Skip to main content

Full text of "Brief memoir of John Jackson"

See other formats












Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2010 witii funding from 

University of Pittsburgii Library System 





" The humble, meek, meroiful. just, pious and devout souls, art- 
every where of one religion, and when Death has taken off th*- 
mask, they will know one another, though the diverge lirerie* 
they wear here make them strangers." — Pexn's >L\xims.'' 


31 E R R I H E AV <t THOMPSON, P R I N T E K Sj 

Lodge St. North side Pennsylvania Bank. 



The following memoir appeared originally in 
'' Friends' Intelligencer ^ and had its origin in the close 
friendship which existed from early life between its 
beloved subject and A. A. Townsend, who in her sub- 
sequent visits to the widow and the fatherless, became 
interested in his manuscripts, and was prompted to en- 
deavor to embrace the beautiful truths contained in 
them in a simple memoir. Thev appeared to her as 
" goodly pearls," which should be shared with many 
scattered members of our flock and family, who love 
the principle we profess, and who are prepared to ap- 
preciate the manifestations of its power in the dedicated 
mind. That periodical seemed to be a proper medium 
through which they should be desseminated, and 
with this limited view the work was commenced. 
What at first opened as a labor of love, soon became a 
matter of duty, from which she felt she had no right 


to turn, and which she has faithfully fulfilled. It is 
now reprinted in this form, because a wider circula- 
tion of it is desired by many. The time may come 
when the hope will be realized, as expressed in the 
memoir, "that the vast amount of labor upon scienti- 
fic subjects which he has left in manuscript will be 
placed in a form to benefit others." 

May that glorious Light^ which he so fully recog- 
nised, become the guiding star of all, leading us on- 
ward toward that state in which we may become as 
"pillars in the Lord's house, that shall go no more 


Shca-on, Ihno. lUh^ 1856. 



" To obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken, 
than the fat of rams." 

It is not for tlie purpose of eulogising tlie 

departed, that we are concerned to attempt a 

memoir of our friend, John JacksoX; deceased, 

but as "the memory of the just is blessed," we 

believe a brief record of his life and religious 

experience may not only be interesting, but 

instructive to our readers ; particularly to those 

among the younger class of them, who have been 

transient members of his family, and hold him 

in near and dear remembrance — and should it 

be the means of strengthening any in the good 

resolution to " buy the truth and sell it not," 

surely our labor of love will not have been in 




He was the son of Halliday and Jane 
Jackson, of Darby, Pa., where he was born on 
the 25th of 9th mo., 1809. To the religious 
care of his beloved parents, he often alluded in 
terms of gratitude. Having themselves tasted 
of the excellency of the pure gift of grace in the 
secret of the soul, it was their concern to direct 
the attention of their children, even in early life, 
to this internal and heavenly Teacher. The 
effects of their precepts and consistent example 
upon the minds of their offspring, ten in num- 
ber, were of lasting benefit. The love of John 
for his mother was manifested when very young, 
by his little kind attentions, and she was often 
relieved by the care he took of the younger 
children. He loved the sports and pastimes of 
childhood, yet, when scarcely old enough to 
nurse his little twin brother and sister, he 
would sit by the hour and rock the cradle, or 
take them upon his lap and repeat some poetry 
he had learned, or in cbild-like simplicity " make 
up '' some rhyme for their amusement. When 
only ten years old, he would often, of an even- 


ing, leave the otiier children at play, and retire 
alone to read "William Penn's Works, or Sew- 
ell's History. He had much to overcome in his 
natural temperament, which was impetuous and 
ardent. He was also energetic and persevering, 
and applied himself with unusual diligence in 
the labor of the farm ; whereby he not only 
soon became useful, but very important to his 
father. The time in going to and returning 
from market was employed very frequently in 
reading, and often after leaving the harvest- 
field or plough, he would seek some shady spot, 
either to read or contemplate upon the beauties 
of nature. 

In that day it was customary among Friends 
and others to use spirituous liquors in the 
harvest-field. His father being much con- 
cerned on account of this pernicious practice, 
assembled his neighbors to devise some way to 
abandon it, — this was the first temperance move- 
ment in that place. John was also deeply inter- 
ested in the subject, and a few years afterwards, 
^' when still a boy,'' said our informant, ^^ wear- 


ing a round-about jacket, he surprised the old 
and the young by speaking at length in one of 
these meetings, on the evils of intemperance." 
He was greatly distressed on account of some of 
his youthful acquaintances having given way to 
intemperate habits. 

In a week-day meeting, a year or two before 
his death, while addressing the little boys, and 
encouraging them to listen and give heed to the 
restraints and teachings of the ^' still small voice" 
within them, he told them of the joy he had felt 
when a very little boy, sitting with the other 
school- children where they then sat, and wetting 
with his tears the floor at his feet, while his full 
heart was lifted up in praises to his heavenly 
Father for His goodness in preserving him in 
the hour of temptation. At the age of sixteen 
years, beside being well read upon many other 
subjects, he had perused most of the promi- 
nent works of ancient Friends. 

His inquiring mind was led^to reflect upon the 
doctrines upheld by our forefathers, and he was 
convinced by the immediate operations of the 
spirit of truth, that the path of obedience is the 


^ay of life ; that, " As many as are led by tlie 
spirit of God, are the sons of God," and " joint 
heirs with Christ." But the unhappy diflFeren- 
ces that about this time were agitating our Soci- 
ety, and which afterwards rent it in twain, intro- 
duced him into a state of doubt in regard to the 
all-sufficiency of that light, which he had viewed 
as the guide ^'into truth," and consequently 
out of error. Inconsistencies, which he could 
not reconcile with the pure teachings of this 
holy Word, were apparent among some of those 
upon whom he had looked as being established 
upon the Ptock which could not be shaken. The 
freedom with which he wrote to one of a conge- 
nial mind, furnished evidence of the baptisms 
through which he passed, ere he again enjoyed the 
liberty of the children of the light and of the 

In the winter of 1832, he accompanied a 
Friend, whose labors had in a measure, been 
instrumental in dispelling the mists by which he 
had been painfully enveloped, on a religious visit 

to the southern part of Jersey. During the seve- 


ral weeks he was thus engaged, his faith was 
strengthened and his former trust renewed ; inso- 
much, that he could acknowledge that although 
he '' had known what it was to weep by the way- 
side, and strew his tears in solitary places ; yet, 
now, faith, like the beams of the morning, 
caused the darkness to be dispelled, and unfolded 
the pathway to tranquillity/' This friend at that 
time expressed the belief that if her youthful com- 
panion was faithful to the openings of the visions 
of light, he would have in an eminent manner 
to declare upon the house-top that which was 
revealed in secret. As he left no written 
record of his daily life, we are indebted chiefly 
to his letters for an account of the various exer- 
cises which attended his pathway. \Ye shall, 
therefore, take copious extracts from them in the 
delineation of the operations of divine grace 
upon his spirit by which in his very youth he 
attained to the stature of a man in Christ ; veri- 
fying the scripture testimony that ^^ grey hairs 
are not wisdom, neither is length of days under- 
standing." In relation to him this language seems 


appropriate : " I applied mine heart to know, and 
to search, and to seek out wisdom, and the rea- 
son of things, and to know the wickedness of 
folly.'' — " Then I saw that wisdom excelleth 
folly, as far as light excelleth darkness.'' 

The following extracts are expressive of his 
gratitude for preservation during the trying dis- 
pensation before alluded to, and, also, of a season 
of deep religious exercise which followed it, in 
view of the nature of the service which was 
gradually unfolding before hira. 

" 1834. — My soul bows within me when I con- 
template the goodness and mercy of my heavenly 
Father, for while I have been a wanderer upon 
the barren mountains of an empty profession, 
nay, almost lost in the gloomy labyrinths of infi- 
delity, I have known his visitations of love to 
descend like the dews of heaven, and the dews 
that descended upon the mountains of Ziou ; 
bringing all within me to bow before the throne 
of mercy, to approach the sanctuary of faith, 
and to feel my spirit touched with a live coal 
from off his holy altar, by which I have been 


made to acknowledge his "goodness^ hei/ond 
thougJit and power divine.'' 

" 2d mo., 1834. — In early life it pleased my 
heavenly Father, through dispensations that are 
not to be forgotten, to open in my heart, desires 
after the way of truth, and to teach me to rely 
with more confidence upon Him, than upon any- 
thing connected with the uncertain enjoyments 
of a probationary scene. 

^^ But prone to err in the path of self-gratifica- 
tion, as thou knowest the youthful mind is, when 
surrounded with the fascinating allurements of 
the world, and for want of greater faithfulness 
in maintaining the integrity of a self-denying 
follower of the cross, I have, too often, disre- 
garded the teachings of this heavenly monitor, 
and thereby retarded my progress in the higliway 
of holiness. However, I have an unshaken 
belief that if we act in conformity to the will of 
G-od, by following the teachings of this light 
made manifest within, we shall look back upon 
the past with satisfaction and delight, and to the 
future with prospects of continued peace and 


Bweet enjoyment : and, also, that whatever dis- 
appointments may occur, (and they enter more 
or less into the history of every one's experience) 
they would then have but liHle influence upon 
the tranquillity of our spirits ; for a mind thus 
regulated by the principles of truth in all its 
movements, would not be agitated by them ; its 
serenity would not be impaired, for it possesses 
a holy confidence in the immutable character of 
the principle by which it hopes to be sustained 
under all the circumstances of trial that it may 
have to encounter in its passage through this 
probationary scene. 

" Though I feel myself as one of the least of 
the family, and oftentimes surrounded with the 
weaknesses of human nature, that require the 
strengthening influence oi faith and greater dedi- 
cation to manifested duties to overcome, yet, 
when the desire of my heart is unto Him who 
commands the guardian angel of his presence to 
become the medium of our preservation, I hail 
the possession of an inheritance among the faith- 
ful and dedicated children, as a state attainable 


through diligence and an attention to the gift 
within. Oh ! how often do I desire to exalt the 
testimonies of truth, and fulfil all my duties with 
greater dedication of heart, with livelier faith, 
and with a deeper dependence upon the Father 
of spirits, for the guidance of his wisdom and 
power, by which, alone, a qualification is expe- 
rienced to do his work. I have feared the cus- 
toms, the maxims, and the artificial refinements 
of the world, are making unhappy innovatiofls 
upon the simple testimonies professedly held by 
the Society of Friends. Can we counteract these 
influences in any other way than by individually 
minding the vocations wherewith we are called, 
being conformed to all the requisitions of the 
divine mind ? Then may we know ourselves 
established in the way and work of righteousness, 
and be prepared to own Christ before men. 
When I take a view of the deficiencies that exist 
among us as a religious society, I am made to 
mourn because the altars of the Lord are thrown 
down, and the image of Baal is worshipped in 
the groves of Midian. How loudly do these 


things call for faithfulness and dedication. And, 
ought not we who have felt the powerful v%ita- 
tions of divine love, to stand in a state of entire 
obedience to the divine law, that we may thereby 
be brought to the happy enjoyment and precious 
experience of the love of God, and know its hea- 
venly influences to be such around our spirits, 
as to unite us with the faithful in the unchange- 
able fellowship of Christ ? Then, indeed, shall 
" Our light so shine in the world," that others 
seeing our good fruits will be led to look upon 
Zion, the city of the saints' 'solemnities,' 
and desire to partake of the salvation that is 
found within her gates — and when our morning 
sacrifice shall be ' offered in righteousness' upon 
the altar of dedication, we shall know Jerusalem 
spiritually to become ^' the perfection of beauty 
and the joy of all the earth." 

'' 1834. — When I contemplate the boundless 
theme of an immortal existence, and with the 
eye of faith and hope behold the wide field of 
enjoyment in which candidates for immortality 
and eternal life are designed to move, my spirit 


takes its flight bejond the momentary scenes of 
a fading world ; and delights to dwell upon the 
hopes and feelings that stand connected with a 
loftier state of being; and though these may 
remain like visions of the soul until the tomb, 
thick clouds and darkness shall no longer bide 
eternity from human eyes, yet, I firmly believe 
that the Eternal One will reveal himself io those 
who love him, by those things that eyes have not 
seen — ears never heard — and of the excellency 
and glory of which it hath not entered into the 
unregenerate heart to conceive. When my heart 
has been replenished with the unspeakable joys 
of divine love, by which the deep things of God 
are manifested in the clearness, and visions of 
heavenly light, burst forth upon the soul, oh I 
how I have desired that I might be obedient to 
the calls of the spirit — the office of which is to 
turn from darkness to light, and to bring from 
under the dominion of transgression to the pos- 
session of an inheritance in the kins'dom of 



Although the mind of our friend was thus early 


turned to the heavenly Teacher, and a desire 
manifested for those joys that are eternal in their 
duration, yet the vivacity of youth and his cheer- 
ful disposition ever made him a welcome guest 
among his youthful associates. He was particularly 
fond of female society, believing the influence of 
woman is calculated to refine and elevate the mind 
of man. It would appear, from the following ex- 
tracts, that as he approached the period when he 
was to enter into business on his own account, be 
felt the circumscribing limits of Truth in relation 
to laying up earthly treasure. His reflections, too, 
upon the course often pursued by the ambitious 
adventurer, wc deem worthy of serious attention. 
" I am not ambitious to acquire much beyond 
what is really essential to the wants and comforts 
of life, and in pursuit of them I anxiously hope 
and confidently expect to avoid the perplexities 
and steer clear of the vicissitudes that too often 
enter into the experience of those who follow 
the things of this world, with views of happiness 
founded solely upon the acquisition of its trea- 



^^ I have, for a long time, believed that it is 
theduty of every man, previously to his entering 
upon the stage of active life, seriously to reflect 
upon the course he designs to pursue ; by so 
doing, he might avoid many of the dangers that 
lie concealed in the turbulent sea of an unstable 
world. I have seen the ambitious youth, eager 
to accumulate much of this world's riches, start 
upon a career of life apparently without reac- 
tion 'j his desire to indulge in the gratification of 
sensual delights, kept him intoxicated with the 
delirium of absurd pursuits, ^till he lost an 
honorable standing in society, and passed away, 
leaving in the train of his existence the fruits of 
his folly, and proving the declaration of Scrip- 
ture to be true, that ' pride gocth before destruc- 
tion •/ and as he was actuated by a ' haughty 
spirit,' it terminated in ' a fall/ Prudence dic- 
tates that I should shun the path that he trod. 
How many endowed with talents, blessed with 
health, fortune, and friends, have, for want of 
due reflection, wrecked their all upon the rocks of 
imprudence and folly, and left themselves a prey 


to corroding griefs, often sharpened by the remem- 
brance of better days ! By observations upon 
the conduct of others, I have often been taught 
instructive lessons, and have thereby arrived at 
the conclusion, that true happiness and enjoy- 
ment are not to be experienced by following the 
world with views solely founded on the acquisi- 
tion of its treasures ; but that other duties com- 
mand our attention than those necessary to be 
discharged in the temporal concerns of life. 
To fulfil the one, habits of industry, frugality, 
and economy J are indispensably requisite; and if 
these are properly attended to, it would leave 
time for the performance of those higher duties 
which we owe to ourselves, to one another, and 
above all, to the Author of our being — these con- 
sist in acts of benevolence and charity, the im- 
provement of the mental faculties, the promotion 
of piety, and the constant practice of virtue. 

^'ISSi. There is a felicity that we enjoy in the 
calmness of solitude, of a more refined character 
than anything to be found in the trifling amuse- 
ments of the world — in that reiterated round of 


pleasure tliat delights tlie thoughtlessness of 
youth, and spreads a thousand snares in the 
path of the inexperienced. Under all the cir- 
cumstances of life, it is therefore profitable and 
instructive, at times, to retreat from the busy 
hum of society, that we may, by silent reflection, 
exercise and strengthen the powers of our minds 
and be enabled to discover with satisfactory 
clearness, the way in which we should go. By 
so doing, the asperities which render our path 
dif&cult would disappear, and we should return 
to social life with more cheerfulness and content. 
We are taught many instructive truths in the 
hour of retirement, because, then, those avenues 
are opened that lead to the temple of happiness; 
the sphere of our understanding becomes en- 
larged, we are endowed with better judgment, 
and are enabled to act with firmer principles in 
our intercourse with the world. We preserve 
the serenity of our minds unimpaired in the 
midst of commotions in a degree proportioned to 
the preparations we have made for them in the 
hour of retirement, because we enjoy a serenity 


then, that tlie world cannot impair. We learn 
by degrees, to forsake those things which we have 
hitherto pursued as pleasures, that we now find 
leave only a mortifying remembrance behind them; 
and if, in our retreat, we are only accompanied by 
the angel of virtue, we shall feel our hearts in- 
spired with the noblest emotions of gratitude 
and love; for when we look abroad over the 
fair face of creation, and behold everything so 
harmoniously blended as to contribute to our 
happiness, to supply our wants, to gratify our 
desires and to gladden our hearts, it ought to 
inspire the emotions that prompt ug to love 
and adore the Giver of so many perfect gifts. 
When I speak of myself, I have only to say, 
that I possess but little of what the world calls 
wealth — neither do I desire a great deal. I have 
learned to be content with the portion that has 
fallen to my lot, and having been educated to 
habits of industry through affectionate parental 
care, I prize them much higher than all the 
riches that could be conferred upon me. 

'^ Those in whose bosoms ambition is contin- 



ually panting for boundless empire, whose great- 
est zeal is to pursue some cherished aim of pride 
or profit, who remain slaves to the world and its 
foibles, may have their modes of enjoyments in 
their particular pursuits; but in my view, happi- 
ness is acquired just in proportion as we attain 
to the standard of moral excellence, and does 
not consist chiefly in the accumulation of riches 
which perish with the using. Indeed, I think, 
if our ambition was chiefly to promote virtue 
and piety, instead of acquiring worldly honor or 
distinction, the condition of man would be ele- 
vated far above everything connected with the 
lower enjoyments of time. I have sometimes 
feared that many in their eagerness to add 
' house to house, or field to field,' have sacri- 
ficed many of the real enjoyments of this life, 
and perhaps, too, the hopes and feelings that 
stand connected with an eternal world. 

" Let us diligently inquire what is our duty 
and what part loe are required to act, that we 
may advance the interest of the kingdom of 
Christ ? For, it is the good pleasure of our 


heavenly Father, that his children should grow 
in grace and in the knowledge of the things 
that pertain to eternal life. If we liumhhj wait 
upon Him with fervent desires to be led by that 
* wisdom which is from above/ we shall be di- 
rected in the path of safety, and in the opening 
visions of light be prepared to walk therein, 
having the evidence of divine approbation within 
ourselves. I may acknowledge, although my 
deviations from the path of conscious rectitude 
have been multiplied like the drops of the morn- 
ing, yet my faith in the inward teachings of 
this wisdom is such, that I believe it to be 
vastly important to us in all things to stand 
humbly conformed to its holy requisitions, that 
we may walk worthy of the vocation wherewith 
we are called, filling up our ranks in righteous- 
ness, and moving continually in the sphere al- 
lotted to us. These convictions of njind are 
the result of experience, purchased at the 
price of deep suffering, in consequence of 
my disobedience to the plain manifestations of 


la the 2d montli of 1835 his father was re- 
moved by death, having committed to John the 
guardianship of the younger children. Thus, 
as he was just entering manhood, ere the dew 
of youth had left his brow, a deep responsibility 
was thrown upon him ; but the exercises of his 
soul were known unto Him who seareheth the 
heart, and in the furnace of affliction he was 
purified and prepared for that mission which he 
so beautifully fulfilled. He had won their afiFec- 
tion in their infancy by his kindness and atten- 
tion, and they were now prepared to receive his 
counsel and advice; '^for,'' said his sister, ^'he 
seemed unto the end as a father over the flock, 
and faithfully did he discharge his duty toward 
those who were in the spring time of life bereft 
of parental care." At the bedside of his dying pa- 
rent, his voice was uplifted in prayer ; and again, 
on the occasion of the interment, he engaged in 
solemn supplication on behalf of himself and 
others. This was his first public ministerial ap- 

His mother had finished her course ''in hope 


and in joy," several years previously. When near 
her close, lier testimony was, '•^ dear John, the 
Lord is with thee/' 

In reference to the loss of his father, he thus 
writes : — 

"• 2d mo., 1835. When I last wrote to thee I 
had very sanguine hopes of my dear father's re- 
covery ; but it has been otherwise ordered in the 
providence of an Almighty Father. He who 
seeth the end as well as the beginning of things, 
and whose dispensations are all in inscrutable 
wisdom, saw meet to loose the chord and take 
unto himself the kind and tender father and 
faithful friend. This is a close trial, a season 
of deep spiritual baptism. It seems to be our 
privilege to weep and mourn. Jesus wept at the 
tomb of Lazarus, and the Jews said, '■ behold, 
how he loved him !' yet I must weep no more 
for the spirit of the departed, because in connec- 
tion with his present state the language arises : 
* Weep not for me, ye sons and daughters of 
Jerusalem, but weep for yourselves; for, in 
Mount Zion and in Jerusalem, deliverance is 


given unto the remnant^ whom the Lord doth 
call/ While these scenes of trial have a ten- 
dency to lead the soul to a conviction^ that it 
has ^ no continuing city here ;' they should lead 
it also to look unto God, its glorious author, for 
consolation andj comfort. As our desires are 
thus directed to the fountain of divine consola- 
tion, which is set open for all the inhabitants of 
Jerusalem and Jordan to wash and bathe in, our 
affections and our hopes will become more and 
more centred upon God, and a glorious inherit- 
ance will be attained to, in that kingdom, of the 
increase, blessed government and peace of which 
there shall never be an end.'' 

" I have felt like the two disciples who were 
journeying from Jerusalem to Emmaus, who, as 
they walked by the way, were discouraged, were 
cast down ; they were sad — for they had been 
looking to the loss they had sustained by the 
^ things that had been done in Jerusalem.' But 
I have been permitted to experience a degree of 
the joy they felt, when the divine Master mani- 
fested himself among them by the breaking of 


bread. I can say from a degree of experience 
that will warrant the expression, the oil of joy has 
been given for mourning, and the garment of 
praise for the spirit of heaviness. "When the 
soul resigns itself to its own reflections, and the 
influences produced by external circumstances 
lead it to a sense of its dependance upon the 
author of its being, it is an unspeakable favor 
to be possessed of an evidence, that He who has 
a right to the government of our spirits is 
pleased to work in us, ^ both to will, and to do 
his own good pleasure;' and there is, in the 
blessed enjoyment of communion with God, a 
calmness and serenity of mind which is not to 
be found in the experience of the world, be- 
cause it is only enjoyed by entering into the 
closet of the heart, and there offering up the 
aspirations of the soul to Him ^ who seeth in 
secret' — then it is that we are taught in sincerity 
to say, ' Our Father who art in Heaven,' and to 
adore in the silence of every thought his hallowed 
name. In this communion with the Father of 
Spirits, He becomes the meditm of light and 


life to us, and we walk no longer in darkness, 
but come to experience the day of salvation to 
dawn, and the day star of righteousness to arise 
in our hearts, elevating the soul from the gross- 
ness of the fallen nature, to an establishment in 
the glorious liberty of the children of God. And 
we know that, as we walk in this liglit, we have 
fellowship one with another, and the blood of 
Christ cleanseth us from all sin. Then we are 
made to know esperimentally the resurrection of 
thatjlife which is ' hid with Christ in God/ which 
consists in all purity, innocence, devotion, and 
dedication of soul. This blessed life stands in 
t\LQ poioer and operation of the spirit of truth, 
and in order that we may attain unto it, there 
is an emanation of light from the Father of 
lights, diffused throughout the whole spiritual 
creation, unconfined and unlimited as his own 
divine being. The primitive sons of the morn- 
ing, who had realized in their own experience 
the heavenly influences of the love of the Father, 
could bear this ever memorable testimony. " This 
then, is the message which we have heard of 


him, and declare unto you, ^ God is light, and 
in him is no darkness at all;' and a manifesta- 
tion of this light is given to every rational soul, 
and becomes the sustaining evidence of its im- 
mortality, the foundation of its hopes, its com- 
fort, consolation and happiness. I am abun- 
dantly confirmed in the belief, that the divine 
arm of power is still stretched out for the gather- 
ing of his children into the true fold, and that 
there is cause for us to mind the exhortation of 
the experienced Apostle, to 'rejoice evermore, 
pray without ceasing, and in all things give 
thanks.' " 

The following extracts are from letters ad- 
dressed to a very dear friend : 

" 3d mo., 1835. For want of beingj oruided bv 
the spirit of truth in all the important relations 
of' life, how many embark, as it were, on an un- 
certain ocean, without a pilot to guide them 
among the perilous rocks and shoals that lie 
concealed from human foresight in its turbulent 
bosom. I have seen the loveliness of youth fade 

away like the flower, and wither like the grass 


of the field ; the fond hopes of parents blasted 
forever, and the feelings of fraternal affection 
inflicted with the deep wounds of sorrow ; the 
wife neglected, and children left without the 
guardianship of parental tenderness and care ; 
and yet, there has been no lack of talents, no 
want of comforts, which, to the outward, make 
life a desirable thing. "When I have beheld and 
mused upon these things, my heart has often 
been made sad, and I have strewn my tears in 
solitary places, while I revolved in ray mind the 
weakness of humanity and the folly of a course 
of life that was pursued without the restraints 
of our holy religion, and the salutary discipline 
of the cross of Christ. In earlier days these 
things have led me in artless simplicity to 
put up my feeble prayers to the throne of grace, 
that I might tread through the slippery paths of 
youth with safety, and be preserved from falling 
into the snares of vice and the power of tempta- 
tion. When I look back and remember the 
days wherein I knew not God, because I had 
forsaken Him, the fountain of living waters, 


when I desired to enter into covenant with other 
beloveds, than the Beloved of Souls — oh I when 
I contemplate the darkness and gloominess of 
spirit that shrouded from my spiritual vision 
the good things vfhich. He hath in store for them 
that love him — how I rejoice in the renewed 
conviction, that He has been my friend, and by 
the frequent visitations of heavenly light and 
love, has been seeking to turn me from the error 
of my ways, and bring my soul into the glorious 
light and liberty of the gospel of Christ. Why 
should any earthly consideration retard our pro- 
gress in the highway of holiness ? Need we be 
ashamed to acknowledge ourselves passive sub- 
jects to the government of Christ, or need we be 
looking back upon the past mis-carriages of our 
lives ? No, verily ; but let us own him and his 
testimonies — let us leave, yes, let us leave the 
things that are behind, and ' press forward to- 
wards the mark for the prize of the high calling 
of God in Christ Jesus' — and may neither heights 
nor depths, principalities nor powers, things pre- 
sent, nor things to come, ever be able to separate 


US from that love unto God and to all liis flock 
and family, which gives us a hope of the fellow- 
ship of the Gospel in this life, which sanctifies 
our spirits and prepares them for the full con- 
summation of glory in the world to come." 

"4th mo., 1835. I find it required of me some- 
times to open my mouth in the assemblies of 
the people. Truly I feel as a child in the 
obedience of the cross of Christ; but I have 
known my heavenly Father to be near unto me, 
aiding me by his blessed spirit to perform every 
required duty ; and though I have often been a 
child of disobedience in this respect, yet I am 
not ashamed to acknowledge myself a believer 
in the inward testimony of the spirit, because I 
have known it to seal upon my mind an evidence 
that ^ God is light, and in him there is no dark- 
ness at all )^ and when the aspirations of my 
soul are unto Him who seeth in secret, craving 
strength, to aid me on my spiritual journey, I 
remember thee, and desire for thee as for myself, 
that the mantle of heavenly light and gospel 
authority may rest upon thy spirit, and dignify 


thee with a gift that shall ever be occupied in 
the service of thy God. 

"Oh, my friend, how earnestly and affec- 
tionately has my heart desired, that thou mayst 
not be too much cast down and discouraged un- 
der the pressure of the hand that may lay heavily 
upon thee. Thou hast had many seasons of sweet 
communion with thy heavenly Father — thou hast 
known his banner over thee to be love, and the 
fervent prayer of my spirit is, that he may yet 
more and more abundantly open unto thee the 
deep things of his heavenly kingdom, and estab- 
lish thee in a pure and spiritual faith in his 
divine arm of power — even that faith, which is 
able to preserve thee and keep thee from falling, 
and will finally present thee before the presence 
of his glory with exceeding joy. For myself, I 
desire to be found in the fellowship of this ^holy 
faith/ that I, too, may be worthy a name among 
the children of that new and spiritual covenant 
which God hath made, and not man. 

" May we ever keep in that blessed humility 

which will shew unto the world that we desire 


to walk in tlie path of self-denial, and to bear 
the cross with all the patience and dignity which 
becomes the follower of Christ — then, whatever 
may be the baptisms of soul, whatever may be 
the conflicts of spirit, we shall, most certainly, 
know our peace to flow as a river, and our 
righteousness as the waves of the sea. And what- 
ever diversity of scene may enter into the history 
of our experience, whether we partake largely 
of the cup of consolation, or whether we drink 
deeply at the stream of adversity and affliction, 
let us ever remember that the purposes of Jehovah 
are answered by the means he appoints for our 
sanctification; and let the fervent aspirations of 
our souls unitedly be, ' Thy throne, God ! is for- 
ever and ever, a sceptre of righteousness, is the 
sceptre of thy kingdom — thou art God, our 
hope, our strength, our Saviour, and there is 
none like unto thee; therefore we give thee 
thanks in all things, because thou hast, by the 
glorious word of thy power, reigned in our spirits, 
and brought them to act in unison with thy 
adorable will. We will dedicate our lives to 


thee, and give the first fruits of all as an offer- 
ing to thy eternal majesty. Thou shalt be our 
God even unto the end of timej and we will 
serve and worship thee, and hope that eternity 
will open unto us still more of the glories of 
thy heavenly kingdom.' " 

A Letter to a Friend. 

" Darbr, Yth mo. 30tb, 1835. 
" Obedience is better than sacrifice, and to 
hearken to the voice of the Lord than the fat of 
rams or of burnt offerings — entire obedience, 
yielding ourselves unto Him, who sanctifieth the 
heart that it may be fitted to do his work, and 
who leadeth his obedient children in paths that 
they had not known ; and herein is manifested 
his goodness and mercy, in being ^ strength and 
wisdom, tongue and utterance,' to all who con- 
fidently rely upon his ' arm of power.' He will 
open unto all these a pure fountain, from which 
shall issue the waters of life, by which the spir- 
itual growth is promoted and the whole heritage 
of God refreshed. In my little experience con- 


cerning the ^ deep things of God/ I have often 
been, as thou knowest, a sufferer from disobedi- 
ence, but I have also known the sweet ^ peace 
that passeth the understanding/ to flow as a 
river in my soul when I have yielded obedience 
to the impressions of divine grace that have been 
made upon my mind ; hence, I can understand 
the language ^ obedience is better than sacrifice/ 
&c. And because of this peace my confidence is 
increased, my strength is renewed in the 
power of the heavenly gift, by which the path of 
divine appointment is opened in the visions of 
light with so much clearness as to leave no doubt 
that the call is of a heavenly character. May 
we often return thanks unto God for this 
' unspeakable gift,' and in deep prostration of 
soul acknowledge him alone to be our ^ strength, 
and the rock of our salvation/ And were we 
sufficiently humble, ever careful to attend to the 
visitations of divine love, to follow him whither- 
soever he is pleased to lead us, we could en- 
dure all tribulation, knowing that it worketh out 
for us ^ a far more exceeding and eternal weight 


of glory.' We sliould then be prepared to adopt 
the hinguage of the prophet/ 'Although the 
fig-tree shall not blossom, and there shall be no 
fruit in the vines, though the labor of the olive 
shall fail, the fields shall yield no meat, though 
the flocks shall be cut off from the fold and there 
shall be no herd in the stalls, yet will I rejoice 
in the Lord, and joy in the God of my salvation.' 
Yes, there is always peace in obedience. And 
the openings of the ' unspeakable gift ' in the 
soul that becomes devoted to God will lead more 
and more from every outward dependence, to the 
inward and spiritual dispensation of the new 
covenant ; and sometimes when I have been a dis- 
obedient child, so deep have been my spiritual 
sorrows that I have felt myself in the situation 
of one of old when he declared ^ the Lord 
answereth no more, neither by vision nor by 
prophecy ;' but I know his tender mercies are 
over all his works ; he giveth liberally still from 
the treasury of his love, and causes life to rise 
into dominion whereby we gain a victory in the 
truth. In our meeting on First day last, the de- 

38 MEMOIR or 

clarations of the divine Master were so forcibly 
impressed upon my mind, ^ If any man will be my 
disciple he must deny himselfj take up his cross 
daily and follow me -, ^ But whosoever shall be 
ashamed of me and of my word before a wicked 
and adulterous generation, the same also shall 
the Son of Man be ashamed of when he cometh 
in the glory of his Father with the holy angels/ 
that I thougiit it right to utter them, and to 
open a little the views that were presented in 
connection therewith ; for it appeared to me that 
it was the duty of all who profess to be his fol- 
lowers to conform to his precepts and to imitate 
his heavenly example. I assure thee, my dear, 
that I felt great peace of mind for having yielded 
to this manifestation of duty. I believe it was 
among the divine requirings. Oh how I need the 
aid of thy spirit on such occasions. I feel that 
I require thy presence then ; and is it not because 
our souls have known sweet communion with 
each other, because we have been baptised 
together into the same holy flow, because we are 
united in the best of bonds, a fellowship that is 


not of this world ? Yes, we know that our fellow- 
ship of soul is not earthly. 

"First day Morninrj. — And may I not yield 
thee in the freshness of feeling the Sabbath 
morning tribute, the token that thou art remem- 
bered even while in the calmness and tranquillity 
which this still morning affords me^ my spirit 
walks in the courts of devotion and there holds 
silent communion with its eternal Father ? If 
there is anything which in this life should in- 
spire the feeling of gratitude to the ^ Giver of 
every good and perfect gift/ it is most certainly 
this blessed privilege of enjoying the sensible 
evidence of his divine presence, aiding the soul 
to lift its feeble aspirations unto him, to continue 
his goodness and mercy, to forget all our mani- 
fold transgressions and remember them against 
us no more, — to enable us to walk before him 
in the spirit of humility, and to triumph over all 
the temptations and trials connected with this 
visible world, in the conscious hope that our re- 
ward for well doing will be ^ peace of mind,' 
while here, and the fruition of joy when time to 

40 MEMOIR or 

us shall be no more. While the morning orisons 
ascend from the altar of my heart, I love to medi- 
tate on all the works of the divine hand, to con- 
template his goodness to the children of men ; 
and while the reflection passes through my mind 
that I am but dust, and that the tabernacle of the 
spirit must go to decay, to feel the glorious con- 
viction of the presence of God in my soul, filling 
its temple, like the outward edifice in the days of 
Solomon when there was no room for the priests 
to minister; to feel that He who 'dwelleth not 
in temples made with hands/ He whom 
^ the heaven of heavens can not contain,' is 
pleased to be with us in our journey through the 
wilderness of this world, as a ^pillar of cloud by 
day and a pillar of fire by night,' and that if we 
follow the teachings of his spirit it will lead us 
to the promised Canaan of rest, even to a land 
ever flowing with the milk of joy and with the 
sweets of peace, happiness, and prosperity. And 
although we may have to encounter dangers, 
though we may have to conquer giants like the 
-sons of the Anakims, though we may have to 


drive out the enemies of the Lord and of our own 
souls Mittle by little/ before we can inhabit 
this goodly land, yet we shall most assuredly be- 
come the possessors thereof as we walk by the 
same rule and mind the same Roch that followed 
Israel of old, for that rock is Christ the ^ wisdom 
of God and the power of Grod, to all them who 

^^ It remains to bo an undeniable as well as an 
unchangeable truth to the present time, that- ^ all 
the Lord's children are taught of the Lord, aud 
great is the peace of his children ; in righteous- 
ness they come to be established; they are far from 
oppression and fear, because it doth not come 
near them / and it is equally certain that as 
many as are ^ led by the spirit of God they are 
the sons and daughters of God,' heirs of God 
. and joint-heirs with Christ in his eternal king- 
dom. And all who become of this happy number 
must know all things to become new, and all 
things of God. Well, then, what might we not ex- 
pect to take place before this great change could 
be effected in the soul ? Need wc marvel that 


the false heavens and the ear^h should be shaken 
and pass away — that a ^ new heaven and a new 
earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness/ might 
become established, and the fruits of the spirit be 
converted into instruments by which we might 
cultivate a different soil, even to promote the 
growth of the tree of life, that we might be able 
to partake of the fruit thereof and live continu- 
ally in the presence and enjoyment of our glori- 
ous Creator ? Oh ! what is tribulation, when it 
worketh out for us this '■ exceeding weight of 
glory;' when it brings us to a deep sense of our 
dependence upon God our father, shows us the 
frailty of our nature and the uncertainty of all 
human prospects and delights, and teaches us to 
build the foundation of our hopes of happiness on 
something firmer than the transitory things of 
time. I sometimes think it is a message of 
love sent in disguise ; hence we ought to be re- 
signed to all the dispensations of affliction, and 
cultivate an acquiescence with all our Father's 
will, for surely he would not afflict us without 
some good purpose." 


At tiie age of twenty-six, John Jackson entered 
into the marriage covenant with Rachel T. 
daughter of Isaac Tyson, of Baltimore. No 
where, perhaps, did the Christian virtues which 
adorned his character shine forth more conspicu- 
ously than in the domestic circle. His circum- 
spect bearing, combined with a freedom and 
gentleness of manner, won for him not only the 
respect, but the affection of those with wliom he 
was thus associated. The mutual interest which 
he and his wife felt in the welfare of the youth, 
induced them, in the year of 1837, to open a 
boarding school for girls. This was not com- 
menced without due consideration. The follow- 
ing extract embraces some of his views on tbe 
subject of education, and expresses his conviction 
of success in their important undertaking. 

" 11th mo,, 1837. The religious education 
of children has often been to my mind a subject 
of deep interest and concern. To direct the in- 
fant mind to the influences of those principles of 
action which should regulate the whole course of 
human conduct, is, in my view, one of the most 


effectual and powerful means under the divine 
blessing of preserving them from the temptations 
of the world, and the improper indulgence of 
those feelings and propensities which are invaria- 
bly followed by misery and unhappiness. The 
command that was given to the Israelites to 
teach diligently to their children the law which 
Grod had given them, is no doubt a perpetual ob- 
ligation, binding upon all generations of men. 
But a religious education does not consist in 
teaching children those abstract opinions and 
speculations of men which have given rise to un- 
profitable disputations ; nor in directing them to 
creeds and confessions of faith which man has 
set up for a standard of religion, because such 
a course is calculated to darken the spiritual un- 
derstanding and oppose the full development of 
the spiritual nature which Christianity is in- 
tended to produce. The minds of children should 
be directed to principles, not opinions ; to the 
heavenly operations of truth, and not to words 
and theories about them. The truths of religion 
are all plain and simple, easy to be understood, 


as the soul by obedience advances in rigbteous- 
ness and is prepared to receive and obey new dis- 
closures of tbe divine 'will. As tbe minds of 
cbildren are directed to tbese important trutbs, 
tbey learn to cultivate an acquaintance Vf'iih. 
tbemselves, and understand tbeir relation as ac- 
countable creatures to the Author of their being. 

"The morel look upon the important concern 
in which we contemplate engaging, the more I 
am satisfied it is our calling, one in which we 
shall be able to succeed with satisfaction to our- 
selves, and at the same time be useful to others, 
by filling up our duty to them, the consequence 
of which must be the reward of peace." 

Thus under a feeling of religious concern for 

the promotion of truth in the guarded education 

of the youth, " Sharon Boarding School" was 

established, and tlie result proved our friend had 

not mistaken " his calling." It was his aim not 

only to cultivate and expand the intellect, but 

also to imbue the tender minds of the children 

with the necessity of a life of daily self-denial, 

in order to enjoy that peace which the world can 


neither give nor destroy. The relation wMch 
existed between the preceptor and pupils was in- 
teresting even to the casual beholder. Many 
who have shared his instructive counsel, date 
their awakened interest in their spiritual welfare 
from that time. One of the pupils who went 
there at the age of sixteen, and remained several 
years, was asked by a friend '^ how long has this 
been thy home V She replied, " I began to live 
here." She spoke out in those few words the ful- 
ness of her spirit, realizing that the inner life is 
the true being. We will give an extract from 
a letter of another, which might seem too 
panegyrical, were it not that it is as the voice of 
a multitude, so much is it in unison with the tes- 
timony of many, who felt that he possessed a 
peculiar influence in leading their young minds 
to love and admire virtue for virtue's sake. 

" I can never tell what I owe to his instruc- 
tion. A life chaste, earnest, humble, ever faithful 
to the admonitions of right, ever recognizing the 
divine law of progress, by which the soul ap- 
proaches its Maker, manifesting in word and 


deed, kindness and love to the great brotherhood 
of man — such a life might be somewhat of an 
acknowledgment of what the pupil owes to a 
teacher like him. How many and what pleasant 
memories come with his name I I remember one 
mornino;, when standinc; in the cabinet with one 
of my class-mates, looking at the fossil impres- 
sions which rain drops had made upon the frag- 
ment of one of the oldest geological formations, 
he came in, with that benign smile so character- 
istic of him, took one of the Bridgewater trea- 
tises, and read from it the scientific history of 
what we had been examining. We had won- 
dered before ; now we were filled with awe, not 
from terror, but from the sublimity of the truth, 
which his few words and the short extract which 
he read, revealed to us. I felt then it was no 
ordinary privilege thus to be taught. Yet so it 
was ever. I never went with a question without 
having it answered plainly, fully 3 there was always 
time, there was always a smile with which to 
satisfy every inquiry. And now I can not look 
at a pebble, or go in imagination to the farthest 


extremity of the universe, but I feel tnat lie has 
led the way, and I follow dimly and afar off where 
he has gone shedding light upon mystery. Truly 
can I say that I always felt in those Sharon days, 
that worship was exalted when he mingled in it; 
social life was purified when in his presence; and 
that as a teacher, he led and guided us by a 
measure of the same love and care with which 
the infinite Father guides and instructs his 

It was his practice to have read aloud daily 
in his family a portion of the Scriptures or some 
other good book ; and on First day evening all his 
household were gathered for the purpose of social 
worship. Not unfrequently the silence of these 
meetings remained unbroken ; while at other 
times, exhortation and counsel were extended, 
or in humility of spirit, the knee was bent in 
vocal prayer for the preservation of his precious 
charge from the many evils which are in the 

As he had been led by the love of his heavenly 
Father to adore his works and to investigate 


those natural laws by which He ordained that 
matter should be governed, he pijrsued his scien- 
tific researches with a devotional spirit, and this 
doubtless had an effect to impress the minds of 
those under his tuition with a degree of the same 
reverence for that Almighty Being who had not 
only brought into existence our own, but myriads 
of similar globes, dispersed throughout the 
illimitable tracts of creation, all of which are 
sustained by the invisible hand of Him who sits 
on the throne of the universe, '^ whose kingdom 
ruleth over all, and before whom all nations are 
counted as less than nothing and vanity." 

To use his own language, '' every page of the 
great volume of nature is full of living and in- 
structive truth. There is a beautiful relation 
between mind and matter, between the works of 
Grod, and our capacity to contemplate them. Our 
intellectual nature is as much a gift of God, as 
the gift of grace, and we are as responsible for 
the culture and improvement of the one, as of 
the other. I have no idea that so noble a talent 
is to be buried in the earth, that it is to be em- 


ployed merely in procuring food and raiment 
for these frail temples, which are soon to mould- 
er in the dust. Far otherwise ! Placed in the 
midst of a beautiful creation, we are invited to 
meditate on the workmanship of its A.uthor. Such 
an exercise of the intellect is profitable to us, for 
it leads to humility, and while it makes manifest 
the feebleness of man and our comparative 
nothingness amidst the immensity of creation, it 
exalts our views of the wisdom, goodness, and 
power of the Creator." 

His scholars were provided with numerous fa- 
cilities for prosecuting their studies. An unusually 
rich cabinet was open to their inspection, and a 
well selected library was at their command. 
Great expense was also incurred in procuring the 
most approved apparatus for illustrating the 
lectures on scientific subjects, delivered by their 
preceptor. Their home was made more attrac- 
tive by the care bestowed upon its grounds, 
which were beautified by both native and exotic 
plants. This may seem a trivial matter to no- 
tice, but we would query, whether to the youthful 


mind this kind of care is not beneficial in re- 
fining the taste and esciting a love for the beau- 
tiful works so profusely spread out before us by 
Him who hath created nought in vain ? The 
smallest flower that opens its petals to the morn- 
ing light, or the humblest specimen of animated 
life, cannot be regarded with indifference by a 
mind which has been taught to '' look through 
nature up to nature's God/' 

The hospitalities of his bouse were shared by 
both friends and strangers. His feelings went forth 
in love to all men. He felt an abiding concern 
for the oppressed everywhere, and he was often 
made the instrument of relief to these, even as 
the good Samaritan was to him who had fallen 
among thieves, and was found wounded by the 
way-side. Many a homeless fugitive from bond- 
age was made glad and sent on his way rejoic- 
ing, because of the kind words and good cheer 
extended to him in the time of need, whether 
this was at the midnight hour or at noon day. 
Several times he visited the Indians in their 
forest home, and with other friends met them in 


Council^ and making their case his own, accom- 
panied them to Washington, in order more effect- 
ually to plead their cause and present their 
grievances to our Government. The poor of his 
own neighborhood were not forgotten, but, irre- 
spective of color, they partook alike of his friend- 
ly aid and assistance ; and so unostentatious were 
his charities, that oft-times they were unknown 
to any but himself and the objects of them. 
For instance, one of his tenants was left a widow 
soon after our friend had been gathered to his 
eternal home. In a settlement of accounts with 
her, it was discovered that for the last two years 
the rent of her tenement had been given them; 
and when asked how she would get fuel, she re- 
plied, " Oh, Mr. Jackson had supplied us with 
enough to last through the coming winter.'* As 
incidents of this kind are brought to mind, -we 
remember the scripture passages, ^'Even a child 
is known by his doings, whether his work be pure 
and whether it be right." ^^ A tree is known by 
its fruit.'' '' Men do not gather grapes of thorns, 
nor figs of thistles." 


He became a member of the Delaware County 
Institute of Science, in 1834, a few months after 
its formation, and did much toward establishing 
it upon a firm basis. This Institute is still in a 
flourishing condition, and numbers among its 
members many of the most intelligent citizens 
of their Borough. In the 6th month last, a trib- 
ute to the memory of our departed friend, setting 
forth his Christian virtues and philanthropic 
spirit, as well as his scientific attainments, was 
read before the Society, and directed to be 

His gift in the ministry enlarged, and was ac- 
knowledged by his Monthly Meeting in 1837. 
It was remarkably clear, and unconnected with 
the '^ traditions of men.'' His manner was 
solemn and impressive, conveying to his hearers 
the evidence that he spoke to them of what 
he himself had seen, and what he had known of 
the good word of life. His mission appeared to 
be, to call his fellow beings from every outward 
dependence ; to endeavor to prove to them that 

the Christian religion stands not in meats and 


drinks, divers washings and carnal ordinances, 
but in righteousness, peace, and joy in a holy 
spirit ; and to direct their attention to Christ 
within, as the means of redemption, and to that 
obedience to the teachings of the Spirit of Truth 
which constitutes, in every age, the uniform 
ground of acceptance with " the Father/^ of all 
those who fear him and work righteousness. 

The following extract is expressive of his con- 
fidence in the Apostolic doctrine of the light 
within, the unction from the Holy One, to which 
George Fox felt called upon to admonish the 
people in his day to take heed, even as to a 
^' light which shineth in a dark place/' 

" In proportion as I have been obedient to the 
teachings of this Divine light in my own soul, I 
have experienced the ^ beauty of holiness ' to be 
far more unspeakably joyous, than anything con- 
nected with this visible world. And as I do know 
what has produced this experience in my own 
mind, I believe it my duty to call the attention 
of others to the same light of Christ in them- 
selves : believing this to be an ^ unction from the 


Holy One' spoken of by that experienced believer 
in the spirituality of the religion of Christ, the 
apostle John, ^ Ye have an unction from the Holy 
One, ' and ye know all things,' and ^ the anointing 
which ye have received of him abiJeth in you, 
and ye need not that any man teach you; but as 
the same anointing teacheth you of all things, and 
is truth and is no lie/ Also believing this to be 
the ground taken by our early Friends when they 
were called out of the powerless forms and cere- 
monies of the religion of their day, to be an in- 
ward and spiritually-minded people, led and 
guided by this ^unction from the Holy One,' which 
they believed was given to every man to profit 
withal. Their fundamental doctrine was, that 
the light of Christ in the soul of man was the 
primary rule of faith and practice, the sure guide 
to salvation. Because this light enables man to 
see clearly everything that hinders him from 
the enjoyment of the presence of his merciful 
Creator, shows him that the consequence of his 
disobedience is the loss of the paradisical state, 
a separation from the Divine harmony. And as 


the manifestation of this light, that is, the cer- 
tainty of it, is given to every man for the blessed 
purpose of enabling him to change the condition 
of his being, from the image of the earthly to 
the image of the heavenly nature, so as man be- 
comes obedient to the inward monitor, it will lead 
him to forsake all iniquity, and walk in holiness, 
without which no man can see the Lord. This 
is that comforter and inward teacher to which 
Jesus alluded when he told his disciples that it 
was expedient his outward appearance as to that 
body of flesh and blood, which had been prepared 
for him, should pass away, that they might no 
longer be looking to the outward, but that their 
attention might be turned to an inward and 
spiritual Saviour. 'It is expedient that I go away, 
for if I go not away the comforter will not come 
unto you.' ^ I will pray the Father, and he shall 
give you another comforter, that he may abide 
with you forever; even the spirit of truth, whom 
the wurld cannot receive, because it seeth him not, 
neither knoweth him; but ye know him, for he 
dwelleth with you and shall be in you.' 'The 


comforter, which is the Holy Gliost, whom the 
Father will send in my name, he shall teach you 
all things, and bring all things to your remem- 
brance whatsoever I have said unto you/ 

'• Now as this spirit of truth is suffered to 
work in us to will and to do of the good pleasure 
of our heavenly Father, it will so sanctify our 
hearts, so regulate our actions, as to place us in 
the high condition of 'heirs of God and joiut heirs 
with Christ,' in agreement with the declaration 
of the blessed Jesus, 'Whosoever doeth the will of 
my Father which is in heaven, the same is my 
brother, my sister, and my mother/ And do not 
the Scriptures abundantly confirm a belief in the 
sufficiency of this inward light, to lead us to a 
state of acceptance with the Father? For they 
declare that '• as many as are led by the spirit 
of God, are the sons of God.' And what is this 
* spirit of God' which is to lead us to the high 
and acceptable state of the 'Lord's children who 
are taught of the Lord,' but the light of Christ 
in the soul, the Divinity speaking in man ? 'For 

whatsoever is to be known of God is manifest in 


man/ and tliere only can man look for the evi- 
dence that lie stands approved in the Divine 

Extract of a letter to G. T. 

11th mo. 1836. 
" In my own experience of latter time, I have 
felt more closely bound to the lav7 and to the 
testimony, feeling the precious truth dear to my 
best life, and the exaltation of the standard of 
righteousness the chief delight of my soul ; there 
are seasons when the depths of affliction await 
me, there are moments when my soul mourns 
over the desolate places of our Zion, yes and there 
aro moments, too, when all the sympathies of my 
soul are enlisted on behalf of wandering prodigals, 
who have left the Father's house, and gone into 
a far country, to spend their substance in 
riotous living, to spend the energies of their souls 
upon things that will never add one solitary joy 
to the sum of human happiness. And now in the 
morning of life, when I have been snatched as a 
brand from the burning, and through the adorable 


goodness of a gracious God been permitted to 
look beyond earth's transitory joys, to an inheri- 
tance in the kingdom of Christ, if I could be 
instrumental in awakening in any of these the 
conviction that in the Father's house there is 
bread enough and to spare, I could count neither 
baptism nor trial anything, did it tend to my 
sanctification and preparation for a work I de- 
sire may not exalt the creature, but honor the 
Creator, and exalt his name in the earth/' 

Beside frequent visits to neighboring meetings 
of Friends, where there were ever found many to 
welcome him, he was often engaged in laboring 
among the ^^ highways and hedges," extending 
the invitation to " the marriage supper of the 
Lamb," to which all are bidden ; and may not 
the silent wrapt attention with which the mul- 
titude listened to the call, be accepted as an 
earnest, that the seed thus sown would spring 
up and bear fruit, "some thirty, some sixty, and 
some a hundred fold" ? — in how many hearts is 
known only to Him who hath declared his 


'^ word shall not return void, but it sliall aceom- 
plisli that which I please, and it shall prosper in 
the thing whereto 1 sent it l" But few extensive 
journeys were taken by our friend, though parts 
of several Yearly Meetings, were at different 
times visited in Gospel love. With the appro- 
bation of his friends at home, he, in company 
with Greorge Truman and T. B. Longstreth, of 
Philadelphia, made a religious visit to some of 
the West India Islands, in the year 1840. They 
were absent several months. After their return, 
at the request of their friends, they published a 
brief account of their travels. As the work was 
designed more particularly for their personal 
friends, we believe its circulation was limited. 
It may therefore not be out of place to make 
some extracts from it, and embody them in this 
memoir. But a faint idea can be thus conveyed 
of the difficulties and trials through which they 
passed in the performance of their apprehended 
duty, nor of the secret enjoyments, as the reward 
of obedience, which at times flowed in upon the 
spirit, even as a river in which they could bathe. 


and be refreshed. We subjoin a letter addressed 
to his father-in-law, I. Tyson, in reference to the 
prospect of this service. 

Sharon, 4th mo. 21st, 1840. 
Dear Father j — "When sister Mary left here 
yesterday, for home, I expected to have writ- 
ten to thee on a subject which has for some 
time past occupied my mind, and I have no 
doubt at all, but it will be a matter of some sur- 
prise to thee, as it has been a subject of wonder 
to myself, that I should be called unto so wide 
a field of labor. The prospect of paying a re- 
ligious visit to some of the West India Islands 
has been before me for more than nine months 
past. It has been the companion of my thoughts 
from time to time, and as often have I endeavor- 
ed to put it by ; silently have I borne the deep 
baptisms and exercise consequent upon the pre- 
sentation of such a service, and often exclaimed 
in secret, ^who is sufficient for these things?' 
And like one formerly I have reasoned ^ my 
family is poor in Manassah, and I am the least 


in my father's house/ I have looked on the 
one hand at the temporal and social sacrifices I 
should have to make, and on the other, to the 
weight of responsibility that attaches itself to a 
gospel mission among strangers in a strange land; 
these have been important and momentous con- 
siderations. But with a firm reliance on the 
protection and guidance of Divine Providence, I 
have felt that true prosperity and peace of mind 
can only be procured at the price of an entire 
surrender of the will to his requirings, that 
nothing short of leaving all for Christ's sake 
and the Grospel's, will answer when the solemn 
query shall be made to the believer, ^how much 
owest thou to thy Lord ? ^ or how much hast 
thou done to promote the universal establishment 
of the Redeemer's kingdom in the earth ? To 
some, it may seem strange that a field of labor 
is opened in the parts I have in view ; but to me 
it has appeared that tltere the harvest is plen- 
teous; and I have prayed that other laborers 
may also be sent into that part of the vineyard. 
The testimonies, and more especially the princi- 


pies professed bj tlie Society of Friends, are not 
to be ^ bid under a bushel/ They are applica- 
ble to all classes and conditions of men, in every 
nation, and of every clime, and the reason why 
they are thus applicable, is because they teach 
men to ^ fear God, and work righteousness as the 
only ground of salvation, and acceptance with 
him.' If, then, it be consistent with the Divine 
will to make use of ' the weak things of this 
world,' to bring about the period when the 
knowledge of God shall cover the earth, as the 
waters cover the sea; if it please him to make 
use 0^ any of his creatures to publish the glad 
tidings of the Gospel of Christ, shall the creature 
say, wherefore doest thou? From all the ra- 
tional views I entertain in relation to the great 
business of this life, I have been led into a 
clear and unshaken conviction, that man's high- 
est, as well as temporal interest, is best promoted 
by his obedience to the Divine will. To seek 
daily for a spirit of discernment, to discover 
what is the Divine will concerning his individual 
creatures capable of spiritual illumination, is 


certainly a duty of no small importance, inas- 
much as there is a danger of '■ erring in judgment 
and stra^^ing in vision/ 

To-day was our Monthly meeting, and I found 
no other way for me, than to inform tt)y friends 
of the prospect I had in view. It was unexpect- 
ed, as not an individual of the meeting, (except 
my dear R.) had any previous intimation of it. 
The meeting took the subject into serious con- 
sideration, which resulted in the full expression 
of unity witli me in the concern. A minute was 
accordingly made to that effect. The subject 
will necessarily be laid before our Quarterly 
Meeting, and the Yearly Meeting for ministers 
and elders; and it is not until the approbation 
of both of these meetings is obtained, that I can, 
in the order of our Society, be at liberty to enter 
further in the concern. I have now left it with 
my friends, and if they are not prepared to set 
me at liberty, the responsibility will rest upon 
them, and the work will not be required at my 
hands. Thou wilt know that my dear R. will 
feel a separation of several months, in no small 
degree, and I should not, at this time, have gODe 


SO far as to have opened the subject in meeting, 
had she not paved the way, by a resignation 
to what appears to me to be a duty, which if not 
yielded to, would have marred mine, as well as 
her own peace; and I doubt not, but the same 
hand that was underneath to support her, when 
of late the prospect of a final separation* rested 
as a cloud upon her spirit, will still be extended, 
and like a guardian angel will protect and pre- 
serve her, should it be my lot to leave the en- 
dearments of home, in the service of the Divine 
Master. As regards our temporal prospects, I 
have confidence to believe that in tliese things we 
shall prosper ; that the '' cruse of oil " will not 
fail, but as we endeavor to live and walk worthy 
of the vocation, wherewith we are called, peace 
will still be found within our walls, and pros- 
perity within our borders. 

In near afi"ection, I remain thy son, 

John Jackson. 

To I. Tyson, Baltimore. 

* During an attack of serere illness, from which he 
had just recovered. 



The following certificates were furnislied him 
by the Monthly, Quarterly, and Yearly Meetings, 
of which he was a member. 

" To the Inhahitants of the West Indies y ivhere 
these may come. 

Our beloved friend John Jackson, a minister 
in unity with us, in a feeling manner opened in 
this meeting a concern which had for some time 
past rested with much weight upon his mind 
to pay a religious visit in Gospel love to the in 
habitants of some parts of the West Indies 
This meeting being introduced into a deep feel 
ing of sympathy and unity with him in his con 
cern, leaves him at liberty to pursue his prospect 
as truth may open the way, with fervent desires 
that when his labors of love shall be accomplish- 
ed, he may be favored to return to his family and 
friends with the reward of peace. 

Extracted from the minutes of Darby Month- 
ly Meeting of Friends, held at Darby, in the 
County of Delaware, and State of Pennsylvania, 


in North x\m erica, the 21st day of 4th mo. A. D. 
1840, and signed on behalf thereof, by 
John H. Andrews, 


Naomi Passmore, ^ 
Signed also by 42 members of Darby Month- 
ly Meeting." 

" To the Inhabitants of the West Indies, where 
these may come. 

Our beloved friend, John Jackson, a minister 
in unity with us, opened in this meeting a con- 
cern, which has caused much weight of exercise 
to his mind, to pay a religious visit in Grospel 
love to the inhabitants of some parts of the West 
Indies. And he producing a minute from Darby 
Monthly Meeting, expressive of their unity with 
him therein ; this meeting being brought into a 
deep feeling of sympathy with him in the con- 
cern, it was on solid deliberation united with, to 
set him at liberty to pursue his prospect as truth 
may direct. 

Extracted from the minutes of Concord Quar- 
terly Meeting of Friends, held^at Wilmington, 


in the State of Delaware, the 28th of 4th mo. 
A. D. 1840, and signed on behalf thereof, by 

John H. Andrews, | p,, „ 
Lydia Pusey, J ^^^'^'• 

" To all to wliom these may come: — 

Our beloved friend, John Jackson, a minister 
of the Gospel, in full unity with us, laid before 
this meeting a concern, which had impressed 
Ms mind as a religious duty, to visit in Gospel 
love the inhabitants of some of the West India 

The importance of the undertaking obtained 
our serious and deliberate consideration, and the 
sympathy and unity of the meeting were express- 
ed with his prospect. 

We therefore recommend him to the friendly 
notice of all to whom this certificate may come, 
desiring that he may be enabled to perform his 
religious visit under the Divine guidance, and to 
edification; and after having accomplished his 
mission of love, that he may return to his family 
and friends, witl^ the reward of a peaceful mind. 


Signed on behalf and bj direction of the 
Yearly Meeting of Ministers and Elders of the 
Religious Society of Friends, held at Philadel- 
phia, in the State of Pennsylvania, and United 
States of America, the 9th day of the 5th month, 
1840. Isaac Townsend, Clerk." 

In relation to his feelings at this time, we find 

the following record : — ''In commencing a jcur- 
nal of my visit to the West Indies, it may not 
be improper to refer to the object for which the 
visit was undertaken. By a reference to the 
minutes which I have obtained from the Monthly, 
Quarterly, and Yearly Meetings, of which I am 
a member, it will be found to be from a convic- 
tion that religious duty requires me to visit in 
the love of the Grospel of Christ the inhabitants 
of some of the "West India Islands. The deep 
exercises and baptisms of spirit into which I 
have been brought in having this service opened 
before me, while they have been such as no flesh 
could glory in, will, I humbly trust, tend to pre- 
pare me for the work which the Divine Master 


may allot for me iu this part of his vineyard. 
From a sense of my great weakness, I have been 
brought to see that, without his holy aid and as- 
sistance, I shall be incompetent to the service he 
may require at my hands, knowing that the ser- 
vant of Christ must not depend upon Jiuman 
wisdom for direction, but on the teaching of the 
Holy Spirit, which will be mouth and wisdom, 
tongue and utterance to all his dedicated follow- 
ers, who place their confidence in Him, and wait 
for the power which He will give them, to accom- 
plish his work. To these, his command remains 
to be as formerly, ' Tarry at Jerusalem until ye 
are endued with power from on high.' 

After having been brought into a willingness 
to resign myself to. the work and service of my 
Divine Master, and having made the proper ar- 
rangement of my temporal affairs, I parted with 
my beloved wife and family, on the 14th of 11th 
mo. 1840, with a view to embark from New 

In company with Thomas B. Longstreth, who 
had felt it his duty to engage with me in this 


service, as companion, and George Truman, wlio 
had also felt himself called to make a similar 
visit to these Islands, I left Philadelphia for 
New York, on the evening of 7th day. A 
large number of our dear friends had called to 
witness our departure, whose farewell salutations 
manifested to us their sincere desires for our 
preservation and safe return. On 1st day we 
attended the meetings of Friends in New York, 
to our edification and comfort. 

In consequence of unfavorable winds, and 
some other causes, we were detained in the City 
of New York till 5th day, the 19th of 11th mo. 
This detention was a disappointment which we 
did not expect. The kind attention of our friends 
while in New York, not only tended to lessen 
our disappointment, but it manifested an interest 
in our proposed visit, which furnished renewed 
encouragement to us to go on our way rejoic- 


Extracts from a ^' Visit to the West Indies." 
" We embarked at New York, on board the ship 
Southerner, bound to Santa Cruz, St. Thomas 
and Jamaica, on the morning of llmo. 19th, 
1840. We had about twenty-five passengers in 
company, most of whom were invalids, seeking 
a climate where they might escape the severities 
of a North American winter. The parting of 
them from their friends and relatives produced 
some saddening sensations. On First day, the 
22d, we had passed the Gulf Stream, the ocean 
became calm and the weather was mild and plea- 
sant as a summer morning. At our request, a 
meeting for Divine worship was held, which was 
attended by all the passengers who had sufficient- 
ly recovered from sea-sickness. Isolated as 
we were upon the ocean, the occasion seemed to 
demand that we should forget those sectional 
prejudices and feelings which form the barriers 
between different professors of religion, and have 
a tendency to separate from the love of God, and 
endeavor to realize the truth of the Scripture 


declaration, ' One is your master, even Christ, 
and all ye are brethren/ We were favored to 
enjoy a comfortable meeting together, and a 
word of encouragement was given to some, whose 
declining health warned them that the period of 
their dissolution was drawing nigh. 

" On the 23d, we encountered a heavy gale. 
The waves rose high, occasionally sweeping over 
the deck of the vessel, thus rendering any posi- 
tion unsafe without a rope or something to which 
we could cling for security. The storm and tem- 
pest have their appointed oflSce, and their bounds, 
in the economy of the universe : without the 
agitation they produce, the waters of the ocean 
would soon become stagnant, and rendered unfit 
for the habitation of myriads of living creatures 
which enjoy existence therein. A sufficient quan- 
tity of vapor would not be carried from the sea to 
refresh and fertilize the land, which, in conse- 
quence, would soon become barren and desolate, 
unfit for the abode of man, and the subordinate 
creatures over which he has dominion. 

" While, therefore, we viewed the amazing 


spectacle before us, with mingled feelings of plea- 
sure and of awe, we were sensible that sucb sub- 
lime operations of the elements tend either direct- 
ly or remotely to beautify the earth with vegeta- 
tion, and to inspire the mind with a conviction 
that He who controls the winds and waves is 
^ wonderful in counsel and excellent in working/ 
Having adapted external nature to the constitu- 
tion of the various creatures he has made for 
enjoyment, the elements become subservient to 
the most excellent ends; such reflections have a 
tendency to remove apprehensions of danger, and 
make the scene one of admiration and wonder. 
" On Fourth day, the 25th, the storm had 
entirely abated. It was proposed by one of the 
passengers to hold a meeting for Divine worship 
according to our custom, in the middle of the 
week. This being responded to, preparations 
were made to hold it on the deck of the vessel. 
Nearly all the ship's crew and passengers seated 
themselves, and during the opportunity, we 
deemed it right to present to view some of the 

JOHN Jackson. 75 

testimonies and principles of truth as professed 
hy our religious society. 

" On First day the 29th, it was again proposed 
to hold a meeting. The captain and passengers 
having manifested a desire for it, we collected 
together on the deck of the vessel, where, amidst 
the roaring of the ocean, and the souncT of the 
wind among the rigging of the ship, we endea- 
vored to draw near to Him whose voice may be 
heard even amidst the noise of many waters, and 
were permitted to realize the truth of the declara- 
tion, ^ where two or three are met together in 
my name there am I in the midst of them.' 

" Early on the morning of 12th month 1st, 
the Captain told us if his reckoning was right 
we should see land by 9 o'clock. A man was 
sent to the mast head, and about a quarter past 
9 we heard the cry ' land to leeward.' By ten 
o'clock we had neared sufficiently to make it 
visible from the deck of the ship. It proved 
to be the hills of Virgin Gorda. During the day 
we passed in sight of Tortola, St. Johns, and St. 
Thomas, and by 5 o'clock were in sight of Santa 


Cruz. Owing to a heavy rain and the darkness 
of the evening, the Captain deemed it prudent 
to ^ lay to ' for the night, that we might have 
daylight to approach the Island. The ne|xt 
morning a gentle breeze wafted us along the 
north side of the Island, where we had a full 
view of its mountains, some of which are culti- 
vated to their summits. The cane-fields, boiling 
houses, mansions of planters and the tenements 
of the slaves, clustered together, presenting the 
appearance of small villages, the lofty cocoa-nut, 
the banana, and other beautiful trees growing 
around the dwellings, all added to the novelty 
and interest of the scene. We arrived at West 
End by 6 o'clock, P. M., being 13 days 6 hours 
since we weighed anchor in the harbor of New 

Santa Cruz. 
12mo. 3d. '^This morning we came on shore 
and found excellent accommodations. After par- 
taking of some of the fine fruits our kind hostess 
had procured for us, we walked through the 


town and its environS; our admiration being ex- 
cited by many objects that were continually pre- 
sented to our view. Visiting the tropics at this 
season is like going to a new world. When we 
left New York, the weather was very cold, the 
ground was covered with snow, and vegetation 
was taking its annual repose. Here, we are en- 
joying a climate as warm as the summers of Penn- 
sylvania, and surrounded by the luxuriant pro- 
ducts of the earth growing in the richest profu- 
sion. The lofty cocoa-nut and mountain cabbage, 
whose stately trunks appear like the pillars of a 
temple, the curious silk cotton tree, the orange 
with its blossoms, its green and ripe fruit, nu- 
merous flowers of great beauty, and mostly dif- 
ferent from those well known to us, could not 
fail to be interesting to a stranger. 

" It is highly gratifying to notice that under 
the despotic Danish government, the condition 
of the slaves is greatly in advance of the slave 
population of other countries. On this island 
they have opportunities, by the cultivation of the 
grounds allowed them, and the raising of swine 


and poultry, to acquire and possess sums of 
money, and when they consider themselves pre- 
pared and are desirous to obtain their liberty, 
they can demand an appraisement by disinterested 
persons of the value of their services, to which 
the master is obliged to submit, and sell them 

'^ They are further protected from the unbridled 
impulses of passion of the owner or his overseer, 
they not being permitted to use very harsh mea- 
sures to enforce obedience. 

'^ The government is preparing to introduce a 
system of school education for the children of 
both the free and the slave population. Stone 
houses of ample dimensions and neat construc- 
tion are being erected throughout the Island, and 
properly furnished with apparatus, to carry out 
this benevolent design. The English language 
will be taught. 

" It is expected these schools will go into 
operation in a short time, and that children from 
all the estates will be sent to them." ^^ The 

education of the children will be of great advan- 



tage ; and we hope it will eventuate in the fur- 
ther melioration of the condition of the slave, 
and be the means of the final breaking of the 
odious bond that binds him to his fellow man as 
his property. Many proprietors appear ready to 
emancipate their slaves. They believe advan- 
tages will result to all parties by so doing; but 
they ask remuneration, referring to the example 
of Great Britain towards her Colonies. The 
Danish government is said to be too poor to pro- 
mote this view, and there is little probability 
such a plan will be carried into effect. It is 
looking, however, towards emancipation, and the 
school system now under arrangement is a pre- 
liminary step towards it. 

" It was our wish to hold some religious meet- 
ings with the people of the Island ; and for this 
purpose we called on several influential men, who 
seemed desirous to promote the object of our 
visit, but on making application to the Governor 
for his permission, he refused to grant it, in a 
formal note addressed to the Judge. 

" The fear of our making remarks upon the 


subject of slavery, was supposed to have operated 
upon his mind to produce this order, so contrary 
to the principles of enlightened Christianity. 

''Finding no opportunity to hold meetings 
with the people, we felt willing to leave, after 
circulating some books, and writing an address 
to the inhabitants, in which we explained the ob- 
ject of our visit, and expressed our conviction 
that the exercise of human authority over the 
consciences of men, is utterly at variance with 
the benign influence of the gospel and the 
spirit of the age in which we live. This was 
subsequently printed and circulated in the Danish 

^L Tliomas, 

12mo. 9th. " We took passage yesterday 
from West End, at 10 o'clock, with the expec- 
tation of reaching this Island in seven or eight 
hours. But owing to contrary winds our little 
schooner did not land us till about 9 o'clock this 
morning, consequently we had to spend the 
night on board, with very poor accommodations 


and scanty fare. We were kindly received by 
our friend Edward SimmonSj who introduced us 
to several of the merchants, and also to the 
Governor, Oxholm, with whom we desired to 
have an interview, hoping it might open the 
way for holding some religious meetings on the 
Island. The Governor appeared disposed to 
grant us this liberty, but upon being informed 
that the Governor General of the Danish Colonies, 
at Santa Cruz, had prohibited the holding of 
such meetings there, he did not think be had 
sufficient authority to grant our request without 
first obtaining his consent. This we thought 
could not be procured, and we declined making 
the attempt. But a small portion of this Island 
is under cultivation. Most of the inhabitants 
are congregated in the principal sea-port, the 
town of St. Thomas. This town is handsomely 
situated on three hills, on the summits of which 
most of the finest dwellings are built, and many 
of them so situated as to command a view of the 
whole town and harbor. Beihg a free port, it is 
a plac2 of great business. Commerce with many 


nations is carried on there, and their language is 
heard in its streets, whilst in its excellent harbor 
many vessels from various parts of the world 
were then riding. Amidst the hurry and bustle 
which the extensive business of this place pro- 
duces, it is to be feared that too little time is 
devoted to that rational and serious reflection, 
which redeems from the spirit of the world, and 
leads man to commune with his Maker. From 
observations we were able to make, we should 
judge the standard of morality was very low 
among the colored people, and we were sorry to 
find, upon inquiry, that but a small amount of 
care is bestowed by the religious sects tolerated 
by the government, towards elevating their con- 
dition, and it is probable but little pains will be 
taken in this respect, whilst they remain in the 
condition of slaves. The Moravians have an es- 
tablishment near this town, and we understand 
that a degree of kindness was excited by these 
brethren towards the slave population. This we 
should naturally expect to find among a people 
noted for their general benevolence. 


"Being ready to pursue our journey, we con- 
cluded to go first to Tortola, and engaged a 
colored man to take us to that island, in a small 
vessel not much larger than the long boat of a 

" Night came on as we approached Tortola, 
but it was a night of uncommon beauty. We 
were glad when the curtain was drawn between 
us and the scorching rays of a tropical sun ; the 
air was exceedingly mild; Yenus shone with suf- 
ficent brightness to cast a distinct shadow, and to 
illuminate our watery path, as we beat from shore 
to shore, in attempting to make progress between 
St. John's and Tortola. About 9 o'clock, the full 
moon rose, and gave us an opportunity to witness 
the beautiful scenery of the neighboring hills. 

" Just about the dawn of day, we landed at 
Roadstown, and were glad to relieve ourselves 
from the fatigue which a wearisome day and 
night in an uncomfortable open vessel had occa- 
sioned, by calling up the inmates of a hotel close 
by the sea side, and requesting a bed. 

" The owner of the house, an old colored wo- 


man, soon furnished us with the best accommo- 
dations she could afford, and after we had re- 
freshed ourselves with an hour or two of sleep, 
and had time to look around the town, we found 
we had taken lodgings at the only public house 
in the place/' 


l^th mo. 12th. ^^ Our letters procured for us a 
welcome reception from William E. Isaac and 
James D. Rogers, two of the principal proprietors 
and attorneys upon the Island. They expressed 
a willingness to afford us all the assistance in 
their power to further the object of our mission, 
and, accordingly, arrangements were made to 
hold several meetings with the people. 

" We noticed upon this Island, as well as St. 
Thomas, many sad memorials of those violent 
tornadoes which so frequently visit these tropical 
regions. In 1819 and 1837, most of the build- 
ings of Roadstown were demolished, the ruins of 
which are still left, showing they were once com- 
modious and comfortable habitations. The de- 


structioQ by these hurricanes is often so com- 
plete that the owners of property are unable to 
repair the desolation which they occasion. 

"We had several meetings in and about 

" The first we attended was held in a Metho- 
dist meeting-house, which had been kindly 
offered to us for the purpose ; this was held on 
First-day morning. There were about eight hun- 
dred persons present j a larger number, we un- 
derstood, frequently attended, but, owing to the 
heavy rains which occurred in the morning, 
many were prevented from coming. 

" Here we had an opportunity of seeing a con- 
gregation of people, most of whom had but late- 
ly been released from slavery. All grades of 
complexion, from the fairest European to the 
darkest Negro skin, were indiscriminately mixed 
throughout the house. 

" One thing we had not before witnessed, was 
very apparent here, it was the very neat appear- 
ance of the people assembled; their dress would 
have been considered an evidence of refinement 


in an American city. "When we entered, they 
were engaged in their usual devotions, in which 
we thought they manifested great sincerity. Al- 
though their form of worship was very differ- 
ent from ourS; we could not douht but many of 
their humble offerings were accepted of Him who 
looketh at the heart. Such were our feelings 
as we were led to declare among them our con- 
viction of the truth of Peter's declaration at the 
house of Cornelius, ' I perceive that God is no 
respecter of persons, but in every nation, he 
that feareth him and worketh righteousness is 
accepted with him/ The whole company sat 
in great solemnity, being evidently interested. 

*'In the afternoon we had an appointment at 
Kingston, a settlement of colored people, most- 
ly native Africans, liberated from the slave ships 
by British interference. The distance from 
Roadstown is about three miles across an arm of 
the sea. It being a pleasant day, we walked to 
the place of meeting by a circuitous path along 
the sea shore, making the distance nearly five 


miles. When we reached there, we found about 
five hundred men, women and children, collect- 
ed near the beach, who soon gathered around us, 
and we held a meeting under the dense foliage 
of a cluster of tamarind trees. TTe remembered 
the days when our fore-fathers first landed on 
these shores, and collected the long-neglected 
African slaves around them, not for the love of 
silver or gold, but because they felt them to be 
their brethren, to whom they were sent to pub- 
lish the glad tidings of the gospel of peace. They 
seemed fully to appreciate our labors among them, 
and when we saw the tears flowing from the 
youth, and from the hoary headed, whose tarm 
of probation had nearly approached its close, we 
felt thankful that our lot had been cast among 
them, and that we had been able to give a word 
of encouragement to these poor but good-hearted 

'' As we were about closing the opportunity, 
an aged man collected three stools, and placing 
one before each of us, said, with the greatest ap- 
parent sincerity, ' Now Massa, you all pray for 


US before you go/ After explaining our views 
for not complying with his request, we gave them 
an assurance of our earnest desires for their pre- 
sent and future welfare, and encouraging them 
to live in a state of daily watchfulness against 
sin, which would secure to them the favor of 
heaven, we bid them farewell. When the meet- 
ing closed, they seemed unwilling to part until 
wc had taken nearly every one by the hand; 
neither would they consent to our walking back, 
but launching one of their boats, two of their 
sturdy oarsmen soon landed us at Roadstown, 
in time to attend a meeting appointed for us 
there in the Methodist Chapel." 

12th mo. 14:th. ^' Being furnished with horses 
and accompanied by our friend W. R. Isaac, we 
visited his estate at Pleasant Valley, where he 
invited us to hold a meeting with the resident 
laborers. We walked into his cane-fields where 
both men and women were busily engaged pre- 
paring the soil for planting. We could not but 
remark how cheerfully and earnestly they per- 
formed their labors- — very differently from the 


slow motions of the slaves of Santa Cruz — the rea- 
son was obvious; here they were stimulated by a 
rev/ard for their toils. The sound of the conch 
shell was a signal for all hands to quit their 
work and attend tL3 meeting. 

" While the work-people were preparing them- 
selves, we visited the plantation schools } 53 
children were present, 60 being the number on 
their list. "We were exceedingly gratified with 
the manner in which the children performed their 
various exercises. This school had only been 
opened about four months, and most of the 
scholars, at the commencement, knew nothing 
of letters ; some of these now read to us with 
clearness and precision. The scholars furnished 
ample evidence of a capacity to receive instruc- 
tion. Their teacher is a young colored man of 
intelligence. Several of the neighboring planters 
and their families joined us in the meeting; 
about one hundred and fifty laborers were pre- 
sent. The opportunity was satisfactory to us, 
and those present appeared to appreciate our 
labors among them. 



" Desiring to make a visit to the President, 
Hay Druramond, whose residence was upon the 
opposite side of the Island, we left our kind 
friends at the plantation, accompanied by the 
manager as our guide. The road was difficult, 
being at first a zig-zag path up the steep side of 
a mountain, and in many places along the edge 
of great precipices, where we would have thought 
it dangerous to travel, had not our friends and 
guide assured us that our horses were sure foot- 
ed. Soon after we had commenced the ascent, 
and while commanding a delightful view of the 
plantation, the little children we had just left 
broke forth in concert, singing one of their in- 
fantile hymns. The sweet sound rose upon the 
breeze as it fanned us in our upward journey, 
and looking down we could perceive these poor, 
hard working but affectionate people endeavor- 
ing to obtain a last look. We ascended about 
1000 feet, and from one of the elevations nearly- 
all the Virgin Islands could be distinctly seen. 

'' "We were very kindly received by the Presi- 
dent, and after opening to him the object of our 


visit to these Islands, he said he would gladly 
offer us any assistance in his power to aid us in 
our mission. When we proposed going, the 
President ordered his horse, and said he would 
accompany us five or six miles on our way back 
to Roadstown. Passing a plantation where a 
large number of laborers were working near the 
road side, he remarked, that he did not suppose 
the condition of that company could be much 
bettered by emancipation, as many of them were 
old and infirm, and had always been kindly pro- 
vided for by their former master, but now were 
under the necessity of providing for themselves, 
and proposed we should query of them how they 
liked freedom. To this query an aged man re- 
plied, ' 0, very well, massa.' But, says the 
President, did not your former master give you 
plenty to eat and drink, and was he not always 
very kind to you; what more do you get now ? 
The same person again replied, ' That is all true, 
our massa was kind enough to us, he always 
gave us plenty to eat ; but then while we were 
in slavery we had to eat it with a sorry heart I' 


We thought this declaration of the old man went 
to prove that liberty is dear to every man, and 
that wherever there is a ray of intellectual light, a 
desire is felt to enjoy this free gift of heaven." 

12th mo. 15th. '' Having been furnished with 

an excellent barge by our kind friend T. B , 

the Methodist Missionary, we employed four 
athletic oarsmen, and left Roadstown early this 
morning for Spanish Town, or Virgin Grorda, an 
Island about twentymiles distant. The sea being 
calm we had a pleasant voyage, stopping for a 
short time upon one of the Keys. "We had sent 
to invite the inhabitants to a meeting, and find- 
ing, upon our arrival, that it would not be held 
till evening, we walked over to Mine-hill, to view 
the preparations making to re-open a copper 
mine, which had been worked about a century 

^' Charles O'Neal, a young colored man, and 
one of the head carpenters at the mine, gave us 
much information in respect to the condition of 
the people. During our stay upon the Island, 
he provided for us the best his house could afford 


without reward, desiring no other than our prayers 
for his preservation. The remembrance of Charles 
and his careful attentions will remain with us 
when far separated from him. 

" We also visited a natural curiosity by the 
sea shore, called the ' Baths.^ It is a collection 
of immense boulders, piled upon each other in 
such a manner, that entering among them by 
narrow and precipitous places, we were intro- 
duced into large openings like rooms, surrounded 
by rude and rocky walls. In the interior are 
two places into which the water flows from the 
sea, which, being completely secured from the 
sun, furnish excellent and cool bathing places. 
In one of the apartments we entered, we found 
ourselves directly under a collection of smaller 
rocks, covered partly with earth, out of which 
trees of considerable size were growing, whose 
roots were hanging around us on every side, like 
ropes suspended from a ceiling. 

^^ In the evening we had a large meeting with 
the inhabitants. A great number of all classes 
of the people were present, and it has seldom 


been our lot to see a more attentive audience. 
The distinction of sect, caste or complexion, 
seemed to be lost sight of. In the gospel rela- 
tion these must ever vanish ; man must recog- 
nize all as his fellows, before he can say, ' One 
is our Master, even Christ, and all we are breth- 
ren !' We were led to open to these people 
some of the simple truths of the Christian re- 
ligion, showing them that it stood not in ^ meats 
and drinks, divers washings, and carnal ordi- 
nances,' but in righteousness, peace and joy in 
a holy spirit. 

" These views appeared to comfort many. A 
poor woman who had brought her sick infant to 
us, and implored us to perform the ceremony of 
baptism, saying, that as there was no resident 
clergyman on the Island, and the circuit preacher 
would not be among them for a fortnight, she 
feared the child would die, and without baptism 
she had been taught to believe it would not be 
saved — seemed greatly comforted on finding we 
considered water baptism of no importance. 

" After the company had dispersed we partook 


of some refreslimeiits, and Ijing down on the floor 
of the house in which we held the meeting, we 
enjoyed a sweet rest from the fatigue occasioned 
by this day's journey and labor/^ 

12th mo. IQth. ^^ We rose before it was light and 
made our way to the beach, where we found our 
our boatmen ready to take us back to Tortola. We 
were soon out of view of the singular and pictur- 
esque shore of Virgin Gorda, its rocky beach 
exhibiting from the distance the appearance of a 
ruined city, with its dilapidated towers and castles. 
In a few hours we reached Fathog Bay, an inlet 
on tbe S. E. side of Tortola, at which place we 
landed, and taking a little girl for a guide, we 
set off through a dense thicket to Long Look, the 
ancient home of Samuel and Mary Nottingham, 
Friends of Bristol, England. About 60 years 
ago, these enlightened and benevolent Frf^nds, 
who owned and occupied this estate, returned 
to England after having manumitted their slaves, 
and made them a deed for the property as a com- 
pensation for their services. They also furnish- 
ed them with a letter of advice suited to their 


new condition^ which we were glad to discover 
had been very carefully attended to. This letter 
is considered by the present occupants as one of 
their choicest treasures, and was handed to us 
soon after our arrival at the house of one of the 
oldest members of this little community. 

" From what we could learn in relation to 
these people, they have never abused their free- 
dom. Some of the oldest of them retain an 
affectionate remembrance of Friends ; one aged 
man, now quite blind, informed us that he fre- 
quently had been with his master at Quaker 
meetings in New York and Philadelphia. 

" We had a very interesting religious oppor- 
tunity with them, and after bidding them fare- 
well, some of their young men conducted us by 
a circuitous path through a dense thicket, about 
a mile distant, to the spot where Friends once 
had a meeting house, in which they assembled 
for social spiritual worship. This was a place of 
interest to us, for here are buried the remains of 
several of our valued ministers from Pennsylva- 
nia and New Jersey, who visited this Island about 


a century ago^ from a sense of gospel love. The 
stone foundation of the meeting house was still 
remaining ; near it five tombs had been erected 
according to the ancient custom of the Island. 
They were built of brick about three feet above 
the ground, and covered over neatly with mortar. 
Time had made its ravages upon these mansions 
of the dead. The acacia spread thickly its 
thorny branches over them, and near them the 
century blooming aloe was luxuriantly growing. 
Although no eulogy was engraven upon them, 
yet the tradition of the place is, that they were 
erected to mark the resting place of strangers, 
who had visited the Island and died there. After 
taking a brief survey of these mansions of the 
dead, we returned to the beach, and in a few 
hours were safely landed at Roadstown. 

" Our nest visit was to Mount Healthy, a 
beautiful spot overlooking the sea, but is now no 
longer the residence of the proprietor. This is 
the case with many of the estates. Notice had 
been given that we intended to hold a meeting 
at this place; previous to its commencement, we 


walked to an elevation near the housej which 
commanded a view of the hills and valleys that 
compose several adjacent estates ; most of the 
laborers on which had quit their work and were 
coming to the meeting; groups of them could be 
seen in various directions, carrying on their heads 
their three legged stools, on which they were to 
sit, or a bench, which two or three might occupy, 
was occasionally borne along. When they had 
assembled, the simple truths of the gospel were 
spread before them, which they seemed to com- 
prehend, and they were directed to the spirit 
of God within them, which would make wise in 
things pertaining to eternal life. The more we 
mingle and become acquainted with these poor, 
but hitherto neglected people, the more decided 
is the conviction that all they need is proper 
instruction and kind treatment, to elevate them 
to an equal rank with any other laboring class/' 
12tk mo. IStJi. " To-day we made an inter- 
esting visit to Albion, the estate of R. Y. Shew, 
he having kindly invited us to make his people 
a visit, and hold a religious meeting with them 


and others whom he had invited from the neigh- 
boring estates." ^ 

" We held our meeting beneath the shade of 
a large sand box tree, so called from the pecu- 
liar form of its seed vessel, which resembles, and 
is frequently used as a sand box. 

" We could not but notice how neatly these 
people were attired, and with what attention 
they appeared to listen to what we had to com- 
municate among them, which being a word of 
encouragement, seemed like a proclamation of 
spiritual liberty to the captive, and the open- 
ing of the prison doors to them that are bound/' 

>S'^. Christoijliers. 

" We left Tortola on the morning of the 19th 
in a small sloop, and after a tedious beat to wind- 
ward we landed at Basse-Terra about 4 o'clock 
P. M. on the 22d. A protracted voyage of 
nearly three and a half days, in an uncomfort- 
able vessel, left us weak from fatigue. It was 
not, however, without some objects of interest." 

'' We had letters of introduction to several 


persons of this place ; one of wliicli procured us 
a \wicome reception from T. S. "Wigley, who 
kindly offered his assistance to promote the ob- 
ject of our visit. He introduced us to the 
Governor, Charles Cunningham, and obtained his 
permission for the use of the Court House, in 
which we desired to have a religious meeting. 
He also accompanied us 'on a visit to the jail, in 
which we found twenty-four men and five women 
were confined ; most of them for small offences : 
none were sentenced for a longer term than sis 
months. The keeper of the jail informed us 
that crimes had very much diminished since the 
act of emancipation.'' 

12th mo. 27th. ^' This morning being the 
first day of the week, we walked out to Stone's 
Fort, an estate managed by R. Higgins. We 
were kindly received, and as a previous arrange- 
ment had been made for a meeting to be held in 
the mansion house, it was well attended by the 
resident laborers, and a number of others from 
the adjacent plantations. They were encouraged 
to observe the command of Jesus, ^ seek first the 


kingdom of God and his righteousness, and 
all these things shall be added unto you/ 
In the afternoon we had a meeting at the 
house of John Challenger, an officer of the cus- 
toms in Basse Terra, John is a man of color, 
and has an interesting family. In the evening 
we walked home with Richard Challenger, a 
cousin of John's, whose residence is in the town 
of Old Road, and attended a large meeting in a 
Methodist Meeting House. "We reached the 
house of our friend just as his family were pre- 
paring to go to their usual meeting, and it was 
proposed that we should accompany them ; to 
this we had no objection. As we walked up 
the aisle and took our seats, the eyes of the min- 
ister and congregation were upon us. The cus- 
tomary exercises of the evening which had been 
commenced before we entered, were dispensed 
with, and the minister, after inquiring of our 
friend if the object of our visit was a religious 
one, kindly offered us the opportunity to hold a 
meeting after our manner of worship; and 
although the opportunity was unexpected to us, 


we believed it was felt by many to be a season of 
divine favor ; and the simple truths we had to 
deliver among them were listened to with marked 
attention. '^ 


12thmo. SOth. "After about thirty-six hours* 
comfortless tossing, we were landed at St. Johns, 
the principal seaport and capital of Antigua. St. 
Johns is an ancient looking town, with a popula- 
tion of about 5000. The Episcopalians, Mora- 
vians and Methodists have large houses for wor- 
ship, with numerous congregations. ' The 
Moravians are about one-third of the whole popu- 
lation of the Island. This sect commence their 
operations in Antigua in 1756, and entered on 
the instruction of the slaves in this and other 
West Indian settlements. Though forced to en- 
dure many difficulties and severe privations in 
the prosecution of their pious undertaking, yet 
by a quiet perseverance and conciliatory deport- 
ment, they were successful in effecting great good 
by disseminating knowledge among the slave 


population. The management of the eman- 
cipated laborers is well understood upon this 
Island. Antigua and Bermuda stand nobly as 
the pioneers of freedom/" 

" The difiPerent sects appear to be exerting 
their benevolent eflForts to elevate and train the 
youth for the improved station they must occupy 
in the world. Schools have been established, 
and parents are careful to send their children to 
them. The library and reading rooms of St. 
Johns is an institution of considerable impor- 
tancC; containing about five thousand volumes. 
The English, American and Colonial newspapers 
are to be seen upon their tables ; an intelligent 
colored man acts as librarian.'' 

First month 3c?. " To-day we held a religious 
meeting in St. Johns ; for this purpose, we pro- 
cured the use of a large room in our boarding 
house, which proved much too small to accom- 
modate those who seemed desirous to attend. 
The minds of many of the different professors of 
religion in this place had been prejudiced against 
us, before our arrival ; so much so, that we met 


with great opposition in our attempts to obtain 
a house suitable for the purpose of a public reli- 
gious meeting. A large number of the respec- 
table inhabitants were present on the occasion 
to-day. The meeting proved to be one of divine 
favor; and although many came there with the 
expectation of hearing, as they said, ^ the truths 
of Christianity controverted,' they were well 
satisfied with the opportunity, and acknowledged 
their unity with us and our labors among them. 
Their minds were disabused of the prejudices 
they had fostered against us ; very many offered 
their services to assist in obtaining religious op- 
portunities with the people, and from this time 
we found no difficulty in obtaining meetings in 
the town of St. Johns and other parts of the 

"Visited John Miller, the intelligent superin- 
tendent of the Mico Schools. He gave us some 
very interesting information relative to these es- 
tablishments. A benevolent woman by the name 
of Mico, about two hundred years ago, left a 
large sum of money for the ransom of Algerine 



captives. The money not being used for that 
purpose, the interest has since been appropriated 
to the establishment of schools in several of the 
British Colonies. The number of children on 
the different islands who are now receiving the 
benefit of this fund, is estimated at 10,000. The 
interest annually disbursed, is about $70,000, 
this has been increased by additional funds from 
government. So far as we could learn, these 
schools are conducted very much as the public 
schools in Philadelphia.'' 

"We had an interesting meeting in the town 
of Falmouth about two and a half miles distance 
from English Harbor. The people of this place 
manifested at first an unwillingness to attend a 
meeting, which we could not account for. They 
finally told us that the demands of the clergy for 
money were so frequent, that they avoided reli- 
gious opportunities on that account. On being 
informed that we were not of the class who 
* preach for hire or divine for money,' they soon 
gave the necessary information, and in a few 


hours a very large company assembled in a suit- 
able house procured for the purpose/' 

''After a meeting which we held at the village 
of Parham, we had an interesting conversation 
with several intelligent young colored people on 
the subject of a hireling ministry and women's 
preaching. It was something new to them to 
hear of a people who bore a testimony against 
the practice of paying ministers for preaching, 
and who considered women could be equally 
qualified with men, for the work of the ministry. 
They had been taught to believe that a main- 
tenance of the clergy was a duty which the gos- 
pel imposed upon their hearers, and that the ex- 
clusion of women from the exercise of the 
ministerial office was based upon the commands 
of the Apostle, when he cautioned some 
troublesome Corinthian women against ask- 
ing questions in the churches. They appeared 
well satisfied, after an exposition of our views 
upon these subjects; one of the young women 
remarking, that she saw no good reason why 
their sex should not be permitted to preach, and 


as an evidence that they did not lack the neces- 
sary qualification for the service, she informed 
us that one of their ministers was in the habit of 
employing a female friend of hers to prepare and 
write out his sermons/' 

First month 20t}i. " Having made arrange- 
ments to sail for Barbadoes, we bid farewell to 
our worthy landlady and her household, who 
loaded us with their kind wishes and blessings. 
Several of our friends took boat with us for the 
vessel, which lay at anchor some distance from 
the shore. Among the number was a little 
colored lad, a son of R. Higgins of Stone's Fort. 
He is nine years of age ; the little fellow would 
not leave us till the last minute. We were quite 
surprised to find him in the boat. He had se- 
cured a seat without our perceiving it. He had 
a great deal of cautiousness, but his love appeared 
to have overcome it. The schooner lay more 
than a mile from the wharf, but the little boy 
concluded, although he had never been in a boat 
before, he would go now. We could scarcely 
account for this strong attachment of the lad, 


every morning he came to see us, after he knew 
of our being in town, frequently took breakfast 
with us, and spent the time before school/' 


^' Our voyage occupied nearly five and a half 
days from Antigua to Barbadoes; the Captain 
being an agreeable young man, made our tedious 
beating to the windward much more pleasant 
than it otherwise would have been." 

'^ Bridgetown is a busy place, containing about 
30,000 inhabitants; the streets are generally 
narrow and crooked, but kept remarkably clean. 
They are all macadamized, and covered with a 
kind of disintegrated coral rock, resembling a 
mortar cement, which, filling up the interstices 
between the stones, forms a smooth, compact 
surface. There are no side walks, the carriage 
ways, in most places, extending to the walls of 
the houses. The evidences of commercial busi- 
ness are much greater than in any town we have 
yet visited. This Island is about twenty-two 


miles long by fourteen broad, and contains a 
population of one hundred and twenty thousand." 

^^ The principal religious denominations are 
the Church of England, the Moravians, and the 
Methodists. The Moravians have attached to 
them in several congregations about sis thousand 
members. We had several interesting meetings 
among them. From John Ellis, the Moravian 
missionary, and Elizabeth his wife, we received 
the kindest attention. Their large and com- 
modious place of worship was freely oflFered to 
us during our stay here. The Methodists have 
about fifteen hundred members. They have 
been a persecuted people on account of their op- 
position to slavery. Some years previous to the 
emancipation, the popular feeling was so much 
against them, that their chapel was totally de- 
molished by a mob, and their preachers driven 
from the Island. They have since erected 
several houses of worship, and all classes would 
be glad now to blot out of remembrance those 
shameful proceedings." 

1st mo. ^Oth. '' This afternoon we took pas- 


sage in a large sail boat, used as a lighter for 
the conveyance of sugar, &c., for Speightstown, 
which is about twelve miles from Bridgetown. 
We were furnished with rooms by Richard Mapp, 
a very worthy young colored man, a provision 
dealer. The use of his parlor was subsequently 
offered for our holding a meeting, which we ac- 
cepted, and had a large and satisfactory oppor- 
tunity. We also had an interesting meeting on 
the evening of First day, in the Methodist chapel, 
at which most of the adult citizens were pre- 

" Some interesting relics of the Society of 
Friends exist near this town. They once had 
a meeting house here, but no traces are now to 
be seen. The ancient place of burial is still 
called 'Quaker Meeting.' It contains about 
three-fourths of an acre, and is enclosed by a 
substantial wall of coral rock, still in a good 
state of preservation. We walked out to this 
place, and spent an hour in endeavoring to de- 
cypher some of the memorials of the dead, being 
a number of simple stones, on which were en- 


graved the names of the deceased, and a short 
eulogy in prose. On one of these ancient monu- 
ments, a very long epitaph was engraven, but 
time had so nearly effaced it, that we were only 
able to read the conclusion ; it was as follows : 
^ which he knew to be the guide, light, and 
truth, which leads to salvation. Died Ninth 
month 17th, 1673, aged 54 years.' This was 
the only ancient date we eould distinctly read. 
We were informed that the Lord Bishop was 
trying to get this ground and other burial places 
of Friends, on this Island, in his possession, that 
they might be consecrated, after which his min- 
isters could perform funeral service in them.'' 

^' Friends formerly had five meeting houses on 
this Island ; the members attached to the Society 
were at one time very numerous. "When George 
Fox visited this colony in 1681, he publicly and 
privately labored in the cause of suffering hu- 
manity ; and urged upon those who held slaves, 
that it was their duty to treat them with kind- 
ness and mercy, and to give them their freedom 
in due time, declaring that they were the common 


objects of salvation, and should be treated as the 
offspring of one universal Father. With such 
considerations as these, he taught that moral and 
religious instruction should be equally extended 
to the slave, as to the master. His is the praise 
of having first attempted, amidst obloquy and 
suffering, to preach the gospel in this Island to 
the poor African slave. Instead of listening to 
these harmless suggestions, and permitting the 
operation of Christian principles to effect a cure 
for the increasing evils of slavery, the advocates 
of the system raised a torrent of opposition against 
him and his friends, charging them with exciting 
the slaves to insurrection, and sowing the seeds 
of dissatisfaction and distrust. In a letter ad- 
dressed to the Governor of the Island, George 
Fox calls those charges a * wicked slander' on the 
Society. Well satisfied that the inculcation of 
sound religious principles, with the restoration of 
legitimate rights, was not only a duty, but con- 
stituted the greatest safeguard of the peace and 
happiness of the colony, these early pioneers in 
the work of emancipation arduously labored 


to meliorate tlie coDdition of their fellow men, 
who were suffering under cruel bondage. The 
opposition to their measures was so strong, that 
it led to repeated prohibitory laws, some of which 
possess the harshest features of persecution. Ey 
an examination of the Colonial Records, we dis- 
covered that, in 1676, a law was passed forbid- 
dino; Friends taking the colored people to places 
of public worship; and in 1678, a law was passed 
making it a penal offence for a member of our 
Society to preach at a public meeting. The pre- 
ambles to these enactments go to show, that the 
free spirit of Quakerism was inimical to the 
system of slavery, and that both could not be 
tolerated in the same community. Such was the 
current of opposition against which our unoffend- 
ing forefathers had to contend. The efforts of 
the different sects, who attempted to prove that 
the African mind was susceptible of religious 
and moral refinement, were long and openly op- 
posed, and their benevolent exertions were 
narrowed down to a very limited sphere until the 

act of emancipation in 1836. Happily, a better 


day has dawned upon this people. Efforts are 
now being made to educate them, and to open a 
path for them to a higher rank and station among 
their fellow men/' 

Second mo, bth. " Visited another of the 
Mico schools, in Bridgetown, at which one hun- 
dred and forty children were receiving the rudi- 
ments of an education." 

" This evening we had a meeting at Green 
Park, where a large company of people assembled. 
It was held at an unfinished dwelling house 
which was offered for the purpose. The greater 
part of the congregation were obliged to remain 
outside, but within hearing. The more we mingle 
with the poor and illiterate people of these 
Islands, (and many of our meetings have been 
chiefly composed of them,) we are made thank- 
ful that our lot has been cast among them. The 
deep attention they manifest on all occasions, and 
their continual espressions of gratitude, that we 
had been led among them to labor in the love of 
the gospel, give evidence that our visit has been 


*^ We had numerous meetings in and around 
Bridgetown, and one at Sharon, a Moravian 
settlement about five miles distant. "With all 
these opportunities we felt well satisfied. Our 
reward was the reward of peace; the conscious- 
ness of having discharged our duty, and in so 
doing, to feel that our labors had the salutary 
effect to encourage the honest inquirer after 
truth, in the way of well-doing. Having con- 
cluded our services, we made an arrangement 
with the Captain of a small schooner to convey 
us to Trinidad. Went on board about 2 o'clock 
P. JVL, and having a pleasant breeze, were soon 
leaving Barbadoes." 

^' On first day morning the 14tli of Second 
month, we landed in Port of Spain. This is one 
of the finest towns in the West Indies, the streets 
are laid off at right angles, having good side-walks 
and many of them beautifully shaded with trees ; 
a delightful avenue of large trees near the bay 
is fenced in and is used as a promenade by the 


citizens. The town is nearly surrounded by 
very high hills covered with a wilderness of per- 
petual verdure. At a meeting we held in the 
evening, a large number of American emigrants 
were present ; they had heard of our arrival, and 
seemed delighted to see us. The merchants and 
planters seem ready to promote the object of our 

" A ride to Savannah Grande, to tbe locations 
of American emigrants was peculiarly pleasctnt. 
The grandeur of a tropical forest is witnessed on 
this route. Trees of immense magnitude are 
seen with trunks covered with parasitic verdure ; 
many of these singular plants shooting out clus- 
ters of beautiful flowers. Vines dropping from 
towering branches stand around these trunks, 
which appear like planted columns, without a 
branch, for 70 or 80 feet in height, and from ten 
to twelve inches in diameter. Palms of various 
kinds grow luxuriantly, and amidst the rich as- 
semblage, the Bois Immortelle, with its clusters 
of orange colored blossoms, stands unrivalled. 
This is also called ^ Les Marie Caco', — -the 


mother of the coaco. In all the coaco planta- 
tions, this beautiful tree is planted for its shade, 
as the coaco needs security from the strength of 
the sun's rays. The nest of the ingenious corn- 
bird hung pendant from many branches, secure 
from the marauding monkey which abounds in 
these forests. On some estates a hunter is almost 
constantly employed to protect the canes from 
the depredations of monkeys and other animals. 
The Lappo, a species of hare, are numerous, as 
also the Peccary or wild hog, which is taken in 
abundance. The Tiger-cat is a native, as is also 
the Boa Constrictor, which, with other serpents, 
is considered harmless. Parrots are numerous. 
Tbe mountain cabbage, the prince among trees, 
it was a pleasure to perceive, had been generally 
spared by the wood-cutter. Many were seen 
raising their noble columnar trunks of feathery 
crowns in almost every field. One of immense 
height attracts attention on the approach to 
Phillipine, (an estate of Dr. St. Louis Philips, 
an educated and intelligent colored man, who 
had been taught in the best schools of Scotland, 


118 :memoir of 

and graduated at the 3Iedical College of Edin- 
burgh.) It may been seen at the distance of 
several miles. It rises near the mansion with a 
slender column to the height of one hundred and 
fifty feet ; one hundred and thirty of which is a 
smooth surface.'' 

Third mo. 1st. " On this Island as on others 
we have visited^ our openings for meetings in- 
crease, the longer we tarry. The people are 
anxious for us to delay our departure, desiring 
other religious opportunities. We felt, however, 
that our services here were drawing to a close. 
We had a parting meeting in Port of Spain this 
evening, which was a season of divine favor, and 
in which we were enabled to encourage those as- 
sembled to individual faithfulness to the teach- 
ings of the Holy Spirit, that by love and good 
works they might show themselves believers in 
the gospel of Christ, for the love of which we 
have been constrained to visit them, and in which 
we could bid them an affectionate farewell.'' 

Third mo. 2d. '' Having closed our religious 
services upon this Island, we made arrangements 


to sail to-day for St. Thomas. Many of our 
friends called to bid us farewell, whose parting 
salutations seemed to be the expression of a warm 
and affectionate interest in our welfare, and a 
sincere desire that we might, when our mission 
was completed, return in peace to our homes. 
Among others who came to see us this morning 
was a Mahometan priest, named Emir Samba 
Makumba, with whom we had an interesting in- 
terview, and obtained from him a brief history 
of himself and his people now resident upon this 
Island, where they continued to worship after 
the manner of their fathers according to the 
precepts of the Koran. He is about sixty-six 
years old, his hair and beard, which he has 
allowed to grow long, are white. He wore the 
habit of his order, a flowing white tunic. Samba 
could speak several languages ; he addressed us 
in Arabic, pronouncing the benediction of the 
Mahometans on those they esteem as people of 
God. Afterwards he conversed in French, and 
our friend H. L. Jobity interpreted for us. His 
countenance was remarkably serenC; and although 


he had been a man of sorrow and acquainted with 
grief, yet his face was lighted with a smile. He 
was by descent a chief and a priest amoDg the 
Mandingoes in Africa, but in early life he was 
taken captive in one of those intestine wars 
which are unhappily occasioned among the native 
tribes in Africa by the slave trade. He belonged 
to the tribe Fullah Tauro, which engaged in a 
war with six other tribes to prevent them, as he 
said, from carrying on the slave trade. The 
Mahometans are forbidden to make slaves of 
those of their own faith, and when any of their 
people arc concerned in this traffic they believe 
their religion requires them to put a stop to it 
by force. It was for this purpose a war was com- 
menced by the FuUahs against these others tribes, 
and in this war Samba was taken prisoner and 
sold as a slave. He was brought to this Island 
at the age of twenty-one years, and was pur- 
chased from a slave ship by a French planter, 
who gave him the name of Simon Boissere. 
Possessing a superior mind, he was soon placed 
by his master as superintendent of his planta- 


tion. Laboring faithfully, and opportunities 
being afforded him, he soon earned a sufficient 
sum of money to purchase his freedom. Insti- 
gated by his example and advice, others of his 
countrymen also succeeded in securing their free- 
dom. They then formed themselves into an as- 
sociation to maintain their religious profession, 
Samba acting as tlieir priest. Their next effort 
was to purchase small tracts of land, upon which 
they erected habitations, and were thus enabled, 
by the produce of their gardens, &c., to support 
themselves respectably. Having secured com- 
fortable homes, they turned their attention to 
their suffering brethren in captivity. Liberal 
subscriptions were made among them for this 
benevolent object, and when a slave ship arrived 
at the colony. Samba and his friends were the 
first on board to inquire for Mandingoes, and if 
there were any among the captives, they ransomed 
them immediately. Up to the time of the de- 
claration of freedom, they had released from bond- 
age upwards of five hundred in Trinidad alone. 
Their operations were also extended to other 


islands. There are several hundreds of them at 
present on this island, and althougli they con- 
tinue their form of faith and worship, they are 
noticed for their habits of temperance and ex- 
emplary deportment. In this respect they have 
been as lights to their professing Christian 
neighbors. The old man said he mourned over 
the condition of the Christian world ; he regretted 
that their youth were in danger of being drawn 
away by the evil practices of the Christians. He 
thought it safe to judge people by their actions, 
and when he saw the Christians holding those of 
their own faith in slavery, engaging in wars with 
members of their own church, and addicted to 
habits of intemperance, all of which the Koran 
forbids, he thought it was sufficient evidence that 
the religion of Mahomet was superior to the reli- 
gion of J-?i 72a Bissa, (Jesus Christ.) "\Ye told 
him we understood the religion of Jesus as for- 
bidding all these practices, but that the pro- 
fessors of the religion of Christ did not live up 
to his precepts. He inquired, ^ have you any 
slaves in your country ?' to which we replied, 


nearly three millions. At this information he 
gave a look of astonishment and indignation. 
We asked him if he believed the great God who 
made all things had placed a witness of himself 
in the hearts of all men to teach them what is 
right and what is wrong; to which he replied, 
< YeS; certainly; God has placed his spirit in man 
to show him good and evil, and man ought to 
obey it, for by so doing he would please his 
Maker, and be accepted of him.' He further 
remarked, ' It is by listening to evil suggestions 
that he becomes very wicked.' He thought the 
Christians degraded themselves by selling the 
Bible, which they consider a standard of reli- 
gious faith. ^ You ought not to sell your religion,' 
meaning the Bible, ^ or take pay for expounding 
it,' meaning for preaching. "We told him we did 
not do it; we came out of love and good will to see 
the people of these islands, that we might en- 
courage them to love and good works. < Then,' 
said he, ' you are men of God, and I hope the 
Lord will bless your labors, and make you useful 


in spreading his truth in the world.'* It was a 
pleasure to be with this benevolent individual, 
who may be looked upon as one of the brightest 
philanthropists of the age. When we consider 
the humble sphere in which he has moved, and 
the limited means at his command for accom- 
plishing a benevolent scheme which had for its 
object the emancipation of all his countrymen in 
captivity, (the Mandingo slaves,) and contem- 
plate the success which has attended the labors 
of Samba and his co-adjutors, this brief account 
of him will be esteemed worthy of record." 

^t. Thomas. 
Third mo. 7th. " A voyage of more than five 
hundred miles across the Caribbean Sea brought 

* We liave been told by a person who was present at 
this interview, that when Samba was interrogated re- 
specting his idea of the grace of God or ' light within.' 
he gave this simple figure in illustration. That God 
created man good and upright, and covered his heart 
with a paste, which, while he is obedient, remains soft 
and receives readily the impressions of the divine 
finger, but when he becomes disobedient it grows hard 
and cannot be so easily written upon. 


US again to this Island. No way opened for us 
to hold religious meetings here, in consequence 
of the Governor General of the Danish Islands 
having issued his proclamation against us. 'We 
found, however, that the general sentiment of 
the inhabitants, to whom the object of our visit 
became known, was in our favor; they express- 
ing a wish that we might have religious oppor- 
tunities with the people. Although such privi- 
leges were not allowed us, we have reason to be- 
lieve that our visit to the Danish Islands was 
attended with some good, and the very circum- 
stance of our having been denied this liberty, 
led many into an inquiry on the subject of reli- 
gious toleration, which will no doubt lead to 
beneficial results, and may possibly hasten the 
period, when every gospel messenger will be 
welcomed to their shores, and permitted ^freely' 
to declare that which they have * freely re- 
ceived/ The kind attentions of our friend E, 
Simmons contributed to make our visit at this 
time a pleasant one. "We remained here several 
days waiting for the steamer to Jamaica, which 


enabled us to recruit from the sea sickness and 
fatigue occasioned by our voyage from Trinidad 
in an uncomfortable vessel. We have cause to 
feel thankful that our health has been preserved 
through all the exposures to which we have been 
ubjected, and acknowledging the hand of the 
Heavenly Shepherd in preserving us from many 
dangers, we are encouraged to go forward trust- 
ing in Him/' 


" We had letters to several persons in Kings- 
ton, who received us kindly, with offers to pro- 
mote the object of our visit. Kingston is an 
old fashioned town, hot and dusty. The number 
of inhabitants is supposed to be about 40,000. 
It covers a large area, very many of the finer 
houses being surrounded by gardens. 

^' We held a meeting in the suburbs of the 
city, which was large and satisfactory ; great 
solemnity and order prevailed. 

Believing our religious labors were about draw- 
ing to a close in these parts, and a vessel being in 


port about to sail for New York, we felt at liberty 
to engage our passage home. Previous to our de- 
parture, Tve beld a meeting in the Scotch Presby- 
terian meeting house, which had been freely 
offered us to hold meetings in while in Kingston. 
This meeting was held on the afternoon of First 
day, and was attended by a large concourse of 
people. We were enabled to declare our belief in 
the practical operation of the ^ gospel of Christ' 
as the * power of Grod/ in changing the condi- 
tion of man from the image of the earthly to the 
image of the heavenly nature, even to the es- 
tablishment of a glorious kingdom in the hearts 
of men. In which the angelic anthem can be 
proclaimed, ^ Glory to God in the highest, on 
earth peace and good will to men/ This was our 
last religious meeting in the "West Indies. Our 
stay in this Island was but of short duration, yet 
we were kindly received. Those among whom 
our lot was cast, manifested a deep interest in 
the object of our visit, and we felt when the time 
arrived for us to separate, that we could part 


witli tliem under the influence of mutual 
brotlierly affection and regard." 

Third mo. 22(7. ^^ After bidding farewell to 
a number of our friends, who called to see us, 
we went on board the vessel, and arranged our- 
selves for the voyage. We dropped down to Port 
Kojal before night, where we were obliged to 
remain till next morning, it being considered 
unsafe to go out of the harbor at night. About 
fifty years ago a portion of this town was sunk 
by an earthquake, parts of the houses and the 
walls of the fort are yet to be seen in about 
fifteen or twenty feet of water. Early in the 
morning of the 23d we were visited by the 
officer on duty, from whom we received a clear 
ance, when we weighed anchor and stood out to 
sea under a light breeze. Our voyage was some- 
what tedious occupying twenty-five days, and 
part of the time it was exceedingly boisterous. 
During the fore part of it we suffered much 
from the excessive heat of the sun, as we were 
becalmed frequently before we passed the Gulf. 
As we reached a higher latitude and neared the 


coast of America, the cold became very intense. 
But we made land in safety and arrived in New 
York on the evening of Fourth month 17th, 
1841j and reached our homes on the following- 
day, to the consolation and joy of ourselves and 
families. '^ 

If there be those who think the foregoing 
extracts too extended, our apology to such must 
be, our own interest in them. "We did not sup- 
pose in the commencement, they would be half 
their present length, but it appeared difficult to 
find a stopping place without omitting matter 
well worthy of note. In the reperusal of the 
little book from which they were taken, living 
desires were kindled upon the altar of holy affec- 
tion that the labor bestowed upon these isles of the 
sea might not be lost; and that there might still 
be found faithful workmen who would be willing 
to leave the endearments and comforts of home, 
if it should please the great Husbandman that 
this part of his vineyard, should be again visited 
by his servants, with a renewed call to a pure 
and holy life. 


130 ME3I0IR OF 

From J. Ja.'kson's unpublished notes of this 
journey wo make some selections. 

Among their fellow passengers from New 
York to Santa Cruz were several invalids, who 
had left their friends for the recovery of that 
invaluable blessing, health, but whose wasted 
forms and feeble footsteps gave but little promise 
that their hopes would be realized. Their situa- 
tion appears to have enlisted the sympathy of J. 
J. and induced the following reflections. 

" While I have entered truly into sympathy with 
these afflicted ones, from whom the bloom of 
heal th has so early departed, who have little to hope 
for as regards length of days, I have been led 
to indulge in reflections upon some of the causes 
which are annually bringing thousands in my 
native land to an untimely grave. I am well 
satisfied that the corrupt customs, and absurd 
fashions of society, are the main causes which 
are operating so powerfully in this vast destruc- 
tion of health, happiness, and human life. 

^^ Many lovely and promising females, blinded 
by the follies of the age, have become the votaries 


of fashion, whicli will suffer nothing by a com- 
parison to the barbarous customs of the ignorant 
heathens. Not satisfied with the form which 
the Creator has given them, they attempted to 
alter or mend his workmanship ; and in this 
foolish attempt, they have prevented the free 
operations of the animal economy so beautifully 
and wonderfully made for the enjoyment of 
health, have prostrated the energies of their 
physical constitutions, and brought themselves 
prematurely to the ^ house appointed for the 
living.' I am astonished when I contemplate 
the prevalence of this and other customs of so- 
ciety, contributing as they do, to the destruction 
of human life, and wonder why they should be 
tolerated by any people having the least preten- 
sions to intelligence, civilization, or refinement. 
If such practices were prevalent among heathens 
they would receive the merited condemnation of 
every sensible mind. But, the voice of fashion 
is louder than the dictates of reason, its votaries 
despise the ^reproofs of instruction,' they trample 
under foot the teachings of philosophy, and reck- 

132 • MEMOIR OF 

less of the consequences, even attempt to alter 
what Grod has made perfect, and thus frustrate 
his purposes in furnishing them with a temporary 
habitation for the immortal soul. If my young 
female friends esteem health a blessing, let them 
not trifle with the wise provisions of their Creator, 
by conforming to absurd and ridiculous customs 
which at best can only show them to be the 
votaries of fashion, and can in no point of view 
be an indication of a dignified and intelligent 
mind. Let parents beware how in early life they 
suffer their offspring to take the ^ wings of the 
morning,' and become ranked among the followers 
of fashions so injurious, by which they early lay 
the foundation for premature decline ; and the 
instances, I fully believe, would be much fewer, 
wherein they would have to mourn the loss of a 
lovely daughter just as she was beginning to be 
the support and consolation of their declining 
years. I know not that these remarks may ever 
come under the notice of any to whom they are 
applicable ; but if they should, I sincerely desire 
they may look upon them as the ^ reproofs of in- 


strucfcion/ and not cast an unfriendly censure 
upon me for venturing so boldly to condemn that 
which none can be in the practice of without 
putting their health and lives in jeopardy. And 
if in the face of reason and the teachings of 
philosophy, they will continue in a custom so 
fraught with danger, and thereby lay the founda- 
tion of disease, let them not charge to Grod's ac- 
count that which they have brought upon them- 
selves, by torturing existence with abuse and 

Extract from memoranda dated ^* 2d mo 7th, 
1841. ^Day unto day uttereth speech and 
night unto night showeth knowledge.' This 
language of the inspired writer has been brought 
into remembrance as I have looked back upon 
the experience of the past, since I have been 
engaged in this visit to the inhabitants of these 
Islands; how often a way has been made for me 
when there appeared to be no way, how often 
the work to be done has been opened before me, 
and how often strength has been given, even in 
weakness^ when I have been ready to exclaim my 


weakness, my weakness ! ' I am pained at my 
very heart because thou hast heard, my soul, 
the sound of the trumpet, the alarm of war !' 
These things have renewedly inspired my mind 
with confidence, and taught me not to be faith- 
less, but believing. The follower of Christ should 
not be dismayed because to human vision the 
path of duty may be hid for a season ; he should 
not be faithless, because there may be, at times, 
discouragements on the right hand and on the 
left; for God who worketh by means that human 
eyes see not, will ever go before his faithful and 
dependent children ; he will be to them ^ strength 
in weakness; riches in poverty, and a present help 
in every needful time/ Retire then, my soul, 
within thy spirit's chamber — ^there be thou ab- 
stracted from the world, turn to Jerusalem, the 
quiet habitation, the city of the saints' solemnity, 
and thou shalt not only behold the King in his 
beauty, but he will shew unto thee the way in 
which thou should go. Then thou shalt know the 
coming of the gospel day, in which shall be 
fulfilled the declaration of the Lord's prophet 


' The sun shall be no more thy light by day, 
neither for brightness shall the moon give light 
unto thee, but the Lord shall bo unto thee an 
everlasting light, and the days of thy mourning 
shall be ended.' ^' 

^' A qualification for the gospel ministry can- 
not be purchased -with gold or silver ; it cannot 
be received from men or the teachings of men ; 
but it must be ' taught by the revelation of Jesus 
Christ,' as the apostle received it, who, when he 
had received it, said, ^ I did not go up to Jerusa- 
lem to them that were apostles before me :' but 
he went on the gospel mission to whichi he had 
been called, ' to testify the gospel of the grace of 
God/ The nature of the gospel ministry has 
not changed ; the servant of Christ, even now, 
must wait for the anointing of the Lord's spirit 
to rest upon him j he cannot pray or preach when 
he pleases, or in his own will or time ; for if 
his prayers be performed in his own will, he 
knows not what to pray for; hence the apostles 
waited till the spirit helped their infirmites ^ with 
groanings that could not be uttered.' And in 


relation to the ministry, if we were to preach 
in our own will or time, we might preach our own 
gospel and not the saving truths of the gospel of 
Christ. A living ministry that is accompanied 
with power to haptize the soul, does not consist in 
preaching the experience of other men, but in 
testifying to those things which our eyes have 
seen and our hands have handled of the good 
word of life and of the powers of the world to 

^'In the exercise of the ministerial gift I think 
there is often more danger of saying too much 
than too little, and I find it very needful for me 
to be careful in this respect, lest I might encom- 
pass myself about with sparks of my own kind- 
ling and thereby dishonor Christ. But I believe 
as the eye is kept single to Him, he will open 
with clearness what he requires his servants and 
handmaids to do, and what they shall leave un- 
done. that I may evef seek for this spirit of 
true discernment with a prayerful spirit and a 
willing mind.'' 

" I can set my testimony to the truth of the 


declaration, ' my yoke is easy and my burden is 
light.' But to attain this experience, the Chris- 
tian believer must cast down ^ every crown' and 
walk in the paths of humility and self-denial ; 
because humility is the proper station of man 
and Christ will only be the leader of such as are 
willing to follow him in this path, for he is 
^ meek and lowly of heart/ Come then, my 
soul, and be conformed to the image of thy Re- 
deemer. He hath called thee by the gentle ex- 
tendings of his love, ^ Come with me from Leb- 
anon, my spouse, with me from Lebanon ; look 
from the top of Amana, from the top of Shenir 
and Hermon, from the lion's den, from the 
mountains of the leopards.' Then will Christ 
continue to give thee light. He will be thy Alpha 
and Omega, and all the various probations and 
baptisms through which thou may have to pass; 
shall be for thy sanctification and refinement. 
The Christian's journey is one of continual pro- 
gression ; we must advance daily step by step, 
adding to our faith, virtue, which is the resist- 
ance of temptation ; to virtue the increase of di- 

138 MEMOIR or 

vine knowledge, which is the bread of life; to 
knowledge, patience, which is abundantly need- 
ful to the believer, who is not to live by bread 
alone but by every word that proceedeth out of 
the mouth of God ; to patience, temperance 3 to 
temperance, godliness ; to godliness, brotherly 
kindness, and to brotherly kindness, charity, 
which is the love of God. Thus by a continilal 
progression of the ^ truth as it is in Jesus,^ the 
soul rises from one degree of perfection to anoth- 
er, until it attains to a foretaste of the joys of 
that kingdom, ^ of the increase, government and 
peace of which there shall never be an end.'^ 

Gambling a prominent evil at St. Thomas. 

^' Gambling, which is one of the most detesta- 
ble vices, and a snare in which the feet of many 
an inexperienced youth becomes entangled, is, 
unhappily, too fashionable in this place ; and 
strangers visiting here from different parts of the 
world, unless they are established against such 
practices, are in great danger of losing not only 
their money, but their character also. Gambling 


has many concomitant vices^ and he who be- 
comes a victim to them may rest assured that he 
is on the downward road to ruin. He may be- 
gin by thinking himself secure, but he gradually 
loses his integrity, and step by step he recedes 
from the path of virtue, till he loses all sense of 
moral and religious refinement and drowns his 
wretchedness in the labyrinths of despair. An 
instance was related to me here^ of a young man 
who came to St. Thomas, with a large amount of 
funds to conduct a mercantile business; but in- 
stead of resisting the temptations which the 
gambling table presented, was captivated by the 
prospect of amassing sudden wealth ; and enter- 
ed into this school of fraad and villainy with a 
reputable character and a very large sum of 
money at his control ; but alas ! his money was 
very soon placed beyond the reach of recovery ; 
he acquired habits of intemperance by comming- 
ling with those who made themselves his friends, 
until by their superior skill they had rendered 
him penniless; when he was left friendless, and 
abandoned himself to the forlorn hone of drown- 


ing his sorrows by a resort to other vices, which 
soon terminated his existence in despair. This 
little history, I have no doubt, is only one of thou- 
sands similar to it that occur among gamblers, 
and ought to be a lesson and a warning to all 
those who suffer themselves to be captivated by 
the alluring prospects of gain held out before 
them ; but who unhappily look not at the rock 
upon which they will inevitably be wrecked, un- 
til it is too late for them to escape the danger to 
which they have exposed themselves. If men 
would only acquaint themselves more fully with 
human nature, they would find that man loses 
his innocency by gradual steps; and by looking 
at the termination instead of the beginning of a 
career of vice, they would learn the absolute ne- 
cessity of guarding the avenues of their minds 
against the Jirst presentation of evil. Then, when 
temptation presents dangers which it promises 
its votaries shall shun, but never aids them to 
avoid, it would be resisted. The cunning of the 
serpent would be detected, and man would not bo 
beguiled by its evil suggestions/^ 


Of Cuba and the slave trade there is the fol- 
lowing brief record : " For two days we were 
in sight of the island of Cuba ; but the dangerous 
navigation along its coast, and a wreck on its 
shoals, warned us to keep at a respectful distance 
from the shore, and the wind being in our favor, 
we took a northward course that we might soon- 
er get into the Gulf Stream. A deep sense of 
the unutterable horrors of slavery filled my mind 
as I reflected upon the wretched condition of the 
inhabitants of this large island. Subjected by 
the strong arm of oppression to innumerable tor- 
tures, their physical condition is miserable in the 
extreme. Their moral condition is also propor- 
tionably degraded ; neither is there a prospect to 
human vision of a mitigation of the evils arising 
out of this cruel and barbarous traflSc in human 
flesh. The demand and high prices given for 
slaves, is such as to offer inducements to unprin- 
cipled men to import human cargoes from the 
coast of Africa ; and it is believed that more are 
annually imported into Cuba now, and under 

more cruel circumstances, than at any former pe- 
12* ^ 


riod. About 60,000 are annually brought from 
the coast of Africa to this island alone. The 
amount of human misery occasioned by this cruel 
traffic can scarcely be imagined/' 

Extracts from Letters. 

" In our spiritual journey, there is great need 
that we gird ourselves about with the mantle of 
patience and put on the shield of faith. With 
truth's weapons, which are ' mighty through God' 
to accomplish tlie work of our warfare, we shall 
assuredly gain the victory and an establishment 
in that state of righteousness which consists of 
peace and quietness here, with the full assurance 
that these shall continue, even when time to us 
shall be veiled in eternity. Although we may 
sometimes feel we are far separated from this 
happy condition, and have been carried away 
by doubts and discouragements, yet, even in 
this state, we may be instructed ; for such is the 
goodness of our heavenly Father that he will not 
leave nor forsake us here. See how it was with 
the prophet when he sat among the captives by 


the river of Cliebar ; it was there the heavens 
were opened and he beheld the visions of God. 
Our confidence must be firmly fixed upon Him 
who knoweth our frame, and who is ever willing 
to teach his dependant and dedicated children, in 
order that they may be established upon that 
foundation which can never be moved. We shall 
know as we are willing to trust to his holy aid, 
that as certainly as He nerved the arm of David 
to smite the champion of the Philistine host, He 
will as certainly strengthen us by his power to 
put to flight all the enemies of our soul's peace. 
"We have no cause then to be discouraged, for 
while we rely upon Him, we shall know a con- 
tinual advance in the light, because His heaven- 
ly illuminations will become brighter and bright- 
er, until the meridian splendor of the Lord's day 
bursts forth upon the soul ; and whatever may 
be our situation in life, if patience be allowed to 
have its perfect work, nothing shall be able to 
deprive us of this enjoyment. Though John 
was an exile upon Patmos, yet, he was permitted 
to be in the spirit on the Lord's day, and there 


to enjoy those glorious revelations concerning 
which he was commanded, ' write these things 
in a book/ that a memorial might be kept of 
them. Well, the same things may be experienced 
by us, and often are realized ; and could we ever 
bear them in remembrance as the mercies of God, 
as the overshadowings of his goodness, we would 
often be willing to erect a little Bethel in com- 
memoration thereof/' 

'' It has been my desire for thee my dear 
friend, that thy experience may become perfect- 
ed in the light by thy obedience and dedication 
to all its manifestations. I am persuaded it has 
shone in thy mind with a heavenly lustre, and 
in its brightness thou hast desired to make thy 
covenant with the God of thy life, and hast been 
ready to say with the patriarch formerly, ' Sure- 
ly the Lord was in this place and I knew it not.' 
Mayest thou ever remember that ^ in Him there 
is no darkness at all,' and as thy confidence is 
centered here, and thy spirit's chamber dedicated 
to his holy name, thou shalt become clothed with 
that spirit of discernment which will enable thee 


to behold the workings of the divine hand, in 
those baptisms through which thou mayest have 
to pass in thy journey towards Mount Zion, the 
city of the saints' solemnities. 

^' It is good for us to f*l the turnings and 
CTerturnings of the hand of a merciful Father, to 
contemplate the workings of his power in bring- 
ing us out of darkness into his marvellous light ; 
therefore, however deep our provings, they 
should be endured with this sentiment ever be- 
fore us, ' Though he slay me, yet will I trust in 
him.' Such an entire confidence would enable 
us to pass through the depths of Jordan, to stand 
as with our feet in the bottom thereof, and bring 
up stones of memorial, precious in the sight of 
our heavenly Father. "When we contemplate our 
want of qualification to advance the Lord's cause, 
do we not feel the necessity of washing seven 
times in that river which has healing virtues ? 
And yet, we may be secretly looking towards 
Abana and Pharpar, rivers of Damascus, with 
desires to wash in them and be clean ; we would 
rather choose for ourselves the medium of res- 


toratioa. But, my dear friend, thou knowest 
this will not do, thou knowest our own wills 
must be slain, and all brought into obedience to 
Christ. Do not shun this cross, but rather be 
willing to take it upon thee, and thou will find in 
thy own experience the truth of the declaration, 
' my yoke is easy and my burden is light/ Such 
is the experience of all who become the followers 
of Hioi who is meek and lowly of heart/' 

" Could the conviction that we are born for a 
higher destiny and more glorious inheritance 
than that whicb we now realize, arouse every 
dormant energy of the mind in the morning of 
life, how many dangers might we shun, how 
might we be enabled to baffle temptation, and 
guard against the snares in which the feet of the 
inexperienced traveller often become entangled ! 
Mayest thou place a proper estimate upon an 
early sacrifice. The cross of Christ is the armor 
of the child of G-od ; thou wilt find it an all-suf- 
ficient shield in every approach of the enemy of 
thy soul's peace and happiness. In this day 
there is need of valiants in Christ's army, that 


the aliens may be put to flight Tvhicli have de- 
fied the armies of the living God. Thou art no 
doubt sensible of this, for I believe thou hast 
felt many testimonies dear to thy best life.'' 

'' In the journey thou took with thy valued 
parentf5, to the southern part of our country, thou 
had an opportunity of witnessing the desolation 
of moral principle and violation of human rights, 
which are sanctioned by the laws of the land, 
regardless of the laws of Him who made of one 
blood all nations of men that dwell upon the 
earth. "With all our boasted claims to the name 
of a benevolent and upright nation, the declara- 
tion of the prophet is applicable to us, ' Justice 
is trampled under foot, mercy is slain in the 
streets, and equity cannot enter/ When I con- 
template this state of things among a people pro- 
fessing to be the followers of Jesus Christ, my 
soul has often to go mourning on its way, because 
there are so few who are willing to be mouth for 
the dumb. 

" "We as a religious Society have placed our- 
selves before the world in the attitude of the 


friends of the oppressed, and it is tlie prayer of 
my heart tbat as a Society and as individuals we 
tnay embrace every right opening to plead their 

" 1 believe, as faithfulness is abode ip, on the 
part of those upon whom the Lord has been 
pleased to place the ark of this testimony, the 
day will come when the bonds of the oppressed 
shall be loosed, and Ethiopia shall availingly 
stretch forth her hands unto God." 

The following letter is in reply to one received 
from S. M., not a member of our Society, who was 
concerned on account of J. J. considering water- 
baptism and the ordinance of bread and wine 
non-essential. This person and her husband 
both became interested in Truth's testimonies as 
held by Friends, and the latter regularly attends 
Friend's meetings. 

" Sharon, 2d. mo. 1838. 

" Dear Friend, — I received thy letter, and 
after giving it a careful perusal, could not ques- 
tion the sincerity with which it was written, be- 
lieving it to proceed from the kindest feelings 


of gospel love, under the influence of which we 
can speak to each other, and desire for one 
another an establishment on the true foundation, 
Christ Jesus, the spiritual head of the Church. 
The substance of thy concern for my advance- 
ment in the knowledge of divine things appears 
to be, that I should be found in the observance 
of some of those outward ceremonies which tliou 
believest are very essential, and by so doing put 
on the * whole armor of God/ Although thou 
art a stranger to me, the expression of thy kind 
concern for my welfare is grateful to my feelings : 
and in answer to the query, ^ why tarriest thou V 
I am willing to give thee my views upon the 
subjects to which thou hast alluded. 

'' "While I do not desire in any way to inter- 
fere with the religious opinions of others, or call 
in question the sincerity with which they adhere 
to their peculiar forms of worship or views of 
^ faith in Jesus,' yet I have not so learned Christ 
as to be unable to give a reason for the hope 
that is in me, and of that faith in him Tvhich I 
desire to hold fast unto the end without wavering. 


As regards myself, I have never felt tlie neces- 
sity of turning to the ' weak and beggarly ele- 
ments' to witness that cleansing of heart which 
is necessary to sanctification, and that redemp- 
tion from sin, which is followed by a communion 
of the soul with its Divine Author, believing that 
Christ has not called us to these, but to 'glory 
and to virtue/ The apostle has declared that 
as we give ' all diligence, to add to faith virtue, 
to virtue knowledge, to knowledge temperance, 
to temperance patience, to patience godliness, to 
godliness brotherly kindness, and to brotherly 
kindness, charity,' that ' an entrance shall be 
ministered unto you abundantly into the ever- 
lasting kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ.' This kingdom I believe to be a state of 
inward spiritual communion with God; it cometh 
not by observation ; ' neither shall they say, lo 
here ! or lo there I for behold the kingdom of 
God is within you.' 

" I have an unshaken confidence in the all- 
sufficiency of the spirit of Christ, as it becomes 
in us ' the resurrection and the life,' to effect our 


redemption from all iniquity, and the suiFering 
consequent upon a separation from the divine 
harmony, to put us in possession of the joys of 
holiness in this life, and a well-grounded hope 
of a blessed immortality. And in order to ac- 
complish this great work, I believe it is essential 
to be haptized. But there is no evidence to my 
mind, either from the convictions of truth or the 
testimony of scripture, that the baptism of water 
is the one saving baptism enjoined by our blessed 
Master, or enforced by his apostles. John the 
Baptist, in the comparison he made of his mission, 
which was distinguished by the observance of 
this ordinance, with the mission of Christ, de- 
clared, ' He must increase, but I must decrease. 
He that cometh from above is above all. He 
that is of the earth is earthly, and speaketh of the 
earth/ ^ I indeed baptize you with water unto 
repentance : but he that cometh after me is 
mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy 
to bear : he shall baptize you with the Holy 
Ghost and with fire.' The baptism of John was 
but an outward ceremony of a decreasing nature. 


which, like the ceremonies of the law^ was typical 
of a more spiritual dispensation, but made not 
the comers thereunto perfect, as ^ pertaining to 
the conscience/ Whereas, the baptism of Jesus 
Christ is of a spiritual, increasing and heavenly 
nature, and does not consist in the putting away 
of the filth of the flesh, but the ^answer of a good 
conscience toward God by the resurrection of 
Jesus Christ.' 

^* This I believe was the baptism which Jesus 
embraced in his great commission to his disciples, 
^ Go ye therefore and teach all nations, baptizing 
them in the name of the Father, and of the Son 
and of the Holy Ghost ; teaching them to observe 
all things whatsoever I have commanded you. 
And lo! I am with you always even unto the end 
of the world.' He did not say baptize them 
with icater, but in ^ the name of the Father and 
of the Son and of the Holy Ghost.' Ife is this 
spiritual baptism that is essential to wash away 
the sins of the soul, and it was no doubt this 
that was alluded to in the command given to 
Saul. ' Arise and be baptized and wash away 


thy sinS; calling upon the name of the Lord.' 
For he declared in his epistle to Titus, ^ It is 
not by works of righteousness which we have 
done, but according to his mercy he saved us. 
by the washing of regeneration and the renew- 
ings of the Holy Ghost.' Thus plainly setting 
forth the insufficiency of carnal ordinances, the 
performance of which constituted the righteous- 
ness of the law, and placing their hope of salva- 
tion upon the ' mercy of God, the washing of re- 
generation and the renewings of the Holy 
Ghost.' As the apostles witnessed this effectual 
baptism, they could declare, ' as many of us as 
were baptized into Jesus Christ, were baptized 
into his death. Therefore we are buried with 
him by baptism unto death, that like as Christ 
was raised from the dead by the glory of the 
Father, even so, also, we should walk in newness 
of life.' ' For as many as have been baptized 
into Christ, have put on Christ." 

^' The apostle Paul has also declared, there is 
unto us but 'one Lord, one faith and one baptism.' 
This one baptism, then, is not an outicard ordi- 

154 MEMOIR or 

nance, but an inward spiritual cleansing, effected 
by tbe ' washing of regeneration and the renew- 
ings of the Holy Ghost." 

" I am satisfied that I have not followed cun- 
ningly devised fables, in placing my hope of 
sanctification here, believing this to be the bap- 
tism of Christ, and the ground taken by the 
primitive believers. And am also well satisfied 
that were / to turn from the ' cloud of witnesses' 
which have surrounded my mind, of the sufii- 
ciency of this baptism, to the observance of an 
outward ceremony, I should justly deserve the 
reproof given by Paul to a people formerly, ' 
foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you,' &c., 
(see the Epistle to the Galatians.) 

^' It was, no doubt, the baptism of the Holy 
Spirit that the three thousand souls were bap- 
tized with, by which they were introduced into 
membership with the church of Christ, on the 
memorable day of Pentecost, when the powerful 
appeals of the apostle Peter awakened in them 
the inquiry, ^ men and brethren what shall we 
do to be saved.' We may remember the apostle 


exhorted them to ^ repent and be baptized every 
one of you^ in the name of Jesus Christ, for the 
remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift 
of the Holy Ghost.' On another occasion .the 
same apostle declares, that whosoever ' believeth 
in Christ,' shall receive ^remission of sins,' thus 
shewing that this saving baptism is one and the 
same thing with a belief in Christ. I think it 
evident from the testimony of scripture that in 
the latter periods of the apostolic age, the use of 
water decreased, because they had experienced 
its inefficacy, and were made living witnesses of 
the powerful baptism of Christ, under the influ- 
ence of which they could say, ^ By one spirit 
we are all baptized into one body, whether we 
be Jews or Grentiles, whether we be bond or free, 
and have all been made to drink into one spirit/ 
It is also evident that water baptism became a 
fruitful source of contention, as will be seen by 
Paul's first epistle to the Corinthians, where he 
speaks of it in such a way as to give reason to 
believe, he was prepared to lay it aside, for he 
thanked God that he had baptized so few, saying, 


^ Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preacli 
the gospel/ 

" As regards that ordinance called the sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper, as it is observed by 
modern professors, it appears to me to be a con- 
tinuation of a Jewish ceremony under a new 
name. For I think the testimony of all the 
Evangelists informs us, that it is not an institu- 
tion of Christ, when they tell us that Jesus kept 
it as the ^ passover.' ^ The feast of the passover' 
and ^ The feast of unleavened bread/' 

"It was not consistent with the nature of the 
spiritual dispensation which Jesus Christ came 
to introduce, that any outward rite could be es- 
sential to divine communion. It was the object 
of his mission to put an end to sin, by laying 
the axe at the root of every corrupt desire and 
inclination of the heart, and to bring in ever- 
lasting righteousness, a work too momentous to 
be effected by any outward forms. Hence it be- 
came necessary that he should ^ blot out the 
hand-writing of ordinances, nailing them to the 
cross,' and instruct them in the knowledge of 


the kingdom of God within them, where his 
appearance should be known by an inward and 
spiritual communion, a participation in which 
is the only true supper of the Lord, ' Behold 
I stand at the door and knock, if any man will 
hear my voice and open unto me, I will come in 
and sup with him and he shall sup with me.' 

^^ The blessed Jesus frequently instructed his 
disciples in the knowledge of divine truths, by 
the aid of figures, well knowing they were un- 
able to comprehend the fulness of the gospel 
day at once ; and we find on the last occasion 
when he kept the ceremony of the ' Passover,' 
in which he took bread and blessed, and broke 
it, and gave it to them, saying, ' take eat this is 
my body,' he wished to impress their minds 
through the medium of this interesting figure, 
that as this ceremony had been kept in com- 
memoration of the deliverance of that people 
from Egyptian bondage, so it was a type or 
figure of the deliverance of the soul from the 
bondage or thraldom of sin, which was to be 
keptin commemoration of its redemption through 


Clirist; ' the wisdom and the power of God.' He 
further told them, ' verily I say unto you, I will 
drink no more of the fruit of the vine until that 
day when I drink it new with you in the king- 
dom of God/ Thus showing them that the ob- 
servance of the type was to end, that it was ex- 
pedient he should go away, but giving them the 
blessed promise that he would appear a second 
time without sin unto salvation, and be with his 
faithful followers and disciples ' alway even unto 
the end of the world.' Jesus commanded his 
disciples and the people not to ' labor for that 
meat which perisheth, but for that meat which 
endureth unto everlasting life/ ' I am that bread 
of life/ ' Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of 
Man and drink his blood, ye have no life in you. 
Whoso eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood 
hath eternal life, and I will raise him up at the 
last day ; for my flesh is meat indeed and my 
blood is drink indeed. He that eateth my flesh 
and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I 
in him. As the living Father hath sent me and 
T live by the Father, so he that eateth me, even 


he shall live by me. This is that bread whiuh 
came down from heaven : not as your fathers 
did eat manna and are dead : he that eateth of 
this bread shall live forever.' 

'' The disciples did not perceive the mystical 
meaning of these sayings, but the blessed Jesus 
did not leave them to conjecture; for when he 
found they were offended at what they had heard, 
he told them, ^ It is the spirit that quickeneth, 
the flesh profiteth nothing; the words that I speak 
unto you they are spirit and they are life.' Thus 
shewing them that under the figure of his flesh 
and blood, he was speaking of his spiritual mani- 
festation, in which he will become ' Christ in us, 
the hope of glory,' ' the resurrection and the 
life.' As we are made witnesses of this resur- 
rection we can in truth say, ^ I know that my 
Redeemer liveth, and because he lives I shall 
live also. Then shall we know that it is his 
life and not his death, that becomes a propitia- 
tion for our sins, agreeably to his own promise. 
* I will give my life a ransom for many.' And 
as we are clothed upon with the life of Christ, 


we come to put on the ^ new man^ which after 
Grod is created in righteousness and true holi- 
ness/ and are raised above carnal performances 
and dead works^ to serve the living God in new- 
ness of life.'' 

" The apostle Paul assures the believers that 
'meats and drinks, and divers washings, and 
carnal ordinances,' were only to continue till the 
' time of reformation,' and this ' time of reforma- 
tion,' he says, was the coming of Christ by the 
establishment of a 'greater and more perfect 
tabernacle not made with hands,' an inward and 
spiritual temple, where the true worshipper might 
worship God, not in form and ceremony, but ' in 
spirit and in truth.' However this kind of 
worship may be overlooked or neglected, it re- 
mains to be the blessed medium through which 
the soul finds access to the throne of grace, and 
knows its communion to be with God in the 
'silence of all flesh.' 

" As every reformation is gradual, and as 
many of the early converts to Christianity had 
been taught from their infancy to reverence the 


ceremonies of the law, we cannot suppose they 
would at once abandon them ; but as they took 
heed unto that light, or ^ manifestation of the 
spirit, which is given to every one to profit 
withal,' their views of divine truths became 
clearer and clearer, till at length they considered 
that righteousness which stood in the observance 
of the ceremonies of the law as 'filthy rags/ 

'^ Whatever may have been the practice of 
the apostle Paul in the beginning of his ministry, 
we find, thirty years after his conversion, in the 
maturity of his religious experience, he drew a 
boundary line between the dispensation of the 
law, and the spiritual dispensation of the new 
covenant, (of which the other was only as a 
schoolmaster to lead unto ;) and in view of the 
sufficiency of the grace of God to bring salvation, 
he cautioned the Hebrews after this manner : 
' Be not carried about with divers and strange 
doctrines ; for it is a good thing that the heart 
be established with grace ; not with meats, which 
have not profited them that have been occupied 



" Happy would it have been for the human 
family had this admonition of Paul been attended 
to ; but how soon after the days of the apostles 
was the sufficiency of this grace of God to effect 
salvation questioned, the church turned again 
to the weak and beggarly elements, and brought 
in bondage to a mercenary priesthood. The 
civil and ecclesiastical powers were blended ; men 
became the advocates of Christianity, more from 
the pecuniary interest with which it endowed its 
possessor, than that love of souls which dis- 
tinguished the labors of the primitive followers of 
Jesus. In consequence of this unhallowed union, 
the church lost her purity. Mystery Babylon 
bewitched her with the love of ^filthy lucre.' 
The use of many carnal ordinances increased, 
every effort was made to cloud the simplicity of 
Christianity, and to render that obscure and dif- 
ficult to be understood, which was easily compre- 
hended by the illiterate fisherman of Galilee, and 
which was seen in prophetic vision to be so plain, 
that the ' way-faring man though a fool cannot 
err therein.' And had not God in his mercy 


preserved a little remnant, who, like tlie seven 
thousand in the days of Elijah, could not bow 
the knee to Baal nor worship his image, the 
church would have become an utter desolation. 
But truth triumphed over error, the light of the 
gospel has been shining with increasing bright- 
ness, opening to the obedient soul the simplicity 
and purity of the religion of Jesus. Should we 
not then desire, that the church may come still 
more fully out of the wilderness, and that she 
may indeed be clothed with the sun of righteous- 
ness, Christ Jesus ? That the fulness of the 
gospel day may be witnessed, in which the de- 
claration of the prophet shall be fulfilled, * They 
shall teach no more every man his neighbor, and 
every man his brother, saying know the Lord, 
for all shall know me from the least to the great- 
est of them.' When there shall be no need to 
depend upon the arm of flesh, the cry of lo, here 
is Christ ! and lo, he is there I will cease ; for the 
Lord's children, being all taught of the Lord, 
will speak the same language, and mind the same 
thing. Then may we not hope for the coming 


of that day in which all the disputes and conten- 
tions which have so long distracted Christendom, 
and divided it into sects and parties, will be at 
an end, and the professors of religion he able 
to labor harmoniously together for the universal 
establishment of the Ptedeemer's kingdom ? 

" With sincere desires for thy advancement in 
the knowledge of the truth as it is in Jesus, 
'< I am thy friend, 

John Jackson." 

To S M . 

Dear Friend : — '' When I read thy letter in 
which thou mentioned some of the conflicts of 
spirit which thou hast had to witness, there came 
to my remembrance a scripture declaration which 
I am willing to mention for thy encouragement; 
' It is not in man that walketh to direct his steps, 
but the good man's steps are ordered of the 
Lord/ Being a firm believer in the truth of 
the testimony that ^the manifestation of the 
spirit is given to every man to profit withal,' and 
that it will, as we are obedient to its uufoldings, 


direct our steps in the path of diviue appoint- 
ment; I commend thee to the teachings of this 
divine gift, with sincere desires that thou may- 
est be so guided by it, as to give daily demon- 
stration of thy love for the truth as it is in Je- 
sus, and thus become an humble follower of Him 
who is meek and lowly of heart. I have no 
doubt but thou lovest Christ, and desires with an 
honest zeal to follow him, because thou hast 
found by so doing tbou canst only have a peace- 
ful mind ; therefore keep tbine eye single unto 
him, that thy ' whole body may be full of ligbt.' 
Then thou will see clearly the path of duti/j and 
be able to distinguish between the voice of the 
' true shepberd' and the voice of the ^ stranger.^ 
Thou wilt find that the voice of the former is an 
inicardj spiritual voice, which, like the 'still 
small voice' that spoke to Elijah, the prophet, 
speaks to our souls as we continue to dwell 
in our own tents, enwrapped in the mantle of 
fervent prayer, until the earthquake, the whirl- 
wind, and the fire have passed by. And as we 
are willing to wait in quietude and in confidence 


for the teachings of the Holy Spirit, we shall 
know this ^ still small voice' to ^ teach us as never 
man taught/ 

Whatever may be the conflicts and trials of 
our spirits, in which we may have to feel the ne- 
cessity of a spiritual baptism, if our desires are 
sincere, these will work together for our good, 
and lead us to contemplate the testimony and 
promise of the blessed Master, ' In the world ye 
shall have tribulation ; but be of good cheer, I 
have overcome the world ;' and ^ To him that 
overcometh will I grant to sit with me in my 
throne, even as I also overcame and am set down 
with my Father in his throne.' 

Thou sayest it was a great trial to go to some 
meetings where thou apprehended thy duty call- 
ed thee, in consequence of meeting with some op- 
posing brethren. Perhaps as thou wert made 
willing to do what thou thought required of thee, 
thou wilt not feel bound to visit them again. 
We do not serve a hard Master, but one ^ whose 
yoke is easy and whose burden is light/ All 
who are qualified by the Divine Master to go forth 


as the messengers of his truth, must be ^wise as 
serpents and harmless as doves/ and bear in mind 
the command which he gave to his disciples when 
he sent them to proclaim the glorious doctrine, 
that the ^kingdom of God is come niorh unto 
you :' * "Whosoever shall not receive you, nor 
hear you, when ye depart thence, shake off the 
dust under your feet for a testimony against 

If thou believest it to be thy duty to speak a 
word of encouragement in season to the travel- 
lers Zion-ward, or to testify unto others of those 
things which ^ thine eyes have seen and thine 
hands have handled' of the goodness and mercy 
of the great Shepherd of Israel, either among thy 
own people or among others, 1 would say, ^ mind 
thy calling/ and I believe if thou art faithful 
and obedient to the light that is in thee, thou 
mayest become instrumental in the divine hand 
in calling sinners from darkness to light, and 
from tbe bondage of transgression to the blessed 
liberty of the children of God. But in order to 
labor successfully in this great work, (the object 


of which is to call men to the kingdom of God 
within them, or ^ the kingdom of God nigh unto 
you/ as Jesus instructed his disciples) we must 
experience the same overshadowing of the Holy 
Ghost, or baptism of the Holy Spirit, which en- 
abled the apostles and primitive believers to 
preach repentance and amendment of life as the 
medium of salvation, and to return in peace, with 
this language, ^ Lord even the devils are subject 
unto us through thy name,' and also to receive 
from him their reward, which was the bless- 
ed assurance, that they might rejoice be- 
cause their names were written in heaven. Now 
as this qualification to preach the gospel is not to 
be acquired in the will and wisdom of man, but 
by the overshadowing of the Holy Spirit, so neith- 
er can a gift or commission of it be exercised in 
our own will or wisdom, or even in our own time. 
We must wait in all humility until the ^ spirit 
giveth utterance,' whereby we may speak under- 
standingly or baptizingly unto others. This kind 
of ministry is calculated to gather souls to Christ ; 
convert sinners unto righteousness. Not to make 


proseljtes to any sect, but to the Church of 
Christ. Because if we once get hold of the sub- 
stance of reli^on, which is practical righteous- 
ness, we shall worship ^ the Father' by the holi- 
ness of our lives. We shall find that he is no 
respecter of persons, but that all of every sect of 
professing Christians ^ who fear him and work 
righteousness are accepted with him,' and con- 
stitute the members of the true church. 

If we examine the ground on which we stand, 
and believe we have received the command with 
the necessary qualification, we have nothing to 
fear. Conflicts of spirit may be necessary to 
deepen us in the truth ; we must endure them 
patiently, calmly, quietly ; for was not the cap- 
tain of our salvation made perfect through suffer- 
ing ? And can the servant expect to fare better 
than his Lord ? No ! "We must be willing to fol- 
low in his footsteps, and then we shall receive 
our reward, not from man, because anything that 
man can give is but a poor compensation for a 
servant of Christ, whether it be praise or censure, 
or gifts of silver or gold. ' Thy money perish 


with thee/ was the sharp rebuke given by the 
apostle Peter to one Simon, who thought he 
could purchase the gift of Grod with silver or 
gold. Peter knew that this gift was a free gift 
of Christ, and he may have remembered the 
command, ' Freely ye have received, freely give/ 
In obedience to this injunction the disciples went 
forth faithfully discharging their duties as good 
stewards of the household of faith. We should 
strive to follow them as they followed Christ, 
that by a life of continual obedience we may hap- 
pily reap the rich reward of knowing that our 
names are written ' in the Lamb's book of life/ 
May our steps be so directed in this state of 
probation and trial as to secure to us permanent 
and eternal joys, is the prayer of thy friend and 
well wisher. John Jackson." 

Letter to P E .* 

Dear Friend: — '^Although some time has 
elapsed since I received thy acceptable letter con- 
taining an invitation to visit your country, yet 

• Of Illinois ; not a member of the Religious Society 
of Friends. 


owing to absence from home on account of my 
health, and my numerous duties and cares, I have 
not replied to it at an earlier period ; nevertheless 
I appreciate thy kind offer, and if it should ever 
be my lot to visit the Western States, and should 
any labor be assigned me in your part of the 
vineyard, I hope I shall be prepared for it and 
engage in it with a willing mind. "While I do 
not claim to be a sectarian in my views and feel- 
ings, but fully believe that * in every nation he 
that feareth God and worketh righteousness is 
accepted with him,' yet I cannot help believing 
that the principles and testimonies of the Society 
of Friends, constitute the testimonies and princi- 
ples of every good man, let his name to religion 
be what it may. As a Society we do not con- 
sider that religion consists so much in opinions 
or forms of worship, as on those divine instruc- 
tions relating to man's duty and happiness, which 
are revealed within by the law of God written 
on the heart, and which are intended to be obeyed 
and carried out in practice. We hold that religion 
consists in being good and doing good. Its plain- 
est injunctions are ^ love to God and love to man.' 

172 MEMOIR or 

Its effects are everywhere the same^ producing 
^ peace on earth and good will to men/ We 
have never attempted to bind the human mind 
by creeds, made up of the opinions and doctrines 
of men, because we maintain that it is perfectly 
consistent with the economy of divine Providence 
gradually to unfold to the understandings of his 
intelligent creatures, more and more in its ful- 
ness, the beauty, sublimity and eternal excellence 
of that kingdom, of which it was said in pro- 
phetic vision, ' of the increase thereof, there 
shall never be an end/ We therefore commend 
all men to that inward manifestation of light 
and truth alluded to by the apostle when he said, 
^ye have an unction from the Holy One,' and 
^ ye need not that any man teach you, save as 
this anointing teacheth you of all things and is 
truth,' that they may obey its teachings and by 
it be led in the way of life and salvation, from 
one degree of experience to another in the things 
which ^the eye hath not seen nor ear heard, 
neither hath it entered into the heart of man to 
conceive,' even the good things God hath in store 
for them that love him. 



It seems to me, my dear friend, that human 
experience fully accords with and amply confirms 
the testimonies of the righteous of every age, 
concerning the nature of pure and undefiled re- 
ligion ; and that from our own esperience we 
learn that whenever we have felt its salutary 
influences, it has been the result of obedience to 
the manifold dictates of divine truth in our own 
souls ; and that it is not produced by our name 
to religion, or the form under which we have 
been led, either from education or conviction, to 
worship the Almighty. Under these views and 
feelings I can give the right hand of fellowship 
to every one, who, from inward conviction, is en- 
deavoring to fear God and work righteousness, 
let their name to religion be what it may. But 
I can see with thee, that in the midst of the high 
profession to religion which so much abounds,there 
is often the absence of practical righteous- 
ness, and the observance of that gospel injunction, 
^Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto 
you, do ye even so unto them.^ The gospel of 
Christ is of heavenly origin, and its tendency is 


t© produce a heavenly state. If men would cm= 
brace it in its purity how soon would it convert 
the moral wilderness of this world into an Eden, 
and cause the desert places thereof to smile and 
^ blossom as the rose, joy and gladness would b^ 
found therein^ thanksgiving and the voice of 

What a scene of moral beauty would take the 
place of the present state of anarchy and confu- 
sion ; human wretchedness would be unknown ^ 
the ' sword would be beaten into a ploughshare, 
and the spear into a pruning hook, nation would 
no longer lift up sword against nation, neither 
would men learn war any more.' How much 
more delightful would it be, to behold righteous- 
ness, order and peace springing up among the 
nations of the earth, than to have the pages of 
human history filled with the recitals of war and 
bloodshed. How much better to hear of the sub- 
jugation of depraved and angry passions, than 
the conquest of states and empires. How much 
better to hear of deeds of charity and works of 
benevolence and love, than of the crimes and 


cruelties which arc the legitimate consequences 
of ' man's inhumanity to man/ I contend for 
nothing more than that the professors of religion 
should carry out in their lives and practice the 
principles and precepts of the gospel, and I am 
sure that the desolating scourge of war, with all 
its accumulated miseries, would be banished from 
the world forever. Men would see that every 
system of war and oppression is at variance with 
the precepts of Jesus, the attributes of God, 
and the best interests of man. 

In the moral government of the Ruler of the 
universe, no such inconsistencies or irregularities 
can ever be sanctioned. 

It is for this reason that we have a testimony 
against wars and fightings ; but it is far from be- 
ing new or peculiar to us; it is as old as the gos- 
pel, and the gospel was preached to our first pa- 
rents in Eden. So it will be found of all the 
other testimonies which we profess to bear ; they 
are not ours, but the testimonies of truth ; and I 
cannot but believe that the spreading of them 
will tend to enlarge Christ's kingdom in the 


earth, and thus promote tlie best interests of the 
human family. It is but little that we can do 
of ourselves towards the furtherance of these great 
objects, but if we are faithful in our day to the 
light and knowledge with which Divine Goodness 
is pleased to furnish us, our feeble efforts, like 
the widow's mite cast into the treasury, gain for 
us, when called upon to give an account of our 
stewardship, this reward, * Well done, good and 
faithful servant, thou hast been faithful in a few 
things, I will make the ruler over many things, 
enter thou into the joy of thy Lord/ 

That this may be our experience, is the sincere 
desire of thy friend, 

John Jackson/' 

We might have properly mentioned ere this 
that the constitution of our friend, which had 
never been robust, seemed undermined by a 
severe illness of several weeks previously to his 
leaving home for the West Indies. During his 
sickness, his friends were apprehensive that he 
would not get well, but he felt impressed with 


the belief that he would accomplish the religious 
visit he had in prospect, and return in safety to 
his family. With the increase of physical de- 
bility there were no marks of wasted mental 
energy, or a disposition to seek rest from continu- 
ous labor. He appeared ever mindful of the 
apostle's inj unction to his brethren, "To be diligent 
in business, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord.'' 
The influence which he possessed in his neigh- 
borhood, was an evidence of the good effects re- 
sulting from a mind habitually clothed with the 
heavenly attributes of justice, mercy, and hu- 
mility. Persons, of both low and high degree, 
acknowledged its power, and he was thus enabled 
at times, by a seasonable word of caution and 
counsel, to prevent the chords of harmony being 
broken, and in cases where they had been des- 
troyed, to act the part of a peace-maker. 

Among the many means which he employed 
to benefit himself and others, was the use of the 
compass. In this way he was particularly use- 
ful, by settling disputed claims in property. The 
confidence reposed in his judgment and integrity 


by all parties, generally enabled liim to effect a 
satisfactory decision. We have said he was 
diligent in business ', he seemed to act upon his 
early conviction, that with a rightly balanced 
mind there is time for the fulfilment of every 
duty. First, towards Him unto whom we owe 
^ all things ; and secondly, unto our neighbors and 

We cannot but hope that the vast amount of 
labor upon scientific subjects which he has left 
in manuscript, will be placed in a form by which 
it may benefit others. Astronomy was his favorite 
study. A love for it was engendered in early 
youth, no doubt, from his reverence for the great 
Creator of the starry hosts, by whose wisdom and 
power they are sustained and made to revolve in 
their respective orbits in perpetual grandeur and 
harmony. To his contemplative mind this 
opened a wide field of enjoyment, in which new 
wonders and beauties were continually presented 
to his view. At the silent hour of midnight, 
after having disposed of the duties of the day, as 
well as at early morn ere the beauties of the 


night were eclipsed bj the beams of the rising 
sun, he was often to be found in the observatory. 
His astronomical observations are interspersed 
with reflections which prove that his mind 
was wont to soar above the heavens, and dwell 
upon the Supreme Intelligence by which they 
were framed. The last of these, made but a 
short period before his decease, is here appended. 
" What scope of the imagination can embrace 
the extent of the universe, when so many worlds 
are seen to exist within the narrow limits of ap- 
parent vision. In contemplating thy works, 
Illimitable Creator, I learn at every step some 
lesson of thy unmeasured greatness, some addi- 
tional conviction of thy unbounded beneficence, 
and some striking illustration of the littleness 
and frailty of man. How humbling to human 
pride is the thought that the globe on which I 
dwell, on which so many millions are striving 
and contending for dominion, as though the 
possession of its atoms of dust were the whole 
aim and object of existence, is but itself an 
atom of thy material empire, and is almost lost 


siglit of amidst the contemplation of creation^s 
immensity as it is here revealed before me." 

In his concern for the advancement of truth 
and righteousness in the earth, he labored not 
only orally, but with his pen. An address to 
the members of his own Quarterly Meeting on 
subject of ''Divine Spiritual Worship/'^was issued 
in 1837. And a pamphlet containing " Con- 
siderations on the impropriety of Friends parti- 
cipating in the administration of political govern- 
ment/' was printed and circulated among our 
members in 1840. So thoroughly was his spirit 
imbued with the peaceable nature of the Chris- 
tian religion, that it may^be said that, " in season 
and out of season,^' he was prepared to bear an 
uncompromising testimony against war and blood- 
shed, believing it to be one of the greatest evils 
in the world. A little work entitled "Peace and 
War/' was an exposition of his serious convictions 
on the subject. Unpleasant, as it ever is, to 
dwell upon or even allude to differences among bre- 
thren, we feel that we would not be doing justice 
to the duty we have undertaken, if we did not here 


notice the fact, tliat this production gave un- 
easiness to some Friends, because of expressions 
contained in it which they thought undervalued 
the Scriptures. It is not our business nor our 
aim to enter upon the point of controversy? 
further than to say, that our personal knowledge of 
the writer forbids us to believe that he was want- 
ing in respect for this volume, which he highly 
prized, and had so frequently read in his family. 
It was his sincere belief that those parts of it 
upon which some professors of Christianity are 
wont to found their arguments in favor of war 
and slavery, being simply of a historical char- 
acter, were likely to exhibit the peculiar or edu- 
cational views of those who penned them. The 
respect with which he treated those who differed 
from him in opinion is worthy imitation. He 
considered liberty of conscience as one of the 
choicest boons of Heaven, and was ever willing 
to grant to all, what he asked for himself, a free- 
dom to exercise it. This enabled him to extend 
the hand of friendship even to those who were 
disposed to look upon him with coldness and dis- 


In Friends' Intelligencer of 7th mo. 2d and 9thy 
1853, there appeared Essays on the Death Penalty, 
which were written by him at the suggestion of 
our beloved friend, H. J. Moore. The interest 
which they both felt in this subject is well known 
to many, and we would that their faithfulness in 
the advocacy of the blessed principle of love to 
Grod and good will to men, might act as a stim- 
ulus to those who are continued a little longer 
on this stage of action, to work ^' while it is 
day;'' that when the closing period of this life 
shall draw nigh, like our departed friends 
they may be able to adopt the language, ^'I 
have glorified thee on the earth. I have finished 
the work which thou gavest me to do." 

A few months before his death, he pub- 
lished his views on ^^ The Christian Minis- 
try, — A free ministry — Objections to a theo- 
logical education for the ministry, &c." Our 
testimony to a free gospel ministry is strong- 
ly advocated therein, and the simplicity of 
the religion promulgated by Jesus, is contrasted 
■with that which is exhibited by many of its pro- 


fessors at the present day. In this work, as in 
the one before alluded to, there are some senti- 
ments with which all Friends do not unite. But 
from the calm serenity of our friend's latter days, 
and the joy with which he anticipated the period 
when his spirit should be freed from the frail 
tenement that connected him with this transitory 
scene, we may infer^ that whatever may have 
been his views, they militated not against him 
in the near approach of his dissolution. He felt 
an assurance of acceptance with his heavenly 
Father, whom he had endeavored to serve with 
singleness of heart, by acting out the law of the 
spirit, which '' sets free from the law of sin and 
death.'' It was his often expressed belief, that 
opinions were as nothing, in comparison with 
that faith which leads to a perfect fulfilment of 
the commandments upon which the blessed Jesus 
declares ''hang the law and the prophets,'' which 
would lead into the exercise of those virtues, that 
are acquired by keeping the eye single and the 
heart pure, by which the selfishness of human 
nature is overcome, and we are enabled to say, 


^^ do witli me Lord, as seemeth good in thj 

^' He is a Jew, wlio is one inwardly; and 
circumcision is tliat of the heart, in the spirit, 
and not in the letter ; whose praise is not of men 
but of God." 

The health of our friend continued to decline, 
and although it sometimes cost him considerable 
effort he was faithful in the attendance of meet- 
ings both for worship and discipline. His gos- 
pel labors for the welfare of the body, when thus 
assembled, were often accompanied by an energy 
which his friends would have deemed his frail 
tenement incapable of exhibiting; but the spirit 
rose in dominion, and proved " strength in weak- 
ness and a present help in the needful time." 
Thus labored till the close of the day the sub- 
ject of this feeble tribute, whom we have followed 
in part from his infancy to the period when his 
work being accomplished, " the mortal" was 
about '' to put on immortality," and ^^ death was 
to be swallowed up in victory." In tracing the 
leading characteristics which embellished his lifc; 


we have been far from desiring to exalt the crea- 
ture; but rather, to offer the homage due to the 
great Creator, that in having constituted man 
a twofold being, He has rendered him capa- 
ble, through obedience to the manifestations of 
the divine will, of maintaining the dominion 
" over the beasts of the field, the fowls of the air, 
and the fishes of the sea,'' by which the spiritual 
life is exalted, and he retains the noble and dig- 
nified position designed for him by his Creator. 
The scripture testimony is, that he who is thus 
found governing his own house, ruling his own 
spirit, " is better than he that taketh a city." 

He was confined but a short time to his cham- 
ber, during which be appeared to have nothing 
to do, but to bear with patience and resignation 
the sufferings consequent upon disease and dis- 
solution. The bonds to earth were broken, and 
his spirit seemed enwrapped with joy ineffable; 
the bright visions of which he had had a fore- 
taste, were about to be opened more fully unto 
him, and in his parting salutations to his be- 
loved and stricken family, he could point them 


to the happy flight that spirit takes, whose trea- 
sures are garnered in heaven. 

On the 14th of 4th mo. 1855, the immortal 
part was released from its house of clay, which 
on the 17th was followed to the place of its in- 
terment in Friends' burial ground at Darby, by 
a great concourse of his friends, over whom the 
feeling of solemnity appeared to prevail in a re. 
markable manner. 

Thus passed into the eternal world, one whose 
chief concern had been faithfully to fulfil his 
mission on earth, that he might be prepared for 
a higher and more exalted state of being ; who, 
even in childhood, watched the dawning of that 
light, which in the obedient soul shines " brighter 
and brighter unto the perfect day,^' and who 
continued to testify to the end, of the univer- 
sality of the Father's love, and of the joys of His 
kingdom inwardly revealed to the dedicated mind. 


The following address is the one alluded to in 
the Memoir of John Jackson, as having been 
printed and circulated in the Danish Colonies. 


We, the undersigned, members of the Reli- 
gious Society of Friends, commonly called Quak- 
ers, from Pennsylvania in America, now engaged 
in a mission of Grospel love to the West India 
Islands, with the approbation and unity of our 
brethren and sisters in profession with us, hav- 
ing requested of the Governor permission to hold 
religious meetings on this Island, and having by 
his note, bearing date ''Dec. 5th, 1840," been 
forbidden to appoint such meetings, deem it re- 
spectful to explain more fully the object of our 
visit than we have been permitted to do by per- 
sonal intercourse amongst you. 

The Society of Friends have, from their ear- 
liest rise, maintained as a fundamental point of 
doctrine, that a measure or manifestation of the 
spirit of Christ, the true light that lighteth every 
man that cometh into the world, is given to all 


men, to lead and guide them in the path of duty. 
That this is the appearing of ^^ Christ within," 
which the Apostle declared to be the " hope of 
glory,'' Col. i. 27, and the same Divine Power 
which the blessed Jesus alluded to, when he gave 
this command to his disciples, ^' Go ye, there- 
fore, and teach all nations, baptising them in the 
name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost, teaching them to observe all things 
whatsoever I have commanded you; and lo, I am 
with you alway, even unto the end of the 
world/' Mat. 28: 19, 20. 

This Divine principle or light of Christ within, 
is that to which our worthy predecessor, George 
Fox, called the attention of the people, as an ef- 
ficacious teacher and spiritual guide to salvation, 
and all the consequent joys connected with the 
soul's redemption ; that they might, by their 
obedience to its blessed teachings, conform their 
lives to the example and precepts of Jesus 
Christ, and thus find peace with God their Crea- 
tor. Hence it is declared by Wm. Penn, one of 
the most distinguished writers in our Society, in 


his account of this rise and progress, that a be- 
lief in '' the light of Christ within, as God's 
gift for man's salvation," is their characteristic or 
main distinguishing point or principle of doc- 
trine. And in relation to those whom it pleased 
the great Head of the Church to call to the work 
of the ministry under our name, the same writer 
asserts, ^' These experimental preachers of glad 
tidings of God's truth and kingdom, could not 
run when they list, or preach, or pray, but as 
Christ their Redeemer prepared and moved them 
by his blessed spirit, for which they waited in 
their services or meetings, and spoke as that gave 
them utterance.'^ '' They went not forth in their 
own will nor time, but in the will of God, and 
spake not their own studied matter, but as they 
were opened and moved of his spirit, with which 
they were well acquainted in their own conver- 
sion. They directed people to a principle in 
themselves, though not of themselves, by which 
all they asserted, preached or exhorted others to, 
might be known in them through experience to 
be true.'^ — Rise and Progress, &c. 


Although many of the wise builders of sys- 
tems of religion have rejected this revelation 
of Christ, or manifestation of his spirit in 
man, for a foundation, our forefathers pro- 
fessed to build upon it, — as a rock immova- 
ble — as '' the corner stone, the tried stone, elect 
and precious," which the Lord's prophet declared 
should " be laid in Zion." Isa. 28 : 16. They 
doubtless were sincere in their convictions of the 
duties of religion, when under the influence of 
the Holy Spirit, they went forth as the servants 
of Jesus Christ, visiting the nations of the earth, 
to call men from darkness to light, and from 
under the dominion and power of transgression 
into the glorious liberty of the children of God; 
for they manifested their attachment to the prin- 
ciples thus professed, and the various testimonies 
to practical righteousness which these principles 
taught them to maintain, by a willingness to 
suffer persecutions for Christ's sake and the Gos- 
pel's. Fines, imprisonments, the deprivation of 
many earthly comforts, and even the loss of life 
itself, were inflicted upon them, because they 


could say with the apostle, when he was arraign- 
ed for his faith before Felix, to answer the 
charges brought against him by bis accusers : — 
" This I confess unto thee, that after the way 
which they call heresy, so worship I the God of 
my fathers, believing all things which are written 
in the law and in the prophets. Acts 24: 14. 
The spirit of persecution drove many of ihem 
from the shores of Great Britain to seek a refuge 
and a shelter among strangers in a strange land. 
In the wilderness of America they found an 
asylum, where among the aborigines of the forest, 
they could enjoy that religious liberty and toler- 
ation which had been denied them by the more 
enlightened professors of their native land. The 
Indian opened to them his lonely wigwam, and 
in some instances they consecrated the caves and 
holes of the earth to the worship of the Al- 
mighty. There the enlightened Peun founded a 
colony which still retains his name, where the 
privilege of worshipping God according to the 
dictates of conscience was granted to all. There 
the tree of religious liberty was planted, under 

192 . MEMOIR OF 

the shade of which, the persecuted of all nations 
were permitted to repose with safety, and many 
generations have already partaken of the fruits 
that grow upon its goodly branches. 

We are unshaken in the religion of our fath- 
ers ; like them we believe in the light of Christ 
\7ithin, as Grod's gift for man's salvation — like 
them, we believe that the Head of the Church 
is as able now as formerly, to make use of the 
weak things of this world, to advance his cause. 
He set us the example by choosing some of the 
illiterate fishermen of Galilee, to be among the 
first promulgators of his Gospel. And we be- 
lieve that the learning and wisdom of man, are 
not an essential qualification for a minister of 
Christ ; neither do they receive a true qualifica- 
tion from the ordinations of man, or by virtue of 
an appointment from royal authority, or the con- 
sent of human governments, for they are the 
servants of Christ only, whom he, by his Holy 
Spirit, calls to the labor he hath assigned them, 
and they only are truly qualified to testify the 
gospel of the grace of God, who can say with 


the apostle, " I certify you, brethren, that the 
gospel which was preached of me is not after 
man, for I neither received it of man, neither 
was I taught it, but by the revelation of Jesus 
Christ'^ — and whose preaching is, not as Paul 
said, ^^ in words which man's wisdom teacheth, 
but as the Holy Ghost teacheth/' 

Without assuming to ourselves any thing more 
than belongs to the very least of the family of 
Christ, we unhesitatingly assert, that we believe 
that our Divine Master, whom we desire to serve, 
hath required at our hand the religious service 
in which we are engaged. It is not our mission 
to teach for doctrines the commandments of men, 
or to call them to absurd opinions and speculative 
theology ; but it is to invite them to embrace 
those principles of practical righteousness, which 
will lead them to a knowledge of pure and unde- 
filed religion. We dare not preach nor pray in 
our own wills, nor in our own time, only as 
Christ, our heavenly Shepherd, is pleased to ena- 
ble us, poor instruments, to proclaim the glad 
tidings of the gospel. We covet no man's silver 


or gold — we are not in pursuit of any earthly 
treasure — we seek not the praise of men. But 
the love of Christ constraineth us, and for the 
spreading of that religion which breathes " glory 
to God in the highest, on earth peace and good 
will to men/' we have left the endearments of 
home, to encounter the many trials and respon- 
sibilities connected with a gospel mission among 
strangers in a strange land. "Whatever may be 
the opinions of men concerning us, God is a wit- 
ness, that it is the religion of Jesus, which em- 
braces the present and eternal welfare of our fel- 
low heirs of immortality, we desire only to pro- 
mote. We have nothing but love for all men. 
Our request to mingle with you in religious fel- 
lowship, was, because this benevolent feeling in 
our hearts extended towards you, and we are 
conscious of having acted consistent therewith, 
in making the attempt we did, to discharge a 
duty we feel we owe to you, and to Him who is 
the Searcher of Hearts. We desire not to pay 
any disrespect whatever to the powers that be, 
remembering the Divine Master not only com- 


manded his disciples to be " wise as serpents," 
but '' harmless as doves." Therefore we are wil- 
ling patiently to bear our burden — hoping that 
the day may speedily arrive, when the feet of 
those who are commissioned to publish the glad 
tidings of salvation, may be permitted to tread 
upon all the high places of the earth, to proclaim 
unto Zion, ^^Thy God reigneth." And while we 
are willing patiently to suffer in spirit with the 
seed of the Church, we do not hesitate to express 
our conviction that the exercise of human autho- 
rity on the consciences of men, is utterly at va- 
riance with the benign religion of Jesus Christ. 
"We are well aware that nations have not unfre- 
quently assumed the right to exercise this au- 
thority, by establishing what is called the reli- 
gion of the country, over which such authority 
has sway, and which is either directly or re- 
motely supported by the sword. The subjects of 
such governments are required, in a greater or 
less degree, to conform their views of worship- 
ping their Creator to the standard thus set up 
for them, and they who may honestly and con- 


scientiously dissent therefrom, are subjected to a 
spiritual bondage. We believe this has ever 
been detrimental to the interests of Christ's 

This religion can never be forced upon men. 
They can only be induced to embrace it, as the 
effectual working of the Holy Spirit leads them 
to see the exceeding sinfulness of sin, and as 
they behold the excellence of a life of holiness 
before God, exhibited in the daily walk of its 

Nor are the ministers of Christ's church ex- 
clusively confined to any particular sect, nation, or 
part of the great family of man. For it is em- 
phatically declared that '' God is no respecter of 
persons, but in every nation he that feareth him 
and worketh righteousness, is accepted with 

If in the exercise of worldly power, men pre- 
sume to deny to even the least of Christ's mes- 
sengers the liberty wherewith he hath made them 
free, upon them must devolve the awful respon- 
sibility of rejecting Christ himself, according to 


his own declaration : — *' He that reeeiveth whom- 
soever I send, reeeiveth me." And again : — " In- 
asmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of 
these, ye did it not to me." We speak these 
things plainly, without any desire to offend those 
who bear rule over you, because they are our 
conscientious convictions. We secretly hope the 
cause of religious liberty and toleration may ad- 
vance, and the professors of the Christian name 
everywhere unite in pulling down the high walls 
of sectional prejudice, which have been built up 
between them in the will and wisdom of man, 
that professing to worship the same common 
Father, and aiming for the same heavenly inher- 
itance in the world to come, they may strive to 
know that unity of spirit upon earth, which is 
to bind the redeemed of all generations together 
in " the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and 
Saviour, Jesus Christ." 

Then might we hope that the day will come 
when the declaration of the Prophet will be ful- 
filled : " The mountain of the Lord's house shall 
be established upon the top of the mountains, 


and exalted above all the hills, and all nations 
shall flow unto it/' Isaiah 2 : 2. 

In conclusion, we take leave of you in the 
language of Paul to his brethren, ^< Commending 
you to God, and to the word of his grace, which 
is able to build you up, and to give you an in- 
heritance among all them which are sanctified." 

George Truman. 

John Jackson. 

Thomas B. Longstreth. 
St. Croix, 12th mo. 7th, 1840. 


Allusion having been made in the foregoing 
pages to J. J.'s connection with the ^^ Delaware 
County Institute of Science/' this tribute from 
that Association is here appended. 



Read before the Delaware County Institute of Science^ 

The announcement of the close of the mortal 
career of John Jackson, on the fourteenth of 
Fourth month, 1855, awakened a feeling in the 
community which demands a tribute to his 
memory — an acknowledgment of his claim upon 
the respect, the confidence and the affections of 
his cotemporaries. In his widely extended 
public and social relations, his benevolent spirit 
was ever actively seeking to promote the public 
good, the individual happiness and highest inter- 
ests of the whole people. These efforts were 
gratefully appreciated by us, among whom he 
was born, lived and finished his work on earth ; 
and in holding up his life of practical usefulness 


as an example to others, we evidence that he was 
not only esteemed, but "honored in his own 

His parents, Halliday and Jane Jackson, 
settled near the village of Darby, in 1800. — 
There, on the 25th of the Ninth month, 1809, 
the subject of our memoir was born. The home 
of his birth ever continued to be the home 
of his life. He was one of the ten children who 
arrived at an age to " arise up and call their 
parents blessed," in commemoration of the wis- 
dom with which they guarded their childhood, 
and of their counsels, which proved a light to 
his pathway in the journey of life. To his early 
intellectual and moral training, he ever recurred 
with filial gratitude. 

Whether we regard him as a man of science 
and of literature, a philanthropist, an humble 
Christian, an eminent minister of the Gospel of 
the Society of Friends, illustrating and adorning 
the principles he professed by his upright and 
exemplary walking among men — the conclusion 
is irresistible, that he was what he was by self- 


culture — most emphatically was he a self-made 
man. In tracing back his career to the simple 
life of an active boy, we remember him, not as 
one gifted above his playmates with remarkable 
talents. We remember him but as a sportive, 
kind, industrious child, loved by the young and 
the old, ever seeking to promote the pleasure 
and happiness of those with whom he mingled. 
His opportunities for acquiring a scholastic edu- 
cation, were very limited, compared with his ex- 
tensive acquirements in science and literature. 
From an early age he was a pupil in the village 
school until his seventeenth year, which he spent 
at West Town Boarding School. Durinor that 
year he was earnest in study, and devoted his 
hours of relaxation chiefly to the reading of his- 
tory and biography. The impetus to cultivate 
his mind by reading and scientific research, led 
him to the utmost industry in all his agricultural 
pursuits, that he might have time for intellectual 
culture. The necessity for him to ''earn his 
bread by the sweat of his brow,^^ he accepted as. 
a blessing of greater value to hiirij than a larger 


patrimonial inheritance. In winter, he was 
found lighting his lamp long before the dawn of 
day, for uninterrupted study ; while in summer 
he spent his seasons of recreation in pedestrian 
excursions among our hills and streams, led 
thither by his love of the natural sciences, of 
Botany and Mineralogy. These, so peculiarly 
fitting for an agricultural life, were pursued with 
an interest that only gave way to his ardent as- 
pirings for astronomical knowledge. The powers 
of his intellect, thus expanding by vigorous cul- 
tivation, he continually sought new accessions of 
knowledge by tracing out that exquisite connec- 
tion of the physical sciences, which prove that 
" All are but parts of one stupendous whole, 
Whose body nature is, and God the soul." 

In his own language, ^' Every page of the great 
volume of nature is full of living and instructive 
truth. There is a beautiful relation between 
mind and matter, between the works of God, 
and our capacity to contemplate them. Our in- 
tellectual nature is as much a gift of God, as the 
gift of Grace, and we are as responsible for the 


culture and improvement of the one, as of the 
other. I have no idea that so noble a talent is to 
be buried in the earth, that it is to be employed 
merely in procuring food and raiment for these 
frail temples, which are soon to moulder in the 
dust. Far otherwise ! Placed in the midst of a 
beautiful creation, we are invited to meditate on 
the workmanship of its Author. Such an exer- 
cise of the intellect is profitable to us, for it leads 
to humility, and while it makes manifest the 
feebleness of man and our comparative nothing- 
ness, amidst the immensity of creation, it exalts 
our views of the wisdom, goodness and power of 
the Creator." With religious enthusiasm, then, 
he continued through life, to cultivate his love 
of the study of nature, as compatible with true 
devotion to Grod. 

He became a member of this Institution in 
1834, a few months after its establishment; and 
although his multifarious duties, and delicato 
health, for many years prevented his regular at- 
tendance of our meetings, yet his presence had 
always a cheering effect, towards inspiring us in 


the cause in wliicli we are engaged. In the same 
year he became a minister of the Gospel. At 
the age of twenty-five, he was united in marriage 
with Kachel T., daughter of Isaac Tyson, of the 
city of Baltimore, whose education and taste 
favored his scientific and literary pursuits. Two 
years after this period, they apprehended that 
an institution was needed in this county, wherein 
females might have an opportunity of acquiring 
extensive instruction in various departments of 
science and literature ; and the establishment of 
Sharon Female Seminary was the result of this 
conviction. The cause of universal education 
was dear to his heart, and he urged its claims 
through the press ; for the advancement of it, he 
labored earnestly, not only in the institution that 
he founded, but he sought to diffuse knowledge 
by courses of popular lectures on Philosophy, 
Chemistry, Geology and Astronomy. His ex- 
tensive cabinet of minerals and fossils, his as- 
tronomical observatory were alike open to all, 
who desired to visit them and to be instructed 
thereby. At the time he imported his large 


equatorial telescope from Munich, be was the 
only individual in the United States who had 
so large and expensive a refracting telescope. 
These facts are here related, as evidences of that 
largeness and liberality of soul that influenced 
him through life. He grasped after intellectual 
treasure, not for the happiness that it would 
bring to himself alone, but that he might obtain 
the means for diffusing blessings around him. 

In his intercourse with the world, his ear was 
ever open to the cries of the poor and the needy ) 
he lifted his voice for the oppressed ; he was 
most emphatically the peace-maker wherever he 
saw the elements of strife were at work. Es- 
pecially in his profession of Land Surveyor, he 
often reconciled contending parties, and pre- 
vented litigation by prevailing on them to sub- 
mit their mutual claims to his compass and 

Since the landing of "William Penn on our 
shores, the Society of Friends have probably 
never known one among their number, who more 
resembled their illustrious predecessor, in his 


enlarged philanthropy, without regard to sect, in 
his advocacy of the rights of conscience, restrict- 
ing religious liberty only by obedience to the 
teachings of the Holy Spirit in every soul. Again 
and again did he visit the wigwam of the Indian 
in the forest, did he meet them in council, and 
go with them to plead their cause and present 
their grievances to our Government. All the 
endearments of home he left, and braved the 
perils of the ocean, in a Gospel mission to the 
inhabitants of the West India Islands, encounter- 
ing many hardships and privations that he might 
discharge what he considered his duty to master 
and slave in the Spanish Islands, and to the 
emancipated and the emancipator in the British. 
Except in the political arena, from which he ever 
kept aloof, he was associated in all the varied in- 
terests of the community in which he lived. 

The indomitable energy and industrious per- 
severance which marked his career in early life, 
characterized his entire course. He had for 
years regularly contributed his astronomical ob- 
servations to the Smithsonian Institute at Wash- 


ington, and received on behalf of the astronomer 
of the Coast Survey, an acknowledgment of the 
aid derived from the list of transits he had fur- 
nished to the department. Six weeks before his 
transition from earth, is the date of the last use 
of his Transit Telescope — he was at the time so 
feeble as to need assistance in ascending to the 
Observatory. About this time he finished read- 
ing the proof sheets of his last literary effort, a 
work on the ^' Christian Ministry,'' and had the 
satisfaction of receiving from the publisher the 
first edition, and expressing his joy that the 
work was finished. So long as the world con- 
tinues to be divided into sects, it is not possible 
that a uniformity of opinion shall prevail ; hence, 
whatever may be our individual bias on the sub- 
ject, on which the author treats, none can lay 
down the volume without admiring the beautiful 
chaste diction, or being impressed with the 
earnest, gentle and loving spirit that pervades 
its pages. During the last fourteen years of his 
life, his physical strength gradually gave way, 
without acute suffering, yet all the while his in- 


tellectual and his spiritual being seemed to ac- 
quire new energy of purpose and action. This 
freshness and vigor of spirit gave beauty to his 
life of love and truth, until at the age of forty- 
five, the worn out loorking garment was laid 

Thus lived and passed onward, our excellent 
friend and lamented fellow-member of the In- 
stitute. He needs not the meed of praise from 
the living, he needs not this brief tribute to his 
worth from us, but we owe to posterity the duty 
of perpetuating the example, the history and 
beauty of his life, that it may be as a beacon and 
incentive to the young " to go and do likewise,'' 
and to awaken among us the inqury whether we 
too are fulfilling our mission.