Marian conscription. Unless his command could be brought 
to an end in some far different form, their days of power 
were numbered, and the days of inquiry and punishment 
w^ould begin. 

Cicero had for some time seen wh.-it was coming. He had 
preferred characteristically to be out of the way at the mo- 
ment when he expected that the storm would break, and had 
accepted Mie government of Cilicia and Cyprus. He was 
thus absent while the active plot was in preparation. One 
great step had been gained — the Senate had secured Pompey. 
CiBsar's greatness was too much for him. The first step was 
to weaken CaBsar and to provide Pompey with a force in 
Italy. The Senate discovered suddenly that Asia Minor was 


in danger from the Parthians. They voted that Csesar and 
Pompey must each spare a legion for the East. Pompey 
gave as his part the legion which he had lent to Caesar for 
the last campaign. Caesar was invited to restore it and to 
furnish another of his own. Caesar was then in Belgium. 
He saw the object of the demand perfectly clearly ; but ho 
sent the two legions without a word, contenting himself with 
making handsome presents to the officers and men on their 
leaving him. When they reached Italy the Senate found 
that they were wanted for home service, and they were placed 
under Pompey's command in Campania. — Fkoude. 

The Battle of Pharsalia. — One morning, on the Enip- 
eus, near Laj'issa, the Uth of August, old style, or towards 
the end of May by real time, Csesar had broken up his camp 
and was preparing for his usual leisurely march, when he per- 
ceived a movement in Pompey's lines which told him that 
the moment which he had so long expected was come. La- 
bienus, the evil genius of the Senate, who had tempted them 
into the war by telling them that his comrades were as dis- 
affected as himself, and had fired Ca'sar's soldiers into inten- 
sified fierceness by his barbarities at Durazzo, had spoken 
the decided word : " Ik'lieve not," Labienus had said, "that 
this is the ai"my which defeated the Gauls and the Germans. 
I was in tliose Ijattles, and what I say I know. That army 
lias disappeared. Part fell in action ; part perished of fever 
in Hie autumn in Italy. Many were left behind, unable to 
move. The men you see before you arc levies newly drawn 
from the colonies beyond the Po. Of the veterans that were 
left, the best were killed at Durazzo." 

A council of war had been held at dawn. There had been 
a solemn taking of oiitlis agiiiii. Labienus swore lli;i(-lie 
would not return to the camp except as a con(|ueror ; so 
swore Pompey: so swore T/cntnlus, Scipio, Domitins: so 


swore all the rest. They had reason for their liigh spirits. 
Pompey had forty-seven thousand Roman infantry, not in- 
chidiug his allies, and seven thousand cavalry. Caesar had 
but twenty-two thousand, and of horse only a thousand. 
Pompey's position was carefully chosen. His right wing was 
covered by the Enipeus, the opposite bank of which was steep 
and wooded. His left spread out into the open plain of 
Pharsalia. His plan of battle was to send forward his cav- 
alry outside over the open ground, with clouds of archers and 
slingers, to scatter Caesar's horse, and then to wheel round 
and envelop his legions. Thus he had thought they would 
lose heart and scatter at the first shock. Cgesar had foreseen 
what Pompey would attempt to do. His own scanty cavalry, 
mostly Gauls and Germans, would, he well knew, be unequal 
to the weight which would be thrown on them. He had 
trained an equal number of picked active men to fight in 
their ranks, and had thus doubled their strength. Fearing 
that this might be not enough, he had taken another pre- 
caution. The usual Roman formation in battle was in triple 
line. Cresar had formed a fourth line of cohorts, specially 
selected, to engage the cavalry ; and on them, he said, in 
giving them their instructions, the result of the action would 
probably depend. — Feoude. 

There was in Ciesar's army a volunteer of the name of 
Crastinus, who the year before had been first centurion of the 
tenth legion, a man of pre-eminent bravery. He, when the 
signal was given, says, "Follow me, my old comrades, and 
display such exertions in behalf of your general as you have 
determined to do : this is our last battle, and when it shall 
be won, he will recover his dignity, and we our liberty." At 
the same time he looked back to Ca?sar, and said, "General, 
I will act in such a manner to-day, that you will feel grate- 
ful to me living or dead." After uttering these words, he 


cliargcd first on the right wing, unci about one hundred 
and twenty chosen volunteers of the same century followed. 

There was so much space left between the two lines, as 
sufficed for the onset of the hostile armies : but Porapey 
had ordered his soldiers to await Caesar's attack, and not to 
advance from their position, or suffer their line to be put 
into disorder. And he is said to have done this by the 
advice of Caius Triarius, that the impetuosity of the charge 
of Caesar's soldiers might be checked, and their line broken, 
and that Pompey's troops remaining in their ranks, might 
attack them while in disorder; and he thought that the 
javelins would fall with less force if the soldiers were kept 
in their gi'ounil, than if they met them in their course; at 
the same time he trusted that Caesar's soldiers, after running 
over double the usual ground, would become weary and 
exhausted by the fiitigue. But to me, Pompey seems to 
have acted without sufficient reason : for there is a certain 
impetuosity of spirit and an alacrity implanted by nature in 
the hearts of all men, which is inflamed by a desire to meet 
the foe. This a general should endeavor not to repress, but 
to increase ; nor was it a vain institution of our ancestors, 
that the trumpets should sound on all sides, and a general 
shout be raised; by which they imagined that the enemy 
were struck witii terror, and their own army inspired with 

But our men, when the signal was given, rushed forward 
wilii their javelins ready to be launched, but perceiving that 
Pompey's men did not run to meet their charge, having 
acquired experience by custom, and being practiced in 
former battles, tiiey of tlieir own accord represse<l iiioir 
speed, and halted almost midway, that Ihey might not come 
uj) with the enemy when their strength Ava.s exhausted ; and 
after a short resj)ite they again I'cnewed their coni'se. ami 


threw their javelins, and instantly drew their swords, as 
Caesar had ordered them. Nor did Pompey's men fail in 
this crisis, for they received our javelins, stood our charge, 
and maintained their ranks; and, having launched their 
javelins, had recourse to their swords. At the same time, 
Pompey's horse, according to their orders, rushed out at once 
from his left wing, and his whole host of archers poured 
after them. Our cavalry did not withstand their charge; 
but gave ground a little, upon which Pompey's horse pressed 
them more vigorously, began to file off in troops, and flank our 
army. When Csesar perceived this, he gave the signal to his 
fourth line, which he had formed of the six cohorts. They 
instantly rushed forward and charged Pompey's horse with 
such fury, that not a man of tiiem stood ; but all, wheeling 
about, not only quitted their post, but galloped forward to 
seek a refuge in tlie highest mountains. By their retreat the 
archers and slingers, being left destitute and defenceless, 
were all cut to pieces. The cohorts, pursuing their success, 
wheeled about upon Pompey's left wing, whilst his infantry 
still continued to make battle, and attacked them in the 

At the same time, Caesar ordered his third line to advance, 
which till then had not been engaged, but had kept their 
post. Thus, new and fresh troops having come to the 
assistance of the fatigued, and others having made an attack 
on their rear, Pompey's men were not able to maintain their 
ground, but all fled; nor was Csesar deceived in his opinion, 
that the victory, as he had declared in his speech to his 
soldiers, must have its beginning from those six cohorts, 
which he had placed as a fourth line to oppose the 
horse. For by them the cavalry were routed ; by them, the 
archers and slingers were cut to pieces ; by them, the left 
wing of Pompey's army was surrounded, aiid obliged to be 


the first to flee. But wlien Pompey saw his cavahy routed, 
and that part of his army on Avhich lie reposed his greatest 
hopes thrown into confusion, despairing of the rest, he 
quitted the tield, and retreated straightway on horseback to 
his camp, and calhng to the centurions, whom he had 
placed to guard the praetorian gate, with a loud voice, that 
the soldiers might hear : " Secure the camp," says he, 
"defend it with diligence, if any danger should threaten it ; 
I will visit the other gates and encourage the guards of the 
camp." Having thus said, ho retired into his tent in utter 
despair, yet anxiously waiting the issue. 

Caesar, having forced the Pompeians to flee into their 
entrenchment, and thinking that he ought not to allow 
them any respite to recover from their fright, exhorted his 
soldiers to take advantage of fortune's kindness, and to 
attack his camp. Though they were fatigued by the intense 
heat, for the battle had continued till mid-day, yet, being 
prepared to undergo any labor, they cheerfully obeyed his 
command. The camp was bravely defended by the cohorts 
which had been left to guard it, but with much more spirit 
by the Thracians and foreign auxiliaries. For the soldiers 
who had fled for refuge to it from the field of battle, 
affrighted and exhausted by fatigue, having thrown away 
their arms and military standards, had their thoughts more 
engaged on their further escape than on the defence of the 
camp. Nor could the troops who were posted on the battle- 
ments long withstand the immense number of our darts, 
but, fainting under their wounds, they quitted the place, 
and, under the conduct of their centurions and tribunes, 
fled, without stopping, to the high mountains which joined 
the camp. 

In Pompey's camp you might see arbors in which tables 
were laid, a largo quantity of plate set out, the floors of the 


teut covered Avith fresh sods, the tents of Lucius Lentnlus 
and others sliaded with ivy, and many other things which 
were proofs of excessive luxury and a confidence of victory, 
so that it might readily be inferred that they had no 
apprehensions of the issue of the day, as they indulged 
themselves in unnecessary pleasures, and yet upbraided with 
luxury Cgesar's army, distressed and suffering troops who 
had always been in want of common necessaries. Pompey, 
as soon as our men had forced the trenches, mounting his 
horse and stripping off his general's habit, went hastily out 
of tlie back gate of the camp, and galloped with all speed to 
Larissa. Nor did he stop there, but with the same 
despatch, collecting a few of his flying troops, and halting 
neither day nor night, he arrived at the sea-side, attended 
by only thirty horse, and went on board a victualing 
barque, often complaining, as we have been told, that he 
had been so deceived in his expectation that he was almost 
persuaded that he had been betrayed by those from whom 
he had expected victory, as they began the flight.— CiESAR's 

Two hundred only of Oa-sar's men had fallen. The officers 
had suffered most. The gallant Crastinus, who had nobly 
fulfilled his promise, had been killed, among many others, in 
opening a way for his comrades. The Pompeians, after the 
first shock, had been cut down unresisting. Fifteen thou- 
sand of them lay scattered dead about the ground. Tliere 
were few wounded in these battles. The short sword of the 
Romans seldom left its work unfinished. 

" They would have it so," Caesar is reported to have said, 
as he looked sadly over the littered bodies in the familiar 
patrician dress. " After all that I had done for my country, 
I, Caius Caesar, should have been condemned by them, as a 
criminal if 1 had not appealed to my army." 



So ended the battle of Pharsalia. A hundred and eighty 
standards were taken, and all the eagles of Pompey's legions. 
In Pompey's own tent was found his secret correspondence, 
implicating persons, perhaps, whom Caesar had never sus- 
pected, revealing the mysteries of the past three years. Curi- 
osity and even prudence might have tempted him to look into, 
it. His only wish was that the jiast should be forgotten ; 

he burnt the whole mass of papers unread. — Froude. 



[Scene. Tlie Forum.— Enicr Brulus and Cassius and a throng of citizens. Brutus 
goes into the rostrum. 

Citizen. The noble Brutus is ascended : — Silence! 

Brutus. Be patient till t!ie last. — Romans, countrymen, and 
lovers I hear me for my cause; and be silent, that 30U may 
hear : believe mo for mine honor ; and have respect to mine 
honor, that you may believe : censure me in your wisdom : and 
awake your senses, that you may the better Judge. If there 
be any in this assembly, any dear friend of Cajsar's, to him 
I say, that Brutus' love to Cajsar was no less than his. If 
then that friend demand, why Brutus rose against Cassar, 
this is my answer: — Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I 
loved Rome more. Had you rather Ci\3sar were living, and 
die all slaves, than that Ca-sar v/ere dead, to live all free men ? 
As Ca'.sar loved me, I weep for him ; as he was fortunate, I 
rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honor him: but, as he was 
ambitious, I slew him. There is tears for his love; joy, for 
his fortune; honor, lor his valor; and death, for his ambi- 
tion. Who is here so base, that would be a bondman? If 
any, speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so rude, 
that would not be a Roman ? If any, speak ; for him have I 


offended. Who is hero so vile, that will not love liis country? 
If any, speak; for him have I offended. I pause for a reply. 

AIL None, Brutus, none. 

Bru. Then none have I offended. — I have done no more to 
Cassar, than you shall do to Brutus. The question of his 
death is enrolled in the Capitol: his glory not extenuated, 
wherein he was worthy; nor his offences enforced, for which 
he suffered death. 

[Enter Antony and others, with Caesar's body.] 

Here comes las body, mourned by Mark Antony, who, 
though he had no hand in his death, shall receive the benefit 
of his dying, a place in the commonwealth; as which of you 
shall not ? With this I depart ; that, as I slew my best 
lover for the good of Kome, I have the same dagger for my- 
self, when it shall please my country to need my death. 

* * 4( * * * 

Antuni/. Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears. 
I come to bury Csesar, not to praise him. 
The evil that men do lives after them; 
The good is oft interred with their bones; 
So let it be with Cajsar. The noble Brutus 
Hath told you, Cajsar was ambitious : 
If it were so, it was a grievous fault; 
And grievously hath CjBsar answered it. 
Here, under leave of Brutus, and the rest 
(For Brutus is an honorable man, 
So are tliey all, all honorable men) 
Come I to speak in Caesar's funeral. 
He was ray friend, faithful and Just to me : 
But Brutus says, he was ambitious ; 
And Brutus is an honorable man. 
He hath brought many captives home to Rome, 
Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill : 


Did this in Caesar seem ambitions ? 

When that tlie poor have cried, Caesar hath wept: 

Ambition should be made of sterner stuff: 

Yet Brutus says, he was ambitions ; 

And Brutus is an honorable man. 

Yon all did see, that, on the Lnpercal, 

I thrice presented him a kingly ciown, 

Which he did thrice refuse. Was this ambition ? 

Yet Brutus says he was ambitions ; 

And sure he is an honorable man. 

I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke. 

But here I am to speak wliat I do know. 

You all did love him once, not without cause; 

What cause withholds you then to mourn for him? 

judgment, thou art fled to brutish beasts. 

And men have lost their reason ! — bear with me ; 

Mv heart is in the coffin there with Cresar, 

And I must pause till it come back to me. 

But yesterday the word of Cresar might 

Have stood against the world ; now lies he there 

And none so poor to do him reverence. 

Masters ! If I were disposed to stir 
Your hearts and minds to mutiny and rage 

1 shonld do Brutus wrong, and Cassius wrong, 
Who, you all know, are honorable men. 

I will not do them wrong; I rather choose 

To wrong the dead, to wrong myself, and you, 

'I'liaii I will wrong such honorable men. 

But here's a parchment with the seal of Ca3sar. 

I found it in his closet. 'Tis his will. 

Let l)ut the commons hoar this testament — 

Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read — 

And they would go and kiss di-ad Caesar's wounds, 


And dip their nupkiiis in liis sacred blood ; 
Yea, beg a hair of him for memory, 
And, dying, mention it within their wills. 
Bequeathing it, as a rich legacy. 
Unto their issue. 

at. We'll hear the will : Eead it, Mark Antony. 

All. The will! the will! we will hear Caesar's will. 

Ard. Have patience, gentle friends: I must not read it; 
It is not meet you know how Caesar loved you. 
You are not wood, you are not stones, but men ; 
And, being men, hearing the will of Caesar, 
It will inflame you, it will make you mad : 
'Tis good you know not that you are his heirs; 
For if you should, oh, what would come of it ! 

1 Plebeian. Eead the will ; we will hear it, Antony ; You 
shall read us the will ; Caesar's will ! 

Ant. You will compel me then to read the will ? 
Then, make a ring about the corpse of Caesar, 
And let me shew you him that made the will. 
Shall I descend ? And will you give me leave ? 

All. Come dowai, come down! 

[Antony quits the Rostrum.] 

Clt. Eoom for Mark Antony; most noble Antony! 

Ant. Nay, press not so upon me; stand far off. 

All. Stand back ! room! bear back! 

Ant. If you have tears, prepare to shed them now ; 
You all do know this mantle : I remember 
The first time ever Caesar put it on ; 
'Twas on a summer's evening, in his tent, 
That day he overcame the Nervii : — 
Look, in this place, ran Cassius' dagger through: 
See, what a rent the envious Casca made : 
Throuo-h this the well-beloved Brutus stabbed; 


And, as lie plucked his cursed steel away, 

Mark how the blood of Casar followed it. 

As rushing out of doors to be resolved 

If Brutus so unkindly knocked, or no ! 

For Brutus, as you know, w^as Caesar's angel : 

Judge, oh, you gods, how dearly Caesar loved him ! 

This was the worst, unkindest cut of all : 

For, when the noble Caesar saw him stab. 

Ingratitude, more strong than traitor's arms, 

Quite vanquished him : then burst his miglity heart; 

And, in his mantle muffling up his face. 

Even at the base of Pompey's statue, 

Which all the while ran blood, great Cassar fell. 

0, what a fall was there, my countrymen! 

Then I, and you, and all of us fell down, 

Whilst bloody treason flourished over us. — 

Oh, now you weep ; and, I perceive, you feel 

The dint of pity: these are gracious drops, 

Kind souls! What, weep you when you but heboid 

Our Caesar's vesture Avounded ? Look you here. 

Here is himself, marred, as you see, with traitors. 

1 Pie. 0, piteous spectacle ! 

2 Pie. 0, noble Caesar ! 

3 Pie. 0, woful day! 

4 Pie. 0, traitors, villains ! 

2 Pie. We mW be revenged! revenge; about — seek — 
bum — fire — kill — slay! — let not a traitor live. 




There were some things in which Mark Antony resembled 
Ciesar. At the time it seemed probable that he would play 
the same part, and even climb to the same height of power. 
He failed in the end because he wanted the power of 
managing others, and, still more, of controlling himself. 
He came of a good stock. His grandfather had been one of 
the greatest orators of his day ; his father was a kindly, 
generous man; his mother a kinswoman of CtBsar, and a 
matron of the best Roman type. But he seemed little likely 
to do credit to his belongings. His riotous life became con- 
spicuous even in a city where extravagance and vice were 
only too common, and his debts, though not so enormous as 
Cajsar's, "were greater," says Plutarch, "than became his 
youth," and amounted to about fifty thousand pounds. He 
was taken away from these dissipations by military service 
in the East, and he rapidly acquired considerable reputation 
as a soldier. Here is the picture that Plutarch draws of 
him: There was something noble and dignified in his 
appearance. His handsome beard, his broad forehead, his 
aquiline nose, gave him a manly look that resembled the 
familiar statues and pictures of Hercules. There was indeed 
a legend that the Antonii were descended from a son of 
Hercules ; and this he was anxious to support by his 
appearance and dress. Whenever he aj^peared in public he 
had his tunic girt low about the hips, carried a great sword 
at his side, and wore a rough cloak of Cilician hair. The 
habits that seemed vulgar to others — his boastfulness, liis 
coarse humor, his drinking bouts, the way be had of eating 
in public, taking his meals as he stood from the soldiers' 
tables — had an astonishing effect in making him popular 


with the soldiers. His bounty, too, which he gave with a 
liberal hand to comrades and friends, made his way to power 
easy. On one occasion he directed that a present of three 
thousand pounds should be given to a friend. His steward, 
aghast at the magnitude of the sum, thought to bring it 
home to his mastei''s mind by putting the actual coin on a 
table. "What is this?" said Antony, as he happened to 
pass by. "The money you bade me pay over," was the 
man's reply. " Why, I had thought it would be ten times 
as much as this. This is but a trifle. Add to it as much 

When the civil war broke out, Antony joined the party 
of Cfesar, who, knowing his popularity with the troops, 
made him his second in command. He did good service at 
Pharsalia, and while his chief went on to Egypt, returned 
to Rome as his representative. There were afterwards 
differences between the two; Caesar was offended at the 
open scandal of Antony's manners and found him a trouble- 
some adherent ; Antony conceived himself to be insuflBciently 
rewarded for his services, especially when he was called 
upon to pay for Pompey's confiscated property, which he 
had bought. Their close alliance, however, had been 
renewed before Cresar's death. That event made him the 
first man in Rome. The chief instrument of his power was 
a strange one; the Senate, seeing that the people of Eome 
loved and admired the dead man, passed a resolution that 
all the wishes which Csesar had left in writing should have 
the force of law — and Antony had the custody of his papers. 
People langhed, and called the documents " Letters from 
the Styx." Tlicre was the gravest susi)icion that many of 
them were forged. l>ul for a time they were a very powcr- 
fnl machinery for effecting his jjurpose. 

Then came a check. Ca?sar's nei)hew and heir, Octavils, 


arrived at Eomc. Born in tiie year of Cicero's consulship, he 
was little more than nineteen ; but in prudence, state-craft, 
and knowledge of tlio world he was fully grown. In his 
twelfth year he had delivered the funeral oration over his 
grandmother Julia. After winning some distinction as a 
soldier in Spain, be had returned at his uncle's bidding to 
Apollonia, a town on the eastern coast of the Adriatic, where 
he studied letters and philosophy under Greek teachers. 
Here he had received the title of "Master of the horse," an 
honor which gave him the rank next to the Dictator himself. 
He came to Eome with tlie purpose, as he declared, of 
claiming his inheritance and avenging his uncle's death. 
But he knew how to abide his time. He kept on terms vvith 
Antoriy, who had usurped his position and appropriated his 
inheritance, and he was friendly, if not with the actual 
murderers of Caesar, yet certainly with Cicero, who made no 
secret of having approved their deed. 

For Cicero also had now returned to public life. For 
some time past, both before Caesar's death and after it, he 
had devoted himself to literature. Now there seemed to 
him a chance that something might yet be done for the 
republic, and he returned to Rome, which he reached on the 
lust day of August. The next day, there -was a meeting of 
the Senate, at which Antony was to propose certain honors 
to CaBsar. Cicero, wearied, or affecting to be wearied, by his 
Journey, was absent, and was fiercely attacked by Antony, 
who threatened to send workmen to dig him out of his 
house. The next day, Cicero was in his place, Antony being 
absent, and made a dignified defence of his conduct, and 
criticised with some severity the jiroceedings of his assailant. 
Still, so far, there was no irreconcilable breach between the 
two men. He still believed, or professed to believe, that 
Antony was capable of patriotism. If he had any hopes of 

R E A D I 2f G S IX ROMAN H I S T K T . 201 

peace, these were soon to be crushed. After a fortnight or 
more spent in preparation, assisted, we are told, by a 
professional teacher of eloquence, Antony came down to the 
Senate and. delivered a savage invective against Cicero. The 
, object of his attack was again absent. He- had wished to 
attend the meeting, but his friends hindered him, fearing, 
not without reason, actual violence from the armed attend- 
ants whom Antony was accustomed to bring into the senate- 

The attack was answered in the famous oration w^iich is 
called the second Philippic* In this, Cicero says, si)eaking 
of Antony's purchase of Pompey's confiscated proi)erty: — 
*' He was wild with joy, like a character in a farce ; a begga^ 
one day, a millionaire the next. But, as some writer sa3^s, 
*I11 gotten, ill kept.' It is beyond belief, it is an absolute 
miracle, how he squandered tliis vast property — in a few 
months do I say ? — no, in a few days. There was a great 
cellar of wine, a very great quantity of excellent plate, 
costly stulfs, plenty of elegant and even splendid furniture, 
just as one might expect in a man who was affluent Avitliout 
being luxurious. And of all this within a few days there 
was nothing left. I can scarcely believe that the whole 
ocean could have swallowed up so quickly possessions so 
numerous, so scattered, and lying at places so distant. 
Nothing was locked up, nothing scaled, nothing catalogued. 
Wliole store-rooms were given away to the vilest creatures. 
Actors and actresses of burlesque were busy each with 
plunder of tlieir owu. Tlie numsion was full of dice players 
and drunkards. There was drinking fri)ni morning to 
night, and I hat in many places. His losses at dice (for even 
he is not lucky) kept mounting u]i. In the clianilx'fs of 

♦ The oriitioiis asuiiiHt Antony— of wliicli tlicro an; fourleeii— arc culli^d 
"PliilJppicH," u jiaino iraiinfcTruii to theiii from tlic groat fpcccheu iu wiiicb 
DeiiioHiheDOH alluckod Philiii of Mucedoii. 


slaves 3'ou might see on the beds the j^urple coverlets which 
had belonged to the great Ponipey. No wonder that all 
this wealth was spent so quickly. Eeckless men so aban- 
doned might well have speedily devoured, not only the 
patrimony of a single citizen, however ample — atid ample it 
was — but whole cities and kingdoms." 

The speech was never delivered, but was circulated in 
writing. Toward the end of 44, Antony, who found the 
army deserting him for the young Octavius, left Eome, and 
hastened into northern Italy, to attack Decimus Brutus. 
Brutus was not strong enough to venture on a battle with 
him, and shut himself up in Mutina. Cicero continued to 
^ake the leading part in affairs at Eome, delivered the third 
and fourth Philippics in December, 44, and the ten others 
during the five months of the following year. The four- 
teenth was spoken in the Senate, when the fortunes of the 
falling republic seem to have revived. A great battle had 
been fought at Mutina, in which Antony had been com- 
pletely defeated ; and Cicero proposed thanks to the com- 
manders and troops, and honors to those who had fallen. 

The Joy Avith which these tidings had been received was 
very brief. Of the three generals named in the vote of 
thanks, the two who had been loyal to the republic were 
dead; the third, the young Octavius, had found the 
opportunity, for which he had been waiting, of betraying it. 
The soldiers were ready to do his bidding, and he resolved 
to seize by their help the inheritance of power which his 
uncle had left him. Antony had fled across the Alps, and 
had been received by Lepidus, who was in command of a 
large army in that province. Lepidus resolved to play the 
part which Crassus had jilayed sixteen years before. He 
brought about a reconciliation between Octavius and Antony, 
as Crassus liad reconciled Pompey and Csesar, and was him- 


self admitted as a third into their alliance. Thus was 
formed the Second Triumvirate (p. G2). 

The three chiefs who had agreed to divide the Koman 
world between them met on a little island and discussed 
their plans. Three days were given to their consultations, 
the chief subject being the catalogue of enemies, public and 
private, who Avere to be destroyed. Each had a list of his 
own; and on Antony's the first name was Cicero. Lepidus 
assented, as he was ready to assent to all the demands of his 
more resolute colleagues ; but the young Octavius is said 
to have long resisted, and to have given way only on the 
last day. A list of betv\'een two and three thousand names 
of senators and knights was drawn up. Seventeen were 
singled out for instant execution, and among these seven- 
teen was Cicero. He was staying at his home in Tusculum 
with bis brother Quintus when the news reached him. His 
first impulse was to make for the sea-coast. If he could 
reach Macedonia, where Brutus had a powerful array, he 
would, for a time at least, be safe. The two brothers 
started, but Quintus had little or nothing with him, and 
was obliged to go home to fetch some money. Cicero, who 
was himself but ill provided, pursued his journey alone. 
Reaching the coast he embarked. When it came to the 
point of leaving Italy his resolution failed him. He had 
always felt the greatest aversion for camp life. He had had 
an odious experience of it when Pompcy was struggling 
with Cffisar for the mastery. He Avould sooner die, he 
thought, than make a trial of it again. He landed, and 
traveled twelve miles towards Rome. Some, afterwards, said 
that he still cherished hojics of being protected by Antony; 
otiicrs that it wa> his ])ur])osc to make his way into the 
house of Octavius and kill himself on his hearth, cursing 
him with his last breath, but that he was deterred l»y the 


fear of being seized and tortured. Any how, he turned 
back, and allowed his slaves to take him to Capua. The 
plan of taking refuge with Brutus was probably urged upon 
him by his companions, who felt that this gave the only 
chance of their own escape. Again he embarked, and again 
he landed. Almost by main force his faithful slaves put 
him into his litter and carried him toward the coast. 
Antony's soldiers now reached the yilla, the officer in com- 
mand being an old client whom Cicero had successfully 
defended on a charge of murder. They found the doors 
shut and burst them open. The inmates denied all knowl- 
edge of their master's movements, till a young Greek, one 
of his brother's freedraen, whom Cicero had taken a pleasure 
in teaching, showed the officer the litter which was being 
carried through the shrubbery of the villa to the sea. Tak- 
ing with him some of his men, he hastened to follow. 
Cicero, hearing their steps, bade the bearers set the litter on 
the ground. He looked out, and stroking his chin with 
his hand, as his habit was, looked steadfastly at the mur- 
derers. His face was pale and worn with care. The officer 
struck him on the neck with his sword, some of the rough 
soldiers turning away while the deed was done. The head 
and hands were cut off by order of Antony, and nailed up in 
the forum.* 

Many years afterwards the Emperor Augustus, coming 
unexpectedly upon one of his grandsons, saw the lad seek to 
hide in his robe a volume which he had been reading. He 
took it, and found it to be one of the treatises of Cicero. 
He returned it with these words : " He was a good man and 
a lover of his country." — Alfred Church. 

So ended Cicero, a tragic combination of magnificent 

* "To speak there," fias's Collins, "more eloquently than ever the living lips 
bad epoken, of the dead liberty of Rome." 


f L ,"V I * H \J . 



talents, high aspirations, and true desire to do right, with 
an infirmity of purpose and a latent insincerity of character 
which neutralized and could almost make us forget his 
nobler qualities. In his own eyes he was always the first 
person. He had been made unhappy by the thought that 
posterity might rate Pompey above himself. Closer acquaint- 
ance had reassured him about Pompey, but in Ceesar he was 
conscious of a higher presence, and he rebelled against the 
humiliating acknowledgment. Supreme as an orator he 
could always be, and an order of things was, therefore, most 
desirable where oratory held the highest place. Thus he 
chose his part with the honi, whom he despised while he 
supported them, drifting on through vacillation into 
treachery, till "the ingredients of the poisoned chalice were 
commended to his own lips." 

In Cicero, nature half-made a great man and left him 
uncompleted. Our characters are written in our forms, and 
the bust of Cicero is the key to his history. The brow is 
broad and strong, the nose large, the lips tightly compressed, 
the features lean and keen from restless intellectual energy. 
The loose bending figure, and the neck, too weak for the 
weight of the head, explain the infirmity of will, the j)assion, 
the cunning, the vanity, and the absence of manliness and 
of veracity.* — Froude. 

• As an example of Cicero's innincerity compare the following: 
Cicero to C'««a;.— [Shortly before the asga«»ination.] " How can we praise, how 
can we love you c iifTIcicntly ? By the godn, the very walls of this house are eloquent 

with gratitude By the laws of war we were under your feet, to be 

(les'troycd, if you so willed. We live by your goodness Be yon, therefore, 

watchful and li't us bo diligent. Who is so careless of his own and the common 
welfare as to be ignorant that on yeur i)rescrvution his own depends, miuI that all 
onr livcK are bound up in yours? I, as in duty bound, think of you by night and 
day ; I pondfr over the accidents of humanity, the uncertainty of health. \'\\v. frailty 
of onr common nature, and I trrievc to think that the commonwealth which ought to 

be immortal should hang on the breath of a single man Salvation there 

can b<? noni' for us, Cii'siir, unlc-s yon iire preserved. Tliireforc, we exhort yon, 
we beseech you, to watch over your own safily. You believe that you are lhre:itened 
by a secret peril. From my own heart I say, and I i-peak for others as well as my- 



The last army of the republic had been destroyed 
at Thapsns, and Cajsar was undisputed master of the 
world. Cato vainly endeavored to stir up the people of 
Utica, a town near Carthage, in which he had taken up his 
quarters; when they refused, he resolved to put an end to 
his life. A kinsman of Caesar who was preparing to inter- 
cede with tlie conqueror for the lives of the vanquished 
leaders, begged Cato's help in revising his speech. "For 
your sake," he said, "I should think it no shame to clasp 
his hands and fall at his knees." " Were I wilUng to take 
my life at his hands," replied Cato, "I should go alone to 
ask it. But I refuse to live by the favor of a tyrant. Still, 
as there are three hundred others for whom you are to 
intercede, let us see what can be done with the speed). '" 
This business finished, he took an affectionate leave of his 
friend, commending to his good offices his son and his 
friends. On his son he laid a strict injunction not to 
meddle with pubhc life. Such a part as was worthy of tlie 
name of Cato no man could take again ; to take any other 
would be shameful. Then followed the bath, and after the 
bath, dinner, to which he had invited a number of friends, 
magistrates of the town. He sat at the meal, instead of 

reclining. This had been his custom ever since the fated 


pelf, we will stand as gentries over yonr safety, and we will interpose our own bodies 
between you and any danjrer which may menace you." 

Cicero of CVfsar.— [After the as^sassination.] " What difference is there between ad- 
vice before-hand and approbation afterward ? What does it matter whether I wished 
it to be done, or rejoiced that it was done ? Is there a man, save Antony and those 
who were glad to have Cajsar reign over us, that did not wish him to be killed, or 
that disapproved when he was killed ? All were in fault, for all the Boui joined in 
killing him. so far as lay in them. Some were not consulted, some wanted courage, 
Bome opportunity. All were willing." 

* Great-grandson of Cato the Censor. 


dav of Pharsalia. After dinner, over the wine, there was 
much learned talk, and this not other than cheerful in 
tone. But when the conversation happened to turn on one 
of the favorite maxims of the Stoics, " Only the good man 
is free ; the bad are slaves," Cato expressed himself with an 
energy and even a fierceness that made the company suspect 
some terrible resolve. The melancholy silence that ensued 
warned the speaker that he had betrayed himself, and he 
hastened to remove the suspicion by talking on other topics. 
After dinner he took his customary walk, gave the necessary 
orders to the officers on guard, and then sought his chamber. 
Here he took up the Phaedo, the famous dialogue in which 
Socrates, on the day when he is to drink the poison, dis- 
cusses the immortality of the soul. He had almost finished 
the book, when, chancing to turn his eyes upwards, he per- 
ceived that his sword had been removed. His son had 
removed it while he sat at dinner. He called a slave and 
asked, "Who has taken my sword?" As the man said 
nothing, he I'esumed his book ; but in the course of a few 
miinites finding that search was not being made, he asked 
for the sword again. Another interval followed ; j;nd still 
it was not furthcoming. His anger was now roused. He 
vehemently reproached the slaves, and even struck one of 
them with his fist, which he injured by the blow. "My son 
and my slaves," he said, "are betraying me to the enemy." 
He would listen to no entreaties. " Am I a madman," he 
said, '' that I am strii^ped of my arms ? Are you going to 
bind my hands and give me up to Caesar? As for the 
sword I can do without it; I need but hold my breath, or 
dash my iicad against the wall. It i»* idle to think that you 
can keep a man of my years alive against his will." It was 
felt to be impossible to ])ersist in the face of this delcrmina- 
tion, and a young slave-lwy brought back the sword. Cato 


felt the weapon, and finding that the blade was straight and 
the edge perfect, said, "Now I am my own master.'"' He 
then read the Phffido again from beginning to end, and 
afterwards fell into so profonnd a sleep that persons stand- 
ing outside the chamber heard his breathing. About mid- 
night he sent for his physician and one of his freedmen. 
The freedmau was commissioned to inquire whether his 
friends had set sail. The physician he asked to bind up his 
wounded hand, a request which his attendants heard with 
delight, as it seemed to indicate a I'esolve to live. He again 
sent to inquire about his friends and expressed his regret at 
the rough weather which they seemed likely to have. The 
birds were now beginning to twitter at the approach 
of dawn, and he fell into a short sleep. The freedmau 
returned with news that the harbor was quiet. When he 
found himself again alone, he stabbed himself with the 
sword, but the blow, dealt as it was by the wounded hand, 
was not fatal. He fell fainting on the couch, knocking 
down a counting board which stood near, and gToaning. 
His son with others rushed into the chamber, and the 
physician finding that the wound was not mortal, proceeded 
to bind it up. Cato, recovering his consciousness, thrust 
the attendants aside, and tearing open the wound, expired. — 
Alfred CnuRCif. 

Comparison of Cato and Caesar. — Within my rec- 
ollections there have arisen two men of remarkable powers, 
though of a very different character, Marcus Cato and 
Caius Caesar, whom, since the subject has brought them 
before me, it is not my intention to pass in silence, but to 
describe, to the best of my ability, the disposition and 
manners of each. 

Their birth, age, and eloquence, were nearly on an 
equality; their greatness of mind was similar, as was also 


their reputation, though attained by different means. Caesar 
grew eminent by generosity and munificence ; Cato by the 
integrity of his life. Ctesar was esteemed for his humanity 
and benevolence; austereness bad given dignity to Cato. 
Caesar acquired renown by giving, relieving, and pardoning; 
Cato by bestowing nothing. In Caesar there was refuge for 
the unfortunate; in Cato, destruction for the bad. In CaBsar, 
his easiness of temper was admired ; in Cato, his firmness. 
Caesar, in fine, had applied himself to a life of energy and 
activity; intent upon the interest of his friends, he was 
neglectful of his own ; he refused nothing to others that was 
worthy of acceptance, while for himself he desired great 
power, the command of an arnw, and a new war in Avhich 
his talents might be displayed. But Cato's ambition was 
that of temperance, discretion, and, above all, of austerity; 
he did not contend in splendor with the rich, or in faction 
with the seditious, but with the brave in fortitude, with the 
modest in simplicity, with the temperate in abstinence ; he 
was more desirous to be, than to a])pear, virtuons; and thus, 
the less he courted popularity, the more it pursued him. — 


Rome Under Augustus. — The course of Roman story 
now runs with almost unbroken smoothness over a level 
routine. Peace is severed from freedom. The laws and 
executive are still marked by vigor and sagacity, but they 
no longer wear the impress of free debate, or election. No 
rival actors arouse the passions, or command the attention 
of the senate. Even the annual elections rarely disturb the 


slumbei's of the forum ; Hortensius and Cicero have vanished 
with Milo and Clodius. It may have been more pleasant to 
live under a well-regulated police and be always within 
trumpet-call of the Pra?torian Guards, than to run the risk 
of being knocked on the head by day, or burnt out at night 
by a mob of paid or volunteer ruffians; yet it is difficult to 
invest a staid and decorous city with the interest that per- 
tains to the election of the Gracchi. The Ehenish and 
Danubian frontiers still bustle with garrisons and now and 
then a panting courier gallops along the Flaminian Way 
with a budget of disastrous news. But though Varus and 
his legions are exterminated, the Cimbri have not yet passed 
the Alps. All the great beacons of war are burned down ; 
Gaul is quiet; Parthia is engrossed by its OAvn factions; the 
Mediterranean is as clear of pirates as the Lucrine Lake; 
and the ceaseless tramp of the legions is succeeded by the 
routine of stationary garrisons. Above all, rises the impos- 
ing figure of the Augustan C»sar, solitary as the statue of 
Athene upon the Acropolis. — Edinburgh Eeview. 

The Personal Augustus. — In his personal habits and 
demeanor Augustus carefully distinguished between the 
Imperator and the Princeps. He protected his personal 
dignity by withdrawing from the familiarity with which 
Julius Caesar had allowed himself to address his legionaries. 
The conqueror of the Gauls had deigned to call the instru- 
ments of his victories by the name of fcUoiv-soIdiers ; but 
Augustus never spoke of them but as his soldiers only. 
At the same time, however, as the prince of the senate and 
the people, he studiously disguised all consciousness of his 
deserts, and shrank from the appearance of claiming the 
honors due to him. Amidst the magnificence displayed 
around him, which he chose to encourage in his nobles, his 
own manners were remarkable for tlieir sip.iplicity, and were 


regulated, not by his actual pre-eminence, but by the posi- 
tion he affected to occupy of a modest patrician. His man- 
sion on the Palatine hill was moderate in size and decora- 
tion, and he showed his contempt for the voluj)tuous appli- 
ances of jiatrician luxury by retr.ining the same bed-chamber 
both in winter and summer. It was from a peculiarity of 
taste, however, rather than any politic calculation, that, 
instead of works of painting, or sculpture, he was fond of 
collecting natural curiosities, such as the fossil bones of 
mammoths and saurians, wliich were found in abundance 
in this island of Caprea?, and were vulgarly reputed to be the 
remains of giants and heroes. His dress was that of a plain 
senator, and he let it be known that his robe was woven by 
the hands of Livia herself and the maidens of her apart- 
ment. He was seen to traverse the streets as a private 
citizen, with no more than the ordinary retinue of slaves and 
clients, addressing familiarly the acquaintances he met, 
taking them courteously by the hand, or leaning on their 
shoulders, allowing himself to be summoned as a witness in 
their suits, and often attending in their houses on occasions 
of domestic interest. At table his habits were sober and 
decorous, and his mode of living abstemious: he was 
generally tlnf last to approach and the earliest to quit the 
board. His guests were few in number, and chosen, for tlie 
most part, for their social qnaltities: Virgil and Horace, the 
plel)eian poets, were as welcome to his hours of recreation as 
Pollio or Mcssala. His conversation turned on subjects of 
intellectual interest; he disdained the amusement which the 
vulgar rich derived from dwarfs, idiots, and monsters. 

He was vigilant in marking, and stern in repressing, all 
acts of defiance, or i)resumption on the part of his subjects. 
The mild and affable ))atrician, whose wluile heart seemed to 
be wranncd up in schemes for the promotion of general 


pros23erity and individual comfort, was clianged at once into 
a jealous tyrant at the first sign of political rivalry. Painful 
was the impression made upon the public mind when it 
appeared, from one melancholy instance, that the mere 
frown of so kind a master was felt as a disgrace at his court, 
and that disgrace at court was regarded as no other 
than a sentence of death. Cornelius Gallus, a Roman 
knight, a man of fasliion and accomplishments, a poet 
himself of considerable mark, and the companion of 
poets and statesmen, had been entrusted by Augustus 
with the government of Egypt, where he had done him 
faithful service. But the splendor of his position, as the 
first Eoman who had sate on the throne of the Ptolemies, 
and the flattery of the cringing Orientals, who in the 
vicegerent of the emperor beheld the successor of their own 
absolute sovereigns, intoxicated his vain mind, and he 
suffered his subjects to erect statues in his honor, and to 
inscribe his name and exploits on the stones of the pyra- 
mids. In a senator and a proconsul such conduct might 
have given no pretext for complaint; but the case of the 
government of Egypt was exceptional. The jealousy of the 
emperor was peculiarly sensitive in regard to every act and 
word of his factor at Alexandria ; and the indiscretions of 
Gallus were magnified into a charge of treason against the 
interests of the republic. The senators hastened Avith ready 
adulation to declare him guilty, and desired his removal 
from his command. Augustus appointed an officer to 
supersede him, and required his presence in Rome. On his 
return, the loss of his master's favor, the cold reception he 
encountered from the courtiers, the sense of disgrace and 
the apprehension of severer punishment so affected his weak 
mind, that he threw himself upon his own sword. Augustus 
was shocked at this unexpected catastrophe ; he rebuked 


tiie excessive zeal of the officious and selfish accusers, and 
complained that he was the only citizen who could not be 
angr}^ with a friend without making him an enem}-. 

The logical habit of his mind is curiously exemplified in 
the statement that he insisted in writing according, not to 
established orthography, but to spoken sounds. On the same 
priuciple, he was legitimately careful to avoid affectation and 
curious refinement in the choice of words : his chief care, it 
is said, was to express his meaning clearly, and, with this 
view, he disregarded even grammatical rales, and took no 
pains to avoid repetitions. He amused himself with ridicul- 
ing the opposite vices in the style of Maecenas, whose sen- 
tences he comi)ared to frizzled ringlets, and whose language, 
he said, seemed steeped in myrrli and unguents. 

He was as timid as a child in all that related to the super- 
stitions of his time. lie trembled at thunder and lightning, 
not from the vulgar fear of their fatal effects, but from hor- 
ror at their occult and mysterious causes ; he marked the 
portents which seemed to attend on his own career not less 
anxiously than the weakest of his subjects ; he considered 
his own and others' dreams Avith painful solicitude, and 
observed all signs and auguries with a serious curiosity. 

AIYer all, the most agreeable feature in his character is the 
good-humored cheerfulness, which sprang apparently from 
a deep-seated contentment, and showed itself, among other 
things, in the pleasure he took in the simple sports of chil- 
dren, whom ho was always glad to have about him and to play 
with, and which overflowed in tokens of affection towards his 
nearest connexions. His ])layful intercourse with Ma?ccnas 
and Horace, with his daughter Julia, with his grandsons 
Cains and Lucius, and even with tin; morose Tiberius, was 
the yearning of unaffected feeling. If a Koman had any true 
sensibility, it was in his friendships that he displayed ir, and 


towards his friends Augustus was both constant and delicate. 
A generation Jiad now grown up to whom the horrors of the 
Ijroscriptions were only a whispered tale; the revolutionary 
triumvir had become in their eyes a kind and genial old 
man, grown gray in serving the commonwealth, and still the 
guardian genius of the country he had saved. That the citi- 
zens should have forgotten, under their own vines and fig- 
trees, the crimes he had committed against their unhappy 
sires, may not be hard to comprehend : it is more difficult to 
understand the real feelings of the man who had done such 
things, and betrayed to the close of life no uneasy recollec- 
tion of them. 

On the morning of his death, being now fully sen- 
sible of his approaching end, Augustus inquired whether there 
were any popular excitement in anticipation of it. Being no 
doubt reassured upon this point, he called for a mirror, and 
desired his gray hairs and beard to be decently arranged. 
Then asking of his friends around him whether he had 
played well his part in the drama of life, he muttered a verse 
from a comic epilogue, inviting them to greet his exit with 
applause. He made some inquiries after a sick grandchild 
of Tiberius, and falling at last into the arms of Livia, had 
Just strength, in the moment of expiring, to recommend to 
her the memory of their long union. — Merivale. 


My prayers with this I used to charge, — 

A piece of land not very large, 

Wherein there should a garden be, 

A clear spring flowing ceaselessly, 

And where, to crown the whole, there should 

A patch be found of growinpr wood. 

All this, and more, the gods liave sent. 

And I am heartily content 


So, when from town and all its ills 

I to my perch amoujr the hills 

Eetreat, what better theme to choose 

Than satire for my homely Muse ? 

No fell ambition wastes me there. 

No, nor the south wind's leaden air. 

Nor Autumn's pestilential breath, 

With victims feeding; hungry death. 

Sire of the morn, or if more dear 

The name of Janus to thine car, 

Through whom whate'er by man is done, 

From Life's first dawning is begun, 

(So willed the gods for man's estate,) 

Do thou my verse initiate! 

At Rome you hurry me away 

To bail my friend ; " Quick, no delay, 

Or some one — could worse luck befall you? — 

Will in the kindly task forestall you." 

So go I must, although the wind 

Is north and killingly unkind. 

Or snow, in thickly falling flakes, 

The wintry day more wintry makes. 

And when, articulate and clear, 

I've spoken what may cost me dear, 

Elbowing the crowd that round me close, 

I'm sure to crush somebody's toes. 

" I say, where are you jmsliing to? 

What would you have, you madman, you ?" 

Bo flies he at poor me, 'tis odds. 

And curses me by all his gods. 

" You think that you now, I daresay, 

May ])ush whatever stops your way, 

Wlien you are to Maecenas bound ! " 

Sweet, Bweet, as honey is the sound, 

I won't deny, of that last speech, 

But then no sooner do I reach 

Tbe dusky Esquiline, than straight 

Buzz, buzz around me runs the prate 

Of people pestering me with cares. 

All about other men's aflfairs. 

" To-morrow, Roscius bade me state, 

lie trusts you'll be in court by eight ;" 

"The scriveners, worthy Quintus, pray, 

You'll not forget they meet to-day. 


Upon a point both grave and new. 

One touching the whole body, too." — 

" Do get Maecenas, do, to sign 

This api)lication here of mine ! " 

" Well, well, I'll try." " You can with ease 

Arrange it, if you only please." — 

Close on eight years it now must be. 

Since first Maecenas numbered me 

Among his friends, as one to take 

Out driving with him, and to make 

The confidant of trifles, say, 

Like this, " What is the time of day?" 

" The Thracian gladiator, can 

One match him with the Syrian ? " 

" These chilly mornings will do harm. 

If one don't mind to wrap up warm ;" 

Such nothings as without a fear 

One drops into the chinkiest ear. 

Yet all this time hath envy's glance 

On me looked more and more askance. 

From mouth to mouth such comments run ; 

" Our friend indeed is Fortune's son. 

Why, there he was, the other day, 

Beside Maecenas at the play ; 

And at the Campus, just before. 

They had a bout at battledore." 

Some chilling news through lane and street 

Spreads from the Forum. All I meet 

Accost me thus — " Dear friend, you're so 

Close to the gods, that you must know : 

About the Dacians, have you heard 

Any fresh tidings?" "Not a word." 

'■' You're always jesting ! " " Now may all 

The gods confound me, great and small. 

If I have heard one word." " Well, well. 

But you at any rate can tell, 

If Caesar means the lands which he 

Has promised to his troops, shall be 

Selected from Italian ground. 

Or in Trinacria be found?" 

And when I swear, as well I can. 

That I know nothing, for a man 

Of silence rare and most discreet 

They cry me up to all the street. 


Thus do my wasted days slip by, 
Kot witliout many a Avisli and sigh. 
When, when shall I the country see. 
Its woodlands green, — oh, when be free, 
With books of great old men, and sleep, 
And hours of dreamy ease, to creep 
Into oblivion sweet of life, 

Its agitations, and its strife ? 

Horace {Theodore Martin's Tmnslation). 

A Roman Poet's City Home. — The city hills were as 
yet iinillumined by the beams of the morning sun, and the 
uncertain twilight, which the saffron streaks in the east 
spread as harbingers of the coming day, was diffused but 
sparingly through the windows and courts into the apart- 
ments of the mansion. Gallus (p. 212) still lay buried in sleep 
in his quiet chamber, the carefully chosen position of Aviiich 
both protected him against all disturbing noises, and pre- 
vented the early salute of the morning light from too soon 
breaking his repose. But around all was life and activity. 
• From the cells and chambers below, and the apartments on 
the upper floor, there poured a swarming multitude of slaves, 
who presently pervaded every corner of the house, hurrying 
to and fro, and cleaning and arranging with such busy alac- 
rity, that one unacquainted Avith these customary movements 
would have supposed that some grand festivity was at hand. 
A whole army of house-slaves, armed with besoms and 
sponges, under the superintendence of the alriensis began to 
clear the entrance rooms. Some inspected the restibiilum, 
to sec whether any bold spider had spun its net during the 
night on the cajjital of the pillars, or the groups of statuary; 
and rublted tlic gold and tortoise-shell ornaments of the 
folding-doors and jjosts at the entrance, and cleaned the dust 
of the i)revious day from the marble i)avement. Others again 
were busy in the atrium and its adjacent halls, carefully 


traversing the mosaic floor, and the paintings on the walls, 
with soft Lycian sponges, lest any dust might have settled on 
the wax-varnish with which they were covered. They also 
looked closely whether any spot appeared blackened by the 
smoke of the lamps ; and then decked with fresh garlands the 
busts and shields which supplied the place of the waxen 
masks of departed ancestors. In the cavum cedium, or in- 
terior court, and in the larger 2^eristy.lium, moi-e were 
engaged in rubbing with coarse linen cloths the polished 
pillars of Tenarian and Numidian marble, which formed a 
most pleasing contrast to the intervening statues and the 
fresli green verdure of the vacant space within. The Tri- 
cliniarch and his subordinates were equally occupied in the 
larger saloons, where stood costly tables of cedar-wood, with 
pillars of ivory supporting their massive orbs, which had, at 
an immense exj)ense, been conveyed to Eome from the pri- 
meval woods of Atlas. In one, the wood was like the beau- 
tifully dappled coat of a panther; in another, the spots, 
being more regular and close, imitated the tail of the pea- 
cock ; a third resembled the luxuriant and tangled leaves of 
the ojnum (parsley) ; each of them seemed more beautiful 
and valuable than the other; and many a lover of splendor 
would have bartered an estate for any one of the three. The 
Triclmiarii cautiously lifted up their purple covers, and then 
whisked them over with the shaggy gausape, in order to 
remove any little dust that might have penetrated through. 
Next came the side-boards, several of which stood against the 
walls in each saloon, for the purpose of displaying the gold 
and silver plate and other valuables. Some of them Avere 
slabs of marble, supported by silver or gilded ram's feet, or 
by the tips of the wings of two griffins looking in opposite 
directions. There was also one of artificial marble, which 
had been sawn out of the wall of a Grecian temple, while the 


slabs of the rest were of precious metal. The costly articles 
displayed on each were so selected as to be in keeping with 
the architectural designs of the apartment. — In the tetra- 
sfylus, the simplest saloon, stood smooth silver vessels un- 
adorned by the art of the embosser, except that the rims of 
most of the larger bowls were of gold. Between these were 
smaller vessels of amber, and two of great rarity ; in one of 
which a bee, and in the other an ant, had found its trans- 
parent tomb. On another side stood beakers of antique 
form, to which the names of their former possessors gave 
their value, and an historical importance. There was, for 
instance, a double cup, which Priam had inherited from 
Laomedon ; another that had belonged to Nestor ; the doves 
Avhich formed the handles were much worn, — of course by 
Nestor's hand. Another again was the gift of Dido to ^neas. 
But the most remarkable of all was a relic of the keel of the 
Argo; it was indeed only a chip, but who could look on and 
touch this portion of the most ancient of ships — on which 
perhaps even Minerva herself had placed her hand — with- 
out being transported in feeling back to the days of old ? 
Gallus himself was far too enlightened to believe in the truth 
of these legends, but every one was not so free from preju- 
dice as he ; it was moreover the most recent fashion to collect 
such antiquities. 

On the other hand, in tiic Corinthian saloon stood vessels 
of precious Corinthian bronze, whose worn handles and 
peculiar smell sufficiently announced their antiquity ; to- 
gether with two large golden drinking cups, on one of which 
were engraved scenes from the Iliad, on the other from the 
Odyssey. lii-sides these there were smaller beakers and 
bowls ct^mposed of })recious stones, either made of one i)iece 
only and adorned with reliefs, or of several cameos united 
by settings of gold. Genuine Murrhina vases also, — even at 


that time a riddle, and according to report imported from 
the recesses of Partliia, — were not wanting. 

The Eg3'ptian saloon, however, surpassed the rest in 
magnificence. Every silver or golden vessel which it con- 
tained was made by the most celebrated gravers, and 
possessed higher value from the beauty of its work- 
manship th;m even from the costliness of its material. 
There was a cup by the hand of Phidias, ornamented with 
fishes that seemed only to want water to enable them to 
swim ; on another was a lizard by Mentor, and so exact a 
copy of nature, that the hand almost started back on touch- 
ing it. Then came a broad bowl, the handle of which was a 
ram with a golden fleece, more beautiful than that brought 
by Phryxus to Colchis, and upon it a dainty Cupid. No 
less worthy of admiration were the ingenious works in glass, 
from Alexandria ; beakers and saucers of superb molding, 
and imitating so naturally the tints of the amethyst and 
ruby, as completely to deceive the beholder ; others shone 
like onyxes and were cut in relief ; but superior to all were 
some of the purest crystal, and uncolored. Still there was 
one object which, on account of its ingenious construction, 
attracted mbre than anything else the eyes of all spectators. 
This was a bowl of the color of opal, surrounded at the 
distance of a fourth part of an inch by an azure network, 
carved out of the same piece as the vessel, and only connected 
with it by a few fine slips that had been left. Beneath the 
edge of the cup was written the following inscription ; the 
letters were green, and projected in a similar manner, sup- 
ported only by some delicate props: Bihe, vivas multis annis. 
How many disappointments must the artist have experienced 
before he accomplished the labor of making such a vessel, 
and what a price Gallus must have paid for it ! 

Whilst the mansion was being thus cleansed and adorned 


tlirouglioiit ; whilst the dispeusaJor v^as busied in recasting 
the aceouut of the receipts and expenditure during the last 
month, to be ready for his master's inspection ; and the 
cellarius was reviewing his stock, and considering how much 
would supply the exigencies of the day ; and the superior 
slaves were engaged, each with his allotted task, — the 
vesiibulum had already begun to be filled with a multitude 
of visitors, who came to pay their customary morning 
salutation to their patron 

After his friends had departed, Gallus withdrew into the 
chamber where he used daily to spend the later hours of the 
morning in converse witli the great spirits of ancient Greece, 
or to yield himself up to the sport of his own muse. For 
this reason, this apartment lay far removed from the noisy 
din of the streets, so that neither the rattling of the creaking 
wains and the stimulating cry of the mule-driver, the 
clarions and dirge of the pompous funeral, nor the brawl- 
ings of the slaves hurrying busily along, could penetrate it. 
A lofty window, through which shone the light of the early 
morning sun, pleasantly illuminated from above the moder- 
ate-sized apartment, the walls of Avhich were adorned with 
elegant arabesques in light colors, whilst between them, on 
darker grounds, the luxurious forms of attractive dancing 
girls were seen sweeping spirit-like along. A neat couch, 
faced with tortoise-shell and hung with Babylonian tapestry 
of various colors, by the side of which was the scriniuni con- 
taining the poet's elegies — which were as yet unknown to 
the majority of the public, and a small table of cedar-wood 
on goat's feet of bronze, comprised the whole of the furni- 

Immediately adjoining lliis ap.'irtnunit \v;is liic library, 
full of Ihe inosi precious treasures acfpiired by (iailus. chiefly 
in Alexandria. 'J'here, in presses of cedar-wood, placed 


round the walls, lay the rolls, partly of parchment, and 
partly of the finest Egyptian papyriis, each supplied with a 
label, on which was seen, in bright red letters, the name of 
the author and title of the book. Above these were ranged 
the busts, in bronze or marble, of the most renowned 
writers, an entirely novel ornament for libraries, first 
introduced into Eome by Asinius PoUio, who perhaps had 
copied it from the libraries of Pergamus and Alexandria. 
True, only the chief representatives of each separate branch 
of literature were to be found in the narrow space available 
for them ; but to compensate for this, there were several 
rolls which contained the portraits of seven hundred 
remarkable men. These v/ere the hebdomades, or peplo- 
graphy of Varro, who, by means of a new and much-valued 
invention, was enabled in an easy manner to multiply the 
collection of his portraits, and so to spread copies of them, 
with short biographical notices of men, through the whole 
learned world. 

On the other side of the library was a larger room, in 
which a number of learned slaves were occupied in tran- 
scribing with nimble hand the works of illustrious Greek 
and the more ancient Roman authors, both for the supply 
of the library and for the use of those friends to whom 
Gullus obligingly communicated his literary treasures. 
Others were engaged in giving the rolls the most agi-eeable 
exterior, in gluing the separate strips of papyrus together, 
drawing the red lines which divided the different columns, 
and writing the title in the same color; in smoothing with 
pumice-stone and blackening the edges; fastening ivory 
tops on the sticks round which rolls were wrapped, and 
dyeing bright red oi" yellow the parchment which was to 
serve as a wrapper. 

Gallus, with Ohresimus (his confidential freedman), entered 


the study, where the freedman of whom he was used to 
avail himself in his studies, to make remarks on what was 
read, to note down particular passages, or to commit to 
paper his own poetical effusions, as they escaped him, was 
already awaiting him. After giving Chresimus further 
instructions to make the necessary preparations for an 
immediate journey, he reclined, in his accustomed manner, 
on his studying couch, supported on his left arm, his right 
knee being drawn up somewhat higher than the other, in 
order to place on it his hooks, or tablets. "Give me that 
roll of poetry of mine, Phoedrus," said he to his freedman ; 
"I will not set out till I have sent the book finished to the 
bookseller. I certainly do not much desire to be sold in the 
Argiletan taverns for five denarii, and find my name hung 
up on the doors, and not always in the best company; but 
Secundus worries me for it, and therefore be it so."' " He 
understands his advantage," said Phaedrus, as he drew forth 
the roll from the cedar-wood chest; "I wager that his 
scribes will have nothing else to do for months, but to copy 
o5 your Elegies and Epigrams." 

Phoidrus wrote with all possible rapidity; he then departed 
to copy the poem more intelligibly on the roll, and to send 
thither Philodamus, whom his master generally employed to 
wiite his letters. Philodamus brought the stylus, the 
wooden tablets coated over with wax, and what was re(piisite 
for sealing letters ; he then took the seat of Phadrus, and 
set down with exjiert hand the short sentences which Gallus 

Gallus having read over the letters which riiilodamus had 
wntten, the slave fastened the tablets together with crossed 
thread, and placed where the ends were knotted a round 
piece of wax ; while fJallus drew from his finger a beautiful 
beryl, on which was engraved by the hand of Dioscorides a 


lion driven by four araoretts, breathed on it, to prevent the 
tenacious wax from adhering to it, and then impressed it 
deeply into the pliant mass. Meanwhile, Philodamns had 
summoned the slaves used for conveying letters, each of 
whom received a letter. 

Scarcely were these matters well concluded, when the 
slave who had charge of the time-pieces entered, and 
announced that the finger of the dial was now casting its 
shadow upon the fourth hour, and that the fifth was about 
commencing. This was the time that Gallus had fixed for 
departure; he therefore hastened to leave the apartment 
and allow himself to be assisted in his traveling toilet by 
the slaves in attendance for this purpose. — Becker. 

R R A D I X (1 S IX K O M AX HISTORY. 235 


Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius. — What were they 
doiug at Rome duriug the thirty-three years of our Savioi"'s 
sojourn upon earth ? For the first fourteen of them 
Augustus was gathering round him the wits, aud poets, and 
sages, who have made his reign immortal. After that date 
his successor, Tiberius, built up by stealthy and slow 
degrees the most dreadful tyranny the world had ever seen — 
a tyranny the results of which lasted long after tlie founders 
of it liad ex{)ired. For from this period maukiud had noth- 
ing to hope but from the bounty of the Emperor. If lie was 
cruel, as so many of thera w^ere, he filled the patricians of 
Bome with fear, and terrified the distant inhabitants of 
Thrace or Gaul. Ilis benevolence, on the other liand, was 
felt at the extremities of the earth. No wonder that every 
one was on the watch for the first glimpse of a new Emperors 
character and disposition. What rejoicings in Ital}', and 
Greece, and Africa, and all through Europe, when a trait of 
goodness was reported ; and what a sinking of the heart 
when the old story was renewed, and a monster of cruelt/ 
succeeded to a monster of deceit ! For the fearfulest 
thing in all the description of Tiberius is the duplicity of 
liis behavior. lie withdrew to an island in the sunniest 
part of the Mediterranean, and covered it with gorgeous 
buildings, and supplied it with all the implements of luxury 
and enjoyment. From this magnificent retirement lie 
uttered a whisper, or made a motion with his hand, which 
displaced an Eastern monarch from his throne, or doomed a 
senator to death. He was never seen, lie lived in the 
dreadful privacy of some fabled deity, and was only felt at 


the farthest cuds of his empire by the uuhappiuess he 
occasioned; for by murders, and imprisonments, and every 
species of suffering, men's hearts and minds were bowed 
down beneath this invisible and irresistible ojipressor. Self- 
respect was at an end, and liberty was not even wished for. 
The Emperor had swallowed up the empire, and there was 
no authority or influence beside. This is the main feature 
of the first or Imperial Century, that, wherever M^e look, 
we see but one — one gorged and bloated brutalized man, 
sitting on the throne of earthly power, and all the rest of 
mankind at his feet. Humanity at its flower had culminated 
into a Tiberius; and when at last he was slain, and the 
Avorld began to breathe, the sorrow was speedily deeper than 
before, for it was found that the Imperial tree had blossomed 
again, and that its fruit was a Caligula. 

This was a person with much the same taste for blood as 
his predecessor, but more open in the gratification of it. 
He did not wait for trial and sentence — those dim mockeries 
of justice in which Tiberius sometimes indulged. He had a 
peculiar way of nodding Avith his head, or pointing with his 
finger; and the executioner knew the sign. The man he 
nodded to, died. For the more distinguished of the citizens 
he kept a box — not of snnff, but of some strong and 
instantaneous poison. Whoever refused a pinch died as a 
traitor, and whoever took one died of the fatal drug. Even 
the degenerate Romans could not endure this long, and 
Chsereas, an officer of his guard, put him to death, after a 
sanguinary reign of four years. Still the hideous catalogue 
goes on. Claudius, a nephew of Tiberius, is forced upon the 
unwilling senate by the spoilt soldiers of the capital, the 
Praetorian Guards. Colder, duller, more brutal than the 
rest, Claudius perhaps increased the misery of his country 
by the apathy and stupidity of his mind ; and his wife, the 


infamous Messaliua, has become a symbol of all that is 
detestable in the female sex. Some people, iiicleed, in read- 
ing the history of this period, shut the book with a shud- 
der, and will not believe it true. They prefer to think 
that authors of all lands and position have agreed to paint 
a fancy picture of depravity and horror, than that such 
things were. But the facts are too well proved to be 
doubted. We see a dull, uniin])assioned, moody despot ; 
fond of blood, but too iudolent to shed it himself, unless at 
the dictation of his fiendish partner and her friends; so 
brutalized that nothing amazed, or disturbed him ; and yet 
to this frightful combination of ferocity and stupidity 
England owes its subjection to the Eomau power, and 
all the blessings which Eoman civilization — bringing as 
it did the lessons of Christianity in its train — was cal- 
culated to bestow. In the forty-fourth year of this 
century, and tlie third year of the reign of Claudius, 
Aulus Plautius landed in Britain at the head of a power- 
ful army; and the contrast between the central power 
at Rome, and the officials employed at a distance, con- 
tinued for a long time the most remarkable circum- 
stance in the history of the empire. Tiberius, Caligula, 
Claudius, vied with each other in exciting the terror ana 
destroying the happiness of the Avorld ; but, in the remote 
extremities of their command, their generals disi)layed the 
courage and virtue of an earlier age. They improved as 
well as conquered. They made roads, and built bridges, 
and cut down woods. Tlu'V established military stations, 
which soon became centers of education and law. . . . But 
murder, and treachery, and unspeakable iniquity, went their 
way as usual in the city of the Caesars. Messalina was put 
to death, and another disgrace to womanhood, in ihe person 
of Agrinpina, took her place beside the phlegmatic tyrant. 


Tliii-teen years liad passed, when the boimdary of human 
patience was attained, and Rome was startled one morning 
with the joyful news that her master was no more. The 
combined cares of his loving spouse and favorite physician 
had produced this happy result — the one presenting him 
with a dish of deadly mushrooms, and the other painting 
his throat for lioarseness witii a poisoned feather. — White. 

The Adulations of a Praetor. — After Tiberius had 
seen his father restored to heaven, and had paid respect to 
his body with human and to his name with Divine honors, 
the first act of his administration was the regulation of the 
elections, on a plan left by the deified Augustus in his own 
handwriting. At the same time, my brother and I had the 
honor, as Ca3sar's candidates, of being elected praetors, in 
the places next to men of the highest rank, and the priests; 
and we were remarkable in being the last recommended by 
Augustus, and the first by Tiberius Caesar. 

Of the transactions of tlie last sixteen years, which are 
fresh in the memory of all, who shall presume to give a full 
account ? In that time, credit has been restored to mercan- 
tile affairs, sedition has been banished from the forum, cor- 
ruption from the Campus Martins, and discord from the 
senate-house; justice, equity, and industry, which had long 
lain buried in neglect, have been revived in the state ; 
authority has been given to the magistrates, majesty to the 
senate, and solemnity to the courts of justice; the dissen- 
sions in the theater have been suppressed, and all men have 
had either a desire excited in them, or a necessity imposed 
on them, of acting with integrity. For this best of princes 
teaches his countrymen to act rightly by his own practice ; 
and while he is the greatest in power, is still greater in 

Tiberius Ca>sar has had, and still has, ^lius Sejanus, a 


most excellent coadjutor in all the toils of government, a 
man remarkable for fidelity in the discharge of his duties : 
assuming nothing to himself, and hence receiving every 
honor ; always deeming himself inferior to other men's esti- 
mation of him; calm in looks and conversation, but in mind 
indefatigable, vigilant. In esteem for Sejanus' virtues, 
the judgment of the public has long vied with that of the 

During this period, Csesar's sorrows have been aggravated 
by the loss of his most excellent mother, a wooian who 
resembled the gods more than human beings.* 

Jupiter Capitoliniis, Jupiter Stator, Mars Gradivus, 
author of the Roman name! Vesta, guardian of the eter- 
nal lire! all ye deities who have exalted the present 
magnitude of the Roman empire to a position of supremacy 
over the world, guard, preserve, and protect, I entreat and 
conjure you, in the name of the Commonwealth, our present 
state, our present peace, [our present Prince!] And when 
be shall have completed a long course on earth, grant him 
successors to the remotest ages, and such as shall have abili- 
ties to support the empire of the world as powerfully as we 
have seen him support it 1 — Vellkfus Paterculus. 


A Description of Roman Armies and Camps. — Xow 
here one cannot but admire the precaution of the Romans, 

♦ If we wonder at the remarkable flatteries here paid to Tiberius, Sejamiu, and 
Livia, we nhould remember lliat in thone days many an injudicions Jtomaii was 
fluriK from tlie Tarpcian Rock for adinrxe rcfloctions on Imperial manners, and tliat 
at the lime thin wa^ written S(OaniiH wan in full powi.-r. One year more, and the 
falli^n favorite hud been ftrani.'l''d in the depths of the Maniertin(M>i"ifon, Involving 
in liiH ruin, perhapH, Vellcin- liim-elf.— The depth of the Einjjeror'H norrow for the 
loKt» of liii* nKithcr may be inferred from the fart that he neither visited her in her 
lat>t illni'ss, nor aiteiiJed her obscquie!', bat spent the day of lier funeral in his UBual 
pleanurcH.— E. II. S. 


in providing themselves sncli household servants as might 
not only serve at other times for the common offices of life, 
but might also be of advantage to them in their wars. And 
indeed, if any one does but attend to the other parts of tlieir 
military discipline, he will be forced to confess, that their 
obtaining so large a dominion, hath been the acquisition of 
tlieir valor, and not the bare gift of fortune ; for they do not 
begin to use their weapons first, in time of war, nor do they 
then put their hands first into motion, while they avoided so 
to do in time of peace ; but as if their weapons did always 
cling to them, they have never any truce from warlike exer- 
cises ; nor do they stay till times of war admonish them to 
use them ; for their military exercises differ not at all from 
the real use of their arms, but every soldier is every day exer- 
cised, and that with great diligence, as if it were in time of 
war, which is the reason why they bear the fatigue of battle 
so easily: for neither can any disorder remove them from 
their usual regularity, nor can fear aflFright them out of it, 
nor can labor tire them : which firmness of conduct makes 
them always to overcome those that have not the same firm- 
ness : nor would he be mistaken that should call their 
exercises unbloody battles, and their battles bloody exercises. 
Nor can their enemies easily surprise them with the sudden- 
ness of their incursions ; for as soon as they have marched 
into an enemy's land they do not begin to fight till they have 
walled their camp about ; nor is the fence they raise rashly 
made, or uneven ; nor do they all abide in it, nor do those 
that are in it take their place at random ; but if it happens 
that the ground is uneven, it is first leveled ; their camp is 
also four square by measure, and carpenters are ready in great 
numbers, with their tools, to erect their buildings for them. 
As for what is within the camp, it is set apart for tents, 
but the outward circumference hath the resemblance to a wall 


and is adorned with towers, at equal distances, where between 
the towers stand the engines for throwing arrows, and darts, 
and for slinging stones, and where thej lay all other engines 
that can annoy the enemy, all ready for their several opera- 
tions. They also erect four gates, one at every side of the 
circumfereuce, and those large enough for the entrance of 
the beasts, and wide enough for making excursions, if occa- 
sion should require. They divide the camp within into 
streets, very conveniently, and place the tents of the com- 
manders in the middle; but in the very midst of all is 
the general's own tent, in the nature of a temide, in so 
much, that it appears to be a city built on the sudden, with 
its market-place, and place for handicraft trades, and with 
seats for the officers, superior and inferior, where, if any dif- 
ferences arise, their causes are heard and determined. The 
camp, and all that is in it, is encompassed with a wall round 
about, and that sooner than one would imagine, and this by 
the multitude and the skill of the laborers ; and, if occasion 
require, a trench is drawn round the whole, whose depth is 
four cubits, and its breadth equal. 

AVhen they have thus secured themselves, they live to- 
gether l)y companies, witli quietness and decency, as are all 
their other affairs managed with good order and security. 
Each company hatii also its own wood, and corn, and Avater 
brought to it, when it stands in need of them; for they 
neitlier sup nor dine as they please, themselves singly, but 
all together. Their times also for sleeping, and watching, 
and rising, are notified beforehand, by the sound of 
trumpets, nor is anything done witliout such a signal ; and 
in the nlorninL^ 1 lie soldiers go every one to their centurions, 
and these eenturions to tlieir tribunes, to salute them ; with 
whom all the superior officers go to the general of the wliole 
army, who then gives them the watchword, ;ind other 


orders, to be by tlicm carried to all that are under their 

Now when they are to go out of tlieir camp, tlie trumpet 
gives a sound, at which time nobody lies still, but, at the 
lirst intimation, they take down their tents, and all is made 
ready for their going out ; then do the trumpets sound 
again, to order them to get ready for the march : then do 
they lay their baggage suddenly upon their mules, and other 
beasts of burtiien, and stand, as at the place of starting, 
ready to marcli ; when also they set fire to their camp, 
and this they do, because it will be easy for them to erect 
another camp, and that it may never be of use to their 
enemies. Tlien do the trumpets give a sound the third 
time, in order to excite those that, on any account, are a 
little tardy, that so no one may be out of his rank, when 
the army marches. Then does tlie crier stand at the 
general's right hand, and ask them thrice, in their own 
tongue, whether they be now ready to go out to war or not? 
To which they reply as often, with a loud and cheerful 
voice, saying, "We are ready." And this they do almost 
before the question is asked them : and they do this, as 
filled with a kind of martial fury, and at the same time that 
they so cry out, they lift up their right hands also. 

When, after this, tiiey ar6 gone out of their camp, they all 
march without noise, and in a decent manner, and every one 
keeps his own rank, as if they were going to war. The 
footmen are armed Avith breastplates and head-pieces, and 
have swords on each side ; but the sword which is on their 
left side is much longer than the other, for that on the right 
side is no longer than a span. Those footmen also, that 
are chosen out from the rest to be about the general himself, 
have a lance and !)uckler, but the rest of the foot soldiers 
have a spear, and a long buckler, besides a saw and a basket, 


a pick-ax, aud an as, a tboug of leather, and a hook, with 
provisions for three days ; so that a footman hath great need 
of a mule to carry his burthens. The horsemen have a long 
sword on their right sides, aud a long j^ole in their hand ; a 
shield also lies by them obliquely on one side of their horses, 
with three or more darts, that are borne on their quivers, 
having broad points, and not smaller than spears. They 
have also head-pieces, and breastplates, in like manner as 
have all the footmen. And for those that are chosen to be 
about the general, their armor no way differs from that of 
the horsemen belonging to other troops ; and he always 
leads the legions forth, to whom the lot assigns that employ- 
ment. This is the manner of the marching and resting of 
the Eomans, as also these are the several sorts of weapons 
they use. But when they are to fight, they leave nothing 
withont forecast, nor to be done off-hand, but counsel is 
ever first taken, before any work is begun, and what hath 
been there resolved upon, is put in execution. 

Now they so manage the preparatory exercises of their 
weapons, that not the body of the soldiers only, but their 
souls may also become stronger ; they are moreover hardencid 
for war by fear, for their laws inflict capital punishment, not 
only for soldiers running away from their ranks, but for 
slothfulness and inactivity, tjiough it be in a lesser degree; 
and the readiness of obeying their commanders is so great 
that it is very ornamental in peace ; but when they come to 
a battle, the whole array is but one body, so well coupled 
together arc their ranks, so sudden are their turnings about, 
so sharp their hearing as to what orders are given them, so 
(piick their sight of the ensigns, and so nimble are tlieii' hamls 
when they set to work; whereby it comes io ])ass, that what 
they do is done quickly, and what (hoy suffer, they bear wi(h 
the greatest patience. — Josephus. 


How Titus Marched to Jerusalem. — Now, as Titus 
was upon his nuirch into tlie enemy's country, the auxilia- 
ries that were sent by the kings marched first, having all the 
other auxiliaries with them : after whom followed those 
that were to prepare the roads and measure out the camp ; 
then came the commanders' baggage, and after that the 
other soldiers, who were completely armed to support them ; 
then came Titus himself, having with him another select 
body; and then came the pikemen, after whom came the 
horse belonging to that legion. All these came before the 
engines; and after these engines came the tribunes and the 
leaders of the cohorts, with their select bodies ; after these 
came the ensigns with the eagle ; and before those ensigns 
came the trumpeters belonging to them ; next these came 
the main body of the army in their ranks, every rank being 
six deep ; the servants belonging to every legion came after 
these; and before these last their baggage; the mercenaries 
came last, and those that guarded them brought up the 
rear.— JosEPHUS. 

The Destruction of the City.— "The days shall come 
upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, 
and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side, and 
shall lay thee even with the ground, and thy children within 
thee; and they shall not leave in thee one stone upon 
another." So said Jesus, as, riding on a colt down the leafy 
slope of Olivet, he looked through his dropping tears upon 
Jerusalem. His gaze could trace every turret and winding 
of the three walls with which the city was enclosed. Below 
in the deep valley ran the silver thread of Cedron. Eight in 
front, cutting the western sky, and crowning the steep crest 
of Moriah with white and gold, the countless spikes which 
studded its burnished roof flashing in the sunlight, rose the 
magnificent Temple, enlarged and completed by Herod the 


Great. To the southwest — highest of the four hills on which 
the city lay — towered the rocky Ziou, hearing on its rugged 
shoulders the citadel, the royal palace, and the houses of the 
Upper City. Behind the Temple, and north of Zion, was the 
hill Acra, shaped like a horned moon, and covered with the 
terraces and gardens of the Lower City ; while, on another 
slope, Bezetha, or the New City, stretched further north 
towards the open country. 

The aspect of the city had changed but httle when, thirt}'- 
seven years later, the Roman eagles gathered round their 
prey. But, during these years, the Jews, as if maddened by 
the sacred blood for which they had thirsted so fiercely, had 
been plunging deeper and deeper into sin and v,-retchedness. 
At last, goaded by outrage and insult, they had risen against 
their Roman masters; and the* great Vespasian, a general 
trained in German and British Avars, had been sent by ]!vero 
to tame their stubborn pride. Moving with his legions from 
Antioch to Ptolemais, he was there joined by his son Titus, 
who brought forces from Egypt. Galilee and Perea were 
subdued with some trouble and delay; and the conqueror, 
having drawn a circle of forts aroiAid Jerusalem, was at 
Caesarea, preparing for the last great blow, when he heard 
the news of Nero's death. The murder of Galba, the suicide 
of Otho, and the seizure of Rome by the glutton Viteliius 
and his ])lundering soldiers, followed in quick succession. 
The army in Palestine then proclaimed Vespasian emperor. 
He hastened to secure Alexandria, the second city in the 
empire ; and having heard, while there, that Viteliius was 
dead, and that the people of Rome were holding feasts in his 
own honor, he set out for Italy. So the siege of Jerusalem 
was left to Titus. 

Mustering his forces at Ciesarea, and dividing thorn into 
three bauds, he marched for the doome<l city. Arrived 


there, he fortified three camps — one on the nortli, one on 
the west, and one, garrisoned by the 10th Legion, on the 
Mount of Olives. Upon this last the Jews made a sully as 
the soldiers were digging the trenches; but they weie soon 
beaten down the hill. 

While the trumpets were blowing at Casarea, and the 
clang of the Roman march was shaking the land, murder, 
and outrage, and cruel terror filled Jerusalem. Robbers, 
calling themselves Zealots, had flocked in from the country. 
Eleazar, at the head of one set of these, held the inner court 
of the Temple. John of Gischala, another leader of ruffians, 
occupying ground somewhat lower, poured constant showers 
of darts and stones into the holy house, often killing wor- 
shipers as they stood at the very altar. In this mad war, 
houses full of corn were burned, and misery of every kind 
was inflicted on the wretched people. In despair they called 
in Simon of Gerasa to their aid, and thus there were three 
hostile factions within the walls. The great feast of the 
Passover came, and the Temple was thrown open to the 
thousands who crowded from every corner of the land to 
offer' up their yearly sacrifice. Mingling in disguise with 
the throng, with weapons under their clothes, John's party 
gained entrance into the sacred court, and soon drove out 
their foes. The poor worshipers, all trampled and bleed- 
ing, escaped as best they could. John remained master of 
the Temple ; and the three factions were reduced to two. 

"Within the city there were above 23,000 fighting men — a 
strong body if united. There was, indeed, a temporary 
union, when they saw the Roman soldiers busily cutting 
down all the trees in the suburbs, rolling their trunks 
together, and to the top of the three great banks thus 
formed, dragging the huge siege-engines of the time — rams, 
catapults, and balistae. 


The siege opened in three places at once. Tlie Eoman 
missiles poured like hail upon the city ; but none were so 
terrible as the stones, sometimes weighing a talent, which 
were cast from the east by the 10th Legion. The Jewish 
watchmen, soon learning to know these by their white color 
and tremendous whiz, used to cry out, " The son cometh ; " 
then all in the way fell flat, and little mischief was done. 
But the Eomans, not to be tricked, painted the stones black, 
and battered on more destructively than ever. The Jews 
replied with some engines planted on the wall by Simon, 
flung torches at the Roman banks, and made an unavailing 
sally at the Tower of Hippicns. 

Three towers of heavy timber, covered with thick iron 
plates, were then erected by Titus. Eising higher than the 
walls, and carrying light engines, they were used to drive the 
Jews from their posts of defence. The falling of one of 
these at midnight with a loud crash spread alarm through 
the Roman camp, but it did not last long. At dawn the 
rams were swinging away, and i)ounding against the shaking 
wall, which on the fifteenth day of the siege yielded to Nico 
(the Conqueror), as the most ponderous of the Roman engines 
was called by the Jews. The legions, pouring through the 
breach, gained the first wall. 

Pitching his camp within tiie city, Titus then attacked 
the second wall, where he was vigorously met both by Simon 
and John. Sorties and wall-fighting filled up every hour of 
daylight; and both sides lay by night in their armor, 
snatching hasty and broken sleep. In five days the second 
wall was forced. Titus passed within it at the head of 1000 
men ; but (he Jews set on him so hotly in the narrow streets 
that they soon drove him out :igaiii. ]*]asily elated, they 
exulted trrcatly in this success; l.»ut, four days later, the 
second Willi was retaken, and leveled to the ground. 


Then followed a imuse of five days, during which the 
Eomaus, having received their subsistence money, paraded, 
as their custom was, in glittering armor. The wall and the 
Temple roofs were paved with pale Jewish faces, beholding 
nothing in the splendid sight but terror and despair. The 
attack was renewed at John's Monument, and the Tower of 
Antonia. At the same time, Josephus, a noble Jew, from 
whose graphic history this sketch is drawn, went to the walls, 
as he had done before — as he did more than once again, to 
plead with his countrymen. But all in vain, for the Zealots 
were bent on holding out, and slew such of the people as 
they found trying to desert. 

Famine had long before begun its deadly work. Mothers 
were already snatching the morsels from their children's 
lips. The robbers broke open every shut door in search of 
food, and tortured most horribly all who were thought to 
have a hidden store. Gaunt men, who had crept beyond the 
walls by night to gather a few wild herbs, were often robbed 
by these wretches of the poor handful of green leaves for 
which they had risked their lives. Yet, in spite of this, the 
starving people went out into the valleys in such numbers 
that the Eomans caught them at the rate of 500 a day, and 
crucified them before the walls, until there was no room to 
plant, and no wood to make, another cross. AVhat a fearful 
retribution for that mad cry, uttered some seven and thirty 
years before, at Pilate's judgment-seat: "His blood be on us 
and on our chiklren!" 

The Koraans then raised four great banks. But these, 
which cost seventeen days' labor, were all destroyed — two by 
John, who dug a mine below them, and set fire to the tim- 
bers of its roof, and the others by three brave Jews, who 
rushed out upon the engines, torch in hand. And then it 
was ''pull Roman, pull Jew," and heavy blows were dealt 


round the red-hot rams. The Eomans were driven to their 
camp, but the guard at the gate stood tirm ; and Titus, 
taking the Jews in flank, compelled them to retreat. 

This serious loss made Titus resolve to hem in the city 
with a wall. It was built in the amazingly short time of 
three days. The attack was then directed against the Tower 
of Antonia, which stood at the north-west corner of the 
Temple, on a slippery rock, fifty cubits high. Fonr new 
banks were raised. Some Eoraan soldiers, creeping in with 
their shields above their heads, loosened four of the founda- 
tion stones; and the wall, battered at all day, fell suddenly 
in the night. But there was another wall inside. One 
Sabinus, a little black Syrian soldier, led a forlorn hope of 
eleven men up to this in broad noon-day. gained the top, 
and put the Jews to flight ; but tripping over a stone he 
was killed, as were three of his band. A night or two after, 
sixteen Romans stole up the wall, slew the guards, and blew 
a startling trumpet blast. The Jews fled. Titus and his 
men, swarming up the ruined wall, dashed at the entrance 
of the Temple, where, for ten hours, a bloody fight raged. 
Julian, a centurion of Bithynia, attacking the Jews single- 
handed, drove them to the inner court; but the sharp nails 
in his shoes haA'ing caused him to fall with a clang on the 
marble floor, they turned back and slew him with many 
wounds. Then, following up their success, they drove the 
Romans out of the Temple, but not from the Tower of 

Strange omens liad foretold the coming doom. A star, 
shaped like a sword, had hung for a year over the city. A 
bi'azen gate of the inner court, which twenty men could 
hardly move, had swung l)ack on its hinges of itself. 
Shadows, resembling chariots ami soldiers attacking a city, 
had appeared in tiie sky one evening before sunset. And at 


Pentecost, as tlie jDriests were going by night into the inner 
court, they heard murmuring voices, as of a great crowd, 
saying, "Let us go hence." 

After the Roman wall was built, the famine and the plague 
grew worse. Young men dropt dead in the streets. Piles of 
decaying corpses filled the lanes, and were thrown by tens 
of thousands over the walls. No herbs were to be got now. 
Men, in the rage of hunger, gnawed their shoes, the leather 
of their shields, and even old wisps of hay. Robbers, with 
wolfish eyes, ransacked every dwelling, and, when one day 
they came clamoring for food to tlie house of Mary, the 
daugiiter of Eleazar, a high-born lady of Perea, she set 
before them the roasted flesh of her own infant son, whom 
she had slain. "This," screamed she, "is mine own son. 
Eat of this food, for I have eaten of it myself." Brutal and 
rabid though they were, they fled in horror from the house 
of that wretched mother. 

At last the daily sacrifice ceased to be offered, and the 
war closed round the Temple. The cloisters were soon 
burned. Six days' battering had no effect on the great 
gates; fire alone conld clear a path for the eagles. A day 
was fixed for the grand assault; but on the evening before, 
the Romans having penetrated as far as the Holy House, a 
soldier, climbing on the shoulders of another, put a blazing 
torch to one of the golden windows of the north side. The 
building was soon a sheet of leaping flames ; Titus, who 
had always desired to save the Temple, came running from 
his tent, but the din of war and the crackling flames pre- 
vented his voice from being lieard. On, over the smoking 
cloisters, trampled the legions, fierce for plunder. The Jews 
sank in heaps of dead and dying round the altar, which 
dripped with their blood. More fire was thrown upon the 
hinges of the gate ; and then no human word or hand could 


save the bouse where God Himself had loved to dwell. 
Xever did the stars of night look down on a more piteous 
scene. Sky and hill, and town and valley, were all reddened 
with one fearful hue. The roar of flames, the shouts of 
Romans, the shrieks of wounded. Zealots, rose wild in the 
scorching air, and echoed among the mountains all around. 
But sadder far was the wail of broken hearts which burst 
from the streets below, when marble wall and roof of gold 
came crashing down, and the Temple was no more. Then, 
and only then, did the Jews let go the trust — that God 
would deliver His ancient people, smiting the Romans with 
some sudden blow. 

The Upper City became a last refuge for the despairing 
remnant of the garrison. Simon and John were there ; but 
the arrogant tyrants were broken down to trembling cowards. 
And when, after eighteen days' work, banks were raised, 
and the terrible ram began to sound anew on the ramparts, 
the panic-stricken Jews fled like hunted foxes to hide in the 
caves of the hill. The eagles flew victoriously to the sum- 
rait of the citadel, while Jewish blood ran so deep down 
Zion that burning houses M'cre quenched in the red stream. 

The siege lasted 134 days, during which 1,100,000 Jews 
perished, and 97,000 were taken captive. Some were kept 
to grace the Roman triumph ; some were sent to toil in the 
mines of Egypt; some fought in provincial theaters with 
gladiators and wild beasts; those under seventeen were sold 
as slaves. John was imprisoned for life ; Simon, after being 
led in trium})h, was slain at Rome. 

It was a gay holiday, when the emperor and his son, 
crowned with huiiel and clad in purple, passed in triumph 
through the crowded sireets of Rome. Of the many rich 
spoils adorning the pageant, none were gazed on with more 
curious eyes than the golden tal)le, the candle-stick with 

'^■ir'-i K K A J) 1 N G S 1 N i; U .\I A X 1{ 1 S TO K Y. 

seven branciiing lamps, aiivl the holy book of the law, 
rescued from the flames of the Temple. It was the last page 
of a tragic story. The Mosaic dispensation had come to a 
close, and the Jews— homeless ever since, yet always pre- 
serving an indestructible nationality — were scattered among 
the cities of earth to be the Shylocks of a day that is gone 
by, and the Kothschilds of our own happier age. — Collier. 

The Triumphal Return of Titus.— So, when Titus had 
had a prosperous voyage to liis mind, the city of Eome 
behaved itself in his reception and in meeting him at a 
distance, as it did in the case of his father. But what made 
the most sj)lendid appearance in Titus' opinion was, when 
liis father met him, and received him; but still the multi- 
tude of the citizens conceived the greatest joy when they 
saw them all three together, as they did at this time; nor 
were many days overpast when they determined to have but 
one triumph, that should be common to both of them, on 
account of the glorious exjjloits they had performed, although 
the senate had decreed each of them a separate triumph by 
himself. So, when notice had been given beforehand of the 
day appointed for this pompous solemnity to be made on 
account of their victories, not one of the immense multitude 
was left in the city, but everybody went out so far as to gain 
only a station where they might stand, and left only such a 
passage as was necessary for those that were to be seen to go 
along it. 

Now, all the soldiery marched out beforehand, by com- 
panies, and in their several ranks, under their several com- 
manders, in the night-time, and were about the gates, not 
of the upper palaces, but those near the temple of Isis; for 
there it was that the emperors had rested the foregoing 
night. And, as soon as ever it was day, Vespasian and Titus 
came put, crowned with laprel, and clothed in those ancient 

Tv E A D I X G S IX i; M A N HISTORY. 243 

purple habits which were proper to tlieir family, and then 
went as far as Oetaviairs walks; for there it was that the 
senate, and the principal rulers, and those that had been 
recorded as of the equestrian order, waited for them. 'Now 
a tribunal had been erected before the cloisters, and ivory 
chairs had been set upon it; and when they came and sat 
down upon them, the soldiery made an acclamation of joy, 
and all gave them attestations of their valor. Vespasian 
accepted these shouts ; but while they were still disposed to 
go on in such demonstrations, he gave them a signal of 
silence. And when everybody entirely held their peace, he 
stood up, and covering the greatest part of his head with 
his cloak, he put up the accustomed solemn prayers : the 
like prayers did Titus put up also ; after which i)rayers, 
Vesjoasian made a short speech to all the people, and then 
sent away the soldiers to a dinner prepared for tliem by the 
emperors. Then did he retire to that gate which was called 
the Gate of Pomp, because pompous shows do always go 
through that gate ; there they tasted some food, and when 
they had put on their triumphal garments, and had offered 
gaerifices to the gods placed at the gate, they sent the 
trium[)h forward, and marched tlirough the theaters, that 
they might be the more easily seen by the multitudes. 

Now, it is impossible to describe the multitude and 
magnificence of the shows ; such, indeed, as a man could not 
easily think of, as performed either l)y the labor of work- 
men, or the variety of riches, or the rarities of nature. 
Here was seen a mighty quantity of silver, and gold, and 
ivory, contrived into all sorts of things, which did not 
appear as carried along in pompous show only, but, as a 
man may say, running along like a river. There were also 
])recious stones that were transparent, some set in crowns of 
gold, and mme in other ouches; and of these such avast 


number that we could not but tlicnce leurn bow A'jiinly we 
imagined any of them to be rarities. The images of the 
gods were also carried, being as well wonderful for their 
largeness, as made with great skill of workmen ; nor were 
any of these images of any other than very costly materials ; 
and many species of animals were brought, every one in 
its own natural ornaments. The men also, who carried 
these shows, were great multitudes, and adorned with 
pnr])le garments, all over interwoven with gold ; having 
also about them such magnificent ornaments as were both 
extraordinary and surprising. 

Eveu the great number of the captives was not unadorned, 
while tlie variety and the fine texture of their garments con- 
cealed from sight the deformity of their bodies. But, what 
afforded the greatest surprise of all was the structure of the 
pageants that were borne along ; for, indeed, he that met 
them could not but be afraid that the bearers would not be 
ai)le firmly enough to support them, such was their magni- 
tude : for many of them were so made that they were three 
or even four stories one above another. Their magnificence 
also afibrded one both pleasure and surprise : for, upon many 
of them were laid carpets of gold. There was also wrought 
gold, and ivory fastened about them all ; and many resem- 
blances of the war, in several ways, and a variety of con- 
trivances, affording a most lively portraiture of itself. For 
there was to be seen a happy countiy laid waste, and entire 
squadrons of enemies slain ; while some of them ran away, 
and some were carried into captivity, with walls of great 
altitude and magnitude overthrown, and ruined by machines, 
with the strongest fortifications taken, and the walls of most 
populous cities upon the tops of hills seized on, and an army 
pouring itself within the walls ; as also every place full of 
slaughter, and supplications of the enemies, wdien they were 


no longer able to lift up their hands in way of opposition. 
Fire also sent upon temples was here represented, and houses 
overthrown, and falling upon their owners ; rivers also, after 
they came out of a large and melancholy desert, ran down, 
not into a land cultivated, nor as drink for men, or for 
cattle, but through a land still on fire upon every side; for 
the Jews related that such a thing they bad undergone dur- 
ing this war. Xow, the workmanship of these representa- 
tions was so lively in the construction of the things, that it 
exhibited what had been done to such as did not see it, as if 
they had been there really present. On the top of every one 
of these pageants was placed the commander of the city that 
was taken, and the manner wherein he was taken. More- 
over, there followed those pageants a great number of ships : 
and, for the other spoils, they were carried in great plenty. 
But, for those that were taken in the temple of Jerusalem, 
they made the greatest figure of them all ; that is, the golden 
table, of the weight of many talents; the candle-stick also, 
that was made of gold, though its construction was now 
changed from that which we made use of : for its middle 
shaft was fixed upon a basis, and the small branches were 
produced out of it to a great length, liaving the likeness of 
a trident in their position, and had every one a socket made 
of brass for a lamp at the to]) of tliein. These lamps were in 
number seven, and represented the dignity of the number 
seven among the Jews ; and, last of all the spoils, was carried 
the law of the Jews. After these spoils, passed by a great 
many men, carrying the images of victory, whose structure 
was entirely either of ivory or of gold. After which, Ves- 
pasian marched in the first ])lace, and Titns followed him; 
Doniitian also i-ode along wilh tlicni, and made ;i glorious 
a|»pcaranc(', and rode on a horse that was worthy ol' ad- 


Now, the last part of this pompous shoAv was at the temple . 
of Jupiter Capitolinus, whither, when they were come, they 
stood still ; for it was the Eomans' ancient custom, to stay 
till somebody brought the news that the general of the 
enemy was slain. This general was Simon, the son of 
Gioras, who had been led in this triumph among the cap- 
tives, and had withal been tormented by those that drew him 
along; a rope had also been put upon his head, and he had 
been drawn into a proper place in the forum, for the law of 
the Komans required that malefactors condemed to die 
should be slain there. Accordingly, when it was related that 
there was an end of him, and all the people had set up a 
shout for joy, they then began to offer those sacrifices which 
they had consecrated in the prayers used in such solemni- 
ties. When they had finished, they went away to the palace. 
And, as for some of the spectators, the emperors entertained 
them at their own feast; and for all the rest, there were 
noble preparations made for their feasting at home; for this 
was a festival day to the city of Eome, as celebrated for the 
victory obtained by their army over their enemies. 

After these triumphs were over, and after the affairs of 
the Romans were settled on the surest foundations, Vespasian 
resolved to build a temple to Peace, which was finished in so 
short a time, and so glorious a manner, as was beyond all 
human expectation and opinion : for, having now by Provi- 
dence a vast quantity of wealth, besides what he had formerly 
gained in his other exploits, he had this temple adorned with 
pictures and statues and all such rarities as men aforetime 
used to wander all over the habitable world to see ; he also 
laid up therein those golden vessels and instruments, that 
were taken out of the Jewish temple, as ensigns of his glory. 
But he gave order that they should lay up their law, and the 


purple vails of the holy place, in the royal palace itself, and 
he kept them there. — Josephus. 


Of all the ruins in Rome none is at once so beautiful, so 
imposing, and so characteristic as the Colosseum. Here 
throbbed the Eoman heart in its fullest pulses. Over its 
benches swarmed the mighty population of the central city 
of the world. Here emperor, senators, knights, and soldiers, 
the lowest populace and the proudest citizens, gazed together 
on the bloody gladiatorial games, shouted together as the 
favorite won, groaned together fiercely as the favorite fell, 
and startled the eagles sailing over the blue vault above with 
their wild cries of triumph. Here might be heard the trum- 
peting of the enraged elephant, the savage roar of the tiger, 
the peevish shriek of the grave-rifling hyena. The sand of 
this arena drank alike the blood of gladiator, beast, and mar- 
tyred Christian virgin. Rome — brutal, imperial Rome — built 
in her days of pride this mighty amphitheater, and, outlast- 
ing all her works, it still stands, the best type of her grandeur 
and brutality. The imperial palaces are almost level with 
the earth. Over the pavement where once swept the purple 
robes now slips the gleaming lizard, and in the indiscrim- 
inate ruins of these splendid halls the contadino plants his 
potatoes and sells [ov a jiaul the oxidized coin which once 
may have ])aid Ibe entrance fee to the great amphitheater. 
The golden house of Xero is gone. The very Forum where 
Cicero delivered his immortal orations is almost obliterated, 
and antiquarians (|Uiirrol over the few columns that remain. 
But the Colosseum still stands; noble and beautiful even in 
its decay. 

But what acliaiige has conic over it since the bloody scenes 


of the CcBsars were enacted ! Thousands of beautiful flowers 
now bloom in its ruined arches, tall plants and shrubs wave 
across the open spaces, and Nature has healed over the 
wounds of time with delicate grasses and weeds. Wliere, 
through the podium doors, wild beasts once rushed into the 
arena to tear the Christian martyrs, now stand the altars and 
stations that are dedicated to Christ. In the summer after- 
noon the air above is thronged with twittering swallows : 
and sometimes, like a reminiscence of imperial times, far up 
in the blue height, an eagle, planing over it on wide-spread 
motionless wings, sails silently along. 

As you dream over tliis change, the splendor of sunset 
blazes against tlie lofty walls, and transfigures its blocks of 
travertine to brown and massive gold; the quivering stalks 
and weeds seem on fire ; the flowers drink in a glory of color, 
and show like gems against the rough crust of their setting ; 
rose clouds hang in the open vault above, under which swift 
birds flash incessantly, and through the shadowed arches 
you see long molten bars of crimson drawn against a gor- 
geous sky beyond. Slowly the great shadow of the western 
wall creeps along the arena ; tlie cross in the center blazes 
no longer in the sun; it reaches the eastern benches, climbs 
rapidly up the wall, and the glory of sunset is gone. Twi- 
light now swiftly drawls its veil across the sky, the molten 
clouds grow cool and gray, the orange refines into citron and 
pales away to tenderest opaline light, and stars begin to peer 
through the dim veil of twilight. Shadows deepen in the 
open arena, block up the arches and galleries, confuse the 
lines of the benches, and shroud its decay. You rise and 
walk musingly into the center of the arena, and, looking- 
round its dim, vast circumference, you suddenly behold the 
benches as of old thronged wdth their myriads of human 
forms— the ghosts of those who once sat there. That ter- 


rible circle of eyes is sliiuing at you with a ghastly expression 
of cruel excitement. You hear the strange, exciting hum of 
confused voices, and the roar of wild beasts in the caverns 
below. You are yourielt" the gladiator, wlio must die to make 
a Roman holiday, or the martyr who Avaits at the stake for 
the savage beasts that are to rend you. A shudder comes 
over you, for the place has magnetized you with its old life ; — 
you look hurriedly round to seek flight, when suddenly you. 
hear a soprano voice saying, "Fran9ois, where did the Vestal 
Virgins sit?" and you wake from your dream. 

Such is the Colosseum at the present day. Let us go 
back into the past, and endeavor to reconstruct it. 

In the beginning of the reign of the great Julius, the 
stormy populace of Rome has no amphitheater, and its 
gladiatorial games and wild beast-fights take place in the 
Forum, whither the people throng and crowd the temporary 
seats which enclose a small arena. This is soon felt to he 
insufficient, and Julius erects in the Campus Martins a great 
wooden structure, to which is given the name of amphi- 
theatrum. In the reign of Augustus, this wooden amphi- 
theater gives way to one of stone, which at the instance of 
the emperor is built in the Campus Martins by Statilius 
Taurus. This is too small, however, to satisfy the Avishes of 
the people, and Augustus thinks at one time of building one 
still larger on the very s})ot now occupied by the Colosseum ; 
but, among his various schemes of embellishing the city, this 
is abandoned. Tiberius does notliing. Caligula begins to 
build a large stone ampliithcater, but dies before it makes 
much i)rogress, and it is not continued by his successor. 

Nero builds a tciniiorary amphitheater of wood in the 
Campus Martins, where are rei)rcsented those remarkable 
games at Avhich he is not only a spectator but an actor. 
Here at times lie may be seen lounging on the sugr/eslus in 


loosely-flowing robes of delicate purple, his head crowned 
with a garland of flowers, and looking so like a woman in his 
dress, that you might easily be deceived as to his sex, were 
it not for that cruel face with its hawk nose and small 
fierce eyes, that looks out under the flowers. In this arena 
he i)l:iys his harp, recites poetry, and acts, winning golden 
opinions from the populace. Here, at other times, half- 
naked and armed like a gladiator, he fights, and woe be to 
liim who dares to draw imi)erial blood ! If we could look in 
at one of the games given in this amphitheater, we should 
see not only the emperor playing the gladiator's part on the 
arena, but at his side, and fighting against each other, 
at times no less than four hundred senators and six hundred 
Eoman knights. Meanwiiile, he has built his golden house 
on the Palatine Hill, with its gorgeous halls, theaters, and 
corridors, thronged with marble statues ; and at its base is 
an artificial lake, fed by pure waters brought from the mount- 
ains, in which at times he celebrates his naval combats. 
This occupies the very spot on which the Colosseum is after- 
wards to be built, but it is only a lake during the reigns of 
Galba, Otho, and Yitellius. When Nero sets the torch to 
Eome, among the many buildings which are consumed is 
the old amphitheater of Statilius Taurus, and Eome has left 
only that of the Campus Martins. 

But when Titus and Vespasian return after the conquest 
of Jerusalem, enriched with spoils, a great change takes 
place. Then it is that the Lake of Nero is drained, and out 
of the Jewish captives who have been brought to Eome to 
grace the imperial triumph, twelve thousand are driven, 
under the smack of the whip, to lay the first stones of the 
Amphitheatrum Flavium, which now goes by the name of 
the Colosseum. For long years these unhappy wretclies toil 
at their work ; but wlien they have reached the third tier 


of seats, Vespasian dies. Titus then continues the construc- 
tion, and dedicates the amphitheater (80 a, d.), at which 
time the games last for one hundred days, and fifty wild 
heasts are killed every day. 

Under Domitian, the building is at last finished, and a 
magnificent structure it is. Looking at it from the outside, 
we behold a grand elevation of four stories, built of enor- 
mous blocks of travertine. The lower story is Doric ; the 
second, Ionic ; the third, Corinthian ; and the fourth, 
Composite; the lower three being composed of arches with 
engaged columns, and the upper being a solid wall pierced 
with square openings, and faced by pilasters. High up 
against the blue sky is drawn the curved cornice of its sum- 
mit, with huge projecting brackets on which the poles sup- 
porting the velarium (awning) are fixed. The two middle 
rows of arches are thronged with marl)le statues, and over 
the principal entrance is a great triumphal car drawn by 
horses. Just before it is the '* mcta sudans," over whose 
simple cone, fixed upon a square base, the water oozes 
through a thousand perforated holes, and streams into a 
basin below. Above, on the Palatine, are the splendid 
porticoes and pillars of the Golden House, with its green 
lianging gardens, and beyond, on the Via Sacra, is the grand 
triumphal arch of Titus, and, afterwards, of Trajan. 

It is a holiday, and games are to be given in the amphi- 
theater. The world of Eome is flocking to it from all quar- 
ters. Senators and knights, witti their body-guards of slaves 
and gladiators; soldiers glittering with silver and gold; 
youths with their ])fdag(igues; women, artisans and priests; 
companies of gladiators marshalled by Lanisfa^ ; cohorts with 
flashing bucklers and swords, and dense masses of freedmen, 
slaves, and the common populace, are pouring down the Via 
Sacra, and filling the air with uproar. Shouts of laughter 



and cheering mingle confusedly with the screams of women 
and the clash of swords. At times the clear, piercing shriek 
of a trumpet or the brazen clash of music rises above this 
simmering cauldron of noise, and here and there, looking up 
the human river that pours down the slope of the Via Sacra, 

you see gray 
sheaves of 
spears lifted 
liigh above 
the crowd, or 
here and there 
a golden eagle 
that gleams 
and wavers in 
the sun, where 
some Eoman 
legion sharply 
m arches 
through the 
loitering mass 
of people. 
We push along 
v/ i t h the 
crowd, and soon we arrive at 
the amphitheater, where we 
pause and struggle vainly te read the Jihellum, or program, 
which the editor, or exhibitor, has affixed to the walls, to 
inform the public of the names of tlie gladiators, and the 
different games and combats of the day. The majestic por- 
ticoes which surround the whole building are filled with 
swarms of people, some lingering and lounging there till the 
time shall come- for the games to begin, or looking at the 



exquisite designs iu stucco with which they are adorned, aud 
some crowding along the vomitorioE, which ac regular dis- 
tances lead uj) to the seats. Here we procure our tickets for 
u numbered seat, and soon push n\) the steps and come into 
the interior circle of the mighty amphitheater, glad enough 
at last to be jostled no longer, and, under the direction of a 
locarius, to get our seat. Already the lofty ranges of benches 
are beginning to be filled, and at a rough guess there must 
be even now some 50,000 persons there. But many a range 
is still empty, and we know that 87,000 persons can be seated, 
while there in standing room for 22,000 more. The huge 
velarium is bellying, sagging, and swaying above our heads, 
veined with cords, and throwing a transparent shadow over 
the whole building. How it is supported, who can tell ? 
But we may congratulate ourselves that we are on the shady 
feidc, where the sun does not beat ; for the mad emperor, 
when the games have not been fierce and bloody enough to 
please him, has many a time ordered a portion of the vela- 
rium to be removed, so as to let the burning sun in upon 
those who wore unlucky enough to be opposite to it, and has 
then prohibited any one from leaving his place under penalty 
of instant death. 

Looking down, we see surrounding the arena a wall about 
15 feet in height, faced with rich marl)k's, and intended to 
guard the audience against the wild beasts. This is some- 
times called the podium, though the term is more appropri- 
ately applied to the tcirace on top of the wall, which extends 
in front of the lynches, aud is railed round by a trellis-work. 
This, in the amphitheater of Nero, was made of bronze, but 
Carinns afterwards substituted golden coixls, which were 
knott<'d t/)gether at (heir intersections with amber. Tliere is 
the seat of honor, and three or four ranges of elniirs are set 
apjirt for ix-r.-ons entitled to the di.-linrlicjii of the riinilc 


chair. Those taking their seats in them now are, or hare 
been, praetors, consuls, curules, rediles or censors. There, 
too, is the Flamen Dialis. Opposite to the preetors, that 
group of white-robed women, also in the podium, is the Vestal 
Virgins ; and there, on the raised tribune, is the seat of the 
editor who exhibits the games. 

Above the podium are three tiers, called the mceniana, 
which are separated from each other by long ])latforms run- 
ning round the whole building and called prvecinctiones. 
The first of these, consisting of fourteen rows of stone and 
marble seats, is for the senators and equestrian orders, and 
they have the luxury of a cushion to sit upon. The second 
tier is for the jt?07?MZ?«,<?, and the third, Avhere there are only 
wooden benches, is occupied by the pullati, or common 
people of the lower classes. Above these is a colonnade or 
long gallery set apart for women, who are admitted when 
there is to be no naked figiiting among the gladiators ; but 
as yet the seats are empty, for the women are not admitted 
before the fifth hour. On the middle seats, where the plebe- 
ians sit, there is not a single person in black, for this was 
prohibited by Augustus Caesar; and it was he also who 
ordered that the ambassadors should not stand, as they used 
to do, in the orchestra or podium, and that the young nobles 
should always be accompanied by their pedagogues. 

While we are looking round we can hear the roar of the 
wild beasts, which are kept in great caves under the pave- 
ment of the arena; and sometimes we see their fierce glaring 
faces through the arched doors with which the walls of the 
podium are pierced. They are now protected by portcullises, 
which later will be drawn up by cords. 

The arena where the combats will take place, is sunken 
from 13 to 15 feet below the lowest range of seats, and is 
fenced around with wooden rollers turning in their sockets, 


and placed horizontally against the wall, so as to revolve 
under any wild beast, iu case he should attempt to reach the 
audience by leaping over the boundary wall. For public 
security, all around the arena are the euripi, or ditches, 
built by Caesar, and flooded so as to protect the spectators 
a2;ainst the attacks of elephants,, which are supposed to be 
afraid of water. The floor of the arena was originally strewn 
with yellow sand (and from this its name was derived), so as 
to afford suj-e footing to the gladiators ; but Caligula sub- 
stituted borax, and Nero added to the borax the splendid 
red of Cinnabar, with which it now is covered. Underneath 
this is a solid pavement of stones closely cemented so as to 
hold water; and when naval battles are given, there arc 
pipes to flood it, so as to form an artificial lake on which 
galleys may float. Near the northern entrance you will see 
a flight of broad stairs, through which great machines are 
sometimes introduced into the arena. 

The air is fdled with perfumes of saffron infused in wine, and 
balsams, and costly tinctures, and essences, which are carried 
over the building in concealed conduits, and ooze out ovei 
the statues through minute orifices, or scatter their spray 
into the air. There is now a sudden stir among the people, 
and the amphitheater resounds with the cry of ^^ Ave 
Imperalor " as the emperor in his purple robes, surrounded 
by his lictors and imperial guard, enters and takes his seat 
on the elevated chair called the syggesius opposite to the 
main entrance. Then sound the trumpets, and the gladi:i- 
tors who are to fight enter the arena in a long ])rocession, 
and make the tour of the whole amphitlieatcr. They are 
now matched in pairs, ami (heir swords are examined by 
tjje editor, and even l)y the emperor, to see if they are sharp 
and in good condition. K pr(Blnsi<),ov ^hnvn battle, follows, 
and at the trumpet again sounds, and the first on the 

25G READINGS 1 \ U (> M A N U I S T O K Y , 

list advance to salute the emperor before engaging in their 
desperate contest.* 

The famous picture of Gerome, the French artist, gives 
one a vivid notion of what the spectacle in the Colosseum 
was at this moment. The fat, brutal, overfed figure of 
Domitian is seen above in the impei'ial chair, imd in the 
arena below a little group of gladiators is pausing before him 
to salute him with their accustomed speech: ''Ave, Im- 
perafor, morituri te ^alntant ! '' The benches are crowded 
row above row with spectators, eager for the struggle that is 
to take place between the new combatants. They have 
already forgotten the last, and heed not the dead bodies of 
man and beast, that slaves are now dragging out of the arena 
with grappling-irons. A soft light, filtering through the 
huge tent-like velarinm overhead, illumines the vast circle 
of the amphitheater. Thousands of eager eyes are fixed on 
the little band, wlio now only wait the imperial nod to join 
battle, and a murmurous war of impatience and delight 
seems to be sounding like the rea over the vast assembly. 
Looking at this picture, one can easily imagiue the terrible 
excitement of a gladiatorial show, when 100,000 hearts were 
beating with the combatants, and screams of rage or triumph 
saluted the blows that drank blood, or the cruel ''upturned 
thumb" (p. 102) announced his fate to the wretched victim 
as he sank in the arena, f 

* In the museum of San Giovanni in Laterano is a larire mosaic pavement, taken 
from tlie Baths of Caracalla, on which are represented colossal heads and figures of 
some of the most celebrated gladiators of the day. Their brutal and bestial 
physiognomies, their huge overdeveloped muscles, and Atlantean shoulders, their 
low flat foreheads and noses, are hideous to behold, and give one a more fearful and 
living notion ( f the horror of ihose bloody games to which they were trained, than 
any description in words could convey. They make one believe that of all animals, 
none can be made so brutal as man. It is very probable that some of these were 
the favorite gladiators of Caracalla, and made a part of the imperial retinue.— Stort. 

+ The manner in which Christinn martyrs were exposed to the wild beasts is 
shown by some small rilievi in bronze found in the catacombs, where the lions are 
represented as chain^id to a pilaster, and the martyrs lie naked and unarmed at their 

R E A I) I N' Ct S IX U OMAN' HISTORY. 2o i 

On the Kalends of Jainuirv, in the year 404, while, in the 
presence of an immense crov.d of spectators, the gladiators 
were fighting in the arena, a monkish figure, clothed in the 
dress of his order, was suddenly seen to rnsh into the 
midst of tlie combatants, and with loud prayer and excited 
gesture endeavor to separate tliem. This was Telemachus 
(or Almachius), who had traveled from the far East for the 
express purpose of bearing his testimony against these nn- 
christian games, and sacrificing his life, if necessary, to ob- 
tain their abolition. The Prstor, Alybius, who was passion- 
ately attached to them, indignant at the interruption, and 
excited by the wild cries of the audience, instantly ordered 
the ofladlators to cut the intruder down, and Telemachus 
paid the forfeit of his life for his heroic courage. But the 
crown and the palm of martyrdom were given him, and he 
was not only raised to a place in the calendar of saints, but 
he accomplislied in a measure the great object for which he 
hud sacrificed bimself ; for, struck with the grandeur and 
justness of the courageous protest which he had sealed with 
his blood, the Emperor Honorius abolished the gladiatorial 
games, and from that time forward no gladiator has fought 
in the Colosseum against another gladiator. 

Combats with wild beasts continued down to the death of 
Theodoric, in 526, when they fell into disuse, and the edict 
of Justinian absolutely abolished them. Up to this period 
the Colosseum had been kept in repair, but this edict having 
rendered it useless as an amphitheater, it was thenceforward 
abandoned to the assaults of time and weather, and the 
caprice of man. The eni'th(|uakes and fioods of the seventh 

feet. It f-comw, nl-o, llinl the cacrilkc of the C'liris(i:ms •;oiifTally ended the day's 
fiport. When tlie other i<howH were over, the condemned Chrihtians were broui:ht 
Into the arena Ihroii-li HIik of the hiinlcrH of llie wild hensts. who heat them with 
rodi« a.M they pa-ced. Some of the women were htriinied and exi)OMed in nets, and 
some were tortnied because they would not a-hunie tlie cerenioidal roben worn In 
the worfliip of llie pairan divinities- Stoky. 


century shook tmd partially destroyed it. Barljarians at home 

and from abroad preyed upon it, boring it for its metal 

clamp?, plundering it of every article of value, and defacing 

its architecture. Still it would seem to have been entire, 

or nearly so, as late as the beginning of the eighth centnry, 

when the Anglo-Saxon visited Eome, and gazing at it with 

awe and admiration, broke forth into the enthusiastic speech 

recorded by the venerable Bede, and thus Englislied by 

Byron : — 

" While stands the Colosseum, Rome shall stand ! 
When falls the Colosseum, Rome shall fall ! 
And when Rome falls — the world ! " 

From this time forward, exposed to tumult, battle, and 
changes of ownership, it fell rapidly into ruin. During the 
middle ages the government, regarding it merely as a stone 
quarry, granted permissions to excavate travertine therefrom 
to any princely family who could afford to pay for them. 
Not only were blocks of travertine removed, but all the 
marble was torn down and burnt into lime ; and to such an 
extent were the spoliations of this period carried on, as to 
render it only surj^rising that anything now remains. 

In 1585, Sextus V. endeavored to utilize the Colosseum by 
establishing in it a woolen manufactory, but, after spending 
a large sum on the project, he abandoned it as impracticable. 
In 1675, Clement X. set apart the whole building to the 
worship of the martyrs, and in 1742, Benedict XIV. again 
consecrated it to the memory of the Christians who had 
suffered there. He erected the cross in the center of the 
arena, and repaired the altars established by Clement XI. 
Every pains has since liecn used to preserve it, and to repair 
the injuries of time. — W. W. Stoey's Roba Di Eoma. 



Tlme of the Destrcctiok of POMPEn. 

The Elder Pliny's Death.— On the 24th of August, 
in the year 79, Phuy ^vas residing in his villa on the 
Misenian promontory, which lies about twenty miles in a 
direct line from the summit of Vesuvius, conspicuous across 
the Gulf of Naples. His attention was drawn from his 
books and writings to a cloud of unusual form and character, 
which hung over the mountain, and rose, as appeared on 
further examination, from it, spreading out from a slender 
and well-defined stem, like the figure of a pine-tree, its 
color changing rapidly from black to white, as the contents 
of the ejected mass of which it proved to be composed, were 
earth or ashes. The admiral ordered his Liburnian cutter 
to be manned, and casting aside his papers prepared to cross 
the water, and observe the phenomenon nearer. He asked 
his nephew to accompany him, but the younger student was 
too intent on the volumes before him to prosecute an inquiry 
into the operations of nature. Meanwhile, intelligence 
arrived from the terrified residents at the foot of the moun- 
tain. They implored the assistance of the commander of 
the fleet. Pliny directed his largest vessels to be got ready 
and steered to the point nearest to the danger. As he 
approached the shore the ashes began to fall thick and hot 
upon his deck, with showers of glowing stones. A shoal 
formed suddenly beneath his keel, and impeded his progress. 
Turning a little to the right,, he came to land at Stabias, at 
the dwelling of a friend. Here he restored contidence to the 
affrighted occupants by the ralmm'ss of his demeanor, Avhilc 
he insisted on taking the usual refreshment of the bath and 
supper, and conversed with easy hilnrity. As the shades of 


evening gathered, the brightness of the ilames became more 
striking; but, to calm the panic of tliose around him, the 
philosopher assured them that they arose from cottages on 
the slope, which the alarmed rustics had abandoned to the 
descending flakes of fire. He then took his customary brief 
night's rest, sleeping composedly as usual ; but his attend- 
ants were not so easily tranquillized, and as the night 
advanced, the continued fall of ashes within the courts of 
the mansion convinced them that delay would make escape 
impossible. They roused their master, together with the 
fjiend at whose house he was resting, and hastily debated 
how to i)roceed. By this time the soil around them was 
rocking with repeated shocks of earthquake, which recalled 
the horrors of the still recent catastrophe. The party 
quitted the treacherous shelter of the house-roof, and sought 
the coast in hopes of finding vessels to take them off. To 
protect themselves from the thickening cinders, they tied 
cushions to their heads. The sky was darkened by the 
ceaseless shower, and they groped their way by torchlight, 
and by the intermitting flashes from the mountain. The sea 
was agitated, and abandoned by every bark. Pliny, wearied 
or perplexed, now stretched himself on a piece of sail-cloth, 
and refused to stir farther, while on the bursting forth of a 
fiercer blast accompanied with sulphurous gases, his com- 
panions, all but two l)ody-slaves, fled in terror. Some who 
looked back in their flight affirmed that the old man rose 
once with the help of his attendants, but immediately fell 
again, overpowered, as it seemed, with the deadly vapors. 
When the storm abated and light at lust returned, the body 
was found abandoned on the spot ; neither the skin nor the 
clothes were injured, and the calm expression of the counte- 
nance betokened death by suffocation. — Merivale. 

The Younger Pliny's Flight. — When my uncle had 



Started, I spent sueli time as was left on my studies — it was 
on their account, indeed, that I had stopped behiud. Then 
followed tlie hath, dinner, and sleep, — this last disturbed and 
brief. There had been noticed for many days before a trem- 
bling of the eartli, which had caused, however, but httle 
fear, because it is not unusual in Campania. But that night 
it was so violent, that one thought that everything Avas being 
not merely moved, but absolutely overturned. My mother 
rushed into my chamber ; I was in the act of rising, with the 
same intention of awaking her should she have been asleep. 
We sat down in the open court of the house, which occupied 
a small space between the buildings and the sea. And now — 
I do not know whetlier to call it courage or folly, for I was 
but in my eighteenth year — I called for a volume of Livy, 
read it, as if I were perfectly at leisure, and even continued 
to make some extracts which I had begun. Just then arrived 
a friend of my uncle, who had lately come to him from Spain ; 
when he saw that we were sitting doAvn —that I was even 
reading — lie rebuked my mother for her patience, and me for 
my Idindness to the danger. Still I bent myself as indus- 
triously as ever over my book. It was about seven o'clock in 
the morning, but the daylight was still faint and doubtful. 
The surrounding buildings were now so shattered, that in 
the })lace where we were, which, though open, was small, the 
danger that they might fall on us was imminent and unmis- 
takable. So we at last determined to quit the town. A 
panic-stricken crowd followed us. They preferred the ideas 
of others to their own — in a moment of terror this has a cer- 
tain look of prudence — and they pressed on us and drove us 
on, as wc departed, by their dense array. When wi' had got 
away from the building, wc stojjpcMl. 'IMk re uc had (o en- 
dure the sight (if many marvelous, many dreadful, things. 
The carriages which we had directcfi to be brou<^lil out 


moved about in o})posite directions, though the ground was 
perfectly level ; even when scotched with stones they did not 
remain steady in the same place. Besides this, we saw the 
sea retire into itself, seeming, as it were, to be driven back 
by the trembling movement of the earth. The shore had 
distinctly advanced, and many marine animals were left high 
and dry on the sands. Behind us was a dark and dreadful 
cloud, which, as it was broken with rapid zigzag flashes, 
revealed behind it variously-shaped masses of Hame: these 
last were like slieet-lightning, tiiough on a larger scale. 
Then our friend from Spain addressed us more energetically 
and urgently than ever. " If your uncle," he said, " is alive, 
he wishes you to be saved ; if he has perished, he certainly 
wished you to survive him. If so, why do you hesitate to 
escape?" We answered that we could not bear to think 
about our own safety while we were doubtful of his. He 
lingered no longer, but rushed off, making his way out of 
the danger at the top of his speed. It was not long before 
the cloud that we saw began to descend upon the earth and 
cover the sea. It had already surrounded and concealed the 
island of Capres, and had made invisible the promontory of 
Misenum. My mother besought, urged, even commanded 
me to fly as best I could. '^ I might do so," she said, "for I 
was young; she, from age and corpulence, could move but 
slowly, but would be content to die, if she did not bring death 
upon me." I replied that I would not seek safety except in 
her company ; I clasped her liand, and compelled her to go 
with me. She reluctantly obeyed, but continually reproached 
herself for delaying me. Ashes now began to fall — still, 
however, in small quantities. I looked behind me ; a dense 
dark mist seemed to be following us, spreading itself over 
the country like a cloud. "Let us turn out of the way," I 
said. " whilst we can still see, for fear that should we fall m 


the road we should be trodden under foot in the darkness by 
the throngs that accompany us." We had scarcely sat down 
when night w'as upon us, — not such as we have when there 
is no moon, or when the sky is cloudy, but such as there is 
in some closed room when the lights are extinguished. You 
might hear the shrieks of women, the monotonous waihng of 
children, the shouts of men. Many were raising their voices, 
and seeking to recognize by the voices that replied, parents, 
children, husbands, or wives. Some were loudly lamenting 
their own fate, others the fate of those dear to them. Some 
even prayed for death, in their fear of what they prayed for. 
Many lifted tlieir hands in prayer to the gods; more were 
convinced that there were now no gods at all, and that the 
final endless night of which we have heard had come upon 
the world. There were not wanting i)ersons who exaggerated 
our real perils witli imaginary or willfully invented terrors. 
I remember some who declared that one jiart of the promon- 
tory of Misenum had fallen, that another was on fire ; it was 
false, but they found people to believe them. It now grew 
somewhat light again ; we felt sure that this was not the 
light of day, but a proof that fire was approaching us. Fire 
there was, but it stopped at a consirlerablc distance from us ; 
then came darkness again, and a thick, heavy fall of ashes. 
Again and again we stood up and shook them off; otherwise 
we should have been covered by them, and even crushed by 
the weight. At last the black mist I had spoken of seemed 
to shade o(T into smoke or cloud, mid lo roll away. Then 
came genuine daylight, and the sun shone out with a lurid 
light, such as it is wont to have in an eclipse. Our eyes, 
which had not yet recovered from the effects of fear, saw 
everything changed, everything covered deep with ashes as if 
with snow. We returned to Misenum, Jind, after refreshing 
ourselves as best we could, spent a night of anxiety in min- 


gled hope and fear. Fear, however, was still the stronger 
feeling ; for the trembling of the earth continned, while many 
frenzied persons, with their terrific i)redictions, gave an ex- 
aggeration that was even ludicrous to the calamities of them- 
selves and of their friends. — Plimy, Epistle VII. 20. 


Wlio would not, reckless of the swarm he meets, 

Fill his wide tablets, in the public streets, 

With angry verse, wlien, through the mid-day glare. 

Borne by six slaves and in an open chair. 

The forger comes, who owes this blaze of state 

To a wet seal and a fictitious date ? 

Comes, like the soft Maecenas, lolling by, 

And impudently braves the public eye ! 

Or the rich dame, who stanched her huFband's thirst 

With generous wine, but — drugged it deeply first! 

And now, more dext'rous than Locusta, shows 

Her country friends the beverage to compose, 

And, 'midst the curses of the indignant throng. 

Bears, in broad day, the spotted corpse along ! 

•«■ -Is- -;:- ■;:• * * * 

And when could Satire boast so fair a field? 

Say, when did Vice a richer harvest yield? 

When did fell avarice fo engross the mind? 

Or when the lust of play so curse mankind ? — 

No longer, now, the pocket's stores supply 

The boundless charges of the desperate die: 

The chest is staked ! — muttering the steward stands. 

And scarce resigns it, at his lord's commands. 

Now, at the gate, a paltry largess lies. 

And eager hands and tongues dispute the prize. 

But first (lest some false claimant should be found) 

The wary steward takes his anxious round. 

And pries in every face, then calls aloud, 

"Come forth, ye great Dardanians. from the crowd !" 

For, mixed with us, e'en these besiege tlie door, 

And scramble for — the pittance of the poor ! 

'Despatch the Prtetor first," the master cries, 

" And next the Tribune." "No, not so," replies 


Tlie Freedmaii, bustling through ; " first come is still 

First served ; and I may claim my right, and will ! — 

T liough. born a slave ( 'tis bootless to deny 

What these bored ears betray to every eye\ 

On my own rents, in splendor now I live. 

On five fair freeholds ! Let the Tribunes wait." 

Yes, let them wait! thine, Riches, be the field! 

It is not meet that he to honor yield. 

To SACRED Honor, who, with whitened feet, 

Was hawked for snle, so lately, through the street. 

O Gold ! though Rome beholds no altars flame, 

No temples rise to thy pernicious name, 

Such as to Victory, Virtue, Faith are reared, 

And Concord, where the clamorous stork is heard. 

Yet is thy full divinity confest, 

Thy shrine established here in every breast. 

What rare pursuits employ the client's day ! 
First to the patron's door their court to pay. 
Next to the forum to support his cause, 
Thence to Apollo, learned in the laws. 
And the triumj)hal statues. 

Returning home, he droj^s theni at the gate : 
And now the weary clients, wise too late, 
Resign their hopes, and supperless retire. 
To spend the paltry dole in herbs and fire. 

Meanwhile their patron sees his i)alace stored 

With every dainty earth and sea afford! 

Stretched on the unsocial couch, he rolls his eyes 

O'er many an orb of matchless form and size, 

Selects the fairest to receive his plate, 

And, at one meal, devours a whole estate! — 

See ! the lone glutton craves whole boars ! a beast 

Designed by nature for the social feast ! — 

But speedy wrath o'ertakes him : gorged with food, 

And s\voll(;n and fretted by the j)eacock crude, 

lie seeks the Inith, his feverish pulse to still, 

Hence sudden death, and age without a Will! 

Swift flies the tab;, by witty spleen increast. 

And furnishes a laugh at every feast; 

The lauirh. his friends not undeliglited hear. 

And, fallen from all llieir ho[.eH, insult his bier. 




Nerva and Trajan. — Nervn, reigned but sixteen months, 
and had no time to do more tlian display his kindness of 
disposition, and to name liis successor. This was Trajan, a 
man who was not even a Roman by birth, but who was 
thought by his patron to have retained in the distant prov- 
ince of Spain, where he was born, the virtues which had 
disappeared in the center and capital of the Empire. The 
deficiency of Nerva's character had been its softness and want 
of force. The stern vigilance of Trajan made ample amends. 
He was the best-known soldier of his time, and revived 
onco more the terror of the Roman arms. But his victories 
were fruitless: he attached no new country permanently to 
the Empire, and derives all his glory now from the excel- 
lence of his internal administration. Trajan visited his 
friends on terms of equality, and had the greatness of mind, 
generally deficient in absolute princes, to bestow his confi- 
dence on those who deserved it. Somebody told him one 
day to beware of his minister, who intended to murder him 
on the first opportunity. '' Come again, and tell me all par- 
ticulars to-morrow," said the Emperor. In the meantime 
he went unbidden and supped with the accused. He was 
shaved l)y his barber, was attended for a mock illness by his 
surgeon, bathed in his bath, ate his meat, and drank 
his wine. On the following day the informer came. "Ah!" 
said Trajan, interrupting him in his accusation, "if Surenus 
had wished to kill me, he would have done it last night." — 

Trajaii's Architectural Improvemetits:. — No reign, perhaps, 
was marked by more extensive alterations and additions to 


the existing features of tiie city. He built for the gods, the 
senate, and the people, not for himself; he restored the 
temples, enlarged the halls and places of public resort ; but 
he was content himself witli the palaces of his predecessors. 

The splendors of the city, and the splendors of the 
Campus beyond it, were still separated by a narrow isthmus^ 
thronged perhaps with the squalid cabins of the poor, and 
surmounted by the remains of the Servian wall which ran 
along its summit. Trajan swept away every building on the 
site, leveled the spot on which they had stood, and laid out 
a vast area of columnar galleries connecting halls and 
chambers for public use and recreation. The new forum 
Avas adorned with two libraries, one for Greek, the other for 
lionian, volumes, and it was bounded on the west by a basilica 
of magnificent dimensions. The area was beautified with 
numerous statues, in which the figure of Trajan was fre- 
quently repeated, and among its decorations were groups in 
bronze and marble representing his most illustrious actions. 
The balustrades flamed with gilded images of arms and 
horses. Amidst this profusion of splendor the great object 
to which the eye was principally directed was the column, 
which rose majestically in the center of the forum to the 
height of 128 feet, sculptured from the base of the shaft to 
the summit with the story of the Dacian wars, shining 
in every volute and molding with gold and pigments, and 
crowned with the colossal effigy of the august conqueror/'' — 

Pliny's Corresponrhmce with Trajan Concerning the 

* Trajan cnjoyefl tho dictlrction, dear in Roman eyes, of a fine flfjiiro and a noblo 
countoiianct!. In utaturo he exceeded the common height, and on public occasions, 
when he loved to walk bareheaded in the niidnt of the senatorn. hiw K'ay haiiu 
trli'anicd con^picuout-ly above the crowd. Ills fcaluren were re^,'iil:ir, and bin face 
was llie last of the imperial Beriet* tliat n^tained tlie true Ronmii lyjx', not in the 
a'lniline none only, but in the broad and low forehead, the aufriilar chin, the firm 
comprcHHcd lips, and generally in the btern conipaclnesH of its structure.— 


Christians. — Pliny (as propraetor) to Trajan. — "It is my 
invariable rule to refer to you in all matters about which 
I feel doubtful. Who can better remove my doubts or in- 
form my ignorance ? I have never been present at any 
trials of Christians, so that I do not knovr what is the nature 
of the charge against them, or what is the usual punish- 
ment. Whether any difference or distinction is made be- 
tween the young and persons of mature years — whether 
repentance of their fault entitles them to pardon — whether 
the very profession of Christianity, unaccompanied by any 
criminal act, or whether only the crime itself involved in the 
profession, is a subject of punishment ; on all these points I 
am in great doubt. Meanwhile, as to those persons who 
have been charged before me with being Christians, I have 
observed the following method. I asked them whether they 
were Christians; if they admitted it, I repeated the question 
twice, and threatened them with punishment; if they 
persisted, I ordered them to be at once punished. I conld 
not doubt that whatever might be the nature of their 
opinions, such inflexible obstinacy deserved punishment. 
Some were brought before me possessed with the same 
infatuation, who were Roman citizens; these I took care 
should be sent to Rome. As often happens, the accusation 
spread, from being followed, and various })hases of it came 
under my notice. An anonymous information was laid 
before me, containing a great number of names. Some 
said they neither were nor had been Christians ; they 
repeated after me an invocation of the gods, and offered 
wine and incense before your statue (which I had 
ordered to be brought for that purpose, together 
with those of the gods), and even reviled the name of 
Christ ; whereas there is no forcing, it is said, those who 
are really Christians into any of these acts. These I 


thought ought to be discharged. Some among them, who 
were accused by a witness in person, at first confessed them- 
selves Christians, l)ut immediately after denied it; the rest 
owned that they had once been Christians, but had now 
(some aboTC three years, others more, and a few above 
twenty years ago) renounced the profession. They all 
worshipped your statue and those of the gods, and uttered 
imprecations against the name of Christ. They declared 
that their offence or crime was summed up in this, that they 
met on a stated day before daybreak, and addressed a form 
of prayer to Christ, as to a divinity, binding themselves by 
a solemn oath, not for any wicked pui^pose, but never to 
commit fraud, theft, or adultery, never to break their word, 
or to deny a trust when called on to deliver it up : after 
which it was their custom to separate, and then reassemble, 
and to eat together a harmless meal. From this custom, 
however, they desisted after the proclamation of my edict, 
by which, according to your command, I forbade the meet- 
ing of any assemblies. In consequence of their declaration, 
I judged it necessary to try to get at the real trutii by put- 
ting to the torture two female slaves, who were said to 
officiate in their religious rites ; but all I could discover was 
evidence of an absiii'd and extravagant superstition. And so 
I adjourned all further ])roceedings in order to consult you. 
It seems to me a matter deserving your consideration, more 
especially as great numbers must be involved in the danger 
of these prosecutions, which have already extended, and arc 
still likely to extend, to persons of all ranks, ages, and of 
both sexes. The contagion of the superstition is not con- 
fined to the cities ; it has spread iiilo the villat^^cs and the 
country. Still I think it may be checked. At any rate, the 
temples which were almost abandoned l^egin again to be 
frequented, and the sacred rites, so long neglected, arc 


revived, and there is also a general demand for victims for 
sacrifice, which till lately fouud very few purchasers. From 
all this it is easy to conjecture what numbers might be 
reclaimed, if a general pardou were granted to those who 
repented of their error." 

Trajati to Pliny. (In reply). — "You have adopted the 
right course in investigating the charges made against the 
Christians who were brought before you. It is not possible 
to lay down any general rule for all such cases. Do not go 
out of your way to look for them. If they are brought before 
you, and the offense is proved, you must punish them, but 
with this restriction, that when the person denies that he is 
a Christian, and shall make it evident that he is not by 
invoking the gods, he is to be pardoned, notwithstanding 
any former suspicion against him. Anonymous informations 
ought not to be received in any sort of prosecution. It is 
introducing a very dangerous precedent, and is quite foreign 
to the spirit of our age." 

Hadrian and Antinous. — In walking through the Ro- 
man museums, we see no head so frequently as that of the 
Emperor Hadrian. Usually, the bust of his favorite. Anti- 
nous, stands near, and a greater contrast than the one pre- 
sented by these two faces could scarcely be found on earth. 

Poet and scientist, artist and sculptor, architect 

and astronomer, Hadrian understood just enough of all these 
things to be thoroughly dissatisfied with the imperfection of 
his own performances. Continually goaded by the conscious- 
ness of having failed to execute his highest plans, he became 
doubly irritable in old age. The traits of malice and caprice 
in his character constantly became more conspicuous, and the 
Eoman world which owed him so much and whose life he 
had enriched and beautified more than any Csesar before him, 
often anxiously remembered Tiberius, who up to old age had 


been the very symbol of self-control and moderation, and 
then first revealed the tiger-natnre in his breast. He lived 
separated from his wife, the snllen Sabina, and had ap])ointed 
as his heir the consumptive ^lius Verus, because, the Romans 
declared, he foresaw that ^Elius would survive him. Bitter 
hatred existed between him and his brother-in-law Servianus 
and his grandson, Avho had expected to inherit the throne. 
So he walked wearily along his lonely Avay to the end, 
oppressed at last by Servianus' curse, who condemned by 
Hadrian, in his dying hour besought the gods to refuse 
Hadrian death when he desired it. 

This lonely man, who remained incomprehensible even to 
friends and favorites, was devoted for a long time to a beau- 
tiful Bithynian youth, whom he loved as Socrates loved 
Alcibiades, and Caesar Brutus. This w-as Antinous, with 
whose busts and statues Hadrian has filled the world, and 
whose innocent features contrast strangely with the passion- 
seamed visage of the master, to whom he was the dearest 

thing in life Antinous voluntarily sacrificed his life 

for his Caesar,* and Hadrian, after the youth's death, com- 
manded that he should be honored as a god Tlie 

worship of the beautiful youth spread with amazing celerity 
as a new faith. There was scarcely a city in the empire, that 
did not have a medal stnick, and the world became full of 
the statues and sanctuaries of the Bithynian god. — George 

Hadrian's Villa at Tibur. — When Phlegon had left 
Hadrian two or three weeks before, pyramids of bricks towered 
into the air, the forest rang with the shouts of the workmen 
toiling in twenty different places, Ihe foundations of the 
buildings were only a man's height abf)vc the gronnd. Now 

* \lc flrowncd liimsc-lf in Uk; Nile, in coiif-otiiicnce, it in pnid, of nn oracle that 
dcmaiidi-d for thi- lifi; of the Emporor llic siicriflce of tlie object dearest to him. 


a solemn stillness brooded over the blooming hill-side, the 
piles of red brick were removed, the lime-pits filled with 
earth, the ground was leveled, and the turf sown. Marble 
figures, gleaming from amid the dark old trees, appeared on the 
right and left. The front of the Greek theater stood in glit- 
tering relief against the foliage behind. From the Palaestra, 
hidden among the laurel bushes, Phlegon heard the full rich 
tones of his favorite Antinous, directing the boys' games. 
Passing the Nymphfeum, the splashing of the water in the 
echoing hall delighted him. A broad avenue of cypress trees, 
bordered on the right and left with the most superb statues 
carried away from the Greek Islands, led past the library to 
Hadrian's residence. 

On the terrace overlooking the Hippodrome, the 

Academy, and the Egyptian Canopus, Phlegon found his 
master. The emperor had already left the breezy height of 
the temple of Heracles in the city, and though here and 
there a skillful architect moved noiselessly to and fro with a 
few workmen, the Casar's villa was already as thoroughly 
fitted out as if he had occupied it for years. Work was still 
going on in the other buildings, scattered over an extent of 
seven miles, and the architects of Elysium, Tartarus, Cano- 
pus, and the numerous temples, spent weary days, for Hadrian 
constantly found something to be improved. The villa was 
to embody everything grand and beautiful he had witnessed 
during his long, wandering life. As the Eoman patrician 
ordered pictures of favorite spots to be painted on the walls 
of his house, or placed in his dwelling silver models of the 
temples and citadels he had seen, so Hadrian intended to 
make the heights of Tibur a huge album of travels, whose 
sketches of nature imitated the originals; and when the lat- 
ter were transportable, they were by no means safe from 
being incorporated within the album. Temples, theaters, 


and statues were removed and set up again beside copies of 
the great architectural works of Greece and Egypt, wliicli 
Hadrian had had most carefully prepared. 

" Where are we ? " the Caesar asked his faithful companion, 
when they had entered the porch. 

" Why, in the Stoa Poicile ! '' replied Phlegon, smiling. 
" We have the halls, only Zeno is lacking." 

From here Hadrian went up a woodland path, leaning 
from time to time on his shorter companion, to allow an 
asthmatic oppression of breathing to pass away. Two stela, 
one bearing a head of Homer, and the other of Achilles, 
marked a narrow footway, leading between thick laurel- 
bushes to an outlook. On the opposite side of the valley a 
group of lofty oaks stood on the bare mountain ridge. 

"Dodonal" exclaimed Phlegon in amazement. 

" Let us go across," replied Hadrian, delighted that his 
companion had recognized the scene. "Those who question 
the oracle will climb the steep path yonder ; we will remain 
here, where the soft west wind fans us. See how distinctly 
the roofs of Rome can be seen to-day. I think I can distin- 
guish the temple of Venus and Roma. Do you hear the cal- 
drons of Dodona ? " 

Following the sound, the two companions soon reached 
the gray holm-oaks, that shaded a wide, bare spot. 

As a stronger breeze rose, strange sounds became audible 
in the branches of the oaks. On every tree hung a brazen 
basin, beside which was fastened a whip that supported three 
iron chains, holding silver balls, wiiich sometimes striking 
clearly against each other, anon when a more powerful gust 
of wind swept by, clashing against the more resonant basin, 
lent the tree a continuous voice. Leaning on the oak, as if 
she had grown a i)arl of it, and staring into an oddly-shaped 
urn, covered with strange pictures, which conUiiufd the 


sacred lots, was a weather-beaten old woman, whose white 
hair hung in tangled strands over her wrinkled face. Phle- 
gon would willingly have asked what the divinities were 
preparing, bnt Hadrian seemed like a child afraid of its own 
toy. He turned in his thumbs, to ward off the old Thes- 
salian witch's evil eye, and walked rapidly down to Tempe. 
On the way they saw a pale young girl, sitting beside a dark 
well that extended far back into the mountain. A bundle of 
torches lay in her lap. 

" The Zeus well/' said Hadrian, and Phlegon gazed into the 
black water, on which floated a few bubbles. Hadrian lighted 
a torch, passed it over the bubbles till they burst, extin- 
guished it in the waves, then held the other end close above 
the surface and slowly lighted it afresh at the burning gas. 

Through Tempe the way led to Elysium. A solemn ave- 
nue of cypress-trees extended past the deities who lowered 
the torch, and the contemplative statue of Hermes, the guide 
of the dead, to a gate, adorned on one side with a bas-relief 
of Hercules and Hebe, and on the other with Cupid and 
Psyche. This gate afforded admittance to a gloomy tufa- 
cave, which at the next turn gave a view of a smiling lake 
and pleasant meadows ; again the way grew darker, to reveal 
an artistically-framed view of the fragrant plains and the 
blue Sabine hills. 

So the walk continued amid charming new scenes until 
the blue sky, more alluring than ever, appeared beyond the 
cave. Through blossoming bushes and fragrant roses the 
two companions emerged upon a beautiful carpet of turf, 
where the lake again sparkled before them, reflecting a 
domed temple and countless palms and statues. Boats lay 
on the shore, white and dark swans glided over the silver 
surface, and the warbling choruses of birds reminded Phle- 
gon that it was no dream-vision outspread before him. 


"This is the fairest sight I ever beheld, Caesar," he said 
with a simplicity that best showed how deeply he was moved. 
A white deer emerged from the dark shrubbery and walked 
slowly up to the emperor, to whom it nestled caressingly, 

"Only wait till we celebrate our first festival here, 
Phlegon," said Hadriau, '' when boats and flags and un- 
veiled beauty animate this shore, when Syrian dancers and 
female flute-players perform their juggling feats and move 
in changing circles. What the author of the Elysium 
dreamed, we will have displayed here before the eyes." 

With these words he sat down. "True, the best thing is 
lacking, the potion of youth, which no Hebe gives us. 
What avails all earthly nectar to the old man with feeble 
stomach? What is ambrosia to the sick man's furred tongue ? 
And young people are no longer like us. Antinous dreams 
the years of his vigor away in dull melancholy, and \^erus 
wanted to enjoy life ere he was mature, so he now has all an 
old man's aches at twenty. Come," he added, rising, "we 
can create no Elysium here without the gods, but we shall 
fare better in Tartarus. Go on, I fear the cold down yonder. 
We will meet again under the blooming tamarind trees, 
but draw your toga closely around you, it is cool in Orcus." 

Without any special desire to do so, Phlegon approached 
a gate, at whose entrance a Cerberus with iron jaws an- 
nounced through which door the traveler should pass. 
After walking a few paces, Phlegon stumbled and nearly fell 
down a flight of steps that were almost indistinguishable in 
the darkness. In recovering himself he struck his forehead 
against the stalactite formations hanging from the roof, and 
greatly incensed, waited for a time until his eyes wore more 
accustomed to the gloom, then walked towards the light of 
a little lamp glimmering in the distance, while the noise of 
water reached his ears. At the lamj) there was a bend in 


the path, and Phlegon gained a sheet of water, illumined 
by a ghostly light from above, while strange shadows and 
misty forms glided to and fro over the dark, rocky walls. 
Turning rouml, he started, for close beside him in a boat 
stood Charon, holding out a motionless hand, in which lay 
several copper coins. For a moment Phlegon had thought 
this Charon a living man. Now he discovered that this 
guide also was only a statue. He entered the boat to row 
himself to the other shore, but had scarcely sat down w^hen 
the skiff, drawn by a rope beneath, began to move. An 
offensive smoke, like the vapors of sulphur, whirled in 
strange forms over the dark lake. " A vein of the Albula 
must have been conducted here," said Phlegon. Niches, 
lighted from above, sliowed, apparently moved by the float- 
ing mist, scenes in Orcus. As soon as the boat passed a 
cave the figures began to move. Here Sisyphus rolled his 
stone, which monotonously fell back again; here Tantalus 
was tormented with longing for his fruit ; here the Danaids 
filled their sieve ; here Ixion's wheel turned ; here a vulture, 
flapping its wings, devoured Prometheus' liver. The 
stalactites hung lower and lower from the roof, so that 
Phlegon was at last compelled to lie flat in the boat like 
a corpse, and thus extended reached the other shore. 
The grimacing Charon still held out his hand with the 

" ril bring Hadrian his obolus, in token that even the 
terrors of the nether- world have not affrighted the pupil of 
the Stoa." He seized the coin firmly, but the statue shut 
its hand, its head was hideously lighted from within and a 
malicious fire glowed in its green eyes. Then the monster's 
hand opened again, and Phlegon hastily withdrew his 
pinched fingers. Indignant at the trick, the Greek looked 
around him for means to reach the shore, but only a narrow, 


slippery path led upward. A handle in tlie cliff showed 
how it might be reached, but as he grasped it the whole mass 
of rock turned, aud through a narrow cleft Phlegon forced 
his way into a dark cave, while the rock again revolved, 
imprisoning him in a gloomy cell. Waterfalls, worked by 
machinery, were heard close by him, and human cries and 
groans united to make all the tortures of Tartarus assail the 
Greek's excited nerves. He stamped angrily at the thought 
that the emperor had lured him into this snare, but the cell 
in which he stood instantly rose and Phlegon floated up- 
ward, raised slowly in the dark shaft by iron rods which he 
now perceived for the first time. A bright ray of light 
streamed from a side gallery, and Phlegon looked up at a 
water-fall crushing human limbs beneath it; a fiery red glow 
now fell upon his face, and ho beheld a flaming fire where 
tortured forms writiicd and sighed. Then through a grat- 
ing he saw ragged figures lying in a dungeon. But what 
was that ? A human voice rose from a cavern. 

'•'Save me, Antinous! Antinous, you who are so kind, 
plead with C'gesar." 

Phlegon had already passed on ; his conveyance stopped, 
and he found himself in a dark, lofty vault, but from below 
still rang the piteous cries: "Antinous! Antinous!" 
Filled with horror, Phlegon again groped for the handle. 
The rock turned as before, and a flood of dazzling light fell 
upon his eyes. lie could not recognize the figure that stood 
before him. 

"Welcome to the ujipcr world!"' he heard Hadrian's 
voice say. 

*' A sorry jest, Ca-sar," re])liod Phlegon indignantly. 

"That is what the dead in Tartarus say."— George 
Taylor, in Anfi/ious, A Iioiuaticc of Ancient Koine. 

The Good-Humor of Antoninus Pius. — There is a 


story told ubont Antoninus that illustrates well at the same 
time his remarkable forgiveness of injuries and his sense of 
humor. It is said that when he first went to Smyrna as 
pro-consul of Asia, he was offered temporarily the house of 
Polemon, the celebrated Sophist and rhetorician, who 
happened at the time to be away. A short time afterward, 
Polemon returned, in the middle of the niglit, and, finding 
his house occupied, exclaimed in anger that he had been 
turned out of his own house. The pro-consul overheard 
the remark, and, getting out of bed at once, he collected his 
luggage together and went in search of other lodgings. After 
Antoninus was appointed Emperor, Polemon had occasion 
to come to Rome. One day Antoninus chanced to see him 
in the street. He smiled, and, after conversing pleasantly 
with him a few moments, gave orders that a room in the 
palace should be made ready for the stranger. " But be 
sure," he said good-humoredly to the servant, "that no one 
shall turn him out." This gentle rebuke, however, did not 
succeed in improving Polemon's temper. At a play which 
he attended while in Eome, one of the actors failed to per- 
form his part to Polemon's satisfaction ; whereupon Polemon 
insisted that the fellow should be driven off the stage. 
Later, the comedian, bringing the matter to the notice of 
the Emperor, was asked, '-'At what hour did he drive you 
from the stage?" " It was at midday." "Ah," replied 
Antoninus, " It was midnight that he drove me from his 
house, and I made no complaint." His love of peace was 
such, says Capitolinus, that he used often to remark, with 
Scipio, that "he jDreferred to serve one citizen than to kill a 
thousand enemies." This desire to serve his fellow-men is 
brought prominently before us in tlie statement of Capitolinus 
that he always refused to accept legacies from any one who 
died and left descendants. But the most characteristic 


l^icture of his nature is given us in the following story: One 
day, while Marcus was weeping over the death of a favorite 
instructor, the servants surrounded him and tried by 
sympathetic words to make him forget his loss. But 
Antoninus, coming up to them, told them to cease their 
efforts. "Do not," he said, "try to suppress the feelings 
which belong to a true man. IS'either philosophy nor the 
Empire can destroy one's love." — Watsox. 

How a Young Roman Prince Spent his Days. — 
(Marcus Atirelius at Lanuvium to his tutor, Fronto, in 
Eome). " This morning I got up at three o'clock, and, after 
a good breakfast, studied till eight. I then took a delightful 
two-hours promenade on the veranda in front of my Avindow ; 
after that I put on ray shoes, and, dressed in my military 
cloak (for the Emperor has told us always to come thus 
dressed when we appear before him), went to bid good 
morning to my father. Then we all started for the chase, 
and some splendid shots were made. There was a rumor 
that some one had killed a boar, but I didn't have the priv- 
ilege of seeing the performance. At any rate, we scaled a 
very rugged cliff. About noon the party came straggling 
back to the palace — I to my books. The entire afternoon I 
passed on my couch, divested of my shoes and robe. Cato's 
oration on the property of Pulchra and another of his on 

appointing a tribune were the books I read Now I 

am going to bed. Not a dro}) of oil shall I pour into my lamp 
to-night, my hoi'se and the cold I've taken have so fatigued 
me. Good night, my dear, sweet master. It is for you I 
long, believe me, far more than for Rome herself." 

(A day or two later) '•[ slei)t laic this morning 

on account of my cold, so I did not begin my studies till five 
o'clock, from which time till nine I spent on Cato's A(jri- 
cuUiire and in writing— not so much, however, as I wrote 


yesterday. Then I gargled my throat, and after that went 
to greet my father and attend him as he offered sacrifice. 
Then to breakfast ; and what do you suppose I ate ? Noth- 
ing but a little piece of bread, though I saw the others all 
devouring beans and onions and fish. Then we went out to 
the vintage, and grew hot and merry, but left a few grapes 
still hanging, as the old poet says, ' atop on the topmost bough.' 
At noon we came home again, and I studied a little, though 
w^ith poor success. Then I chatted a long time with my 
mother, as she was sitting on her couch. My conversation 
consisted of, 'What do you suppose my Fronto is doing at 
this moment?' to which she answered, -^And my Gratia, 
what is she doing ? ' and then I, 'And our httle birdie. Gratia 
the less?'* And while w^e were talking and quarreling as 
to which of us loved you all the best, the gong sounded — 
the signal that my father had gone over to the bath. So we 
bathed and dined in the oil-press room. I don't mean that 
we bathed in the press-room, but we bathed, and then dined, 
and amused ourselves with listening to the peasants' banter. 
And now that I am in my room again, before I roll over and 
snore, I am fulfilling my promise, and giving an account of 
my day to my dear tutor; and if I could love him better 
than I do, I would consent to miss him even more than I 
miss him now. Take care of yourself, my best and dearest 
Fronto, wherever you are. The fact is that I love you, and 
you are far away." 

Some of the "Meditations" of a good Emperor. — 
''Begin the morning by saying to thyself, I shall meet with 
the busybody, the ungrateful, the deceitful, the envious." 
" Men exist for the sake of one another. Teach them, then, 
or bear with them." " Time is like a river, made up of the 
events which happen, and a violent stream ; for as soon as a 

* Fronto's wife and little daughter. 


thing has been seen it is carried away, and another comes in 
its place, and this will be carried away too.'' "Do not act 
as if thou wert going to live ten thousand years. Death 
hangs over thee. While thou livest, while it is in thy power, 
be good." "The mind which is free from passions is a 
citadel." " Be like the promontory against which the waves 
continually break ; but it stands firm, and tames the fury 
of the water around it." " Such as are thy habitual thoughts, 
such also will be the character of thy mind ; for the soul is 
dyed l)y the thoughts." "Never value anything as profitable 
to thyself which shall compel thee to break thy promise, to 
lose thy self-respect, to hate any man, to suspect, to curse, to 
act the hypocrite, to desire anything which needs walls and 
curtains." "Who is he that shall hinder thee from being 
good and simple ? Do thou only determine to live no longer, 
unless thou shalt be such."— From Watson's Marcus Aure- 
Lius Antoninus. 


The Empire sold to the Highest Bidder.— With the 
death of the excellent Marcus Aurelius the golden age came 
to a close. Commodus sat on the throne, and renewed the 
wildest atrocities of the previous century. Thirteen years 
exhausted the patience of the world, and a justifiable assassi- 
nation put an end to his life. There was an old man of the 
name of Pertinax, originally u nickname derived from his 
obstinate or pertinacious disposition, who now made his 
appearance on the throne, and perished in tiirce months. 
It chanced that a certain rich man of the name of Didius 
was giving a supper the night of the murder to some friends. 
The dishes were rich imd the wine delicious. Inspired by the 


good cheer, the guests said, " Why don't you buy the Empire ? 
The soldiers have proclaimed that they will give it to the 
highest bidder." Didius knew the amount of his treasure, 
and was ambitions ; he got np from table and hurried to the 
Praetorian camp. On the way he met the mutilated body of 
the murdered Pertinax, dragged through the streets with 
savage exultation, Nothing daunted, he arrived at the sol- 
diers' tents. Another had been before him — Sulpician, the 
father-in-law and friend of the late Emperor. A bribe had 
been offered to each soldier, so large that they were about to 
conclude the bargain; but Didius bid many sesterces more. 
The greedy soldiery looked from one to the other, and 
shouted with delight as each new advance was made. At 
last Sulpician was silent, and Didius had purchased the 
Eoman world at the price of upward of £200 to each soldier 
of the Praetorian guard. He entered the palace in state, and 
concluded his supper, which had been interrupted at his own 
house, on the viands prepared for Pertinax. But the excite- 
ment of the auction-room was too pleasant to be left to the 
troops in Eome. Offers were made to the legions in all the 
provinces, and Didius was threatened on every side. Even 
the distant garrisons of Britain named a candidate for the 
throne; and Claudius Albinus assumed the imperial purj^le, 
and crossed over into Gaul. More irritated still, the army 
in Syria elected its general, Pescennius Niger, Emperor, and 
he prepared to dispute the prize ; but quietly, steadily, with 
stern face and heart, advancing from jiroviuce to province, 
keeping his forces in strict subjection, and lajing claim to 
supreme authority by the mere strength of his indomitable 
will, came forward -Septimius Severus, and both the pre- 
tenders saw that their fate was sealed (p. 72). Illyria and 
Gaul recognized his title at once. Albinus was happy to 
accept from him the subordinate title of Csesar, and to rule 


as his lieutenaut. Didius, whose bargain turned out ill, 
besought him to be content with half the Empire. Severus 
slew the messengers who brought this proposition, and 
advanced in grim silence. The Senate assembled, and, by 
way of a pleasant reception for the Illyrian chief, requested 
Didius to prepare for death. The executioners found him 
clinwinor to life with unmanly tenacity, and killed him when 
he had reigned seventy days. One other competitor remained, 
the general of the Syrian army — the closest friend of Severus, 
but now separated from him by the great temptation of an 
Empire in dispute. This was Niger, from whom an obsti- 
nate resistance was expected, as he was equally famous for 
his courage and his skill. But fortune was on the side of 
Severus. Niger was conquered after a short struggle, and 
his head presented to the victor. Was Albinus still to live, 
and approach so near the throne as to have the rank of Cffisar ? 
Assassins were employed to murder him, but he escaped their 
assault. The treachery of Severus brought many supporters 
to his rival. The Roman armies were ranged in hostile 
camps. Severus again was fortunate, and Albinus, dashing 
towards him to engage in combat, was slain before his eyes. 
He watched his dying agonies for some time, and then forced 
his horse to trample on the corpse. The Prgetorians found 
they had appointed their master, and put the sword into his 
hand. lie used it without remorse. He terrified the boldest 
wilh his imperturbable stillness; he summoned the seditious 
soldiery to wait on him at his camp. They were to come 
without arms, without their military dress, almost like sup- 
pliants, certainly not like the ferocious libertines they had 
been when they had sold the Empire at the highest price. 
"Whoever of you wishes to live," said Severus, frowning 
coldly, "will depart from tins, and never come within thirty 
leagues of Komc. Take their horses," he ndded lo the otiicr 


troops who had surrounded the Praetorians, "take their 
accouternients, and chase them out of my sight." Did the 
Senate receive a milder treatment ? On sending them the 
head of Albinus, he had written to the Conscript Fathers, 
alarming tliem with the most dreadful threats. And now 
the time of execution hud come. He made them an oration 
in praise of the proscriptions of Marius and SulUi, and forced 
them to deify the tyrant Commodus, who had hated them all 
his life. He then gave a signal to his train, and the streets 
ran with blood. All who had borne high office, all who were 
of distinguished birth, all who were famous for their wealth 
or popular with the citizens, were jiut to death. 

With this hideous incarnation of unpitying firmness on 
the throne — hopeless of the future, and with dangers 
accumulating on every side, the Second Century came to an 
end, leaving the amazing contrast- between its miserable 
close and the long period of its prosperity by which it will 
be remembered in all succeeding time. — White. 

The Removal to Constantinople. — x\s the memory 
of the old liberties of Eome died out, a nearer approach was 
made to the ostentatious despotisms of the East. Aurelian, 
in 270, was the first Emperor who encircled his head with a 
diadem; and Diocletian, in 284, formed his court on the 
model of the most gorgeous royalties of Asia. On admission 
into his presence, the Roman senator, formerly the equal of 
the ruler, prostrated himseK at his feet. Titles of the most 
unmanly adulation were lavished on the fortunate slave or 
herdsman who had risen to supreme power. He was clothed 
in robes of purple and violet, and loaded with an incal- 
culable wealth of jewels and gold. There was now, therefore, 
seated on the throne, which was shaken by every commotion, 
a personage assuming more majestic rank, and affecting far 
loftier state and dignity, than Augustus had ventured on 

E £ A D 1 X G S IX K M A X HISTORY. 285 

while the strength of the old Eepublic gaxe irresistible force 
to the new Empire, or than the Antonines had dreamt of 
when the prosperity of Eome was apparently at its height. 
But there was still some feeling, if not of self-respect, at 
least of resistance to pretension, in the populace and senators 
of the capital. We are not, therefore, to feel surprised that 
an orientalised authority sought its natural seat in the land 
of ancient despotisms, and that many of the Emperors had 
cast longing eyes on the beautiful towns of Asia Minor, and 
even on the far-off cities of Mesopotamia, as more congenial 
localities for their barbaric splendors. By a sort of com- 
promise between his European origin and Asiatic tastes, the 
Emperor Constantine transferred the seat of empire from 
Rome to a city he had built on the extreme limits of Europe, 
and only divided fi'om Asia by a narrow sea. To this 
magnificent city Constantine removed the throne in 329, and 
for nearly a thousand years after that, while Eome was 
sacked in innumerable invasions, and all the capitals of 
Europe were successively occupied by contending armies, 
Constantinople, safe in her two narrow outlets, and rich in 
her command of the two continents, continued uncon([uered, 
and even unassailed. 

Rome was stripped, that Constantinople might be filled. 
All the wealth of Italy was carried across the iEgean. The 
Roman senator was invited to remove with his establishment. 
Uc found, on arriving at his new home, that by a compli- 
mentary attention of the Emperor, a fac-simile of his Eonian 
palace had been prepared for him on the Propontis. The 
seven hills of the new capital responded to the seven hills of 
the old. There were villas for retirement along the smiling 
shores of tiie Dardanelles or of the Bosporus, as fine in 
climate, and {)erhaps equal in romantic beauty, to Baia; or 
Brundusium. There was a capitol, as noble a piece of 


architecture as the one they had left, but without the 
sanctity of its thousand years of existence, or the glory of its 
unnumbered triumphs. One omission was the subject of 
remark and lamentation. The temples were nowhere to be 
seen. The images of the gods were left at Rome in the 
solitude of their deserted shrines, for Constantino had deter- 
mined that Constantinople should, from its very foundation, 
be the residence of a Christian people. Churches were 
built, and a priesthood appointed. 

His mother Helena made a journey to Jerusalem, and was 
rewarded for the pious pilgrimage by the discovery of the 
True Cross. Chapels and altars were raised upon all the 
places famous in Christian story ; relics were collected from 
all quarters, and we are early led to fear that the simplicity 
of the Gospel was endangered by its approach to the throne, 
and that Constantino's object was rather to raise and 
strengthen a hierarchy of ecclesiastical supporters, than to 
give full scope to doctrines of truth. But not the less 
wonderful, not the less by the divine appointment, was this 
unhoped-for triumph of Christianity, that its advancement 
formed part of the ambitious scheme of a worldly and 
unprincipled conqueror. Eather it may be taken as one 
among the thousand proofs with which history presents us, 
that the greatest blessings to mankind are produced 
irrespective of the character or qualities of the apparent 
author. A warrior is raised in the desert when required to 
be let loose upon a worn-out society as the scourge of God ; 
a blood-stained soldier is placed on the throne of the world 
when the time has come for the earthly predominance of the 
Gospel. But neither is Attila to be blamed, nor Constantino 
to be ]iraised. — White. 

The Three Sacks of the Eternal City. — Alaric 
marched on Eome. The Salarian gate was thrown open at 


midnight, probably by German slaves within ; and then, for 
five dreadful days and nights, the wicked city expiated in 
agony the sins of centuries. 

" And the kings of the earth who had lived delicately 
with her, and the merchants of the earth who were made 
rich by her, bewailed her, standing afar off for the fear of 
her torment, and crying, ' Alas ! alas, that great Babylon ! 
for in one hour is thy judgment come.' " 

St. John passed in those words from the region of symbol 
to that of literal description. A great horror fell upon all 
nations, when the news came. Rome taken ? Surely the 
end of all things was at hand. The wretched fugitives 
poured into Egypt and Syria — especially to Jerusalem ; per- 
haps witli some superstitious hope that Christ's tomb, or 
even Christ himself, might save them. 

St. Jerome, as he saw, day by day, patrician men and 
women who had passed their lives in luxury begging their 
bread around his hermitage at Bethlehem, wrote of the fall 
of Rome as a man astonished. 

St. Augustine, at Hippo, could only look on it as tlie end 
of all luiman power and glory, })erhaps of the earth itself. 
Babylon the great had fallen, and now Christ w'as coming in 
the clouds of heaven to set up the city of God forever. 

Followed by long trains of captives, long trains of wagons 
bearing the spoils of all the world, Alaric went on south. He 
tried to cross into Sicily ; but a storm wrecked his boats, 
and the Goths were afraid of the sea. And after a Avhile he 
died. And the wild men made a great mourning over him. 
Of one thing they were resohx'd, that the base Romans should 
not dig up Alaric out of his bai-mw and scatter his bones to 
the winds. So they ])ut no barrow over the great king; but 
under the walls of Cosenza they turned the river-bed, and in 
that river-bed they set Alaric, armed and miiilcd, ui)i'ight 


upon liis horse, with gold, and jewels, and arms, and, it may 
be, captive youths and maids, that he might cuter into Val- 
halla in royal pomp, and make a worthy show among the 
heroes in Odin's hall. And then they turned back the river 
into its bed, and slew the slaves who had done the work, that 
no man might know where Alaric lies: and no man does 
know till this day. 

More dreadful far was the second sack than the first — 455 
is its date. Then it was that the statues, whose fragments 
are still found, were hurled in vain on the barbarian assail- 
ants. Not merely gold and jewels, but the art-treasures of 
Eome were carried off to the Vandal fleet, and with them the 
golden table and the seven-branched candlestick which Titus 
took from the Temple of Jerusalem. 

How had these things escaped the Goths forty years before ? 
We cannot tell. Perhaps the Gothic sack, which only lasted 
five days, was less complete than this one, which went on for 
fourteen days of unutterable horrors. The plunderers were 
not tliis time sturdy, honest Goths ; not even German slaves, 
mad to revenge themselves on theii" masters ; they were Moors, 
Ausurian black savages, and all the pirates and cut- throats 
of the Mediterranean. Sixty thousand prisoners were carried 
off to Carthage. All the statues were wrecked on the voyage 
to Africa, and lost for ever. 

And yet Eome did not die. She lingered on ; her Em- 
peror still calling himself an Emperor ; her senate a senate; 
feeding her lazy plebs, as best she could, with the remnant of 
those revenues which former Emperors had set aside for 
their support — their public l)read, public pork, public oil, 
public wine, public baths — and leaving them to gamble and 
quarrel, and listen to the lawyers in rags and rascality, and 
to rise and murder ruler after ruler, benefactor after benefac- 
tor, out of base jealousy and fear of any one less base than 


themselves. And so '•' the smoke of her torment went up 

A third time she was sacked, by Ricimer, her own general; 
and then more villains ruled her ; and more kites and crows 
plundered her. The last of them only need keep us a while. 
He is Odoacer, the giant. He came to Rome, seeking his 
fortune. There he found in power Orestes, his father's old 
colleague at Attila's court, the most unprincipled turncoat of 
his day; who had been the Emperor's man, then Attila's 
man, and would be anybody's man if needed; but who was 
now his own man, being king-maker for the time being, and 
father of the puppet Emperor, Romulus Augustulus, a pretty 
little lad, with an ominous name. 

Odoacer took service under Orestes in the body-guards; 
became a great warrior and popular; watched his time; and 
when Orestes refused the mercenaries their demand of the 
third of the lands of Italy, he betrayed his benefactor, 
promised the mercenaries to do for them what Orestes would 
not, and raised his famous band of confederates. At last he 
called himself King of Nations, burnt Pavia, and murdered 
Orestes as a due reward for his benefits. Stripped of his 
purple, the last Emperor of Rome knelt crying at the feet of 
the German giant, and begged not to be murdered like his 
father. And the great wild beast's hard heart smote him, 
and he sent the poor little lad away, to live in wealth and 
peace in Lucullus' villa at Misenum, with plenty of money, 
and women, and gewgaws, to dream away his foolish life, 
looking out over the fair bay of Naples — the last Emperor of 
Rome. — KixGSLEY. 



Roman Slavery. — A Slave not a Person, hut a Thing. — 
When we think of the unlimited scale upon which the 
Romans were perpetually prosecuting war, and remember the 
countless captives Avhose destiny every battle must have 
placed in their hands, we can have no difficulty in appreciat- 
ing the exhaustless fertility of the source from which their 
slaves were principally derived. "Eome," said Tacitus, 
" trembled in the presence of a slave population, which mul- 
tiplied day by day, while the free population diminished." 
The secretary or amanuensis was a slave; the son's tutor 
and attendants were slaves ; the artists, who in various ways 
ministered to the great man's enjoyments, were all slaves. 
Physicians, actors, musical performers, the buffoon and the 
improvisator, were of the same order. So were the skilled 
artisans of every kind. 

How, then, we may ask, did the dominant class act with 
this slumbering volcano beneath their feet? How did they 
bear themselves towards that vast multitude in their streets, 
and within their doors, more numerous, more energetic and 
intelligent than themselves, whose very presence was a stand- 
ing menace to their political and personal existence '? The 
law did not look upon the slave even as a personage of sub- 
ordinate and degraded social position. It did not recognize 
his claim to be considered as a moral agent, to be a man at 
all. When the bystander remonstrated with a lady in Juve- 
nal, who was cruelly torturing her slave for some trifling fault, 
upon the ground that it was shameful so to treat a human 
being — "AhuRian being! "she replies, "call you that creat-. 


ure a human being? He is a slave." The law re-echoed, 
in grave, judicial tones, the bitter words of the passionate 
woman. The slave was secundum liominum genus, a 
"second sort of human being; " he could acquire no rights, 
social or political, he was incapable of inheriting pi'operty, or 
making a will, or contracting a legal marriage; his value was 
estimated like that of a brute beast ; his death or mutihition 
punished in the same way. In one word, he was not a 
person, he was a thing. He was his master's property to 
scourge, to brand, to chain up, to torture, to crucify ; nor was 
it seldom that his master or his mistress exercised tliis ter- 
rible power. There seems little reason to disbelieve the 
story of Pollio's fish ponds, where the lampreys fattened upon 
the flesh of slaves, a practice of which the humane Augustus 
expressed a mild disapproval ; and if a wealthy proprietor died 
under circumstances which created suspicion of foul play, 
his whole household, of many hundred slaves, were instantly 
put to the torture, one and all. — Sheppard. 

The Penally for a Murdered Master. — Xot long after, 
Pedanius Secundus, praefect of the city, was murdered by 

his own slave Now, since according to ancient 

custom the whole family of slaves, who upon such occasion 
abode under the same roof, must be subjected to capital 
punishment, such was the conflux of the people, who were 
desirous of saving so many innocent lives, that matters 
proceeded even to sedition : in the senate itself were some 
who were favorable to the popular side, and rejected such 
excessive rigor; while many, on the contrary, voted against 
admitting Jiny innovation : of these last was Cains Cassius, who, 
instead of barely giving his vote, reasoned in this manner : 

"Many times have I assisted, conscript fathers, in this 
august assembly, when new decrees of the senate have been 
demanded, contrary to the laws and institutions of our fore- 


fathers, "without o})posing such demands: uot because I 
doubted that the provisions made of old upon all matters 
were the wiser and more equitable, and that such as 
were changed were altered for the worse ; but lest I 
should appear to commend the side I espoused by an 
immoderate attachment to ancient institutions. At the 
same time I considered that whatever weight might attach 
to my character ought not to be destroyed by reiterated 
defeats, in order that it might remain entire if at any time 
the state stood in need of my counsels. Such a conjuncture 
this day has brought forth : when a man of consular rank 
has been murdered in his own house, by the treachery of 
his slaves ; a fraud none of them prevented, none of them 
disclosed, although the decree of the senate was still in full 
force, which denounced the pains of death to the whole 
household. By all means establish impunity by your decree; 
but then, what security will any man derive from his 
dignity, when even the prajfecture of Rome availed not him 
who possessed it ? who will be protected by the number of 
his slaves, when a band of four hundred afforded no protec- 
tion to Pedanius Secimdus ? To which of us will such 
domestics administer aid, when, even with the terrors of the 
law before their eyes, they stir not to protect us from 
danger ? or is it, as some blush not to feign, that the 
murderer only took vengeance for injuries he had received ? 
What injuries? let us not mince matters, but pronounce at 
once that the master was killed justifiably. 

"But are we to hunt up arguments in an affair long since 
weighed and determined by our wiser ancestors ? Even if 
the question were now for the first time to be decided, do 
yoii believe that a slave could conceive a purpose of murder- 
ing his master without one menacing expression escaping 
him? without incautiously uttering one syllable which 


might intimate his design ? Grant that he effectually con- 
cealed his purpose — that he procured tiie weapon without 
the piivity of his fellows — could he pass through the guard 
of slaves at the chamber door, open that door, bring in a 
light, perpetrate the murder, unknown to them all ? Many 
indications of atrocious guilt precede its commission. If 
our slaves discover them to us, we may live, though but one 
among many, secure amidst those who are torn with guilty 
purposes; and lastly, if we must perish, we know that our 
death will he avenged upon the guilty persons among whom 
we live. By our ancestors the dispositions of slaves were 
suspected, even of such as were horn on their estates, or in 
their own houses, and had, from the moment of their birth, 
partaken of the benevolence of their masters. But now that 
in our families we have nations of slaves having rites widely 
different fi'om our own, and addicted to the religions of 
foreign countries, or none at all, it is impossible to curb 
such a promiscuous rabble without the terrors of the law. 
But, under this act, some who are innocent must perish with 
the guilty: true, but out of a routed army, when every 
tenth man is struck with a club, the lot falls upon the brave 
as well as the coward. Every great judicial warning involves 
somewhat of injustice to individuals, which is compensated 
by the general benefit." 

Though no particular senator ventured to combat this 
judgment of Cassius, it was responded to by the dissonant 
voices of such as commiserated the nunil)er affected, the 
age of some, the sex of others, the undoubted innocence of 
very many of them : it was however carried by the party 
who adjudged all to death. — Tacitus. 

Roman Superstitions. — Evil Omens, and How they 
were Averted. — At liume during the Avinter many prodigies 
either occurred about the city, or, as usually iiappens wiien 


the minds of men are once inclined to superstition, many 
were reported and readily believed; among which it was 
said that an infant of good family, only six months old, had 
called out " lo triumphe " in the herb market : that in the 
cattle market an ox had of his own accord ascended to the 
third story, and that thence, being frightened by the noise 
oi the inhabitants, had flung himself down ; that the 
appearance of ships had been brightly visible in the sky, and 
that the temple of Hope in the herb market had been struck 
by lightning ; that the spear at Lanuvium had shaken itself; 
that a crow had flown down into the temple of Juno and 
alighted on the very couch; that in the territory of 
Amiternum figures resembling men dressed in white rai- 
ment had been seen in several places at a distance, but had 
not come close to any one; that in Picenum it had rained 
stones; that at Care the tablets for divination had been 
lessened in size ; and that in Gaul a wolf had snatched out 
the sword from the scabbard of a soldier on guard, and 
carried it off. On account of the other prodigies the 
decemvirs were ordered to consult the books; but on 
account of its having rained stones in Picenum the festival 
of nine days was proclaimedr, and almost all the state was 
occupied in expiating the rest, from time to time. First of 
all the city was purified, and victims of the greater kind were 
sacrificed to those gods to Avhom they were directed to be 
offered; and a gift of forty-pounds weight of gold was 
carried to the temple of Juno at Lanuvium ; and the 
matrons dedicated a brazen statue to Juno on the Aventine ; 
and a lectisternium was ordered at Caere, where the tablets 
for divination had diminished ; and a supplication to 
Fortune at Algidum; at Eome also a lectisternium was 
ordered to Youth, and a supplication at the temple of 
Hercules, first by individuals named, and afterwards by the 


■whole people at all the shrines ; five greater victims Avere 
offered to Genius ; and Cains Atilins Serranus, the prsetor, 
was ordered to make certain vows if the republic should 
remain in the same state for ten years. These things, thus 
expiated and vowed according to the Sibylline books, 
relieved, in a great degree, the public mind from super- 
stitious fears. — Liyy. 

A Senate Dismayed by the Contumacious Liver of an Ox. — 
When the consuls, Cneius Cornelius and Quintus Petillius, 
on the day of entering into office, according to custom, 
sacrificed each an ox to Jupiter, the head of the liver was 
not found in the victim sacrificed by Petillius ; which being 
reported to the senate, he was ordered to sacrifice oxen until 
the omens should be favorable. The senate being then 
consulted concerning the provinces, decreed Pisse and 
Liguria to be the provinces of the consuls. They ordered 
that he to whose lot Pisse fell, should, at the time of the 
elections, come home to preside at them; and that they 
should severally enlist two new legions and three hundred 
horse ; and should order the allies and Latin confederates, 
to furnish ten thousand foot and six hundred horse to each. 
The command was prolonged to Tiberius Claudius, until 
such time as the consul should arrive in the province. 

While the senate was employed in these affairs, Caius 
Cornelius, being called by a beadle, went out of the 
senate-house, and, after a short time, returned with a 
troubled countenance, and told the conscript fathers tiiat 
the liver of a fat ox, Avhich he had sacrificed, had melted 
away ; that, when this was told him by the person who 
dressed the victims, he did not believe it, and he liimself 
ordered the water to be poured out of the vessel in which 
the entrails were boih-d ; and he saw all entire but the liver, 
which liail been unaccountably consumed. While the 


fathers Avere under much terror on account of this prodigy, 
their ukirni was augmented hy the other consul, who 
informed them that, on account of the first victim haviuo- 
wanted tlie head of the liver, lie had sacrificed three oxen, 
and had not yet found favorable omens. The senate ordered 
him to continue sacrificing the larger victims until he should 
find favorable omens. — Livy. 


Forms and Ceremonies. — The jurisprudence of the 
first Romans exhibited the scenes of a pantomine : the 
words were adapted to the gestures, and the slightest error 
or neglect in the forms of proceeding was sufficient to annul 
the substance of the fairest claim. The communion of the 
marriage-life was denoted by the necessary elements of fire 
and water; and the divorced wife resigned the bunch of 
keys, by the delivery of which she had been invested with 
the goyernment of the fjimily. The manumission of a son 
or a slave was performed by turning him round with a gentle 
blow on the cheek ; a work was prohibited by the casting of 
a stone; prescription was interrupted by the breaking of a 
branch; the clenched fist was the symbol of a pledge or 
deposit; the right hand was the gift of fiiith and confidence. 
The indenture of covenants was a broken straw; and 
weights and scales were introduced into every payment. If 
a citizen jnirsued any stolen goods into a neighbor's house, 
he concealed his nakedness with a linen towel, and hid his 
face with a mask or basin, lest he should encounter the eyes 
of a virgin or a matron. In a civil action, the plaintiff 
touched the ear of his witness, seized his reluctant adversary 
by the neck ; and implored, in solemn lamentation, the aid 
of his fellow-citizens. The two competitors grasped each 


other's baud us if they stood prepared for combat before the 
tribunal of the prsEtor ; he commanded them to produce the 
object of tlie dispute ; they went, they returned with 
measured steps, and a clod of earth was cast at his feet to 
represent the field for which they contended. This occult 
science of the words and actions of law was the inheritance 
of the pontiffs and patricians. Like the Chaldaean as- 
trologers, they announced to their clients the days of busi- 
ness and repose ; these important trifles were interwoven 
with the religion of Nnma, and after the publication of the 
Twelve Tables the Roman people was still enslaved by the 
ignorance of judicial proceedings. The treachery of a 
plebeian officer at length revealed the profitable mystery ; in 
a more enlightened age the legal actions were derided and 
observed, and the same antiquity which sanctified the prac- 
tice, obliterated the use and meaning of this primitive 

Epochs in Jurisprudence. — The revolution of almost 
one thousand years, from the Twelve Tables to the reign of 
Justinian, may be divided into three periods almost equal in 
duration, and distinguished from each other by the mode of 
instruction and the character of the civilians. I. Pride and 
ignorance contributed, during the first period, to confine 
within narrow limits the science of the Roman law (b. c. 
451-106). On the public days of market or assembly the 
masters of the art were seen walking in the forum, ready to 
impart the needful advice to the meanest of their fellow- 
citizens, from whose votes, on a future occasion, they might 
solicit a grateful return. As their years and honors 
increased, they seated themselves at home on a ciiair or 
throne, to expoct, with patient gravity, the visits of their 
clients, who at the (lawn of day, from the town and country, 
began to thunder at tlu-ir door. The youtiis of their own 


order and family were permitted to listen; tlieir children 
enjoyed the benefit of more private lessons, and the Mucian 
race was long renowned for the liereditary knowledge of the 
civil law. II. The second period, the learned and splendid 
age of jurisprudence, may be extended from the birth of 
Cicero to the reign of Alexander Severus (b. c. 160-a. d. 235). 
A system was formed, schools were instituted, books were 
composed, and both the living and the dead became sub- 
servient to the instruction of the student. Cato the censor 
derived some fame from his legal studies and those of his 
son; but the perfection of the science was ascribed to Servius 
Sulpicius, the friend of Tully ; * and the long succession 
shone with equal lustre under the republic and under the 
Caesars. III. In the third period, between the reigns of 
Alexander and Justinian, the oracles of jurisprudence were 
almost mute (a. d. 235-527). The measure of curiosity had 
been filled ; the throne was occupied by tyrants and bar- 
barians ; the active sjiirits were diverted by religious dis- 
putes ; and the professors of Eome, Constantinople, and 
Berytus, were humbly content to repeat the lessons of their 
more enlightened predecessors. 

The Parent and the Child. — The law of nature instructs 
most animals to cherish and educate their infant progeny. 
The law of reason inculcates upon the human species the 
returns of filial piety. But the exclusive, absolute, and per- 
petual dominion of the father over his children is peculiar to 
the Eoman jurisprudence, and seems to be coeval with the 
foundation of the city. The paternal power was instituted 
or confirmed by Eomulus himself, and after the practice 
of three centuries, it was inscribed on the fourth table of 
the Decemvirs. In the forum, the senate, or the camp, the 
adult son of a Eoman citizen enjoyed the public and private 

* Cicero, whose full name was Marcus Tullius Cicero. 


rights of a person : in his father's house he was a mere thing ; 
confounded by the laws with the moveables, the cattle, and 
the slaves, whom the capricious master might alienate or 
destroy without being responsible to any earthly tribunal. 
The hand which bestowed the daily sustenance might resume 
the Toluntary gift, and whatever was acquired by the labor or 
fortune of the son was immediately lost in the property of 
the father. At the call of indigence or avai-ice, the master 
of a family could dispose of his children or his slaves. But 
the condition of the slave was far more advantageous, since 
he regained, by the first manumission, his alienated freedom : 
the son was again restored to his unnatural father; he might 
be condemned to ser^-itude a second and a third time, and it 
was not till after the third sale and deliverance that he was 
enfranchised from the domestic power which had been so 
repeatedly abused. The majesty of a parent was armed with 
the power of life and death ; and the examples of such bloody 
executions, which were sometimes praised and never punished, 
may be traced in the annals of Eome, beyond the times of 
Pompey and Augustus. Neither age, nor rank, nor the con- 
sular office, nor the honors of a triumph, could exempt the 
most illustrious citizen from the bonds of lilial subjection. 
His own descendants were included in the family of their 
common ancestor. 

The Tutor and the Pupil. — Tlie lelation of guardian 
and ward, or, in Roman words, of iutor and pupil, whicli 
covers bo many titles of the Institutes and Pandects, is of a 
very simple and uniform nature. The person and property 
of an orphan must always be trusted to tlic custody of some 
discreet friend. Tlie office of the tutor was to complete the 
defective legal personality of the ward. All formal words 
essential to a legal transaction had to be pronounced by the 
ward himself, and then the tutor, by his assent, added the 


animus, the intention, of which the child was not capable. 
The age of puberty had been rashly fixed by the civilians at 
fourteen ; but, as the faculties of the mind ripen more slowly 
than those of the body, a curator was interposed to guard 
tlie fortunes of a Roman youth from his own inexperience 
and headstrong passions ; and the minor was compelled by 
the laws to solicit the same protection to give validity to his 
acts till he accomplished the full period of 25 years. Women 
were condemned to the perpetual tutelage of parents, hus- 
bands, or guardians ; a sex created to please and obey was 
never supposed to have attained the age of reason and 

Thefts and Insults. — A Roman pursued and recovered 
his stolen goods by a civil action of theft; they might pass 
through a succession of pure and innocent hands, but noth- 
ing less than a prescription of thirty years could extinguish 
his original claim. They were restored by the sentence of 
the Praetor, and the injury was compensated by double, or 
three-fold, or even quadru]ile damages, as the deed had been 
perpetrated by secret fraud or open rapine, as the robber had 
been surprised in the fact, or detected by a subsequent 
research. The rude jurisprudence of the Decemvirs had 
confounded all hasty insults which did not amount to the 
fracture of a limb, by condemning the aggressor to the com- 
mon penalty of 25 asses. But the same denomination of 
money was reduced, in three centuries, from a pound to the 
weight of half an ounce ; and the insolence of a wealthy 
Roman indulged himself in the cheap amusement of breaking 
and satisfying the law of the Twelve Tables. 

Crimes and Punishments. — In the punishment of 
crimes, the laws of the Twelve Tables, like the statutes of 
Draco, are written in characters of blood ; and the forfeit of 
an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a limb for a limb, is 


rigorously exacted, unless the offender can redeem his pardon 
by a fine of 3u0 i)ounds of copper. Nine crimes were 
adjudged worthy of death. 1. Any act of treason against 
the state, or of correspondence with the public enemy. 
The mode of execution w^as painful and ignominious : the 
head of the degenerate Roman was shrouded in a veil, his 
hands were tied behind his bach, and, after he had been 
scourged by the lictor, he was suspended in the midst of the 
forum on a cross, or inauspicious tree. 2. Nocturnal meet- 
ings in the city, whatever might be the pretence — of 
pleasure, or religion, or the public good. 3. The murder of 
a citizen ; for which the common feelings of mankind 
demand the blood of the murderer. The parricide was cast 
into the river or the sea, enclosed in a sack ; and a cock, a 
\iper, a dog, and a monkey, were successively added as the 
most suitable companions. 4. The malice of an iticendiary. 
After the previous ceremony of whipping, he himself was 
delivered to the flames; and in this example our reason is 
tempted to applaud the justice of retaliation. 5. Judicial 
perjury. The corrupt or malicious witness "was thrown 
headlong from the Tarpeian rock to expiate his falsehood. 
C. T/ie cornqHion of a judge, who accepted bribes to pro- 
nounce an iniquitous sentence. 7. Libels i\\\<l satires, whose 
rude strains sometimes disturbed the peace of an illiterate 
city. The author was beaten with clubs, a worthy chastise- 
ment ; but it is not certain that he Avas left to expire under 
the blows of the executi<jner. 8. The nocturnal mischief of 
damaging or destroying a neighhor\ corn. 'Y\\c criminal 
was suspended as a grateful victim to '^Jcrcs. 0. Magical 
incantations, whieli \\\u\ iiowci-. in llie opinion of the 
Latian shepherds, to exhaust tiie strength of an enemy, to 
extinguish liis life, and to remove from their seats his deep- 
rooted plantations. 


Voluntary Il2:ile and Death. — A Roman accused of 
aaj ca[)ital crime might prevent the sentence of the law by 
voluntary exile or death. Till his guilt bad been legally 
proved, his innocence was presumed and his person was free; 
till the votes of the last century had been counted and 
declared, he might peaceably secede to any of the allied 
cities of Italy, or Greece, or Asia. His fame and fortunes 
were preserved, at least to his children, by this civil death ; 
and he might still be happy if a mind accustomed to the 
tumult of Rome could support the silence of Rhodes or 
Athens. A bolder effort was required to escape from the 
tyranny of the Caesars; but this effort was rendered familiar 
by the maxims of the Stoics, the example of the bravest 
Romans, and the legal encouragement of suicide. The 
bodies of condemned criminals were exposed to public 
ignominy, and their children, a more serious evil, were 
reduced to poverty by the confiscation of their fortunes. 
But, if the victims of Tiberius and K^ero anticipated the 
decree of the prince or senate, their courage was recom- 
pensed by the applause of the i^ublic, the decent honors of 
burial, and the validity of their testaments. The exquisite 
avarice and cruelty of Domitian appears to have deprived 
the unfortunate of this last consolation, and it was still 
denied even by the clemency of the Antonines. A voluntary 
death, which, in the case of a capital offense, intervened 
between the accusation and the sentence, was admitted as a 
confession of guilt, and the spoils of the deceased were for- 
feited to the treasury. — [Culled from Gibbon's famous 
Chapter XLIV., on Romau Jurisj)rudence.] 


Fob the vse of Schools. 12mo. Illustrated. 


For the use of Schools and for Private Reading. 
12mo. Illustrated. 


For the use of Schools and for Private Reading. 
12mo. Illustrated. 


■With Select Readings from Standard Authors. 

12mo. Beautifully Illustrated. 


"With Select Readings from Standard Authoi-s. 

12mo. Beautifully Illustk-^ted. 


For the use ok Schools and for Private Reading. 
12mo. Illustrated. 


The Ancient, Mediaeval, and Modern I'eoples, 

Bound in One Volume. 12mo. Illustrated. 


Fo". Private Keadini: and for Reference in Schools and Families. 
UovAL Bvo. Beautifully Illustrated, 

A d dress, 

A . S . li A Ti N E S AND COMPANY, 




Object Lessons. Welch. 

Tliis is a eonijilete exjiosition of the popular inodern system of "object-teaching,'' 
for teachers of primary classes. 

Theory and Practice of Teaching. Page. 

This volume has, without iloulit, been I'ead liy two hundred thousand teachers, and 
its popularity remains undiminished, large editions being exhausted yearly. It was 
the pioneer, as it is now the patriarch, of professional works for teachers. 

The Graded School. Wells. 

The proper way to organize graded schools is here illustrated. The author has availed 
himself of the best eleirients of the several systems prevalent in Boston, New York, 
Philadelphia, Cincinnati, St. Louis, and other cities. 

The Normal. Holbrook. 

Carries a working si^hool on its visit to teachers, showing the most approved methods 
of teaching all the common branches, including the technicalities, explanations, demon- 
strations, and definitions introductory and peculiar to each branch. 

School Management. Holbrook. 

Treating of the tcarher's (lualificatinus : how to overcome difficulties in self and 
others; oi'ganization ; disciiiline ; methods of inciting diligence and order; strategy 
in management ; object-teaching. 

The Teachers' Institute. Fowle. 

This is a volume of suggestions inspired by the author's experience at institutes, in 
the instruction of young teachers. A thousand points of interest to this class are most 
satisfactorily dealt with. 

Schools and Schoolmasters. Dickens. 

Apiiro|iriate selections from the writings of the great novelist. 

The Metric System. Davies. 

Considered witli relereiice to its general introduction, and embracing the views of 
John Quincy Adams and fSir John Ilcrscliel. 

The Student ; The Educator. Phelps. 2 vols. 
The Discipline of Life. Phelps. 

The authoress of these works is one of the distinguished writers on education, 
and they cannot fail to jirove a valuable addition to the School and Teachers' Libraries, 
being iri a higli degree; lioth interesting and instructive. 

Law of Public Schools. Burke. 

By Finley Burke, Counsellor-at-Law. A new volume in "Barnes's Teachers' Library 
Series." l:imo, cloth. 

"Mr. Burke has given us the latest 
expositions of the law on this highly im- 
portant subject. I shall cordially com- 
mend his treatise." — Theodore Dwight, 

From the HoN. Joseph M. Beck, Judge of 
Biipremi' Court, Iowa. 

" I have examined with considerable 
?are the manuscript of ' A Treatise on the 

Law of Public Schools." by Finley Burk«, 
Esq., of Council Bluffs. In my opinion, 
the work will be of gi-eat value to school 
teachers and schoor officers, and to law- 
yers. The subjects treated of are thought- 
fully considered and thoroughly examined, 
and correctly and systematically arranged. 
The style is perspicuous. The legal doc- 
trines of the work, so far as I have beeD 




able to consider them, are sound. I have 
examined quite a number of the authori- 
ties cited ; they sustain the rules an- 
nounced in the text. Mr. Burke is an able 
and industrious member of the bar of the 
Supreme Court of this State, and has a 
high standing in the profession of the 

" I fully concur in the opinion of Judge 
Beck, above expressed." — John F. Dil- 
LO.v. New York, May, 1880. 

Sioux City, Iowa, May, 1S80. 
I have examined the manuscript of 
Finley Uarke, Esq. , and lind a full citation 
of all the and decisions pertaining to 
the school law, occurring in the courts of 
tlje United States. This vuhime contains 

valuable and important information con- 
cerning school law, which has never before 
been accessible to either teaclier or school 
officer. A. Armstrong, 

Supt. Schools, Sioux City, Iowa. 

Des Moines, May 15, ISSO. 
The examination of " A Treatise on the 
Law of Public Schools," prepared by Fin- 
ley Burke, Esq. , of Council Blufts, has 
given me much pleasure. So far as J 
know, there is no work of similar charac- 
ter now in existence. I think such a work 
will be exceedingly useful to lawyers, 
school officers, and teachers, and 1 hope 
that it may find its way into their hands. 


Siij)t. Public Inst, fur Iowa. 

Teachers' Handbook. Phelps. 

By William F. Phelps, Principal of Minnesota State Normal School. Embracing the 
objects, history, organization, and management of teachers' institutes, followed by 
methods of teaching, in detail, for all the fundamental branches. Every young teacher, 
every practical teacher, every experienced teacher even, needs this book. 

This is the key-note of the present excel- 

From (he New York Tribune. 

" The discipline of the school should 
prepare the child for the discipline of life. 
Tli« country schoolmaster, accordingly, 
holds a ])iisition of vital interest to the 
destiny of tlie reimblic, and should neg- 
lect no means for the wise and efficiciit 
discharge of his significant functions. 

lent volume. In view of the supreme 
importance of the teacher's calling, Mr. 
Plielps has presented an elaborate system 
of instruction in the elements of learning, 
with a complete detail of methods and 
processes, iUustrated with an abundance 
of practical examples and enforced by 
judicious councils." 

Topical Course of Study. Stone. 

This volume is a compilation from the courses of study of our most successful public 
schools, and the best tliought of leading educators. The pupil is enabled to make full 
use of any and all text-liooks bearing on the given tojiics, and is incited to use all other 
infiirmation within his reach. 

American Education. Mansfield. 

A treatise on tlje princijiles and elements of education, as practised in this oountry, 
with ideas tow.irds distinctive rejiublican and Cliristian education. 

American Institutions. De Tocqueville. 

A valiialilc; imlcx to the gi-niiis cif our Ouvcniiin'iit. 

Universal Education. Mayhew. 

The sulij'-ct is apprii;irhc(l witli the clcur, l%ccu iicrccption of one who has observed 
its necessity, and realized its feasibility and cxjiedieiK'y alike. The redeeming and 
elevating power of improved common schools constitutes the inspiration of the volume. 

Oral Training Lessons. Barnard. 

The c,lij.-(t of this v.ry usiful wnik is t" luniish material for instructors to impart 
orally to their i-1;isms. in Ih.iikIu'S nut usu.illy t.iii;;ht, in iummon schcols, embracing a'' 
de]iartniciits of n.tturil scii-nrc and much general knowledge. 

Lectures on Natural History. Chadbourne. 

Affording many thcrni's fur oral instruction in this interestiu({ sciauce, especially in 
ICboola where it is not pursued us a class exercise. 



Outlines of Mathematical Science. Davies. 

A Uiuiuml suggesting the best methods of presenting mathematical instruction on the 
part of tlie teaulier, witli tliat compreliensive view of the whole which is necessary to 
the intelligent treatment of a part, in science. 

Nature and Utility of Mathematics. Davies. 

An elaborate and lucid ex]iosition of the jinnciples which lie at the foundation of 
pure mathematics, with a highly ingenious application of their results to the develop- 
ment of the essential idea of the diflerent branches of the science. 

Mathematical Dictionary. Davies and Peck. 

This cyclopaidia of mathiwiiatical science defines, with completeness, precision, and 
accuracy, every technical tt rm ; thus constituting a popular treatise on each branch, 
and a general view of the whole subject. 

The Popular Educator. Barnes. 

In seven volumes, containing iuteresting and prohtable educational miscellany. 

Liberal Education of W^omen. Orton. 

Treats of " the demand and the method ; " being a compilation of the best and most 
advanced thought on this subject, by the leading writers and educators in England and 
America. Edited by a professor in Vassar College. 

Education Abroad. Northrop. 

A thorough discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of sending American 
children to Europe to be educated ; also, papers on legal prevention of illiteracy, study, 
and health, labor as an educator, and other kindred subjects. 

The Teacher and the Parent. Northend. 

A treatise upon common-school education, designed to lead teachers to view their 
calling in its true light, and to stiimdate them to fidelity. 

The Teachers' Assistant. Northend. 

A natural continuation of the author's previous work, more directly calculated for 
daily use in the administration of school discipline and instruction. 

School Government. Jewell. 

Full of advanced ideas on the subject which its title indicates. The criticisms upon 
current theories of punishment and schenjes of administration have excited general 
attention and comment. 

Grammatical Diagrams. Jewell. 

The diagram system of teaching grammar exjdained, defended, and improved. The 
curious in literature, the searcher for truth, those interested in new inventions, as well 
as the disciples of Professor Clark, who would see their fa\'orite theory fairly treated, 
all want this book. There are many who would like to be made familiar with this 
system before risking its use in a class. The ojiportunity is here afforded. 

The Complete Examiner. Stone. 

Consists of a series of questions on every English branch of school and academic 
instruction, witli reference to a given page or article of leading text-books where the 
answer may tie found in full. Prepared to aid teachers in securing certificates, pupils 
in preparing for promotion, and teachers in selecting review questions. 

How Not to Teach. Griffin. 

This book meets a want universally felt among young teachers who have their expe- 
rience in teaching to learn. It undertakes to point out the many natural mistakes into 
which teachers, unconsciously or otherwise, fall, and warns the reader against dangers 
that beset the path of every conscientious teacher. It tells tlie reader, also, the proper 
and acceptable way to teach, illustrating the author's ideas by some practice-lessons 
in arithmetic (after Griibe). gg 



School Amusements. Root. 

To assist teachers in making the school interesting, witli hints upon the manage- 
ment of the school-room. Rules for military and gymnastic exercises are included. 
lUustRited by diagrams. 

Institute Lectures. Bates. 

These lectures, originally delivered before institutes, are based upon various topics in 
the departments of mental and moral culture. The volume is calculated to prepare 
tlie will, awaken the inquiry, and stimulate the thought of tlie zealous teacher. 

Method of Teachers' Institutes. Bates. 

Sets forth the best method of conducting institutes, with a detailed account of the 
object, organization, plan of instruction, and true theory of education on which such 
instruction should be based. 

History and Progress of Education. 

The systems of eituratiou prevailing in all nations and ages, the gradual advance to 
the present time, and the liearing of tlie past upon the present, in this regard, are 
worthj' of the careful investigation of all concerned in education. 

Higher Education. Atlas Series. 

A collection of valuable essays. Contemts. International Communication by Lan- 
guage, by Philip Gilbert Hamerton ; Reform in Higher Education ; Upper Schools, by 
President James McCosh ; Study of Dreek and Latin Classics, by Prof. Charles 
Elliott ; The University System in Italy, by Prof Angelo de Gubernatis, of the 
University of Florence ; Universal Education, by Ray Palmer ; Industrial Art Educa- 
tion, by Eaton S. Drone. 


Milton's Paradise Lost. (r>oy(rs Illustrated Edition.) 
Young's Night Thoughts. do. 

Cowper's Task, Table Talk, &c. do. 
Thomson's Seasons. do. 

PoUok's Course of Time. do. 

These works, models of the best and purest literature, are beautifully illustrated, and 
notes exi)lain all doubtful meanings. 

Lord Bacon's Essays. (Boyd's Edition.) 

Another grind English classic, affording the highest exampki of purity in language 
and style. 

The Iliad of Homer. (Translated by Pope.) 

Those who are unable to read this greatest of ancient writers in the original shouhl 
not fail tf) avail themselves of this standard metrical version. 

Pope's Essay on Man. 

This is a model of jmre classical English, which should be read, also, by every teacher 
and scholar for tin; sound thought it contains. 

Improvement of the Mind. Isaac Watts. 

No nient.d Jiliilosophv ever writtiii which is so ci>in)irehensive and practically 
useful to the unje.irned as w,ll as learned rcadcras this well-known book of Watts. 

Milton's Political Works. Cleveland. 

This is the very l)est edition of tlie poet. It includes a life of the author, 
notes, dis.sertatioiiM on each ]>ocni, a faultless text, and is Die o;i2j/ edition of Milton 
with a couipleie verbal index. 




Compendium of English Literature. Cleveland. 
English Literature of XlXth Century. Cleveland. 
Compendium of American Literature. Cleveland. 

Nearly one hundred and fifty thousand volumes of Professor Cleveland's inimitable 
roiupendiunis have been sold. Taken together they present a coniplete view of litera- 
tare. To the man who can afford but a few books these will supply the place of an 
extensive library. From commendations of tlie very highest authorities the following 
extracts will give some idea of the enthusiasm with which the works are regarded by 
scholars : — 

"With the Bible and your volumes one might leave libraries without very painful 
regret. " " The work cannot be found from which in the same limits so much interesting 
and valuable information may be obtained." " Good taste, fine scholarship, familiar 
acquaintance with literature, unwearied industry, tact acquired by practice, an interest 
iu the itulture of the young, and regard for truth, purity, philanthropy, and religion 
are united in Mr. Cleveland." " A judgment clear and impartial, a taste at once deli- 
cate and severe." "The biographies are just and discriminating." "An admirable 
bird's-eye view." "Acquaints the reader with the characteristic method, tone, and 
quality of each writer." "Succinct, carefully written, and wouderfully comprehensive 
in detail," &c., &c. 

Old New Y(ikk Plate. 
[From Mrs. Martha J. Lamb's "History of the City of New York."] 



Ancient and Mediaeval Republics. Mann. 

A review of their iiistitutimis, aiiil of the causes of tlieir decline and fall. &♦ 
Henry Mann. Svo. aS-1 j.a-es. 

Outlines of General History. Oilman. 

The number of facts which the author has compressed into these outline sketches is 
really surprising ; the chapters on the Middle Ages and feudalism afford striking ex- 
amples of his power of succinct but comprehensive statement. In his choice of 
representative periods and events in the histories of nations he shows very sound judg- 
ment, and his characterization of conspicuous historical figures is accurate and 

Great Events of History. Collier. 

Tliis celibrated wiirk, edited for American reader? by I'rof. O. R. 'Willis, gives, in a 
series of pictures, a pleasantly rca<lable and easily remembered view of the Christian 
era. Each chaj)ter is headed by its central jioint of interest to afford association for tlie 
mind. Delineations <if life and manners at different periods are interwoven. A geo- 
^rapliical appendi.x of great value is added. 

History of England. Lancaster. 

An arrangement of the essential facts of English history in the briefest manner 
consistent with clearness. With a fine map. 

A Critical History of the Civil War. Mahan. 

By Asa Mahan, I.L.I)., author of " Intellectual IMiilosoiOiy,'' " Kleiiiei.ts nf Logic," 
&c. " First iiresident of Uberlin College, Ohio. With an introductory letter by Lieut- 
Gen. .M. W. Smith of the British army. Svo. 400 pages. Cloth. 

The plan of this work is to present, not the causes and details of facts which led to 
the war, but tlie condui-t ami management of the war on the part of those concerned. 
It is a matter of present and future importance to Americans to know not only how the 
war was conducted, but also how it might have been more successfully carried on 
The author has made the science of war a subject of careful and protracted study, and 
his views are pronounced and .scientific. He takes strong ground, writes with vigor, 
and the interest of the reader is fully sustained from the beginning to the close of the 
book. His c(i!i(lusioiis have already iiasse<l in1'> history, and tliis work will be regarded 
as one of the most imi">rtaMl contri'liutions tn the literature of the subject. 

Europe under Napoleon First. Alison. 

A history of Europe from 17S9 to 1815. By Archibald Alison. Abridged by Edward 
Gould. 1 vol. 8vo, with a]ii>endix, questions, and mai>s. 500 pages. 

It seems to me an excellent abridg 
ment. . . . Written in clear and <diaste 
style, presenting the narrative in exact 
form for the general reader. . . . "— Judc.k 
.Jo.sErn Storv. 


"One of the best abriflgments lever 
saw. The material facts are all retained, 
and Mr. Gmild has displayeil great inrlus- 
try and skill in preserving the substance 
of BO great a history." — Chancellor 
.Fames Kent. 

History of Rome. Ricord. 

An cr.tert.iihin^' n.irrative f.,r (li<- yi.iui- Illustrated. Embracing successively. The 
Kiii-s The M.-publie, Th- Kiiipir.- 

History of the Ancient Hebrews. Mills. 

The record of "Gnil's piM.ple " froMi the call of Abiaham to Ihit destruction of .Teru 
Halem ; gathered from sources saen-d and profane. 

The Mexican War. Mansfield. 

A hist/iry of its ori;:in, .and adelailed accmint oi its victories ; with olllcial desimtches, 
Uie treaty of peaco, and valuable tublts. Illustrated. 




Early History of Michigan. Sheldon. 

A work of value and deeji interest to the people of the West. Compiled uudfrr the 
supervision of Hon. Lewis Cass. Portraits. 

History of Texas. Baker. 

A ]iitliy and interesting I'esuuie. Copiously illustrated. The State constitution and 
extracts from the speeches and writings of eminent Texans are appended. 

Magazine of American History. 

8 Volumes. Illustiuted. A collection of valuable data relating to American 
History. ' 

Points of History. 

For schools and colleges. By John Lord, LL.D., author of "Old Roman World," 
" Modern History," &c. 

Barnes's Popular History of the United States. 1 vol. 

This sujierbly illustrated work is by the author of "Barnes's Brief Histories " (for 
schools). The leading idea is to make American Xuatwy popuhtr for the masses, and 
especially with tlie young. The style is therefore life-like and vivid, carrying the 
reader along by the sweep of the story as in a novel, so that when he begins an account 
of an important event he cannot very well lay down the book until he finishes. It is 
complete from the earliest times to date. 

" ]3arnes's Popular History of the United States " was undertaken at the close of tlie 
first hundred years of American Independence. The author proposed to give to the 
whole people of the United States and the world a thoroughly impartial history of 
America, from the mound-builders to the jiresent time. As such it was necessary to 
steer free from whatever in recent history would arouse sectional animosity or party 
bitterness. He determined to meet all questions of burning moment in the .iudicial 
rather than controversial siiirit, and while giving to every event its due importance, he 
would seek to avoid controversy by the gentle word '"that turueth away wrath." The 
work is now finished down to President Arthur's administration. In it the truth of 
American history is impartially given in true historic form, without fear or favor. It is 
a work that all sections of the country can read and enjoy. Although the author is a 
Northern man and soldier, his work is popular and widely used as a text-book East, 
West, North, and South. An Alabama teacher lately wrote as follows : " We are using 
your history and like it, though it does n't favor us rebels. " And so it is liked throughout 
the country, it does n't favor any side at the expense of truth and justice. 
Instead of being spread out in many volunies, more or less didactic, statistical, or dry, 
the book is complete in one royal 8vo volume of 850 pages, with 14 full-page steel 
engravings and 320 text illustrations on wood, engraved by eminent artists. It is fully 
up to the times and includes an account of President Gardeld's brief administration 
and tragic death. 

Mrs. Martha J. Lamb's History of New York City. 
2 vols., cloth. 

This is a comjilete survey of the history o New York from early settlement to the 
present time. It opens with a brief outliiu; of the condition of the Old World prior to 
the settlement of the New, and proceeds to give a careful analysis of the two great 
Dutch Commercial Corporations to which New York owes its origin. It sketches the 
rise and growth of the little colony cm Manhattan Island ; describes the Indian wars 
with which it was afflicted ; gives cnjur and life to its Dutch rulers ; paints its subju- 
gation liy the English, its after vicissitudes, the Revolution of l(i89 ; in short, it leads 
the reader through one continuous chain of events down to the American Revolution. 
Then, gathering up the threads, the author gives an artistic and comprehensive account 
of the progress of the city, in extent, education, culture, literature, art, and jiolitical 
and commercial importance duringthe last century. Pnimiiient personsare introduced 
in all the ditlerent periods, with choice bits of family liistory, ami glimpses of social 
life. The work contains maps of the city in the ditlerent decades, and several rare 




portraits from ori.;xinaI paintings, which have never before been engraved. The iUus- 
tmiioiis, about JiiO in number, are all of an interesting and highly artistic character. 

"Widely welcomed both for its abun- " There is warmth and color and life in 

dant stores of iiiforniation and the attrac- every passage." — New York Sun. 
tioiis of the narrative." — ycic Voi-k "The work has been done faithfully 

Tribune. | and jiicturesquely. " — ■ The Nation,. 

Carrington's Battles of the Revolution. 

.V careful descriptiDU and analysis of every engagement of the War for Independence, 
with topograiihical cliarts prepared from pei-sonal surveys by the author, a veteran 
ottici-r of the Liiitcd Stales army, and Professor of Military Science in Wabash College. 

Baker's Texas Scrap-Book. 

Coiiiini.siug tlic liistory, biograpliy, literature, and miscellany of Texas and its people. 
A valuable collection of material, anecdotical and statistical, which is not to be found 
in any other form. The work is handsomely illustrated. 

Home Cyclopaedia of Literature and Fine Arts. 

1im1i-x to terms •.■iiiplnjed in belles-lettres, philoso]iliy, tlieoloiry, law, mythology, 
jiaintuig. music, siiilptuie, architecture, and all kindred arts, iiy Geo. Ripley and 
Clias. A. Dana. 

The Rhyming Dictionary. Walker. 

A si-rviceabln manual tw i-i.iuiiiiscTS, iM'iMg a ciiniiili-te index of allowable rhymes. 

Dictionary of Synonymes ; or, The Topical Lexicon. 

Tenns of the English language cfagsi^etZ &j/ *«?>;ec<s and arranged according to their 
affinities of mianing, with etymologies, definitions, and illustrations. A very enter- 
taining and inslruitive work. 

Hawaiian Dictionary. 

Mathematical Dictionary. Davies and Peck. 

.\ tli'.r'mgli ciinipendium uf tin' science, witli illustrations and detinitions. 

Kwong's Dictionary. 

.\ dictionary of Kn-lisli jilirases. With ilUistrative sentences. With collections of 
Englisli and Chinese j)roverbs, translations of Latin and French phrases, historical 
sketch of the Chinese Empire, a chronoh)gical list of the dynasties, brief 
biograjihical sketches of Confucius and of Jesus, and complete index. Iiy Kwong Ki 
Chill, late member of the Chinese Educationil Mission in the United States, and for- 
merly principal teacher of English in the Government School at Shanghai, China. 900 
pages, 8vo, cloth. 

" From the New York Nation. 

" It will amaze the sand-lot gentry to be 
informed that this remarkable work will 
supplement our English dictionaries even 

From the Ilart/ord Courant. 
"The volume .sliows great industry and 
apjirehcnsion of our language, and is one 
of the most curious and interesting of 
linguistic works." 

for native Americans.'' 

The Life of President Garfield, 

From Itirlh In Pn-idcncv, l.v .\I;i.joi .1 M. liuiidy, editor New York "Evening Mail 
Express," From .Minlor'to i';il.eroii, l>y Col. A. F. Uockwell. Oration and Eulogy, by 
lion, .lames G. HIaine. 
ThiM life of our martyred President, by Major Buiidy, Mr. Blaine, and Colonel Uockwell. 




who was with the President before and after the assassination, is the most correct and 
anthentic. Major Bundy visited General Garfield at Mentor, by invitation, and received 
all the facts relating to his life to the day of his nomination, from tlie General's lips. 
This history of his life was completed by Colonel A. F. Rockwell and Hon. James G. 

The Autobiography of Rev. Chas. G. Finney, 

Tlie revivalist preacher and lirst president of Uberlin College. With steel portrait. 
Edited by Pi-es. J. H. Fairchild, of Oberlin. Dr. Finney was tlie greatest and most 
snccessfiil evangelist of modern times. His labors extended not only thronghout a 
large territory in the United States, but in Great Britain and Ireland, and he prodnced 
a most powerful impression. This memoir describes the scenes he passed through in 
the most vivid language, and covers the entire period of his life, froua the time of his 
conversion to the close of his career. 

Memoirs of P. P. Bliss. 

With steel jiortrait of Mr. and Mrs. Bliss and two children. By Major D. AV. Whittle. 
With a complete collection of Mr. Bliss's tunes and hymns, many of which are here 
published for the first time. Containing also contributions by Mr. Moody, Mr. Sankey, 
Dr. Goodwin, and others. 

The Life and Speeches of Henry Clay. 

New edition. Complete in one volume. Conipileil and edited by Daniel Mallory. 
1,3:^.3 pages, 8vo, cloth, steel plates, portraits, and other illustrations. 

This is tlie best life of Henry Clay. It contains a full sketch of his life and all his 
speeches, — his most important speeches in full and his less important ones in part. It 
also contains an epitome of the Compromise Measures, the Obituary Addresses and 
Eulogies by Senat(n's Underwood, Cass, Hunter, Hall, Clemens, Cooper, Jones, of Iowa, 
and Brooke ; and Representatives Breckenridge, Evviiig, Caskie, Chandler, of Pennsyl- 
vania, Bayley, Venable, Haven, Brooks, of New York, Faulkner, of Virginia, Parker, 
Gentry, Bowie, and Walsh. Also the funeral sermon, by the Rev. CM. Butler, Chap- 
lain of the Senate, and various imi)c)rtant correspondence not elsewhere published. 

Henry Clay's Last Years. Colton. 
Garibaldi's Autobiography. 

From his birtli tn liis retirement at Cajirera ; including the most eventful period of 
his life. Transl.ued ti(ini nKuiiiseript by Theodore Dwight, author of "A Tour in 
Kaly," ami "Tlie Roman Repulilic." Eniljellislied with jiortrait engraved on steel. 

The Life and Services of Lieut.-Gen. Winfield Scott, 

Iiieludiiig his lirilliaiit achievements in tlie War of 1S12 and in the Mexican War. and 
tlie part jilayed liy him at tlie opening of the Civil War of 1862. By Edward D. Mans- 
field. LL.D. I'Jmo. cloth, illustrated. 5.iJ0 pages. 

Lives of the Signers. Dwight. 

Tlie memory (<i the noble men who declared our country free, at the peril of their own 
"lives, fortunes, .ind s.ieivd honor," should be emljalmed in every American's heart. 

Life of Sir Joshua Reynolds. Cunningham. 

A candid, trutliful, and apjireciative memoir of the great painter, with a compilation 
of his discourses. The volume is a text-book for artists, as well as those who would 
acquire the rudiments of art. With a portrait. 

Biography of Ezra Cornell, 

lAmnder of CoiiieU University. A filial tribute. By his son, Hon. A. B. Cornell, 
late Governor of the State of New York. 

Frmii the Nation. I '^"d there was nothing to be apologized 

i.i. A -D /-. 11 4.1 u- 1 I for or glossed over." 

' Mr. A. B. Cornell, as the biographer „ , 

of his father, has had opportunities such ^''O'"- "'« ^^"^ ^ofk Times. 

as are given to few sons who undertake " Ezra Cornell, the man, was a person 

similar tasks. The material of a singu- more to be esteemed and remembered than 

larly noble, useful life was before him, ' Ezra Cornell, the millionaire." 




Prison Life. 

Interesting Biographies of celebrated prisoners and martyrs, designed especially for 
the instruction and cultivation of youth. 

Men of Mark. 

Bryant, Longfellow. Poe, Charles Tennyson Turner, Macaulay, Freeman, Curtius, 
George Tii-kiior, Sumner, John Stuart Mill. By Edwin P. Whipple, Edward A. Free- 
man, and others. 2~i) pa;;es, Svo, paiier covers. 

The Hero of Cowpens. 

riiis book presents a complete history of the lives of heroic Daniel Morgan and of 
Benedict Arnold. These Revolutionary characters are viewed in varied lights, and the 
author has produced a most <a]itivating historical sketch, as interesting as a romance. 

Autobiography of Havilah Mowry, Jr. 

A City uiissmnaiy. 

Silliman's Gallop among American Scenery ; 

(Jr, .Sketches of American Scenes and Mihtary Adventure. By Augustus E. Sillimaa. 
33S pages, Svo, illustrated. 

It is a most agreeable volume, and we commend it to the lovers of the " si)arkling" 
Style of lit^'rature. It carries the reader through and past many of the spots, North 
jnd South, made memorable by events of the Revolution and the War of 1812. 

Texas : the Coming Empire. McDaniel and Taylor. 

Narrativi^ of a Iwo-tliousau'l-milr trip (ju horscliark througli the Luuc Star State ; 
with lively descriiitioiis ot' people, sieueiy, and rcsniurcs. 

Life in the Sandwich Islands. Cheever. 

The "heart of tlie I'aiihi-, as it was and is," shows most vividly the contrast between 
tlie dejith of degradation and liarbarism and the liglit ami liberty of civiliaition, so 
rapi<Uy realized in these islands under the humanizing iutlueuce of the Christian 
religion. Illustrated. 

The Republic of Liberia. Stockwell. 

This voluui;' tii-ats of tlie geography, ilimati-, snil. .im.I piuilm-tions of this interesting 
country on tlie coast of Africa, witli a history of its early settlement. Our colored 
citizens especially, from whom the founders of the new State went forth, should read 
Mr. Stockwell's account of it. It is so arranged as to be available for a school reader, 
ani in colored schc 'Is is peculiarly appropriate as an instrument of edui'ation for the 
young. Liberia is likely to bear an important pait in tlie future of their race. 

Discoveries among the Ruins of Nineveh and 

With JO illu^tralinns and a r..MipN.le index. IJy -Vusten il. Layard, M. 1'. Aljridgcd 
••cliilon. -jj') pagis, PJmo, cloth. 

Monasteries of the East. 

Kmbnwring descriptions from pei.sonal observation of Egypt in 18.'!S; the Natron 
Lakes, the Onvent of the I'ulli-y, the Ituin'' 1 Monastery at Thebes, the Wliite Mona.s- 
ti-ry, the Islaml of I'liiloc, Kc, .JiMiisalem, the Monastery oC St. Sabba, and the Monas- 
teries of .Met'sra, Saint .Vili'is |{y Robert Ourzon, Jr. 400 pages, 12mo, cloth. 

A Run through Europe. 

By Hon. Erastu.H (,'. IJcnedict, late Chancellor of the University of New York. A i-ji.: 
months* tour through the galleries and c^apitaU of Europe, by a most intelligent observe. 
in the year 1»U7. 12mo, <.'loth. 




Eighteen Months on a Greenland Whaler. 

By .loseph I'. " ex-assistaut wliale-eatclier in an American schooner," an'l 
nutlior of otlier recullt'ctinns of tlie sea. 318 pages, icinio, cloth. 

The Polar Regions ; 

Or, Tlie First Searcli After Sir.Jolin Franklin's Expedition. By Lieut. Sherard Osborn, 
commanding H. SI. S. Pioneer (the first steam vessel that ever penetrated the Northern 
sea). 212 pages, 12rao, cloth. 

St. Petersburg. Jermann. 

Americans are less familiar with the history and -social customs of the Russian peo- 
ple than those of any otlier modern civilized nation. Opportunities such as this booli 
atfords are not, tlieiefore, to be neglected. 

Thirteen Months in the Confederate Army. 

The author, a Northern man conscripted into the Confederate service, and rising from 
the ranks by soldierly conduct to positions of responsibility, had remarkable oppor- 
tunities for the acquisition of facts respecting the conduct of the Southern armies, and 
the policy and deeds of their leaders. He partici].ated In many engagements, and his 
book is one of the most exciting narratives of adventure ever published. Mr. Steven- 
son takes no ground as a partisan, but views the whole subject as with the eye of a 
neutral, only interested iu subserving the ends of history by the contribution of 
impartial facts. Illustrated. 

The Isthmus of Tehauntepec. Anderson. 

Svo. elotli. A history of the Istlmuis from earliest times to the present, \ri'Ji an 
acourtt of failroad enterprises and valuable maps and charts. 

Ray Palmer's Poetical Works. 

An exquisite edition of the complete hymns and other poeticai writings of the 
most eminent of American sacred poets, author of " My Faith Looks up to Thee." 

Formation of Religious Opinions. Palmer. 

Hints for the benefit of young penjile who have found themselves disturbed by inward 
questiiMiings or doubts concerning tlie Christian faith. 

Nine Lectures on Preaching. Dale. 

By Rev. R. W. Dale, of England. Delivered at Yale College. Contents : Perils of Young 
Preachers ; The Intellect in Relation to Preaching ; Reading ; Preparation of Sermons ; 
Extemporaneous Preaching ; Evangelistic Preaching ; Pastoral Preaching ; Conduct, 
of Public Worship. 

Dale on the Atonement. 

The theory and fact of Christ's atonement profoundly considered. 

The Service of Song. Stacy. 

A treatise on singing, in public and private devotion. Its history, office, and impor- 
tance considered. 

*' Remember Me." Palmer. 

Preparation for the Holy Communion. 

Bible Lands Illustrated. 

A pictorial hand-liook of the antiquities and modem life of all the sacred countries. 
By Henry C. Fish, D.D. With six liundred engravings and maps, one thousand eluci- 
dated Scripture texts, and two thousand indexed subjects. Svo, cloth, 900 pages. 



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