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Full text of "A brief record of the advance of the Egyptian expeditionary force under the command of General Sir Edmund H. H. Allenby ... July 1917 to October 1918"

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General Sir Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, g.c.b., g.c.m.g., 
Commander in Chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force 

FROM June 1917 




A BBIEF RECORD OF 



THE ADVANCE OF THE 
EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

UNDER THE COMMAND OF 

GENERAL SIR EDMUND H. H. ALLENBY. G.C.B.. G.G.M.G. 



JULY 1917 TO OCTOBER 1918. 



Compiled from Official Sources. 



^ SECOND EDITION. ^ 

(The Fiest Edition was pdblished by " The Palestine News.") 



LONDON: 
PUBLISHED BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE. 



To be purchased through anj Bookseller or directly from 

H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE at the following addresses : 

Imperial House, Kingsvvay, London. W.C. 2, and 

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37 Peter Street, Manchester; 

1 St. Andrew's Crescent, Cardiff; 

23 Forth Street, Edinburgh ; 

or from E. PONSONBY, Ltd., 116 Geafton Street, Dublin. 

1919. 
Price 6j- Net 







GLOSSARY. 

Descriptive terms which occur with place names, and the abbreviations used :-- 

Abu = Father Khak = Inn. 

Am = Spring. Khuueet {abbreviation Kh.) = Ruin. 

Beit = House Makuadet = Ford. 

BiRKBT = Pool. Nahr = River. 

BiR = Well. Neby = A Prophet. 

Deik = Monastery. _^ jj^g ^ Head, cape, top. 

Ep, el, er, bs, bz = The definite article the . ^^^^^^ (abbreviation Sh.) = Chief, elder, sainli. 

Jbbel = Mountam ^^^ ^ Mound (especially one covering ruins). 

Sb = Vilfage. Wadi = A watercourse (normally dry). 



;« : .• ' *. ' 



PREFACE. .7 

This Rocord of the recent activities of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force to the East of the Suez^ ^ 
Canal has been prepared in order that members of that Force may be able to take home with them an / 

acceptable account of the great advance in which they played a part. Advantage has been taken 
of many official documents which are available and of the experience of officers still at General 
Headquarters in charge of the Departments with the work of which they were famiUar during the 
operations. Thus it has been possible to compile the Record while the events which it details are fresh 
ill the memory. 

Thanks are due to the following officers for their kindness in supplying accounts of the work of 

their respective departments, or information concerning the same : — 

Major-Gen. H. B. H. Wright, C.B., C.M.G., R.E. (Royal Engineers). 

Brig.-Gen. P. A. Bainbridoe, C.B., C.M.G., R.A.O.C. (Ordnance Services). 

Brig.-Gen. E. R. C. Butlbr, C.B., C.M.G., R.A.V.C. (Veterinary Services). 

Brig.-Gen. Jellicoe, D.S.O., R.A.S.C, and Lieut.-Col. H. J. Hioos, A.M. (Egyptian Labour Corps). 

Brig.-Gen. Sir G. B. MACAULEy, K.C.M.G., C.B., and Lieut.-Col. W. G. Tybrelt-, D.S.O., R.E (Railways). 

Col. P. Warres, C.M.G., R B., and Lieut.-Col. F. H. Kempe, M C. (Postal Services). 

Col. C. H. Whittinqham, C.M.G., D.S.O. (Camel and Donkey Transport). 

Lieut.-Col. D. McLeod, D.S.O., M.C. (Palestine Lines of Commanicatioa). 

Lieut.-Col. H. C. B. Wemtss, D.S.O., M.C, R.E (Signals). 

Lieut-Col. G. E. Badcock, D.S.O., B.A.S.C., and Lieut.-Col. J. H. M0BBI8, D.S.O., R.A.SfC. (R.A.S.C. Personnel 
and Mechanical Transport). 

Major A. VV. Dobbin, R A (Anti-Aircraft Section). 
Major W. J. Maulb, D.S.O. (Survey). 
Major G. F. Bird M.C, R.A.M.C. (Medical Services). 
Major R. C. Haddon (Camel and Donkey Transport). 
Major R. M. Dix, R.A.S.C. (Navy and Array Canteen Board). 
Capt. J. Mc G. Glkn, M.C, R.A.F. (Royal Air Force). 

Thanks are also due to the following officers for their collaboration and advice in the preparation 

of the text which accompanies the Maps and of the various chronological summaries : — 

Major-Gen. Sir V. B. Fanb, K.C.I.E., CB. 

Major-Gon. Sir L. J. Bols, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., D.S.O. 

Major-Gen. Sir J. S. M. Shka, K.C.W.G., C.B., D.S.O. 

Major-Gen. Sir E. W. C Cuaytor, K.C.M.G., C.B., A.D.C. 

Brig.-Gen. Hamblin, French Detachment. 

Brig.-Gen. S. M. Edwardes, C.B., CJI.G., D.S.O. 

Brig.-Gen. C. F. Watson, C.B., C.M.G. • 

Brig.-Gen. G. de L. Ryrie, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O 

Brig.-Gen. L. C. Wilson, C.M.G. 

Lieut.-Col. Cav. G. Fesentf. Italian Detachmeut. 

Lieut.-Col. W. E. Da vies, C.M.G. 

Lieut.-Col. R. H. Osborne, D.S.O., .M.C. 

Lieut.-Col. H. E. Macfarlane, D.S.O., II.C. 

Lieut.-Col. A. H. C. Kearsev, D.S.U. 

Lieut.-Col. G. K. M. Mason, D.S.O. 

Lieut.-Col. A. O'B. rFRENCH-BLAKii, 

The late Majer D, H. Acworth, M.C. 

Major G. H. Bell, M.C. 

Major R. C. Haddov. 

Capt. R. H. Andrew, M.C. 

Capt. P. L. SBYMOtTR-JoNES, M.C* 

Capt. A. W. Manning, M.C. 
Capt. A. Kinross, R.A.S.C. 
Capt. G. L C March ant, R.a. 
Capt. J. Armstrong. 
Capt. S. E.' L. Baddelby. 

Capt. E. G. HOLLEBONE. 

Lieut. N. East. 

Lieut. R. E. Heathcock. 



^^kk £ .\ d » i 



PREFACE. 

Great assistance in the work of editing and of preparing the Eecord for the press haa been given 
by Capt. L. M. Gotoh and Lieut. W. R. Kay. The former compiled the maps which form so 
important and interesting a feature of the Record, and acted in conjunction with "The Palestine 
News " and the Egyptian Government departments concerned in producing the Record. 

The Director-General of the Survey of Egypt, Mr. E. M. Dowson, C.B.E., and the Acting Controller 
of Printing for the Goverrmaent of Egypt, Mr. W. H. Crosthwaite, O.B.E.. imdertook the reproduction 
of the maps and the printing ; and the following officials of the Survey of Egypt were actively concerned 
in the production of the maps : — , 

Mr. J. H. W. ROWNTKKE. 

Mr. H. C. Allen, Superintendent of the Printing Office. 
Mr. G. DoTJQLAS, M.B.E., Superintendent of the Photo Process Office, 
Mr. W. LoOAN, Superintendent of the Geographical Drawing Office. 
Mr. G. AiTKSN, of the Geographical Drawing Office. 

Mr. G. B. Newton, Technical Assistant to the Controller of Printing, acting as Official in charge 
of the Military Printing Section at the Government Press, was responsible for the printing of the 
letterpress, and gave much valuable advice. 

Lieut. P. S. Taylor, Deputy Director of "The Palestine News" was responsible for the work in 
connection with the distribution of the Record. 

Without the generous assistance and advice of these officers and officials, this Record of the Advance 
of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force under General Allenby could have been neither compiled nor 
published ; and it is hoped that it will fill the gap so far as the history of the campaign in Palestine and 
Syria is concerned until the appearance of the Official History of the War. 

H. PIRIE-GORDON, Lieut.-Colonel, 

Military Editor, 

The Palestine News, 
G.H.Q., E.E.F. 

February, 1919. 



CONTENTS. 



PoBTBAiT o» GnNiuBAL SiB E. H. H. ALLENBY, G.C.B., G.C.M.G. 



Feontispieci. 
Paob. 
iii 



Prefacb • 

Obnkeal ALLENBY'S Despatches : — 

<i) December 16, 1917 1 

(ii) September 18, 1918 11 

(iii) October 31, 1918 25 

Order of Battle 6j the Egyptian Expeditionary Force with which are included the namen of General Officers anda brief recordof 
service of the major formations : — 

General Headquarters 37 

General Headquarters Troops 38 

Eastern Force ^ '. 39 

Desert Column 39 

♦Desert Mounted Corps 39 

*XXth Army Corps 41 

*XXIsT Army Corps 42 

*Chaytoe's Fobcb 44 

♦French Detachment 45 

♦Italian Detachment 40 

♦4th Cavalry Division 46 

♦5th Cavaley Division 49 

♦Australian Mounted Division 51 

♦Australian and New Zealand Mounted Division 54 

♦3bd (Lahore) Division 56 

♦7th (Indian) Division 57 

♦10th Division 59 

♦62nd DI^^sI0N 61 

♦53bd Division 63 

♦54th Division 65 

•60th Division 66 

♦74th Division 63 

♦75th Division 70 

Beioades (Non-Divisional) : — 

♦Imperial Camel Corps Brigade 72 

♦20th Indian Infantry Brigade 73 

♦49th Indian Infantry Brigade 73 

Palestine Links of Communications 73 

Ijubs of Communication Units .- ... ;.. 76 

Force in Egypt 77 

Alexandria District ..: 78 

Delta and Western Force 79 

Medical Services 79 

Brief Records of the work of iMrioun branches of the Army : — 

The Anti-Aircraft Sections 82 

The Eoyal Engineers : — 

(1) Water Supply . 83 

(2) Signal Service 86 

(3) Survey Company ; 88 

(4) Military Railv?ays 90 

(6) Army Postal Services 93 

r.ovAL Army Service Corps : — 

(1) Establishment and Suppues 94 

(2) Mechanical Transport 95 

(3) Camel and Donkey Transport 98 

Ordnance Work IN THE Palestine AND Syrian Campaigns 100 

The Work of the Medical Services 104 

Royal Army Vbterinaey Corps 106 

Labour nj the Egyptian Expbditionaey Force 107 

Navy amd Army Canteen Board Ill 

Brief Record of the Work op the Royal Air Force 11}» 



An asterisk denotes where a brief Record of Strvice is included. 



CONTENTS— continued. 



Dueriptive Text facing Plate. 

Explanatory Note to the Maps illustrating operations 
Lines of Communications, Oct., 1917 

Lines of Communications, Oct., 1917, continued 

Operations from Oct. 28-Nov. 13, 1917 

Operations from Nov. 14-Deo. 8, 1917 

Operations on Dec. 9 and 10, 1917 

Operations from Deo. 11-31, 1917 

Operations from Deo. 11-31, 1917 



Operations from Feb. 18-21, 1918 

Operations from March 21-April 2, 1918 

Operations from April 29-May 1, 1918 

The Water Supply of Jerusalem and the XXth Corps 
Area. 

The September Advance 

Operations from Sept. 18-20, 1918 

Operations from Sept. 18-20, 1918, continued 



OperationsonSept. 21-22, 1918 

Operations from Sept. 23-27, 1918 

Sherifian oo-operation in September 

Operations from Sept. 28-30 

Operations on Oct. 1 and story of the Arab Movement 
Story of the Arab Movement, continued 

From the Fall of Damascus to the Armistice 

Lines of Communications, 1918 

The Military Administration of the Territory released 
from the Turks. 

A Summary of the Terms of the Turkish Armistice (as 
published) which came into force on Oct. 31, 1918. 



Titte of Plate. 
Reference to Conventional Signs 

Lines of Communications, Oct., 1917 

Advance through Palestine 

Advance into Judaea •. 

Occupation of Jerusalem ^ ; 

Advance into Mount Ephraim aud Sharon 

Area occupied as the result of operations from Oct. 

28-Dec. 31, 1917. 
Development of Water Supply prior to operations 

Nov. 1-Dec. 31. 

Capture of Jericho 

Amman Raid 

Es Salt Raid 

Area occupied a-s the result of operations from Dec. 31, 

1917-Sept. 18, 1918. 
Development of Water Supply XXth Corps front 

British dispositions as shown by enemy Litelligence 
Service. 

Advance into Samaria 

Area occupied as the result of operations from Sept. 

18-20, 1918. 
Egyptian Labour Corps Oct. 28, 1917-Sept. 17, 1918... 

Advance through Samaria and into Galilee 

Advanee through Gilead and Galilee ^. 

Area occupied as the result of operations from Sept^ 

21-27. 
Locations of Anti-Airoraft Section, Sept., 1918 

Capture of Damascus 

Capture of Damascus 

Area occupied as the result of operations from Sept. 

28-Oot. 1. 
Egyptian Labour Corps, Sept. 18 onwards 

Advance through Northern Syria 

Lines of Communications, Oct., 1918 

Military Administration of the Territory occupied by 
the Egyptian Expeditionary Force. 

Turkish Empire, Oct. 31, 1918, showing conditions of 
Armistice and disposition of Turkish troops. 



Plat*. 
I 

2 

3-14 
15-26 

27 
28-30 

31 

Inset 31 



32 & 33 


34-36 


37 & 33 


S» 


Inset 39 


40 


41-43 


41 


Inset 44 


4S & 46 


47 & 49 


49 


Inset 49 


60 


fil 


62 


Inset 62 


63 


64 


66 



66 



THE ADVANCE OF THE 
EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE. 

The following Despatches, sent by General Sir Edmund H. H. Allenby,G.C.B.,6.C.M.G., 
to the Secretary of State for War, are republished from The London Gazette. 

General Headquarters, 
Egyptian Expeditionary Force, 
December 16, 1917. 
My Lobd — 

I have the honour to submit a report on the operations of the Force serving in Egypt and Palestine 
since June 28, 1917, the date mi which I assumed command. 

1. When I took over the command of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force at the end of June, 1917, 
I had received instructions to report on the conditions in which offensive operations against the Turkish 
Army on the Palestine front might be undertaken in the autumn or winter of 1917. 

After visiting the front and consulting with the Commander of the Eastern Force,* I submitted 
my appreciation and proposals in a telegram dispatched in the second week of July. 

2. The main features of the situation on the Palestine front were then as follows : — 

The Turkish Army in Southern Palestine held a strong position extending from the sea at Gaza, 
roughly along the main Gaza-Beersheba Road to Beersheba. Gaza had been made into a strong modem 
fortress, heavily entrenched and wired, offering every facility for protracted defence. The remainder 
of the enemy's line consisted of a series of strong localities, viz. : the Sihan group of works, the Atawineh 
group, the Baha group, the Abu Hareira-Arab el Teeaha trench system, and, finally, the works cover- 
ing Beersheba. These groups of works were generally from 1,500 to 2,000 yards apart, except that the 
distance from the Hareira group to Beersheba was about four and a half miles. 

The enemy's force was on a wide front, the distance from Gaza to Beersheba being about thirty 
miles ; but his lateral communications were good, and any threatened point of the line could be very 
quickly reinforced. {See Plate 3.) 

My force was extended on a front of twenty-two miles, from the sea, opposite Gaza, to Gamli. 

Owing to lack of water I was unable, without preparations which would require some considerable 
time, to approach within striking distance of the enemy, except in the small sector near the sea coast 
opposite Gaza. 

3. My proposals received the approval of the War Cabinet, and preparations were undertaken to 
enable the plan I had formed to be put into execution. 

I had decided to strike the main blow against the left flank of the main Turkish position, Hareira 
and Sheria. The capture of Beersheba was a necessary preliminary to this operation, in order to secure 
the water supplies at that place and to give room for the deplojmaent of the attacking force on the high 
ground to the north and north-west of Beersheba, from which direction I intended to attack the Hareira- 
Sheria line. 

This front of attack was chosen for the following reasons. The enemy's work? in this sector were 
less formidable than elsewhere, and they were easier of approach than other parts of the enemy's 
defences. When Beersheba was in our hands we should have an open flank against which to operate, 
and I could make full use of our superiority in mounted troop? ; and a success here offered prospects of 
pursuing our advantage and forcing the enemy to abandon the rest of his fortified positions, which no 
other line of attack would afford. 

It was important, in order to keep the enemy in doubt up to the la.=t moment as to the real point 
of attack, that an attack should also be made on the enemy's right at Gaza in conjunction with the 
main operations. One of my Commanders was therefore ordered to prepare a scheme for operations 
against Gaza on as large a scale as the force at his disposal would permit. I also asked the Senior Naval 
OfScer, Egypt, Rear-Admiral T. Jackson, C.B., M.V.O., to afford me naval co-operation by bombarding 
the Gaza defences and the enemy's railway stations and depots north of Gaza. Rear-Admiral Jackson 
afforded me cordial assistance, and during the period of preparation Naval Officers worked in the closest 
co-operation with my staff asGeneral Headquarters and the staff of the G.O.C. troops operatinginthatregion. 

• Major - General (temporary Lieut.-General) Sir Philip Chetv.ode, Bt., K.C.M.G., C B., D.S.O. 



2 THE ADVAl^CE OF THE Oct. 27-31, 1917. 

4. The difficulties to be overcome in the operations against Beersheba and the Sheria-Hareira lino 
were considerable, and careful preparations and training were necessary. The chief difficulties were 
those of water and transport, and arrangement? had to be made to ensurp that the troops could be kept 
supplied with water while operating at considerable distances from their original water base for a period 
which might amount to a week or more ; for, though it was known that an ample supply of water existed 
at Beersheba, it was imcertain how quickly it could be developed or to what extent the enemy would 
have damaged the wells before we succeeded in occupying the town. Except at Beersheba, no large 
supply of water would be foimd till Sheria and Hareira had been captured. 

The tran?port problem was no less difficult ; there were no good roads south of the line Gaza- 
Beersheba, and no reUance could therefore be placed on the use of motor transport. Owing to the steep 
banks of many of the wadis which intersected the area of operations, the routes passable by wheeled 
transport were limited, and the going was heavy and difficult in many places. Practically the whole 
of the transport available in the force, includuig 30,000 pack camels, had to be allotted to one portion 
of the eastern force to enable it to be kept suppUed with food, water, and ammunition at a distance of 
fifteen to twenty-one miles in advance of railhead. Arrangements were also made for railhead to be 
pushed forward ae rapidly as possible towards Karm, and for a line to be laid from Gamli towards 
Beersheba for the transport of ammmiitioD. 

A railway line was also laid from Deir el Belah to the Wadi Ghuzze, close behind the sector held 
by another portion of the eastern force. 

Considerable strain was thrown on the military railway from Kantara to the front during the 
period of preparation. In addition to the normal requirements of the force, a number of siege and heavy 
batteries, besides other artillery and units, had to be moved to the front, and large depots of supplies, 
ammunition and other stores accumulated at the various railheads. Preparations had also to 
be made and the necessary material accumulated to push forward the lines from Deir el Belah and 
Shellal. 

5. During the period from July to Oct. the enemy's force on the Palestine front had been 
increased. It was evident, from the arrival of these reinforcements and the construction of railway 
extensions from El Tine, on the Ramleh-Beersheba railway, to Deir Sineid and Beit Hanun, north of 
Gaza, and from Deir Sineid to Huj, and from reports of the transport of large supplies of ammimition 
and other stores to the Palestine front, that the enemy was determined to make every eflort to mam- 
tain his position on the Gaza-Beersheba line. He had considerably strengthened his defences on this 
line, and the strong localities mentioned in paragraph 2 had, by the end of Oct., been joined up to 
form a practically continuous line from the sea to a point south of Sheria, except for a gap between 
Ali Muntar and the Sihan Group. The defensive works round Beersheba remained a detached system, 
but had been improved and extended. 

6. The date of the attack on Beersheba, which was to commence the operations, was fixed 
as Oct. 31. Work had been begun on the railway from Shellal towards Karm, and on the line from 
Gamli to El Buggar. The development of water at Esani, Khalasa, and Asluj proceeded satisfactorily. 
These last two places were to be the starting point for the mounted force detailed to make a wide flanking 
movement and attack Beersheba from the east and north-east. 

On the morning of Oct. 27 the Turks made a strong reconnaissance towards Karm from the 
direction of Kauwukah, two regiments of cavalry and two or three thousand infantry, with guns, being 
employed. They attacked a line of outposts near El Girheir, held by some Yeomanry, covering railway 
construction. One small post was rushed and cut up, but not before inflicting heavy loss on the enemy ; 
another post, though surrounded, held out all day, and also caused the enemy heavy loss. The gallant 
resistance made by the Yeomanry enabled the 53rd (Welsh) Division to come up in time, and on their 
advance the Turks withdrew. 

The bombardment of the Gaza defences commenced on Oct. 27, and on Oct. 30 warships of the 
Royal Navy assisted by a French battleship, began co-operating in this bombardment. 

Capture of Beersheba, Oct. 31. 

7. On the evening of Oct. 30 the portion of the eastern force, which was to make the attack on 
Beersheba, was concentrated in positions of readiness for the night march to its positions of deployment. 

8. The night march to the positions of deployment was successfully carried out, all imits reaching 
their appointed positions up to time. 

The plan was to attack the hostile works between the Khalasa road and the Wadi Saba with two 
divisions, masking the works north of the Wadi Saba with the Imperial Camel Corps and some infantry, 
while a portion of the 53rd (AVelsh) Division further north covered the left of the corps. The right of 
<he attack was covered by a cavalry regiment. Further east, moimted troops took up a line opposite 
the southern defences of Beersheba. 



Nov. 1, 1917. EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 3 

As a preliminary to the main attack, in order to enable field gims to be brought within efEective 
range for wire-cutting, the enemy's advanced works at 1,070 were to be taken. This was successfully 
accomplished at 8.45 a.m., after a short preliminary bombardment, by London troops, with small loss, 
ninety prisoners being taken. The cutting of the wire on the main line then proceeded satisfactorily, 
though pauses had to be made to allow the dust to clear ; and the final assault was ordered for 
12.15 p.m. It was successful all along the front attacked, and by about 1 p.m. the whole of the worka 
between the Khalasa road and the Wadi Saba were in our hands. 

Some delay occurred in ascertaining whether the enemy still occupied the works north of the road ; 
it was decided, as they were still held by small parties, to attack them from the south. After a pre- 
liminary bombardment the works were occupied with little opposition by about 7.30 p.m. 

The casualties were light, considering the strength of the works attacked ; a large proportion occurred 
during the advance towards the positions previous to the assault, the hostile guns being very accurate 
and very difficult to locate. 

Meanwhile, the mounted troops, after a night march, for part of the force of twenty-five and for the 
remainder of thirty-five miles, arrived e^rly in the morning of the 31st about Khasim Zanna, in the 
hills some five miles east of Beersheba. From the hills the advance into Beersheba from the east and 
north-east Ues over an open and almost flat plain, commanded by the rising ground north of the town 
and flanked by an under feature in the Wadi Saba called Tel el Saba. 

A force was sent north to secure Bir es Sakaty, on the Hebron road, and protect the right flank ; 
this force met with some opposition, and was engaged with hostile cavalry at Bir es Sakaty and to the 
north during the day. Tel el Saba was foimd strongly held by the enemy, and was not captured till 
iate in the afternoon. 

Meanwhile, attempts to advance in small parties across the plain towards the town made slow 
progress. In the evening, however, a moimted attack by Australian Light Horse, who rode straight 
at the town from the east, proved completely successful. They galloped over two deep trenches held 
by the enemy just outside the town, and entered the town at about 7 p.m., capturing numerous prisoners. 

The Turks at Beersheba were imdoubtedly taken completely by surprise, a surprise from which the 
dash of London troops and Yeomanry, finely supported by their artillery, never gave them time to 
recover. The charge of the AustraHan Light Horse completed their defeat. 

A very strong position was thus taken with slight loss, and the Turkish detachment at Beersheba 
almost completely put out of action. About 2,000 prisoners and thirteen guns were taken, and some 
500 Turkish corpses were buried on the battlefield. This success laid open the left flank of the main 
Turkish position for a decisive blow. {See Plate 5.) 

The Attack on Gaza. 

9. The actual date of the attack at Gaza had been left open till the result of the attack at Beersheba 
was known, as it was intended that the former attack, which was designed to draw hostile reserves 
towards the Gaza sector, should take place twenty-four to forty-eight hours previous to the attack on 
the Sheria position. After the complete success of the Beersheba operations, and as the early reports 
indicated that an ample supply of water would be available at that place, it was hoped that it would 
be possible to attack Slieria by Nov. 3 or 4. The attack on Gaza was accordingly ordered to take 
place on the morning of Nov. 2. Later reports showed that the water situation was less favourable 
than had been hoped, but it was decided not to postpone the attack. 

The objectives of this attack were the hostile works from Umbrella Hill (2,000 yards south-west of 
the town) to Sheikh Hasan, on the sea (about 2,500 yards north-west of the town). The front of the 
attack was about 6,000 yards, and Sheikh Hasan, the furthest objective, was over 3,000 yards from our 
front line. The ground over which the attack took place consisted of sand dunes, rising in places up to 
150 feet in height. This sand is very deep and heavy going. The enemy's defences consisted of several 
lines of strongly built trenches and redoubts. 

As Umbrella Hill flanked the advance against the Turkish works further west, it was decided to 
capture it by a preliminary operation, to take place four hours previous to the main attack. It was 
accordingly attacked, and captured at 11 p.m. on Nov. 1 by a portion of the 52nd (Lowland) 
•Division. This attack drew a heavy bombardment on Umbrella Hill itself and our front lines, which 
lasted for two hours, but ceased in time to allow the main attack, which was timed for 3 a.m., to form 
up without interference. 

It had been decided to make the attack before dayUght owing to the distance to be covered between 
our front trenches and the enemy's position. 

The attack was successful in reaching all objectives, except for a section of trench on the left and 
some of the final objectives in the centre. Four hundred and fifty prisoners were taken and many 
Turks killed. The enemy also suffered heavily from the preliminary bombardment, and subsequent 
reports from prisoners stated that one of the divisions holding the Gaza sector was withdrawn after 



4 THE ADVANCE OF THE Nov. 3-6, 1917. 

losing thirty-three per cent of its effectives, one of the divisions in general reserve being drawn into 
the Gaza sector to replace it. The attack thus succeeded in its primary object, which was to prevent 
any units being drawn from the Gaza defences to meet the threat to the Turkish left flank, and to draw 
into Gaza as large a proportion as possible of the available Turkish reserves. Further, the capture of 
Sheikh Hasan and the south-western defences constituted a very distinct threat to the whole of the Gaza 
positiou, which could be developed on any sign of a withdrawal on the part of the enemy. {See Plate 7.) 
Our losses, though considerable, were not in any way disproportionate to the results obtained. 

Advance from Beersheba. 

10. Meanwhile on our right flank the water and transport difficulties were found to be greater than 
anticipated, and the preparations for the second phase of the attack were somewhat delayed in con- 
sequence. 

On the early morning of Nov. 1 the 53rd (Welsh) DiAdsion, with the Imperial Camel Corps 
on its right, had moved out into the hills north of Beersheba, with the object of securing the flank of 
the attack on Sheria. Mounted troops were also sent north along the Hebron Road to secute Dhaheriyeh 
if possible, as it was hoped that a good supply of water would be found in this area, and that a motor 
road which the Turks were reported to have constructed from Dhaheriyeh to Sheria could be secured 
for our use. 

The 53rd (Welsh) Division, after a long march, took up a position from Towal Abu Jerwal (six 
miles north of Beersheba) to Muweileh (four miles north-east of Abu Irgeig). Irish troops occupied Abu 
Irgeig the same day. 

On Nov. 3 we advanced north on Ain Kohleh and Tel Khuweilfeh, near which place, the mounted 
troops had engaged considerable enemy forces on the previous day. This advance was strongly opposed, 
but was pushed on through difficult hill country to within a short distance of Ain Kohleh and Khuweilfeh. 
At these places the enemy was found holding a strong position with considerable and increasing forces. 
He was obviously determined not only to bar any further progress in this direction, but, if possible, to 
drive our flankguard back on Beersheba. During the 4th and 5th he made several determined attacks 
on the moimted troops. These attacks were repulsed. 

By the evening of Nov. 5 the 19th Turkish Division, the remains of the 27th and certain units 
of the 16th Division had been identified in the fighting round Tel el Khuweilfeh, and it was also fairly 
clear that the greater part of the hostile cavalry, supported apparently by some infantry (" depot " 
troops) from Hebron, were engaged between Khuweilfeh and the Hebron Road. 

Enemy's Counter-Stroke Defeated. 

The action of the enemy in thus employing the whole of his available reserves in an immediate 
counter-stroke so far to the east was apparently a bold effort to induce me to make essential alterations 
in my offensive plan, thereby gaining time and disorganizing my arrangements. The country north of 
Beersheba was exceedingly rough and hilly, and very little water was to be foimd there. Had the enemy 
succeeded in drawing considerable forces against him in that area the result might easily have been an 
indecisive fight (for the terrain was very suitable to his methods of defence) and my own main striking 
force would probably have been made too weak effectively to break the enemy's centre in the neigh- 
bourhood of Sheria Hareira. This might have resulted in our gaining Beersheba, but failing to do more — 
in which case Beersheba would only have been an incubus of a most inconvenient kind. However, 
the enemy's action was not allowed to make any essential modification to the original plan, which it 
had been decided to carry out at dawn on Nov. 6. 

By the evening of Nov. 5, all preparations had been made to attack the Kauwukah and Riishdi 
systems and to make every effort to reach Sheria before nightfall. 

The mounted troops were to be prepared in the event of a success by the main force to collect, as 
they were somewhat widely scattered owing to water difficulties, and push north in pursuit of the enemy. 
Tel el Khuweilfeh was to be attacked at dawn on the 6th, and the troops were to endeavour to reach 
the line Tel el Khuweilfeh-Rijm el Dhib. 

Assault on Kauwukah and Rushdi. 

11. At dawn on the 6th the attacking force had taken up positions of readiness to the S.E. of the 
Kauwukah system of trenches. The attack was to be commenced by an assault on the group of works 
forming the extreme left of the enemy's defensive system, followed by an advance due west up the railway, 
capturing the line of detached works which lay east of the railway. During this attack London and 



Nov. 7-8, 1917. EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 6 

Irish troops were to advance towards the Kauwukah system, bringing forward their guns to within wire- 
cutting range. They were to assault the south-eastern face of the Kauwukah system as soon as the 
bombardment had proved effective, and thence take the remainder of the system in enfilade. 

The attack progressed rapidly, the Yeomanry storming the works on the enemy's extreme left with 
great dash ; and soon after noon the London and Irish troops commenced their attack. It was completely 
successful in capturing all its objectives, and the whole of the Rushdi system in addition. Sheria 
Station was also captured before dark. The Yeomanry reached the line of the Wadi Sheria to Wadi 
Union ; and the troops on the left were close to Hareira Redoubts, which was still occupied by the enemy. 
This attack was a fine performance, the troops advancing eight or nine miles during the day and capturing 
a series of very strong works covering a front of about seven miles, the greater part of which had been 
held and strengthened by the enemy for over six months. Some 600 prisoners were taken and some 
guns and machine guns captured. Our casualties were comparatively slight. The greatest opposition 
was encountered by the Yeomanry in the early morning, the works covering the left of the enemy's 
line being strong and stubbornly defended. 

During the afternoon, as soon as it was seen that the attack had succeeded, mounted troops were 
ordered to take up the pursuit and to occupy Huj and Jemmamah. 

The 53rd (Welsh) Division had again had very severe fighting on the 6th. Their attack at dawn 
on Tel el Khuweilfeh was successful, and, though they were driven off a hill by a counter-attack, they 
retook it and captured another hill, which much improved their position. The Turkish losses in this 
area were very heavy indeed, and the stubborn fighting of the 53rd (Welsh) Division, Imperial Camel 
Corps, and part of the mounted troops during Nov. 2 to 6 drew in and exhausted the Turkish 
reserves and paved the way for the success of the attack on Sheria. The 53rd (Welsh) Division took 
several hundred prisoners and some guns during this fighting. (See Plate 8.) 

The Fail of Gaza, Nov. 7. 

12. The bombardment of Gaza had meanwhile continued, and another attack was ordered to take 
place on the night of the 6th-7th. 

The objectives were, on the right. Outpost Hill and Middlesex Hill (to be attacked at 11.30 p.m. 
on the 6th), and on the left the line Belah Trench-Turtle Hill (to be attacked at dawn on the 7th). 

During the 6th a certain amount of movement on the roads north of Gaza was observed by our air- 
men and fired on by our heavy artillery, but nothing indicating a general retirement from Gaza. 

The attack on Outpost Hill and Middlesex Hill met with httle opposition, and as soon, after they 
had been taken, as patrols could be pushed forward, the enemy was found to be gone. East Anglian 
troops on the left also found at dawn that the enemy had retired during the night, and early in the morn- 
ing the main force occupied the northern and eastern defences of Gaza. Rearguards were still occupying 
Beit Hanun and the Atawineh and Tank systems, from whence Turkish artillery continued to fiie on 
Ga^a and Ali Muntar till dusk. 

As soon as it was seen that the Turks had evacuated Gaza a part of the force pushed along the coast 
to the mouth of the Wadi Hesi, so as to turn the Wadi Hesi line and prevent the enemy making any 
stand there. Cavalry had already pushed on round the north of Gaza, and became engaged with an 
enemy rearguard at Beit Hanim, which maintained its position till nightfall. The force advancing along 
the coast reached the Wadi Hesi by evening, and succeeded in establishing itself on the north bank in 
the face of considerable opposition, a Turkish rearguard making several determined counter-attacks. 

On our extreme right the situation remained practically unchanged during the 7th ; the enemy 
made no further attempt to counter-attack, but maintained his positions opposite our right flank guard. 

In the centre the Hareira Tepe Redoubt was captured at dawn ; some prisoners and gims were taken. 
The London troops, after a severe engagement at Tel el Sheria, which they captured by a bayonet charge 
at 4 a.m., on the 7th, subsequently repulsing several counter-attacks, pushed forward their line about 
a mile to the the north of Tel el Sheria ; the mounted troops on the right moved towards Jemmamah and 
Huj, but met with considerable opposition from hostile rearguards. (See Plate 9.) 

Charge of the Yeomanry at Huj, Nov. 8. 

13. During the 8th the advance was continued, and interest was chiefly centred in an attempt to 
cut off, if possible, the Turkish rearguard which had held the Tank and Atawineh systems. The enemy 
had, however, retreated during the night 7th-8th, and though considerable captures of prisoners, gims, 
ammimition, and other stores were made during the day, chiefly in the vicinity of Huj, no large formed 
body of the enemy was cut off. The Turkish rearguards fought stubbornly and offered considerable 
opposition. Near Huj a fine charge by some squadrons of the Worcester and Warwick Yeomanry 
captured twelve guns, and broke the resistance of a hostile rearguard. It soon became obvious from the 



6 THE ADVANCE OF THE Nov. 8-13, 1917 

reports of the Royal Flying Corps, who throughout the 7th and 8th attacked the retreating columns 
with bombs and machine-gun fire, and from other evidence, that the enemy was retiring in considerable 
disorganization, and could offer no very serious resistance if pressed with determination. {See Plate 10.) 

Instructions were accordingly issued on tha morning of the 9th to the mounted troops, directing them 
on the line El Tine-Beit Duras, with orders to press the enemy relentlessly. They were to be supported 
by a portion of the force, which was ordered to push forward to Julis and Mejdel. 

The enemy opposite our right flank guard had commenced to retreat towards Hebron on the morning 
of the 8th. He was pursued for a short distance by the Yeomanry, and some prisoners and camels were 
captured, but the Yeomanry were then recalled to rejoin the main body of the mounted troops for the 
more important task of the pursuit of the enemy's main body. 

By the 9th, therefore, operations had reached the stage of a direct pursuit by as many troop? as 
could be supphed so far in front of railhead. The problem, in fact, became one of supply rather than 
manoeuvre. The question of water and forage was a very difficult one. Even where water was found 
in sufficient quantities, it was usually in wells and not on the surface, and consequently if the machinery 
for working the wells was damaged, or a sufficient supply of troughs was not available, the process of 
•watering a large quantity of animals was slow and difficult. 



Increased Turkish Resistance. 

14. On the evening of Nov. 9 there were indications that the enemy was organizing a counter- 
attack towards Arak el Menshiye by all available imits of the force which had retired towards Hebron, 
with the object of taking pressure off the main force, which was retiring along the coastal plain. It was 
obvious that the Hebron force, which was believed to be short of transport and ammunition, to have lost 
heavily and to be in a generally disorganized state, could make no effective diversion, and that this 
threat could practically be disregarded. Other information showed the seriousness of the enemy's 
losses and the disorganization of his forces. {See Plate 11.) 

Orders were accordingly issued to press the pursuit and to reach the Junction Station as early as 
possible, thus cutting off the Jerusalem Army, while the Imperial Camel Corps was ordered to move to the 
neighbourhood of Tel el Nejile, where it would be on the flank of any coimter-stroke from the hills. 

Operations on the 1 0th and 11th showed a stiffening of the enemy's resistance on the general line of 
the Wadi Sukereir, with centre about El Kustineh ; the Hebron group, after an ineffective demonstration in 
the direction of Arak el Menshiye on the 10th retired north-east and prolonged the enemy's line towards 
Beit Jibrin. Royal Flying Corps reports indicated the total hostile forces opposed to us on this line at 
about 15.000 ; and this increased resistance, coupled with the capture of prisoners from almost every imit 
of the Turkish force, tended to show that we were no longer opposed to rearguards, but that all the 
remainder of the Turkish Army which could be induced to fight was making a last effort to arrest our 
pursuit south of the important Junction Station. 

In these circumstances our progress on the 10th and 11th was slow ; the troops suffered considerably 
from thirst (a hot, exhausting wind blew during these two days), and our supply difficulties were great ; 
but by the evening of the 11th favourable positions had been reached for a combined attack. 
{See Plates 12 & 13.) 

The 12th was spent in preparations for the attack, which was ordered to be begim early on the 
morning of the 13th, on the enemy's position covering Junction Station. Our forces were now operating at a 
distance of some thirty-five miles in advance of their railhead, and the bringing up and distribution of 
supplies and ammunition formed a difficult problem. The routes north of the Wadi Hesi were found to 
be hard and good goirg, though there were some difficult wadi crossings, but the main road through Gaza 
and as far as Beit Hanun was sandy and difficult. The supply of water in the area of operations, though 
good and plentiful in most of the villages, fies mainly in wells 100 feet or more below the surface, and 
in these circumstances a rapid supply and distribution was almost impossible. Great credit is due to all 
concerned that these difficulties were overcome and that it was found possible not only to supply the 
troops already in the line, but to bring up two heavy batteries to support the attack. 

15. The situation on the morning of Nov. 1 3 was that the enemy had strung out his force (amount- 
ing probably to no more than 20,000 rifles in all) on a front of twenty miles, from El Kubeibeh on the 
north to about Beit Jibrin to the south. The right half of his Une ran roughly parallel to and only about 
five miles in front of the Ramleh-Junction Station railway, his main Une of supply from the north, and his 
right flank was already almost turned. This position had been dictated to him by the rapidity of our 
movement along the coast, and the determination with which his rearguards on this flank had been pressed. 

The advanced guard of the 52nd (Lowland) Division had forced its way almost to Burkah on the 
11th, on which day also some mounted troops pushed across the Nahr Sukereir at Jisr Esdud, where thej 
held a bridge-head. During the 12th the Yeomanry pushed north up the left bank of the Nahr Sukereii, 
And eventually seized Tel el Murreh on the right bank near the mouth. 



Nov. 14-16, 1917. EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 7 

The hostile commander may have hoped to exercise some m&fal effect on our plans by the presence 
of the southern portion of his forces on the flank of our advance ; if so, he was mistaken. The Australian 
mounted troops, extended over a wide front, not only secured this flank but pressed forward on the 12th 
towards Balin, Berkusie, and Tel es Safi. Their advanced troops were counter-attacked and driven 
back a short distance, but the enemy made no effort to press further forward. Arrangements were then 
made to attack on the 13th. 

The country over which the attack took place is open and rolling, dotted with small villages sur- 
rounded by mud walls with plantations of trees outside the walls. The most prominent feature is the 
line of heights on which are the villages of Katrah and El Mughar, standing out above the low flat ground 
which separates them from the rising ground to the west, on which stands the village of Beshshit, about 
2,000 yards distant. This Katrah-El Mughar line forms a very strong position, and it was here that 
the enemy made his most determined resistance against the turning movement directed against his 
right flank. The capture of this position by the 52nd (Lowland) Division, assisted by a most dashing 
charge of mounted troops, who galloped across the plain under heavy fire and turned the enemy's position 
from the north, was a fine feat of arms. Some 1,100 prisoners, three guns, and many machine guns 
were taken here. After this the enemy resistance weakened, and by the evening his forces were retiring 
east and north. {See Plate 14.) 

Capture of Junction Station, Nov. 14. 

The infantry, who were sent forward about dusk to occupy Junction Station, met with some resis- 
tance and halted for the night, not much more than a mile west of the station. Early next morning 
(Nov. 14) they occupied the station. 

The enemy's army had now been broken into two separate parts, which retired north and east 
respectively, and were reported to consist of small scattered groups rather than formed bodies 
of any size. 

In fifteen days our force had advanced sixty miles on its right and about forty on its left. It had 
driven a Turkish Army of nine infantry divisions and one cavalry division out of a position in which 
it had been entrenched for six months, and had pursued it, giving battle whenever it attempted to stand, 
and inflicting on it losses amounting probably to nearly two-thirds of the enemy's original effectives. 
Over 9,000 prisoners, about eighty gims, more than 100 machine guns, and very large quantities of 
ammunition and other stores had been captured. {See Plate 15.) 

16. After the capture of Junctiop Station on the morning of the 14th, our troops secured a position 
covering the station, while the Australian mounted troops reached Kezaze that same evening. 

The mounted troops pressed on towards Ramleh and Ludd. On the right Naaneh was attacked 
and captured in the morning, while on the left the New Zealand Mounted Rifles had a smart engagement 
at Ayua Kara (Rishon le Zion, six miles south of Jaffa). Here the Turks made a determined counter- 
attack and got to within fiiteen yards of our line. A bayonet attack drove them back with heavy loss. 

Flanking the advance along the railway to Ramleh and covering the main road from Ramleh to 
Jerusalem, a ridge stands up prominently out of the low foot hills surroimding it. This is the site of the 
ancient Gezer, near which the village of Abu Shusheh now stands. A hostile rearguard had estabhshed 
itself on this feature. It was captured on the morning of the 15th in a brilliant attack by mounted troops, 
who galloped up the ridge from the south. A gun and 360 prisoners were taken in this affair. 

By the evening of the 1 5th the mounted troops had occupied Ramleh and Ludd, and had pushed 
patrols to within a short distance of Jaffa. At Ludd 300 prisoners were taken, and five destroyed 
aeroplanes and a quantity of abandoned war material were found at Ramleh and Ludd. 

Occupation of Jaffa, Nov. 16. 

Jaffa was occupied without opposition on the evening of the 16th. 

17. The situation was now as follows : — 

The enemy's army, cut in two by our capture of Junction Station, had retired partly east into the 
mountains towards Jerusalem and partly north along the plain. The nearest Une on which these two 
portions could re-unite was the line Tul Keram-Nablus. Reports from the Royal Flying Corps 
indicated that it was the probable intention of the enemy to evacuate Jerusalem and withdraw to 
reorganize on this line. {See Plate 16.) 

On our side the mounted troops had been marching and fighting continuously since Oct. 31, 
and had advanced a distance of seventy-five miles, measured in a straight line from Asluj to Jaffa. The 
troops, after their heavy fighting at Gaza, had advanced in nine days a distance of about forty miles, 
with two severe engagements and continual advanced guard fighting. The 52nd (Lowland) Division had 
covered sixty-nine miles in this period. 



S THE ADVANCE OP THE Nov. 17-24, 1917- 

Th e railway was being pushed forward as rapidly as possible, and every opportunity was taken of 
landing stores at points along the coast. The landing of stores was dependent on a continuance of favour- 
able weather, and might at any moment be stopped for several days together. 

A pause was therefore necessary to await the progress of railway construction, but before our 
position in the plain could be considered secure it was essential to obtain hold of the one good road 
which traverses the Judsean range from north to south, from Nablus to Jerusalem. 

The Advance into Judaea. 

18. The west side of the Judajan range consists of a series of spurs running east and west, and 
separated from one another by narrow valleys. These spurs are steep, bare and stony for the most 
part, and in places precipitous. Between the foot of the spur of the main range and the coastal plain 
is the low range known as the Shephelah. 

On our intended line of advance only one good road, the main Jaffa-Jerusalem road, traversed the 
hills from east to west. For nearly four miles, between Bab el Wad (two and a half miles east of Latron) 
and Saris, this road passes through a narrow defile, and it had been damaged by the Turks in several 
places. The other roads were mere tracks on the side of the hill or up the stony beds of wadis, and were 
impracticable for wheeled transport without improvement. Throughout these hills the water supply 
was scanty without development. 

On Nov. 17 the Yeomanry had commenced to move from Ramleh through the hills direct on 
Bireh by Annabeh, Berfilya and Beit ur el Tahta (Lower Bethhoron). By the evening of Nov. 18 
one portion of the Yeomanry had reached the last-named place, while another portion had occupied 
Shilta. The route had been found impossible for wheels beyond Annabeh. (See Plate 17.) 

On the 1 9th the Infantry commenced its advance. One portion was to advance up the main road 
as far as Kuryet el Enab, with its right flank protected by Australian mounted troops. From that 
place, in order to avoid any fighting in the close vicinity of the Holy City, it was to strike north towards 
Bireh by a track leading through Biddu. The remainder of the infantry was to advance through Berfilya 
to Beit Likia and Beit Dukka, and thence support the movement of the other portion. 

After capturing Latron and Amnas on the morning of the 19th, the remainder of the day was spent 
in clearing the defile up to Saris, which was defended by hostile rearguards. (See Plate 18.) 

On the 20th Kuryet el Enab was captured with the bayonet in the face of organized opposition, while 
Beit Dukka was also captured. On the same day the Yeomanry got to within four miles of the Nablus»- 
Jerusalem road, but were stopped by strong opposition about Beitunia. 

On the 21 st a body of infantry moved north-east by a track from Kuryet el Enab through Biddu 
and Kulundia towards Bireh. The track was foimd impassable for wheels, and was imder hostile shell fire. 
Progress was slow, but by evening the ridge on which stands Neby Samwil was secured. A further body 
of troops was left at Kuryet el En»b to cover the flank and demonstrate along the main Jerusalem road. 
It drove hostile parties from Kustul, two and a half miles east of Kuryet el Enab, and secured this ridge. 

By the afternoon of the 21st advanced parties of Yeomanry were within two miles of the road, and an 
attack was being dehvered on Beitunia by other mounted troops. {See Plate 19.) 

Turkish Counter-Attaclcs. 

19. The positions reached on the evening of the 21st practically marked the limit of progress in this 
first attempt to gain the Nablus-Jerusalem road. The Yeomanry were heavily coimter-attacked and 
fell back, after bitter fighting, on Beit ur el Foka (Upper Bethhoron). During the 22nd the enemy made 
two counter-attacks on the Neby Samwil ridge, which were repulsed. Determined and gallant attacks 
were made on the 23rd and on the 24th on the strong positions to the west of the road held by the enemy, 
who had brought up reinforcements and nimierous machine gims, and could support his infantry by 
artillery fire from guns placed in positions along the main road. Our artillery, from lack of roads, could 
not be brought up to give adequate support to our infantry. Both attacks failed, and it was evident 
that a period of preparation and organization would be necessary before an attack could be dehvered 
in sufficient strength to drive the enemy from his positions west of the road. (See Plate 20.) 

Orders were accordingly issued to consolidate the positions gained and prepare for relief. 

Though these troops had failed to reach their final objectives, they had achieved invaluable results. 
The narrow passes from the plain to the plateau of the Judsean range have seldom been forced, and 
have been fatal to many invading armies. Had the attempt not been made at once, or had it been 
pressed with less determination, the enemy would have had time to reorganize his defences in the passes 
lower down, and the conquest of the plateau would then have been slow, costly, and precarious. As it 
was, positions had been won from which the final attack could be prepared and delivered with good pro 
spectss of success. 



Nov. 25-Dec. 9, 1917. EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 9 

20. By Dec. 4 all reliefs were complete, and a line was held from Kustul by the Neby Samwil 
ridge, Beit Izza, and Beit Dukka, to Beit ur el Tahta. {See Plates 22, 23, & 24.) 

Fighting on tiie Auja. 

During this period attacks by the enemy along the whole line led to severe local fighting. On 
Nov. 25 our advanced posts north of the river Auja were driven back across the river. From the 
27tii to the 30th the enemy delivered a series of attacks directed especially against the high ground north 
and north-cast of Jaffa, the left flank of our position in the hills from Beit ur el Foka to El Burj, and 
the Neby Samwil ridge. An attack oh the night of the 29tli succeeded in penetrating our outpost line 
north-east of Jaffa, but next morning the whole hostile detachment, numbering 150, was surrounded and 
captured by Australian Light Horse. On the 30th a similar fate befell a battalion which attacked near 
El Burj ; a counter-attack by Australian Light Horse took 200 prisoners and practically destroyed the 
attacking battahon. There was particularly heavy fighting between El Burj and Beit ur el Foka, but the 
Yeomanry and Scottish troops successfully resisted all attacks and inflicted severe losses on the enemy. 
At Beit ur el Foka one company took 300 prisoners. (See Plate 21.) 

Enemy Failure at Neby Samwil. 

All efforts by the enemy to drive us off the Neby Samwil ridge were completely repulsed. These 
attacks cost the Turks very dearly. We took 750 prisoners between Nov. 27 and 30, and the enemy's 
losses in killed and woimded were undoubtedly heavy. His attacks in no. way affected our positions 
nor impeded the progress of our preparations. 

Converging Movement on Jerusalem. 

21. Favoured by a continuance of fine weather, preparations for a fresh advance against the Turkish 
positions west and south of Jerusalem proceeded rapidly. Existing roads and tracks were improved 
and new ones constructed to enable heavy and field artillery to be placed in position and ammunition 
and supplies brought up. The water supply was also developed. 

The date for the attack was fixed as Dec. 8. Welsh troops, with a Cavalry regiment attached, 
had advanced from their positions north of Beersheba up the Hebron -Jerusalem road on the 4th. No 
opposition was met, and by the evening of the 6th the head of this column was ten miles north of Hebron. 
The Infantry were directed to reach the Bethlehem-Beit Jala area by the 7th, and the line Surbahir-Sherafat 
(about three miles south of Jerusalem) by dawn on the 8th, and no troops were to enter Jerusalem during 
this operation. (See Plate 25.) 

It was recognized that the troops on the extreme right might be delayed on the 7th and fail to reach 
the positions assigned to them by dawn on the 8th. Arrangements were therefore made to protect the 
right flank west of Jerusalem, in case such delay occurred. 

22. On the 7th the weather broke, and for three days rain was almost continuous. The hills were 
covered with mist at frequent intervals, rendering observation from the air and visual signalling impossible. 
A more serious effect of the rain was to jeopardise the supply arrangements by rendering the roads almost 
impassable — quite impassable, indeed, for mechanical transport and camels in many places. (See Plate 26.) 

The troops moved into positions of assembly by night, and, assaulting at dawn on the 8th, soon carried 
their first objectives. They then pressed steadily forward. The mere physical difficulty of climbing the 
steep and rocky hillsides and crossing the deep valleys would have sufficed to render progress slow, and 
the opposition encountered was considerable. Artillery support was soon difficult, owing to the length 
of the advance and the difficulty of moving guns forward. But by about noon London troops had already 
advanced over two miles, and were swinging north-east to gain the Nablus-Jerusalem road ; while the 
Yeomanry had captured the Beit Iksa spur, and were preparing for a further advance. 

Surrender of Jerusalem, Dec. 9. 

As the right column had been delayed and was still some distance south of Jerusalem, it was necessary 
for the London troops to throw back their right and form a defensive flank facing east towards Jerusalem, 
from the western outskirts of which considerable rifle and artillery fire was being experienced. This 
delayed the advance, and early in the afternoon it was decided to consolidate the line gained and resume 
the advance next day, when the right column would be in a position to exert its pressure. By night- 
fall our line ran from Neby Samwil to the east of Beit Iksa, through Lifta to a point about one and a half 
miles west of Jerusalem, whence it was thrown back facing east. All the enemy's prepared defences 
west and north-west of Jerusalem had been captured, and our troops were within a short distance of the 
Nablus-Jerusalem road. 



10 THE ADVANCE OF THE Dec. 9-11, 1917. 

The London troops and Yeomanry had displayed great endurance in difScult conditions. The 
London troops especially, after a night march in heavy rain to reach their positions of deployment, 
had made an advance of three to four miles in difficult hills in the face of stubborn opposition. 

During the day about 300 prisoners were taken and many Turks killed. Our own casualties were 
light. 

23. Next morning the advance was resumed. The Turks had withdrawn during the night, and the 
London troops and Yeomanry, driving back rearguards, occupied a line across the Nablus-Jerusalem 
road four miles north of Jerusalem, while Welsh troops occupied a position east of Jerusalem across the 
Jericho road. These operations isolated Jerusalem, and at about noon the enemy sent out a farltmentaire 
and surrendered the city. {See Plate 27.) 

Official Entry. 

At noon on the 11th I made my official entry into Jerusalem, 

24. In the oi^erations from Oct. 31 to Dec. 9 over 12,000 prisoners were taken. The total captures 
of material have not yet been fully counted, owing to the large area covered by these operations ; but 
they are known to include about 100 guns of various calibres, many machine gims, more than 
20,000,000 rounds of rifle ammunition, and 250,000 rounds of gun ammi:nition. More than twenty 
aeroplanes were destroyed by our airmen or burnt by the enemy to avoid capture. 

25. My thanks are due to the cordial assistance which I received from his Excellency the High 
Commissioner, General Sir Francis Wingate, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G., D.S.O., who has always given 
me the greatest assistance. 

26. During the whole period Kear-Admiral T. Jackson, C.B., M.V.O., has given me most loyal 
support, and has co-operated with me in a manner which has materially contributed to our success. 

27. Brigadier-General Sir G. Macauley, K.C.M.G., C.B., Director of Railway Transport, has given 
invaluable help in the organisation of my railways. 

28. All ranks and services in the Force under my command have acquitted themselves in a manner 
beyond praise. Fatigue, thirst, heat, and cold have been endured imcomplainingly. The co-operation 
of all arms has been admirable, and has enabled success in battle to be consmnmated by irresistible 
and victorious pursuit. 

Leaders and staffs have all done well, and in particular I bring to your Lordship's notice the names 
of the following officers : — 

Major-General (temporary Lieutenant-General) Sir Philip Chetwode, Bart., K.C.M.G., C.B., D.S.O. 

My plan of operations was based on his appreciation of the situation and on the scheme which he 
put forward to me on my arrival in Egypt last summer. To his strategical foresight and tactical skill 
the success of the campaign is largely due. 

Major-Gereral (temporary Lieutenant-General) E. S. Bulfin, C.B., C.V.O. 

Has shown great abihty as an organizer and leader in high command. To his determination 
in attack, and his dash and drive in pursuit, is due the swift advance to .Jerusalem. 

Major-General (temporary Lieutenant-General) Sir Henry Chauvel, K.C.M.G., C.R. 

Has commanded my mounted troops with invariable success in attack and pursuit. His co-operation 
with other arms has always been ready and loyal, and has contributed greatly to the victory won. 

Major-General L. J. Bols, C.B., D.S.O., Chief of the General Staff, has done brilliant work. He is 
a general staff officer of the first rank. 

Major-General J. Adye, C.B., Deputy Adjutant-General, has rendered invaluable service. 

Major-General Sir Walter Campbell, K.C.M.G., C.B., D.S.O., Deputy Quartermaster-General, has 
had a difiicult task which he has carried out with complete success. 

Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel (temporary Brigadier-General) G. P. Dawnay, D.S.O., M.V.O., Reserve 
of Officers, Brigadier-General, General Staff, has proved himself a strategist and tactician of imusual 
merit. His work has been of the highest value. 

I have the honour to be. 

Your Lordship's most obedient servant, 

E. H. H. Allenby, 

General, 
Commanding-in-Chief, 

Egyptian Expeditionary Force. 



Dec. 20-21. 1917. EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 11 



General Headquarters, 
Egyptian Expeditionary Force, 
September 18, 1918. 
My Lord, 

I have the honour to submit a Eeport on the operations undertaken since Dec. 11, 1917, by the 
Force serving in Egypt and Palestine. 

1. The operations described in my Despatch of Dec. 16, 1917, had resulted in the enemy's army 
being broken into two separate parts. One part had retired northwards, and had come to a halt on 
the hills overlooking the plain which lies to the north of Jaffa and Ramleh. This force consisted of 
five divisions, four of which had been badly shaken in the recent retreat. Opposite it the XXIst Corps 
held a line, which starting at the mouth of the Nahr el Auja, three miles north of Jaffa, crossed the 
Turkish railway from Ludd to Jiljulieh at a point five miles north of Ludd, and thence ran in a south- 
easterly direction to Midieh. {See Plate 28.) 

The other part of the enemy's army had retired in an easterly direction towards Jerusalem. Here 
the remains of six divisions had been concentrated. The XXth Corps, after it had compelled the enemy 
to evacuate Jerusalem, held a Une across the roads leading from Jerusalem to Jericho and Nablus, four 
miles east and north of the city, and thence westwards through the hills past Beit ur el Foka to Suffa. 

The two wings of the Turkish Army were separated by a roadless tract of country, the chief features 
of which consist of a series of spurs running west. The spurs are bare and rocky, the valleys between 
them are deep. No operations on a large scale are possible in this country until the tracks have been 
improved sufficiently to admit of the passage of guns and of wheeled transport. The only lateral com- 
munication possible to the Turks lay some thirty miles to the north of the line Tul Keram-Nablus. 

2. In order to provide more effectively for the security of Jerusalem and Jaffa, it was essential 
that the line should be advanced. I therefore ordered the XXth Corps to advance to the hne Beitin- 
Nalin. This involved an advance on a twelve-mile front to a depth of six miles immediately north of 
Jerusalem. The XXIst Corps on the left I ordered to advance to the line Kibbieh-Rantieh-Mulebbis- 
Sheikh el Ballutah-El Jelil. When this advance had been carried out the distance between the enemy 
and Jaffa would be increased to eight miles. 

3. Before either of these advances could take place a considerable amount of labour was necessary 
on the construction of roads and the improvement of communications. Supplies and ammunition had 
to be brought up, a task which was rendered more difficult by the weather. Heavy rains interfered with 
the progress of railway construction, and in some places washed away the existing line, while the roads 
became deep in mud, rendering the use of mechanical transport and camels impossible, and that of horse 
transport slow and difficult. 

4. The operation on the left was the first to be carried out. The chief obstacle lay in the crossing 
of the Nahr el Auja. This river is only fordable in places, and all approaches to it are overlooked from 
Sheikh Muannis and Khurbet Hadrah. At these places two spurs running from north to south terminate 
abruptly in steep slopes some 600 yards from the river. 

Before the XXIst Corps could reach its final objectives, it was necessary that the guns should move 
forward with the infantry. Consequently Sheikh Muannis, Khurbet Hadrah, and the high ground over- 
looking the river had to be captured as a preUminary to the general advance in order that bridges might 
be built. 

The Passage of the Nahr El Auja, Dec. 20-21. 

The chief difficulty lay in concealing the collection and preparation of rafts and bridging material. 
All preparations were completed, however, without attracting the enemy's attention, and on the night 
of Dec. 20-21 the 52nd Division crossed the river in three columns. The enemy was taken com- 
pletely by surprise. The left column, fording the river near its mouth, at this point four feet deep, 
captured Tell er Rekkeit, 4,000 yards north of the river's mouth ; the centre and right columns, crossing 
on rafts, rushed Sheikh Muannis and Khurbet Hadrah at the point of the bayonet. By dawn a line 
from Khurbet Hadrah to Tell er Rekkeit had been consoHdated, and the enemy deprived of all observa- 
tion from the north over the valley of the Nahr el Auja. 

The successful crossing of the Nahr el Auja reflects great credit on the .52nd (Lowland) Division. 
It involved considerable preparation, the details of which were thought out with care and precision. 
The sodden state of the ground, and, on the night of the crossing, the swollen state of the river, added to 
the difficulties, yet by dawn the whole of the infantry had crossed. The fact that the enemy were taken 
by surprise, and that all resistance was overcome with the bayonet without a shot being fired, bears 
testimony to the discipline of this division. Eleven officers, including two battalion commanders, and 
305 other ranks, and ten machine guns were captured in this operation. 



12 THE ADVANCE OF THE Dec. 21-27, 1917. 

Dec. 21 was spent in building bridges. Considerable hostile shell fire was experienced during 
the day, chiefly from the right flank. From Mulebbis the enemy could observe the valley of the Auja. 
Despite this the bridges were completed, and by du.sk the whole of the Divisional Artillery of the 52nd 
Division had crossed to the right bank, ready to support the advance to the final objectives. 

On the morning of Dec. 22, the 54th Division on the right drove the enemy from the orchards 
which surroimd Mulebbis, and captured the villages of Rantieh and Fejja. On the left the 52nd Division 
reached all their objectives and consolidated the line Tel el Mukhmar-Arsuf, the latter place, although 
two miles beyond the allotted objective, being occupied to deny direct observation on Jaffa harbour to 
the enemy. 

During the day the Royal Flying Corps attacked the enemy with bombs and machine-gun fire aa 
he withdrew, inflicting numerous casualties. 

Throughout these operations the XXIst Corps received most effective support from the Royal Navy. 

This operation, by increasing the distance between the enemy and Jaffa from three to eight miles, 
rendered Jaffa and its harbour secure, and gained elbow-room for the troops covering Ludd and Ramleh 
and the main Jaffa- Jerusalem road. {See Plate 29.) 



Enemy Attempt to Recover Jerusalem, Dec. 26-27. 

5. In the meantime, on XXth Corps front, only minor operations had taken place, resulting in the 
capture of various points of local tactical importance. 

The preparations for the advance to the Beitin-Nalin line were hindered by the weather, heavy rain 
falling during the week before Christmas. As they were nearing completion, various movements and 
concentrations of troops on the part of the enemy indicated that he intended to attack, with the object 
of recovering Jerusalem. 

This proved to be the case. On the night of Dec. 26-27, the enemy attacked with great determina- 
tion astride the Jerusalem-Nablus road. A counter-attack against the right of his attack was carried 
out immediately by two divisions. As the result of three days' fighting, not only did the enemy's attempt 
to recapture Jerusalem fail, but by the end of the third day he found himself seven miles further from 
Jerusalem than when his attack started. 

The enemy's attack was launched at 11.30 p.m. on Dec. 26, the advanced posts of the 60th 
Division, east of the Jerusalem road, being driven in. By 1.30 a.m. on Dec. 27 the 60th Division was 
engaged along its whole front. 

Between 1.30 a.m. and 8 a.m. the outposts of the 60th Division on the ridge north of Beit Hanninah 
repelled four determined attacks, but the heaviest fighting took place to the east of the Jerusalem- 
Nablus road. Repeated attacks were made against Tel el Ful ; a conspicuous hill from which Jerusalem 
and the intervening ground can be overlooked. The attacks were made by picked bodies of troops, and 
were pressed with great determination. At only one point did the enemy succeed in reaching the main 
line of defence. He was driven out at once by the local reserves. In all these attacks he lost 
heavily. 

In the meantime the enemy had dehvered attacks against various points held by the 53rd Division 
east of Jerusalem. On the extreme right at Kh. Deir Ibn Obeid, a company of Middlesex troops was 
surroimded by 700 Turks, supported by mountain artillery. Although without artillery support, it 
offered a most gallant resistance, holding out till relief came on the morning of the 28th. None of the 
other attacks on this division's front were any more successful. 

On the 60th Division front north of Jerusalem, a lull in the fighting occurred after 8 a.m. This 
lasted till 12.55 p.m., when the enemy launched an attack of unexpected strength against the whole 
front. In places this attack reached our main line of defence, but these small successes were short- 
lived, for in each case local counter-attacks, carried out immediately, were successful in restoring the line. 

This proved to be the final effort. 

At noon the counter-attack by the 74th and 10th Divisions, which had been launched at 6.30 a.m. 
against the right of the enemy's attack, had made itself felt. 

The 74th Division, climbing the western slopes of the Zeitun Ridge, advanced along it in an easterly 
direction. On their left a brigade of the 10th Division advanced along the neighbouring ridge, the left 
of the 10th Division advancing in a northerly direction to form a defensive flank. 

These divisions met with a detennined and stubborn resistance. The ground over which the advance 
took place was sufficiently rough and broken to render the advance slow and difficult, quite apart from 
any action of the enemy. In addition, the boulders on the hills rendered it ideal ground in which to 
fight a delaying action, providing positions for machine guns, which are difficult to locate. 

Nevertheless, when night fell the 74th Division had reached the east end of the Zeitun Ridge, oppo- 
site Beitunia. On their left the 10th Division overlooked Ain Arik, and further to the left were in 
possession of Deir Ibzia. 



Dec. 28-29, 1917. EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 13 

The counter-attack of these two divisions had thus not only resulted in an advance of 4,000 yards 
on a six-mile front, but, by attracting the enemy's reserves, had prevented the enemy from repeating 
his attacks on the 60th Division, and, depriving him of the initiative, had forced him to abandon his 
attempt to capture Jerusalem. 

Advance into Mount Ephraim. 

Seeing that the Turkish attack was spent I ordered the XXth Corps to make a general advance 
northwards on Dec. 28. 

The enemy, after the failure of his attack on Dec. 27, was still holding his original position in front 
of the 60th Division. This position was of considerable strength, and included Khurbet Adaseh, a high 
ridge overlooking the approaches from Beit Haninah, while further west it included the villages of Bir 
Nebala and El Jib, the scene of heavy fighting at the end of November. 

El Jib and Bir Nebala were captured by 1 p.m. Khurbet Adaseh was then attacked and captured 
by 5.30 p.m. 

At 6.30 p.m. the advance was resumed and by 9.15 p.m. the 60th Division had reached the line Er 
Ram-Rafat. Considerable resistance was met with at Er Ram. The right of this advance was protected 
by the 53rd Division, which extended its left northwards, captm-ing the villages of Anata and Kh. Almit. 

On the left the 74th Division, advancing from the east end of the Zeitim Ridge, captured Beitunia, 
which was defended with obstinacy, and seized the high ridge east and north of it. Further to the left, 
the right of the 10th Division, descending into the valley of the Ain Arik, cUmbed the opposite slopes 
and captured Kefr Shiyan hill, one mile east of Ain Arik, and the ridge between this hill and Kh. Rubin. 
Considerable opposition was encountered, and great difficulty was experienced in locating the enemy's 
machine guns. 

The 60th Division continued its advance on Dec. 29. At the start no opposition was met with, 
the enemy having withdrawn to Bireh and the Et Tahuneh ridge just north of the village, leaving a 
garrison at Shab Salah, a precipitous hill 1,000 yards south of Bireh, overlooking the Jerusalem-Nablus 
road. As soon as the leading troops came within range of Bireh they were met with heavy rifle and 
machine-gun fire. Some delay was caused owing to the difficulty experienced in bringing the guns forward. 

By 4.15 p.m. the left of the attack reached the Birfeh-Ram Allah road, and then stormed the Tahuneh 
ridge, the last position from which the enemy could observe the approaches to Bireh. 

Simultaneously with this attack the right of the 60th Division had stormed Shab Saleh in face of 
heavy machine-gim fire, subsequently capturing the ridge east of Bireh. 

At 9 p.m. the advance was continued to the line Beitin-El Balua-Kh. El Burj. little opposition 
was encountered. On this day the 53rd Division extended its line northwards to protect the right of 
the 60th Division, occupying Hizmeh Jeba and the high groimd north of it overlooking the Wadi el 
Medineh, with little opposition. 

On the left the 74th Division occupied Ram Allah, and the 10th Division advanced without oppo- 
sition to the line Khurbet Rubin-Ras Kerker-Deir el Kuddis. 

The final fine occupied by the XXth Corps thus ran from Deir Ibn Obeid, south-east of Jerusalem, 
northwards past Hizmeh and Jeba to Beitin, and thence westwards through El Burj, Ras Kerker, to 
Deir el Kuddis. 

During these days the Royal Air Force not only gained valuable and timely information, but re- 
peatedly attacked the enemy's troops and transport with bombs and machine-gun fire from low altitudes, 
inflicting considerable losses. 

Results of the Four Days' Fighting. 

The Turkish attempt to recapture Jerusalem had thus ended in crushing defeat. He had employed 
fresh troops who had not participated in the recent retreat of his army from Beersheba and Gaza and had 
escaped its demoralizing effects. The determination and gallantry with which his attack was carried 
out only served to increase his losses. The attack had commenced on the night Dec. 26-27. By the 
evening of Dec. 30, the XXth Corps had advanced on a front of twelve miles to a depth varying from 
six miles on the right to three miles on the left. This advance had to overcome not only a determined 
and obstinate resistance, but great natural difficulties as well, which had to be overcome before g\ms 
could be brought up to support the infantry. 

Seven hundred and fifty prisoners, twenty-four machine gims, and three automatic rifles were 
captured during these operations, and over 1,000 Turkish dead were buried by us. Our own casualties 
were considerably less than this number. 

As a result of this advance and of that of the XXIst Corps, my force was in a far better position 
to cover Jerusalem and the towns of Ramleh and Jaffa, and the road, which, running from Jaffa to 
Jerusalem, formed the chief artery of lateral communication behind my fine. (See Plate 30.) 



14 THE ADVANCE OF THE Feb. 19, 1918. 

Importance of the Jordan Bridges. 

6. Any further advance northwards on my part was out of the question for the time being. Besides 
the construction of roads and the improvement of communications in the forward areas, stores of 
supplies and ammunition had to be accumulated. Until the railway had reached a point considerably 
nearer my front, this was of necessity a difficult task, and one rendered still more difficult by frequent 
spells of wet weather. Moreover, before a further advance could be made, it was necessary to drive 
the enemy across the Eiver Jordan to render my right flank secure. (See Plate 31.) The possession 
of the crossings over the Jordan offered other advantages. These were : — 

(a) The enemy would be prevented from raiding the tract of country to the west of the Dead Sea 

(6) Control of the Dead Sea would be obtained. 

(c) A point of departure would be gained for operations eastwards, with a view to interrupting 
the enemy's line of communication to the Hedjaz, in conjunction with the Arab forces based on Akaba. 

7. Before the country around Jericho could be used as a base for operations against Amman, a 
further advance northwards was necessary to gain sufficient space to the north to render any interrup- 
tion from that direction impossible. 

I had intended to carry out this advance to the north simultaneously with the advance eastwards 
to the Eiver Jordan. It, however, became apparent that, if this was to be carried into effect the opera- 
tions against Jericho would have to be postponed for a considerable time to enable preparations for 
the advance northwards to be completed. I, therefore, decided to carry out the advance to the Jordan 
as a separate enterprise, the limits of the advance being the Jordan on the east and the Wadi el Auja on 
the north. This wadi joins the Jordan eight miles north of the point where the Jordan enters the 
Dead Sea. 

For this operation the Austrahan and New Zealand Mounted Division, less the Moimted Brigade 
and the Divisional Artillery, was attached to the XXth Corps. 

The 60th Division had taken over the line east of Jerusalem some time previously. Opposed to it 
were some 5,000 rifles, while to the north another 2,000 rifles were in a position from which to act against 
the left flank of the 60th Division as it advanced. 

The chief obstacle to the advance lay in the difficulties of the ground rather than any opposition 
the enemy might offer. 

The descent from the vicinity of Jerusalem to the valley of the Jordan is very steep. The beds of 
the main wadis run from west to east. Their banks are often precipitous, rendering any crossing from 
one bank to the other impossible. Nxmierous tributaries join the main wadis from all directions, break- 
ing up the ridges into a tumbled mass of hills. 

The descent to the Jordan Valley from the line then held by the 60th Division is not, however^ 
continuous. It is interrupted by a series of ridges which afforded the enemy strong defensive positions. 

Opposite the right of the 60th Division's line El Muntar formed a conspicuous landmark overlooking 
all the country in the vicinity : opposite the centre the high ground about Ras Umm Deisis and Arak 
Ibrahim afforded the enemy a strong position, while further north, on the left bank of the wadi es 
Suweinit, Ras el Tawil formed a dominating feature. After a further fall the ground rose again at Talaat 
ed Dumm. This rise continued in a south-easterly direction to Jebel Ekteif, thence eastwards to Neby 
Musa, descending from there to the Jordan Valley, five miles south of Jericho. 

To the west of Jericho at Jebel Kuruntul the ground falls sharply in steep cliffs to the Jordan Valley. 

The general plan consisted of a direct advance by the 60th Division to the cliffs overlooking Jericho. 
The Austrahan and New Zealand Mounted Division was to co-operate on the right flank with a view to 
entering the Jordan Valley near Neby Musa, thus cutting off the enemy's retreat from Jericho. 

The Descent into the Jordan Valley. 

The first step of the operation was carried out on Feb. 19. By 9 a.m. the 60th Division had captured 
El Muntar, Arak Ibrahim and Ras et Tawil, the 53rd Division extending its right to include Rummon, 
thence along the right bank of the Wadi el Asa, in touch with the left of the 60th Division. The greatest 
opposition was encountered on the left at Rummon by the 53rd Division, and in the vicinity of Ras et 
Tawil by the 60th Division. 

The capture of El Mimtar enabled the mounted troops to concentrate behind it, preparatory to 
operating against the enemy's left on the 20th. 

On the left the 53rd Division was now in a position to command the Et Taiyibeh-Jericho road, 
along which any troops intended to act against the left of the 60th Division would move. 

During the day further ground was secured by the 60th Division in face of considerable opposition,, 
to cover the deployment for the attack on Feb. 20. {See Plate 32.) 



Feb. 20-22, 1918. EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 15 

During the night of Feb. 19-20 the 60th Division moved into positions of deployment in the Wadi 
es Sidr. The covering troops of the centre brigade were attacked during the night, but the enemy was 
repulsed after a sharp struggle. On the morning of the 20th the centre brigade captured Talat ed Dumm 
at 7.15 a.m., the enemy resisting with stubbornness. After a pause to enable guns to be brought for- 
ward, a further advance of 2,000 yards was made. 

The right brigade, advancing on Jebel Ekteif, met with great opposition. Moreover, the ground 
over which the attack had to take place proved the most rugged and difficult yet met with in this 
coimtry. Only one approach existed by which the assaulting waves could climb Jebel Ekteif, but by 
midday it had been stormed. 

The left brigade, on the north of the Wadi Farah, advanced four miles, over difficult country, the 
enemy fighting a rearguard action from ridge to ridge. 

Thus by the evening the 60th Division had reached a line running north from Jebel Ekteif, four 
miles west of the cliffs overlooking Jericho. 

In the meantime the mounted troops on the right had encountered considerable opposition, and had 
been much hampered by the difficulties of the ground. 

Two miles south of Neby Musa the enemy held the high ground at Jebel el Kalimum and Tubk el 
Kaneiterah. Compelled to move in single file over tracks which were exposed to machine-gun fire from 
the enemy's position, and which had been registered accurately by the enemy's guns at Neby Musa, the 
progress of the mounted troops was necessarily slow. By 2 p.m., however, the enemy was driven from 
his position at Jebel el Kalimum and Tubk el Kaneiterah. The further advance of the New Zealand 
Brigade on Neby Musa was hampered by the ground, and was finally checked at the Wadi Mukehk, the 
only possible crossing over which was subjected to a heavy fire from Neby Musa. On the right of the 
New Zealanders an Australian Mounted brigade discovered a crossing over the Wadi Kumran, and 
entering the Jordan plain reached the Wadi Jufet Zeben by dusk. 

The chief feature of the enemy's resistance was the volume of machine-gun fire. 

By 6 a.m. the New Zealanders and a battalion of the 60th Division reached Neby Musa, meeting 
with no opposition. 

Occupation of Jericho, Feb. 21. 

The Australian Mounted Brigade, advancing along the plain, entered Jericho at 8.20 a.m., the 
enemy having withdrawn during the night. 

The 60th Division advanced to the line Kujm es Shema-Liyeh-Kh. Kakun-Jebel Karuntul, over- 
looking Jericho. 

Meanwhile, patrols from the Australian Mounted Brigade reconnoitred as far as the Wadi el Aujah 
to the north and the El Ghoraniyeh bridge. The enemy was foimd to be holding the high ground north 
of the Aujah, and a bridgehead covering the El Ghoraniyeh bridge with guns on the left bank. 
(See Plate 33.) 

As a direct attack on the bridgehead would have involved heavy losses, without compensating 
advantages, it was not attempted. On the 22nd the 60th Division withdrew to the line Jebel Ekteif- 
Talat ed Dumm-Ras et Tawil, leaving outposts on the cliffs overlooking Jericho. The Moimted Divi- 
sion, leaving one regiment to patrol the Jordan Valley, returning to Bethlehem. 

During these operations four officers, 140 other ranks, and six machine guns were captured from 
the enemy. 

On no previous occasions had such difficulties of ground been encoxmtered. As an instance of 
this, a Field Artillery battery took thirty-six hours to reach Neby Musa, the distance covered, as the 
crow flies, being only eight miles. 

The Royal Air Force rendered valuable service, but mist and low-lying clouds interrupted their 
work to a great extent. 

innproving the Position. 

8. This operation, by driving the enemy across the Jordan, had rendered my right flank secure, 
but the base thus obtained was not sufficiently broad to permit of operations being carried out east of 
the Jordan against the Hedjaz Railway. 

Before any such operation could be undertaken it was essential in the first place to cross the Wadi 
Aujah and secure the high ground on the north bank covering the approaches to the Jordan Valley by 
the Beisan-Jericho road, and, secondly, by advancing sufficiently far northwards on either side of the 
Jerusalem-Nablus road, to deny to the enemy the use of all tracks and roads leading to the lower Jordan 
Valley. This accomplished, any troops he might determine to transfer from the west to the eaet bank 
of the Jordan would have to make a considerable detour to the north. 



16 THE ADVANCE OF THE March 8-10, 1918. 

I therefore ordered the XXth Corps to secure Kh. el Beiyudat and Abu TelluJ, in the Jordan Valley, 
north of the Wadi el Aujah, and further to the west the line Kefr Malik-Kh. Abu Felah, the high ground 
south of Sinjil, and the ridge north of the Wadi el Jib ruiming through Kh. AUuta-Jiljilia-Abwein- 
Arura, thence to Deir es Sudan and Nebi Saleh. 

The watershed from which the wadis run, in the one direction to the River Jordan, in the other 
through the hills to the plain north of Ludd and thence to the sea, runs parallel to and some two miles 
east of the Jerusalem-Nablus road. The fall to the Jordan Valley is short and sharp, with the result 
that the beds of the wadis are deep and their sides almost precipitous. The country is so intricate that 
it cannot be crossed by large bodies of troops. Consequently, there was no danger in leaving a gap 
between the right of the XXth Corps at Kefr Malik and the detachment in the Jordan Valley at Abu 
Tellul. 

To conform to the advance of the XXth Corps, I ordered the XXIst Corps to advance its right to 
include the ridge north of the Wadi Ballut, the village of Mejdel Yaba, a conspicuous landmark on a foot- 
hill overlooking the plain north of Ludd, Ras el Ain, an old Crusader stronghold on the railway from 
Ludd to Tul Keram, and El Mirr. 

As a result of this advance the XXIst Corps would be placed in a better position for a further 
advance, should it decide to attack the defensive system constructed by the enemy from Jiljulieh 
westwards through Tabsor to the sea. 

The two Corps were thus advancing on a front, from Kefr Malik to El Mirr, of twenty-six miles, 
to a maximum depth of seven miles. 

The ground over .which the advance was to take place is rugged and difficult. A succession of high 
and rocky ridges, separated by deep valleys, afforded the enemy a series of positions of great natural 
strength. The slopes of the ridges are in many places precipitous. Ledges of rock confine the descent 
to definite places, on which the enemy could concentrate his fire. In places the slopes are terraced, 
and men had to pull or hoist each other up. 

It was necessary to reconnoitre each successive position held by the enemy, and the subsequent 
movement of troops into positions of assembly was of necessity a slow process. 

Under these conditions no rapid advance could be looked for. 

As soon as suppHes and ammunition had been collected and preparations were complete, both 
Corps made a preliminary advance to enable a closer reconnaissance of the enemy's main positions to 
be made, and to allow of the construction of roads for the movement of guns and supplies. 

By March 8 the XXth Corps had reached the hne En Nejmeh-Et Taiyibeh-Ain Sinia, on the 
Jerusalem-Nablus road, Hill 2,665 overlooking Bir ez Zeit-Beit Ello, the 53rd Division being on the 
right, the 74th Division in the centre astride the Jerusalem-Nablus road, and the 10th Division on the left. 

On the right of the XXIst Corps the 75th Division had captured Abud and the ridge between the 
Wadis Barbara and Abud. 

In neither case was any serious opposition encountered. 

When the subsequent advance began the opposition stiffened considerably on the front of both 
Corps. 

On March 9 and 10 the XXth Corps had to drive the enemy from ridge after ridge before the 
final objectives were reached. 

During the night of March 8-9, the brigades of the XXth Corps moved forward to their posi- 
tions of assembly. On the extreme right, in the Jordan Valley, the brigade of the 60th Division entrusted 
with the task of capturing Kh. el Beiyudat and Abu Tellul experienced some difficulty in crossing the 
Wadi el Aujah in the dark, and subsequently met with determined resistance. By 3 p.m., however, 
Kh. el Beiyudat and Abu Tellul had been captured. The occupation of a position astride the Beisan- 
Jericho road completed this operation. Further west the 53rd, 74th and 10th Divisions had advanced 
by the evening to a depth varying between 3,000 and 7,000 yards, and had reached a line running east 
and west through Tell Asur, thence along the ridges overlooking the Wadis En Nimr and El Jib. The 
53rd Division on the right had met with considerable opposition and great natural difficulties, especially 
on the extreme right and at Tell Asur, a conspicuous landmark among a mass of high hills. The impor- 
tance attached to Tell Asur by the enemy was shown by the number of determined efforts he made to 
recapture it, all of which were repulsed. 

On March 10 both the enemy's resistance and the difficulties of the groimd increased, but during 
the day and the early hours of the night of March 10-11, an advance of 3,000 yards was made on a 
front of twelve miles. The hne reached ran from Kefr Malik, along the ridge overlooking the Wadi el 
Kola and the Burj el Kisaneh ridge, past Kh. el Sahlat, Kh. Ahuta, Jiljilia, Abwein, and Arura to its 
former position at Deir es Sudan and Neby Saleh. 

The enemy contested the ridges north of the Wadis en Nirm and El Jib with great obstinacy, while 
on the extreme left near Neby Saleh he coimter-attacked the left of the 10th Division on several occa- 
sions. The descent of the slopes leading down to the Wadis en Nimr and El Jib and the ascent on the 
far side presented great difficulties. The downward slopes were exceptionally steep, almost precipitous 



March 11-12, 1918. EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 17 

in places. It was impossible for companies and platoons to move on a wide front. The slopes were 
swept by machine-gim and rifle fire and the bottom of the wadis by enfilade fire. The ascent on 
the far side was steeply terraced. Men had alternately to hoist and pull each other up, under fire, 
and finally to expel the enemy from the summits in hand-to-hand fighting. 

On March 11 the operation of the XXth Corps was completed by the occupation of Kh. Abu 
Felah and the heights overlooking Sinjil and the comparatively low-lying country to the north-east. 
The result of this operation was the capture of a Une with great natural facihties for defence, and of eleven 
officers, 160 other ranks, eleven machine guns and considerable amounts of ammunition and other booty. 

The second phase of the operation by the XXIst Corps, the prehminary phase having taken place 
on March 7, was carried out on March 12. 

At first the opposition encountered was not serious, but from the time the 75th Division reached 
the ridge overlooking the Wadi Ballut it stiffened, the enemy contesting the ridge on the far side of the 
wadi stubbornly, and when driven off making several counter-attacks to regain it. At Benat Burry, a 
razor-edged ridge north of Kh. Balatah, the top of the ridge is honeycombed with caves and entrances 
on both sides. Considerable difficulty was experienced in overcoming the enemy's resistance here. 
Eventually, however, a platoon of Gurkhas worked round to the rear of the ridge. A Lewis gun was 
brought to bear on the exits. The garrison of the caves, numbering five officers and fifty other ranks, 
then surrendered. 

On the left of the 75th Division the 54th Division captured the villages of El Mezeireh, Kh. Dikerin 
and Mejdel Yaba in tlie foothills, and Ras el Ain and El Mirr in the plain. Seven officers, 105 other 
ranks, and two machine guns were taken by these two divisions. \ 

Sherifian Operations in Moab during January. 

9. The Jordan Valley had now been sufficiently cleared of the enemy to enable operations to be 
carried out against the Turkish line of communication to the Hedjaz, in conjunction with the Arab 
forces under Sherif Feisal, which were operating in the country to the south-east of the Dead Sea and 
were under my control. 

8herif Feisal's forces were based on Akaba. In Jan. 1918, he had captured the high ground about 
Uheida, withiu seven miles of Maan, his main objective. At the same time a force under Sherif Abdul 
Magin had occupied the whole of the Hish Forest up to and including Shobek, twenty miles north by 
west of Maan, destroying thirty-five kilometres of the enemy's light railway which left the main line 
at Kalaat Aneiza and was used to transport wood as fuel for locomotives. After the capture of Shobek 
a force under Sherif Nazir raided Jauf ed Derwish, a station on the main line thirty miles north of Maan. 
This they held for three days, burning the station buildings and destroying two locomotives and some 
rolling stock. In this successful raid the Turkish losses amounted to over 100 killed, over 200 prisoners, 
a mountain gim and two machine guns. Further north a separate force of Arab tribesmen under Sherif 
Nazir captured Tafile, fifteen miles south-east of the south end of the Dead Sea, on Jan. 16. The garri- 
son, which consisted of 100 Turks and the officials of the place, surrendered after a short resistance. 
Ten days later a Tiu-kish force, consisting of three battalions, with two mountain guns and twenty-seven 
machine guns, advanced from Kerak to recapture Tafile. An engagement took place on Jan. 26, in 
which the enemy suffered a crushing defeat. His losses amounted to over 450 in killed and 250 in pri- 
soners. In addition, the whole of his artillery and machine guns fell into the hands of the Arabs. In 
March the Turks concentrated a considerable force, including a battahon of German infantry, and, 
advancing from Kutrani and Jauf ed Derwish, re-occupied Tafile, the Arab tribesmen, in face of superior 
numbers, withdrawing to positions north of Shobek. 

The situation to the east of the Jordan thus presented a favourable opportunity for a raid on the 
enemy's communications with the Hedjaz. 

Importance of Annman. 

Its immediate effect would be to compel the enemy to recall the force which had recently occupied 
Tafile. It might, in addition, compel the enemy to call on the garrison of Maan for support. If this 
should prove to be the case, Sherif Feisal would be afforded his opportunity to attack Maan with some 
prospects of success. The extent of this opportunity would depend on the amount of damage done to 
the Hedjaz Railway. Near Amman, the railway crosses a viaduct and passes through a tunnel. If these 
could be destroyed it would be some weeks before traffic could be resumed. I determined therefore to 
carry out a raid on Amman, with the object of destroying the viaduct and tunnel and, if this should be 
found impossible, to damage the railway as much as possible. Even if traffic was only interrupted for a 
short time, the mere threat of a repetition of this raid would compel the enemy to maintain a considerable 



18 THE ADVANCE OF THE March 21-22. 1918 

force to cover Amman. The troops available to operate against the Arabs would be reduced, and 
possibly the enemy might transfer a portion of his reserves from the west to the east of the Jordan, 
thereby weakening his power to make or meet any attack on the main front. 

Amman is thirty miles east by north of Jericho as the crow flies. The nature of the intervening 
coimtry varies to a marked degree. From the banks of the Jordan to the clay ridges, a mile east of the 
river, the ground is flat, and after rain becomes marshy. Beyond the ridges the country is covered with 
scrub and intersected by numerous wadis. For the first five miles the total rise is only 500 feet. In 
the next twelve miles the ground rises some 3,500 feet till the edge of the plateau of Moab is reached. 
The hills are rugged and steep. The main wadis descend from the plateau to the Jordan in deep valleys. 
The plateau itself is imdulating, the lower portions of it marshy after rain. The hills which rise from it 
are rocky and covered with scrub. They are isolated features, and only form continuous ridges immed- 
iately west of Amman, which lies in a cultivated plain, extending some two miles west and four miles 
north-west of the town. This plain, which is the site of many ruins, is intersected by numerous deep 
wadis difficult to cross — especially the Wadi Amman, which runs from south to north, leaving the town 
of Amman on its right. 

The Turks had constructed a metalled road from Ghoraniyeh bridge to Es Salt and Amman. 
Following the Wadi Nimrin, it enters the hills at Shimet Nimrin and winds round the slopes of the valley 
of the Wadi Shaib, supported by embankments, in places twenty feet high. At Es Salt, a town of some 
15,000 inhabitants, eighteen miles from Ghoraniyeh by road, it is joined by tracks leading from the 
fords over the Jordan at Umm es Shert and Jisr ed Damieh, and from Jerash to the north. On leaving 
Es Salt the road runs in a northerly direction for two miles, and then turns east, reaching the edge of the 
plateau five miles further on. This is the only road, and is in bad repair. Various tracks follow the 
wadis to the plateau, but are imfit for wheeled transport. One leaves the main road at Shimet Nimrin, 
and follows the Wadis Jeria and Sir, passing the village of Ain es Sir. Another leads from Ghoraniyeh 
and Makhadet Hajlah up the Wadi el Kefrcin to Naaur, where it joins the main route from Madeba to 
Amman. 



The Amman Raid, March 21-April 2. 

11. The force detailed to carry out the raid consisted of the 60th (London) Division, the Australian 
and New Zealand Mounted Division, the Imperial Camel Brigade, a Moimtain Artillery Brigade, the 
Light Armoured Car Brigade, and a heavy battery. This force was placed under the command of the 
General Ofiicer Commanding 60th Division. The 60th Division was to force the crossings over the 
Jordan and advance astride the metalled road to Es Salt, which it was to hold, its left flank being 
protected by a mounted brigade. The mounted troops and the Camel Brigade, following the 60th 
Division across the Jordan, were to move direct on Amman by the tracks passing through Ain es Sir 
and Naaur. On reaching Amman the railway was to be destroyed and the viaduct and timnel demolished. 
This having been accomplished, the moimted troops were to withdraw on the 60th Division, the whole 
force then withdrawing to bridgeheads at the Jordan. 

The operations, which started during the night of March 21-22, were hampered considerably 
by rain, which fell dxu-ing the days preceding the raid and on March 27 and the three following days. 
The Jordan is mifordable at this time of the year. The current is at all tunes rapid, and is liable to 
sudden floods which render the banks boggy and difficult of approach for transport. On March 28 it 
rose nine feet. The rain which fell during the operations rendered the tracks in the hills slippery and 
the movement of horses, and especially of camels, slow and difiicult. The delay thus caused enabled 
the enemy to bring up reinforcements. Before Amman could be attacked in strength some 4,000 Turks 
supported by fifteen guns were in position near Amman, covering the viaduct and tunnel, while another 
2,000 were moving on Es Salt from the north. To have driven the enemy from his position, without 
adequate artillery support, would have entailed very heavy losses. Owing to the marshy nature of the 
country it was only possible to bring up mountain artillery, and I therefore ordered a withdrawal, which 
was carried out without serious interruption. Although it had not been possible to effect any permanent 
demolitions, five miles of railway line, including several large culverts, and the points and crossings at 
Alanda station, were destroyed to the south of Amman, while to the north of the town a two-arch bridge 
was blown up. 

Considerable losses were inflicted on the enemy, and in addition fifty-three officers and over 900 
other ranks were taken prisoner, including several Germans. 

The raid also enabled a considerable number of Armenians to escape and find a refuge west of the 
Jordan. 



March 22-29, 1918. EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 10 

The Passage of the Jordan, March 22-April 2. 

12. The crossing of the Jordan took place during the night of March 21-22. {See Plate 34.) 

The crossing was to have been effected by a brigade of the 60th Division at Ghoraniyeh and Makh- 
adet Hajlah. This brigade was then to cover the construction of bridges, the 60th Division crossing 
at the former, the mounted troops at the latter place. The attempt to cross at Ghoraniyeh failed owing 
to the strength of the current, which prevented all attempts to cross both by swmiming and by means 
of ra'ts and pontoons. 

At Hajlah, however, the swimmers succeeded in reaching the opposite bank at 1.20 a.m., and by 
7.45 a.m. the leading battalion was across. Till dawn this crossing was unperceived by the enemy, 
but subsequently the troops had to be ferried across, and a bridge constructed under fire. The bridge 
was completed by 8.30 a.m. Further troops crossed, but it was found impossible to enlarge the bridge- 
head till dark, owing to the enemy's fire and the thickness of the scrub. 

A further attempt to cross at Ghoraniyeh during the night of the 22nd-23rd was again frustrated 
by the current and the enemy's fire. Early in the morning, however, a New Zealand regiment crossed 
at Hajlah, and, galloping northwards, di'ove back the enemy and formed a bridgehead at Ghoraniyeh. 
The current having diminished, three bridges were constructed during the day, and by 10 a.m. the whole 
of the infantry of the 60th Division and the greater part of the mounted troops were east of the Jordan, 
but owing to the swollen state of the river much valuable time had been lost. 

Shunet Nimrin and Es Salt. 

On March 24 the 60th Division attacked the enemy and drove him from his position at El Hand 
and Shunet Nimrin, covering the entrance to the pass leading to Es Salt. Three gims were captured 
by a battahon of the London Regiment, the teams being shot down by the fire of the Lewis guns. 
Following on the heels of the retreating enemy, the 60th Division advanced four miles along the road 
to Es Salt, which was occupied the following evening without opposition. 

In the meantime the mounted troops, followed by the Camel Brigade, made their way along the 
tracks towards Ain es Sir and Naaur. Early in the day all wheeled transport had to be sent back. Even 
so, the tracks had been rendered so slippery by rain, which fell continuously on tbe 25th, that progress 
was slow. In many places horses had to move in single file, and had to be pulled or pushed up the sUp- 
pery slopes. 

Naaur was reached late in the evening of March 25. 

The rain continued to fall on March 26. At 5 a.m. the New Zealand and Australian Brigades 
met at Ain es Sir. The Australians moved on to Suweileh, north of the Es Salt-Amman road, capturing 
170 Turks there. Both men and horses were, however, too exhausted by their exertions to admit of 
more than demolition parties being sent on to the railway. 

On March 27 the advance was resumed. The ground favoured the enemy, the rocks and scrub 
on the hills affording excellent cover to his riflemen. The wadis could only be crossed at a few places, 
and then only in single file. 

Destruction of Railway near Amman. 

By evening the New Zealanders had reached the railway south of Amman, their demolition parties 
working southwards. In the centre the Camel Brigade advanced direct on Amman, but were checked 
some 1,500 yards west of Amman village. On the left the Australians were imable to reach the railway 
north of Amman, being heavily counter-attacked ; but during the night a demoUtion party succeeded 
in blowing up a small bridge seven miles north of Amman. 

On March 28 a brigade of the 60th Division arrived from Es Salt accompanied by mountain artillery. 
The road was too soft to admit of field guns being brought. In fact, twenty-two Turkish motor-lorries 
and other vehicles found along the road were so embedded in the mud that they had to be destroyed. 
On its arrival this brigade attacked along the Es Salt-Amman road, the AustraUans attacking on its 
left, the Camel Brigade on its right, while the New Zealanders attacked Hill 3,039 just south of Amman. 

Enemy Counter-Attacks. 

Little progress was made. The enemy made several counter-attacks, especially against the 
Australians, who were forced back a short distance. 

On March 29 Turkish reinforcements arrived, and the coimter-attacks were renewed, but without 
success. (See Plate 35.) 

During the afternoon two more battalions of the 60th Division and a battery of Royal Horse Artil- 
lery arrived after a long and arduous march. 



20 THE ADVANCE OF THE March 30-April 13, 1918. 

The attack on Amman was renewed at 2 a.m. on March 30. The New Zealanders captured a 
portion of Hill 3,039, but were unable to drive the enemy from the northern and eastern ends. Parties 
of New Zealanders entered the village, but were fired on from the houses. Elsewhere the attack met 
with only shght success. It was apparent that without greater artillery support further attacks could 
only succeed at the cost of heavy losses. Moreover, Turkish troops from Jisr ed Damieh and from the 
north had begun to make their presence felt at Es Salt. Orders were therefore issued for a withdrawal 
to take place during the night. This was carried out without interruption, after all the woimded had 
been evacuated. 

By the evening of April 2 the whole force had recrossed the Jordan, with the exception of the 
troops left to hold the bridgehead on the east bank. (See Plate 36.) 

Results of the Raid. 

Although no permanent damage had been done to the Hcdjaz Railway, the raid had succeeded in 
drawing northwards and retaining not only the Turkish troops which had been operating against the 
Arabs, but in addition a portion of the garrison of Maan and the stations further south. 

Before the raid was carried out the enemy's strength in the Amman-Es Salt-Shunet Nimrin area 
was approximately 4,000. By the middle of April it had increased to over 8,000. 

13. Taking advantage of this opportunity, Sherif Feisal commenced operations against Maan. 
The railway was first cut both north and south of Maan at Ghadir el Haj and Jerdun. At these places 
270 Turks and three machine guns were captured. On April 13, Senna, a Turkish post 4,000 yards 
south-west of Maan Station, was captured, and on April 17 the station was entered and 100 prisoners 
made, but the attack was unable to make any impression on the strong Turkish position 400 yards 
north of the station. This position was of considerable strength, and was provided with concrete 
machine-gun emplacements. The Arabs then withdrew to a strong position at Senna to await the 
arrival of further ammunition for their artillery. 

In the meantime another coliunn attacked the line between Batn el Ghul and Kalaat et Mudawara, 
seventy kilometres south of Maan, and destroyed 100 kilometres of line so effectively that at least a 
month's uninterrupted work will be required to repair it, and then only if large gangs of labourers are 
available. The damage to the railway north of Maan was not so thorough, but was sufficient to prevent 
through traffic for several days. 

Enemy Attack on Ghoraniyeh Bridgehead. 

14. After the troops employed in the last raid had been withdrawn to the west bank of the Jordan, 
the enemy reoccupied the Shunet Nimrin position, which he held with some 5,000 rifles. 

On April 11 he made simultaneous attacks on the Ghoraniyeh bridgehead and on EI Musallabeh, 
which covers the Beisan-Jericho road west of the Jordan. Both attacks were pressed with considerable 
determination, but brought him no success, and during the night April 11-12 he withdrew to his posi- 
tions at Sbimet 'Nimrin, which he commenced to strengthen. His losses in these attacks were heavy. 
He left three officers and 113 other ranks in our hands as prisoners, while some 500 dead were buried 
by us or seen to be buried by the enemy. 

I determined to seize the first opportunity to cut off and destroy the enemy's force at Shunet Nimrin, 
and, if successful, to hold Es Salt till the Arabs could advance and relieve my troops. This would have 
denied the enemy the use of the harvest. I had intended to carry out this operation about the middle 
of May, when the reorganization of the 1st Mounted Division had been completed. In the meantime, 
however, a deputation from the Beni Sakhr tribe arrived stating that the tribe was concentrated near 
Madeba, ready to co-operate with any advance I might make, provided it took place before May 4, after 
which date their supplies would be finished and the tribe would have to disperse. 

The troops available to carry out this raid were the Desert Mounted Corps, less the 1st Mounted 
Division, the 60th Division, less one brigade, and the Imperial Service Cavalry and Infantry Brigades. 

The 60th Division was to attack the enemy's position at Shunet Nimrin, whilst the Mounted Troops, 
moving northwards from Ghoraniyeh, were to turn east along the tracks leading from Umm es Sh^rt 
and Jisr ed Damieh, and protect the left flank. 

In the former raid the only route found fit for wheeled transport between Amman and Shunet 
Nimrin had been the metalled road passing through Es Salt. The arrival of the mounted troops at Es 
Salt would thus sever the main line of commimication of the force at Shunet Bimrin, who would be 
dependent for their supplies on the track further south through Ain es Sir. This track was exposed to 
attack by the Beni Sakhr tribe. 

There appeared every chance therefore of the Turkish force at Shunet Nimrin being compelled to 
retreat under very difficult conditions, and a fair chance of its being captured. 



April 30-May 4, 1918. EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 21 

The Es Salt Raid, April 30-May 4. 

The operations were commenced early on the morning of April 30, and proceeded according to plan. 

The 60th Division captured the advanced works of the Shunet Nimrin position, but were imable 
to make further progress in face of the stubborn resistance offered by the enemy. {See Plate .37.) 

The mounted troops, moving northwards, rode round the right of the Shimet Nimrin position, and 
by 6 p.m. had captured Es Salt, leaving an AustraUan Brigade to watch the left flank. 

This brigade took up a position facing north-west astride the Jisr ed Damieh-Es Salt track, with 
patrols watching the Wadi ez Zerka, and with a detachment on the high ground on the east bank of the 
Jordan, two miles north of Umm es Shert. 

At 7.30 a.m. on IVIay 1 this brigade was attacked by the 3rd Turkish Cavalry Division, and a part 
of the 24th Division, which had crossed from the west bank of the Jordan during the night at Jisr ed 
Daraieh. The enemy succeeded in penetrating between the left of the brigade and the detachment on 
the bank of the Jordan. The brigade was driven back through the foothills to the Wadi el Abyad. 
During its retirement through the hills nine guns and part of its transport had to be abandoned, being 
unable to traverse the intricate ground. 

The Umm es Shert-Es Salt track was thus the only line of supply or retreat left to the mounted 
troops in Es Salt, till the main road and the Wadi Arseniyet track could be opened by the capture of the 
Shunet Nimrin position and El Haud. (See Plate 38.) 

Arrangements were made for a combined attack to take place on this position on May 2. The 
60th Division was to attack from the west and the mounted troops at Es Salt from, the north-east. 

On May 2 the moimted troops in Es Salt were attacked by two Turkish battalions which had 
arrived from Amman accompanied by heavy guns, as well as by cavalry from the north, and troops 
from Jisr ed Damieh. These attacks were driven ofE, but the force intended to attack Shunet Nimrin 
from the north-east had to be weakened and was checked at El Howeij, five miles south of Es Salt. The 
60th Division was also unable to make any substantial progress, in spite of determined efforts. 

Inactivity of the Beni Sakhr. 

As the assistance of the Beni Sakhr tribe had not materialized, the Ain es Sir track was still open 
to the garrison of Shunet Nimrin. Further Turkish reinforcements were known to be on their way. 
It was evident that the Shunet Nimrin position could not be captured without losses, which I was not 
in a position to afford. In these circimistances I ordered the mounted troops to withdraw from Es 
Salt. Their retirement was accomplished successfully. The enemy, who followed up closely, was held 
off without difficulty. By the evening of May 4 all the troops had recrossed the Jordan, bridgeheads 
being left to cover the bridges at Ghoraniyeh and the crossing at El Auja. 

Although the destruction of the Turkish force at Shunet Nimrin had not been effected, the enemy's 
losses were considerable, the prisoners brought in amounting to fifty officers and 892 other ranks ; twenty- 
nine machine guns and several motor cars and lorries were destroyed by the mounted troops before they 
left Es Salt. 

The raid has undoubtedly rendered the enemy apprehensive of further operations east of the 
Jordan, and has compelled him to maintain considerable forces in the Amman-Shunet Nimrin area, 
reducing the forces available to meet the Arab menace. 

Despatch of Troops to France. 

15. The despatch of troops to France, and the reorganization of the force, has prevented further 
operations, of any size, being undertaken, and has rendered the adoption of a policy of active defence 
necessary. During the first week in April the 52nd Division embarked for France, its place being 
taken by the 7th (Meerut) Division which had arrived from Mesopotamia. 

The departure of the 52nd Division was followed by that of the 74th Division, which left Palestine 
during the second week in April. The 3rd (Lahore) Division was sent from Mesopotamia to replace 
the 74th Division, but it was not till the middle of June that the last units disembarked. In addition 
to the 52iid and 74th Divisions, nine Yeomanry regiments, five and a half siege batteries, ten British 
battalions, and five machine gun companies were withdrawn from the line, preparatory to embarkation 
for France, (a) 

By the end of April the Yeomanry regiments had been replaced by Indian Cavalry regiments, 
which had arrived from France, and the British battalions by Indian battalions despatched from India. 
These Indian battahons had not, however, seen service during the present war ; and, naturally, had not 
the experience of the battaUons they replaced. 

(a) See Eootnote on following page. 



22 THE ADVANCE OF THE June 8-Aug. 12, 1918. 

Thus in April the strength of the force had been reduced by one division, five and a half siege bat- 
teries and five machine-gun companies ; while one moimted division was in process of being reorganized, 
and was not available for operations. 

In May a further fourteen battalions of British infantry were withdrawn and despatched to France, (a) 
Only two Indian battalions were available to replace them. Thus at the end of May the force had been 
further reduced by twelve battaUons, while the loss of the 74th Division had not yet been fully made 
good. On the other hand, the reorganization of the mounted division had been completed. 

In Jime the places of the British battalions which had been despatched to France were filled by 
Indian battalions. Six of the Indian battalions had, however, been formed by withdrawing a company 
from twenty-four of the Indian battaUons abeady in the Force. As few reinforcements were available 
for the battalions thus depleted, the Force had been completed in name only. 

During July and the first week in August a further ten British battalions were replaced by ten 
Indian battahons, the persoimel of the British battalions being used as reinforcements, (b) 

16. During these months of reorganization various minor operations and a number of raids have 
been carried out. 

Advance in the Coastal Sector. 

Between April 9 and 11, the right of the line held by the XXIst Corps was advanced on a front of 
twelve miles, to a maximum depth of three miles ; the villages of Kefr Ain, Berukin, El Kefr and Rafat 
being captured. Considerable resistance was met with, the Turkish troops being stiffened by a German 
battaUon. The enemy made several attempts to recapture Berukin and Rafat. His counter-attacks 
were broken up by the infantry, ably supported by the artillery, but, in some cases, only after sharp hand- 
to-hand fighting. The enemy's losses were considerable, over 300 of his dead being counted. 

On June 8 an advance was made on the coast, at the extreme left of my line, with the object of 
depriving the enemy of observation. The enemy's positions were captured by two battalions— the 
Black Watch and the Guides, Two counter-attacks were made. In the first the enemy succeeded in 
reoccupying a portion of the position, but he was expelled. The second counter-attack broke down 
before it reached our new position. The enemy's losses were considerable, and four officers and 101 
other ranks were captured. The capture of these positions not only prevented the enemy from over- 
looking a considerable length of our defences and the ground in rear, but secured observation of the 
approaches to the enemy's positions, with the result that his movements, by day, have been considerably 
restricted. 

Successful Indian Raids. 

The Indian troops have carried out a niunber of minor raids with success. On July 13 a party of 
the Guides surprised the enemy in his trenches in the middle of the day, bringing back fifteen prisoners 
and a machine gun. On July 27 a Pathan company of the 53rd Sikhs F.F. inflicted heavy casualties 
on the enemy, and brought in thirty-three prisoners and two machine guns. 

A raid on a larger scale, carried out on Aug. 12 by the Leinster Regiment, 54th Sikhs, and 1st 
Battahon, 101st Grenadiers, was crowned with complete success. The objective was the enemy's defences 
on the El Burj-Ghurabeh ridge, north-west of Sinjil. This ridge is some 5,000 yards in length, and lies 
2,000 yards in front of our line. It was held by 800 rifles and thirty-six machine guns. The defences 
consisted of strongly-built sangars, protected by thick wire entanglements. The approaches to it are 
rocky and broken, involving a climb of 900 feet. The position was attacked from both flanks. The 
enemy was surprised. His losses were heavy, and the raiders brought back 239 prisoners, including 
a battahon commander and sixteen officers and thirteen machine guns. Great dash was shown by all 
the troops taking part in it. 

In the Jordan Valley the moimted troops have carried out successful raids, and have ambushed a 
number of hostile patrols. The Indian cavalry have used the lance with good effect on several occasions. 

(a) Teansfekhed. 

Yeomanry, — l/lst Warwicks, South Notts Hussara, 1/lst Bucks., l/lst Berks., 1/lst Lines., 1/lst City of London, l/2Qd and 

l/3rd County of London, l/lst East Ridinss. 
Siege Jiatfrrir».—2(i\st, 2;i2nd, 320th, 322th, •123rd, and 445th. 
Infantry Biitt<tlwrui.—2Hth. R. West Purreys, l/.'Jth Devons, 2/4th Somerset L. I., l/4th and l/7th Clieshires, U\i and Gth 

E. Inniskilling Fusiliers, l/4th R. Sussex, 2/4th Hanipshires, 2nd Loyal North Lanes., 5th R. Irish Fusiliers, 6th Connaii^ht 

Bangers, fith Leinsters, Gth li. Munster Fusiliers, (ith and 7th R. Dublin Fusiliers, 2/14, 2/15, 2/16, 2/20, 2/23rd, and 

2/24th Londons, 1/lst Herefords. 
Machine 6hm Companies.— Tim. 221, 262, 264, 271, and 272. 

<J) Disbanded. 

Infantry Jiattalions. — 2/4th Devons, l/5th and l/6th K. Welsh Pusiliers (amalgamated as 5/6th E. Welsh Fusiliers), 2/r)th 
Hampshires, 2/4th Dorsets, l/4th and l/5th Welsh (amalgamated as 4/5tli Welsh), 2/4th R. West Kents, 2/lOth 
Middlese.\, Gth E. IrUh Rifles, 2/18th and 2/21st Londons. 



July 14, 1918. EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 23: 

17. This activity on our part has not been imitated by the enemy, except in one instance. Then 
the brunt of the fighting fell on German troops. Early in July movements of troops, and increased 
artillery and aeroplane activity, foreshadowed an attack on our defences in the Jordan Valley. 

On the right bank of the Jordan our defences form a marked salient. The eastern side of the salient 
faces the ford at Umm esh Shert. The apex is at El Musallabeh, while the western face runs across the 
north-west slopes of Abu Tellul. 

Abu Tellul. 

Early on the morning of July 14 the enemy was seen to be concentrating in the deep wadis north- 
west of Abu Tellul. At 3.30 a.m. the attack began. The enemy penetrated between the advanced posts 
and seized Abu Tellul, thus cutting off the posts further north at El Musallabeh. At 4.30 a.m. the 1st 
Austrahan Light Horse Brigade counter-attacked. By 5 a.m. Abu Tellul had been regained. The enemy, 
driven against our advanced posts, which, with one exception, had held their groimd, suffered heavily. 
Two hundred and seventy-six Germans, including twelve officers, and sixty-two Turks were captured, in 
addition to six machine gims and forty-two automatic rifles. One hundred woimded and many dead 
were left on the ground. Great credit is due to the AustraUans for the quickness of their coimter- 
attack and for the determination displayed by the garrisons of the advanced posts in holding out. 
although surrounded. 

El Henu Ford. 

While this fighting was in progress a Turkish force of considerable strength was observed to be con- 
centrating to the east of the Jordan, opposite El Henu Ford, which is midway between the El Ghoraniyeh 
bridgehead and the Dead Sea. A cavalry brigade moved out to counter-attack. Taking advantage of 
the ground, the cavalry arrived within charging distance before they were observed. In the charge that 
ensued some ninety Turks were speared ; and ninety-one, including six officers, in addition to four machine 
guns, were captured. It was only by reaching ground impassable for cavalry that the remainder of the 
Turks effected their escape. The Jodhpur Lancers played a distinguished part in this charge. 

The enemy's attack on both banks of the Jordan thus failed ignominiously. His losses, especially 
those of the German troops, were heavy, and it is probable that the German units which took part will 
need a long rest before being ready for active operations again. Our casualties were comparatively hght. 

18. Since April no events of any importance have taken place in the Hedjaz. The Turks have been 
unable to restore through railway commimication between Maan and the north. South of Maan a 
detachment of the Imperial Camel Corps attacked and captured the station at Kalaat el Mudawara, 
destroying the water tower and pumps. Thirty-five Turks were killed, six officers and 146 other ranks, 
two guns and three machine gims were captured. 

As a result of this operation, no water supply now exists on the railway for a distance of 150 kilo- 
metres south of Maan. Medina has thus been definitely cut off from the north. 



Summary of the Operations. 

19. The operations, which took place during the first half of the period covered by this despatch, 
rendered secure the fruits of the fighting, which, commencing with the capture of Beersheba, culminated 
in the occupation of Jerusalem. 

On Dec. 12 the enemy still remained within four miles of Jerusalem. He is now twenty-two miles 
from the Holy City. {See. Plate 39.) To the east he has been driven across the Jordan, and his 
communications to the Hedjaz raided. His losses between Dec. 12, 1917, and May 31, 1918, were 
considerable, the number of prisoners amounting to 331 officers and 6,088 other ranks. His one attempt 
on a large scale to assume the offensive and retake Jerusalem failed, and was turned into a defeat, 
accompanied by a considerable loss of territory. 

In driving back the enemy my troops suffered considerable hardships. The rugged country in which 
the majority of the fighting took place not only favoured the defence, but demanded gresit physical 
exertion on the part pf the attackers. In the early months of the year their task was often rendered 
more difficult by the cold and heavy rains which added greatly to their discomfort. They responded 
to every call made on them, and proved their superiority over the enemy on every occasion. The second 
half of the period under review has been spent in reorganization and in training. Although operations 
have been limited to raids, sixty-nine officers and 1,614 other ranks have been taken from the enemy 
since June 1. 



24 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

20. Throughout the whole period, the work of the Royal Air Force has been of great value. Fiftj- 
three hostile aeroplanes have been destroyed, in addition to twenty-three which have been driven down 
out of control. The enemy's troops, camps, and railways, have been bombed with good results, while 
very important photographic work has been carried out. Co-operation with the other arms has been 
excellent. 

21. During the early months of the year, whilst the rainy season was still in progress, and before 
railhead had reached the troops, the supply situation presented great difficulties. The wadis came down 
in spate, overflowing their banks and flooding the surrounding country. Not only was railway construc- 
tion hindered, but the country became almost impassable for motor, and extremely difficult for horse 
transport. Nevertheless, all difficulties were overcome. 

The Assistance of Egypt. 

22. I am indebted to His Excellency General Sir Francis Wingate, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G., 
D.S.O., High Commissioner for Egypt, for the cordial assistance he has given me at all times. 

Egypt has provided transport personnel, drivers for the Camel Transport Corps, and men for the 
Egyptian Labour Corps in large numbers, in addition to several units of the Egyptian Army. These 
have all done work which, though unostentatious, has been of great value. During the operations 
in the hills of Judaea, and of Moab, the troops often depended for their supplies on the Camel Transport 
Corps. The drivers displayed steadiness under fire and devotion to duty in the face of cold and rain, 
which they had never experienced previously. The Egyptian Labour Corps shared these hardships. 
The construction and maintenance of roads was a task of considerable importance and difficulty during 
the rainy season, and threw a great strain on the Egyptian Labour Corps. Its successful accomplishment 
reflects credit on the Corps. The Egyptian authorities have complied at once with all requests that I 
have made, and my thanks are due to them for their loyal support. 

23. The Army Postal Service has carried out its work efficiently. During the early months of the 
year, when my troops were far in advance of railhead, the deUvery and collection of mails was a matter 
of considerable difficulty, which was invariably overcome. 

24. Throughout the period I have received every help from Rear-Admiral T. Jackson, C.B., M.V.O. 

I have the honour to be, 

Your Lordship's most obedient servant, 

E. H. H. Allenby, 

General, 

Commanding-in-Chief, 

Egyptian Expeditionary Force. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 25 

General Headquarters, 
Egyptian Expeditionary Force, 
October 31, 1918. 
My Lord, 

I have the honour to forward a despatch describing the operations which, commencing on Sept. 19, 
resulted in the destruction of the enemy's army, the liberation of' Palestine and Syria, and the occupa- 
tion of Damascus and Aleppo. 

1. The latter months of the period covered by my despatch of Sept. 18, 1918, had been spent in 
the reorganization of my force. The last Indian battalions to arrive had been incorporated in divisions 
early in August. Some of these battalions had only been formed a few months, and I should have liked 
to have given them further opportunities to accustom themselves to the conditions prevailing on this 
front, before calling on them to play a part in arduous operations on a large scale. The rains, however, 
usually commence at the end of October, rendering the plains of Sharon and Esdraelon impassable for 
transport, except along the few existing roads. Consequently, operations could not be postponed 
beyond the middle of September. 

Strength of the Enemy. 

2. At the beginning of September I estimated the strength of the IVth, Vllth, and Vlllth Turkish 
Armies to be 23,000 rifles, 3,000 sabres, and 340 guns. The IVth Army— 6,000 rifles, 2,000 sabres, and 
seventy-four guns — faced my forces in the Jordan Valley. The Vllth Army held a front of some twenty 
miles astride, the Jerusalem-Nablus road with 7,000 rifles and 111 guns, while the Vlllth Army front 
extended from Furkhah to the sea, and was held by 10,000 rifles and 157 gims. 

In addition, the garrison of Maan and the posts on the Hejaz Railway north of it, consisted of some 
6,000 rifles and thirty guns. 

The enemy's general reserve, only 3,000 rifles in strength, with thirty guns, was distributed between 
Tiberias, Nazareth, and Haifa. 

Thus, his total strength amounted to some 4,000 sabres, 32,000 rifles, and 400 guns — representing 
a ration strength, south of the line Rayak-Beirut, of 104,000. 

3. I had at my disposal two cavalry divisions, two mounted divisions, seven infantry divisions, 
and Indian infantry brigade, four unallotted battahons, and the French detachment (the equivalent of 
an infantry brigade with other arms attached) ; a total, in the fighting line, of some 12,000 sabres, 57,000 
rifles, and 540 guns. 

I had thus a considerable superiority in numbers over the enemy, especially in moimted troops. 

4. I was anxious to gain touch with the Arab Forces east of the Dead Sea, but the experience, 
gained in the raids which I had undertaken against Amman and Es Salt in March and May, had proved 
that the communications of a force in the hills of Moab were liable to interruption, as long as the enemy 
was able to transfer troops from the west to the east bank of the Jordan. This he was in a position to 
do, as he controlled the crossing at Jisr ed Damieh. 

The defeat of the Vllth and Vlllth Turkish Armies, west of the Jordan, would enable me to control 
this crossing. Moreover, the destruction of these armies, which appeared to be within the bounds of 
possibihty, would leave the IVth Army isolated, if it continued to occupy the country south and west 
of Amman. I determined, therefore, to strike my blow west of the Jordan. 

5. With the exception of a small and scattered reserve, the whole of the Turkish Force west of 
the Jordan was enclosed in a rectangle forty-five miles in length and only twelve miles in depth. The 
northern edge of this rectangle was a line from Jisr ed Damieh on the Jordan, through Nablus and Tul 
Keram, to the sea. All the enemy's commimications to Damascus ran northwards from the eastern 
half of this hne ; converging on El Afule and Beisan, some twenty-five miles to the north. Thence, 
with the exception of the roads leading from El Afule along the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, his 
commimications ran eastwards up the valley of the Yarmuk to Deraa, the junction of the Palestine and 
Hejaz railways. {See Plate 41.) 

Thus, El Afule, Beisan, and Deraa were the vital points on his commimications. If they could be 
seized, the enemy's retreat would be cut ofE. Deraa was beyond my reach, but not beyond that of 
m^obile detachments of the Arab Army. It was not to be expected that these detachments could hold 
this railway junction, but it was within their power to dislocate all traffic. 

El Afule, in the Plain of Esdraelon, and Beisan, in the Valley of Jezreel, were within reach of my 
cavalry, provided the infantry could break through the enemy's defensive systems, and create a gap 
for the cavalry to pass through. It was essential that this gap should be made at the commencement 
of operations, so that the cavalry nnght reach their destinations, forty-five and sixty miles distant, before 
the enemy could make his escape. Moreover, whichever route the cavalry followed, the hills of Samaria, 



26 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

or their extension towards Mount Carmel, had to be crossed before the Plain of Esdraelon, and the Valley 
of Jezreel, could be reached ; and it was most important that the enemy should not be given time to 
man the passes. 

6. For this reason I decided to make my main attack in the coastal plain, rather than through the 
hills north of Jerusalem. In the hills the ground afforded the enemy positions of great natural strength, 
and taxed the physical energy of the attackers to the utmost. The operations in March, astride the 
Jerusalem -Nablus road, had proved that an advance of five miles in one day, in face of determined 
opposition, was the most that could be expected. A far more rapid and decisive advance than this was 
necessary. In addition, the route along the coast would enable the cavalry to pass through the hills 
of Samaria, into the Plain of Esdraelon, at their narrowest point ; thus ensuring greater speed and less 
likelihood of being checked. The supply of a large force of troops in the plain also presented fewer 
difficulties. 

The Sharon Front. 

7. The Coastal Plain at Jiljulieh, the ancient Gilgal, is some ten miles in width. The railway 
from Jiljulieh to Tul Keram skirts the foothills, running through a slight depression on the eastern edge 
of the plain. To the west of this depression the Turks had constructed two defensive systems. The first, 
14,000 yards in length and 3,000 in depth, ran along a sandy ridge in a north-westerly direction from 
Bir Adas to the sea. It consisted of a series of works connected by continuous fire trenches. The second, 
or Et Tireh system, 3,000 yards in rear, ran from the village of that name to the mouth of the Nahr 
Falik. On the enemy's extreme right the ground, except for a narrow strip along the coast, is marshy 
and could only be crossed in few places. The defence of the second system did not, therefore, require 
a large force. 

The railway itself was protected by numerous works, and by the fortified villages of Jiljulieh and 
Kalkilieh. The ground Tjetween our front line at Ras el Ain and these villages was open, and was over- 
looked from the enemy's works on the foothills roimd Kefr Kasim. 

8. By reducing the strength of the troops in the Jordan Valley to a minimum, and by withdrawing 
my reserves from the hills north of Jerusalem, I was able to concentrate five divisions and the French 
detachment, with a total of 383 guns, for the attack on these defences. Thus, on the front of attack, 
I was able to concentrate some 35,000 rifles against 8,000, and 383 guns against 130. In addition, two 
cavalry and one Australian mounted divisions were available for this front. {See Plate 41.) 

The Plan of Campaign. 

9. I entrusted the attack on the enemy's defences in the coastal plain to Lieut. -General Sir Edward 
Bulfin, K.C.B., C.V.O., commanding the XXIst Corps. In addition to the 3rd (Lahore), 7th (Meerut), 
54th, and 75th Divisions, which already formed part of the XXIst Corps, I placed at his disposal the 60th 
Division, the French Detachment, the 5th Australian Light Horse Brigade, two brigades of mountain 
artillery, and eighteen batteries of heavy and siege artillery. 

I ordered him to break through the enemy's defences between the railway and the sea, to open 
a way for the cavah-y, and at the same tune, to seize the foothills south-east of Jiljulieh. The XXIst 
Corps was then to swing to the right, on the line Hableh-Tul Keram, and then advance in a north-easterly 
direction through the hills, converging on Samaria and Attara, so as to drive the enemy up the Messudie- 
Jenin road into the arms of the cavalry at El Afule. 

I ordered Lieut. -General Sir Harry Chauvel, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., commanding the Desert Mounted 
Corps, less the Australian and New Zealand Mounted Division, to advance along the coast, directly the 
infantry had broken through, and had secured the crossing? over the Nahr Falik. On reachmg the line 
Jelameh-Hudeira, he was to turn north-east, cross the hills of Samaria, and enter the Plain of Esdraelon 
at El Lejjun and Abu Shusheh. Riding along the plain, the Desert Mounted Corps was to seize El Afule, 
sending a detachment to Nazareth, the site of the Yildcrira General Headquarters. Sufficient troops 
were to be left at El Afule to intercept the Turkish retreat there. The remainder of the Corps was to ride 
down the Valley of Jezreel and seize Beisan. 

I ordered Lieut.-General Sir PhiHp Chetwode, Bart., K.C.B., K.C.M.G., D.S.O., commanding the 
XXth Corps, to advance his line east of the Bireh-Nablus road, on the night preceding the main attack, 
so as to place the 53rd Division on his right flank, which was somewhat drawn back, in a more favourable 
position to advance and block the exits to the lower valley of the Jordan. 

I ordered him to be prepared to carry out a further advance with both the 53rd and 10th Divisions, 
on the evening of the day on which the attack in the coastal plain took place, or later as circmustancea 
demanded. 



Sept. 18-19, 1918. EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 27 

10. The main difficulties lay in concealing the withdrawal of two cavalry divisions from the Jordan 
Valley, and in concentrating secretly, a large force in the coastal plain. 

To prevent the decrease in strength in the Jordan Valley being discovered by the enemy, I ordered 
Major-General Sir Edward Chaytor, K.C.M.G., C.B., A.D.C., to carry out with the Australian and New 
Zealand Mounted Division, the 20th Indian (Imperial Service) Infantry Brigade, the 38th and 39th Batta- 
lions Eoyal Rusiliers, and the 1st and 2nd Battalions British West Indies Regiment, a series of demon- 
strations with the object of inducing the enemy to believe that an attack east of the Jordan was intended, 
either in the direction of Madeba or Amman. The enemy was thought to be anticipating an attack in 
these directions, and every possible step was taken to strengthen his suspicions. 

At this time a mobile column of the Arab Army, accompanied by British armoured cars and % French 
mountain battery, was assembling at Kasr el Azrak, fifty miles east of Amman. The real objective 
of this column was the railway north, south, and west of Deraa. There was always the possibility, 
however, that this concentration might be observed. Should this occur, it was hoped that the demon- 
strations by Chaytor's force would strengthen the enemy's beUef that a concerted attack on Amman was 
intended. 

Preparation for the Attack. 

The concentration in the coastal plain was carried out by night, and every precaution was taken to 
prevent any increased movement becoming apparent to the Turks. Full use of the many groves round 
Ramleh, Ludd, and Jaffa, was made to conceal troops during the day. The chief factor in the secrecy 
maintained must be attributed, however, to the supremacy in the air which had been obtained by the 
Royal Air Force. The process of wearing down the enemy's aircraft had been going on all through the 
summer. During one week in June 100 hostile aeroplanes had crossed our lines. During the last week 
in August this number had decreased to eighteen. In the next few days a number were shot down, with 
the result that only four ventured to cross our lines during the period of concentration. 

11. That the enemy expected an offensive on my part about this date is probable. That he remained 
in ignorance of my intention to attack in the coastal plain with overwhelming nimibers is certain. 
On the morning of Sept. 19, when the attack in the coastal plain was launched, his dispositions 
were normal. 

Arab Action. 

12. Whilst the concentration in the coastal plain was nearing completion, the enemy's railway 
communications at Deraa were attacked by the Royal Air Force, and by the mobile column of the Arab 
Army, which, after concentrating at Kasr el Azrak, fifty miles east of Amman, had moved into the Hauran. 

The railway line and station buildings at Deraa were damaged by the Royal Air Force on Sept. 16 
and 17. On Sept. 16th the Arab column, which had been joined by the Shalaan Sections of the Rualla, 
Anazeh, and by a number of Druses, attacked the Hejaz Railway, fifteen miles south of Deraa, destroying 
a bridge and a section of the railway. On the following day the line was attacked both north and west 
of Deraa, extensive demolitions being carried out. As the result of these demoUtions, all through traffic 
to Palestine ceased, and a considerable quantity of transport, which had been intended for the Hejaz, 
was diverjied to bridge the break in the railway. {See Plates 41-44.) 



Tlie Eastern Front. 

13. The concentration in the coastal plain had been completed by the morning of Sept. 18. 
During the night of Sept. 18-19, the XXth Corps swung forward its right.on the east of the Bireh-Nablua 
road. The 53rd Division descended into the basin at the head of the Wadi Samieh, captured Kh. Jibeit, 
El Mugheir, and the ridge on the far side of the basin, and all its objectives, with the exception of one hill, 
Kh. Abu Malul. Considerable opposition was encountered ; and hand-to-hand fighting took place, in 
which over 400 prisoners were taken. 

In the early hours of Sept. 19 El Afule and the headquarters of the Turkish Vllth and Vlllth 
Armies at Nablus and Tul Keram were bombed by the Royal Air Force, with a view to disorganizing their 
signal communications. 

At 0430 the artillery in the coastal plain opened an intense bombardment lasting fifteen minutes, 
under cover of which the infantry left their positions of deployment. Two torpedo boat destroyers 
assisted, bringing fire on the coastal road to the north. {See Plate 42.) 

14. The operations which followed fall into five phases. 



28 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

The first phase was of short duration. In thirty-six hours, between 0430 on Sept. 19 and 1700 on 
Sept. 20, the greater part of the Vlllth Turkish Army had been overwhehned, and the troops of the 
Vllth Army were in full retreat, through the hills of Samaria, whose exits were aheady in the hands of 
my cavalry. {See Plates 43-44.) 

In the second phase the fruits of this success were reaped. The infantry, pressing relentlessly on 
the heels of the retreating enemy, drove him uito the arms of my cavalry, with the result that practically 
the whole of the Vllth and Vlllth Turkish Armies were captured, with their guns and transport. 

This phase also witnessed the capture of Haifa and Acre, and the occupation of Tiberias, and of the 
country to the south and west of the Sea of Galilee. 

As the result of the rout of the Vllth and Vlllth Armies, the IVth Turkish Army, east of the Jordan, 
retreated, and Maan was evacuated. {See Plates 45-46.) 

The third phase commenced with the pursuit of this army by Chaytor's force, and closed with the 
capture of Amman, and the interception of the retreat of the garrison of Maan, which surrendered. 
{See Plate 47.) 

The fourth phase witnessed the advance by the Desert Mounted Corps to Damascus, the capture 
of the remnants of the IVth Turkish Army, and the advance by the XXIst Corps along the coast from 
Haifa to Beirut. {See Plates 48-52.) 

In the fifth phase my troops reached Horns and Tripoli without opposition. My cavalry then 
advanced on Aleppo, and occupied that city on Oct. 26. {See Plate 53.) 



The Main Attack. 

15. The attack in the coastal plain on the morning of Sept. 19 was attended with complete success. 
On the right, in the foothills, the French Tirailleurs and the Armenians of the Legion d'Orient advanced 
with great dash, and, in spite of the difficulties of the ground, and the strength of the enemy's defences, 
had captured the Kh. Deir el Kussis ridge at an early hour. On their left the 54th Division stormed 
Kefr Kasm village, and wood, and the foothills overlooking the railway from Has el Ain to Jiljulieh. 
North of Kefr Kasim the advance was checked for, a time at Sivri Tepe, but the enemy's resistance was 
quickly overcome, and the remaining hills south of the Wadi Kanah captured. 



The Battle of Sharon. 

In the coastal plain the 3rd (Lahore) Division attacked the enemy's first system between Bir Adas 
and the Hadrah road. On its left the 75th Division attacked the Tabsor defences, the 7th (Meerut) 
Division the works west of Tabsor, while the 60th Division attacked along the coast. The enemy replied 
energetically to our bombardment, but in most cases his barrage fell behind the attacking infantry. 
The enemy was overwhelmed. After overrunning the first system the three divisions on the left pressed 
on, without pausing, to the Et Tireh position. On the left the 60th Division reached the Nahr Falik,*^ 
and moved on Tul Keram, leaving the route along the coast clear for the Desert Mounted Corps. The 
7th (Meerut) Division, after passing through the second system, swung to the right, and headed for 
Et Taiyibeh, leaving Et Tireh, where the 75th Division was still fighting, on its right. 

By 1100 the 75th Division had captured Et Tireh, a strongly fortified village standing on a sandy ridge, 
where the enemy offered a determined resistance. On the right the 3rd (Lahore) Division turned to the 
east, and attacked Jiljulieh, Eailway Redoubt, Kefr Saba, and Kalkilieh, all of which were defended 
with stubbornness by the enemy. His resistance was, however, broken, and the 3rd (Lahore) Division 
pressed on eastwards into the foothills near Hableh, joining hands with the 54th Division, north of the 
Wadi Kanah. 

Disorganized bodies of the enemy were now streaming across the plain towards Tul Keram, pursued 
by the 60th Division and the 5th Australian Light Horse Brigade. This brigade, which had been attached 
to the XXIst Corps, consisted of two Australian Light Horse Regiments, with a composite regiment of' 
Chasseurs d'Afrique and Spahis attached. Great confusion reigned at Tul Keram. Bodies of troops, 
guns, motor lorries, and transport of every description were endeavouring to escape along the road 
leading to Messudie and Nablus. This road, which follows the railway up a narrow valley, was already 
crowded with troops and transport. The confusion was added to by the persistent attacks of the Royal 
Air Force, and Austrahan Flying Corps, from which there was no escape. Great havoc was caused, 
and, in several places, the road was blocked by overturned lorries and vehicles. Later in the evening 
an Australian regiment, having made a detour, succeeded in reaching a hill four miles east of Tul 
Keram, overlooking the road. As a result, a large amount of transport, and many guns, fell into 
our hands. 



Sept. 20, 1918. EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 29 

In the ineantime the 7th (Meerut) Division and 3rd (Lahore) Division had entered the hills, and, in 
conjunction with the 54th Division, had pressed eastwards. By dusk the line Bidieh-Kh. Kefr Thilth- 
Jiyus-Felamieh-Taiyibeh had been reached. The 75th Divisionsreiaained in the vicinity of Et Tireh 
in Corps reserve. (See Plate 42.) 

The Battle of Mount Ephraim. 

16. As soon as the success of the initial attack by the XXIst Corps, on the morning of Sept. 19, 
had become apparent, I ordered the XXth Corps to advance that night on Nablus, and the high ground 
north-east of that town, in order to close the roads leading to the lower valley of the Jordan, and to drive 
the enemy from the triangle formed by the Kh. Fusail-Nablus road, our original front line, and the El 
Funduk -Nablus track, by which the 3rd (Lahore) Division was advancing. 

The two divisions of the XXth Corps had been concentrated beforehand, in readiness to carry out 
this operation ; the 53rd Division to the east of the Bireh-Nablus road, the 10th Division on the extreme 
left of the Corps area, in the vicinity of Berukin and Kefr Ain. The enemy had long anticipated an 
attack astride the Bireh-Nablus road, and had constructed defences of great strength on successive 
ridges. For this reason the 10th Division was ordered to attack in a north-easterly direction astride 
the Furkhah-Selfit and Berukin-Kefr Haris ridges, thus avoiding a direct attack. Even so, the task 
of the XXth Corps was a difficult one. The enemy in this portion of the field was not disorganized, 
and was able to oppose a stout resistance to the advance. The country is broken and rugged, demanding 
great physical exertion on the part of the troogs, and preventing the artillery keeping pace with the 
infantry. 

Nevertheless, good progress was made on the night of Sept. 19, and during the following day. The 
53rd Division captured Kh. abu Malul, and advanced their line in the centre. On their right Khan 
Jibeit was heavily counter-attacked on the morning of Sept. 20. The Turks succeeded in regaining 
the hill, but were driven off again after a sharp fight. This iucident, and the necessity of making a road, 
to enable the guns to be brought forward, caused delay. 

The 10th Division advanced in two columns, and, by midday on Sept. 20, the right column, after 
a hard fight at Furkhah, had reached Selfit, and was approaching Iskaka, which was strongly held by 
the enemy. The left column reached Kefr Haris, which was only captured after heavy fighting. The 
10th Division had already driven the enemy back seven miles. The artillery, however, had been imable 
to keep up with the infantry, and Httle progress was made during the afternoon. 

On the left of the 10th Division the XXIst Corps had continued its advance in three columns. On 
the right, the 3rd Division advanced up the Wadi Azzun. In the centre, the Meerut Division moved 
on Kefr Sur and Beit Lid. The 60th Division and the 5th Australian Light Horse Brigade advanced 
along the Tul Keram-Nablus road on Messudie Station. By evening the line Baka-Beit Lid-Messudie 
Station-Attara had been reached. 

The 3rd (Lahore) and 7th (Meerut) Divisions encoimtered a determined and well-organized resistance, 
which stiffened as the Meerut Division approached Beit Lid. The enemy showed no signs of demoral- 
ization, and the country was very rugged and difficult. 

Considerable confusion existed, however, behind the enemy's rearguards. All day, his transport 
had been withdrawing. The Messudie-Jenin road was crowded. Its defiles had been bombed contin- 
uously by the Royal Air Force, as had long columns of troops and transport moving on Nablus in order 
to reach the Beisan road. It is probable that the enemy did not yet realize that my cavalry was already 
in Afule and Beisan, and had blocked his main lines of retreat. {See Plate 43.) 



The Advance of the Cavalry. 

17. Early on the morning of Sept. 19, before the infantry had advanced to the attack, the 4th and 
5th Cavalry Divisions moved out of the groves round Sarona, and formed up in rear of the 7th (Meerut) 
and 60th Divisions. The Austrahan Mounted Division, less the 5th Light Horse Brigade, was on its 
way from Ludd. 

Thanks to the rapidity with which the infantry broke through both Turkish systems of defence, 
the cavalry obtained a good start. By noon the leading troops of the Desert Mounted Corps had reached 
Jelameh, Tel ed Dhrur, and Hudeira, eighteen miles north of the original front line. After a brief rest, 
the advance was continued. The 5th Cavalry Division moved north to Ez Zerghaniyeh. It then turned 
north-east and, riding through the hills of Samaria past Jarak, descended into the Plain of Esdraelon 
at Abu Shusheh. The 13th Cavalry Brigade was then directed on Nazareth, the 14th on El Afule. 

The 4th Cavalry Division turned north-east at Kh. es Sumrah, and followed the valley of the Wadi 
Arah into the hills. The valley gradually narrows as the pass at Musmus is reached. 



30 THE ADVANCE OF THE Sept. 20-22, 1918. 

The enemy had sent a battaUon from El Afule to hold this pass, but only its advanced guard arrived 
in time. Overcoming its resistance the cavalry encountered the remainder of the battalion at El Lejjun. 
The 2nd Lancers charged, killed forty-six with the lance, and captured the remainder, some 470 in 
number. 

The 4 th Cavalry Division then marched to El Afule, which it reached at 0800, half an hour after 
its capture by the 14th Cavalry Brigade. 

The Nazareth Raid— Sept. 20. 

In the meantime the 13th Cavalry Brigade of the 5th Cavalry Division, riding across the Plain of 
Esdraelon, had reached Nazareth, the site of the Yilderim General Headquarters, at 0530. Fighting 
took place in the streets, some 2,000 prisoners being captured. Liman von Sanders had already made 
good his escape, but his papers and some of his staff were taken. This brigade then marched to El Afule, 
arriving there as the 4th Cavalry Division rode down the Plain of Jezreel to Beisan, which it reached at 
1630, having covered some eighty miles in thirty -four hours. The 4th Cavalry Division detached a 
regiment to seize the railway bridge over the Jordan at Jisr Mejamie. 

The Australian Mounted Division, which had followed the 4th Cavalry Division into the Plain of 
Esdraelon, was directed on Jenin, where the road from Messudie to El Afule leaves the hills. Jenin was 
reached at 1730, and was captured after a sharp fight, a large number of prisoners being taken. 

Thus, within thirty-six hours of the commencement of the battle, all the main outlets of escape 
remaining to the Turkish Vllth and Vlllth Armies had been closed. They could only avoid capture 
by using the tracks which run south-east from the vicinity of Nablus to the crossings over the Jordan at 
Jisr ed Damieh. These were being rapidly denied to them. {See Plate 43.) 

The first phase of the operations was over. 



Destruction of the Turkish Vllth and Vlllth Armies. 

18. The enemy's resistance had been broken on Sept. 20. On Sept. 21 the Turkish rearguards 
were driven in early in the morning. All organized resistance ceased. The 5th Austrahan Light Horse 
Brigade, with the French cavalry leading, entered Nablus from the west ; the 10th Division from 
the south. 

By the evening, the XXth Corps had reached the line Neby Belan, on the high groimd north-east 
of Nablus, and Mount Ebal ; the XXIst Corps the line Samaria, Attara, Belah. 

Since the early hours of the morning great confusion had reigned in the Turkish rear. Camps and 
hospitals were being hurriedly evacuated ; some were in flames. The roads leading north-east, and east, 
from Nablus to Beisan, and the Jordan Valley, were congested with transport and troops. Small parties- 
of troops were moving east along the nimierous wadis. The disorganization which already existed was 
increased by the repeated attacks of the Royal Air Force ; in particular, on the closely packed column 
of transport moving north from Balata to Kh. Ferweh, where a road branches off, along the Wadi Farah, 
to Jisr ed Damieh. Some of the transport continued along the road to Beisan, where it fell into the 
hands of the 4th Cavalry Division. The greater part made for the Jordan along the Wadi Farah. Nine 
miles from Kh. Ferweh, at Ain Shibleh, a road branches off to the north to Beisan. A mile beyond this 
point the Wadi Farah passes through a gorge. The head of the column was heavily bombed at this 
point. The drivers left their vehicles in panic, wagons were overturned, and in a short time the road 
was completely blocked. Still attacked by the Royal Air Force, the remainder of the colmnn turned 
off at Ain Shibleh, and headed for Beisan. (See Plate 45.) 

The Vllth Turkish Army was by this time thoroughly disorganized, and was scattered in the area 
between the Kh. Ferweh-Beisan road, and the Jordan. These parties had now to be collected. 

At 0130 on Sept. 22 the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade, and the British West Indies 
battalions of Chaytor's Force, seized the bridge at Jisr ed Damieh. All hope of escape for the enemy 
in that direction had vanished. 

In the early hours of the morning, parties of Turks, of strengths varying from fifty to 300, began to 
approach Beisan, preceded by white flags. 

At 0800 a column, with transport and guns, ten miles long, was reported by the Royal Air Force 
to be moving north along the Ain Shibleh-Beisan road, its head being nine miles south of Beisan. The 
4th Cavalry Division was ordered to send detachments towards it, and also to patrol the road, which 
follows the Jordan on its east bank, to secure any parties which might escape across the Jordan. 

At the same time the Worcester Yeomanry of the XXth Corps, supported by infantry, was ordered 
to advance northwards from Ain Shibleh, and the infantry of the 10th Division along the Tubas-Beisan 
load, to collect stragglers, and to drive any formed bodies into the hands of the 4th Cavalry Division.. 



Sept. 23-24, 1918. EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONAEY FOECE 31 

The Koyal Air Force had proceeded to attack the Turkish column, which broke up and abandoned 
its guns and transport. The task of clearing the enemy between the Kh. Ferweh-Beisan road and the 
Jordan was continued during Sept. 23. On this day the XXth Corps Cavalry met with occasional 
opposition, and its advance was hampered considerably by the large nim:ibers of Turks who surrendered. 
Great quantities of transport and numerous guns were found abandoned by the roadsides. On one 
stretch of road, under five miles in length, eighty-seven guns, fifty-five motor lorries, and 842 vehidaa 
"were foimd. 

Numerous bodies of Turks surrendered to the 4th Cavalry Division. One column attempted to 
escape across the Jordan at Makhadet abu Naj, five miles south-east of Beisan, but was intercepted by 
the 11th Cavalry Brigade. Part of the coliman had already crossed to the east bank. It was charged 
by the 36th (Jacob's) Horse, and broken up, few escaping. On the west bank the remainder of the 
column was charged by the 29th Lancers and Middlesex Yeomanry, who killed many and captured the 
remainder, together with twenty- five machine guns. 

On Sept. 24 the 11th Cavalry Brigade attacked and dispersed another column in the Wadi el 
Maleh. The last renmants of the Vllth and Vlllth Turkish Armies had been collected. As armies 
they had ceased to exist, and but few had escaped. 

19. Whilst the 4th Cavalry and the Australian Mounted Divisions were collecting the remnants 
of the Vllth and Vlllth Turkish Armies, I ordered the Desert Moimted Corps to occupy Acre and Haifa. 
The roads leading to Haifa from Tul Keram are only country tracks, which, in the event of rain, might 
become impassable for motor lorries at any time. Any force, advancing northwards from Haifa along 
the coast, would have to depend on supplies landed at that port. It was necessary, therefore, to occupy 
the town without delay, in order that the harbour could be swept for mines, and the landing of stores 
taken in hand. The 13th Cavalry Brigade of the 5th Cavalry Division, which had entered Nazareth 
on Sept. 20, and had then marched to El Afule, returned to Nazareth the following day. 

Part of the garrison of Haifa, which was attempting to reach Tiberias, was intercepted by this 
brigade on the morning of Sept. 22. At 0130 this colimm approached the outposts of the 13th Cavalry 
Brigade. It was attacked in the moonlight by the 18th Lancers, who killed a large number of Turks 
and captured over 300. 

That afternoon Haifa was recoimoitred by a battery of armoured cars. It was held by the enemy. 
The road was barricaded, and the armoured cars were shelled from the slopes of Mount Carmel. 

On Sept. 23 the 5th Cavalry Division, less the 13th Cavahy Brigade, marched from El Afule to 
capture the town. The 13th Cavalry Brigade marched direct from Nazareth on Acre. 

Capture of Acre and Haifa, Sept. 23. 

The road from El Afule to Haifa skirts the north-eastern edge of the Moimt Carmel range. Some 
two miles before Haifa is reached, the road is confined between a spur of Mount Carmel on the left, and 
the marshy banks of the River Kishon and its tributaries on the right. When the 5th Cavalry Division 
reached this point on Sept. 23 it was shelled from the slopes of Moimt Carmel, and found the road and 
the river crossings defended by numerous machine guns. 

Whilst the Mysore Lancers were clearing the rocky slopes of Mount Carmel, the Jodhpur Lancers 
charged through the defile, and, riding over the enemy's machine guns, galloped into the town, where 
a number of Turks were speared in the streets. Colonel Thakur Dalpat Singh, M.C., fell, gallantly 
leading this charge. 

In this operation 1,350 prisoners and seventeen gtms were taken. 

At Acre, the 13th Cavalry Brigade met with Httle opposition. The small garrison, consisting of 
150 men and two guns, attempted to escape to the north, but was overtaken and captured. 

Operations East of the Jordan. 

20. Interest now turned to the fate of the IVth Turkish Army east of the Jordan. Up till Sept. 22 
this army showed no signs of moving from its position on the east bank. (See Plate 45.) On the 
west bank, the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade and the 1st and 2nd Battalions British West 
Indies Regiment had advanced northwards on Sept. 21, west of the Jericho-Beisan road, and had 
reached Khurbet Fusail, four miles in advance qf our defences at El Musalabeh. The enemy, however, 
still held the bridgeheads on the west bank, covering the crossings at Umm es Shert, Red Hill, Mafid 
Jozeleh, and Jisr ed Damieh. Early in the morning of Sept. 22, the 38th Battalion Royal Fusiliers 
captured the bridgehead at Umm es Shert. The New Zealand Mounted Rifles: placed themselves 
astride the road which follows the Wadi Farah from Nablus to Jisr ed Damieh, thus closing the last 
loophole of escape to the Turkish forces west of the Jordan. The crossing at Jisr ed Damieh was 
captured a few hours later. The bridge was intact. 514 prisoners were taken. 



32 THE ADVANCE OF THE Sept. 25-30, 1913. 

Capture of Amman, Sept. 25. 

Thus the west bank of the Jordan had been cleared. As a result of the defeat of the YLlth. and 
Vlllth Armies, the position of the IVth Army east of the Jordan was no longer tenable, and, by the 
morning of Sept. 23, this army was in full retreat on Es Salt and Amman, pursued by the Australian 
and New Zealand Mounted Division, and bombed by the Royal Air Force. At 1630 the New Zealanders 
captured Es Salt, takmg 380 prisoners and three guns. The pursuit was continued on a broad front, in 
face of stout opposition from the enemy's rearguards. On Sept. 25 Amman was attacked and captured. 

The enemy retreated northwards along the Hejaz Railway, and the Pilgrim Route, in a disorganized 
state, harassed by the Royal Air Force and the Arabs. He was pursued by the Austrahan and New 
Zealand Mounted Division, and left over 5,000 prisoners and twenty-eight gxms in their hands. 

I ordered Chaytor's Force to remain at Anmian to intercept the troops of the Ilnd Turkish Army 
Corps, who were retreating from the Hejaz. Maan had been evacuated on Sept. 23, and had been 
occupied by the Arab Army, which then advanced to Jerdun, harassing the rear of the retreating garrison. 
{See Plate 47.) 

' Surrender of the Turkish Ilnd Corps. 

On Sept. 28, these troops came into contact with the patrols of Chaytor's Force atLeban Station, 
ten miles south of Amman. The Turkish Commander, seeing that escape was impossible, surrendered 
on the following day with 5,000 men. 

21. In addition to bringing about the retreat otthe IVth Turkish Army, the total defeat of the 
Vllth and Vlllth Armies had removed any serious obstacle to an advance on Damascus. On Sept. 25 
I ordered the Desert Mounted Corps to carry out this operation, occupy the city, and intercept the 
retreat of the remnants of the IVth Turkish Army. 

22. The Desert Mounted Corps was to advance on Damascus in two columns ; one column by the 
south end of the Sea of Galilee, via Irbid and Deraa, the other round the north end of the Sea, via El 
Kimeitra. 

On Sept. 24, Semakh at the south end of the Sea of Galilee, was captured by the 4th Australian Light 
Horse IBrigade, after fierce hand-to-hand fighting, in which 350 Turks and Germans and a gun were 
captured. Tiberias was occupied on the following afternoon. 

Thus, on Sept. 26, the Austrahan Mounted Division was concentratmg round Tiberias, and the 
5th Cavalry Division was marching from Haifa and Acre to Nazareth. The 4th Cavaky Division was 
concentrated round Beisan. (See Plate 47.) 

The Advance on Damascus. 

23. The 4th Cavaky Division started on its 120-mile march that afternoon. The Australian and 
5th Cavaky Divisions started the foUowmg day, the distance they had to traverse bemg thirty miles 
less Both columns met with opposition. The Austrahan Mounted Division experienced considerable 
difficulty in crossing the Jordan on Sept. 27. {See Plate 48.) The bridge at Jisr Benat Yakub had 
been damaged, and Turkish rearguards commanded the crossings. After some delay, the 5th Australian 
Brigade succeeded in crossing the river a mile south of the bridge ; and, workmg round the enemy s flank 
forced him to retire. Opposition was again met with on the eastern side of the Jordan plateau, at El 
Kuneitra, and the column was continually fired on by the Circassians who dwell on the plateau. Passing 
throu'^h El Kuneitra, the column entered first a plateau covered by boulders and then undulating 
pasture land, intersected by the numerous streams which rise in Mount Hermon. Fighting took place at 
Sasa, but the enemy's rearguards were driven back, and, by 1000 on Sept. 30, Katana, twelve miles 
south-west of Damascus, had been reached by the Australian Mounted Division, which was bere 
checked for a time. . ,. ,, ... 

At this hour the 14th Cavalry Brigade, on the right of the Australian Mounted Division was 
approaching Sahnaya on the old French railway. Further south the 4th Cavalry Division, with tlie 
Arab Army on its right, was approaching Kiswe. {See Plate 50.) 

Destruction of the Turkish IVth Army. 

The route followed by the 4th Cavalry Division across the Jordan plateau had proved difficult, 
and considerable opposition had been encountered at Irbid, and again at Er Remte where, after drivmg 
tte enemy northwards towards Mezerib, the Cavalry gained touch with the A^ab ^nny 

After its raids on the enemy's railways round Deraa between Sept. 16 and 18, the Arab Army had 
moved into the Hauran. It issued thence to attack the IVth Turkish Army, as the latter passed Mafrak 



Oct. 1-8, 1918. EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 33 

in its retreat northwards, forcing the Turks to abandon guns and transport. Moving rapidly northwards 
the Arabs then captured the stations of Ezra and Ghazale, between Damascus and Deraa. On Sept. 27 
they entrenched themselves at Sheikh Saad, seventeen miles north of Deraa, across the Turkish line of 
retreat. Sharp fighting took place all day, in which heavy casualties were inflicted on the retreating 
Turks and Germans, and in which numerous prisoners were taken. After breaking up the retreating 
columns of the IVth Army, the Arabs captured Deraa, and, on Sept. 28, joined hands with the 4th 
Cavalry Division near Er Eemte. 

The cavalry then advanced northwards through Mezerib, and along the old French railway, with 
the Arabs on its right flank, collecting stragglers, and pressing on the heels of the remnants of the 
IVth Turkish Army. 

In this way a column of Turks some 1,500 strong was driven at noon on Sept. 30 into the arma 
of the 14th Cavalry Brigade at Sahnaya. {See Plate 50.) 



Fall of Damascus. 

Shortly after midday on Sept. 30, the Austrahan Moimted Division overcame the enemy's resistance 
at Katana. By the evening it had closed the exits from Damascus to the north and north-west, while 
the 5th Cavalry Division had reached the southern outskirts of the town. {See Plate 51.) 

At 0600 on Oct. 1, the Desert Mounted Corps and the Arab Army entered Damascus amidst scenes 
of great enthusiasm. After the German and Turkish troops in the town had been collected, and guards 
had been posted, our troops were withdrawn. In the meantime, the 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade 
had proceeded northwards in pursuit of bodies of the enemy, which had succeeded in leaving the town 
on the previous day, or had avoided it, and the cordon round it, by making a detour to the east. On 
Oct, 2 a column was overtaken at Kubbeth i Asafir, seventeen miles north-east of Damascus. This 
column was dispersed, 1,500 prisoners and three guns being taken. 



Plight of the Enemy. 

24. The advance to Damascus, following on the operation in the Plain of Esdraelon and the Valley 
of Jezreel, had thrown a considerable strain on the Desert Moimted Corps. Great results were, however, 
achieved. 

On Sept. 26, when the advance began, some 45,000 Turks and Germans were still in Damascus or 
were retreating on it. It is true that all units were in a state of disorganization but, given time, the 
enemy could have formed a force capable of delaying my advance. 

The destruction of the remnants of the IVth Army and the capture of an additional 20,000 prisoners, 
prevented any possibility of this. The remnants of the Turkish Armies in Palestine and Syria, numbering 
some 17,000 men, of whom only 4,000 were effective rifles, fled northwards a mass of individuals, with- 
out organization, without transport, and without any of the accessories required to enable it to act even 
on the defensive. 

25. I determined to exploit this success, and to advance to the line Rayak-Beirut. The occupation 
of Beixut would give me a port, with a road and a railway, leading inland to Rayak and Damascus. An 
alternative and shorter line of supply would thus be obtained. 

The Desert Mounted Corps, leaving the Australian Mounted Division at Damascus, moved on Rayak 
and Zahle on Oct. 5. No opposition was encountered, and both places were occupied on the 
following day. 

At Rayak, the junction of the broad gauge railway from the north and the metre gauge lines to 
Beirut and to Damascus and the Hejaz, were found on the aerodrome the remains of thirty aeroplanes 
which had been burnt by the enemy before he retired. Large quantities of stores and rolling stock wera 
captured, most of the latter in a damaged condition. 



The March of the 7th Division. 

In the meantime the 7th (Mereut) Division had marched from Haifa to Beirut. Leaving Haifa on 
Oct. 3, it marched along the coast. Crossing the Ladder of Tyre, it was received by the populace of 
Tyre and Sidon with enthusiasm. On Oct. 8 it reached Beirut, where it was warmly welcomed, the 
inhabitants handing over 660 Turks, including sixty ofiicers, who had surrendered to them. Ships of 
the French Navy had already entered the harbour. {See. Plate 53.) 



34 • THE ADVANCE OF THE Oct. 9-31. 1918. 

Occupation of Horns, Tripolis, and Hama. 

26. On Oct* 9 I ordered the Desert Mounted Corps to continue its advance and occupy Homs, 
leaving one division at Damascus. At the same time I ordered the XXIst Corps to continue its march 
along the coast to Tripoli. Armoured cars occupied Baalbek on Oct. 9, talcing over 500 Turks who 
had surrendered to the inhabitants. The 5th Cavalry Division, which led the advance, reached Baalbek 
on Oct. 1 1 , and, crossing the watershed between the Nahr Litani on the south and the Orontes on the 
north, followed up the valley of the latter river, past Lebwe, and reached Homs on Oct. 15, having 
marched over eighty miles since leaving Rayak. 

The station buildings at Homs had been burnt by the enemy before he evacuated the town on 
Oct. 12. 

On the coast, Tripoli was occupied by the XXIst Corps Cavalry Regiment and Armoured Cars on 
Oct. 13. No opposition was encountered. The Corps Cavalry Regiment was followed by a brigade 
of the 7th (Meerut) Division. The occupation of Tripoli provided a shorter route by which the cavalry 
at Homs could be supplied. 

27. Having secured Homs and Tripoli, I determined to seize Aleppo, with the least possible delay. 
The 5th Cavalry Division and the Armom-ed Car Batteries were alone available. The Australian Moimted 
Division at Damascus was over 100 miles distant from Homs, and could not be brought up in time. The 
4th Cavalry Division at Baalbek was much reduced in strength by sickness, and needed a rest to 
reorganize. Time was of importance, and I judged that the 5th Cavalry Division would be strong 
enough for the purpose. The information available indicated the presence of some 20,000 Turks and 
Germans at Aleppo. Of these, only some 8,000 were combatants, and they were demoralized. More- 
over, reports from all sources showed that considerable numbers of the enemy were leaving the town 
daily by rail for the north. 

The Armoured Cars had reached Hama without opposition on Oct. 20. On the following day the 
5th Cavalry Division commenced its advance. On Oct. 22 the Armoured Cars reached Klian Sebil, 
Lalf-way between Homs and Aleppo, as the enemy's rearguard left the village in lorries. A German 
armoured car, a lorry, and some prisoners were captured. The enemy was not encountered again till 
Oct. 24, when a body of cavalry was dispersed at Khan Tuman, ten miles south of Aleppo. Five miles 
further on, the armoured cars were checked by strong Turkish rearguards, and had to remain in observa- 
tion till the cavalry came up. {See Plate 53.) 

On the afternoon of Oct. 25 the Armoured Cars were joined by the 15th (Imperial Service) Cavalry 
Brigade. That evening a detachment of the Arab Army reached the eastern outskirts of Aleppo, and 
during the night forced their way in, inflicting heavy casualties on the enemy. 

Early on the morning of Oct. 26 the Armoured Cars and the 15th Cavalry Brigade, moving 
round the west side of the town, followed the enemy along the Aleppo-Katma road, and gained touch 
with him south-east of Haritan. The Turkish rearguard consisted of some 2,500 infantry, 150 cavalry, 
and eight guns. The Mysore Lancers and two squadrons of the Jodhpur Lancers attacked the enemy's 
left, covered by the fire of the Armoured Cars, the Machine Gun Squadron, ami two dismoimted 
squadrons of the Jodhpur Lancers. The Mysore and Jodhpur Lancers charged most gallantly. A 
number of Turks were speared, and many threw down their arms, only to pick them up again when the 
cavalry had passed through, and their weakness had become apparent. The squadrons were not strong 
enough to complete the victory, and were withdrawn till a larger force could be assembled. 

That night the Turkish rearguard withdrew to a position near Deir el Jemel, twenty miles nortl,- 
west of Aleppo. 

The 5th Cavalry Division remained in observation, astride the roads leading from Aleppo to 
Kilhs and Katma, and occupied Muslimie Jimction. 

It was too weak to continue the advance to Alexandretta till the arrival of the Australian Moimted 
Division, which had already left Damascus to join it. 



The Armistice. 

Before the latter could arrive, the Armistice between the Allies and Turkey had been concluded, 
and came into force at noon on Oct. 31 . (Sec Plate 56.) 

The 5th Cavalry Division captured fifty prisoners and eighteen guns in Aleppo. The Turks had 
carried out demolitions on the railway at Aleppo and Muslimie Junction before retiring, but had left 
eight engines and over 100 trucks, which, though damaged, were not beyond repair. 

Aleppo is over 300 miles from our former front line. The 5th Cavalry Division covered 500 milea 
between Sept. 19 and Oct. 26, and captured over 11,000 prisoners and fifty-two guns. During this 
period the 5th Cavalry Division lost only twenty-one per cent of its horses. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 35 

28. Between Sept. 19 and Oct. 26 75,000 prisoners have been captured. Of these, over 200 officers 
and 3,500 other ranks are Germans or Austrians. 

In addition, 360 guns have fallen into our hands, and the transport and equipment of three Turkish 
armies. It is not yet possible to give accurate figures, owing to the rapidity and the extent of the 
advance. In the first three, phases of the operations, material and equipment were hastily abandoned 
by the enemy in a mountainous area, extending over 2,500 square miles, while in the remaining phases 
a further advance of over 300 miles had been made. The captures, however, include over 800 machine 
guns, 210 motor lorries, forty-four motor cars, some 3,500 animals, eighty-nine railway engines, and 
468 carriages and trucks. Of these many are unserviceable, but none have been included that are 
beyond repair. 

29. The plan of operations and the arrangements for the concentration were carefully prepared 
and well executed by Commanders and staffs. During the subsequent days of fighting, full advantage 
was taken of every opportunity offered. 

Appreciation of Services. 

The gallantry ard determination of all ranks and of all arms has been most marked. Many units 
had already made their reputation in this, and other, theatres of the war. Some had yet to gain their 
first experience of modern warfare. British, French, and Indian troops, and those of the Dominions 
and Coloeies, have all alike done magnificently. 

The infantry, in a few hours, broke through the defences, which the enemy had spent months in 
strengthening, thus enabling the cavalry to accomphsh its mission. The subsequent advance through 
the hills, over most difficult coimtry, and in face of determined and organized resistance by the enemy's 
rearguards, tried the infantry severely. Nothing, however, stopped its progress, and the relentless 
pressure maintained on the enemy's rearguards allowed him no time to carry out an organized retreat, 
and drove him, in disorganized bodies, into the arms of the cavalry. 

The Desert Mounted Corps took some 46,000 prisoners during the operations. The complete 
destruction of the Vllth and Vlllth Turkish Armies depended mainly on the rapidity with which 
their communications were reached, and on quick decision in dealing with the enemy's columns as they 
attempted to escape. The vigorous handling of the cavalry by its leaders, and the rapidity of its move- 
ments, overcame all attempts to delay its progress. The enemy's columns, after they had outdistanced 
the pursuing infantry, were given no time to reorganize and fight their way through. 

In these brilliant achievements, the regiment of French cavalry took its full share, whilst east of 
the Jordan the Austrahan and New Zealand Mounted Division, by its untiring pursuit, threw the IVth 
Turkish Army into a state of disorganization, intercepted the garrison of Maan, and compelled it to 
surrender. Chaytor's Force took 10,000 prisoners in the Valley of the Jordan and the Hills of Moab. 

The cavaby and infantry received every help from the Eoyal Artillery and the Koyal Engineers, 
whilst the infantry, in its attack along the coast, Avas given valuable assistance by the Destroyers 
" Druid " and " Forester," which Rear-Admiral T. Jackson, C.B., M.V.O., had detailed to assist me. 

Of the fighting troops, all have taken their share, and have carried out what was required of them. 
I would bring to notice the good fighting qualities shown by the newer units. These include the 
Armenian troops of the Legion d'Oriin^ the Tirailleurs Algeriens, the 1st Battalion Cape Corps, the 
38th and 39th (Jewish) BattaUons of the Royal Fusiliers, the 1st and 2nd Battalions of the British West 
Indies Regiment, and all the recently formed battaUons of Indian infantry. 



The Royal Air Force. 

Brilliant work has been done by the Palestine Brigade, Royal Air Force, and the Australian Flying 
Corps, not only during the actual operations, but in the preceding months. The process of wearing 
down the enemy's strength in the air had been continuous throughout the summer. Our ascendancy 
in the air became so marked towards the end of August that only a few of the enemy's aeroplanes were 
able to fly, with the result that my troops were immune from air attacks during the operations, and 
the whole strength of the Air Forces could be concentrated on the enemy in his retreat. 

Besides taking an active part in the fighting, the Air Forces provided me with full and accurate 
information as to the enemy's movements. 



36 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

The Arab Army. 

The Arab Army has rendered valuable assistance, both in cutting the enemy's communications, 
before, and during, the operations, and in co-operating with my cavahy during the advance on Damascus. 
By throwing itself across the enemy's line of retreat, north of Deraa, it prevented the escape of portions 
of the IVth Turkish Army, and inflicted heavy casualties on the enemy. 

The fighting troops have been loyally assisted by the administrative services and department, who 
have carried a heavy burden on their shoulders, both in front of, and behind, railhead. The accumula- 
tion of ammunition and stores before operations commenced threw a great strain on the railway. The 
delivery of these stores to the troops during operations proved a difficult task. Supply columns have 
had long distances to cover, over bad roads, but all difficulties have been overcome. 

My thanks are due to the Koyal Navy for its assistance in arranging and securing the landing 
of supphes at the various harbours along my line of advance, and to the French Navy for valuable 
information gained in the reconnaissance of the northern ports. 

The Italian Detachment carried out to my entire satisfaction the task allotted to it, and 
throughout the operations gave valuable and loytl assistance. 

From the first day of operations the Egyptian Labour Corps has followed the troops as they advanced, 
working hard and successfully to improve the roads. On Sept. 19 companies were working on the roads 
in front of our original line, while our guns were still firing. 

The Camel Transport Corps has rendered valuable services, which have greatly aided in the 
victorious campaign. 

The Signal Service, strained to its utmost, has maintained uninterrupted communication with 
units of the Army as far east as Amman and as far north as Aleppo. * 

The rapid advance has rendered difficult the task of evacuating the sick and wounded. The 
difficulty was increased by the large number of prisoners who, after marching for days, with little 
food or water, surrendered in a state of extreme weakness, unable to march another day. The care and 
evacuation of these men has heavily taxed the Medical Services, who have worked rmtiringly. 

I have the honour to be, 

Your Lordship's most obedient servant, 

E. H. H. Allenby, 

General, 

Commanding-in-Chief, 

Egyptian Expeditionary Force, 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 87 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE. 



General Headquarters. 

Commander-in-CMef.— Gen. Sir E. H. H. ALLENBY, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., p.s.c. 

Chief of the General Staff. — Major-Gen. Sir A. Lynden-Bell, K.C.M.G., C.B., p.s.c. (relinquished, 

Sept., 1917). 
Major-Gen. Sir L. J. Bols, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., D.S.O., p.s.c. 

Brigadier- Oeneral, General Staff. — ^Bt. Lieut.-Col, (temp. Brig.-Gen.) G. P. Dawnay, C.M.G., D.S.O., 

M.V.O. (R. of 0.) (relinquished, Jan., 1918). 

Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) A. B. Robertson, C.M.G., D.S.O., 
Cameron Highlanders, p.s.c. (relinquished, April, 1918). 

Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) W. H. Bartholomew, C.M.G., D.S.O., 
R.A., p.s.c. 

Brigadier- General, General Staff (/). — ^Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) B. T. Buckley, C.M.G., Northumber- 
land Fusiliers, p.s.c. 

Deputy Adjutant- General. — ^Major-Gen. Sir John Adye, K.C.M.G., C.B. (relinquished, March, 1918). 

Major-Gen. W. G. B. Western, C.B., p.s.c. 

Deputy Quartermaster- General. — ^Major-Gen. Sir Walter Campbell, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., D.S.O., p.s.c. 

Assistant to Deputy Quartermaster- General. — ^Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) E. F. 0. Gascoigne, 

C.M.G., D.S.O. (R. of 0.) (relinquished, Jan., 1918). 
Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) E. Evans, C.M.G., D.S.O., 
Wiltshire Regt., A.D.C. 

Major- General, Royal Artillery. — Major-Gen. Sir S. C. U. Smith, K.C.M.G., C.B. 

Engineer-in-Chief. — Col. (temp. Major-Gen.) H. B. H. Wright, C.B., C.M.G., late R.E. 

Chief Political Officer.— Ma.ioi (temp. Brig.-Gen.) G. F. Clayton, C.B., C.M.G. (R. of 0.) 

Chief Administrator, Occupied Enemy Territory Administration. — 

Major (temp. Brig.-Gen.) G. F. Clayton, C.B., C.M.G. (R. of 0.) (relinquished, 

April, 1918). 
Major-Gen. Sir A. W. Money, K.C.B., C.S.I., p.s.c. (O.E.T.A. South).- 
Uolonel P. de Piepape, C.B. (O.E.T.A. North). 
Ali Riza Pasha el Rikabi (O.E.T.A. East). 

Director of Army Signals.— Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) M. G. E. Bowm.a.n-]Manifold, C.B., C.M.G., 

D.S.O., R.E., p.s.c. 

Director of Works.— Col (temp. Brig.-Gen.) E. M. Paul, C.B., late R.E. 

Director of Supplies and Transport.— Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) G. F. Davies, C.B., C.M.G., R.A.S.C. 

Director of Railway Traffic. — ^Temp. Brig.-Gen. Sir G. Macauley, K.C.M.G., C.B., (R. of 0.) (Bt. Major,r.p.). 

Director of Ordnance Services. — Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) P. A. Bainbridge, C.B., C.M.G., R.A.O.C. 

R.A.O., Base Depot, Alexandria.— Col (temp. Brig.-Gen.) R. W. M. Jackson, C.B., C.M.G., R.A.O.C, 

Director of Remounts.— Tem^p. Brig.-Gen. G. L. Bates, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O. 

Director of Veterinary Services. — Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) E. R. C. Butler, C.B., C.M.G. 

Director of Medical Services. — Col. (temp. Surgeon-Gen.) Sir J. Maher, K.C.M.G., C.B., r.p. (relin- 
quished, Oct., 1917). 

Col. A. E. C. Keble, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., A.M.S. (relhiquished, Feb.. 
1918). 

Major-Gen. W. T. Swan, C.B., A.M.S. (relinquished, Sept., 1918^. 

Col. (temp. Major-Gen.) R. H. Luce, C.B., C.M.G., M.B., F.R.C.S., T.F. 
Reserve. 

Director of Labour. — Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) R. C. Jellicoe, D.S.O., R.A.S.C. 

Principal Chaplain. — ^Rev. A. V. C. Hordern, C.M.G. (relinquished, June, 1918). 
Rev. E. R. Day, C.M.G. 



38 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

Director of Inland Water Transport. — Major (temp. Col.) W. H. Coysh, D.S.O., K.E. (relinquished, 

July, 1918). 
Temp. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) W. N. Bicket, E.E. 

Brigadier- General Training, E.E.F.—Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) A. B. Kobertson, C.M.G., 

D.S.O., Cameron Highlanders, p.s.c. 

3rd Echelon. 

Deputy Adjidani- General. — ^Major (temp. Brig.-Gen.) C. P. Scudamore, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., r.p. 

Royal Flying Corps, Middle East Brigade. 

Commander. — ^Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) W. G. H. Salmond, D.S.O., E.A., p.s.c. (reUnquished, 
Oct., 1917). 
Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) W. S. Brancker, E.A., attd. R.F.C., p.s.c. (relinquished on re- 
organization). 

Middle East, Royal Air Force. 

Commander. — ^Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Major-Gen.) W. G. H. Salmond, D.S.O., R.A., p.s.c. 

Commanding, Palestine Brigade, R.A.F. — ^Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) A. E. Borton, C.M.G., 

D.S.O., A.F.C., Royal Highlanders. 

Commanding, Training Brigade, R.A.F, — ^Bt. Major (temp. Brig.-Gen.) P. L. W. Herbert, Notts. & 

Derby Regt. 

GENERAL HEADQUARTERS TROOPS. 
Palestine Brigade, R.A.F. 

" X " Aircraft Park. 

" X " FUght. 

5th Wing (Corps Wing) : — 

Nos. 14, 113, 142 Squadrons, R.A.F. 
40th Wing (Army Wing) : — 

Nos. Ill, 144, 145 Squadrons, R.A.F. 

No. 1 Squadron, A.F.C. (late 67th Squadron, A.F.C.). 
No. 21 Balloon Company. 

Nos. 49, 50, 57 Balloon Sections. 

Mounted Troops. 

South Nottinghamshire Hussars (ceased to belong to E.E.F., 19/6/18). 

Artillery. 

390th and 391st Siege Batteries, R.G.A. (ceased to belong to E.E.F., 18/1/18). 

Machine Gun Corps. 

Nos. 11 and 12 Light Armoured Car Batteries (L.A.C. Brigade). 

Engineers. 

Military Printing Section (Government Press, Cairo), R.E. 
No. 7 Field Survey Company, R.E. : — 

Topographical Section. 

Lithographic and Letterpress Section. 

Meteorological Section (Stations at G.H.Q. and Jerusalem). 
1st Bridging Company, Canadian Railway Troops. 

Signal Service. 

G.H.Q. Signal Company. 

Nos. N 14, N 15, N 23, 42, 61 Airline Sections. 
• NA, NB, NN, UU, Cable Sections. 

No. 6 Wagon W/T, and No. 6 Pack W/T Sections. 
Pigeon Section. 

Infantry. 

38th and 39th Bns. Royal Fusiliers. 

l/23rd and 2/23rd Sikh Pioneers. 

Ist and 2nd Bns. British West Indies Regt. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 39 

Royal Army Service Corps. 

(a) Mechanical Transport : — 

No. 347 M.T. Company (Supply Column). 

No. 644 M.T. Company (Heavy Repair Workshop and Stores Branch). 

Nos. 895 and 972 M.T. Company (Caterpillar Tractor Supply Column). 

No. 956 M.T. Company (Ford Supply Company). 

Nos. 905, 906, 907, 1069, 1010, 1011, 1038, 1039, 1040, M.T. (Auxiliary Petrol) Coys, 

No. 1006, M.T. Company. 

Nos. 4, 6, 9, 10, 11, 16 (Egypt), Mobile Repair Units. 

Advanced M.T. Sub-Depot, Ludd. 

(b) Horse Transport : — 

Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, Donkey Transport Companies. 

(c) Camel Transport Corps : — 

" A," " B," " D," " E," " F," " G," " K," " L," " M," " P," " T," Companies. 

Miscellaneous. 

Corps of Guides and Interpreters. 

Lent to British Mission in Hejaz. 

No. 1 L.A.C. Batterv. 

2 — 10-pr. B.L. guns on Motor Lorries. 

1 Platoon, 1st Garr. Bn. Royal Irish Regt. 

Detachments : — 

No. 2 Camel Depot. 
Egyptian Labour Corps. 
Egyptian Camel Corps. 
R.A.S.C. 
R.AO.C. 

EASTERN FORCE. 

(Ceased to exist Aug. 12, 1917.) 

Commander.— MeiioT-Gen. (temp. Lieut.-Gen.) Sir Philip W. Chetwode, Bfc., K.C.B., K.C.M.G., D.S.O. 

Brigadier- General, General Staff.— Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) G. P. Dawnay, D.S.O., M.V.O. 

(R. of 0.). 

Brigadier- General, Royal Artillery. — Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) A. H. Short, C.B. 

Chief Engineer.— Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) R. L. Waller, R.E. 

Deputy Adjutant and Quarter master- General.^it. Lieut.-Col (temp. Brig.-Gen.) E. F. 0. Gascoigne, 

C.M.G., D.S.O. (R. of 0.). 

DESERT COLUMN. 

(Became Desert Mounted Corps Aug. 12, 1917.) 
Commander. ^-'Sla]ov-Gen. H. G. Chauvel, C.B., C.M.G. 

Brigadier- General, Royal Artillery.— Co], (temp. Brig.-Gen.) A. D'A. King, C.B., D.S.O., r.p. (R. of 0.). 
Chief Engineer.— Uakjoi (temp. Brig.-Gen.) R. E. M. Russell, D.S.O., R.E. 

DESERT MOUNTED CORPS. 

Commander. — ^Major-Gen. (temp. Lieut.-Gen.) Sir H. G. Chauvel, K.C.B., K. C.M.G. 

Brigadier General, General Staff.— Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) R. G. H. Howard- Vyse, C.M.G., 

D.S.O., Royal Horse Guards, p.s.c. (relinquished, July, 1918). 
Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) C. A. C. Godwin. D.S.O., 23rd Cavalry. 
I.A., f.s.c. 

Deputy Adjutant and Quartermaster- General. — ^Major (temp. Brig.-Gen.) E. F. Trew, C.M.G., D.S.O., 

Royal Marines, p.s.c. 

General Officer Commatiding, Royal Artillery.— Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) A. D'A. King, C.B., C.M.G., 

D.S.O., r.p. (R. of 0.). 



40 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

HEADQUARTERS. 
Mounted Troops. 

1/lst Worcester Yeomanry (attached from XXth Corp^ 

Artillery. 

10th (Indian) Mountain Artillery Brigade, R.6:A. 
29th, 32nd, 39th (Indian) Mountain Batteries. 

Machine Qun Corps. 

Nos. 1, 2, 3,' 4, 8, Light Car Patrols. 
No. 2 Light Armoured Car Battery. 

Si^al Service. 

" W " Corps Signal Company. 

"BS," "KK," "AO," Cable Sections, and "DJ" (Indian) Cable Sectioa. 
103rd (Indian) Airline Section. 
D.C. Cable Section. 

Desert Mounted Corps Wireless Troop (formed from No. 9 Wagon W/T Section and Lon- 
don Pack W/T Section). 
Australian Airline Section (disbanded, 23/8/18). 
Australian Imperial Force Cable Section (disbanded, 23/8/18). 
Australian Moimted Divisional Signal Company (disbanded, 23/8/18). 

Engineers. 

"D" Field Troop and Bridging Train, Australian Engineers. 
Desert Mounted Corps Pontoon Park (8 Pontoons). 

Infantry. 

'20th Indian Infantry Brigade. 
2/155th Pioneers. 

Royal Army Service Corps. 

Nos. 3 and 5, (Egypt), Mobile Repair Units. 
Corps Troops Supply Column (Supply details only). 

Royal Army Ordnance Corps. 

No. 88 Ordnance Mobile Workshop (light). 

Corps Troops Supply Column (Ordnance details only). 

Miscellaneous. 

No. 1032 Area Employment Company. 

Brief Record of Service. 

Organized on Aug. 12, 1917, from the "Desert Column " which had been engaged throughout the 
advance from the Suez Canal at Eomani, Maghdeba, Rafa and at the 1st and 2nd Battles of Gaza, the 
Corps has taken a prominent part in the several advances through Palestine and Syria. 

The envelopment of the Turkish left flank resulted in the capture of Beersheba by the Austrahan 
Mounted Division on Oct. 31, 1917. During the advance through Philistia, the Corps, operating in front 
of the infantry, captured many important points, such as Deir Sineid and Huj (Nov. 8), Akir and Abu 
Shusheh (Nov. 15). When the infantry attack swung eastward through the Judeean Hills, Australian 
and New Zealand troops continued to push northward against ever-stiffening resistance, capturing 
Ramleh on Nov. 15, and occupying Jaffa and Sarona on Nov. 16 and 17 respectively. The Yeomanry 
Mounted Division, covering the left flank of the XXIst Corps, advanced up the Valley of Ajalon to 
Bethhoron. The capture of Neby Musa and Jericho was effected in co-operation with the XXth Corps 
on Feb. 21, 1918, and two important raids (Amman, March 21 to April 2, and Es Salt, April 29 to May 4), 
provided heavy fighting, in which infantry of the London Division co-operated. Subsequently, the 
Desert Mounted Corps was engaged at the Ghoraniyeh bridgehead and at other points in the Jordan 
Valley. 

Hard marching and occasional stiff fighting were experienced in September, resulting in the capture 
of Jenin (Sept. 20), Nazareth (Sept. 21, after having been successfully raided on Sept. 20), Haifa 
(Sept. 23), Semakh and Tiberias (Sept 25), and Damascus (Oct. 1), the last-named in conjunction 
with the Sherifian forces. Rayak was occupied on Oct. 5, and, after a brief halt, the rapid advance 
was continued. Horns, Hama, and Aleppo being reached on Oct. 15, 22, and 26, respectively. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE ' 



41 



Locations of Cobps Headquabtbhs. 



Abasan (three miles east of Khan Yunus) from Aug. 12,1917 
Esani (twenty miles south-south-east 

of Gaza) Oct. 28, 1917 

Asluj (fifteen miles south of Beersheba) „ Oct. 30,1917 

Beersheba Nov. 1, 1917 

Tel esh Sheria ■. ... „ Nov. 7, 1917 

Khurbet Muntaret (near Muntaret el 

Kaneitera) „ Nov. 8, 1917 

Hill 331 (near Julis) , Nov. 10, 1917 

Yebna „ Nov. 14, 1917 

Khurbet Deiran (near El Kubeibe) ... „ Nov. 16, 1917 

Talat ed Dumm April 26, 1918 



Jericho from April 30, 1918 

Talat ed Dumm May 6, 1918 

Jerisheh (near Sarona) Sept. 16, 1918 

El Lejjun (six miles west of El Afule)... „ Sept. 20,1918 

Tiberias , Sept. 27, 1918 

Rosh Pina (near Safed) Sept. 28, 1918 

El Kuneitra Sept. 29, 1918 

Kaukab Sept. 30, 1918 

Damascus , Oct. 1, 1918 

Beii-ut , Oct. 30, 1918 

Tripolis Oct. 31, 1918 

Horns Nov. I, 1918 



XXth CORPS. 

Commander.— M&jor-Gen. (temp. Lieiit.-Gen.) Sir Philip W. Chetwode, Bt., K.C.B., K.C.M.G., D.S.O. 

Brigadier- General, General Staff. — ^Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) W. H. Bartholomew, C.M.G., D.S.O., 

K.A., -p.s.c. (relinquished, April, 1918). 
Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) A. P. Wavell, C.M.G., M.C., Royal 
Highlanders, p.s.c. 

JDeputy Adjutant and Quartermaster- General. — ^Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) E. Evans, C.M.G., D.S.O., 

Wiltshire Regt. A.D.C. (relinquished, Jan., 1918). 
Lieut.-Co). (temp. Brig.-Gen.) C. W. Pe.^rless, C.M.G., 
D.S.O., South Wales Borderers, p.s.c. 

General Office Commanding, Royal Artillery. — Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) A. H. Short, C.B., C.M.G. 

General Officer Commanding, Corps Heavy Artillery.— Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) P. de S. Burney, 

C.B. (R. of 0.) 
Chief Engineer.— Bt. Lieut.Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) R. L. Waller, C.M.G., R.E. 

HEADQUARTERS. 

Mounted Troops. 

1/lst Worcester Yeomanry. 

Artilhry. 

9th Mountain Artillery Brigade, R.G A. : 10th, 12th, 16th Mountain Batteries. 

Hong-Kong and Singapore Mountain Battery, R.G. A. 

61st Brigade, R.G.A. ; 379th, 420th, 443rd Siege Batteries (ceased to belong to E.E.F., 

21/5/18.) 
96th Brigade, R.G.A. ; 91st Heavy Battery ; 300th, 378th, SBSrd, 440th, 445th Siege 

Batteries. (445th Siege Battery ceased to belong to E.E.F., 4/4/18.). 
97th Brigade, R.G.A. ; 195th Heavy Battery ; 134th, 201st, 334tb, 421st, 422nd Siege 

Batteries. (201st Siege Battery ceased to belong to E.E.F., 7/5/18.) 
103rd Brigade, R.G.A. ; 10th Heavy Battery ; 205th, 387th, 392nd Siege Batteries. 
Nos. 1, 2, 3 (Medium), Trench Mortar Batteries, R.A. 

Machiae Qua Corps. 

Half Machine Gun Company, Cape Corps. 

Eagtaeers. 

No. 13 Pontoon Park, R.E. 

220th Army Troops Company, R.E. 

" V " Section (Soimd Ranging) 7th Field Survey Company, R.E. 

Sigaal Troops. 

" V " Corps Signal Company, R.E. 

N 24 Airline Section, R.E. 

" AG," " BQ," " BR," Cable Sections, R.E. 

No. 1 Signal Section, Corps Heavy Artillery, R.E. 



42 



THE ADVANCE OF THE 



Royal Army Service Corps. 

(a) Mechanical Transport : — 

Nos. 811, 963, 96d, 966, 980, 983, 990, 1007, 1008, 1030. 1072 M.T. Compame& 

(attached Heavy Artillery). 
Nos. 12 and 13 (Egypt), Mobile Repair Units. 

(6) Horse Transport : — 
Corps Troops Train. 

(c) Camel Transport : — 

"N," "U," "V," Companies. 

Royal Army Ordnance Corps. 

Nos. 52, 58, 60, Ordnance Mobile Workshops (light). 
Corps Troops Supply Column (Ordnance details only). 

Miscellaneous. 

No. 1000 Area Employment Company. 

Brief Record of Servloe. 

The Corps was formed on Aug. 2, 1917, and took over the line cm the right of the XXIst Corps. In 
the advance into Philistia, the Turkish defences west and south-west of Beersheba were carried on 
Oct. 31, and during the following week the enemy was swept from strong positions in the battles of 
Khuweilfeh, Sheria, and Hareira. At the beginning of December, the XXth Corps relieved the XXIst 
in the Judaean Hills, captured Jerusalem on Dec. 9, and, in the last days of the year, pushed northward 
astride the Jerusalem-Nablus road against powerful resistance. Jericho was captured on Feb. 21, 1918, 
(in co-operation with Desert Mounted Corps), and a northerly advance, entailing stiff fighting over 
diflBcult ground, was made in March. 

A portion of the Corps co-operated with cavalry of the Desert Moimted Corps in the Anunan raid 
(March-April) and the Es Salt raid (April-May). 

The commencement of the final operations of the campaign was a vigorous attack, covered by a 
feint on the night of Sept. 18-19, and during the following week the XXth Corps drove the Turks 
northward and westward across the rugged hills of Mount Ephraim, into the areas where enemy 
resistance had been dislocated and disorganized by the rapid movements of the XXIst and Desert 
Mounted Corps. 

Locations of Corps Headqitakters. 



Deir el Belah (beach) from 


Aug. 


2, 1917 


•Junction Station 


from 


Nov. 


23, 1917 


Wadi Selka (south-east of Deir el 






*Latron 




Nov. 


28, 191T 


Belah) 


Aug. 


18, 1917 


Jerusalem 




Jan. 


3, 1913. 


El Fukhari 


Sept. 


3, 1917 


Ram Allah 




Sept. 


19, 1918 


*E1 Buggar , 


Oct. 


30, 1917 


*Huwarah 




Sept. 


22, 1918 


*Beersheba 


Nov. 


2, 1917 


Nablus - 




Sept. 


24, 1918 


♦Gaza (Red Housfe) ... „ 


Nov. 


18, 1917 


Haifa 




Oct. 


29, 101* 



* Advanced Headquarters. 



XXIst CORPS. 

Commander. — Major-Gen. (temp. Lieut.-Gen.) Sir Edward S. Bulfin, K.C.B., C.V.O. 

Brigadier- General, General Staff. — ^Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) E. T. Humphreys, D.S.O., LancasliU« 

Fusiliers, p.s.c. (relinquished, Feb., 1918). 
Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) H. F. Salt, D.S.O., R.A., p.s.c. 

Deputy Adjtdant and Quartermaster- General. — Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) St. G. B. Armstrong, R.M.L.L^ 

p.s.c. 

General Officer Commanding, Royal Artillery. — Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) H. A. D. Simpson Baikie, 

C.B., C.M.G., R.A., 'p.s.c. 

General Officer Commanding, Corps Heavy Artillery. — Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) 0. C. Willtamson-Oswald^ 

C.B., C.M.G., R.G.A. 

Chief Engineer.— M&joi (temp. Brig.-Gen.) R. P. T. Hawksley, C.M.G., D.S.O., R.E. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 43 

HEADQUARTERS. 

Mounted Troops. 

Composite Yeomanry Kegiment (" A " Squadron, Duke of Lancaster's Own Yeomanry, 

and " A " and " B " Squadrons, 1/lst Herts. Yeomanry). 
54th Divisional C}'clist Company. 

Artillery. 

8th Mountain Artillery Brigade, K.G.A. : 11th, 13th, 17th Mountain Batteries. ' 

95th Brigade, R.G.A. ; 181st Heavy Battery ; 304th, 314th, 320th, 322nd, 394th Siege 
Batteries. (320th and 322nd Siege Batteries ceased to belong to E.E.F.. 4/4/18.) 

100th Brigade, R.G.A. ; 15th Heavy Battery ; 43rd, 292nd, 423rd Siege Batteries. ' (292nd 
and 423rd Siege Batteries ceased to belong to E.E.F., 7/5/18.) 

102nd Brigade, R.G.A. ; 189th, 202nd Heavy Batteries ; 209th, 380th, 424th Siege Bat- 
teries. (424th Siege Battery ceased to belong to E.E.F., 3/1/18.) 

Nos. 55, 121, 123 Anti-Aircraft Sections, R.A. 

Nos. 4, 5, 6 (Medium), Trench Mortar Batteries, R.A. 

Engineers. 

14th A.T. Company, R.E. 

" N " and " NN " Sections (Sound Ranging) 7th Field Survey Company, R.E. 

28th Observation Group, 7th Field Survey Company, R.E. 

Signal Service. 

" U " Corps Signal Company, R.E. 

N 21 Airline Section, R.E. 

" DH " (Indian), " HH " and " GY " Cable Sections, R.E. 

No. 12 Pack W/T Section, R.E. 

No. 2 Signal Section Corps Heavy Artillery, R.E. 

Infantry. 

2nd BattaUon Loyal North Lancashire Regiment (ceased to belong to E.E.F., 7/5/18). 
2/107th Pioneers. 

Royal Army Service Corps. 

(a) Mechanical Transport : — 

Nos. 810, 904, 951, 952, 955, 9G5, 967, 982, 984, 988, 989, 1031, 1032, 1073" M.T. 

Companies (attached Heavy Artillery). (Nos. 810, 1031, 1032 Companies ceased 

to belong to E.E.F., 21/5/18.) 
Nos. 1 and 2 (Egypt), Mobile Repair Units. 

(b) Horse Transport : — 

Corps Troops Train. 

(c) Camel Transport : — 

" C," " H," and " R " Companies. 



Royal Army Ordnance Corps. 

Nos. 37 and 59 Ordnance Mobile Workshops (light). 
Corps Troops Supply Column (Ordnance details only). 

Miscellaneous. 

No. 1031 Area Employment Company. 

Brief >Record of Service. 

The Corps was organized on Aug. 12, 1917, and took over the Coastal and Shoikh Abbas sectors, 
•which it held until the general advance started. Gaza was captured on Nov. 7, and the rapid advance 
through Philistia into the Juda3an hills (in co-operation with the Desert Mounted Corps), carried the 
troops of the XXIst Corps to within five miles of Jerusalem by Nov. 21. During this advance the 
nature oi the fighting chans;ed from trench warfare to open warfare, and then to hill fighting. In 
December, on relief by the XXth Corps, the XXIst relieved the Desert Mounted Corps on the new line 
from Midieh to the sea. The crossing of the Auja, in Dec, 1917, and the difficult hill fighting around 
the Wadi Ballut, in March and April, 1918, advanced the line to an average depth of six miles. 



44 



THE ADVANCE OF THE 



On Sept. 19, the right of the strong Turkish defensive system was broken in the battle of Sharon^ 
Kefr Kasim, Jiljulieh, Tireh, and Tul Keram were captured, and the flank rolled up to allow the 
mounted troops to carry out the envelopment required of them. 

After a brief halt at Haifa, the advance northward was continued on Oct. 1, and as the result of 
hard marching, Beirut and Tripolis were occupied on Oct. 8 and 18 respectively. 

Locations of Corps Headquarters. 



Deir el Belah from 

*Baspberrj- Hill {2J miles east of Deir 
elBeJkh) , 

•Deir Sineid 

•Jewish Colony (near Beit Duras^ 

•El Kukab , 

Bir Salon (Geiman Orphanage, near 
. Ramleh) 



Aug. 12, 1917 



Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov, 



1, 1917 
U, 1917 
14, 1917 
IP, 1917 



Jaffa 

Jerisheh (near Sarona) 

•Sabieh 

*Tul Keram 

Haifa 

Beirut 



from 



Nov. 28, 1917 

• Advanced Headquarters. 



Jan. 


4, 


1918 


April 


1, 


1918 


Sept. 


19, 


1918 


Sept. 


21, 


1918 


Sept. 


28, 


1918 


Oct. 


8. 


19ia 



Commander. 



CHAYTOR'S FORCE. 

(During Operations, Sept. 19 to Oct. 31, 1918). 

-Col. (temp. Major-Gen.) Sir E. W. C. Chaytor, K.C.M.G., C.B., f.s.c., A.D.C. 
(And Staff of the Australian and New Zealand Mounted Division.) 



HEADQUARTERS. 
Mounted Troops. 

Australian and New Zealand Mounted Division (less one Squadron), 

Artillery. 

A/263 Battery, E.F.A. 

No. 195 Heavy Battery, R.G.A. 

29th and 32nd (Indian), Mountain Batteries, R.G.A 

No. 6 (Medium) Trench Mortar Battery, R.A. 

Nos. 96, 102, 103 Anti-Aircraft Sections, R.A. 

Engineers. 

Detachment No. 35 A.T. Company, R.E. 

Infantry. 

38th and 39th Battalions Royal Fusiliers. 

20th Indian Brigade. 

1st and 2nd Battalions British West Indies Regiment. 

Brief Record of Service. 

Sept. 18. — The Force, constituted as above, held the eastern end of the British line, including the Ghoraniyeh bridgehead. 



West of Jordan. 
19. — The 2nd British West Indies Regiment captured 
ridge south of Bakr Ridge, and on the following 
day 

20. — captured Bakr and Chalk Ridges, while 1st British 
West Indies Regiment captured Grant Hill and 
Baghalat, and the Auckland Mounted Rifles 
seized Kh. Fusail and Tel Sh. edh Dhiab. 

22. — The 38th Battalion Royal Fusiliers advanced to 
Mankattat el Mallaha and, with the assistance 
of two companies of the 39th Battalion, cap- 
tured the ford at Umm esh Shert. 

Further nortli, the New Zealand Mounted 
Rifles Brigade captured E! Makhruk and Abd 
el Kadir, taking 500 prisoners, including a 
Divisional Commander, and blocking the im- 
portant road vid the bridge at Jisr ed Damieh, 
between Nablus, west of Jordan, and Es Salt 
on the east. The bridge itself was captured by 
the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade and 
1st British West Indies Regiment. Ist Light 
Horse Brigade and 2nd British West Indies 
Regiment were engaged near Mafid Jozeleh. 

23. — All enemy opposition ceased on west bank of 
Jordan 



East op Jordan. 
Sept. 22.— The 2nd Light Horse Brigade captured Tel er 
Rame, a Turkish strong post seven miles south- 
east of the Ghoraniyeh bridge. 

„ 23.— The 1st Light Horse, with 2nd British West Indie* 
Regiment, captured Mafid Jozeleh, and the 2nd 
Light Horse took Kabr Mujahid, while the New 
Zealand Mounted Rifles, having crossed the 
Jordan, pushed rapidly eastward and seized 
Es^Salt. 

„ 24. — Ain es Sir and Ain Hemar occupied by 2nd Light 
Horse. 

„ 25. — The Auckland Slounted Rifles succeeded in cutting 
the Hejaz Railway near Kalaat ez Zerka, and 
the 2nd Light Horse and N.Z.M.R. Brigades 
and the 1st A.L.H. Regt. captured Amman, 
the Canterbury Mounted Rifles taking a 
prominent pari in this latter engagement. 

,, 26. — The 1st Light Horse captured Kalaat ez Zerka, 
and 2nd Light Horse cut the railway north of 
Ziza Station. 

„ 27. — 1st Light Horse engaged a body of the enemy 
north of Wadi el Hammam, taking 300 
prisoners and two machine guns. 

„ 29. — The Maan garrison, consisting of 4,066 officers 
and men, with twelve guns and thirty-five 
machine guns, surrendered to the 2nd Light 
Horse Brigade near EI Kastal. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 45 

FRENCH DETACHMENT. 

(Detachement Franjais de Palestine et Syrie.J 
(Jommander.— Col P. de Piepape, C.B. , s 

HEADQUARTERS. 

Regiment of Tirailleurs, consisting of 7th Battalion 1st Tirailletirs and 9tli Battalion 2ad 

Tirailleurs, Algerians, with section of 2 guns. 
Eegiment Legion d'Orient, consisting of 1st and 2nd Battalions Armenians, and 23rd 

Company Syrians, with section of 2 gims. 
5th Garrison Battalion of 115th Territorial Regiment. 
3rd Battalion Legion d'Orient. 

Cavalry. 

Two Squadrons, 1st Regiment of Spahis. 

Two Squadrons, 4th Regiment Chasseurs d'Afrique. • 

One Machine Gun Troop (dismounted). 

Artillery Group. 

1st Battery. 

14th Battery of 5th African Field Artillery Group. 
30th Battery of 2nd Mountain Artillery Regiment. 
30th Mixed Munition Section. 

Engineers. 

19/6 Company 2nd Engineer Regiment (three sections Sappers and Miners). 

Signals. 

Signal Section of 8th Engineer Regiment (4th Section of above Engineer Company). 

Artillery and Engineer Services. 

Subsidiary Depots of the main Artillery and Engineer Base Depot at Port Said. 

Medical Service, 

Nos. 2/T and 3,/P Moimtain Ambulances. 

Stretcher-Bearer Group. 

No. 2 Field Hospital and CCS. 

Advanced Depot of Medical Stores and Material, 

Supply Section of Detachment. 
M.T. Section. 

Transport of Material. 

Military Police. 

Three moimted, and one dismounted "Brigades." 

Brief Record of Service. 

1918. Cavalky. 1918. Tnfantrt. 

Sept. 18. — At Jaffa. Sept. 18, — The infantry of the detachment held the ridge 

„ 19. — Advanced in co-operation with 5th Australian north of the Wadi Balhit, with a front of nearly 

Light Horse, crossed the Tul Keram-Haifa road, 6,000 yards, between Rafat and Kh. Umm el 

capturing an enemy battery and seizing a con- Ikba ; with 10th Division on its right, and 

Toy of guns, supplies, and a detachment of the 54th Division on its left. 

Turkish Field Treasury. , ,,...,. 

20.-Co-operated with 5th Australian Light Horse in " 19- -0430.-The attack started, and in spite of vigorous 

the successful raid to cut the Tul Keram-Jenin resistance. Three Bushes Hill 

railway. 0515. — was stormed, and this initial success was 

21. — Entered Nablus in face of determined resistance followed by the capture of 
and captured 700 prisoners, two guns^ and nine 

machine guns. . 0545. — Scurry Hill. In this brief action, 212 

27. — Carried out a demonstration against enemy hold- prisoners (including sixteen officers) and 

ing the Jordan crossing near the village of nine machine guns were taken. 

Mishmar Hayarden, and forded the river 700 0700.— Deir el Kussis reached, but as the position 

yards south of Jisr Benat Yakub. ^^, exposed and the situation uncertain, 

29.— Involved in severe night fighting at Sasa, where ^j^i^ advanced point was not held, 
two guns and several machine guns were cap- 
tured. 1415- — Two Cairns Hill captured and the enemy 

30.— Moved, dismounted, along the hills of Kalabet el driven into the Wadi Ayun. 

Mezza, brushing aside all opposition, and 2350.— Deir el Kussis, which had been reoccupied- 

blocked the gorge N.W. of Er Rabno, and co- ;^ captured and consolidated, 
operated with 5th Light Horse Brigade in 

capture of 4,000 prisoners. 0500.— Arara and Zawieh captured. 

Oct. 19. — Left Damascus for Beirut. Oct. 8. — Haifa reached and on 

Oct. 20. — the Detachment entered Beirut. 



4« THE ADVAI^CE OF THE 

ITALIAN DETACHMENT. 

(Distaccamento Italiano di Palestina.) 

Commander.— Lieut.-Co]. Cav. Fkancesco D'Agostino, Corps of Eersaglieri (jelincjiiished. Sept. 9., 1918). 
Lieut.-Col. Cav. Gdstavo Pesenti, Corps of Alpini, 

Headquarters. 

Royal Carabinieri Company. 

Bersaglieri Company. 

Cacciatori Company. 

Mounted Carabinieri Platoon. " 

Port Said Base and Composite Platk^on. 

Special Platoon. 

Ex-Prisoners-of-War Company. 

Brief Record of Service. 

The Italian Palestine Detachment was formed on July I, 1917. 

On Nov. 8 and following days, it formed part of the mobile column known as the Composite Force, 
and took part in the capture of the Atawineh Redoubt Trench System and the advance north of Gaza. 

The Detachment was present at the fall of Jerusalem, and furnished a Guard of Honour at the 
official entry of General Allenby on Dec. 11 ; since when important guard duties have been continuously 
performed at Jerusalem, Junction Station, Jaffa, and other centres. 



4th CAVALRY DIVISION. 

(Late 1st Mounted Division, late Yeomanry Mounted Division.) 
Commander. — Major-Gen. Sir G. de S. Barrow, K.C.M.G., C.B., j).s.c. 

1 0th Cavalry Brigade (late 6th Mounted Brigade, late l/2nd South Midland Mounted Brigade) :— 

Commander. — Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) T. M. S. Pitt, 2nd County of London Yeomanry (relinquished, 
Julv, 1918). 

Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) C. A. C. Godwin, D.S.O., 23rd Cavalry, LA. (relin- 
quished, Aug., 191 8). 

Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) R. G. H. Howard- Vyse, C.M.G., D.S.O., Royal Horse 
Guards, f.s.c. (relinquished, Sept., 1918). 

Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) W. G. K. Green, D.S.O., 36th Jacob's Horse, LA. 

l/lst Dorset Yeomanry, 2nd Lancers, 38th Central India Horse. 

1/lst Bucks Yeomanry and 1/lst Berks. Yeomanry (ceased to belong to E.E.F., 19/6/18). 

10th Cavalry Brigade Signal Troop, R.E. 

17th Machine Gim Squadron. 

1 1th Cavalry Brigade (late 8th Mounted Brigade, late 1/lst London Motmted Brigade) : — 

Commander.— Go\. {temp. Brig.-Gen.) A. H. M. Taylor, D.S.O., (relinquished, Sept., 1917). 

Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) C. S. Rome, D.S.O., 11th Hussars (relinquished, June, 

1918). 
Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) C. L. Gregory, C.B., 19th Lancers, f.s.c. 

]/]st County of London Yeomanry, 29th Lancers, 36th Jacob's Horse. 

1/lst City of London Yeomanry, and l/3rd County of London Yeomanry (ceased to belong 

to E.E.F., 2/7/18). 
1 1th Cavalry Brigade Signal Troop, R.E. 
2l8t Machine Gun Squadron. 

12th Cavalry Brigade (late 22nd Mounted Brigade, late 1/lst North Midland Mounted Brigade) :— 

Commander. ~Co\. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) F. A. B. Fryer (relinquished, Dec, 1917). 

Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) P. D. Fitzgerald, D.S.O., 11th Hussars, p.s.c. (re- 
linquished, April, 1918). 
Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) J. T. Wigan, C.M.G., D.S.O., Berks. Yeomanry. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONAKY FORCE 



47 



1/lst Staffordshire Yeomanry, 6th Cavalry, 19th Lancers. 

1/lst Lincobishire Yeomanry and 1/lst East Riding Yeomanry (ceased to belong to E.E.F., 

2/7/18). 
12th Cavalry Brigade Signal Troop, R.E. 
18th Machine Gun Squadron. 
Corps Cavalry Regiment. l/2nd County of London Yeomanry (ceased to belong to E.E.F., 28/5/18). 

Divisional Troops. 

20th Brigade, R.H.A. (1/lst Berks., Hamps., and Leicester Batteries, and Brigade Ammuni- 
tion Colrmn. 
4th Field Squadron (late No. 6), R.E. 
4th Cavalry Division Signal Squadron, R.E. 

4th Cavahy Divisional Train (Nos. 999, 1000, 1001, 1002 Companies, R.A.S.C.). 
10th, 11th, 12th Cavalry Brigade Mobile Veterinary Sections. 



Brief Record of Service. 

The Yeomanry Regiments of which the Yeomanry Division was composed left England in 1915, 
and served as detached brigades and regiments on the Egyptian, Gallipolv and Salonika fronts : and 
with Desert Column took part in the advance from the Suez Canal, culminating in the battles of Gaza 
in March and April, 1917. 

On the reorganization in Aug., 1917, it joined the Desert Mounted Corps as the Yeomanry 
Division. Six regiments were withdrawn in April, 1918, for service as machine-gunners on the 
Western Front, the vacancies being filled by Indian Cavalry Regiments. The division was renamed 
"4th Cavalry Division " in July, 1918, and 6th, 8th, and 22nd Moimted Brigades became 10th« Uth, 
and 12th Cavalry Brigades, respectively. 



Yeomanry Mounted Division. 



1917. 



Oot. 26. — The Division was detached as Army Reserre, and 
concentrated about Hiseia and Shellal, but 8th 
Mounted Brigade was lent to Australian Mounted 
lllyision and held an outpost line from near El 
Buggar north-westward to Point 280 near Kh. 
Umm Rijl, a length of twelve miles. The right 
of this line was held by 1st County of London 
(Middlesex) Yeomanry, with 3rd County of 
London Yeomanry on the left, and City of 
London Yeomanry in reserve at Karm. 
„ 27. — Middlesex Yeomanry were heavily attacked at 
0415 by a force of all arms estimated at 3,000- 
4,000. The garrison at Point 630, although al- 
most surrounded by 0515, defended the posi- 
tion throughout the day against repeated 
assaults, until relieved by infantry of 158th 
Brigade at 1000. 3rd Australian Light Horse 
Brigade were ordered up from Shellal to support 
the squadron holding the knoll Point 720, but, 
before they could arrive the post was subjected 
to concentrated shell- fire and overwhelmed by 
a, combined mounted and dismounted attack. 
The i-eserve regiment frustrated an attempt to 
break through between Points 720 and 630, and 
at du.sk when the enemy withdrew, former 
position was reoocupied. 
Nov. 8. — The division moving north-eastward, as a part of 
* "Barrow's Detachment," encountered stifE re- 

sistance at Kh. Mujeidilat. City of London and 
Middlesex Yeomanry attacked but were unable 
to dislodge the enemy and orders were received 
to break off the action and march to Tel esh 
Sheria. 
„ The division moved vid Huj, Zeita, and El Mejdel, 

to II and 

„ 12. — relieved Australian and New Zealand (Anzao) 
Division along the VVadi Sukereir between 52nd 
Division and the sea. 
„ 13. — 6th and ?th Mounted Brigades occupied Beshshit 
and Yebnah respectively in conjunction with 
the infantry attack on Katrah and El Mughar. 
Patrols found Kubeibeh and Zemukah sti-ongly 



1917 
Nov. 



13.- 



held and the infantry advance was checked near 
El Mughar. 8th Mounted Brigade moved on 
Zemukah and Kubeibeh ; 22nd Brigade was held 
in readiness to attack Akir as soon as El Muharg 
was taken ; while 6th Brigade were ordered to 
attack the ridge running north-east from El 
Mughar. At 1500 Royal Bucks Hussars and 
Dorset Yeomanry charged the El Mughar ridge 
from the Wadi Jamus riding 4,500 yards across 
an open plain devoid of cover, and subjected 
throughout to galling shell, machine-gun, and 
rifle fire. The whole hostile position was cap- 
tured and consolidated by 1530 and 1,096 pri- 
soners, two field guns, aad fourteen machine 
guns talen. (Later in the evening the village 
was cleared and two squadrons Berkshire Yeo- 
manry captured a further 400 prisoners.) 

22nd Mounted Brigade attacked Akir at 
1530, but were held up until nightfall. This 
brigade rounded up seventy-two prisoners and a 
machine gun retiring from the El Mughar Ridge. 

14. — Middlesex Yeomanry (8th Mounted Brigade) 
occupied Zemukah and Kubeibeh at dawn. 
Imperial Camel Brigade, attached, remained 
about Zemukah and Kubeibeh to watch the 
north, while the division moved east on Kh. 
Selmeh, Naaneh, and Bir Ghazlun. 22nd 
Brigade took Naaneh at 1430 with sixty prison- 
ers and one gun, and demolished one mile of 
railway to the soiith. 

15. — The Sidun-Abu Shusheh Ridge, attacked at 
0700 from south-west and north-west by 6th and 
22nd Mounted Brigades, with one battalion 
Imperial Camel Corps Brigade attached, was 
strongly held. Leicestersliire and Berkshire 
Batteries, R.H.A. , assisted by 75th Divisional 
Artillery, covered the advance, but the position 
was only taken at 0900 after a stubborn re- 
sistance, when a mounted charge by Dorset 
Yeomanry routed the enemy with the loss of 
360 prisoners and one gun. Over <'00 Turks 
were killed in this engagement. 



48 



THE ADVANCE OF THE 



1917. 


Nov. 


18 


to 




• ff 


19 


ft 


20.- 


>» 


21.- 



25. 

26. 
27. 



28.— i 



„ 29 

to 
„ 30 

Nov. 30 



1918. 
April 24. 



May 2.—' 



May 

to 

July 



Brigades pushed forward into the Judtean Hills, 
along rock-strewn wtdis, and by tracks which 
existed only in name. Little enemy opposition 
was encountered but difficulties of terrain ren- 
dered rapid movement impossible. 

— Strong organized resistance was encountered 
around Beitunia. 

— Cth Mounted Brigade renewed its attack on 
Beitunia, supported by Lincoln Yeomanry (22nd 
Brigade), but were opposed by fresh troops 
brought from Aleppo, numerous and well- 
trained, who counterattacked and forced a 
withdrawal. Meanwhile, East Riding Yeomanry 
(22nd Brigade) were held up at Ramallah, and 
the division was ordered to fall back on Beit Ur 
el Foka and Beit Ur et Tahta. 

— Leicester Battery, R.H.A., by superhuman efforts 
man-handled their guns up to Foka, and 

— Berkshire Battery arrived at Tahta. 

— An enemy force 400 strong, supported by a howit- 
zer battery, attacked Sh. Abu ez Zeitoun, one 
mile oast of Foka. _The garrison (Cth JIount«d 
Brigade) held out throughout the day although 
outnumbered seven to one. At the same time, 
200 Turks attacked the left of 8th Mounted 
Brigade near Beit Dukka, and 2,000 hostile in- 
fantry were known to be concentrating at Bei- 
tunia. 7th Mounted Brigade (Corps Reserve) 
were sent up from Zeniukah in support, made a 
forced march, and 
arrived at Tahta at 0500. A strong attack was 
launched against 22nd Brigade at 0630, but 
Sherwood Rangers and South Notts. Hussars 
(7th Brigade) reinforced and the attack was 
held. 155th Brigade (52nd Division), ordered 
up to cover the left fiank of the defence, arrived 
at 0900. Meanwhile the post at Zeitoun, after 
a most stubborn resistance, was overwhelmed 
at 0800, and the brigade was forced to fall 
oack to the ridge between Foka and Tahta. 
The attack on 7th Mounted Brigade was re- 
newed after dark, but, with assistance from 
l/7th Scottish Rifles (52nd Division), the attack 
was beaten off. 
Australian Mounted Division came up on the left ; 
52nd and 74th Divisions relieved the Yeomanry, 
who, after ten days arduous fighting over diffi- 
cult ground, went into bivouac for rest and 
refitting at El Mughar. 

(The division was inspected by the Com- 
mander-in-Chief in December ; January was 
spent in refitting and training ; and February 
in salvage work on the old trench lines south of 
Gaza. In March the division moved up to the 
Wadi Sukerier, but, on April 2, returned to 
Belah for reorganization.) 
Gth Mounted Brigade, with Middlesex Yeomanry 
and Mysore Imperial Lancers, were ordered to 
march to Jordan Valley to take part in the 
Es Salt raid, and reached the point of concen- 
tration on April 29. 
•The brigade crossed the Jordan in support of 
Australian and New Zealand Mounted Troops, 
who were holding a defensive flank northward 
to cover the withdrawal from Es Salt. The 
brigade was not engaged and re-crossed the 
river during the night May 3-4. 

(During the following week the remainder of 
the division reached the valley ; the Indian 
regiments, to replace the units withdrawn, 
arrived ; and the reorganization was complete. 
Constant patrolling and consolidation of defences 
were carried on in the heat and dust of the 
Jordan Valley. The enemy was completely 
dominated ; seventy prisoners were captured, 
and over W)0 Turks killed or wounded in patrol 
encounters. 



4th Oavaley Division. 



1918. 



Julv 



Aug. 



19. — The division went into camp at Ras Deiran to 

rest and recoup. 
8. — Division returned to the Jordan Valley, and once 
more took over patrol duties. 29th Lancers 
and 36th Jacob's Horse (11th Cavalry Brigade) 
were engaged in successful patrol encounters. 
Climatic conditions improved and training oould 
be carried on. 
Sept. 18. — Concentrated in the orange groves near Selmeh. 

„ 19. — Divisional artillery supported the infantry attack, 
and pioneer parties advanced in rear of 7th 
Division to cut gaps in the wire and flag the 
routes for the cavalry through the captured 
defences. 

11th Cavalry Brigade passed through the wire 
at 0858, and moved rapidly northward to thd 
Kakon-Liktera switch line, where the advanced 
guard came under fire. The position was 
galloped by Jacob's Horse and 250 prisoners 
taken. By 1800 10th Brigade was moving on 
Kerkur, 12th Brigade was at Jelameh, head- 
quarters and 11th Brigade at Tel ed Dhrur. 
2nd Lancers (10th Brigade) advanced up the 
Kerkur-Lejjun defile, and at 2145 No. 11 Light 
Armoured Car Battery was attached to the 
Lancers to reconnoitre the Musmus Pass, which 
was found clear. 

„ 20. — Lejjun was occupied at 0330 and two hours later 
2nd Lancers and the armoured cars moved on 
El Afule. On debouching from the Pass the 
Turks were encountered in strength astride the 
road. One squadron and the cars held the 
enemy in front while the remainder of the 
regiment charged their left flank, killing or 
wounding forty-six and capturing 470. 12th 
Brigade occupied El Afule at 0800, and cap- 
tured ten locomotives, fifty trucks, and three 
aeroplanes, while the armoured cars captured 
twelve lorries driven by Germans endeavouring 
to escape by Beisan. By 0900 all railway lines 
radiating from El Afule had been cut, and the 
division moved on Beisan at 1300, leaving one 
regiment to hold all roads to the north. 10th 
Brigade reached Beisan at 1630 (having cap- 
tured 800 prisoners en rovte), and galloped over 
all opposition, taking 100 prisoners and three 
15cm. howitzers which were manned to cover 
the roads to south and east. The division 
concentrated at Beisan at 1800, and 19th 
Lancers (12th Brigade) were sent by a difficult 
mountainous road to hold the Jordan crossing 
at 

„ 21. — Jisr el Mujamia, where they arrived at 0800. South 
of Beisan 38th Central India HorSe (10th 
Brigade) captured 158 prisoners as the result 
of a moonlight charge. All roads in the neigh- 
bourhood were picquetted and 3,000 were made 
prisoner or gave themselves up to our patrols 
during the night. 

„ 22. — Jacob's Horse crossed the Jordan at Jisr Esh Sh. 
Hussein to patrol the east bank and to round 
up fugitives. No. 11 Light Armoured Car 
Battery left to join Desert Mounted Corps 
Headquarters. 

„ 23. — Central India Hoi-se relieved 19th Lancers at 
Jisr el Mujamia. At 0600 11th Brigade moved 
south along both banks of the Jordan to cut off 
the retreat of Seventh Turkish Army. Patrols 
of 29th Lancers were fired on at 0830, from the 
direction of Aliikt Abu Naj, by a force covering 
the ford. Middlesex Yeomanry moved around 
the enemy's left fiank while two squadrons 
29th Lancers charged a mound forming the 
centre of the hostile position and captured 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 



49 



1S18. 
Sept. 23. — 800 prisoners and fifteen maohin* guns. Two 
charges by Jacob's Horse on the left bank were 
held, and the Hampshire Battery was ordered 
op. The battery came into action in the open, 
but was immediately subjected to a heavy and 
aocnrate fire from two concealed enemy batteries. 
The situation was cleared by a squadron of 
Middlesex Yeomanry, who forded the riyer at 
Makt. Fatahallah and charged the guns, putting 
them out of action. The enemy thereupon 
withdrew, abandoning large quantities of stores 
and suffering heary casnalties from machine- 
gun fire. 

^ 24. — The march southward continued. Middlesex 
Yeomanry encountered a hostile advanced 
guard, estimated at 1,200 with numerous 
machise guns, in the VVadi Maleh. Hampshire 
gunaers came into action and the Turks wer« 
driven back to the Jordan in hopeless rout, 
exposing the main body to immediate attack. 
On the west bank 4,000 prisoners (including 
Ruahdi Bey, commanding 16th Division), 
twenty -nine machine guns and 8,000 rifles 
were taken, and the few Turks who got away 
across the river were driven into barren and 
waterless country. A further 1,000 prisoners 
were rounded up by Dorset Yeomanry at Ain 
el Baida. 

„ 36. — Divisien concentrated at Boisan with 10th Brigade 
at Jisr el Mujamia, in praparation for operations 
east of Jordan. 

„ 20.— lOthBrigade engaged enemy holding a line through 
Zebda-Irbid-Beitras. One squadron 2ndLancers 
covered deployment, while remainder of the 
regiment fought its way round the north flank. 
Central India Horse captured Zebda, and by 
nightfall Irbid was closely invested on north, 
west, and south. 

12th Brigade moved to Esh Shuni, and 
Divisicnal Hea'iciuarten uid Iltb Brigade to 
Jisr el Mujamia. 



1918. 

Sept. 27 



Oct. 



to 



Irbid was evacuated during the night, and lOth 
Brigade followed up the retreat and forced an 
action at Er Remte. Dorset Yeomanry at- 
tacked from west and south-west at 1035, while 
remainder of brigade worked round under cover 
to cut the line of retreat east to Deraa. The 
enemy counter-attacked Dorset Yeomanry, but 
the advanced squadron was withdrawn, mounted, 
and launched upon the counter-attacking force. 
Twenty- five of the enemy were killed in the 
charge and the rest fled in disorder to the village. 
A charge by Central India Horse near Tuiele 
was equally successful, and by 1150 the Turks 
were in full retreat leaving 187 prisoners and 
over twenty machine guns and automatic rifles 
in our hands. 

During the night patrols gained touch with 
Sherifian troops operating against Deraa. 

28. — The Division moved on Deraa which was found 
to have been occupied by the Sherifian Army. 
10th Brigade remained about Deraa and the 
rest of the division moved to Mezerib. 

29. — Division marched north along the Haj road with 
Sherifian Army on the right. 

30. — 11th Brigade, acting as advanced guard, reached 
Khiyara at 1700, where it was shelled from 
the Jebel el Mania and an enemy column 
was seen retiring on Kiswe. The village was 
cleared by a mounted charge, one regiment was 
sent in pursuit, while the brigade pushed forward 
on Khan Denun. Some of the enemy escaped 
up the steep slopes of Jebel el Mania and the 
rest retired in disorganized rout on Kiswe. 
1. — The Division camped in the neighbourhood of 
Daraya, having covered 140 miles over difficult 
country in six days. 
6 The march was continued vid Khan Meizelun, 
Zabdani, and Shtora, to Baalbek, whence 12th 

16 Brigade pushed on to Lebwe. 

(Total prisoners taken from Sept. 10 to Got. 16 
were approximately 20,000.) 



6th CAVALRY DIVISION. 

(Late 2nd Mounted Division.) 

XJommander.—M&ioT-Gen. H. J. M. MacAndrew, C.B., D.S.O. 
13th Cavalry Brigade (late 5th Mounted Brigade). 

Commander. — ^Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) P. D. Fitzgerald, D.S.O., 11th Hussars (relinquisbed, 
Dec, 1917). 

Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) P. J. V. Kelly, C.M.G., D.S.O., 3rd Hussars (relin- 
quished, Oct., 1918). 

Bt. Ideut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) G. A. Weir, D.S.O., 3rd Dragoon Guarda. 

1/lst Warwickshire Yeomanry (ceased to belong to E.E.F., 19/6/18). 
1/lst Gloucester Yeomanry, 9th Hodson's Horse, 18th Lancers. 
13th Cavalry Brigade Signal Troop, R.E. 
19th Machine Gun Squadron. 

i4th Cavalry Brigade (late 7th Mounted Brigade). 

C^mnvinder.—Uaut.-Col (temp. Brig.-Gen.) J. T. Wigan, C.M.G., D.S.O., Berks. Yeomanry (re- 
linquished, Dec, 1917). 
Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) G. V. Clarke, D.S.O., City of London Yeomanry. 



1/lst Sherwood Rangers, 20th Deccan Horse, 84th Poona Horse. 
14th Cavah-y Brigade Signal Troop, R.E. 
20th Machine Gun Squadron. 



50 



THE ADVANCE OF THE 



ISth (Imperial Service) Cavalry Brigade (late I.S. Cavalry Brigade). 
Commander. — Lieut. -Col. (temp. Brig. -Gen.) C. E. Harbokd, D.S.O., 30th Lancers, I. A. 

Jodhpore I.S. Lancers, Mysore I.S. Lancers, Ist Hyderabad I.S. Lancers. 
15th Kathiawar I.S. Signal Troop. 
Imperial Service Machine Gun Squadron. 

Divisional Troops. 

Essex Battery, R.H.A., and Brigade Ammunition Column (less 2 Sections). 

5th Field Squadron (late No. 7), R.E. 

5th Cavahy Division Signal Squadron, R.E. 

5th Cavalry Divisional Train (Nos. 1103, 1044, 1104, 1105 Companies, R.A.S.C). 

13th, 14th, and 15th (I.S.), Cavahy Brigade Mobile Veterinary Sections. 



Brief Record of Service. 

5th Cavalry Division, after serving with the British Expeditionary Force in France, landed in Egypt 
in March, 1918. The Division was brought up to strength by the inclusion of Yeomanry and Imperial 
Service Cavalry, who had been serving with the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, and joined Desert 
Mounted Corps on July 2. 



1918. 

Sept. 18. — Division was concentrated in the orange groves 
north-west of Sarona, in preparation for the 
attack. 

„ 19. — At0430di\isional artillery was inaction to support 
the advance of 6()th Division. 

13th Brigade crossed Nahr el Falik and ad- 
vanced to the line Tel ed Dhrur-Liktera-the Sea. 
A column of the enemy was engaged at 1100, 
and 250 prisoners and four guns captured. At 
.• 1815 the brigade left Liktera with Divisional 
Headquarters for Jarak. 

14th Brigade crossed Nahr Iskanderuneh at 
1100 and pushed on towards Jarak; while 
15th Brigade, with artillery and transport column 
reached Liktera at 1500. 
„ 20. — 13th and 14th Brigades reached Jarak at 0100, 
having left a squadron of 9th Hodson's Horse 
(13th Brigade) to guard the left flank of troops 
advancing throtigh the Wadi Arah. The column 
reached El Mezrah and Nazareth at dawn, after 
cutting the El Afule-Haifa railway, having 
marched fifty miles in twenty-two hours. The 
enemy were attacked north of Nazareth by 13th 
Brigade, who withdrew to El Afule with 1,200 
prisoners. El Afule was attacked from north 
by 14th Brigade and captured in conjunction 
with 4th Cavalry Division. 

„ 21. — Nazareth was reoccupied by 13th Brigade after a 
sharp engagement, and reconnoitring patrols 
were sent out to Kefr Kenna and Sepphoris. 
14th Brigade marched to Jenin at 0400, to 
co-operate with Australian Mounted Division. 
This Brigade returned to El Afule at 1530, and 
with 15th Brigade, who had arrived at 0100, 
picquetted the line El Afule-Shutta Station. 

.. 22. — N.izareth was attacked at 0530 by a force of 700 
Turks from Haifa. After a sharp fight 18th 
Lancers (13th Brigade) charged the enemy 
capturing 311 prisoners and four machine guns. 

.. 23.— 13th Brigade with No. 11 Light Armoured Car 
Battery and No. 1 Light Car Patrol, left Nazareth 
at 0500 and, at 1300, captured Acre after a short 
engagement, taking 259 pi'isoners and two guns. 
14th and 15th Brigades turned over their line 
to 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade and 
marched on Haifa vid Jebata and Jeida at 
0500. 15th Brigade were engaged by Turkish 
artillery covering Haifa, at 1015; 14th Brigade, 
with Divisional Headquarters, oooupied the 
Kishon railway bridge and " Harosheth of the 



1918. 
Sept. 23. — Gentiles " at midday ; and at 1400 Jodhpore and 
Mysore Lancers, supported by " B " Battery, 
H.A.C., attacked Haifa in face of strong 
resistance. 

The town was captured at 1500, after street 
fighting, and 1,351 prisoners, seventeen guns, 
and eleven machine guns fell into our hands. 

„ 25. — 13th Brigade returned to Kefr Kenna, leaving a 
squadron of Gloucestershire Yeomanry in Acre. 

„ 26. — Division was relieved by 2nd Leicesters (7th 
Division), and, less l/lst Sherwood Rangers, left 
Haifa at 0500 for Kefr Kenna, where it concen- 
trated at 0700. 

„ 27. — Left Kefr Kenna (0300) and arrived at Tiberias 
at 0700. After a halt pushed on to a point 
north of the road between Mishmar Hayardcn 
and Mahanayim, 

„ 28. — Crossed the Jordan at Jisr Benat Yakub and 
reached El Kuneitra at 2030. 

„ 29. — Left El Kuneitra at 1800, in rear of Australian 
Mounted Division. 

„ 30.— Entered Sasa at 0830. 

1200. — 13th Brigade seized Jebel el Aswad astride 
ICiswe-Damascus road, engaged the enemy and, 
having cut their line of retreat, advanced to 
Kaukab. 
1700. — This Brigade captured Kiswe taking 576 
prisoners and four guns, and rejoined Division at 
Kaukab on arrival of 4th Cavalry Division from 
Deraa. 
Night dispositions. — Divisional Headquarters and 
13th Brigade at Kaukab; 14th Brigade astride 
Kiswe-Damascus road, and 15th Brigade about 
Khan esh Shiha. 
Oct. 1. — 0600. — Division concentrated and moved into 
positions east of Damascus, with 13th Brigade on 
Barada, and Division in touch with Australian 
Mounted Division on the north. 
(During period Sept. 19 to Oct. 1, captures totalled 
9,934 prisoners, twenty-seven guns, and twenty 
machine guns, exclu'^ing guns abandoned by the 
enemy.) 

„ 4. — Division (less l/lst Sherwood Rangers and 1st 
Hyderabad Lancers), concentrated atElJudeide 
with No. 12 L. A.C. Battery and No. 7 L.C. Patrol. 

„ 5. — Marched vid Katana to Khan Meizelun (siiteoa 
miles) and occupied ■ 

„ 6.— Rayak at 1400.— IStli Brigade captured Zahle 
(twenty-one miles) at 1500, with 177 prisoner! 
s and iwo guns. 

•, 7. — Armoured car reconnaissance to Beirui 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONAEY FORCE 



51 



1918. 
Oct. 10. — Armoured car reconnaissance to Baalbek. 
„ 11. — ISth Brigade occupied Baalbek. 

„ 12. — Remainder of Division arrived at Baalbek and 
divided into two columns. Column " A," 
Divisional Headquarters with 1 5tb Brigade and 
Armoured Cars ; Column " B," i3th and 14th 
Brigades. 
Columns marched as follows : — 

" A " " B " 

„ 13. — Lebwe (twenty mile«). 

„ 14. — El Kaa (sixteen miles). Lebwe. 

„ 15. — Kussier (thirteen miles). El Kaa. 

Armour»d Cars entered floms. 

„ 16. — Homs (eighteen miles). Kusseir. 

„ 17. — The division concentrated north-west of Homs at 
midday. 

„ 19.— 16th Brigade, with No. 5 Field SqnadroB, R.E., 
advanced to repair the Orontes Bridge at Er 
Rastan (eleven miles). 

„ 20. — Divisional Headquarters, with Noa. 2, 1 1 and 12, 
L.A.C. Batterici, and Nos. 1 (Australian), 2, 
and 7 L.C. Patrols joined 15th Brigade at Er 
Rastan, forming Column " A." Remainder of 
Division formed Column " B." 

„ 21. — Column " A " advanced through Hama to Zoi 
Defai (twenty milea). 

„ 22. — Armoured Cars arrived at Ma'arit en Na'aman at 
1230 and two hours later engaged enemy cars 
near Khan es Sebil. A running fight for fifteen 
miles ensued, resulting in the capture of tweve 
prisoners and twa cars. A point four miles 
north of Seraikin was the end of the day's run. 

Column "A" reached Khan Shaikhun (twenty- 
one miles). 



1918. 
Oct. 23. — The Cars engaged enemy cavalry near Khan 
Tuman, and at 1000 reached Aleppo and 
summoned the city to surrender. This was 
refused. 

Column " A " reached Ma'arit en Na'aman 
(sixteen miles), and Column " B " marched to 
Khan Shaikhun. 

„ 24. — Armoured Cars reoecupied Khan Tuman at 0700, 
reconnoitre 1 towards Aleppo and TurmanJn, 
and withdrew to Zirbe. 

Column "A" reached Seraikin (eighteen and a 

half miles), and Column "B " reached Ma'arit 

en Na'aman. 

„ 25. — The Armoured Cars engaged bodies of the enemy 

near Aleppo and Turmanin during the mornuig. 

Column " A " arrived at Turmanin and 15th 
Brigade relieved the Cars while Column "B" 
reached Seraikin. 

„ 23. — 0700. — 15th Brigade engaged astride Aleppo- 
Alexandretta road. Mysore Lancers and two 
squadrons Jodhpore Lancers charged the enemy. 
1000. — Divisional Headqa^rtcrs with Armoured 
Cars entered Aleppo (which had surrendered to 
Sherifian troops) followed at 2030 by 14th 
Brigade which had pushed on rapidly from 
Khan Tuman. 

„ 28. — 13th Brigade holding Aleppo- Alexandretta road, 
and 14th Brigade at Muslimiyeh Junction, 
having relieved Sherifian troops. 
(During operations Oct. 2 to Oct. 28, 821 prisoners, 
eighteen guns, and much railway and other 
material were captured.) 



AUSTRALIAN MOUNTED DIVISION. 

Commander. — Col. (temp. Major-Gen.) H. W. Hodgson, C.V.O., C.B. 

3rd Australiaa Light Horse Brigade. 

Commander. — Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) J. R. Royston, C.M.G., D.S.O. (relinquished, Oct., 1917). 

Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) L. C. Wilson, C.M.G., 5th Australian Light Horse Regt. 
8th, 9th and 10th Regiments, Australian Light Horse. 
3rd Australian Light Horse Signal Troop. 
3rd Australian Machine Gun Squadron. 

4th Australiaa Light Horse Brigade. 

Commander. — ^Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) J. B. Merebith, D.S?0., 1st Australian Light Horse Regt. 
(relinquished, Sept., 1917). 
Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) W. Grant, D.S.O., 11th Australian Light Horse Regt. 
4th, 11th and 12th Regiments, AustraUan Light Horse. 
4th Australian Light Horse Signal Troop. 
4th Australian Machine Gun Squadron. 

5th Australiaa Light Horse Brigade (late Imperial Camel Corps Brigade). 

Commander. — Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) G. M. M. Onslow, D.S.O., V.D., 7th Australian Light Hor-se 
Regt. 

14th, 15th and 16th Regiments, Australian Light Horse. 
5th Australian Light Horse Signal Troop. 
2nd New Zealand Machine Gun Squadron. 

Divisional Troops. 

19th Brigade, R.H.A. (" A " and " B " Batteries H.A.C., 1/lst Notts. Battery, and Brigada 

Ammunition Column). 
2nd Field Squadron, Australian Engineers. 
2nd Signal Squadron, Australian Engineers. 

Australian Motmted Divisional Train (Nos. 35, 36, 37, 38 Companies, Australian A.S.C.). 
5th, 8th and 9th Australian Mobile Veterinary Sections. 



52 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

Brief Record of Service. 

In July, 1917, the Australian Mounted Division, at one time known as '' The Imperial Mounted 
Division," consisted of 3rd and 4th Australian Light Horse, and 5th Mounted Brigades, all of which 
had served on Gallipoli. The last named became 13th Cavalry Brigade and left the division Aug. 22, 
1918, the vacancy being filled by 5th Austrahan Light Horse (formerly Imperial Camel Corps), 
Brigade. (See page 72.) 

1917. 
Sept. 18. — The division relieved Yeomanry Division with an 
outpost line through Bir el Esani-Kh. Khasif- 
Ahu Shawish. 



.. 24 

to 
Oct. 24 

.. 27. 



Continual reconnaissances and patrols. 



Middlesex Yeomanry (1st County of London) of 
8th Mounted Brigade (attached) heavily attacked 
near El Buggar at dawn by a force estimated 
at 3,000-4,000. In spite of heavy casualties 
the attack was temporarily successful and 
9th and 10th Regiments (3rd Australian Light 
Horse Brigade) were sent forward in support. 
They were ordered not to counter-attack however, 
and the position was re-taken by infantry of 
53id Division after nightfall. 
„ 29. — Concentrated at Khalasa for the attack on 

Beersheba. 
„ 31. — 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade strongly en- 
gaged in supporting Australian and New Zealand 
Mounted (Anzac) Division in attack on Tel el 
Saba. 4th Australian Light Horse Brigade 
galloped over strong Turkish positions, demora- 
lized the enemy, and captured Beersheba at 
1800 with 1,148 prisoners. 5th and 7th Mounted 
Brigades came up in support and junction was 
effected with Anzac Division on the outpost line. 
Nov. 2. — 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade rejoined 
Division, and 5th Mounted Brigade was attached 
to Anzacs. 8th Regiment (3rd Australian Light 
Horse Brigade) in action at Khuweilfeh. 
,, 4_5. — Vth Mounted Brigade attached. Outpost line, 
Wadi Hanafish-Hiseia, taken over from Yeo- 
manry Division. 
„ 7. — Advanced through Irgeig. Stiff fighting at Sheria, 
where 11th Regiment (4th Australian Light 
Horse Brigade) pushed the enemy back and 
beat off a counter-attack, thus assisting the 
concentration of 60th Division. 
„ 8. — Sharp fighting and troop actions by all regiments 
of 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade resulted 
in the capture of several guns. 12th Regiment 
(ith Australian Light Horse Brigade) effected 
junction with Imperial Service Cavalry 
(XXlst Corps) at Beit Hanum as the result of 
hard riding. One mile west of Huj ten 
troops of Warwick and Worcester Yeomanry 
(5th Mounted Brigade) charged a strong posi- 
tion, the garrison of which was delaying the 
advance of 60th Division. The charge was 
completely successful and eleven guns and 
four machine guns were taken. 
„ 9.— Marched vid Tel el Hesi to Arak el Menshiye 
where a counter-attack by an enemy column 
was repulsed. 
„ 11.— 10th Australian Light Horse Regiment occupied 
Summeil. Contact was established with 76tii 
Division. 
„ 12.— 9th Australian Light Horse Regiment occupied 
Berkusie. The outpost line through Zeita- 
Berkusie was slightly withdrawn in conse- 
quence of a heavy attack against 5th Mounted 
Brigade and 9th Australian Light Horse 
Regiment. The 8th and 10th Regiments sup- 
ported, the attack was held, and the original 
positions re-occupied during the night. The 
2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade tem- 
porarily joined the Division and was engaged 
at Kezaze. 
„ 13.— 4th Australian Light Horse Brigade advanced, 
protecting right flank of 75th Division, and 
occupied Tel et Turmus after sharp fighting. 
In carrying out this operation the brigade waa 
compelled to move across the enemy's front. 



1917. 
Not. 14. — 4th Regiment (4th Australian Light Horse Brigade) 
captured Et Tine witli large . quantities of 
ammunition and stores. 7th Mounted Brigade 
and the 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade 
co-operated with 75th Division in the capture 
of Junction Station. 
,, 18. — Operating around Amwas and Latron. In touch 
with Yeomanry Division on the left (north). 
(5th Mounted Brigade and 10th Australian 
Light Horse Regiment, attached to XXIst 
Corps carried out valua'ble patrols over most 
difficult country. Later, on withdrawal of 
XXIst Corps, tliese units passed under orders 
of XXth Corps and were employed to form 
link between 53rd and 60th Divisions during 
the final advance to Jerusalem). 
„ 28. — 4th Australian Light Horse Brigade took ovei 
part of line (and came under Yeomanry 
Division) at Beit ur et Tahta. 
,, 29. — 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade relieved the 

155th Brigade (52nd Division) at El Burj. 
„ 30. — 4th Australian Light Horse Brigade and 7th 
Mounted Brigade rejoined division, which now 
held the line, El Burj-Beit Sira. 

(During the month the division captured 
1,804 prisoners, thirty-five guns, and eight 
machine guns.) 
Deo. 1. — A strong enemy attack was checked only when 
within thirty yards of the line held by 8th 
Australian Light Horse Regiment. A party of 
Gloucester Yeomanry (5th Mounted Briga!e), 
and two companies l/4th Royal Scots Fusiliers 
(52nd Division) were sent up in support and the 
attacking force was surrounded and captured. 
112 un wounded and sixty wounded prisoners 
were taken, and over 100 dead weie buried. 
(This attack was made by the 190th Assault 
Battalion, and a prisoner captured subsequently 
stated that the whole battalion had been killed 
or captured). 
,,26-28. — The line was advanced 1,500 yards with very 
little opposition. On Dec. 27 patrols assisted 
the advance of 29th Infantry Brigade by demon- 
strations against right flank of enemy's positions 
1918. on Namah Ridge. 

Jan. I. — Relieved by 10th Division and moved back to 
Deir el Belah, leaving 4th Australian Light 
Horse Brigade in the line until Jan. 6 to fill 
the gap between XXth and XXIst Corps. 
Jan. to I Spent in refitting, extensive training, and salvage 
March i work on the old trench systems south of Gaza. 
„ 14.— -Division inspected by H.R.H. Duke of Connaught, 
K.G. 
Apl.1-26. — Moved vid Selmeh and Talaated Dumm to Jericho, 
which was the point of concentration for the 
projected raid on Es Salt. 
„ 30. — 5th Mounted Brigade, on the Umm esh Shert- 
Es Salt track, reached its first objective with 
little opposition. 4th Australian Liglit Horse 
Brigade, in position astride the Jisr cd Damieh- 
Es Salt track, sent forward 11th Regiment, 
who found the enemy holding the Jisr ed Damieh 
Bridgehead in great strength and could not 
advance, but 1st Regiment (attached) captured 
Red Hill at 1225. 3rd Australian Light Horse 
Brigade moving eastward was held up by fire 
from enemy works covering Es Salt, but these 
were stormed by 9th and 10th Regiments dis- 
mounted, while 8th Regiment galloped along 
the road and forced iia way into Es Salt at 1800 
in face of stubborn resistance. One troop 
pursued the enemy for two miles along teh 
Amman road, riding down and capturing several 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONAEY FORCE 



53 



1914. 

April 30 parties. 300 prisoners, twenty-nine machine 

guns, and large quantities of material were taken. 

May 1. — Enemy attacked 4th Australian Light Horse 

Brigade, who inflicted heavy casualties, but were 

forced to withdraw by overwhelming numbers. 

„ 8-3. — 10th Australian Light Horse Regiment was 
attacked four times during the night, but suc- 
ceeded in beating off the enemy with heavy losses. 

„ 3. — An attack was launched at dawn against 8th 
Regiment supported by one squadron of Sth 
Regiment. This attack also was repulsed and 
319 of the enemy were cut off and captured. 

„ 4. — The division wis withdrawn west of the river and 
took over the left sector of the Jordan Valley 
defences. 
Continual consolidating and active patrolling 
carried on. Close contect with enemy was main- 
tained throughout, but the weather was very hot 
and trying and a good deal of sickness ensued. 
During this period all brigades were withdrawn 
for a time to the Bethlehem-Solomon's Pools 



May 

and 
June 



„ 14 
to 

July 13 

.. 14, 



„ 20.- 

Aug. 23.- 

„ 27 
to 
Sept. 17 
.. 18.- 

„ 19.- 
,, 20.- 



„ 23. 

„ 24.- 
„ 25. 



-4th Australian Light Horse Brigade assisted 
Anzac Division to repulse an attack in the 
Musallabeh Salient. 

-Australian Mounted Division took over the left 
sector of Jordan Valley defences from Anzac 
Division. There was no especial activity, but 
troops suffered considerably with malaria. 

-Relieved by Anzac Division and moved to the 
Ludd-Ramleh area. 

Continuous training was carried out, and the 
division was armed with swords. 

-5th Australian Light Horse Brigade, having the 
French Cavalry attached, was placed under 
command of 6Uth Division ; the remainder of 
the division was concentrated south of Selmeh. 

-Moved (less 5th Australian Light Horse Brigade) 
to Nahr Iskanderuneh 

-and Lejjun. 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade 
(less 8th Regiment) pushed on to Jenin, where 
10th Regiment swept in from the north, de- 
moralising the enemy and capturing 4,000. A 
German force put up a fight after dark but 
were caught by machine-gun 61*6 and sur- 
rendered. (Total captures in the neighbour- 
hood of Jenin included 8,000 prisoners, five 
machine guns and much booty ; and twenty- 
four aeroplanes, burned by the enemy, were 
found in the aerodrome.) 

-Divisional Headquarters and 4th Australian 
Light Horse Brigade arrived at El Efule at 
0945. A squadron of 9th Regiment recon- 
noitred to near Beisan and took 80 prisoners. 

-4th Australian Light Horse Brigade marched vid 
Beisan to Jisr Mejamie, and pushed on to 

-Semakh, reaching the outskirts of that place 
at 0425. The enemy were found to be in force, 
but the Brigade Commander decided to attack 
at once, without waiting for reinforcements. 
The 11th Regiment attacked from the east 
supported from the south by the fire of the 
machine-gun squadron, while one squadron 
of 12th Regiment worked round and attacked 
from the west. Several charges were pressed 
home and the- defenders driven back into the 
town. Desperate hand-to-hand fighting cul- 
minated at the railway buildings which were 
fiercely defended for an hour, but by 0600 
Semakh was captured with 389 prisoners (of 
whom 1 50 were Grermans). The enemy casualties 
also included seventy killed and fifty wounded. 
Strong patrols sent up the Yarmuk Valley 
by the 12th Australian Light Horse Regiment 
meanwhile had found the enemy occupying 
strong positions. Tiberias was captured after 
a sharp fight by squadrons of 3rd and 4th 
Brigades, who had attacked the town from the 
west and south simultaneously. Two cars of 



1918. 
Sept. 25 11th Light Armoured Car Battery co-operated 
in this engagement. 

[Meanwhile 5th Australian Light Horse Brigade 
with cavalry of the French Palestine Detachment 
(Regiment Mixte de Marche de Cavalerie) at- 
tached, were engaged near Tul Keram where 
3,000 prisoners were taken (Sept. 19), and the Tul 
Keram-Jenin railway was cut near Ajjeh 
(Sept. 20). On Sept. 21 Nablus was captured 
1345 and junction effected with XXth Corps 
at Balata an hour later. The brigade moved 
to Zerin to rejoin the division (Sept. 24), and 
on arrival there sent forward 16th Regiment 
in support of 4th Brigade at Semakh.] 

„ 27. — The march on Damascus commenced. The bridge 
over the Jordan at Jisr Benat Yakub had been 
blown up, and enemy held high ground east of 
the river with many machine guns. A crossing 
was effected both north and south of the bridge, 
however, and seventy prisoners and four guns 
captured. 

„ 28. — El Kuneitra reached before nightfall. 

„ 29. — 4th Australian Light Horse Brigade (less two 
regiments) remained at El Kuneitra ; rest of 
division moved off with 3rd Australian Light 
Horse Brigade leading at 1500. Enemy opposi- 
tion was encouijtered near Sasa, and the C( uatiy 
was very difficult for mounted work, but 

„ 30. the brigads forced its way through, capturing 
twenty-five prisoners, two guns, and seven 
machine guns. 4th and 12th Regiments (form- 
ing Bourohier's Force) continued the pursuit, 
taking 350 prisoners, one gun, eight machine 
guns, and 400 rifles, and at 1116 attacked the 
Kaukab line, which was held by 2,500 rifles and 
numerous machine guns. After a preliminary 
bombardment, 4th Light Horse Regiment 
made a frontal charge on the position whi'e I2lh 
Regiment attacked the enemy's left flank. This 
co-operation was entirely successful, and seventy- 
two prisoners and twelve machine-guns were 
taken on the spot. The greater proportion of 
the defenders were ridden down and captured 
later, in the direction of Daraya. Meanwhile, 
5th and 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigades 
moved rapidly towards north-west of Damascus 
until held up at El Mezze Heights by heavy 
shell and machine-gun fire, but the 19th Brigade, 
R.H.A., silenced most of the opposition. The 
French Cavalry moving dismounted along the 
hills of Kalabet el Mezze, blocked the gorge 
north-west of Er Rabue and captured 4,0C0 
prisoners, in conjunction with 14th Regiment. 
3rd Brigade, delayed at Salahiye by heavy 
opposition, defeated an enemy column and 
Oct. I. — pushed on towards Damascus, captured en route 
a loaded train with 483 prisoners, eight guns, 
and thirty machine guns, and passed through 
the city at 0000. This brigade fought contin- 
uously thro\ighout the day, and seized enemy 
positions at Maraba, Duma, and Kusseir. 

„ 2. — 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade pursued a 
force escaping north-east, and after riding hard 
for six miles, charged the column before the 
guns could be unlimbered, or machine guns 
brought into action. 1,500 prisoners, including 
a Divisional Commander, three guns, and twenty- 
six machine guns, were captured within an hour 
of being sighted. 

(Total captures, in the advance on, Bnd occu- 
pation of Damascus, were over 25,000 prisoners, 
thirty-nine guns, 254 machine guns, •nd nine- 
teen automatic rifles.) 

„ 4. — Division concentrated in and around Damascus. 

„ 19. — French Cavalry left to rejoin the French Palestine 
Detachment at Beirut. 

„ 27. — Left Damascus for Horns and concentrated there 
on November 1. 



54 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND MOUNTED DIVISION. 

Commander.— Col (temp. Major-Gen.) Sir E. W. C. Chaytor, K.C.M.G., C.B., p.s.c, A.D.C. 

1st Australian Light Horse Brigade. 

Commander.— Col (temp. Brig.-Gen.) C. F. Cox, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O. 

1st, 2nd and 3rd Regiments, Australian Light Horse. 
1st Australian Light Horse Signal Troop. 
1st AustraUan Machine Gun Squadron. 

2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade. 
Commander.— Col (temp. Brig.-Gen.) G. de L. Ryrie, C.B., C.M.G. 

5th, 6th and 7th Regiments, Australian Light Horse. 
2nd Australian Light Horse Signal Troop. 
2nd Austrahan Machine Gun Squadron. 

New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade, 

Com?wan<^er.— Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) W. Meldrum, C.M.G., D.S.O., Wellington Mounted Rifles. 

Auckland, Canterbury, and Wellington Mounted Rifles Regiments. 
No. 1 New Zealand Momited Rifles Signal Troop. 
1st New ZeaRmd Machine Gun Squadron. 

Divisional Troops. 

18th Brigade, R.H.A. (Inverness, Ayr, and Somerset Batteries, and Brigade Ammunition 

Column.) 
Australian and New Zealand Field Squadron. 
1st Signal Squadron, Austrahan Engineers. 
Australian and New Zealand Mounted Divasional Train (Nos. 32, 33 and 34 Companies, 

Australian A.S.C., and No. 4 Company, New Zealand A.S.C.). 
6th and 7th, Australian, and No. 2 New Zealand Mobile Veterinary Sections. 

Brief Record of Service. 

The Australian and New Zealand Mounted Division, widely known as the " Anzac Mounted 
Division," was formed in March 1916 of Austrahan and New Zealand Brigades that had served in 
Gallipoli and landed in Egypt, December 23-31, 1915. 

The Division took part in the advance from the Suez Canal, being engaged at Romani, Maghdaba 
and Rafa before taking part in the first and secon.l battles of Gaza in March and April, 1917, as part 
of the Desert Cohunn. It joined Desert Mounted Corps on formation of the latter in August, 1917. 
and throughout subsequent operations retained its Order of Battle unchanged. 

1917. 1917. 

Oct. 30. — Concentrated at Asluj, fifteen miles south of Nov. 2 ) During this period there was continuous fighting 

Beersheba. to ' in diflSoult country. 2nd Light Horse Brigade 

„ 31. — 2nd Australian Brigade struck from east and „ 5 } supported by AjTshire Battery, mored on Dhu- 

took its first olijcctives, Bir ol Hammam herij'eh, astride the Hebron road, in constant 

and Bir Salim Abu Irgeig, by 0800, without touch with Turkish 3rd Cavalry Division, 

encountering serious opposition. Resistance 1st Light Horse and New Zealand Brigades, 

stiffened considerably but Tel es Sakaty was with 7th Mounted and Imperial Camel Corps 

captured at 1 300, and the Brigade was astride Brigades and 8th Light Horse Regiment at- 

the Beersheba-Hebron road by 1350. Tel es tached, were severely engaged in the neigh- 

Saba was strongly held against attacks by bourhood of Ras on Nagb and Tel Khuweilfeh. 

1st Light Horse Brigade and New Zealand 7th Mounted Brigadii captured the former, with 

Mounted Rifles Brigade, assisted by units of eleven prisoners and two guns. 

Australian Mounted Division. This position „ ) New Zealand Brigade experienced severe fighting 

was carried at 1500, and, by 1800, the Division, to > in the capture and subsequent defence of Tel 

with 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade at- ,, 7 ) Khuweilfeh, in co-operation with 53rd Division, 

tached, held an outpost line through Bir el „ 7. — 1st Light Horse Brigade captured the station east 

Hamraain-Bir es Sakaty-just north of Beer- of Kh. Umm Ameidat (on the Jerusalem- 

eheba. Beeraheba line), and took 300 prisoners and 

Nov. 1. — 179 prisoners and four machine guns were cap- much material. Anzac units were also engaged 
tured as the result of an advance of five miles intheneighbourhoodof Tel Abu Dilakh. Enemy 
to the Bir el Makruneh-Towal Abu Jerwal line. rearguards fought stubbornly, making full use of 
1st Light Horse and New Zealand Brigades machine guns, and progress was slow, 
were involved in severe fighting in advancing ^ 8. — Lack of water compelled vigorous action to se- 
en Tel Khuweilfeh and Ain Kohleh. cure supplies, and the Division (less New Zealand 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 



65 



1917. 

Nov. 8 



„ 10. 
-1 11.- 



„ 12.- 



14.- 



15. 



„ 16. 

„ 17. 

„ 19. 

„ 24. 

„ 25. 



Deo. 1 
to 
.. 6 



21 



to 



23 



1918. 
Feb. 18, 



Brigade, but with 7th Mounted Brigade at- 
tached), fought its way Into the Wadi Jemma- 
meh and took 300 prisoner.s and two guns. 7th 
Mounted Brigade was counter-attacked near 
Tel Hudeiwe, but repulsed the enemy with 
heavy losses. 
•An advance of ten miles enabled the Division to 
occupy aline from Arak el Menshiye through Es 
Suafir osh Sherkiye to Beit Duraa, in close 
touch with main Turkish rearguard. 
-Esdud was captured, and 

-Ist Light Horse Brigade and Inverness Battery 
wa» engaged with enemy rearguards at the Jisr 
Esdud bridgehead. 1st Light Horse Regiment 
was prominent in this fighting, in which the 
enemy made full use of machine guns, supported 
by heavy artillery at long range. 
Ist Light Horse Brigade captured Tel el Murre, 
and supported 52nd Division in the attack on, 
and capture of, Burkah. New Zealand Brigade 
(detached since Nov. 7), rejoined the Division, 
and the Imperial Camel Brigade tempovarily 
took the place of 2nd Light Horse Brigade, 
which had joined the Australian Mounted 
Division, and was engaged near Kezaze on Nov. 
12th -13tli, and at Junction Station on Nov. H. 
New Zealand Brigade wen; heavily engaged at 
Ayun Kara (Riclion le Zion). The enemy 
counter-attacked in force, and were only re- 
pulsed by the Auckland and Wellington Regi- 
ments at the point of the bayonet. 
Ramleh and Ludd were taken by 1st Australian 
Light Horse Brigade, who captured 360 
prisoners. 
•New Zealand Mounted Rifles occupied Jaffa 

without opposition ; and 
■patrols from this brigade passed through Sarona 
and reached Nahr el Auja. but failed to bring 
the retreating enemy to action. 
-Patrols to Rantieh located enemy redoubts at 
Nebi Tari and trenches at Kh. Hadrah on 
north bank of Nahr el Auja. 
-New Zealand Brigade crossed the Auja and cap- 
tured the advanced line through Kh. Hadrah 
and Sh. Muannis. 
■The enemy fiercely counter-attacked Kh. Hadrah 
at 0300 and at 0800 forced a withdrawal to the 
old line south of the Auja. Sh. Muannis was 
also abandoned to an overwhelming force 
during the morning. 

The line Yehudieh-Jerisheh-south bank of 
the Auja to the sea, held by Anzao Divison 
(less Ist Light Horse Brigade, but with Imperial 
Camel and 16l8t Infantry Brigades attached), 
was consolidated in expectation of a general 
hostile attack. The Turks were content, how- 
ever, to hold their positions, and the attack did 
not materialize. 
Bald Hill, an important position one mile south- 
west of Mulebbis, was successfully raided by 
2ud Light Horse and Camel Brigades. Sharp 
fighting and considerable hostile shelling was ex- 
perienced, particularly by 6th Light Horse Regt. 
(The division captured 3,553 prisoners, twenty- 
one guns, and twenty-one machine guns during 
the period Oct. 31 to Dec. 7.) 
J 1st Light Horse Brigade supported 54th Division 
I in the advance to Mulebbis, and Auckland and 
} Wellington Regiments supported 52nd Division 
) in the crossing of the Auja. 

The period for necessary rest and refitting was 
cut short by the concentration for operations in 
the Jordan Valley. 

— Wellington Mounted Rifles were at Deir Ibn Obeid, 
while Divisional Headquarters with 1st Light 
Horse Brigade and remainder of New Zealand 
Brigade were concentrated about Jerusalem and 
Bethlehem, 



1918. 
Feb. 19. — Anzao unita moved eastward through desolate 
country to El Muntar, gix miles from the Dead 
Sea. 
„ 20. — Tubk el Kaneitera and Jebel el Kahmun were 
strongly held, and accurate shell and machine- 
gun fire from the direction of Neby Musa delayed 
the advance. The first two positions were cap- 
tured shortly after noon, however, by a dis- 
mounted attack along narrow mountain tracks 
through precipitous country. 
„ 20 Ist Light Horse Brigade pushed on through 

the gorge of the Wadi Kumran to the plain ou 
north-west shore of the Dead Sea, and took up 
a line along the Wadi Jofet Zeben at 1800. New 
Zealand Brigade, in co-operation with 2/14th 
London and 10th Mountain Battery, occupied 
Neby Musa. 
„ 21. — Ixt Light Horse Brigade reached Jericho at 0820, 
and immediately sent out patrols to El Ghor- 
aniyeh (where the Turks were found holding a 
bridgehead on the west bank of the Jordan), 
and to the Wadi Aujah. 

One squadron New Zealand Mounted Rifles 

occupied Rujm el Bahr, a Turkish Base on the 

northern shore of the Dead Sea. 

Mch. 7 ) 1st Light Horse" Brigade and Inverness Battery 

to > were engaged in the Wadi Samieh, on the ri!»ht 

„ 15 ^ flank of 53rd Division. 

„ 23. — Auckland Mounted Rifles crossed the Jordan at 
Hajlah at 0400, to clear the east bank of the 
river. Several enemy detachments were gal- 
loped down, and the high ground covering Ghor- 
aniyeh secured by noon, with the capture of 
sixty-eight prisoners and four machine guns. 
Meanwhile one reciment of 1st Light Horse 
Brigade also crossed the river at Hajlah, and was 
engaged in clearing the country to south and 
south-east. 
„ 24. — 1st Light Horse Brigade, about one mile north of 
El Mandesi ford, covered the left flank of 60th 
Division, while the remainder of the mounted 
troops moved oast and north-east from Hajlah. 
Infantry turned enemy's right flank, and, with 
a squadron of Wellington Mounted Rifles in 
advance, pursued them up the Es Salt road. 
2nd Light Horse Brigade reached Rujm el Oshir 
during the afternoon, but advance was seriously 
delayed by the state of the track, which was im- 
passable for wheels and almost so for mounted 
men. New Zealand Brigade advanced by the 
Wadi Jofet el Ghazlaniye towards Es Sir. 
„ 25.— The head of the column arrived at Ain Hekr 
about 0530 and concentrated there all day, 
being much delayed by bad tracks and wet. 
Naaur was reached by 2nd Light Horse 
Brigade at 1030, and New Zealand troops 
occupied Es Sir, but progress was very alow 
on account of the mud. Es Salt, evacuated by 
the enemy, was occupied by 3rd Light Horse 
Regiment at 1800. 
„ 26.— 2nd Light Horse Brigade pushed out patrols 
north of the Es Sail— Amman road and cap- 
tured 170 prisoners. It was necessary to rest 
the greater proportion of the horses, but a 
raiding party reached the Hejaz Railway, 
seven miles south of Amman, and blew up a 
section of the line during the night. 
„ 27.— Division left for Amman at 0900. New Zealand 
Brigade readied Ain Amman at 1030, and 2nd 
Light Horse Brigade, on their left, were three 
miles from Amman Station. New Zealand 
Brigade cut the railway south of Amman at 
1500, but 2nd Brigade were held up and only 
reached the line during the night, when a 
demolition party succeeded in blowing up a 
two-arch bridge. 
28.— 1st Light Horse Brigade engaged an enemy column 
" moving along the Jisr ed Damieh track towards 

Es Salt. Heavy fightmg followed a genera) 
attack on Amman, and a determined enemy. 



56 



THE ADVANCE OF THE 



1918. 
Moh. 28 well Bupplied with machine guns, held up our 
advance in the afternoon and 
29. — throughout the following day. 
,1 30. — A sudden attack was launched against the whole 
hostile position at 0200, and at 0430 New Zea- 
land troops captured part of Hill 3039 (a 
dominating feature south-east of the village), 
and took six machine guns, but it was found 
impossible to clear the hill. New Zealand 
patrols entered the village and some house-to- 
house fighting ensued. Hill 3039 was heavily 
counter-attacked at 1100, and, though the 
attack Was broken up, the defence was subjected 
to continual shelling throughout the day. 

Meanwhile strong hostile reinforcements had 
arrived in the vicinity of Kefr Huda, and were 
threatening Es Salt from north-west. During 
the fighting that ensued 3rd Light Horse Regi- 
ment captured three machine guns and killed or 
captured seventeen Turks in a skirmish. 

Orders were received for a general retirement, 
and 
„ 3!. — 2nd Light Horse Brigade covered the withdrawal 
of 181st Infantry Brigade through Es Sir. 

(460 prisoners were taken by the Division 
during the Amman raid, March 23-31.) 
April 3. — 1st Light Horse Brigade and 5th Regiment (2nd 
Brigade) took over the Ghoraniyeh bridgehead 
from 2/17th and 2/19lh London. 
„ 11. — Enemy attacked the Ghoraniyeh bridgehead in 
strength at 0445 and throughout th« day. The 
attacks were launched along the Wadi Nimrin, 



1918. 
April 11 and were all repulsed with very heavy losses- 

3rd Light Horse Regiment attempted to envelope- 
a hostile force from north' and south but found 
the enemy echeloned in depth and, coming under 
heavy shell and machine-gun fire, withdrew. 

2nd Light Horse Brigade (less 5th Regiment) 
supported Imperial Camel Corps Brigade, who 
were heavily attacked by German troops at 
Musallabeh. 
„ 30 ) During the raid on Es Salt, 1st and 2nd Light 
, I Horse Brigades, attached to Australian Mounted 

I Division, were involved in heavy fighting around 
May 4. 1 Es Salt, while New Zealand Brigade, with other 
mounted units fonglit several severe actions on 
the line Red Hill (east of Jordan) to the foothills. 
July 14. — A determined attack on the Musallabeh salient,. 
Abu Tellul-The Bluff, was repuLsed by 1st 
Light Horse Brigade and 5th Regiment, sup- 
ported by New Zealand Brigade. Wellington 
I.Iounted Rifles were prominent in this action. 
2nd Light Horse Brigade (less 5th Regiment^ 
also beat off an attack in the Wadi Mellahah- 
377 Germans and 71 Turks were captured, 
and 180 enemy dead counted, as the result of 
the day's fighting. 
Sept. 19 i Anzao Division, as part of " Chaytor's Force " 
to > (?."•)> was engaged in the Jordan Valley ; seized 
„ 29 ) Shunet Nimrin, Eg Salt, and Amman ; cut the 
Hejaz Railway ; and, in co-operation with other 
units under General Chaytor's Command, cap- 
tured 10,000 prisoners, fifty-five guns, 16& 
machine guns, and 800 toni of ammunition. 



3rd (LAHORE) DIVISION. 

Commander. — ^Major-Gen. A. R. Hoskins, C.M.G., D.S.O., p.s.c. 

Commanding, Royal Artillery. — ^Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) H. R. Peck, C.M.G., D.S.O., R.A. 

7th Infantry Brigade. 

Comma,nder.—Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) S. R. Davidson, C.M.G., 47th Sikhs, I.A. 

1st Battalion Connaught Rangers, 27th and 9l8t Punjabis, 2/7 th Gurkha Rifles. 
7th Light Trench Mortar Battery. 

8th Infantry Brigade. 

Comm3,nder.— Col (temp. Brig.-Gen.) S. M. Edwardes, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., I.A. 

1st Battalion Manchester Regiment, 47th Sikhs, 59th Scinde Rifles (F.F.), 2/124th Balu- 

chistan Infantry. 
8th Light Trench Mortar Battery. 

9th Infantry Brigade; 

Commander. — Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) C. C. Luard, C.M.G. 

2nd Battalion Dorset Regiment, 93rd Infantry, 105th Mahratta, Light Infantry, 1/lst 

Gurkha Rifles. 
9th Light Trench Mortar Battery. 



Divisional Troops. 

4th Brigade, R.F.A. (7th, 14th and B/69th Batteries). 
8th Brigade, R.F.A. (372nd, 373rd and 428th Batteries). 
53rd Brigade, R.F.A. (66th, 374th and 430th Batteries). 
3rd Divisional Ammunition Column. 
20th aad 21st Companies, 3rd Sappers and Miners. 
65ti Field Company, R.E. 
^ 3rd Divisional Signal Company, R.E. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 



57 



3rd Divisional Machine Gun Battalion (Nos. 131, 132, 133 Companies). 
l/34th Sikh Pioneers. \ 

3rd Divisional Train (S. & T.). 
No. 3 Mobile Veterinary Section. 



Brief Record of Service. 



The 3rd (Lahore) Division served on the Western Front in 1914-15 ; in Mesopotamia 1916-17 ; and 
landed in Egypt in April, 191 8. In Jime, 1918, the division joined XXIst Corps, and relieved 54th Division 
in the front Ime, from Kh. Umm el Ikba to near Tel el Mukhmar, a length of nearly eight miles. 



1918. 
Aug. 19.— 105th Mahratta Light Infantry (9th Brigade), 
BupjKJrted by an artillery barrage, raided an 
enemy post on the west slope of Brown Hill, 
and killed or captured the whole garrison. The 
post was stormed at 0225 in face of gallant 
resistance, particularly on the part of machine- 
gunners, who stuck to their guns to the last. 
The raiders returned to the British lines by a 
circuitous route to avoid the heavy hostile 
barrage of H.E. put down in front of Brown Hill, 

Sept. 19. — The Division attacked on a front of 1,800 yards, 
with 54th Division on the right and 75th Divi- 
sion on the loft. 7th Brigade attacked Bir 
Adas and Fir Hill ; 9th Brigade attacked the 
strong trench system on Brown Hill ; while 
8th Brigade moved towards Jiljulieh in reserve. 
In the right attack 2/7th Gurkhas captured 
trenches north-west of Bir Adas, and 27th Pun- 
jabis were equally successful on the west of Fir 
Hill, while 1st Connaught Rangers carried the 
main Fir Hill defences against considerable 
resistance ; and by 0700 the brigade was ad- 
vancing through Kefr Saba. On the left 2nd 
Dorseta and 1/lst Gurkhas seized Brown Hill 
and Hill 283 respectively, and by 0630, having 
pierced the enemy defences to a depth of two 
miles, the brigade was swinging eastward to- 
wards the foothills. 

8th Brigade was ordered to attack Jiljulieh 
and Railway Redoubt. Both positions were 
stubbornly defended, but 2/124th Baluchis 
stormed the Redoubt at 1030, and, at 1100, 
Ist Manchesters swept the enemy from the 
village. The whole of the enemy front line 
positions were captured by 1200, and the Divi- 
sion advanced eastward on a north and south 
line through Hableh. 9th Brigade on the left 
was strongly engaged (particularly 105th Mah- 
rattas) in the advance to and capture of Jiyus, 
and, after being held up for a time, 1/lst Gurkhas 
advanced in co-operation with right flank of 7tb 
Division. 

By nightfall the Division held a line about 
two miles west of Kh. Kefr Thilth and Azzun 
on the right, with its left resting on Jiyus. 



1918. 
Sept. 20. — Brigades moved at 0500, and made steady progress 
in spite of vigorous resistance by enemy rear- 
guards and howitzer fire from the direction of 
Kefr Thilth and Azzun. The greatest opposi- 
tion was experienced along the line of the Wadi 
Azzun, and 47th Sikhs and 59th Scinde Rifles 
were heavily engaged on the high ground north 
• and south respectively. Azzun and Kefr Thilth 
were taken by 1100, and a company of 2/7th 
Gurkhas was left to clear the former of snipers. 
A large quantity of war material was abandoned 
by the enemy along the Azzun road, and at 
El Funduk Connaught Rangers captured six 
field guns, five mountain guns, two machine 
guns, 150 wagons, and 250 animals. 

The Division halted for the night on the line 
EI Funduk-Kuryet Jit-Kcfr Kaddum. 

„ 21. — The advance was continued in a north-easterly 
direction, the only opposition experienced being 
from the direction of Nablus on the 9th Brigade 
front. Kussein was reached about 0730, but 
93rd Burma Infantry had a hard fight for Hill 
2533, a prominent feature two miles west of 
Nablus (or Shechem). This important posi- 
tion was captured at 1115 after a stiff climb 
under fire, and, as it afforded direct observation 
on Nablus, 3rd Divisional Artillery were able 
to shell enemy guns in action and transport 
columns, and assist 5th Australian Light Horse 
Brigade to capture this hub in the Turkish 
communications. 

By 1915 all the Divisional objectives had been 
taken, and a line was occupied facing east 
astride the Tul Keram-Nablus road through 
Beit Udhen-Zawata-Jennesinia-NusfJebil, join- 
ing up with 7th (Indian) Division near Samaria. 
(During the period .Sept. 19-21, 1,366 prisoners 
and seventy guns were captured and rioorded ; 
but the actual numbers taken probably much 
exceeded these figures.) 

„ 24. — 7th Brigade marched to Jenin, where it was at- 
tached to Desert Mounted Corps, and garrisoned 
Jenin, El Afule, Nazareth, and Beisan for a week. 

„ 29. — Divisional Headquarters, with 8th and 9th Bri- 
gades concentrated at Hableh ; and 7th Brigade 
at Semakh. 



7tli (INDIAN) DIVISION. 

Commander.— Ma-joi-Gen. Sir V. B. Fane, K.C.I.E., C.B. 

Commanding, Roijal Artillery.— IAe\it.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) E. C. IMassy, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., R.A. 

19th Infantry Brigade. 
Oommam?er.— Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) E. J. M. Wood, D.S.O., 97th Infantrv, I. A. (relinquished, 
April, 1918). 
Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) G. A. Weir, D.S.O., 3rd Dragoon Guards (reUnquished 

Oct., 1918). 
Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) W. S. Leslie, D.S.O., 31st Punjabis, LA., p.s.c. 

1st Battahon Seaforth Highlanders, 28th and 92nd Puniabis, 125th Napier's Rifles. 
19th Light Trench Mortar Battery. 



68 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

21st Infantry Brigade. 
Commander.— Ueut.-Col (temp. Brig.-Gen.) A. G. Kemball, 31st Punjabis, 

2nd Battalion Black Watch, 1st Guides Infantry, 20th Punjabis, l/8th Gurkha Rifles. 
21st Light Trench Mortar Battery. 
28th Infantry Brigade (F.F.). 
Commmder.—Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) C. H. Davies, C.M.G., D.S.O., I.A. 

2nd Battahon Leicester Regiment, 51st Sikhs (F.F.), 53rd Sikhs (F.F)., 56th Punjabi 

Rifles (F.F.). 
28th Light Trench Mortar Battery. 
Divisional Troops. 

9th Brigade, E.F.A. (19th, -iOth, 28th and D/69th Batteries). 

5Gth Brigade, E.F.A. ("A," "B," "C" and 527th Batteries). Transferred to 52nd 

(Lowland) Division in March, 1918. 
261st Brigade, E.F.A. ("A," " B " and " C " Batteries). Transferred from the 52nd 

(Lowland) Division in March, 1918. 
262nd Brigade, E.F.A. (" A," " B " and 438th Batteries). Transferred from the 52nd 

(Lowland) Division in' March, 1918. 
264th Brigade, E.F.A. (422nd, 423rd and " C " Batteries). Transferred from the 52nd 

(Lowland) Division in March, 1918. 
7th Divisional Ammunition Column. Transferred from the 52nd (Lowland) Division in 

March, 1918. 
3rd and 4th Companies, 1st (King George's Own) Sappers and Miners. 
522nd (London) Field Company, R.E. 
7th Divisional Signal Company, R,E. 
121st Pioneers. 

7th Divisional Machine Gun Battalion (Nos. 134, 135, 136 Companies). 
272nd Machine Gun Company (ceased to belong to E.E.F., 6/6/18). 
7th Divisional Train (S. & T.). 
No. 2 Mobile Veterinary Section. 

, Brief Record of Service. 

The 7th (Indian) Division served in France (1914-15), in Mesopotamia (1916-17), landed in Egypt 
in January, 1918, joined XXIst Corps and reheved 54th Division in the Coastal Sector of the front line. 

(from near Tel el Mukhmar to Arsuf), in March, taking over the Divisional Artillery of the 52nd 
Division in exchange for its own (see above), which went to France with the 52nd Division. 

1918. 1918. 

May 28- 29. — Advanced the line one and a half mJop on a Sept. 19 Watch; while the 92nd Punjabis captured 

seven miie front. 2nd Leiceaters and 53rd El Mcjdel and took a number of prisoners and 

Sikhs (28th Brig.ode) were prominent in this two machine guns. Furthernorth 56th Rifles 

fighting, and took over 100 prisoners. and 53rd Sikhs (28th Brigade) stormed th» 

June 8-10. — 21st Brigade took the " Sisters " after heavy village of Taibiyeh in face of considerable re- 
fighting, in which 2nd Black VVat«h and let sistance. 

Guides Infantry bore the brunt. As the re- „ 20. — 19th Brigade met with most determined re- 
sult of this engagement 250 prisoners were sistance during the advance on Beit Lid (Isl 
taken, and the enemy lost a valuable obser- Seaforths and 125th Rifles). The village was 
vatioo post. finally rushed by the Seaforths. 28th 

Jul^ 13. — A post in the enemy's front system was raided Brigade pushed on from El Burj, and seized 

in daylight by Gurkhas of the 1st Guides, who „ 21. — Messudieh railway station at 0300. 53rd 

captured fifteen prisoners and three machine Sikhs were sent round to attack Samaria Hill 

guna. from the west and occupy the town, while 

it 27. — A "orapany of 53rd Sikhs raided a portion of 51st Sikhs attacked the hill from south. Both 

tho enemy trenches and captured thirty-three hill and town were captured by 0500 after a 

prisoners and several machine guns. sharp fight, in which 200 prisoners and four 

(Much of the work in preparation for active machine guns were taken, 
operations had to be undertaken by the „ 21. — ^The division had fought and marched for 
division, during August and the early part of forty-eight hours, and had covered thirty- 
September, for the divisions that could only four miles over difficult and rocky country, 
be brought into the area immediately before but all objectives had been reached, with the 
the attack.) capture of over 2,000 prisoners and twenty 
^^ 39. — Attack on the Tabsor system carried out by guns. 

two columns. On tho right, 92nd and 28th „ 23. — 19th Brigade marched to Anebta, 21st Brigade 

Punjabis were supported by 1st Seaforths to Shuweikeh. 

and 125th Rifles (19th Brigade) ; on the left, „ 24.— 21st Brigade moved to Hudeira, 28th Brigade 

2nd Black Watch, supported by 1 /8th Gurkhas to north of Kakon. 2nd Leicesters left for 

(21st Brigade). Front lino objectives were Haifa in motor lorries, and arrived there on 

quickly taken by the attacking troops, and the following morning. 

tlie supporting battalions passed through and „ 26. — Division marched in three brigade groups viA 

seized the support and reserve lines. During Zimmarin and Athlit, and on 

the further advance to the Felamieh-Taiyibeh „ 29. — concentrated at Haifa. 

line, the 20th Punjabis captured the village of Orders were received to continue the march 

Pelamieh, supported on the left bv 2nd Black to Beirut along the coast road. A suction of 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 



69 



1918. 
Sept. 29 



this road, upwards of half a mile in length, 
kxiown as the " Ladder of Tyre," consisted of 
a narrow reeky track on the side of the clitl 
with a deep drop to the sea, and at one point 
became a tiight of steps roughly hewn out of 
the rock. The Sappers and Miners and 121st 
Pioneers, assisted by infantry, by working 
continuously for 2 J days, made the road fit for 
armoured cars, motors, and OO-poundcr guns. 
The division marched in three columns, as 
follows : — 

Col. "A." — XXIst Corps Cavalry and an 
Infantry Detachment. 
"B."— 28th Brigade, 8th Mountain 
Artillery Brigade, one and a 
half companies Sappers and 
Miners, 121st Pioneers, one 
Machine Gun Company, one 
Field Ambulance. 
" C." — Divisional Headquarters, 19th 
and 21st Brigades, Com- 
posite Brigade, R.F.A., 15th 
Heavy Battery, R.G.A., 
No. 522 Field Company, 
R.E., two sections Sappers 
and Miners, Machine Gun 
Battalion (loss 1 Company), 
Divisional Ammunition Col- 
umn, and two field Ambu- 
lances. 



1918; 

Sept. 



Oct. 



29 



The first day's march was around the Bay 
of Acre, and, from the high ground near Haifa, 
the head of the column could be seen moving 
on to the new camping area, as the rear of the 
column left the old area, more than ton miles 
apart. 

The division camped as follows : — 



Column " A. 
-Ras Nakura. 



4.— Tyre. 



" Column " 

Acre. 

Ra.' Nakura. 



B.' 



5. — Ain el Burak. Ras el Am. 



Column " C." 
Haifa. 
Acre. 
Rao Nakura. 



6. — Sidon. Nahr pIKasmiye. Ras el Ain. 

7. — Ed Damur. El Khidr. N. el Kasmiye. 

8. — Beirut. Ed Damur. Sidon. 

9. — Beiiut. Beirut. Ed Damur. 

10. — Beirut. Beirut. Beirut. 

(Column " C " marched 90 miles in eight 
days.) 
14. — 19th Brigade left Beirut for Tripolis (fifty-four 

miles) and 
18. — reached the latter town five days later. 
21. — Remainder of the division marched northward 
en route for Tripolis, and concentrated there on 
28. — having marched about 270 miles in forty days. 
31. — Divisional Headquarters at £1 Mina, 19th 
Brigade at Khan Abdi (twelve miles north- 
east of Tripolis), 21st Brigade at Ras el Lados, 
and 28th Brigade near Nahr Berid. 



10th DIVISION. 

Commander. — ^Major-Gen. J. R. Longley, C.B., C.M.G. 

Commanding, Royal Artillery.— Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) W. B. Emery, C.B., C.M.G., R.A. 

29th Infantry Brigade, 
Commander.— Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) R. S. Vandeleur, C.B., C.M.G., Seaforth Highlanders 
(reUnqiiished, June, 1918). 
Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) C. L. Smith, V.C, M.C, Duke of Cornwall's Light 
Infantry. 

1st BattaUon Leinster Regiment, 1/The 101st Grenadiers, l/54th Sikhs (F.F.), 2/151st 

Indian Infantry. 
5th BattaHon Connaught Rangers, and 6th Battalion Leinster Regiment (ceased to belong 

to E.E.F., 28/5/18). 
6th Battalion Royal Irish Rifles (disbanded, 20/5/18). 
29th Light Trench Mortar Battery. 



30th Infantry Brigade. 

CommaJM^er.— Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) F. A. Greer, C.M.G. , D.S.O., Royal Irish Fusiliers. 

1st Battalion Royal Irish Regiment, 38th Dogras, 46th Punjabis, 1st Kashmir I.S. Infantry. 
6th Battalion Royal Dublin Fusiliers (ceased to belong to E.E.F., 2/7/18), 6th Battalion 

Royal Munster Fiisiliers, and 7th Battalion Royal Dublin Fusiliers (ceased to belong 

to E.E.F., 28/5/18). 
30th Light Trench Mortar Battery. 

31st Infantry Brigade. 
Commander.— Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) E. M. Morris, C.B., C.M.G., Royal Lancaster Regt. 

2nd Battalion Royal Irish Fusiliers, 2/42nd Deoli Regiment, 74th Punjabis, 2/The 101st 

Grenadiers. 
5th and 6th Battalions Royal Inniskilling Fiisiliers (ceased to belong to E.E.F., 19/6/18 

and 28/5/18 respectively), and 5th Battalion Royal Irish Fusiliers (ceased to belong to 

E.E.F., 20/5/18). 
31st Light Trench Mortar Battery. 



60 



THE ADVANCE OF THE 



Divisional Troops. 

67th Brigade, E.F.A. 



("A, 
("A, 
(75th 



" "B 

" "B 



and 

and 

424th and 



C" Batteries). 
C " Batteries). 
' C " Batteries). 



68th Brigade, E.F.A. 

2G3rd Brigade R.F.A. 

10th Divisional Ammunition Column. 

18th Company, 3rd Sappers and Miners. 

66th and 85th Field Companies, E.E. 

10th Divisional Signal Company, R.E. 

10th Divisional Machine Gun Battalion (Nos. 29, 30, 31 Companies). 

10th Divisional Train (Nos. 475, 476, 477, 478 Companies, R.A.S.C). 

25th Mobile Veterinary Section. 



Brief Record of Service. 

The 10th (Irit^h) Division, composed originally of Irish Battalions of the New Army (" First 
Hundred Thousand"), saw service in Gallipoli and Salonika and landed in Egypt in September, 1917. 
[t then consisted of three Regular Battalions (one in each brigade), and nine New Army Battalions. 
The Division joined XXth Corps during the concentration for the attack on Beersheba. Between 
May and July, 1918, the New Army Battalions were withdrawn for service in France, and their 
places filled by Indian units, with the necessary alteration in title. 



Nov. 



Dec. 



10 
to 
30 

2 
to 5 



1917. 
Oct. 30. — CoBoentrated in the ShsllaJ-Tel el Fara area. 

1. — Gth Royal Inaiskilling Fusiliers (3l8t Brigade) 

captured Abu Irgeig. 
6. — After concentrating on a line north of Irgeig the 
division participated in the attack on the 
Kauwukah and Rusl\di trench .systems, on the 
left of 53rd Division who were attacking Tel 
Khuweilfeh. In this fighting, in" which 2nd and 
5th Royal Irish Fusiliers {31st Brigade) were 
prominent, all objectives were gained during 
the afternoon. 
7. — Hareira U'epe Redoubt was stormed by 2nd Royal 
Irish Fusiliers in face of stubborn resistance 
and heavy machine-gun fire. 
Division concentrated at Karm ; moved to Deir 
el Belah a week later ; mai'ched northward vid 
Beit Duras to Junction Station ; and then east- 
ward into the Judsean Hills vid Latron. 
Relieved 52nd Division and 229th and 231st 
Brigades of 74th Division, 
11. — Occupied the line Beit Dukka-Beit Ur Et Tahta- 
Suffa. 
-1st Leinsters (29th Brigade) captured Deir Ibzia, 
while the whole line covering Jerusalem on the 
north and east was furiously engaged in repuls- 
ing the general Turkish attack. 
-Abu el Ainein and Kh. Rubin Ridge were caji- 
tured by 1st Royal Irish Regiment and 6th 
R.oyal Munster Fusiliers (30th Brigade), while 
Gth and 6th Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers (31st 
Brigade) seized Kefr Shiyan. 
„ 2!). — Et Tireh Ridge occupied and the line advanced 
to Batn Harasheh-Ras Kerker-Deir el Kuddis. 
1918. 
Mar. 9. — After a winter spent in holding the positions 
gained, operations commenced on a front of 
15,000 yards, with 31st and 30th Brigades 
forming the right column of attack, and 29lh 
Brigade the left column. 

Might Attack. — A rapid attack by 2nd Royal 
Irish Fusiliers forced the enemy to abandon 
strong positions on Sh. Kalrawany, near Bir 
cz Zeit and enabled 5th Royal Irish Fusiliers 
to capture Ras et Tarfu and Attara by 0920. 
In the evening the latter unit forced the crossing 
of the Wadi Jib and .seized tlie lower slopes of 
the hill forming the main defence of Jiljilia. 
Farther to the left 6th Royal .Munster Fusiliers 
and 1st Royal Irish Regiment pushed back 
the enemy and captured A Jul. 



27.- 



£8." 



1918. 

Mar. 9 Lejt attack. — 5th Connaught Rangers occupied 

Neby Saleh at 0730, and 1st Leinsters also 
pushed forward ; but progress was slow owing 
to exceptional difficulties of terrain. 
„ 10. — Ul'/ht attack. — 5th Royal Irish Fusiliers, supported 
by two companies 5th Royal Inniskilling 
Fusiliers, captured the strong defences south 
of Jiljilia, and drove the enemy in disorder 
tluough the village on to the slopes beyond. 
A small party, commanded by a German officer, 
held out to the last, when they were overwhelmed 
by a bayonet charge. 5th Royal Inniskilling 
Fusiliers captured Kh. Aiiutaagainstopposition ; 
while Ist Royal Irish Regiment and 6th Royal 
Dublin Fusiliers captured the ridge west of 
Jiljilia in face of strong resistance. 
„ 10. Left attack. — Extraordinary difficulties were 

encountered in the attack on Arura and Holy- 
wood Hill, owing to precipitous nature of the 
Wadi Jib, which had to be crossed although 
swept by heavy oblique fire from numerous 
machine guns. In spite of this, however, 0th 
Royal Iri.'ih Rifles captured the lower slopes of 
Holywood Hill and Sh. Redwan by 0730. Dur- 
ing the night 5th Connaught Rangers repulsed 
a counter-attack, and the enemy withdrew his 
line north of the Wadi Gharib 

Mar. 10. — Kefr Tur occupied by 5th Connaught Rangers. 

(During the March operations thirty miles of 
new roads had to be constructed during tho 
actual fighting, to enablj supplies to reach tho 
advancing troops.) 

April 9. — Kefr Ain and Kefr Ain Hill were captured to cover 
the right flank of attack by 75th Division. 

Aug.12-13. — 1st Leinsters, l/54th Siklis, and 1/lOlst Grena- 
diers (29th Brigade) successfully raided thj 
El Burj-Ghurabeh Ridge, and annihilated tho 
Turkish 33rd Regiment, while troops of 00th 
Division carried out a demonstration on tho 
right. In this operation the enemy was sur- 
prised, and, though he put up considerable 
resistance, suffered about 400 casualties. 

Sept. 18.— Division held the line Arura to Rafat (exclusive), 
with 53rd Division on tho right and French 
Palestine Detachment on tho left. 
„ 19.— 1st Leinsters and 2/15lst Infantry (29th Brigade) 
captured Furkhah Ridge and Topee Hill respec 
tively, while 74th Punjabis (31st Brigade) took 
Kh. Er Ras, Kh. Mutwy, and Mogg Ridge. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 



61 



1918. 
ViJt.20.— 2/I51st Infantry and 1/lOlst Grenadiers (29th 
Brigade) reached the line Knsr os Sanamch- 
.Selfit, where they were held up, but, supported 
by l/54th Sikhs captured all positions in .face 
of determined resistance, and, by 1530, were 
established on high ground south-west of Iskaka 
in readiness for further advance. 

2/42nd Deolis and 2/lOlst Grenadiers (31st 
Brigade) advanced to the line Ras Aish-Kefr 
Haris, Sh. Othman falling to an attack by the 
Grenadiers en route. 2/42nd Deolis made six 
desperate but unsuccessful attempts to storm 
Ras Aish, and the 2/lOlst Grenadiers were 
equally unfortunate in their attacks on the 
Kefr Haris defences. 2nd Royal Irish Fusiliers 
(:!lst Brigade) finally rushed the village of right 
Haris and the enemy, realizing that his Kefr 



1918. 
Sept. 20 



flank was turned, withdrew rapidly from his 
positions. 

During the night of Sept. 20-21, 30th Brigade, 
moving from Kh. El Mutwy thrpugh Huwarah, 
occupied Noby Belan Heights, north of Nablus, 
having covered twenty-one miles of very rough 
going in thirteen hours. 
21. — 31st Brigade occupied Eslaraiyeh, and completed 
the capture of Nablus. 
The area Kh. Ferweh-Tubas-Ain Shibleh was 
cleared of the enemy, and the fighting was over 
so far as 10th Division was concerned. 

(Between Sept. 19 and 24 6,000 prisoners. 
130 guns, and masses of transport and materia, 
were taken on the divisional front ; these figures 
including the captures by Corps Cavalry.) 



22 
to 
24 



52nd (LOWLAND) DIVISION (T.). 

(Ceased to belong to E.E.F. 21/4/18). 

Commander.— 'S.t. Col. (temp. Major-Gen.) W. E. B. Smith, C.B., C.M.G. (relincjuished, Sept., 1917). 

Major-Gen. J. Hill, C.B., D.S.O., I.A., A.D.C. 
Commanding, Royal ArtiUery.—Lk\it.-Col (temp. Brig.-Gen.) E. C. Massy, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., R.A. 

155th Infantry Brigade. 

■f.hmmander.—UexLt.-Col (temp. Brig.-Gen.) J. B. Pollok McCall, C.M.G., D.S.O. (R. of 0.) (relin- 
C4uished, April, 1918). 
Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) P. S. Allan, D.S.O., Gordon Highlanders. 

l/4th and l/5th Battalions Royal Scots Fusiliers, l/4th and l/5th Battalions King's Own 

Scottish Borderers. 
155th Machine Gun Company, and 155th Light Trench Mortar Battery. 

1 56th Infantry Brigade, 

Commander.— Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) A. H. Leggett, D.S.O. (R. of 0.). 

]/4th and l/7th Battahons Royal Scots, l/7th and l/8th Battalions Scottish Rifles. 
156th Machine Gun Company, and 156th Light Trench Mortar Battery, 

lS7th Infantry Brigade, 
C'inmander.~Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) C. D. Hamilton Moore, C.M.G., D.S.O.. Royal Warwickshire 

Regt., ]-!.!t.c. 

l/5th, l/6th and l/7th Battalions Highland Light Infantry, and l/5th Battalion Argyll 

and Sutherland Highlanders. 
157th Machine Gun Company, and 157th Light Trench Mortar Batt«ry. 

Divisional Troops, 

52nd Divisional Cvclist Company. . i . mu .t j- s 

■261st Brigade, R.F.A. ('^ A," " E " avid " C " Batteries). Transferred to 7th (Indian) 

Division in March, 1918. . , j . „iu .t j- - 

262nd Brigade, R.F.A. (" A," " B " and 438th Batteries). Transferred to 7th (Indian, 

Division in March, 1918. . j . „i.u /t a- \ 

264tli Brigade, R.F.A. (422nd, 423rd and " C Batteries). Transferred to 7th (Indian) 

Division in March, 1918. ,, ,t j- ^ -rx- • • • \ir u 

Iv2nd Divisional Ammunition Column. Transferred to 7th (Indian) Division in March, 

1918. 
133rd and 134th (Medium), Trench Mortar Batteries, R.A. 
410th, 412th, 413th (Lowland) Field Companies, R.E. 
ij2nd Divisional Signal Company, R.E. 
Pioneer Battahon, 5th Royal Irish Regiment, 
211th Machine Gun Company. 
52nd Divisional Employment Company. 

52nd Divisional Train (Nos. 217, 218, 219 and 220 Companies, R.A.S.C), 
lyist Lowland Mobile Veterinary Section. 



92 



THE ADVANCE OF THE 



Brief Record of Service. 

52nd Division, composed entirely of Lowland Territorial Battalions, served through the Gallipolt 
campaign, and took part in the advance across the desert from the Suez Canal. It fought in the battle 
of Koraani, and the first and second battles of Gaza, in March and April, 1917. 

The annihilation of Sea Post, a strong Turkish redoubt west of Gaza, in June, by l/5th King's Own 
Scottish Borderers, inaugurated the series of successful raids that did so much to harass the enemy during 
the four months prior to the winter campaign. 

As a Division of XXIst Corps it played an important part in the final overthrow of the Turks at 
Gaza and the subsequent advance ; but ceased to belong to the Egyptian Expeditionary Force on 
embarking for France in April, 1918. The Divisional. Artillery was transferred to the 7th (Indian) 
Division in March, 1918, and the Artillery of tb.:it Division accompanied the 52nd to France. 



1917. 

Oct. 31. — The Division held the left sector of the line from 
the Gaza-Cairo road and along Samson's Ridge 
to the Sea. 
Nov. l-2.-At 2300, after a heavy bombardment lasting 
six days, 156th Brigade (temporarily attached 
to 54th Division) stormed Umbrella Hill, a 
strong redoubt and the key of the Gaza defences. 
The position was stubbornly defended, bat after 
a stiff fight in which l/7th Scottish Rifles were 
prominent, it was captured and consolidated. 

„ 5. — The whole of the defensive system at Gaza was 
in British hands, and 155th and 157lh Brigades 
advanced along the beach and seized the high 
ground north of the Wadi Hesi. 

„ 8. — The advance was continued in co-operation with 
Imperial Service Cavalry, and after a trying 
march over soft sand, the high ground north- 
west of Doir Sineid was taken. The Turks 
launched a determined counter-attack trom 
the direction of Ascalon to retake this position 
and four times drove the Lowlanders off the 
hill, but at the fifth attempt it was held and 
consolidated. 

„ 9. — The Division captured the line Deir Sineid-Beit 
.Jerjah-Ascalon with little opposition. 

,, 10. — Advanced to the Esdud-Mejdel-Herbiah line. 
The ridge north of Beit Duras was stormed 
by 157th Brigade after a march of fourteen miles 
over heavy sand. 

„ 12. — Enemy resistance stiffened considerably and a 
determined stand was made on a line through 
Brown Hill and Burkah. Several assaults were 
launched and heavy fighting ensued in which 
156th Brigade was heavily engaged. Eventually 
the whole hostile position was taken late in the 
afternoon, two battalions of 75th Division 
co-operating on the right in the last assault. 

„ 13. — The enemy conlnicd to fight stubbornly and 
155ih Brigade met severe opposition in the 
attack on the Katrah-El Mughar line. The 
attack had to cross over 4,000 yards of open 
ground swept by heavy shell and machine-gun 
fire. Yeomanry co-operation on the left flank, 
and an infantry charge on the right captured the 
positions late in the afternoon. King's Own 
Scottish Borderers dashed up the hill and 
captured the Mughar defences, while Royal 
Scots Fu.'siliers worked their way into Katrah 
by a. series of flank attacks supported by bombers, 
and rushed the village. 

The captures at Katrah included a Turkish 
infantry battalion, a company of machine- 
gunners with twenty-six guns, two field guns, 
and a large store of ammunition. 

„ 18. — Division moved up to Ludd and Ramleh, where 

„ 19. — it turned to the east towards the Judsean Hills, 
and occupied Kubab and Annabeh without 
opposition. The advance was continued with 
75th Division on the right and Yeomanry 
Mounted Division on the left. The tracks wore 
so bad that only three sections of guns accom- 
panied the infantry and they had to be doublo- 
horsed. 

I, 20. — Beit Dukka was captured by 157th Brigade. 



1917. 

Nov. 22. — 1 ooth Brigade captured Beit Izza, and 150th Brigade 
relieved 233rd and 234th Brigades (75tii 
Division) at Neby Samwil, where captured 
positions were extended during the night, in 
spite of considerable enemy resistance. 

„ 24. — The Division attacked with the intention of getting 
astride the Jeriisalem-Nablus road. The first 
step was to capture El Jib and Bir Nebala, 
but these commanding positions were strongly 
held, and the formation of the ground made it 
impossible to attack from the flanks. 156th 
Brigade attacked El Jib but could make no 
headway and the action was broken off. 

„ 26. — GOth Division relieved 52nd, and the latter were 
ordered to march to Ludd, but the Turks com- 
menced a series of severe attacks that threatened 
to cut our communications along the Ramleh- 
Jerusalem road, and the Lowlanders were 
hurried back into the line. 

„ 28. — 1 ') 5th Brigade took over on the left of the Yeomanry 

Division, and 156th Brigade went up in support. 

l/7th Scottish Rides ( 156th Brigade) assisted 

8th Mounted Brigade to repulse a strong attack. 

„ 29-30.-157th Brigade relieved 22nd aivl 7th Mouuted 
Brigades during the night, and the whole Division 
was engaged in stemming hostile attacks. 
Dec. 1. — l/4th Royal Scots Fusiliers supported 8th Aus- 
tralian Light Horse Regiment which was attacked 
in the early morning by a Turkish Assault Bat- 
talion. A determined attack was made on the 
Tahta defences held by 157th Brigade and it was 
compelled to give ground but recap'ured tha 
original line after fierce hand-to-lmnd fighting. 

,, 7. — 52nd Division, relieved by 10th, marched to 
Ramleh, and 

„ 12. — concentrated on the loft in the coastal sector, 
between Neby Tari and the sea, covering SeU 
meh and Sarona. 

,, 20i The final advance by the Division in Palestine 
to > was the crossing of the Auja. The river was 

„ 21 ) swift and swollen by recent rain, and the foids 
were few and difficult to find. The ground 
north of the river was entirely unreconnoitred, 
and the enemy hold a strong entrenched Lue 
along the high ground overlooking the wide 
belt of open country through which the river 
flowed. Light canvas rafts were constructed 
and concealed in orange groves. These were 
carried to the river after dark and lathed in 
position to form a bridge, over which infantry 
and guns crossed, sound being deadened by use of 
matting. Meanwhile, some infantry crossed in 
coracles; others found a possible ford, linked arms 
and waded over breast deep. Post after post was 
rushed in silence at the point of the bayonet 
without a shot being fired. Kh. lladrah, Sh. 
Muannis, and Tel er Itckkeit were captured by 
155th, 156th, and 157th Brigades respectively, 
and by dawn all objectives were taken with 
316 prisoners and ten machine guns. 

„ 22. — The line was further advanced to a depth of one 
and a half miles by the capture of Tol el Miikh 
mar and Arsuf ; and the Division held this line 
with two brigades, and one m reserve at Sarona, 
until relieved by 7th (lodian) Division in March. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 63 

53rd DIVISION. 

€om)mnder.—M&iot (temp. Major-Gen.) S. F. Mott, C.B., r.j)., p.s.c. ^ 

4Jommanding, Royal Artillery.— Ueut.-Col (temp. Brig.-Gen.) R. E. A. Le Mottle, R.A. (relinqtiishcd, 

Oct., 1917). 
Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) J. W. Hope, D.S.O., R.F.A. (relinqui.shed, 

Nov., 1917). 
Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) J. W. Walker, D.S.O., T.D., R.F.A. 
(T.F.). 

158th Infantry Brigade. 

€umnimder.—Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) C. S. Rome. C.M.G., D.P.O., 11th Hussars (relinquislied, 
Sept., 1917). 
Major (temp. Brig.-Gen.) H. A. Vernon, D.S.O., King's Royal Rifle Corps (relinquished, 

Sept., 1918). ■ 
Major (temp. Brig.-Gen.) E. H. Wildblood, D.S.O., Ist Leinstcr Regt. 

5/Gth Battalion Royal Welsh Fusiliers (l/5th and l/6th Battalions amalgamated 3/8/18), 

3/153rd Rifles "(late Infantry) 3/154th Indian Infantry, 4/1 1th Gurkha Rifles. 
1/lst Battalion Herefordshire Regiment (ceased to belong to E.E.F., 19/6/18). 
1.58th Light Trench Mortar Battery. * 

159th Infantry Brigade. 

Commander. — Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) J. H. du B. Travers, C.B. (rehuquished, Oct., 1917). 
Major (temp. Brig.-Gen.) N. E. Money, C.M.G., D.S.O., Shropshire Yeomanry. 

4/5th Battalion Welsh Regiment (l/4th and l/5thBattahons amalgamated 3/8/18), 3/152nd, 

l/153rd and 2/153rd Punjabis (late Infantry). 
l/4th and l/7th Battalions Cheshire Regiment (ceased to belong to E.E.F., 19/6/18). 
159th Light Trench Mortar Battery. 

1 60th Infantry Brigade. 

^Commander. — ^Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) V. L. N. Pearson, D.S.O., Middlesex Regt. (rehnquished, 

Oct., 1918). 
Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) F. H. Borthwick, D.S.O., 5th Bn. Royal Welsh Fusiliers. 

l/7th Battalion Royal Welsh Fusiliers, l/17th Infantry, l/21st Punjabis, 1st Battalion 
Cape Corps. 

2/4th Battahon Royal West Kent Regiment (disbanded, 13/9/18), 2/lOth Battalion Mid- 
dlesex Regiment (disbanded, 20/8/18), 2/4th Battahon Queen's Royal West Surrey 
Regiment and l/4th Battalion Roval Sussex Regiment (ceased to belong to E.E.F., 
19/6/18). 

160th Light Trench Mortar Battery. 

Divisional Troops. 

53rd Divisional Cyclist Companv. 

265th Brigade, R.F.A. ("A," "B" and "C" Batteries). 

266th Brigade, R.F.A. (" A," " B " and " C " Batteries). 

267th Brigade, R.F.A. ("A," "B" and 439th Batteries). 

53rd Divisional Ammunition Column. 

436th and 437th (Welsh), Field Companies, R.E. 

72nd Company, 3rd Sappers and Miners. 

53rd Divisional Signal Company, R.E. 

53rd Divisional Machme Gun Battalion (Nos. 158, 159, 160 Companies). 

1 /155th Pioneers. 

53rd Divisional Train (Nos. 246, 247, 248 and 249 Companies, R.A.S.C.). 

63rd Mobile Veterinarv Section. 



64 



THE ADVANCE OF THE 



Brief Record of Service. 

The 53rd Division was composed originally of Territorial battalions, and landed in E^ypt froi;i 
Galiipoh as a Temtorjal Division. It took part in the advance from the Suez Canal, the first and 
second battles of Gaza, and eventually joined the XXth Corps, on its formation in Au<r 1917 Certain 
Battahons were withdrawn and others were amalgamated or disbanded between June and Au" 1918 
their places being taken by Indian Units and a Battalion of the Cape Corps. 



1917. 
Oct. 31. — Division concentrated in the neigh bomhood of 

El Buggar, and, 
Nov. 1. — after the fall of Beersheba, occupied the line 
north of the town, from Towal Abu Jerwal to 
Kh. el Muweileh. 
„ 3. — Orders were received to attack tlie heights of 
Tel Khuweilfeh, and three days and nights of 
almost continuous fighting ensued. 159tli 
Brigade were heavily engaged, particularly l/4t li 
and l/5th Welsh, and l/7th Cheshires ; tlio 
first-named carrying a rooky hill at the point 
of the bayonet. 
» 4. — 160th Brigade, in an exposed position, suffered 

considerably from lack of water. 
„ 5. — 265th Brigade, R.F.A., were shelled incessantly 

throughout the day, but held their ground. 
„ 6. — 1,58th Brigade, with l/4th Sussex attached, stormed 
the Khuweilfeh Heights in the early morning, 
iu conjunction with the main Corps operation, 
and reached all objectives by dawn. A Com- 
pany of 1/lst Herefords rushed nine field guns 
in a ravine, complete with personnel and 
teams, but had to abandon them later. 

Five counter-attacks were launched durin" 
the ensuing twenty-four hours, and twice the 
enemy regained the summit for short periods, 
but were driven off with heavy losses by l/7tli 
Royal Welsh Fusiliers, supported by accurate 
artillery fire. 
„ 8. — Division concentrated at Khuweilfeh. 
Dec. 4. — March towards Jerusalem commenced ; Hebron 
occupied on Dec. 5, and Bethlehem during tlie 
night of Dec. 8-9. 
» 9. — The division was now in touch with 60th Division, 
attacking Jerusalem from the west, and the 
advance was continued at an early hour. Mar 
Elias was occupied by l/5th Welsh (159th 
Brigade) at 0800, and this Battalion was under 
the walls of the Holy City at 0845, and in action 
near the cemetery on the Jericho road at 0900. 
Later in the day l/4th and l/5th Welsh cap- 
tured the Mount of Olives, their advance being 
assisted by I/4th Cheshires on the right and 
troops of 60th Division on the left. 
.. II- — Fighting continued, and a line from Abu Dis to 
El Aziriyeh, astride the Jerusalem-Jericho 
road was occupied. 
„ 13. — 1.59th Brigade captured Ras el Kharrubeh. 
.. 17.— l,'4th Sussex and 2/4th Royal West Kents (160th 
Brigade) seized the ridge east of Abu Dis and 
took 126 prisoners and two machine guns. 
„ 2L — Ras ez Zamby and White Hill were captured by 
2/4th Queens and 2/lOth Middlesex (I60th 
Brigade) after heavy fighting, and these posi- 
tions were held against a strong counter- 
attack. 
•> 27. — The Turks made a series of desperate attacks on 
the line covering Jerusalem, with the evident 
intention of retaking the city, but all attacks 
were repulsed with heavy losses. Deir Ibn 
Obeid, held by 2/lOth Middlesex, was subjected 
to particularly fierce assaults, but, though sur- 
rounded, tlie position was resolutely defended 
for several hours and eventually relieved by 
l/4th Sussex. 
., 28. — Anata was taken by 1 58th Brigade, and the line 
further advanced by the capture of Ras Arknb 
es Suffa (l/7th Royal Welsh Fusiliers) and 
Khamlit (I/lst Herefords). 



1917. 
Dec. 29. 
Feb. 



Mch. 



159th Brigade captured Hizmeh and Jeba. 
13.— i:arly in the year 53rd Division relieved 60th 
Division astride the Jerusalem-Nablus road 
(Et Tell-Sh. Abdallah-Arnutieh-Kh. Wady es 
Serah), 60th Division taking over the line east 
of Jerusalem in preparation for forthcoming 
operations towards Jericho. 
1918. 
Feb. 14 —The right of the line was advanced to Deir Diwan 
and Kh. Alia to protect the left flank of tlic 
attack by fiOth Division. 
„ 19. — 2/lOth Middlesex captuicd Runimon, and on the 

following day, 
„ 20.— the line Rummon-Gardcn Hill-Sh. Abdallah was 
occupied. 
7.— Ncjineh was captured by I/7th Cheshires at 0500 
after a rapid advance. 
8-9. — A night advance over difficult ground resulted 
in the capture of .Mumitir Ridge by l/4th 
Cheshires; and I /4th Welsh stormed Dar 
Jerir and Dmgc's Hill in face of strong oppo- 
sition. Tell Asur was captured by l/5th Royal 
Welsh Fusiliers at the point of the bayonet, and 
successfully held against three determined 
counter-attacks ; while l/lst Herefords carried 
Chipp Hill after heavy fighting. 
10. — 158th and 159th Brigades captured important 
ridges in rapid succession and Kefr Malik was 
occupied at 1400. 

11. — 159th Brigade reached the south bank of the Wady 
Kola by 0900. 

11-12. — A night advance by the Division secured the 
line Nejmeh-llock Park-Kh. Abu Felah- 
Mezrah el Sherkiyeh. In an attempt to ad- 
vance beyond this line a company of 2/lOth 
Middlesex were heavily counter-attacked on 
the slopes of Kh. Amurieh, and this attack waa 
not pushed home. 

/ 53rd Division remained in the same sector of 
i the line throughout the summer. 

18. — The general attack that was to smash the Turkish 
Armies in PaUdtine commenced at 2200, when 
l/17th Infantry (160th Brigade) moved north 
in the direction of Square Hill, followed by the 
rest of the brigade. Further to the left 1591 !i 
Brigade captured Round Hill (overlooking 
Kh. Abu Fclahl at 2230. 
19. — t/5th Welsh (159th Brigade) captured Kew Hill 
and Pt. 2401 by 0045, and 160th Brigade took 
Valley View at 0215. Strong enemy positions 
at Sh. el Azeir, El Mughoir, Boulder Boil, and 
Pt. 2362, attacked from the rear by l/7th Royal 
Welsh Fusiliers, were in our hands by 0300, and 
the Cape Corps seized Square Hill at 0450. 
159th Brigade captured Hindhead (4/6th Welsh), 
and were heavily engaged near Kh. Abu Malul, 
where 3/ 152nd Infantry, after three unsuccess- 
ful iissaults, stormed the defences at dusk. 
20. — Kh. Jibeit and Gallows Hill were stormed by the 
Cape Corps, but a fierce counter-attack bj' over- 
whelming numbers, covered by heavy shelling, 
forced them to withdraw. 1/1 7th Infantry re- 
captured Kh. Jibeit at 1230, and took 150 
prisoners. 

2/1 53rd Infantry (159th Brigade) captured 
Raa et Tawil, but 158th Brigade were held np. 



Mch. 

to 

Sept. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONAEY FORCE 65 

1918. 1918. 

Sept. 20 for a time by stubborn opposition south of Sept. 21 By nightfall the division liad reached Beit 

Kh. Birket el Kusr. At midnight the division Dcjan and Beit Furik, having dislodged the 

continued the advance. enemy from positions of great natural strength 

„ 21. — 5/6th Royal Welsh Fusiliers and 4/llth Gurkhas and driven the remnant fifteen miles across 

(IdStb Brigade) seized Kh. Birket el Kusr and jno.st difficult country on to the cavalry patrols 

Pt. 2906 respectively. 159th Brigade ad- of Desert Mounted Corps. 

vanoed rapidly capturing Kusrah (4/5th Welsh) „ 2G. — Division concentrated in the Sinjil-Tell Asur 

and Akrabeh, at 0400 and 1000 respectively. area. 



54th (EAST ANGLIAN) DIVISION (T.). 

Commander. — ^Major-Gen. S. W. Hare, C.B. 

Commanding, Royal Artillery. — ^laeut.-Col. (temjj. Brig.-GeD.) D. B. Stewart, D.S.O., 'R.A. 

16 1st Infantry Brigade. 

Commander. — Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) W. Marriott Dodington, Oxford. & Bucks. Liglit Infantry, 
p.s.c. (relinquished, Feb., 1918). 
Major (temp. Brig.-Gen.) H. B. H". Orpen Palmer, D.S.O., Royal Irish Fusiliers. 

l/4th, l/5th, l/6th and l/7th Battalions Essex Rcgt. 
161st Light Trench Mortar Battery. 

162nd Infantry Brigade. 

Commander. — ^Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) A. Mudge, C.M.G., Queen's Royal West Surrey Regt. 

l/5th Battalion Bedfordshire Regiment, l/4th Battalion Northamptonshire Regiment, 

1/1 0th and 1/1 1th Battalions London Regiment. 
lC2nd Light Trench Mortar Battery. 

163rd Infantry Brigade. 

Co»ima«(/er.— Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) T. Ward, C.M.G., T.F. Reserve (rclinqui.«lied, April, 1918). 
Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) A. J. McNeill, D.S.O., Lovat's Scouts Yeomanry. 

l/4th and l/5th Battalions Norfolk Regiment, 1/oth Battalion Suffolk Regiment, l/8th 

Battalion Hampshire Regiment. 
163rd Light Trench Mortar Battery. 

Divisional Troops. 

270th Brigade, R.F.A. ("A," "B" and "C" Batteries). 

271st Brigade, R.F.A. ("A," "B" and 440th Batteries). 

272nd Brigade, R.F.A. ("A," "B" and "C" Batteries). 

54th Divisional Ammunition Column. 

484th and 486th (East Anglian), and 495th (Kent), Field Companies, R.E. 

54th Divisional Signal Company, R.E. 

54th Divisional Machine Gun Battalion (Nos. 161, 162, 163 Companies). 

54th Divisional Train (Nos. 921, 922, 923 and 924 Companies, R.A.S.C.). 

1/lst East Anglian Mobile Veterinary Section. 

Brief Record of Service. 

54th Division, composed entirely of Territorial Battalions, fought through the Gallipoli campaign ; 
landed in Egypt in December, 1915 ; and marched across the desert from the Suez Canal. 

■ It took part in the first and second battles of Gaza in March and April, 1917 ; held the left of the 
line in front of Gaza in Jime and July ; and eventually was included in XXIst Corps on its formation 
in August. 

Throughout the Palestine campaign 54th Division fought imchanged in its order of battle. 



66 



THE ADVANCE OF THE 



1917. 
July 14-15. — The Turkish redoubt known as Beach Post was 
successfully raided by one company l/8th 
Hampshires (163rd Brigade), with one company 
2/5th Hampshires (232nd Brigade), attached. 
„ 20-21.— l/5th Bedfords (lC2nd Brigade) successfully 
raided Umbrella Hill, an important redoubt 
south of Gaza, and 
„ 27-28. — followed this up by a second raid. 
Nov. 2. — Tlie Division attacked Gaza with the 156th 
Brigade of the 52nd Division attached. In 
the enemy frontline system the 156th Brigade 
captured Umbrella Hill ; l/5th Sufifolks and 
l/8th Hamiwhires, assisted by l/4th and 
l/5th Norfolks, stormed El Arish Redoubt; 
l/6th and l/5th Essex captured Beach and 
Sea Posts and Rafa Redoubt at the point of 
the bayonet. Zowaiid and Cricket Redoubts 
also fell to the Essex (101st) Brigade ; whilst 
the l/5th Bedfords and 1/1 1th Londons pushed 
on and seized Sheikh Hassan and Gun Hill 
respectively, strong points in the Turks' second 
line ofdefence. All positions wereconsolidated 
and held in spite of determined counter-attacks. 
„ 7. — The 162nd Brigade occupied Belah Trenoh-Turtle 

Hill. Patrols through Gaza found it evacuated 
and a defensive line from Sh. Kedwan to the 
sea was occupied and linked up with the line 
held by 75th Division on the right. 
,, 19. — The Division leached Ludd and proceeded to 
take over a portion 'of the new line covering 
Jaffa. 
., 27. — The Turks heavily attacked on the line Beit 
Nabala-Dear Tureif-Wilhelma, but were re- 
pulsed b}' the 162nd Brigade, particularly stout 
defence being put uj) by the l/4th Northamp- 
tons (162nd Brigade) at Wilhelma. 
,, 28. — l/5th Essex raided the Turkish trenches on the 

south bank of the Auja. 
,, 30. — l/5th Bedfords repulsed a Turkish attack on 
Zeifizfiyeh Hill. 
Dec. 2. — l/6th Essex repeated the raid on Turkish 

trenches. 
„ 11.— 1 /4th Norfolks (163rd Brigade) and " C " Battery 
272nd Field Artillery Brigade repulsed a 
second determined Turkish attack on Zeifiz- 
fiyeh Hill. 
,, 15.— The 163rd Brigade captured Kh. el Bornat (6th 
Suffolk Regt.) and Et Tireh on the fringe of 
the Judsean Hills. 
„ 22. — The 161st and 162nd Brigades advanced the line 
to the River Auja, north of Mulebbis, the 



1917. 
Dec, 22 

19X8. 



1/1 1th Londons storming Bald Hill, which was 
strongly held, in the course of this engagement. 



March 12. — The 162nd and 163rd Brigades advanced the line 

further to a depth of four miles, capturing 

Mezeirah (l/5th Bedfords and 1/llth Londonc) 

Kh. Dikerin (l/4th Northamptons), Mejdel 

Yaba (1/lOth Londons), and Ras el Aia (l/4th 

Norfolks). 

Sept. 18.— 1 Gist Brigade at Mejdel Yaba ; 162nd Brigade at 

Jlezeirah-Kuleh ; and 163rd Brigade, Kuleh- 

Kantieh. 

„ 19. — 0420. — Division advanced on a front of 3,000 

yards, and by 0700 had captured 

Crown Hill (I/8th Hampshires), Kefr 

Kasim and Jevis Tepe (l/4th and 

l/5th Essex), strong resistance being 

experienced by the 161st Brigade at 

Kasim Wood. 

1105. — Oghlu Tepe was stormed by the 1/lOth 

Londons and l/4th Northamptons. 

During this action the 1/lOth Londons 

rushed and captured two 5'9-inch 

howitzers on high ground overlooking 

the Wadi Kanah. 

1115. — Sivri Tepe was captured by l/5th Essex, 

after stubborn resistance. 
1516. — Kh. Sirisia was taken by l/4th Norfolks, 
supported by l/5th Norfolks. 

The Division had to advance over 
broken and difBcult country, but all 
objectives were taken by nightfall, 
with COO prisoners and eleven guns. 

A feature of the day's fighting was the 
use made of captured enemy machine 
guns. l/8th Hampshires, in particular, 
used captured guns with satisfactory 
results. 
„ 20. — The 163rd Brigade occupied north and south lina 

through Bidieh by 0300. 
„ 24. — ^The Division concentrated in the Hableh area; 
„ 28. — started the march to Haifa, and on 
Oct. 4. — concentrated at Haifa. 

„ 23. — The advance northward to Beirut was continued 
and on 

„ 31. — the Division marched through Beirut at the hour 

that hostilities with Turkey ceased. 



60th DIVISION. 

Commander. — ^Major-Gen. E. S. Bulfin, C.B., C.V.O. (relinquished, Aiist., 1917). 
Major-Gen. Sir J. S. M. Shea, K.C.M.G., C.B., D.S.O., LA., ji.s.c. 

Commanding, Royal Artillery. — ^Bt. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) H. A. D. Simpson-Baikie, C.B., R.A. (re- 
linquished, Aug., 1917). 

Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) H. M. Deake, R.F.A. (relinquished, Oct., 
1917). 

Col. (temp. Brig.-Gcn.) W. A. Robinson, C.B., C.M.G., R.A. 



179th Infantry Brigade. 

Commander.— Qol. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) Fitz J. M. Edwards, C.M.G., D.S.O., I.A., A.D.C. (relinquished, 
Feb., 1918). 
Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.)- E. T. Humpheeys, D.S.O., Lancashire Fu.«iliers, p.s.c. 

2/13th Battalion London Regiment, 2/19th Punjabis, 2/127th Baluch Light Infantry< 

3/151st Punjabi Rifles (late Infantry), 
2/14th, 2/15th, 2/16th Battalions London Regiment (ceased to belong to E.E.F., 19/6/18.) 
179th Light Trench Mortar Battery. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONAKY FORCE G7 

180th Infantry Brigade. 

Commander.— M.a.lov (temp. Brig.-Gen.) F. M. Carlkton, D.S.O. (E. of 0.), p.s.c. (relinquished, Aug., 
1917). 
Bfc. Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) J. Hill, D.S.O., I.A., A.D.C. (relinquished, Sept., 1917). 
Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) C. F. Watson, C.M.G., D.S.O., Queen's Royal West 

Surrey Regt. 
•2/19th Battalion London Regiment, 2nd Guides Infantry, 2/30th Punjabis, 1/^Otli 

2/17th and 2/20th Battalions London Regiment (ceased to belong to E.E.F., 19/6/18 

and 2/7/18, respectively), 2/18th Battalion London Regiment (disbanded, 10/7/18). 
180th Light Trench Mortar Battery. 

181st Infantry Brigade. 

iJommaiider. —P>t. Lieut.-Col. (temp, Brig.-Gen.) E. C. da Costa, C.M.G., D.S.O., East Lancashire Regt. 

2/22nd Battahon London Regiment, l/30th Baluchis, 2/97th Deccan Infantry, 2/152nd 

Punjabis (late Infantry). 
2/21st Battalion London Regiment (disbanded, 11/6/18), 2/23rd and 2/24th Battalioua 

London Regiment (ceased to belong to E.E.F., 2/7/18). 
181st Light Trench Mortar Battery. 

Divisional Troops. 

301st Brigade, R.F.A. (" A," " B " and " C " Batteries). 

302nd Brigade, R.F.A. (" A," "B " and 413th Batteries). 

303rd Brigide, R.F.A. ("A," "B" and "C" Batteries). 

60th Divisional Ammunition Column. 

No. 1 Company, 1st (King George's Own) Sappers and Miners. 

519th and 521st (London) Field Companies, R.E. 

60th Divisional Signal Company, R.E. 

60th Divisional Machine Gun Baljtalion (Nos. 179, 180, 181 Companies). 

60th Divisional Train (Nos. 517, 518, 519 and 520 Companies, R.A.S.C). 

2/2nd London Mobile Veterinary Section. 

Brief Record of Service. 

60th (London) Division, composed entirely of London Territorial Battalions, served in France 
from June to December, 1916, was transferred to Salonika, and eventually landed in Egypt in June, 
1917. It reached the front in Jidy, and joined XXth Corps in August. 

The Division was reorganized in July, 1918, when seven Battalions were withdraAvn for service in 

France and two were disbanded. The vacancies were filled by Indian units, and the Territorial title 

was dropped. 

1917. 1917. 

Oct. 30. — Concentrated about the Wadi Mirtaba, six miles Dec. 5. — 231st Brigade (74th Division) took over tlie Nebi 

south-west of Beeraheba. Samwil-Beit Izza sector, and 60th Divison 

„ 31. — 179th and 181st Brigades attacked the Beersheba concentrated about Kustul for the attack on 

defences from south-west, on right of 74th Jeru.salem. 

Division. 2/14th and 2/l5th London broke „ 8. — 179th Brigade, with mountain batteries, crossed 

through by 1230, and twenty minutes later all the Wadi Surar during the night and seized the 

objectives were taken. 2/13th London were high ground south of Ain Karim at 0330. The 

' shelled and machine-gunned from direction of right of the line thus secured, the main attack 

Beersheba, so the bat'tahon advanced about a by the 180th Brigade began at dawn (0515) iu 

mile and captured two 77mm. guns. heavy rain, ai>d by 0700 the defences on the 

Nov. 6.— Attacked Kauwukah and Rushdi systems at formidable ridge overhanging the Wadi Surar 

1230, with 74th on right and 10th , on left. were captured Strong resistance was experi- 

179th and 180th Brigades broke through, after f"^'^'! "'•"''^ ^"^'^J""^^ ^^'"^ ,rYn i T 

, , £ ui- J • J cju ■ the works at Deir Yesin ; and the left of the 

two hours sharp fightmg, and occupied Sheria ^^^^^^ ^,^^ ,,^y ^p ^^^^.^ 1^30 ^^.,,g„ ^ j^_^j,„„,j 

„ , „ ,°°', ,, , , , , , charge dislodged the enemv. The steep slopes 

7.— lei Esh Sheria still held out but the enemy was to Lift^^ ^.^^.^ g^.g^j |j^. i,ostile machine-gun 

dislodged after a sharp fight. fire, but 180th Brigade ijushed en and occupied 

„ 18. — Division concentrated at Gaza, and marched the village at dusk. 

northward on the following day. ,, 9. — The Turks evacuated Jerusalem during the 

24 ) Relieved 232ud Brigade (75th Division) and 52nd night, and the city surrendered to General 



to > Division, in the Judsean Hills, on the line Shea at 0830. 

„ 27 ] Soba-Kustul-Nebi Samwil-Beit Izza. Enemy rearguards were engaged and positions 

Dec. 1.— Three determined hostile attacks on Nebi Samwil were occupied »t Tel el Ful and Shafat, four 

were beaten oH, with a loss to the enemy of ""l^is north of Jerusalem on the Xablus road, 

500 killed. „ H. — Division occupied the line Tel el Ful-Bcit Hanuiua 



68 



THE ADVANCE OF THE 



1917. 
Dec. 23. — 2/24th London advanced 800 yards on the left, 
and 2/18tli London stormed Kh. Adaseh, but 
the main attack was postponed and this advanced 
position was abandoned. 

„ 27. — The Turks attacked along the whole line covering 
Jerusalem at 0130, and bitter fighting continued 
throughout the day. A particularly violent 
attack at dawn enabled them to gain a footing 
in a portion of our line, but 2/15th London 
counter-attacked and, in spite of heavy shelling, 
recaptured the lost ground. Thirteen costly 
attacks had been delivered by dusk with the net 
gain to the enemy of the advanced posts on 
Kh. Eas et Tawil and the quarry north of Tel 
el Ful, abandoned in the early morning to over- 
whelming numbers. 

„ 28. — 181st Brigade occupied El Jib and Bir Nebala, 
and 180th Brigade took Kh. Adaseh at 1725. 
2/20th London captured Er Ram, and the line 
Er Ram-Rafat was occupied at 1915. • 

„ 29. — Tel en Naabeh and the hill north of Kefr Akab 
were taken by 2/19th and 2/20th London, 
respectively, and these battalions stormed Shab 
Salah at 1520. On the right 2/17th 2/18th 

seized the ridge immediately th-west of 

Burkah, and on the left the Tahuneh was 

carried by 2/22nd and 2/23rd. Beitin and 
Balua were taken during the night by 180th 
and 18lst Brigades respectively, and the line 
carried on to near Kh. el Burj where junction 
was effected with 74th Division. 
1918. 
Feb. 13. — The Division held the line Deir Ibn Obeid-Ras es 
Suffa-Hizmoh, taken over from 53rd Division. 

„ 14. — 1 8 1 st Brigade occupied Mukhmas and Tel es Suwan. 

„ 19.— I79th Brigade captured El Muntar ; 180th Brigade ' 
stormed Arak Ibrahim after severe fighting ; 
and 1 81st Brigade seized Splash Hill and Ras 
et Tawil. 

„ 20. — Jcbel Ekteif and Talaat ed Dumm were captured 
by 179th and 180th Brigades, respectively, 
while 181st Brigade advanced four miles along 
the north of the VVadi Farah. Neby Musa was 
occupied by 2/14th London, in co-operation 
with New Zealand Mounted Brigade. 

„ 21. — The Division occupied the line Rujm esh Shema- 
liyeh-Kh. Kakun-Jebel Kuruntul, and, the 
object of the advance achieved, 

„ 22.— withdrew to the line Jebel Ekteif- Talaat ed Dumm 
-Ras et Tawil, with 144 prisoners and six machine 
guns. 
Mar. 9. — 181st Brigade advanced rapidly over rough country 
and El Madbeh and Kh. el Beiyudat were occu- 
pied by 2/24th and 2/22nd London, respec- 
tively. With 2/21st astride Wadi Aujah at 
0930, 2/24th, supported by Light Armoured 
Car Batteries, captured Abu TcUul at 1630. 

„ 14. — The advance was continued and El Musallabeh 
captured in spite of opposition. 
. „ 22. — The first crossing of the Jordan, swollen and 
unfordable, was effected by swimmers of 2/19th 
London at Hajlah at 0100, and as the result 
of their efforts 2/19th and 2/18th Battalions 
were able to cross on rafts and a light pontoon 
bridge by 1200. 

,, 23. — Swimmers reached the eastern bank at Ghoraniyeh 
at 1320 ; rafting and bridge construction com- 
menced, and 

,t 24. — The whole force detailed for the Amman raid 
had crossed the river by 0500. 



1918. 
Mar. 24 



„ 25.- 

„ 28.- 

.. 30.- 



April 3.- 
„ 30.- 



May3-4.- 
Sept. 17.- 
,. 19.— 



20.- 

21.- 
25.- 



179th Brigade captured El ilaud, and 181st 
Brigade took Shunet Nimrin. 2/22nd London 
captured three guns in their attack on Tel el 
Musta. 

-The advance was delayed by weather conditions 
but 179th Brigade occupied Es Salt at 2000. 

-The first attack on Amman commenced at 1 300. 
2/23rd and 2/2 1st Battalions were held up 
1,000 yards north-west of Amman by intense 
machine-gun and rifle fire, and 2/17th and 2/18th 
were ordered up from Es Sir in support. 

-After thirty-six hours almost continuous fighting 
a night attack was launched at 0200. 2/22nd 
London captured 135 prisoners and four 
machine guns, but were held up 500 yards from 
their objective (the " Citadel ") at 0845. 2/18th 
on their right were also held up by a heavy 
frontal fire. 2/2 1st on the extreme left, though 
repeatedly counter-attacked, invariably held the 
advantage in the hand-to-hand fighting that 
ensued. 2/I8th London again tried to storm 
the " Citadel " at 1500, but were checked by 
heavy fire from right flank, and shortly after 
orders were received to withdraw. 

Meanwhile the Battalions left to hold Es Salt 
defeated an enemy attack from the direction 
of Kefr Huda. 

The Division started to withdraw during the 
night, and 

the rear units re-crossed the Jordan. 

The troops detailed for the Es Salt raid crossed to 
east of Jordan. 180th Brigade attacked Shunet 
Nimrin and captured some advanced positions, 
but the enemy were strongly posted and no 
further progress was possible. 179th Brigade 
attacked El Hand but met with no better 
success. 

The force withdrew west of Jordan after heavy 
fighting, covered by 181st Brigade, who formed 
an extended bridgehead. 

180th Brigade relieved 28th Brigade 7th (Indian 
Division) in the coastal sector, and the Division 
concentrated north and north-east of Arsuf. 

180th Brigade attacked on a front of 1,500 yards 
at 0440, with l/50th Kumaon Rifles (supported 
by 2/97th Infantry of 181st Brigade) on the 
right and 2nd Guides Infantry on the left. 
The objective of this attack was the strong 
trench system on the extreme right of the 
Turkish line, consisting of three lines of pre- 
pared positions. These were all carried bv 
0540, and by 0650 2/1 9th London had forced 
the Nahr el Falik and established a bridge- 
head to cover the advance of the cavalry. 
181st Brigade / pushed forward and 2/22nd 
London, 130th Baluchis and 2/1 52nd Punjabis 
reached a north and south line through Umm 
Sur at 1400. This Brigade advanced sixteen 
and a half miles in twelve and a half hours, 
and 2/22nd London and 2/1 52nd Punjabis 
captured Tulkeram and Irtah, respectively. ^ 
with 835 prisoners. The Punjabis captured 
seven 77mm. guns in this last engagement, 
knocking out the teams with Lewis gun-fire. 

■The Division advanced at 0500 and 3/151st Punjab; 
Rifles (I79th Brigade) captured Anebta and the 
Bir Asur tunnel. 

■The line Jebel Bir .4sur-Bo!ah -Shuweikeh was 
occupied, 

and the Division concentrated at Rantieh in Army 
Reserve, less 18l8t Brigade, which remained - 
at Kakon for escort duty. 



74th (YEOMANRY) DIVISION. 

(Ceased to belong to E.E.F. 7/5/ia) 
Commander.— Bt. Col. (te;np. Major-Gen.) E. S. Girdwood, C.B., Scottish Rifles. 
Commanding, Royal Artillery.— Lient.-Col (temp. Brig.-Gen.) L. J. Hext, C.M.G., R.A. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 69 

229th Infantry Brigade. 

Coininander.—<^ol. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) R, Hoarb, D.S.O., late 4th Hussars. 

16th (Royal 1st Devon and Royal North Devon Yeomanry) Battalion Devonshire Regiment. 

12th (West Somerset Yeomanry) Battalion Somerset Light Infantry. 

14th (Fife and Forfar Yeomanry) Battalion Black Watch. 

12th (Ayr and Lanark Yeomanry) Battalion Royal Scots Fusjhers. 

4th Machine Gun Company. 

229th Light Trench Mortar Battery. • 

230th Infantry Brigade. 

Co»»m«n(/e>-.— Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) A. J. McNeill, D.S.O., Lovat's Scouts Yeomanry (re- 
linquished, Dec, 1917). 
Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) H. B. H. Orpen-Palmer, D.S.O., Royal Irish Fusiliers 

(reUnquished, Feb., 1918). 
Major (temp. Brig.-Gen.) W. J. Bovvker, C.M.G., D.S.O., Somerset Light Infantry. 

10th (Royal East Kent and West Kent Yeomanry) Battalion East Kent Regiment. 

16th (Sussex Yeomanry) Battalion Royal Sussex Regiment. 

15th (Suffolk Yeomanry) Battalion Suffolk Regiment. 

12th (Norfolk Yeomanry) Battalion Norfollc Regiment. 

209th Machine Gun Company. 

230th Light Trench Mortar Battery. 

231st Infantry Brigade. 

Commander.— M.a,]ot (temp. Brig.-Gen.) W. J. Bowker, C.M.G., D.S.O., Somerset Light Infantry (re- 
Hnquished, Sept., 1917). 
Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) C. E. Heathcote, C.M.G., D.S.O., Yorkshire Light 
Infantry. 

10th (Shropshire and Cheshire Yeomanry) Battalion King's Shropshire Light Infantry, 

24th (Denbighshire Yeomanry) Battalion Royal Welsh Fusiliers. 

25th (Montgomeryshire and Welsh Horse Yeomanry) Battalion Royal Welsh Fusiliers. 

24th (Pembroke and Glamorgan Yeomanry) Battalion Welsh Regiment. 

210th Machine Gun Company. 

231st Light Trench Mortar Battery. 

Divisional Troops. 

117th Brigade, R.F.A. ("A." " B," 366th and "D" Batteries). 

41th Brigade, R.F.A. (340th, 382nd, 425th and "D" Batteries). 

74th Divisional Ammunition Column. 

X 74 and Y 74 (Medium), Trench Mortar Batteries, R.A. 

No. 5 (Royal Monmouth), No. 5 (Royal Anglesey), 439th (Cheshire) Field Companies, R.E. 

74th Divisional Signal Company, R.E. 

Pioneer Battalion 1/1 2th Loyal North Lancashire Regiment. 

261st Machine Gun Company. 

74th Divisional Employment Company. 

74th Divisio-nal Train (Nos. 447, 448, 449 and 450 Companies, R.A.S.C). 

59th Mobile Veterinary Section. 

Brief Record of Service. 

74th (Yeomanry) Division was formed in January, 1917, of eighteen dismounted Yeomanry regiments, 
including twelve that had served in Gallipoli. The newly-formed Infantry battalions were brought up 
to strength with drafts, and reached the front in time for the second battle of Gaza in April. 

As an Infantry Division it joined XXth Corps on its formation in August, and, during August and 
September, Brigades were employed alternately in holding portions of the line and constructing new 
defences in the left sector. 



70 



THE ADVANCE OF THE 



After taking part in the attack on Beersheba, the capture of Jerusalem, and the subsequent hill- 
fighting during the winter months, the Division embarked for France in May, 1918, and ceased to belong 
to the Egj'ptian Expeditionary Force. 



1917. 
Oct. 30. — Concentrated south-west of the Wadi Saba. 

„ 31. — 231st and 230th Brigades attacked Becrslieba at 
0830 on the left of OOtli Division, 10th Ea.st 
Kents (Buffs) and 12th Norfolks leading the 
attack. Their objectives were tlie main 
Turkish trench-line immediately south of the 
Wadi Saba. Stubborn resistance was met with 
but all objectives were Inken by 1330. Later 
in the day 230th Brigade cros.sed the Wadi 
Saba and rolled up all hostile defences as far 
north as the Beersheba-Tel el Fara road, while 
a brigade of 53rd Division threatened them from 
tlie west. 
Nov. 6.— 230th and 229th Brigades attacked the system of 
trenches and redoubts covering Sheria at dawn, 
with yeomanry on the right and COth Division 
on the left. Stubborn resistance wa.s encoun- 
tered, but all positions east of the railway were 
.stormed by 1515, and the Division moved to the 
high ground north of Sheria Several gun.s and 
machine guns were captured and a way cleared 
for the advance of the cavalry. 

„ 17. — Division marched to north of Deir el Belah, and 

„ 23. — via Gaza towards Mejdel and Latron. 

„ 28. — A composite Artillery Brigade was sent forward 
from Latron in support of the Yeomanry 
Mounted Division, who were heavily attacked on 
the Beit Urel Foka-Beit Uret Tahta-Suffaline. 

„ 29.— 231st Brigade relieved 8th and 6th Mounted 
Brigades, 

„ 30. — and, throughout the day, was heavily engaged 
repulsing strong Turkisli attacks between Et 
Tireh and Beit Ur el Foka, 
Dec. 3. — 16th Devons (229th Brigade) recaptured Beit Ur 
el Foka, which had been abandoned to the 
enemy on Nov. 28. Seventeen prisoners and 
three machine guns were taken in this engage- 
ment and several very determined counter- 
attacks were repulsed with heavy losses to the 
Turks who left fifty dead in tlxe village alone. 
The village was again abandoned in the after- 
noon as it was dominated by high ground and 
was continually swept by hostile machine-gun 
fire. 

„ 5. — 'I he Division took over the Neby Samwll-Beit 
Izza Sector from 60th Division, and 

„ 7. — extended the line southward to Sh. Abd el Aziz, 
one mile south-east of Beit Surik. 

„ 8. — A general attack along the XXth Corps front was 
launched just before dawn. 230th Brigade 
captured Beit Iksa by 1 100, but further advance 
to the Kh. el Burj Ridge was held up by heavy 
shelling and' enfilade machine-gtin fire from the 
right flank. 



1917. 
Dec. 9. — 229th Brigade completed the capture of the Neby 
Samwil Ridge before dawn, and the right of 
the line, swinging north towards Beit Hannina 
linked up with COth Division astride the Jerusa- 
lem-Nablus road. Enemy resistance weakened 
considerably and the line was advanced to four 
miles north of Jerusalem. 

„ 11. — The Division moved to the left to conform with 
Corps redistribution, and took over the Neby 
Samwil-Beit Izza-Beit Dukka line. 

„ 26.— 24th Welsh Regiment (231st Brigade) stormed 
Hill 1910, one mile north of Beit Dukka, and 
beat off a heavy counterattack. 

„ 27.— 24th Royal Welsh Fusiliers (231st Brigade) cap- 
tured Kh. Ed Dreihemch at 1015, and beat off a 
counter-attack after withdrawing slightly. 229th 
Brigade was heavily engaged on the Zeitun 
Ridge, where the last objective was rushed after 
dark. 

„ 28.— 24th Royal Welsh Fusiliers and 24th Welsh Regi- 
ment took Hill 2,450 and Kh. El Jufeir respec- 
tively, and 229th Brigade captured Beitunia at 
1550 against strong resistance. 

„ 29. — The enemy made determined efforts to hold 
Ham AUali, but it was taken, after a stiff fight, 
by 230th, supported by 229th Brigade. 

„ 30. — A night attack by 230th Brigade resulted in the 
capture of the Kh. Et Tireh-Kh. El Burj line. 
The captured positions were consolidated, the 
Division having advanced over five miles in 
three days, through rugged and difficult country, 
and against continual and stubborn opposition. 



191 
Mar. 



9.- 



10. 



The Division advanced astride the Jerusaleni- 
Nabhis road, with 53rd and 10th Divisions on 
right and left respectively. Ain Sinia was 
captured by 230th Brigade after a stiff fight. 

23lRt Brigade rushed hostile defences at Selwad by 
0525, but two assaults on Yebrud by 230th 
Brigade were unsuccessful. 

The precipitous ridge of Burj el Lisaneh was 
stormed at 0300 and successfully defended 
against three counter-attacks, while 230th 
Brigade reversed the verdict of the jirevious 
day by capturing Yebrud and Burj Bardawile 
after heavy fighting. This Brigade again 
advanced to a depth of nearly two miles against 
considerable resistance. 
11.— 231st Brigade captured Sh. Selim, while 230th 
Brigade occupied the ridge overlooking Sinjil. 
This was the final operation of the 74th 
(Yeomanry) Division in Palestine, and after a 
few weeks spent in holding the captured line 
the Division was withdrawn for service in France. 



75th DIVISION. 

Commander.— MaioT-Gen. P. C. Palin, C.B., C.M.G., I.A. 

Commanding, Royal Artillery. — ^Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Qen.) H. A. Boyce, D.S.O., R.A. 

232n(l Infantry Brigade. 

Commander. — Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) H. J. Huddleston, C.M.G. D.S.O., M-.C, Dorset Regiment. 

]/4th BattaUon Wiltshire Regiment, 72nd Punjabis, 2/3rd Gurkha Rifles, 3rd Kashmir 

I.S. Infantry. 
2/5th Battalion Hampshire Regiment (disbanded, 17/8/18), 2/4th Battalion Somerset Light 

Infantry, and l/5th Battalion Devonshire Regiment (ceased to belone to E.E.F., 

28/5/18). 
232nd Light Trench Mortar Battery. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 



71 



233rd Infantry Brigade. 

Comimnder.—Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) Hon. E. M. Colston, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.V.O., Grenadier 
Guard,s. 



l/5th Battalion Somerset Light Infantry, 29th Punjabis, 2/154:th Indian Infantry, 
3/3rd Gurkha Eifies. 

2/4th BattaUon Dorset Regiment (disbanded 17/8/18), 2/4th Battalion Hampshire Regi- 
ment (ceased to belong to E.E.F., 28/5/18). 



233rd Light Trench Mortar Batterv. 



234th Infantry Brigade. 

Commander. — Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) F. ,T. Anley, C.B., C.M.G. (relinquished, Nov., 1917). 

Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) C. A. H. Maclean, D.S.O., Argyll & Sutherland High- 
landers (relinquished, Oct., 1918). 
Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) F. P. H. Keily, C.M.G., D.S.O., 125th Napier's Rifles, I.A. 

l/4th Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry, 58th Vaughan's Rifles (F.F.), 123rd Outram'a 

Rifles, l/152nd Punjabis (late Infantry;. 
2/4th Battalion Devonshire Regiment (disbanded, 17/8/18). 
234th Light Trench Mortar Battery. 

Divisional Troops. 

37th Brigade, R.F.A. (389th, 390th and 405th Batteries.) 

172nd Brigade, R.F.A. (391st, 392nd and 406th Batteries). 

Ist South African Field Artillery Brigade (" A," " B " and " C " Batteries). 

75th Divisional Ammunition Column. 

496th (Kent) Field Company, R.E. 

No3. 10 and 16 Companies, 2nd (Queen Victoria's Own) Sappers and Miners, 

75th Divisional Signal Company, R.E. 

75th Divisional Machine Gun Battalion (Nos. 229, 230, 231 Companies). 

2/32nd Sikh Pioneers. 

75th Divisional Train (Nos. 925, 926, 927 and 928 Companies, R.A.S.C). 

60th Mobile Veterinary Section. 



Brief Record of Service. 



9f 


8.- 


tf 


9. 


tf 


10. 


»» 


12. 



Nov. 20 



21 



The 75th Division, made up of units (Territorial and 
included in XXIst Corps on its formation, and on 

1917. 1917. 

Oct. 31. — was concentrated in the Mansura area, 
Nov. 6-7. — During the night the 233rd Brigade captured Out- 
post and Middlesex Hills in the trench system 
south of Gaza, and on the morning of Nov. 7 
captured Green Hill, and occupied Australia 
and Fryer's Hills. The 232nd Brigade had 
captured The Labyrinth and Ali Muntar, and 
occupied The QuariyandDelilah'sNeck by 1330. 
-Tank and Atawineh Redoubts were occupied by 

234th Brigade and Composite Force. 
-The advance northward was commenced with 

232nd Brig.ado leading, and this 
-Brigade occupied Suafir el Gharbiyeh by 1900. 
-2/oth Hampshires and 2/3rd Gurkhas (of 232nd 
Brigade) co-operated with 52nd Division in 
attack on,and capture of, Burkah and Brown Hill . 
„ 13.— The 233rd Brigade captured El Mesmiye and, with 
232nd Brigade advancing through Yasur, pushed 
back Turkish rearguards covering Junction 
Station, taking 292 prisoners and seven machine 
guns. 
„ U.— 123rd Rifles, supported by 58th Rifles (234th 

Brigade), captured Junction Station. 
„ 19. — 232nd Brigade captured Amwas and Latron by 
noon, and, with 58th Rifles attached, pushed 
on through difficult hill country in face of con- 
siderable opposition to within one mile of Saris. 
„ 20. — While 2/3rd Gurkhas and l/5th Devons advanced 
eastward along the steep hills north of the road, 



22. 



23, 



, 23-25. 



Indian) recently arrived from India, was 



the 2/oth Hampshires and 58th Rifles onvelo'ped 
Saris, wliich was stormed by the 2/4th Somer- 
sets at 1415. Subsequently, 3/3rd Gurkhas 
overcame fresh resistance from the enemy ; and 
at 1700 the 2/3rd Gurkhas of 232nd Brigade, 
with l/5th Somerset Light Infantry and l/4th 
Wiltshires (233rd Brigade), assaulted and carried 
the final defences of Kuryet el Enab. 

—232nd Brigade captured Kustul (1130), and 234th 
Brigade, after occupying Soba, El Kubeibe, and 
Biddu, sent forward l/4th D. C.L.I, and 123rd 
Rifles to attack Neby Samwil. The 2/4tb 
Hampshires and 3/3rd Gurkhas (233rd Brigade) 
co-operated in the last-named engagement, and 
this strong position was stormed late in the day 

— Noby Samwil heavily counter-attacked. Severe 
fighting around El Jib by l/5th Somersets and 
l/4th Wiltshires of 233rd Brigade, with l/5th 
Devons and 2/3rd Gurkhas of 232nd Brigade 
attached. 

. — Attack on El Jib by the same units, in face of 
heavy shell and machine-gun fire. 

. — 233rd and 234th Brigades relieved by 62nd Divi- 
sion, and 232nd Brigade by 179th Brigade of 
60th Division. Intermittent fighting continued 
during this relief. 
Attack on Sh. el Gharbawy repulsed by 2/4th 
Hampshires supported by one company 3/3rd 
Gurkhas (attached 54th Division). 



72 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

1917. 1918. 

Dec. 11. — Occupied line Midiuh-Zebdali-Kh.llamid-Budius- April 10. — Severe fighting around Berukin, Arara, and Rafat, 

Sh. Obeid Rahil (232nd Brigade). in which units of 232nd and 233rd Brigades 

„ 15. — Captured Kibbieh (2/3rd Gurkha.s); Dathrah were heavily engaged against German and 

(2/5th Hampshires) ; Kii, Ibanneh {.58th Rifles). ' Turkish troops. 

Kh. el Bomat occupied by 2/4th Somersets. ^^ 11.— 123rd Rifles of 234th Brigade were involved in 

„ 22.— Kh. el Beida and Kh. el Bireh occupied by 232nd severe fighting on Tliree Bushes Hill. 

Brigade, with 58th Rifles attached. „„ ... . j -j ■ /^.i n /-. t t .. t> i ^ i j 

,„,Q " „ 27. — .Attempted raid on I /4th D.C.L.I. at Rafatrepulsed. 

nr o o/o in lu /.loo i t) • i i . i t\ ■ a u Determined night attacks on 2/4th Dorsets (Tin 

Mar. 8. — 2/3rd Gurkhas (232nd Brigade) captured Deir Abu * ' 

Aleshal Abud and Abud Rid^c. •• ^^ / HatHill)and uStii Rifles (Rafat), and an attcm p- 

,,11-12.— 2/4th Somersets (232nd Brigade! occupied Rentis. *^*y ' ^ ted raid on 2/,oth Hampshires (Toogood Hill) 

„ 12.— Figlifng in VVadi Ballut ; 232nd Brigade occupied ^^ere beaten off. 

Rijal Siifah, and captured Mughair Ahmeh (2/4th July 1 3. — Attack by German assault troops on 3/3rd Gurkhas 

.Somersets) ; BciKit Biirry (2/3rd Gurkhas) ; Deir at Rafat, after an intense bombardment, was 

Kulah (2/5th Hampshires) ; Kh. el Emir (l/5th biokeu up and heavy casualties inflicted on the 

Devons); 2/3rd Gurkhas captured sixty enemy enemy. 

who had fortified a cave and were holding up , Qi ' After having been continuously in the line since 

the attack with machine guns. 234th Brigade .°" / April, the division was relieved by the French 

(cooperating with 54th Division on their left), o .„ f Palestine Detachment and 10th Division, and 

occupied the Kh. Bara'aish-Kefr Insha ridge, >- i> ■ • ■ ) moved to Beit Nabala and thence to Mulebbis. 

crossed the VVadi Ballut and seized the Ballut „ 19. — 0700. — l/4th Wiltshires of 2.32nd Brigade captured 

ridge, the l/4th D. C.L.I, capturing Ballut vil- Miskeh. 

lage at 1430. 0800.— 58th and 123rd Rifles (234th Brigade) cap- 
April 9. — Kl Kefr, Sh. Nafukh-Toogood Hill, Berukin, and tured enemy defensive system west of 
Tin Hat Hill were stormed by 2/3rd Gurkhas, Et Tireh. 

2/5th Hampshires, l/5th Devons, and 2/4th 1100.— 232nd Brigade, assisted by l/152nd Pun- 

.Somersets respectively, in face of considerable jabis of 234th Brigade, carried Et Tireh 

opposition. The l/5th Somersets, and 2/4th after stubborn resistance. 

Dorsets subsequently reinforced by 123rd " A " Squadron, XXIst Corps Cavalry, and No. 2 

Rifles, carried Rafat village and Three Bushes L.A.C. Battery, under orders of G.O.C., 75th 

Hill respectively, while l/4th D.C.L.I. cap- Division, pressed on and attacked Turkish ool- 

fiired Kafat Ridge. Later in the day, 2/4th unms retreating on Tul Keram. 

Dorsets and 123rd Rifles were heavily counter- At midnight the division came into Corps Reserve, 

attacked on Tliree Bushes Hill. concentrated about Et Tireh and Miskeh. 

BRIGADES (Non-Divisional). 

IMPERIAL CAMEL CORPS BRIGADE. 

Commander. — ^Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) C. L. Smith, V.C, M.C, D.C.L.I. (relinquished, June, 
1918). 
Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) C. S. Rome, D.S.O., 11th Hussars. 

1st (Anzac) Battalion. Four Australian Companies. 

2nd Battahon. Four British Companies. 

2rd (.Vnzac) Battalion. Four Australian Comj^anies. 

4th (Anzac) Battalion). Two Australian and t\yo New Zealand Companies. 

Two Detached Companies (British). 

No. 26 Machine Gun Squadron (late Scottish Horse). 

Hong Kong and Singapore Mountain Battery, R.G.A. 

Brigade Ammunition Column. 

Field Troop, R.E. 

Signal Section, R.E. 

Detachment, R.A.S.C. 

Australian Camel Field Ambulance. ■ 

Brief Record of Service. 

The Imperial Camel Corps Brigade, which had been engaged at Maghdaba, Rafa, and in the 
1st and 2nd Battles of Gaza, constituted as above, took part in the attack on Beersheba ; the subse- 
ijuent advance into Philistia ; the Amman Raid ; and co-operated in the Es Salt Raid. It was reorgan- 
ized as a cavalry force at the end of June, 1918, Headquarters and six companies (later reduced to 
four) being retained, and joined the Australian Mounted Division as the 5th Australian Light Horse 
Brigade on .\ng. 22. IHIR. 

J917. 1917. 

Oct. 31.— Engaged near the VVadi Saba, west of Beersheba. Nov. 12.— Occupied Yebnah in conjunction with Veomunry 

», , T . . .T. , . , 1 1 • ... Mounted Division. 

Nov. 1. — In action at Towal Abu Jcrwal in co-operation ,_ „ ,„,, ,...,, v„„.., , n-_v *u 

■ .L ^t A ^ 1- J -vT r7 1 J »r i J «f 15. — Co-operated with leomanry Division in the 

with the Australian and New Zealand Mounted ^^/^^^ ^^^ ^^ J ^^^ j^^^ g^^^j^^j^ 

Division. j^jjg^ 

.1 6. — Engaged in repulsing a determined counter-attack „ 27 / 

' near Tel Khuweilfcb to f Engaged in operations around Jaffa. 



Deo. 



f 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE. 73 

191S. 1918. 

Uch. 27. — The brigade, having crossed the Jordan at Hajlah, April 9 I The euemy launched a series of strong attacks 

moved directly on Amman, over difficult coun- to ■• (led by a German storm battalion), after a 

try rendered almost impassable by bad weather. „ 11 I heavy artillery bombardment, against the posts 

„ 28.— The enemy, holding Amman in strength, checked .in ^^<' Musallabeh .salient, held by 1st (Anzac) 

the advance, but demolition parties were able Battalion, but they were repulsed after hard 

to destroy a section of the line near Libben. fighting, with considerable losses to the enemy. 

., , ,, . , , , ^1 ^^1 May 1 1 Co-operated in the Es Salt Raid by carrying out 

„ 29.-Heav.ly engaged on the right of the attack on /^ demonstrations on the west bank of the Jordan. 

Amman and, „ ) 

„ 30.— captured two trenches, but were held up by en- j„iy | Headquarters and two companies carried out 

filade fire. to > operations in northern Hejaz including capture 

„ 31. — The withdrawal having been ordered the brigade Aug. ) of Mudawara station with 133 prisoners. This 

reached Es Sir at 0715, and eventually withdrew force returned to Beersheba on Sept. 6 having 

to the west bunk of the Jordan. covered 930 miles. 

20th INDIAN INFANTKY BRIGADE. 

Commander.— Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) H. D. Watson, C.M.G., C.I.E., M.V.O., I.A. (relinqui-shed, Jan.,' 
1918). 
Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) E. R. B. Murray, 90th Punjabis, I.A, 

110th Mahratta Light Infantry. 

Alwar I.S. Infantry. 

Gwahor I.S. Infantry, 

Patiala I.S. Infantry. 

Signal Section (British), R.E. 

20th Indian Infantry Brigade Train. 

Brief Record of Service. 

The 20th (Indian) Infantry Brigade arrived in Egypt from India in Nov., 1914 ; was engaged in 
repelling the Turkish attacks on the El Ferdan Sector of the Suez Canal in 1915 ; and took part in the 
advance into Palestine in 1917. 

The Brigade operated in the Gaza-Mendur sector during Oct. and No'v., 1917 ; held the Ghoraniyeli 
Bridgehead from April to Sept., 1918 ; and, finally, took part in the advance on Amman in September 
as part of Chaytor's Force (q.v.). 

49th INDIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 

Commander. — ^IJeut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-G«n.) E. R. B. Murray, 90th Punjabis, I.A. 

1/The 101st Grenadiers. 
2/The lOKt Grenadiers. 
Signal Service (British), R.E. 

Brief Record of Service. 

The 101st Grenadiers landed in Egypt from East Africa on Sept. 4, 1016, and joined 29th (Indian) 
Infantry Brigade on Canal Defences. The battalion was formed into two battalions on Feb. 3, 1917, 
and the Brigade became 49th (Indian) Infantry Brigade (two battalions only), on April 15. 

The brigade was in support to 54th Division on Samson's Ridge (April 1917), and, later, took over 
the Canal, and Rafa, defences. 

In Jan. 1918, the brigade wa.? disbanded and the battalions composing it joined 20th (Indian) 
Infantry Bmade, and, on May 1, 29th Infantry Brigade of 10th Division (q.v.). 

PALESTINE LINES OF COMIVIUNICATION. 

HEADQUARTERS. 

Commander. — ^Bt. Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) E. N. Broadbent, C.M.G., D.S.O., King's Own Scottish 
Borderers. 

Canal Zone. 
Commander. — Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) A. H. 0. Lloyd, C.B., C.M.G., M.V.O., Shropshire Yeomanry. 

Australian and New Zealand Training Centre (Moascar). 



74 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

Mounted Troops, 

"C" Squadron Eoyal Glasgow Yeomanry (less one troop). 

Camel Coastal Patrol. 

Nos. 5, 7, 8, 9, 10 Companies, Imperial Camel Corps. 

Nos. 1, 3, 6 Companies, Bikanir Camel Corps. 

Arab Scouts (taken over by F.D.A.). 

1st Squadron Cavalry, Egyptian Army (employed under O.E.T.A.). 

No. 1 Company Egyptian Camel Corps (employed under O.E.T.A.). 

Indian Cavalry Base Depot. 

Artillery.' 

Anti-Aircraft Group, E.A. 

Nos. 30, 38, 85, 96, 102, 103, 119, 120, 122, 124, 125, 126, 151, 152 Anti-Aircraft Sections, R. A. 

No. 204 (Calcutta) Battery, R.G.A. 

Armoured Trains. 

Nos. 1 and 3. 

Machine Gun Corps. 

221st, 262nd, 264th Machine Gun Companies (ceased to belong to E.E.F., 7/5/18). 

Engineers. 

35th A.T. Company, R.E. 

357th, 359th, 360th Companies, R.E. (Water Units), 

555th (Lancashire), 569th, 570th, 571st (Devon), AT. Companies, R.Ei 

Nos. 1 and 2 Egyptian Sapper Companies. 

Infantry. 

1st Garrison Battalion Royal Warwickshire Regiment, 1st Garrison Battalion Devonshire 
Regimeni, 1st Garrison Battalion Essex Regiment. 1st Garrison Battahon Northampton- 
shire Regiment, 2nd Garrison Battalion Cheshire Regiment, 19th (Western) Bat- 
talion The Rifle Brigade, T.F. 

2nd Battalion West India Regiment, 2/18th Infantry, 2nd (Reserve) Half Battalion Cape 
Corps, 1st, 2nd, 3rd Egyptian Infantry Battahons, Egyptian Detachment Palestine 
Gendarmerie (2 Companies employed under O.E.T.A.). 

Nos. 1, 2, General, and Indian Infantry, Base Depots. 

Royal Army Veterinary Corps. 

Nos. 16 (Acts as Base Depot) and 31 Veterinary Hospitals. 

Advanced Depots of Veterinary Stores, Ludd and Jerusalem. 

No. 3 Base Depot, Veterinary Stores. 

Nos. 2, 3, 4 Camel Hospitals. 

Nos. 1 and 2 Field Veterinary Detachments, and No. 23 (Indian) Field Veterinary Section, 

Royal Army Service Corps. 

(a) Mechanical Transport : — 

No. 7 (Egypt) Mobile Repair Unit. 

493rd M.T. Company (Supply Column). 

1080th M.T. Company (No. 3 Motor Ambulance Transport Company). 

Advanced M.T. Sub-Depot, Kantara. 

(6) Horse Transport : — 

No. 900 Company A.S.C. (23rd Auxiliary H.T. Company). 

(c) Supply Companies : — 

Nos. 18 and 27 Field Bakeries. 

Nos. 18, 19, 20, 21, 36, 37 L. of C. Supply Companies, 

No. 17 Field Butchery (ceased to exist 21/3/18). 

(d) Camel Transport Corps : — 

" 0," " Q " and '• S " Companies, 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE. , 75 

Area Employment Qroups. 
No. 3 Group : — 

No3. 809, 810, 811, 812, 813 Companies. 

No. 4 Group : — 

No. 808, 814 and 815 Companies. 

Postal Units. 

British :— 

Advanced Base Army Post Offices, SZ 8 and SZ 9. 

Army Post Offices— SZ 2, SZ 7, SZ 14, SZ 17, SZ 18, SZ 23, SZ 27, SZ 32, SZ 34, SZ 38, 

SZ 43, SZ 47, SZ 48, SZ 49, SZ 57, SZ 58, SZ .59. 
Travelling Post Offices (Railway Trains)— DAL, KAL, LAD, LAK, LAP, PAL, RAB, 

BAR, JAP PAJ. 



LINES OF COMMUNICATION UNITS. 

(Controlled by General Headquarters.) 
COMMAND DEPOT. 
Mounted Troops. 

Headquarters and Administrative Centre Imperial Camel Corps (Abbassia). 

Eagineers. 

389th Advanced Park Company, R.E. 

46th Base Park Company, R.E. 

5 Railway Transportation Sections, R.E. 

Railway Operating Division.— Nos. 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 94, 95, 99, 100, 101, 102, 

103, 104 and 105 Sections, R.E. 
98th Light Railway Train Crew Company, R.E. 
115th, 116th, 265th, 266th Railway Companies, R.E. 
272nd Railway Construction Company, R.E. 
Light Railway Survey Section, R.E. 
299th (Indian) Railway Construction Company. 

Signal Service. 

L. of C. Signal Companies, R.E. " M," Sinai, South Palestine, North Palestine. 

Airline Sections, R.E. Nos. 12, 62, 68, 69 and 105 (Indian). 

Northern W/T Section, R.E. 

No. 6 Light Railway Signal Section, R.E. 

Egyptian Construction Section. 

Base Signal Depot, R.E. 

Schools of Instruction. 

Imperial School of Instruction (Zeitoun). 

Senior Officers School (Heliopolis). 

Officer Cadet Battalion, Egypt. 

Branch School (El Arish). 

School of Cookery (Ismailia). 

Central Gas School (Rafa). 

M.T. Drivers Training School (Lorries). 

Royal Army Service Corps. 

(a) Horse Transport : — 

137th Company (2nd Base Horse Transport Depot), Kantara. 
973rd Company (Advanced Horse Transport Depot), Ludd. 
Indian Transport Depot, Richon-le-Zion. 

(6) Camel Transport Corps : — 

No. 1 Camel Depot, Kantara, No. 2 Camel Depot, Ramleh, 



76 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

(c) Harbour Transport : — 

R.A.S.C. Motor Boat Company. 

{d) Supply Companies :— 

Nos. 22, 34, 35 (L. of C.) Supply Companies. 
19th Field Bakery (less detachment). 

Labour. 

(a) Inspectorate of Eecruiting (Cairo) : — 

Recruiting Camps (Sohag, Assiut, Cairo). 

(b) Military Labour Bureaux (Alexandria, Port Said, Cairo, Ismailia, Jaffa, Jerusalem, Haifa). 

(c) Egyptian Labour Corps : — 

Headquarters and Advanced Depot. Ludd. 

Base Depot, Kantara. 

Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 
37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 
•59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 
81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 
102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 
119, 120 Companies. 

Remounts. 

No. 1 Remount Depot (40th and 47th Squadrons). 

No. 2 Remount Depot (44th Squadron). 

No. 3 Remoimt Depot (46th Squadron). 

No. 4 Remount Depot (Australian Remount Unit). 

Nos. 1 and 2, Camel Remount Depots. 

Nos. 1 and 2, Field Remount Sections. 

No. 1 Camel Field Remount Section. 

No. 1 Syce Remount Corps. 

Royal Army Veterinary Corps. 

Veterinary Hospitals Nos. 20, 21 and 26. 

Convalescent Horse Depot. 

Advanced Base Depot of Veterinary Stores. 

No. 1 Camel Hospital. 

Indian Veterinary Hospital. 

Ordnance. 

Nos. 9, 11, 24, 25, 26, 27, 31, 123, Detachment 136, 138 and 139 Companies R.A.O.C. 

and Detachment No. 140 Boot Repairing Companv. 
Nos. 16, 32, 38, 39, 44, 56, 113, and 141 Companies, R.A.O.C. and Headquarters No. 140 

Boot Repairing Company, R.A.O.C. (emploved with R.A.O. Base Depot). 
Nos. 22, 23, 24 (Medium), and No. 39 (Light) R.A.O. Mobile Workshops. 
Nos. 1 and 2, Ammunition Depots, L. of C, R.A.O.C. 
Nos. 1, 2 and 3, Advanced Ammunition Railheads, R.A.O.C. 

Postal Units. 

British: — 

Base Army Post Offices K., T., Z. 

Advanced Base Army Post Office SZ 10. 

Army Post Offices— SZ 4, SZ 5, SZ 6, SZ 11, SZ 12, SZ 15, SZ 16, SZ 20, SZ 22, SZ 24 

SZ 25, SZ 26, SZ 50, SZ 55, SZ 56. 
Travelling Post Offices (Railway Trains)— CAT, TAC. 

Australian : — /■ 

Base Army Post Office SZ 3. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FOECE. 77 

New Zealand : — 
. Base Army Post Office SZ 1. 

Indian : — 

Base Army Post Office "E." 

Miscellaneous. 

H.Q. Army Printing and Stationery Services (Egypt and Salonika). 
Commission of Graves Registration and Enquiries. 
Central Claims Bureau. 



FORCE IN EGYPT. 

HEADQUARTERS. 

Commander.^Col. (temp. Major-Gen.) H. D. Watson, C.B., C.M.G., C.I.E., M.V.O., I.A, 

Solium Section. 
Commander. — Lieut.-Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) K. M. Yorke, C.M.6., D.S.O., Gloucestershire Regiment. 

Mounted Troops. 

Royal Glasgow Yeomanry (One Troop " C " Squadron). 
Imperial Camel Corps (No. 6 Company). 
Bikanir Camel Corps (No. 7 Company). 



Infantry. 



1st Garrison Battalion Notts, and Derby Regiment, 1st Garrison Battalion Liverpool 
Regiment, 1st Garrison Battalion Royal Irish Regiment. 2nd Garrison Battalion 
Royal Welsh Fusihers, 20th Garrison Battalion Rifle Brigade, 21st Garrison Battalion 
Rifle Brigade (to India, 28/9/18), 40th (Palistinian) Battalion Royal Fusiliers, 3rd 
Egj-ptian Infantry Battalion, one Company. s 



Machine Gun Corps. 



Machine Gun Corps, Base Depot. 
Machine Gim Section, Egyptian Army. 

Armoured Cars. 

Light Armoured Car Brigade (less 3 Batteries) : — 
Headquarters. 

No. 3 Light Armoured Car Battery. 
Nos. 5, 6, 7, 9. Light Car Patrols (Ford Cars), 
Heavy Armoured Car. 

Armoured Trains. 

No. 2 Armoured Train. 

Royal Army Service Corps. 

(a) Meciianical Transport : — 

H.Q. and Solium Detachment, 790 Company (Western Force M.T. Supply Column). 

No. 1079 M.T. Company (No. 2 Motor Ambulance Transport Company). 

Nos. 14 and 15 (Egypt) Mobile Repair Units. 

Advanced M.T. Sub-Depot, Cairo. 

Training School for M.T. drivers (Lorry), Helmieh. 



78 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

(6) Horse Transport : — 

313 H.T. Company (6th Auxiliary Horse Company). 

Matruh Detachment, 671 Company (Auxiliary Horse Transport Company), 

(c) Supply Companies : — 

23rd L. of C. Supply Company. 
2/3rd " D " Supply Company. 
Detachment No. 19 Field Bakery. 
No. 26 Field Bakery. 

(d) Camel Transport Corps : — 

Detachment from No. 1 Camel Depot. 

Area Employment Group. (No. 2.) 

Nos. 804, 805, 806 and 807 Companies. 

Miscellaneous. 

Command Depot (Abbassia). 

Egyptian Army Transport Corps (Tel-el-Kebir). 



ALEXANDRIA DISTRICT. 

HEADQUARTERS. 

Commander.— Col (temp. Brig.-Gen.) K. C. Boyle, C.B., C.M.G. 

Mounted Troops. 

Eikanir Camel Corps, Nos. 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10 Companies. 

Coast Defence Artillery. 

103rd (Local) Company, R.G.A. 
Royal Malta Artillery Detachment. 

Royal Engineers. 

loth Base Park Company, R.E. 

Infantry. 

1st Garrison Battahon Royal Scots (2 Companies), 5th (Reserve) Battalion British West 
India Regiment, l/70th Burma Rifles. 

Royal Array Service Corps. 

(a) Mechanical Transport : — 

No. 8 (Ef^ypt) Mobile Repair Unit. 

No. 303 M.T. Company (Divisional Ammimition Park). 

No. 500 M.T. Company (Base M.T. Depot). 

No. 644 M.T. Company (Heavy Repair Workshop and Stores Branch). 

No. 1078 M.T. Company (No. 1 Motor Ambulance Transport Company), 

(b) Horse Transport : — 

No. 671 Company (9th Auxihary Horse Transport Company). 
No. 930 Company (24th Auxiliary Horse Transport Company). 

• 

(c) Camel Transport : — 

Detachment No. 1 Camel Depot. 

(d) Supply Companies : — 
Nos. 24 and 25 L. of C. Supply Companiea, 
H.Q. and l/3rd " D " Supply Company. 

Area Employment Group. (No. 1.) 

Nos. 800, 810, 802 and 803 Companies. 

Miscellaneous. 

Command Depot (Sidi Bishr). 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONAEY FORCE. 79 

DELTA AND WESTERN FORCE. 

(Ceased to exist, April 8, 1918.) 
Commander.— Col (temp. Brig.-Gen.) H. G. Casson, C.B., C.M.G. 

25th Motor Machine Gun Battery (disbanded, 18/1/18). 

ARMY MEDICAL SERVICES. 

DIVISIONAL FIELD AMBULANCES. 

41h Cavalry Division. 

10th Cavalry Brigade Combined Field Ambulance (formerly 6th Mounted Brigade Field 
Ambulance, formerly l/2nd South Midland Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance). 

11th Cavalry Brigade Combined Field Ambulance (formerly 8th Mounted Brigade Field 
Ambulance, formerly 1/lst London Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance). 

12th Cavalry Brigade Combined Field Ambulance (formerly 22nd Mounted Brigade Field 
Ambulance, formerly 1/lst North Midland Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance). 

Sth Cavalry Division. 

13th Cavalry Brigade Combined Field Ambulance (formerly 5th Mounted Brigade Field 
Ambulance, formerly 1/lst South Midland Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance). 

14th Cavalry Brigade Combined Field Ambulance (formerly 7th Mounted Brigade Field 
Ambulance, formerly 1/lst Notts and Derby Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance). 

15th Cavalry Brigade Combined Field Ambulance (formerly 124th Indian Cavalry Field 
Ambulance). 

Australian Mounted Division. 

3rd, 4th, and 5th (formerly Australian Camel Brigade Field Ambulance) Light Horse 
Field Ambulances, 

Australian and New Zealand Mounted Division. 

1st and 2nd Light Horse, and New Zealand Mounted Brigade Field Ambulances. 

3rd (Lahore) Division. 

110th, 111th, and 112th Indian Combined Field Ambulances. 

7th (Indian) Division. 

128th, 129th, and 130th Indian Combined Field Ambulances. 

lOth Division. 

154th Indian Combined Field Ambulance (formerly 32nd Field Ambulance). 
165th Indian Combined Field Ambulance (30th Field Ambulance disbanded). 
166th Indian Combined Field Ambulance (formerly 31st Field Ambulance). 

52nd Division. 

1/lst, l/2nd, and l/3rd Lowland Field .Ambulances (ceased to belong to E.E.F,, 21/4/18). 

53rd Division. 

1/lst Welsh Field Ambulance. 

113th, 170th (formerly l/2ud Welsh), and 171st (formerly l/3rd Welsh), Indian Combined 
Field Ambulances. 

S4th Division. 

2/lst, l/2nd, and l/3rd East Anglian Field Ambulances; 

60th Division. 

121st Indian Combined Field Ambulance (2/4th London Field Ambulance disbanded). 
160th Indian Combined Field Ambulance (formerly 2/5th London Field Ambulance). 
179th Indian Combined Field Ambulance (formerly 2/6th London Field Ambulance). 



80 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

74th Division. 

229th, 230th, and 231st Field Ambulances (ceased to belong to E.E.F., 7/5/18). 

75th Division. 

123rd Indian Combined Field Ambulance (formerly 147th Field Ambulance). 
127th Indian Combined Field Ambulance (145th Field Ambulance disbanded). 
163rd Indian Combined Field Ambulance (formerly KGth Field Ambulance). 

20th Indian Infantry Brigade. 

157th (formerly 110th) Indian Field Ambulance.. 

Palestine Lines of Communication. 

Scottish Horse Field Ambulance. 

CASUALTY CLEARING STATIONS AND CLEARING HOSPITALS. 
Palestine Lines of Communication. 

26th, 35th, 66th, 74th, 76th Casualty Clearing Stations (35th Casualty Clearing Station. 

ceased to belong to E.E.F., April, 1918). 
24th Indian Clearing Hospital. 

31st Indian Clearing Hospital (formerly 31st Combined Clearing Hospital). 
15th Combined Clearing Hospital. 

32nd Combined Clearing Hospital (formerly 75th Casualty Clearing Station). 
33rd Combined Clearing Hospital (formerly 77th Casualty Clearing Station). 
34th Combined Clearing Hospital (formerly 65th Casualty Clearing Station), 

STATIONARY HOSPITALS, etc. 

Palestine Lines of Communication. 

24th, 26th, 36th, 43rd, 44th, 45th, 47th, and 48th Stationary Hospitals (43rd Stationary 
Hospital disbanded, 45th Stationary Hospital ceased to belong to E.E.F., April, 1918). 
No. 2 (Australian) and 137th (Indian) Stationary Hospitals. 

Medical Store Depots. 

Levant Medical Store Depot (Alexandria). 

No. 5 Base Depot Medical Store (Alexandria). 

Base Depot Medical Stores (Abbassia). 

No. 8 Base Depot Medical Stores. 

Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 Advanced Depots Medical Stores. 

Laboratories. 

Military Bacteriological Laboratory (formerly Central Bacteriological Laboratory)* 
Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 Field Laboratories. 
32nd, 37th, and 38th Mobile Laboratories. 
Anzac Field Laboratory (Desert Mounted Corps). 

Sanitary Sections. 

5th Cavalry Division (formerly 5th Indian Cavalry) Sanitary Section. 

18th, 19th, 24th, 29th, 30th, 31st (formerly 4th Indian Cavalry), 52nd, 53rd, 54th, 60tii, 
80th, 85th, 87th, 88th, 89th, 90th, 91st, 92nd, 93rd, 94th, 95th, 107th, 108th, 113th 
114th, 115th, 116th, 121st, 122nd, 123rd, and 12ith Sanitarv Sections (.52nd and 
87th Sections ceased to belong to E.E.F. on 21/4/18 and 7/5)18 respectively). 

7th and 8th Australian Sanitary Sections. 

11th and 12th Indian Sanitary Sections. 

Hospital Trains. 

(Former numbers shown in brackets). 

Nos. 40, 44 (1), 45 (2), 46 (3), 47 (5), 48 (43), 50 (45), 51 (46), 56 (47). 
Nos. 49 (44) and 57 (11) (Egyptian). 

Hospital barge. 

" Niagara." 



. EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE. 81 

HOSPITALS AND CONVALESCENT DEPOTS. 
Palestine Lines of Communication. 

69th and 78th General Hospitals. 

No. 14 Australian General Hospital. 

Nos. 5, 30, 32, 39, 41, 44, 50 (formerly " Indian Base Hospital"), 54th, and Mhow, 

Indian General Hospitals. 
Nos. 3, 4, and 5 Prisoners-of-War Hospitals. 

Nos. 1 (formerly No. 6), 2, 3, and 4 Egyptian Stationary Hospitals. 
Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 Egyptian Detention Hospitals. 

Force in Egypt. 

27th, 31st, and 71st General Hospitals. 

Nos. 31 and 45 (formerly 70th General) Indian General Hospitals, 

Citadel and Nasrieh Hospitals. 

Infectious Hospital, Choubra, and Orthopaedic Hospital, Helwan. 

Nos. 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, and 9 Prisoners-of-War Hospitals. 

No. 13 Egyptian Detention (formerly No. 1 Egyptian Stationary) Hospital; 

Alexandria District. 

15th, 17th, 19th, 21st, and 87th General Hospitals (15th General Hospital' ceased to 

. belong to E.E.F. April, 1918). 
Ras el Tin Military Hospital. 
No. 10 Prisoners-of-War Hospital. 
Nos. 2 and 14 (formerly No. 5 Egyptian Stationary) Egyptian Detention Hospitals, 

Convalescent Depots. 

Abbassia, Boulac, Montazah, Mustapha. 
Aotea New Zealand Convalescent Home. 
Indian Convalescent Depot. 
Reception Station, Mustapha, 



82 THE ADVANCE OF THE 



THE ANTI-AIRCRAFT SECTIONS. 

In July, 1917, there were in the Egyptian Expeditionary Force only seven Anti-Aircraft Sectionfl, 
of which two had only lately arrived. Owing to the small number of sections available, it was im- 
possible to do more at that time than protect points of vital importance, such as railheads, dumps, and 
aerodromes. 

With the arrival in October and November of eight new sections, equipped with more modem 
guns (two additional sections were formed later for the protection of important bases) and the formation 
of Anti-Aircraft Group Headquarters to co-ordinate the work of the sections, it became possible for a 
more comprehensive scheme of defence to be formulated. During the operations of Nov. and Dec, 
1917, Anti-Aircraft Sections followed up the advance as closely as transport facihties and the state of 
the roads would permit. 

When the Une had been stabilized, a front line barrage was established^ — except on a few miles of 
front where the country, on account of its mountainous and broken character, became unsuitable for 
anti-aircraft positions — with the object of preventing hostile aircraft from crossing our Une without 
being observed and engaged. Secondary, but most important considerations in estabhshing this barrage, 
were the protection of our front Une trenches and the prevention of co-operation between enemy artillery 
and their aircraft. {See inset Plate 52.) 

In the earUer months of the present year, there was a considerable amount of hostile air activity, 
and most of the sections were kept pretty fully occupied. For example, in April one section was in 
action seventy-six times and fired an average of just under 100 rounds per day. 

A more elaborate scheme of co-operation with the Royal Air Force was gradually evolved, and 
with a view to giving immediate warning of the approach of enemy machines, wireless telegraphy 
stations were placed at the positions of several of the more advanced sections. A system of directional 
shots was arranged to point out the position of hostile machines to our air patrols, groimd arrow 
signals were put out, and the course of every aeroplane, from the time it appeared till it finally went 
out of sight behind its own lines, was charted and reported. 

The result of this, together with the increasing number and improved types of our own machines, was 
that enemy planes crossed our lines at an ever-increasing height until very few flew lower than from 14,000 
to 18,000 feet. There was also a gradual decrease in the number of hostile 'planes seen, and from 
Sept. 6 to 17 inclusive, only two machines crossed our fines, and these were at too great a height to get 
information of any value, as their reports, which have since been captured, show. 

The last machine to be engaged was one which flew over the Jordan Valley on Sept. 21. The 
section which engaged it were immediately shelled out of their position by artillery fire — an interesting 
sidelight on the absence of knowledge on the part of the enemy forces in that area as to the true posi- 
tion of affairs on that date. {See Plate 45.) 

Owing to the entire absence of enemy machines during the September (1918) advance, the Anti- 
Aircraft Sections took no active part in the operations. Sections were, however, pushed forward 
rapidly in case they should be required. By Oct. 31 three of them had made the long journey to Beirut 
by road. One of these was on its way north from there when the Armistice came into effect and it was 
recalled. 

Protection has also been afforded throughout the whole campaign to the more important points 
on the lines of communication. 

That anti-aircraft did something towards fulfilling its functions on this front is testified to by the 
constantly recurring entries in the captured diaries of the enemy Flying Corps Headquarters and 
squadrons, which shew that machines were continually being damaged and reconnaissances prevented 
by anti-aircraft fire. The following are typical extracts : — 

" 20/3/18. Machines hit at Ramleh at height of 4,700 metres." 

" 13-19/4/18. Anti-aircraft defence still very strong and makes things difficult for our working machines in the near 
reconnaissances." 

" 20/5/18. Wadi Auja. 1240. Reconnaissance here was impossible in spite of much turning, in consequence of a, 
storm and extraordinarily lively anti-aircraft fire. Shooting extraordinarily violent." 
" 2/6/18-8/6/18. Enemy anti-aircraft fire was lively and as good as ever." 

" 19/7/18. Machine of 300 Squadron was seriously damaged in the elevator* by anti-aircraft hits. Glided down to 
500 metres and broke up on the ground." -^ 

" 22/8/18. Machine of 301 Squadron considerably damaged by anti-aircraft fire." *> 

" 27/8/18. Very strong anti-aircraft fire over Bamleh, whereby there were several hits in the machine and petro) 
tank shot through." 

•The "elevator" here referred to is part of the lifting gear in the wings of the machine. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 83 

THE ROYAL ENGINEERS. 



1.— Water Supply. 

The army, which crossed the Sinai Desert into Palestine and then deploying on a broad front) 
enveloped the Turkish position extending from Beersheba to Gaza, demanded much of its engineers. 

During its deliberate advance it was followed by a broad guage railway and a piped supply of filtered 
water from Kantara, on the Suez Canal, into the field of battle near Beersheba, a distance of 147 miles. 

It would be an exaggeration to say that there is no water in the Sinai Peninsula, which separates 
Egypt from Palestine, but the supplies are so scanty and bad that the desert has always been a very 
formidable obstacle to the passage of troops. 

The only practicable route across the desert nins along its northern edge where scanty supplies of 
wat«r are found in small wells on the caravan route, or by digging new wells in the sand dunes, but, 
nearly all water in these wells is brackish and unpalatable and as a supply it is quite inadequate for a 
large force, followed by an army of labourers constructing a railway. It was therefore necessary to 
provide the army with water from a source outside Sinai. 

The water supply system, as originally planned, was only intended to supply 500,000 gallons a day 
for a force of one mounted and two infantry divisions detailed to recapture the Egyptian town of El Ari^h, 
which was in the hands of the Turks, but, as it \A{as extended beyond there and proved to be an important 
factor in subsequent operations it must be briefly described. 

On the west bank of the Suez Canal, at its northern end, runs the Port Said branch of the Sweet 
water Canal which carries the water of the Nile to that town. In the autumn of 191G, plant to filter 
600,000 gallons of water per day was installed on this sweet water canal at Kantara, and the purified 
water was pumped through syphons under the Suez Canal into masonry reservoirs on the east bank. 
From Kantara East a water supply main of twelve inch, ten inch, and eight inch steel screw-jointed 
pipes was laid into El Arish, in four sections each about twenty-four miles long. DupHcate engines and 
pumps drove the water from the reservoir at Kantara to a reservoir at the end of the first section and 
thence it was again pumped forward through the next section of pipe and so forward, section by section, 
until it reached El Arish. 

To explain the work done on water supply it is necessary to describe briefly the system adopted 
for the distribution of water by rail and camel convoys and the clearest way to do this is to start from the 
beginning. 

Before the pipe-line from Kantara was laid and supplying water, the army had started on the march 
forward covering the railway construction parties and water had to be carried forward in trains of 
V, ater trucks. 

These water trains were filled at a special siding, where twenty or more trucks could be dealt with 
simultaneously, and on arrival at railhead were emptied into a long row of canvas reservoirs laid beside 
the rails. Here small camel tanks, called fantasses, were filled up and these were carried forward by 
camel convoys for distribution to the troops beyond railhead. 

When the first section of pipe-line was completed a new water siding was provided and the railway 
was relieved of carrying water for the first stage and so on until water was finally pumped to railhead. 

Once El Arish had been reached the army passed into a coimtry where, within certain limits, the troops 
could be supplied with water from local resources. The railway engineers, however, rejected local water 
as unfit for use in its locomotives on account of its salinity and hardness : the railway, therefore, became 
the principal consumer of the piped supply : it was, however, also used by the troops to a considerable 
extent to supplement local supplies and in the final operations was a very valuable asset. 

The army continued its advance from El Arish to Khan Yunis on a narrow front, along the caravan 
route, near the coast where the only water which can be found in the district is from wells in the sand 
dune area and in the villaees of El Burj, Sheikh Zowaid, Rafa, and Khan Yunis. At Khan Yunis two 
good wells about 100 feet deep and at Beni Sela, an adjoining village on a higher site, a well 210 feet deep 
were found. 

These three wells, when provided with pumps and engines, eventually supplied 130,000 gallons a day. 

From Khan Yunis forward it became possible to extend on to a wider front, as water can be got in 
some parts of the bed of the Wadi Ghuzze and in its tributary valleys, from springs or in pools or by sinking 
shallow wells, while further to the right lay Beersheba, whose wells have been famous since the days 
Abraham watered his flocks there. 

On the left front lay the village of Deir el Belah, with several good wells twenty to thirty feet deep, 
the Wadi Ghuzze, and, further forward, the town cf Gaza with abundant supplies of water from 
deep wells. 

The Turks abandoned to us Deir el Belah and Shellal, where the best supplies of water in the Wadi 
Ghuzze are found, but held on to Gaza and Beersheba. 



84 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

For a time the army advanced no further but utilised the next few months in preparations and 
during this period much useful work was done in the development of local suppUes and in laying pipe- lines 
forward and to the right flank to enable troops to be concentrated where required. 

The railway was extended to Rafa and thence to Gamli and Shellal on the right and to Deir el Relah 
on the left. The water from Kantara followed the railway to Rafa, in six-inch and twin four-inch pipes, 
and to Shellal, supplying the requirements of General Headquarters and El Fukhari on the way. A 
pipe-line was also laid from the wells at Khan Yimis, vid Abasan el Kebir and Abu Sitta, to Abu Bakra, 
and this was cross-connected from Abu Sitta to Abu Khatii so that water could be distributed either from 
Rafa or Khan Yunis to any point. {See Plate 2.) 

At Shellal spiings, yielding about 14,000 gallons per hour, of somewhat saline water, had been cleaned 
out, covered in, and the water was led through pipes to a water distributing area. A natural rock basin 
had been improved by a masonry dam and provided storage for some 500,000 gallons of water. A pipe- 
line had been laid forward from Shellal to Imara and three sets of twenty-five horsepower engines and 
centrifugal pumps were installed tor local distribution and to pump water forward if required. The 
capacity of each of these pumping sets was 4,800 gallons per hour against a 200 feet head and the pumps 
were arranged so that any two sets could work " in series " to pump against a 400 feet head, keeping one 
set spare in reserve. 

At Abu Bakra several miles of piping were held ready to extend the pipe-line beyond the Wadi Ghuzze 
if required. 

At Mendur and at Dorset House deep bore wells had been sunk and provided with pumping engines. 

The Deir el Belah wells were connected up and, from these, water was pumped into the trendies 
south of Gaza, while further to the left there was another smaller piped supply from the Red House 
wells. Along the Wadi Ghuzze and in the sand dunes near the coast wherever water could be got and 
was required wells had been dug. 

Between March and Oct., 1917, the force in this area gradually grew to three mounted divisions, 
a brigade of the Imperial Camel Corps, seven infantry divisions, and a composite brigade of Allied and 
Indian Imperial Service troops. General Headquarters moved into the area in Aug., 1917, and 
preparations were made for an enveloping attack on the Turkish position at Beersheba, combined with 
a frontal attack on Gaza. 

On Plate 31 (see Inset) an attempt has been made to indicate the arrangement of the water 
supply up to and during the operations which commenced on Oct. 22. 

The supply of water which could be brought into the area by rail and delivered at Shellal or Gamli 
wag some 100,000 gallons. 

The El Arish-Rafa pipe-line, after meeting railway reqiiirements at Rasum, could supply some 
156,000 gallons per day to Rafa, whence 60,000 gallons per day could be delivered through Fukhari 
and Sheikh Nuran to Shellal or Abu Sitta. 

The Khan Yunis well and pumping station could supply some 100,000 gallons per day to Abu Sitta 
and thence by the cross line to Sheikh Nuran and Shellal, or direct to Abu Bakra. 

These transferable supplies from the rear, amounting to 260,000 gallons were controlled by General 
Headquarters during the course of the operations and dehveries at the various watering points were 
regulated according to the daily movements of the troops. 

The development of water supplies east of Esani was allotted to the Desert Mounted Corps, but 
could not be commenced until the date fixed for the first movement of troops into the area (Oct. 22). 

Preparations had to be made at once to collect suitable engines, pumps and plant to restore and 
develop water supplies in an area which had not yet been occupied. 

The development of water supplies in the Sheikh Nuran-Gamli-vShellal-Heseia area, and east, 
including the improvement and restoration of the water supplies in Beersheba, when captured, was 
allotted to the XXth Corps, but no work east of the Wadi Ghuzze was to be taken in hand imtil Oct. 22. 

The arrangements for the distribution of water in the GaniH-Shellal-Hiseia area, from which three 
mounted and four infantry divisions, accompanied by large convoys of camels for carrying water, were 
to start for the attack on the Turkish position, was of first importance. 

There is a considerable amount of water in springs and in pools in the bed of the Wadi Ghuzze 
within the limits indicated, but to make it available for rapid distribution involved a great deal of 
preparatory organization and work. 

At intervals along the valley a total of over 3,000 running feet of masonry and wood troughs 
were provided for watering horses and camels. 

In addition to the main road crossings, for u.se by transport, and roads for use of the troops moving 
out from the concentration area, special tracks across the wadi had been arranged for animals going to 
and returning from water and others again for camel convoys carrying fanatis to and from the fantas?e 
filling areas. AH these soads were placarded with notice boards showing what formations had to use 
them, and where they led to. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 85 

At Shellal, a fantasse filling area, in which 2,000 fanatis could be filled and loaded on camels every 
Lour, was organized, and the piping for the line to be laid forward, canvas tanks, watering troughs, and 
everything which was likely to be required for water distribution forward, was also collected here. 

At both Gamli and Hiseia pumping engines were erected to fill high level storage tanks, supplying 
water by gravity to fantasse filling areas, capable of filling 250 fanatis per hour. 

The engines, pumps, and plant for work in Beersheba had to be collected, loaded on tractor trains 
and held ready to push forward without delay when the town had been captured. 

The maintenance and enlargement of the water supply in the area Mendur to Sheikh Ajlin, on the 
sea, and back to Deir el Belah, was allotted to the XXIst Corps. 

Until Oct. 22 no troops or animals watered east of the Wadi Ghuzze. After this date troops, began 
to move eastward to take up their position for the attack on Beersheba. 

The follo\wng is a brief summary of the work done between Oct. 22 and Nov. 1 : — 

Desert Mounted Corps. 

Abu Ghalyun was occupied at dawn on Oct. 22 and work in by tlie enemy. Tliese parties, relieved every two hours, 

on water development started at once. An old well was worked continuously until finally the wells had been cleaned 

cleaned out but failed to produce a satisfactory supply. Work out to a depth of forty-two and thirty -six feet respectively. 

on a second well was started but was abandoned. Mean- Pumps and engines with a capacity of 4,500 gallons per 

while, an oflScer of the Australian Engineers " divined " hour were installed and water sufficient tor a division o( 

water in the wadi bed not far away. Two wells, sunk at mounted troops was stored. 

the places indicated by him, reached an abundant supply Asluj was occupfed on the night of Oct. 25-26 and work 

of water at 13ft. depth. started at once on the restoration of wells which the enemy 

Malaga was occupied the same day and here trenches had thoroughly destroyed. After a great deal of heavy work 

dug in the wadi bed provided a good supply. including the installation of machinery, Asluj on the 

Khalassa was occupied by the Camel Brigade on the night 30th was in a position to water a mounted division. Corps 

of the 22ud/23rd and working parties started at dawn of the Headquarters, and a considerable concentration of friendly 

23rd to restore two wells which had been effectively blown Arabs. 

XXth Corps. 

Esani. — Was occupied by one mounted brigade and one started on the 23rd. On this day, five kilometres of pipe were 

infantry brigade on the night of Oct. 22-23. A party of laid out and screwed up in ten sections. On the 24th, these 

1,000 men of the Egyptian Labour Corps accompanied this ten sections were connected through the pipe, was tested and 

force for work under the Royal Engineers, and work began washed out and storage tanks and distribution arrangements 

on the morning of the 23rd. Two portable power-driven were completed at Karm. During the night of the 24th- 

pumping sets, with a combined capacity of 8,000 gallons per 25th the water was being pumped from Shellal through 

hour, canvas storage tanks with a capacity of 150,000 gallons, Imara to Karm and was available on the morning of the 

and water distribution gear were installed. Two hundred 25th, for the use of the troops. Later, additional storage and 

wood horse troughs filled by lift and force pumps were also a second water distribution area were provided at Karm for 

provided in the wadi bed. Work was completed within three water brought by the rail from El Arish, and when the railway 

days, when a yield of 100,000 gallons per day had been extension had been completed, 80,000 gallons per day were 

attained. delivered for some days. 

Imara — On Oct. 25, storage capacity for 80,000 gallons Khasij. — At Khasif, the cisterns were cleaned out and filled 

was erected at Imara, and the water was pumped forward to with 60,000 gallons of water, carried there by two camel 

Imara, from Shellal. convoys of 1,000 camels each on Oct. 29 and 30. This pro- 

Karm. — Work on the pipe-line from Imara to Karm was vided an additional advanced reserve of water. 

The water problem at Beersheba, after its capture, was not confined to the immediate provision of 
water sufficient for the minimum daily needs of the cavalry corps and two infantry divisions, in itself a 
large order, but it was necessary, with as little delay as possible, to make such preparations as would 
allow the second phase of the operations to begin. This could only happen when it was possible for 
the force to march out with a day's rations of water in hand for troops, and every animal to drink its 
fill before starting. 

The water question ahead of Beersheba was, at best, a doubtful one, and it was essential that when the 
advance from Beersheba began, the force employed should be in a position to face a long waterless period. 

The Turks only destroyed a few of the wells before leaving, though all the principal wells had been 
prepared for demolition. This neglect, while most fortunate for us, was not creditable to the Turkish 
engineers, for, however sudden the attack, it was only the work of a moment to light the fuses which 
were ready in position. 

Of the seventeen wells in Beersheba, only two were thoroughly demolished, and two partly damaged. 
In three wells the pumps were in a workable condition though the engines had been put out of action. 
In three other wells, saqqias* were found in at least a workable condition, and though two of these saqqias 
were discarded as unprofitable and replaced by pumps and engines, the third was put in good working 
order in a few hours and was able to cope with the full yield of the well. In addition, the Turks had 
left intact two reservoirs containing some 90,000 gallons, a very useful legacy. 

It was at once clear that the source of water in Beersheba was a large one and likely to provide 
nearly the whole needs of that part of the force which was temporarily based on the town — a force 

requiring in all about 400,000 gallons per day. 

• 

* A Saqqia is a wheel fitted with buckets for raising water. It is worked as a rule by an animal pacing round in a circle on 
the principle of an old fiiihioned mill. 



86 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

It was not to be expected that this volume of water would be available at once, but horses can 
subsist without water for forty-eight hours, and men can do with less than a gallon per day if the 
weather is at all favourable as one might hope it would be in the beginning of November. 

However, the three or four days after the capture of Beersheba were among the hottest of the year — 
a strong khamsin wind blew without intermission, and the whole of the district was enveloped in fine dust. 

Of the plant carried by the tractor train, five engines and three pumps were erected and parts of the 
sixth engine were used to replace similar parts in a duplicate engine left by the Turks. The three pumps 
left by the Turks were put in good working order. Four pumping sets brought in from Asluj were erected, 
one saqqia was put in order and used continually, and from two wells water was raised by bucket and rope. 

Several of the wells were concealed in houses and gardens ; two were not found until the third day 
and one on the fourth day. On the third day, in the afternoon, the water situation was most acute. 
Every available gallon of water stored during the previous night having been consumed. 

The output was just equal to the demand and it was expected that watering animals for the day 
would be finished by midnight. 

At 1600 a mounted brigade of some 2,000 men and horses with forty-eight hours thirst, arrived 
unexpectedly. 

A new well, with saqqia, had fortunately been found about noon on this day, the saqqia was being 
repaired and troughs were being erected, but there was no means of knowing what the yield of the well 
would be. This well was at work by 1700 and proved a good one, yielding about 1,500 gallons per hour, 
just enough to provide water by midnight for the mounted brigade. 

During the first two days, some water had been found in shallow pools and in pits dug in the wadi 
bed to the west of the town. Tfiis supply," however, was nothing more than surface water left from a 
storm which had occurred about a week before, and it was soon exhausted. 

By the morning of the fourth day, the water development had reached its maximum, the total 
output was about 390,000 gallons per day. After this there was no further great anxiety. 

As an extreme measure, an attempt was made to cut dowR the ration of water to horses by imposing 
a time Umit for each batch of horses as it came to the troughs. Such rationing might be effective 
where the control of the watering area was very perfect and where animals had not been without water 
for an undue time. In the exceptional circumstances at Beersheba, the famished horses got out of 
control and rushed the troughs as soon as they got near them and then while some drank greedily, it 
was a difficult matter to get others to drink. There is no difficulty in limiting the ration of water for 
camels, as the camel habitually d.ink in two " bouts " with an interval of about ten minutes. 

The provision of a stout guard rail to every line of troughing was well worth the extra time and 
labour, as it prevented animals from breaking down the troughing in their eagerness to drink. 

{See text facing Plate 39 for continuation of above.) 



2.— Signal Service. 

A branch of the Koyal Engineers that merits a separate chapter is the Signal Service. The nature 
of the operations, the rapid and wide movements, and the great distances traversed, which have been 
special features of our operations in Palestine, made the problems of intercommunication peculiarly difficult. 
The sharp changes from soft sandy deserts to rolling pasture land passable by wheels, and then to moun- 
tain tracks where fines could be laid only by hand, and material coiiveyed by pack animals, called for 
much elasticity in transport, and ingenuity in methods of building telegraph lines. The necessity for 
long distance speech from the front to the base required the provision of telephone trunk fines as long 
as from London to Aberdeen. The volume of traffic to be dealt with has involved the use of 
delicate apparatus for high-speed automatic telegraphy, under very trying conditions of dust and 
damp ; and its successful employment is entirely due to skilful handling by the telegraphists, and to 
the watchful tending of the instrument mechanics. 

An expeditionary force operating in such varying circumstances necessarily has to undergo many 
changes in organization, and each alteration in the organization of a force involves corresponding 
changes in the means of communication. Not only does this apply to actual lines and offices, but to the 
organization of signal personnel. On the formation of the XXth and XXIst Corps, new companies and 
sections to meet the demands of these headquarters were necessary, and to a great extent were improvised 
locally. This improvisation has certain advantages, e.g. the officers and men are accustomed to local 
conditions but, on the other hand, the older units have to suffer from the withdrawal of officers and men. 
Besides these major changes in organization, there are alwa}'s others going on, due chiefly to an ever- 
extending fine of communication, but also to additional means of signalling such as pigeons or "trench" 
wireless and to the re-grouping of units and formations. This all means, that, while the Signal Service is 
functioning as a whole, the parts are constantly being altered and improved, and the smooth working of the 
machine must go on owing to elasticity of the organization and the adaptability of individual members. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 87 

The system of intercommunication built up to July, 1917, consisted of : (1) the tactical cable and 
airlines between East Force Headquarters and the battle front, which included special artillery, Royal 
Flying Corps and other circuits ; (2) the main backbone of semi-permanent lines connecting East Force 
Headquarters (near Deir el Belah) with the Kantara base (about 140 miles away) ; (3) the permanent 
lines within Egypt connecting Kantara to Cairo, Alexandria, Port Said, Suez, and to our cables to Europe, 
India, and Australia. 

During September and October of 1917, with the prospect of an advance, signal units were very 
busy — in addition many had only recently been formed, and still had to continue training. Behind the 
battle area, the increase in administrative services and the doubling of the railway line entailed an ex- 
pansion of the Lines of Communication Signals. Not only were the local telephone systems continually 
growing, but means of maintaining telephonic communication with Egypt as the force advanced required 
the previous building of heavier trunk wires. To economise men, as the lines lengthened, the old Turkish 
desert telegraph lines had to be replaced by new Unes along the railway, where maintenance is easier. 
Forward units with the assistance of infantry and artillery were engaged on elaborate buried telephone 
systems in the shelled areas. Alternative routes were so developed that any battery, for example, could 
always ring up any observation post or artillery commander, even if some of the main lines were cut. 
Preparations for the attack on Beersheba and the maintenance of commimication with the cavalry on 
their long march of envelopment also involved much careful preliminary work and training. Material 
for airlines and cables was laid out and concealed ready for rapid laying when the flag fell. Three cables 
accompanied the cavalry and these were patrolled constantly by horsemen left at test points every five 
or six miles. Although .the lines were cut one or more of the three were always in working order and 
communication was preserved throughout the enveloping attack. 

When " Z " day arrived and Beersheba was captured, rapidly erected permanent wires were sub- 
stituted for the long cable lines which had been laid round by way of Asluj. A network of cables spread 
out from Beersheba to the north and north-west as the flank attacks on the main Turkish positions 
progressed. When mounted troops advanced, wireless communication came into use to keep touch 
with the rear. When Gaza fell, lines were rapidly extended up the main road and along the railway. 
Gaza, Beit Hanun, Deir Sineid, Mejdel, each in turn became railhead where local telephonic systems 
were rapidly installed. Among the troops advancing, divisional and corps signal units were ever at 
work coping with the constant forward jumps of their headquarters. For two months this process 
continued in difiicult country and during severe climatic changes. Then, as warfare became less mobile, 
more elaborate forms of forward communications grew, involving alternative means of all sorts. In 
rear the railway and its telegraphs advanced, and as Ludd became railhead there grew up the usual 
telephone system. Jerusalem, Ramleh, and Jaffa were all linked up, and became important centres ; 
while Jericho served as the focus of intercommunication for the operations across the Jordan. 

During the summer of 1918. while big changes in the constitution of the force were in progress some 
signal units had largely to help units of other arms who were short of trained signallers in maintaining 
their telephonic systems. Assistance was also given in the training on a large scale of regimental signallers 
in Corps Signal Schools. A very large increase in the number of signallers was effected in Indian Army 
units. The more prosaic side, such as the improvement, and in some instances multiplication of lines 
in rear, and the transmission of masses of telegrams, numerous telephone calls, and messages by despatch 
rider went on continuously through 1918. 

Early in September, preparations had to be made for the final battle of the war with the Turk. The 
wonderful secrecy of all the preliminary arrangements necessitated limitations to the amount of work 
that could be done in certain directions. On the other hand, considerable scope to ingenuity was given 
by opportunities for misleading the enemy. For instance, the leaving of signal stations in their old places, 
the continuation of work as usual and the building out of dummy lines, and special telephone exchanges 
built only for purposes of deception, helped to mask our intentions. 

Finally, when the cavalry had moved across to the left flank and all was ready, the " break through " 
was effected. As is well known, the advance of the cavalry averaged some sixty miles during the first 
twenty-four hours. As soon as the cavalry divisions got to their positions across the Hue of retreat 
of the Turks at Afule and Beisan, telegraphic communication was established between these points and 
General Headquarters near Ramleh by rapid building and repairs to Turkish lines. Thus, the move- 
ments of cavalry working northwards from Ghoraniyeh and southwards from Beisan — closing the ring — 
could be co-ordinated. It must not be forgotten that other forms of telegraphy — visual and wireless — and 
motor cyclist despatch riders were also playing their important part. 

To resume, after the major portion of the Turkish army had been surroimded the freer movements of 
the cavalry made still greater calls on their signal units. One day's march from Afule led to the capture 
of Haifa, and, though this was an advance of about thirty miles over new territory the capture was re- 
ported from just outside the town by telephone to the De«ert Corps Headquarters at Megiddo (Lejjun) 
the same afternoon. 



88 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

During the subsequent advances to Damascus and Aleppo, telegraphic communication to advanced 
troops was usually obtained as soon as these halted. The method employed was to mount parties of 
linemen in motor ears with the necessary material and implements, and so effect rapid repairs to existing 
wires. Subsequently, the patched-up lines have to be thoroughly overhauled, and for many weeks 
after the army is at rest the cable and airline sections of the Signal Service are kept hard at work 
re-building and adding to the telegraph system in the occupied territory. 

For those who appreciate figures, it may be of interest to pictui-e the *' traffic " dealt with at various 
places : — 

Average number of words ttelegraphed daily at (a) Divisional Headquarters 12,000 

,, ,, „ ,, (b) Corps Headquarters ... 25,000 

,, ., „ „ „ (c) General Headquarters .. . 90,000 

» „ (d) Kantara 60.000 

3.— Survey Company. 

The work of the 7 th Field Survey Company, Royal Engineers, may be summarized under the 
headings : Field survey, compilation and reproduction of maps and photographs and letterpress printing, 
sound ranging sections and observation group, meteorological section. 

A series of contoured maps on the scale of 1 : 40,000 of the coastal belt of Northern Sinai up to Rafa 
had been issued before July, 1917. Work on this scale was continued up to the Gaza-Beersheba line, 
and a series on the scale of 1 : 10,000 was started, showing the enemy trenches, barbed wire, and gun 
positions in greater detail. The work of the field parties consisted chiefly of triangulation, detailed 
survey with plane tables showing contours, intersecting points in and beyond the enemy's lines, and 
fixing battery positions and datum points for the artillery. Smrvey parties also accompanied all recon- 
naissances in force towards the more easterly trench systems and Beersheba, and did such survey worlc 
as time permitted on these occasions, fixing points ahead which were of great use to the artillery and 
in the compilation of the maps from aeroplane photographs. Officers in charge of sections in the field 
also kept in close touch vrith divisions and brigades and supplied them with advanced tracings of new 
or special areas surveyed. 

The Royal Air Force and Australian Flying Corps took aeroplane photographs regularly over the 
enemy trench lines and country beyond. Copies were supplied to the Field Survey Company, and from 
these many maps were compiled wholly ; intersected points or good detail on the existing maps forming 
the basis. An officer was appointed under G.S.I, to study all photographs and indicate all enemy defence 
works and details of military importance which were then plotted by the Survey Company on the maps. 
Enemy battery positions and other important targets were plotted at once, and co-ordinates supplied 
to this officer for communication to the artillery. 

The compilation of maps from survey and photographs, and fair drawing ready for reproduction 
were done at headquarters, and in June, 1917, a power-driven lithographic printing machine was installed 
at Rafa for printing maps with a minimum loss of time. In this way up to about the middle of Aug., 
1917, all the country from the sea near Gaza to south of Beersheba was mapped in more or less detail, 
including all enemy trenches, and published in nine sheets on the 1 : 40,000 scale, and seventeen sheets 
on the 1 : 10,000 scale, in all thirty-seven editions. 

Owing to the large number of 1 : 10,000 scale sheets required to cover the whole line of trench 
systems the scale of 1 : 20,000 was adopted and eighteen sheets were prepared, and twenty -eight 
editions printed, nineteen of them by the Survey Company, Printing Section, and nine by the Survey 
of Egypt, Cairo. Of the area covered by these sheets, 282 square miles were surveyed, and 403 square 
miles were compiled from aeroplane photographs. Over 3,000 photographs of the Gaza area and its 
communications were dealt with. 

When the Turks evacuated their Gaza-Beersheba positions and retreated to the Jaffa-Jerusalem 
line, the survey parties continued the triangulation through the intervening country in two belts, one 
through the coastal plain and thence to Jerusalem, the other along the Beersheba-Hebron-Jerusalem 
road in the hills. Points were thus established for the continuation of detailed ground survey along the 
new lines of defence, and for laying out new bases for sound rangina sections without delay. At the 
same time a limited amoimt of contom-ed detailed survey of imniediate importance was done. 

The rate of advance of our troops during periods of open warfare was too great to allow detailed 
purvey of all the country traversed at the time, but as soon as the enemy held a defensive line again, 
detailed survey was resumed by the field sections and continued with the gradual British advances, 
comprising a belt across the front from the sea to the River Jordan averaging fifteen miles in depth. 
This survey was carried practically up to the enemy's lines and a large number of points such as 
prominent hills, trees, and buildings in and beyond the enemy line were fixed by intersection. A check 
base Line measured near Jafia, and connected with the triangulation, showed that a satisfacfory standard 
oi accuracy was being maintained. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 89 

The scale of 1 : 20,000 was continued for a time, but in consideration of the extent of the country 
to be mapped and the steep mountainous character of the greater part of it, the scale of 1 : 40,000 was 
adopted again for the general map, while shortly before the British attack in September, five sheets were 
printed on the more open scale of 1 : 20,000, covering those areas where the enemy trench and communi- 
cation systems were most compUcated and extensive — that is, upon the coastal plain and the foothills. 
The operations maps of the 1 : 40,000 scale series were printed in four colours ; the wadis, roads, rail- 
ways, villages, wells, and such topographical features, the lettering and also the numbered reference 
grid, were in black, contours in brown, trees in green, and enemy trenches, gun emplacements, barbed 
wire, and such works in red over black. Different classes of roads were also indicated in red. Contours 
were surveyed at twenty metres (about sixty-six feet) vertical interval in the hilly country and at ten 
metres on the plain, with spot heights on the hills. A small number of sheets were also o\"erprinted 
with a special grid sub-division and enemy battery numbers in blue, for the use of the artillery in 
counter-battery work. 

The Royal Air Force photographed the whole of the enemy trench line, and country in the rear of 
it to a distance of roughly twenty-five miles, and in addition the main roads and railways leading into 
this area from the north. From Jan. 1, 1918, to the cessation of hostilities, 15,690 photographs were 
dealt with, and the topographical information published in map form. 

The Photographic Section of the Royal Air Force has shown the greatest wilUngness to co-operate 
with, and meet the somewhat exacting requirements of, the Survey Company in the matter of aeroplane 
photographs, with the result that these photographs have been used in the compilation of topographical 
detail maps in this force to a relatively greater extent, perhaps, than on any other front. 

After the survey in the neighbourhood of the line had been completed, a number of topographers 
were available for surveying the country passed over in the rapid advance from Gaza. The area between 
the sea and three miles east of the Jerusalem-Beersheba road, and back to the area surveyed before the 
Gaza-Beersheba line, has now been completed for the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration. This 
area covers 1,473 square miles. After the British advance in September field sections continued the 
triangulation northwards, one party along the Nablus road, another along the plain and foothills to near 
Messudieh railway junction, whence a single belt was continued beyond Nazareth to Damascus, thus 
connecting Damascus with the Survey in Egypt. 

Astronomical observations have been made at Baalbek, Hama, and Aleppo, determining the 
latitudes and longitudes of these places. 

A small party proceeded to the Hedjaz and determined by star observations the geographical 
positions of several places, including Maan and Shahm on the railway. The wireless time signals of 
Paris and Berlin were received. 

In addition to the regular sheets of the principal series of maps a considerable number of other mis- 
cellaneous maps were produced and new information from aeroplane photographs added to sheets of the 
one inch to one mile series. Maps showing the disposition of enemy forces to accompany " Intelligence 
Summaries " were printed periodically. During active operations these maps showing the situation u;i 
to 1,800 or 2,200 were printed at night for despatch to units in the field before the commencement of 
following day's operations. These maps were issued for some sixty days. 

Sun printing and photography were also used for reproducing maps and plans when small nimibers 
only were required. 

Twenty-six telephoto panoramas were taken from a number of positions commanding good views 
over the enemy's ground, and enlarged copies supplied to the corps and divisions concerned. 

Two Topographical Sections were formed in Aug., 1918, to work in closer touch with the headquarters 
of the XXth and XXtst Corps, and to compile and print small maps of the enemy's defence line as 
required, showing information from the latest air photographs and Intelligence reports, more frequently 
than the regular full sheets of the Survey Company could be issued. The maps of the Survey Company 
were used as a basis, and new work was added or enlargements of limited areas were made to show smaller 
details. Maps measuring fourteen and a half inches by nine inches were reproduced in five colours if 
necessary, on duplicators, and in this way several hundred copies could be produced within twenty-four 
hours of the taking of the photographs. The short time required to get out a map with a suitable amount 
of detail, made this a very useful supplementary method, especially in the case of raids. In the 
short period of seven weeks, during which the topographical sections were in action, thirty-two of these 
sketch maps in all were produced, and over 8,800 copies distributed. 

The Letterpkess Section of the Company. 

Perk^dical*' Intelligence Summaries," Topographical Handbooks, and other reports were printed 
at Ramleh. 



90 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

Sound Kanginq Sections. 

Two Sound Ranging Sections were added to the establishment of the Field Survey Company in Aug., 
1917. Their work was to locate enemy guns and bursts of shells by sound, and also to conduct shoota 
on certain of the more active gun positions located. It should be noted that the sound ranging here 
spoken of is carried out by an appUcation of advanced electrical science, and should not be confused with 
what are known as " sound bearings " — ^a rough and ready method, where direction is judged by hearing. 
On the Gaza-Beersheba line two bases were surveyed and occupied, one by each section, between the 
coast and Mondur. In this way the whole of the enemy's front line from the sea to Atawineh was covered 
— approximately ten miles. In this position 629 gim locations were made and twenty-four shoots 
conducted. 

AVith open warfare these sections came out of action, but with the commencement of trench warfare 
bases were once more established and occupied. The sections moved with the advance of our line 
until the Arsuf-Sinjil Une was reached, where three bases were occupied by one section on the hills 
and two bases by the other section on the plain. In Aug., 1918, a third sound ranging section was 
formed locally to occupy a sixth base on the foothills. In this way the whole of the enemy line, 
approximately thirty-six and a half miles in length to a depth of five miles, was covered. 

Sound ranging sections are able to locate guns by day or night with considerable accuracy, except 
in strong adverse winds, and at the same time to give the cahbre of the guns located. In conjunction 
with aeroplane photographs sound ranging succeeded in locating practically all the enemy gun positions, 
and shoots on the majority of the locations were so effective that the enemy was forced to vacate occupied 
pits or their guns were silenced at will by our artillery. 

From Sept., 1917, to Sept., 1918, over 3,000 gun locations were made, and over seventy shoots by 
our artillery were conducted. 

Observation Group. 

This group came into action in the foothill area in Aug., 1918. Its work consisted in locating enemy 
guns by flash spotting and reporting enemy activity behind the line, for example, concentration of troops, 
movements along roads, etc.. The group required four accurately fixed observation posts, for which 
the necessary survey was done by the field sections of the company. During the short time the group 
was in action, however, enemy artillery activity on its front was slight, and very little opportunity was 
given for locating guns in this way. 

Meteorological Section. 

Regular meteorological observationis have been made by this section of the company. Readings 
of maximum and minimum temperatures, humidity, barometric pressure, evaporation, wind, and rain- 
fall were recorded four times a day. A daily weather report was issued comprising the observations 
at General Headquarters and at Jerusalem, and also a weekly summary of the observations at these 
two places. The necessary observations were telegraphed every morning to the Physical Service, Cairo, 
where they were combined with data from other places and iised in making the forecast for the Palestine 
front. Thi.s forecast was issued daily except during the settled summer season. Recently a daily report 
has been issued giving weather and road conditions at a number of places throughout Syria. 

Measurements of the direction and velocity of upper air currents were made by the observation 
of the flight of small pilot balloons. From these observations corrections were computed for the use 
of the artillery and communicated usually once daily. During artillery activity balloon flights were 
observed at intervals of four hours during the day and night. These upper air reports were also issued 
to the Royal Air Force, and to the Sound Ranging Sections. Special balloons flights were observed, 
when required by the Royal Air Force, before long distance aeroplane flights. 

The second meteorological station was established at Jerusalem in April, 1918, and later pilot balloon 
work was conducted there and the results sent to the artillery on that part of the front. 

The Meteorological Section also undertook the checking and calibration of instruments, such as 
aneroid barometers, compasses, thermometers, etc., for other units as required. 



4. — Military Railways. 

Previous to the operations against the Gaza position in 1917, the main line had been laid to 
kilometre 226'2 and was operated as far as Belah Station. 

From Rafa (kilometre 200), a branch line had been laid in the direction of Beersheba as far as 
kilometre 28 from Rafa, and was operated as far as Shellal Junction from which point a short line of 
about seven kilometres in length ran southwards to Gamli. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 91 

During the same period the double tracking of the main line from Kantara East to Rafa had advanced 
as far as kilometre 137"5, that is to say, to Maadan Station. This length of double line enabled 
considerable economies to be effected in time, engines, trucks, and operating staff. 

In order to economise transport immediately in front of Belah, for the purpose of increasing the 
amoimt available in the Beersheba area, a two-foot six-inch gauge light railway was run from Belah 
Station to various points but little west of the Wadi Ghuzze. Before operations conamenced this line 
had attained a length of nineteen kilometres and was eventually extended another four kilometres. A 
large part of this line was in direct view from the Turkish position, but no material damage resulted. 
This line enabled large reserves of supplies and ammunition to be placed before-hand well up towards 
the front line and proved to be of considerable value. 

In connection with the Gaza operations the following programme was arranged. The Beersheba 
branch was to be extended to Karm Station at kilometre 36-8. This necessitated track being laid at a 
rate approaching two miles per day. At the same time it was arranged to extend the main line in front 
of Gaza, across the Wadi Ghuzze, and then construct a dummy station on the west side of the wadi. 
In spite of heavy rains both parts of the programme were carried out successfully ; Karm Station being 
opened for traffic one day ahead of the scheduled date, viz. Oct. 28. During the operations the Beersheba 
line was extended to about kilometre 39. 

In view of the successful development of the attack, work was stopped on the Beersheba line, 
and the construction of the main line towards Gaza was recommenced on Nov. 10. 

Up to this date the light railways were constructed and operated by the Railway Operating Division 
of the standard gauge. Owing to the rapid advance after the capture of Gaza and the necessity 
for operating the captured Turkish railways (at this time isolated from the standard gauge system), 
a Light Railway Organization was formed which moved up to Deir Sineid to take over and operate the 
three-foot six-inch lines taken from the Turks. The useful part of this line extended from Beit Hanim 
to Jerusalem (eighty-nine kilometres), with a branch from Junction Station (Wadi Surar Junction) to 
Ludd (nineteen kilometres). At first the Una was only available for use as far as Artuf on the Jerusalem 
line on account of the destruction of bridges. On the branch towards Ludd the bridge over the 
Wadi Surar had been destroyed, but a temporary deviation was soon constructed which made this' line 
available for traffic. 

On the line between Artuf and Jerusalem four steel bridges had been destroyed, viz. ; two of thirty 
metres span, one of ten metres span, and one of sixteen metres span. The work of reconstruction was 
immediately commenced. 

Further advances by our troops and the possibility of unloading stores at Jaffa rendered the con- 
struction of railway commimications with that port necessary. The light railway staff was therefore 
transferred to Jaffa about the middle of December and construction commenced on lines north of Jaffa 
and towards Ludd to coimect with the existing three-foot six-inch line. To enable this to be done the 
three-foot six-inch lines were taken over by the Railway Operating Division. 

The reconstruction of the bridges on the Jerusalem Une was much hammered by the narrowness 
and rocky nature of the gorge which prevented much material being taken forward to any bridge until 
those in rear were completed. 

The four bridges were finally completed and the whole of the line to Jerusalem opened to traffic on 
Jan. 27, 1918. 

During this period the narrow gauge suffered severely from rains. The line from Dcir Sineid to 
Tineh was constructed on new earthworks with inadequate drainage. Numerous washouts occurred, 
and the line was closed on this account on several occasions for periods varying from three to ten days. 
Meanwhile, the standard gauge was progressing northwards through Gaza, and Deir Sineid Station, 
with ample facilities for transhipment to the three-foot six-inch line, was opened for traffic on Nov. 28, 
1917. The opening of this station enabled additional rolling stock for the narrow gauge to be brought 
up with consequent increase of capacity. 

North of Deir Sineid the standard gauge line runs through long stretches of brown cotton soil which 
caused endless trouble during the winter. The heavy rains caused subsidences of the new earthwork 
and washouts were frequent. The unfavourable nature of the soil not only caused trouble on the rail- 
way but greatly hampered the camel transport during wet weather. Indeed movement of any sort of 
transport was at times impossible. Considerable relief was afforded when the raihva}^ reached the sandy 
hills which stretched from south of Jaffa towards Wadi Siurar Junction. To effect this a temporary 
supply railhead was opened at Deiran (kilometre 293) on Jan. 8, 1918. Besides taking supplies for troops 
to the north, this station was used for supplies to the Jerusalem region, as Ramlch (about seven miles 
distant) was connected to Jerusalem by a fairly good metalled road and by the older portion of the three- 
foot six-inch hne, which was made available for through traffic by the completion of the bridges on 
Jan. 27, 1918. Ludd Station, with extensive raihvay facihties, and unloading sidings for all departments, 
was opened for traffic on Feb. 4, 1918. Ample transhipment facihties to the three-foot six-inch line 
were soon available for all services, which reduced the handling of goods destined for Jerusalem to a 
minimima. , 



92 



THE ADVANCE OF THE 



Construction of the line north of Ludd was continued as far as kilometre 315, just beyond Rantieh 
Station, which was as far as the miUtary situation then permitted. 

It soon became evident that traffic demands to Jerusalem could not be met by the narrow gauge 
line. The first stage of relief was the laying of the standard gauge from Ludd to Artuf and the construc- 
tion of transhipment sidmgs at the latter place. This portion of the line was laid with three rails, so as 
to allow the narrow gauge trains to run at night while construction work was not in progress. This 
work was commenced on Feb. 27, 1918, and finished on March 31. It was then possible to concentrate 
all the narrow gauge rolling stock on the Artuf-Jerusalem section, thus increasing the capacity of the line. 

Shortly after this, it was decided to push the standard gauge on to Jerusalem and, as the amount of 
rockwork necessary to permit the passage of the larger rolling stock was not excessive, the work was put 
in hand on April 22. Except for eight hours per day, while construction work was in progress, the 
narrow gauge line was open for traffic, and was worked to its maximtun capacity. The daily programme 
of work consisted of taking up a length of narrow gauge, levelling and removing the ballast, laying the 
standard gauge, laying the narrow gauge rails inside the new ones and finally joining up the narrow 
gauge to permit traffic to continue. This is probably the best laid and most permanent section of the 
whole system. During the alteration of this section the average daily tonnage taken into Jerusalem by 
rail exceeded 740 tons, and as a maximum reached 1,051 tons on May 24. Jerusalem was reached ou 
June 9, and the station opened for standard-gauge traffic on June 15. 

The construction of the standard gauge line to Beersheba had been going on intermittently during 
the spring and was finished on May 3, 1918. 

In accordance with the demands of the military situation the standard gauge was laid on the old 
Turkish formation between Irgeig, on the Beersheba line, and Wadi Surar Junction, thus giving an 
alternative line north of Rafa to Ludd, Wadi Surar, and Jerusalem. This was carried out between May 
14 and July 8. 

The construction of the double line, which was temporarily stopped near Maadan, was recommenced 
by a small construction party on Nov. 1, 1917, and was completed through to Rafa on April 17, 1918. 

Following up the successful operations of Sept., 1918, railway construction was again commenced 
on the 20th. On Sept. 28 the standard gauge alignment swung on to the old Turkish formation north 
of Ras el Ain, thus enabling construction to be carried out at an increased rate (two kilometres per day). 

Tul Keram Station was reached on Oct. 15, enabling direct transhipment ,to take place between the 
standard gauge and the narrow gauge running towards Haifa and Damascus. Continuing northwards 
from Tul Keram, by way of Tanturah and the western end of Mount Carmel, the line reached Haifa, 
and was opened for traffic early in Jan., 1919. 

From Dec, 1917, light railways were constructed and operated for the supply of our more advanced 
lines : — 

From Jafia to Ludd. 
„ Sarona to Jelil. 
„ Sheikh Muaunis to Carrick Hill. 

a total of some 115 kilometres, exclusive of sidings. 



From Ludd to Bas el Ain. 
„ Kafr Jinnis to Lubbait. 
„ Jerusalem to Bireh. 



The following figures are of interest in connection with the standard gauge lines : — 

Total length of track laid kilos. 1,009 Number of locomotives 

(includes Haifa Station). Number of wagons 

Number of turnouts laid 748 Number of passenger vehicles 

Number of stations 86 Number of hospital coaches 



169 

2.573 

60 



The Units which have taken part in the construction and operation of military railways of all 
gauges are : — 



Railway Operating Division, R.E. (eighteen sections, 

about 5,500 all ranks). 
96th Light Railway Operating Company, R.E. 
98th Light Railway Train Crew Company, R.E. 
115th Railway Construction Company, R.E. 
116th Railway Construction Company, R.E. 
265th Railway Construction Company, R.E. 
266th Railway Construction Company, R.E. 
272ad Light Railway Construction Company, R.E. 



Ist Bridging Company, Canadian Railway Troops. 

299th (Lidian) Railway Construction Company. 

l/23rd Sikh Pioneers. 

2/23rd Sikh Pioneers. 

2/32nd Sikh Pioneers. 

12l8t Sikh Pioneers. 

Egyptian Army Reserve (about 2,800). 

Egyptian Labour Corps (eventually about 26,000), 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 



93 



5.— The Army Postal Service. 

The Army Postal Service of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force was formed of Britisli, Australian, 
New Zealand, and Indian sections, and served an area stretching from Mersina to Assiut, and from 
Solium to Amman, through 140 army post offices. The personnel of all sections totals : British, 
twenty- five officers, 564 men ; Australian, one officer, fifty-seven men ; New Zealand, twelve men ; Indian, 
eighteen British officers, twenty-nine other ranks, and 257 Indian officers and other ranks. The average 
number of bags received weekly for the troops from overseas reached : — 

Letters. Parcels. Total. 

British bags 2,500 ... 2,350 ... 4,850 

Australian 632 ... 1,339 ... 1,971 

New Zealand " „ 130 ... 270 ... 400 

Indian 20 ... 20 ... 40 

The maximum number of bags received in one calendar week at one port totalled 24,810 bags. 
Every bag, from its despatch to this force to its receipt at railhead, has to be handled and rc-handled not 
less than twenty-five times. 

The average number of letters sent weekly to the home countries was : British, 500,000 ; Australian, 
42,000; New Zealand, 8,400; Indian, 15,000. The totals for the period are: British, 36,000,000; 
Australian, 3,000,000 ; New Zealand, 600,000 ; Indian, 950,000. Letters received from home are re- 
ceived in sealed bags and amount for the period to many milhons, exceeding these figures. 173,^50 
letters circulate weekly within the forces, and 47,000 letters are posted weekly by the Egyptian Expedi- 
tionary Force for Egypt. The combined Army Returned Letter Offices dealt with 4,548,000 items. 
Registered letters dealt with by the combined services during the period total 600,000 received and 
297,000 despatched. 

Postal Orders and Money Orders have been issued to a value of £476,000 and paid to a value of 
£165,000 by the British post offices, while the Indian post offices have issued Money Orders to a value 
of £256,250. War Savings Certificates recently issued total £4,180. 

In addition to normal Army post office work, Egyptian civil mails have been embarked and 
disembarked, and mails in transit from India, China, and the East, to England and the Continent, have 
been handled over land and re-embarked. 

Civil Mails in Occupied Enemy Territory. 

In the Occupied Enemy Territory, postal services for civilians have been carried on at fifteen post 
offices. Postal Orders have been issued an(i paid to a value of £12,000 in each case, and Money Orders 
to a value of £2,250 and £3,900 respectively. 

Special stamps were issued on Feb. 10, 1918, for use in this area. At first only one piastre and five 
milliemes overprinted on one piastre were available ; but other values were added from time to time, 
and the complete set now consists of the issues described hereunder : — 



Current Stamps. 

All these are gummed and perforated, 
numbers : — 



They were printed in England and have no control 





' Denomination. 


Date of Issue. 


Colour. 


• 






1 millieme 




. July 16. 1918 ... . 


... brown. 








2 milliemea 




. Julv 16. 1918 ... . 


. ... gieen. 








3 ,. 




. Deo. 17, 1918 ... . 


... pale chocolate 








4 




. July 16, 1918 ... . 


. ... scarlet. 








5 „ 




. 8ept. 25, 1918 ... . 


. . . orange 








1 piastre 




. Nov. 9, 1918 ... . 


. ... dark indigo. 








2 piastres . 




. July 16, 1918 ... . 


. ... olive. 








5 ., 




. Julv 16, 1918 ... . 


. ... purple. 








9 




. Deo. 17, 1918 ... . 


. ... bistre. 








10 „ 




. Dec. 17, 1918 ... . 


. . . . blue. 








20 „ 





. Deo. 27, 1918 '... . 


. ... grey. 






Obsolete Stamps 














Denomination. 


Date of Issue. 


Colour. 


Description. 


Control 


Number 


Where 








% 


Number. 


Issued. 


Printed. 


5 milliemes (o) ... 


Feb. 16, 1918 ... 


blue 


... rouletted and ungi 


mmed ... B 18 A .. 


6,000 . 


• Egypt. 


,. (6) ••• 


March 5, 1918 ... 


blue 


... rouletted 


... C18B .. 


55,560 . 


. Egypt. 


„ (e) ... 


May 13, 1918 ... 


blue 


. . . rouletted 


. . DISC .. 


54,120 . 


- Egypt. 


1 piastre (a) ... 


Feb. 10, 1918 ... 


dark in ligo 


... rouletted and ungu 


ramed .. A 18 


21,000 . 


. Egypt. 


.. (6) ... 


March 5, 1918 ... 


blue 


... rouletted 


... C 18 


338,000 . 


• Egypt. 



04 



THE ADVANCE OF THE 



ROYAL ARMY SERVICE CORPS. 

1.— Establishment and Supplies. 

NIBIBER OP E.A.S.C. OFFICERS IN THE EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE. 
The Royal Army Service Corps in the Egyptian Expeditionary Force is divided into four main 
branches, viz. : mechanical transport, horse transport, supply, and camel transport, and the number of 
officers employed with these branches is as under : — 

Mechanical transport, 273 ; horse transport, 174 ; supply, 256 ; camel transport, 234:. 
In addition there are the following : — 

Supply and transport Directorate, 23 ; Staff of G.H.Q., corps, divisions, etc., 19 ; attached to 
Infantry, 76 ; attached to R.A.F., 12 ; duty with O.E.T.A., 17 ; duty with Egyptian Army, 2 ; 
miscellaneous (non-R.A.S.C. duties), 8. In all, 1,094. 
This total of 1,094 officers comprises the following : — 

Regulars, 39 ; Indian S. & T. Corps, 33 ; Territorials, 110 ; Australians, 49 (serving with C.T.C.) ; 
Anglo-Egyptians, 51 ; New Army, 783 ; Regular Quartermasters, 29. 

CIVIL PROFESSIONS. 

Of the 168 recorded professions followed by New Army officers in civil life, the chief are as under : — 

Acoountants (inoludoe 1 1 Chartered) 

Assurance and Insurance 

Auctioneers and Valuers ... 

Agents and Travellers 

Bankers, Bank Managers, etc 

Brewers and Distillers ... ... ... 

Brokers 

Civil Servants 

Clerks 

Clergymen 

Commercial Directors and Secretaries 

Contractors and Builders 

Egyptian Ministry Officials 



Carried forward 



50 
16 
6 
59 
19 

n 

16 
36 
73 
3 
22 
13 
20 

342 



Brought forward 

Engineers 

Farmers, Graziers, Cattle and Sheep Men 

Journalists and Lecturers 

Manufacturers 

Merchants 

Planters 

Schoolmasters and Educational Officials 

Solicitors 

Students 

Surveyors ., 

Theatrical Managers and Actors 



342 
154 
75 
11 
16 
51 
15 
32 
30 
21 
10 
6 



Total 



763 



STRENGTH OF OTHER RANKS IN THE EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE. 





BRITISH. 


ISDUNS. 


EGYPTIANS. 








M.T. 

Driver 

Class. 


i 

b 
H 

•< 


i 






X 

P 
•4 
O 


< 

c 
H 






?2 


Egyptian 

Camel 

Drivers. 


< 

H 


GRAND 
TIIIU. 


(1) Horse Transport 

(2) Supply 


4705 

218 
56 


6558 


685 
1298 


734 


1354 


1752 

20 
4 


433 


5390 

4273 

7^56 

238 

60 


2725 


3677 


47U9 

977 


19423 

3SG8 


8476 

977 

19423 

3S68 


16.-i91 
4273 


(3) Mechanical Transport 

(4) Camel Transport 

(5) Donkey Transport ... 


8833 

ineci 

3928 


Total 


4979 


6558 


1983 


734 


1354 


1776 


433 


17817 


2725 


3677 


57(6 


23291 


32744 


63286 



SUPPLIES— EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE. 



(1) Approximate Ration Strength Sept. 19, 1918: — 

British 226,900 , 

Indians 111,800 

Egyptians 128,950 



TOTAI, 



467,050 



Horses ... 
Mules ... 
Camels 
Donkeys 



Total 



74,800 
39,100 
35,000 
11,000 

159,900 



The daily cost of feeding the above Ration Strength amounts to £43,385. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 



95 



(2) Sources of origin of principal supplies : — 

Article. Origin. _ Daily 

reqairements. 

Ment Frozen Australia, South Africa, I -» . 

... ■ 70 tons 

or Argentine ) 

Meat preserved America, Australia 52 „ 

Flout Australia, India, Canada ... 00 „ 

Atta, or India 230 „ 

Biscuit England and Egypt 250 „ 

Bacon England, Australia 24 „ 

Cheese Australia 20 „ 

Jam Australia, Egypt 24 „ 

Tea Ceylon (> „ 

Milk England, America 17 „ 

Sugar Egypt 25 „ 

Salt Egypt 7 ,. 

Rice Rangoon 31 „ 

Dried fruit ... Cyprus, Egypt, India, Basra 8 „ 

Fuel wood ... Egypt and Cyprus 250 „ 

Sheep and goats Sudan and Cyprus 300 head 



Article. 

Potatoes 

Lentils and beans 

Onions 

Matches 

Barley 

Maize 

Gram 

Millet 

Tibben 

Bhoosa 

Hay ... 

Dries 

Sucre pai'.le 

Green forngo 

Petrol 

Keroscno 



Origin. 

Egypt and Cyprus 

Egypt 

Egypt •.. 

Japan 

Egypt and India 

Egypt 

India 

Sudan 

Egypt 

India 

India 

Egypt 

Egypt 

Egypt 

Sumatra, Red Sea wells 
(refined at Suez) 



Daily 
requirements, 
25 tons 
IG „ 
25 „ 
.100,800 boxes 

grain 
' 800 tons 



Haystuffs 
900 tons 



Avtn. 8,000 galls. 
Tspt. 15,000 „ 
5,000 „ 



(3) Supplies produced and Establishments managed by R.A.S.C, or under R.A.S.C. supervision: — 



Compressed forage 

Compressed tibben 
Compressed dries 



Biscuit 

Margarine 

Rum ... 

Piokles 

Jam 

Cured fish 

Ice 

Flov mills 



In cotton presses at Alexandria. 

In cotton presses at Alexandria, 

Zagazig, Mansura, Barrage, and 

Assiut. 
Cairo, Alexandria. 
Cairo. 
Alexandria. 
Cairo. 
Alexandria. 
Port Said, Kantara. 
Port Said, Jaffa, Jerusalem. 
Cairo and Zagbzig. 



Grain crushers 
Dairy farm 

Bakeries 



Cold storage premises 



Kantarn, Port Said, and Cairo. 
Wilholma, Palestine — milk, butter, 

ogg»- 
Alexandria, Cairo, Port Said, Bir 

Salem, Ludd, Jerusalem, Haifa, 

Beirut, Tripoli, Rayak. 
Three at Port Said. One W.D. 

property with capacity for 4,500 

tons ; two requisitioned premises. 

each with capacity of about 600 

tont. 



(4) Average daily tonnage of supplies despatched by rail via Egypt, Port Said, and Kantara to Palestine :— 
June, 1,615 tons ; July, 2,026 tons ; Aug., 2,317 tons ; Sept., 1,732 tons ; Oct., 806 tons ; 



2.— Mechanical Transport. 

The great value of mechanical tran.«port in this force may be said to have commenced in connection 
with the operations resulting in the capture of Beersheba and Gaza, and the advance through Southern 
Palestine to the Jalla-Ramleh-Jcrusalem line in the months of Nov. and Dec, 1917. 

Prior to this date mechanical transport was almost entirely localized in station transport in Egypt, 
with the exception of a certain number of light ambulances and Ford vans and Light Car Patrols, used in 
the Western Desert and in the advance across the desert to Sinai, it being impossible at this stage of 
the proceedings to use heavier types of vehicles, except caterpillar tractors of which there were then 
only some half dozen, and these were engaged in pipe laying. 

Once the desert was crossed, it was possible to use heavy transport in the Palestine operations. 
The roads in most cases were bad — little more than tracks — but nevertheless, with care, it was possible 
to make use of lorry transport. The immediate result of this change was that units, hitherto, only 
equipped with horse and camel transport, had their War Establishments amended to provide for the 
use of mechanical transport, resulting in a greatly increased mobility on the part of the whole force in 
Palestine, and enabling operations to be carried out at a much greater distance in advance of railhead. 

To give some idea of the great increase in mechanical transport in this force subsequent to July, 
1917, it i» only necessary to point out that between that date and Nov. 30, 1918, the mechanical 
transport of the whole force had more than doubled, and if that portion which has been employed in 
the Palestine operations were taken alone, it would be safe to say that, whereas, in the summer of 1917 
we had only a few hundred mechanical transport vehicles in Palestine, we have now thousands. 



96 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

Just before the Armistice the following mechanical transport vehicles were employed in this force, 
these figures being exclusive of Roj'al Air Force vehicles and those of Allied contingents, which if included 
would considerably augment the numbers shewn : — 

Motor cycles 1623 

Touring cars 617 

Motor ambulances 586 

Lorries, including gun, workshop, store lorries, etc 1579 

Vans 670 

Caterpillar tractors 281 

Caterpillar trucks and other trailers 612 

Motor boats • 37 

Total 5905 

There are in the force between sixty and seventy distinct Army Service Corps Mechanical Transport 
Units, in addition to which must be added mechanical transport which is attached to almost every 
other branch of the service, e.g. Corps, Divisional and Brigade Headquarters, Heavy Artillery, Light 
Car Patrols, Armoured Batteries, Signal Companies, Sanitary Sections, Postal Service, Bridging Com- 
panies, Ordnance Workshops, Army Troops Companies, R.E., Railway Construction and Operating 
Companies, Hospitals, and Casualty Clearing Stations, etc. 

Mechanical transport may be divided into various branches, of which the following are a few : — 

Workshops. — Those at the Base being for heavy work, while others, which are mobile, follow the troops from place 
to place and are employed for carrying out repairs in the field. 

Stores. — This branch deals with the demand for spare parts from the United Kingdom, with the local purchase of parts 
which can be obtained in Egypt, and with the distribution of spares to all units employing mechanical transport. 

Convoy Work. — Embracing supply convoys, transport of ammunition for heavy artillery, Ordnance, and Royal 
Engineer material and troops. Convoys have largely been made up of lorries, but caterpillar tractors have also been 
used where the nature of the ground precludes the use of lorries and Ford van convoys also have been run. 

Motor Bonis. — There is attached to this force what I believe is a unique unit in the Army Service Corps work, vit. : 
Motor Boat Company, A.S.C. This unit consists of thirty-seven motor boats of different sizes, the bulk of which are 
employed on the Suez Canal and ports, but with detachments at Cairo, Alexandria, Dead Sea, and the Palestinian ports. 
Subsequent to the operations in the autumn of 1917, it was decided to send motor boats to the Dead Sea. The only 
means of transport from railhead, then at Ludd, was by hauling the boats on specially constructed drags from Ludd to 
the Dead Sea, a work of no small magnitude when one realizes the excessive gradients to be negotiated, the hair-pin bends 
and, in many cases, the narrowness of the roads at such bends but still four boats were safely taken to the Dead Sea. 
After the recent advance it was decided to send two boats to Lake Tiberias, the larger of the two boats selected being 
forty feet in length, standing sixteen feet from the ground, and weighing twenty-one tons with its drag. The journey 
from the Dead Sea was commenced on Sept. 29 via Jerusalem, Nablus, Jenin, Nazareth, Tiberias being reached on 
Oct. 12. Shortly after the boats had been launched, the rapidity of the advance made their retention on the Lake of 
Tiberias unnecessary. Orders were therefore given for them to be withdrawn and taken by caterpillar tractor to Haifa. 
The difficulties of the transport of these boats were very great. They were accompanied by a guard of British West 
Indians and by Egyptian Labour Corps personnel. In many cases the sides of the roads had to be built up to permit the 
passage of the boats. In other cases culverts had to be strengthened en route. Wadis with from three to four feet of 
water had to be crossed. In other places abandoned German lorries had to be pushed over the side of the road. In 
some sections difficulties of travelling were so great that only three miles were accomplished in the twenty-four hours. « 

Fighting Units. — ^These are principally comprised of Armoured Car Batteries and Light Car Patrols. 
These units perform important functions in scouting and reconnaissance work, particularly in the case 
of an advance such as those which took place in 1917 and recently. They were also employed in out- 
lying work on the Western Desert along the Tripqjitan frontier. Practically the whole of the Heavy 
and Siege Artillery of this force is moved by caterpillar tractors. During the operations which resulted 
in the capture of Jerusalem the strain on this branch of the service was extremely heavy. Owing to it 
being the winter season, the country was largely composed of one vast bog through which the tractors 
had to haul the guns ; and they had also to get the ammunition up to the dumps once the guns were 
in position. Notwithstanding the difficulties the caterpillar tractors had to contend with the heavy 
guns, throughout the operations, were kept up with the advance. 

Tyre Presses. — These form an important adjunct to the mechanical transport in this country. The 
standard life of a lorry tyre is based at 10,000 miles. Needless to say owing to the difficulties under 
which lorries have to work in Palestine (in many cases over roads, which are roads in name only), the 
heavy gradients, etc., the life rarely, if ever, exceeds 2,000 miles, and in some instances, such as the 
run from Samakh to Damascus, the life of a lorry tyre does not exceed 700 miles. Tyres are taken off 
and new ones put on by means of hydraulic presses, which work at a pressure up to eighty tons. In order 
to cope with the difficulties of retyring lorries during the recent advance, two tyre presses were built on 
to German lorries (captured in the Beersheba operations of 1917), and followed the lorry companies 
throughout the advance, thereby reducing the time the lorries were kept off the road to a minimum. 

Man Power. — During 1918 it has been with the greatest difficulty that personnel has been foimd 
for the ever-growing needs of transport. Early in the year the question of substitution of the "A" 
class personnel by men of lower category was considered by the War Office. In view of the climatic 
conditions, the length of the journeys to be performed, the dust, etc., it was considered by this force 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 97 

that it was of the utmost importance that as many of the personnel in Palestine should be " A " class, 
and that substitution was inadvisable. This was finally agreed to by the War Office, and it is safe 
to say that the heavy and continuous work which has devolved on the mechanical transport in Palestine 
during the summer and autumn of 1918 has fully upheld the action taken some twelve months ago. 
Even in spite of the fact that as many " A " class personnel as possible were employed, the number of 
men in hospital has increased from about four per cent in June, 1918, to ten per cent at the present 
time. In order to assist the supply of drivers, War Office was informed early in 1918, that as far as 
possible, this force would be self-contained as regards drivers and artificers. In consequence of this 
in Jan. 1918, a School of Instruction for lorry drivers was formed at Cairo for training Egyptians. 
Recruits were given ten weeks training in the school and then drafted into lorry companies employed 
in Egypt and the Canal Zone, the British personnel thereby released being sent to Palestine to take over 
additional lorries, etc., which were being received from the United Kingdom, and also to replace casual- 
ties. Further Egyptians were trained at the garages in Cairo, Alexandria, and Kantara as drivers for 
light cars and motor ambulances in Egypt. Egyptian artificers have been also taken on in the work- 
shops in Egypt and trained and given instruction in mechanical transport shops. At the present time 
there are upwards of 800 Egyptian drivers and about 200 Eg3rptian artificers employed in this force 
in the mechanical transport. In order to further assist matters, in the autumn of this year a certain 
number of Jewish women were taken on at the Advanced Base M.T. Sub-Depot, Palestine, to release 
men and were employed in the stores department, vulcanizing shops, and on clerical work. Another 
source from which drivers were provided was by obtaining " B " class personnel from the infantry and 
other branches of the service for instruction in mechanical transport ; in fact every possible source from 
which drivers could be obtained was tapped. 

Repairs. — At times great difficulty has been experienced in keeping mechanical transport on the 
road owing to the lack of spare parts. This arose from various causes. Some of the principal makes 
of vehicles employed in this force, e.g. Peerless lorries, Ford cars, van and ambulances, Holt caterpillar 
tractors, are American, and the spares for these vehicles had to be brought first from America to 
England and then sent on to this force. Also the supply was curtailed owing to the demands from 
other theatres of war. Again in many instances transports with consignments of spare parts were sunk 
owing to enemy action, causing delay often of months before the spares could be replaced. Various 
expedients had to be resorted to, the chief being the manufacture of parts in the Army Service Corps 
workshops, local purchase of parts made by engineering firms in Egypt, adapting parts for other uses 
than those for which they were originally intended ; and temporarily disassembling vehicles and 
employing the parts removed to keep other vehicles on the road. 

During all the operations east of Gaza, the mainstay of the army for supplies has been the mechanical 
transport, imtil the broad gauge railway had been built or the narrow gauge Turkish lines repaired. 
In the case of the operations in 1917, the troops were fed over sixty miles ahead of railhead by means 
of mechanical transport. Ever since the occupation of Jericho all troops in the Jordan Valley and on 
the east of the Jordan at Es Salt and Amman have been fed by means of mechanical transport. 

In the recent operations resulting in the capture of Damascus, Aleppo, and Alexandretta, the whole 
of the supplies and ammunition were taken from railhead by the mechanical transport, until such time 
as Syrian ports at Haifa, Beirut, Tripolis; and Alexandretta were opened. To give instances how the 
troops were maintained, it is only necessary to point out that troops were fed at Tiberias by lorries 
working from Ras el Ain, a distance of some eighty miles, and that until the Turkish railways could be 
put in order they were fed at Damascus from lorries based at Samakh, the return journey occupying 
three to four days. Again in the advance on Aleppo, the troops were fed and ammunition conveyed 
by lorries based at Beirut and Tripolis. In fact, without the extensive employment of mechanical 
transport, it is difficult to see how the services of maintenance could have been carried out in the opera- 
tions which resulted in the capture of Jerusalem in 1917, Damascus and Aleppo in 1918. 

The whole work of the mechanical transport officers and men of all ranks has been consistently 
maintained at a very high standard. In order to maintain vehicles on the road and to meet the demands 
made on them during the last eighteen months, the strain on the workshop and store personnel has been 
exceptionally heavy. To maintain the troops at the front the drivers of lorries, cars, and caterpillar 
tractors had continuously to work long hours under trying conditions of heat and dust or wet, according 
to the season of the year. Every branch of the service however, rose to each emergency as it came along, 
and it is impossible to appreciate too highly the work done by this branch of the i;ervice during the past 
eighteen months. 



Jamels. 


Duty. , 


8,000 ^.. 


1st line transport. 


8,000 


1st line transport. 


8,000 


Convoy. 


4,000 


Convoy. 



98 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

3. — Camel and Donkey Transport. 

In July, 1917, the Camel Transport Corps consisted of sixteen companies and two depots, the totai 
strength of burden camels being 32,712. Eleven of these companies (2,000 camels per company) were heavy 
burden camels and were attached to East Force. Five Ught burden companies (2,000 camels per company) 
were employed on lines of communication with detachments on the western front at Matruh, Solium, 
and Baharia. 

During the following months of August and September, the companies of the Corps were allocated 
to the army formations as follows : — 

XXth Army Corps -' 

XXIst Army Corps 

Desert Jlounted Corps 

General Headquarters 

The remaining camels of the corps were employed on lines of conomunication and the western front. 

In October a further re-distribution of camels was made to the formations. The XXth Corps had 
20,000 camels allotted, 8,000 being attached to divisions for first line work and the remaining 12,000 
were employed on convoy duty. 

The XXIst Corps had 6,000 camels allotted to divisions for first line work and Desert Mounted 
Corps received 6,000 for convoy duty. 

The total strength of burden camels including those working on lines of communication and those 
on the western front was 35,000. Transport work during the preceding months had been comparatively 
light and the camels were remarkably fit when operations commenced. 

During the actual period of operations, i.e. from October to December all companies were very 
hard worked. The troops were operating in areas in advance of the railheads and long convoys were 
necessary to maintain them in water, rations, and ammunition. 

In the Beersheba area large convoys marched out daily from the railhead, but as the .tracks were 
suitable for camels and the weather remained mild and open, camel wastage was very low. 

In early December severe weather set in. Heavy rain storms made the going difficult and the 
piercing cold had a telling effect both on animals and personnel. In the XXth Corps area the condi- 
tions were particularly bad. The troops were then operating in the hills. To keep in touch, long camel 
convoys had to wind their way over the stony hill sides where there were no definite tracks, the roads up 
the valleys being reserved for other forms of transport. Camel camps were frequently pitched on the 
wind-swept hills, often at an altitude of 3,000 feet. The biting night winds and the showers of ice-cold 
rain militated severely against the camels and their drivers, both of which were entirely new to such 
climatic conditions. 

In the central area the conditions were equally difficult. Desert Mounted Corps convoys were work 
ing from the railhead at Deir Seneid, Esdud, and Sukereir to Eamleh. The intervening country consisted 
of tilled land across which there were no permanent roads. The heavy rains soon reduced the whole 
area to one vast spongy quagmire, crossed here and there by broad wadies, which were difficult to negotiate. 
In places camels sank up to the girth in the mud and many had to be abandoned. This was probably 
the first occasion on which camel transport had been called upon to work under such adverse conditions. 

The XXIst Corps camels operating in the sandy area along the coast worked under much easier 
conditions. 

The camels in the XXth and XXIst Corps areas were very short of forage during the period Dec, 
1917, to Feb., 1918 ; five pounds of grain being the maximum ration for long periods and during this 
period full rations of grain and tibbin were exceptional. 

Towards the end of January conditions as to forage for animals, and clothing and equipment for 
personnel were much improved. 

The following table gives a list of casualties (from all causes) sustained in animals and personnel 
during the 1917 operations : — 



British ... 
Egyptians 
Camels ... 
Horses ... 



lied. 


Died of 
Wounds. 


Wounded. 


Missing. 


Died of 
Exposure. 


Captured. 


Total 


— 


1 


6 


— 


— 


— 


7 


38 


8 


... 158 


.. 125 


209 


1 


... 539 


574 


27 


... 310 


29 


... 2090 


3 


... 3033 


1 








1 


4 


— 


C 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 99 

During the months of Feb. and March, 1918, camel transport was reorganized on a basis of 1,200 
camels per company. The reasons for this change were : — 

(a) A reduction in size of command for despite standard of efficiency maintained, competent 

authorities were convinced that a 2,000 camel unit was too big for continuous efficient control. 

(6) As only 1,200 camels were required for the first line transport of infantry divisions, that 

number constituted a complete unit, 
(c) Uniformity of organization and consequent interchangeabiUty of first line transport and 
convoy companies. 
The strength of the Corps at latter part of March, 1918, was 29,000 camels. Distribution was as 
follows : — 

XXth Army Corps . 13,200 camels 

XXIst Army Corps 6,000 „ 

Desert Mounted Corps 1,200 „ 

Lines of Communication 2,400 „ 

The remaining camels were at kilo. 298 in reserve and employed on convoys at Ramleh. Camels 
with the XXth Corps were doing heavy convoys from railhead and depots to various points. The tracks 
and weather conditions were still very bad. 

During the Amman operations (from March 23) in practically every instance the ground over which 
the camels worked was of the worst possible nature, being extremely hilly and stony. The Anzac 
convoys marched by routes which were simply goat tracks in the sides of the hills — only wide enough in 
many places for one string of camels to pass at a time. {See Plate 3-5.) 

At Ain Sir village three broad rough terraces bad to be crossed. The country was everywhere 
difficult, time was limited and officers in charge of convoys had to exercise the greatest care in negotiating 
the hills. The stony nature of the ground injured the camels' feet and the heavy rains rendered the 
narrow tracks down the incHnes very difficult. Nos. 1 and 2 convoys, 1,100 camels, based on Shunet 
Nimrin worked to Ain Sir, a distance of sixteen miles. No. 3 convoy working from Ain Sir forward, 
had to traverse extremely bad and difficult ground, which was in many places marshy. The camels 
were often long hours under their loads owing to existing situation and fluctuation of battle, and coupled 
with this fact they had to work at night. This same convoy had a most trying time during the with- 
drawal marching from 1600 on March 31 until 1400 on April 1 when they reached Shunet Nimrin. The 
most difficult part of the journey had to be done in complete darkness with heavy rain falling and the 
ground thick with mud and exceedingly shppery. The convoy was greatly harassed and broken by 
other units of the retiring column on the single track. In all convoys fifty per cent of the camels were 
overloaded owing to nature of supplies and size of bales and sacks. The good work performed was 
fully recognized and appreciated by the' XXth Corps and the divisions concerned. Two thousand camels 
were used in the two convoys out of which number, 100 were killed in action and ninety-two had to 
be destroyed on account of injuries received on the march. 

In the latter part of April, 1918, the strength of the Corps was 27,800 camels. 

XXth Army Corps had 3,600 with divisions. 

XXIst Army Corps had 2,400 with divisions. 

Desert ]\lounted Corps and General Headquarters had the remaining camels on convoy excepting 
3,800 on Palestine Lines of Communication and in depots. 

In May, strenuous work was done by camels in the second Amman operations. Weather con- 
ditions had improved and tracks were better. 

The months of June, July, and August were comparatively quiet, the camels working on ordinary 
duties of first line with divisions and convoys from railhead to Wadi Surar and Latron. Rations and 
water were good, and camels. recovered condition. 

Camels have also been supplied for work in the Hejaz. In March, 1918, 700 hght burden camels 
fully equipped were sent from " Q " Company to Akaba to operate with the Egyptian army in the 
Hejaz. These camels were under the command of, and worked by. Camel Transport personnel. 

In April, 1918, a further detachment of 2,000 camels was despatched from No. 2 depot at kilo. 298 
to Beersheba, where they were handed over to the representative of the Hejaz forces. 

At the commencement of the operations in Sept., 1918, the strength of the Corps in camels was 25,700. 

They were allotted to formations as follows : — 

Formation. No. of Camels 



XXth Corps, 1st Line with divisions 

Convoy 

XXIst Corps, 1st Line with divisions 

Convoy 

Desert Mounted Corps, Convoys 

Palestine Linos of Communication, W.F.F. and Depdts 



3,600 
1,400 
3,600 
9,60^1 
2,600 
4,000 



100 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

Four of the convoy companies working with the XXIst Corps were used for carrying watei and the 
remaining four carried rations. 

Compared with the 1917 operations the work of the camels was exceedingly light. 

The distances covered were very small ; the weather conditions were excellent, the country in which 
the majority of the companies were working was fairly open. Consequently casualties were very few. 

The following table shews the total casualties sustained in animals and personnel : — 



led. 


Wounded. 


Missing. 


Died of 

Exhaustion 

and exposure. 


TOTAI 


7 


19 


38 


— 


64 


5 


5 


15 


37 


82 



Egyptians 

Camels 

In the later stages of operations when the troops moved up country north of Haifa, seven of the 
XXIst Corps camel companies were employed on convoy duties until Beirut and Tripolis were reached. 

Donkeys. — ^During Sept. and Oct., 1917, the formation of donkey transport companies was in 
progress, the estabUshment being 2,000 donkeys to a company. In November of 1917 the first of the 
donkey transport companies. No. 1 D.T.C. moved from Rafa to the front and this company was 
employed during the whole of the winter under the most arduous conditions. 

No. 2 D.T.C. moved up early in 1918 followed by Nos. 3 and 4. These companies comprised 2,000 
donkeys in each and during the summer of 1918 were largely employed in road making and were dis- 
tributed over the whole forward area from Jericho to JafEa. The donkeys, allowing for the casualties 
in No. 1 Company caused by abnormal conditions of work in the winter of 1917, and lack of proper 
rations at times have been kept in remarkably good condition. 

The following table shews the casualties sustained by the donkeys during the operations : — 

1917 

■ 1918 

Total ... 14 ... 17 ... 2 ... 236 ... 268 

It will thus be seen that the camel transport drivers whose sky blue galabiehs added a very welcome 
touch of colour to the drabness of our khaki and of the coimtry side, together with their trusty " oonts", 
besides increasing our knowledge of natural history, took a very considerable share in operations, and 
were not wanting in pluck when occasion required. The camel, by the way, proved to be impervious 
to shell-fire and the drivers stood their ground repeatedly under difficult circumstances, sho^ving them- 
selves well-endowed with the fatahstic courage of the East. The same may be said of the Donkey Corps, 
and, in addition, these plucky Uttle beasts made fast friends of all who had to deal A^th them. 



led. 


Wounded. 


Died of 
Wounds. 


Died of 
Exposure. 


TOTA 


5 
9 


5 

12 


2 


233 
2 


245 
23 



ORDNANCE WORK IN THE PALESTINE AND SYRIA CAMPAIGNS. 

A Brief Review. 

The work of the Army Ordnance Department, with its scale of supply to a fighting force, ranging 
from big guns to bootlaces, has been arduous and interesting during the Palestine and Syria campaigns. 
Many problems have been encoimtered, in addition to routine duties, since warfare in the desert, 
combined with an advance into enemy country at a pace unequalled in any other theatre of war, has 
presented many special difficulties. Seemingly small things tell ; and it is not too much to say, for 
instance, that had not many thousands of fanatis, or water-tanks, of different sizes, been provided for 
the Expeditionary Force, its advance across the Sinai desert from the Canal and onwards into Palestine 
would not have been possible. 

If departmental responsibilities may be roughly defined, it should be understood that while other 
authorities feed the soldier and his animals and consider both in sickness, the Royal Army Ordnance 
Corps provides a fighting force with its guns, rifles, and ammunition, the clothes it M'ears, the tentage 
that shelters it, the vehicles for its transport, the oil and grease for the maintenance of its implements, 
its sanitary and cooking utensils, its office furniture, its soap and dubbin, its pails, spades and shovels, 
its tools, timber, metals, repair material of all kinds, signalling implements and telephones, its harness 
and saddlery, its entrenching tools and dial sights— in fact, the full equipment of a fighting force which 
enables it to fight. And, whatever the special conditions of campaign, the speed of advance, the nature 
of country or weather, these stores must be adequately supplied, and guns, vehicles, tents, rifles, harness, 
and so forth, must be kept in repair. To achieve this was the first principle of Ordnance policy in the 
Palestine and Syria campaigns. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 101 

The position of Ordnance services by the late summer of 1917 may be briefly defined. The summer 
months had been busy with expansion in men, arms, guns, transport, ammunition, aeroplanes, hospitals. 
The chamiel of Ordnance supplies was simple and as expeditious as the Desert Railway could make it. 
Alexandria was, as always, the Base. A Depot at Cairo, working hand in hand with the Base, looked 
after the troops in Egypt, the Western Frontier, the stores for the Hejaz operations, the rapidly increasing 
training camps, cadet schools, hospitals, and flying grounds, which Egypt with its wide areas, its good 
railways and its healthy climate was so admirably adapted to entertain. On the Canal itself were useful 
Ordnance posts at Port Said, Suez, and Moascar (Ismaiha), while the main work of Ordnance supply 
for the fighting force was done by the Field Depot at Kantara, on the east bank of the Canal and at the 
terminus of the Desert Railway. 

The development of the Ordnance Depot at Kantara has been characteristic of the general activity 
of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force and of its Ordnance Services. A bare patch of sand in the 
autumn of 1916, this area has now become a highly organized Ordnance Depot covering in all many 
acres, with a working personnel little short of 3,000, extensive offices, areas for the different " groups " 
of stores, for salvage and transit, large workshops, armouries, and magazines, sidings from the broad 
gauge railway and an internal narrow gauge system. It has wharves on the Canal itself, at which in one 
month alone fifteen ocean-going steamships and nineteen Inland Water Transport craft were discharged. 
In the autumn of 1918 no fewer than 976 Royal Army^ Ordnance Corps troops were at work, 
\\hile over 700 men of the Egyptian Labour Corps and over 700 prisoners-of-war were daily 
employed on unskilled work, and no fewer than 558 Egyptian Labour Corps, civilian, and prisoners-of- 
war tradesmen, tentmenders, carpenters, saddlers, tinsmiths, wheelers, blacksmiths, were kept busy in 
the big workshops. Here, too, in one autumn month, over 19,000 indents for Ordnance stores for units 
were dealt with and over 19,000 tons of ammunition handled. 

During 1917, up the Une, and in preparation for operations, advanced posts had been estabUshed at 
El Arish, Rafa, Deir el Belah, and later at Karm. {See Plate 2.) These were steadily fed by Kantara, 
and in order to make for greater efficiency^ the El Arish Depot was closed down and pushed forward 
on Oct. 27, 1917, to make contact with the Light Railway that led from Deir el Belah directly to our 
troops in the positions before Gaza. Thus, at Deir el Belah and Karm, emergency depots were quickly 
established, holding for urgent issue to troops during the earlier stages of the operations such stores as 
clothing and boots, picketing gear, horse-shoes and nails, mess-tins, nose-bags, dubbin, soap, oil and 
grease for rifles and guns, ground sheets and blankets. On Oct. 27 the operations against Gaza began. 

It may be well to record that the wide scope and variety of Ordnance supply had now to embrace 
the daily needs of a force of some 250,000 British and over 18,000 Indian troops, together with 100,000 
Egyptians, and some 150,000 horses, mules and camels, and that, from the Ordnance standpoint, the 
position was complicated by the fact that the force was very heterogeneous, so that special stores of 
many kinds, over and above stores pecuhar to ^Egyptian and desert conditions, had to be provided 
for French and Italian contingents, Indians, units of the Egyptian Army, British West Indian regiments, 
natives of the Egyptian Labour Corps, and Camel Transport personnel. 

When, after the successful onslaught on the Gaza-Beersheba positions, the force was advancing 
rapidly into Palestine, new problems at once presented themselves. Of these the chief were transport 
and the weather. The troops had left the railway behind and practically every available channel of 
motor or pack transport was required for food, while ammunition was hastened forward by coastal 
steamer. Great difficulty was experienced in getting important stores up to the troops, for the 
Turkish railway was constantly breaking down under stress of weather, and roads became 
impassable. Nevertheless a Railhead Ordnance Post was established as early as Dec. 6 at 
Junction Station, and a depot was formed temporarily at Deir Sineid, to be pushed forward to 
Ludd and greatly expanded directly the broad gauge railway giving direct communication with 
Kantara was available. Railhead Ordnance posts kept pace with the broad gauge railway as it 
advanced, and on Feb. 6 the Ordnance post at Junction Station was moved up to Jerusalem itself. 
Throughout these very difficult weeks of the quick dash of the fighting force up to the Jaffa-Jerusalem 
fine the heavy wear and tear on Ordnance stores of many kinds gcive a great deal of hard work to depots 
and workshops. The line of communications, it must be remembered, began in the hot, dry sand of 
Sinai and extended through the moist lowlands of Gaza and Deir Sineid to the arid and barren highlands 
of Judaoa. It is not easy to conceive more exacting contrasts of climate and natural conditions than those 
of Kantara and Jerusalem. It is easy to reaUze the strain upon troops passing through such varied condi- 
tions in so short a time in the wet season. The wear and tear of material in a swift campaign over such 
varied areas — especially, for instance, of wheels, harness, clothing, and boots — is necessarily very great. 

Jaffa had fallen on Nov. 16, 1917. Jerusalem had surrendered on Dec. 9. The later operations, 
while establishing our positions- north of both places, and securing the lateral commimications from 
east to west and working into, and across, the Jordan valley, so as to get into touch with the Sherifian 
troops and protect our extended right flanlc, did not involve any great advance, but enabled the railway 
to get up to the troops and the Ordnance to reorganize its system of supply. So far as general stores 



1Q2.,., .. THE ADVANCE OF THE 

were concerned, the Advanced Base Depot at Kantara, the depot at Ludd, and the Railhead post at 
Jerusalem constituted a quick and accurate channel. A similar policy had been adopted for two most 
essential Ordnance duties, the supply of ammunition and the never-ending task of salvage and repair. 

The principle adopted in every branch of Ordnance work has been that supply must keep pace with 
the troops, whatever the difficulties of transport and local conditions. During the summer of 1917 
ammunition was steadily concentrated near the scene of operations. Magazines at El Arish and Rafa 
covered each some 26,000 square feet. Large stocks were massed at these places, at Belah and at Kami. 
During operations approximately 250 tons of ammunition were sent daily up the line. During the 
summer of 1918 advanced magazines were estabUshed at Ludd, Jerusalem, and Sarona, to meet the 
requirements of the campaign which was to come and the minor but important operations which 
estabhshed our preliminary positions and safeguarded our earlier gains. 

Immediate work of repair to guns, vehicles, etc., is done by Light Travelling Workshops, while 
heavier jobs are sent back to medium shops or down to depots, or the Base, where larger plant has 
been established and greater facilities exist. The Mobile Workshops advance on the heels of troops 
and are thus immediately ready for any task that offers. A line of these shops had, by the end of 
Dec. 1917, reached Jaffa, Ramleh, Junction Station, Latron, and Jerusalem. They were subsequently 
pushed further forward still and then concentrated into two groups centring upon Jerusalem and 
Jaffa, thus meeting the requirements of each flank. 

These travelling workshops had by no means an easy time during the stormy winter months in 
Palestine. They had been thrown almost entirely on their own resources in motor lorries and cars as 
it was quite impracticable, on the one hand, to get spare parts, and so forth, up to the shops near the 
line by any other means ; or, on the other hand, to send guns, etc., needing heavy repair, to shops farther 
back. It is not to be wondered at that on arrival at captured cities such as Jerusalem and Jaffa the 
Ordnance workshops made the most of everything that could be requisitioned in the way of plant and 
premises. At Jerusalem, Turkish armourer's, blacksmith's, and instrument shops were promptly absorbed 
and plant was taken over m various parts of the city, including a spacious and well-equipped shop in 
a Franciscan Monastery. Shops were established for bootmakers since boots had suffered severely in 
the change from use in summer on the hot desert sand to winter conditions_among the wet and rocky 
mountains of Judaea. To help in these new Ordnance workshops, on whose capacity very heavy demands 
were at once made, native tradesmen of several trades were brought in. 

A great deal of work was thus at once undertaken in repairs to guns, vehicles, etc. The busy activity 
and elastic scope of the Jerusalem Ordnance workshops was reproduced at Jaffa. It is interesting to 
record that at Jaffa a foundry was estabhshed and captured Turkish gun cartridge cases were used for 
casting pipe boxes of wagon wheels .... a development which illustrates the extreme technical isolation 
of the whole front of the force in the earher part of the year. In advance of these workshops at Jerusa- 
lem and Ludd mobile shops were suitably posted. Behind them were well-equipped shops at Ludd and 
the large, still steadily expanding shops at Kantara. 

The thoroughness of this workshop organization, as it got into its stride for the summer, enabled 
it to cope effectively with the serious situation which arose owing to the effect on vehicles in summer 
of the great heat and dryness of the Jordan Valley. A vehicle repair shop was established in Jericho 
and did good work under very trying conditions. In the ten weeks prior to the autumn operations the 
mobile shops forward of Kantara repaired no fewer than 2,500 vehicles and, including Kantara, over 
14,000 wheels. 

The reconstruction of the fighting force which took place in the summer of 1918, involving the 
despatch to France of many British troops and their replacement in Egypt and Palestine by Indian 
units from India, Mesopotamia, and France, gave more work to the Ordnance authorities than is per- 
haps fully realized. Arrangements had to be made for troops leaving the country to hand in large 
quantities of stores and vehicles, and the units arriving had to be equipped according to the Egyptian 
scale, while suitable provision had to be made for them to be regularly supplied with the stores pecuhar 
to their race or rehgion. All this, on a considerable scale, meant careful organization ; a marked extra 
strain was thrown upon the Ordnance organizations at Ludd and Kantara ; and to meet the needs of 
Indian units a busy temporary depot was opened at Tel el Kebir. 

The time now approached for the beginning of a second autumn campaign. Ordnance preparations 
of all kinds — the establishment of ammunition suppUes, the repair of guns and vehicles, the expansion 
of hospitals, and the supply of tentage for reinforcement camps — were accelerated. For various reasons 
it had been decided to close down the Ordnance Depot at Ludd and the channel of supply now ran direct 
from Kantara to railheads. Both depot and railway proved adequate to the emergency. The develop- 
ment of sea-going traffic direct to Kantara from England, Taranto, Alexandria, and India, must be noted 
as having an important bearing on the supply and handling of stores during and after the Syria opera- 
tions. Nor must the bridging of the Suez Canal itself be ignored, establishing direct railway com- 
munication with Egypt, for the first through train from Jerusalem to Cairo left on July 15. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 103 

The autumn operations presented problems very similar to those of the preceding campaign. Again 
troops went " into the blue " and means of supply to them, over difficult country, became sparse and 
uncertain. But this time the weather held and the very rapidity of the advance into Syria enabled a 
new system of supply to be quickly brought into operation. This ^vas supply by sea from Kantara 
direct to such ports as Haifa, Beirut, Tripohs, and Alexandretta, as they successively came within the 
area occupied by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force. Thus the curious, but thoroughly economical 
phenomenon was now witnessed of important Ordnance stores which had been collected in Palestine 
being sent all the way down the hne again to Kantara for shipment to S3a-ian ports. Ordnance per- 
sonnel was promptly sent up to these ports and new channels of supply were thus established ; while 
such divisions as were later on returned down the line to Egypt found the old system ready to meet 
their needs. Meanwhile a similar policy had been followed with the Mobile Workshops which had been 
promptly moved up in accordance with their accepted principle of working as near as practicable to the 
troops. (See Plate 54.) 

Next, the Ordnance system again confronted two of the great problems which successful operations 
in war always involve. These are salvage and the accommodation of prisoners-of-war. Salvage in these 
operations was immense in quantity and much of the material was very difficult to get at and bring to 
the collecting depots at railhead. So salvage posts were at once estabhshed at important centres, such 
as Jelil, Kalkilieh, Ras el Ain, Tul Keram, Ram Allah, Afule, and Damascus, and the disposal of salved 
stores, thousands of tons in bulk, will come under the final control of Kantara and Alexandria. Exten- 
sive areas have been prepared for the reception not only of captured and salved stores from the last 
operations but also of an immense amount of Ordnance stores, including especially, camp equipment 
from hospitals and standing camps in Egypt. In Palestine itself large quantities of vehicles have been 
sold through the O.E.T.A. to the local population at reasonable prices. The salvage of guns necessarily 
depends on the capacity of the broad gauge railway, and it is only fair to record that, at every point 
and throughout their system, the railway authorities have always endeavoured to ineet Ordnance re- 
quirements as fully and fairly as possible. 

A further task was that of providing accommodation for the thousands of prisoners-of-war who 
now thronged into Egypt and had to be provided with camps and hospitals, the latter, especially, calling 
for urgent attention as the percentage of sickness was very high ; and that not only amongst the 
prisoners-of-war, but also amongst our own British and Indian troops and Egyptians. It should be 
noted that the ration strength of the fighting force had steadily increased from the figures above-quoted 
for 1917, until, at the time of the Armistice it amounted to : British and Indians, 341,000 ; Egyptians, 
133,000; animals, 160,000; and in addition some 90,000 prisoners-of-war Ordnance work consequently 
a^ this stage was greatly extended, the strain falling chiefly upon Cairo, Kantara, a"nd the Base. 
Tentage, camp equipment, and clothing had to be provided — for example, at Belbeis for 30,000 
prisoners-of-war, at Tel el Kebir for 19,000, and at Salhia for 10,000 — whilst five large hospitals had 
to be formed and six hospitals largely expanded, as the condition of the prisoners on arrival was 
generally deplorable. 

We have now traced the main current of Ordnance Services during the two campaigns and the 
intervening summer of 1918. The full scope of Ordnance work can, indeed, only be outlined — the im- 
mense developments at Kantara ; the gun-repair work done at Jaffa and Jerusalem ; shipping, ammuni- 
tion and railhead work up and down the line ; the establishment of laundries, boot and clothing-repair 
shops ; experimental work on pack-saddlery, covers for machine guns in the desert, ped-rails and caco- 
lets ; the steady provision of desert stores, involving a trustworthy and absolutely indispensable water 
supply ; the fine work on dial sights and range-finders ; the exacting work on vehicles which had 
suffered so severely under the rough Palestine conditions — all these and a hundred other daily tasks 
have been duly and painstakingly performed. There have been difficult questions of personnel, of 
local labour, of health, and above all of the extremely heavy strain thrown upon Ordnance organization 
at a period of such great pressure in a hot summer by the substitution for their trained personnel of 
utterly inexperienced men generally less capable and always of inferior physique. It is hoped, however, 
that in general, whatever the conditions, the daily job has been done and the very wide Ordnance 
requirements of the troops fully and fairly met. 



104 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

THE WORK OF THE MEDICAL SERVICES. 

The arrival of General Sir Edmund Allenby in July, 1917, was followed almost immediately by a 
reorganization of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force. This necessitated considerable changes in the 
medical service. The front line had been for some months on the southern boundary of Palestine, and 
our field ambulances were already provided with motor ambulances, sand-carts and camel cacolets. A 
motor ambulance convoy arrived in time for the Gaza operations, and from then until now has done 
excellent service. The expansion of the force necessitated the addition of five new casualty clearing 
stations and one Indian clearing hospital — previously there had been but two all told. Five new stationary 
hospitals were provided, making eight in all, and four 1,040 bedded general hospitals were added to the 
seven already in the country. With these new medical units to hand, the extensive preparations for the 
Gaza-Beersheba operations were commenced. Three casualty clearing stations, with a total accom- 
modation for 3,000 patients were allotted to serve the right flank and these were placed at Imara ; the 
two at Belah dealt with the evacuations from the Gaza sector. 

Imara was in full, though distant, view of the Turkish positions and orders forbade the pitching 
of any tents until after dusk of the evening preceding the attack. Many readers will remember the 
appearance next morning of the erstwhile bare plain with its whole town of tents. To these advanced 
hospitals extra surgeons were sent up from the Base so that there should be no delay in surgical treatment, 
and hospital trains were able to evacuate the wounded direct to El Arish and Kantara. 

The casualties daring these early operations, though not as heavy as had been pre])ared for, were 
quite enough to keep the medical department busy in all its branches. From Oct. 28 to Nov. 11, 1917, 
Desert Mounted and XXth Corps had 245 officers and 4,674 other ranks wounded, and XXIst Corps 
126 officers and 2,947 other ranks. During the same period an equal number of sick was dealt with. 

The pursuit taken up by the Desert Mounted and XXIst Corps, which did not cease until JafPa 
had been taken and Jerusalem was in sight, taxed the medical services to their utmost. All medical 
transport which could be spared from XXth Corps was temporarily transferred to the other two Corps 
to enable them to get their sick and wounded away. As it waa impossible to move forward a casualty 
clearing station for some time, two field ambulances were also lent them to string out their long hne of 
evacuation, and to provide resting and feeding places for the patients coming down. The weather 
during this period of the fighting was very bad and greatly increased the difficulties of the medical 
service. The work of the front hne units, especially the field ambulances of the 52nd, 74th, and Yeomanry 
Divisions in the Judaean Hills, was at this time very arduous. 

The pause which occurred before the attack on Jerusalem enabled three casualty clearing stations 
to be brought up ; one to Gaza, another to Deir Seneid, and the third to Junction Station, to which 
point the Turkish railway was by this time fitfully running. On the capture of Jerusalem it was necessary 
to hold up the sick and wounded there in order to save them the long journey in the bad weather which 
still persisted. A casualty clearing station was soon opened in Jerusalem, to be followed later by two 
others. Meanwhile, a fourth had been opened at Jaffa, and on the arrival of the railway at Ludd, this 
latter place became the centre for evacuation from the whole front. 

The strain was not confined to the front hne and lines of communication, and mention must be 
made of the good work done by the hospitals at the Base, which, although depleted of many of their 
staff in order to fill gaps in the front hne, were called upon to work for a time at very high pressure. 

The raid on Es Salt and Amman was from the medical point of view exceptionally arduous. The 
closely-pressed retirement from Amman, over ground so deep in mud as to be almost impassable for 
camels and wheeled transport, made the evacuation of the wounded a task of considerable magnitude. 

In April came the reorganization of the force owing to the demands for man-power from France. 
The substitution of Indian for British regiments necessitated a complete remodelling of the Divisional 
field ambulances, which became combined units capable of deaUng with both British and Indian troops. 
Casualty clearing stations were similarly converted into combined clearing hospitals. Five new Indian 
general hospitals were opened, two British being at the same time closed. These alterations entailed 
drastic changes in the personnel. India were able to supply but a very hmited number of medical officers, 
and many of the units, on arrival, consisted simply of equipment and very partially-trained Indian 
personnel. The few weeks remaining before operations began were devoted to " intensive training ", 
and it is greatly to the credit of all concerned that, when put to the test, these hastily-formed units 
fulfilled their functions with credit to themselves and their service. 

In the final operations, the casualties from wounds were fortunately not heavy and well within the 
numbers anticipated. The speed of the pursuit and the consequent rapid lengthening of the hne of 
evacuation accentuated the transport difficulties. With the capture of Haifa the pressure was reheved 
by the opening of a casualty clearing station there which was able to despatch cases by hospital ship 
direct to Alexandria. Later on, this hospital ship service was extended to the other Syrian ports, where 
casualty clearing stations have been opened. Damascus also was supplied with a casualty clearing station 
the moment transport became available. The total number of wounded in these operations has been 
239 officers and 4,854 other ranks. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONAEY FOECE lOfi 

No sooner had we reached a breathing space in dealing with our own wounded than we were 
overwhehned with sick and wounded prisoners-of-war. The captured Turks were in a deplorable con- 
dition of health, owing to prolonged shortage of food, to malaria, and finally to a serious epidemic of 
influenza. Of the 100,000 captured, more th:in 20,000 passed into medical charge. For their accom- 
modation three large 2,000 bedded hospitals were rapidly prepared in Egypt and the permanent prisoners- 
of-war hospitals were also greatly expanded. Several of the Egyptian Hospitals — a service which has 
done splendid work throughout the campaign — were also devoted to their treatment, and for a shork 
time the British General Hospital at Giza was set free for the accommodation of the more serious cases. 

The flood of prisoners had subsided, and now a new trouble had to be faced. Our own sick rate 
began to show an alarming increase, the daily average of hospital admissions rising from 600 to 1,000 
and even to 1,400 per day. This was mainly due to malaria contracted in the newly-occupied districta 
and to influenza. Superhuman efforts were made in Cairo and Alexandria to open new hospitals and 
expand existing ones. By these means it was found just possible to keep pace with the increasing sickness. 

From a medical point of view, the most important problem of this campaign — as of all previous 
campaigns in this country — ^has been that of malaria. During. 1917 this disease was easily controlled 
by dealing with the localized mosquito-breeding areas in the Wadi Ghuzzee. In 1918 it was a very 
different story. Palestine is notoriously malarious, and, during the summer months some localities 
such as the Jordan Valley, the coastal plain, and the Vale of Esdraelon have the reputation of being 
barely habitable. Practically all the perennial streams produce marshes which are infested with 
mosquitoes, including many anopheline varieties. Even the hill country is by no means free, and every 
well, cistern, and streamlet is a potential breeding place for these pests. 

Directly our front line was definitely, established in the early spring, the campaign against mos- 
quitoes began in earnest. Each division was made responsible for its own areas. Their sanitary sections 
soon got to work, and with the aid of the Royal Engineers and Egyptian labour, marshes were drained, 
streams canalised, and wells and cisterns oiled. Each regiment was further expected to provide a malaria 
squad to deal with the vicinity of its own camp. By mid-sununer, the result of this combined offensive 
became apparent, and the mosquito had been driven even from areas which in early summer had been 
its most formidable strongholds. The sUghtest relaxation of effort was immediately followed by a 
counter-offensive on the part of the anophelines, who missed no chance of re-estabhshing their position 
in any unguarded water area. Even the Jordan Valley was so satisfactorily dealt with that troops were 
enabled to Uve through the worst season of the year in this poisonous locality without any alarming 
amount of sickness. In order to assist in the early detection of malaria cases, small " diagnosis stations " 
were scattered along the front line in easily accessible positions. Each consisted of one medical officer 
and two trained orderlies with microscopes and a diagnosis was made on the spot. No less than 40,000 
blood slides were examined in these units and have been the means of saying hundreds of lives. 

With the advent of active operations and the passage of the troops into an untreated area, it was 
inevitable that the incidence of malaria should rise for a time. Within a fortnight of the opening day . 
the munber of malaria admissions began to increase, most of the cases being of the malignant type. The 
average sick rate, which had been 2'85 per cent for the four weeks preceding operations, increased to 
5"51 per cent for the period of the third to sixth week of operations. This was a proof, if any were needed 
of the efficacy of our previous anti-malarial measures. There is little doubt that had not the problem 
been energetically grappled with from the first, and had malaria been allowed to exact its toll throughout 
the simmier months, the efficiency of the troops would have been very seriously taxed. What effect 
such a state of affairs might have had upon the campaign gives opportunity for interesting speculation. 

Typhus, enteric, relapsing fever, and cholera have been kept in check by inoculation, cleanliness 
and sanitation. It may well be said that the incinerator and disinfector have helped to win this war. 
A small outbreak of cholera among the civil population at Tiberias was soon got under control with only 
a single case of infection among the troops. The only other epidemic of any serious aspect has been 
that of pellagra among the Turkish prisoners. This obscure disease has been responsible for many deaths 
among them and is at present the subject of an exhaustive enquiry by a special medical commission. 
No case has occurred among British troops and only one German prisoner has been found suffering from it. 

Ophthalmia, which in Napoleon's Egyptian and Palestine expeditions proved so formidable a bug- 
bear, has, thanks to the cleanly habits of the British soldier, been practically absent from our ranks. 
In the case of the Turks, however, both before and after captmre, its ravages have been severe. 

With the arrival of the armistice, further problems await the medical service. Sick repatriated 
prisoner? have to be looked after, and, in this " half-way house," from India, no doubt many sick will 
find a hospital lodging on their way to and fro. 

Within the limits of a short article it is possible to enumerate but a few of the multifarious activities 
of a medical service called upon to safeguard the health and tend the sick and wounded of a force larger 
than the peace-time British Army. Altogether the force may be congratulated on the state of its health 
during the campaign, and the short period following the opening of operations which provided so much 
sickness may perhaps be considered part of the inevitable price to be paid for one of the most complete 
victories in the history of British arms. 



106 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

ROYAL ARMY VETERINARY CORPS. 

At the beginning of the period now under review, the veterinary service of the force found itself 
already organized and equipped on a basis which provided for the efficient performance of its duties 
at the moment, and at the same time permitted of considerable expansion, if necessary, without 
dislocating existing arrangements. 

To its formation, Australia, New Zealand, India, Egypt, and the Mediterranean Expeditionary 
Force, had contributed varied units, and to these had been added two veterinary hospitals originallv 
intended for another theatre of war ; but the organization and equipment of the various components' 
differed, and even the British units were not uniform in either particular. 

It had been at once evident that satisfactory service could hardly be rendered imder such conditions 
and a complete reorganization had been carried out ; a reorganization which was rendered comparatively 
easy by the enthusiasm and co-operation of all concerned. The adherence of the Australian and New 
Zealand authorities to the idea of a universal organization was especially fortunate, and in consequence 
all Colonial divisions which were transferred to France, landed in that country with a veterinary organi- 
zation similar to the other formations of the British Expeditionary Force. 

While speaking of Australian and New Zealand imits it may here be remarked that the high profes- 
sional standard of veterinary officers of the forces of these Dominions, their devotion to duty and loyalty 
to the Directorate, has been a marked and pleasing feature in the veterinary history of the Egyptian 
Expeditionary Force. 

Veterinary hospitals were established at centres where rail connection and the possibility of obtain- 
ing green fodder combined to make transit easy and the forage supply suitable for sick animals. In 
these line of communication establishments Egyptians were employed as much as possible in order to 
economise British personnel. Field veterinary units with divisions were brought to a imiforni estab- 
lishment and equipped similarly to those in France, the possibility of their being required overseas having 
been realized. 

So far as horses, mules, and donkeys were concerned it was also necessary to estabhsh a trustworthy 
system of mallein inoculation throughout the army in order to detect cases of glanders and endeavour to 
prevent extension of the disease when introduced. This equine scourge may easily become one of the 
great sources of loss among the animals of armies in the field, and consequently every animal in the 
force was tested. Subsequently every entry to a veterinary hospital or issue to a remoxmt depot was 
retested, and, although many isolated cases and local outbreaks occurred, the disease has always been 
kept under control, and the losses have been very slight. More cases indeed were detected among 
captured Turkish animals than occurred among the entire army during the campaign. 

The raising of Camel Corps on a large scale naturally called for a special organization on the part 
of the veterinary service. However successful previous camel campaigns may have been from the 
miUtary point of view, they have generally resulted in the rapid extinction of the animals, and the main- 
tenance of numbers has only been possible by renewing them in toto. 

In one of the Central Asian campaigns of the Russian Army for instance, a force imder General 
Skobeleff, with a transport of 12,000 camels, returned after some months with one camel only ; and 
in our own Afghan campaign of 1879-80 we lost 70,000 transport animals of which a high proportion 
were camels, the necessary numbers of which could hardly have been maintained for a longer period. 
The animal mortality of a camel corps, therefore, might be confidently anticipated at a very high figure, 
and the large niunbers it was proposed to employ called for special effort to keep losses at the minimum 
possible. 

In its endeavours to assist in the creation and maintenance of this branch of the army the veterinary 
service was again fortunate : its recommendations received due consideration and the spirit in which 
the camel veterinary duties were imdertaken both by ofiicers and other ranks was worthy of every 
commendation. Camel hospitals were established for the reception of serious casualties, and a consider- 
able veterinary personnel was specially trained to deal with cases which could be retained with theii 
units. This included a comprehensive scheme for the treatment of camel mange, a disease which, if 
allowed to run its course unchecked,- will destroy a camel corps on service in from three to six months. 
Since practically every adult camel in Egypt has the disease, and as all suitable Egyptian camels were 
employed, it is easy to miderstand that extensive prejiarations were necessary in order to combat its 
ravages successfully. The losses in camels have proved to be about thirty per cent per annum. This 
is, of course, a high percentage, but when it is considered that an average of some 40,000 camels has 
been maintained in the field for between two and three years it represents a great advance on previous 
sunilar campaigns. Many factors which do not come altogether within the purview of this article were 
naturally concerned in the successful accomplishment of the work of the camel corps with this force, but 
the efficient manner in which the veterinary duties were carried out undoubtedly contributed to the result. 
The operations which began in Oct., 1917 (Beersheba -Gaza -Jerusalem) were of the most strenuous 
nature for all animals of the army. The weather conditions varied from a heat wave to frost, and from 
a drought to torrential rain. During the heat many horses were without water for forty to eighty hours, 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 



107 



while military requirements combined with floods and mud prevented the regular supply of full quanti- 
ties of forage. The resulting casualties were perforce heavy, and only the unremitting attention of all 
formations and all ranks concerned prevented more serious loss. During this period the work of the 
Mobile Veterinary Sections and Field Veterinary Detachments calls for special notice, and through 
their agency very many animals which would otherwise have perished were saved and subsequently 
restored to the service. 

The continuous work demanded from all animals of the army during the summer and autumn of 
1918 was such as to keep veterinary hospitals full ; and although they were organized and prepared to 
deal with a fui'ther increase had it been necessary as a result of the operations, viz. the advance from 
Haifa to Aleppo, this was not requisite. Though considerable casualties were sustained during this 
advance they were the unavoidable outcome of war, out of all proportion small, when compared with 
the results achieved, and the general health of animals remains good up to the period of writing. 

In such a brief review it is impossible to give statistics of the contagious diseases encountered and 
dealt with, but glanders, anthrax, mange, piroplasmosis (tick fever), and epizootic lymphangitis, may be 
mentioned as affecting horses and mules, while trypanosomiasis (surra, debab), and mange, have been 
the most frequent among camels. 

The last-mentioned conditions combined with insufficient food su])ply are said to have been the 
cause of the breakdown of the Turkish camel transport in 1916-17, their losses of these animals during 
that period in the Jordan Valley, being estimated by their own officers at 40,000. Whatever may have 
been the real numbers, the skeletons everywhere in evidence on our arrival in the area mentioned, warrant 
its being placed at a very high figure. 

During the period under review (July, 1917-Oct., 1918), over 63,000 horses, mules or donkeys, and 
31,000 camels were received into veterinary hospitals, while the number of less serious casualties attended 
to in the field greatly exceeded these figures. 

The percentage of animals returned from hospitals to the Remount Department as fit for re-issue 
to the service has been eighty per cent in the case of horses, and seventy per cent in the case of camels. 

The total losses during the entire campaign calculated on the average strength of the animals of 
the army have not exceeded sixteen per cent of horses, mules and donkeys, and thirty per cent of camels, 
per annmn. 



LABOUR IN THE EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE. 

General Remarks. 

Under the above heading was included all the unskilled Egyptian personnel and a large proportion 
of the skilled and semi-skilled personnel which Egypt was called on to furnish towards the needs of the 
Egyptian Expeditionary Force. It fell to the Directorate of Labour to arrange for its provision and 
distribution. 

The numbers involved eventually reached a total of 135,000 men, engaged on six months' contracts 
giving an annual turn-over of some 270,000 men, apart from replacement of casualties. The figures 
before the attack on Gaza in 1917 and the figures reached during 1918 were as under in the various 
corps : — 

1917 1918 

•100,002 labourers 



Camel Transport Corps 

Donkey Transport Corps ... . 
Horse Transport (A.S.C.) ... . 

Remount Service \..' 

Veterinary Service 

Imperial Camel Corps 


Totals . 


20,000 

3,200 

1,200 

1,100 

280 




74,252 



23,452 drivers 


1,992 „ 


4,349 „ 


1,433 syces 


3,496 „ 


247 drivers 


134,971 



Recruiting. 

The modest needs of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force in 1915-16 in unskilled Egyptian 
personnel had been adequately met by collecting the men required in the large cities and sending a few 
recruiting agents to Upper Egypt at intervals. Towards the end of 1916, however, demands for 
Egyptian personnel, especially for Camel Transport Corps, became insistent and it was found necessary 
to set up a small recruiting staff in Upper Eg)^t to provide for Camel Transport Corps, leaving the 
hitherto untapped Delta as a field for Egyptian Labour Corps recruiting. Early in 1917, between calls 



' Includes 6,406 skilled or semi-skilled Egyptians. 



108 



THE ADVANCE OF THE 



for Egyptian labour for service in France, Mesopotamia, and Salonika, and the rapidly growing needs 
of the Egyptian Expeditionary B'orce, it became obvious that provision for recruiting on an extensive 
scale should be made. An Inspectorate of Recruiting (Directorate of Labour) was therefore established 
consisting of twenty-six officers whose activities extended throughout Egypt from Alexandria to Assouan. 
A strict system of medical inspection and examination was enforced and an advance of L.E. 3 made to 
all recruits accepted to enable them to provide for their dependents. 

The appointment of Inspector of Recruiting was filled by a senior Inspector of the Ministry of the 
Interior, whose services were placed at the disposal of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force by the 
Egyptian Government ; this arrangement subsequently proved to be of very great assistance and was 
attended with most successful results. 

Recruiting camps for the reception of Egyptians were opened at Sohag, Assiut, and Roda Island, 
Cairo, whence special trains, conveying 2,000 recruits at a time were run to the respective Base Depots 
on the Suez Canal (Kantara) where the men were disinfected, clothed, equipped, and organized into 
companies or detachments. The Inspectorate of Recruiting also made provision for some 6,000 skilled 
or semi-skilled personnel constantly required in the Egyptian Labour Corps, 

Organization of Labour. 

Apart from the recruitment of Egyptian personnel generally, the allotment of labour to employers 
was dealt with by authorized demands being put forward locally by services and departments to Assistant 
Directors or Deputy Assistant Directors of Labour. 

The following table shows the chain of responsibility : — 







D. of L. 
(at G.H.Q.) 

1 






1 

A.D.L. (Egypt) 

D.A.D.L's. 

1 






A.D.L. (Palestine and Syria) 

1 
D A.D.L's. 

1 


Labour Areas 
E.L.C. 

Companies 
E.L.C. 


Mil. Labour 
Bureaux. 

1 

Casual 

local labour. 


1 
Labour Areas 

E.L.C. 

1 
Companies 

£.L.a 


Mil. Labour 
Bureaux. 

Casual 
local labour. 



(The Inspector of Recruiting and Inspector, Egyptian Labour Corps, were in direct communication 
with Director of Labour, G.H.Q.) 

The system outhned above, whilst ensuring decentraUzed control, did away to a great extent with 
the practice of and necessity for employers holding reserves of labour at their own disposal ; it enabled 
a " pool " of labour to be established at various centres of activity and especially at the base ports of Alex- 
andria, Port Said, Suez, and Kantara, and subsequently at Jaffa, Haifa, Beirut, Tripoli, and Alexandretta. 

Very great savings, financially and otherwise, were efiected thereby. 



OflSoers. 


Men. 


39 ... 


2,973 


88 ... 


24,838 


292 ... 


55,592 


418 ... 


85,547 


504 ... 


100,002» 



Egyptian Labour Corps. 

The strength of the corps was as under : — 

In Jan., 1916 

In Aug., 1916 

In Aug., 1917 

In Aug., 1918 

In Nov., 1918 

In 1916, 10,463 Egyptian Labour Corps were sent to France ; 8,280 to Mesopotamia ; 600 to 
Salonika ; whilst in Oct., 1918, 7,000 labourers were held ready for despatch to Salonika before Turkey 
had capitulated. 

Among many difficulties experienced, but successfully overcome, in dealing with the above extra- 
ordinarily rapid expansion, was the question of finding suitable officers. Egypt had been thoroughly 
tapped by the spring of 1916 in order to furnish Arabic-speaking officers for the various local corps and 
for Intelligence duties. The original and experienced officers of the Egyptian Labour Corps who had 
done excellent service in Mudros, Egypt, and elsewhere were required for senior appointments in the 
corps, and they represented only a fraction of the increased numbers now necessary. Consequently, if 

* luuludes 6,406 skilled or Bemi-skilled K.L.C. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE lOd 

Egyptian labour was to be properly organized it became essential to draw suitable oflBcers with a know- 
ledge of discipline from some other source. The problem was solved by offering temporary commissions 
to selected candidates from the ranks of British units, and ensuring them facilities for the acquisition 
of Arabic with extra duty pay on becoming proficient. Only those candidates who showed an aptitude 
in the handling of Egyptians, after a thorough practical test extending over several weeks, were accepted, 
and it is of interest to state that out of over 800 candidates dealt with 401 have been commissioned. 

Although Egypt could make no further provision in officers, it could still produce large numbers 
of local subjects of European descent, who by their knowledge of the fellahin and their proficiency in 
languages proved to be most valuable material for foremen. Advantage was taken of this fact to engage 
and train large numbers as serjeant-foremen and corporal-foremen. Meanwhile, practical experience 
in working Egyptian Labour Corps in the field had led to the evolution of the organization best suited 
to its many and varied activities. 

The smallest unit in the corps is the gang. It consists of fifty men, viz. a reis and forty-nine 
labourers. The reis, usually, is personally known to all the men in his gang, and frequently all come 
from the same village or markaz. Thus in a company of 600 labourers there are twelve gangs, and in 
a double company of 1,200 labourers, twenty-four gangs. To such companies skilled personnel were 
frequently attached. The proportion of officers handling labour is one officer to each section of 200 men. 

The organization of the Egyptian Labour Corps was as follows on Sept. 19, 1918 : — 

Headquarters (Inspector, E.L.C.) Ludd 



Base Depot, E.L.C. 
Advanced Dep6t, E.L.C. 
Double companies 
Single companies 



Kantara 
Ludd 
24 
75 



" Labour areas " for purposes of administration, and consisting of the requisite number of com- 
panies, were formed as circumstances demanded. 

It is not possible in a short survey to enter into particulars as regard.s the detailed employment of 
100,000 men ; therefore it must suffice to enumerate the main classes of work on which these consider- 
able numbers were engaged : — 

{a) Railway construction and maintenance (broad and narrow gauge), and bridge building. 

(6) Roadmaking and metalling ; constructing and laying " wire roads " ; clearing tracks. 

(c) Laying pipe-lines. 

{d) Construction of buildings and reservoirs ; carpentry and general Royal Engineer work, 

(e) Quarrying stone. 

(/) Well-boring. 

{g) Formation of supply dep6ts and general Army Service Corps labour. 

(A) Stretcher bearing and conservancy ; drainage of malarial areas. 

(i) Ammunition depots and general Ordnance labour. 

{j) Loading and discharging ships ; stevedoring, including working winches and derricks. 

(k) Boatmen — manning surf boats landing stores along the coasts of Palestine and Syria. 

{I) Labour for Royal Air Force, for " Signals," and for salvage. 

To all members of the force the Egyptian Labour Corps were well-known in small detachments ; 
it was given to few to observe them at work where large numbers were employed ; but those who have 
seen many thousands of Egyptian Labour Corps labourers on task work, either driving a cutting with 
pick and fasse through Palestine clay, or in their thousands carrying baskets of earth to pile ,up some 
railway embankment, will long remember such examples of intensive labour. No less striking was it 
to watch the line of laden boats leaving the storeships off the coast and making their way through the 
surf to the beach, there to be hauled high up by teams of cheerful Egyptians working to whistle signal 
under their own officers. 

Nor must their equally important work at the base ports of Alexandria, Pott Said, Suez, and Kantara 
be forgotten. Trained stevedore gangs under Egyptian Labour Corps officers were always in readiness 
to board incoming ocean-going steamers, work their discharging gear, and empty the holds as rapidly 
as had hitherto been done by skilled contractor's personnel ; or, conversely, to load outgoing vessels 
with supplies, ammunition, and stores required for operations on the Syrian coast or in Salonika. 

It stands to the lasting credit of the officers of the Egyptian Labour Corps, that certain companies, 
under selected Egyptian Labour Corps officers, reached such a high standard in connection with work 
on roads, railways, pipe-line, and other services, that they were able to make satisfactory progress 
without constant expert supervision. 



110 THE ADVANCE OF THE 

Among the skilled trades represented by over 6,000 Egyptians in the Egyptian Labour Corps, the 
following are examples : — 

Basket- menders ; blacksmiths ; carpenters ; fitters ; hammermen ; masons ; plasterers ; quarry- 
men ; saddlers ; stevedores ; stokers ; teutmenders ; tinsmiths ; well-borers ; wheelwrights ; winchmen. 

The accompanying maps (inset on Plates 44 and 52) show in a general way the distribution of the 
Egyptian Labour Corps throughout Palestine and Syria in connection with the advance of the force, 
but it should be borne in mind that equally large numbers were employed in Egypt particularly in the 
Suez Canal Zone and at Alexandria. 

Military Labour Bureaux. 

In order to effect economy and utilize all local sources of casual labour, MiHtary Labour Bureaux 
had been successfully established at Alexandria and Port Said in 1916. 

Concurrently with the advance from Gaza-Beersheba in 1917, immediate steps were taken by the 
Directorate of Labom- to collect and organize the labour resources of the newly occupied territory in 
conformity to the military requirements. 

The first Military Labour Bureau in Palestine was opened at Jaffa shortly after the town was 
occupied. Labour requirements to clear the streets, repair roads, and prepare the quay for the arrival 
of shipping were immediate and any labour that could be utilized at once was of especial value. 

Certain notables, sheikhs, and muktars were called together, the situation explained and notices 
issued calling for volunteers. 

Vhe chief difficulty at the onset was the natural tendency of the population to hold aloof until they 
understood the new regime and government, and this was augmented by the necessity of their becoming 
accustomed to receive wages in a new currency. In fact, at every Labour Bureau opened, the initial 
work was largely concerned in creating confidence in the local inhabitants with totally new conditions 
and in every case such confidence was uniformly and quickly established. 

Payment initially was made in coin to each separate labourer at the finish of each day's work. As 
soon as confidence was assured and the number of employees consequently increased, a weekly system 
of payment — partly in paper and partly in coin — was instituted. Each labourer had a numbered green 
armlet and a pay-slip which was marked up and checked at least twice a day. 

It soon became necessary to open a Bureau at Jerusalem, and very shortly some 10,000 local labourers 
were engaged on work extending from Hebron to Jerusalem and Jerusalem to Jaffa, controlled and 
organized by two bureaux. 

These large numbers had absorbed most of the available able-bodied men and both women and 
boys were then allowed to volunteer for certain classes of work on which they could be suitably 
employed. 

Where food was scarce millet was issiied in part payment to individual labourers, at their option. 

The Military Labour Bureaux ensured that regular work was provided in Palestine for thousands 
of people who in many cases would otherwise have been destitute. 

The currency question was thus very materially helped, both by the circulation of large sums in the 
new coinage as wages and because every case of trafficking or depreciating the official paper currency 
was immediately taken ap by the Labour Bureaux officers whenever one of the employees reported that 
he could not obtain full value for his wages when paid in notes. 

In addition to the labourers, some 1,500 skilled men were registered and engaged on casual employ- 
ment by these bureaux, boatmen from Jaffa and stone dressers from Jerusalem being particularly 
successful and freely volunteering for work in any locality required. 

Similar steps were taken for opening labour bureaux currently with the advance of 1918. Within 
seven days of the commencement of operations, labour Bureaux were opened at Tul Kerara, at Haifa, 
and shortly afterwards at Beirut. 

All Bureaux were organized on the same lines as proved successful at Jaffa and Jerusalem, and the 
rates of pay of casual labour were standardized throughout Palestine and Syria. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 111 



THE NAVY AND ARMY CANTEEN BOARD. 

Under tlie title of the Army Canteen Conamittee, an organization was established by the War Office 
in April, 1916, to control the operations of Army Canteens managed by Contractors. In Dec, 1916, 
the actual conduct of canteens was vested in this Committee. Its functions were subsequently enlarged 
to include the operation of Naval Canteens ashore and on board His Majesty's Ships, and the name was 
changed to the Navy and Army Canteen Board. 

In June, 1917, a Commission under Major-General Sir G. C. Kitson, appointed by the Quartermaster- 
General, arrived in Egypt and at once proceeded to take over the canteens previously managed by civihan 
contractors west of the Suez Canal and in the Sudan. 

In Sept., 1917, the Board took over the control of the forty-one canteens on the Canal and to the 
east of it, formerly provided by the Expeditionary Force Canteens (a temporary organization). 

Then came the advance of Oct., 1917, and it was during this difficult period that the Board's activities, 
so far as the advanced sections were concerned, commenced. At that time the canteen organization was 
not provided with its own transport, and was insufliciently stafTed, but, nevertheless, by the time the troops 
had settled down north of the Jaffa-Jerusalem line canteen facilities were available at Jafla, Ludd, Bir 
Salem, Latron, and Jerusalem. During the spring of 1918 these facilities were extended by the provision 
of canteens at Sheikh Muannis, Sarona, Bir ez Ziet, Mulebbis, Wilhelma, Hot Corner, in the Wady Ballut. 
Khurbetha ibn Harith, Ain Rinia, Ramallah, Jericho, and on the Auja. 

The summer of 1918 was a time of preparation, during which upwards of sixty motor vehicles arrived, 
and at the moment of the advance in September arrangements were complete by which it was hoped 
that the advancing infantry would never be out of touch with an Army Canteen. In pursuance of this 
object army canteens were opened at Tul Keram on Sept. 25, Nablus on Sept. 28, Haifa on Oct. 2, Beirut 
on Oct. 19, Tripolis on Oct. 23, Aleppo on Nov. 6, and at Damascus. The previously existing canteens 
at Ras el Ain, Jiljulieli, and Messudieh supplied the wants of those divisions that were withdrawn. One 
division was accompanied during its advance to Tiberias by a mobile canteen comprising five lorries. 

It is of interest to study a few points in connection with the administration of the Navy and Army 
Canteen Board in the area of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force. 

The unit forms a section of the Royal Army Service Corps and has an establishment of twenty-seven 
officers and 372 other ranks, with 135 personnel attached. It employs upwards of 800 European and 
Egyptian civilians. 

It is charged with the supply and conduct of all Army canteens, now ninety-eight in number. In 
addition it operates four mineral water factories, the Jerusalem Hotel, the Summer Camp Hotel at 
Alexandria, and the Winter Camp Hotel, Cairo. 

It has, or has had, bakeries at Cairo, Alexandria, Jerusalem, Jaffa, and Beirut, and it maintains 
refreshment tents or rooms for oflBcers and men at railhead and intermediate stations on the Palestine 
Military Railway. 

In Egypt, where Egyptian personnel is available, each Canteen consists, as at home, of a coffee bar, 
a grocery bar, and a beer bar, and in addition, in some cases, of a recreation room and a wholesale 
grocery bar. Owing to the shortage of personnel it was not found possible in the advanced sections to 
provide more than wholesale and retail grocery bars with, where possible, refreshment rooms for 
officers and men. During the summer of 1918, however, a number of kiosks containing soda fountains 
where such articles as cigarettes, sweets, and cakes, were available, were provided as near to the line 
as possible. Among such kiosks were those opened at Sheikh Muannis, Hot Corner, Bir ez Zeit, and 
Ain Sinia. 

In the Egyptian Expeditionary Force the canteen sales amount to a yearly total of upwards of four 
and a half million sterling, and the approximate value of the canteen stores in Egypt is one million 
pounds. Regimental and other funds are largely maintained by means of a rebate or discount of eight 
per cent on all cash sales to soldiers, and the Christmas issue of half a pound of plum pudding per man, 
in addition to many other amenities, was provided by the Army Council out of an additional two per 
cent which is paid by the Board to it, 



112 THE ADVANCE OF THE 



THE ROYAL AIR FORCE. 

In July, 1917, the Eoyal Air Force on this front consisted only of two squadrons, of which one was 
Austrahan. The Austrahan Squadron was chiefly employed in long distance reconnaissance, bomb- 
dj o^jping and photography ; while the other carried out the tactical work and artillery co-operation. 
Tue machines with which these squadrons were equipped were of an old type and much inferior to those 
used by the enemy. As a result, little could be achieved towards acquiring the superiority in the air. 

Shortly before the attack on the Gaza-Beersheba front, a second artillery squadron arrived, thus 
enabling the nucleus of a fighting squadron to be formed. The machines of the latter included one 
flight of Bristol fighters, which were held in reserve until a few days prior to the attack. One memorable 
morning four Bristols left the ground in response to a hostile aircraft alarm ; they met and engaged an 
enemy formation, and, for the first time on this front, shot down an enemy machine in our lines. The 
German pilot who was captured stated that he had been taken completely by surprise, never having 
doubted that his own machine was superior to anything that we had. 

From that day onward the tables were turned in our favour, and during the next few weeks other 
German machines shared the fate of the first. In all ninety-three enemy machines were brought down, 
fifty-nine of them behind the enemy's lines, eleven in our own lines, and twenty-eight out of control. 
Our long distance reconnaissance machines, which on previous occasions had been attacked on sight by 
the enemy, were now carefully avoided by him. 

On Sept. 29, 1917, the Commander of the Sinai Front informed the Yilderim Group Command that, 
" The mastery of the air has imfortimately for some weeks completely passed over to the British." He 
adds that, " Our aviators estimate the number of British aircraft at from thirty to forty." Though 
the enemy considered our Bristol fighter as far superior to their own machine, and were fond of attributing 
their want of success to the " machine," the following remark indicates that there were also other 
factors : — 

" The shoot ing down of a second fighting plane, which again was fighting alone, points to the necessity of an experienced 
O.C, Aircraft." (Von Papen, 16/10/17.) 

During the Gaza operations, formations of slow aeroplanes escorted by one or two Bristols, bombed 
and fired upon the retreating enemy without interference on the part of the German Flying Corps. 

Late in November the Bristol fighters were reinforced by S.E.5 scouts, a faster machine than any on 
this front ; and this type, with the Bristol fighters, gained for us the complete superiority in the air, which 
we held imtil the end. 

By the time our troops had taken up the Jerusalem-Jaffa line, the position of the Royal Air Force 
as regards machines and personnel rendered possible a continuous policy of offensive action against enemy 
aircraft, which were in all cases, without exception, attacked whenever met and in whatever numbers. 
The following extracts from captured enemy documents show the cumulative effect of this policy on the 
moral of the German Air Forces : — 

'2o/Si8-3l/8/lS. 

" In oon.sequencp of lively hostile flying activity, no reconnaissances could be carried out." 
" 1/9/18-7/9/18. 

" No flights over enemy country." 
"8/9/18-14/9/18. 

" No flights over enemy country." 

This was confirmed in the weekly reports from enemy Air Force Headquarters, as follows : — 

"25/8/18-31/8/18. 

" The loss of two more machines of 301st Abteilung ooaf>elled the suspension of all reconnaissance in front of 
Vlllth Army. 

" An attempt will be made to continue flights on the remainder of the front occasionally." 

Thus it will be seen that the enemy was tmable to obtain any information from aerial reconnaissance 
at a period when this was of vital importance. 

This is even more remarkable when it is realized that at the commencement of the advance in Sept., 
1918, the enemy Air Force was in considerable strength and equipped with up-to-date types of machines, 
which, if properly handled, were greatly superior in performance to our artillery machines. 

On the night of Sept. 18-19, a Handley-Page, carrying over half-a-ton of bombs flew over enemy 
country and attacked .Afuleh Station and Aerodrome. This machine, which had previously flown all 
the way from England, started the offensive as far as the Royal Air Force is concerned. 

At dawn the next morning, that is, " Z " day, a perfect orgy of bombing took place. A special 
squadron, detailed solely for bombing, had arrived a few weeks before operations commenced. This 
squadron attacked all telephone and telegraph exchanges far behind the line : while the Corps squadrons 
bombed the smaller exchanges just behind the trenches, with the result that enemy communication by 
telephone or telegraph was completely deranged. 



EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 113 

To ensure that tho enemy should not be aware of the massing of our cavalry just before the attack 
and their subsequent movements after the infantry had broken through, it was necessary to prevent 
enemy machines from leaving the ground. With this objective, two scouts at a time patrolled over 
Jenin aerodrome. Each machine carried four bombs, which were dropped on any sign of activity on the 
aerodrome. Each pair was relieved while still patrolling over the aerodrome and on relief came down 
and fired machine guns into the hangars, with the result that enemy aircraft were prevented from taking 
any part in the battle. 

During the infantry attack, three artillery machines continually patrolled the front of the XXIst 
Corps and, co-operating with the artillery, located and engaged thirty-two active batteries. 

On Sept. 20 and 21, every available machine was used for bombing the retreating enemy. Of 
these, the column retreating on the Nablus-Kh. Ferweh road on the 21st sustained the greatest losses. 
Early on the morning of the 21st a cohiran of enemy troops and transport was reported by a strategical 
reconnaissance machine moving along the Nablus-Wadi Farah road, just south of Kh. Ferweh. It was 
of the utmost importance that this movement should be stopped, as, although the cavalry had blocked 
the enemy retreat by way of Beisan, the road to the bridge over the Jordan, at Jisr ed Damieh could not 
possibly be closed by our troops for some hours ; nor could the crossings over the Jordan between that 
place and Beisan be guarded in time. All available machines were at once mobilized for this attack, 
and departures were so timed that two machines should arrive over the objective every three minutes, 
and that an additional formation of six machines should come into action every half hour. These attacks 
were maintained from 0800 till noon, by which time our troops were in touch with the column. The road 
was completely blocked and was strewn with a mass of debris of wrecked wagons, guns and motor lorries, 
totalling in all eighty-seven guns, fifty-five motor lorries, four motor cars, and 932 wagons. 

Very few flights took place in the air during operations, for the simple reason that ])ractically no 
enemy machines were met with ; but, just prior to the capture of Aleppo, an interesting combat occurred. 
Two Bristol fighters belonging to the AustraUan Flying Corps met an enemy aeroplane and after a nmning 
fight drove him down, forcing him to land behind his own lines. The occupants left the stricken machine, 
seeing which, the Bristol landed beside it and, while our observer held up the two German airmen, the 
pilot set fire to the hostile machine. Owing to the soft nature of the ground, he was prevented from 
bringing back the two Germans as prisoners, who were released and left where they were. 

A comparison of the strength of the Eoyal Air Force in Palestine in July, 1917, and Sept., 1918, is 
interesting. On the former date it consisted of one Wing, with two Squadrons, and a Balloon Company ; 
whilst in Sept., 1918, it consisted of a Brigade, with two Wings, seven Squadrons, and a Balloon Company. 



EXPLANATORY NOTE 

TO THE 

MAPS ILLUSTRATING OPERATIONS. 



The movements of troops during any fixed period are frequently so complex that it is not possible 
bo illustrate such moves in detail on maps of a scale which is, of necessity, small in order to include the 
wide area of country over which the troops were disposed. 

Consequently, the following maps, with a few exceptions, show the dispositions of our forces and those 
of the enemy as they were known at General Headquarters at certain fixed times, and are based on the 
situation maps which were issued nightly during the major operations. Considerable information has 
been added, such as the location of heavy artillery and aerodromes, and alterations made where later 
information proved the original maps to be incorrect. 

In order to avoid overcrowding the maps, the words " division " and " brigade " have been omitted 
except where brigades have been acting separately from their divisions ; and in all cases the positions 
are approximate only. Thus, in the case of the heavy artillery, it has frequently been impossible to show 
each battery, or even the Royal Garrison Artillery brigade, in the actual position occupied, and the 
conventional sign has been placed close to the headquarters of the formation with or under which it 
was operating. 

Regiments and battalions are only shown when acting apart from their higher command, and then 
only when space permits. 

It should be realised that the Turkish regiment {i.e. three battalions) is a similar formation to 
our brigade, and is the enemy's principal fighting formation. This fact, and the number of odd imits 
on the front, especially east of the Jordan, tends to make the Turkish troops appear on the maps in 
an imdue preponderance. 

Throughout, the activities of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force are shown in red, and those of the 
enemy in green. 

For details of the moves of any particular unit reference should be made to the " Brief Record 
of Service " of the formation concerned. 



Owing to the abnormal weather conditions in Cairo during the period in which the maps were 
printed, the unequal expansion and contraction of the paper caused unusual difficulty in obtaining 
correct colour registration, and the paper shortage in Egypt and the limited time in which delivery waa 
required, made reprinting impossible. 



LINES OF COMMUNICATiON, 1917. 

British. 

In June, 1917, the " Palestine Lines of Communication " comprised the bases Port Said and 
Kantara, and a single line of railway track from Kantara to Deir el Belah, the railhead station which 
had been opened in April, 1917. {See Plate 2.) 

Great stress was thrown upon all departments by the erection of efficient railway, ordnance, and 
engineer workshops, the construction of wharves along the Canal bank, the laying out of thirty miles 
of metalled roads, the development of the terminus of the military railway, and the transfer of all the more 
Zb face Plate 1. 



REFERENCE 

TO CONVENTIONAL SIGNS 



RailMrays 

M€tJirv JtocuLs 
Other RocLds. . - 

Good Trcuiks 

TeLegrttpK Lirvea 

^ewisTv CoLoiiijes. 

Heights in/ fket abovey Sea> Le^reL. 
„ beZovr „ „ 



I I I I t — • — III' 



5020 



xTantry 



BRITISH 

IDivisioTV 

avaJry - 

rab Army. 

\rmy ITQ 

'orps JT.Q. 

{raJ> Army H-Q, - 

^ivLaionjCbb Jl.Q,- . - 

\ilrois, Caxr. gc Int. - 

Teajvy or Sveffe^ ArtUlerj --. -.- 

\m\joureicL Cilt — 

Wotor Transport GoLumns 

AERIAL 

Aerodrome, ojid 

Advxmcedy Lcuiding Gi^urtd-. 



7 

1611 



M5 

XYltXl 

1..P 

60|K 



Infantry 



4 « 



Ji o'^Fuue > 



Aretis bombed 



-1254 

TURKISH 

DiMvsvon/ 

\ Regirrtj^tt — 

German/ In/hJttry. . - — 

Cavalry 

Army H. Q_ 

Corps S. Q 

DtrLrvonxiL H. Q-. 

Heavy ArbULeiy 

Dtsoraantsed/ reireaJtijuj CoLu-nuvs 
Motor Transport Columns 
Horse Transport Column x 
Lines of Retrial 

AERIAL 

Aerodrome. 
Areas bomied-- .. 



I-'ORMATIONS ARE SJfOWJ^ THUS: 



i 



CvxjaesnJtraJbtd/ 



■uvLine- 



in. Column- oC Route/ 



Frortt Lvnm. 18-9-Ka — — — — 



PLATE I 



53 



72 






m 



-^ 






/■oA«»rf »/ <M Si^v tfl»ft.Ot tut <0*SS) 



important base depots from Egypt to Kantara ; all performed against time, in order that the army in 
front might derive full benefit from these works when active operations should be opened. 

In the most difficult and most important work of all, that is to say, in transforming Kantara into 
a port at which many ocean-going steamers can discharge, the Suez Canal Company gave its fullest 
and most effective support. Essential as these works were for the army in the field, the Canal was not 
constructed with a view to such developments, and the harbour works might well have been regarded 
by the Company as of doubtful value. Nevertheless, the Company entered sympathetically into the 
programme, and, not content with giving its formal consent to the proposed works, technical advice 
and assistance were freely placed at the disposal of the army. 

- While the work was going forward at the main base of the lines of commimication during the summer 
of 1917, developments were also taking place further east. El Arish was made into a hospital centre 
in order to ease the transference of sick and wounded from railhead to the base hospitals ; advanced 
depots of supplies, stores, and ammimition were established at Rafa, Khan Yunis, and at Deir el Belah ; 
while the work of doubling the railway track across Sinai was pushed forward rapidly, the double track 
to El Arish being opened for traffic by mid-November. Two months previously the lines of communica- 
tion had been extended to include the new railhead at Shellal on the Rafa-Shellal branch. 

The operations which began in October resulted in the extension of the lines of commimication, 
first to Beersheba to the east and to Mejdel to the nOrth. This was quickly followed by the inclusion 
of Ramleh (Dec. 24), Jaffa (Jan. 30) and Jerusalem (Feb. 4). In the meantime the defence and admini- 
stration of the lines of communication were placed under one commander. 

During this period and until the arrival of railhead in the neighbourhood of Ramleh, there were 
many periods of anxiety and difficulty owing to the weather conditions. 

The movement of supplies, reinforcements, and remounts was seriously interrupted both by rail 
and road, as owing to the heavy floods during November and December, the railway track WBS repeatedly 
breached in the low-lying coastal plain, and this made the movement of all forms of transport impossible 
for days together. No metalled road existed across this plain between the Wadi Ghuzze and JuHs, a 
distance of over twenty miles, and parties of reinforcements marching from the ever-advancing railhead 
to the front line foimd themselves isolated in a waste of mud and water, imable to move forward or 
back, and suffered considerable hardships before arriving in the front line. It was due to the persistent 
efforts of the railway construction parties and of engineers, who did what could be done with the " roads," 
such as they were, that the lines of commimication were kept open under the difficult conditions which 
prevailed. 

Turkish. 

The Turkish lines of communication, which extended from Bozanti to Beersheba (see Plate 2), were 
under the Syrian Western Arabia Command, and the G.O.C. (Ahmed Jemal Pasha) did not work har- 
moniously with the Yildirim Army group as he was jealous because his command had been taken over 
by a foreigner. 

The task of keeping up supplies, even under the best of conditions, was not an easy one, for at this 
time the Amanus and Taurus tunnels were incomplete, and all supplies from west of Bozanti had to be 
unloaded, and either re-loaded into narrow-gauge trucks, which were drawn by engines driven by com- 
pressed air, or transported by motor lorry or pack animals to the east end of the tunnels. The same 
procedure was adopted over the Amanus range, thus entailing four separate transhipments of all supplies. 
A further transhipment took place at Rayak owing to the change from the normal guage line to the 
metre gauge of the Hejaz and Palestine railways. (See Plate 2.) 

Thus the only means of communication for the Turkish force in Palestine with their main base 
at Haidar Pasha (Constantinople Station in Asia), was by a single line of rail about 1,275 miles in length, 
which had in addition to carry all ordnance stores for the force in Mesopotamia, as far as Muslimie, and 
for the Hejaz, as far as Deraa. (See Plate 2.) 

The roiling stock was neither good nor numerous, and the wood fuel which was used in place of coal 
did not tend to accelerate the service. An instance occurred of a train being stopped between stations 
so that the wood fuel could be chopped into pieces small enough to feed the fire. Numerous short lines 
were constructed for the purpose of bringing the requisite wood from the timbered areas. In order to 
release rolling stock, reinforcements frequently marched from Rayak to the front line, 'a distance 
of about 250 miles. 

In addition to the above difficulties, the inefficiency of Turkish officials and their amenity to bribery, 
made the supply and equipment of the Yildiiim armies no easy problem. 

To /ace J late 2. 






^ 



l»jM 



• Mut 



!^> ^> 



xr;^ 



/ 



Sl«. 



Supplies*^ ^- - 



"— ' vvtokM »^J^>^^»^ i//»# under cotiitrt ctfo/f 
— -»-/(]l\^ t' ^arfiiA-z/Ze through 



d^ I, en by com pro. s-et/ 




'^»m<Vm 






i^tiocJi 



Bay 




••Pay** 






J<.IIh 



fmUSUmit STA 



'virfffl. Wl 



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C*p* a«i» 



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k^" 



Tripoli 






M E D I T E R HA N E Ji N 



wKmissr 



^■"'v 



SEA 



Aef< 



fOAMASCUft 



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&hm^k,n^^^ 



Jii^ 



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9t(a^iar^ 






\ *CIAuJa. 






oAvsro. 99ki Sha/n 



ftiAem^n .tr>4 



IJNESorClMfUNlCATIONS 
OCTOBER 1917 

~ Uil«ai0 • tt lo •• • M 40 •« toMllea 



REFERENCE 

Ma%fL Suppbt nepM 

^rrxss Dei aSes. t/>e/9ce by • ■*"* 

came/ Co " 



^«rak 



» .1 > ■■■i4». f« .1 Saifflr- 

» t ' * — ^ ■ Narroiw » t% m •• 

■ ; Rt*nd» 
m tVrm^njnt OrdnMner %hrk*htjp9 

£ Medium T. 

A Li^ht » 

^^^ />p« Lin* 
^P^ fUtfiplim* ThunsporteH bf Mabtr Itimw^ 

4Jm» ..Sea bom^r mupjtb^^ 



'^^prw^uti'd fy th€ Siir^'y off^ypt Dtc I9'9(0*S3) 



/^eprm/^tfc^ in £ny/jn<i^ /b^'S. 



October 28. 

The concentration for the attack on Beersheba had been proceeding for a week past, and troops 
were gradually moving to their concentration areas. On Oct. 27 the line of observation (the Eashid 
Bek-El Buggar -Point 720-Point 630 ridge), was held by the 8th Mounted Brigade, and at dawn the 
enemy launched a determined attack on Points 630 and 720, and eventually succeeded in occupying 
the crests of both hills, despite the very gallant and determined resistance of the 1st Coimty of London 
(Middlesex) Yeomanry. The garrison on Point 720 were, save for three men, all killed or wounded, 
and that on Point 630 held on in a support trench close behind the crest, in spite of heavy casualties 
and though almost surrounded. It was eventually relieved by 158th Brigade, and the whole line re- 
occupied in the evening, on the enemy withdrawing. 

Much work on the ever-pressing question of water supply was necessary, wells being developed 
and water stored at Esani, Asluj, Khalasa for the cavalry, and at Abu Ghalyun and Maalaga for the 
infantry. 

On Oct. 28, the outpost line was held by the 53rd Division, plus the 229th Brigade (74th Division), 
covering the construction of the railway to Karm. The remainder of the XXth Corps was concentrating 
about Tel el Fara, while Desert Mounted Corps was moving to its concentration area about Khalasa 
and Asluj. 

It is not uninteresting to review the enemy situation at this period :• — 

The German Staff in Sinai had, so far back as August, decided that the British would make another 
effort to break through on that front, and with such forces that, unless the Turks were heavily reinforced, 
the result could only be in favour of the British. That the weaknesses of their position were its extent 
and the exposed left flank at Beersheba, was fully realized by the Command in the field, and during 
August and September repeated requests were made to the Higher Command for a shortening of the line 
by withdrawing from Beersheba, or generous reinforcements so that Beersheba could be held d Voutrance. 

The soundness of these demands was fully realized by the German advisers of the Tm'ks, but there 
existed a policy which was a veritable millstone to those who wished to conduct the operations in accor- 
dance with clear strategic principles. This policy was directed towards the recovery of Baghdad. 
Baghdad, a former capital ol the Khalifs, and therefore important to the pan-Islamic party, was ever 
before the Young Turk, soldier, and politician, and the plan had received the backing of Berlin. A 
composite German force had been formed and one of the first of German soldieis, Marshal Erich von 
Falkenhayn, lent for the carrying through of this undertaking. If Baghdad was to be retaken, every 
man and gun must be sent to Irak and every man sent to Sinai decreased the chance of success. But 
to this was the unanswerable argument of those who asked that reinforcements should be sent to Sinai : 
" If the Sinai front is broken, Palestine and Syria will fall into the enemy's hands, and not only will 
Baghdad not be retaken, but the armies in Irak will be caught like a rat in a trap, with the British across 
their lines of communication at Aleppo." It was not until mid-October that this argument prevailed 
and then it was too late. Troops being diverted from Mesopotamia were still on the lines of communication 
and the aircraft were still being unpacked and put together on their aerodromes, when the British troops 
attacked and captured Beersheba on Oct. 31, 1917. 

The German Command had, however, estimated the date of the British attack with fair accuracy, 
which they considered would take place, owing to weather conditions, early in November. But they 
were totally incorrect in their estimate of its direction. 

Various circumstances made them believe that it would consist of a third and final assault on Gaza, 
combined with a landing to the north, which would turn their right flank and enable the British to occupy 
the fertile coastal plain. To meet this primarily, all defensive work was concentrated for many weeks 
on the Gaza sector, and their main reserves — the 7th and 19th Infantry Divisions — were concentrated 
behind Gaza. 

Von FaUcenhayn proposed, by a concentration of forces, to deliver an attack on the British right 
flank, and so drive back General Allenby out of Palestine into the waterless and difficult coxmtry east 
of the Wadi el Arish. In addition to its strategical effect, this would have had the political result of 
clearing that portion of the Turkish Empire from the invader. 

This attack was originally timed for the latter half of October, to precede and forestall the British 
attack. Owing, however, to uidecision, general procrastination, poor transport facilities, and, above 
all, to the jealousy and opposition of Ahmed Jemal Pasha, G.O.C. of the Foxirth Army and Governor 
of Syria, it had to be postponed, and was eventually timed for early December. 

By Oct. 28 the organization of the Turkish forces under the Yildirim Army Group into the seventh 
and eighth armies was nearing completion. The headquarters ©f General Kress von Kressenstein (G.O.C, 
Eighth Army) had moved back from Huj to Huleikat so that the former, now connected to the main 
railway by a light line, might be used as a reserve area, and Fevzi Pasha (G.O.C, Seventh Army) was 
about to move forward his headquarters from Hebron to near Beersheba, finally to take over the troops 
allotted to his command. Marshal von Falkenhayn was at Aleppo en route for Jerusalem. 

The front had been strengthened by three fresh divisions — the 19th (Sedad Bey), 24th (Wilmer Bey, 
a German), and 26th (Fakhr-ed-Din Bey), and the 20th Division was ruoving towards the front on the 
lines of commrmication, south of Aleppo. 

To face Flute 3. 



ADVANCE THROUGH PHILISTIA 



PLATE 3 



~r 



_y ^ ' 



Jaffe 

ttfkw9 fjrai 



MS 



Til Tan 



Rant 



idel Hi»a-' 



Rentii 



rf/7-/7r- 



">Jo«Ai/e 






flo^^ 



5v> 












/ KhSuhafbna 



/ Dantai 



ei Dekakm j 



:Jkf^i> / r^ ^ ii ANEAN 



SEA 



if/ Kitpiibe 



J am I 

\Anna 



Yebna. 



arrtye 

Itss 






NoKr Suii/ercu*> 






pSidun Y%„^o . 



KhKhq 



Yasur 



Eadud/i 



tltDu 






Sura 



oil Burty 



)irhtCuM'S /vfirAmmar 



»<o7 



Beiti 



Ma 



Kacanne ,«i(C" •„ ^' ^ 
..yo/fiiv'/ 










t«<y by the Survty oF Egypt: Dtc.lSI8(0*5S) 
Milts 10 



to Miles 



d 



Situation at6 p.m., .on2.8 ". 1 .0 -J.I as known at G.KQ. E £ .F. 



October 28th — continued. 

Tte Gaza sector was a network of trenches, wire entanglements, and strongly fortified posts, con- 
veniently sited for mutual support and cross fire, which extended to the south-east until the defences 
of Beersheba were reached. The German Staff appears to have been very well satisfied as to the security 
of the line against frontal attack and any second-line system of defence had been almost totally neglected. 
A wide turning movement on the east was considered impossible owing to the broken nature of the 
country and lack of water. Although the possibility of a landing on the coast north of Gaza had always 
been considered, the following telegram, despatched on Oct. 24 to the Yildirini Army Group Headquarters 
by Major von Papen (of espionage notoriety in the U.S.A.), Liaison officer between the armies and the 
group, is indicative of the accepted views on this point : — 

" Recoanaissance undertaken to-day along the coastal sector showa that sufficient positions for local defence are 
in existence near Askalon and Wadi Hesy. Disembarkation, which might be tactically possible, could not, from the 
nature of the country, take place north of Wadi Hesy. Employment of naval guns and a few machine guns seems desirable 
for local defence." 



October 29. 

On Oct. 29 the process of concentration continued. The Desert Mounted Corps continued its move 
towards Khalasa and Asluj. In the XXth Corps area, the 53rd Division continued to cover the front 
and left flank of the concentration, and the enemy made no further attempt to interfere with or to recon- 
noitre the movement. The 60th Division moved up from Tel el Fara to Bir el Esani, the advanced brigade 
moving to a point south of Maalaga. One brigade of the 74th Division moved forward to link up the 
60th and 53rd Divisions, while the 10th Division commenced to move from Rafa to Tel el Fara. 

The enemy were still unaware of the real British intentions : — 

" An outflanking attack on Beersheba, with about one infantry and one cavalry division is indicated, but the main 
attack, as before, must be expect«d on the Gaza front." 

So ran the enemy appreciation, based on reports of our tactical deployment for the offensive as 
received from their air service. 

The standing camps left in the whole area around Deir el Belah, and inhabited by only a few details, 
also misled the enemy, who, about this period, estimated that there were "six infantry Divisions in the 
Gaza sector, deeply echeloned." 

To face Plate 4. 



ADVANCE THROUGH PHILISTIA 



PLATE 4 




ftepriritec/ in Encffoncy /9I9. 



Situationat6p,no,on 29-10-17.38 knownat G.H.Q. E.E.F. 



November 1. 

After the capture of Beersheba, preparations were at once commenced for the attack on the Kauwukah 
and Eushdi trench systems covering Tel esh Sheria and Abu Hareira. Accordingly, on the morning 
of Nov. 1, the 53rd Division, with the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade on its right, moved to Towal abu 
Jerwal in order to protect the flank of the corps during the coming attack. 

The question of water supply for mounted units raised great difficulties, as the surface water remaining 
after the thunderstorm of Oct. 2.5 had dried up, and the supply from the Beersheba wells was not equal 
to the demand. Accordingly, on Nov. 1 the Australian Moimted Division was withdrawn into reserve, 
and the Anzac Mounted Division advanced, and, after a certain amount of opposition, occupied the line 
Bir el Marruneh-Towal abu Jerwal, capturing 179 prisoners and four machine guns. 

To assist in completing the rout of the Turkish troops retiring from Beersheba, a small mobile force 
on camels, consisting of Lewis gunners, machine gunners, and a few Sudanese Arab scouts, under Lieut.- 
Col. S. F. Newcombe, R.E., D.8.O., left Asluj on Oct. 30. It had a number of machine guns and Lewis 
guns, a large quantity of small arms ammunition, and carried three days' rations. Moving rapidly, 
it established its headquarters at Yutta, and on Oct. 31 occupied some high ground west of and com- 
manding the road between Dhaheriyeh and Hebron. It was hoped that the Turks retiring by night 
from Beersheba would encounter this force, which, taking them by surprise, would by its large fire power 
put them to rout, and cause a general debacle on the Turkish left wing. However, as the Anzac Mounted 
Division had cut the road further south, the Turkish forces from Beersheba retired north to Tel esh 
Sheria. The force, nevertheless, succeeded in intercepting and capturing the motor transport with supplies 
which was endeavouring to reach Beersheba from Jerusalem. 

The Turks were surprised by the appearance of this force, and having no idea of its numbers, despatched 
the 12th Depot Regiment from Hebron, and the 143rd Regiment from Tel esh Sheria — six battalions 
in all — to dislodge it. It held out resolutely, but, after sustaining heavy casualties and having exhausted 
all its ammunition, was obliged to surrender on Nov. 2 or 3. 

I'u fdce I'late 8. 



ADVANCE THROUGH PHILISTIA 



PLATE 6 




Rcprintec/ /n En^flsnal /9/S. 



n-17 a«kTiawnatG.H.O.E.EF. 



« Novomber 2. 

The role which had been allotted to the XXIst Corps in the operations of Oct.-Nov., 1917, 
was to pin down as many enemy troops as possible in the coastal sector, and to endeavour to attract 
his reserves to this neighbourhood. In order to accomplish this, it was decided, while holding the line 
in sufficient strength, to repulse any attack made by the enemy to relieve the pressure of the Beersheba 
operations, to attack the works in front of Gaza and, eventually, if possible, to capture the town. 

To carry out this plan, it was first of all essential to smash the elaborate system of defences which 
the enemy had spent the past six months in constructing. Accordingly, on Oct. 27 the bombardment 
commenced, increasing day by day, and carried out by two 60-pounder batteries, five and a half 6-inch 
howitzer batteries, one 8-inch -howitzer battery and the divisional artillery of the 52nd, 54th, and 75tli 
Divisions. On the 29th the Navy joined in' with H.M.S. "Grafton," and H.M.M. 15,29,31, and 32. 
The river gunboats "Ladybird," and "Amphis," and the destroyers "Staimch" and "Comet" also 
co-operated. The bombardment was highly successful, as prisoners and captured docTunents testify. 

Owing to the great width of " No man's land," averaging 1,000 yards, it was necessary to carry out 
the attack by night. Accordingly, on the night of Nov. 1-2 at 2300, the 156th Brigade assaulted and 
captured Umbrella Hill. At 0300 on Nov. 2 the enemy's front-line trenches were treated to an intense 
bombardment, and the 161st and 162nd Brigades attacked, capturing the whole of the front line system 
at once. The lfi3rd Brigade were not so successful in their assault on the support trenches at 0345. 
meeting with stiff resistance, the 5th Suffolk Regt. alone being able to secure all its objectives. The 
162nd Brigade carried on the attack and by 0630 had reached Sheikh Hassan. Six tanks participated 
in the later parts of the attack, rendering material assistance. 

During the afternoon of Nov. 2, the enemy launched three counter-attacks, two on Sheilch Hassan, 
the first of which was broken up by naval and heavy artillery fire with severe loss to the enemy, and 
one from the direction of Crested Rock. All were successfully repulsed. 

Some 650 prisoners were taken and over 1,000 Turkish dead were buried in the positions. The 
enemy also lost three guns, one Hotchkiss, twenty-nine machine guns, seven trench mortars, and a large 
quantity of rifles, ammimition, and stores. 

Meanwhile, on the right flank the XXth Corps moved its headquarters to Beersheba. The left 
of the 53rd Division's line was taken over by the 229th Brigade, while the remainder of the 74th Division 
moved to the neighbourhood of Point 910. The 10th Division occupied Abu Irgeig without opposition, 
and was in touch with the 74th Division on the right. 

The 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade and 7th Mounted Brigade advanced towards Dhaheriyeh 
and the Khuweilfeh area respectively. Stiff opposition was met in very difficult country, but by nightfall 
the line Bir en Nettar -Deir el Hawa-Ras en Nagb -Point 1580, had been reached, linking up with the 
Imperial Camel Corps Brigade about one mile NNE. of Towal Abu Jerwal. The position of Ras en Nagb, 
to which the enemy attached great importance was captured by the 7th Mounted Brigade, which took 
eleven prisoners and two guns. 

To face Plate, 7 



ADVANCE THROUGH PHILISTIA plat, 7. 




36 



2* 



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Miles lo 



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toMiles 



Situation at. 6 p m .oai 2 : 1 1 - 1 7_ jig inown at G JiQ. E£ J. 



November 3 to 6. 

On Nov. 3 the 53rd Division attacked the Khuweilfeh lines but was only able to occupy part of the 
position in view of the stout resistance made by the enemy who had diverted a considerable proportion 
of his reserves to this sector of the front. He was by this time probably under the impression that a 
wide outflanking movement was to be undertaken rather than a break-through. This attack continued 
day and night against superior farces and the division was at last able to capture Tel el Khuweilfeh on 
Nov. 6. Once the enemy succeeded in regaining the position with a great counter-attack but was again 
dislodged with the loss of many hiuidred prisoners and some guns. There is no doubt that the obstinate 
fighting of the 53rd Division, which came temporarily under the G.O.C., Desert Moxmted Corps from 
XXth Corps did much to confirm the enemy in his erroneous estimate of our intentions, and by attracting 
his reserves to the Khuweilfeh area to contribute to the subsequent success of the 10th, 60th, and 74th 
Divisions at Kauwukah, although such action naturally increased the difficulty of its own attack. 

Meanwhile the lack of water in the operations area occupied by our right and right centre made it 
necessary for the Australian Mounted Division, which had passed into reserve on Nov. 1, to return to 
Karm for water. The 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade which was manoeuvring against the Turkish 
3rd Cavalry Division and his 12th Depot Regiment in front of Dhaheriyeh, was able to draw sufficient 
water locally. From this point, the extreme right of our line, there was a good deal of cavalry fighting 
during these days in which the 5th Mounted, the New Zealand Moimted Rifle, and Imperial Camel Brigades, 
repulsed determined enemy counter-attacks, inflicting satisfactory losses in the process. The 5th Mounted 
Brigade was withdrawn to the Tel el Saba area after the first day, when the 2nd Australian Light Horse 
Brigade came south-west from Dhaheriyeh, and on Nov. 6 the New Zealand Mounted Rifle Brigade 
also came out of the line. Meanwhile the Yeomanry Divisioii came right roimd the back of the front 
from near Shellal on Nov. 3 and during the night of the 5th came into line on the right of the 74th Division 
two miles south of Aiu Kohleh in order to fre'e the infantry for movement into its position for deploying 
for the Kauwukah operations. The horses were then sent back to Beersheba. 

In order to facilitate the operations of Nov. 6 a detachment for the defence of the right flank of the 
army was formed under Major-General G. de S. Barrow. C.B., consisting of the Imperial Camel Corps 
Brigade, the 53rd Division, the Yeomanry Mounted Division, the New Zealand Mounted Rifle Brigade, and 
part of the 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade. At the same time the 60th Division was temporarily 
attached to the Desert Mounted Corps which was rejoined by the Australian Mounted Division on its 
return from Karm to Bir Imleih. 

On Nov. 6 at dawn the three infantry divisions, 10th, 60th, and 74th, with the Yeomanry on the extreme 
right, attacked the series of Kauwukah positions held in strength by the Turkish Vllth Army under 
Fevzi Pasha. The 74th Division met with obstinate resistance on its extreme right, but was able to 
capture all its objectives by 1315. Wire cutting was sufficiently far advanced for the attack on the 
main Kauwukah system to be launched at 1230, and two hours later the 60th and 10th Divisions had 
broken through. The 60th Division then advanced to Sheria and occupied the station but was much 
delayed in its further advance by the explosion of a Turkish ammunition depot at the station which caused 
a large fire which unduly exposed its movements. In consequence of this the division was imable to 
cross the Wadi Sheria that night. After the break-through at Kauwukah a Brigade of the 10th 
Division took over the captured works while the remainder of the division passed into Corps reserve near 
Samarra Bridge and the 74 th Division faced north-east. 

To face Plate 8. 



ADVANCE THROUGH PHILISTIA 



PLA TE .8 




pr el ''' Corfip^ 

Fbrce» 



5*r 



tlKtt4r ,, 



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,113th CI Gamli 
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Miles lo ' i 

*=n j—l l—i t—' 1— J — fa 



^ 



-I 1 



Sepr/nied in Bny/ona /S/9 . 
20 Miles 



Situation at 6 p.m.rtn 6-11-17 ». bn/iwnah r? HO T? "P 1? 



November 7. 

On Nov. 7 the main interest shifts to the coastal sector, where the intense bombardment carried out 
by the Navy and the XXIst Corps on the 5th and 6th, had produced so strong a feeling of unease among 
the Turks that a considerable part of their forces were carefully withdrawn. To such an extent had this 
retirement been carried out, that British attacks during the night of Nov. 6-7 on Outpost Hill and 
Middlesex Hill, met with only half-hearted opposition, and the occupation of Ali Muntar itself was effected 
by the 75th Division at 0740 without much trouble. A little before this, at 0700, the 54th Division was 
able to establish a line from Sheikh Redwan to the sea, and two squadrons had passed up the beach at 
0630, to push patrols up to the Wadi Hesi. The Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade advanced towards 
Beit Hanim, after passing right through the ruins of Gaza at 0900. Two brigades of the 52nd Division, 
withdrawn from the trenches, moved off at 1000 and, after advancing under cover of the cliffs along the 
beach, seized the high ground on the right bank of the Wadi Hesi, in the face of considerable resistance 
on the part of the 53rd Turkish Division (Mehmet Salah-ed-Din Bey). The 52nd Division by this move 
passed behind the 54th and formed the extreme left of the British line. 

Gaza itself was found to be in a deplorable condition. Its civilian population had been evacuated 
and the greater part of the wood-work of the bouses, floors, roofs, doors, and fittings, window sashes 
and shutters, removed to be used either for the revetting of Turkish trenches in the sandy soil, or for 
firewood. Many trees had been cut down and immense damage effected by the explosions of the Tmkish 
ammunition stored in prominent buildings and detonated by British gun fire. The place was, in conse- 
quence, entirely ruinous and destitute of any economic value to the victor. On the other hand, General 
AUenby was not called upon to make arrangements for the feeding of a large civilian population. 

Away on the right, the 10th Division captured the Hareira Tepe redoubt, in face of considerable 
machine-gun fire, thereby making it possible for a junction to be effected with the extreme right of the 
XXIst Corps near the Wadi Baha. The intention had been for the Desert Mounted Corps to pass imme- 
diately through the gap in the Turkish line made by the three Infantry Divisions at Kauwukah, but the 
Turks were not yet too disorganized to offer sturdy resistance in places, and the 60th Division had some 
difficulty in dislodging them from Tell esh Sheria at 0600 as a necessary preliminary to an advance of 
two miles beyond the Wadi Sheria. This cleared the way finally for the cavalry. Passing through 
the gap, the 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade captured the station east of Kh. Um Ameidat, four 
and a half miles north of Tell esh Sheria, with 300 prisoners and much material. The Australian and 
New Zealand Mounted Division was then engaged with enemy rear-guards and was only able to advance 
to the positions shown — a distance of two and a half miles — by nightfall. The Australian Moimted 
Division filled the gap between the advanced cavalry and the 60th Division to the north of the Wadi 
Sheria. The lack of water in this area was severely felt. 

To face Plate 9. 



ADVANCE THROUGH PHIIASTIA 



PLATE 9 



MED ITER RANEAN 



Jaffa 

Mikwtira* 









NoKr Ritiu 



KhSurafend 
•.MtsZiina 



yebna. 



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d by the Survey cf Egypt. Dec l9IB(04i3) 

Miles 10 s 

' — I t— I I — t 



Reprinted if? £ng/ano/ f9/9 



Situation at 6 p.m.on 7 -^ 1 Ir.l 7 as Imown at G HO E .E.F. 



20 Miles 



November 8. 

The desperate r(*,sistance made by the enemy and the lack of water had delayed the Desert Mounted 
Corps during the few hours required by the Turks to withdraw the greater part of their 26th and 54th 
Divisions, commanded respectively by Fakhr-ed-Din Bey and Nasuhi Bey, through the gap which still 
remained between the XXIjt Corps at Beit Hanun and the newly- won positions to the west. The Desert 
Mounted Corps, however, was in bad country and the " break through " after the Battle of Sheria was 
vastly handicapped by natural as well as human obstacles in comparison with the " break through " 
after the Battle of Sharon ten months later. During this day, Nov. 8, the Australian and New Zealand 
Moxmted Division fought its way to water at the Wadi Jemmameh, capturing 300 prisoners and two 
guns. The 7th Mounted Brigade heartily repulsed a Turkish counter-attack near Tell Hudeiwe, while 
the Australian Mounted Division came up on the left and occupied a line from Umm Rujum to the 
north side of Huj, which, with its large accumulations of ammunition was occupied by the 60th Division 
after an advance of ten miles, during which the enemy had been defeated in three successive rearguard 
actions. In one of these at 1500 ten troops of 1/lst Worcester and 1/lst Warwick Yeomanry of the 
5th Mounted Brigade (Australian Mounted Division) charged a detachment of Turks holding a position 
one mile west of Huj, with complete success in spite of the stout resistance of the enemy who served his 
guns until the last moment. Further west the 4th Australian Light Horse Brigade got into touch with 
the XXIst Corps at Beit Hanun. 

Meanwhile the XXIst Corps had been actively pushing forward, and the 75th Division was able 
to hnk up with the 10th afte'r occupying the Beer Trenches, Tank Redoubt, and Atawineh, which had been 
found to be lightly held by the enemy, by patrols from the Composite Force, early in the morning. In 
the afternoon the Composite Force reheved the 75th Division which moved on the 9th to Beit Hanun. 
Here the Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade had estabhshed itself, after considerable difficulty, on the 
ridge to the east whence it was able to link up with the 4th Australian Light Horse Brigade, and then 
pursue the enemy to Tumrah and Deir Sineid. Between the cavalr}' and sea the 52nd Division continued 
to advance, toiling in heavy sand, and opposed strongly by the Turks, who made a formidable counter- 
attack from the direction of Ascalon. Four times did the enemy drive the Lowlanders oil the high 
ground north-west of Deir Sineid only to lose it once more and find our men arrayed a fifth time against 
them on the top of the hill. 

This sweeping advance on nearly the whole front appears to have contributed much to the break- 
down of the Turkish mordl. In places the enemy was still dangerous and made sturdy resistance but 
many of his people became increasmgly anxious to remove themselves from the unpleasant vicinity of 
the front. This frame of mind betrayed itself in the behaviour of certain units, and aerial reports gave 
warning that the enemy was becoming disorganized. 

To face Plate 10. 



ADVANCE TH ROUG H PHILIS IIA 



PLATE 10 



_ y ■fir ~pMeid»l Yaba- ^ '' ix Ai „ , 

paroiTM^^fb, Far, p^pTf^ | ^lSi,r^altaf^i_r^Furl,ha 



JafPs 



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murafend 

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MEDITE RIi\A.N£AN ^ Iv?^' '^ ' 



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Reprinted in £nglandt9l9. 

20 Miles 



>rerf by the Survey of Cgypt . Dec 1918(0*53) 
Miles 10 



SituatioTiat 6 p.m, on 3."lt~17 as knownat G.H.Q. E E F 



November 9. 

On this day the 52nd Division continued its advance, and by noon had occupied the line Deir Sineid- 
Beit Jerjah-Ascalon. At 1400 Hamame, the northern point of the Mejdel oasis among the sand dunes, 
was reached, and the cavahy located the Turkish rearguard at 1830 in the Sua fir group of villages about 
seven miles away. During the night the 75tli Division arrived at Deir Sineid and the Imperial Service 
Cavalry returned to the Gaza area. Further inland the cavalry was beginning to feel the want of water. 
The Yeomanry Division, which had been engaged on the previous day in the pursuit of the enemy retreat- 
ing on Hebron, had been called across to the more important front and rejoined the Desert Mounted 
Corps at Huj, where it was delayed in consequence of the difficulties in watering described in para. 13 of 
No. 1 Despatch. The same cause prevented the Australian Mounted Division from moving far, and 
only the Australian and New Zealand Mounted Division with the 7th Mounted Brigade could advance. 
By night they had reached the line Arak-El Menshiye-Suafir esh Sherkiye-Beit Duras, and were close 
up to the Turkish main rearguard, in advance of the positions shewn on the map which are those reported 
up to 1800 at General Headquarters, 

Tofaaa Plate U. 



ADVANCE THROUGH PIHI.ISl lA 



PLATE I/. 



Jaffi 



MEJ) 



:d iteru anean 

NiUirSuJccr' 



SEA 



NaXrftui.- 



KhSuraf^na 

_ I o 



Kjrhi^ 



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ted by the Survty of Egypt , Dec I9IB(Q4&3) 
Miles 10 



fteprmted in Enqland 1919. 



i—i I— i-T^=r— 1= 



10 

St: 



Situation at 6 p.m.on 9 r 11 -1.7. as known at G.H.Q E.E.F. 



20 Miles 

=1 



November 10. 

A khamsin, or sciroque, as it is often called in Palestine, began to blow on Nov. 10, lasting two days. 
This hot wind was an additional trial to all troops, particularly to the caval.ry already suffering from 
water-shortage. The Australian and New Zealand Division, however, was able to capture Esdud, the 
Ashdod of the Philistines, and its bridgehead before being brought to' a halt owing to the water diffi- 
culty. During the previous night the Australian Mounted Division had marched north-east from Huj 
via Tell el Hesi (the Lachish of the Old Testament), and linked up on the right of the line at Arak el 
Menshiye on Nov. 10. It was joined soon afterwards by the Yeomanry Division which had left Huj 
early in the morning. Thus, with the exception of the New Zealand Mounted Rifle Brigade and the 
Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade, the whole Desert Mounted Corps was now in position for further 
pursuit across the open country of Philistia and the foothills, after having captured over 1,000 prisoners 
and sixteen guns in the two days. During the day the 52nd Division moved into the Esdud-Mejdel- 
Herbiah area, and the 157th Brigade engaged the enemy north of Beit Duras, capturing the position 
and three machine guns with, a bayonet charge in spite of having already marched fourteen miles over 
heavy sand in a khamsin. 

The 75th Division advanced into the Es Suafir-Tulis-Burberah-Beit Jerjah area, and the 10th and 
60th Divisions (which latter rejoined the XXth Corps) began to fall back on Karm and the railway to 
facilitate supply work. The 54th Division, at Gaza, gave up all its transport to assist in the forward 
move, and was able to maintain itself without transport on a supply of five days' rations in depots close 
at hand. 

To face Plate lH 



ADVANCE THROUGH PHII.IS TIA 



PLATE 12 



MEB ITERU anean 






Jaffa 






t!^" 



KhSurafena 



V 
VadfVJe 



^/ Dekahin P"'y\ 



\a fntuOanitii 



*<i//i 






VSidun 



ihs/iil 



SEA 






•7 



KhKha 



f"*"^^ o El Burt J 



i 



' '^tuliliidig 

'e/Man.'iurfiJ] /""" "^'^Ci^ ^ft:*' ■V'^ Katannr ^yt^Z "s^"^,/ 



f\ Sum 

o 



Hamfmetf 



/li^t/Ma 



J yerusali 



adFuhinii' r~^ ^^(Bethlthen 



^ ,_ Nchhalin^ 
'eoa^ — V 

o oSafa 



380.^ 



Zetta 



Bt\ 
ei Huleikany 



luje 



yar 

Ku>v<el 



>1t 



rit L<: 
c 

Jtbah 




~ Aba son VY 



Sinetit/^ SifTisifn 









V, 



T KuSih^-^^ 









^ l4iS /^'1<<J^ 



BirtlDummiQ 



Qireli 



lUl « KhuMilft / # 

91 *.^ °/vR! '•'» _Ty\ 



I ^'*i'«j«AO".ji',;^''**"Vii 



BuUin "JSorti (|HIS»«/ 

TZ.M.R.BwPTlBSSl^ 






* «/r*. 



t' 




tlKKud <^' 
BirA 

BirelBu^ i ^ 




SituaUoTlat6 p. m.onlQ~U-1.7 as knovmat G.H.Q. E.E.F. 



November 11 and 12. 

During these two days XXIst Corps Advanced Headquarters moved up to Deir Sineid (Nov. 11) 
and two important actions were fought on the banks of the Nahr Sukereir. In one of these, the 1st 
Austrahan Light Horse Brigade drove back the enemy, forced the passage of the stream, and captured 
Tel el Murro. Tiiis was an important step towards securing control of the mouth of the river, which was 
afterwards most useful as a temporary landing-place for stores. In the other the 52nd Division, with 
two battalions of the 75th Division, the 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade, and the 8th Mounted Brigade, 
assaulted and captured Burkah, in spite of determined resistance and a strong counter-attack. On the 
right of the 75th Division, the Australian Mounted Division, after hard fighting succeeded in advancing 
as far as Berkusie on a general line running south-eastwards to Zeita ; but under pressure of a determined 
counter-attack by an enemy force, estimated at 5,000 men of the 19th and 53rd Turkish Divisions 
(commanded by Sedad Bey and Mehmet Salah ed Din Bey respectively), the cavalry had to retire two 
or three miles to Arak el Mensbiye and Summeil. 

During the night of the 12th, the 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade was relieved by the Yeomanry 
Mounted Division, which had been brought right across from one end of the line to the other, by way of 
Mejdel, and now took over the country to the north of the mouth of the Nahr el Sukerier, advancing 
almost to Tell el Kharrube and Beshsbit. The New Zealand Mounted Rifles had now rejoined the 
division, which was also reinforced by the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade, which had rejoined the Desert 
Mounted Corps at Julis on Nov. 11. Owing to the exhaustion of their horses on account of the lack of 
water, the 7th Mounted and the 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigades had to be withdrawn into corps 
reserve. 

The enemy was beginning to show signs of recovery and made efforts to reconstruct his line of resis- 
tance, and make a front in hopes of maintaining control of the lateral line of communications along 
the railway from Ludd to Jerusalem. This is clearly shewn on the map. and the importance of a further 
advance before the line could harden into a prepared front, is obvious. 

To face Plate 13. 



ADVANCE THROUGH PlHI.lSl^IA 



PLA TE 13 



NOTE 



ldentific»tions fivm all enemy Corps ■ -j^r 

were obtain id by contact on tO-H-tJ.^'X'" 'h**^, 

They do not show presence of these 
— 'Corps m ent my line out rather 
indicate dii ^organisation. 

Locations of Divisions unknown. 



MEDITE RRANEAN 



SEA 



Jaffi 



MS 



'if' -bJ^lidel Ykbi— 



~i^m^g*-*>fl"y'^J<l'* Rrlu', 



*^ 



Qetr Ture/, 






HhSuraf^nd 
_ / o 



altut 



Tvtbano t 



Beitfl"^a 



CkXJJi/ia 



S/ujk6a 



fCuddis JuyrAmmar 



iaiX 



:_l Ramte>. J}> 

B*ttS>(urSeiri 



\ 



Ma 



NoKr SuJcer««ry 



ANZ.M. 



Barryef 

|7SS ^^--^..MrrBmtNuba. X »"^' 



As Ira/Ml 



Jeba/i 






funuji^° ^r; 



i<^^/F»r 






■</-ti/ir 



oEI Burey 



— ^^ ' Bittir ^ 

*«t ^aA.'i»/fle,t t_ahit 



ferta ' 



\Ai ^tl M^S^ Surifo *Sdfa 

Kh Jmdur , x* i 



■llldbis 



-^%'^'pvH*"'-'"" 



Hujk 








I «*,«e^A-^,;i7^**'"'*~' 



f7«)u- 



^ 







ShAliun 




BirlbnturtiK/i / «IS»min\^ 






ISIO 



rfi^hh^mA 3 



>f «(/ 6y f /)« Survey of Egypt, Dti 1918(0453) 

Mile* 10 s q 

mill T — m"Tni — r 



ticprinted io £nffi\]nd i9l9. 



Situation at 6 p, roon. ll~ll-17 as knownat G.H.Q. E.E.F. 



20 Miles 



November 13. 

Up to the evening of Nov. 12 the advance of XXIst Corps had been northward, but on the morning 
of Nov. 13 it was necessary for the proper execution of the Commander-in-Chief's plans to advance 
eastward. The 52nd Division on the left flank was thrown well forward and the 75th Division wheeled 
on it." right. To guard the northern flank of the troops advancing eastward, two battalions and a battery 
of Royal Field Artillery occupied Yebna (the Jamnia of the New Testament period, the Ibelin of the 
Crusades) which had been captured at 1100 by the Yeomanry and Imperial Camel Corps. A similar 
force was subsequently detailed to hold the high ground north of Mughar, and one battalion and a battery 
of Royal Field Artillery held Akir after its capture early next morning. All these detachments were 
furnished by the 52nd Division until the arrival of the 54th Division several days later. 

The enemy position on the ridge to the north-east of El Mughar was captured by infantry 
of the 52nd Division and the 6th Mounted Brigade of the Yeomanry Division. The attack had 
to pass over 4,500 yards of open ground near Katrah. It was entirely successful and resulted in the 
capture of 1,096 prisoners, two guns, and foiu-teen machine guns. Over 400 dead Turks were counted 
in one field. The village of El Mughar itself was captured in the evening by two squadrons of the 1/lst 
Berkshire Yeomanry who entered the village on foot and took 400 prisoners. The 75th Division had 
a good deal of trouble with the Turks along the line from Mesmiyeh to Kh. Sallujeh. The 232nd Brigade, 
advancing through Yasur, was engaged on the left, while the 233rd, advancing just to the north of 
Kustine, was engaged on the right. This brigade finally stormed Mesmiyeh from the south, and the 
division took 292 prisoners and seven machine guns. The 234th Brigade then came through in the 
centre as far as Kh. el Mugharah on the railway, where it was strongly counter-attacked during the night 
by the Turks covering Junction Station less than two miles distant. The 6th Mounted Brigade opera- 
ting towards Akir captured seventy-two prisoners, one gun and two machine gims. XXIst Corps 
advanced headquarters moved up to a point near Beit Duras. 

'I'o face Piute. 14. 



ADVANCE THROUGH PHII.ISTIA 



PLATE 14- 



.1 



ENEMY UNITS UNLOCATBD : Jaffa 

24, 26,27 DIVN 5. A/f reports """" '^^ 

end to show that the residue or these 



ten d to show tnat tne restaue or 
Units are fbsed into other Dtvns 

136Regt.,3 CAv. oiv 



uebiterhanean 



SEA 






wrona 



"tubhanoi 



Cf/W^ 



/ Kurafendo 

l.C.Wy^ KhSurafend 



Qeir Turett 

\ 



Abud 






EIDthalon. 

anz.mtd. 

5et52' 



^hukba. y\}\r. iKuiar 

El Kamfex 't'^v^ ^inJ^iw^ ^ . 

nj,t(e ^^,lya \^ yr—fi&hm^MI^~^Bire 



{ 



pamye 






tMa\ 



BtitNuba. \ 



Kul^iA 



NoKr SuJt^retJryi 

NtUiunts lig 



' Esdudl"^ 






^tlelT, 



ft ^•r,«>.a^*r«ai^^^ r^ 






^ Sarpw/f 



AtjUf. 



lUSll 

-AraJt 
El Huleil<apl-'^\\. 
Sintiiltr Simsimi^^i^ v^so J^^ ISiCllfu: 






\/a^^BeitLaf,n. 

^(Bethlehen 



mmir 






herbteo 




Situation at 6..p,m,on.13-ll-1.7. as known at G.H.Q.E.E.F. 



November 14. 

At 0400 on Nov. 14 the 234th Brigade of the 75th Division had seized the high ground west of 
Junction Station, and at 0730 the station itself was captured with 100 prisoners, two guns, two undamaged 
locomotives, and much rolling stock. Two armoured cars of No. 12 Light Armoured Motor Battery 
co-operated very effectively in the capture of the station, inflicting some 200 casualties upon the enemy. 
At 0900 the 52nd Division captured Mansura two miles further north, and the 22nd Mounted Brigade 
of the Yeomanry Division drove the enemy from Akir and captured Naane, another two miles to the 
north, with seventy-two prisoners and one machine gun. Further north again the Australian and New 
Zealand Mounted Division reached the outskirts of Ramleh and the ridges north of Surafend by noon. 
Here the New Zealand Mounted Rifles were vigorously counter-attacked by the enemy who approached 
to within bombing distance and had to be discomfited with a bayonet charge. The headquarters ol 
the Desert Mounted Corps moved up to a point near Yebna. 

Tofaoe Piute IS 



ADVANCE INTO JUD^A 



PLATE 15 



TeiiSubi-l 



ao 



S E A 



Am el fez 



KhIZi 



MJEiyiTERKANEAN""""! 




■ Sh.Aitrft/^m/m oSj/nmeif iPetahTiAwew /^ bi/-/d>/ Wife" 

^9- MS 



MS 



rfe 



'SafiS 



f'^/iSurarey</ 















,^J Iro/i 



,3A.LHl 

f 5M.BJ 

).M.CJ 









Beit 



NoKr Sulccrc«*% 



^/rt/J I 









Itss 

f_- pSidvn v^vn 1 
!•* / LcUruO^Amw, 



Katanne ,, 



r 



^.t'-frf-y 






Vett U h, 



itrhjpti 




■AraM 



«t Jibr 



Idbii 

■(50 



■fftt 

Nehhalin\ 
Kskfa 

Sett Aui 




37/8 




ShaM 






// Tell el 
MmaKeb/ 



'mi ah 



(^hhun // 



-*^ ft K^h 



AbiX, 

Bakra , 



*«■' \ oZuK'ilika ,Ahujfi,Oi\ 

ftAnJ- ( /ij / /^ /toi/A,sAg? .^ \ BirelDummli, 

cr.nAait'-w''? Btns.74, 



^10 



Abu An 






' f / 6am/i I 



J^L 



^Umm Alua ' 
/ 30' 



3^ 



HUB 



I //M^.f.i^/K^'XP'''*'^''*™'^ 



Beerstiebd 



r\ ted by the Survey of Egypt , Dec 1918(0453) 



Reprir>tec/ in £n^<anc/ /9/9 



Miles 1.0 



s 



10 



20 Miles 



^ 



Situation at 6p.mDnt4-ll"l7 asknownat GHO. E.E.F. 



November 15 and 16. 

On Nov. 15 the 75th Division had occupied the high ground east of Junction Station and next day 
advanced to the line Kezaze Khulde and Abu Shusheh where, on Nov. 15, the Yeomanry Division and 
part of the Imperial Camel Corps had had a very satisfactory engagement. The enemy was driven 
back on Amwas leaving 400 dead and 360 prisoners, in addition to another ninety captured as the 
yeomanry passed near Ramleh in their advance. Ramleh itself, and Ludd, were taken by the 1st Aus- 
tralian Light Horse Brigade on the same day with 360 prisoners. After this the section of the Imperial 
Camel Corps engaged at Abu Shusheh moved off to rejoin the other section which was operating among 
the sand dunes in the Jaffa area. The Austrahan Mounted Division advanced close up to Latron which 
was still held by the Turks after their defeat at Abu Shusheh, and on the north front the New Zealand 
Mounted Rifles occupied Jaffa at noon Nov. 16 without opposition, and Kefr Ana, while the rest of 
the division kept in touch with the yeomanry in the Ramleh-Ludd area. 

During these two days the break up of the enemy forces into two widely separated bodies begins to 
be strongly marked. The Vllth Army was being shepherded up into the hill-country of Judaea along 
the dead end of a narrow gauge railway to a position of immense natural strength, but hampered by the 
lack of good communications with his base — all his transport being of necessity confined to the roads 
from Jerusalem through Nablus to the railway at Messudiyeh some forty miles away, or through the 
Jordan Valley to the railway at Amman, a difficult journey of about sixty miles. The other body, 
formed by the Vlllth Array was being driven out of Phihsda into the plain of Sharon, but it was able 
to keep astride of its railway and had hopes of being able to take refuge behind tne Nahr el Auja. 

Meanwhile, the 51th Division had begun to move north from Gaza, and to make this move possible 
it was necessary for the transport borrowed from this division to be sent back. This greatly increased 
the difficulty of supplying the troops at the front, as railhead, in spite of the energetic work on the rail- 
way, was still a long way off. 

Up in the hills to the north of Beersheba the Turks, under the tactical pressure of the advance along 
the coast, saw fit to withdraw from Dhaheriyeh to the Hebron area. 

To face Plate 10. 



ADVANCB INTO JUDiSA 



PLATE 16 



ENEMY UNITS UNLOCATtD 



26 o\w.\Botht/ieseD 
53 Div. 1 16.24,27 



are 



ivns. and 
very weak. 



MEJDITEnRANEAJN^ 



Am e/ YezeAk 



Hh ellK 



^"^vC/ Mugha 



TellSubil 



Kulunsa 



£1 7Mit4 
ShMaLdi 



eiRasof"*'- 



(itL'* 



ElVn 



TcJItIF 



Suahm^' 






n fnfan 

Gun ''""' 






Shecnem' 



2440 



^_^ ^ .m/febb/s 

f'amnW-ffArTar 

Setme a ^ r 

Ranbeu 



KasH 



Jaffe 

fiikrre firai 






Oentii " 



'^LITiT^ 



er^ fflubhanoi 
Furkha , 



Ahud 




DCt/lCB.lH liz.M,^ ^ 
/ KbSunarphiM 



r TureffX •^Shukba. 
..jQfDania\ 



^*^/^-^/n5//7/<g 



^rAmmar 



Am I 



Am Kt^fit' 
-HahmM^-fBir« 

■BcfTun, 



t^i Altai 




<ted by the Sur<rcy or Egypt. Dec 1918(0453) 



Reprinted in England 1319 



Miles 10 



J u^ .^a-4* 



10 



20 Miles 



=) 



Sitiiation al6.p,rn,on..l.6:.lI"1.7 aslcnownat G.HO E.E.F. 



November 17 and 18. 

The weather had been unusually hot and the dust and khamsin added greatly to the trials of the 
troops and animals, who were also much distressed by the shortage of water. This was accen- 
tuated by the practice of the enemy in doing his best to destroy the small and very deep wells of the area 
through which he had been retreating. Owing to the loss of transport caused by the return of the 54th 
Divisional Train to its own division, it became necessary to rearrange the transport, and this, together 
with the desirability of resting the troops for a few hours, made a day's halt almost necessary. The 
Commander-in-Chief held a conference at XXIst Corps advanced headquarters on Nov. 18, and orders 
were issued in obedience to which the 52nd Division moved to Ludd during the afternoon while the 
54th Division, which had now come up from Gaza, moved up a Brigade from Kustineh to Beshshit 
and occupied Yebna. The 234th Brigade of the 75th Division covered Junction Station, while the 
rest of the division prepared to advance towards Latron. 

Meanwhile the cavalry had advanced a little across open country occupying Sarona, Mulebbis, and 
Wilhelma without opposition. They came in contact with the enemy at Eantieh and held the line 
Nahr el Auja-Beit Nabala-El Yehudieh-Point 265-Jerisheh. On the afternoon of Nov. 18 the 
Australian Mounted Division executed an outflanking movement which compelled the Turks to evacuate 
Amwas and Latron during the night, and the Yeomanry Division forced its way uito the hills to within 
two miles of Lower Bethhoron (Beit ur et Tahta). At 1630 the 22nd Mounted Brigade reached Shilta, 
but the 13-pdr. battery and all wheels had to be sent back owing to difficulties of country. 

In the XXth Corps area. Advanced Corps Headquarters on Nov. 18 moved to the Ked House on the 
Wadi Ghuzze. On the same day the 60th Division concentrated at Gaza preparatory to a further move 
forward, while the 10th and 74th Divisions moved to areas north of Deir el Belah. 

To face Plate l~f. 



ADVANCE INTO JIJDJS.A 



PLATE 17 



W 



ENEMY UNITS O/NLOCATED 

53DIVISION. 

This Division witi > the 16, 24. 

26«.27 /3 t.'erytf'Mk. 



m:editbiikanea:n^ 



s:e a 



AiAt 



Kh.tll* 



llKmr» 









stie 



: £iT.,i, 



nrtuf 
tlHmrtun 



VrAd 



Kutmtn 






T«H«f« 



VrTe 



Jaffi 

HikwmlL-a* 

rANj 



Kasit 



H*ntii 



nans 






'. 8des4 
54 



Furhha. . 



tubbano / 






Wugh 
/ tlmnsur\ 



'1|leM5M.B)->4 



Kuri//' 



^«r Tumt 
Vadlt 

^1 Famr 



Sura. 
Ariut, 



AvMo^ /r\>»:^ 4*^*"^ KT ^ 



.BirNtba 









ferbteo 



^r 



Jebali 



\ L# \ X AIJUCJT Q-^^ .^ 






JdJa^ 



iFukin^ 



ei Huliika, 
Stneim^^ Stfnsim 



Hdbf* 



r//« 



Oimre I KtiUntrtHmom ^\ ^ 




Sun^b •Sa/ii 
Kh Jmdur ^ 

Ku-nn«( 






R««»r 



vU 






SotjRegt ^ 



«</ by the Surety of Egypt . Dtc 1918(0453) 
Miles 1.0 



Reprintec/ in £n^/3nd /9/9. 



20 Miles 



Situation atfi..p.fn..onlB.ll_17. aslmown at G.H.O. E£.F. 



November 19. 

When the fresh advance approached the hills, on Nov. 19, the 75th Division encountered oonsider- 
able opposition east of Amwas and Latron, which had been occupied by the 232nd Brigade at noon. 
The main road to Jerusalem begins to rise at this point and enters narrow defiles flanked by precipitous 
and rock-strewn heights. On these the enemy had constructed a series of defences commanding all 
approaches. Our artillery had few positions from which the infantry could be assisted, but the avail- 
able few were utilized to the utmost and the advance of the division was pressed forward. The experience 
of the Gurkhas and Indian Frontier troops in mountain warfare, was of great value during these opera- 
tions. As the road had been destroyed by the Turks in several places, the problem of getting the guns 
up the pass was one of considerable difficulty, the more so as heavy rain had set in. This downpour, 
accompanied as it was by a considerable drop in temperature, was a severe trial for troops in summer 
clothing without greatcoats or blankets, who had, until a few hours before, been suffering from excessive 
heat. In spite of it the troops worked splendidly and took such resst as was possible in the rain among 
the rocks. Meanwhile the 52nd Division had advanced on a roughly parallel line along the Beit Likia 
road, where the badness of the track only permitted three sections of artillery to be brought up, and even 
these had to be double-horsed with the teams of the sections left at Ramleh. 

In the Bethhoron area the 8th Mounted Brigade occupied Tahta at an early hour and then advanced 
through the Wadi Sunt where it met with opposition from some 400 Turks on the heights. The going 
here was extremely bad and later became impassable for horses. As advance in this direction was not 
possible the brigade held its position until the 6th Mounted Brigade could turn the enemy's flank by way 
of Beit ur el Foka. This brigade, with divisional headquarters, one battery of 13-pdrs., and the Hong- 
Kong and Singapore battery, reached Tahta at 1400, but the road difficulties were very great as the 
Roman road had deteriorated almost out of existence. Even greater difficulties were experienced by 
the 22nd Mounted Brigade, which, with one section of the Hong-Kong and Singapore battery struggled 
part of the way to Ain Arik, where but little enemy opposition was experienced. 

On the plain the Australian and New Zealand Division sent patrols into Rantieh and locat-ed the 
enemy in occupation of redoubts at Nebi Tari and entrenched north of Hadrah on the Nahr el Auja. 

On this day the 60th Division started north from the Gaza area. 

To face Plate 18. 



ADVANCE INTO JVDMA 



PLATE 18 



w^ 



r.NtMV UNIT UN LOCATED 
53 Div. 



Am el Ytxtkf 



■tie 



MEDITBUKANEA^N 



S jE A 



At Ml 



JedaU 



Tdl* 



,„, Om/rEitia 



Hh0Zi 



•if 



r/««/ 



/ 



^7^' 



rStlM^t/^tUfi oSjfima'WtPetali? 



'"r 



KasiM 



t5^ 



Luiianoi, 









f*"**^ /~v»:>. 4'''''*«^ 



NoKr Sukcratri 



fat/, 

f/ />»*a*/rt y^^Vlf^ TlJe. ■ .■^^~'27^E\ ram 



5^ 



£W</ 






♦OtTV.'ing 



Iess5y| 






1 / «&/o 






Jtl e/ Tj^uiltao^miuyhn 



V J N»WFo, 



(Atk 



IFukH 



<\ 



^/oiHtr 



„tMm 



oSummmil \ 



(eita 









f«r^t*o 



Be<t Li A 



TIraJiX 



Ildbi* 



Tor g 



TKui 



Tlit -3 






Tu/fii 



fjltl Mfr^HQMH 1 mi'" \ Till «J AM 



hStit Khmn 

yZei Shaikh 



lOiHT'v 



_J0_ 



ST"" 



/Trild 



St*.** V ^ 1 



^ai/irif, 



'Hi'Vl I 









^ \l 



n Oaml, 












o 2uh0ilt 



T/U^ 



1W( Bvtt fiMd* *T A/ITM/ 

Hirttm,. " 



OJuitf 



)rmn Jitua. \ 



\ 

.JjoxIGdnk-v. 



Ah<iHuu<n*V 
-<*<.*i/«AgV — -\ Y BirtJOl/m,mg 

111 « KhumM 



B.rAi 






J 



relSt**. 







«/'/ f**o 



te</ 6)- < A» Si/r.^e|. oT Eyypt . Dtc 1918(0453) 
Miles 10 



(feprintei^ in fr7^/,snt/ /SI9. 



^ 



Miles 



Situation at 6 p m<)n l..9-|.|-)7aslcnownat G.HQ. E.E.F. 



November 20 and 21. 

On Nov. 20 the advance was continued against a very determined resistance on the precipitous 
slopes above Saris. The village itself, standing on a steep hill, was strongly held and was not stormed 
until 1415. The enemy left many dead among the rocks, and over fifty prisoners, including a battalion 
commander, were taken. The remainder of the Turkish force, estimated at a minimum of 2,000 rifles 
with many machine guns, covered by light guns, retired to the commanding ridge protecting Kurvet 
el Enab, being satisfactorily shelled by 4"5 howitzers from the road below the Makam Imam Ali during 
their retreat, The capture of such a position might well have cost the division dear had not a providen- 
tial fog rolled up, which enveloped the Turkish lines while the attacking force was deploying. Under 
cover of this at 1700 the 2/3rd Gurkhas, the l/5th Somersets and the l/4th Wilts (232nd and 233rd 
Brigades) attacked with the bayonet, and hsteners were able to deduce what was happening from the 
different timbre of the cheering which came back through the fog. By 1800 the Turks had lost Kuryet el 
Enab, and the division had seized the whole of the enemy's positions and bivouacked for the night in 
pouring rain. Next day Kustal and Soba were captured after some opposition had been overcome, by 
the 232nd and 234th Brigades respectively. During the advance along the crest of the ridge towards 
Biddu and Kubeibeh the Turkish small arm and artillery fire from Nebi Samwil (Mizpah of the Old 
Testa?nenl, Montjoye of the Crusaders) caused much annoyance. A separate attack, supported by the 
guns at Kuryet el Enab, was made on this position, and by 2345 Nebi Samwil was taken by the 234th 
Brigade, with the 3/3rd Gurkhas and the 2/4th Hants attached. The 75th Division had thus reached 
the furthest point of King Eichard's advance in Jan., 1192. Reinforcements had been sent up by the 
52nd Division and every effort was being made to make a track good enough for the guns to advance 
from Likia to Kubeibeh (four and a quarter miles). 

Some three miles to the south, on the right of the 75th Division, the 5tli Mounted Brigade of the 
Austrahan Division advanced astride of the railway up the narrow valley of Sorek (Wadi es Surar). 

The 52nd Division had advanced as far as Beit Anan and Beit Dukku, three and four miles further 
north, while keeping a strong force at Beit Likia. 

To the north of the 52nd Division the yeomanry in the Bethhoron country were being held up 
alike by the difficulties of the terrain and the tenacity of the Turks. The badness of the country along 
the left of this division's line of advance was in itself a protection, and the Turks refrained from 
attempting an attack from the north, but shewed great obstinacy on the ridges between Upper Beth- 
horon (Beit ur el Foka) and Beituna to within half a mile of which the 6th Mounted Brigade was able 
to advance before it was held up at 1100 by a force of over 3,000 Turks with four batteries of ■77s and 
some camel gims. In spite of the arrival of two regiments of the 8th Mounted Brigade at 1145 and one 
from the 22nd at 1400, the yeomanry found that further advance was impossible, and when the Turks 
were reinforced at 1600 and out-ranged our mountain guns there was nothing for it but to retreat to 
Beit ur el Foka, an operation which began at 1930 and was successfully covered by the 8th Mounted 
Brigade. The 22nd Mounted Brigade during the day was engaged near Ram Allah. 

In the plain the 60th Division arrived in the Mejdel area and the 54th Division was lent to the 
Desert Mounted Corps for the defence of the Ludd-Jaffa line, in front of which cavalry patrols rode up 
to Rentis, Shukba. and Shebtin. The enemy still held the high land at Deir el Kuddis in this region 
as well as the northern bank of the Nahr el Auja. 

By this date the moral ascendancy of the British had reached such a pitch that the following re- 
marks occur in a letter written by a German staff officer on Nov. 21 : — - 

"We have had a very bad time. After having Had to relinc|iiisli jfodd pcisitioiis whicli had been held for so long, the 
breakdown of the army is greater than ever I could have imaginid. But for this fomplele dissolution, we should Btill be able 
to make a good stand at Jerusalem — now the Vllth Army bolts from any cavalry patrol." 

71' face Plate '.9. 



ADVANCE INTO JUDiSA 



PLATE /9 



30 



UNLOCATED 



ENEMY UNITS 

JLV CORPS. 1J9&20 DIVS. 
Probably N. of JERUSALEM- 



-""««<.- 



^ XT' "*"•'''*<"> 

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MEDITEIIRANEAN 



2° 



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bf»</A/ tAr Surveyof Egypt. D*c 1918(0453) 

Miles 10 h 



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ffeprintee/ in fj^/ancf /S/9. 
zpMiles 



Sit\iation.at 6.f).m-on2l -UJ7 asknownal G.H.OE.E.F 



November 22-24. 

The Turkish Vllth Army on Nov. 22 tried to recover some of the ground which it had lost, and 
launched in succession three formidable but fruitless coantor-attacks on Nebi Samwil. On the other 
hand, the enemy so strongly opposed our attack on El Jib that he was able to retain that position, 
although he lost Beit Izza to the 52nd Division. Next day the 75th Division made another attempt to 
take El Jib, supported by all available guns, but the enemy was in such strength, and his artillery and 
machine-gun fire so formidable, that no progress could be made. The 52nd Division relieved the 75th 
during the night and began a fresh attack on the morning of Nov. 24. Simultaneously, the northern 
end of the ridge was also attacked, the Yeomanry Division made a demonstration towards Beitunia 
and a brigade was pushed forward against the high land north-west of El Jib. The third assault had 
no better result than its predecessors and it became apparent that cold and casualties had, for the 
moment, enabled the Turks to bring the advance to a standstill within sight of Jerusalem. In conse- 
quence of this the 60th Division next day reheved the 75th Division from Soba northwards, while the 
52nd Division was directed to discontinue the attack. The 60th Division had arrived at Jimction 
Station on Nov. 22, where it was attached to the XXIst Corps and then proceeded to Latron. 

The 5th Mounted Brigade, having the 10th Australian Light Horse regiment attached during these 
three days, moved up to Artuf on the 23rd and sent strong patrols as far as Ain Karim and Bittir next 
day. The 8th and 22nd Mounted Brigades successfully withdrew to Tahta during Nov. 22 and next 
day, owing to the difficulty of getting water and supplies, many horses were sent down to Ramleh. 
The Yeomanry Division on this day was attached to XXIst Corps and got into touch with the infantry 
east of Dukka on occupying Et Tire. 

In the lower foothills the 7th Mounted Brigade on Nov. 2"2 entered Belain, Deir el Kuddis, and 
Shukbah without opposition, and the Turks were found to have fallen back to Abud. Next day this 
brigade, on being reheved along the line Sheikh el Gharbawy-Kh. Harmush by the 54th Division, 
withdrew to Zernukah into corps reserve. The Desert Mounted Corps was now holding the line 
Kh. Midieh-Kh. Harmush-Haditheh-El Yehudiyeh-Point 265-Birket el Jamus-Sheikh Abd en Neby, 
and the redistribution of troops shewn on the map was completed by the morning of the 24th, when 
the Australian and New Zealand Mounted Division, supported by two companies of infantry, crossed 
the Nahr el Auja and occupied a line covering Kh. Hadrah and Sheikh Muannis. 

Meanwhile XXth Corps advanced headquarters had moved to Junction Station, and the 
74th Division started north from Deir el Belah on 23rd, reaching Gaza on the afternoon of the next 
day. Patrols from Mott's detachment on the 24th established the fact that Ed Dhaheriyeh had been 
evacuated by the enemy. 

To face Plate SO. 



ADVANCE INTO JUDJEA 



PLATE 20 



ae 



ENEMY UNITS UN LOCATED. 

16,19 & 20 Divs. 



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Situation at6 p.m onE4-ll"I7 asknownat G.H.O EEF. 



November 25. 

The enemy almost at once replied to the advance across the Auja. At 0300 he attacked Kh. Hadrah 
and by 0800 the position could no longer be held. The infantry retired across the river and two com- 
panies of infantry in support on the south bank suffered considerably while covering the withdrawal, 
as they had no artillery to help them. The Auckland Mounted Rifles remained until the infantry had 
crossed, and then withdrew behind Sheikh Muannis, while a detachment of the N.Z.M.E. Brigade 
Machine Gun Squadron crossed at Kh. Hadrah bridge. During the morning the enemy, who was in 
some strength, also recovered Sheikh Muannis, and the rest of our people had to retire to their original 
line, in course of whieh the cavalry had to gallop the ford over the bar at the mouth of the Nahr el 
Auja. As a measure of precaution the 7th Mounted Brigade was brought five miles north to Rishon Ic 
Zion for a night, but the Turks were content with having recovered the line of the Auja and made no 
attempt to do anything more. 

On the mountain front the enemy shelled Biddu and Nebi Samwil and attempted to attack Beit 
Izza with 300 men, but nothing came of it, and the Turks, who were quite as exhausted as the two 
British divisions on that front, were otherwise quiescent, except for their activity in digging-in, an opera- 
tion in which they were compulsorily assisted by drafts from the local population. In the Bethhoron 
area at 1400 about 200 Turks with machine guns were engaged by the Leicester Battery near Foka and 
the Stafford Yeomanry near Kh. Meita. Their advance was checked and an attack made at 1600 was 
broken up. Yeomanry Divisional Headquarters was established at Beit Ur et Tahta. 

The 74th Division, hurrying up from the south, reached the Mejdel area. 

T. face Plate 21. 






ADVANCE INTO .JLJDA:A 



PLATE 21 



"W 



4ES4Y UNITS UNUOCATED 

16. 19 *' 20 D I VS. 



AV, 



Aw el Yez^ 



Khell 



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Rfprinte^d in Enqf/and /9I3. 

«pMil«» 



November 26 and 27. 

During these two days the 60th Division relieved the 75th and the 52nd Divisions on the mountain 
front. The 75th withdrew^ down the pass to Lation and the 52nd began to move over into the Beth- 
horon area. Apart from shelhng there was no enemy activity on this part of the front. In the plain, 
however, on the 27th the enemy reinforced the garrison of Ferrekiyeh and the defences of the bridge 
across the Auja were improved. One battahon of the enemy was reported by the AustraUan and New 
Zealand Division to be advancing towards Mulebbis and another down the narrow gauge railway to 
Rantieh. In addition to this a number of Turks were seen digging in between Et Tireh and Eaiitieh 
and a detachment with machine guns advanced to Deir Tureif where the 54th Division was engaged as 
well as at Yehudiyeh. In the afternoon 4,000 Turks advanced to Mulebbis from the north. 

On Nov. 27 three officers and sixty men of the 6th Mounted Brigade, held the Zeitun post against 
600 Turks with machine guns who were supported by artillery from Beitunia from 1400 until dark. The 
garrison, by then reduced to two officers and twenty-six men was reinforced during the night by another 
fifty men, and successfully held until dawn in spite of enemy attacks which lasted all night, and the 
destruction by shell fire of the building which they had been occupying. At 1500 enemy patrols were 
reported to be active to the north and in the neighbourhood of Deir Ibzia, and it became apparent that 
the enemy was hoping to work round the left flank of the thinly held ten-mile British line to the gap of 
five or six miles between the left flank of the yeomanry and Shilta, the nearest post of the 54th Division. 
Zeitun Post was ordered to hold out as long as possible, and No. 2 Light Armoured Car Battery was 
posted one mile west of Tahta on the Beit Sira road to prevent the enemy from advancing by way of 
Siifia. A staff officer had to ride down to Berfilya, seven miles away, before he could get in touch with 
communications and thus secure reinforcements, and at 2130 on Nov. 27, the 7th Mounted Brigade, which 
had come from Rishon le Zion and Zernukah, left Deiran and reached Beit Ur et Tahta before dawn. 

The stubborn defence by the Turkish forces in the hills can be explained by an appreciation of the 
situation written by Major von Papen on Nov. 2,3, 1917. In this, he states that an assault group, com- 
posed of the 19th, 20th, and 54th Infantry Divisions, will be formed by the end of the month at Tul 
Keram. In the meantime, every effort must be made, pending the attack of the assault group, to defend 
Jerusalem with the XXth Corps and the El Bire Group (Ilird Corps). He does not, however, hold out 
much hope of retaining Jerusalem, as the Turkish forces had been so shattered as to reduce the com- 
parative strength to a ratio of one to six. 

On Nov. 21 the same writer had already reported to Count Bernstorff on the condition of the 
Turkish forces at this time : — 

" We have had a very bad time. 

" The breakdown of the army, after having had to relinquish the good positions in which it had remained for so long, 
is so eomplete that I could never have dreamed of such a thing. But for this complete dissolution, we should still be able 
to make a stand south of .Jerusalem, even to-day. But now the Vllth Army bolts from every cavalry patrol. 

" Many reasons h.ave contributed to this sorrowful result, chiefly incapacity on the part of the troops and their leaders. 
Single men fight very pluckily, but the good ofiicers have fallen and the remainder have bolted ; in Jerusalem alone, we 
arrested 200 officers and 5,000-6,000 men deserters. 

'■ Naturally Enver presses very strongly to hold on to Jerusalem with all possible means, on account of the political 
effect. From a military point of view, it is a mistake, for this shattered array can only be put together again, if entirely 
removed from contact with the enemy and fitted out with new divisions. This, however, can only take place after the 
lapse of months. 

" Now it is just a to.'s-np." 

That an army which had been so hammered as to break up into a condition meritmg such criticism 
as the above should have been able to recover during the brief breathing space afforded to it by British 
difficulties over transport, and offer the sturdy resistance which our divisions had to overcome in the 
moimtains of Judaea, is a fturther illustration of the immense recuperative power of Turks in strong 
defensive positions. 

To face Plate 22. 



ADVANCE INTO JUDiEA 



PLATE 2 2. 







ri Otimh 
JJmm 



'nnUdby the Surrt/ofEfypt.Drc 1916(0*53) 

Mile* 10 



M^prini 



tpMilt* 



Situation at ^.p.mon-SI'r.U -.1.7 aslmowiiat G.H.O E.E.F. 



November 28, 29, and 30. 

On Nov. 28, at noon, the XXth Corps took over the line from XXIst Corps, and its headquarters 
moved up from Junction Station to Latron. The line as then held by the 60th Division was from Soba 
on the south to Kustul-Beit Surik-Nebi Samwil-Beit Izza. Near hero contact was made with the 
Yeomanry Mounted Division which held Dukka-Beit Ur el Foka-Et Tahta, and thence to the now 
sector held by the 52nd Division at SufEa and Sliilta after its relief by the 60th Division. 

In view of the increasing stubbornness of the enemy and the consequent need to prepare a more 
deliberate method of attack, it was of prime importance to improve communications. New roads were 
begun between Latron and Beit Likia to link up with the road made by XXIst Corps between Beit 
Likia and Biddu, and another was started from Kuryet el Enab to Kubeibeh, while the existing roads 
and tracks were improved into usefulness. Even so it was found that traffic beeame difficult after a 
few hours of rain, and that during wet weather camels were of little use. Consequently the Corps trans- 
port had to be supplemented by 2,000 donkeys to assist in supplying troops in the advanced positions. 
At this time the rear communications of the troops on the " Mountain Front " were limited to the partly 
metalled road from Gaza through Mejdel and Junction Station to Latron, and the Turkish .light railway, 
of which the maximum daily capacity was about 100 tons of Ordnance stores. 

At 0500 on Nov. 28, as soon as the 7th Mounted Brigade had come into the line on the left of the 
22nd Mounted Brigade at Hellabi, the Turks develojjed a formidable attack from Beit Ur el Foka to 
Suffa with some 3,000 rifles, four batteries of -ITs, and some camel guns. To meet this a composite 
Artillery Brigade of the 74th Division was sent up from Latron to the neighbourhood of Point 1746, 
and the 155th Brigade of the 52nd Division came into the line on the left of the Yeomanry Division 
about noon. After considerable fighting Zeitun Post was withdrawn and Foka evacuated. A new line 
was taken up along a wooded ridge half way to Tahta, and during the evening a battalion of the 156th 
Brigade and the 4th Australian Light Horse Brigade (Australian Momited Division) came up in support. 

At 1600 the 8th Mounted Brigade fell back on Dukka and the Turkish attack on Tahta was driven 
back by the 7th Mounted Brigade and the howitzers of the 52nd Division. At 1800 the 4th Australian 
Light Horse Brigade came up in support of the 6th Moimted Brigade, and half an hour later a battalion 
of the 156th Brigade arrived in support of the 7th Mounted Brigade. 

The enemy renewed his attacks during the night, advancing south of .SufEa until compelled to retire 
at 0800 by the fire of the 268th Brigade, Royal Field Artillery. As he was retiring he suflered satisfactory 
losses from the enfilade fire of the 7th Mounted Brigade's machine guns. By 1600 on Nov. 29, the Turks 
were tired of attacking and contented themselves with artillery work and sniping. During the after- 
noon and night the 8th and 6th Mounted Brigades were relieved by the 231st Brigade of the 74th Division 
which had now come up into the line, and the 22nd and 7th Mounted Brigades by the 157th Brigade of 
the 52nd Division. The reliefs were completed by 0500 on Nov. 30, and the four mounted brigades 
moved back to Beit Sira where they were joined in the afternoon by the 4th Australian Light Horse 
Brigade, on the way to Divisional Headquarters at Annabeh, where the Yeomanry Division concentrated 
that evening and rejoined the Desert Mounted Corps. 

At a Corps conference held near Yalo, in the Valley of Ajalon, it was decided, on account of tho 
absence of roads and shortage of water in the country to the north-west, to attack the Turkish 
positions covering Jerusalem from the south-west and west instead of from the north-west. 

To face Plate 23. 



ADVANCE INTO JXJDA:A 



PLATE 23 



- ^p ^ — 

i 
j 

^NLOCAVeO 
2 Cavslryk»gt».from tAe HEJAZ. 



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December 1 and 2. 

In the morning at 0120 shock troops belonging to the 19th Turkish Division attacked the point of 
junction between the 3rd and 4th AustraUan Light Horse Brigade near El Burj. At 0150 the 8th Aus- 
traUan Light Horse Regiment were strengthened by some Gloucester Yeomanry and a company of 
the l/4th Royal Scots Fusiliers (155th Brigade) who came up in support. The enemy was exposed to a 
cross-fire from rifles and machine guns as well as to that of the 268th Brigade, Royal Field Artillery, 
and of the Hong-Kong and Singapore Battery. At 0530 an encircling movement was made which 
resulted in the capture of 112 prisoners. The enemy also lost over 100 killed and twenty wounded, who 
were picked up. At the same time a determined attack was made on the 157th Brigade (52nd Division) 
holding the Tahta defences. An important position was lost for a time, but recovered after stubborn 
hand-to-hand fighting at 0430. After this the enemy withdrew a little, and abandoned further attempts 
to dislodge our troops from this sector of the front. On the same day three determined Turkish attacks 
were made on the Nebi Samwil positions held by the 60th Division. In these the enemy appears to have 
lost more than 500 killed. 

On the first of the month the 10th Division, which had started north from Belah on Nov. 27, took 
over the line Wadi Zait-Tahta-Kh. Faaush, a mile to the north of Beit Sira, and the 52nd Division 
reverted to XXIst Corps. 

The 5th Mounted Brigade came into Divisional Reserve at El Burj on the night of Dec. 1 and, on 
the 2nd, the 7th Mounted Brigade left the Australian Mounted Division and went into Corps Reserve 
near Akir, where the Yeomanry Division had arrived from Annabeh during the previous day. 

To face Plate 24. 




ADVANCE INTO JUDjEa 



PLATE. 2A 



io 



UN LOCATED 

2Cav Regis..! elements of 
SO^Regt arriving from AMMAN. 



*'n r/ YezaM 



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'infdby tht Survey of Egypt. Dec. 1918 (0453} 

Miles 10 & 



Reprinted //? £no/and /9t9. 



^ 



Mitc» 



Sit\iatioa at 6 p,m0iL 2.-) 2 - 17 as known at G.H.Q • E.EP. 



December 3 and 4. 

On Dec. 3 the Royal Devon Yeomanry Regiment of the 229th Brigade (74th Division) re- 
captured Beit Ur el Foka with seventeen prisoners and three machine guns, and repulsed a series of 
counter-attacks. Owing, however, to the fact that the enemy still held high ground from which the 
village could be dominated with machine-gun fire, the place was evacuated and our troops withdrew 
to their original line, leaving fifty dead Turks in the village of Foka alone. 

On the night of Dec. 3-4 the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade raided Bald Hill. Further to the left 
the 2nd Austrahan Light Horse Brigade killed twenty Turks and captured five prisoners. During the 
next night the New Zealand Mormted Rifles Brigade relieved the Imperial Camel Corps in the line about 
Point 265. The latter withdrew to Yebna and thence to Shellal. During the same night the 
10th Division relieved the 229th and 230th Brigades of the 74th Division and extended its line to 
cover Beit Dukku. 

December 5, 6, 7, and 8. 

In the process of concentration for the great attack which was to result in the fall of Jerusalem, 
a process which occupied from Dec. 4 to 7, the 53rd Division, with the exception of the 1.58th Brigade, 
and the XXth Corps Cavalry, began to move north along the Beersheba-Hebron road and reached 
the Bilbeh area on Dec. 6, getting into touch with the 10th Australian Light Horse Regiment which 
had occupied El Kudr. On Dec. 5 the enemy withdrew a little in front of the 10th Division. This 
enabled our troops to occupy Kh. Hellabi and Sulfa, and the Australian Mounted Division also moved 
forward a short distance. That night the 231st Brigade of the 74th Division relieved the 60th Division 
in the Beit Izza and Nebi Saniwil sector, and during the next night the 74th Division took over the 
line as far south as the Makam of Sheikh Abdul Aziz, one mile south-east of Beit Surik. At 0700 on 
Dec. 5 patrols reported that Kefr Rut, about one mile west from Sulfa, had been evacuated by the 
enemy. Accordingly, an hour later, the 4th Australian Light Horse Brigade and the 5th Mounted 
Brigade moved forward, and at 1530 the 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade occupied a line about 1,000 
yards north-north-east of El Burj further to the west. Thus, in the evening, the Desert Mounted Corps 
held a line running through a point 500 yards east-north-east of Kb. ed Daty, another point 1,500 yards 
north of that place, Shilta, and a point 500 yards west of Shilta. This filled the gap between the 31st 
Brigade of the 10th Division on the right and the 233rd Brigade of the 75th Division on the left. 

On Dec. 7 the XXIst Corps took over the line coveruig Ramleh, Ludd, and Jaffa. The 75tb Division 
had the eastern sector on the right, the 54th Division the central sector, and the 52nd Division the coastal 
or western sector on the left. 

On the eve of the attack the Turks were holding a line covering Bethlehem on the south and running 
north past Ras el Balua, Ain el Hand, Kibriyan. Kulat el Ghuleh, to the west of .4in Harim and along the 
formidable ridge running above the Wadi es Surar in front of Deir Yesin and Beit Iksa. It continued 
north to the east of Nebi Samwil, to the west of El Jib and thence in a westerly direction past Kh. ed 
Dreihenieh, Et Tireh, Beit Ur el Foka, Kh. Ilasa. Kh. Aberjan to a point near Suffa. As a preliminary 
to the main attack the 179th Brigade with the mountain batteries crossed the Wadi Surar during the night 
and by 0330 had captured the high ground south of Ain Karim. In spite of rain the main attack began 
at dawn on Dec. 8. It was supported by the Divisional Artillery, the 96th Heavy Artillery Group of three 
6-inch batteries — the 383rd, .387th, and 440th — one 60-pounder battery and one section of the 195th 
Heavy Battery, the Hong Kong and Singapore Battery attached to the 74th Division, the 10th and 16th 
Moimtain Batteries attached to the 60th Division and the 91st Heavy Battery attached to the 53rci Division. 
The 60th and 74th Divisions attacked at 0515 and by 0700 had captured the line of Turkish trenches 
crowning the formidable hills to the east of the Wadi Surar. Considerable difficulty was experienced 
before the great Heart and Liver Redoubts and the carefully prepared works at Deir Yesin could be taken 
by the 60th Division. The main road past Kulonieh and up the steep ascent to Lifta was exposed to Turk- 
ish artillery and machine-gun fire, which greatly interfered with the advance of this division and the 
movements of its guns. The country traversed was very broken and precipitous and the rain and darkness 
greatly increased the difficulty of the advance. The weather and strenuous Turkish resistance had delayed 
the 53rd Division and it was only at 0900 that it could get into position to attack the high ground west 
and south-west of Beit Jala, consequently this division was unable effectively to protect the right flank 
of the 60th. The necessity for securing this flank made it impossible for the 60th Division to advance 
so far as its right was concerned. On the left it encountered serious opposition at 1330 which was only 
overcome by a bayonet charge at 1600. Further north the 74th Division reached Beit Iksa by 1100, 
but was there held up by heavy artillery and machine-gun fire, and was unable to capture the El Burj 
ridge to the north-east owing to enfilade fire from the right. The attack was suspended and at nightfall 
both divisions consolidated the Hne to which they had advanced while the 10th Australian Light Horse 
Regiment at Malhah and the 1/1 Worcester Yeomanry (the Corps Cavalry Regiment) mamtained 
communication amid the rain and mist with the 53rd Division near Beit Jala. In the morning the 
Worcester Yeomanry worked right across the front of the 53rd Division and cut the enemy's line of 
retreat by getting astride of the Jericho road where it turns east from the Valley of Jehoshaphat. 

During the night the 53rd Division had pusjied forward to the outskirts of Bethlehem from which 
the enemy withdrew, and by 0830 on Dec. 9 the division had advanced to a line two and a half miles 

Tu face Plate 26. 



n 



ADVANCE INTO JUD^A 



PLA7L 25 



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south of Jerusaleii). The enemy, having no hope of holding Jerusalem now that his positions overhanging 
the Wadi Surar had been forced, made no counter-attacks during the night but retired to a line north 
and north-east of the city which was surrendered at 0830 by the Mayor who approached the outpost of 
the 180th Brigade. Major-Gen. Shea commanding the 60th Division, was instructed to accept the 
surrender, and did so at 1300. 

On the morning of Dec. 8 large numbers of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, with the remaining religious 
chiefs, were personally warned by the police to be ready to leave at once. The extent to which the Turks 
were prepared to clear the city is shown by the fact that out of the Armenian community of 1,400 souls 
300 received this notice. Jemal Pasha, when warned that vehicles were unavailable for the transport 
of the unhappy exiles to Shechem or Jericho, telegraphed curtly that they and theirs must walk. The 
fate of countless Armenians and many Greeks has shown that a population of all ages suddenly turned 
out to walk indefinite distances under Turkish escort is exposed to outrage and hardship which prove 
fatal to most of them ; but the delay in telegraphing had saved the population, and the sun had risen 
for the last time on the Ottoman domination of Jerusalem, and the Turks' power to destroy faded 
with the day. 

Towards dusk the British troops were reported to have passed Lifta, and to be within sight of the city. 
On this news being received, a sudden panic fell on the Turks west and south-west of the town, and at 
1700 civilians were surprised to see a Turkish transport column galloping furiously citjrward along the 
Jaffa road. In passing they alarmed all units within sight or hearing, and the wearied iiifantry arose and 
fled, bootless and without rifles, never pausing to think or to fight. Some were flogged back by their 
officers and were compelled to pick up their arms ; others staggered on through the mud, augmenting 
the confusion of the retreat. 

After four centuries of conquest the Turk was riddmg the land of his j^resence in the bitterness of 
defeat, and a great enthusiasm arose among the Jews. There was a running to and fro ; daughters called 
to their fathers and brothers concealed in outhouses, cellars, and attics, from the police, who sought them 
for arrest and deportation. " The Turks are rimning," they called ; " the day of deliverance is come ". 
The nightmare was fast passing away, but the Turk still lingered. In the evening he fired his guns con- 
tinuously, perhaps heartening himself with the loud noise that comforts the soul of a barbarian, perhaps 
to cover the sound of his own retreat. Whatever the intention was, the roar of the gunfire persuaded 
most citizens to remain indoors, and there were few to witness the last act of Osmanli authority. 

Towards midnight the Governor, Izzet Bey, went personally to the telegraph office, discharged 
the stal^, and himself smashed the instrmnents with a hammer. At 0200 on Sunday tired Turks begf n 
to troop through the Jaffa gate from the west and south-west, and anxious watchers, peering out through 
the windows of the Grand New Hotel to learn the meaning of the tramping, were cheered by Ihe sulhn 
remark of an officer, "Gitmaya mejburuz" ("We've got to go"), and from 0200 till 0700 that morning 
the Turks streamed through and out of the city, which echoed for the last time their shuffling tramp. 
On this same day 2,082 years before, another race of conquerors, equally detested, were looking their 
last on the city which they could not hold, and inasmuch as the liberation of Jerusalem in 1917 will 
probably amehorate the lot of the Jews more than that of any other commimity in Palestine, it was fitting 
that the flight of the Turks should have coincided with the national festival of the Hanukah, which com- 
memorates the recapture of the Temple from the heathen Seleucids by Judas Maccabaeus in 165 B.C. 

The Governor was the last civil official to depart. He left in a cart belonging to Mr. Vester, an 
American resident, from whom he had " borrowed " an hitherto imrequisitioned cart and team. Before 
the dawn he hastened down the Jericho road, leaving behind him a letter of surrender, which the Mayor 
as the sun rose set forth to deliver to the British commander, accompanied by a few frightened poUce- 
men holding two tremulous white flags. He walked towards the Lifta Hill and met the first representa- 
tives of the British Army on a spot which may be marked in the future with a white stone as the 
site of a historic episode. 

The last Turkish soldier is said to have left Jerusalem at about 0700 by the east gate of the city, 
which is named after St. Stephen, but even later armed stragglers were still trickling along the road just 
outside the north wall, requisitioning food and water at the point of the bayonet. This is no grevious 
crime on the part of defeated troops, uncertain of their next meal, but is recorded as the last kick of the 
dying Ottoman authority iii a city where it had been supreme for four centuries. 

As the Turkish flood finally ebbed away into the shadowy depths of the Valley of Jehoshaphat the 
townsfolk roused themselves from the lethargy into which hunger and the Turkish poUce had plunged 
them and fell upon a variety of buildings, official or requisitioned for official purposes, and looted them, 
even stripping roofs, doors, and floors from the Ottoman barracks next to the Tower of David for firewood. 
It must be admitted that, as the Government had furnished and maintained itself almost entirely by 
uncompensated requisitions, the crowd was only trying to indemnify itself. But this disorder ceased 
as suddenly as it had arisen on the appearance of the British infantry, 

T» ftun Piatt iA, 



I 



ADVANCE INTO OUDAIA 



PLATE. 26 



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December 9 and 10. 

After tho surrender of Jonisalem the 74th and GOth Divisions wheeled northwards pivotting on Nebi 
Samwil. The 74th met with no great opposition but the 60th Division on debouching shortly after 
1030 from the suburbs to the north of the Lifta road came under heavy rifle and machine-gim fire from 
the ridge to the west of Sir John Grey Hill's house on the Mount of Olives, which was strongly held by 
the enemy. At about 1600 the Turks were dislodged from this at the point of the bayonet, leaving 
seventy dead. Meanwhile on the left of the division the 180th Brigade which was advancing along 
the ridge to the east of the Wadi Beit Hannina, occupied Shafat and Tel el Ful on the Shechem 
(Nablus) road. 

By 1100 the 53rd Division was at Mar Elias with its advanced guard on the Jericho road to the 
Bouth-east of Jerusalem. The Mount of Ohves was strongly defended by the Turks, and the division 
was not able to drive them ofE until nightfall. 

The same day the Desert Mounted Corps extended its front to the east so as to include Suffa. This 
move brought the 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade from El Burj up into the neighbourhood of Kh. ed 
Daty. Dm'ing this period the enemy line ran westwards just in front of Khurbetha ibn Harith, Jurdeh, 
Deir el Kuddis, and Nalin. 

On Dec. 10 the 53rd Division was engaged to the east of Jerusalem in pushing the enemy back off 
the ridges from which he could observe the Holy City. 

Note on the Surrender of Jerusalem. 

Before the arrival of the flag of truce on Dec. 9 the movement of the crowds accompanying it had 
been observed and reported by patrols, but definite news of the impending surrender was first actually 
communicated to British soldiers by civihans, who informed Pte. H. E. Church and Pte. R. W. J. Andrews 
of the 2/20th Battalion London Regiment. These men, who had advanced into the outskirts of Jerusalem 
in order to obtain water, reported what had been told to them without meeting the flag of truce. Shortly 
before 0800 Sergt. Hurcomb and Sergt. Sedgewick, of the 2/19th Battalion London Regiment, met the 
flag of tnie« and^ shortly afterwards, Major W. Beck, R.A., and Major F. R. Barry, R.A., came upand 
entered into conversation with the Mayor. They turned back to report the presence of the flag of 
truce, and met Lieut. -Col. H. Bailey, D.S.O., and Major M. D. H. Cooke. Lieut. -Col. Bailey, as senior 
officer, deohned to accept the surrender and reported the Mayor's wishes to Brig.-General C. F. Watson, 
C.M.G., D.S.O., Commanding 180th Brigade, who rode up a few minutes later and reassured the Mayor. 
Brig.-General Watson transmitted the oifer of the surrender of Jerusalem to Major-General J. S. M. Shea, 
C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., G.O.C. 60th Division, who was then at Enab. Major-General Shea commimicated 
with Lieut.-General Sir Philip Chetwode, Bt., K.C.B., K.C.M.G., D.S.O., G.O.C. XXth Corps, and about 
1100 was instructed to accept the surrender of the city. In the meantime Brig.-General Watson (with' 
a small mounted escort, followed by the Mayor in his carriage) had ridden forward to reassure the people, 
and was the first British soldier to arrive at the Jaffa Gate. Guards were posted at 0930 from the 2/17lh 
Battalion London Regiment over the Post Office, which had been occupied in the interval by Major 
Cooke, at some hospitals, and outside the Jaffa Gate. Shortly after Brig.-General Watson's arrival 
a mounted patrol from the 53rd Division appeared. Major-General Shea, on arriving in a motor car 
outside the Post Office, sent for the Mayor and Chief of Police. These functionaries were informed that 
Major-General Shea accepted the surrender of the city in the name of the Commander-in-Chief, and 
Brig.-General Watson was directed to make the necessary arrangements for the maintenance of order. 

Ta face Plate Zi, 



OCCUPATION^ OF JERUSALEM 




Reprinted in England /9/9. 
zpMiles 



rm Q -19-17 aaVnnwT, at r; TTO ■F.Ti'."F 



D9cemb«r 11 and 12. 

On Dec. 11 the Comraander-ia-Cliief, followed by representatives of the Allies, made his formal entry 
into Jerusalem. The historic Jaffa Gate was opened, after years of disuse, for the purpose, and he 
was thus enabled to pass into the Holy City without making use of the gap in the wall made for the 
Emperor William in 1898. When the time came for the great and simple act of the solemn entry of 
General Allenby into Jerusalem, and the Ai-ab prophecy was fulfilled that when the Nile had flowed into 
Palestine, the prophet (Al Nebi) from the west should drive the Turk from Jerusalem, the inhabitants 
mustered courage to gather in a great crowd. They were themselves amazed, for during more than three 
years an assembly of more than three persons in one place was discom-aged by the police by blows, fines, 
imprisomnent, and even exile. Eye-witnesses of all three events state that the crowd gathered at the 
Jaffa gate to greet the General was larger than that which met the Emperor William when on his fantastic 
political pilgrimage, and denser than the gathering which greeted the revival of the Ottoman Constitu- 
tion when it was proclaimed, ten years later, at the Damascus Gate, where there is more space. Many 
wept for joy, priests were seen to embrace one another, but there were no theatricalities such as the hollow 
reconciliations which made the triumph of the Young Turk in 1908 memorable, and sicken the memories 
of those who know the horrors and calamities which that triumph was doomed to bring. The General 
entered the city on foot, and left it on foot, and throughout the ceremony no Allied flag was flown, while 
naturally no enemy flags were visible. 

A proclamation announcing that order would be maintained in all the hallowed sites of the three 
great religions, which were to be guarded and preserved for the free use of worshippers, was read in English, 
French, Arabic, Hebrew, Greek, Eussian, and Italian, from the terrace of the entrance to the citadel 
below the Tower of David. When this was done the cliief notables and ecclesiastics of the different 
commimities who had remained in Jerusalem were presented to General Allenby. After this brief cere- 
mony the Commander-in-Chief left the city by the Jaffa Gate. 

In the neighbourhood of Jerusalem there was no fighting on this day apart from an attack by a small 
party of Turks near Tel el Ful which was repulsed by the 179th Brigade. 

In the XXIst Corps area the 75th Division advanced its front to the line Midieh-Kh. Hamid-Budrus- 
Sheikh Obeid Rahil, meeting with slight opposition in the process. An enemy counter-attack, after 
prehminary bombardment of the Zeifizfiyeh Ridge, at 1000 was repulsed. 

On Dec. 12 the 53rd Division improved its position by advancing several hundred yards, but there 
was otherwise little activity on either side. 

The 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade relieved the dth Austrahan Light Horse Brigade in uhe 
Suffa-Kh. ed Daty sector of the line. 

To fare Piute 2S 



ADVANCE INTO MOUNT EPHRAIM AND SHAllON.. .. 



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Reprinted in Eng/and 19/9. 



20 Miles 



SituationatG p.m.on. 1Z-12-.1.7. aslmown at G.H.OE.E.F. 



December 13 to 22. 

On Dec. 13 the 53rd Division further advanced its Hne, and the 181st Brigade of the 60th Division 
captured Ras el Kharrubeh (near Anata) with forty-three prisoners and two machine guns. During 
the fine weather which lasted until the afternoon of Dec. 14 much road work was done. Preparations 
were being made for the further advance which was to drive the enemy back to a respectful distance 
from Jerusalem, and at dawn on Dec. 17, two battalions of the 160th Brigade attacked the high ground 
east of Abu Dis. The ridge was captured with a loss to the enemy of forty-six killed, 126 prisoners, 
and two machine guns. The 53rd Division, which was taking over the line as far north as the Wadi Anata, 
was again engaged on Dec. 21, when the 159th Brigade stormed Ras ez Zamby (about two and a quarter 
nailes west-north-west of Jerusalem) and White Hill. There was a good deal of fighting and the position 
with three machine guns was not taken until noon. The Turks made three counter-attacks which cost 
them a further loss of fifty killed. 

The 60th Division, relieved as far as the Wadi Anata by the 53rd, took over the line east of Nebi 
Samwil from the 74th Division, which in its turn extended to Beit Ur et Tahta on the west. This read- 
justment was effected by Dec. 21. 

On Dec. 14 the 10th Australian Light Horse Regiment which had been attached to the 60th Division 
during the operations against Jerusalem, rejoined the 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade in the Desert 
Mounted Corps area. 

On Dec. 15 the 75th Division again advanced their line and took in Kibbiah and Kb. Ibbaneh 
while the 54th Division took Khirbet el Bornat and moved up to Et Tireh. At this place and at Kh , 
Ibbaneh the enemy made some resistance. 

In the coastal sector preparations were being made by the XXIst Corps to remove the enemy from 
his positions at the mouth of the Nahr el Auja, which menaced the town and landing place of Jaifa and 
the main road thence to Ramleh. The River Auja, some forty yards wide and ten feet deep between 
abrupt banks, was in itself a formidable obstacle to an advance. The enemy had entrenched the high 
northern bank and also held Bald Hill with a line of trenches about a mile to the south of Mulebbis 
and Fejja. 

Major-General Hill, Commanding the 52nd Division, on Dec. 14 submitted a plan for making a sur- 
prise passage of the river. The requisite preparations were made — portable bridges were constructed 
by the Engineers, under cover of the orange groves of Sarona, pontoons were assembled and canvas 
corracles, capable of carrying twenty men apiece, were built from local materials. A considerable con- 
centration of artillery was also effected and, on Dec. 18 and 19, the 52nd Division was relieved in the 
trenches by the 161st Brigade of the 54th Division and the Auckland and Wellington Mounted Rifle 
Regts. At the same time the 75th Division extended its front westwards so as to enable the 54th 
Division to spare the 161st Brigade from near Ludd. 

Three days' heavy rain followed which considerably mcreased the volume of water in the Auja 
and did much to render its south bank difficult of access by turning the plain into a mud swamp. In 
spite of this the surprise attack was successful. The covering parties crossed imperceived during the 
night of Dec. 20 amid wind and rain in their corracles, and the bridges were placed in position. Owing 
to the extreme lightness of their construction (they were designed to be carried nearly two miles), some 
of them collapsed after a time, and the 156th Brigade bad to link arms and cross breast-deep at the 
ford.* The enemy's trenches covering the river were rushed in silence and captured. Sheikh Muannis 
was carried at the point of the bayonet, Kh. Hadrah was rushed and captured, and by the dawn of Dec. 21 
the 52nd Division had occupied the whole line from Hadrah to Tel el Rekkeit on the sea two miles 
north of the river-mouth. The enemy had been completely taken by surprise and lost many killed in 
addition to 316 prisoners and ten machine gims. 

Throughout Dec. 21 preparations were made to enable the rest of the division to cross, and during 
the night of Dec. 21-22, while the 52nd was establishing itself to the north of the Auja, the 54th Division 
stormed and captured Bald Hill, two miles south of Mulebbis, in spite of the determined resistance of 
the enemy, who lost fifty-two killed and forty-four prisoners. As a result of this the enemy retired 
from Mulebbis f and Fejja at dawn and the 54th Division was able to occupy these villages without 
further opposition. A little later in the day Rantieh was also occupied. 

During Dec. 22 the 52nd Division advanced to the line Tel el Mukhmar at the confluence of the 
Wadi Ishkar and the Auja-Sheikh el Ballutah-Arsuf, on the cliffs above the sea. This operation was 
greatly assisted by the co-operation of a squadron composed of H.M.S." Grafton," flying the flag of 
Rear- Admiral Jackson, H.M.M. 29, 31, and 32, and H.M.D. " Lapwing " and " Lizard." The ships 
shelled El Jelil and compelled parties of the enemy to retire rapidly northwards from El Haram 
and Arsuf. 

As a result of this successful advance the Turks were driven back five miles and Jaffa became more 
secure as a landing-place for stores. 



* This spot is now marked by an antique column with inscription, 
t Mulebbis contains the important Hebrew Colony of Petach Tikvah. 



To face Plate 20. 



rAD^^A]SrCE INTO MOUNT EPHRAIM AND SHARON 



PL. 29 



IN LOCATED 

J I^Bi. German Infantry 
^*ments l*T Division. 



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Printed by the Survey of Egypt. Dec. I9IB (04S3) 

Miles 10 



Reprinted in £ng/ond 19/3. 



10 



20 Miles 



'i 



Situiitionat 6.p,m.on 22-J2-.17..aslcnown at 6.H.O.E.E.F. 



December 23-31. 

On the assumption that the general advance into the southern portions of Mount Ephraim would 
begin on the night of Dec. 24, the 180th and 181st Brigades had been instructed to advance against 
Kh. Adaseh and a point north of Beit Hannina respectively at dawn on Dec» 23. The 180th Brigade 
was unable to take its objective before the attack was abandoned owing to the poetponement of the 
general advance on account of weather. The new advance was now fixed for dawn on Dec. 27, but at 
2330 on 26th, the enemy launched an attack and drove in the outposts of the 60th Division at Kh. Ras 
et Tawil and the quarries to the north of it ; at the same time, seven and a half miles to the west, the 
24th Welsh Regiment (Pembroke and Glamorgan Yeomanry) stormed Hill 1910, close to Et Tireh, and 
held it in spite of a strong coimter-attack, kilhng seventy Turks and capturing three machine guns. 

At dawn on Dec. 27 the Turks made determined attacks on White Hill and Ras ez Zamby, from the 
former of which our troops were dislodged. The position was recovered after dark as the enemy had been 
unable to occupy it owing to our artillery fire. A company of the 2/lOth Middlesex held Deir ibn Obeid 
all day and night against vigorous attacks, although surrounded and cut off for several hours. At 0130 
the whole Une was engaged. The enemy made eight assaults before 0800, chiefly in the neighbourhood 
of Tel el Ful. In one place he estabhshed himself in part of our line until ejected by the 2/15th Londons 
who advanced in spite of an artillery and machine-gun enfilade. Between 0230 and 0630 the 2/24th 
Londons repelled four energetic attacks. After a lull in the fighting the enemy delivered an assault with 
an unexpectedly large number of men at 1255. The Turks succeeded in reaching certain sections of the 
main fine but a counter-attack restored our original front. 

In spite of the enemy activity on the front of the 53rd and 60th Divisions the general advance began, 
according to plan, at 0600 on the left where the 29th and 30th Brigades pushed forward in the face of 
considerable opposition. The 1st Leinsters and 5th Counaught Rangers had a good deal of fighting 
west of Deir Ibzia but, when this was taken, there was not much trouble in reaching the line rimning 
north-westerly in front of this village through Shabuny to Sheikh Abdullah,, where connexion was made 
with the Australian Mounted Division. This advance was supported by the 263rd Field Artillery Brigade 
and the 9th and 10th Moxmtain Batteries. The 31st Brigade (10th Division), supported by the 68th 
Field Artillery Brigade from near Tahta, advanced at 0700 to the Hue running from the right of the 
29th and 30th Brigades through Kh. el Hafy to near Kh. Jeriut. The 229th Brigade (74th Division), 
supported by the 67th (from near Foka and Likia), the 44th and 117th Field Artillery Brigades started 
at 0750 and reached the west end of the Sheikh Abu ez Zeitun ridge at 0900. From now on the advance 
was exposed to constant artillery and machine-gun fire, and the whole ridge was only captured after 
dusk. At 1015 the 24th Royal Welsh Fusihers (231st Brigade) captured Kh. ed Dreihemeh and at 1100 
assaulted Hill 2150 some 600 yards to the north-east. The result of this advance was apparent by 14C0 
when the enemy was observed to be moving his 1st Division westwards from Bireh, thus showing that he 
found himself forced to conform to our movements and to abandon the initiative. 

On Dec. 28 the 158th Brigade captured Anata, but the l/7th Royal Welsh Fusiliers were held up for 
a long time on Ras Arkub es Suffa, one and three-quarters of a mile to the south-east, and only gained 
the position after dusk. The 1/lst Herefords also seized Kh. Ahnit, one mile north-east of Anata after 
dark. The right flank of the 60th Division was thus covered from an attack from the Jericho road. 
The 60th Division captured Kh. Adaseh at 1725 with the 180th Brigade, while the 181st was sent 
forward on the left and occupied El Jib, which had caused so much trouble on Nov. 23. and Bir Nebala 
shortly after noon. The 180th pushed on and seized the Er Ram — Rafat line at 1915. 

Early m the morning of Dec. 28 the 74th Division completed the capture of Hill 2450. The main 
advance was resmned at 1330 and by dusk the division had reached the line from the left of the 60th 
Division at Rafat to the right of the 229th Brigade near Beitunia, which had been captured in face of 
strong opposition at 1550, when the commander of the garrison, seventy other prisoners, and seven 
machme guns were taken. Further west Kefr Skiyan was taken by the 31st Brigade at 1740, and the 
29th and 30th Brigades had a lot of trouble from enemy machine guns cunningly hidden among the 
rocks in very broken country before they could take Abu el Ainein (seven furlongs north-east of An 
Arik) and Kh. Rubin. At 1430 a 6-inch howitzer of the 378th Siege Battery, which had been moved lo 
Beit Ur el Foka during the morning, began to bombard the enemy withdrawing from Ram Allah and 
persevered until midnight. 

On Dec. 29 enemy opposition faded away on the extreme right and the 159th Brigade pressed north- 
wards to cover the flank of the 60th Division. Hizmeh and Jeba were thus occupied without difficulty 
and 271 enemy dead were buried on the 53rd Division front — the haryest of the last three days. At 
0600 the 60th Division resumed its advance. The 181st Brigade was held up just short of Bireh and 
Ras et Tahuneh until the 303rd Field Artillery Brigade could get into action by way of the main road, 
as the Kulundia track was impassable for guns. At 1430 the advance was resumed, and at 1615 the 
2/22nd and 2/23rd Londons were in position by the Ram Allah-Bireh road to assault the Tahuneh ridge 
which was captured, after a stubborn defence, at 1700. Meanwhile, on the right the 2/19th and 
2/20th Londons stormed Shab Salah, a precipitous and strongh-held position. This was captured 
by 1530, and the 2/17th and 2/18th Londons (180th Brigade) pushed forward by 1830 and captured 
the ridge half a mile north-west of Burkah. At 2100 the 180th and 181st Brigades occupied the line 

To face Plate 30 



>VANCE INTO MOUNT EPHRAIM AND SHARON 



PL 30 






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inttd by tht Surrtj of Egypt, Dec 1918(0453) 



Reprinted in £n^/and 19/9. 



20 Miles 



Situationat 6 p.m,on .3J.- 12- I7as known at GHQEEF. 



Beitin-Balua-Kh. cl Burj without serious opposition. Ram Allah had been occupied by the 229th 
and 230th Brigades at 0917 and, by 2100, the latter was holding a line between the left of the 
60th Division and Et Tireh, where the ridge had been occupied by the 10th Division without opposition 
600H after 0800. 

The Royal Flying Corps by timely information during the course of the day greatly assisted the 
opei'ations of the XXth Corps and, by bombing the enemy's retreating columns, caused him heavy loss 
and hindered his withdrawal. 

By the morning of Dec. 30 enemy resistance on our right flank had died down and the XXth Corps 
took up the position shewn in the adjoining map. Throughout these operations the Australian Mounted 
Division carried out strong reconnaissances and advanced its line to the north of Deir el Kuddis and 
Khurbetha ibn Harith on Dec. 29. On Dec. 31 this sector as far as a point 500 yards north-west of Deir 
el Kuddis was taken over by the 29th Brigade and the 4th Australian Light Horse Brigade relieved the 
3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade in the Deir el Kuddis-Nalin sector. 

During the operations between Dec. 11 and 31, the XXth Corps took 1,301 jorisoners, of whom 
750 were captured during the three da3-s Dec. 27-29. Twenty-four machine gmis were also taken. 



The map opposite shows the extent of territory — all Philistia and almost all Judaea — from which 
the Turks had been driven as a result of the successive advances of the Egyptian Expeditionary 
Force up to the end of 1917. 



n face Plate 3i 



AP^A OCCUPIED AS THE RESULT OF OPERATIONS 

FROM OCTOBER 28^^10 DECEMBER31«-^1917 



PLATE 31 




produced by the Sw,ty nf Eyypi D*c l9f8(04S3) 



Reprinted in En^fand /S/9 



February 18. 

As a preliminary to the operations for the capture of Jericho the 53rd DivisiDn relieved the 60th 
on the line astride of the Shecheni (Nablus) road in order that the Londoners might take over the eastern 
front. The 74th Division detailed the 231st Brigade for service with the 60th, and the New Zealand 
Mounted Rifles and 1st Austrahan Light Horse Brigades were also attached. A week before the advance 
the 60th Division held a line running northward from Kh. Deir ibn Obeid to Ras Arkub es Suffa, passing 
about three miles to the east of Jerusalem. Thence it ran north-westerly to Hizmeh and a point three- 
quarters of a mile south of Burkah. Here the 53rd Division had it8 extreme right. At dawn on Feb. 
14 the 60th Division seized Mukhmas (Michmash) and Tel es Suwan just after the 53rd had captured 
Kh. el Aha and Deir Diwan. By the night of the 18th the Wellington Moimted Rifles were at Kh. Deir 
ibn Obeid, and the rest of the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade and the 1st Australian Light Horse 
Brigade with their Divisional Headquarters were concentrated in Jerusalem and Bethlehem. 

To face Plate 3S. 



February 19-21. 

On the morning of Feb. 19 the 53rd and 60th Divisions attacked the Turkish positions which were 
held iu some strength along a series of commanding heights. The 2/23rd Londons took Splash Hill, 
about one mile east of Tel es Suwan, with thirty-two prisoners, at 0600. Rummon was captured by the 
2/lOth Middlesex at 0830, and Ras et Tawil was abandoned by the enemy to the 181st Brigade at 0900, 
owing to our artillery fire. The Turks made a stout resistance across the Arak Ibrahim ridge to the south 
of the Wadi Farah, where the 2/20th Londons were held up in spite of three assaults. Finally, the 
position was stormed after artillery had played upon it from 1330 to 1400. While this fighting had been 
in progress to the north the Australian and New Zealand Mounted Division had passed through tlie 
wilderness of Jeshimon and concentrated near El Muntar, little more than six miles from the Dead Sta. 
By nightfall the line held by the 60th Division ran northward from this point, shewing an average advance 
of three miles over very bad country during the day. Armoured cars had reconnoitred the Jericho road 
beyond this line but were held up by a broken bridge three-quarters of a mile further on. The Turks 
still held a strong position to the south of, and astride, the Jericho road, and during the night the 179th 
Brigade moved into the Wadi Sidr to deploy for an attack on Jebel Ekteif. The 180th Brigade only 
reached its positions of deployment in this wadi, at dawn, as the Turks had made three counter-attacks 
against the sector of front held by the 2/18th Londons. 

On the morning of the 20th the advance of the cavalry against Jebel el Kalimun and Tubk el Kimei- 
trah was necessarily slow owing to the badness of the country. In places progress was only possible in 
single file along tracks which were under accurate artillery and machine-gun fire from Neby Musa and the 
two immediate objectives. These two hills were, however, captured by a dismounted attack delivered 
by the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade shortly after noon. Meanwhile, the 180th Brigade had 
successfully stormed Talaat ed Dumm, above the Good Samaritan's Inn, at 0715, in the face of con- 
siderable opposition, but the 179th had been seriously delayed in its attack upon Jebel Ekteif on account 
of the surpassing malignity of the terrain. On one line only was advance possible, and, after a bombard- 
ment which lasted until 0800, the 2/1.5th Londons stormed the first line trenches. Co-0|:erition 
between the two brigades now became possible and the 2/18th Londons and a battery gave assistance 
on the left flank of the 179th Brigade against Turkish positions at Rujm el Kibliyeh, from which an 
enfilading machine-gun fire was causing annoyance. During this advance two Turkish machine gui:s 
were captured and turned upon the Turks in the Rujm el Kibliyeh positions with excellent effect. The 
smnmit of Jebel Ekteif was captured about noon. 

The rest of the 180th and the 181st Brigades were also delayed further to the north by bad country, 
enemy resistance, and the destruction of the road which impeded the progress of the guns, but by dusk 
the 181st had moved forward nearly three miles and occupied a line from the ridge above the Wadi Farah, 
astride the Wadi Rijan up to the ridge to the south of the Wadi el Makuk. After dark two battalions 
of the 231st Brigade relieved the 181st on the front north of the Ras et Tawil-Kuruntul track which rur.s 
down the Wadi Rijan. 

Further to the south the 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade passed through the gorge of the Wadi 
Kumran and reached the plain on the north-western shores of the Dead Sea. It took up a position along 
the Wadi Jofet Zeben at 1800 and, early next morning, started north across the slimy, marl plain and 
reached Jericho at 0820. At 0600 on the morning of Feb. 21 the New Zealand Mounted Rifles 
Brigade with the 2/14th Londons and the 10th Moimtain Battery had occupied Neby Musa and it now 
became apparent that the Turks had retired during the night along their whole line. The 60th Division 
thereupon advanced to Rujm esh Shemaliyeh-Kh. Kakun and Jebel Kuruntul overlooking Jericho, the 
1st Australian Light Horse Brigade pushed out patrols from Jericho towards the Wadi Aujah in the 
north and El Ghoraniyeh, where the enemy still held a bridgehead, on the west of the Jordan. To the 
south the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade occupied Rujm el Bahr (Dead Sea Post) with a squadron 
thus seizing the Turkish base upon the Dead Sea with its workshops. The acquisition of this landing- 
place was afterwards of great importance in opening communicatioHS with the Northern Operations of 
the Sherifian Army when in the Kerak area. 

During these operations one enemy aeroplane was brought down ia front of the 53rd Division. 

To face Mate 23. 



! 










I 



o_ 



1^1 

OK 



o. 



8^ 

to 
Q 

,1 



March 21. 

_ After the advance on the northern front at the begiiming of March, by the XXth and XXIst Corps, 
which pushed the front almost up to the line on which it remained until September, a raid upon the 
eneniy's lines of communications in Gilead along which he was feeding his forces engaged against the 
Sherifian troops in the Hejaz, was decided upon. A special force was formed for this raid, known from 
the name of its Commander as " Shea's Group." It consisted of : — • 

The Australian and New Zealand Mounted Division. 
The 60th (London) Division. 

The Imperial Camel Corps Brigade. 

10th Heavy Batterj, Royal Garrison Artillery, 

9th British Mountain Artillery Brigade. 

Light Armoured Car Brigade. 

Army Bridging Train. 

De?ert Mounted Corps Bridging Train. 

On March 21, Group Headquarters, the cavalry and the camels were at Talaat ed Dumm (except a 
brigade at Neby Musa with the armoured cars), the 60th Division was in the Wadi Nueiameh (except 
a battalion of the 180th Brigade in the Wadi Kelt), the Divisional Artillery was disposed to cover the 
crossings at Ghoraniyeh and Hajlah, the Mountain Guns were immediately south of the Wadi Nueiameh, 
and the Bridging Trains were partly near Jericho and partly in the Wadi Kelt. 

Reconnaissances had shewn that the Jordan at this time of year was imfordable at any available 
point and that the only practicable places for throwing bridges across were Makhadet, Hajlah, and 
Ghoraniyeh. It was decided that the cavalry and camels should cross by a steel pontoon bridge at 
Hajlah, while a standard pontoon bridge, a heavy barrel pier bridge, and an infantry bridge were to be 
built for the COth Division at Ghoraniyeh. The 180th Brigade was instructed to force both crossings, 
with artillery support, and establish bridgeheads to cover the bridge builders. Feints at Aujah, 
Mandesi, Enkhola, Yehud, and Henu fords were to hold the enemy opposite these places \\hile the 
180th Brigade forced the passage in between. 

At 1500 on March 21 the enemy reinforced his positions at Ghoraniyeh with 600 infantry and sent 
two squadrons of cavalry to Hajlah. 

At midnight the first attempts to cross the river by swimming were made at Ghoraniyeh, but there 
was so much flood water in the Jordan that the swimmers of the 2/17th Londons were imable to make 
headway against the current. Repeated attempts were also made to cross in pimts or on rafts but these 
V7ere, for the same reason, unsuccessful. Our continued activities alarmed the enemy who opened fire and 
thus further complicated an already difficult operation. Meanwhile the '2/19th Londons and the 
Australian Engineers of the Desert Mounted Corps Bridging Train had been more fortunate at 
Hajlah. Their swimmers* had got across unobserved and at 0120 on March 22 the first raft, 
holding twenty-seven men, was ferried across. Ten minutes later orders were given that the attempt 
to cross at Ghoraniyeh was to be abandoned for the time. Accordingly the 180th Brigade Headquarters, 
and the 2/20th Londons moved down to Hajlah leaving the 2/17th Londons, some machine guns, and 
four gims of the 180th Trench Mortar Battery opposite Ghoraniyeh. 

At 0500 the 179th Brigade Group moved into a concealed position west of Hajlah, and the 181st 
Brigade moved to Tel es Sultan at dawn. 

Shortly after dawn an enfilade fire from enemy machine guns was brought to bear on our rafts from 
a commanding hill some 1,000 yards north-west of the crossing-place at Hajlah. Only eight m3n could 
be sent over at a time and these had to be at the bottom of the raft. One load had seven men liit. Two 
sections of the 180th Machine Gun Company provided covering fire and, by 0745, the whole of the 2/19th 
Londons were across the river. The 2/1 8th Battalion London Regiment, which had reached Hajlah at 
0430, then began to cross and by 0810 the first pontoon bridge was finished. By noon the 2/18th Londons 
were also across and at 1315 efforts were made to enlarge the bridgehead, but owing to enemy machine- 
gun fire and the density of the jungle on the eastern bank of the river Httle could be effected. 

The efforts of the 181st Brigade to cross at Ghoraniyeh at midnight again failed owing to the swift- 
ness of the cmrent, and it was not until the morning of March 23 that rafting became possible here after 
the swimmers had got across to the other bank from which the enemy had been driven by our concentrated 
machine-gun fire. 

At 0400 the Auckland Mounted Rifles began to cross at Hajlah in order to clear the enemy out of 
the country on the east bank as far north as Ghoraniyeh, and later a regiment of the 1st AustraUan Light 
Horse Brigade was sent to Hajlah to clear the coimtry to the east and south-east of the new bridge. The 
Auckland Mounted Rifles galloped down a number of Turkish detachments and seciu-ed the ground 
covering Ghoraniyeh by noon, capturing sixty-eight prisoners and four machine guns. At 0915 a landing 
party which had crossed the Dead Sea in motor boats aad landed on the Turkish side of the Jordan 
joined up with the 180th Brigade at a point about three miles north of the Dead Sea. 

The second pontoon bridge at Hajlah, 600 yards upstream from the first, was finished at 1330, and 
the light infantry bridge at Ghoraniyeh was ready by 1630 and was used by the 181st Brigade. The 
barrel pier bridge and the pontoon bridge at Ghoraniyeh were finished by 2150. 

* The names of those Londoners who swam the Jordan on the niglit of March 21-22 are, 2nd Lieut. G. E. Jones, 
M.C.; Cpl. E. Mart;rave, M.M.; L/Cpl. W. II. Henderton ; L/Cpl. 1'". Ponhara, Medadle Militairr; L/Cpl. W. V. 
Davis; L/Cpl. H. Silver; Pte. A. C. Hardwick ; Pte. H. Hoxton ; Pte. J. R. Powell; Pte. R. N. Williams. Of the 
Australians, L/Cpl. S. Dawson was awarded the Military Medal. 

T'o face Plate 34. 



March 24-29. 

At 0500 on the morning of March 24 the dispositions of Shea's Group were as follows : the 179th 
Brigade was in the Wadi Nimrin, about two miles up the guUey, the 180th was between the 179th and 
the Ghoraniy eh bridges, and had guards at these and at the Hajlah bridges. The 181st Brigade was on 
the right (south) flank of the 179th along the Shunet Nimrin road. The 1st Austrahan Light Horse 
Brigade was covering the left (north) flank of the 60th Division about one mile north of El Mandasi 
ford, and the rest of the Austrahan and New Zealand Mounted Division was to the east of Hajlah. The 
303rd Brigade Koyal Field Artillery which had crossed at Ghoraniyeh during the night, and two Mountain 
Artillery Batteries, supported the 181st Brigade in its attack on Shimet Nimrin at 0830, and one Moimtain 
Artillery Battery supported the 179th Brigade. By 1500 Tel el Musta and El Hand had both been 
captured. During their attack on the former the 2/22nd Londons had taken three field guns. The 
presence of the 179th on El Hand enabled the left of the 181st to advance in the valley, and by turning 
the enemy's right flank compelled him to retire. The 181st pursued the retreating enemy as fast as 
possible up the Es Salt road with a squadron of Wellington Mounted Eifles in advance. The Australian 
Imperial Force Airline Section followed the infantry closely and erected an airline to Shunet Nimrin 
under fire. At midday Group Headquarters moved from the junction of the Jericho and Nebi Musa 
roads, about one and quarter miles below Talaat ed Dumm, to the west bank of the Jordan at Ghoraniyeh. 
At 1300 the 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade was at Teleil Muslim and began following up tLc Wadi 
Kefrein, reaching Rujm el Oshir, six miles further on, at 1520. Here its advance was delayed by the 
bad state of the track, which was found to be impassable for wheels. All wheel transport had to be with- 
drawn to Shunet Nimrin and the ammunition transferred to camels. In many cas^s the horses and 
camels had to be dragged, pushed, and even lifted up the slippery track along which they could only 
move in smgle file. The New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade was moving north-eastwards along the 
Wadi Jofet el Ghazlaniye, and the head of the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade was about two miles west 
of Kabr Mujahid. By dusk the 181st Brigade had advanced about four miles up the Es Salt road bjyond 
Shunet Nimrin and was in touch with the enemy who was holding positions astride of the road. 

March 25 was very wet, and the cavalry and camels found great difficulty in reaching Naaur, 
seven miles from Rujm el Oshir, by 1030. The 181st Brigade was also much hampered by the mud 
and did not reach a point withiia a mile of Es Salt until 1615. Salt itself, which had been evacuated by 
the enemy, was occupied by the 3rd Australian Light Horse Regiment at 1800 and by the 179th Brigade 
at midnight. No opposition had been made to their advance by way of the Arseniyat track. 

On March 26 the cavalry contmued their march from Naaur in heavy rain, and at 0500 the 2nd 
Australian Light Horse Brigade joined the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade at the cross-roads 
one mile east of Es Sir. The 2nd Austrahan Light Horse Brigade then pushed out north of the Amman- 
Es Salt road capturing 170 prisoners near Sweileh. At 1400 the Mounted Division found it necessary 
to rest men and horses, but sent a raiding party which blew up the Hejaz railway, seven miles south of 
Amman, during the night. 

At 0500 on the morning of March 27 the 181st Brigade (less two battalions), which had handed 
over the defence of Es Salt to the 179th, advanced towards Amman with three mountain batteries. 
The advance was, however, interrupted by the incidence of a local feud which happsned to be in yrogress 
between the Circassians of Sweileh and the Christian Arabs of El Foheis. Thj column halted for the 
night two miles east of Sweileh. The cavalry started for Amman at 0900, and the New Zealand Mounted 
Rifles Brigade reached Ain Amman at 1030 with the 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigide within three 
miles of Amman Station on the left. The Imperial Camel Corps Brigade at 1100 advanced on Animnn 
village but was held up by enemy fire. At 1500, after much delay in crossing the Wadi Amman the 
New Zealand Moimted Rifles Brigade reached the railway south of Amman, but the 2nd Austrahan Light 
Horse Brigade were unable to reach it to the north. Demolition parties were usefully employed in des- 
troying the line and its culverts in the direction of Libben. During the night the 2nd Australian Light 
Horse Brigade succeeded in destroying a two-arch bridge on the railway seven miles north of Amman. 
At 1100 on March 28 the two battaUons of the 181st Brigade which had been left in Es Salt, started 
for Amman. During the day the defence of Es Salt was strengthened by the 2/14th and 2/16th Londons, 
who came up from El Howeij, whither they had proceeded on the 27th for supply purposes. Thus, by 
evening, the whole of the 179th Brigade, except the 2/13th Londons (still at El Howeij), the 3rd Australian 
Light Horse Regiment, and two howitzer batteries, were at Es Salt. During the morning twenty-two 
Turkish lorries were destroyed by the Armoured Car Brigade on the road between Salt and Swei'ci. 
At 1430 an enemy force was observed by the 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade advancing along the 
road from Jisr ed Damieh, and two batteries of Royal Field Artillery moved out in support of the cavalry. 
Meanwhile the attack on Amman had begim at 1300 when the 2/23rd Londons on the right, and the 
2/21st Londons on the left, advanced parallel to the north of the Sweileh -Amman road against the 
eastern bank of the Wadi Amman. They were supported by the 9th Moimtain Artillery Brigade, which also 
shelled Hill 3039 to assist the advance of the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade. The advance over 
absolutely exposed groxmd was held up by intense enemy machine-gim and rifle fire about 1,0C0 yards 
to the north-west of Amman. Further artillery support was difficult owing to lack of observation, and 
co-operation on the flanks became essential for a continuance of the attack, but the 2nd Australian 
Light Horse Brigade on the left and the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade on the right had been unable to 
move, while the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade was held up by machine-gim fire from Hill 3039, 
which dominated Amnxsn from the south-east. During the afternoon the 2/1 7th and 2/18th Londons 

To f lice Plate 35. 




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were ordered to proceed from Es Sir to support the 181st Brigade. On our left the 2/20th Londons and 
a battery of armoured cars were sent to support the 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade. 

Owing to the heavy rains the Jordan bridges had been subjected to a very heavy strain by the rush 
of flood-water. The Jordan had risen nine feet in a very few hours, and only one brid|;e with its causeway 
had been kept open at Ghoraniyeh. 

At 1730 thirteen enemy aeroplanes bombed Shunet Nimrin causing a number of casualties among 
the camels. 

During the morning of March 29 enemy reinforcements reached Amman Station (two miles distant 
from Amman village), and the enemy tried to work round the left flank of the 181st Brigade through a 
gap which existed between it and the 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade. There were still hopes, 
however, that the enemy intended to evacuated Amman, and preparations were made for a night attack 
and at 1530 a battery of Royal Horse Artillery started for Amman from Shunet Nimrin, At Salt the 
enemy began to show considerable activity and tried to work round the left flank of the 179th Brigade. 

March 30 to April 3. 

At 0200 on March 30 the night attack on Amman began, and at 0430 the New Zealand Mounted 
Rifles Brigade captured part of Hill 3039 with six machine guns, but it was unable to secure the rest 
of the hill. On their left the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade captured two lines of trenches with twelve 
prisoners, but the 181st Brigade was unable to reach the Wadi Amman " north of the Citadel " in spite 
of the capture of 135 prisoners and four machine guns by the 2/22nd Londons. The 2/18th Londons, 
between the 2/22nd Londons and the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade to the south, got within half a mile 
of the " Citadel," but were held up by the heavy frontal fire. Repeated counter-attacks were directed 
against the 2/21st Londons on the left of the 181st Brigade. Stubborn hand-to-hand fighting ensued 
and the enemy was constantly repulsed with satisfactory losses, but no contact could be made with the 
2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade on the extreme left. Troops of the New Zealand Mounted Rifles 
Brigade entered Amman village at 0900 but were fired upon from the houses, and the Imperial Camel 
Coips Brigade was held up by enfilade machine-gun fire from both flanks. At this time the R03 al Horse 
Artillery battery which had left Shunet Nimrin on the previous day, came into action. At 1100 a Turkish 
counter-attack against Hill 3039 was dispersed by artillery fire, but the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade 
could make no further progress, while the northern (left flank) of the 181st Brigade was hard pressed 
by the enemy. At 1500 after an artillery bombardment the 2/18th Londons again stormed the " Citadel " 
but was checked within 400 yards of its objective by machine-gun fire from' the right flank. Meanwhile 
the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade was being heavily shelled on Hill 3039, and enemy reinforce- 
ments were arriving from the north. 

During the day the situation at Es Salt had become somewhat complicated owing to the arrival 
of enemy reinforcements in the vicinity of Kefr Huda, on the Jebel Osha, two miles north-west of the 
town. A battalion of the 180th Brigade was sent up from Nimrin to Howeij and the 2/1 3th Londons 
were brought back to Salt from the direction of Amman. The enemy attack from the direction of 
Kefr Huda was defeated at 2255, and the 3rd Australian Light Horse Regiment in a skirmish captured 
three prisoners, three machine guns, and killed fourteen Turks. During the night the withdrawal from 
Amman began. 

At 0715 on March 31 the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade reached Es Sir, and the evacuation of the 
wounded from the advanced dressing stations was completed by 1000. The 181st Brigade withdrew 
from its original positions before the last attack on Amman, by way of Sweileh and Es Sir, in order to 
avoid the Amman-Fuhais road. The 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade covered this withdrawal. 
The infantry reached Es Sir just before dusk and continued marching along the track, which was almost 
impassable for camels, in rain and darkness. 

At 1055 the 301st Field Artillery Brigade and "B" 303rd Battery took up positions west of the 
Jordan to cover the crossing of divisional troops and two batteries of armoured cars, after dusk. 

On April 1 the retirement continued and, during the night, the 179th Brigade withdrew from 
Es Salt without incident, after blowing up the whole of the captured ammimition. 

By 0500 on April 2 the 2/17th and 2/19th Londons rejoined the 180th Brigade and formed a bridge- 
head until relieved by the 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade and one regiment of the 2nd Australian 
Light Horse Brigade, next day. The withdrawal of the whole force, with the exception of the bridge- 
head troops, was completed by the evening of April 2, without interference from the enemy. 

In spite of the trouble caused by flood-water in the river, and of the feet that large numbers of 
civilian refugees from Es Salt, as well as 986 prisoners and 30,000 animals, had to use the bridges in addi- 
tion to the troops, no delay of any kind was experienced in re-crossing the Jordan. 

The medical arrangements of this raid were conducted under unusual ditficulties, and as Jerusalem 
was the nearest base to which cases could be evacuated, the following stations and relay posta were 
established : — 

(1) Talaat ed Dumm. 

(2) Main dressing station near Jericho with special operating imit for serious cases. 

(3) Main dressing station Shunet Nimrin. 

(4) Advanced dressing station and motor ambulance relay, Es Salt. 

(5) Motor ambulance relay, four miles east of Es Salt, on the Amman road, 

(6) Advanced dressing station, two miles west of Amman. . 
During the raid, 1,886 sick and wounded were evacuated. 

To face Plate 36. 



April 29. 

The second raid into Gilead, which did so much to persuade the enemy that the ultimate advance 
against Damascus would be made by way of Es Salt and Amman — and thereby compelled him to keep 
the whole of his IVth Army on the east of Jordan — was primarily intended to harass and, if possible, 
cut ofi the large concentration of Turkish troops at Shunet Nimrin, and co-operate with a Sherifian 
advance at Es Salt. The Desert Mounted Corps was detailed to capture Es Salt and, thereby, cut the 
the only metalled road serving the Shunet Nimrin position. The secondary hne of commimication 
down the Wadi es Sir ran through the territory of the Beni Sakhr tribe which had agreed to attack the 
Turks in co-operation with any British advance before May 4, the date on which the tribe would have 
to move to fresh grazing grounds. The 180th Brigade (60th Division) on the morning of April 30 
attacked the Shunet Nimrin position and captured the advanced works, while the 179th Brigade attacked 
El Hand. The enemy, however, being in great strength offered so stubborn a resistance that no further 
progress was possible. 

Meanwhile, the 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade, having the Hong Kong and Singapore Battery 
.attached instead of the Notts. Battery, detached for service with the dth Australian Light Horse 
Brigade, started from Ghoraniyeh for Es Salt by way of the Jisr ed Damie track. The 5th Mounted 
Brigade moved on the same objective by a more direct route. The 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade 
was accompanied by 360 camels, artillery, and ambulance transport. The brigade was engaged about 
two miles north-west of Es Salt and entered the town which was full of enemy troops and transports 
at 1830. A brisk action in and around the town resulted in the seizure of the junction of the Amman 
and Shunet Nimrin roads beyond the town, and the capture of numbers of prisoners. The General 
Headquarters of the IVth Turkish Army only escaped capture by the narrowest margin, given as " one 
minute " in a captured enemy document signed by the Chief of the General Staff of that army. The 
9th Australian Light Horse Regiment then moved out to cover the town from the north-east to the 
north-west, and at 2200 a detachment of the 10th Australian Light Horse Regiment, with four machine 
gims, moved eastwards to seize the junction of the Amman-Ain es Sir roads near Ain Hemar. The 
Turks, however, were astride of the Amman road, 2,000 yards west of Ain Hemar, and the detachment 
was held up. Next day the 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade reached Es Salt and Ain Hemar was 
occupied, when the detachment rejoined its regiment. 

The 4th Australian Light Horse Brigade, having crossed the Jordan at Ghoraniyeh at 1900 on 
April 29 moved north through thick jungle at 0320, being fired upon by tbe enemy from Red Hill. At 
0530 the main body reached the Jisr ed Damie and the 4th Australian Light Horse Regiment advanced 
up the Nahr ez Zerka. By 0730 the brigade held a line running from the Nahr ez Zerka to a point 500 
yards south of the Jisr ed Damie-Es Salt track, about 2,000 yards west of the hills. The 11th Australian 
Light Horse Regiment failed to capture the Turkish bridgehead at the ford as the position was held in 
strength. By evening enemy reinforcements began to arrive from the north-west, and the line was 
shortened by a withdrawal eastwards into the foothills while Red Hill, some two miles to the south, 
covering the line of retreat to Ghoraniyeh was held by a detachment of the 11th Australian Light Horse 
Regiment with four machine guns. The 12th Australian Light Horse Regimeat held the left of the line 
a'-id the 4th the right of the line, with the rest of the 11th in reserve. 

May 1. 

At 0800 on May 1 the Turks attacked in force, bringing their guns forward. Further Turkish rein- 
forcements were observed coming up and the " B " Battery, Honourable Artillery Company was with- 
drawn southwards along the track rimning parallel with the foothills. During its withdrawal one gun 
foil over a precipice and had to be abandoned. At 1000 the enemy captured Red Hill, the garrison of 
which withdrew to the south. At 1030 the Turks again attacked and drove in the right flank, and by 
I lOU had advansed to within half a mile of the main position. The enemy advance on the left flank 
was also pressed forward in spite of the reinforcement of the 12th Austrahan Light Horse Regiment by 
the reserves. At 1130 the Turks were only 200 yards away and afforded an admirable target for our 
machine guns. The batteries still in the line, the "A" Battery, Honourable Artillery Company and the 
Notts, continued in action, firing point blank into the massed enemy. As there was no track fit for wheels 
the eight guns had to be abandoned but the personnel of the batteries was withdrawn with the gun- 
teams, and fresh guns being issued, the batteries were again in action within forty-eight hours. At 
the time, however, the brigade was hard put to effect its retreat over country which was full of gulhes 
and gorges so steep that in many cases animals fell down precipices and perished. 

By noon the brigade had taken up a line running from a point immediately north of Southern 
Pass to a point just south of Red Hill, where a stand was made against repeated enemy attacks. This 
position covered the Umm esh Shert track from the Jordan to Es Salt which was now the only means 
of retreat for the cavalry at Es Salt. 

Meanwhile, the enemy was bringing up large reinforcements, and the Beni Sakhr tribe failed to talje 
the action which had been expected. This left the Es Sir road open to the Turks and the Shunet Nimrin 
force, instead of being an isolated body of troops, formed the southern claw of a formidable pair of pin- 
cers with which the enemy threatened to cut off the cavalry at Es Salt. Without the co-operation 
akLc of the Beni Sakhr and the Desert Mounted Corps it was in vain for the GOth Division to continue a 

To face Plate 37. 



frontal attack in hopes of compelling a superior force to surrender. The Desert Mounted Corps was 
therefore ordered to withdraw from the Es Salt area, as a preliminary to a general retirement to the 
Ghoraniyeh bridgehead. 

After having cleared their line of advance from Jisr ed Damieh towards Es Salt, the Turks made 
an attack at 2000, on May 2, against the 10th Australian Light Horse Regiment covering the town. 
In spite of constant repulses the 66th Regiment came on again at 2030, at 0200 on May 3, and at 0400. 
On the failure of the last attack the Turks were chased down hill with bombs, and retired nearly a mile. 
The 8th Regiment, attached to the 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade, was attacked on the north-east 
front covering Es Salt, near Kh. el Fokan, at dawn on May 3. The Turks were vigorously counter- 
attacked at 0630 and lost 319 prisoners. At the same time enemy attacks were delivered on the Kefr 
Huda ridge, held by the 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade. A post was driven in and, before any 
decision as to a reorganization coiild be put into effect, the withdrawal of the whole force from Es Salt 
was ordered. The incidence of this enemy activity interfered with the joint attack upon Shunet Nimrin 
by the cavalry and the 60th Division which took place on May 2. The Turks succeeded in holding the 
cavalry at Howeij, while the 179th and 180th Brigades were unable to make any substantial progress. 

The weather during these operations was excellent, a material factor in favour of the Turks, as 
the Es Sir road, improved since March, was capable of carrying considerable traffic in dry weather. 

The retirement was successfully accomplished imder cover of the 181st Brigade which had been 
brought up to form an extended bridgehead at Ghoraniyeh. By the evening of May 4 all troops of the 
raiding force had recrossed the Jordan, and the original bridgehead was restored. The raiders had taken 
in all 942 prisoners and twenty-nine machine guns. 

That the operations east of Jordan during April-May finally convinced the enemy that future 
British operations would be in this area, with the railway junction of Deraa as an objective, is shown 
by captured enemy documents. It was fully reahzed that the capture and retention of that place by 
the British would involve the retirement or surrender of any troops remaining to the south, and the 
direct line to Deraa lay east of Jordan. This belief on the part of the Enemy Command led to the 
dispersal of forces with a difficult obstacle — ^the Jordan River and Valley — between the two main 
groups. These two groups consisted of the Vllth and Vlllth Armies west of the Jordan and IVth 
Army east of that river. 

The respective enemy commanders were incessant in their claims for reinforcements, multiplying 
their difficulties, and, in the case of the IVth and VFIth Army Commands, tendering their resignation 
on the grounds of neglect of their demands, and criticism of their command. The Commander of the 
IVth Army philosophically commences his reply to an adverse criticism by the German Commander- 
in-Chief — Liman von Sanders — with the remark, " In this fifth year of the war we are all accustomed 
to misunderstanding and friction." In this short sentence is gently expressed what had been evident 
to close observers of the relations between the Turkish and German Staffs and individual officers since 
the operations leading to the loss of Baghdad. The German's standpoint regarding his mission is well 
expressed in the following extract from a letter addressed to a German Staff Officer of the IVth Army 
on May 4, 1918 :— 

" It is we, as Prussian officers, who are charged with the duty of pushing forward with the greatest energy, satisfying 
complaints as far as possible, but otherwise insisting with an iron-like resolution on our wishes." 

and his opinion of the Txirkish officer with whom he had to deal : — 

" The view of the equality of right of the Turks with Europeans, originating in the abolition of the Capitulations, is, 
of course, just like comparing Lascars to German soldiers, and in many ways, even for enlightened senior Turkish officers 
it assumes quite grotesque forms." 

On the part of the Turkish officer, apart from his feeling of resentment at being driven to further 
other aims than those which would be of advantage to his own country, there was always the — for the 
time being — repressed feeling against the infidel. The extent of this feeling may be judged from the 
following extract from a personal letter from Fevzi Pasha, G.O.C. Vllth Army, to Von Falkenhayn : — 

" My departure for Amman, in order to take over the new command to which I was appointed by Your Excellency, 
as well as the spiritual and social circumstances of the new post, demand a succession of special measures, neglect of which 
will entail serious consequences. . . . 

"Bearing this in mind, and I regard it as very important, it is clear that the employment of officers and men in 
GJerman uniform in the neighbourhood of the Hejaz Railway, regarded by Moslems as sacred, will favour and strengthen 
British propaganda, and will increase the already treasonable convictions and fanaticism of the inhabitants. 

" For this reason, I shall not be able therefore to take with me to Amman the officers and men in German uniform 
who have hitherto been on my staff, and I shall also send the German battalion now in the neighbourhood of Kerak 
to the XXth (Turkish) Army Corps.* 

" I request you either speedily replace the German flying units and motor lorry columns now in the above-named 
zone with Turkish officers and men, or else equip them throughout with Turkish uniforms." 



* The Turkish XXth Corps was at that time west uf Jordan. 
Tu face i'laU 38. 



The Water Supply of Jerusalem and the XXth Corps Area. 

The Engineers having completed the first part of their task, namely, the provision of a sufficient 
supply of water to enable General AUenby's army to march on Jerusalem, next turned their attention 
to roads. When the capital of Palestine l;al fallen, however, they were again confronted with the pro- 
blt'm of providing water, not only for the army and its numerous appurtenances, but for the population 
of the Holy City itself. 

When our troops entered Jerusalem the sources of water supply were : — 

(1) Rain-water, stored in cisterns. 

(2) Aqueduct-borne water from Solomon's Pools, a quantity of 40,000 gallons per day, 

(3) The Pool of Siloam, practically liquid sewage. 

Our troops perforce drew heavily upon this supply during the winter, and it was necessary, in orde: 
to avoid a dangerous shortage, to take steps that would become operative before the rainless summer 
was upon the city. The scheme proposed by the Engineers and successfully carried out is rich in historic 
and even romantic associations. It was based on a modification of the Herod-Pontius Pilate system. 
The ancient engineers of the Roman world had carried the water of the Wadi Arrub springs in rock-cut 
channels to a reservoir of 4,000,000 gallons capacity, and thence to Jerusalem by a masonry aqueduct 
via the Pools of Solomon. So now the rock-cut channels leading from the springs were thoroughly 
cleansed — -they were blocked with an accumulation which can literally be described as " the dust of ages," 
including the remains of several individuals who may have belonged to almost any period. Next the 
ancient reservoir was repaired, pumps were installed, pumping water to a newly erected reservoir of 
300,000 gallons capacity at a point near the springs, whence water flowed by the force of gravity to a 
reservoir onstraoted on a high point west of Jerasalem, so that now it was possible far water-pipes to 
carry a supply to any point in the town itself. {See Plate 39.) 

. This water system in Jerusalem was laid down primarily for immediate military necessities, and 
partly in order to recoup the civilian population for the water stored by them and consumed by the army, 
but the installation will be of permanent value to the city. The work was begun on April 15, 1916, 
and nine weeks later, on June 18, water was delivered to the inhabitants. Twelve miles of pipe-line 
had been laid to ensure this result. The daily supply was 280,000 gallons, and during early summer, 
when supply was plentiful, storage cisterns were filled in Jerusalem for the bigger buildings. Not since 
the days of the Romans has running water been so plentiful in the Holy City. It is estimated, by the way, 
that Jerusalem contains rain-water storage cisterns to the capacity of 300,000,000 gallons, or, in other 
words, barely sufficient for the needs of Greater London for thirty-six hours. 

The district north of Jerusalem, both immediately behind the line held by the XXth Corps, and in 
the reserve area near Ramallah, was extremely short of water. Beyond the cisterns in the villages, 
used by the local inhabitants but useless for military purposes, there were only a few good springs, and 
these for the most part in very deep and often almost inaccessible valleys. The positions held and the 
principal lines of communication, on the other hand, were, generally speaking, on the highest ground, 
situated 2-3,000 feet above sea-level. To get water, therefore, it was necessary to instal pumping plant 
in order to raise the product of the springs. In some cases a total lift of 1.000 feet had to be attained, 
necessitating relay pumping station and reservoirs. 

The principal supplies in tJie hills were : — 

(1) Wadi Reiya and Wadi Zerka to El Lubban. 

(2) From the Wadi Darah to Umm Suffa. 

(3) A gravitation supply to a point north of Ain Sinia on the Nablus Road. 

(4) From Durah, Jufna, and Ain Sinia to Tel Asur and Dar Jerir. 

(5) From Ain Arik and Ain Jeriut to Beitunia and Bireh. 

The total number of pump houses erected was fourteen, and the total height pumped from the 
eleven pump houses on the above mentioned five supplies was about 3,C00 feet : average height about 
330 feet per pump. The total iengtii of pipes laid was over twenty-eight miles. The masonry storage 
reservoirs erected in the area contained over 250,000 gallons, and the temporary storage exceeded 
this figure. 

On the Jericho road, water was pumped from the springs in Wadi el Fara to a watering area at 
Talaat ed Dumm (Samaritan's Inn), a rise of 600 feet, necessitating two sets of pumping machinery, one 
at the bottom and one half-way up, and two additional pumping stations were installed to forward the 
water for distribution. 

In the coastal plain, water was obtained from wells varying from 120 feet to forty feet in depth 
and over a wide area. Development, therefore, took the 'iorm of the installation of a large number of 
pumps and engines on the many wells discovered and improved ia the district. Boring sections, too, 
were most successful in sinking for water. 

/'rv 'u.'e Plate 33. 



AREA OCCUPIED AS THE RESULT OF OPERATIONS 

FROM DECEMBER 3^-^917 TO SEPTEMBE R17^191 8 plate 39 




A.^ ,r, FnnUnrJ /<i/<i 



The September Advance. 

The day before the September advance, the enemy Intelligence Service issued a disposition map, 
which was captured in the headquarters of the Yilderim Army Group at Nazareth, and is reproduced 
in facsimile on the opposite page. The information embodied in this map was quite in accordancs with 
the enemy's air service reports that " no essential changes had taken place in the distribution of the 
British forces." No change is shown. The move of the 60th Division into the XXIst Corps area, and 
the concentration of the cavalry on the coast, not to mention the alteration in the front of the 10th 
and .53rd Divisions, are passed unnoticed. The latter was apparently considered as being in reserve to 
sector lately occupied by the Desert Mounted Corps. The 6th Poena Division (at the time in Mesopo- 
tamia) is shown as being within ten miles of the front hne, though to be fair, its exact location is queried. 

The position of General Headquarters is not shown, and that of the XXIst Corps Headquarters is 
placed eleven miles away from where it was actually to be found. The French troops up in the Hne are 
queried as Italiann. 

Tu face Flute 40. 




5 ■> 



September 18. 

On this day the preliminary concentration was complete. The divisions detailed for the main 
attack, 60th, 7th, 75th, 3rd, Slth, and the French contingent, had actually taken up their positions, 
the troops previously holding the coastal sector having closed up on to their own fronts of attack to 
make room for them. 

The cavalry were concealed in the orange and olive groves, two divisions immediately north and 
east of Jaffa, and one (the Australian Mounted Division) near Ludd ; all were within easy reach of the 
positions of assembly which they were to occupy during the night I8th-19th. 

On the right the 10th and 53rd Divisions had closed in their outer flanks, west and east respectively, 
leaving their centre from Kefr Malik to Jiljulia covering the main Jerusalem-Nablus road to be occupied 
by " Watson's Force," a composite detachment formed from the XXth Corps cavalry regiments, two 
pioneer battalions, and the XXth Corps reinforcement camp. The 53rd Division were in position to 
launch their preliminary attack on El Mugheir as soon as darkness fell, and thus bring forward the 
right flank of the corps preparatory to further advance. 

The way in which this preliminary concentration was carried out and concealed from the enemy, 
was one of the most remarkable achievements of the whole operations. A hostile aeroplane reconnais- 
sance on the 15th reported as follows : " Some regrouping of cavalry units apparently in progress behind 
the enemy's left flank ; otherwise nothing unusual to report " ; and this at a time when three cavalry 
divisions, five infantry divisions, and the majority of the heavy artillery of the force were concentrated 
between Ramleh and the front line of the coastal sector, there being no less than. 301 guns in place of the 
normal number of seventy. 

On the same date the enemy Intelligence Stafi was advised in another aeroplane report that General 
Allenby's headquarters at Bir Salem was "' infantry camp, two battalions." 

Prisoners from the coastal plain and the lower foothills of the Judaean range say that they had been 
told that the British would make a big attack about the 18th, but they had so often been given the same 
warning that no attention was paid to this one. That the Chief Command were uncertain as to which 
part of the front would be attacked is indicated by the fact that nowhere were troops grouped in reserve 
who could make an effective counter-attack. New units arriving on the front were dispersed, and the 
move, just previous to operations, of two German battalions from the west to east of Jordan was 
counter-balanced by the move of a strong Turkish regiment — the 191st — ^from the east to the west of 
the river. 

To face Plate 41, 



September 19. 

The attack was launched at 0i45 after only a quarter of an hour's bombardment, and broke clean 
through the Turkish defences on the coast with hardly a pause. On the right near Rafat the French 
contingent encountered determined opposition, and probably the hardest fighting of the day took place 
here and at Et Tireh, where the 75th Division only dislodged the reserves of the Turkish XXIInd Corps 
(Rafet Bey) after a sharp struggle. 

But to take the main attack as a whole, the hackneyed expression that " it went entirely according 
to plan " is quite inadequate ; the pace at which the infantry broke down the oppos'tion and the cavalry 
got through and away, exceeded the most sanguine hopes. By 0730 the 5th Cavalry Division were 
crossing the Nahr Falik, and by midday they were across the Iskanderuneh ; and the 4th Cavalry Division, 
though at first delayed by the wire and trenches which they had to cross, were little behind them. By 
evening the cavalry were in the positions shewn, and the 4th and 5th Divisions had fed and watered and 
were ready to continue their advance. 

There is little more to be said about the infantry beyond what is shewn on the map. The GOth 
Division, after marching and fighting for eighteen miles, mostly over heavy sand, carried Tul Keram 
before dark. The 7th Division had reached the foothills about Et Taiyibeh ; while the 3rd (Lahore) 
Division, after taking its first objective changed direction eastwards, carried the strong works round 
Kalkilieh, Jiljulieh, and Hableh, and established itself in the footliills to the east. A pipe-line, 7,000 
yards in length, was laid in eight and a quarter hours by the Royal Engineers, while operations were 
in progress, from the mill-race on the Nahr el Auja, and conveyed 4,000 gallons per hour to Jiljulieh, 
where storage was arranged the same day for 70,000 gallons. The 54th Division and the French had 
secured all their objectives and were sufficiently advanced to support the northern flank of the 10th 
Division, which had orders to start its advance that night. 

The 75th Division having disposed of all Turkish troops round Et Tireh, remained in that area 
and became Array Reserve. 

On the front of the XXth Corps (53rd and 10th Divisions) there was no movement during the day ; 
the 53rd Division consolidated the line of El Mugheir which it had successfully captured the night before. 
At 1535 telegraphic orders were sent for both these divisions to start their main advance on the night 
19th-20th. 

•ra face Piute 42. 



September 20. 

On this day the 54th Division and French contingent ceased- to be engaged, having successfully 
occupied Bidieh and the high ground north of the Wadi Kadah and so secured the left flank of the 10th 
Division attack ; they were shortly afterwards withdrawn into reserve near the railway. 

The 60th Division advanced up the Tul Keram-Nablus road and though engaged all day with enemy 
rearguards, had no very severe fighting. By evening they had occupied Anebta village and had secured 
the railway tunnel at 13ir Asur intact, and were pushing forward towards the important railway station 
of Mei5sudieh which had already been occupied by a squadron of the XXTst Corps cavalry and the 2nd 
L.A.C. Battery. The 5th Australian Iiight Horse Brigade, which was attached to the XXIst Corps 
for the time being, was operating north of Messudieh, and cut the railway near Ajje. The L.A.C. Battery 
subsequently pushed on towards Nablus. 

The 7th Division pushed on all night through very difficult country, following mountain tracks 
over which no wheels could move ; their greatest hardship was shortage of water, many men having 
nothing but what they carried in their water-bottles for more than twenty -four hours. Though in touch 
with scattered parties of the enemy all the time, they had no serious opposition until reaching the com- 
manding village of Beit Lid, which overlooks the Nablus road, some three miles east of Anebta. Here 
the en?my had a strong rearguard posted supported by numerous machine guns, and the division was 
held up for a time, the Seaforth Highlanders suffering particularly heavily. The opposition was, however, 
overcome, and the division was astride the road and railway north of Messudieh by 0300 on the 21st 
a magnificent exhibition of marching and fighting and worthy of the best traditions of the 7th (late 
Meerut) Division which has seen as much hard fighting in different theatres of war as any division in the 
Indian Army. 

The 3rd (Lahore) Division advanced steadily all day up the Azzon-Funduk track. This advance 
was slow in the face of strong enemy rearguards but good progress was made and all opposition overcome. 
Both the 7th and the 3rd Divisions had to rely for their water-supply during this day's advance on the 
two specially organized Camel Transport Corps water convoys each of 2,400 camels. 

The 10th Division, who launched their attack early on the night of 19-20th, experienced strong opposi- 
tion both from infantry and artillery, most of the German troops being engaged in this sector. However, 
the enemy was pressed back as far as Kefr Harris before nightfall. It must be remembered that the 10th 
Division, also the 53rd Division, were operating in a most difficult country, which it lends itself pai- 
fcicularly to the defence; also, on this day they were attacking prepared, and often wired, positions-. 

On the right flank the Turks had concentrated comparatively large forces to oppose the 53^ Division, 
and in the course of the morning a counter-attack drove back our most advanced troops. The position 
was shortly afterwards recaptured by the 160th Infantry Brigade, the 1st Cape Corps Battalion and the 
l/17th Infantry (Indian) particularly distinguishing themselves, and the advance of the whole division 
was continued. 

While the infantry were breaking down the last organized resistance of the enemy, the action of the 
cavalry ensured the success of the operations and the destruction or capture of the whole Turkish force 
east of the Jordan. Pressing on all night in parallel columns, the 4th Cavalry Division on Megiddo 
(Lejjnn) and the 5th Cavalry Division on Abu Shusheh (a few miles to the north), the Plain of Esdraelon 
was reached before dawn. Here the first opposition was met with ; as the advanced guard of the 4th 
Cavalry Division debouched from the defile at Lejjun, a Turkish battaUon with several machine guns 
was deploying in the plain below them. They were charged without hesitation by the leading reginient, 
the 2nd Lancers, and in a few minutes the division was able to continue its advance ; less prompt action 
might have caused fatal delay. The 4th Cavalry Division continued its advance through Al Afule to 
Beisan which was successfully reached by evening ; the 19th Lancers securing the important bridge over 
the Jordan at Jisr Mejamie ten miles further north. As showing the rapidit\^ of our advance and the 
extent to which it surprised the enemy command, the following incident might be mentioned : — 

Shortly after our cavalry had taken El Afule, a German aeroplane, arriving from the north, landed 
on the aerodrome, the pilot being quite unconscious of the fact that the place was in the hands of the 
British. 

Meanwhile the 5th Cavalry Division crossed the plain, and soon after dawn the 13th Brigade rode 
into Nazareth. Here some hard street- fighting occurred, but the Germans and Turks were driven 
out of the town and only held out in a few houses covering the Tiberias road. They were not dislodged 
as only one brigade was available for the attack, the remainder being held ready in the plain to suppoit 
the 4th Division if necessary. Yilderim Army Group Headquarters were captured in Na'.areth with 
numbers of valuable documents, and the enemy commander. Marshal Liman Ton Sanders Pasha, himself 
only just made his escape in time ; some accounts even say that he was actually in the town when the 
cavalry arrived, but, if so, he cannot have stayed there long.* In the evening the whole of the 5th 
Division were at and around Afule. 

The Australian Mounted Division, which moved forward in close support of the 4th Division, reached 

" An eyewitness asserts that at the first alarm he ran, clad only in pyjamas and armed witli an electric torch, from his 
sleeping quarters to near Our Lady's Well shouting for the driver of his "motor car in which he made off. Subsequently the 
Marshal returned, dressed and superintended the removal of some of his papers. 

To face Plate 43. 



Lejjun about midday and at once detached the 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade to occupy Jenin. 
This was accomplished early in the afternoon, the brigade galloping over an entrenched position and 
speedily crushing all opposition. The only remaining brigade, the 4th Australian Light Horse (the 5th 
Australian Light Horse Brigade being attached to the XXLst Corps) was fully employed collecting and 
conveying the prisoners which had been picked up in ever increasing numbers all day. 

In a word, a boldly conceived and ambitious cavalry scheme had been carried out to the letter, 
and all liaes of retreat west of the Jordan denied to the enemy. 

To face PlaU 4-1. 



AREA OCCUPIED AS THE RESULT OF OPERATIONS 

FROM SEPTEMBE R 17^-" TO 20^-" 1918 



PLATE 44 




»r i'):ar<f4fi3) 



Reprinted /n En^/anc/ /9/S 



September 21. 

The 60th, 7th, and 3rd Divisions had no further fighting on this day, but concentrated and moved 
into the positions shown covering Samaria, Messudieh, and Tul Keram, and the road and railway between 
those places. 

Tne 10th Division pushed forward with Httle opposition and occupied positions covering Nablus 
from the north and east before dark. This division covered over twenty-four miles in as many hours 
over the roughest country ; a very fine feat of marching. 

The 53rd Division experienced considerable opposition during the morning, but this diminished 
during the day and by evening two brigades had reached the vicinity of Beit Dejan and had closed the 
toad leading through that place to the Jordan Valley. 

Chaytor's Force in the Jordan Valley had so far confined itself to vigorous patrolling to ensure 
that the enemy could make no move without their knowledge. The role of this composite force was to 
secure the right flank of the army and the Jordan's crossings, to keep in close touch with the enemy and 
take advantage of aiy withdrawal on their part but to run no risk of being involved with a more powerful 
foe too early in the battle. This difficult task was admirably carried out. 

On the morning of the 21st, it was found that the enemy resistance was weakening on our northern 
front in the valley, and the 1st Battalion British West Indians rushed forward and seized two spurs 
where they were heavily shelled. Mounted patrols occupied Khirbet Fosail still further north. In 
the evening orders were issued for the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade, and parts of the 1st and 
2nd battalions British West Indians, to move forward during the night and seize the crossing over the 
Jordan at Jisr ed Damieh ; while other troops kept up pressure on the rest of the Jordan front. The 
actual crossing was not secured until the following evening, as it was strongly held by infantry, but the 
road leading to Nablus was occupied during the night and a large number of prisoners taken, including 
a Turkish divisional commander. During this day the Cavalry Corps were chiefly engaged in collecting 
prisoners, who came in in such numbers that their evacuation became a very serious difficulty. The 
Australian Mounted Division patrolled the country to the east, south, and west of Jenin, and the 14th 
Cavalry Brigade (of the 5th Division) moved down to Jenin early in the morning to support them. 

The 13th Cavalry Brigade reoccupied Nazareth and picquetted all the roads to the west, north, 
and east. At 0130 on the night 21st-22nd a body of about 1,000 Turks, apparently trying to escape 
towards Tiberias from Haifa or Acre, attacked the outposts of the brigade and were repulsed after a sharp 
fight, in which the 18th King George's Own Lancers made a successful charge, killing sixty and 
taking 100 prisoners. 

The 4th Cavalry Division remained at Beisan with posts right across the Jordan Valley, and collected 
a large number of prisoners, who began to straggle in along the Nablus road early in the day. 

To face Plate 4j. 



September 22. 

4fter the 21st there was no infantry action of importance. It must not be thought, however, that 
the trials of the infantry were over ; for some time they were busily engaged in clearing the battlefield, 
collecting and marching in prisoners, developing water suppUes, makmg roads, and the innumerable 
other duties which remain to be done after a swift advance. 

Chaytor's Force continued to press the enemy vigorously all day. Shortly after midnight the 
38th Royal Fusiliers occupied the trenches overlooking the Umm esh Shert Ford and at 0300 in 
conjunction with two companies of the 39th Royal Fusiliers captured Umm esh Shert. Shortly 
afterwarde these troops advanced and successfully occupied Mankattat el Mellaha. The New 
Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade captured El Makhruk and Abd el Kadir with the Commander of the 
.O-'ird Turkish Division and some 500 prisoners, and by evening the important crossing at Jisr ed 
Damieh had been seized by that l)rigade in conjunction with the 1st Battalion British West Indies 
Regiment, though the enemy still held the crossing at Mafid Jozele further south against the 1st 
Australian Light Horse Brigade and the 2nd Battalion British West Indians. On the east bank their 
outposts were driven in, and by evening the 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade was facing the main 
Turkish position in the foothills at Shunet Nimrin. 

Early in the night it became clear that a general retirement of the Turkish Fourth Army had begun, 
and orders were issued for the force to follow them vigorously, the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade 
by the Jisr ed Damieh crossing supported by the British West Indians, and the 2nd Australian Light Horse 
Brigade by the main Shunet Nimrin-Es Salt road with the 20th Indian Infantry Brigade in support. 
The 5th Cavalry Division concentrated towards Nazareth during the afternoon with a view to a further 
advance on Haifa and Acre, their place at Afule being taken by the 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade 
of the Australian Mounted Division. During the day the 5th Australian Light Horse Brigade rejoined 
its division. 

The 4th Cavalry Division remained at Beisan sending one regiment to patrol the east bank of the 
Jordan ; and numbers of prisoners continued to come in. 

At 1330 the 11th and 12th Light Armoiued Car Batteries were sent to reconnoitre and, if possible, 
to occupy Haifa ; but they met with ptrong opposition from artillery and machine guns a few nules east 
of the town and had to fall back. 

To. face Plate 4(1. 



September 23. 

Chaytor's Force pressed forward all day, meeting with little opposition from the enemy biit being 
severely handicapped by the broken natmre of the country. As an example of this, the pack wireless 
set of the 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade fell over a cliff, resulting in all touch being lost with this 
brigade for several hours. 

By 1630 the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade occupied Es Salt, and by nightfall all roads lead- 
ing into the town were covered. The 4th and 5th Cavalry Divisions both had sharp fighting. Of the 
oth Division, the 13th Cavalry Brigade occupied Acre at 1300 with little or no opposition, but the 15th 
Cavalry Brigade on approaching Haifa were met by a battery of 77 mm. guns on the slopes of Mt. Carmel 
and at least ten machine guns covering the entrance to the town. The sj^a^e between the mountain 
and the Kishon left little room for cavalry to manoeuvre, but the Jodhpur Lancers made a brilliant 
charge riding over the machine guns and pursuing the enemy right through the town. A squadron of 
the Mysore Tjanc«rs was sent over Mt. Carmel at the same time to turn the town from the south. They 
captured two Turkish naval guns mounted on the ridge of Carmel and also made a gallant charge in the 
face of heavy mar-hine-gun fire. The Turks made a very stubborn defence at Haifa, and, but for the 
dasli of the 15th (Imperial Service) Cavalry Brigade, might have held out for a considerable time. 

In the Jordan Valley at 0800 the 11th Cavalry Brigade of the 4th Division intercepted a large column 
of the enemy trying to cross the river at Makhadet Abu Naj ford, six miles south-east of Beisan, sup- 
ported by a large number of guns and machine guns. The ford was not captured until midday after 
sharp fighting during which the 29th Lancers captured twenty-five machine guns in a single charge 
on the west bank of the river, while the 35tli Jacob's Horse broke up the columns on the east bank. 

The hard nature of the fighting is exemplified by the fact that the Hants, battery coming into 
action in the open had every one of their guns hit. 

Over 3,000 prisoners were captured in this action. 

September 24. 

Chaytor's Force pushed forward all day in touch with enemy rearguards ; the New Zealand Mounted 
Rifles Brigade, supported by the 1st Australian Light Horse Brigade, moving on the main Es Salt- 
Amman road and tlie 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade to the south of them through Aid Essir. 

By evening the New Zealand Mounted Rifles were east of Suweileh and the 20th Imperial Infantry 
lirigade had occupied Es Salt. 

The 11th Cavalry Brigade of the 4th Division patrolled down both banks of the Jordan to within 
twelve miles of Jisr ed Damieh, clearing up small parties of the enemy on the way. 

The 4th Australian Light Horse Brigade marched at 1 100 for Semakh at the southern end of Lake 
Tiberias. 

Otherwise there was no movement of importance. 

September 25. 

Chaytor's Force captured Amman at 1510 ; the town and railway station were both held, and hard 
fighting was necessary before they were captured by the 1st and 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigades 
and the Canterbury Mounted Rifles. 

The railway was seized some miles north of Amman by the Auckland Mounted Rifles and about 
600 prisoners in all captured. 

Early in the morning the 4th Australian Light Horse Brigade took Semakh after some hand to hand 
fighting at the station, where a considerable number of Germans were killed in the defence of the 
" laager " which they had constructed of engines and other rolling stock. 

The 5th Cavalry Division moved to Nazareth preparatory for the advance on Damascus, 

To face Plate 47. 



PL A TE 4; 



ADVANCE THROUGH 
GILE AD AND GALILEE 

I Milesi p .5 10 20 Miles 

Situation at lOp mon 25.9,18 as known at GJi]Q..E.FJ: 



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September 26 and 27. 

The interest now began to shift to the crossing places of the Jordan and the country of Gilead and 
Bashan. In the north, tlie Australian Mounted Division moved up from the southern end of the Sea of 
Galilee to march to Damascus by way of Tiberias and Jisr Benat Yakub, followed by the 5th Cavalry 
Division, which had come up from its capture of Acre and Haifa by way of Nazareth and Tiberias. The 
two divisions were intended to capture Damascus, if possible before the Turkish IVth Army could get 
there. The 4th Cavalry Division left Beisan and the Jordan Valley with the intention of falling upon 
the left flank of the Turks, which was hurrying north along the Hejaz Eailway in order to avoid the 
attacks of Chaytor's Force in the south. On the right flank of the retreating IVth Army, the advanced 
troops of the Hejaz northern operations were already active and had done much to delay the retreat 
by the destruction of railway and bridges. Away in the south, as far as Maan inclusive, where desultory 
operations had for some time past been in progress between a flying column from the Ilnd Corps and the 
Arabs who were watching the town from the Semna hills, the Turks were hurrying north in a vain hope 
of reaching Damascus before Chaytor's Foixe could effectively bar their retreat. Of the presence of 
Sherifian troops to the north of it, the Ilnd Corps was still ignorant, but it was fully alive to the danger 
which it ran from the energetic hostility of the country through which it was retreating and the insistent 
attacks of the troops of the Hejaz southern operations which preyed upon its flanks and rear. It was an 
interesting race and it is possible that the bulk of the IVth Army might have got through to Damascus 
in time to organize some sort of a defence against the cavalry, had it not been delayed for several 
precious hours by the destructive activities of Lieut. -Col. T. E. Lawrence, C.B., and his Arab Camel 
Corps and armoured cars. The part played by the Royal Air Force was also important in causing that 
delay in the Turkish retreat which enabled the Australian Mounted Division and the 5th Cavalry Division 
to get so good a start in the race. 

In hopes of delaying this northern force, the enemy had blown one arch of the Jisr Benat Yakub 
(now generally known as ' ' Jordan Bridge "), and had formed a laager of lorries with artillery and machine 
guns. Thus the Australians, at the end of their eighteen miles' advance from Mejdel on the Sea of 
Galilee (during which the 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade had reconnoitred up to Safed) found them- 
selves faced with strong opposition on attempting to cross the Jordan. The 4th Australian Light Horse 
Brigade, however, swam the river at El Min. a mile below the broken bridge, while the 3rd Australian 
^Light Horse Brigade was strongly engaged in the swampy country between Jisr Benat Yakub and Lake 
Hule. The 4th Australian Light Horse Brigade imperilled the communications of the enemy and cap- 
tured much transport, while the 5th Australian Light Horse Brigade kept the enemy busy at the bridge. 
At dusk the 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade forced a passage to the northof the bridge and. pressing 
on through the night, captured Deir es Saras just before dawn with prisoners and guns. This operation 
delayed the Australian Mounted Division for some time, so that it was overtaken by the 5th Cavalry 
Division which had come thirty-two miles from Kefr Kenna to a point near Jisr Benat Yakub. 

Meanwhile, the 4th Cavalry Division had crossed the Jordan at Jisr Mujamie, south of the Sea of 
Galilee and was advancing upon Deraa. The 10th Cavalry Brigade got into visual connection with the 
Sherifian troops on the far side of the retreating Turks at 11.30 on the morning of Sept. 'ICy. but actual 
contact had still to be established. The enemy made considerable resistance west of Irbid and that 
town was only occupied at nightfall. The same brigade was again engaged near Er Remte, when the 
1/lst Dorset Yeomanryexecuted a highlysuccessful charge, which resulted in satisfactory enemycasual- 
ties as well as the capture of 200 prisoners and twenty machine guns. After this. F,r Bemte was taken 
and advanced patrols pushed on through the night towards Deraa. This the Sherifian troops occupied 
shortly before midnight, after an exciting race, in which Colonel Lawrence's fast camels beat the Sherif 
Feisal's horsemen by a neck along a course from the headquarters of the Hejaz northern operations. 
Troopers of the Central India Horse established contact with the Sherifian Arabs just after dawn on 
Sept. 28 west of Deraa, and only desisted from arresting one of the British officers serving with the Arabs 
under the impression that he was a German sei-ving with the Turks, onrecognisingthe well-known English 
expletive that was drawn from him by their proposal. 

With Chaytor's Force, the period covered by Sept. 26 and 27, forms a gap in the operations, owing 
to the fact that the main body of the Turkish Ilnd Corps had not yet come within range to be struck 
at and the rest of the Turkish Fourth Army had moved away from the Amman area into the inhospitable 
Hauran (Bashan). The force was actively ertgaged in finding fresh enemies to conquer, and the 1st 
.Australian Light Horse Brigade was fortunate in finding some Turks in the Wadi el Hammam . who fought 
before surrendei'ing to the number of 105 with one gun. Other Turks were seen moving south, stragglers 
probably from the main body of the Fourth Army, trying to join the advancing Ilnd Corps for 
safety, in view of the hostility of the local population. The 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade located 
the advancing troops of this corps near Kastal and, on the morning of Sept. 27, there was a further 
engagement in the Wadi el Hammam. in which the 3rd Australian Light Horse Regiment, with aeroplane 
assistance, captured 300 prisoners and two machine guns. Later in the day. the Australian and New- 
Zealand Mounted Division was disposed between the water at Wadi el Hammam and Kalaat ez Zerka. 
and the Turks moving north., while the New Zealand Mounted Rifles had a detachment across the Darb 
el Haj and the 2nd Australian Light Horse Brigade held the water at Leban Station. 

To face Plate 4S 



WT 



PLATE 4S 



ADVANCE THROUGH 
GILE AD AJVD GALILE E 

iiilesio s' 10 zoMik 

Situation atlQ p.rn,on27-9:!8.aslmownatGJijQ..E.EF 

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Sherifian Co-operation in September. 

On Aug. 31 a detachment of the regular forces of King Husein started north from near Akaba in 
order to co-operate in the then forthcoming operations against the Turks. The direct route from Akaba 
to Damascus runs by way of Maan, Amman, and Deraa, and was, at that time, still for the most part 
in the occupation of the enemy. It was, therefore, necessary for a wide outflanking movement to be 
undertaken. That this was successfully carried through was most creditable to the troops engaged in 
the operation, as on one occasion they made a four days' march from water to water, followed imme- 
diately after that by a two days' march to the next supply. Nor was this water supply of the most 
inviting description. Leaches abounded and many of those who drank hastily found afterwards that 
these unpleasant creatures had got into their mouths and fastened themselves in the nasal tubes. 
Abu Lissa, near Maan, was reached on Sept. 2, then by way of Jafar and Bair the force reached Kasr 
el Azrak and continued through Umm el Jemal and Umtaiye which was reached on the afternoon of the 
1.5th. This was made the base for the operations in the immediate future. A raid was made upon 
the railway between Deraa and Damascus. A point near Tel Arar was the place selected, and a bridge 
and 1,200 rails were blown up and destroyed during the morning of the 17th. A daylight occupation 
of a point only four miles from a German aerodrome invited the intervention of the enemy, and the 
force was attacked and bombarded by nine aeroplanes from Deraa. The work was, however, success- 
fully carried through, and part of the force proceeded during the day to the railway station at Mezerib, 
which was captured in the evening of the same day. This important point on the enemy lines of com- 
munication was carefully burned, two trains were destroyed, the water tanks blown up, and a quantity 
of rails bent and disjjlaced. A good day's work being thus creditably brought to a close, the Arab force 
passed the night peacefully astride the enemy's only railway between his front in Palestine and Gilead 
and his base. Next day the force retreated southwards on Umtaiye passing near Remte and reaching 
Nasib station on the Hejaz Railway, south of Deraa, in time to blow up a large bridge and damage 
a quantity of rails before bed-time. On the morning of the 19th the Arab regulars accompanied by a 
numerous following from the local tribes and country-side in general, arrived at Umtaiye where they 
were attacked by their previous acquaintances, the German aeroplanes, who were in search of vengeance. 
The garrison of Deraa must have felt particularly vindictive, as the Arab regulars had, in the course 
of forty-eight hours, completely cut their communications with Amman, the Palestine front, and 
Damascus alike. . Bombs were freely dropped. The tribesmen and local peasantry vanished into the 
surrounding country, but the regular troops of the Arab Army barracked their camels, dismounted, 
and sat immovable, each man by the side of his beast, until the storm was passed. The Germans returned 
to Deraa for more bombs, whereupon the Camel Corps withdrew into a wadi and sat still among the 
blocks of lava which were to be found therein. By making no movement at all they concealed their 
presence from the questing planes, and the Germans returned disappointed, doubtless to report that 
the entire force had been destroyed. The picture of the Hejaz Camel Corps pas.sing itself off as black 
stones recalls the story of Sherherazad in the " Arabian Nights," and, as in that story, the black stones 
came to life again and busily harassed the enemy. They remained among the lava until Sept. 24, issuing 
on one occasion by night to catch and kill a passing train, and on another occasion by day to blow up a 
bridge and destroy a great length of rails. On Sept. 2-1 the Turkish 4th Army began to surge northwards 
in its vain endeavour to escape disaster which had overtaken the troops to the west of Jordan. 
The Arab Camel Corps being immensely outnumbered by this force, which still retained a certain 
amount of organization, was unable to stop this retreat, and was obliged to content itself during two days 
with vigorous minor operations for incommoding its passage. These took the shape of a succession 
of raids upon selected units. A flurry of rifle fire would be followed by a charge and a swift withdrawal, 
leaving twjnty or thirty dead Turks on the ground, and a dozen or so prisoners in the hands of the 
Arabs. In this way, two officers, 300 men, and twenty-five guns were captured. On Sept. 26, the Camel 
Corps having hurried north through the night, was able to blow up the railway and capture Ezra and 
Ghazale stations. Through Sheikh Miskin the force went to Sheikh Saad on one of the roads north 
from Mezerib to Damascus. Here thirty officers and 500 men were captured, many of the former being 
Germans and Austrians. The state of demoralization into which the enemy had fallen is exemplified 
in this force. Although provided with fifteen machine guns, as well as rifles and adequate ammunition, 
no resistance was made to the attacks of tribesmen and peasants, who reduced them to such a con- 
dition that only one pathetic figure had retained sufficient of his property to be able to wave portions 
of a white handkerchief, saying : " I am a major, we surrender." During Sept. 27, the last Turkish 
formations evacuated Deraa and the Es Salt force moved north by way of Mezerib and Tafas. This 
force was so imbued with the doctrine of frightfulness that it thought in its madness that an example of 
terrorism might overawe the Hauran which was bubbhng in open rebellion all round it. Consequently 
it was decided " to make an example of " the unhappy villages of Tafas and Tm'aa. Eighty women 
and children were butchered with every revolting circumstance of atrocity, but the last hour of Turkish 
rule, east of Jordan, had already ^s-iruck. The Arabs, so far from being overawed and terrorised into 
a dutiful (Submission to their former tyrants, were justly incensed by this thoroughly Turkish outrage. 
The force which was responsible for it was visited by immediate and well-earned retribution, .and the 
units which had moved out of Deraa and Mezerib never reached Damascus. Sheikh Tallal, a fighting 
man of high repute and a notable of the Hauran, was with the Arab Army. On finding what atrocities 

Ta face Male 40. 



AREA OCCUPIED AS THE RESULT OF OPERATIONS 

FROM SEPTEMBER 21^-^ TO 27^1918 



PLATE AS 




had been committed in his villafje he charc;ed single-handed upon a Turkish column and furiously exacted 
blood for blood until he was riddled with bullets. At dawn on the 27th, the Arab Camel Corps rode into 
Deraa, so long a Turkish place of strength, and shortly afterwards at a point a little to the west of the 
lailway junction, made their first contact with sowars of the 38th Central India Horse. 

September 28, 29, and 30. 

The 5th Cavalry Division was somewhat delayed in crossing the Jordan — a lorry broke down the 
temporary bridge across the arch destroyed by the enemy — and finally made use of fords. By 1800 all 
fighting troops and fighting wheels were across, but further delay was caused to the latter by the dis- 
tressing nature of the road leading up to the plateau on the east of the river. It was not until 2030 
that the division reached Kuneitra, which the Australian Mounted Division had occupied at 1300, and 
its rear wheels only arrived at 0600 on Sept. 29. Tired horses had been left in the Jordan Valley. The 
Australian Mounted Division led in the advance from Kuneitra in the evening of Sept. 29, and the 3rd- 
Australian Light Horse Brigade was engaged with the Turks on the high ground south of Sasa at 2000. 
The brigade was hampered in its attack by the masses of lava deposits which made it difficult for men 
to move across country in the dark. The enemy's flank was protected by an impassable morass, and 
no attack could be made before 0300 on Sept. 30, when the enemy was disposed of by the 9th and 10th 
Austalian Light Horse Regiments and lost twenty-five prisoners, two guns and seven machine guns. 
The advance contimxed without check until some 2,500 Turks with machine guns were found to be 
holding Kaulcab and the ridge east of it. A successful mounted attack was made by the 12th and 4tb 
Australian Light Horse Regiments, supported by the Notts Battery of Royal Horse Artillery and "A" 
Battery Honourable Aitillery Company, and the ridge was taken at the gallop. Many of the Turks fled 
into the woods near Daraya. Meanwhile, at 0845, an aeroplane report was received by the 5th Cavalry 
Division to the effect that some 2,000 Turks were retiring on Damascus by the Deraa road. The 
14th Cavalry Brigade was ordered to intercept this force and then march on Damascus. This brigade 
cut the Turkish colunm in half, capturing the bulk of the leading portion including all that was left of 
the 3rd Turkish Cavalry Division with the Divisional Commander and his staff. The 13th and 15th 
Cavalry Brigades concentrated just north of Sasa in Corps reserve. At noon, after some opposition, 
the 13th Cavalry Brigade seized the Jebel el Aswad astride the Kiswe-Damascus road and cut off large 
numbers of Turks trying to withdraw to Kiswe, who tried to break away to the left and right of the 
brigade and up the Wadi Zabirani. Others, greatly disorganized, were streaming up the hills to the 
north-east and along the main road to Damascus. The former were shelled by the Essex Battery and 
the latter were headed off towards the 4th Cavalry Division, with the loss of about 1,000 prisoners. At 
1300 the brigade advanced to Kaukab and then co-operated with the 14th and 15th Brigades (the latter 
being on the right, astride of the Wadi Zabirani) against the Turks who were trying to break out from 
Kiswe. At 1700 the 13th Brigade captured Kiswe with 675 prisoners and four guns. In the evening 
the 5th Mounted Division had its headquarters at Kaukab with the 13th Mounted Brigade, the 14th was 
astride the Kiswe-Damascus road north of the Jebel el Aswad with patrols at Kadem Station, and the 
15th was roimd Khan esh Sheha, which had been occupied at 1000. Two troops of the 1/lst Royal 
Gloucester Hussars Yeomanry (13th Cavalry Brigade) had been sent forward in hopes of capturing the 
enemy wireless station at Kadem. This was however blown up on their approach at 1630. The 
yeomanry charged the destruction party, killing fifteen with the sword, but had to retire in face of con- 
siderable German reinforcements, and afterwards joined the Australian Mounted Division. 

The 4th Mounted Division coming up from the south with the Sherifian forces on its right, entered 
Deraa unopposed on Sept. 28, and next day got into touch with the retreating Turks in the Dilli area. 
For two days the enemy was pressed and harassed, his columns were fired upon and broken up, and on 
Sept. 30 the division got into touch with the otlicr divisions of the Desert Mounted Corps, and reached 
Zerakiye late at night. J^y dusk the 5th Australian LigJit Horse Brigade and the French Cavalry under 
Commandant Lebon, attached to the Australian Mounted Division, had worked across the Damascus- 
Beirut road immediately north-west of Damascus and on the hills suiroimding it. Here the enemy was 
trapped — the defile was swept with rifle and machine-gun fire^ tiaius were wrecked, and every form of 
transport destroyed. In this action the Turks lost 4,000 prisoners and very many killed. 

In Gilead Chaytor's Force located the southern portion of the Turkish JFourth Army at Kastal, with 
three trains in the station. At 1515 the Commander was siunmoned to surrender by 0845 next day, in 
a message dropped from an aeroplane, but no reply was received. At 1145, however, on Sept. 29, the 
Turks opened negotiations with the 5th Australian Light Horse Regiment, on the railway south of Leban. 
The situation was difficult as large numbers of the local inhabitants, intent upon looting, were surround- 
ing the Turkish position. Any sign of a wliite flag was likely to precipitate matters, so the 2nd Australian 
Light Horse Brigade advanced to Kastal and formed a cordon behind which the Turks were able to 
surrender. The Turkish Commander, Ali Bey Wahabi, was taken by car to Divisional Headquarters. 
The other prisoners to the number of over 4,000 marched into Amman mider the protection of the New 
Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade, while some 500 sick had to be left for a time at Kastal. The surrender 
also included twelve guns and thirty-five machine guns, and brought the list of captures by Chaytor's 
Force during its operations as a separate entity to over 10,000 prisoners, fifty-seven guns, and 132 machine 
guns. Large quantities of railway rolling stock, ammunition, and other material were also taken. 

In face PlaU M, 



CAPTURE OF DAMASCUS 



PLATE 50 




MPrintedby the Survey of Egypt. D^c. 1918 {01 b3) 



Reprinted in England 1919 



Miles 5 ' ■* 3 2 i o 



Situation at 1? a.frioij^ 30-9-18aslmown.at G.H.OE.E.F. 



lo Miles 



October 1. 

No precise moment can bo fixed for the fall of Damascus. Politically its independence from 
Turkish domination was proclaimed about 1400 on Sept. 30 while Jemal Pasha, Commander ol 
the Fourth Army and numbers of armed Turks and Germans were still in the city. Yet, so 
reduced was the moral of these troops, that they wearily trailed out of Damascus along the 
north bank of the Barada and gazed apathetically at the Sherifian flags which proclaimed the jubilation 
of the Damascenes at their defeat and emphasized the collapse of four centuries of empire. No formal 
surrender took place as the municipal authorities welcomed the troops alike of the Desert Moui..ted Corps 
and of the Sherifian Army as liberators and allies, and no enemy administration survived in such a form 
as to be able to take upon itself the task of arranging a capitulation. The last days of Turkish rule in 
the famous city had indeed been full of humiliation for the defeated side. People refused to sell pro- 
visions to Turks, even for gold. It was impossible to obtain suppUes for the hospitals, and the Germans 
forcibly seized all available transport for their own especial benefit. During the morning of the 30tli 
the Damascenes were delighted to witness a brisk fight between Turks and Germans, provoked by the 
rapacity of the latter over the distribution of vehicles. Satisfactory numbers on both sides lost their 
lives in this encounter, which was, apparently, the most formidable of many similar skirmishes between 
the Turks and their Prussian patrons, evidence of which had been forthcoming in the shape of numerous 
German corpses all along the line of retreat. In the hospitals the Turkish sanitary department entirely 
collapsed during the last five days, so much so that one of the first tasks to be undertaken after the 
occupation of the town, was the very nec?ssary burial of bodies which had been left three, four, and even 
five days, on the floor where they had died. Food was obtained for the survivmg patients, and the 
hospital staff was forcibly induced to resume its duties. The 14th Cavalry Brigade and Sherifian troops 
had entered Damascus on Oct. 1, but in so large a city it is not surprising that both detachments were 
ignorant of the arrival of the other, and that both thought that they were first in. In point of actual 
time a detachment of the 10th Australian Light Horse Regiment under Major Olden reached the Serail at 
0630 on Oct. 1, while Colonel Lawrence and the Sherifian Camel Corps were a little later, but it was not 
until 0830 that General Chauvel motored into Damascus to confer with the Civil Authorities. During 
the early hours of the morning of Oct. 1, the 14th Cavalry Brigade intercepted numbers of Turks who were 
still trying to reach Damascus, in ignorance of the fact that the city was no longer a refuge for them. The 
rest of the 5th Cavalry Division concentrated at Deir Khabiye at 0600 and moved up the Kiswe-Damascus 
road to join the 14th Brigade. The 4th Cavalry Division which had left Zerakiye at 0300 followed. At 
1030 the 14th Cavalry Brigade was sent through the town to Jobar to co-operate with the 3rd AustraUan 
Light Horse Brigade in closing the Duma road to those Turks who were trying to escape that way. 

Meanwhile, the Australian Mounted Division, which had been astride the Beirut road all night, 
at 0500 pushed forward the 3rd Australian Light Horse Brigade through the town and blocked the Ale\ po 
road. On the way this brigade captured a train, with 483 prisoners, eight guns, and thirty machine 
guns, and engaged an enemy column at Duma. The 10th Australian Light Horse Regiment charged 
the rear of this colimin, killed numbers of the enemy and captured 600 prisoners and thirty-seven machine 
guns. The pursuit was continued and in the evening some Germans and machine gims were taken at 
Khan Kusseir. The brigade remained at Duma for the night. At 0825 next - morning the brigade 
galloped for nearly six miles across country and charged an enemy column with sword. The Turks 
were broken and lost many dead, in addition to a captured Divisional Commander, 1,500 other prisoners, 
three guns, and twenty-six machine guns. This brought the operations round Damascus to a close. 

Story of the Arab Movement. 

A Sherif (Arabic plural Ashraj) in the Moslem world is one who claims descent in the male line from 
the Khalif Ali (656-661 a.d.) by his marriage with Fatima, daughter of the Prophet Mohammed (died 632). 
There are many of these Ashraf in Arabia, Morocco and the Sudan, but among those generally accepted 
as such, only the Ashraf inscribed in the Register of Mecca, which has been strictly kept for many 
centuries past — if not from the days of the Prophet himself, are of absolutely unquestioned authenticity. 
They are divided into a number of clans, living mostly in the Hejaz, and form an accepted aristocracy 
with peculiar privileges under a law of their own. 

For the first four centuries after the death of the Projiliet, the Ashraf were not very numerous and 
had not as yet established their position as a poUtical power. Towards the end of the tenth century, 
however, one of the Ashraf of Mecca got possession of his native town and inaugurated in the Hejaz 
a tradition of Sherifian temporal power, the holder of which was regarded as the Emir and head of the 
Ashraf, or, as he has for centuries been known in Europe — " The Grand Sherif of Mecca." 

In course of time a fighting Sherif of the Juheinah clan, by name Qatada, became Emir and a Prince 
of his dynasty during the sixteenth century, established the undoubted predominance of the Emirate of 
Mecca over the Hejaz, and secured for his own family an exclusive right to the throne. The reigning 
representative of the senior line of the dynasty founded by the Emir Qatada succeeded to the throne 
of Mecca as the Emir Husein in 1908, and so long as it was possible to reconcile his position as a vassal 
of the Sultan of Turkey with his dignity as an Arab Prince and head of the Ashraf, he remained a 
loyal subject of the Ottoman Empire, but at the beginning of the war the Turkish atrocities in Syria 
which came on the top of the violent attempts of the Constantinople Government forcibly to Ottomanize 
all nationalities under its authority, made a revolt of the Arab nation against its oppressors inevitable. 

J'li fare Plate 'il. 



F 



CAPTURE OF DAMASCUS 



PLATE 51 




fPrinfdby tht Surwty of Egypt. Ore 1916(0^ 53) 



Miles s ♦ a « 1 o 



Reprinted in Eny/and J9/9. 
lo Miles 



In May, 191G, the position of the Emir of Mecca was threatened by the arrival of a picked force of 
■ 3,000 Turkish troops in Medina. Their plan of campaign was to march through the Hejaz consolidating 
the waning Ottoman authority in that principality, and then to proceed to the Yemen in order to reinforce 
the, Turkish army operating against Aden. The foresighted policy of the Emir in preventing the pro- 
longation of the Hejaz railway from Medina to Mecca, caused a much needed delay in the progress of the 
Turks, and the Emir decided that the privileged position of the Hejaz and possibly his own authority 
would be menaced by the arrival of so large a Turkish force. He placed himself at the head of the national 
cause and drew his sword in the defence of the Arab as against the Turk. 

The Arab revolt began on June 5, 1916, with the formation of a thin Bedouin cordon round Medina, 
where Ali and Feisal, two sons of the Sherif Husein, were in command. The Hejaz railway was broken 
at several points between Medina and Abu Naam ; but the Arabs, inexpert in demolition, did not effect 
enough before being driven off by relief parties with machine guns, to interrupt seriously the com- 
munication of Medina with the north, and the besieging force, short of arms and supplies, and with no 
guns worth mentioning, could do little but watch the city from afar. Jiddah, however, which was attacked 
on June 9, held out barely a week. Cut off from Mecca by the loss of the blockhouses on the road, and 
exposed to naval guns and 'planes, the Turkish garrison, in a weak position north of the town, yielded to 
the instance of the civilian population and surrendered at discretion. Mecca had passed in the mean- 
time into the Emir's hands, with the exception of the forts and entrenched barracks, held by small 
garrisons, the bulk of the Turkish force being absent in summer quarters at Taif with the Governor-General. 
These garrisons, who had had some Inkling of what was coming, opened fire on the town, putting a shell 
or two even into or near the Great Mosque, to the infinite scandal of all pious Moslems ; and they were 
not reduced imtil artillery was brought up from Jiddah. They had all surrendered by July 16. Taif 
where over 2,000 men, the bulk of the Turkish force, were entrenched, with Ghalib Pasha, the G.O.C. 
and Governor-General, held out much longer — till Sept. 23 — ^and then capitulated from hopelessness 
rather than from scarcity or fear of its assailants. It had been blockaded very effectively for three and 
a half months by Sherif Abdullah, the Emir's second son, with a mixed force of Ateibah Bedouins and 
Meccan townsfolk, but though regularly bombarded it had never been really assaulted. 

Smaller places, like Lith and Yambo, surrendered as soon as they were seriously attacked, and the 
greater part of the Hejaz was now clear of the Turks. So far the task of the Arabs had been com- 
paratively easy. Isolated bodies of troops, divided from all possible relief by 300 miles of hostile, ill- watered 
country and barred from the sea, were bound to capitulate sooner or later, however superior in fighting 
quahty and equipment to their foes. But the Medina garrison was in a different case. It had been rein- 
forced, re-armed, re-victualled, and reassured by successful sorties during these four months, and, late 
in September it was able to issue forth, driving the Arabs before it, and make Medina secure by establishing 
a cordon of fortified posts, thirty to forty miles out along the Mecca roads. This done, the Turks pushed 
farther still, realizing that their best defence was an offensive and at one time they threatened to occupy 
both Yambo and Rabugh, the important half-way house to Mecca. But only some 14,000 strong, they 
had not the forces necessary to hold such distant objectives together with the lines of communication. 
Considerable Arab armies moved up from south and south-west, and the Turks withdrew again behind 
the fortified outposts of Medina at the end of the year. 

It had become clear that owing to their inexperience in modern siege warfare the Arabs could not 
expect to reduce Medina. The only operation likely to be fruitful would be systematic attack on the 
800 miles of the single track of the Hejaz railway which connects Medina with Damascus. For stich raiding 
however, and for ultimate extension of the revolt to Syria, more northerly bases than Jiddah, Rabugh, 
or even Yambo, were required. Therefore at the of Jan., 1917, Sherif Feisal, with the Northern 
Arab Army, installed himself at Wejh, already occupied by landing parties, and extended his hold 
farther north to Dhaba and Moweilah on the Midian coast. His brother, Abdullah, had arrived at Wadi 
Ais, north-west of Medina, leaving only his eldest brother, Ali, in the former theatre of operations. 

The raiding carried out during the following six months, with British and French help, lowered the 
strength and spirit of the Turkish forces in Medina, provided scope for adventure which attracted many 
fresh Arab elements, and offered a demonstration of activity which induced many more to engage them- 
selvei? on the Sherifian side in view of a move still farther "north. But it did not cut off Medina. The 
permanent way proved harder to wreck irretrievably, and the enemy better prepared to make inter- 
ruptions good, than had been expected. The alternative scheme, that of blowing up trains, was evolved, 
and under the direction of Lieut. -Colonel T. E. Lawrence, this form of military activity began to rank 
almost as a national sport. Numerous instances occurred of small parties of Arabs under Allied leader- 
ship, blowing up the engine of a train while in motion. Sometimes the disaster merely resulted in the 
delay and discomfiture of the enemy — sometimes the Arabs were able to inflict serious losses and capture 
valuable material as the result of one of these episodes. In any case such destruction invariably impaired 
the railway track, reduced the number of engines and the amount of rolling stock available, caused delay 
and laid a heavy burden upon the Turkish lines of communication. 

Meanwhile, early in July, 1917, Akaba had been captured from the Turks, and Sherif Feisal moved 
up. Operations and propaganda could now be extended much farther northwards. Previously there 
had been no raiding of the railway above Tebuk. Now it was attacked, not only south of Maan but 
north, while Arab forces threatened both Maan itself and also the forest district on the north-west, whence 
tlie railway locomotives were drawing their fuel supply. The effect on Medina was soon evident, and 
had the Turks been in a position to evacuate by the railway without almost certain disaster, they would 

7« face Plate S2, 



AREA OCCUPIED AS THE RESULT OF OPERATIONS 

FROM SEPTEMBER 28^^T0 OCTOBER 1^:^1918 piate 52 




0^^^i„t-^^ ,n Fr,^Ur^^ /.Q/Q 



probably have done so early in the current year. But, for lack of sufficient rolling stock and troops 
to keep tho line during withdrawal, they evidently decided to hold on, as the lesser evil ; for, in any case, 
they were secure for some months of being able to repel direct Arab attack, all reduced and scurvy-ridden 
though their troops had become, both at headquarters and on the line of communication. ' There they 
remained until their surrender became necessary as the result of the Armistice which the Turks were 
compelled to accept at the end of October. Lines of communication troofs who had hoped to make 
good their escape northwards, when disaster overtook the Turkish armies west of the Jordan were beset 
by hostile tribesmen and finally surrendered to Chaytor's force at Ziza. 

Having secured the adhesion or neutrality of all Arabs as far up as Maan, and made provisional 
arrangements with others to northward, Feisal could now contemplate an advance into the trans-Jordan 
country. He had collected, from one source or another, some thousands of partly-trained troops, beside 
contingents from Bedouin tribes of higher fighting quality than the Hejazis. Also he was much better 
equipped with guns, small arms, and auxiliary services than any Arab army had been heretofore. The 
Turks in Maan and the Hishe Forest made attempts to dislodge him from the Petra region in Oct. 
and Nov., 1917, but proved to weak to press home any advantage they gained. The cold of the 
highlands in winter, and lack of transport, militated against strong counter-offensives by the Arabs, but 
in Jan.. 1918, they were able to begin an advance towards the eastern Dead Sea lands. There were, 
but few Turks to oppose them, and the local inhabitants, though jealous and suspicious of a strange force 
in their midst, did not obstruct. Shobak and the Hishe Forest were occupied, and towards the end of 
January, the Arabs had taken and passed Tafilah, raided up to Mezra on the Dead Sea, and began to 
threaten the Turks in Kerak and on the railway north of Jurf el Derwish. 

To stay an advance, which, if not checked would bring all their Hejaz forces into an inextricable 
situation, the Turks renewed, in February, their efforts at offensive, from Kerak and from the railway. 
The first attempt by an infantry force, about 700 strong, to reach Tafilah ended in signal disaster, barely 
fifty men getting back to Kerak, with the loss of all guns and material. A second attempt, made from the 
railway early in March, with two comparatively strong columns, stiffened by German units, effected 
its purpose with little difficult}', the Arabs retiring from Tafilah to Shobak ; but its effect was demonstrative 
only, the Turks being unable to remain at Tafilah in ^dew of the probabiUty of an advance by the British 
across the Jordan. The Arabs re-occupied Tafilah on March 18, and, on the Turks withdrawing from 
Kerak a few days later, a detachment of Fcisal's irregular troops entered this place also. They did not, 
however, stay long. The past month of April was marked by a great increase of Arab activity, and as 
a result of the capture of all the stations on the line between Maan and Mudowara and destruction of track 
and bridges for ovar seventy miles, Medina was finally isolated. Maan was vigorously attacked and the 
Sherifian forces, although unable at the first attempt to hold the railway station which they had entered, 
took up a strong position dominating both the station and the town. Further north much damage was 
done to stations, tracks and bridges, and the Beni Sakhr tribe gave assurances of future co-operation, 
which were, at the time, believed to be satisfactory. The history of the Es Salt raid (April and May, 1918) 
showed that this confidence had been misplaced, and the operation did not result in the wholesale destruc- 
tion of Turkish troops owing to the Beni Sakhr tribe remaining quiescent at the critical moment. 

The strong position taken up by the Turkish Fourth Army in the Belka during the summer made 
it impossible for the Arab Army to attempt an offensive owing to its lack of the resources and heavy 
artillery necessary for such an operation. The September advance made by General Allenby in 
Palestine caused the Fourth Army to retire upon Damascus and gave the Sherif Feisal the opportunity 
for which he had so long been waiting. 

From the fall of Damascus to the Armistice. 

The result of the September operations left the Turks depressed in moral, and so greatly reduced in 
numbers as to be almost entirely deprived of power to resist the northward sweep of the cavalry, except 
in the neighbourhood of Aleppo. The obstacles which still impeded the advance were chiefly those 
offered by long distances, by bad roads, and by disease. The troops which had passed through the 
Beisan area suffered severely from malaria after the period of incubation had elapsed, by which time they 
had advanced into the Damascus area. The widely prevalent influenza also produced many casualties. 

In spite of these difficulties there were some examples of rapid advance on the part both of cavalry 
and infantry. The 5th Cavalry Division, which was engaged in the fighting round Damascus on the 
last day of September, was fighting Turks fifteen miles north of Aleppo on the last day of October. The 
7th Indian Division, at Haifa on Oct. 1, marched to Beirut in a week, and occupied Tripolis on Oct. 18, 
after halting on the historic shores of St. George's Bay for five days. In the course of the advance to 
Beirut, this division foimd time to construct a road, over which guns were taken, across the Ladder of 
Tyre, a natural obstacle of imposing and picturesque magnitude. Full details of the advances of these 
two divisions will be found in their respective records. 

During the advance of the 5th Cavalry Division on the afternoon of Oct. 22, the Armoured Car Column 
engaged a number of the enemy's armed lorries near Khan Sebil (thirty-five miles south of Aleppo). 
An enemy armoured car was captured, and the lorries, which kept up fire from machine guns, were 
chased for fifteen miles. One lorry was run to a standstill but some of its orew escaped in the darkness, 
leaving twenty-five casualties and five prisoners. Another lorry with five prisoners was captured next 
day but the Turkish Commander in Aleppo itself declined to surrender to the Armoured Car Column 

To face Plate 5J. 



ADVANCE THROUGH NORTHERN SYRIA 



PLATE S3 



CVVIkUk 



MED I 




for Beirut flP'^i?.!)'' J*«lA"" "j 



DISPOSITION OF TROOPS 
FROM OCT '*'-28r.' 






^ -'trf^riwS— .^^fX^OnJM'Mftil 



Reprinted in England /9/9. 



Milts a 



mMiIis 



LINES OF COMMUNICATION, 1918. 
British. 

Early in the spring of 1918, railhead having been established at Ludd, and active operations on a 
large scale having ceased, preparations began to be made for the next stage of the advance. 

These preparations included the doubling of the railway track from El Arish to Rafa, the relaying 
of the Turkish railway from Ludd to Jerusalem with a track of standard gauge {see Plate 40), the for- 
mation of large hospital centres at Gaza and Deir el Belah, and the development of Jerusalem and Ludd 
as advanced bases ; to these base camps, medical imits and reserves of supplies and stores were trans- 
ferred from the bases from which the November advance had been made. An immense amount of labour 
was expended on roads, which were rapidly put into a condition to bear the heaviest traffic ; water supplies 
were developed ; and a widespread and thorough campaign was carried on through the summer against 
malaria in — and immediately in rear of — the Corps .ateas. 

The pressure of work on the Lines of Communication was greatly increased by the withdrawal of 
the 52nd arid 74th Divisions for service in France ; by the arrival of the 3rd and 7th Indian Divisions to 
take their places ; and by the reorganization of the remaining British Divisions (except the 54th) on the 
Indian scale. 

On July 1 the Lines of Communication were extended to include the area west of the Suez Canal 
known as the Suez Canal Zone, thus taking in the Canal ports of Suez and Ismailia ; and on the same date 
the defence of Tor and Abu Zenima, together with their garrisons, came under the Lines of Communication. 

In the latter part of August, advice was received that active operations would start in the near 
future, and on a large scale, thus involving a certain amount of preparation being made on the Lines of 
Communication ; e.g. hospital accommodation was increased and medical units pushed forward close on 
the rear of the fighting line ; arrangements were made for receiving prisoners-of-war in large numbers 
and for their accommodation on the journey from the front line to the base ; and reinforcement camps 
were established from the railliead to the front line in order that reinforcements could be hurried forward 
during the advance. Owing to the necessity for secrecy, the final arrangements could not be made until 
immediately before the advance started : consequently, the night of Sept. 18 was a very busy period on 
the lines of communication. 

The great success and rapidity of the advance involved great activity on the lines of communication, 
in order to keep up as far as possible with the advancing army. Reinforcement camps were pushed 
forward, prisoners-of-war cages were taken over, and, on Sept. 26, the area of the lines of communication 
was extended northwards along the whole front from the sea to the Jordan. On Oct. 4 it was again 
extended northwards to include Nablus and Tul Keram ; on Nov. 1, Haifa, Damascus, and the railway 
hne between these two places were taken over ; and on Nov. 16, Nazareth and Tiberias were included. 

Summing up, the lines of communication have grown from what they were on the arrival of General 
Allenby, the bases of Port Said and Kantara, with a single railway track to Deir el Belah — a distance of 
220 kilometres (see Plate 2) — to what tliey are now, with a railway line from Kantara to Damascus — 
approximately 650 kilometres — and branch railheads at Beersheba and Jerusalem. {See Plate 54.) 

The troops employed on the lines of communication at its start were entirely British, but later 
battahons of the Egyptian Army were substituted, who have done valuable work, including the holding 
of the inner cordon on the west bank of the Suez Canal, and duties with balloon sections in the rear of 
the front line. Battalions of the British West Indies Regiment and Jewish battalions of the Royal 
Fusiliers took over duties on the further extension of the line, but these were eventually withdrawn 
and transferred to fighting formations. 

It is impossible to go fully into statistics in so small a space, but the following two points may be of 
interest : — 

(1) The rations strength of Kantara when taken over by Palestine Lines of Communication in May, 
1917, was less than 10,000, while on the day of the Armistice it reached 100,000. 

(2) Up till May, 1917, no ocean-going ship had ever been berthed at Kantara, whereas, in Oct., 1918, 
the daily average of ocean-going ships loading and discharging in the Port of Kantara was five. 

These figures alone will give some idea as to the amount of organization which was required to bring 
the lines of communication up to their present dimensions. 

Turkish. 

In the spring of 1918, Germans were substituted for the majority of the Turkish officials, and 
matters improved somewhat. A " Navy " was formed on the Dead Sea, and wheat from Kerak was 
transported up the Dead Sea by motor boats and barges. {See Plate 2.) 

The weak spot of the enemy lines of communication was Deraa ; and the destruction of the line to 
the north, south, and west, by the Arab Northern Army on Sept. 17 and 18, completely cut oft" their 
supplies. During the retreat in Sept., 1918, an attempt was made to use their boats on the Sea of 
Tiberias, and to transport stores from the northern shore to Damascus by camels ; also the motor-lorry 
colmuns, which had been extensively used from Damascus southwards, were able to remove a small 
portion of the stores from their advanced bases. 

It was not until Oct. 9, 1918, that the first broad gauge train ran through the Taurus tunnel, and 
the first train to run direct from Constantinople to Aleppo arrived only a few days before the city was 
occupied by our troops. 

7'o face PlaU 64. 



PLATE 5 



vk 



.CONSTANTir 
i^idarPasha' 



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h\my 



^wuM. 






l" 



m I 




jinh'acli 



Bay 



C«f«An4p««^ 



Md,\mf, 



M E D 1 T E R HA N EA N ,o^f' 



/ 






pyx 



^w 



r. 




w. 



Btrijili 



>«P»y«» 



"McuHm ^ALEPPO 



crr*-^ 






poll 



'^^!\^J^ rvo-natins Cnerry. 



\rKfyest,f>»ils destroyed 



ra^tr 






oy 5.,d 



/fa«6«Xtt- 



,b^' 






Zfr«liM 



^MA«CU» 



OM»am4^« 



/ 



,5^' 



/ 




/ 



Narrow Gauge 



I Lorries, 



lofr^K 



\ 



SirS^/rrtona 



®'" 



^ 



1 1 



- Sa/- Na«*a»4 







Sporttd kyPi^ \i-*—FairffBstroyea 
]Anima/s li A 'otor 



yerf 



kHutrmAH tTA 



umsaecmMmamms 

OCTOBER 1918 



' Mn««M • 9 



s* •• «o M> mMDm 



ICSAAf srA 



lOeSAA JTA 



ft/ Kutranm 



REFERENCE 

I I I »' '» " 5in^l* »i 






.JL. 






A Arrruuun/. Ordmuue HbvAcaAc^ 

ti Medium. >t n 

A . I/iffht n (* 

r*^ pip* LinM, 

^^f^ Supptuis Ihan^pcrUd ^ MUaf Ltfr-uid 

4M .<.S*a borrti* muppiiM* 



The Military Administration of the Territory reFeased fronn the Turits.- 

As the Egyptian Expeditionary Force advanced and more and more territory was released from 
Turkish rule the Commander-in-Chief gradually became responsible for the administration of a large 
area and a considerable population. The former had suffered from centuries of neg'ect and the passage 
of contesting armies, while the latter were impoverished and ill-nourished as the result of exhaustive 
Turkish requisitions and the blockade to which the country, while under Turkish rule, had been subjected 
by the Allies. The peculiar religious status of Jerusalem and the presence of numerous privileged eccles- 
iastical corporations also gave rise to complicated questions of a nature seldom presented to the military 
administration of occupied enemy territory. General Allenby at first entrusted the administration of 
Southern Palestine to his Chief Political Otlicer, Brigadier-General G. F. Clayton, C.T>., C.M.G., who 
built up such measures of government of the civilian populations as is provided for in "The Laws and 
Usages of War," laid down by the international agreements embodied in the Hague Convention. This 
administration, of what was techni(;ally '' Occupied Enemy Territory," was entrusted locally to Mihtary 
Governors, who were able greatly to improve the condition of the country and to alleviate the sufferings 
of a population which had welcomed General Allenby as a deliverer from the detested Turk. The work 
of administration developed so greatly that in April Major-General Sir Artliur Wigram Money, K.C.B., 
C.S.I. , was appointed Cliief Admini.strator of Occupied Enemy Territory Administration, as the control 
of administration could no longer be combined with that of the Political Department. Postal facilities 
for civilians had been restored and the introduction of the stable Egyptian currency enabled commerce 
to revive in spite of the necessary priority of military claims upon the transport available. Major-General 
Money constituted an improved system for the dispensation of justice and organized the finances of a 
territory which had, to all seeming, been in the last stages of economic distress in Dec, 1917. In March. 
1918, taxes had again become payable, and by the summer the Military Administration was able 
to provide for the payment of dues appropriated to the service of the Ottoman Public Debt ip 
accordance with international arrangements. The policing of the country was effectively undertaken, 
transport facilities were provided for civilian travellers, education was regulated, schools were reopened, 
and the administration of the property of Moslem Pious Bequests (wakfs) enabled the income to be 
appropriated to the needs of Moslem beneficiaries in Palestine instead of its being sent to Constantinople 
as was formerly the case. Colonel R. Storrs, C.M.G., the Military Governor of Jerusalem, was able 
greatly to abate the acerbity of ecclesiastical differences in the Holy City, and it was largely due to his 
personal efforts and influence that the Ceremony of the Holy Fire on the Orthodox Easter (May 5, 1918) 
passed off without disorder in spite of a long tradition of riot and violence during the Turkish period. 
In the new spirit of conciliation, fostered by the Military Administration, the Orthodox clergy voluntarily 
removed an unsightly party-wall from the nave of the Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem, and the 
careful handling of religious questions by the Military Administration has permitted the formation of 
an atmosphere contributing to the existence of a spirit of swe:}t reasonableness which would have struck 
a Turkish Mutessarif of Jerusalem as being most unusual. The deference paid on every side to Moslem 
susceptibilities, the guard of Indian Moslems round the Dome of the Rock and in front of the Mosque 
el Aska, no less than the military a.ssistance given by the Commander-in-Chief to make the Moslem 
pilgrimage to Nebi Musa possible, went far to convince the Mohammedan population of the country 
that the interests of their religion were better safeguarded by the Allies of the Sherif of Mecca than bv 
the Turks. 

The arrival of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force was fortunately so timed as to prevent the whole- 
sale deportation of Hebrew colonists and residents which had actually been ordered by the Turks, and 
these careful agriculturists were able to restore to a great extent the properties in the Kaza of Jaffa 
which they had been able to preserve in part from the spoliation of the enemy. Not only did the colon- 
ists benefit from the market afforded by the presence of the army, but were able to co-operate in the 
efforts made on behalf of the whole Hebrew community by the energetic Dr. Chaim Weiszmann and the 
Zionist Commission, which culminated in the ceremonial foundation of the University of Jerusalem as 
a symbol alike of their confidence in the future and of their recognition of the necessity of imparting 
higher education in their own language. 

As the tide of victory rolled north and east it became necessary very largely to extend the activities 
of the Military Administration, and in course of time the Commander-in-Chief found it desirable to 
divide occupied enemy territory into three sectors, south, north, and east. The respective areas were 
admiaistered under the control of the Commander-in-Chief by General Money from Jerusalem, bj Colonel 
P. de Piepape, C.B., from Beirut, and by Ali Riza Pasha el Rikabi from Damascus. The opposite map 
shews the extent of these three areas and indicates the po.sition of the kazas actually allotted to 
Occupied Enemy Territory Administration North but temporarily dependent, for the sake of adminis- 
trative convenience, upon Occupied Enemy Territory Administration East. Throughout the whole 
of these extensive territories efforts are being made to enable the population to recover from the 
effects of four centuries of Turkish domination and to restore the ordinary amenities of civilization 
and commerce. 

To face Piute 55. 




Tarsus 



Uexandretb 



PLATE 5^ 



-* I I ■ 



I Katma 



Latal<ia 



M EDI TERRA KEAN 



Beirut 



I 




*Af»pp« 



( 






.^' '. 



Meidi 



MILITARY ADMLNTISTRATION 

OF 

ENEMY TERRITORY 

OCCUPIED BY 

EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 



Miles io «o 50 20 10 o 
I- ' ' ' 1 >- 



50 

^1= 



100 Miles 



-J 



ffiitrane 



REFERENCE 

Northern Area of Administration 
Southern ," »» >» 

Eastern >' •» »» 



A Summary of the Terms of the Turkish Armistice (as published) which 

came into force on Oct. 31, 1918. 

Art. 1. — Opening of the Dardanelles and Bosphorus and access to the Black Sea. The Allied occu- 
pation of the Dardanelles and Bosphorus forts. 

Art. 2. — The position of all minefields, torpedo tubes, and other obstructions in Turkish waters 
to be indicated and assistance to be given to sweep or remove them as may be required. 

Art. 3. — All available information regarding the mines in the Black Sea is to be communicated. 
Art. 4. — All Allied prisoners and Armenians interned to be collected in Constantinople and handed 
over unconditionally to the Allies. 

Art. 5. — The immediate demobilization of the army except troops required for the surveillance of 
the frontier and maintenance of internal order, their number and disposal to be determined later by the 
Allies after consultation with the Turkish Government. 

Art. 6. — The surrender of all war vessels in the Turkish waters or the waters occupied by Turkey. 
These ships are to be interned at such Turkish port or ports, as may be directed, except such small vessels 
as required for the police or similar purposes in Turkish territorial waters. 

Art. 7. — The Allies are to have the right to occupy any strategic points in the event of any situation 
arising, which threatens the security of the AUies. 

Art. 8. — The free use by Allied ships of all ports and anchorages now in Turkish occupation, and 
the denial of their use to the enemy. Similar conditions are to apply to Turkish mercantile shipping 
in Turkish waters for the purposes of trade and the demobilization of the army. 
Art. 9. — The use of all ship repair facilities at all Turkish ports and arsenals. 
Art. 10. — ^Allied occupation of the Taurus tunnel system. 

Art. 11. — ^Withdrawal of Turkish troops from north-western Persia. Part of Trans-Caucasia has 
already been ordered to be evacuated ; the remainder to be evacuated if the Allies require after they 
study the situation there. 

Art. 12. — ^ Wireless and cable stations to be under Allied control ; Turkish Government messages 
are excepted. 

Art. 13. — ^Prohibition of the destruction of any naval, mihtarv, or commercial material by the 
Turks. 

Art. 14. — Facilities are to be given for the purchase of coal, oil-fuel, and naval material from Turkish 
sources, after the requirements of the country have been met. None of the above material is to be 
exported. 

Art. 15. — ^Allied control of all railways and Allied occupation of Batoum. Turkey not to object 
to the Allied occupation of Baku. 

Art. 16. — The surrender of the garrisons of the Hejaz, Assir, Yemen, Syria, and Mesopotamia, 
and the withdrawal of troops from Cilicia, except those maintaining order as determined under clause 5. 
The surrender of all ports there. 

Art. 17. — The surrender of all Turkish officers in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica to the nearest Italian 
garrison. Turkey guarantees to stop supplies to and communication with these officers if they do not 
obey the order of surrender. 

Art. 18. — The surrender of all ports occupied in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, including Misurata, 
to the nearest Allied garrison. 

Art. 19.— All Germans and Austrians, naval, military, and civilian, to quit Turkey within a month. 
Those who are in remote districts to do so as soon as possible thereafter. 

Art. 20. — Compliance with the Allies' orders as regards the disposal of arms and the transport of 
the demobilized under clause 5. 

Art. 21. — ^An Allied representative to be attached to the Turkish Ministry of Supplies 1o safeguard 
AUied interests. 

Art. 22. — Turkish prisoners to be kept at the disposal of the Allies. The release of Turkish civilian 
prisoners and prisoners over military age to be considered. 

Art. 23. — Turkey to cease all relations with the Central Powers. 

Art. 24. — In ease of disorder in the six Armenian vilayets the Alhes reserve the right to occupy 
any of them. 

ill f nee Plate iS. 



; 



i— 



r 



l^H 



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